ll~ ':37-2mH

GUIDELINE'S FOR 'T'HE DESlGN OF

F'LEXIBLE PAVEMENTS

(Second Revtstun)

THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRES' 20.01

GUIDELINES, F'OR THE DESI'GN ,OF

FLEXIBLE PAVE,MENT:S

(SeICOlld Revision)

publi.9/Jej by

T.HE INDIAN ROADS, CONGRES' I Jamn,a'gar (loll. e, :Sbabja.lJao ROI:ad" New D,eUd- 1.1.0011

ZOOI

]RC~l7'~2>OIOl Fi1'st published Re pdu ted

Firsr Rev isien Reprinted

llteprinted 'S:ec0:ud RCV,tS~o.n

Reprinted

September, 1970 December I 19176 December, '19:S4

October. 1990 (Incorporates Amendment NO".l. September, HiSS) April, ~. 995

July, :200~,

: Murch, .2002

Printed at DEn KAY PRINTERS" New Delhi- ~, 10015 {2000 copies)

lRC: 37~2QO [ GUID.E.LlNES FOR THE DES;IGN OF ,FLEXIBL,[ ~.AVE~"ENTS

Page

Personnel of the Highways Specifications & Standards (i) ~o

Commi ttee (v)

Abbrlev~atiOQs (vi)

L 2",

3. 4.

Introdu,ct~Ol1 S'C ope

Recommended 'Me'~'bod of Desig» Pavement Thiekness and Compositiori

[ 4 5

]9

43 47 48

5, Drainage Measures

6, Design in Frost Affected Areas

'7. W,or](ed E-xamples. Illustrating the Design Method

A NNEXURES

.4 n ne'¥ ure- j A su iexure- 4.

A'mexure~6

References

,

Critical Lccations, Relationship between Nunlbcr

of Cumulative Standard Axles, Strain Values

and Elastic Modldus of M,ateri;als.

Modulu$ o,f .El~.stidty ,of Subgrade, Sub-base . and Base Layers

- Subsutution 'of Dense Bltumineus Macadem

(DBM)

Equivalence F'acf!l.1'l'S and Damaging Power of DifferentAxle . Loads

Prep,ar.ation of Laboratory Test; Specimens Special Points itelacting. to Design of Pavement on. Expansive Soils

Recommended Type a:nd Thickness of Bituminous Wearing Courses for Flexible Pavemems under Diffe-r8nl S.t tuation s

Criteria. fOE the Selection of Grade: of Bitumen t7·or Bitumi DOUS Courses

51

53·

54

57 59

63

6.5

66

mC:37-2001 PERSONNEL 'OF THE, HfGH'W,A'YS s,p'EeIFI'CATJONS AND

ST AND'ARDS CO'1dl\fITT'[.(l

'(A, 0'0 30.9.10'00)

L

PrafttUa: K'IlJ.mar (Convenor)

Director General (Road Dev.) &. Add 1. S'ecretary to the Govt .. of India. Mimstry of' Road Tran sport & Higbways, Transport Bbavan, New Delhi-I 1'0001

Chief Engineer. Ministry of Road Transport &. Highways, Transport Bltl,av.an, New DeUli~ 11000.1

(C.C. Bl'ulttachar:ya) Ministry of R,o'ad Tra.nsp0l1 & Hj,ghways" Tran,sp'ort Bbav,3n, New Dellti,~ 11 000 l

Engtneer-m-Chief (Retd.)~ IiotlS,e No,40, Sector 16,,. Panchkula,-1341 ,1.3

Cbi,e! Engineer (Retd.) Highways &;. Rural Works Department, No.7, Ashoka Avenue Kodsmbekkam Cbennai~600024

Head, Intemational S&T Affairs Directorate, OOWl,cH of Scientiflc & Ind'Lll:.nri:aJ Research, ·Anusandhan Bhavan, 2. Rafi Marg, New Delhi-ll OOO:~

Chief Bngineer (Me.~h,),M~injstry of Road Transport & Highways, Transport Bhavan, New Delhi-~ 100.01

2.

S .C, Sharma (Co-Convener)

3"

The Chief Engineer (R) :S&R

(Member' .. 8ecretary )

4.

M.K. Ag,arwal.

5.

P B-,1'_1.,_' hn'

. 'ru~1.S ,an

6.

Dr. R_K .. Bhandari

7.

P.R. Dutta

ADG(R) be~ng l'I.ot in pcsition. The m!l:tilllg was presided by Shti lPrnfuUa K1.l1URlr,. OG(RD) ,& Addl. S.ecn~tarY' ,tiD the Govt. of India, ~QiRT&J:i

(i)

IRC:37-2:001

8. ·D.P. Gupta

9. Ram Babu Gupta,

10. Dr. L.R. Kadiy.ali

11; J.D. Mathur

12. H .. L. Meena

l3. S"S. Momin

14, Jagdisfu Panda

15. SJ- P'atel

16. 'M.V. Pam

17. K.B. Rajoria

DG(RD)' (Retd.), E-44. Greater Kailash PartI Enclave, New Delhi-Ll 0048

Chief Bngineer-cum-Offlcer -on SpJ. Duty with Pubhc Work.s ,MLn.~s1er. 9 Hathori Market. Ajmer Road, Jaipur~3.02001

Chief'Bxecutlve, L.R. Kadiyali & Associates, C-6/7. Safdarjung Dev, Area, Opp, lIT Main Gate, New. Delhj-l '~0016

Cbief Engineer, Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Transport Bhavan, New Delhi- 110001

Chief Engineer-cum-Addl, Secy, to. the Govt, of Rajasthan. P'_'W.D., acob Road- Jalpur- 30'2006

Chi,efEn,gine,er •. Maharashtra State Road Oe'V. Corpn, Ltd., Nepean Sea Road Murnbal- 400036 .

En gineer-in-Chief-cum-Secy . 10 the Govt, of Orissa, Works Department, Bhubaneswar- 751(101

Chief General Manager, National Highways. Authorlty of India I ~ Eastern Avenue. Maharani Bagb. New De.1hi- n 10065

Secretary (Roads), Maharashtra P. W .D. Mantralaya, Mumbai-400032

Bnglneer-in-Chief D,illli P,. W.D. (Retd.), G- 0/32 MI(Jti Bagh, New Delbia 11 003 )

Director; College CZJif Engg., Roorkee, 7th ICM. Rnorkee-Hardwar Road., Vardhman Puram &oorke,e:-2.4766.7

(H)

'.

19. S.S. Rathore

20. K.K. Sarin

21. Dr, S.M. Sarin

22, H. R. Sharma

23. Dr. C.K. Singh

24, Nirmal IiI Singh

2:5'" Prabhash Singh

26. Dr, Geetam Tiwari.

27. K.B,~ Uppal.

28, V.C. Verma

III '::3 7 -200~, SpL Secretary & Chief Engineer (8 ) R&B~ Block No. ~4/'~, ardar' Bhavan, Sachivalaya, Gandhinagar-S 820 1. 0

DG(RD) & AS) MOST (Retd.), .9-108" Panchshila Park, N ew DeLM- II 100" 7

Dy, Director, GRR! (Retd .. ). 2295'. Hudson Llnes G,T.B,. Nagel', Delhi-I .10009

Associate Direc or (Highways], Intercontinental .ensultants & Technocrats Pvt, Ltd, A-,11 Green Pa k~ New Delhi]10016

Engineer-in-Chief P'\VD (Roads), Jharkhand. Project Building, H.E.C. Campus, Ranchi

Chief Engineer (Plg.), Ministry of Read Transport &. Highw,ays, Transport Bha van, New Delhi-I ~ 000 m

Chief Bnginer Zone-HI Dc'lhl p_ W.D", MSO Bui lding, I ,f, Estate, New ,Delhi-II 0.002

Transortation Res. & Inju y Prevention Programme, MS 808 Main Building, lndl all Institute 'of Technology, New De.lhi.- ~I 00.16

Director, .ArMIL Ltd .• Naimex House, A-B.', Mehan Co-operative Indl, Es.tut1c) Mathura Road New Delhi-I W 0044

Executive Direeter, Orienta] Structural Engrs, Ltd., 2.1 ~ Commercial Comp,lex" Ma[ch;1 Marg, Dlplemaric Enclave New Delhi- 110.0121

C, .. )

1 In"

IlRC;] 7 ... 2.00 m

29,. P.D', Walli

Member, Maharashtra Public Service Commissicn, 3rd Floor. Ba',ZlK of India B'u.ildi,n..,g.M.!G. Road, Mllmb,a~-40000]

30.. The Eagineer-in-Ghief (8.8. Juaeja) H.P .. Public Works D:epartme:n;t~

u .. s, CllOJbf Sbimla-J? ~ Of:n

31, Tbe Chief Engineer (8) S:&R

I{V. Velayutham), Ministry of"Rood Trail sport &. I"Iighwa.ys;~ Transport Bhavan, New Delhi- 11000]

12. ThJe Pr~nci.pa~ Secy, 'to' {H.P. Jamdar), R&E, D.ep2rtm.en't, Bardar

tb,~ Gov1. of Gujar-at Bbavan, Block No.14) Sa .. chivalaya, Gmdhinagar~3 820 1 01

1], 'The Eng.ineer~in~Cbief (V. Murahari Redely)! !t&:s Department,

MEA-P. Errum Ma~zill HYG,era'b,ad-SOOQ82

3-4. the Eng;ineflr~in ... Chief (.R..&, Sheeran), Haryaua Public Works Deptt,

13&~ Secter' ]. 9-BI' Chandigarh~ L600 m '9

The Direerer & Head

]1.

B.L. T:ikoo

38.

The nire1ctor (R&D)', IOC

(R,L. KOIlI)J' Nadonal Highways Authority of India 1~, Eastern. Avenue, Mah.arani Bagh, New Delbrn-:[ 1:0065

(S.lEC" Jaln), Civil Bngg, Depadm.ent, Bureau of Indian St~u:~dards. Mii'I.nal~. Bhavan, 9, Bahadu» Shah Zafar :M;ar~J;~ New Delhii ]00.02

Addl .. Director General, Dte, Generi1l Bord!er Roads Seema S,a,da.k Baavan, Ring RO.&d} Deihl Cantt., New Delhl-] 10010

(Dr. A .. K . Bhamagas), Indian Oi]J Corporation Ltd., R&D Centre, Sector 1.3; Faridabadt21007

(iv)

mC:37~2001

3'9'. The Director (Y. Bhmg,o)~ Higl1way:s R~Bsiearcb S\ta.tio~ P'.B.

No.23? ,1, 76., Sardar Palel 'B,o:ad - Chennai- 6'0.002,"

40. The Director General Engineer-iil,-Ch.iers Branch, AHQ, Kashmir

of Works House, Rajaj'i Marg" New DeIllli-, I 1001 ]

41. The President, M.V.PatH s,ec['e'tary (Roads), M:ahal'flsblra Indian. Roads. COflgJ}CS,S P. W .D',., Mantralaya, Mtllffibai-400032

42.

The D',G" (RD) & Addl. Seey,

Ptafulla Kumar, Director General (Road DO\1'.) '& Add],. Secretary 'to. tbe: OO'v1. of India· ,Minis,uy of R!oad Transport & Higll.w,ays" New Difdbi-l HJOO'i,

43.

The Secretary, Indian Roads Congress

G. Sharan, CbiefEnginee:r, Minis,try of Road Transport & Highweys, Transport Bhavan, New Delh;_ .. lIOOUl

I. Pr1olf:C.B.O. Just,a. Emeritus Fellow, 3,34 25th Cross" 14th Main, B~l11a:shankari 2nd S,taie'1' B,an8;a:loire~:560070

2,. 1.1. Mamtani CbiefEn.g,il1cer,. 'MOST (Retd.)~ 0-58". LaJpat, Nagar-Ut New Delhi-l '10024

1. N.V. Merani P:rip,clpaJ, Secretary ~Ma:ba:;r,a5btraplwn (Retd.), A-47/1344~ Adars,h Na;gar, Worli, MULmbai~400025

4. Prof. N. Ranganathan Head of Deptt, 10:! Trm.sportat'ion Plg.~, SPA

·(Retd.), Conaultant, 458/C/SFS, 'Sheikh Sarai II. New D,eUl'i-,ll 0017

5. Pro~ c..G. Swamina\llbooB:adri\ 6 Tbiruvengandam. Street, R.A.

Purim, Cbennai-'o,o0028

(v)

IRC:] 7' .. 200' 'Il

]. AASI-TTO

A_]nerican Association of State Highway and Transportation Q,fficials,

Biuuniuous Concrete

Buill up Spray Grout

Bituminous Macadam

Callfomia Bearing Ratio

Dense Bltuminous Macadam

Granular Base

Granular Sub .. Base

Indian Roads Congress

Ministry of ROi1d Transport .& Highways M.iUi!f;m Standerd Axles

Semi-Dense Bituminous Concrete

2. Be

3. BUSG

4. B.M

5. CBR

,6. DBM

7. GB

8. GSB

9. LRC

10. MORT&H'

)1., msa

12, SDBC

(vi)

lR.1 ~37-200!

GVlDELINE". FOR THE DESIGN OF FLEXIBL' P AVKMENT I

I;; INTRQ'DUCTION

The-design of flexible pavement involves 'the interplay of several variables. such as, the wheel loads, traffic, climate terrain and sub-grade conditions. With. a view to have a unified approach for working out the design of flexible pavement in the eountry, the IRe first brought out guidelines ill 1970. These were based on California Blearing Ratio method, To handle large spectrum of axle load, these guidelines were revised i~ 1984 following the equivalent axile load concept. In thi approach, the pavement thickness was related to the cumulative number of standard axles to be carried out 'or different ,subgrade strengths, Thes .. e guidelines were based on semi-empirical approach based on a large extent on past experience and judgement of highway agencies, Design curves were developed to cater upto 310 million standard axles.

With the rapid growth of traffic now' the pavements are required to be designed for heavy volume of traffic of the order of 1. SO million standard axles, In the meanwhi Ie, an in-house software package was developed under MO'RT,&,H;s, Research Scheme R-.56'. This enabled mathematical modelling of the pavement structure using multiple layer elastic theory. With tbis background and the feed back on the performance of 'the existing designs, the Flexible Pavement Committe ~ in [997 set up a Sub .. group consisting of the following personnel 'to review the existing "Guidelines for Design of Flexible Pavements". This Sub-group developed the design I harts and catalogue 01

I~C:37-2001

pavement designs for conditions prevailing in the country,

D 'M P 'Dl'

~ f'. __ • .-., ,1'U

s.c, Sharma R.K. Pandey

Dr. L.R. Kadiyali Dr. 8.8" Jain

D.P. Guplta,

V.K. Seed

Dr, Sunil BOBle'

The Sub-group discussed revision ,of'IRC;37 in a, number of meetings and finally on 10.8 .. 9'8 submitted the revised draft to Flexible Pavement Committee (II-4). The draft was approved by 11-4 Committee (Personnel given below) in its meeting held on 26.2,,'99' and the Convenor was authorised to incorporate the commems/suggestions made by the members and other experts appropriately and send thefinal draft to Highways Specifications & Standards Committee for consideration andapproval,

Dr. A.K. Gupta

S .C,. ShlIm! .. '. S,p-I. Secy, & Chief E:ngin~'er ... R&B Deptt., GandhIn_agar

(S.S. Rathore)

Dr. 8.S. Jain

Convenor (up'to6. t 1.97)

• Com),enor (w.e.E, 7.] 1.91) Co-Convenor

Member~SeC"e,tary .Mem'bers

Prof: G.G,. Swamlnathan Dr. M.S. Srinivasan Prof. .B,G. Justo

R.K. Jain

B.K. Dam

Bi.R. Tya.gi

r.c, Goel

Dr. L.R. KawYlaH Prof B.B. Pandey .Dr. M.P. Dilir

D.P .. Gupta

Engineer-in .. ,Cbie{~ Army HQ (Maj., Gen. C.T. Chart)

Chief Eng~eer(R S,&R,

MORT&H (I ndu Prakash)

Head, Flexible Pavement Division, crutr (l.R. Arya) Rep .. ofDGBR (A.R. Aiyeugar Bngineer-in-Chief, UP PWD (Ravind,er Kumar)

IRC:37-200.l

Bx ... OjJicifJ Memb.ers

DiG (RD) & Addt Sec)'~ •. MO'RT&H (A.D. Nar:a.in)

Sillc'rre'ltaIy., me

(s.c. S:han;na)

Ca'rl·espon-dil2.gMembers

Had Om .Pr_akash Sharm,a tit. Bna'Vs.ar

R .. s. Shukla. Dr. P'.D'. Marntbe

Pro,f. S. P. .Jj!og

J

President. IRe

(H.P .. Jamdar)

The draft W'BS further vetted by an Expert Group comprising, of Sbri 'S"C. Sharma, Prof BI.B,. Pandey and Dr. S.S. Jain and forwarded to newly constituted Flexible Pavement Committee,

The newly constituted Flexible Pavement Committee (Personnel given below) in its meeting beld on 21.9.2000' discussed and approved tbe revised draft of IRC:~.37 for placing before the Highways Specificetions & Standards (HSS) Committee for approval,

s.C. Sharma.

Spl. Secy, & Chief Engr. R&.B D'ep,tl'J Gaadhf·na.gar (8.8. Ratbore)

Dr. 8.8" lain

CCJI'zven,or CO'-C''''J12 \/enOl'

Members

D. Basu

:.nr.. A..K. Bba.magar Dr" M.P. Dhir

D.P'. IGupta.

Dr. L.R. Kadi.yali. Prof C.B.G. Justo H .. L.. Meena

Prof .. B.B. Pandey

R.K. Pandey

D. Sreerama Murthy Prof. C.G. Swaminathen Cot V.K.P. Singh Hargun Oss

CE (R) S&R MiQRT&H (G.C. Bhattacharya)

3

President, JRC eM.V, P~tH)

DG(JtD)&AddL S~cy. MORT&H' (Prafulla Kumar)

Secretary. IRe

(G. Sharan)

Ex-Officio Membe'Jts'

Corresponding Memb 1'S

SUkOI]al Chakraborty Smt. A. fJ. Joshi

R.S. ShukJa

The 1.88 Committee ill its meeting held on 30.9 . .2000 after detailed discussion approved the revised draft IRC:J 7 and authorised the Convenor Flexible Pavement Committee to modify the same In light of the comments of members and submit to Convenor, 1iSS Committee for its. approval, The draft of revised guidelines as modified by the Convenor, lIS', Committee was approved by the Executive Committee in its meeting, held at New Delhi on 5.10.2000 and by the Council in its meeting held at Kolkata on 4. l 1.2000. The draft as. modified in light of comments of members of the Council was approved by the . -OIlV1cn r, H: -,I Committee on 12.2.2001 for pri nting,

],' SCOPE

2.1. These guideline- win apply to design of fle: ible pavements for Expressways 'National Highways State Highways Major District Roads and other categories, of roads predominantly carrying rnotorised vehicles,

2 . .2. FO'r thepurpose of tile guidelines, flexible pavements are considered to include the pavements which have bituminous surfacing and granular base and sub-base courses conforming to IRe Standards 'Or to Sections, 500 and 400 of the Specifications

liRe: '7~200 J for Road and Bridge Works, Ministry of Road Transp 1''1 and f'Iighwi."liYs .

.

2.3. These guidelines apply to new pavements.

2.4. For design of strengthening measures or overlays fer existing pavements the design procedure described in mC:B 1 "Tentative Guidelines for Strengthening of Flexible Road Pavements Using Benkelman Beam Deflection Technique" shall apply,

2.5. The guidelines may require revision from time to time in the light of future experience and developments 'in the

ield, Towards this end, -, it is 8Ugg ested that all the org: I isatious intending to LIse the guidelines, should keep a detailed record of year of construction subgrade . BR; soil chara ct ristics pavement composition and specifications traffic, pavement performance, overlay history lirnatic conditions, etc. and provide feedback to the lndian Roads C ngre s .

.3 .1.. General

The pavement designs gi ven in the previous edition IRC·:.37-1984 were applicable to design traffic upto 30 million standard axles. (msa), With the' increasing traffic and incidence of overloading, arterial reads need to be designed for traffic tar greater than 30 msa, As empirical methods have Iimitations regarding their applicability and extrapolation, the analytical method of design has belen used to reanalyse the existing designsand develop a new' set of designs for design traffic upto 15,0 msa making use of the results of pa vernent research work

5

IR· :37' .. 2001

done in the country and experience gained over th years on the performance' of the existing de igns

3.2.1. The flexible pavement has been modelled as a three layer structure and stresses and-trains at critical locations (A nnexure-L) have been computed using the linear elastic model F'PAVE developed, under the M'O'RT,&I-I Research Scheme R-56 "Analytical Design of Flexible Pavements?',

3.2 . .2. To give proper consideration to the aspec of performance the following three types of pavement distress resulting from repeated application of traffic loads are considered:

(i) Vertical compressive strain at tll.e top of the subgrade, If the strain is excessive, the sl.lh'grad'e will deform resulting in permanent defonnaHon at the pavement surface .during the design Hfe"

Iii.) Horizontal tensile strain a the bottom 0' - tha birurnlnous layer. L· rge tensile strains eause fracture 'of the biturni nOU5 layer durrng lb.€! design life.

While the permanent deformation within the bituminous layer can be controlled by meeting the mix design requirements as per the MO'Rl &1:..r Specification", thicknesses of granular and b~,tun;pnous, layers are selected using the' analytical design approach so that strains at the critical points are within the allowable limits.

For calculating tensi le strains at the bottom of the bitum incus I ayer the Elastic Modulus, of Dense B itumin ous

lRC:37-2001 Macadam (D'BM) layer with 60/70 bitumen bas been used in the ana lysis" The relationships used for (i) allowable vertical

ubgrade strain; and (ii) allowable tensile strain at the bottom of the DB,M layer along with elastic moduli of different pavement materials and the relationships for assessi ng the elastic moduli of subgrade, granular sub-base and base layers are given in Annexure-F.

3.2.3. Based on 'the performance of existing designs and using analyti cal approach, simple design ch-arts (Figs. 1 and 2) and a catul ague of pavement designs (PI ates I and 2) have' been added for use of field Engineer. The pavement designs are given for subgrade CBR values ranging fTOI11 2 per cent to 10 per cent and design traffic ranging from. ] msa to 150 rnsa for an average annual pavement temperature of 35 "C. The l ayer thicknesses obtained from the analysis have been slightly modi fied to adapt the designs to stage construction. Using the fblIo"",vlJ1g simple input parameters, appropriate designs could be' chosen for the' given traffic and soil strength :

0) Design traffic in tenus of cumulative numher of standard axles; and

(ii) CBR value of sLtbgrade

The procedure for esti mati ng desi gil traffic and assessing the CBR value of the sub grade soil is descri bed 'in paragraphs 3.3 and 3.4 respectively.

3.3. 3.]~L

Traffic

General

3..3. J ., I. The reco.mmendedmethod considers traffic in terms of the cumulative number of standard axles (8160 'kg) to

7

lR! :37-2001

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U~ 37-2001

be carried by the pavement during the design fife. For estimating design traffic, the fell wing information is needed:

(1) Initial trafflc after construetlon in terms of number of commercial vehicles per day (CVPD)

(ii) Traffic growth rate durln.s, the design l i fc in percentage

(iii) Design life in number of years

(iv) Vehicle damage actor (VDF)

(v) Distriburien of commercial traffic over the carriageway.

":'.3.1.2. For the purpose of structural design, only thenumber of commercial vehicles of gr $5 vehicle weight of three tonnes or more and their axle-Ioading is considered,

3.3. [.3" To obtain a realistic estimate of design 'traffic .. due consideration should be given to the existing traffic OT that anticipated based 011 possible changes in the road network and land use of the area served, the probable growth of traffic and design li fe,

Estimate of the initial daily average traffic flow for any road should normally be based on atleast 7 days, .24 hour classified traffic counts. In cases of new roads, traffic estimates can be made on the basis, of potential land use' and traffic on existing routes in the area.

3.3.2 ..

3.3,.2. L Traffic growth rates should be estimated

(i) by studying the past trends of traffic growth ~ and

10

nlC:37-200 i (ill by establis'hing econometric models, as per the procedure outlined in, me: [08 '~~Guid,eHnes for Tra;ffic Prediction Q1.l Rural Highways",

3.3,.2.2.. If adequate data is, not available, it is, 'recommended that an average annual growth rate of 7.S pier cent may be adopted,

3.3~3. Desi'gD life·

3.3,.,3. 1., For the design ef pevement, the design life is defined in tICrn1,S, of the cumulative number ofstandard axles 'tha:t can be carried before strengthening of the pavement is necessary.

3.3.,3.,2., It is, recommended that pavements for National Highways and State Highways, should be designed for ,R Iife of 15 years. Expressways and urban roads may be designed for a longer life of 20 years, For other categories of roads, ;a design life: of 10 to 15 years may be adopted,

3 . .3~3.3~ Very often it is. not possible to provide the full thickness of pavement right at the time' of initial construction, Stage eonstruction techniques should be resorted to in such cases.

3,,] .. 4. Vehlele damage faetnr

3 . .3.4.1. The, 'vehicle damage factor- (VDP) is a multiplier to convert the number of commercial vehicles of different axle loads and axle configuration to, tbe number of standard axle load repetitions. It is defined as equivalent number of standard axles per commercial vehicle, The VDP varies with the vehicle axle configuration, rude loading, terrain, type of road and from region, toregion, The VD'F is arrived at from axle load surveys

1. J

IR!: 3 7-200 ]

on typical road se tiona so as to cover various influencing factors, such as traffic mix, DIode of ran sport ali on commodities carried, time of the year; terrain, road conditions and degree of enforcemen t.

3.3.4 .. 2. The axle load equivalency factors recommended in the AASI-ITO'guide are given in Annexure-Z, They are used for converting different axle load repetitions into equivalent standard ax le load repetitions,

3.1 .. 4.3. F'Of designing a. new pavement. the VDF should be arrived at carefully by carrying out specific 341e lead surveys Ion the existing roads. Some surveys have been carried out ill the country Ion N ational Highways, State Highways and Major District Roads which reveal excessive overloading 'of commercial vehicles. Therefore it is recommended that the design r should take th - realistic values of VD'F aftercond ucting the axle Ioed survey- particularly in the case of major projects. On some sections there may be signi ficant difference in axle loading .in two directions of 'traffic. In such situations, the VDF should be evaluated direction wise to determine the daues which are heavily loaded for the purpose of design.

3.3.4.4. Where sufficient information on axle load s is not available and the project size does. not warrant conducting an axle load survey, the indicative values of vehicle damage factor as given in Table I may be used, ..

Initial Lraffic volume in 'terJI1S of number of commercial vehicles per day

Terrain Ro lling/Plain

lLiUy

O-tSO 150-1500

More ~.bt n msoo

1.5 3 .. 5 4·.5

0 . .5 L5 2.5

12

IR ~37-200~ 3.3.5. Distribution of commercial Ira,fUc. over the earriageway

3.3.5,,1. A realistic assessment 0'£ diatribution f commercia 1. traffic by direction and by lane j, So necessary as it directly affects the total equivalent standard axle load applications used in the design. In the absence of adequ-ate and conclusive data for Indian conditions, it is recommended that for the time 'being the following distribution may be assumed for design until more reliable data on placement of commercial vehicles on the carriageway I aries are avai Iable :

(i) Sil1gle-la De roads

Tr,affi,c tends to be more chauueli ted on single-lane roads than two-lane rea S' and to allow ut this concentration of wheel load repetitious, the design should be ba ad 011 total number of commercial vehicle in b lh directions.

(in Two-lane singte earrlageway T08,d:

The design shcu ld be based on 7:5 per cent to r he total number of cctnmerelal vehicles in both directions.

(iii) Four-liang '!ling,I,e earrtag way !roads

The design should be based on 40 pel' cent of the fotal number of commercial vehicles inboth dlrecuo l

(iv Dual c,arri.:l.g;leway roads

The design of dual two-lane carriageway reads should be: based IOn 75 per cent 01 the number of commercial vehicles in each direction, "or dual. three-lane carriageway and dual four-tam: carriageway, the distribution .11 tor will be 60 per cent and 45 per cent respectively.

3..3 . .5.2. The traffic :in each direction may be assumed to be half of the sum in both directions when tbe Iarter only is

13

U~ ~37-2001

known, Wh re significant difference between the two streams call occur condition in the more heavily trafficked lane should

e considered f d _ ign.

Where the distribution of traffic between the carriagway lanes and axle loads spectrum for tl e carriageway lanes are available, the design should be based an the traffic, in the most heavily 'traffi eked' lane and the same design will normally be applied for the whole carriageway width..

3J.16. Cemputation ,of design traffle

3,1.6.1., The design traffic, is considered in, terms of the cumulative number of standard axles (in the lane carrying maximum traffic) to be arried during the design life of the road. This can be 'computed using the following equation

J = ~~~---xA.-·DxF

where,

N =-- The cumuli live num~~r of standard ID:Jes to be catered fur

in tin: design m terms of msa, .

II ...;. Initial, traffic in th year of completion. of construction in terms '-.'Jf the number ofconrruereial vehicles per day.

...

D =Lanc di: t, ibutlon factor (as explained in para 3.3.5) F = Vehicle damage factor

n = Design Uf~ in years

r = Annual growth rat of ccmmercial vehicles (for 7.5 per cent annual growth _, tc, r = 0,075)

14

IRC:]7~200 I 'the' traffic in the year of completion is estimated using the following fcrmula :

where,

P = Number of oemmereial vehieles as per last (l;ount.

x = Number (If years between 'the hlst count :811d the year of completjon of construction.

3.4. Subgrade

3.4",1 '. The subgrade whether' 'in cut or fill should be well compacted to' utilise its full strength and to economise thereby ott the overall thickness ofpavement required, For. Expressways",

, ational Highways, State Highways and Major District Roads" heavy compaction is recommended, Most of the specifications prescribe use of selected material and stiffer standards. 'of compaction in the snbgrade (top 500 mm portion of the roadway), The current MO RT &H Specification for Road ,& Bridge Works (Third R,evision 1'995) recommend that the subgrade shall be' compacted 'to 97 per c-ent of dry density achievedwith heavy compaction [modified proctor density) as per 18,:2720 (part 8). This density requirement is recommended for subgrade compaction for Expressways, National Highways, State Highways, Major District Roads and other heavily trafficked roads. In other cases the subgrade should be com} acted to atleast '97 per cent 'of the tandard proctor density conforming to 18:2720 (Part 7). These requirements should be strictly enforced. IRe: 36 ' Recommended Practice for the Construction of Earth Embankments for Road Works" should be followed 160r guidan ce during: planning and execution of work.

15

IRC:37-2001

3.4 . .2~ For high category roads, like" Expressways. National Highwaysand State Iighways the materia'! used for subgrade construction should have the dry density of not less than 1.75 gm/cc,

- .

3.4.3. For design, the .subgrade strength is assessed in 'leans, of the BR of the subgrade soil in both fill and cut sections at the most critical moisture condition lik ely to occur in-situ ..

3.4.4, For determining the CBR. value, the standard test procedure should be strictly adhered to. This, is de" cribed in 1S:2720 (Part 16) "Methods of Te t for Soils: Laboratory Determination of CIR"'. The test must always be performed on remoulded samples of soils, in the laboratory, Wherever possible tbe test specimens should be' prepared by Static Compaction but if not So possible dynamic method I11ay be used as; all alternative, Both procedures are de cribed in brief in Annexure- 3. In-situ tests are not recommended for design purposes as it i not possible to satisfactorily simulate the' critical conditions of dry densityand moisturecontent in the' field.

3.4.5. Seleetlen 01' dry density and moisture eontent fnr test specimen

3.4 .. 5.1. For all given soil, the ICB,R value and consequently the design, will depend largely 0[1 the density and moisture content of the test sample Therefore, the test <conditions, should reproduce as closely as. possible rhe weakest conditions likely to occur under ·the road after constructien,

1..4.5.2. The samples of'soil c llected from-selected bOlTOW pits for fill sections or from subgrade level at out sections

[R' :3,7-200'~ should be compacted to a dry density corresponding to the minimum state of compaction likely to be achieved in. practice having regard to the compaction equipment used and the compaction limits specified,

3, . .4 .. 5,.3. The 'moisture condition of the subgrade which the test sample is expected to. simulate is governed by local environmental factors, such as, the water table" precipitation, soil permeability drainage conditions .and the extent to which the pavement .is waterproof Thin surfacings do not always S'I::.a1 'the pavement effectively against ingress of water. Further, the berms and. verges are' usually unsurfaced, and if not kept in well-maintained state to 'the: requisite cross-fall will enable surface water to percolate into, the subgrade from near the edges of the pavement leading to weak subgrade conditions.

Hence, it: is recommended that as, a. general practice, the .design for new construction should be' based. on the streng h of the samplesprepared at the values of prescribed dry density and moisture content obtained in accordance with IS=2720 (Part 8) or (Part 7) as the ease may be and soaked in water for a period of four days, prior to 'testing. Use of expansive clays. is not allowed for subgrade construction particularly for heavily trafficked roads. As far as possible" a non-expansive soil should be used far the subgrade. Where use of expansive clays is unavoidable, the compaction requirements and additional measures as discussed in Annexure-a should be followed.

3 .. .4 . .5 .4. However, it should be realised that soaking for four days may be an unrealistically severe moisture condition in certain cases where the climate 'is arid through 'U,,'f the year, i.e, the annual rainfall 'is of the order of .500 mm or less and

17

IRC:37-200 J

the water table, is too, deep to affect the subgrade adversely, It is anticipated that in tills situation the most severe moisture condition in 'the field win be far below that of the sample at the end of f~ ur day soaking, resulting in unduly conservative des igns ~,f soaking procedure is adopted. In such case _ the specimens for finding the CB,R value m . ay be prepared at the natural moisture content of the soil at subgrade depth immediately after recessionof the monsoon,

3,,*.6. Use of test results, for' d,es.iID and the mlnlmum number o:f tests requ'ired

3.4.6, I, The design should be based on the leBR value of the weakest son type proposed to be used for subgrsde construction or encountered extensively at subgrade level over a given section of tbe road as revealed "by the soil surveys, Pavement thickness on new roads ina:y be modified at intervals as dictated by the soil changes but generally it 'will be found inexpedient to do so. frequently fron] practical considerations,

3.4.6.2. It is possible thar in certain soil types, or under abnormal conditions the measured CBR values [nay appear doubtful and not tTU Iy representative of the strength of soil, A more complete study of the oil may be warranted in such cases to arn ve ar a more reliable desi gn.

3.4., .3,. The design evolved should be revised during construction phase if found necessary on account of the field compaction being lower than that considered in the initi at] design. In addition the alternative of retaining Iocal areas of soft soil or soil not meeting prescribed compaction level should also be considered.

U3

ERC:37-2001

3.4.6,.4. As the reproducibility of the CBR results is dependent on a number of factors" wide variations in values can be expected, Therefore, atleast three samples, should be tested on each type of soil at thesame density and moisture content. This will enable a reliable average value 'to be obtained in most cases, To weed out erratic results permissible maximum variation within 'the' CBR vahies from the three spe irnens is indicated in Table 2.

TABLE 1. P'EllMIISSI)"BI.E' VAkI.t-\-nON IN CBI{ V,,-\'LlIl~

CBR (per cent)

Maximum variation, in CBR value

5 5·-10

1 m~30

3 1 and abo ve

±] +2 +3 ±5

Where variation is. more than the above, the design 'CBR value should be the average' of test results from atleast six samp J es and not three.

4,. PAVE.M:ENT THlICKNESS AND rC'OMPOSJTION

4.,1.P'·avem.cn.t Thtekness Design Charts:

For the design of pavements to carry traffic in the range of .~ tol 0 rnsa, the Pavement Thickness Chart is given in Fig. land for traffic in the range 'of 10'-1. 50 msa, the Pavement Thickness, Design Chart is given in Fig. 2 .. , The design curves relate pavement thickness to the cumulative number of standard axles to. be carried over the design Iife for CBR values of sub grade ranging from 2 per cent to 10 per cent. The thickness deduced from Fig. 1 or Fig" 2 for the given CB,R value and

19

lRC:3 7 ~200 1

des. -D traffic is the total pavement thickness to be provided and C'Ol1S] sts of granular sub-base, granular base and bituminous surfacing. The requirements for the component layers are given in paragraph 4,,2. Based on these, the recommended designs giving minimum 'thickness and 'compositions 'of pavement layers for new constructions are' gjveD in the Pavement Design

atalogue Plates 1 and 2 The design procedure is illustrated with examples in paragraph 7.

4.2. Pavement Cempcsltlon

4 . .2.1,. Sub ... base course

-

4.2.,1.1. Sub-base materials comprise natural sand.rnoorurn,

grave], laterite, kankar, 'brick metal crushed stone, crushed slag, crushed concrete or combinations thereof'meeting fhe prescribed grading and physical requirements. When the sub .. base' material consists of combinati on of materials, mixing shall be done mechanically either using 11 suitable mixer Oil' adopting

,

mix-in-place method ..

Granular sub-base material conforming to' Clause 40.1 of MORT& I Specifications for Road and Bridge Works are recommended f ruse. These specifications suggest three gradings IBach for close and coarse graded granular sub .. base materials and specify that the materials passing 425 micron sieve when tested in accordance with 18.:2720 (Part 5) should have' liquid limit and plasticity index of not more than. 25 and 6 respectively. These requirements and the specified gram size distribution of the sub-base material should be strictly enforced in order to meet stability and drainage requirements, of the granular sub-base layer.

.2'0

JRC;3,7-200J

P'AVEMENT DESIGN CATALOGUE

PLATE 'I .... lIECOl\iIME,NDE.O D,ES1'GN", FOR TRAFFIC ,RANG ' I~UJ msa

I CDR 20/0
Cumulative Total PA V,ENlENT COMPOSITION I
Traffi,c Pavement S' . Surfa:Cin,g! 'Granular Gr,anulal'
llUl1l1U1,OUS
'msa) Thickness W'earmg -Binder Base Sub-basel
(mm) Course Course (rnm) (mm)
1 (mm) (rnm)
,
i 6.60 20, PC I 22-5 435,
I , 1
2, 715 20 PC 50 BM 225 440
3 750 .20 "PC 6;0 BA1 25'0 440
,
1
5 795 25 SOrBC 70 DB,M 2"50 450
- I
I 10 850 401 nc 100 DB,M 250 46() 9 0101
-
E
IE
~
z: 60
0'
-
I .....
f!fI
0'
111-
'2:
,0'
u
..
en
v;
w
z
:.::
u
-
%
t-
O , 1 1

'I 1

21

B.,rC_-' .1 C.D'BC· ~ C

I~ .~ '. .-- I~ p~

Contd ..

IR :37-2001

PAV,EMIi:NT D'KSlG~N' ATAL'OGUE

PLATE I - RECOMMENDED DE .GNS FOR TRAFFIC RANGE ,1-1.0 msa

CDR 30Ja -
Cumulative Total PA VEMENT COl\1P'OSlTION
Tmffic Pa"Cll"J1ICl1t Bituminous Surfacing Granular I Granular
(rnsa I Thickness Wearing I Bindel" 1 Base Sub .. base
(nlmJ Course Course (mm) (mrn l
(mm) (rnm)
1: 5S0 20 PC 22'~ , 435
1
I
2 610 2'0 PC SO BM 225 3 5
,
.3 645 20 PC 6,0 BM I 250 335
I
5 690. 25 SDBC 60 DBM 250 335
101 76.0 40 Be 90 DHM 2St) 380
, to 10,
-
e
E
-
Z
Q
i=
-
Itn,
0
A.
S
0
U
llil
',"I 2,10
IIJI
2!
.:;,
u
.....
:E'
I- 101 moss IDl1I Ge, ElID'BM' I:X1 8M lIIJa,e • '$D'BC [;, PC Contd.

2 :I

TR, A FFI,'C (m SQ)

22

IRC:3 7 -2001

PAVEMENT'DESIGN CATALOIGUE

. -

CBR, 4~/,
Cumulative Tlo~al P.AVEMENT COMPOSITION
Traffic Pavement Hi tuminous Surfacing Granular Granular
[msa) Thickness Wearin.g Binder Base Sub-base
(mm) Course . Course (mm) (mm)
I (rnrn) (rnm)
1
1 2U I
~ 480 PC 225 2.55
I .2 540 20 PC SOl BM 22$ 265
,
I 3 580' 20 PC 50 HM 25'0 280
I L
5 620 25 SDBC 60 OBM 2501 285
I
101 700 40 Be 8,0 DBM 2501 I 330 TR A FFI C (msQ )

Contd,

23

lRC:.37-200 l

PA VlEMENT DESIGNCA T'ALO"GUE

P'LATE J -RECOMM.ENDED nltSIGNS .FOR TRA.F'FIC RANGE ~-IO lUSU

CBR,50/0

Cumnfative Traffic (R15a.)

Pavement Thickness (mm)

PAVEM'ENT COMPOSITrON

Bituminous Surfacing I Granu lar

Wearing Bindel' Bi:ISC

Course CCHJ:rse (mrn)

(mm) (mm)

Granular Sub-base (:111m.)

205

1 4,30
2 490
3 5.30
5 580
10 660 2.0 PC 22.5

so BM

225

215

'20 PC

.20 PC

25(}

.230

.50 B,M

250

2S0

25 8DBC

55 DBM

4'0 Be

250

3'00

7U DEM

~I'GS'B' mlUGIB .&; D'BM Q1e,M III e,c • 'SOB,e, m pc· Contd ..

24

P,AVEME - TOE, I NC '1"ALOGU-'~

",LATE, J ,_ RECOMM,END, D DESIGN ,FOR TRAFFJC RAN'GE 1 .. 10 msa

'CDR 6%
f Cu O'lU lati ve Total PAVEMENT CQ'MPOSI T'.'ON
Tra.ffic Pavement. Bituminous Surfacing Granular Granular
I msa) Thickness: I Wearing Bindel" Base Sub-base
(mm) Course' Co irse (nun) (mrn
(mm) (mm) I
1. j90 20 PC 225 l' 5
I
I 4.50 20 PC 5.0 225
2 BM l7'5
3 490 2'0 PC I 5;0 HM 250 l,gO
5 I 535 25 8DBC '''0 OBM 250 21
'I:
I .
]0 l15 40 'Be I 65 D'BM 250 2()O
I -

z

g

~,

Ln 0' itL

:E o

u'

~ V) in ... Z II! U

--

%

~ 'O~~~~~~~~~~~~--~~~~~~~--~'

,;i

25

Contd,

IRC:J1'-200~

PAVEMENT DE IGN' CATALOG'UE

"LATE 1- RECOMMEN:DEn IDESIIONS FOR TRAFFIC ,RANGE 1-,10 ,msa

CBR ,,%
Cumulati ve Tota] PAVEMENT ,COMPOSITION
Tra.ffi,c • Surfaci:n,g I
P,a.vemen~ I Bj'hl:llljn,ous Granular Granular
(11188) Thickness, W,earing Binder Base Sub-base
(t11J1l.) Course' Course (mm) (rum)
(mm) (mm)
1 3,7'5 2.0 PC 225 15Q
2 425 20 PC SO 8M 22:5 150
3 460 20 PC 50 BM 2501 '~60
5 505 2,5 SDBC 50 DB.M .250 180
10 5'8.0 4{J1 Be 60 DBM I 2S0 230 Contd.

IRC~37~200' ]

P',A VEMENT DE' IGN CATALOGUE

P-'I .tlT'D l' DIii'IC'O' !\t' MII!:'-N',O' ,I:':iID 'D'ES"'lG' N'S ro: IR' T'b ;i;IliFI'ro R' "N'''C'F,'I I 10 --

l.#'IJ"_ E.i, - AIllo ' ", , Il..", ,- J:'.." " ',',',.' '. ,'" ,1'\i'1U,'," , ~ ~"r-lo 1'.. _ .. , , Ulsa,

Cum u la live' Tr,affl,c (msa)

-

Total Pavement Thickness (rom)

P'A..VEMEN'T COMP'OSITION

Bi~inous_ ~urfacing I Granular Granular

Wearmg Binder Base Sub-base

Course Course (rnm) (mm)

(rom.) (mm)

3,75 2'0 PC 225 150
2 42S 20 PC . 50 H.M .22<5 150
.3 450 2'0 PC 50 BM .250 15()
5 r 475 25 SDiBC SO DBM 25{) 150
10 5,50 4'0 Be 60 DBM 25'0 200 E1n,n,I~~----~~~~----~~----~~~--~~

e

~I

2'7

Be. .: SO:Be: I~ PC

, ontd,

IRe: 37-200 I

PA VEMENT DESIGN ATALO,GUIE

PLATE I - RE OMMENDED DESIGNS: FO:R TR.U'FIC RANGE 1-10 mS3.

CDR 190/0 1&' 101%
Cumulative Total PAVE.MENT COMPOSIT1IO·N
Tratlic Pavement Bi't~1tlinQus Surfaeing Granular Granular
(msa) I Thickness Wearing Binder Base ub-base
I (rom) Course Course (mm) (mm)
(mm) (mm)
1 3·7·5 20 PC I 2.2';' I
150
.2 4,25 20 PC 50 BM .225 150
.3 4501 20 PC 501 BM I 250 150
,
l ,
5 47S 25 SDHC 50 DBM 250 150
.~O 540 40 Be so DHM. 250 200 E E

-

z· 1600

o

i=

I" V1

:::0 20 .

z: ~ IU

X

.....

O~~~~ __ ~~~~~~a---~~~--~~--~ '],

J R A FFIC I( rns e)

IRe::37 ~2.UO 1

PAVEMENT DESIGN ,CATALOGUE

P'LATE.2 - RECO:Ml\'IENDED U.ESlG'· - FOR TRA'.FIC rtAN'G 10~150 msa

caR l'~
-'I)
cumulative Total PA VEMENT COMI'QS"TION
Traffic Pavement Bituminous 'Surfacing Granular Base
'(mMa) Thickness Be DBM & Sub .. base
(mm) (rnm) (mm) ~ mm)
1,0 850 40 100
20 I 880 I 40 ]30
30 '900 40 150 Base - 2510
I 40 ~75
.5.0 I 925
I
.100 955 50 ]95 Sub-base - 460
I 1.50 975 50 21:5 -
e
E
~'
z
'2
' ....
-
l.O
,0
0.
2'
0
y
..
U1
'1/'1
l:iJ
Z
~
V
:;:!!I: I
I-
0 108M

(Imso)

IRC:] ?' <zoo I

P'AVErtlENT UESlGN CATALOGUE

PLATE 2 - REi(;OMMENDEDI DESIGNS ]FOR TRAJ"]C .RANGE :i nq5;Oms~

. 1

Cumulati 'lie traffic (msa)

T,o,ml

Pa vement Thickness

.

(mm)

1,0 "60

20 790

PA VEMENT COMP'QS,[T10N

Bituminous Surfaelng

Granu lar Base &; Sub-base (mm)

Be DBM

(mm) (mm)
40 90
40 lli20
40 140
40 1'60
50 180
SO 2UJ 30

810

50 830

100

L5J)

86.0

890

Base = 2.50

'E

e

III iJiI Yo!

'~ 2

u :z:

jo...

30

I

, I

I I

CQI11d.

-

• IE

E

IRe: J, 7-200 [

PAVE1\fENT DESIGN CATALOGU~.

:P"LATE.2 - RE,COM'MENDED DESIGNS, FOR, TRAFFIC RANGE U} .. ~50 11n~a

I eM,R 40/0
Cumulative Total PA'VE!\1ENTCOMP'OS,ITION
Traffic Pavement Bituminous 8urfadng Gran ul at Base
(J.11sa) Thickness Be DBM & Sub-base'
(rum) (mm) (mm) (mm) I
I
10 _I 700 40 80
20' 730 40 no
I
I
30 I 150 ,4"0 130 Base ~ 250
5.0 780 40 160
, I
100 800 50 170 Sub-base = 330,
150 820 50 190 '_

DI Ul Ion

WI Z :c 'U'

-

% I .....

Ol~_'-L~~~~--~~~~~~~~~~~~~~--'

III Be

Conld.

31

ATAOGUE

(,'LATE.2 - ltECOMM,ENDE.D DEIGN' , FOR TRAFFI.'C RANGE, 10-150 msa

CBR :50/0
Cumulative Total !lAVIiMENT COMPO~JnTION
Traffic Pavement Bituminous Surfac:Ulg Granular Base
(msa) Thickness Be DBM & ub-base
(mm) (mm) (mm) (UJLIl11JI
10 1660 40 I 70
I 2,0 I 690 40 100
30 I 7110 40 l2U Base - 250
i
SO 730 4.0 ! ;0
I
100 750 50 l-O Sub-base - 300
,
,
15,0 770 I 5,0 '[70 I -

E e

-

II' GSB

I I

l1li, -

GB

32

, ,

II Be

IRC:37-200 I.

PAVE'MENTUESIG . -A'fALO U[

PLATE '2, _, RECOMMEND~'D DI.:SIG.NS .FOIl T:RA.FFI It4.NGE 10-:15'0 I:nS,~~

C'8,R 6,(!fo'
C'umlUlati ve Total PA'VEMEN1,' COi\tI.POS.lTE,ON
Traffk Pavement B' . Surfacing Granular Base
.1tumlDOU:S
(msa) Thickness He DBM & Sub-base
(mm) (mm) (rom) (mm)
lQl 615 '40 65
20 64.0 40 90
10 I 655 40 l05 Base - 2S0
50 675 I 40' 125
100 7UO SO 140 'Sub-base. - 260
I
]50 720 5'0 160 I
I -
E
Ii'
-
z
'0'
-
t-
-
III
0
Il.
:z
CI
(.)1
,I!!
IIf)
U')
I!.&J
Z
~
v
-
3:
I- 0 T R AFfll( (ms.-a)

33

IRe:] 7 -200 ~

PAVEMENT' OESJ'GN CATAL,OGUE

PLATE 1-, RECOMMENDED D.ESJGNS FOR TRAFF'ICRANGE IO'~"510 ms,a

CBR 70/01
Curnu lative Total I PAVEMENT COMPOS,ITION
Traffk Pavement Biruminous Surfacing Granular Base
I
(rnsa) Thickness Be DEM .& Sub-base
(mm) (rom) (rum) (rnm)
10 ,580 40 I 60
20, (510 40 90
I, ,
I
30 0,30 40 110 Base - 250
50 650 40 130
laO 675 50 J45 Sub-base - 230
I
1.5'0 695 . 50 I 165 E8nnlr~~--------~--~--~--~~--~----~----~

E

_,

z Q .... 16

-

U1

0'

Q.

~ o

u " ,!II

~ tn ijJ

Z l!:' U

....

:r 110-

,DBM :11' Be

34

lR '~3 7-200 J

PA VEMENT DESIGN CATA.LOGUE

PLATE 2 - RECOMMEND'ED DE' ·I'GNS FOR TRAFF;IC' RANG:E ~O-]SO msa

'CBR SiOta
I C }' Total PAVEMENT COMPOSmON
I 1- - - -,! .
umu atrve
Traffic Pavement Bituminous S urfacin g Granular Base
(rosa) Thi kl Be DBM &. Sub-base
C;I aess
(mm) I (mm) e (mrn) I (null)
10 S50 40 60
.
I 20 575 40 85
30 590 40 ~OO Base, - 250
SO 610 40 I 120
100 64'0 SO 140 Sub-base - 200
150 660 50 160 I~

E !

-

\111

.n W\!I

z ' ... ·'1" "'''''._

~' u

-

%

....

I

II

35

Contd,

lRC:37~200 1

P'AV'EM,ENT DESIGN CA,TALOGU~

PiLATE 2 - RlICOMMENnED OESlGN' .FOR TRAFFIC RANGE 10-150' msa

I
- 8,R '9o/~
Cumulative Total PAVE'IVlENT COMPOsr[."]ON,
Traffic Pavemen Bituminous Surfac'ng I Iranular Base
(rnsa) hickness Be I D~M 1& '8\1 b-b ase
(mrn) (null) (rnm) fmm}
10 1;j'40 40' I 50
--
20 570 40 80
I 1
30 585 410 95 Base =250
50 6015 40 I J 5
~OO ()35 50 135 Sh..l b - b ase - 100
,,b,' .
,
ISO 655 50 ISS E
e
~
:z:
0
[~
t-
Im
10,
IIIL
::1;
0
v
In
111)1
w:
z
iii::
U
-
:c
I ....
Q ('msCl)

ontd,

JRC:37-2001

PA V E·l\!lE-l~ OESIG N AT A LO'G ·-It

Pt..TE, 2 - RE,COiV),ME-"DEU HE ';}IGN, .FOR. TI,l!-\FF'IC RANGE ~Oa150 msu

~ CDR 100(¥o
-.
Cumu lative Tot.oJ PAVEMILN'"J' r;_ONlfJIOSl'l'IO~N
Tl'arfic Pavement B' . Surfacing , ranular Base
uummous
(nun) Thickness Be D.BM & Sub-base
I (mrnj (rnm) (mm) (rnm)
110 540 40 50 I
20 565 40 75 I
I ,
30 S,8,0 4'0 90 BaSIC - 250
5.0 600 LIO , 'lHJ
100, I 630 50 130 Sub-base - 200
150 650 50 ISO -

..

37

[RC: 37;..2 00 I

TrH~~ sub-base material should have minimum CB,'R of 20 per cent for cumulative 'traffic' upto 2 msa and 10 p~r cent for traffic ex ceeding, 2. l,nSEL. It should be ensured prior to actual executi on that the materi al to be used ,~ 11, sub-base saris fies the CBlt and other prescribed physical requirements. The material should be tested for CBR at the dry density and moisture content expected in the field. Where soaking ccnditions apply for design" the minimum strength of the sub-base material should be determinedafter snaking the test specimen 111, water for flour days.

4.2, n .,2.. Where the granular sub-base material conforming 'to the above specifications j s not available economically, other granul ar sub .. bases, like, Water Bound or Wet Mix Macadam conforming to MORT,&I-l Specifications are recommended.

4.2,..l.3. From drainage considerations 'the granular subbase should be extended over the en tire formationwi dth in case the subgrade soil is of relatively lcwperrneabiliry .. The' thickness of sub .. base in the extended portions should not be less th'an the prescribed minimum as given in para 4 .. 2".1. .4.

4.2.] .4. The thickness of-sub-base should not be less than 150 .rnm for design traffic less 'than 10 mS.3 and .200 nun fo r design traffic of .1' 0 msa and above.

4.2.1.5. Preferably the subgrade soil should have a CB.R of 2 per cent. Where the CBR value of 'the subgrade is Less than 2 per cent, the design should be based 0,0. subgrade CBR value ,of :2 per cent and a, capping layer of IS.o rnm thickness of material with a minimum CBR of 10 per cent shall be provided ill addition to the sub-base ,.

.:r8

IRC;3,7 .. 200 1. 4.4,.l,,6. Where stage construction is, adopted fOT pavements, the thickness of sub-base shall be provided for ultimate pavement section for the full design life.

4.2. L 7. In the areas affected by frost, care should be taken to avoid using frost susceptible materials in the sub-base.

4- 2"" 2'

.1 ii I.· II

Basecou rse

4,.2~.2,.1. Unbound granular bases which comprise conventional Water Bound Macadam (WBM), Wet Mix Macadam (WMM) or other equivalent granular construction ~,. nforming to IRC/MORT,&I-I Specifications shall be adopted.

4.2.2.2. Materials fi· r use in the base 'course D1USt sari fy the grading and physical requirements, prescribed in the IRel MORT&H Specifications, The recommended minimum thickness of granular base is 225 mm for traffic upto 2[1158 and 250 mm for traffic exce ding 2 msa,

4.2.2,.3" For heavily trafficked r ad , use of WMM base laid by paver finisher or 010101' grader i recommended.

4.2.2.4. Where WBM construction is adopted in the base course for roads carrying traffic more than 10 lTISa- the thickness ofWBM base shall be increased from 250 mrn to 300 rnm (i.e .. 4 layers of WBM grades Il and III each of 75 rnm compacted thickness) for ease of construction with corresponding reduction in the sub-base thickness keeping the overall pavement thickness unchanged as deduced .from the de. ign chart.

mRC:37-200'~

4· " 3:"

iii ii!!ii;;I! Iii -' ~

Bitumlnous surfacing'

4.2.3: I. The bituminous surfacing shall consist of either a wearing ICQUfS,e or a binder course with a. wearing course depending upon the traffic to, be carried. The most commonly used wearing courses are surface dressing, open-graded premix carpet, mix seal surfacing, semi-dense bituminous concrete and bituminous concrete, For binder courses, the MORT,&,H Specification prescribes B,itum,[nOIJ.1S Macadam and 'Dense Bituminous Macadam, Bituminous Macadam has low binder content and high voids, and is, thus not Impervious to water, Further the' effect of high voids is reduced stiffness and increased stress C01'1C1en trati on s, From fatigue considerations, 'the deterimental 'effect of voids is 1110re apparent atiow temperatures, On the other hand" during prolonged hot spells the: average pavement temperatures are very high and consequently such ,8 mix will operate over a very low stiffness range. Hence.jhe use of bttuminou S macad am bi nder course to IRe/M'OR T &'1-1 Sp,ecificatiol1s 1118.Y desirably be restricted only to roads designed ~a carry traffic less than 5 msa, Dense Bituminous Macadam binder course is recommended for roads designed to carry more than .5 l'J;lsa.

4.2.3.2. Recommended surfacing: materials and thicknesses in terms of the cumulative standard axles to be carried during the design H:Fe are given in Plates 1 and 2. The suggested surfacings are a desirable mmunum from functional and strue tural requi remen t s .

4.2.3.3 .. However, in case the granular base is manually laid or if recommended by the Engineer, the Dense Bituminous. Macadam (OBM) binder course may be preceeded by B' 7.5 ntm

IRC:37~.2001 thick Bituminous Macadam (BM) layer. Where this is done the thickness of the DHM layer win be suitably reduced, For practical purposes, 10 rom BM can be taken, as equivalent to 7 mm P'BM for modifying the thickness of DBM layer.

4.2.3.4. Choice of the appropriate type of bituminous, wearing course will depend on neveral factors, like design traffic over the service life the type ,.of base/binder course provided,wbether the pavement is to be built up in stages, rainfall and other related factors, The recommended types and thicknesses of wearingcourses for traffic from 10 TI1Sa to 1.50 msa axe given in Plate 2 and for 'traffic less than 10 msa in. Plate 1, which 'may be read in conjuncrionwith A nnexure-S and may be modified. if the environmental conditions and experience so

.

justify.

4.2.3.5. The grade of bitumen will be selected ke.~ping in view' the traffic, rainfall and other environmental conditions. The selection criteria for the grade of bitumen to be used for bituminous courses m-e given in Annexure-S. Use of high performance mixes/modified binder ~ are recommended in heavily trafficked situations.

4.2.3.6. For areas with heavy snow precipitation where mechani sed snow clearance operations may be undertaken as we11 ,as at Iocations, like, bus 'tops and roundabouts, consideration ught to be given 'to the provision of bituminous concrete in single 0'1' multiple courses so as to render the, surface-more stable and waterproof. Mastic asphalt ma y be used at bus-stops 'and intersections.

4l

fR :37-200]

4.2.3..7. Where the wearing surface adopted is open graded premix carpet of thickness upto 25 mm the thickness of surfacing should not be counted towards the total thickness of 'the pavement as such surfacing, will be purely for wearing and WlU not add to the s tructural capac ity of the pavement.

4.3. L Based on the results of analysis of pavement structures, practical requirements and specifications spelt out .i 111 paragraph 4 . .2, the recommended designs for traffic range 1 rnsa to 10 msa are given in PI Jte I and for traffic range 110 rnsa to 150 mS'L are given in Plate 2. In some cases, the total pavement thickness given in the recommended designs is slightly more than the thickness obtained from the design charts. This i in order t :

I a I provide the minimum prescribed thlcknes of sub .. base

(b) adapt the design to stage' construction which nece sitated some adjustmenr and increase in. sub-base thickness,

Dense Bituminous Macadam shall be constructed in two layers· when the prescribed thickness Is more than 100 nlJ11.

4.3.2. The designs relate to CBR values ranging. from 2. per cent to 10 per cent and ten levels of design traffic 1 ,2,,3'15.1 O,20,30~50, 't 00, J' SO msa, The pavement compositions given in the design catalogue are relevant to Indian conditions, maeerials and specifications. Where 'any change in layer thickne s and speciflcation is considered desirable frcm practical considerations, the eomposition ean be surtably modified u ing analytical approach with in ... service performance related information and appropriat design values,

42

IRC:37 .. 200 1 4.3 . .3. For intermediate traffic ranges, the pavement layer thicknesses will beinterpolated linearly,

4.3.4. For traffic, exceeding 150 msa, the pavement d . ign appropriate to 15'0 msa may be chosen and further strengthening carried out to extend the life at the appropriate time based on pavement deflection measurements as per me: s, 1 .

5. URAl AGE l\IEASURES

5,]., The performance of a pavement can be seriously affected if adeq uate drainagemeasures to prevent accumulation of moisture in the pavement structure are not taken .. So-me IQf the measures to guard. against poor drainage conditions are maintenance of transverse section in good shape to, reasonable crossfall '0 as to facilitate quick run .. off" of surface' water and provision of appropriate surface and sub-surface drams where necessary, Drainage measures are especially important when 'the road is in, cutting or built. on low permeability soils or situated in heavy rainfall/snow precipitation area.

$.2. On new' roads! the aim should be to 'construct the pavement as far above the 'water table as economically practicable, The difference between the bottom of subgrade level and the level of water table/high flood level should, however, not be Jess than 0.6-1 m, In water logged areas, where the' subgrade is within the zone of capillary saturation consideration should be given to the installation of suitable capillary cut-off as per IR;C:34a:t appropriate level underneath

tbe pavement, .

5.3. When the traditional granular construction is provided on .a 'relatively low' permeability sub grade , the granular subbase should, be extended over the entire formation width

>5

~, -

'1RC:l7-2001

(Fig ... 3) i:n' order to drain the pavement structural section .. Care should be exercised to, ensure that its exposed Sends, do not get covered by the embankment soil, The trench type section should not be adopted in any case as it would lead to the entrapment IDf water in the pavement structure.

If the granular' sub-base is of softer' variety which m:a,y undergo crushing during rolling leading to denser gradation ,and low permeability, the top 100 to .1.50. mm thickness should be substitu,ted by ·an open graded crushed stone layer' tOI ensure proper drainage.

Drainage ,of'the pavement structural section IC,111 be greatly rmproved by providing a high permeability drainage layer ,satisfying 'the following criteria :

D I', of drama,ge' layer

I; To prevent entry of soil particles into the drainage layer

<5

-

D of' -ub~de - '", - s __ r,or---

D- of IdrainaDU laver

-J(J . 0' J

And.

Aggregates meeting the following criteria are re,ganled as, very good drainage materials :

44

DBI -c 4 011' Dl> 2.S: mm

IRC:37-200 I . '9 'I T UMINO,U'S S,URf,AC.{NG

- ,GAANUL AR B,AS'E

~ GR AN,U l.,AR S'ua"'S,AS'E

ICa}"RQAD ON IFilL (NOI 5UB-SUR,FA,CE O,RAINS)

.

,. - J -

~ ",ILTER __ M,ATERI',A l (WHER,IE R:Eo.UU"~,ECI)

O'PE,N GR.ADEOI - DRA'INAGE l,A'YER OR SUB~B,AS,E

- BifTUMtNQU5 'SUR.FAC,ING ·GRANULAIR 'BASE

Flg .. .3. Drainage of Paverneatson Impermeable Subgrade

45

lR :]7-2001

Viti!) means the size of sieve that allows 85 per cent by weight of the material to pass through. it. Similar is 'the' meaning

of D'so D 1 s and D,,,'

The permeable sub-base when placed on soft erodible soils should be underlai . .D by a layer of filter material to. prevent the intrusion of soil fines into 'the drainage layer (Fig, 3) .. Nonwoven geo ynthetic can 'be provrded 'to act as filter.

5.4. Where large inflows are to be taken tare of an adequately designed sub- urfaee drainage system consisting of an open graded drainage layer wltb collection and outlet pipe should he provided. The system should be designed on a 'rational basis using seepage principles to estimate the inflow quantities and the outflow' conductivity of the drainage system. It should be 'ell ured that the outflow capabilities ofthe system are atleast equal to' the total inflow so that no free water accumulates in the pavement structured section .. Sub-surface drains using geosynthetics can also be used. Sub-surface drains should be constructed to the requirements prescribed in I Iause 30'9 . .3 of the M10RT&H Specification for Road and Bridge Works.

5. s. Drainage of existing pavement of 'Trench Type section on low permeahility subgrades can be improved by providing a continuous drainage layer of 100-150 mm thickness under the shou Iders at the subgrade Ievel 01 by providing, a combination of Iongitudina] and lateral drains the latter spaced at 5 to 6 m intervals. The drains. a!'e cut through the shoulders upto the subgrade level and backfilled with coarse drainage

I material.

5.6. Very oft1en"wate'r enters the base, .sub-base or the

IR ;37-200,J subgrade at the jun tion f the verges and the: bituminous surfacing, To counteract the' harmful effects of this water, it is recommended that the shculders should be well-shaped and if possible, censtructed of impermeable material. With the same intent, it is suggested that as far as practicable and ill any case on major through roads, the base should beconstructed 300- 450 .mm wider than the required bituminous, surfacing so that the run-off water disperses harmlessly well clear off the main

.

carriageway.

5.7. Shoulders should be accorded special attention during subsequent maiutenance operation too. 'They shculd be dress d periodically so that they .always conform to the requisite crossfall and are not higher than the level of carriageway at any time,

6. DES[GN IN FROST AFFE TED ARE,A.

6. I. In areas susceptible to frost action, the design wHJ have to be related 'to actual depth of penetration and severity of the frost At the subgrade level, fine grained clayey and si lty soils are more susceptible to joe formation, but freezing conditions could also. develop within the pavement structure if water bas 'a chance of ingress, from above.

6.2. One remedy against frost attack is to increase the depth of constructien to correspond to the depth of frost penetration, but this may not always be economieally practicable. As a general rule, it would be inadvisable tOI provide total thickness less than 450 rom even when the CBR value of the

. -

subgrade warrants a smaller thickness, In addition, the materials used' for building up' the crust should be frostresistant.

47

mc::! 7 -.200' ~

6.3., Another precaution against frost attack is that water should not be allowed to collect at the subgrade level which '[nay happen on account of infiltration through 'the pavement surface or verges, or due to capillary rise from a high water table. Whereas capillary rise can be prevented by subsoil drainage measures and cut-offs, infiltratingwetee can be checked only by providing a sui table wearing surface,

", W'ORKED EXAMPLES ,ILLUSTRATING THE DESIGN METHOD

Extmfpllt ... 1 : Design the pavement for construction of I, new bypass with the following, data ,:

DATA

(i) Oil

Two-lane sblg~e carriageway

- -

Initial tr.affic Inthe year of

;: 40.0 CV ldiay

(sum of both directions) = 7.5 per cent

r:= 15 years

= 2.S: [standardaxles per commercial vehicle)

:;; 4, per cent

eompletlon of ccnstruction (iii) TraftirC~ growth rate per ,annum (iv) Des,ign life

(v) Vebi,cle damage factor

(bllsed OJ! axle load SUl'Ve'y) (vi)' Design GSR of' 'subgrade' BoH

(i) Distribution facto'f (p,ara 3.3.5)

(ill Cumulative number IOf' is-land:ard axles to be catered, for in" the desi~ (EquSltion ,given in P,BfI 3,.3.6.1)

N=, 36.5 x. [(1+01.075),15-1] x400,,'O.75x2.,'; == 72001000 = 7.2 msa

0.07.5, - - -, _

=: 00.75

48

(iii) 'Total pavement thickness for CBR 4% ,8 nd Traffic 7.2 msa (from Fig. 1)

(iv) Pavement Cemposition interpolated from Plate l CBR 40/0

(a) Bituminous surfacing

(b) Road base (c) Sub-base

IRC':37 .. 200 I

=;; 660 mm

= 2':;: mm SDBC .. 70 mrn DB,M =250 nun WH,M

= 3, I S mm ,granular material ,of CBR no't less 'than

3,Q per cent

Example .. ' ,2 : It is proposed to widen an, existing 2-'lane National Highway section to 4-Iane divided road, Design the pavement for new carriageway wi th the following data :

DATA 0)

(ii)

(0' ')

UI,.

(iv) (v) (vi)

4-lane divided ,c;arri,agway

Initial 'traffic in each directions in the = $6'00 CVld.ay

year of completion of construction Desip life

Dc-sign CBR of subgrade 'soil Tr,a.ffic ,growtn rate

Vehicle damage factar

(Fomd out from axle load survey on existing road)

- 1 0 ye:ars/l S years = 5 per cent '

=. 8, per cent

= 4.5 (Standard axles p,e:r CV)

DESIGN 'CALCULA1]O,N,s

(i) Distribution factor (para. 3.3.5)

(ti) Vebielei dama,ge facto"

(iii) Cu:m:u].atj;'II,e number of s.tandard.

axles, 10 be carried dming, (8) Desi,gn life 'of 10 y,ear,g

N- ]6SxU' ~,,08)'O'-1] xS600xO.7Sx4.S = '99.2 msa 01' say '1'00 rasa

- 0.0:8

= 0.75 == 4.5

UtC:3 7 -20.'0,1

(b) Design Hie lof 15 years

N'=: 3,65 X [1~~.~~.Or8:)IS .. I] x5'600xO.75'.x4.S;;;;: 185.6 msa or say 1861 :11180

(,iv) Pavement thiCKI1eSS, and compositlon (from Fig. 2 and P~ate 2) (or CB,R = 5 per cent. en d traff e

= 100 msal186 rnsa,

(til) For 1,Q years, me

Total Pavement tnickness for 'traffic 100 msa (from Fig. 2- CaR 5%

Composition (from Plate :2 CB,R, 5%)

Bituminous surfacing

::::: 745 mOl

= SO mm Be

+ 150 'rom, DB,M = 230 mm 'Wet Mwx Macadam

;;;; 300 mm Granular Sub-base of caR not less tlan

:]0 per cen:,~

Provide Total Pavement Thickness = 750 mm

{b) For 15 years ~ife (p,Mft, 4.3.4) Ac:co:rdhigJy provide lpiav.ement thh::'kges$ ,and compositioll for ].50' rnsa

Total pavement 'Lhi(:kIU;~S:S (ftom Fig. 2)

Composition, (rom Ptate ,2, CDR 5%)

Binnnlnous slllfeei,ng

= 760 mm

== ,SO mm Be

+ 170 mm DB'M =, 250 mm

Wet Mix Mae~dam

.; lOO mm GSB of C'BR not

less than .30 per cent Provide To'~a! :Pn:vement Thicsness =' 770 mm

5.0

lRC;37-200~ A.fIIiU!XI;' re-I !CRITICAL LOCA 1'I,ONS, RELATIO,N - HIP BETWEEN

NUMBER OF CUI\[(JLATIYE STA_N-DARD AXLES TR.k\IN VfiUES AND, ELASTIC MO'DULU'_ IOF MATERIALS

Critical. Loeations in Pavement

I.

. . f

A- and B are the critical [ocations for tensile strains (e), Maximum value of the strain is adopted for design.

C is the critica! location for the vertical subgrade strain (E:.) since the maximum value of the Sz occurs mostly at C.

Fatigue 'Criteria :'

Bituminous surfacings of pavements display flexural fatigue cracking if the tensile strain at the bottom of the bituminous Iayer is. beyond certain limit. Based on large amount of field performance data f pavements of south, north east

51

IR.C:31-2001

,and west zones in India collected under the Research Schemes R-6~ and R .. I '9s of Ministry of Surface Transport, Govt. of India" the relation between the fatigue life of the pavement and the' 'tensile sttain in, the bottom, of the bituminous layer was obtained ~ as

NF - 2.21 ~ to- /1Ie/u/1>I [IIEJu.,~

Wbere, N,.. -

Number of cumulative sILandJ'l"d axles to produce 20 per cent cracked surface area

Tensile train at the bottom 'Of Be layer f micro strain) Etlli'ti,e modulus oJ bitnminous surfacing I.Wa)

The above fatigue equation was calibrated a 35{}C for Bituminous Concrete surfacing having 8.0[1.00 bitumen and the equation was generalised' by Introducing the term containing the elasticmodulus (E) of the bituminous layer so that pavement can be designed for temperatures from 20o,C to. 40°C using any grade of bitumen.

The values of the elastic moduf of Biturnmous Concrete/ Dense Bitununous Macadam and Bi'L1Jn1inaU8 Macadam meeting the specifications of the MO'ST:! are given below' ..

. ELASTIC WIODULVS (MPa) Vt\li E~ 0, Bl'nrMINOus 'MATERlAl.~

Mix Type Temperature uC
20 25 I 30 35 40.
,
Be and DBM, SOlIDO bitumen 2300 19'66 14,55' 975 I 797
,BC and OBM 60110 bitumen 360'0 3126 2579 [695 I 1270
I I
-
sc and DBM 30.14,0 bitumen 6000 4928, ]80.9 2944 2276
(15 bIolwcompaction and
4 per cen,t a:lr void)
I I I
BM 80nOO bitumen - - - I 500 ~
B'M'60nO b:itumen 100
I 52

LRe. 7-2'001

The Poisson's ratio of bituminous layer may be taken as 0.50 for pavement temperatures of 35PC and 40fl'C. For temperatures from .20ue to' 30~'C (_\ value of 0.35 may be adopted.

Fatigue equation at any pavement temperature from 20~' to 40° can be evaluated by substituting the elastic: modulus of the pavement temperature, ata logue 10 f designs haL been worked out for temperature of 35uC.

As large' number of data for rutting failure of pave111enl~. were obtained from the Research .. cheme R -6-1 f the Mi nistry of Road Transport and 1-1 ighways and other research investigations, Setting the allowable rut depth as 20 nun, the rutting equation was. obtained I as

N/~ ~ 4.J656~JO's [11~lHH-

Nn = Number or curnuleti e '1an ard axles to PI' ducc ruttlng of 20 mm'

E, = V ertical subgradc strain (rn icro strainj)

jI;

Modulus of Elasticity of Subgrade Sub-base and Do e Layers

, ubgrude"

E(MPa)' = J O·CBR for CBR .. ~ 5 and

= 17G*(CBR),1) M for CBH: » :5

53

IR :31-2001

£}= Cemposite Elastic Modulu.s of .granular Sub-base and. Base IMP'a)

E~= Elastic Modulus of Subgrade (M"Pa) h = Thickness 'Of granular layers (mm)

Poisson'a ratio. for both he granular ~·ayler 3. well as subgrade layer may be 'Eaken as, 0.4.

nbstftutlen of Dense Bitumtnous Macadam (DBM) :

Part of the DBM can be ubstiruted for BM on the basis of equal flexural stiffness, given as

where,

E'J HlP 1 and E:; HJ> ILJ are the parameters (EIastk Modulus, Thickness and Poisson! s Ratio I of the DBM and BM respectively, Based on (he above equation, following equ KV alent hi ckne ses may be used :

Example

, . '180 mm DBM = 125 rnm DHM, + 75 mm BM

240 mm D'BM :::: LS,S mm DBfyf + 75 mrn BM

75 mm of 80M = 75* {700/l695)'1'3 = 55.85 r1U11 (If'DBM

S4

IRC:37-200 l .4'U'l6XU re,-,J

EQ,UIVALENCE F'ACTO'RS AND, D'AMAGINIG PO'W'ER OF DIFFE:RENT AXLE LOADS

'Gross ,Axle Weight ~g.

Load Equiv.a lency Factors

8. ingle Ax le Tandem AI{ ~ e~

9001 uno 272,0 3630 4540 5440 6350 7260 8,160 9070 99'80' 10890 ]1790 12700 mJ.61,O 14520 l542~O 163211),

17230 UJI40 1'905] ,~995'S 20865 .21772 22680 23587 2,4494

00.00.02 0.0000

0.00.2 0.0002

0 . .009 0.0'0 ],

0.031 0.08

01.1716 0 .. 35 0,6], l;OO 1.55 2,.30 3,27 4.48 5.98

7.8 10.0 ~2 . .5 15.5 19.0 2],'0 .27.7 ,]].0 3§J,.3 46..5 $5.0

0.003 0.006

, 0.013 0 . .024 10.043 0.'070 0.1 ~ 0 O. ~'66 0.242 0,342. 0.470 0.61,33 0.834

1.08 1.38 1.73 2,.14- 2",61 ],.16

3.79 4.49 5.28 6.l7 7.15

U~C:37 -2,001

Gross Axle Weight Kg.

. Lead Eqaivaleacy Factors

Sm,gl,e Axle Tandem, Ax1e

254'01 .26308 27216 28123 29030 2'9937 30844 1,}752 32660 3,3566 34473 35180 36288

8.20 9.4 10,7 12.l 13,7 13.4 17.1 19.2 21.3 23.6 26..1 28.8 31..7

In case the class mark of the axle load. survey does not match with the above axle loads", 4th power law may be used for converting axle loads, into equivalent standard axle loads using the following formulae :

Sing,le axle load

Equ iva leney factor == I( axle load in kgJ:8] 60)4

Tandem axle lead

Equivalency factor = (axle Ioad in kgl14968)4

The above equations also give reasonably correct results for practical values of axle: leads,

56

1.RC:37-200 I

A'~ nex ,II re-B

PREPARATION OF LABO.RAT10RY TE' T SP,ECIMENS

GENERAL

J . Wherever possible the test specimens should be prepared by static compaction, but if not possible! dynamic method 'may be used as an alternative,

ST ~TIC C'OMP'ACTION

2, The weight ofwet soil at the required moisture content to giVIC the intended density when occupying the standard test mould is calculated as follows :

Volume of mould ~ .2209 ce 'Weigbt' of dry soil = 22009 dgm 100 m

'Wei,gilt of wet SO,]] = x 2209 d gm

100

where

d - Required dry density in gm/cc

m ;= Requiredmoisture content in per cent

3~ The' soil 'lumps are broken down and stones larger than 20 rnm are removed, Sufficient quantity of the soil is mixed with waterto give the required moisture content. The correct weight of wet soil is placed in the mould, After initial tamping with a steel rod a filter paper is placed on top of tbe soil, followed by the 5 em displacer disc and the specimen compressed in the compression machine until the tOPI of the displaoer is flush with

57

lRC::3 7 -200 '~

the top .of the collar. The load is held for about 310 seconds and then released, In some soil rypes wbere a certain amount of rebound occurs, it may be necessaryto reapply load to force the' displacer di sc s] i ghtly below' the top of the mould 5,Q' that on rebound the right volume is obtained.

'.DYN AMIC CO'I\1P ACTION

4., The soil is mixed with water to give the required moisture content, and then compacted mto the mould in three layers u ring a standard soil rammer, After compaction, the soi] is trimmed flush with the top of the mould with the help of at metal straight ledge. The mould is weighed fuH and empty to 'enable determination of wet bulk density and from it, knowing 'the moisture content, the dry density i' calculated.

5;. Further specimens, at t ae samemcisture 'content, are then prepared to different dry densities by varying the number of blows applied to each layer of soil so that the amount of compaction that win 'fill the 'mould uniformly witb calculated weight of wet sc il (vide para. 2 above) is known.

lR :37-20.01 A II" exure-d

SPECIAL POIN"TS RELATI-C TO DE I ,OF PAVEM.ENT

ON EXP'AN'··,IVE SOILS

Potentially expansive soils such as, black co ton soils arc' mentmorillenite clays and are characterised by their extreme hardness and deep cracks When dry and with tendency for heaving during the process of wetting. Roadbeds made up of such 8'OiJS: when subjected to changes in moisture content due £0 seasonal wetting and drying or due to any other reason undergo volumetric changes leading to pavement distortion, cracking and general unevenness. In semi-arid climatic conditions pronounced short wet and long dry conditions

- ,

occur, which aggravate the problem of swelling and shrinkage.

DtIC recogn ition of these problems at the design stage itself is required so that counter measures could be devised and incorporated in the pavement '. truoture. A proper design incorporating the following measures may considerably minimise the problems 'associated with expansive soils,

SU·BGRADE MOISTURE n:ENSJ,TV ANDI DE,IGN' t;,HR

The amount of volume change that occurs when ~U] expansive soil road bed is exposed re additional moisture depends on the following :

(a) the dry density of the' compacted soil {b the moisture con-tent

(c) structure of soH and method of eompaction

Expansive soils. swell very little when compacted at low densities and high moisture but swell greatly when compacted

59

fRC:37-2001

at high densities and low moisture. Hence, where the probability of moisture variatlon in the suhgrade is high, it is expedient to compact the, soil slightly 'wet of 'the field optimum moisture content determined on the basis Qf a field trial, Experience shows that generally, it is 110t practicable to compact expansive soils at 'OMC determined by Laboratory Proctor Test. It is' therefore, necessary to study its field moisture density relationship through compacting the soil at different moisture contents and under the same number of roller passes. A minimum density corresponding to 95 per cent of the standard proctor density should be attained in the field and recommended moisture content should be 1-2 per cent wet IQf optimum me isture content.

I,. Desig,ll CDR

The pavement thickness should be based on a 4-day soaked CB,R value 101' the soil, remoulded at placement density and. moisture content ascertained from the field compaction curve.

There is a definite gain in. placing the pavement on' a non-' expansive cohesive soil cushion of 0.,6-1.0 m thickness. It prevents ingress of water in the underlying expansive soil layer counteracts swelling 811d secondly even if the underlying expansive soil heaves, the movement wUJ. be more uniform and consequently more tolerable. However, where provision of 'non-expansive buffer' layer is 'Dot economically feasible, a blanket eourse of suitablematerialand thickness as discussed in para :3 below must be provided,

IRe:37 -200 I

3 .. Blanket Course

A blanket course IQf' atleast 225 mm thickness l-UUJ composed ofcoarse/medium sand or non ... plastic rnoorurn having PI leg" than five shou Id be' provided on the expansi ve soi l subgrade as a sub .... base to serve as an effecrive intrusion barrie . The blanket course should extend over the enti re formation width.

Alternatively, Iime-stahilised black cotton sub-base extending over the entire formation width may be provided together with measures for efficient drainage of the pavement section.

Irnprovement of drainage can significantly reduce the magnitude of seasonal heaves, Special attention should, therefore, 'be given to provision of good drainage measures as also discus-sled under Section 5 (Drainage Measures). Th-e desirable requirements are ~

(.a) Prevision must be made for the: later a [ drainage uf tJH~ pavement structural section, The granular sub .. base/base should accordingly be extended across the shoulders, nrfCJ LO para :5.3 ofsection 5 (Drainage Measures),

(b) Normal camber of 1 ;40 for the black 1,-'11 surface and a cross slope of 1.~20 for the berms should be pro ided to shed-off sur£3Lce run-off qui C' k1 y .

I(C) No standing: Walter should be .allowed on either side of the road embankment

(let) A minimum height of l m between 'mile subgrade level and the higbest water level should be ensured,

61

s. Bituminous Surfacing

Desirably 4.0 mrn thick bituminous surfacing sl ould be provided to prevent ingress of water through. surface.

6. SlJouldel"s .

Shoulders should be made up of imperv lOUS material so as not to' allow water to permeate into the body ofthe pavement, Lime stabilised black cotton soil shoulder of 150~200 mm thickness may serve the purpose economically.

~'

62

IRl :17-1001

A" "ex 1I1',f!- 5 RECOM~IENDED TYPE AND T'HICKNE '8 OF BJTUMlINO'US W-R,ARING C,Q'URSES FOR FLEXIBLE P,AVEMENTS UNDER D'IFF~RENT k lTllA 110N~

51 Type of Base/ Nc. Binder Course

Type of Bituminous Wemring Course'

Annual Rainfall Low fl.) less than J 500 mm: f\r~~dium (M)

1 500-30001 nun; High (] :1) 1110r~ than JOUU mrn

Dl;!S!gll Trame (lT1Stl

[. \-Vater Bound Macadam, Wel Mix Macadam. Crusherrun-Macadam, Built-up Spray Grout

(1' 20 mm Premix Carpet lPC) '.\lith sand seal coal (U) :!.O mm PC with

I iquid seal coal

(W) M]?( Seal Surfacing (MSS) (10 mrn) Type "A" or 'B'

Land M

L,M and H

< IIU.n

<1'0.0

. 10,0

2. Bltnrninous Macadam (i) Semi-Dense L~M and H < I u.U

base/binder course Bituminous

Concrete (25 mm) (ii) 20 mm PCwitll

I iquid 'seal coat (iii) MSS (20 11111.1)

Ty pe . f\' or . B ·

Dense Bituminous Macadam

Il

B iunninous Concrete (i) 25 nun

(i i) 4 U nun

(m) 50 InI11

L. [\,'t and rr LJd and II L,!\ I and H

..... ;<10 10' 100

D3

UlC:37-200 I

In applying the above recormnendsncns; the following points shou ~d be kept '11 vi \IV:

(i) In case where a pavement is decided to b~ developed in stages, the surfac,lIlg should correspond Lo that Ior the design srage,

(if) As far as possible, wearing course amenable to laymg with paver-flnisher shculd be adopted over pavcr-fimshed base/ binder course.

(iii) Expensive surfacings, like, Bltuminous Concrete (Be) should not be provided directly over manually laid granular bases,

64

I [{ .37-200 I

A nnexurc-e

, RITERIAFOIR THE SIiLEC'1'10N IOF GRADE 611 B,jTUMEN FO'R BITUI\1J OU· ·()UR E.~

,
, Ilmat Tl'aJric ( VU) Bituminous, Course (Irlld'c fir Btrnmen
I .01 be ~d
r u
Hot , Any BJV~. BI' J:\ll~ BUStJ )(J/70
Moderate/Cold Any 8M. BP'M. BUSG 80/100
Any Hea'vy Loads. DBM, DBC, Be bono
Expressways,
,~
Urban Roads
HoVModcrmc Any f)l'em.i.'( Carner :in!(dJ 01 60'70
Cold Any Premix Curnct fHl/lOO
I -.
Hot/Moderate Any rvfm.:!k t\ sphalt 15 ...
Curd Any MaSLH:: ~sphal[ 30/ IU IR :]7,-200 I

REFEJ NeE,

I. Research cherne R-56 Analytical Design of Flexible Pavements' Final Report submitted 10 the Mini try of . urface Transp rt (Roads W mg) March 1'999, Civil Engineering Department. Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal. _

2. pecificarions f r Road and Bridge Works (Third

Revision), 19' 5~ Ministry of urface Transport (Roads Wing), Published by Indian Roads Congress New Delhi.

3. AASiTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures, 1993, Am eric au Association of State High way and Transportation Officials Washington DC.

4,. Dev _ lopment 0;" Methods, such as Benkelman Beam Method For Evaluation of Struc ural Capacity of Existing Flexible Pavements and also for' . srimation and Design of Oveaays for Strengthening of Weak Pavements, Research

cherne R-6 of Ministry of Surface Transport (Roads Wing), Final Report submitted by entral Road Research Institute, New Delhi 1995.

5. PaVC111cnt Performance Study of Existing Pavement Sections, Final Report, Volume-Z, submitted to [be 'Ministry of Surface Transport (Roads Wing) Centred Road Research Inst i tute, New Ddhi 1994.

6. IRC:81-1997 "Guidelines for trerrgthening )f Flexible Pavements Using Benkelman Be'an, Deflecrlon Teclmiuuc", Indiau Roads Congress New Delhi.

66

l1tC:37-20 :I

7. Shell Pavement Design Manual - Asphalt Pavement and Overlays for Road Traffic, Shell International Petroleum Company Ltd. 1978 London,

8. N.W. Lister and W,.D. Po~"en, '~Design Practice for Bihm1ell Pavements in the United Kingdom' Proceedings ,0 6111 International Conference on Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements Volume ]11987.

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