Solutions Manual to

Introduction to Differential
Equations with Dynamical
Systems
by Stephen L. Campbell and Richard Haberman
M. Ziaul Haque
PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS
PRINCETON AND OXFORD
Copyright c 2008 by Princeton University Press
Published by Princeton University Press
41 William Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08540
In the United Kingdom: Princeton University Press
6 Oxford Street, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, 0X20 1TW
All Rights Reserved
This book has been composed in L
A
T
E
X
press.princeton.edu
Contents
Preface v
Chapter 1. First-Order Differential Equations and Their Applications 1
1.1 Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations 1
1.2 Definite Integral and the Initial Value Problem 1
1.3 First-Order Separable Differential Equations 3
1.4 Direction Fields 5
1.5 Euler’s Numerical Method (Optional) 7
1.6 First-Order Linear Differential Equations 10
1.7 Linear First-Order Differential Equations with Constant Coeffi-
cients and Constant Input 15
1.8 Growth and Decay Problems 20
1.9 Mixture Problems 23
1.10 Electronic Circuits 25
1.11 Mechanics II: Including Air Resistance 26
1.12 Orthogonal Trajectories (optional) 27
Chapter 2. Linear Second and Higher-Order Differenial Equations 29
2.1 General Solution of Second-Order Linear Differential Equations 29
2.2 Initial Value Problem (For Homogeneous Equation) 30
2.3 Reduction of Order 32
2.4 Homogeneous Linear Constant Coefficient Differential Equations
(Second Order) 35
2.5 Mechanical Vibrations I: Formulation and Free Response 39
2.6 The Method of Undetermined Coefficients 45
2.7 Mechanical Vibrations II: Forced Response 58
2.8 Linear Electric Circuits 65
2.9 Euler Equation 68
2.10 Variation of Parameters (Second-Order) 70
2.11 Variation of Parameters (nth-Order) 75
Chapter 3. The Laplace Transform 82
3.1 Definition and Basic Properties 82
3.2 Inverse Laplace Transforms (Roots, Quadratics, & Partial Fractions) 86
3.3 Initial-Value Problems for Differential Equations 94
3.4 Discontinuous Forcing Functions 98
3.5 Periodic Functions 109
3.6 Integrals and the Convolution Theorem 114
3.7 Impulses and Distributions 118
iv CONTENTS
Chapter 4. An Introduction to Linear Systems of Differential Equations and
Their Phase Plane 121
4.1 Introduction 121
4.2 Introduction to Linear Systems of Differential Equations 121
4.3 Phase Plane for Linear Systems of Differential Equations 130
Chapter 5. Mostly Nonlinear First-Order Differential Equations 142
5.1 First-Order Differential Equations 142
5.2 Equilibria and Stability 142
5.3 One Dimensional Phase Lines 143
5.4 Application to Population Dynamics: The Logistic Equation 146
Chapter 6. Nonlinear Systems of Differential Equations in the Plane 150
6.1 Introduction 150
6.2 Equilibria of Nonlinear Systems, Linear Stability Analysis of Equi-
librium, and Phase Plane 150
6.3 Population Models 161
6.4 Mechanical Systems 178
Preface
This Student Solutions Manual contains solutions to the odd-numbered ex-
ercises in the text Introduction to Differential Equations with Dynamical
Systems by Stephen L. Campbell and Richard Haberman.
To master the concepts in a mathematics text the students must solve prob-
lems which sometimes may be challenging. This manual has been written
focusing student’s needs and expectations. Instead of providing only the
answer with very few steps, I include a reasonably detailed solution with
a fair amount of detail when explaining the solution of the problem. The
solutions are self-explanatory and consistent with the notations and termi-
nologies used in the text book. I hope this manual will help students build
problem-solving skills.
I would like to thank many people who have provided invaluable help, in
many ways, in the preparation of this manual. First, I take this opportunity
to thank Professor Richard Haberman for his generous expert help, construc-
tive comments and accuracy checking. I would also like to thank Professor
Stephen L. Campbell for assembling the final manuscript, Professor Peter
K. Moore for facilitating support process and Ms. Vickie Kearn of the pub-
lishing company for her patience and support. Finally, I must appreciate
the patience of my wife, Rukshana, and my daughters, Zareen and Ehram
for their understanding and compromise of summer time that was slighted
because of my busy schedule.
M. Ziaul Haque
Southern Methodist University
Dallas, TX, 75275, U.S.A.
July, 2007.
Chapter One
First-Order Differential Equations and Their
Applications
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS
There are no exercises in this section.
1.2 DEFINITE INTEGRAL AND THE INITIAL VALUE
PROBLEM
1-7. Substitute expression for x into the differential equation
1. x = 2e
3t
+ 1. l.h.s. =
dx
= 6e
3t
.
dt
r.h.s. = 3x − 3 = 3(2e
3t
+ 1) − 3 = 6e
3t
. Hence l.h.s. = r.h.s.
3. x = t − 1. l.h.s. =
dx
= 1. r.h.s =
x
=
t−1
= 1. Hence l.h.s. = r.h.s.
dt t−1 t−1
5. x = e
t
2
. l.h.s. =
dx
= 2te
t
2
. r.h.s = 2tx = 2te
t
2
. Hence l.h.s. = r.h.s.
dt
dx
7. x = e
−2t
. l.h.s. =
dt
= −2e
−2t
.
r.h.s. = −2e
2t
x
2
= −2e
2t
(e
−2t
)
2
= −2e
−2t
. Hence l.h.s. = r.h.s.
dx t t
9.
dt
= 3e . Integrating we get, x = 3e + c.
11.
dx
= −5 cos 6t. Integrating we get, x = −
5
sin 6t + c.
dt 6
dx
1
1
13.
dt
= 8 cos(t

2
). Use of definite integral gives x = 8

0
t
cos t

2
dt + c.
15.
dx
= ln(4 + cos
2
t). Use of definite integral gives
x
dt
=

0
t
ln(4 + cos
2
t)dt + c
dx 1
17.
dt
= t
4
; x(2) = 3. Integrating we get x =
5
t
5
+ c.
17 1 17
t = 2 = 3 =
32
+ c =
5
. So x = t
5

5
⇒ c = −
5

5
.
19.
dx
=
ln t
; x(2) = 5. Use of definite integral gives
dt 4+cos
2
t
ln t
x = 5 +

t
dt.
2 4+cos
2
t
21.
dx
=
e
t
; x(1) = 3. dx =
e
t
dt. Use of definite integral gives
dt 1+t 1+t
t t
e e
x − 3 =

t
dt = x = 3 +

t
dt.
1 1+t

1 1+t
d
2
x
23.
dt
2
= −15. Integrating we get
dx
= −15t + c
1
(
dx
dx
dt dt
= v
0
at t = 0 =⇒ c
1
= v
0
.)
= −15t + v
0
. Integrating again we get
dt
15
t
2
x = −
2
+ v
0
t + c
2
(x = 0 at t = 0 = c
2
= 0.) ⇒

2 CHAPTER 1
v0
Car stops when
dx
= 0 = v
0
− 15t = 0 = t = (stopping time).
dt 15
⇒ ⇒
So distance travelled is
v
0
= 15

10 m/sec.
2
0
2
0
2
0 15 1
v
15 2 15
75 =
1
v v
(
v0
)
2
+
15
x = − = = =
2 15

2

25.
d
2
x
= −2500. Integrating we get
dx
= −2500t + c
1
(
dx
= 60 at t = 0
dt
2
dt dt
= c
1
= 60). So
dx
= −2500t + 60. Integrating again we get ⇒
2500
dt
x = − t
2
+ 60t + c
2
(x = 0 at t = 0 =⇒ c
2
= 0.)
2
Car stops when
dx
= 0 =⇒−2500t + 60 = 0
dt
= t =
60
(stopping time). So distance travelled is
2500

2500 60 60
2
x = −
2
(
2500
)
2
+
2500
= 0.72 km.
x
27.
d
2
= −2500. Integrating we get
dx
= −2500t + c
1
(
dx
= v
0
at t = 0
dt
2
dt dt
= c
1
= v
0
). So
dx
= −2500t + v
0
. Integrating again we get ⇒
2500
t
2
dt
x = −
2
+ v
0
t + c
2
(x = 0 at t = 0 = c
2
= 0) ⇒
Car stops when
dx
= 0 = v
0
− 2500t = 0
v0
dt

= ⇒ t =
2500
(stopping time). So distance travelled is
2
0
2
0 2500 v0
v v
)
2
( km. + x = − =
2 2500 2500 5000
29.
d
2
x
= −6t. Integrating we get
dx
dt
2
dt
= −3t
2
+ c
1
(
dx
dt
= −3t
2
+ 62. Integrating again we get
= 50 at t = 2
c
1
= 62). So
dx
dt
= ⇒
x = −t
3
+ 62t + c
2
(x = 0 at t = 2 =
Car stops when
dx
= 0 =⇒−3t
2
+ 62 = 0
dt
⇒ c
2
= −116.)

62
= t = (stopping time). So distance travelled is
x

= t(62 −
3
t
2
) − 116 =

62
(62 −
62
) − 116
3 3

62
3
2
(
2
3
− 116 km. =
3
)62 − 116 = 2

62
3
dV
So
dy
31. (a) V =volume,
dt
= Q m
3
/h. Let snow depth be y.
dt
= c ⇒
y = ct + c
1
(y = 0 at t = 0 c
1
= 0). Thus y = ct. Now ⇒
consider the snowplow has moved ∆x over the time ∆t and the
approximate change in volume over this time is ∆V. Hence
∆V ∆x
∆V = w(∆x)y = wct∆x
∆t
= wct
∆t
. Now taking limit
as ∆t 0 we get
dV
= Q

= wct
dx dx
=
Q
=
1
with
wc

dt dt

dt wct kt
k = .
(b)
dx
=
Q
1
1
. Separating the variables we get,

dx =
1

1
dt ⇒
dt kt k t
x =
k
ln t + a. At 11 A.M. t = 3 and x(3) = 0. So
0 =
k
1
ln 3 + a ⇒
1
a = −
k
1
ln 3. Then at noon (t = 4),
x(4) =
1
ln 4 − ln 3 =
1
ln
4
.
k k k 3
33.
d
2
y
= −g = −9.8 m/sec
2
. Integrating we get
dt
2
dy
= −9.8t + c
1
(
dy
dy
= v
0
at t = 0 =⇒ c
1
= v
0
.) So
dt dt
= −9.8t + v
0
. Integrating again we get
dt
y = −
9
2
.8
t
2
+ v
0
t + c
2
(y = 0 at t = 0 = c
2
= 0.) ⇒
At maximum height
dy
= 0 = v
0
− 9.8t = 0
v0
dt

= ⇒ t =
9.8
(time at maximum height). So maximum height is
=

1960 m/sec.
2
0
2
0
2
0
y = −
9.8
2
(
v0
)
2
+
9.8
=
1
v
100 =
1
2
v v
= = v
0
9.8 2 9.8 9.8
⇒ ⇒
FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 3
35.
d
2
y
= −g = −9.8 m/sec
2
. Integrating we get
dt
2
dy
= −9.8t + c
1
(
dy
= 0 at t = 0 = c
1
= 0.)
dt dt

So
dy
= −9.8t. Integrating again we get y = −
9.8
t
2
+ c
2
dt 2
(y = 200 at t = 0 = c
2
= 200). y = −
9.8
t
2
+ 200. Now to fall, ⇒
2
9.8 9.8

400 20
y = 0. So 0 = −
2
t
2
+ 200 ⇒
2
t
2
= 200 =⇒ t =
9.8
=

9.8
sec.
37. Since x(t
0
) = x
0
, the general solution x =

t
f

t

dt + c becomes
0
x
0
=

t0
f

t

dt + c = c = x
0

t0
f

t

dt. Hence the solution is
0

0
x =

t
f

t

dt + x
0

t0
f

t

dt = x
0
+

t
f

t

dt.
0 0 t0
1.3 FIRST-ORDER SEPARABLE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
dx x+1 dx dt
1.
dt
=
t
. Separating variables gives

x+1
=

t
. Integrating we get,
ln x + 1 = ln t + c
1
ln
|x+1|
= c
1

x+1 c1
t
|
x+1
|
c1
| | ⇒
|t|

= e
dx

t
t
= ±e = c ⇒ x = ct − 1.
3.
dt
= e . Separating variables gives

dx =

e
t
dt. Integrating we get,
x = e
t
+ c.
5.
dx
= tx + 4x + 3t + 12 = (x + 3) (t + 4) . Separating variables gives
dt
dx t
2

x+3
=

(t + 4) dt. Integrating we get, ln x + 3 =
2
+ 4t + c
1
2
| |
2
2
.
dx
⇒|x + 3| = e
c1
e
t
2
+4t
⇒ x = ce
t
+4t
− 3 where c = ±e
c1
7.
dt
= 3. Separating variables gives

dx =

3dt. Integrating we get,
x = 3t + c.
dx 5
9.
dt
= x . Separating variables gives

x
−5
dx =

dt. Integrating we get,

x
−4
= t + c. Using x(2) = 1 we get, −
1
= 2 + c ⇒ c = −
9
.
4 4 4
Substituting c we get x
−4
= 9 − 4t x = (9 − 4t)
−1/4
.
dx

11.
dt
= x
2
cos(t
2
). Separating variables gives x
−2
dx = cos(t
2
)dt. Using
2
definite integrals we get,

x
x
−2
dx =

t
cos(t )dt
1 0
2 2
⇒−
1
+ 1 =

0
t
cos(t )dt ⇒
1
= 1 −

0
t
cos(t )dt
x x
1
x =
2

1−

t
cos(t )dt
0
13.
dx
= t cos(x
−1/2
). Separating variables gives
dx
= tdt. Using
dt cos(x
−1/2
)
dx
definite integrals we get,

x
=

t
tdt
cos(x
−1/2
)
2 1
2


2
x
dx
=
t

1
=
1

t
2
− 1

.
cos(x
−1/2
) 2 2 2
du t
2
+1
15.
dt
=
u
2
+4
. Separating variables gives

u
2
+ 4

du =

t
2
+ 1

dt.
4 CHAPTER 1
3 3
Integrating we get,
u
3
+ 4u =
t
3
+ t + c. Using u(0) = 1 we get,
1 13
+ 4 = c c = . Substituting c we obtain the solution as
u
3
3
+ 12u =

t
3
+ 3t
3
+ 13.
dx 2 2
17.
dt
= t
2
x + x + t
2
+1 =

x
2
+ 1

t
2
+ 1

. Separating variables gives
dx
3

x
2
+1
=

t
2
+ 1

dt. Integrating we get, tan
−1
(x) =
t
3
+ t + c
3
x = tan

t
3
+ t + c

. Using x(0) = 2 we get, c = tan
−1
(2). Hence ⇒

t

the solution is x = tan
3
3
+ t + tan
−1
(2) .
dx dx
19.
dt
= x (x − 1) . Separating variables gives

x(x−1)
=

dt. Using
partial fractions to the integral on the left we get,
1 A B
x(x−1)
=
x
+
x−1
1 = A (x − 1) + Bx. Putting x = 0 and 1, ⇒
respectively, we have, A = −1 and B = 1. Hence
dx dx dx

x(x−1)
=

x−1


x
=

dt ⇒ ln |x − 1| −
c
ln |x| = t + c
x−1
ln

x−1

= t + c = ke
t
where k = ±e . Solving this
x x
⇒ ⇒
1
equation for x we obtain the general solution, x =
1−ke
t
. Since x = 0
and x = 1 both satisfy the differential equation they are also
solutions. The solution x = 1 corresponds to k = 0, however,
x = 0 is not included in the general solution for any finite k.
Hence the solutions are x =
1
and x = 0.
1−ke
t
dx
2
dx
21.
dt
= (x − 1) (x − 2) . Separating variables gives

(x−1)(x−2)
2
=

dt.
Using partial fractions to the integral on the left we get,
1 A B C
(x−1)(x−2)
2
=
x−1
+
x−2
+
(x−2)
2

2
1 = A (x − 2) + B (x − 1) (x − 2) + C (x − 1) . Putting x = 1
and 2, respectively, we have, A = 1 and C = 1. Then equating
the coefficients of x
2
we have A + B = 0 B = −1. Hence
dx dx dx dx


(x−1)(x−2)
2
=

x−1


x−2
+

(x−2)
2
=

dt. Integrating both
sides we obtain the solution, ln − ln
1
= t + c. |x − 1| |x − 2| −
x−2
Since x = 1 and x = 2 both satisfy the differential equation they
are also solutions. Hence the solutions are
ln − ln
1
= t + c, x = 1 and x = 2. |x − 1| |x − 2| −
x−2
23. (tx + x) dt + (tx + t) dx = 0. Dividing by tx we get,

1 +
1
t

dt +

1 +
x
1

dx = 0. Now integrating we have,
t + ln t + x + ln x = c ln tx | | | |
x
| | = −t − x +
c
c ⇒
tx = ±e
c
e
−t
e
−x
te
t
xe

= c where c = ±e .
25.

t
2
− 4

dz +

z
2

− 9

dt = 0. Dividing by

t
2
− 4

z
2
− 9

dz dt
we get,
(z
2
−9)
+
(t
2
−4)
= 0. Now we use the formula
du 1 u−a

u
2
−a
2
=
2a
ln

u+a

(from integration table) to integrate and
1/4
get
1
ln

+
1
ln

= c ln

1/6

= c
z−3 t−2 z−3 t−2
6 z+3 4 t+2 z+3 t+2

1/4

z−3

1/6

t−2

1/4

c

z−3

1/6

t−2 c

= e

= ±e

z+3 t+2 z+3 t+2
⇒ ⇒
6 4 4 2

z−3
1
c

t−2


1
c

t+2
1
z−3

t+2
3
z+3
= ±e
t+2
= ±e
t−2

z+3
= c
t−2
FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 5
where c = (±e
c
)
6
.
27. e
t+x
dt + e
2t−3x
dx = 0. Dividing by e
x
e
2t
we get,
e
−t
dt + e
−4x
dx = 0. Now integrating we have, −e
−t e
−4x
= c
4
e
−4x
= −4e
−t
− 4c ⇒−4x = ln (−4e
−t
− 4c)


1

x = −
4
ln (−4e
−t
+ k) where k = −4c.
29. z = at + bx + c. Differentiating with respect to t we get,
dz
= a + b
dx dz
= a + bf (z) which is a differential equation
dt dt dt

in z and t and can be solved by separation of variables as
dz

=

dt.
a+bf (z)
31.
dx
= (t + 4x − 1)
2
. Let z = t + 4x − 1. Then
dx
= z
2
= f(z)
dt dt
and
dz
= 1 + 4
dx
= 1 + 4z
2
. Separating the variables we get,
dz 1

1+4
dt
z
2
=

dt.
dt
We use the substitution u = 2z ⇒ dz =
2
du
du
to integrate the left hand side. This gives
1
2

1+u
2
=

dt ⇒
1
tan
−1
(2z) = t + c
1
tan
−1
(2t + 8x − 2) = t + c.
dx z
33.
2
= e
t+x
(t + x)
−1


1.
2
Let z = t + x. Then
dx
= e z
−1
dt dt
− 1
z z
and
dz
= 1 +
dx
= 1 + e z
−1
− 1 = e z
−1
. Separating the
dt dt
variables we get,

ze
−z
dz =

dt. We use integration by parts
to integrate the left hand side as u = z du = dz and dv = e
−z
dz.
v = −e
−z
. Then

ze
−z
dz =

udv =

uv −

vdu = −ze
−z

+

e
−z
dz = −ze
−z
− e
−z
. This gives −e
−z
(z + 1) = t + c.
Substituting z = t + x we get the solution as −e
−(t+x)
(t + x + 1)
= t + c e
−t−x
(t + x + 1) = −t + c. ⇒
1.4 DIRECTION FIELDS
1.
−2 0 2
0
2
x
t

6 CHAPTER 1
3.
−2 0
2
0
2
t
x
5.
−2
0 2
0
2
x
t
1.4.1 Existence and Uniqueness
1.
dx
=
x
= f (t, x) and f
x
=
1
are continuous for all (t, x) . So
dt 1+t
2
1+t
2
unique solution exists for all (t
0
, x
0
) .
dx 2

7/3
7 2

4/3
3.
dt
=

1 − t
2
− x = f (t, x) and f
x
=
3

1 − t
2
− x are
continuous for all (t, x) . So unique solution exists for all (t
0
, x
0
) .
dx
1/5
1
5.
dt
= (x + t) = f (t, x) is continuous for all (t, x) but f
x
=
5(x+t)
4/5
is not continuous for x + t = 0.So unique solution exists for all
(t
0
, x
0
) such that x
0
+ t
0
= 0.
dx cos t

− cos t
7.
dt
=
x−1
= f (t, x) and f
x
=
(x−1)
2
are not continuous at x = 1.
So unique solution exists for all (t
0
, x
0
) such that x
0
= 1.
dx
9. =

1 − t
2
− 2x
2

3/2
= f (t, x) and f
x
= −6x

1 − t

2
− 2x
2

1/2
dt
are continuous for 1 − t
2
− 2x
2
> 0. So unique solution exists for
all (t
0
, x
0
) such that t
2
0
+ 2x
0
2
< 1.
dx 1
11.
dt
=
t
1/3
= f (t, x) is not continuous at t = 0 although f
x
= 0 is
continuous everywhere. So unique solution exists for all (t
0
, x
0
)
such that t
0
= 0.
13. (a) Differentiating t
2
+ x
2
= c wrt(with respect to) t we get,
FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 7
2t + 2x
dx
= 0
dx t
. Hence t
2
+ x
2
= c defines
dt

dt
= −
x
a solution.
(b) graph
(c) At x
0
= 0, as f (t, x) = −
t
and f
x
=
t
are discontinuous at
x x
2
this point.
2 dx
15. (a) Differentiating t + x = c wrt t we get, 1 + 2x
dt
= 0.
Hence t + x
2
= c defines a solution.
(b) graph
(c) Here
dx 1
= f (t, x) and f
x
=
1
are discontinuous at
2
dt
= −
2x 2x
x
0
= 0. Hence the theorem fails to hold at this point.
17. (a) Differentiating x = c sin t wrt t we get,
dx x cos t
= c cos t = c cos t = cx = x cot t.
dt x c sin t
Hence x = c sin t defines a solution.
(b) graph
(c) Here
dx
= x
cos t
= f (t, x) and f
x
=
cos t
are discontinuous
dt sin t sin t
when sin t = 0 t = nπ for n = 0, ±1, ±2, ...Hence the ⇒
theorem fails to hold at the point t
0
= nπ for n = 0, ±1, ±2, ...
19. (a) Differentiating x =
1
wrt t we get,
dx 1 2
.
t+c dt
= −
(t+c)
2
= −x
Hence x =
1
defines a solution.
t+c
(b) graph
(c) Here
dx
= −x
2
= f (t, x) and f
x
= −2x are continuous
dt
everywhere. Hence there is NO point where the theorem
fails to holds.
21. (a) For x = 1, l.h.s. is
dx
= 0 and r.h.s. = (x − 1)
1/5
= 0.
dt
For x =

4
t + c

5/4
+ 1, l.h.s. is
dx
=

4
t + c

1/4
and
5 dt 5
r.h.s. = (x − 1)
1/5
=

4
t + c

5/4
+ 1 − 1

1/5
=

4
t + c

1/4
.
5 5
(b) By separating the variables we get,
dx
= dt which, on
(x−1)
1/5
integration, becomes x =

4
5
t + c

5/4
+ 1. Then using the
initial condition x
0
= 1 for any t
0
we get c = −
4
t
0
and thus
5
one solution is x =

4
5
t −
5
4
t
0

5/4
+ 1. Another solution is
clearly x = 1 because it satisfies the initial condition as
well as the differential equation. So there are at least two
solutions through the point (t
0
, x
0
) with x
0
= 1.
(c) Graph
(d) Although f (t, x) = (x − 1)
1/5
is continuous everywhere,
f
x
=
1
is not continuous at x
0
= 1. As a result,
(x−1)
4/5
uniqueness does not hold and two solutions in part (b)
is not a surprise.
1.5 EULER’S NUMERICAL METHOD (OPTIONAL)
1.
dx
= x − t = f (t, x) , t
0
= 0, x
0
= 1, h = 0.5. We use recursive formula,
dt
8 CHAPTER 1
x
n+1
= x
n
+ hf (t
n
, x
n
) = x
n
+ 0.5 (x
n
− t
n
), where t
n+1
= t
n
+ h
to approximate
x
1
= x
0
+ h (x
0
− t
0
) = 1 + 0.5(1 − 0) = 1.5 at t
1
= 0.5
x
2
= x
1
+ h (x
1
− t
1
) = 1.5 + 0.5(1.5 − 0.5) = 2 at t
2
= 1
x
3
= x
2
+ h (x
2
− t
2
) = 2 + 0.5(2 − 1) = 2.5 at t
3
= 1.5
x
4
= x
3
+ h (x
3
− t
3
) = 2.5 + 0.5(2.5 − 1.5) = 3 at t
4
= 2
So estimate for x(2) is x
4
= 3.
3.
dx
= −tx
2
= f (t, x) , t
0
= 0, x
0
= 1, h = 1. We use recursive formula,
dt
x
n+1
= x
n
+ hf (t
n
, x
n
) = x
n
− t
n
x
2
, where t
n+1
= t
n
+ h
n
to approximate
x
1
= x
0
− ht
0
x
0
2
= 1 − 0 = 1 at t
1
= 1
x
2
= x
1
− ht
1
x
2
1
= 1 − 1 = 0 at t
2
= 2
So estimate for x(2) is x
2
= 0.
5.
dx
= 2x − 4t = f (t, x) , t
0
= 0, x
0
= 1, h = 0.5. We use recursive
dt
formula,
x
n+1
= x
n
+ hf (t
n
, x
n
) = x
n
+ 0.5 (2x
n
− 4t
n
) = 2 (x
n
− t
n
) ,
where t
n+1
= t
n
+ h to approximate
x
1
= 2 (x
0
− t
0
) = 2(1 − 0) = 2 at t
1
= 0.5
x
2
= 2 (x
1
− t
1
) = 2(2 − 0.5) = 3 at t
2
= 1
x
3
= 2 (x
2
− t
2
) = 2(3 − 1) = 4 at t
3
= 1.5
x
4
= 2 (x
3
− t
3
) = 2(4 − 1.5) = 5 at t
4
= 2
So estimate for x(2) is x
4
= 5.
7.
dx
= sin x = f (t, x) , t
0
= 0, x
0
= 0, h = 0.5. We use recursive
dt
formula,
x
n+1
= x
n
+ hf (t
n
, x
n
) = x
n
+ 0.5 (sin x
n
) , where t
n+1
= t
n
+ h
to approximate
x
1
= x
0
+ 0.5 sin x
0
= 0 at t
1
= 0.5
x
2
= x
1
+ 0.5 sin x
1
= 0 at t
2
= 1
Similarly, x
i
= 0 at t
i
for all i = 0, 1, ..., 8.
So estimate for x(4) is x
8
= 0.
9. (a)
dx
= −20x = f (t, x) , t
0
= 0, x
0
= 1, h = 0.2.
dt
We use recursive formula,
x
n+1
= x
n
+ hf (t
n
, x
n
) = x
n
+ 0.2 (−20x
n
) = −3x
n
.
Here x
n
= (−3)
n
at t
n
= 0.2n, n = 0, 1, 2, ...
10
So estimate for x(2) is x
10
= (−3) = 59049.
(b) x
n
oscillates wildly as n →∞. x(2) = e
−40
= 4.248 × 10
−18
.
So x
10
= 59049 is not a very good approximation.
11. (a)
dx
= −20x = f (t, x) , t
0
= 0, x
0
= 1, h = 0.01.
dt
We use recursive formula,
x
n+1
= x
n
+ hf (t
n
, x
n
) = x
n
+ 0.01 (−20x
n
) = 0.8x
n
.
Here x
n
= (0.8)
n
at t
n
= 0.01n, n = 0, 1, 2, ...
200
So estimate for x(2) is x
200
= (0.8) = 4.1495 × 10
−20
.
(b) In this case, x
n
0 as n →∞, so the numerical solution behaves →
like the actual solution x = e
−20t
and the statement
x
200
≈ x(2) = e
−40
= 4.248 × 10
−18
is not too bad.
9 FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
13.
dx
= x
2
= f (t, x) , t
0
= 0, x
0
= 1, h = 0.2.
dt
We use recursive formula,
x
n+1
= x
n
+ hf (t
n
, x
n
) = x
n
+ 0.2x
n
2
, where t
n+1
= t
n
+ h
to approximate
x
1
= x
0
+ 0.2x
0
2
= 1 + 0.2 = 1.2 at t
1
= 0.2
x
2
= x
1
+ 0.2x
1
2
= 1.2 + 0.288 = 1.488 at t
2
= 0.4
x
3
= x
2
+ 0.2x
2
2
= 1.488 + 0.443 = 1.9308 at t
3
= 0.6
x
4
= x
3
+ 0.2x
2
3
= 1.9308 + 0.7456 = 2.6764 at t
4
= 0.8
x
5
= x
4
+ 0.2x
4
2
= 2.6764 + 1.4326 = 4.109 at t
5
= 1
So estimate for x(1) is x
5
= 4.109.
For h = 0.1 use the same formula and procedure as above.
There are 11 points this time, that is 10 steps after initial step
and the estimates for x(1) is x
10
= 6.1289.
For h = 0.01 the estimates for x(1) is 30.3897 using software
and for h = 0.001 the estimates for x(1) is 193.1368 using
software.
15.
dx
= 1 − 2x + x
2
= f (t, x) , t
0
= 0, x
0
= −5, h = 0.2.
dt
We use recursive formula,
x
n+1
= x
n
+ hf (t
n
, x
n
) = x
n
+ 0.2

1 − 2x
n
+ x
2

n
2
= x
n
+ 0.2 (x
n
− 1) , where t
n+1
= t
n
+ h to approximate
2
x
1
= x
0
+ 0.2 (x
0
− 1) = −5 + 7.2 = 2.2 at t
1
= 0.2
2
x
2
= x
1
+ 0.2 (x
1
− 1) = 2.488 at t
2
= 0.4
2
x
3
= x
2
+ 0.2 (x
2
− 1) = 2.931 at t
3
= 0.6
x
4
= x
3
+ 0.
2
2 (x
3
− 1) = 3.676 at t
4
= 0.8
x
5
= x
4
+ 0.
2
2 (x
4
− 1) = 5.109 at t
5
= 1
2
x
6
= x
5
+ 0.2 (x
5
− 1) = 8.486 at t
6
= 1.2
x
7
= x
6
+ 0.
2
2 (x
6
− 1) = 19.694 at t
7
= 1.4
x
8
= x
7
+ 0.
2
2 (x
7
− 1) = 89.591 at t
8
= 1.6
2
x
9
= x
8
+ 0.2 (x
8
− 1) = 1659.265 at t
9
= 1.8
2
x
10
= x
9
+ 0.2 (x
9
− 1) = 551627.57 at t
10
= 2
So estimate for x(2) is x
10
= 551627.57 and it seems to tend
to infinity.
17.
dx
= 1 − 2x + x
2
= f (t, x) , t
0
= 0, x
0
= −5, h = 0.1.
dt
We use recursive formula,
x
n+1
= x
n
+ hf (t
n
, x
n
) = x
n
+ 0.1

1 −
2
2x
n
+ x
n

= x
n
+ 0.1 (x
n
− 1)
2
, where t
n+1
= t
n
+ h to approximate
x
1
= x
0
+ 0.1 (x
0
− 1)
2
= −1.4 at t
1
= 0.1
2
x
2
= x
1
+ 0.1 (x
1
− 1) = −0.824 at t
2
= 0.2
x
3
= x
2
+ 0.1 (x
2
2
− 1) = −0.4913 at t
3
= 0.3
2
x
4
= x
3
+ 0.1 (x
3
− 1) = −0.2689 at t
4
= 0.4
x
5
= x
4
+ 0.1 (x
4
− 1)
2
= −0.1079 at t
5
= 0.5
x
6
= x
5
+ 0.1 (x
5
− 1)
2
= 0.0148 at t
6
= 0.6
x
7
= x
6
+ 0.1 (x
6
− 1)
2
= 0.1119 at t
7
= 0.7
x
8
= x
7
+ 0.1 (x
7
− 1)
2
= 0.1908 at t
8
= 0.8



10 CHAPTER 1
2
x
9
= x
8
+ 0.1 (x
8
− 1) = 0.2563 at t
9
= 0.9
x
10
= x
9
+ 0.1 (x
9
− 1)
2
= 0.3116 at t
10
= 1
x
11
= x
10
+ 0.1 (x
10
− 1)
2
= 0.359 at t
11
= 1.1
2
x
12
= x
11
+ 0.1 (x
11
− 1) = 0.4 at t
12
= 1.2
x
13
= x
12
+ 0.1 (x
1
2
2
− 1) = 0.436 at t
13
= 1.3
x
14
= x
13
+ 0.1 (x
13
− 1)
2
= 0.4678 at t
14
= 1.4
x
15
= x
14
+ 0.1 (x
14
− 1)
2
= 0.4961 at t
15
= 1.5
2
x
16
= x
15
+ 0.1 (x
15
− 1) = 0.5215 at t
16
= 1.6
x
17
= x
16
+ 0.1 (x
16
− 1)
2
= 0.5444 at t
17
= 1.7
2
x
18
= x
17
+ 0.1 (x
17
− 1) = 0.5652 at t
18
= 1.8
x
19
= x
18
+ 0.1 (x
18
− 1)
2
= 0.5841 at t
19
= 1.9
2
x
20
= x
19
+ 0.1 (x
19
− 1) = 0.6014 at t
20
= 2
So estimate for x(2) is x
20
= 0.6014.
1.6 FIRST-ORDER LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
1.6.1 Form of the General Solution
There are no exercises in this subsection.
1.6.2 Solutions of Homogeneous First-Order Linear Differential
Equations
dx dx
1.
dt
= 3x. By separation we obtain

x
= 3

dt. Integration yields
ln x = 3t + c
1
x = e
c1
e
3t
x = ce
3t
, where c = ±e
c1
.
dx
| | ⇒| | ⇒
dx
3.
dt
= 2tx. By separation we obtain

x
=

2tdt. Integration yields
ln |x| = t
2
+ c
1
⇒|x| = e
c1
e
t
2
⇒ x = ce
t
2
, where c = ±e
c1
.
dx dx 1

dt
5. 2t
dt
+ x = 0. By separation we obtain

x
= −
2
. Integration
1
yields ln |x| = − ln |t| + c
1
⇒ ln |x| + ln

t
1/2

= c
1

t
ln

xt
1/2

= c
1
c1 c1 c1

xt
1/2

= e
2
xt
1/2
= ±e x = ct
−1/2
where c = ±e .
dx

7.

+ (cos t) x = 0

. By separation we obtain

dx
= −

cos tdt.
dt x
Integration yields ln |x| = − sin t + c
1
⇒|x| = e
c1
e
− sin t
x = ce
− sin t
, where c = ±e
c1
.
dx
9.

+

cos(t
−1/2
)

x = 0. By separation we obtain
dx

dt
= −

cos(t

1
2
)dt. Definite integration yields
t t
ln
x
|x| = −

0
cos(s

1 1
2
)ds + c
1
⇒|x| = e
c1
exp



0
cos(s

2
)ds

t
1
⇒ x = c exp − cos(s

2
)ds , where c = ±e
c1
.
0
dx dx
11. = −5x. By separation we obtain

= −5

dt. Integration
dt x
yields ln |x| = −5t + c
1
⇒ x = ±e
c1
e
−5t
= ce
−5t
. Using the initial
condition x(0) = 9 we get, c = 9 and the solution is x = 9e
−5t
.
dx dx
13.
dt
= 9x. By separation we obtain

x
= 9

dt. Integration
11 FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
yields ln x = 9t + c
1
c1
e
9t
= ce
9t
. Using the initial | | ⇒ x = ±e
27
condition x(3) = 7 we get, 7 = ce c = 7e
−27
and the
solution is x = 7e
9t−27
= 7e
9(t−3)
.

dx sin t dx sin t
15.
dt
+
4+e
t
x = 0. By separation we obtain

x
= −

4+e
t
dt.
sin s
Definite integration yields ln |x| = −

5
t
4+e
s
ds + c
1


sin s

x = c exp −

5
t
4+e
s
ds . Using the initial condition x(5) = 10

sin s

we get, c = 10 and the solution is x = 10 exp −

5
t
4+e
s
ds .
dx
+ t
−2 dx 1
17.
dt
x = 0. By separation we obtain

x
= −

t
2
dt.
Integration yields ln |x| =
1
t
+ c
1
⇒ x = ±e
c1
e
1/t
= ce
1/t
.
Using the initial condition x(1) = 3 we get, 3 = ce
c = 3e
−1
and the solution is x = 3e
(
1
t
−1)
. ⇒
1.6.3 Integrating Factors for First-Order Linear Differential Equa-
tions
dx dx e
t
19. t
dt
+ x = e
t
dt
+
x
t
=
t
, p(t) =
1
t
. The integrating factor is ⇒
e

p(t)dt
= e
ln|t|
= t. Multiplying by integrating factor we get
dx t d t t
t
dt
+ x = e
dt
(xt) = e . Integration yields xt = e + c. ⇒
Using the initial condition x(1) = 1 we get, 1 = e + c
c = 1 − e. Hence the solution is xt = e
t
+ 1 − e x =
e
t
+1−e
.
dx t t
21.

= 3e . By integration we obtain

dx = 3

e
t
dt

x = 3e
t
+ c.
dx 2t 1

2t
23.

dt
t
2
+ 1

dx
+ 2tx = 1 + x = , p(t) = .
dt

dt (t
2
+1)

(t
2
+1) (t
2
+1)
2t
dt

p(t)dt (t
2
+1)
The integrating factor e = e . Using the substitution
2t
u = t
2
+ 1 we have

(t
2
+1)
dt = ln

t
2
+ 1

and then the integrating
ln t
2
+1
factor is e
| |
=

t
2
+ 1

= t
2
+ 1 (since positive for real t).
Multiplying by integrating factor we get
d

t
2
+ 1

dx
+ 2tx = 1

x

t
2
+ 1

= 1. Integration yields
x

t
2
+ 1

dt
= t + c x

=
dt
t
+
c
.
dx

t
2
+1 t
2
+1

p(t)dt 4t
25.
dt
+ 4x = t, p(t) = 4. The integrating factor is e = e .
Multiplying by integrating factor we get
4t dx 4t d
e
dt
+ 4e x = te
4t
dt

xe
4t

= te
4t
. Integration yields
4t

xe =

te
4t
dt. We use integration by parts on the r.h.s. as
u = t du = dt and dv = e
4t
dt v =
1
e
4t
. Then
r.h.s.=


udv = uv −

vdu =
1
te

4t 1
4
e
4t
dt =
1
te
4t 1
e
4t
.
4 4 4 16
4t 1 1 4t 1

1

So xe =
4
te
4t

16
e + c ⇒ x =
4
t −
16
+ ce
−4t
1
.
Using the initial condition x(0) = 0 we have, c =
16
.
1 1 1
Hence the solution is x =
4
t −
16
+
16
e
−4t
.
27. t
dx
= 2x
dx 2
x = 0, p(t) = −
2
. The integrating factor is
e
dt
= e

dt
2

t
= t
−2
t
.

p(t)dt
⇒ −
1
dt
= e
−2 ln t
t
Multiplying by integrating factor we get
12 CHAPTER 1
t
−2 dx
dt
x

2
t
3
x = 0 ⇒
d
dt

x
t
2

= 0. Integration yields
= c. Using the initial condition x(1) = 4 we have, c = 4.
t
2
Hence the solution is x = 4t
2
. This can also be done by
separation.
29. t
2 dx
+ tx = 1
dx
+
1
x = t
−2
, p(t) =
1
. The integrating
dt dt t t


p(t)dt

1
dt ln t
factor is e = t. = e
t
= e
Multiplying by integrating factor we get
t
dx
+ x =
1 d
(xt) =
1
. Integration yields
xt
dt
= ln t +
t
c

dt
x = t
−1
ln
t
t + ct
−1
.
31. t
dx
+ 3x = t

dx
+
3
x = 1, p(t) =
3
. The integrating
dt

dt
3
t

t

p(t)dt
1
dt 3 ln t
= t
3
factor is e = e
t
= e .
Multiplying by integrating factor we get
t
3 dx
+ 3t
2
x = t
3 d

t
3
x

= t
3
. Integration yields
dt dt
4

t
3
x =
t
4
+ c x =
1
4
t + ct
−3
.
One solution,

1
4
t, is continuous at (0, 0) . All other solutions
approaches ±∞ as t 0.
dx dx 1

1
33. t − x = t

2
p(t)dt
=

e

x

= t, p(t) = − . The integrating
1
t
dt dt

t t
dt
= e
− ln t
= t
−1
factor is e .
Multiplying by integrating factor we get
t
−1 dx
+ t
−2
x = 1
d

t
−1
x

= 1. Integration yields
dt dt

t
−1
x = t + c x = t
2
+ ct. ⇒
All solutions are continuous and pass through (0, 0) .
x
t
dx
35.
dt
+ 2tx = 1, p(t) = 2t. The integrating factor is
2

p(t)dt

2tdt t
e = e = e . Multiplying by integrating factor
2 2 2 2
t
2
dx t d

t

t
we get e
dt
+ 2te
t
x = e
dt
e x = e . Definite ⇒
2 2 2 2 2
t s s
integration yields e x =

t
e ds + c x = e
−t

t
e ds + ce
−t
.
0

0
37.
dx
+ t
2
x = t, p(t) = t
2
. The integrating factor is
dt
1 3

p(t)dt t
3
e = e . Multiplying by integrating factor we get
13 FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
3 3 3 3
e
1
t
3

dx
+ t
2
x

= te
1
t
3
d

e
1
t
3
x

= te
1
t
3
.
dt dt

3 3
Definite integration yields e
1
t
3
x =

t
se
s
3
ds + c
0
s
3 3 3
x = e
−t
3
t
se
3
ds + ce
−t
3
. ⇒
0
39.
dx
+ e
t
x = 3, p(t) = e
t
. The integrating factor is
dt
t

p(t)dt e
e = e . Multiplying by integrating factor we get
t t t t
e
e

dx
+ e
t
x

= 3e
e d

e
e
x

= 3e
e
.
dt dt

t s
e e
Definite integration yields e x = 3

t
e ds + c
0
t s t
e
x = 3e
−e

t
e ds + ce
−e
. ⇒
0
41.
dx
+ x =
1
, x(2) = 1, p(t) = 1. The integrating factor is
dt t+1

p(t)dt t
e = e . Multiplying by integrating factor we get
t t
e
t

dx
+ x

=
e d
(e
t
x) =
e
. Definite integration yields
dt t+1 dt t+1

s
t e
e x =

t
s+1
ds + c. Using initial condition we get,
2
e
s
2−t
c = e
2
and the solution is x = e
−t

t
s+1
ds + e .
2
43. 3t
dx
− x = t sin t
dx 1
x =
1
sin t, x(5) = 0, p(t) = −
1
.
dt dt 3t 3 3t
⇒ −
1
The integrating factor is e

p(t)dt
= e

3
ln t
= t
−1/3
. Multiplying
1 1
by integrating factor we get t
−1/3

dx
− x

= t
−1/3
sin t
dt 3t 3
d

t
−1/3
x

=
1
t
−1/3
sin t. Definite integration yields ⇒
dt
t
3
1
t
−1/3
x =

3
s
−1/3
sin sds + c. Using initial condition we get,
5
1
t
1/3
c = 0 and the solution is x =
3

t
s
−1/3
sin sds.
5
dx t dx 1 1 e
t
1
45. 7t
dt
+ x = e
dt
+
7t
x =
7 t
, p(t) =
7t
. The integrating ⇒
1
factor is e

p(t)dt
= e
7
ln t
= t
1/7
. Multiplying by integrating factor
1 e
t
d e
t
we get t
1/7

dx
+ x

=

t
1/7
x

=
7t
6/7
. Definite
dt 7t 7t
6/7

dt
1
integration yields t
1/7
x =

t
7
s
−6/7
e
s
ds + c
0

x =
7
1
t
−1/7

t
s
−6/7
e
s
ds + ct
−1/7
.
0
dx 1 dt dt
47. = = x + t
dx
− t = x, p(x) = −1. The integrating
dt x+t dx
⇒ ⇒
factor e

p(x)dx
= e
−x
. Multiplying by integrating factor we get
e
−x

dt d
dx
− t

= xe
−x

dx
(te
−x
) = xe
−x
. Integration yields
te
−x
=

xe
−x
dx + c. We use integration by parts on the r.h.s. as
u = x du = dx and dv = e
−x
dx v = −e
−x
. Then ⇒ ⇒
r.h.s.=

udv = uv −

vdu = −xe
−x
+

e
−x
dx = −xe
−x
− e
−x
.
So te
−x
= −xe
−x
− e
−x
+ c t = −x − 1 + ce
x
. ⇒
14 CHAPTER 1
49. Let u = e

p(t)dt
be the integrating factor of
dx
+ p(t)x = f(t). If we
dt
introduce an arbitrary constant c
1
while we compute

p(t)dt then
new integrating factor is u
1
= e

p(t)dt+c1
= e
c1
e

p(t)dt
= c
2
e

p(t)dt
where c
2
= e
c1
> 0. Multiplying the differential equation by this new
integrating factor we get, u
1

dx
+ p(t)x

= u
1
f(t)
d
dt

(u
1
x) = u
1
f(t) which, on integration, becomes
u
dt
1
x =

u
1
f(t)dt + c
3
c
2
e

p(t)dt
x = c
2

e

p(t)dt
f(t)dt + c
3
.

p(t)dt

Dividing by c
2
e we get x = e


p(t)dt

e

p(t)dt
f(t)dt
+
c
c2
3
e


p(t)dt
. Now writing
c
c
3
2
= c we have the same general solution
x = e


p(t)dt

f(t)e

p(t)dt
dt + ce


p(t)dt
as (23) .
51. Let u = e

p(t)dt
be the integrating factor of
dx
+ p(t)x = f(t). So
d
(ux) = u
dx
+ x
du
= u
dx
+ xp(t)u = u

dx
dt
+ xp(t)

. Now
dt dt dt dt dt
d
since k is a constant (kux) = k
d
(ux) = ku

dx
+ xp(t)

dt dt dt
which implies that ku is also an integrating factor of (19) as the
product
d
(kux) of l.h.s. of (19) and ku is easily integrable with
dt
respect to t.
53.
dx
+

sin t

x = q(t)
dx
+ p(t)x = q(t) where p(t) =
sin t
.
dt t dt t


p(t)dt
Multiplying this equation by the integrating factor e we get
e

p(t)dt

dx
+ p(t)x

= q(t)e

p(t)dt
d

xe

dt
p(t)dt

= q(t)e

p(t)dt
. Definite integral yields ⇒
dt
e

p(t)dt
x(t) = c +

t
q

t

e

p(t)dt
dt. Particular solution with
0
x
p
(0) = 0 gives c = 0. Then x
p
= e


p(t)dt

t
q

t

e

p(t)dt
dt
0

x
p
=

t
e

p(t)dt
e


p(t)dt
q

t

dt =

t
G

t, t

q

t

dt where
0 0
G

t, t

= e

p(t)dt
e


p(t)dt
= e

p(t)dt−

p(t)dt
.
Using definite integrals yields

t t

t

G

t, t

= exp

p(s)ds −

p(s)ds = exp

p(s)ds
0 0 t

t

t

sin s sin s
= exp

s
ds = exp −

s
ds .
t
t
55.
dx
+ p(t)x = f(t). From the change of variable x = u(t)x
1
(t)
dt
we have
dx
=
du
x
1
+ u
dx1
. But since x
1
= e


p(t)dt
,
dt dt dt
dx1
= −x
1
p(t). Thus
dx
=
du
x
1
− ux
1
p. Plugging in the
dt dt dt
original equation we get,
du
x
1
− ux
1
p + ux
1
p = f(t)
dt

du
e


p(t)dt
= f(t)
du
= e

p(t)dt
f(t). Integrating we get,
dt dt
u =

f(t)e

p(t)dt
dt.

Then x = e


p(t)dt

f(t)e

p(t)dt
dt.
Comparison: From the original equation, the integrating factor is
d

p(t)dt

p(t)dt
e

p(t)dt
and so
dt
e x = f(t)e . Integrating we get,
FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 15
e

p(t)dt
x =

f(t)e

p(t)dt
dt x = e


p(t)dt

f(t)e

p(t)dt
dt. ⇒
1.7 LINEAR FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
WITH CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS AND CONSTANT INPUT
dx rt rt
1.
dt
− 8x = 0. Substituting x = e we get, re − 8e
rt
= 0. Dividing
by e
rt
= 0, we have, r = 8. Thus the general solution is x = ce
8t
.
dx

rt rt rt
3. = −2x. Substituting x = e we get, re = −2e . Dividing
dt
by e
rt
= 0, we have, r = −2. Thus the general solution is x = ce
−2t
.
dx

rt
5.
dt
+ 7x = 0. Substituting x = e we get, re
rt
+ 7e
rt
= 0. Dividing
by e
rt
= 0, we have, r = −7. Thus the general solution is x = ce
−7t
.
dx

rt rt
7.
dt
+ x = 0. Substituting x = e we get, re + e
rt
= 0. Dividing
by e
rt
= 0, we have, r = −1. Thus the general solution is x = ce
−t
.
dx

rt rt
9.
dt
= 5x. Substituting x = e we get, re
rt
= 5e . Dividing
by e
rt
= 0, we have, r = 5. Thus the general solution is x = ce
5t
.
dx

8
11.
dt
+ 3x = 8. Substituting x
p
= A we get, 3A = 8 A =
3
. Thus
8

rt
x
p
=
3
. Let the associated homogeneous solution be x
1
= e .
Then re
rt
+ 3e
rt
= 0. Dividing by
8
e
rt
= 0 , we have, r = −3.
Thus the general solution is x =
3
+ ce
−3t
.
13.
dx
− 4x = −9. Substituting x
p
= A we get, −4A = −9 A =
9
.
dt 4
9

rt
Thus x
p
=
4
. Let the associated homogeneous solution be x
1
= e .
Then re
rt
− 4e
rt
= 0. Dividing by e
rt
= 0, we have, r = 4.
9

4t
Thus the general solution is x =
4
+ ce .
15.
dx 4
x = 3. Substituting x
p
= A we get, −
4
A = 3
15
.
dt

5 5
⇒ A = −
4
Thus x
p
15
. Let the associated homogeneous solution be x
1
= e
rt
. = −
4
Then re
rt

4
e
rt
= 0. Dividing by e
15
rt
= 0 ,
t
we have, r =
4
.
5 5
4
5
Thus the general solution is x = −
dx 2 4
+ ce .
4
2 4
17.
dt
+
3
x = −
3
. Substituting x
p
= A we get,
Thus x
p
A = − A = −2.
3 3

rt
2
= −2. Let the associated homogeneous solution be x
1
Then re
rt
+
3
2
e
rt
= 0. Dividing by e
rt
= 0 , we have, r = −
2
t
= e .
.
3
Thus the general solution is x = −2 + ce

dx
3
.
19. = 2x + 18. Substituting x
p
= A we get, 2A + 18 = 0
dt
⇒ A = −9.
rt
= −9. Let the associated homogeneous solution be x
1
Then re
rt
= 2e
rt
. Dividing by e
rt
= 0, we have, r = 2.
2t
Thus the general solution is x = −9 + ce .
dx 17 17 17
21.
dt
= −x −
3
. Substituting x
p
= A we get, −A −
3
= 0 A = −
3
.
17

rt
Thus x
p
= −
3
. Let the associated homogeneous solution be x
1
= e .
Then re
rt
= −e
rt
. Dividing by e
rt
= 0 , we have, r = −1.
Thus the general solution is x = −
17
+ ce
−t
.
3
dx
23.
dt
+ 7x = 8e
−4t
. Substituting x
p
= Ae
−4t
we get,
−4Ae
−4t
+ 7Ae
−4t
= 8e
−4t
.
Dividing by e
−4t
= 0, we have, ⇒−4A + 7A = 8 A =
3
8
. Thus
8
e
−4t

rt
x
p
=
3
. Let the associated homogeneous solution be x
1
= e .
Thus x
p
= e .
16
25.
27.
29.
31.
33.
35.
37.
39.
41.
CHAPTER 1
Then re
rt
+ 7e
rt
= 0. Dividing by e
rt
= 0, we have, r = −7.
Thus the general solution is x =
8
3
e
−4t

+ ce
−7t
.
dx
− 2x = −3e
−5t
. Substituting x
p
= Ae
−5t
we get,
dt
−5Ae
−5t
− 2Ae
−5t
= −3e
−5t
.
Dividing by e
−5t
= 0, we have, ⇒−5A − 2A = −3 A =
7
3
. Thus
3

rt
x
p
=
7
e
−5t
. Let the associated homogeneous solution be x
1
= e .
Then re
rt
− 2e
rt
= 0. Dividing by e
rt
= 0 , we have, r = 2.
Thus the general solution is x =
3
7
e
−5t
+ ce
2t
.
dx
+4x = 3e
4t
. Substituting x
p
= Ae
4t
we get, 4Ae
4t
+ 4Ae
4t
= 3e
4t
.
dt
Dividing by e
4t
= 0, we have, 4A + 4A = 3 A =
8
3
. Thus
3 4t
⇒ ⇒
rt
x
p
=
8
e . Let the associated homogeneous solution be x
1
= e .
Then re
rt
+ 4e
rt
= 0. Dividing by
3
e
rt
= 0 , we have, r = −4.
Thus the general solution is x =
8
e
4t
+ ce
−4t
.
dx
+ 3x = 3e
−2t
. Substituting x
p
= Ae
−2t
we get,
dt
−2Ae
−2t
+ 3Ae
−2t
= e
−2t
.
Dividing by e
−2t
= 0, we have, ⇒−2A + 3A = 1 A = 1. Thus
= e
−2t

rt
x
p
. Let the associated homogeneous solution be x
1
= e .
Then re
rt
+ 3e
rt
= 0. Dividing by e
rt
= 0 , we have, r = −3.
Thus the general solution is x = e
−2t
+ ce
−3t
.
dx
+7x = 3+5t. Substituting x
p
= At+B we get, A+7At+7B = 3+5t.
dt
Equating the coefficients of t and 1 we have 7A = 5 A =
5
7
and
5 16 16

A + 7B = 3 7B = 3 − = B =
5

16
7 7

49
Thus x
p
=
7
t +
49
.
dx
+2x = 14t. Substituting x
p
= At + B we get, A +2At +2B = 14t.
dt
Equating the coefficients of t and 1 we have 2A = 14 A = 7 and
7

A + 2B = 0 2B = −A = −7 B = −
2
. ⇒
7

Thus x
p
= 7t −
2
.
dx
+ x = 2t
2
+ 5t − 8. Substituting x
p
= At
2
+ Bt + C we get,
dt
2At + B + At
2
+ Bt + C = 2t
2
+ 5t − 8.
Equating the coefficients of t
2
, t and 1 we have A = 2,
2A+B = 5 B = 5−2A = 1, and B +C = −8 C = −8−B = −9 ⇒ ⇒
Thus x
p
= 2t
2
+ t − 9.
dx
+ 3x = t
3
. Substituting x
p
= At
3
+ Bt
2
+ Ct + D we get,
dt
3At
2
+ 2Bt + C + 3At
3
+ 3Bt
2
+ 3Ct + 3D = t
3
.
Equating the coefficients of t
3
, t
2
, t and 1 we have 3A = 1 A =
1
,
1 2

2
3
3A + 3B = 0 B = −A = −
3
, 2B + 3C = 0 C = −
3
B =
9
, ⇒
1 2

C + 3D = 0 D = −
3
C = −
27
1

1 2 2
Thus x
p
= t
3
t
2
+
dx
3

3 9
t −
27
.
+ 5x = t. Substituting x
p
= At + B we get, A + 5B + 5At = t.
dt
Equating the coefficients of t and 1 we have 5A = 1 A =
1
and
1 1

5
A + 5B = 0 ⇒ B = −
5
A = −
25
.
1 1
Thus x
p
=
5
t −
25
.
dx
+ 2x = 3 sin 6t. Substituting x
p
= A sin 6t + B cos 6t we get,
dt
6A cos 6t − 6B sin 6t + 2A sin 6t + 2B cos 6t = 3 sin 6t.
Equating the coefficients of cos 6t and sin 6t we have
FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 17
cos 6t : 6A + 2B = 0
sin 6t : 2A − 6B = 3
Solving these equations for A and B (multiplying first equation by 3
and adding with the second) we get A =
3
and B
9
20
= −
20
.
Thus x
p
=
3
sin 6t −
9
cos 6t.
20 20
43.
dx
− 5x = 2 cos t. Substituting x
p
= A cos t + B sin t we get,
dt
−A sin t + B cos t − 5A cos t − 5B sin t = 2 cos t.
Equating the coefficients of sin t and cos t we have
sin t : −A − 5B = 0
cos t : −5A + B = 2
Solving these equations for A and B (multiplying second equation
by 5 and adding with the first) we get A = −
5
and B =
1
.
13 13
Thus x
p
=
1
sin t −
5
cos t.
13 13
45.
dx
+ 4x = 3 cos 2t + 5 sin 2t. Substituting x
p
= A cos 2t + B sin 2t
dt
we get, −2A sin 2t + 2B cos 2t + 4A cos 2t + 4B sin 2t
= 3 cos 2t + 5 sin 2t.
Equating the coefficients of sin 2t and cos 2t we have
sin 2t : −2A + 4B = 5
cos 2t : 4A + 2B = 3
Solving these equations for A and B (multiplying first equation by 2
13 1
and adding with the second) we get B =
10
and A =
10
.
Thus x
p
=
1
cos 2t +
13
sin 2t.
10 10
dx
47.
dt
+ 6x = cos t + sin 5t. Substituting x
p
= A cos t + B sin t + C sin 5t
+D cos 5t we get, −A sin t + B cos t + 5C cos 5t − 5D sin 5t + 6A cos t
+6B sin t + 6C sin 5t + 6D cos 5t = cos t + sin 5t.
Equating the coefficients we have
cos t : 6A + B = 1
sin t : −A + 6B = 0
cos 5t : 5C + 6D = 0
sin 5t : 6C − 5D = 1
Solving the first pair of equations for A and B (multiplying second
1 6
equation by 6 and adding with the first) we get B =
37
and A =
37
.
Similarly, to solve the second pair of equations for C and D,
6
multiply the first by 5 and the second by 6 and add to get C =
61
and D = −
5
.
61
Thus x
p
=
6
cos t +
1
sin t +
6
sin 5t −
5
cos 5t.
37 37 61 61
49.
dx
− 9x = 5 + 2 sin 3t. Substituting x
p
= A + B sin 3t + C cos 3t
dt
we get, 3B cos 3t − 3C sin 3t − 9A − 9B sin 3t − 9C cos 3t = 5+2 sin 3t.
Equating the coefficients we have
Non-t : −9A = 5 A = −
9
5

cos 3t : 3B − 9C = 0
sin 3t : 9B − 3C = 2
Solving last pair of equations for B and C (multiplying the first
equation by 3 and adding with the second) we get
1 1 5 1 1
C = −
15
and B = −
5
. Thus x
p
= −
9

5
sin 3t −
15
cos 3t.
18
51.
53.
55.
57.
59.
61.
CHAPTER 1
dx
+ x = 2e
3t
+ sin t. Substituting x
p
= Ae
3t
+ B sin t + C cos t
dt
we get, 3Ae
3t
+ B cos t − C sin t +Ae
3t
+B sin t + C cos t = 2e
3t
+sin t.
Equating the coefficients we have
e
3t
: 3A + A = 2 A =
1

2
cos t : B + C = 0
sin t : B − C = 1
Solving last pair of equations for B and C (adding ) we get
1 1 1
B =
2
and C = −B = −
2
.Thus x
p
=
2

e
3t
+ sin t − cos t

.
dx
+ 3x = 8e
−3t
. Substituting x
p
= Ae
−3t
we get,
dt
−3Ae
−3t
+ 3Ae
−3t
= 8e
−3t
⇒ 8e
−3t
= 0 which is impossible
becasue e
−3t
= 0 , ∀t. So a simple exponential, Ae
−3t
, does not
work as a particular solution becasue e
−3t
is a solution of the
associated homogeneous equation.
Solve by the integrating factor method: The integrating factor

3dt 3t
is e = e . Multiplying the equation by the integrating factor
3t

dx d
we get e
dt
+ 3x

= 8
dt

xe
3t

= 8. Integrating we have ⇒
xe
3t
= 8t + c x = 8te
−3t
+ ce
−3t
. ⇒
Conjecture:
Notice that the particular solution part of this general solution is a
constant multiple of t times the exponential. This indicates that we
may find a particular solution by substituting Ate
−3t
, when simple
exponential forcing e
−3t
is a solution of the associated
homogeneous equation.
dx
− 2x = 7e
2t
. Substituting x
p
= Ae
2t
we get,
dt
2Ae
2t
− 2Ae
2t
= 7e
2t
7e
2t
= 0 which is impossible
2t

becasue e = 0 , ∀t. So a simple exponential, Ae
2t
, does not
work as a particular solution becasue e
2t
is a solution of the
associated homogeneous equation.
Substituting x = ve
2t
we get,
dv
e
2t
+ 2ve
2t
− 2ve
2t
= 7e
2t
dt
Dividing by e
2t
= 0 we have
dv
= 7 v = 7t + c. Thus
dt

the general solution is x = 7te
2t
+ ce
2t
.
We can make the same conjecture as in #53.
dx t rt
− x = 4e . Let x
1
= e be the solution of the associated
dt
homogeneous equation. On substitution we get, re
rt
− e
rt
= 0
r = 1. So x
1
= c
1
e
t
(similar to the forcing function). ⇒
So let x
p
= Ate
t
. Substituting this in the equation we get,
Ae
t
+ Ate
t
− Ate
t
= 4e
t
t
⇒ A = 4. Thus the general
solution is x = 4te
t
+ ce .
rt dx
+ x = 5e
−t
. Let x
1
= e be the solution of the associated
dt
homogeneous equation. On substitution we get, re
rt
+ e
rt
= 0
⇒ r = −1. So x
1
= c
1
e
−t
(similar to the forcing function).
So let x
p
= Ate
−t
. Substituting this in the equation we get,
Ae
−t
− Ate
−t
+ Ate
−t
= 5e
−t
A = 5. Thus the general ⇒
solution is x = 5te
−t
+ ce
−t
.
dx 7t rt
− 7x = 8e . Let x
1
= e be the solution of the associated
dt
19 FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
homogeneous equation. On substitution we get, re
rt
− 7e
rt
= 0
r = 7. So x
1
= c
1
e
7t
(similar to the forcing function). ⇒
So let x
p
= Ate
7t
. Substituting this in the equation we get,
Ae
7t
+ 7Ate
7t
− 7Ate
7t
= 8e
7t
A = 8. Thus the general
solution is x = 8te
7t
+ ce
7t
.

63.
dx
+ p(t)x = f(t), 0 ≤ t ≤ 2, f(t) = 0, x(0) = 2.
dt
For 0 ≤ t < 1, p(t) = 2 and so
dx
+ 2x = 0
dt
x(t) = c
1
e
−2t
. Using x(0) = 2 we get c
1
= 2.

So
x(t) = 2e
−2t
for 0 ≤ t < 1. For 1 ≤ t ≤ 2, p(t) = 1 and so
dx
+ x = 0 x(t) = c
2
e
−t
. In order for x to be continuous
dt

at t = 1 we must have lim x(t) = x(1) 2e
−2
= c
2
e
−1
t 1

⇒ ⇒

c
2
= 2e
−1
. Thus the solution is

2e
−2t
, 0 ≤ t < 1
x(t) =
2e
−1
e
−t
, 1 ≤ t ≤ 2
2
x
1
0 1 2
t
65.
dx
+ p(t)x = f(t), 0 ≤ t ≤ 2, p(t) = 0, x(0) = 0.
dt
For 0 ≤ t < 1, f(t) = 1 and so
dx
= 1 x(t) = t + c
1
.
dt

Using x(0) = 0 we get c
1
= 0. So x(t) = t for 0 ≤ t < 1.
For 1 ≤ t ≤ 2, f(t) = −1 and so
dx
x(t) = −t + c
2
.
dt
= −1 ⇒
In order for x to be continuous at t = 1 we must have
lim x(t) = x(1) 1 = −1 + c
2
c
2
= 2. Thus the solution is
t 1

⇒ ⇒

t, 0 ≤ t < 1
x(t) =
2 − t, 1 ≤ t ≤ 2
x
t
0 1
1
67.
dx
+ p(t)x = f(t), 0 ≤ t ≤ 2, x(0) = 2. For 0 ≤ t < 1,
dt
p(t) = 1, f(t) = 0 and so
dx
+ x = 0 x(t) = c
1
e
−t
.
dt

Using x(0) = 2 we get c
1
= 2. So x(t) = 2e
−t
for 0 ≤ t < 1.
For 1 ≤ t ≤ 2, p(t) = 0, f(t) = 1 and so
dx
= 1
dt

20 CHAPTER 1
x(t) = t + c
2
. In order for x to be continuous at t = 1 we
must have lim x(t) = x(1) 2e
−1
= 1 + c
2
t 1

⇒ ⇒
c
2
= 2e
−1


1. Thus the solution is

2e
−t
, 0 ≤ t < 1
x(t) =
t + 2e
−1
− 1, 1 ≤ t ≤ 2
x
0 1 2
1
2
t
1.8 GROWTH AND DECAY PROBLEMS
The growth rate k of a population P (t) is given by
1 dP
= k
dP
= kP
P dt dt

whose solution with initial population P (0) is P (t) = P (0)e
kt
.
The population will be doubled when P (t) = 2P (0). Then
2P (0) = P (0)e
kt
e
kt
= 2 kt = ln 2 t =
ln 2
which is known as ⇒ ⇒ ⇒
k
doubling time, denoted by t
d
as =
ln 2
, and we will use this t
d
k
formula throughout this section.
1. In this problem, the growth rate is k = 1.5% = 0.015 and so
doubling time, t
d
=
ln 2
=
ln 2
≈ 46.2 years.
k 0.015
3. Using t
d
= 8 hours =
3
1
day in the doubling time formula we get,
1 ln 2
= k = 3 ln 2 ≈ 2.08 = 208% per day.
3 k

5. Here, P (0) = 1500, t = 1 hour, P (1) = 2000. So P (t) = P (0)e
kt
2000 = 1500e
k
e
k
=
4
3
k = ln

4
3

. After 4 hour (i.e. t = 4),

3
P (t) = 1500e
4k

= 1500e
4 ln

(
4
)
= 1500

4

4
.
3
A B
10
0.02
Q c
5 0.01
0 100 200
0 100 200
t
t
7. t
d
=
ln 2
= 3 k =
ln 2
. Here, P (t) = 10P (0) and so
k 3

kt
10P (0) = P (0)e e
kt
= 10 kt = ln 10
ln 10 3 ln 10
⇒ ⇒ ⇒
t = = ≈ 9.97 years.
k ln 2
FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 21
9. Let Q be the number of organisms.
Birth:
dQ
= k
1
Q, Death:
dQ
= −k
2
Q, Addition:
dQ
= k.
dt dt dt
dQ

dt
= k
1
Q − k
2
Q + k.
11. With the interest rate of 3% per year:
Doubling time, t
d
=
ln 2
=
ln 2
≈ 23.10 years.
k 0.03
With the 3% yield:
Yield = e
k
− 1 = 0.03 ⇒ e
k
= 1.03 ⇒ k = ln (1.03) . So, in this case
ln 2 ln 2
Doubling time, t
d
= =
ln(1.03)
≈ 23.45 years.
k
13. Here, the growth after one year is
e
k
− 1 = 0.064 e
k
= 1.064 k = ln (1.064) .
ln 2
⇒ ⇒
Then t
d
=
ln(1.064)
≈ 11.17 years.
15. This is the case of exponential growth. So x(t) = x(0)e
kt
, k > 0.
The cost of living rose from x(0) = 10, 000 to x(1) = 11, 000 in one
year, that is, t = 1. So 11000 = 10000e
k
e
k
= 1.1 ⇒ ⇒
k = ln (1.1) ≈ 0.0953 = 9.53% per year.
17. Using the half-life formula T =
ln 2
= 16 days, we get k =
ln 2
.
k 16
At the end of t = 30 days, x(t) = 30 g. Then x(t) = x(0)e
−kt
ln 2 ln 2

16 16
30 = x(0)e
− (30)
x(0) = 30e
(30)
≈ 110.04 g.
19.
dx
= −kx x(t) =

x(0)e
−kt
. When t = 10 years, x(t) = 0.80x(0).
dt

So 0.80
1
x(0) = x(0)e
−10k
⇒ e
−10k
= 0.8 ⇒−10k = ln (0.8) ⇒
k = −
10
ln (0.8) .
ln 2 ln 2
(a) Half-life: T = = −10
ln(0.8)
≈ 31.063 years.
k
(b) x(t) = 0.15x(0). So 0.15x(0) = x(0)e
−kt
e
−kt
= 0.15 ⇒ ⇒
−kt = ln (0.15) t = −
1
ln (0.15) = 10
ln(0.15)
≈ 85.018 years. ⇒
k ln(0.8)
Thus it will take 85.018 − 10 = 75.018 additional years.
21. Newton’s law of cooling
dT
= −k (T − Q
0
) has particular solution Q
0
dt
so the general solution is T (t) = Q
0
+ ce
−kt
. Here Q
0
= 30.
Using the initial temperature T (0) = 200, we get 200 = 30 + c
c = 170. Thus T (t) = 30 + 170e
−kt
. Again, using T (10) = 180, ⇒
15
we get, 180 = 30 + 170e
−10k
170e
−10k
= 150 e
−10k
=
17
−10k = ln

15

1
ln


15 ln 15−ln 17

=
ln 17−ln 15
.

17
⇒ k = −
10 17

= −
10 10
e
−kt 1
(a) T will be 40
0
C if 40 = 30+170e
−kt
170e
−kt
= 10 =
17
⇒ ⇒
⇒−kt = − ln (17) t =
1
ln (17) =
10 ln(17)
≈ 226.4 minutes. ⇒
k ln 17−ln 15
(b) T (t) = 30 + ce
−kt
, where we previously had k =
ln 17−ln 15
.
10
At t = 0, T = 200, so c = 170 and T (t) = 30 + 170e
−kt
.
Now we solve this equation for t :
T (t) − 30 = 170e
−kt
ln (T − 30) = ln (170) − kt
1

10

t = [ln (T − 30) − ln (170)] = ln

T −30

.
−k ln 15−ln 17 170
23. Newton’s law of cooling
dT
= −k (T − Q
0
) has particular solution
dt
Q
0
so the general solution is T (t) = Q
0
+ ce
−kt
. Here Q
0
= 40.
Using the initial temperature T (0) = 100, we get 100 = 40 + c
c = 60. Thus T (t) = 40 + 60e
−kt
. Again, using T (10) = 60, ⇒
e
−10k 1
we get, 60 = 40 + 60e
−10k
60e
−10k
= 20 = ⇒ ⇒
3
1
⇒−10k = ln

1

⇒−10k = − ln 3 k = ln 3 ≈ 0.1099.
3 10

22 CHAPTER 1
25. (a) Newton’s law of cooling
dT
= −k (T − Q
0
) = −k [T − (20 + 10t)] .
dt
(b) Substituting k = 1 in the equation we get,
dT
= −T + 20 + 10t
dt
dT rt

dt
+ T = 20 + 10t. Let T
1
=
rt
e be the solution of the
homogeneous equation. Then re + e
rt
= 0 r = −1. Thus
T
1
= ce
−t
. Substituting T
p
= A + Bt we get,

B+ A + Bt = 20 + 10t. Equating the coefficients of t and 1 we
have B = 10 and A + B = 20 A = 10. Thus the general
solution is T (t) = 10 + 10t + ce

−t
. Using the initial temperature
T (0) = 40 we get, 40 = 10 + c c = 30. Hence the solution is
T (t) = 10 + 10t + 30e
−t
.

27. (a) Let the amount invested be $A. The 6% interest rate will effect
the amount in excess of $500. So the amount of interest per year
will be $0.06 (A − 500) . Thus the rate of change of money can
be written as the differential equation
dA
= 0.06 (A − 500) with
dt
initial condition A(0) = 2000.
(b)
dA
− 0.06A = −30. Let A
p
= −30 B = 500
dt
= B ⇒−0.06B ⇒
A
p
= 500 and A
h
= ce
0.06t
. So the general solution is ⇒
0.06t
A(t) = 500 + ce . Using initial condition A(0) = 2000 we get,
c = 1500. Thus A(t) = 500 + 1500e
0.06t
.
After 10 years the amount will be A(10) = $3233.18.
(c) The full amount earns interest when
dA
= 0.06A
dA
dt

− 0.06A = 0, a homogeneous equation with general solution
dt
A(t) = ce
0.06t
which becomes A(t) = 2000e
0.06t
for the initial
condition. After 10 years the amount will be A(10) = $3644.24
which is $411.06 more than that in part (b) .
29. Constant deposit rate is $B/day means $365B/year and 0.08P is the
amount of interest per year with 8% interest rate. So
dP dP
= 0.08P + 365B − 0.08P = 365B. Let P
p
= A
dt dt

365 365

−0.08A = 365B A = −
0.08
B P
p
= −
0.08
B and
0.08t
⇒ ⇒
365 0.08t
P
h
= ce . So the general solution is P (t) = − B + ce .
0.08
Using initial condition P (0) = 1000 we get, c = 1000 +
365
B.
365 0.08t
Thus P (t) = − B +

1000 +
365
B

e .
0.08
0.08 0.08
(a) After t = 5 years P = $10, 000.
365 0.4
So 10000 = − B +

1000 +
365
B

e
80(10

−e
0.4
)
0.08 0.08
0.4 0.4
800 = 365B

e − 1

+ 80e B =
−1)
≈ $3.79. ⇒
365(e
0.4
365 0.08t
(b) Solve 10000 = − B(t) +

1000 +
365
B(t)

e for B(t) :
0.08t 0.08t
800 = B(t)

365e
0.08
− 365

+ 80e
0.08
0.08t 0.08t
B(t)

365e − 365

= 800 − 80e ⇒
0.08t
B(t) =

800 − 80e
0.08t

365e − 365

−1
.
dQ

dQ
31. = 0.2Q + 400 cos (2πt) − 0.2Q = 400 cos (2πt) .
dt dt

Substituting Q
p
= A cos (2πt) + B sin (2πt) we get
−2πA sin (2πt) + 2πB cos (2πt) − 0.2A cos (2πt) − 0.2B sin (2πt)
= 400 cos (2πt) .
Equating the coefficients of cos (2πt) and sin (2πt) we have
23 FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
cos (2πt) : 2πB − 0.2A = 400
sin (2πt) : −0.2B − 2πA = 0
Solving these equations for A and B (Multiplying the first equation
by 0.2 and the second equation by 2π and adding and simplifying)
−20 200π
we get, A =
π
2
+0.01
and B =
π
2
+0.01
. Thus the particular solution is
=
1
(−20 cos (2πt) + 200π sin (2πt)) . Q
p
π
2
+0.01
Q
1
= ce
0.02t
. So the general solution is
Q(t) =
1
(−20 cos (2πt) + 200π sin (2πt)) + ce
0.02t
.
π
2
+0.01
20
Using the initial condition Q(0) = 100 we get c = 100 +
π
2
+0.01
.
Hence Q(t) =
1
(−20 cos (2πt) + 200π sin (2πt))+

100 +
20

e
0.02t
.
π
2
+0.01 π
2
+0.01
1.9 MIXTURE PROBLEMS
1. (a) Let Q be the amount of salt in the tank of volume V = 300. This
volume is constant as water is flowing in and out at the same
rate (2 gal/min). So the concentration of salt is C =
Q
. The
300
inflow and outflow rate of salt are 2(0.4) and 2
Q
300
, respectively.
Thus the rate of change in salt can be written as
dQ dQ Q
= 2(0.4) − 2
Q
+ = 0.8. Substituting Q
p
= A
dt 300 dt 150

rt 1
t
we get, A = 120 and Q
1
= e Q
1
= e

t
⇒ r = −
150

150
.
Thus Q(t) = 120 + ke

150
. Using initial condition
Q(0) = 300(0.2) = 60 we have, k = −60. Hence
t
Q(t) 2 1
t
150
. Q(t) = 120 − 60e

150
and C(t) =
300
=
5

5
e

(b) When does C(t) = 0.3?
t t
150
0.3 = 0.4 − 0.2e

150
=
1 t
= ln 2 e

2 150
⇒ ⇒ ⇒
t = 150 ln 2 ≈ 104 minutes.
3. (a) Let Q be the amount of salt in the tank of volume V = 100. This
volume is constant as water is flowing in and out at the same
Q
rate (5 L/h). So the concentration of salt is C =
100
. The
inflow and outflow rate of salt are 5(0.2) and 4
Q
(evaporated
100
water contains no salt so that Q = 0), respectively.
Thus the rate of change in salt can be written as
dQ dQ Q
= 5(0.2) − 4
Q
+ = 1. Substituting Q
p
= A
dt 100 dt 25

t
we get, A = 25 and Q
1
= e
rt
r = −
1
Q
1
= e

25
.
t

25

Thus Q(t) = 25 + ke

25
. Using initial condition
Q(0) = 100(0.1) = 10 we have, k = −15. Hence
Q(t) = 25 − 15e

t
and C(t) =
Q(t)
= 0.25 − 0.15e

t
25 25
.
100
(b) No. lim C(t) = 0.25 > 0.2.
t→∞
5. (a) Let Q be the amount of iodine in the tank. Water is flowing in
and out at a different rate and so the volume is changing as
dV
= 6 − 1 = 5 V (t) = 5t + 500 since the initial half-volume is
dt

Q
500 gal. Concentration of iodine is C =
5t+500
. The inflow and
24 CHAPTER 1
outflow rate of iodine are 0 (Pure water has no concentration) and
Q
1
5t+500
, respectively. Thus the rate of change in iodine can be
written as
dQ Q dQ dt
dt
= −
5t+500

Q
= −
5t+500

1
ln Q = − ln (5t + 500) + k
1
Q(t) = k
2
(5t + 500)
−1/5
5

= k (t + 100)
−1/5
. Using initial condition Q(0) = 10 we have,
10 = k (100)
−1/5
k = 10 (100)
1/5
.


100

1/5
Hence Q(t) = 10
t+100
. Since volume increases as t increases,
tank will overflow when V = 1000. That is, tank overflows when
5t + 500 = 1000 means at t = 100. So for 0 ≤ t ≤ 100,

100

1/5
Q(t)
Q(t) = 10
t+100
and C(t) =
5t+500
.
(b) Tank overflows when t = 100. After overflow, V = 1000 and
C =
Q
. During overflow, mixture is leaving at the rate of 6 gal/min
1000
dQ 6Q
(as pure water is entering at this rate) and so for t ≥ 100,
dt
= −
1000
.
3 3
500 500
Since it has constant coefficients, Q(t) = c
2
e
− t
= c
2
e
− (t−100)
.
In order for Q(t) to be continuous at t = 100 we must have
lim Q(t) = lim Q(t) 10

100

1/5
= c
2
t 100

t 100
+

200
→ →
Q(t)
So for t ≥ 100, Q(t) = 10 (2)
−1/5
e
−3(t−100)/500
and C(t) = .
1000
7. Let Q be the amount of pollutant in the lake. Water is flowing in
and out at a different rate and so the volume is changing as
dV
= 5 − 2 = 3 V (t) = 3t + 1000 since the initial volume is 1000
dt

Q
kL. Concentration of pollutant is C =
3t+1000
. The inflow and
outflow rate of pollutant are 5 × 7 and 2
Q
, respectively. Thus
3t+1000
the rate of change in pollutant can be written as
dQ
= 35 −
2Q
2
dt 3t+1000

dQ
+
2Q
= 35. The integrating factor is e

3t+1000
dt
= e
ln(3t+1000)
2/3
Q 3t+1000
= (3t + 1000)
2/3
. Multiplying by integrating factor and rearranging
d
2/3
we have
dt

Q (3t + 1000)
2/3

= 35 (3t + 1000) ⇒
2/3 2/3
Q (3t + 1000) = 35

(3t + 1000) dt + k ⇒
Q(t) = (3t + 1000)
−2/3

7 (3t + 1000)
5/3
+ k

. Using initial condition
Q(0) = 2000 we have, 2000 = (10)
−2

7 (10)
5
+ k


5
7 (10) + k = 200000 k = −500000. Thus ⇒
5/3
Q(t) = (3t + 1000)
−2/3

7 (3t + 1000) − 500000

= 7 (3t + 1000) − 500000 (3t + 1000)
−2/3
and
C(t) =
Q(t)
= 7 − 500000 (3t + 1000)
−5/3
.
3t+1000
9. Let V
1
and V
2
be the volume of tank 1 and tank 2, respectively.
V
1
= (13 − 7) t + 150 = 6t + 150; V
2
= (7 − 28) t + 250 = −21t + 250
Let S
1
and S
2
be the amount of salt in tank 1 and tank 2, respectively.
Then
dS1
= 13 × 3 − 7
S1 dS1
= 39 −
7S1
dt V1

dt 6t+150
and
dS2
=
7S1 dS2
=
7S1 28S2
.
dt 6t+150
− 28
S
V2
2

dt 6t+150

−21t+250
FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 25
11. Let V
1
and V
2
be the volume of tank 1 and tank 2, respectively.
V
1
= (21 − 18) t + 230 = 3t + 230; Tank 2 receives brine at the
rate
1
(18) = 9 gal/s. So V
2
= (9 − 4) t + 275 = 5t + 275.
2
Let S
1
and S
2
be the amount of salt in tank 1 and tank 2, respectively.
Then
dS1
= 21 × 5 − 18
S1 dS1
= 105 −
18S1
dt V1

dt 3t+230
and
dS2
=
9S1 dS2
=
9S1 4S2
.
dt 3t+230
− 4
S
V2
2

dt 3t+230

5t+275
13. Let V
1
, V
2
and V
3
be the volume of tank 1, tank 2 and tank 3,
respectively. V
1
= (11 − 18) t + 100 = −7t + 100; V
2
= 200
(same rate of inflow and outflow).
V
3
= 300 (brine gets in and overflow so that volume remains
the same). Let S
1
, S
2
and S
3
be the amount of salt in tank 1, tank 2
and tank 3, respectively. Then
dS1 dS1 18S1
dt
= 11 × 5 − 18
S
V1
1
dt
= 55 −
−7t+100

dS2 18S1 dS2 18S1 18S2
= = and
dt −7t+100
− 18
S
V2
2

dt −7t+100

200
dS3 18S2
= .
dt 200
1.10 ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS
1. The differential equation is L
di
+ Ri = e. In this problem,
dt
Ri = v = 2i R = 2, L = 1, e = 1. Substituting all these we get,
di

1
+ 2i = 1. Let i
p
= A. So 2A = 1 A = .
dt 2
1 rt

So i
p
=
2
. Taking i
1
= e we have r = −2 i
1
= ce
−2t
.
Thus i (t) =
1
+ ce
−2t
. At t = 0, i(0) =
1
+

c c = i(0) −
1
.
2 2 2
Hence i (t) =
1
+

i(0) −
1

e
−2t

1
. Alternatively,
2 2
. As t →∞, i(t) →
2
1
for an equilibrium solution
di
= 0 so that 2i = 1 i = .
dt 2

3. The differential equation is L
di
+ Ri = e. In this problem,
dt
Ri = v = i, L = 1, e = sin t. Substituting all these we get,
di
+ i = sin t. Substituting i
p
= A sin t + B cos t in the differential
dt
equation we get A cos t − B sin t + A sin t + B cos t = sin t.
Equating the coefficients of cos t and sin t we get:
cos t : A + B = 0
sin t : A − B = 1
Solving these equations for A and B by adding we get,
A =
1
, B = −
1
. Thus i
p
=
1
sin t −
1
cos t. Taking
2 2 2 2
i
1
= e
rt
in the differential equation we have, r = −1 i
1
= ce
−t
.
Thus i (t) =
1
sin t −
1
cos t + ce
−t
. At t = 0, i(0) = −

1
+ c
1
c = i(0) +
2
1
. Hence
2
i (t) =
1
sin t − cos t +

i(0) +
2
1

e
−t
. ⇒
2 2 2 2
5. The differential equation is L
di
+ Ri = e. For 0 ≤ t < 10,
dt
Ri = v = i R = 1, L = 1, e = 9. Substituting all these we get,
di

rt
+ i = 9. Let i
p
= A. So A = 9 i
p
= 9. Taking i
1
= e
dt
we have r = −1 i
1
= c
1
e
−t
. So

i (t) = 9 + c
1
e
−t
. ⇒
Using the initial condition i(0) = 0 we get 0 = 9 + c
1
c
1
= −9.
Thus for 0 ≤ t < 10, i (t) = 9 − 9e
−t
.

For 10 ≤ t ≤ 20, Ri = v = i, L = 1, e = 0.

26 CHAPTER 1
Substituting all these we get,
di
+ i = 0. This is a homogeneous
dt
equation and, in fact, the homogeneous part of the above equation.
So i(t) = c
2
e
−t
. In order for i(t) to be continuous at t = 10 we
must have lim i(t) = i(10) 9 − 9e
−10
= c
2
e
−10
t 10

⇒ ⇒
10

c
2
= 9e − 9. Thus the solution is

9(1 − e
−t
), 0 ≤ t < 10
i(t) =
9(e
10
− 1)e
−t
, 10 ≤ t ≤ 20.
7. Capacitance, C = 0.5, Ri = v = 2i R = 2, voltage source ⇒
q
e = 6 sin t. In order to find charge q we can use:
C
+ Ri = e
q
+ R
dq
= e (since i =
dq
)
q
+ 2
dq
= 6 sin t ⇒
dq
C dt dt

0.5 dt

+ q = 3 sin t. Substituting q
p
= A sin t + B cos t in this
dt
equation we get A cos t − B sin t + A sin t + B cos t = 3 sin t.
Equating the coefficients of cos t and sin t we get:
cos t : A + B = 0
sin t : A − B = 3
Solving these equations for A and B by adding we get,
A =
3
2
, B = −
2
3
. Thus q
p
=
3
2
sin t −
3
2
cos t. Taking q
1
= e
rt
in the
differential equation we have r = −1 q
1
= ce
−t
. Thus
q (t) =
3
(sin t − cos t) + ce
−t
. At t = 0

, q(0) = 1 = −
3
+ c
2 2
c = 1 +
3
=
2
5
. Hence q (t) =
3
(sin t − cos t) +
5
e
−t
. ⇒
2 2 2
1.11 MECHANICS II: INCLUDING AIR RESISTANCE
1. (a) The differential equation is m
dv
= −mg − kv
dv
dt
1

20
dv
= −20 (980) − 10v + v = −980. Substituting
dt dt 2
1

v
p
= A we get, A = −980 A = −1960. So v
p
= −1960.
2

1
= ce

t
. Thus v (t) = −1960 + ce

Using initial condition v(0) = 0 we have, c = 1960. Hence
t
rt
r = −
2 2
v
1
= e v
1
.
2
⇒ ⇒

1 − e

t t
v (t) = −1960 + 1960e

(b) v (10) = 1960

e
−5
= −1960
− 1

= −1946.79.
2 2
.
(c) lim v(t) = −1960.
t→∞
dv
3. The differential equation is m = −mg − kv
dt

70
dv
= −70 (980)
1
− 7v ⇒
dv
+
1
v = −980. Substituting
dt dt 10
v
p
= A we get, A = −980 A = −9800. So v
p
= −9800.
10

1
= ce

t
r = −
10
. Thus v (t) = −9800 + ce

Using the condition v(5) = 12600 we have,
t
10
.
rt
v
1
= e v
1
10
⇒ ⇒
1
2
12600 = −9800 + ce

c = 36931.36. So ⇒
v (0) = −9800 + 36931.36 = 27131.36.
5. (a) The differential equation is m
dv
= −mg + v
2
. Here, weight is
dt
mg = 32 so that m =
32
= 1. Then
dv
= −32 + v
2
g dt

FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 27
dv
= −

32 − v
2

dv
= −

dt. Integrating using tables gives
dt 32−v
2
1 v+

32

v+

32 2

32c
2

32
ln

v−

32

= −t + c ⇒
v−

32
= ke
−2

32t
, where k = ±e .
1000+

32
Using the initial condition v(0) = 1000 we have k = .
v+

32
= ke
−2

32t

1 − ke
−2

32t

1000−

32
So
v−

32
v = −

32

1 + ke
−2

32t



1+ke
−2

32t

1000+

32
v(t) = −

32
1−ke
−2

32t
, where k =
1000−

32
. ⇒
(b) lim v(t) = −

32.
t→∞
1.12 ORTHOGONAL TRAJECTORIES (OPTIONAL)
1. x = t + c x − t = c. Differentiating with respect to (wrt) t:
dx

dx
− 1 = 0 = 1. The slope of the orthogonal family is thus
dt dt
dx

= −1. Integrating we have, x(t) = −t + c
2
.
dt
t
x
dx dx x
3. xt = c. Differentiating wrt t: x + t
dt
= 0
dt
= −
t
.
The slope of the orthogonal family is thus

dx
=
t
2 2
dt x

x t 2

xdx =

tdt. Integrating we have,
2
=
2
+ c ⇒ x − t
2
= c
2
,
where c
2
= 2c.
t
x
x = t
c ln x
5. ln x = c ln t
ln t
= c. Differentiating wrt t:
1 dx

1

x dt
ln t−ln x
t dx x ln x
(ln t)
2
= 0
dt
=
t ln t
. The slope of the orthogonal
t ln t
family is thus
dx


x ln xdx = −

t ln tdt. Integration by
dt
= −
x ln x

1 2 1 1
parts on both sides yields,
1
2
x
2
ln |x| −
4
x = −
2
t
2
ln |t| +
4
t
2
+ c
28 CHAPTER 1
⇒ 2x
2
ln |x| − x
2
= t
2
− 2t
2
ln |t| + c
2
, where c
2
= 4c.
7. x = t
2
+ c x − t
2
= c. Differentiating wrt t:
dx

dx
− 2t = 0 = 2t. The slope of the orthogonal family is thus
dt dt
dx 1


dx = −
1

1
dt. Integration yields, x = −
1
ln t
dt
= −
2t
2

2 t 2
| | + c
2
.
9. t = (x − c) x − c = ±

t x ±

t = c. Differentiating wrt t:
dx 1

dx 1

dt
2

t
= 0
dt
= ±
2

t
. The slope of the orthogonal family is
thus
±
dx
= ±2


t

dx = ±2

tdt. Integrating we have,
dt
4
t
3/2

x = ±
3
+ c
2
.
11. x = tan (t + c) tan
−1
x = t + c. Differentiating wrt t:
1 dx
= 1 ⇒
1+x
2
dt
dx
= 1 + x
2
. The slope of the orthogonal family is thus ⇒
dt
1 dx
dt
= −
1+x

1 + x
2

dx = −

dt. Integrating we have,
3
2

x +
x
= −t + c
2
.
3
13. x = c cos t. Differentiating wrt t:
dx
= −c sin t. Since c =
x
,
dt cos t
dx x
dt
= −
cos t
sin t = −x tan t. The slope of the orthogonal family is
1
thus
dx
= cot t

xdx =

cot tdt. Integrating we have,
2
dt x

x
2
= ln sin t + c x
2
= 2 ln sin t + c
2
, where c
2
= 2c. | | ⇒ |
dx
|
x dx 2x
15. x = ct
2
. Differentiating wrt t:
dt
= 2ct. Since c =
t
2
,
dt
=
t
. The
t
slope of the orthogonal family is thus
dx

2xdx = −

tdt.
2
dt
= −
2x

Integrating we have, x
2
= −
t
2
+ c ⇒ 2x
2
= −t
2
+ c
2
, where c
2
= 2c.
17. x
3
+ t
2
= c. Differentiating wrt t: 3x
2 dx
+ 2t = 0
dx 2t
2
.
dt

2
dt
= −
3x
The slope of the orthogonal family is thus
dx
=
3x
3 dt 1
dt
3
2t


x
−2
dx =

. Integrating we have, − = ln t + c
2 t x 2
1 3 3

−1
| | ⇒
x
=


2
ln |t| − c

⇒ x =

c
2

2
ln |t| , where c
2
= −c.
Chapter Two
Linear Second and Higher-Order Differenial
Equations
2.1 GENERAL SOLUTION OF SECOND-ORDER LINEAR
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
1. x = sin t x

= cos t x

= − sin t. So x

+ x = − sin t + sin t = 0. ⇒ ⇒
x = cos t x

= − sin t x

= − cos t. So x

+ x = 0. ⇒ ⇒
Thus {sin t, cos t} is a set of solutions for the associated
homogeneous equation. Now x
p
= 1 x
p

= x
p

= 0 ⇒
and so x

p
+ x
p
= 1 =r.h.s. Thus the general solution is
x(t) = 1 + c
1
sin t + c
2
cos t. Using the initial condition x(0) = 0
we have, 0 = 1 + c
2
c
2
= −1. Differentiating the general ⇒
solution we get, x

(t) = c
1
cos t − c
2
sin t. The initial condition
x

(0) = 0 gives c
1
= 0. Thus the solution of the initial value
problem is x(t) = 1 − cos t.
3. x = e
t
x

= e
t
x

= e
t
. So x

− 3x

+ 2x = e
t t
+ 2e
t

2t

2t 2t
− 3e
= 0. For x = e , x

= 2e and x

= 4e . So x

− 3x

+ 2x
2t t
= 4e − 6e
2t
+ 2e
2t
= 0. Thus
¸
e , e
2t
¸
is a set of solutions for
the associated homogeneous equation. Now x
p
= t +
2
3
x

p
= 1, x

= 0 and so x

p
− 3x

p
+ 2x
p
= −3 + 2t + 3 = 2

t =r.h.s.
p
Thus the general solution is x(t) = t +
3
2
+ c
1
e
t
+ c
2
e
2t
.
Differentiating this we get, x

(t) = 1 + c
1
e
t
+ 2c
2
e
2t
. Using the
initial conditions x(0) = 1 and x

(0) = 0 we have, 1 =
3
2
+ c
1
+ c
2
and 0 = 1 + c
1
+ 2c
2
. Solving these equations for c
1
and c
2
by
subtracting them we have c
2
= −
2
1
and then c
1
= 0.
Thus the solution of the initial value problem is x(t) = t +
3
2

1
e
2t
.
2
5. x = e
−t
cos t x

= −e
−t
cos t − e
−t
sin t ⇒ ⇒
x

= e
−t
cos t + e
−t
sin t + e
−t
sin t − e
−t
cos t. So x

+ 2x

+ 2x
= e
−t
cos t + e
−t
sin t + e
−t
sin t − e
−t
cos t − 2e
−t
cos t
−2e
−t
sin t + 2e
−t
cos t
= 0.
Similarly it can be shown that for x = e
−t
sin t, x

+ 2x

+ 2x = 0.
Thus {e
−t
cos t, e
−t
sin t} is a set of solutions for the associated
homogeneous equation. Now x
p
= 3 x
p

= x

p
= 0 and so ⇒
x

p
+ 2x
p

+ 2x
p
= 6 =r.h.s. Thus the general solution is
x(t) = 3+c
1
e
−t
cos t+c
2
e
−t
sin t. Using the initial condition x(0) = 1
30 CHAPTER 2
we have, 1 = 3 + c
1
c
1
= −2. Differentiating the general ⇒
solution we get, x

(t) = −c
1
e
−t
cos t−c
1
e
−t
sin t−c
2
e
−t
sin t+c
2
e
−t
cos t.
Using x

(0) = 1 and c
1
= −2 we have, 1 = 2 + c
2
c
2
= −1. ⇒
Thus the solution of the initial value problem is
x(t) = 3 − 2e
−t
cos t − e
−t
sin t.
7. x = sin t x

= cos t x

= − sin t. So x

+ x = − sin t + sin t = 0.
x = cos t

x

= − sin

t x

= − cos t. So x

+ x = 0. ⇒ ⇒
Thus {sin t, cos t} is a set of solutions for the associated
homogeneous equation. Now x
p
= t sin t, x

p
= sin t + t cos t,
x

p
= cos t + cos t − t sin t and so x

p
+ x
p
= 2 cos t − t sin t + t sin t
= 2 cos t =r.h.s. Thus the general solution is
x(t) = t sin t + c
1
cos t + c
2
sin t. Using the initial condition x(0) = 1
we have, 1 = c
1
. Differentiating the general solution we get,
x

(t) = sin t + t cos t − c
1
sin t + c
2
cos t. Using x

(0) = −1 we have,
−1 = c
2
. Thus the solution of the initial value problem is
x(t) = t sin t − sin t + cos t.
9. (a) x = e
t
x

= e
t
x

= e
t
. So x

− 3x

+ 2x = e
t
− 3e
t
+ 2e
t

2t

2t 2t
= 0. For x = e , x

= 2e and x

= 4e . So x

− 3x

+ 2x
2t t
= 4e − 6e
2t
+ 2e
2t
= 0. Thus
¸
e , e
2t
¸
is a set of solutions for
the associated homogeneous equation. x
p
= 2 cosh t x

= 2 sinh t, ⇒
p
x

p
= 2 cosh t. So x

p
− 3x

+ 2x
p
= 2 cosh t − 6 sinh t + 4 cosh t =
p
6 (cosh t − sinh t) = 6e
−t
=r.h.s. The general solution is thus
x = c
1
e
t
+ c
2
e
2t
+ 2 cosh t.
For x
p
= e
−t
, x

p
= −e
−t
, x

= e
−t
. So x

p
− 3x

+ 2x
p
=
p p
e
−t
+ 3e
−t
+ 2e
−t
= 6e
−t
=r.h.s. The general solution is thus
x = c
1
e
t
+ c
2
e
2t
+ e
−t
.
(b) Using the initial conditions x(0) = 4, x

(0) = 3 for the first solution
we get, 4 = c
1
+ c
2
+ 2 and 3 = c
1
+ 2c
2
. Solving these equations for
for c
1
and c
2
we have c
1
= c
2
= 1. Thus the solution of the initial
value problem is x = e
t
+ e
2t
+ 2 cosh t = e
t
+ e
2t
+ e
t
+ e
−t
= 2e
t
+ e
2t
+ e
−t
.
Using the same initial conditions for the second solution we get,
4 = c
1
+ c
2
+ 1 and 3 = c
1
+ 2c
2
− 1. Solving these equations for
for c
1
and c
2
we have c
1
= 2, c
2
= 1.Thus the solution of the initial
value problem is x = 2e
t
+ e
2t
+ e
−t
, which is the same as before.
2.2 INITIAL VALUE PROBLEM (FOR HOMOGENEOUS
EQUATION)
1. x
1
= sin t x
1

= cos t x

1
= − sin t = −x
1
x

1
+ x
1
= 0. ⇒ ⇒ ⇒
x
2
= cos t x
2

= − sin t x

2
= − cos t = −x
2
x
2

+ x
2
= 0. ⇒ ⇒ ⇒
Thus x
1
and x
2
both are solutions of x

+ x = 0.
¸
x
1
x
2
¸
sin t cos t

The Wronskian is W [x
1
, x
2
] = det = det
x

1
x
2

cos t − sin t
31 LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS
= −

sin
2
t + cos
2
t

= −1 = 0 . Hence {sin t, cos t} is a fundamental
set of solutions.
3. Let x = t
r
. Then x

= rt
r−1
, x

= r (r − 1) t
r−2
. So t
2
x

− tx

+ x = 0
t
r
[r (r − 1) − r + 1] = 0 (r − 1) (r − 1) = 0 (since t
r
= 0) ⇒ ⇒
r = 1(repeated). So we have two solutions: x = t which are the ⇒
¸
t t

same. The Wronskian is W [x
1
, x
2
] = det = 0. They don’t
1 1
form a fundamental set of solutions.
¸
x
1
(1) x
2
(1)
¸
1 0

5. (a) The Wronskian is W (1) = det = det
x

1
(1) x
2

(1) 1 −1
= 0. Hence {x
1
, x
2
} is a fundamental set of solutions. = −1
(b) x
3
= c
1
x
1
+ c
2
x
2
x
3

= c
1
x
1

+ c
2
x

2
. Using all three sets of ⇒
initial conditions we have, 2 = x
3
(1) = c
1
x
1
(1) + c
2
x
2
(1) = c
1
and
0 = x

3
(1) = c
1
x
1

(1) + c
2
x

2
(1) = c
1
− c
2
= 2 − c
2
c
2
= 2. ⇒
Thus x
3
= 2x
1
+ 2x
2
.
¸
x
1
(t
0
) x
2
(t
0
)
¸
1 0

7. The Wronskian is W (t
0
) = det = det
x

1
(t
0
) x
2

(t
0
) 0 1
= 1 = 0 . Hence {x
1
, x
2
} is a fundamental set of solutions.
Now x
3
= c
1
x
1
+ c
2
x
2
x

3
= c
1
x

1
+ c
2
x

2
. Using all three sets ⇒
of initial conditions we have,
α = x
3
(t
0
) = c
1
x
1
(t
0
) + c
2
x
2
(t
0
) = c
1
× 1 + c
2
× 0 = c
1
β = x
3

(t
0
) = c
1
x

1
(t
0
) + c
2
x
2

(t
0
) = c
1
× 0 + c
2
× 1 = c
2
Thus x
3
= αx
1
+ βx
2
.
9. Let x
1
and x
2
be two solutions of Airy’s equation x

+ tx = 0,
so that x

1
+ tx
1
= 0 and x

2
+ tx
2
= 0.
Then the Wronskian is W (t) = det
¸
x
x
1

1
x
x
2

2

= x
1
x

2
− x
1

x
2
.
dW
dt
= x

1
x

2
+ x
1
x
2

− x

1
x

2
− x
1

x
2
= x
1
x
2

− x

1
x
2
= x
1
(−tx
2
) − x
2
(−tx
1
)
= 0
So W (t) is constant.
11. x
1
= sin t x

1
= cos t x

1
= − sin t = −x
1
x
1

+ x
1
= 0. ⇒ ⇒ ⇒
x
2
= cos t x
2

= − sin t x

2
= − cos t = −x
2
x
2

+ x
2
= 0. ⇒ ⇒ ⇒
Thus x
1
and x
2
both are solutions of x

+ x = 0.
¸
x
1
x
2
¸
sin t cos t

The Wronskian is W [x
1
, x
2
] = det = det
= −

sin
2
t + cos
2
t

= −1 = 0 .
x

1
x
2

cos t − sin t

t

0
t
p(s)ds
According to (13), W (t) = W (t
0
)e for the equation
x

+ p(t)x

+ q(t)x = 0. In this problem p(t) = 0 so that
W (t) = W (t
0
) =constant.
13. x
1
t
= e
t
⇒ x

1
= x

1
= e
t
= x
1
. Then l.h.s. = x

1
− 3x
1

+ 2x
1
e − 3e
t
+ 2e
t
= 0 =r.h.s.
x
2
= e
2t
x

2
= 2e
2t
x

2
= 4e
2t
. Then
l.h.s.= x

2

− 3x
2

+ 2x
2

= 4e
2t
− 6e
2t
+ 2e
2t
= 0 =r.h.s.
Thus e
t
and e
2t
both are solutions of x

− 3x

+ 2x = 0.
32 CHAPTER 2
t 2t
The Wronskian is W (t) = det
¸
e
t
e
2t

= 2e
3t
− e
3t
= e
3t
.
e 2e

t
p(s)ds −
According to (13), W (t) = W (t
0
)e
t
0
for the equation
x

+ p(t)x

+ q(t)x = 0. In this problem p(t) = −3 so that
W (t) = W (t
0
)e
3t−3t0
= e
3t0
e
3t−3t0
= e
3t
.
15. x
1
= t
−1
⇒ x

1
= −t
−2
, x

1
= 2t
−3
. Then
l.h.s. = t
2
x

1
+ 4tx

1
+ 2x
1
= 2t
−1
− 4t
−1
+ 2t
−1
= 0 =r.h.s.
x
2
= t
−2
x

2
= −2t
−3
, x

2
= 6t
−4
. Then
l.h.s. = t
2

x
2

+ 4tx

2
+ 2x
2
= 6t
−2
− 8t
−2
+ 2t
−2
= 0 =r.h.s.
Thus t
−1
and t
−2
both are solutions of t
2
x

+ 4tx

+ 2x = 0.
¸
t
−1
t
−2

The Wronskian is W (t) = det
−t
−2
−2t
−3
= −2t
−4
+ t
−4
= −t
−4
.

t
p(s)ds −
According to (13), W (t) = W (t
0
)e
t
0
for the equation
x

+ p(t)x

+ q(t)x = 0. In this problem p(t) =
4
t
so that

t

−4
W (t) = W (t
0
)e
−4(ln t−ln t0)
= −t

0
4
ln
t
0
= −t
−4
e .
2.3 REDUCTION OF ORDER
1. x
1
= t
−1
⇒ x
1

= −t
−2
and x
1

= 2t
−3
so that 2t
−1
− 3t
−1
+ t
−1
= 0.
Let x = vx
1
= vt
−1
and substitute this in the original equation to
get t
2

vt
−1

+ 3t

vt
−1

+ vt
−1
= 0
t
2

v

t
−1
− 2v

t
−2
+ 2vt
−3

+ 3t

v

t
−1

− vt
−2

+ vt
−1
= 0 ⇒
v

t + v

= 0, since the v terms cancel. Writing w = v

and then
dw 1 dw dt
dividing by t we get
dt
+
t
w = 0. By separation,

w
= −

t
,
which, on integration, yields ln |w| = − ln t + c ⇒ w = c
2
t
−1
. But
w = v

, so that v

= c
2
t
−1
. Now integrating again we get
v = c
2
ln t + c
1
. Thus the general solution is
x = vx
1
= vt
−1
= c
2
t
−1
ln t + c
1
t
−1
. A fundamental set of solutions
would be
¸
t
−1
, t
−1
ln t
¸
.
3. x
1
= e
−5t
⇒ x
1

= −5e
−5t
and x

1
= 25e
−5t
so that
25e
−5t
− 50e
−5t
+ 25e
−5t
= 0. Substitute x = vx
1
= ve
−5t
in the original equation to get

ve
−5t

+10

ve
−5t

+25ve
−5t
= 0

v

e
−5t
− 10v

e
−5t
+ 25ve
−5t

+10

v

e
−5t
− 5ve
−5t

+25ve
−5t
= 0

v

e
−5t
= 0, since the v (and v

) terms cancel ⇒ v

= 0 since e
−5t
= 0

.
Now integrating twice we get v = c
2
t + c
1
. Thus the general solution
is x = vx
1
= ve
−5t
= c
2
te
−5t
+ c
1
e
−5t
. A fundamental set of solutions
would be
¸
e
−5t
, te
−5t
¸
.
5. x
1
= e
−t
x
1

= −e
−t
and x

1
= e
−t
, so te
−t
− (t − 1) e
−t
− e
−t
= 0. ⇒
Let x = vx
1
= ve
−t
and substitute this in the original equation to
get t (ve
−t
)

+ (t − 1) (ve
−t
)

− ve
−t
= 0 ⇒
t (v

e
−t
− 2v

e
−t
+ ve
−t
) + (t − 1) (v

e
−t
− ve
−t
) − ve
−t
= 0 ⇒

33 LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS
tv

e
−t
− (t + 1) v

e
−t
= 0,since the v terms cancel. Dividing by
te
−t
= 0 we get, v

1 +
1

v

= 0. Now w = v

yields
t
dw

1 +
1

w = 0. By separation,

dw
=

1 +
1

dt, which,
dt t w t
on integration, yields ln |w| = t + ln |t| + c ⇒ w = c
2
te
t
. But w = v

,
so that v

= c
2
te
t
. Now using integration by parts we get
v = c
2
(t − 1) e
t
+ c
1
.
Thus the general solution is x = vx
1
= ve
−t
= (c
2
(t − 1) e
t
+ c
1
) e
−t
= c
2
(t − 1)+c
1
e
−t
. A fundamental set of solutions would be {e
−t
, t − 1} .
7. x
1
= t x
1

= 1 and x

1
= 0 so that x
1

+ tx

1
− x
1
= t − t = 0. ⇒
Let x = vx
1
= vt and substitute this in the original equation to
get (vt)

+ t (vt)

− vt = 0 ⇒ (v

t + 2v

) + t (v

t + v) − vt = 0 ⇒
v

t +

2 + t
2

v

= 0, since the v terms cancel. Writing w = v

and
dw
+

2
then dividing by t we get
dt t
+ t

w = 0.
dw
By separation,

= −

2
+ t

dt, which, on integration, yields
w t
2 2 1 1
1
w = c
2
e
−2 ln|t|−
t
2
+ c
2
= c
2
t
−2
e
− t t
ln |w| = −2 ln |t
But w = v

, so that v

| −
2 2
. ⇒
= c
2
t
−2
e

1
2
t
2
. Now integrating by

t
2 1
2
s
−2
e
− s
using definite integral we get, v = c
2
ds + c
1
.
1

t
s
−2
e

2
2
2
1
s
Thus the general solution is x = vx
1
ds + c
1
t. = vt = c
2
t
1

t
s
−2
e

1
2
s
A fundamental set of solutions would be ds . t, t
1
9. Let x = t
r
. Then x

= rt
r−1
and x

= r (r − 1) t
r−2
. Substituting these
into t
2
x

− 3tx

+ 4x = 0 we get, r (r − 1) t
r
− 3rt
r
+ 4t
r
= 0 ⇒
r
2
− 4r + 4 = 0 (since t
r
= 0). Thus (r − 2)
2
= 0 ⇒ r = 2. So x
1
= t
2
is a solution. Let x = vx
1
= vt
2
and substitute this in the original
equation to get t
2

vt
2

− 3t

vt
2

+ 4vt
2
= 0
t
2

t
2
v

+ 4tv

+ 2v

− 3t

t
2
v

+ 2tv

+ 4vt
2
= 0

t
4
v

+ t
3
v

= 0,
since the v terms cancel. v

+
1
t
v

= 0. Writing w

= v

we get
dw
+
1
w = 0. By separation,

dw 1
dt ln w = − ln t + c
dt t w
= −

t
⇒ | | | | ⇒
w = c
2
e
− ln|t|
= c
2
t
−1
. But w = v

, so that v

= c
2
1
t
. Now integrating
again we get, v = c
2
ln t + c
1
. Thus the general solution is
x = vt
2
= (c
2
ln t + c
1
) t
2
= c
2
t
2
ln t + c
1
t
2
(i.e., the second solution is t
2
ln t).
11. Let x = t
r
. Then x

= rt
r−1
and x

= r (r − 1) t
r−2
. Substituting
these into t
2
x

+ 7tx

+ 9x = 0 we get, r (r − 1) t
r
+ 7rt
r
+ 9t
r
= 0
r
2
+ 6r + 9 = 0 (since t
r
= 0). Thus (r + 3)
2
= 0 r = −3. ⇒ ⇒
So x
1
= t
−3
is a solution. Let x = vx
1
= vt
−3
and substitute this
in the original equation to get t
2

vt
−3

+ 7t

vt
−3

+ 9vt
−3
= 0
t
2

t
−3
v

− 6t
−4
v

+ 12t
−5
v

+ 7t

t
−3
v

− 3t
−4
v

+ 9vt
−3
= 0,

since the v terms cancel, t
−1
v

+ t
−2
v

= 0 v

+
1
v

= 0.
dw 1

t
dw 1
Writing w = v

we get
dt
+
t
w = 0. By separation,

w
= −

t
dt
⇒ ln |w| = − ln |t| + c ⇒ w = c
2
e
− ln|t|
= c
2
t
−1
. But w = v

, so that
34 CHAPTER 2
v

= c
2
1
t
. Now integrating again we get, v = c
2
ln t + c
1
. Thus the
general solution is x = vt
−3
= (c
2
ln t + c
1
) t
−3
= c
2
t
−3
ln t + c
1
t
−3
(i.e., the second solution is t
−3
ln t).
13. Let x = sin (rt) . Then x

= r cos (rt) and x

= −r
2
sin (rt) .
Substituting these into x

+ 4x = 0 we get,

4 − r
2

sin (rt) = 0
2
= 0 (since sin (rt) = 0 as nontrivial solution). Thus ⇒ 4 − r
r = 2. So x
1
= sin (2t) is a solution. Let x = vx
1
= v sin (2t)
and substitute this in the original equation to get
(v sin (2t))

+ 4v sin (2t) = 0
(v

sin (2t) + 4v

cos (2t) − 4v

sin (2t)) + 4v sin (2t) = 0, since the v
terms cancel, v

sin (2t) + 4v

cos (2t) = 0 v

+ 4
cos(2t)
v

= 0. ⇒
sin(2t)
Writing w = v

we get
dw
+ 4
cos(2t)
w = 0. By integrating factors,
dt sin(2t)
cos(2t)
sin(2t) 2
dt ln(sin(2t))) 1
we have w = ce
−4

= ce
−4(
1
= c
sin
2
(2t)
= c csc
2
(2t) .
But w = v

, so that v

= c csc
2
(2t) . Now using integration table we
get, v = −
c
cot (2t) + c
1
= c
2
cos(2t)
+ c
1
. Thus the general solution
2 sin(2t)
is x = v sin (2t) =

cos(2t)
+ c
1

sin (2t) = c
1
sin (2t) + c
2
cos (2t) . c
2
sin(2t)
15. Let x = e
rt
x

= re
rt
and x

= r
2
e
rt
. Substituting these into
x

− 4x

+ 4

x = 0 we get,

r
2
− 4r + 4

e
rt
= 0 r
2
− 4r + 4 = 0 ⇒
(since e
rt
= 0). Thus (r − 2)
2
= 0 r = 2. So x
1
= e
2t
is a solution.
2t

Let x = vx
1
= ve and substitute this in the original equation to
get

ve
2t

− 4

ve
2t

+ 4ve
2t
= 0
v

e
2t
+ 4v

e
2t
+ 4ve
2t
− 4v

e
2t
− 8ve

2t
+ 4ve
2t
= 0, since the v
(and v

) terms cancel, v

e
2t
= 0 v

= 0(since e
2t
= 0). ⇒
Integrating twice we have, v = c
1
+ c
2
t. Thus the general solution is
x = ve
2t
= (c
1
+ c
2
t) e
2t
= c
1
e
2t
+ c
2
te
2t
.
17. Let x = e
rt
x

= re
rt
and x

= r
2
e
rt
. Substituting these into
x

+ 2x

+ x

= 0 we get,

r
2
+ 2r + 1

e
rt
= 0
r
2
+ 2r + 1 = 0 (since e
rt
= 0). Thus (r + 1)
2
= 0 r = −1. ⇒ ⇒
So x
1
= e
−t
is a solution. Let x = vx
1
= ve
−t
and substitute this in
the original equation to get (ve
−t
)

+ 2 (ve
−t
)

+ ve
−t
= 0 ⇒
v

e
−t
− 2v

e
−t
+ ve
−t
+ 2v

e
−t
− 2ve
−t
+ ve
−t
= 0, since the v
(and v

) terms cancel, v

e
−t
= 0 v

= 0(since e
−t
= 0). ⇒
Integrating twice we have, v = c
1
+ c
2
t. Thus the general solution is
x = ve
−t
= (c
1
+ c
2
t) e
−t
= c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
te
−t
.
19. Let x = e
rt
x

= re
rt
and x

= r
2
e
rt
. Substituting these into ⇒
2 2 rt
x

− 4x = 0 we get,

r − 4

e
rt
= 0 r − 4 = 0 (since e = 0).
2t

2t
Thus r
2
= 4 ⇒ r = ±2. So x
1
= e is a solution. Let x = vx
1
= ve
and substitute this in the original equation to get
2t

ve
2t

− 4ve
2t
= 0 v

e
2t
+ 4v

e
2t
+ 4ve − 4ve
2t
= 0, since the v ⇒
2t
terms cancel, v

e
2t
+ 4v

e
2t
= 0 v

+ 4v

= 0(since e = 0). ⇒
Writing w = v

we get
dw
+ 4w = 0. So w = ce
−4t
. But w = v

, so
dt
that v

= ce
−4t
. Now integrating again we get, v = −
1
ce
−4t
+ c
1
=
4
c
2
e
−4t
+ c
1
. Thus the general solution is

LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 35
2t 2t 2t
x = ve =

c
2
e
−4t
+ c
1

e = c
1
e + c
2
e
−2t
.
21. x
2
= vx
1
where v must be a non-constant function of t (otherwise x
2
is a scalar multiple of x
1
and so they are linearly dependent).
¸
x
1
x
2
¸
x
1
vx
1

The Wronskian is W [x
1
, x
2
] = det = det
x

1
x

2
x

1
v

x
1
+ vx

1
= v

(x
1
)
2
+ vx
1
x

1
− vx
1
x

= v

(x
1
)
2
= 0 (since v

= 0 as v is a
1
non-constant function of t and x
1
= 0 as a nontrivial solution). Hence
{x
1
, x
2
} forms a fundamental set of solutions.
2.4 HOMOGENEOUS LINEAR CONSTANT COEFFICIENT
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (SECOND ORDER)
1. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x

+ x

− 6x = 0 we get
r
2
+ r − 6 = 0 ⇒ (r + 3) (r
2t
− 2) = 0 ⇒ r = 2, −3.Thus the
general solution is x = c
1
e + c
2
e
−3t
.
3. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x

+ x = 0 we get
r
2
+1 = 0 r = ±i. Thus the general solution is x = c
1
cos t+c
2
sin t. ⇒
rt
5. Substituting x = e into the equation x

+ 4x

+ 5x = 0 we get
r
2
+4r +5 = 0 r =
−4±

16−20
= −2 ± i.Thus the general solution ⇒
2
is x = e
−2t
(c
1
cos t + c
2
sin t) .
7. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x

− 3x

+ 2x = 0 we get
r
2
− 3r + 2 = 0 (r − 1) (r − 2) r = 1, 2.Thus the general ⇒
t 2t

solution is x = c
1
e + c
2
e .
9. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x

− x

= 0 we get r
2
− r = 0
⇒ r (r − 1) = 0 ⇒
rt
r = 0, 1.Thus the general solution is x = c
1
+c
2
e
t
.
11. Substituting x = e into the equation 3x

= 0 we get 3r
2
= 0
r = 0, a repeated root with multiplicity 2. Thus the general ⇒
solution is x = c
1
+ c
2
t.
13. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation 3x

+ 2x

− x = 0 we get
3r
2
+ 2r − 1 = 0 ⇒ (r + 1) (3r − 1) = 0
1
⇒ r = −1,
1
. Thus
3
the general solution is x = c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
e
t
3
.
15. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x

+ x

− 2x = 0 we get
r
2
+ r − 2 = 0 (r + 2) (r − 1) = 0 r = 1, −2. Thus ⇒
t
+ c
2
e

−2t t
the general solution is x = c
1
e . So x

= c
1
e − 2c
2
e
−2t
.
Using the initial conditions x(0) = 0 and x

(0) = 1 we get
c
1
+ c
2
= 0 and c
1
− 2c
2
= 1. Solving these equations for
c
1
and c
2
, we have c
1
=
1
3
and c
2
= −
1
3
.
Hence x =
3
1
e
t
3
1
e
−2t
. −
rt
17. Substituting x = e into the equation 2x

+ 4x = 0 we get
2
2r
2
+ 4 = 0 r = −2 r = ±i

2. Thus the general solution ⇒ ⇒
is x = c
1
cos

2t + c
2
sin

2t.
19. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation 2x

+ 8x

+ 6x = 0 we get
2r
2
+ 8r + 6 = 0 r
2
+ 4r + 3 = 0 (r + 3) (r + 1) = 0 ⇒ ⇒
36 CHAPTER 2
⇒ r = −1, −3.Thus the general solution is x = c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
e
−3t
.
So x

= −c
1
e
−t
− 3c
2
e
−3t
. Using the initial conditions x(0) = 2
and x

(0) = 0 we get c
1
+ c
2
= 2 and −c
1
− 3c
2
= 0.
Solving these equations for c
1
and c
2
, we have c
1
= 3 and
c
2
= −1. Hence x = 3e
−t
− e
−3t
.
21. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x

+ 10x

+ 25x = 0 we
get, r
2
+ 10r + 25 = 0 (r + 5)
2
= 0 r = −5, repeated ⇒ ⇒
twice. Thus the general solution is x = c
1
e
−5t
+ c
2
te
−5t
.
23. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x

− 14x

+ 49x = 0 we
get, r
2
− 14r + 49 = 0 (r − 7)
2
= 0 r = 7, repeated ⇒ ⇒
7t
twice. Thus the general solution is x = c
1
e + c
2
te
7t
.
25. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x

− 6x

+ 25x = 0 we get
r
2
− 6r + 25 = 0 r =


36−100
= 3 ± 4i.Thus the general ⇒
2
solution is x = e
3t
(c
1
cos 4t + c
2
sin 4t) .
27. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x

− 12x = 0 we get
2
r − 12 = 0
+ c
r
2
e
=


±
12

t
12. Thus the general solution is

12t

x = c
1
e .
29. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x

+ 4x

+ 8x = 0 we get
r
2
+ 4r + 8 = 0 ⇒ r =
−4±

2
16−32
= −2 ± 2i.Thus the general
solution is x = e
−2t
(c
1
cos 2t + c
2
sin 2t) .
31. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x

+ 8x = 0 we get
r
2
+ 8 = 0 r = ±

−8 = ±

8i.Thus the general
solution is x

= c
1
cos

8t + c
2
sin

8t.
33. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x

+ 6x

+ 7x = 0 we get
r
2
+ 6r + 7 = 0 r =
−6±

36−28
= −3 ±

2.Thus the general ⇒
(−3+

2)t
2
(−3−

2)t

2t
solution is x = c
1
e + c
2
e = e
−3t

c
1
e + c
2
e


2t

.
35. The Wronskian W [e
αt
cos βt, e
αt
sin βt]
¸
e
αt
cos βt e
αt
sin βt

= det
e
αt
(α cos βt − β sin βt) e
αt
(α sin βt + β cos βt)
= e
2αt

α sin βt cos βt + β cos
2
βt − α sin βt cos βt + β sin
2
βt

= βe
2αt

cos
2
βt + sin
2
βt

= βe
2αt
= 0 (since β = 0).
αt

So {e cos βt, e
αt
sin βt} forms a fundamental set of solutions.
37. Repeated roots have b
2
− 4ac = 0 c =
b
2
, so that
b
2
ar
2
+ br + c = ar
2
+ br +
b
2
= a


r
2
+
b
4
r
a
+
2

= a

r +
b

2
.
4a a 4a 2a
So repeated root is r = −
b
.
2a
39. Choose #21. This problem has a repeated root, r = −5. So one
solution is x
1
= e
−5t
. Let x = vx
1
= ve
−5t
and substitute this
in the original equation to get

ve
−5t

+ 10

ve
−5t

+ 25ve
−5t
= 0

v

e
−5t
− 10v

e
−5t
+ 25ve
−5t


+10

v

e
−5t
− 5ve
−5t

+ 25ve
−5t
= 0
v

e
−5t
= 0 v

= 0 since e
−5t
= 0. Now integrating twice ⇒ ⇒
we get v = c
2
t + c
1
. Thus the general solution is
x = vx
1
= ve
−5t
= c
2
te
−5t
+ c
1
e
−5t
.
37 LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS
41. c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
e
−2t
will be the general solution if r = −1 and r = −2 are
the roots of the characteristic equation. One such characteristic
equation would be (r + 1) (r + 2) = r
2
+3r +2 = 0. A corresponding
differential equation is x

+ 3x

+ 2x = 0.
43. c
1
e
3t
+ c
2
te
3t
will be the general solution if r = 3 is a repeated (twice)
root of the characteristic equation. One such characteristic
equation would be (r − 3)
2
= r
2
− 6r + 9 = 0. A corresponding
differential equation is x

− 6x

+ 9x = 0.
45. c
1
sin 4t + c
2
cos 4t will be the general solution if r = ±4i is a
complex root of the characteristic equation. One such characteristic
equation would be (r + 4i) (r − 4i) = r
2
+ 16 = 0. A corresponding
differential equation is x

+ 16x = 0.
47. c
1
sin 3t + c
2
cos 3t will be the general solution if r = ±3i is a
complex root of the characteristic equation. One such characteristic
equation would be (r + 3i) (r − 3i) = r
2
+ 9 = 0. A corresponding
differential equation is x

+ 9x = 0.
49. c
1
+ c
2
t will be the general solution if r = 0 is a repeated root
of the characteristic equation. One such characteristic
equation would be r
2
= 0. A corresponding
differential equation is x

= 0.
51. c
1
e
t
sin t + c
2
e
t
cos t will be the general solution if r = 1 ± i is a
complex root of the characteristic equation. One such characteristic
equation would be (r − 1 − i) (r − 1 + i) = r
2
− 2r + 2 = 0. A
corresponding differential equation is x

− 2x

+ 2x = 0.
2.4.1 Homogeneous Linear Constant Coefficient Differential Equa-
tions (nth-Order)
1. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x

− 6x

+ 12x

− 8x = 0
we get, r
3
− 6r
2
+ 12r − 8 = 0 ⇒ (r − 2)
3
= 0 ⇒ r = 2 is a
repeated root of multiplicity 3.Thus the general solution is
x = c
1
e
2t
+ c
2
te
2t
+ c
3
t
2
e
2t
.
3. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x

− 5x

+ 4x = 0 we get,
4 2 2
r − 5r
2
+ 4 = 0

r − 1

r − 4

= 0 r = ±1, ±2. ⇒
t

2t
+ c
4
e
−2t
Thus the general solution is x = c
1
e + c
2
e
−t
+ c
3
e .
5. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x

+ x

− 2x

= 0 we get,
r
3
+ r
2
− 2r = 0 r (r − 1) (r + 2) = 0 r = 0, 1, −2. ⇒ ⇒
+ c
3
e
−2t
Thus the general solution is x = c
1
+ c
2
e
t
.
7. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x

+4x

+6x

+4x

+ x = 0
we get, r
4
+ 4r
3
+ 6r
2
+ 4r + 1 = 0 (r + 1)
4
= 0 r = −1 ⇒ ⇒
is a repeated root of multiplicity 4. Thus the general solution is
x = c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
te
−t
+ c
3
t
2
e
−t
+ c
4
t
3
e
−t
.
9. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x

− 3x = 0 we get, r − 3 = 0
r = 3. Thus the general solution is x = c
1
e
3t
. ⇒
38 CHAPTER 2
11. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x

+ x

− 2x = 0 we get,
3 2
r + r − 2 = 0 (r − 1)

r
2
+ 2r + 2

= 0 r = 1, −1 ± i. ⇒
t

Thus the general solution is x = c
1
e + e
−t
(c
2
cos t + c
3
sin t) .
13. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x

+4x

+8x

+8x

+4x = 0
we get, r
4
+ 4r
3
+ 8r
2
+ 8r + 4 = 0

r
4
+ 4r
3
+ 4r
2

+ 4r
2
+ 8r + 4 = 0 ⇒

r
2
+ 2r

2
+ 4

r
2
+ 2r

+ 4 = 0 ⇒

r
2
+ 2r + 2

2
= 0 ⇒
⇒ r = −1 ± i is a repeated root of multiplicity 2. Thus the general
solution is x = e
−t
(c
1
cos t + c
2
sin t) + te
−t
(c
3
cos t + c
4
sin t) .
15. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x
(4)
−4x
(3)
+6x
(2)
−4x
(1)
+x = 0
we get, r
4
− 4r
3
+ 6r
2
− 4r + 1 = 0 ⇒ (r − 1)
4
= 0 ⇒ r = 1
is a repeated root of multiplicity 4. Thus the general solution is
x = c
1
e
t
+ c
2
te
t
+ c
3
t
2
e
t
+ c
4
t
3
e
t
.
17. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x
(6)
− 3x
(4)
+ 3x
(2)
− x = 0
we get, r
6
− 3r
4
+ 3r
2
− 1 = 0

r
2

3
− 3

r
2

2
.1 + 3

r
2

.1
2
− 1
3
= 0 ⇒
2

r − 1

3
= 0 r = ±1, each repeated with multiplicity 3. ⇒ ⇒
Thus the general solution is
x = c
1
e
t
+ c
2
te
t
+ c
3
t
2
e
t
+ c
4
e
−t
+ c
5
te
−t
+ c
6
t
2
e
−t
.
19. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x
(4)
− x = 0 we get, r
4
− 1 = 0
2 2

r − 1

r
2
+ 1

= 0 r
2
= 1 and r = −1 r = ±1, ±i. ⇒ ⇒ ⇒
Thus the general solution is x = c
1
e
t
+ c
2
e
−t
+ c
3
cos t + c
4
sin t.
21. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x

+ 50x

+ 625x = 0
we get, r
4
+ 50r
2
+ 625 = 0

r
2
+ 25

2
= 0 r = ±5i ⇒ ⇒
repeated twice. Thus the general solution is
x = c
1
cos 5t + c
2
sin 5t + c
3
t cos 5t + c
4
t sin 5t.
23. Substituting x = e
rt
into the equation x

+ 3x

+ x

− 5x = 0 we
2
get, r
3
+3r + r − 5 = 0 (r − 1)

r
2
+ 4r + 5

= 0 r = 1, −2 ± i. ⇒
t

Thus the general solution is x = c
1
e + e
−2t
(c
2
cos t + c
3
sin t) .
25. c
1
e
2t
+ c
2
te
2t
+ c
3
will be the general solution if r = 2 is a root
with multiplicity 2 and r = 0 is a simple root of the characteristic
2
equation. One such characteristic equation would be r (r − 2)
= r
3
− 4r
2
+ 4r = 0. A corresponding differential equation is
x

− 4x

+ 4x

= 0.
27. c
1
sin 5t + c
2
cos 5t + c
3
t sin 5t + c
4
t cos 5t will be the general solution
if r = ±5i is a complex root with multiplicity 2 of the characteristic
2
equation. One such characteristic equation would be ((r − 5i) (r + 5i))
=

r
2
+ 25

2
= r
4
+ 50r
2
+ 625 = 0. A corresponding differential
equation is x

+ 50x

+ 625x = 0.
29. c
1
e
−2t
+ c
2
te
−2t
+ c
3
t
2
e
−2t
will be the general solution if r = −2
is a root with multiplicity 3 of the characteristic equation. One such
characteristic equation would be (r + 2)
3
= r
3
+ 6r
2
+ 12r + 8 = 0.
A corresponding differential equation is x

+ 6x

+ 12x

+ 8x = 0.
LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 39
31. c
1
e
t
sin t + c
2
e
t
cos t + c
3
te
t
sin t + c
4
te
t
cos t will be the general
solution if r = 1 ± i is a complex root with multiplicity 2 of the
characteristic equation. One such characteristic equation would be
2
2
((r − 1 − i) (r − 1 + i)) =

r − 2r + 2

2
=
r
4
− 4r
3
+ 8r
2
− 8r + 4 = 0. A corresponding differential
equation is x

− 4x

+ 8x

− 8x

+ 4x = 0.
33. c
1
sin t + c
2
cos t + c
3
t sin t + c
4
t cos t will be the general solution
if the roots of the characteristic equation is r = ±i repeated twice.
2
One such characteristic equation would be ((r − i) (r + i)) =

r
2
+ 1

2
= r
4
+ 2r
2
+ 1 = 0. A corresponding differential equation is
x

+ 2x

+ x = 0.
35. Since there are 6 roots, four real (repeated), two complex, the general
solution is a linear combination of 6 homogeneous solutions using
6 arbitrary constants:
x = e
8t

c
1
+ c
2
t + c
3
t
2
+ c
4
t
3

+ e
8t
(c
5
cos 7t + c
6
sin 7t) .
37. Since there are 9 roots, three real (repeated), one pair of complex
(repeated twice) and one pair of complex (simple), the general
solution is a linear combination of 9 homogeneous solutions
using 9 arbitrary constants:
x = c
1
+ c
2
t + c
3
t
2
+ e
4t
(c
4
cos 5t + c
5
sin 5t) + (c
6
+ c
7
t) cos 5t
+(c
8
+ c
9
t) sin 5t.
39. Since there are six complex roots (one pair repeated three times), the
general solution is a linear combination of 6 homogeneous solutions
using 6 arbitrary constants:
x = e
2t

c
1
+ c
2
t + c
3
t
2

cos t +

c
4
+ c
5
t + c
6
t
2

sin t

.
41. Since there are 8 complex roots (one pair repeated twice, other two
pairs simple), the general solution is a linear combination of
8 homogeneous solutions using 8 arbitrary constants:
x = e
2t
(c
1
cos 6t + c
2
sin 6t) + e
−2t
(c
3
cos 6t + c
4
sin 6t)
+(c
5
+ c
6
t) cos 6t + (c
7
+ c
8
t) sin 6t.
2.5 MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS I: FORMULATION AND
FREE RESPONSE
2 2
1. The amplitude is R =

c
1
+ c
2
=

9 + 49 =

58. The phase
angle φ is given by tan φ =
c
c
2
1
= −
7
3
, fourth quadrant. So
7
φ = tan
−1



= −1.1659 radians. Thus x (t) =

58 cos (5t + 1.1659) .
3
2 2
3. The amplitude is R =

c
1
+ c
2
=

3 + 1 = 2. The phase angle
φ is given by tan φ =
c
c
1
2
=

1
3
, first quadrant. So
φ = tan
−1

1

=
π
radians. Thus x (t) = 2 cos

14t −
π

.

3
6 6
2 2
5. The amplitude is R =

c
1
+ c
2
=

36 + 36 =

72 = 6

2.
The phase angle φ is given by tan φ =
c2
=
6
= −1,
π 3π
second quadrant. So φ = tan
−1
(−1) +
c
π
1
= −
−6
+ π = radians.
4 4
40 CHAPTER 2

Thus x (t) = 6

2 cos

5t −

.
2 2
7. The amplitude is R =

c
1
+
4
c
2
=

3 + 1 = 2. The phase angle
c2
φ is given by tan φ = =
−1
, fourth quadrant. So
c1

3
φ = tan
−1



1
3

= −
π
6
radians. Thus x (t) = 2 cos

6t +
π
6

.
2 2
9. The amplitude is R =

c
1
+ c =

16 + 48 = 8. The phase angle
c2
φ is given by tan φ = =
4

2
3
= −

3, second quadrant. So
c1
π 2π
φ = tan
−1



3

+ π = −
3

+
4
π =
3
radians.

Thus x (t) = 8 cos

2t −

.
3
11. We determine the spring constant k from k∆L = mg where
980×30
m = 30 gm, g = 980 cm/s
2
and ∆L = 20 cm. So k =
20
= 1470.
The differential equation is mx

+ kx = 0 30x

+ 1470x = 0
x

+ 49x = 0. Substituting x = e
rt
we have

r
2
+ 49 = 0


r = ±7i. Hence the general solution is x (t) = c
1
cos 7t + c
2
sin 7t ⇒
x

(t) = −7c
1
sin 7t +7c
2
cos 7t. Using the initial conditions x (0) = 10
and x

(0) = 0 we get, c
1
= 10 and c
2
= 0. Thus the motion is
x = 10 cos 7t.
13. We determine the spring constant k from k∆L = mg where
m = 8 slugs, g = 32 ft/s
2
and ∆L = 2 ft. So k =

2
32
= 128.
For spring-mass system m = 2 slugs, the differential equation is
2x

+ 128x = 0 x

+ 64x = 0. Substituting x = e
rt
we have
r
2
+ 64 = 0 ⇒ r

= ±8i. Hence the general solution
is x (t) = c
1
cos 8t + c
2
sin 8t x

(t) = −8c
1
sin 8t + 8c
2
cos 8t. ⇒
Using the initial conditions x (0) = 2 and x

(0) = 1 we get, c
1
= 2
and c
2
=
8
1
. Thus the motion is x = 2 cos 8t +
8
1
sin 8t.
15. Here m = 10. Frequency
ω
= 5 cycles/sec ω = 10π ⇒ ⇒

k
= 10π
k
= 100π
2
2
π
k = 1000π
2
lb/ft.
m 10
⇒ ⇒
17. Here m = 16 g, k = 64 gm/s
2
. The differential equation is
16x

+ 64x = 0 x

+ 4x = 0. Substituting x = e
rt
we have
r
2
+ 4 = 0 ⇒ r =

±2i. Hence the general solution is
x (t) = c
1
cos 2t + c
2
sin 2t. So x (0) = c
1
and x

(0) = 2c
2
.
Now, phase, φ =
π
3
= tan
−1

c
c
2
1

c
c
1
2
= tan

π
3

=

3
=

3c
1
and amplitude,

c

= 2 c
2
= 4

c
2
1
2
+ c
2
2
1
2
+ c
2
2

2
2
⇒ ⇒
c
1
+

3c
1
= 4 ⇒ 4c
1
= 4 ⇒ c
1
= 1 and then c
2
=

3.
Thus the initial conditions must be x (0) = 1 and x

(0) = 2

3.
19. (a) The differential equation is mx

+ kx = 0 x

+
k
x = 0.
m
rt 2 k


k
Substituting x = e we have r +
m
= 0 ⇒ r = ±
m
i.

k

k
Hence the general solution is x (t) = c
1
cos t + c
2
sin t

k

k

k

k
m m

x

(t) = − c
1
sin t + c
2
cos t.
m m m m
Using the initial conditions x (0) = 0 and x

(0) = 10 we get,
c
1
= 0 and c
2
= 10

m
k
. Thus x (t) = 10

m
sin

k
t .
k m
41 LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS
2 2
(b) The amplitude is R =

c
1
+ c = 10

m
.
2 k
(c) From part (b) the amplitude decreases as k increases.
(d) From part (b) the amplitude increases as m increases.
21. (a) The differential equation is mx

+ kx = 0. x

+
k
x = 0.
m
rt 2 k


k
Substituting x = e we have r +
m
= 0 ⇒ r = ±
m
i.

k

k
Hence the general solution is x (t) = c
1
cos
m
t + c
2
sin
m
t

k

k

k

k
⇒ x

(t) = − c
1
sin t + c
2
cos t.
m m m m
Using the initial conditions x (0) = 1 and x

(0) = 1 we get, c
1
= 1
and c
2
=

m
. Thus the motion is x (t) = cos

k
t +

m
sin

k
t .
k m k m
2 2
(b) The amplitude is R =

c
1
+ c =

1 +
m
.
2 k
(c) From part (b) the amplitude decreases to 1 as k increases
and increases as m increases.
23. Multiplying mx

+ kx = 0 by x

we get, mx

x

+ kxx

= 0.
Now integrating this equation with respect to t we have

mx

x

dt +

kxx

dt =constant. ⇒
1 d
2
1 d
2
m

2 dt
(x

) dt + k

2 dt
(x) dt =constant
1
m (x

)
2
+
1
k (x)
2
=constant ⇒
1
2
mv
2
+
1
kx
2
2
=constant.
d
2
x rt
25.

2
+ 7x = 0
2
. Substituting x = e we have r
2
+ 7 = 0 r = ±

7i.
dt
2
Hence the general solution is x (t) = c
1
cos

7t + c
2
sin


7t.
d
2
x rt 2
27.
dt
2
− 7x = 0. Substituting x = e we have r − 7 = 0 ⇒ r = ±

7.
Hence the general solution is x (t) = c
1
e

7t
+ c
2
e


7t
.
d
2
x rt
29.
dt
2
+ 5x = 0. Substituting x = e we have r
2
+ 5 = 0 ⇒ r = ±

5i.
Hence the general solution is x (t) = c
1
cos

5t + c
2
sin

5t and
dx
(t) = −

5c
1
sin

5t +

5c
2
cos

5t. Using the initial conditions
dt
x (0) = 2 and
dx
(0) = 3 we have, c
1
= 2 and c
2
=
3
.
dt

5
3
Thus x (t) = 2 cos

5t +

5
sin

5t. The amplitude is
2 2

29
R =

c
1
+ c
2
= 4 +
9
5
=
5
and phase angle is

3
φ = tan
−1

c
c
2
1
= tan
−1

2

5

= 0.59087.
Hence x (t) =

29
cos

5t − 0.59087

.
5
31. Suppose

= c
1
(constant). The circle of radius r can be represented
dt
parametrically by x = r cos θ, y = r sin θ. Integrating the differential
equation we have, θ = c
1
t + c
2
, where c
2
is constant. Thus x
component of the object satisfies a simple harmonic motion
x = r cos (c
1
t + c
2
) . Hence the number of cycles per second is
ω0
=
c1
(here ω
0
= c
1
). That is, c
1
=cycles per 2π seconds,
2π 2π
which is the circular frequency.
33. Here m = 10, k = 30, δ = 40. The differential equation is
10x

+ 40x

+ 30x = 0 x

+ 4x

+ 3x = 0, x (0) = 3, x

(0) = −5. ⇒
42 CHAPTER 2
Substituting x = e
rt
we have r
2
+4r +3 = 0 (r + 1) (r + 3) = 0 ⇒ ⇒
r = −1, −3. Hence the general solution is x (t) = c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
e
−3t
.
Also x

(t) = −c
1
e
−t
− 3c
2
e
−3t
. Using initial conditions we get,
c
1
+ c
2
= 3
−c
1
− 3c
2
= −5
Adding these equations we get c
2
= 1 and then c
1
= 2 . Thus
x (t) = 2e
−t
+ e
−3t
.
Here, the roots are real (and negative), so the system is overdamped.
35. Here m = 1, ∆L = 20, k∆L = mg = 980 k =
980
= 49, δ = 0. ⇒
20
The differential equation describing the motion is
x

+ 49x = 0, x (0) = 1, x

(0) = 7. Substituting x = e
rt
we have
r
2
+ 49 = 0 ⇒ r = ±7i. Hence the general solution is
x (t) = c
1
cos 7t + c
2
sin 7t. Also x

(t) = −7c
1
sin 7t + 7c
2
cos 7t.
Using initial conditions we get, c
1
= 1 and c
2
= 1. Thus
x (t) = cos 7t + sin 7t. This motion is harmonic.
37. Here ∆L = 2
2
, k = 12, mg = k∆L = 32 m = 1, δ = 7.
3

The differential equation describing the motion is
x

+ 7x

+ 12x = 0, x (0) = −1, x

(0) = 1. Substituting x = e
rt
we have r
2
+ 7r + 12 = 0 ⇒ (r + 4) (r + 3) = 0 ⇒ r = −4, −3.
Hence the general solution is x (t) = c
1
e
−4t
+ c
2
e
−3t
. Also
x

(t) = −4c
1
e
−4t
− 3c
2
e
−3t
. Using initial conditions we get,
c
1
+ c
2
= −1; −4c
1
− 3c
2
= 1 c
1
= 2 and c
2
= −3. Thus
x (t) = 2e
−4t
− 3e
−3t
.

Here, the roots are real (and negative), so the system is overdamped.
39. Here k = 5, m = 1, δ = 4. The differential equation describing the
motion is x

+ 4x

+ 5x = 0, x (0) = 2, x

(0) = 0. Substituting
x = e
rt
we have r
2
+ 4r + 5 = 0 ⇒ r = −2 ± i. Hence the general
solution is x (t) = e
−2t
(c
1
cos t + c
2
sin t) .
Also x

(t) = e
−2t
((−2c
1
+ c
2
) cos t − (c
1
+ 2c
2
) sin t) .
Using initial conditions we get, c
1
= 2; −2c
1
+ c
2
= 0 c
2
= 4.
Thus x (t) = e
−2t
(2 cos t + 4 sin t) .

Here, the roots are complex (with negative real part), so we have
a damped oscillation. The amplitude is
R =

c
2
1
+ c
2
2
=

4 + 16 =

20 and the phase angle is
φ = tan
−1

c
c
2
1

= tan
−1
(2) = 1.107.
Hence x (t) = e
−2t

20 cos (t − 1.107) .
41. (Refer to the equation (36) of the text) The general solution for the
critically damped motion is x (t) = c
1
e

δ
t
+ c
2
te

δ
t
2m 2m
δ
δ
t

2m
x

(t) =

− (c
1
+ c
2
t) + c
2

e

. The mass may change
2m
direction at the point where the derivative is zero. So we solve
δ
2m c1
2m
⇒ x

(t) = 0 for t. Since e
− t
= 0, −
δ
(c
1
+ c
2
t) + c
2
= 0
2m
t =
δ

c2
, which is just one number. If t < 0, this does not happen.
43. If δ <

4mk, then damped oscillation.
If δ >

4mk, then overdamped.
43 LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS
And if δ =

4mk, then critically damped.
For small m (0 < m <
4
δ
k
2
) motion will be overdamped. As m is
increased, motion will be critically damped at m =
4
δ
k
2
and motion
will be a damped oscillation if m is increased further (m >
4
δ
k
2
).

k
45. Without damping: natural frequency, ω
0
=
m
=

k (since m = 1).
Now
ω0
= 5

k = 10π k = 100π
2
.

⇒ ⇒
With damping: pseudo frequency, β =

4mk−δ
2
=

4k−δ
2
(as m = 1).
2m 2
So
β
= 4

4k−δ
2
= 8π 4k − δ
2
= 256π
2
2π 2
⇒ ⇒ ⇒
δ
2
= 400π
2
− 256π
2
= 144π
2
δ = 12π.
rt x

47. Substituting x = e in 2
d
2
+4
dx
+3x = 0, we have 2r
2
+4r +3 = 0

2
dt
2
dt
⇒ r = −1 ±
2
i. Thus the general solution is
x (t) = e
−t

c
1
cos

2
2
t + c
2
sin

2
2
t

.
Here, underdamped system since the roots are complex (with
negative real part).
rt x
49. Substituting x = e in 3
d
2
+5
dx
+4x = 0, we have 3r
2
+5r +4 = 0
5

23
dt
2
dt
⇒ r = −
6
±
6
i. Thus the general solution is
x (t) = e
−t

c
1
cos

6
23
t + c
2
sin

6
23
t

.
Here, underdamped system since the roots are complex (with
negative real part).
rt x
51. Substituting x = e in 3
d
2
+8
dx
+4x = 0, we have 3r
2
+8r +4 = 0
dt
2
dt
⇒ (r + 2) (3r + 2) = 0 ⇒ r =
2
−2, −
3
2
. Thus the general solution is
x (t) = x (t) = c
1
e
−2t
+ c
2
e
− t
.
3
Here, overdamped system since the roots are real (and negative).
rt x
53. Substituting x = e in 9
d
2
+ 12
dx
+ 4x = 0, we have
dt
2
dt
9r
2
+ 12r + 4 = 0 (3r + 2)
2
= 0
2
repeated twice. ⇒ ⇒ r = −
3
2 2
3 3
Thus the general solution is x (t) = c
1
e
− t
+ c
2
te
− t
.
Here, critically damped system since the roots are repeated negative
real.
rt x
55. Substituting x = e in 3
d
2
+ 4
dx
+ x = 0, we have 3r
2
+ 4r + 1 = 0
dt
2
dt
(r + 1) (3r + 1) = 0
3
1
. Thus the general solution is ⇒
1
⇒ r = −1, −
3
x (t) = c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
e
− t
.
Here, overdamped system since the roots are real (and negative).
57. For an overdamped spring-mass system, (Refer to the equation (34)
and (35) of the text) the general solution is x (t) = c
1
e
r1t
+ c
2
e
r2t
.
So x

(t) = r
1
c
1
e
r1t
+ r
2
c
2
e
r2t
. Using initial condition x (0) = 1
we get, c
1
+ c
2
= 1 c
2
= 1 − c
1
and x

(0) = v
0
we get, ⇒
r
1
c
1
+ r
2
c
2
= v
0
r
1
c
1
+ r
2
(1 − c
1
) = v
0

r2−v0

c
1
(r
1
− r
2
) = v
0
− r
2
⇒ c
1
= −
r1−r2
and then
c
2
= 1 − c
1
= 1 +
r2−v0
=
r1−v0
.
r1 −r2 r1−r2
So x

(t) = −r
1
r2−v0
e
r1t
+ r
2
r1−v0
e
r2t
. Now local maximum or
r1−r2 r1−r2
minimum (if exists) occurs at t such that x

(t) = 0 ⇒
44 CHAPTER 2
r
1
t 1−
v
0
r
1
r2−v0 r1t
= r
2
r1−v0 r2 t
e
e
r
2
t
r2(r1−v0)
v
r
1
0
e e = =
r1−r2 r1−r2

r1(r2−v0) 1−
r
2

(r1−r2)t
1−
v
r
1
0

1−
v
r
1
0

e =
1−
r
2
⇒ (r
1
− r
2
) t = ln
1−
r
2
⇒ v
0
v
0
v
0
1

1−
r
1

t = ln v
0
.
(r1−r2) 1−
r
2
59. Substituting x = e
rt
in x

+ δx

+ x = 0, we have r
2
+ δr + 1 = 0
−δ±

δ
2
−4
r = . ⇒
2
r1 t r2t r1t r2t
Then x (t) = c
1
e + c
2
e ; x

(t) = c
1
r
1
e + c
2
r
2
e where
1 1
r
1
=

−δ +

δ
2
− 4

and r
2
=

−δ −

δ
2
− 4

.
2 2
For δ > 2 :
Using the initial conditions x (0) = 1 and x

(0) = −1 we get
c
1
+ c
2
= 1 c
2
= 1 − c
1
and ⇒
r2+1
r
1
c
1
+ r
2
c
2
= −1 c
1
(r
1
− r
2
) = −1 − r
2
c
1
= −
r1−r2
⇒ ⇒
and c
2
= 1 +
r2+1
=
r1+1
. Thus x
δ
(t) = −
r2+1
e
r1 t
+
r1+1
e
r2t
.
r1−r2 r1−r2 r1 −r2 r1−r2
In order to find lim x
δ
(t) we must find limits of c
1
, c
2
, r
1
, and r
2
δ 2
+

when δ 2
+
as they depend on δ.
lim =

lim
r2+1
= lim
δ+

δ
2
−4−2
. Using L’Hospital’s Rule
δ 2
+
c
1
δ 2
+

r1 −r2
δ 2
+ 2

δ
2
−4
→ → →
δ+

δ
2
1
and then simplifying we get lim

−4
=
2
. Similar procedure
δ 2
+
1

produces lim c
2
= . It is obvious that lim r
1
= lim r
2
= −1.
2
δ 2
+
δ 2
+
δ 2
+

1
→ →
Thus lim x
δ
(t) =
2
1
e
−t
+
2
e
−t
= e
−t
.
δ 2
+

For δ = 2 :
δ
2
− 4 = 0 critically damped. Then r
1
= r
2
=
−δ
= −1 and ⇒
2
x
2
(t) = c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
te
−t
. So x
2

(t) = −c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
e
−t
− c
2
te
−t
.
Using initial conditions we get, c
1
= 1 and −c
1
+ c
2
= −1 c
2
= 0.
Hence x
2
(t) = e
−t
. Thus lim x
δ
(t) = x
2
(t) = e
−t
for all t

≥ 0.
δ 2
+
61. Substituting x = e
rt
in x

+

δx

+ x = 0, we have r
2
+ δr + 1 = 0
r =
−δ±

2
δ
2
−4
. ⇒
r1 t r2t r1t r2t
Then x (t) = c
1
e + c
2
e ; x

(t) = c
1
r
1
e + c
2
r
2
e where
1 1
r
1
=

−δ +

δ
2
− 4

and r
2
=

−δ −

δ
2
− 4

.
2 2
For δ > 2 :
Using the initial conditions x (0) = 0 and x

(0) = 1 we get
c
1
+ c
2
= 0 c
2
= −c
1
. ⇒
1 1
r
1
c
1
+ r
2
c
2
= 1 c
1
(r
1
− r
2
) = 1 c
1
= , c
2
= . ⇒ ⇒
r1−r2 r2 −r1
t t
1 r1t 1 r2 t
2
t
δ

e 2

δ
2
−4
−e

2

δ
2
−4

Thus x
δ
(t) =
r1−r2
e +
r2 −r1
e = e


δ
2
−4
.
t t
2
δ 2
+
δ 2
+
δ 2
+ −4
lim x
δ
(t) = lim e

t
δ
lim

e 2

δ
2


4
δ

2
e

2

δ
2
−4

.
→ → →
Let Q =


δ
2
− 4. (If δ → 2
+

, then Q → 0).
t

δ
2 t

δ
2 t t
So lim
e 2
−4
−e

2
−4
= lim
e 2
Q
−e

2
Q
δ 2
+

δ
2
−4
Q 0
Q
→ →
(This is of the form
0
0
. So use L’Hospital’s Rule)
45 LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS
e + e
− Q
t
2
t
2
Q
t
2
t
2
e

t
2
δ
= te
−t
. lim = t. Then lim x
δ
(t) = t lim =
1
Q 0 δ 2
+
δ 2
+

For δ = 2 :
→ →
δ
2
− 4 = 0 ⇒ critically damped. Then r
1
= r
2
=

2
δ
= −1 and
x
2
(t) = c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
te
−t
. So x
2

(t) = −c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
e
−t
− c
2
te
−t
.
Using initial conditions we get, c
1
= 0 and −c
1
+ c
2
= 1 c
2
= 1.
Hence x
2
(t) = te
−t
. Thus lim x
δ
(t) = x
2
(t) for all t ≥ 0

.
δ 2
+

2.6 THE METHOD OF UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS
1. Yes, because it is a constant coefficients problem with polynomial times
sinusoidal forcing.
3. No, because forcing includes ln t which is not a polynomial.
sin t
| |
5. No, because
cos t
is not allowed as a sinusoidal forcing.
7. No, because it is not a constant coefficients problem.
9. No, because forcing includes t
−1
which is not a polynomial.
11. Yes, because it is a constant coefficients problem and the second part
of forcing.function sinh 3t is
1
2
e
3t

2
1
e
−3t
, a linear combination of
exponential functions.
13. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

+ 9x = t
3
+ 6
we get, r
2
+ 9 = 0 ⇒ r = ±3i. Thus x
h
= c
1
cos 3t + c
2
sin 3t. The
forcing function is a polynomial of degree 3, r = 0 is not a root
k = 0. So x
p
= A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2
+ A
3
t
3
, x

= A
1
+ 2A
2
t + 3A
3
t
2
, ⇒
p
x

p
= 2A
2
+6A
3
t. Substituting these in the original equation we have,
2A
2
+ 6A
3
t + 9

A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2
+ A
3
t
3

= t
3
+ 6 ⇒
9A
0
+ 2A
2
+ (6A
3
+ 9A
1
) t + 9A
2
t
2
+ 9A
3
t
3
= t
3
+ 6
Equating the coefficients of like powers of t gives
t
3
: 9A
3
= 1 A
3
=
9
1
t
2
: 9A
2
= 0

A
2
= 0 ⇒
6 6 2
t : 6A
3
+ 9A
1
= 0 A
1
= −
9
A
3
= −
81
= −
27
t
0
: 9A
0
+ 2A
2
= 6

A
0
=
6
=
2
2 6 1

9 3
Thus x
p
=
3
− t + t
3
and the general solution is x = x
p
+ x
h
81 9
x =
2
3

2
t +
1
t
3
rt
+ c
1
cos 3t + c
2
sin 3t.

27 9
15. Substituting x = e in the homogeneous part of x

+ 8x

= 7t + 11
we get, r
2
+ 8r = 0 ⇒ r (r + 8) = 0 ⇒ r = 0, −8.
Thus x
h
= c
1
+ c
2
e
−8t
. The forcing function is a polynomial of degree
1 and r = 0 is a root of multiplicity 1 k = 1.
So x
p
= t (A
0
+ A
1
t) = A
0
t + A
1
t
2
, x

p

= A
0
+ 2A
1
t, x

p
= 2A
1
.
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
2A
1
+8A
0
+ 16A
1
t = 7t + 11. Equating the coefficients of like powers
of t gives
7
t
0
t : 16A
1
= 7 ⇒ A
1
=
16
81
81 7
: 2A
1
+ 8A
0
= 11 ⇒ A
0
=
64
Thus x
p
=
64
t +
16
t
2
and the general solution is x = x
p
+ x
h
81 7
t
2

x =
64
t +
16
+ c
1
+ c
2
e
−8t
.
46 CHAPTER 2
17. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

− 7x

+12x = 5e
2t
we get r
2
− 7r + 12 = 0 (r − 3) (r − 4) = 0 r = 3, 4.
3t 4t
⇒ ⇒
αt
Thus x
h
= c
1
e +c
2
e . The forcing function is of the form e , α = 2
but r = 2 is not a root k = 0. So x
p
= Ae
2t
, x

p
= 2Ae
2t
, ⇒
x

p
= 4Ae
2t
. Substituting these in the original equation we have,
4Ae
2t
− 14Ae
5 2
2
t
t
+ 12Ae
2t
= 5e
2t
⇒ 2Ae
2t
= 5e
2t
5

2t
A =
5
2
3
.
t 4t
Thus x
p
=
2
e and the general solution is x =
2
e + c
1
e + c
2
e .
x

= 5e
2t
+ 3c
1
e
3t
+ 4c
2
e
4t
. Using the initial conditions we get,
1 =
5
+ c
1
+ c
2
2
0 = 5 + 3c
1
+ 4c
2
Multiplying the first equation by 4 and then subtracting the second
from it we have, c
1
= −1. Then c
2
= −
2
1
. Thus x =
2
5
e
2t
− e
3t

2
1
e
4t
.
19. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

− 3x

+ 2x = 2e
t
we get r
2
− 3r + 2 = 0 (r − 1) (r − 2) = 0 r = 1, 2.
t 2t
⇒ ⇒
αt
Thus x
h
= c
1
e + c
2
e . The forcing function is of the form e , α = 1
and r = 1 is a root with multiplicity 1 k = 1. ⇒
So x
p
= Ate
t
, x
p

= Ae
t
+ Ate
t
, x
p

= 2Ae
t
+ Ate
t
.
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
2Ae
t
+ Ate
t
− 3Ae
t
− 3Ate
t
+ 2Ate
t
= 2e
t
, since te
t
terms cancel
−Ae
t
= 2e
t
A = −2. Thus x
p
= −2te
t
and the general solution is ⇒
x = x
p
+ x
h
= −2te
t
+ c
1
e
t
+ c
2
e
2t
.
21. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

− 2x

+ 5x = 4e
t
we get r
2
− 2r + 5 = 0 r =


4−20
r = 1 ± 2i. ⇒
2

Thus x
h
= e
t
(c
1
cos 2t + c
2
sin 2t) . The forcing function is of the form
e
αt
, α = 1 but r = 1 is not a root k = 0. ⇒
So x
p
= Ae
t
, x
p

= Ae
t
, x

p
= Ae
t
. Substituting these in the original
equation we have Ae
t
− 2Ae
t
+ 5Ae
t
= 4e
t

t
4Ae
t
= 4e
t
⇒ A = 1.
Thus x
p
= e
t
and the general solution is x = e +e
t
(c
1
cos 2t + c
2
sin 2t) .
23. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

− 9x = 5e
−3t
we
get r
2
− 9 = 0 r = ±3. Thus x
h
3t
+ c
2
e
−3t
. The forcing ⇒
αt
= c
1
e
function is of the form e , α = −3 and r = −3 is a root with
multiplicity 1 ⇒ k = 1. So x
p
= Ate
−3t
, x

p
= Ae
−3t
− 3Ate
−3t
,
x

p
= −3Ae
−3t
− 3Ae
−3t
+9Ate
−3t
. Substituting these in the original
equation we have, −3Ae
−3t
− 3Ae
−3t
+ 9Ate
−3t
− 9Ate
−3t
= 5e
−3t
⇒−6Ae
−3t
= 5e
−3t
(since te
−3t
terms cancel)
5
.
5
⇒ A = −
6
Thus x
p
= −
6
te
−3t
and the general solution is
x = −
6
5
te
−3t
+ c
1
e
3t
+ c
2
e
−3t
.
25. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

+2x

+5x = 3 sin t
we get, r
2
+ 2r + 5 = 0 r =
−2±

4−20
r = −1 ± 2i. ⇒
2

Thus x
h
= e
−t
(c
1
cos 2t + c
2
sin 2t) . Since sin t is not a homogeneous
solution, x
p
= A cos t + B sin t, x

= −A sin t + B cos t,
p
x

p
= −A cos t − B sin t. Substituting these in the original equation
we have,
−A cos t − B sin t − 2A sin t + 2B cos t + 5A cos t + 5B sin t = 3 sin t
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
47 LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS
cos t : 4A + 2B = 0
sin t : −2A + 4B = 3
Multiplying the second equation by 2 and then adding we get,
3 3 3 3
10B = 6 ⇒ B =
5
and then A = −
10
. Thus x
p
= −
10
cos t +
5
sin t
and the general solution is
3 3
x = −
10
cos t +
5
sin t + e
−t
(c
1
cos 2t + c
2
sin 2t) .
x

=
3
sin t +
3
cos t + e
−t
(−2c
1
sin 2t + 2c
2
cos 2t)
10 5
−e
−t
(c
1
cos 2t + c
2
sin 2t)
Using the initial conditions we get,
1 = −
3
+ c
1
c
1
=
13
and 1 =
3
+ 2c
2
− c
1
c
2
=
17
.
3 3 17
Thus x
10
= −

cos t +
10
sin t + e
−t
5
13
cos 2t +

sin 2t
20
.
10 5 10 20
27. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

+ 9x = 4 sin 3t
we get r
2
+ 9 = 0 ⇒ r = ±3i. Thus x
h
= c
1
cos 3t + c
2
sin 3t.
Since β = 3 and r = βi = 3i is a root of characteristic equation
with multiplicity 1, k = 1. So x
p
= t (A cos 3t + B sin 3t) ,
x

= A cos 3t + B sin 3t + t (−3A sin 3t + 3B cos 3t) ,
p
x

= −3A sin 3t + 3B cos 3t − 3A sin 3t + 3B cos 3t
p
+t (−9A cos 3t − 9B sin 3t)
= −6A sin 3t + 6B cos 3t − 9At cos 3t − 9Bt sin 3t.
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
−6A sin 3t + 6B cos 3t − 9At cos 3t − 9Bt sin 3t + 9At cos 3t
+9Bt sin 3t = 4 sin 3t
⇒−6A sin 3t + 6B cos 3t = 4 sin 3t (since last 4 terms cancel)
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
cos 3t : 6B = 0 B = 0 ⇒
2
sin 3t : −6A = 4 A = −
3
.
2

Thus x
p
= −
3
t cos 3t and the general solution is
x = −
3
2
t cos 3t + c
1
cos 3t + c
2
sin 3t.
29. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

+ x = cos 2t
we get r
2
+ 1 = 0 ⇒ r = ±i. Thus x
h
= c
1
cos t + c
2
sin t.
Since β = 2 but r = βi = 2i is not a root of characteristic equation,
k = 0. So x
p
= A cos 2t + B sin 2t, x

= −2A sin 2t + 2B cos 2t,
p
x

= −4A cos 2t − 4B sin 2t. Substituting these in the original
p
equation we have, −4A cos 2t − 4B sin 2t + A cos 2t + B sin 2t = cos 2t
⇒−3B sin 2t − 3A cos 2t = cos 2t.
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
cos 2t : −3A = 1 A = −
3
1

sin 3t : −3B = 0 B = 0.
1

Thus x
p
= −
3
cos 2t and the general solution is
x = −
1
cos 2t + c
1
cos t + c
2
sin t x

=
2
sin 2t − c
1
sin t + c
2
cos t.
3 3

Using the initial conditions we get, 0 = −
1
+ c
1
c
1
=
1
; 2 = c
2
.
1 1
3

3
Thus x = − cos 2t + cos t + 2 sin t.
3 3
31. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

− 4x = te
3t
we get, r
2
− 4 = 0 ⇒ r = ±2 . Thus x
h
= c
1
e
2t
+ c
2
e
−2t
. The forcing
function is of p(t)e
αt
where p(t) is a first degree polynomial, α = 3
but r = 3 is not a root k = 0. So x
p
= (A
0
+ A
1
t) e
3t
, ⇒
48 CHAPTER 2
x

p
= A
1
e
3t
+ 3 (A
0
+ A
1
t) e
3t
= (3A
0
+ A
1
) e
3t
+ 3A
1
te
3t
,
x

p
= 3 (3A
0
+ A
1
) e
3t
+3A
1
e
3t
+9A
1
te
3t
= (9A
0
+ 6A
1
) e
3t
+9A
1
te
3t
.
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
(9A
0
+ 6A
1
) e
3t
+ 9A
1
te
3t
− 4 (A
0
+ A
1
t) e
3t
= te
3t

(5A
0
+ 6A
1
) e
3t
+ 5A
1
te
3t
= te
3t
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
te
3t
: 5A
1
= 1 A
1
=
5
1
e
3t
: 5A
0
+ 6A
1

= 0
6
6 1 3t
⇒ A
0
= −
25
Thus x
p
=


25
+
5
t

e and the general solution is
6 3t 1 2t
x = x
p
+ x
h
= −
25
e +
5
te
3t
+ c
1
e + c
2
e
−2t
.
33. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

− 4x

+ 3x = te
t
we get r
2
− 4r + 3 = 0 (r − 1) (r − 3) r = 1, 3 . Thus
t 3t
⇒ ⇒
αt
x
h
= c
1
e + c
2
e . The forcing function is of the form p(t)e
where p(t) is a first degree polynomial, α = 1 and r = 1 is a
root of homogeneous equation with multiplicity 1 k = 1.
So x
p
= t (A
0
+ A
1
t) e
t
=

A
0
t + A
1
t
2

e
t
,

t t t
x
p

= (A
0
+ 2A
1
t) e +

A
0
t + A
1
t
2

e =

A
0
+ (A
0
+ 2A
1
) t + A
1
t
2

e ,
t t
x

p
= (A
0
+ 2A
1
+ 2A
1
t) e +

A
0
+ (A
0
+ 2A
1
) t + A
1
t
2

e
t
=

2A
0
+ 2A
1
+ (A
0
+ 4A
1
) t + A
1
t
2

e .
Substituting these in the original equation we have
t t

2A
0
+ 2A
1
+ (A
0
+ 4A
1
) t + A
1
t
2

e −4

A
0
+ (A
0
+ 2A
1
) t + A
1
t
2

e
t t
+3

A
0
t + A
1
t
2

e = te
t
(−2A
0
+ 2A
1
) e − 4A
1
te
t
= te
t
(since t
2
e
t
terms cancel).

Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
te
t
: −4A
1
= 1 A
1
= −
4
1
=


e
1
4
t
t
:

1
4
−2
t
A
0
+ 2A
1

= 0 ⇒ A
0
= A
1
= −
1
4
Thus x
p
t
2

e and the general solution is
x = x
p
+ x
h
= −
4
1
rt
te
t

4
1
t
2
e
t
+ c
1
e
t
+ c
2
e
3t
.
35. Substituting x = e in the homogeneous part of x

+ 16x = 3 cos 4t
we get r
2
+ 16 = 0 ⇒ r = ±4i. Thus x
h
= c
1
cos 4t + c
2
sin 4t.
Since β = 4 and r = βi = 4i is a root of characteristic equation with
multiplicity 1, k = 1. So x
p
= t (A cos 4t + B sin 4t) ,
x

p
= A cos 4t + B sin 4t + t (−4A sin 4t + 4B cos 4t) ,
x

= −4A sin 4t + 4B cos 4t − 4A sin 4t + 4B cos 4t
p
+t (−16A cos 4t − 16B sin 4t)
= −8A sin 4t + 8B cos 4t + t (−16A cos 4t − 16B sin 4t) .
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
−8A sin 4t + 8B cos 4t + t (−16A cos 4t − 16B sin 4t)
+16t (A cos 4t + B sin 4t) = 3 cos 4t
⇒−8A sin 4t + 8B cos 4t = 3 cos 4t (since last 4 terms cancel)
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
cos 4t : 8B = 3 B =
3

8
sin 4t : −8A = 0 A = 0.
3

Thus x
p
=
8
t sin 4t and the general solution is
x =
8
3
t sin 4t + c
1
cos 4t + c
2
sin 4t.
LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 49
37. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of
x

− 2x

+ 5x = e
t
cos 3t we get r
2
− 2r + 5 = 0 r =


4−20

2
⇒ r = 1 ± 2i. Thus x
h
= e
t
(c
1
cos 2t + c
2
sin 2t) . Since α = 1 and
β = 3 but r = 1 ± 3i is not root of characteristic equation k = 0.
So x
p
= e
t
(A cos 3t + B sin 3t) ,

x

= e
t
(A cos 3t + B sin 3t) + e
t
(−3A sin 3t + 3B cos 3t)
p
= [(A + 3B) cos 3t + (B − 3A) sin 3t] e
t
,
x

= [(A + 3B) cos 3t + (B − 3A) sin 3t] e
t
p
+[−3 (A + 3B) sin 3t + 3 (B − 3A) cos 3t] e
t
= [(6B − 8A) cos 3t + (−6A − 8B) sin 3t] e
t
.
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
[(6B − 8A) cos 3t + (−6A − 8B) sin 3t] e
t
−2 [(A + 3B) cos 3t + (B − 3A) sin 3t] e
t
+5e
t
(A cos 3t + B sin 3t) = e
t
cos 3t
[(6B − 8A) − 2 (A + 3B) + 5A] e
t
cos 3t+[(−6A − 8B) − 2 (B − 3A) + 5B] ⇒
= e
t
cos 3t
⇒−5Ae
t
cos 3t − 5Be
t
sin 3t = e
t
cos 3t.
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
e
t
cos 3t : −5A = 1 A = −
1
e
t
sin 3t : −5B = 0

B = 0
5
.
1

Thus x
p
= −
5
e
t
cos 3t and the general solution is
x = −
5
1
e
t
cos 3t + e
t
(c
1
cos 2t + c
2
sin 2t) .
39. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

+ 4x

= 12t
2
+ e
t
we get r
2
+ 4r = 0 ⇒ r (r + 4) = 0 ⇒ r = 0, −4.
Thus x
h
= c
1
+ c
2
e
−4t
. The first forcing term is a second degree
polynomial and r = 0 is a root with multiplicity 1 k = 1. ⇒
The second forcing term is of the form e
αt
with α = 1 and r = 1 is
not a root. So x
p
= t

At
2
+ Bt + C

+ De
t
,
x

p
= 3At
2
+ 2Bt + C + De
t
, x

p
= 6At + 2B + De
t
.
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
6At + 2B + De
t
+ 12At
2
+ 8Bt + 4C + 4De
t
= 12t
2
+ e
t
.
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
e
t
: D + 4D = 1 D =
1
5
t
2
: 12A = 12

A = 1 ⇒
3
t : 6A + 8B = 0 B = −
4
t
0
: 2B + 4C = 0

C =
3
3 3 1

t
8
Thus x
p
= t

t
2
4
t +
8

+
5
e and the general solution is −
3 3 1 t
x = x
p
+ x
h
= t
3
4
t
2
+
8
t +
5
e + c
1
+ c
2
e
−4t
.
x

= 3t
2

3
t +
3

+
1
e
t
− 4c
2
e
−4t
.
2 8 5
Using the initial conditions we get,
1 = c
1
+ c
2
+
5
1
3 1
−1
=
+
1 =
3
8
+
5
1
− 4c
2
15+8−40 17
160
8 5
. Then from = −
4
c
2
=
4 160

1 17 145 29
the first equation we have, c
1
= 1 −
5
− c
2
Thus x = t
3 3
t
2
+
3
t +
1
e
t
+
29 17
e
−4t
. −
4
rt
8 5 32

160
41. Substituting x = e in the homogeneous part of x

+ 2x

+ x = 3e
−t
we get r
2
+ 2r + 1 = 0 ⇒ (r + 1)
2
= 0 ⇒ r = −1 with multiplicity 2.
+ = = = .
5 160 160 32
50 CHAPTER 2
Thus x
h
= c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
te
−t
. The forcing term is of the form e
αt
with
α = −1 and r = −1 is a root with multiplicity 2 k = 2.
So x
p
= At
2
e
−t
, x

p
= 2Ate
−t
− At
2
e
−t
,

x

p
= 2Ae
−t
− 2Ate
−t
− 2Ate
−t
+ At
2
e
−t
= 2Ae
−t
− 4Ate
−t
+ At
2
e
−t
.
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
2Ae
−t
− 4Ate
−t
+ At
2
e
−t
+ 4Ate
−t
− 2At
2
e
−t
+ At
2
e
−t
= 3e
−t
2Ae
−t
= 3e
−t
(since te
−t
and t
2
e
−t
terms cancel).

Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
e
−t
: 2A = 3 A =
3
3

2
Thus x
p
=
2
t
2
e
−t
and the general solution is
x =
3
2
t
2
e
−t
+ c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
te
−t
.
43. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of
x

−4x

+4x = te
t
−e
t
+2e
3t
= (t − 1) e
t
+2e
3t
we get, r
2
−4r +4 = 0
⇒ (r − 2)
2
= 0 ⇒ r = 2 with multiplicity 2. Thus x
h
= c
1
e
2t
+c
2
te
2t
.
The first forcing term is of the form p(t)e
αt
where p(t) is a first degree
polynomial, α = 1 but r = 1 is not a root. The second forcing term
is of the form e
αt
with α = 3 but r = 3 is not a root k = 0.
So x
p
= (A
0
+ A
1
t) e
t
+ A
2
e
3t
,

x

p
= A
1
e
t
+ (A
0
+ A
1
t) e
t
+ 3A
2
e
3t
= (A
0
+ A
1
+ A
1
t) e
t
+ 3A
2
e
3t
,
x

p
= A
1
e
t
+ (A
0
+ A
1
+ A
1
t) e
t
+ 9A
2
e
3t
= (A
0
+ 2A
1
+ A
1
t) e
t
+ 9A
2
e
3t
. Substituting these in the original
equation we have, (A
0
+ 2A
1
+ A
1
t) e
t
+9A
2
e
3t
−4 (A
0
+ A
1
+ A
1
t) e
t
−12A
2
e
3t
+ 4 (A
0
+ A
1
t) e
t
+ 4A
2
e
3t
= te
t
− e
t
+ 2e
3t
(A
0
− 2A
1
) e
t
+ A
1
te
t
+ A
2
e
3t
= te
t
− e
t
+ 2e
3t

Equating the coefficients of like terms we have
e
3t
: A
2
= 2
te
t
: A
1
= 1
e
t
: A
0
− 2A
1
= −1 A
0
= 2A
1
− 1 = 1.
3t

Thus x
p
= (1 + t) e
t
+ 2e and the general solution is
x = x
p
+ x
h
= (1 + t) e
t
+ 2e
3t
+ c
1
e
2t
+ c
2
te
2t
.
45. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of
x

+ 5x

+ 4x = 8t
2
+ 3 + 2 cos 2t =

8t
2
+ 3

+ 2 cos 2t
we get, r
2
+ 5r + 4 = 0 ⇒ (r + 1) (r + 4) = 0 ⇒ r = −1, −4.
Thus x
h
= c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
e
−4t
. Here first part of the forcing function is a
second degree polynomial and r = 0 is not a root. In the second part
β = 2 and r = βi = 2i is not a root k = 0.
So x
p
= A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2
+ B
1
cos 2t

+ B
2
sin 2t,
x

p
= A
1
+ 2A
2
t − 2B
1
sin 2t + 2B
2
cos 2t,
x

p
= 2A
2
− 4B
1
cos 2t − 4B
2
sin 2t.
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
2A
2
− 4B
1
cos 2t − 4B
2
sin 2t +5 (A
1
+ 2A
2
t − 2B
1
sin 2t + 2B
2
cos 2t)
+4

A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2
+ B
1
cos 2t + B
2
sin 2t

= 8t
2
+ 3 + 2 cos 2t ⇒
(2A
2
+ 5A
1
+ 4A
0
)+(10A
2
+ 4A
1
) t+4A
2
t
2
+10B
2
cos 2t−10B
1
sin 2t
= 8t
2
+ 3 + 2 cos 2t
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
51 LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS
cos 2t : 10B
2
= 2 B
2
=
1

5
sin 2t : 10B
1
= 0 B
1
= 0
t
2
: 4A
2
= 8

A
2
= 2 ⇒
t : 10A
2
+ 4A
1
= 0 ⇒ A
1
= −5
t
0
: 2A
2
+ 5A
1
+ 4A
0
= 3 A
0
= 6
1

Thus x
p
= 6 − 5t + 2t
2
+ sin 2t and the general solution is
5
x = 6 − 5t + 2t
2
+
1
sin 2t + c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
e
−4t
.
5
47. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

+ 3x = t
2
+ 1
we get r + 3 = 0 ⇒ r = −3. Thus x
h
= ce
−3t
. Here the forcing
function is a second degree polynomial and r = 0 is not a root
k = 0. So x
p
= A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2
, x

p
= A
1
+ 2A
2
t. ⇒
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
A
1
+ 2A
2
t + 3

A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2

= t
2
+ 1
3A
0
+ A
1
+ (3A
1
+ 2A
2
) t + 3A
2
t
2
= t
2
+ 1

Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
t
2
: 3A
2
= 1 A
2
=
1

3
t : 3A
1
+ 2A
2
= 0 A
1
= −
2
9
t
0
: 3A
0
+ A
1
= 1

A
0
=
11
11 2 1

27
Thus x
p
=
27

9
t +
3
t
2
and the general solution is
11 2 1
t
2
x =
27

9
t + + ce
−3t
3
.
49. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

+ 4x = sin 2t
we get, r
2
+ 4 = 0 ⇒ r = ±2i. Thus x
h
= c
1
cos 2t + c
2
sin 2t.
Since β = 2 and r = 2i = βi is a root with multiplicity 1, k = 1
and so x
p
= t (A cos 2t + B sin 2t) ,
x

= A cos 2t + B sin 2t + t (−2A sin 2t + 2B cos 2t) ,
p
x

p
= −2A sin 2t + 2B cos 2t − 2A sin 2t + 2B cos 2t
+t (−4A cos 2t − 4B sin 2t)
= −4A sin 2t + 4B cos 2t + t (−4A cos 2t − 4B sin 2t) .
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
−4A sin 2t + 4B cos 2t + t (−4A cos 2t − 4B sin 2t)
+4t (A cos 2t + B sin 2t) = sin 2t
⇒−4A sin 2t + 4B cos 2t = sin 2t (since t cos 2t terms cancel)
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
cos 2t : 4B = 0 B = 0 ⇒
1
sin 2
1
t : −4A = 1 ⇒ A = −
4
Thus x
p
= −
4
t cos 2t and the general solution is
x = −
4
1
t cos 2t + c
1
cos 2t + c
2
sin 2t.
51. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of 3x

− 2x = te
t
we get, 3r − 2 = 0 r =
3
2
. Thus x
h
= ce
3
2
t
. ⇒
The forcing term is of the form p(t)e
αt
where p(t) is a first degree
polynomial, α = 1 but r = 1 is not a root k = 0.
t

t
So x
p
= (A
0
+ A
1
t) e , x

p
= A
1
e
t
+ (A
0
+ A
1
t) e .
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
3A
1
e
t
+ 3 (A
0
+ A
1
t) e
t
− 2 (A
0
+ A
1
t) e
t
= te
t
(A
0
+ 3A
1
) e
t
+ A
1
te
t
= te
t

Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
52 CHAPTER 2
te
t
: A
1
= 1
e
t
: A
0
+ 3A
1
= 0 A
0
= −3A
1
= −3.
t

Thus x
p
= (−3 + t) e and the general solution is
2
x = x
p
+ x
h
= (−3 + t) e
t
+ ce
3
t
.
53. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of
x

− 5x

+ 6x = t
5
+ 7t
3
+ 4t we get r
2
− 5r + 6 = 0
2t 3t

(r − 2) (r − 3) = 0 r = 2, 3. Thus e and e are independent ⇒
homogeneous solutions. Here forcing function is a fifth degree
polynomial but r = 0 is not a root.
So the form is x
p
= A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2
+ A
3
t
3
+ A
4
t
4
+ A
5
t
5
.
55. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

+9x

= t
3
we get
r
2
+ 9r = 0 ⇒ r (r + 9) = 0 ⇒ r = 0, −9. Thus 1 and e
−9t
are
independent homogeneous solutions. Here forcing function is a third
degree polynomial and r = 0 is a root with multiplicity 1 k = 1.
So the form is x
p
= t

A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2
+ A
3
t
3

.

57. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

+5x

+6x = 5e
4t
we get r
2
+ 5r + 6 = 0 ⇒ (r + 2) (r + 3) = 0 ⇒ r = −2, −3. Thus
e
−2t
and e
−3t
are independent homogeneous solutions. The forcing
term is of the form e
αt
where α = 4 but r = 4 is not a root
k = 0. So the form is x
p
= Ae
4t
. ⇒
rt 2t
59. Substituting x = e in the homogeneous part of x

− 4x = 5e we
get, r
2
− 4 = 0 ⇒ (r + 2) (r − 2) = 0 ⇒ r = 2, −2. Thus e
2t
and e
−2t
are independent homogeneous solutions. The forcing term is of the
form e
αt
where α = 2 and r = 2 is a root with multiplicity 1 k = 1.
So the form is x
p
= Ate
2t
.

61. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

+6x

+9x = e
−3t
we get r
2
+ 6r + 9 = 0 (r + 3)
2
= 0 r = −3 with multiplicity 2. ⇒ ⇒
Thus e
−3t
and te
−3t
are independent homogeneous solutions. The
forcing term is of the form e
αt
where α = −3 and r = −3 is a root
with multiplicity 2 k = 2. So the form is x
p
= At
2
e
−3t
.
63. Substituting x = e
rt

in the homogeneous part of x

+2x

+ x = t
3
e
−t
we get r
2
+ 2r + 1 = 0 (r + 1)
2
= 0 r = −1 with multiplicity 2. ⇒ ⇒
Thus e
−t
and te
−t
are independent homogeneous solutions. The
forcing term is of the form p(t)e
αt
where p(t) is a third degree
polynomial, α = −1 and r = −1 is a root with multiplicity 2
k = 2. So the form is x
p
= t
2

A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2
+ A
3
t
3

e
−t
.

65. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

−7x

+12x = t
5
e
4t
we get r
2
− 7r + 12 = 0 (r − 3) (r − 4) = 0 r = 3, 4. Thus e
3t
⇒ ⇒
and e
4t
are independent homogeneous solutions. The forcing term is
of the form p(t)e
αt
where p(t) is a fifth degree polynomial, α = 4 and
r = 4 is a root with multiplicity 1 k = 1. ⇒
4t
So the form is x
p
= t

A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2
+ A
3
t
3
+ A
4
t
4
+ A
5
t
5

e .
67. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

− 6x

+9x = t
4
e
3t
we get r
2
− 6r + 9 = 0 (r − 3)
2
= 0 r = 3 with multiplicity 2.
3t
⇒ ⇒
Thus e and te
3t
are independent homogeneous solutions. The
53 LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS
forcing term is of the form p(t)e
αt
where p(t) is a fourth degree
polynomial, α = 3 and r = 3 is a root with multiplicity 2 k = 2.
3t
So the form is x
p
= t
2

A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2
+ A
3
t
3
+ A
4
t
4

e

.
69. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of
x

+ 3x

− 10x = t
2
e
2t
+ e
5t
we get, r
2
+ 3r − 10 = 0
2t

(r − 2) (r + 5) = 0 ⇒ r = 2, −5. Thus e and e
−5t
are independent
homogeneous solutions. Here the first forcing term is of the form
p(t)e
αt
where p(t) is a second degree polynomial, α = 2 and r = 2
is a root with multiplicity 1 k = 1. So the form is
2t
x
p1
= t

A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2

e

.
The second forcing term is not a homogeneous solution k = 0. ⇒
So the form is x
p2
= Be
5t
. Combining them we get, the form to be
2t
x
p
= t

A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2

e + Be
5t
.
71. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

+ 5x

= cos 5t
we get, r
2
+ 5r = 0 ⇒ r (r + 5) = 0 ⇒ r = 0, −5. Thus 1 and e
−5t
are independent homogeneous solutions. Since the forcing function
cos 5t is not a homogeneous solution, k = 0.
So the form is x
p
= A cos 5t + B sin 5t.
73. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of
x

− 7x

+ 12x = t
2
sin 4t we get, r
2
− 7r + 12 = 0
3t 4t

(r − 3) (r − 4) = 0 r = 3, 4.Thus e and e are independent ⇒
homogeneous solutions. Here the forcing term is of the form p(t) sin βt
where p(t) is a second degree polynomial, β = 4 but r = βi = 4i is
not a root k = 0. ⇒
So the form is x
p
=

A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2

cos 4t+

B
0
+ B
1
t + B
2
t
2

sin 4t.
75. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

+ 25x = cos 5t
we get r
2
+25 = 0 ⇒ r = ±5i. Thus cos 5t and sin 5t are independent
homogeneous solutions. Here β = 5 and r = βi = 5i is a root with
multiplicity 1 k = 1. So the form is x
p
= t (A cos 5t + B sin 5t) . ⇒
rt
77. Substituting x = e in the homogeneous part of
x

− 2x

+ 5x = 3e
t
sin 2t we get, r
2
− 2r + 5 = 0 r =


4−20

2
⇒ r = 1 ± 2i. Thus e
t
cos 2t and e
t
sin 2t are independent
homogeneous solutions. Here the forcing term is of the form e
αt
sin βt
with α = 1, β = 2 and r = α + βi = 1 +2i is a root with multiplicity
1 k = 1. So the form is x
p
= t (Ae
t
cos 2t + Be
t
sin 2t) . ⇒
rt
79. Substituting x = e in the homogeneous part of x

+9x = te
−t
sin 2t
we get, r
2
+9 = 0 ⇒ r = ±3i. Thus cos 3t and sin 3t are independent
homogeneous solutions. Here the forcing term is of the form p(t)e
αt
sin βt
where p(t) is a first degree polynomial and α = −1, β = 2 but
r = α + βi = −1 + 2i is not a root k = 0. ⇒
So the form is x
p
= (A
0
+ A
1
t) e
−t
cos 2t + (B
0
+ B
1
t) e
−t
sin 2t.
81. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of
x

+2x

+2x = t
2
e
t
sin t we get, r
2
+2r +2 = 0 r =
−2±

4−8

2

r = −1 ± i. Thus e
−t
cos t and e
−t
sin t are independent homogeneous
solutions. Here the forcing term is of the form p(t)e
αt
sin βt where
54 CHAPTER 2
p(t) is a second degree polynomial and α = 1, β = 1 and
r = α + βi = 1 + i is not a root k = 0.
So the form is x
p
=

A
0
+ A
1
t + A

2
t
2

e
t
cos t+

B
0
+ B
1
t + B
2
t
2

e
t
sin t.
83. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of
x

+ 2x

+ 2x = e
−t
cos t + e
t
sin t we get, r
2
+ 2r + 2 = 0
r =
−2±

4−8
r = −1 ± i. Thus e
−t
cos t and e
−t
sin t are

2

independent homogeneous solutions. Here the first forcing term is
of the form e
αt
sin βt with α = −1, β = 1 and r = α + βi = −1 + i
is a root with multiplicity 1 k = 1. For the second forcing term, ⇒
r = α + βi = 1 + i is not a root.
So the form is x
p
= A
1
te
−t
cos t + B
1
te
−t
sin t + A
2
e
t
cos t + B
2
e
t
sin t.
85. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of
x

− x
t
= e
−t
− e
t
+ e
t
cos t we get, r
2
− 1 = 0 ⇒ r = ±1.
Thus e and e
−t
are independent homogeneous solutions.
So for the first and second forcing terms k = 1.
The third forcing term is of the form e
αt
sin βt with α = 1, β = 1 but
r = α + βi = 1 + i is not a root k = 0. ⇒
So the form is x
p
= Ate
−t
+ Bte
t
+ Ce
t
cos t + De
t
sin t.
87. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of
x

+16x = t cos 4t +e
−t
sin 4t +3e
−4t
we get, r
2
+16 = 0 ⇒ r = ±4i.
Thus cos 4t and sin 4t are independent homogeneous solutions.
The first forcing term is of the form p(t) sin βt where p(t) is a first
degree polynomial, β = 4 and r = βi = 4i is a root with multiplicity
1 k = 1. So the form is x
p1
= t [(A
0
+ A
1
t) cos 4t + (B
0
+ B
1
t) sin 4t] . ⇒
The second forcing term is of the form e
αt
sin βt where α = −1, β = 4
but r = α + βi = −1 + 4i is not a root k = 0. ⇒
So the form is x
p2
= A
2
e
−t
cos 4t + B
2
e
−t
sin 4t.
The third forcing term is of the form e
αt
with α = −4 but r = α = −4
is not a root k = 0. So the form is x
p3
= A
3
e
−4t
. ⇒
Now combining them we have the form as
x
p
= t [(A
0
+ A
1
t) cos 4t + (B
0
+ B
1
t) sin 4t] + A
2
e
−t
cos 4t
+B
2
e
−t
sin 4t + A
3
e
−4t
.
89. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of
x

− 2x

+ 2x = t
3
e
−t
sin t + e
t
cos t we get, r
2
− 2r + 2 = 0


4−8

r = r = 1 ± i. Thus e
t
cos t and e
t
sin t are independent
2

homogeneous solutions. The first forcing term is of the form
p(t)e
αt
sin βt where p(t) is a third degree polynomial, α = −1, β = 1
and r = α + βi = −1 + i is not a root k = 0. So the form is
x
p1
=

A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2
+ A
3
t
3

e
−t
cos

t+

B
0
+ B
1
t + B
2
t
2
+ B
3
t
3

e
−t
sin t.
The second forcing term is of the form e
αt
cos βt where α = 1, β = 1
and r = α + βi = 1 + i is a root with multiplicity 1 k = 1.
So the form is x
p2
= t (Ce
t
cos t + De
t
sin t) .

Now combining them we have the form as
x
p
=

A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2
+ A
3
t
3

e
−t
cos t+

B
0
+ B
1
t + B
2
t
2
+ B
3
t
3

e
−t
sin t
+Cte
t
cos t + Dte
t
sin t.
LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 55
91. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of
x

+ 2x

+ x = te
t
sin 3t + e
t
cos 3t we get, r
2
+ 2r + 1 = 0
2

(r + 1) = 0 r = −1 with multiplicity 1. Thus e
−t
and te
−t
are ⇒
independent homogeneous solutions. The forcing term is of the form
p(t)e
αt
cos βt + q(t)e
αt
sin βt where p(t) is a polynomial of degree
zero, q(t) is a polynomial of degree one, α = 1, β = 3 and r = α + βi
= 1 + 3i is not a root k = 0. s = max (0, 1) = 1. ⇒
So the form is x
p
= (A
0
+ A
1
t) e
t
sin 3t + (B
0
+ B
1
t) e
t
cos 3t.
93. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of
x

+4x

+8x = t
2
e
−2t
sin 2t + te
−2t
cos 2t we get, r
2
+4r +8 = 0
r =
−4±

16−32
r = −2 ± 2i. Thus e
−2t
cos 2t and e
−2t
sin 2t are

2

independent homogeneous solutions. The forcing term is of the
form p(t)e
αt
cos βt + q(t)e
αt
sin βt where p(t) is a first degree
polynomial, q(t) is a second degree polynomial, α = −2, β = 2 and
r = α + βi = −2 + 2i is a root with multiplicity 1 k = 1. ⇒
s = max (1, 2) = 2. So the form is
x
p
= t

A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2

e
−2t
sin 2t +

B
0
+ B
1
t + B
2
t
2

e
−2t
cos 2t

.
95. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of
x

+ 4x

+ 13x = t
3
e
−2t
sin 3t we get r
2
+ 4r + 13 = 0
−4±

16−52
r = ⇒
2
⇒ r = −2 ± 3i. Thus e
−2t
cos 3t and e
−2t
sin 3t are independent
homogeneous solutions. The forcing term is of the form p(t)e
αt
sin βt
where p(t) is a third degree polynomial, α = −2, β = 3 and
r = α + βi = −2 + 3i is a root with multiplicity 1 k = 1. ⇒
So the form is
x
p
= t

A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2
+ A
3
t
3

e
−2t
cos 3t+t

B
0
+ B
1
t + B
2
t
2
+ B
3
t
3

e
−2t
sin 3t.
97. (a) Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

= t
3
+ 7t − 2
we get, r
2
= 0 r = 0 with multiplicity 2. Thus 1 and t are ⇒
independent homogeneous solutions. The forcing term is a third
degree polynomial, and r = 0 is a root with multiplicity 2 k = 2.
So the form is x
p
= t
2

A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2
+ A
3
t
3

.

(b) Integrating x

= t
3
+ 7t − 2 with respect to t we get,
x

=
1
t
4
+
7
t
2
− 2t + c
2
. Integrating this again with respect to t we
1
t
5 7
t
3
= t
2

1
t
3 7
get, x
4
=
20
2
+
6
− t
2
+ c
2
t + c
1
+ t − 1

+ c
2
t + c
1
.
20 6
The last two terms correspond to the homogeneous solution and
7
hence the particular solution is x
p
= t
2

1
t
3
+ t − 1

.
20 6
99. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of
x

− 3
3
x

+ 3x

− x = e
2t
we get, r
3
− 3r
2
+ 3r − 1 = 0 ⇒
(r − 1) = 0 r = 1 with multiplicity 3. Thus
t

t αt
x
h
= c
1
e + c
2
te
t
+ c
3
t
2
e . The forcing term is of the form e
with α = 2 but r = 2 is not a root k = 0. So x
p
= Ae
2t
,
p p
, x


. Substituting these in x

= 2Ae
2t
, x

= 4Ae
2t
p
= 8Ae
2t
the original equation we have,
8Ae
2t
− 12Ae
2t
+ 6Ae
2t
− Ae
2t
= e
2t
Ae
2t
= e
2t
A = 1. ⇒
2t

t t
Thus x
p
= e
2t
and the general solution is x = e +c
1
e +c
2
te
t
+c
3
t
2
e .
56 CHAPTER 2
101. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

− x

= sin t we
3 2
get, r − r = 0 r

r − 1

= 0 r = 0, ±1. ⇒
t

Thus x
h
= c
1
+c
2
e +c
3
e
−t
. Since sin t is not a homogeneous solution,
x
p
= A cos t + B sin t, x
p

= −A sin t + B cos t, x
p

= −A cos t − B sin t,
x

= A sin t − B cos t. Substituting these in the original equation
p
we have,
A sin t − B cos t + A sin t − B cos t = sin t 2A sin t − 2B cos t = sin t. ⇒
Equating the coefficients of like terms
cos t : −2B = 0 B = 0 ⇒
1
sin t : 2A = 1 A =
1

2
Thus x
p
=
2
cos t and the general solution is
x =
1
2
cos t + c
1
+ c
2
e
t
+ c
3
e
−t
.
103. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

+ x

= 3+2 cos t
we get, r
3
+ r = 0 r

r
2
+ 1

= 0 r = 0, ±i. Thus ⇒ ⇒
x
h
= c
1
+ c
2
cos t + c
3
sin t. The first forcing term is a constant and
r = 0 is a root k = 1. So x
p1
= At. The second forcing term ⇒
involves cos t which is also a homogeneous solution.
So x
p2
= Bt cos t + Ct sin t.
Combining them we get, x
p
= At + Bt cos t + Ct sin t,
x

p
= A + B cos t − Bt sin t + C sin t + Ct cos t,
x

p
= −B sin t − B sin t − Bt cos t + C cos t + C cos t − Ct sin t
= −2B sin t + 2C cos t − Bt cos t − Ct sin t,
x

p
= −2B cos t − 2C sin t − B cos t + Bt sin t − C sin t − Ct cos t
= −3B cos t − 3C sin t + Bt sin t − Ct cos t.
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
−3B cos t − 3C sin t + Bt sin t − Ct cos t + A + B cos t − Bt sin t
+C sin t + Ct cos t = 3 + 2 cos t ⇒
A − 2B cos t − 2C sin t = 3 + 2 cos t
(since t cos t and t sin t terms cancel)
Equating the like terms we have,
cos t : −2B = 2 B = −1 ⇒
sin
t
0
t : −2C = 0 ⇒ C = 0
: A = 3
Thus x
p
= 3t − t cos t and the general solution is
x = 3t − t cos t + c
1
+ c
2
cos t + c
3
sin t
x

= 3 − cos t + t sin t − c
2
sin t + c
3
cos t
x

= sin t + sin t + t cos t − c
2
cos t − c
3
sin t
Using the initial conditions we have,
0 = c
1
+ c
2
0 = 3 − 1 + c
3
c
3
= −2 ⇒
0 = −c
2
c
2
= 0. Then c
1
= 0. ⇒
Thus x = 3t − t cos t − 2 sin t.
105. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

− 16x = 5te
t
we get r
4
− 16 = 0 r
4
= 16 r
2
= ±4 r = ±2, ±2i.
2t
⇒ ⇒ ⇒
Thus x
h
= c
1
e + c
2
e
−2t
+ c
3
cos 2t + c
4
sin 2t. The forcing function
is of the form p(t)e
αt
where p(t) is a first degree polynomial, α = 1,
57 LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS
and r = 1 is not a root k = 0. So x
p
= (A
0
+ A
1
t) e
t
= A
0
e
t
+A
1
te
t
x
p

= A
0
e
t
+ A
1
e
t
+ A
1

te
t
, x
p

= A
0
e
t
+ 2A
1
e
t
+ A
1
te
t
,
x

p
= A
0
e
t
+ 3A
1
e
t
+ A
1
te
t
, x

p
= A
0
e
t
+ 4A
1
e
t
+ A
1
te
t
.
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
A
0
e
t
+ 4A
1
e
t
+ A
1
te
t
− 16A
0
e
t
− 16A
1
te
t
= 5te
t
−15A
0
e
t
+ 4A
1
e
t
− 15A
1
te
t
= 5te
t
.

Equating the like terms we have,
te
t
: −15A
1
= 5 A
1
= −
3
1
t

4 4
e : −15A
0
+ 4A
1
= 0 A
0
= A
1
.
4 t 1

15
= −
45
Thus x
p
= −
45
e
3
te
t
and the general solution is
4 t 1

2t
x = − e − te
t
+
rt
c
1
e + c
2
e
−2t
+ c
3
cos 2t + c
4
sin 2t.
45 3
107. Substituting x = e in the homogeneous part of
x

− 5x

+ 4x = e
2t
− e
3t
we get r
4
− 5r
2
+ 4 = 0

r
2
− 1

r
2
− 4

= 0 r
2
= 1, 4 r = ±1, ±2.

t

2t

Thus x
h
= c
1
e + c
2
e
−t
+ c
3
e + c
4
e
−2t
. The first forcing function,
e
2t
, is also a homogeneous solution k = 1. So x
p1
= Ate
2t
.
3t

The second forcing function e is not a homogeneous solution
k = 0. So x
p2
= Be
3t
. Combining them we get, ⇒
x
p
= Ate
2t
+ Be
3t
.
x

p
= Ae
2t
+ 2Ate
2t
+ 3Be
3t
, x
p

= 4Ae
2t
+ 4Ate
2t
+ 9Be
3t
,
x

p
= 12Ae
2t
+ 8Ate
2t
+ 27Be
3t
p
= 32Ae
2t
+ 16Ate
2t
+ 81Be
3t
. , x

Substituting these in the original equation we have,
32Ae
2t
+ 16Ate
2t
+ 81Be
3t
− 5

4Ae
2t
+ 4Ate
2t
+ 9Be
3t

2t 3t
+4

Ate
2t
+ Be
3t

= e − e
⇒ 12Ae
2t
+ 40Be
3t
= e
2t
− e
3t
(since te
2t
terms cancel).
Equating the like terms we have,
e
2t
: 12A = 1 A =
1
3t

12
1
e : 40B = −1 ⇒ B = − .
40
1 1 3t
Thus x
p
=
12
te
2t
40
e and the general solution is
1 1 3t

t 2t
x =
12
te
2t
40
e + c
1
e + c
2
e
−t
+ c
3
e + c
4
e
−2t
. −
rt
109. Substituting x = e in the homogeneous part of
x

− 3x

+ 3x

− x = t
2
e
t
− 3e
t
=

t
2
− 3

e
t
we get,
r
3
− 3r
t
2
+ 3r − 1 = 0
t
⇒ (r − 1)
3
= 0 ⇒ r = 1 with multiplicity 3.
Thus e , te
t
, and t
2
e are independent homogeneous solutions.
The forcing term is of the form p(t)e
αt
where p(t) is a second degree
polynomial, α = 1 and r = 1 is a root with multiplicity 3 k = 3.
So the form is x
p
= t
3

A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2

e
t
.

111. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of
x

− 4x

+ 6x

− 4x

+ x = t
3
e
t
+ t
2
e
−t
we get,
r
4 3
+6r
2
− 4r +1 = 0 (r − 1)
4
= 0 r = 1 with multiplicity − 4r
t t
⇒ ⇒
4. Thus e , te
t
, t
2
e
t
and t
3
e are independent homogeneous solutions.
The first forcing term is of the form p(t)e
αt
, where p(t) is a third
degree polynomial, α = 1 and r = 1 is a root with multiplicity 4
k = 4. So the form is x
p1
= t
4

A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2
+ A
3
t
3

e
t
.

The second forcing term is of the form p(t)e
αt
, where p(t) is a second
58 CHAPTER 2
degree polynomial, α = −1 but r = −1 is not a root k = 0.
So the form is x
p2
=

B
0
+ B
1
t + B
2
t
2

e
−t
.

Now combining them we have the form as
= t
4

A
0
+ A
1
t + A
2
t
2
+ A
3
t
3

e
t
+

B
0
+ B
1
t + B
2
t
2

e
−t
x
p
.
113. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of
x

+ 2x

+ 2x

= 3e
−t
cos t we get, r
3
+ 2r
2
+ 2r = 0 ⇒
r

r
2
+ 2r + 2

= 0 r = 0, −1 ± i. Thus 1, e
−t
cos t, and e
−t
sin t ⇒
are independent homogeneous solutions. The forcing term is of the
form e
αt
cos βt where α = −1, β = 1 and r = α + βi is a root with
multiplicity 1 k = 1. So the form is x
p
= t (Ae
−t
cos t + Be
−t
sin t) . ⇒
rt
115. Substituting x = e in the homogeneous part of
x

+ 4x

+ 8x

+ 8x

+ 4x = 7e
−t
cos t we get
r
4
+ 4r
3
+ 8r
2
+ 8r + 4 = 0

r
4
+ 4r
2
+ 4

+

4r
3
+ 8r

+ 4r
2
= 0 (regrouping) ⇒

r
2
+ 2

2
+ 4r

r
2
+ 2

+ 4r
2
= 0 (perfect square form) ⇒

r
2
+ 2r + 2

2
= 0 r = −1±i with multiplicity 2.Thus e
−t
cos t, ⇒ ⇒
e
−t
sin t, te
−t
cos t and te
−t
sin t are independent homogeneous
solutions.. The forcing term is of the form e
αt
cos βt where α = −1,
β = 1 and r = α + βi is a root with multiplicity 2 k = 2.
So the form is x
p
= t
2
(Ae
−t
cos t + Be
−t
sin t) .

2.7 MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS II: FORCED RESPONSE
2.7.1 Friction is Absent(δ = 0)
1. The characteristic equation of mx

+ 4x = 13 cos ωt, by substituting
x = e
rt
, is mr
2
+ 4 = 0 which has pure imaginary roots r = ±i

4
.
m

4
Resonance occurs if ω =
m
. If forcing function has a frequency
ω

4 1
of 20 Hz, then

= 20 ⇒ ω = 40π. So 40π =
m
⇒ m =
400π
2
.
3. The characteristic equation of 36x

+ kx = 4 cos ωt, by substituting
rt 2

k
x = e , is 36r + k = 0 which has pure imaginary roots r = ±i .
36

k
Resonance occurs if ω =
36
. If forcing function has a frequency
of 22 Hz, then
2
ω
π
= 22 ω = 44π.

k

2
So 44π =
36
k = 36 (44π) = 69696π
2
. ⇒
5. The characteristic equation of mx

+ 10x = F cos ωt, by substituting
x = e
rt
, is mr
2
+ 10 = 0 which has pure imaginary roots r = ±i

10
.
m

10
Resonance occurs if ω =
m
. If forcing function has a frequency
between 10 and 70 Hz, then 10 <
2
ω
π
< 70 20π < ω < 140π

10 1 m 1
⇒ ⇒
20π < < 140π < <
m

(140π)
2
10 (20π)
2

59 LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS
10 10

(140π)
2
< m <
(20π)
2
.
7. The characteristic equation of 15x

+8x = f(t), by substituting x = e
rt
,
is 15r
2
+ 8 = 0 which has pure imaginary roots r = ±i

8
.
15

8
Resonance occurs if ω = .
15
ω 1

8
Then the frequency of the forcing function is

=
2π 15
.
9. The characteristic equation of mx

+ 15x = F sin ωt by substituting
x = e
rt
, is mr
2
+ 15 = 0 which has pure imaginary roots r = ±i

15
.
m

15
Resonance occurs if ω =
m
. The frequency of the forcing function
ω

15 15 1
is

= 30 ⇒ ω = 60π. So 60π =
m
⇒ m =
(60π)
2
=
240π
2
gm.
11. Let φ =
β+ω
t, θ =
β−ω
t. Then φ − θ = ωt and φ + θ = βt.
2 2
Now using the given formula we have,
cos(φ − θ) = cos φ cos θ + sin φ sin θ and
cos(φ + θ) = cos φ cos θ − sin φ sin θ.
Subtracting we get, cos(φ − θ) −cos(φ + θ) = 2 sin φ sin θ
cos ωt − cos βt = 2 sin

β+ω
t

sin

β−ω
t

.

2 2
13. mg = kd, mx

= F
T
= −k (x + d) + mg = −kx, mx

+ kx = 0.
15. The characteristic equation of mx

+ kx = F cos ωt, by substituting
rt 2

k
x = e , is mr + k = 0 which has pure imaginary roots r = ±i =
m

k
±iω
0
where ω
0
= . Thus x
h
= c
1
cos ω
0
t + c
2
sin ω
0
t. Since the
m
forcing term, cos ωt, is not a homogeneous solution (because ω = ω
0
),
x
p
= A cos ωt + B sin ωt, x

= −Aω sin ωt + Bω cos ωt,
p
x

p
= −Aω
2
cos ωt − Bω
2
sin ωt. Substituting these in the original
equation we have,
−Amω
2
cos ωt − Bmω
2
sin ωt + Ak cos ωt + Bk sin ωt = F cos ωt

Ak − Amω
2

cos ωt +

Bk − Bmω
2

sin ωt = F cos ωt. ⇒
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
cos ωt : Ak − Amω
2
= F ⇒ A =
k−
F

2
0
sin ωt : Bk −Bmω
2
= 0 ⇒ B =
k−mω
2
= 0 (since k = mω
2
)
So x
p
=
k−
F

2
cos ωt and thus the general solution is
x =
k−
F

2
cos ωt + c
1
cos ω
0
t + c
2
sin ω
0
t

x

= −
k−mω
2
sin ωt − c
1
ω
0
sin ω
0
t + c
2
ω
0
cos ω
0
t
Using the initial conditions
x(0) = x
0
=
k−
F

2
+ c
1
c
1
= x
0

k−
F

2

and x

(0) = 0 = c
2
ω
0
c
2
= 0 (since ω
0
= 0).
F

F

Thus x =
k−mω
2
cos ωt + x
0

k−mω
2
cos ω
0
t ⇒
x =
k−
F

2
(cos ωt − cos ω
0
t) + x
0
cos ω
0
t.
17. The characteristic equation of mx

+ kx = F sin ωt, by substituting
rt 2

k
x = e , is mr + k = 0 which has pure imaginary roots r = ±i =
m

60 CHAPTER 2

k
±iω
0
where ω
0
= . Thus x
h
= c
1
cos ω
0
t + c
2
sin ω
0
t. Since the
m
forcing term, sin ωt, is not a homogeneous solution (because ω = ω
0
),
x
p
= A cos ωt + B sin ωt, x

= −Aω sin ωt + Bω cos ωt,
p
x

= −Aω
2
cos ωt − Bω
2
sin ωt. Substituting these in the original
p
equation we have,
−Amω
2
cos ωt − Bmω
2
sin ωt + Ak cos ωt + Bk sin ωt = F sin ωt

Ak − Amω
2

cos ωt +

Bk − Bmω
2

sin ωt = F sin ωt. ⇒
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
0
cos ωt : Ak − Amω
2
= 0 A =
k−mω
2
= 0 (since k = mω
2
) ⇒
F

sin ωt : Bk − Bmω
2
= F ⇒ B =
k−mω
2
So x
p
=
k−
F

2
sin ωt and thus the general solution is
x =
k−
F

2
sin ωt + c
1
cos ω
0
t + c
2
sin ω
0
t
x

=

cos ωt − c
1
ω
0
sin ω
0
t + c
2
ω
0
cos ω
0
t
k−mω
2
Using the initial conditions x(0) = x
0
= c
1
and x

(0) = 0
Fω ω F
=
k−mω
2
+ c
2
ω
0
c
2
= −
ω0 k−mω
2
. ⇒
Thus x =
k−
F

2
sin ωt + x
0
cos ω
0
t −
ω
ω
0 k−
F

2
sin ω
0
t ⇒
x =
k−
F

2

sin ωt −
ω
ω
0
sin ω
0
t

+ x
0
cos ω
0
t.
19. The characteristic equation of mx

+ kx = F cos ωt by substituting
rt 2

k
x = e , is mr + k = 0 which has pure imaginary roots r = ±i =
m

k
±iω
0
where ω
0
= . Thus x
h
= c
1
cos ω
0
t + c
2
sin ω
0
t. Since the
m
forcing term, cos ωt, is a homogeneous solution (because ω = ω
0
),
x
p
= t (A cos ωt + B sin ωt) ,
x

p
= (A cos ωt + B sin ωt) + t (−Aω sin ωt + Bω cos ωt) ,
x

p
= −2Aω sin ωt + 2Bω cos ωt − t


2
cos ωt + Bω
2
sin ωt

.
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
m

−2Aω sin ωt + 2Bω cos ωt − t


2
cos ωt + Bω
2
sin ωt

+kt (A cos ωt + B sin ωt) = F cos ωt
Since k = mω
2
, t cos ωt and t sin ωt terms cancel,
−2Amω sin ωt + 2Bmω cos ωt = F cos ωt.
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
cos ωt : 2Bmω = F B =
F

2ωm
sin ωt : −2Amω = 0 A = 0.
F

So x
p
=
2mω
t sin ωt and thus the general solution is
F
x =
2mω
t sin ωt + c
1
cos ω
0
t + c
2
sin ω
0
t
x

=
F
sin ωt +
F
t cos ωt − c
1
ω
0
sin ω
0
t + c
2
ω
0
cos ω
0
t
2mω 2m
Using the initial conditions x(0) = 0 = c
1
and x

(0) = 0 = c
2
ω
0
F
c
2
= 0 (since ω
0
= 0). Thus x =
2mω
t sin ωt. ⇒
rt

21. Substituting x = e in the homogeneous part of x

+ 4x = 8 cos 5t
we have, r
2
+ 4 = 0 ⇒ r = ±2i. Thus x
h
= c
1
cos 2t + c
2
sin 2t.
Since the forcing term, cos 5t, is not a homogeneous solution (no
resonance) x
p
= A cos 5t + B sin 5t, x

= −5A sin 5t + 5B cos 5t,
p
x

p
= −25A cos 5t − 25B sin 5t. Substituting these in the original
61 LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS
equation we have,
−25A cos 5t − 25B sin 5t + 4A cos 5t + 4B sin 5t = 8 cos 5t ⇒
−21A cos 5t − 21B sin 5t = 8 cos 5t
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
8
cos 5t : −21A = 8 A = −
21

sin 5t : −21B = 0 B = 0. ⇒
So x
p
8
cos 5t and thus the general solution is = −
21
8
x = −
21
cos 5t + c
1
cos 2t + c
2
sin 2t.
23. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

− 4x = 8 cos 5t
we have, r
2
− 4 = 0 r = ±2. Thus x
h
= c
1
e
2t
+ c
2
e
−2t
. ⇒
Since the forcing term, cos 5t, is not a homogeneous solution (no
resonance) x
p
= A cos 5t + B sin 5t, x

= −5A sin 5t + 5B cos 5t,
p
x

p
= −25A cos 5t − 25B sin 5t. Substituting these in the original
equation we have,
−25A cos 5t − 25B sin 5t − 4A cos 5t − 4B sin 5t = 8 cos 5t ⇒
−29A cos 5t − 29B sin 5t = 8 cos 5t
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
cos 5t : −29A = 8
8
⇒ A = −
29
sin 5t : −21B = 0 B = 0.
8

So x
p
= −
29
cos 5t and thus the general solution is
8
cos 5t + c
1
e
2t
+ c
2
e
−2t
. x = −
29
25. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

+ 4x = 3 cos 2t
we have, r
2
+ 4 = 0 ⇒ r = ±2i. Thus x
h
= c
1
cos 2t + c
2
sin 2t.
Since the forcing term, cos 2t, is a homogeneous solution
(resonance) x
p
= t (A cos 2t + B sin 2t) ,
x

= A cos 2t + B sin 2t + t (−2A sin 2t + 2B cos 2t) ,
p
x

p
= −4A sin 2t + 4B cos 2t + t (−4A cos 2t − 4B sin 2t) .
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
−4A sin 2t + 4B cos 2t + t (−4A cos 2t − 4B sin 2t)
+4t (A cos 2t + B sin 2t) = 3 cos 2t ⇒
Since t cos 2t and t sin 2t terms cancel, −4A sin 2t+4B cos 2t = 3 cos 2t.
Equating the like coefficients of terms we have,
cos 2t : 4B = 3 B =
3

4
sin 2t : −4A = 0 A = 0.
3

So x
p
=
4
t sin 2t and thus the general solution is
x =
4
3
t sin 2t + c
1
cos 2t + c
2
sin 2t.
27. By substituting x = e
rt
, the characteristic equation of
mx

+ kx = F cos ωt is mr
2
+ k = 0 which has pure imaginary roots

k

k
r = ±i = ±iω where ω = . Thus x
h
= c
1
cos ωt + c
2
sin ωt.
m m
Since the forcing term, cos ωt, is a homogeneous solution
x
p
= t (A cos ωt + B sin ωt) ,
x

= (A cos ωt + B sin ωt) + t (−Aω sin ωt + Bω cos ωt) ,
x
p

p
= −2Aω sin ωt + 2Bω cos ωt − t


2
cos ωt + Bω
2
sin ωt

.
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
m

−2Aω sin ωt + 2Bω cos ωt − t


2
cos ωt + Bω
2
sin ωt

62 CHAPTER 2
+kt (A cos ωt + B sin ωt) = F cos ωt
Since k = mω
2
, t cos ωt and t sin ωt terms cancel,
−2Amω sin ωt + 2Bmω cos ωt = F cos ωt.
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
cos ωt : 2Bmω = F B =
F

2ωm
sin ωt : −2Amω = 0 A = 0.
F

So x
p
=
2mω
t sin ωtand thus the general solution is
F
x =
2mω
t sin ωt + c
1
cos ωt + c
2
sin ωt.
2.7.2 Friction is Present(δ > 0) (Damped Forced Oscillations)
29. x

+ 6x

+ 25x = 3 cos 4t. The forcing term, cos 4t, cannot be a
homogeneous solution because δ = 6 > 0 is present. So
x
p
= A cos 4t + B sin 4t,
x

p
= −4A sin 4t + 4B cos 4t,
x

= −16A cos 4t − 16B sin 4t.
p
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
−16A cos 4t − 16B sin 4t − 24A sin 4t + 24B cos 4t + 25A cos 4t
+25B sin 4t = 3 cos 4t ⇒
(9A + 24B) cos 4t + (9B − 24A) sin 4t = 3 cos 4t
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
cos 4t : 9A + 24B = 3 3A + 8B = 1 ⇒
sin 4t : 9B − 24A = 0 ⇒−24A + 9B = 0.
Multiplying the first equation by 8 and then adding we get,
73B = 8 B =
8
and then A =
9
B =
3
. ⇒
73
8
24 73.
So x
p
=
3
cos 4t + sin 4t. In order to find this in amplitude-phase
73 73
form, we find R =

3

2
+

8

2
=

73
,
73 73 73
8
73
φ = tan
−1

= tan
−1

8
3

= 1.212.
3

73
73
Then x
p
= cos (4t − 1.212) .
73
31. x

+ 4x

+ 13x = 5 cos 2t. The forcing term, cos 2t, cannot be a
homogeneous solution because δ = 4 > 0 is present. So
x
p
= A cos 2t + B sin 2t,
x

p
= −2A sin 2t + 2B cos 2t,
x

= −4A cos 2t − 4B sin 2t.
p
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
−4A cos 2t − 4B sin 2t − 8A sin 2t + 8B cos 2t + 13A cos 2t
+13B sin 2t = 5 cos 2t ⇒
(9A + 8B) cos 2t + (9B − 8A) sin 2t = 5 cos 2t
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
cos 2t : 9A + 8B = 5
sin 2t : −8A + 9B = 0
Multiplying the first equation by 8 and the second equation by 9
and then adding we get,
40 8 9 9
145B = 40 ⇒ B =
145
=
29
and then A =
8
B =
29
.
63 LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS
So x
p
=
9
cos 2t +
8
sin 2t. In order to find this in amplitude-phase
29 29

9

2
+

8

2

145
form, we find R =
29 29
=
29
,
8
29
φ = tan
−1

= tan
−1

8

= 0.7266.
9
9

29
145
Then x
p
= cos (2t − 0.7266) .
29
33. x

+ 8x

+ 41x = 3 sin t. The forcing term, sin t, cannot be a
homogeneous solution because δ = 8 > 0 is present. So
x
p
= A cos t + B sin t,
x

= −A sin t + B cos t,
p
x

= −A cos t − B sin t.
p
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
−A cos t−B sin t−8A sin t+8B cos t+41A cos t+41B sin t = 3 sin t ⇒
(40A + 8B) cos t + (40B − 8A) sin t = 3 sin t
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
cos t : 40A + 8B = 0 5A + B = 0 B = −5A ⇒ ⇒
sin t : −8A + 40B = 3 ⇒−8A − 200A = 3 (substitution)
3 15 3 15
⇒ A = −
208
. Then B =
208
. So x
p
= −
208
cos t +
208
sin t.
In order to find this in amplitude-phase form, we find
R =


3

2
+

15

2
=

234
=
3

26
,
208 208 208 208
15
208 3
φ = tan
−1

3

+ π (Since − < 0) = tan
−1
(−5) + π = 1.7682.
3


26
208
208
Then x
p
= cos (t − 1.7682) .
208
35. x

+ 3x

+ 2x = sin t. The forcing term, sin t, cannot be a
homogeneous solution because δ = 3 > 0 is present. So
x
p
= A cos t + B sin t,
x

= −A sin t + B cos t,
p
x

p
= −A cos t − B sin t.
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
−A cos t − B sin t − 3A sin t + 3B cos t + 2A cos t + 2B sin t = sin t ⇒
(A + 3B) cos t + (B − 3A) sin t = sin t
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
cos t : A + 3B = 0
sin t : −3A + B = 1.
Multiplying the first equation by 3 and then adding we get,
1 3
10B = 1 B =
10
. Then A = −3B = −
10
. ⇒
3 1
So x
p
= −
10
cos t +
10
sin t. In order to find this in amplitude-phase
form, we find R =


3

2
+

1

2
=

10
,
10 10 10
1
φ = tan
−1

10

+ π (Since −
3
< 0) = tan
−1


1

+ π = 2.8198.


10
3
10 3
10
Then x
p
= cos (t − 2.8198) .
10
37. x

+ 2x

+ 2x = sin t. The forcing term, sin t, cannot be a
homogeneous solution because δ = 2 > 0 is present. So
x
p
= A cos t + B sin t,
x

= −A sin t + B cos t,
p
64 CHAPTER 2
x

p
= −A cos t − B sin t.
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
−A cos t − B sin t − 2A sin t + 2B cos t + 2A cos t + 2B sin t = sin t ⇒
(A + 2B) cos t + (B − 2A) sin t = sin t
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
cos t : A + 2B = 0
sin t : −2A + B = 1.
Multiplying the first equation by 2 and then adding we get,
5B = 1 ⇒ B =
1
5
. Then A = −2B = −
2
5
. So x
p
= −
2
5
cos t +
1
5
sin t.
In order to find this in amplitude-phase form, we find
2

2

2

5
R =

− +

1
= ,
5 5 5
1
φ = tan
−1



5
5

+ π (Since −
2
< 0) = tan
−1


1

+ π = 2.6779.
2
5 2
5
Then x
p
= cos (t − 2.6779) .
5
39. x

+ 2x

+ x = sin t. The forcing term, sin t, cannot be a
homogeneous solution because δ = 2 > 0 is present. So
x
p
= A cos t + B sin t,
x

= −A sin t + B cos t,
p
x

p
= −A cos t − B sin t.
Substituting these in the original equation we have,
−A cos t − B sin t − 2A sin t + 2B cos t + A cos t + B sin t = sin t ⇒
2B cos t − 2A sin t = sin t
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
cos t : 2B = 0 B = 0
sin t :
1
−2A = 1

⇒ A = −
1
2
.
So x
p
= −
2
cos t. In order to find this in amplitude-phase form,
1

2
1 1
we find R =

− = , φ = tan
−1
(0) + π (Since − < 0) = π.
2 2 2
Then x
p
=
1
cos (t − π) .
2
1 ω
2
41. y =

2
. Let z =
0
.
ω
2
ω
2 4γ
2
ω
2
1−
ω
2
+
ω
2
0 0
Then y =

(1−z)
1
2
+4γ
2
z
=

(1 − z)
2
+ 4γ
2
z


2
1
.
y
1 −2(1−z)+4γ
2
=
1−z−2γ
2
.
3 3
2 2
⇒ = −
2
[(1−z)
2
+4γ
2
z] [(1−z)
2
+4γ
2
z]
The critical point is z such that y

= 0 ⇒ 1 − z − 2γ
2
= 0 ⇒
z = 1 − 2γ
2
.This will be a solution if the denominator is defined
(i.e. (1 − z)
2
+ 4γ
2
z > 0). If γ <

2
then z = 1 − 2γ
2
> 0
2
and thus (1 − z)
2
+ 4γ
2
z > 0. So z = 1 − 2γ
2
is a valid critical
point. Hence maximum occurs at
ω
2
= z = 1 − 2γ
2
ω
0
2

ω = ω
0

1 − 2γ
2
. If γ 0 then ω ω
0
. → →
43. From equation (30) in the text we have,
δ
2m δ δ δ
γ =

k
=
2m

k
=

4m
2
=

4mk
.
k
m m m
LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 65
Since

4mk is the damping coefficient for the critically damped
motion, γ is the ratio of the damping coefficient to the damping
coefficient at the critical damping.
45. Graph
2.8 LINEAR ELECTRIC CIRCUITS
1. Substituting R = 3, L =
1
2
, C =
2
5
, e = 3 cos t in the equation
L
d
2
q
+ R
dq
+
1
q = e we have,
1 d
2
q
+ 3
dq
+
5
q = 3 cos t
dt
2
dt C 2 dt
2
dt 2
rt

q

+ 6q

+ 5q = 6 cos t. Substituting q = e in the homogeneous
part we get, r
2
+ 6r + 5 = 0 ⇒ (r + 5) (r + 1) = 0 ⇒ r = −1, −5.
Thus q
h
= c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
e
−5t
. Since cos t is not a homogeneous
solution, q
p
= A cos t + B sin t, q

= −A sin t + B cos t,
p
q
p

= −A cos t − B sin t. Substituting these in the original equation
we have,
−A cos t − B sin t − 6A sin t + 6B cos t + 5A cos t + 5B sin t = 6 cos t
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
cos t : 4A + 6B = 6
sin t : −6A + 4B = 0 ⇒−3A + 2B = 0
Multiplying the second equation by 3 and then subtracting from
6 3 9
the first we get, 13A = 6 A =
13
and then B =
2
A =
13
.
6 9

Thus q
p
=
13
cos t +
13
sin t and the general solution is
6 9
q =
13
cos t +
13
sin t + c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
e
−5t
.
6 9
i = q

= −
13
sin t +
13
cos t − c
1
e
−t
− 5c
2
e
−5t
.
Using the initial conditions q(0) = 0, i(0) = 1 we get,
6
0 =
13
+ c
1
+ c
2
1 =
9
13
− c
1
− 5c
2
.
Adding them we get, 1 =
15
=
1
and then c
1
1
6 9
13

1
4c
2

1
c
2
26
= −
2
.
Thus q = cos t + sin t − e
−t
+ e
−5t
and
13 13 2 26
i = −
6
sin t +
9
cos t +
1
e
−t 5
e
−5t
.
13 13 2

26
3. Substituting R =
3
2
, L = 1, C = 2, e =
3
2
in the equation
L
d
2
q
+ R
dq
+
1
q = e we have,
d
2
q
+
3 dq
+
1
q =
3
dt
2
dt C dt
2
2 dt 2 2
rt

2q

+ 3q

+ q = 3. Substituting q = e in the homogeneous
part of we get, 2r
2
+ 3r + 1 = 0 (2r + 1) (r + 1) = 0
1

1
t

2
r = −1, −
2
. Thus q
h
= c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
e

. Since the constant
forcing is not a homogeneous solution, q
p
= A, q
p

= 0, q
p

= 0.
Substituting these in the original equation we have, A = 3
Thus q
p
= 3 and the general solution is
1
2
.
i = q

= −c
1
e
−t

1
c
2
e

1
t
.
q = 3 + c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
e
− t
2
2
Using the initial conditions q(0) = 2, i(0) = 4 we get,
2 = 3 + c
1
+ c
2
⇒−1 = c
1
+ c
2
4 = −c
1

1
c
2
.
2
Adding them we get, 3 =
1
c
2
c
2
= 6 and then c
1
= −7.
2

66 CHAPTER 2
1 1
2 2
. Thus q = 3 − 7e
−t
+ 6e
− t
and i = 7e
−t
− 3e
− t
5. Substituting R = 0, C =
1
, e = sin ωt in the equation
10
L
d
2
q
+ R
dq 1 q
dt
2
dt
+
C
q = e we have, L
d
dt
2
2
+ 10q = sin ωt.
By substituting q = e
rt
, we obtain the characteristic equation
Lr
2
+ 10 = 0 r = ±

10
. ⇒
L
The forcing term has frequency between 20 and 30 i.e.
20 <
ω
< 30 40π < ω < 60π. Resonance occurs if


10

10 10 10
ω =
L
i.e. if 40π <
L
< 60π
(60π)
2
< L <
(40π)
2
. ⇒
Hence resonance does not occur for L such that
L <
(60
10
π)
2
or L >
(40
10
π)
2
.

1, t ≤ π
7. Substituting R = 2, L = 1, C =
1
2
, e =
0, t > π
q
+ R
dq 1
in the equation L
d
dt
2
2
dt
+
C
q = e we have,

1, t ≤ π
q

+ 2q

+ 2q = .
0, t > π
Substituting q = e
rt
in the homogeneous part, we get r
2
+2r +2 = 0
r =
−2±

4−8
= −1 ± i. Thus q
h
= e
−t
(c
1
cos t + c
2
sin t) . ⇒
2
For t ≤ π, constant forcing, 1, is not a homogeneous solution. So
q
p
= A, q
p

= q
p

= 0. Substituting these in the original equation
we have, 2A = 1 A =
1
2
. So q
p
=
1
2
and the general solution
is q =
1
2
+ e
−t
(c
1

cos t + c
2
sin t) .
i = q

= −e
−t
(c
1
cos t + c
2
sin t) + e
−t
(−c
1
sin t + c
2
cos t) .
Using the initial conditions q(0) = i(0) = 0 we get,
0 =
1
2
+ c
1
⇒ c
1
= −
1
2
1
0 = −c
1
+ c
2
c
2
= c
1
= −
2
.
Thus q =
1
2


1
e
−t
(cos t + sin t) and i = q

= e
−t
sin t for t ≤ π.
2
For t > π, q

+ 2q

+ 2q = 0 q is just the homogeneous
solution. So q = e
−t
(c
1
cos t +

c
2
sin t)
i = q

= −e
−t
(c
1
cos t + c
2
sin t) + e
−t
(−c
1
sin t + c
2
cos t) .
Using the initial conditions q(π ) = q(π
+
) we get,
1
+
1
e
−π
c
1
1

e
π 1 1
(e
π
+ 1) and
2 2
= −c
1
e
−π
⇒ = −
2

2
= −
2
from i(π

) = i(
1
π
+
), we have 0 = e
−π
(c
1
− c
2
) ⇒ c
1
− c
2
= 0
⇒ c
2
= c
1
=
1

2
(e
π
+ 1) .
Thus q = − (e
π
+ 1) e
−t
[cos t + sin t] for t > π.
2
1 1
2
Hence the solution is q =

1
2
− e
−t
(cos t + sin t) , t ≤ π;
− (e
π
+ 1) e
−t
[cos t + sin t] , π < t ≤ 2π.
2
67 LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS
q
t
π 2π
0.5
1
9. Substituting R = 0, e = 0 in the equation L
d
2
q
+ R
dq
+ q = e
dt
2
dt C
q 1 L 1 2
we have, L
d
dt
2
2
+
C
q = 0. Given that E =
2
i
2
+
2C
q
d
2

dE
=
L
2i
di
+
1
2q
dq
= L
dq q
+
1
q
dq
(since i =
dq
)
dt 2 dt 2C dt dt dt
2
C dt dt
=
dq

L
d
2
q
+
1
q

= 0 E is constant.
dt dt
2
C

11. Substituting R = 0, L = 9, C = 1, e = 4 cos 2t in the equation
L
d
2
q
+ R
dq
+
1
q = e, we have 9q

+ q = cos 2t. Substituting q = e
rt
dt
2
dt C
in the homogeneous part, we get 9r
2
+ 1 = 0 r = ±
3
i
.
t

Thus q
h
= c
1
cos
3
+ c
2
sin
3
t
. Since cos 2t is not a homogeneous
solution, q
p
= A cos 2t + B sin 2t, q

= −2A sin 2t + 2B cos 2t,
p
q
p

= −4A cos 2t − 4B sin 2t. Substituting these in the original
equation we have,
−36A cos 2t − 36B sin 2t + A cos 2t + B sin 2t = 4 cos 2t
Equating the coefficients of like terms we have,
cos 2t : −35A = 4
4
⇒ A = −
35
4
sin 2t : −35
t
B = 0 ⇒ B = 0.
q = −
35
cos 2t + c
1
cos
3
+ c
2
sin
3
t
. If the free response,
c
1
cos
t
+ c
2
sin
3
t
, is absent then q = −
4
cos 2t, i = q

=
8
sin 2t.
3 35 35
So the initial conditions are q(0) = −
4
and i(0) = 0.
35
13. (a) The differential equation is Lq

+
1
q = 0 q

+
1
q = 0.
C LC
rt 2 1


1
Substituting q = e we have r +
LC
= 0 r = ±
LC
i. ⇒

1

1
Hence the general solution is q (t) = c
1
cos
LC
t + c
2
sin
LC
t

1

1

1

1

q

(t) = − c
1
sin t + c
2
cos t.
LC LC LC LC
Using the initial conditions q (0) = 0 and q

(0) = 10 we get,

1

1

1
c
1
= 0 and c
2
= 10
LC
. Thus q (t) = 10
LC
sin
LC
t .
2 2
(b) The amplitude is R =

c
1
+ c
2
= 10

LC.
(c) From part (b) the amplitude increases as C increases.
1 1
15. (a) The differential equation is Lq

+
C
q = 0 q

+
LC
q = 0.
rt 2 1


1
Substituting q = e we have r +
LC
= 0 ⇒ r = ±
LC
i.

1

1
Hence the general solution is q (t) = c
1
cos
LC
t + c
2
sin
LC
t ⇒
68 CHAPTER 2

1

1

1

1
q

(t) = −
LC
c
1
sin
LC
t + c
2
cos
LC
t.
LC
Using the initial conditions q (0) = 1 and q

(0) = 1 we get, c
1
= 1

1

1
and c
2
=

LC. Thus the motion is q (t) = cos
LC
t+

LC sin
LC
t
.
2 2
(b) The amplitude is R =

c
1
+ c
2
=

1 + LC.
(c) From part (b) the amplitude increases as C and/or L increases.
17. Given that E = 1, R = 6, ω = 3, L = 1, C =
1
.
13
Plug these in the formula I =

(
1

to obtain
C
−Lω
2
)
2
+R
2
ω
2
I =
3
=
3
=
3
.

(13−9)
2
+36×9

16+324

340
2.9 EULER EQUATION
1. Let x = t
r
⇒ x

= rt
r−1
⇒ x

= r (r − 1) t
r−2
. Substituting these in the
equation t
2
x

+ tx

− x = 0, we have r (r − 1) t
r
+ rt
r
− t
r
= 0.
Dividing by t
r
= 0 yields the indicial equation r (r − 1) + r − 1 = 0 ⇒
r
2
− 1 = 0 r = 1, −1. Thus the general solution is x = c
1
t + c
2
t
−1
.
3. Let x = t
r

x

= rt
r−1
x

= r (r − 1) t
r−2
. Substituting these in ⇒ ⇒
+ t
r
the equation t
2
x

+3tx

+ x = 0, we have r (r − 1) t
r
+3rt
r
= 0.
Dividing by t
r
= 0 yields the indicial equation r (r − 1)+3r+1 = 0
2

r
2
+ 2r + 1 = 0 ⇒ (r + 1) ⇒ r = −1, −1. Thus the general
solution is x = c
1
t
−1
+ c
2
t
−1
ln t.
5. Let x = t
r
⇒ x

= rt
r−1
⇒ x

= r (r − 1) t
r−2
. Substituting these in
the equation 4t
2
x

+8tx

+x = 0, we have 4r (r − 1) t
r
+8rt
r
+t
r
= 0.
Dividing by t
r
= 0 yields the indicial equation 4r (r − 1) + 8r + 1 =
2
1 1
0 4r
2
+ 4r + 1 = 0 (2r + 1)
2
. Thus the general ⇒
1

1
⇒ r = −
2
, −
2
solution is x = c
1
t

2
+ c
2
t

ln t.
7. Let x = t
r
⇒ x

= rt
r−1
⇒ x

= r (r − 1) t
r−2
. Substituting these in
the equation t
2
x

+4tx

+2x = 0, we have r (r − 1) t
r
+4rt
r
+2t
r
= 0.
Dividing by t
r
= 0 yields the indicial equation r (r − 1)+4r+2 = 0
r
2
+ 3r + 2 = 0

(r + 1) (r + 2) r = −1, −2. Thus the general

⇒ ⇒
solution is x = c
1
t
−1
+ c
2
t
−2
. x

= −c
1
t
−2
− 2c
2
t
−3
. Using the initial
conditions we get,
1 = c
1
+ c
2
0 = −c
1
− 2c
2
.
Adding them we have, −c
2
= 1 c
2
= −1 and then c
1
= 2.
Thus x = 2t
−1
− t
−2
.

9. Let x = t
r
⇒ x

= rt
r−1
⇒ x

= r (r − 1) t
r−2
. Substituting these in
the equation t
2
x

+ tx

+4x = 0, we have r (r − 1) t
r
+ rt
r
+4t
r
= 0.
Dividing by t
r
= 0 yields the indicial equation r (r − 1) + r +4 = 0
r
2
+ 4 = 0 ⇒ r

= ±2i. Thus the general solution is

x = c
1
cos (2 ln t) + c
2
sin (2 ln t) .
11. Let x = t
r
⇒ x

= rt
r−1
⇒ x

= r (r − 1) t
r−2
. Substituting these in
the equation t
2
x

+3tx

+8x = 0, we have r (r − 1) t
r
+3rt
r
+8t
r
= 0.
LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 69
Dividing by t
r
= 0 yields the indicial equation r (r − 1)+3r+8 = 0 ⇒
r
2
+ 2r + 8 = 0 r = −1 ± i

7. Thus the general solution is ⇒
x = t
−1

c
1
cos

7 ln t

+ c
2
sin

7 ln t

.
13. Choose #3.
Let x = t
r
x

= rt
r−1
x

= r (r − 1) t
r−2
. Substituting these in
the equation

t
2
x

+3tx

+

x = 0, we have r (r − 1) t
r
+3rt
r
+ t
r
= 0.
Dividing by t
r
= 0 yields the indicial equation r (r − 1)+3r+1 = 0
2

r
2
+ 2r + 1 = 0 ⇒ (r + 1) ⇒ r = −1, −1 (repeated roots). So one
solution is t
−1
. Let the other solution be x = vt
−1
. Then substituting
x, x

= v

t
−1
− vt
−2
and x

= v

t
−1
− 2v

t
−2
+ 2vt
−3
in the original
equation we have,
t
2

v

t
−1
− 2v

t
−2
+ 2vt
−3

+ 3t

v

t
−1
− vt
−2

+ vt
−1
= 0. After
cancellation of v terms and simplification this yields tv

+ v

= 0.
Let w = v

. Then tw

+ w = 0. By separation,
dw dt
w t
ln |w| = − ln t + c ⇒ w = c
2
t
−1
. Since w = v

, v

=
=
c
2

t
−1
.

Integration yields v = c
2
ln t + c
1
. Thus the general solution is
x = vt
−1
= (c
2
ln t + c
1
) t
−1
= c
1
t
−1
+ c
2
t
−1
ln t.
1 ds 1 dx
= ks
dx ds dx
15. (i) t = ks s =
k
t
dt
=
k
. Now t
dt ds dt
= s
ds
and ⇒ ⇒
t
2 d
2
x
= k
2
s
2 d

dx

= k
2
s
2 d

dx ds

ds
= k
2
s
2 d
2
x
k
1
2
= s
2 d
2
x
dt
2
dx dt ds ds dt dt ds
2
ds
2
.
x
So the Euler equation at
2 d
2
+ bt
dx
+ cx = 0 becomes
dt
2
dt
x
as
2 d
2
+ bs
dx
+ cx = 0.
ds
2
ds
(ii) In this case,
dx
=
dx ds
=
1 dx
and
dt ds dt k ds
d
2
x
=
d

dx

=
d

dx ds

ds
=
d

1 dx

1
=
1 d
2
x
dt
2
dx dt ds ds dt dt ds k ds k k
2
ds
2
.
So the constant coefficient equation a
d
2
x
+ b
dx
+ cx = 0 becomes
dt
2
dt
a
1 d
2
x
+ b
1 dx
+ cx = 0 a
d
2
x
+ bk
dx
+ ck
2
x = 0.
k
2
ds
2
k ds

ds
2
ds
r1 r2
(iii) Substituting t = ks in c
1
t
r1
+ c
2
t
r2
we get, c
1
(ks) + c
2
(ks)
= c
1
k
r1
s
r1
+ c
2
k
r2
s
r2
= c
1
s
r1
+ c
2
s
r2
, where c
1
= c
1
k
r1
and c
2
= c
2
k
r2
are real constants.
(iv) Substituting t = ks in c
1
t
r1
+c
2
t
r2
ln t we get, c
1
(ks)
r1
+c
2
(ks)
r2
ln (ks)
= c
1
k
r1
s
r1
+ c
2
k
r2
s
r2
(ln k + ln s) . Note that the roots are repeated
so r
1
= r
2
and thus c
1
k
r1
s
r1
+c
2
k
r1
s
r1
(ln k + ln s) = c
1
s
r1
+c
2
s
r1
ln s,
where c
1
= k
r1
(c
1
+ c
2
ln k) and c
2
= c
2
k
r1
are real constants.
(v) Substituting t = ks in c
1
t
α
cos (β ln t) + c
2
t
α
sin (β ln t) we get,
α α
c
1
(ks) cos (β ln (ks)) + c
2
(ks) sin (β ln (ks))
= c
1
k
α
s
α
cos (β ln k + β ln s) + c
2
k
α
s
α
sin (β ln k + β ln s)
= c
1
k
α
s
α
[cos (β ln k) cos (β ln s) − sin (β ln k) sin (β ln s)]
+c
2
k
α
s
α
[sin (β ln k) cos (β ln s) + cos (β ln k) sin (β ln s)]
= c
1
s
α
cos (β ln s) + c
2
s
α
sin (β ln s) , where
c
1
= c
1
k
α
cos (β ln k) + c
2
k
α
sin (β ln k) and
c
2
= −c
1
k
α
sin (β ln k) + c
2
k
α
cos (β ln k) are real constants.
17. Let x = t
r
⇒ x

= rt
r−1
⇒ x

= r (r − 1) t
r−2
⇒ x

= r (r − 1) (r − 2) t
r−3
⇒ x

= r (r − 1) (r − 2) (r − 3) t
r−4
. Substituting these in
the equation t
4
x

+ 6t
3
x

+ 7t
2
x

+ tx

− x = 0, we have
r (r − 1) (r − 2) (r − 3) t
r
+ 6r (r − 1) (r − 2) t
r
+ 7r (r − 1) t
r

70 CHAPTER 2
+rt
r
− t
r
= 0.
Dividing by t
r
= 0 yields the indicial equation
r (r − 1) (r − 2) (r − 3)+6r (r − 1) (r − 2)+7r (r − 1)+r −1 = 0
⇒ r
4
− 1 = 0 ⇒ r
2
= 1, −1 ⇒ r = 1, −1, ±i.
Thus the general solution is x = c
1
t+c
2
t
−1
+c
3
cos (ln t)+c
4
sin (ln t) .
19. Let x = t
r
⇒ x

= rt
r−1
⇒ x

= r (r − 1) t
r−2
⇒ x

= r (r − 1) (r − 2) t
r−3
.
Substituting these in the equation t
3
x

+ tx

− x = 0, we have
r (r − 1) (r − 2) t
r
+ rt
r
− t
r
= 0.
Dividing by t
r
= 0 yields the indicial equation
r (r − 1) (r − 2) + r − 1 = 0
r
3
− 3r
2
+ 3r − 1 = 0 (r − 1)
3
= 0 r = 1, 1, 1. ⇒ ⇒ ⇒
2
Thus the general solution is x = c
1
t + c
2
t ln t + c
3
t (ln t) .
2.10 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS (SECOND-ORDER)
In problems 21 and 23 we derive the solution obtained by variation of
parameters. In the other problems, the algebraic system of equations
(obtained from the variation of parameters)
v
1

x
1
+ v
2

x
2
= 0
v
1

x

1
+ v
2

x

2
= 0
will be solved for v
1

and v
2

by using the formulae v
fx2
and
1
= −
W
fx1
v
2

=
W
where W [x
1
, x
2
] is the Wronskian of the independent
homogeneous solutions x
1
and x
2
and f is the forcing function.
1. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

− x = e
2t
we have
the characteristic equation r
2
− 1 = 0 ⇒ r = 1, −1. So x
1
= e
t
and
x
2
= e
−t
are homogeneous solutions. The Wronskian,
t
¸
e e
−t

W [e
t
, e
−t
] = det
e
t
−e
−t
= −2e
t
e
−t
= −2 = 0 . Thus {e
t
, e
−t
}
is a fundamental set of solutions and here f = e
2t
.
Variation of parameters: x = v
1
x
1
+ v
2
x
2
.
So v
fx2
=
e
2t
e
−t
=
1
e
t
and v

=
fx1 e
2t
e
t
1
e
3t
.
1
= −
W 2 2 2 W
= −
2
= −
2
Integrating we have, v
1
=
2
1
e
t
+ c
1
and v
2
= −
6
1
e
3t
+ c
2
.
t 1 3t
Thus x =

1
e + c
1

x
1
+

− e + c
2

x
2
2 6

x =
1
2
e
2t
+ c
1
e
t
+ −
1
6
e
2t
+ c
2
e
−t
⇒ x =
1
3
e
2t
+ c
1
e
t
+ c
2
e
−t
is the general solution.
Yes, the method of undetermined coefficients could have been used
because of exponential forcing.
3. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

+ x =
sin
1
t
we have
the characteristic equation r
2
+ 1 = 0 ⇒ r = ±i. So x
1
= cos t and
x
2
= sin t are homogeneous solutions. The Wronskian,
¸
cos t sin t

2
W [cos t, sin t] = det = cos t + sin
2
t = 1 = 0.
− sin t cos t

Thus {cos t, sin t} is a fundamental set of solutions and here f =
1
.
sin t
Variation of parameters: x = v
1
x
1
+ v
2
x
2
.
LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 71
So v
fx2 1
sin t = −1 and v

=
fx1
=
cos t
.
1
= −
W
= −
sin t 2 W sin t
Integrating we have, v
1
= −t + c
1
and v
2
= ln |sin t| + c
2
.
Thus x = (−t + c
1
) x
1
+ (ln |sin t| + c
2
) x
2

x = (−t + c
1
) cos t + (ln |sin t| + c
2
) sin t ⇒
x = sin t ln sin t − t cos t + c
1
cos t + c
2
sin t is the general solution.
1
| |
No,
sin t
is not a right form of forcing function for using the method
of undetermined coefficients.
5. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

+ x = tan t we
have the characteristic equation r
2
+ 1 = 0 ⇒ r = ±i. So x
1
= cos t
and x
2
= sin t are homogeneous solutions. The Wronskian,
¸
cos t sin t

W [cos t, sin t] = det
− sin t cos t
= cos
2
t + sin
2
t = 1 = 0 .
Thus {cos t, sin t} is a fundamental set of solutions and here f = tan t.
Variation of parameters: x = v
1
x
1
+ v
2
x
2
.
So v
fx2
= − tan t sin t = −
sin
2
t
and v

=
fx1
= tan t cos t =
1
= −
W cos t 2 W
1−cos
2
t
sin t. Integrating we have, v
1
= −

cos t
dt = −

sec tdt +

cos tdt
= − ln |sec t + tan t| + sin t + c
1
and v
2
= − cos t + c
2
.
Thus x = (− ln |sec t + tan t| + sin t + c
1
) x
1
+ (− cos t + c
2
) x
2

x = (− ln |sec t + tan t| + sin t + c
1
) cos t + (− cos t + c
2
) sin t
Since sin t cos t terms cancel
x = − (cos t) ln |sec t + tan t| + c
1
cos t + c
2
sin t.
is the general solution.
No, tan t is not a right form of forcing function for using the method
of undetermined coefficients.
7. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

+3x

+2x =
1+
1
e
2t
we have the characteristic equation r
2
+3r +2 = 0 (r + 1) (r + 2) ⇒
= 0 r = −1, −2. So x
1
= e
−t
and x
2
= e
−2t
are homogeneous ⇒
¸
e
−t
e
−2t

solutions. The Wronskian, W

e
−t
, e
−2t

= det
−e
−t
−2e
−2t
= −2e
−3t
+ e
−3t
= −e
−3t
= 0 . Thus
¸
e
−t
, e
−2t
¸
is a fundamental set
of solutions and here f =
1+
1
e
2t
.
Variation of parameters: x = v
1
x
1
+ v
2
x
2
.
So v
fx2 1
2t
e
−2t
=
e
t
and v

=
fx1
=
1
2t
e
−t
2t
2t t
1
e
= −
W
= −
1+e −e
−3t
1+
=
e

e
2 W 1+e −e
−3t
t
) = −
1+e
2t
. Integrating we have, v
1
1+e
dt (Substitution: u = e
2t
1
v
1
=

1+u
du = tan
−1
u + c
1
= tan
−1
(e
t
) + c
1
and ⇒
e
2t
2
1 du
v
2
= −

1+e
2t
dt (Substitution: u = 1 + e
2t
) ⇒ v
2
= −
2

u
1 2t 1
= −
2
ln u + c
2
(since u = 1 + e > 0 ) v
2
= −
2
ln

1 + e
2t

+ c
2
.
Thus x =

tan
−1
(e
t
) + c
1

x
1
+
1


1
2
ln


1 + e
2t

+ c
2

x
2

x =

tan
−1
(e
t
) + c
1

e
−t
+


2
ln

1 + e
2t

+ c
2

e
−2t
x = e
−t
tan
−1
(e
t
) −
1
e
−2t
ln

1 + e
2t

+ c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
e
−2t

is the general
2
solution.
No,
1+
1
e
2t
is not a right form of forcing function for using the method
of undetermined coefficients.
9. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

− 6x

+9x = e
3t
t
3
2

¸

72 CHAPTER 2
we have the characteristic equation r
2
− 6r + 9 = 0 (r − 3)
2
= 0
3t

r = 3, 3. So x
1
= e and x
2
= te
3t
are homogeneous ⇒
¸
e
3t
te
3t

3t
solutions. The Wronskian, W

e , te
3t

= det
3e
3t
e
3t
+ 3te
3t
6t 3t
= e
6t
+ 3te
6t
− 3te
6t
= e = 0. Thus
¸
e , te
3t
¸
is a fundamental set
3t
3
2
of solutions and here f t = e .
Variation of parameters: x = v
1
x
1
+ v
2
x
2
.
3t 3t 3 5 3 3
So v
1

= −
fx2
W
= −e
3t
t
fx1 3t te e
and v
2

e
= −t
=

−t
5
t = t
2 2 2 2
= = e .
6t 6t
W e
7
2
Integrating we have, v
1
=

t
dt + c
1
and t = −
2 2
7
3 5
dt =
2
t + c
2
.
2 2
v
2
5
+ c
1
x
1
+

2
7 5
2
Thus x = t t + c
2

2 2
x
2
7 5


3t

2
7 5
2
te
3t
t + c
1
+ t + c
2

2 2
x = e
7 5

7 7
2 3t 2 3t
+ c
1
e
3t
+ c
2
te
3t
t + t x = −
4
2 2
e e
7 5

2
3
2
7
e
3t
+ c
1
e
3t
+ c
2
te
3t
is the general solution. t x =
35
No, e
3t
is not a right form of forcing function for using the method t
of undetermined coefficients.
11. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of 4x

+4x

+x = t
−2
e

t
2
we have the characteristic equation 4r
2
+4r +1 = 0 (2r + 1)
2
= 0 ⇒
are homogeneous
t
= te

t
2
⇒ r = −
1 1
2
, −
2
. So x
1
= e

and x
2
2

= det
t
2
te

t
2
e

e

t
2
t
2
, te

solutions. The Wronskian, W t t
1 1
e

e

te

− −
¸
is a fundamental
2 2
2 2
t
2
, te

t
2
= e
−t

1
te
−t
+
1
te
−t
= e
−t
2 2
e

= 0. Thus
set of solutions and here f = t
−2
e

t
2
.
Variation of parameters: x = v
1
x
1
+ v
2
x
2
.
t
te

t
fx2
= −t
−2
W
= −t
−1
and
2
So v
1

e

= −
2
e
−t
t
e

t
fx1
= t
−2
W
= t
−2
2
v
2

= e

2
.
e
−t
t t
t
t
Integrating we have, v
1
=

−t
−1
dt = − ln t + c
1
and
v
2
=

t
−2
dt = −t
−1
+ c
2
.
Thus x = (− ln t + c
1
) x
1
+

−t
−1
x = (− ln t + c
1
) e

+

−t
−1

+ c
2

x
2


te

t
+ c
2
2 2
t
1 −
ln t t −
t
ln t − e

x = −e

te

+ c
1
e

+ c
2
te

2
t
2 2 2

t
2
t
+ c
1
e

+ c
2
te

2 2 2

t
2
t
t
2
t
x = −e

x = −e

x = −e

t
ln t + (c
1
− 1) e

ln t + c
1
e

+ c
2
te

2

(where c
1
t
2
+ c
2
te

= c
1
− 1)
2 2
is the general solution.
No, t
−2
e

t
2
is not a right form of forcing function for using the method
of undetermined coefficients.
13. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

− x

− 6x = e
−2t
we have the characteristic equation r
2
− r − 6 = 0
(r − 3) (r + 2) = 0 r = 3, −2. So x
1
= e
3t
and x
2

= e
−2t
are ⇒
3t
homogeneous solutions. The Wronskian, W

e , e
−2t

=
t
2
LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 73
3t
t t t 3t
det
¸
3
e
e
3t

e
2

e
2

t
2t

= −2e − 3e = −5e = 0 . Thus
¸
e , e
−2t
¸
is
a fundamental set of solutions and here f = e
−2t
.
Variation of parameters: x = v
1
x
1
+ v
2
x
2
.
fx2
= −e
−2t e
−2t
1
e
−5t fx1
= e
−2t e
3t
1
So v
1

= −
W −5e
t
1
=
5
and v
1
2

e
=
−5t
W −5e
t
= −
5
.
Integrating we have, v
1
=
5

e
−5t
dt = −
25
+ c
1
and
1 1
v
2
= −
5

dt = −
5
t + c
2
.
1 1
Thus x =

− e
−5t
+ c
1

x
1
+

− t + c
2

x
2
1
25
3t 1
5

1 1 3t 1

3t 1
x =


25
e
e


2t
5t
+
te
c
1


2
e
t
+c
+
1
e


+
5
c
t
2
+
e

c
2
2
t

e
−2t
te
−2t
+c
1
e

e
−2t
x = −
25
1

5
3t
= −
5
1
+

c
2

25
x = −
5
te
−2t
+ c
1
e + c
2
e
−2t
, (where c
2
= c
2

25
)
is the general solution.
Yes, the method of undetermined coefficients could have been used
because of exponential forcing.
15. The fundamental set is
¸
t, t
2
¸
and dividing the equation by t
2
we
have the forcing function f = t. The Wronskian, W

t, t
2

= det
¸
t t
2

1 2t
= 2t
2
− t
2
= t
2
. Let x
1
= t and x
2
= t
2
.
Variation of parameters: x = v
1
x
1
+ v
2
x
2
.
So v
fx2
= −t and v

=
fx1
= 1. Integrating we have,
1
= −
W 2 W
v
1
= −
2
1
t
2
+ c
1
and v
2
= t + c
2
.
1 1
Thus x =

− t
2
+ c
1

x
1
+(t + c
2
) x
2
=

− t
2
+ c
1

t +(t + c
2
) t
2
x = −
1
t
3
+ t
3
2
+ c
1
t + c
2
t
2
⇒ x =
1
t
3
+ c
1
t
2
+ c
2
t
2

2 2
is the general solution.
17. The fundamental set is
¸
1, t
−1
¸
and dividing the equation by t
2
we
have the forcing function f = t
−3
. The Wronskian,
W

1, t
−1

= det
¸
1

t

t

1
2

= −t
−2
. Let x
1
= 1 and x
2
= t
−1
.
0
Variation of parameters: x = v
1
x
1
+ v
2
x
2
.
So v
1
fx2
= t
−2
and v
2

=
fx1
= −t
−1
. Integrating we have, = −
W W
v
1
= −t
−1
+ c
1
and v
2
= − ln t + c
2
.
Thus x =

−t
−1
+ c
1

x
1
+(− ln t + c
2
) x
2
= −t
−1
+c
1
+(− ln t + c
2
) t
−1
⇒ x = −t
−1
− t
−1
ln t + c
1
+ c
2
t
−1
is the general solution.
19. Let x
1
(t) and x
2
(t) be the homogeneous solutions of x

+px

+qx = f.
If the Wronskian is W [x
1
, x
2
] (t) and the variation of parameters is
x = v
1
x
1
+ v
2
x
2
then definite integral yields
f (t)x2(t) x2(t)
v
1

= −
W [x1,x2](t)
⇒ v
1
= −

t
W [x1,x2](t)
f(t)dt
0
f(t)x1(t) x1(t)
and v
2

=
W [x1,x2](t)
⇒ v
2
=

t
W [x1,x2](t)
f(t)dt. Since we have
0
used definite integrals, we do not have any arbitrary constants of
integration and the particular solution is thus x
p
= v
1
x
1
+ v
2
x
2
t t

x2(t) x1 (t)
x
p
= −x
1
(t)

0
W [x1,x2 ](t)
f(t)dt + x
2
(t)

0
W [x1,x2](t)
f(t)dt ⇒
74 CHAPTER 2
x2(t)x1(t)−x1(t)x2(t)
x
p
=

t
f(t)dt.
W [x1,x2](t)
0
2
21. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

− x = e
−t
we have the characteristic equation r
2
− 1 = 0 (r − 1) (r + 1) = 0
t

r = 1, −1. So x
1
= e and x
2
= e
−t
are homogeneous ⇒
¸
e
t
e
−t

solutions. The Wronskian, W [e
t
, e
−t
] = det
t
e −e
−t
= −1 − 1 = −2 = 0 . Thus {e
t
, e
−t
} is a fundamental set
2
of solutions and here f = e
−t
.
Variation of parameters: x = v
1
e
t
+ v
2
e
−t
.
So x

= v
1
e
t
− v
2
e
−t
+ v
1

e
t
+ v
2

e
−t
. We set v
1

e
t
+ v
2

e
−t
= 0
such that x

= v
1
e
t
− v
2
e
−t
x

= v
1
e
t
+ v
2
e
−t
+ v
1

e
t
− v
2

e
−t
. ⇒
Substituting this in the original equation, we have
2
v
1
e
t
+ v
2
e
−t
+ v
t
2
e
−t t
= e
−t
1
e
2
− v

− v
1
e − v
2
e
−t

v
1

e
t
− v
2

e
−t
= e
−t
.
Now we solve the system of equations
v
1

e
t
+ v
2

e
−t
= 0
2
v
1

e
t
− v
2

e
−t
= e
−t
for v
1

and v
2

. Adding them yields 2v
1

e
t
= e
−t
2
v
1

=
1
e
−t
e
−t
2
and v
2

e
−t
= −v
1

e
t
= −
1
2
e
−t
2

t
v
2

= −
1
2
e
t
e
−t
2
.

2
1
2
Definite integral yields, v
1
=
2

e
−s
e
−s
ds + c
1
and
0
2
v
2
= −
2
1

t
e
s
e
−s
ds + c
2
.
0
t t
¸
1

e
−s
e
−s

t
¸
1

s
e
−s

e
−t
2 2
Thus x =
2
ds + c
1
e +
2
e ds + c
2
0

0

2 2
x =
2
1
e
t

t
e
−s
e
−s
ds + c
1
e
t
2
1
e
−t

t
e
s
e
−s
ds + c
2
e
−t
0

0

2
x =

0
t

2
1
e
t−s

2
1
e
−(t−s)

e
−s
ds + c
1
e
t
+ c
2
e
−t

2
t
x =

t
sinh (t − s) e
−s
ds + c
1
e + c
2
e
−t
is the general solution.
0
rt 1
23. Substituting x = e in the homogeneous part of x

+ 5x

+ 6x =
t+1
we have the characteristic equation r
2
+ 5r + 6 = 0
= e
−2t

= e
−3t
(r + 2) (r + 3) = 0 r = −2, −3. So x
1
and x
2

are homogeneous solutions. The Wronskian,
W

e
−2t
, e
−3t

= det
¸

e
2

e
2

t
2t

e
3

e
3

t
3t

= −e
−5t
= 0 .
1
Thus
¸
e
−2t
, e
−3t
¸
is a fundamental set of solutions and here f =
t+1
.
Variation of parameters: x = v
1
e
−2t
+ v
2
e
−3t
.
So x

= −2v
1
e
−2t
− 3v
2
e
−3t
+ v
1

e
−2t
+ v
2

e
−3t
. We set
v
1

e
−2t
+ v
2

e
−3t
= 0 such that x

= −2v
1
e
−2t
− 3v
2
e
−3t
⇒ x

= 4v
1
e
−2t
+ 9v
2
e
−3t
− 2v
1

e
−2t
− 3v
2

e
−3t
.
LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 75
Substituting this in the original equation, we have
4v
1
e
−2t
+ 9v
2
e
−3t
− 2v
1

e
−2t
− 3v
2

e
−3t
− 10v
1
e
−2t
− 15v
2
e
−3t
+6v
1
e
−2t
+ 6v
2
e
−3t
=
1
1
e
−2t
− 3v
2

e
−3t
=
1
.
t+1
⇒−2v

t+1
Now we solve the system of equations
v
1

e
−2t
+ v
2

e
−3t
= 0
−2v
1

e
−2t
− 3v
2

e
−3t
=
1
t+1
for v
1

and v
2

. Multiplying the first equation by 2 and adding with
the second yields −v
2

e
−3t
=
1 1
e
3t
and then
1
e
−2t
2
e
−3t 1
t+1

1
v
2

2t
= −
t+1
v

= −v

=
t+1
v
1

=
t+1
e . . ⇒
2s 3s
e e
Definite integral yields, v
1
=

t
s+1
ds + c
1
and v
2
= −

t
s+1
ds + c
2
.
0 0
2s 3s
e e
Thus x =
¸

0
t
s+1
ds + c
1

e
−2t
+
¸


0
t
s+1
ds + c
2

e
−3t

2s 3s
e e
x = e
−2t

t
ds + c
1
e
−2t
− e
−3t

t
ds + c
2
e
−3t
0
s+1
0
s+1

1
x =

t

e
2(s−t)
− e
3(s−t)

s+1
ds + c
1
e
−2t
+ c
2
e
−3t
is the general
0
solution.
25. Substituting x = t
r
, x

= rt
r−1
, x

= r (r − 1) t
r−2
in the
homogeneous part of t
2
x

+ tx


2
x = e
t
and then dividing by t
r
= 0
we have r (r − 1) + r − 1 = 0 r − 1 = 0 r = 1, −1. ⇒ ⇒
So x
1
= t and x
2
= t
−1
are homogeneous solutions. The Wronskian,
W

t, t
−1

= det
¸
1
t

t

t

1
2

= −t
−1
− t
−1
= −2t
−1
= 0 .
t
Thus
¸
t, t
−1
¸
is a fundamental set of solutions and here f = e .
Variation of parameters: x = v
1
x
1
+ v
2
x
2
.
So v
fx2 t t
−1
=
1
e
t
and v

=
fx1
= e
t t 1
t
2
e
t
.
1
= −
W
= −e
−2t
−1
2 2 W −2t
−1
= −
2
1 t 1 2
Definite integral yields, v
1
=
2
e + c
1
and v
2
= −
2

t
s e
s
ds.
0
t
t 1 2
Thus x =

2
1
e + c
1

t +
¸

2

0
s e
s
ds + c
2

t
−1

1 1 2
x =
2
te
t
+ c
1
t −
2

t
t
−1
s e
s
ds + c
2
t
−1
0

1 1 2
x =
2
te
t

2

0
t
t
−1
s e
s
ds + c
1
t + c
2
t
−1
is the general solution.
2.11 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS (NTH-ORDER)
The algebraic system of equations in this section (obtained from the
variation of parameters)
v
1

x
1
+ v
2

x
2
+ ... + v
n

x
n
= 0
v
1

x

1
+ v
2

x
2

+ ... + v
n

x

n
= 0
... ... ... ...

76 CHAPTER 2
v
1

x
(
1
n−1)
+ v
2

x
(
2
n−1)
+ ... + v
n

x
(
n
n−1)
= 0
will be solved for v
1

, v
2

, ..., v
n

by using the formulae
v

= (−1)
n+i f Wi
where W [x
1
, x
2
, ..., x
n
] is the
i an W [x1,x2 ,...,xn ]
Wronskian of the independent homogeneous solutions x
1
, x
2
, ..., x
n
,
f is the forcing function and a
n
= 0 is the coefficient of the
nth-derivative term.
1. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

− x

= e
2t
,
3 2
we have the characteristic equation r − r = 0 r

r − 1

= 0
r = 0, 1, −1. So x
1
= 1, x
2
= e
t
and x
3
= e


t
are ⇒
homogeneous solutions. The Wronskian,
t

1 e e
−t
¸
W [1, e
t
, e
−t
] = det

0 e
t
t
−e
−t
¸
= 2 = 0 . Thus {1, e
t
, e
−t
}
0 e e
−t
is a fundamental set of solutions. Here f = e
2t
, n = 3, a
3
= 1.
Variation of parameters: x = v
1
x
1
+ v
2
x
2
+ v
3
x
3
.

e
t
e
−t
¸
2t e
So v
1

= (−1)
3+1
e
det

t
−e
−t
¸
= e
2t

−2

= −e
2t
1 2 2
⇒ v
1
= −
2
1
e
2t
+ c
1
.

1 e
−t
¸
2t
v
2

= (−1)
3+2
e
1
det

0
2
−e
−t
¸
= −e
2t

−e
2
−t

=
2
1
e
t
v
2
=
1
e
t
+ c
2
. ⇒
2

1 e
t
¸
det

t
¸
2t 0 e
v
3

= (−1)
3+3
e
=
1
e
2t
e
t
=
1
e
3t
1 2 2 2
⇒ v
3
=
6
1
e
3t
+ c
3
.
Thus x =


1
e
2t
+ c
1

1 +

1
e
t
+ c
2

e
t
+

1
e
3t
+ c
3

e
−t
x = −
1
2
e
2t
+ c
2
1
+
1
2
e
2t
+ c
2
e
t
2
+
1
6
e
2t
+ c
3
e
−t
6

1 2t t

x =
6
e + c
1
+ c
2
e + c
3
e
−t
is the general solution.
3. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

− x

= t,
we have the characteristic equation r
4
− r
3
= 0 ⇒ r
3
(r
t
− 1) = 0
r = 0, 0, 0, 1. So x
1
= 1, x
2
= t, x
3
= t
2
and x
4
= e are ⇒
homogeneous solutions. The Wronskian,
t

1 t t
2
e
¸

1 2t e
¸
t
W

1, t, t
2
, e
t

= det

0
0
0
1 2
2
t
e
e
t
¸
¸
¸
= det

0
0
2
0
e
e
t
t
¸
t
0 0 0 e
t
= 2e
t
= 0.
Thus
¸

1, t, t
2
, e
t
¸
is a fundamental set of solutions.
Here f = t, n = 4, a
4
= 1.
Variation of parameters: x = v
1
x
1
+ v
2
x
2
+ v
3
x
3
+ v
4
x
4
.

t t
2
e
t
¸
t
det

1 2t e
¸
¸

t
¸
So v
1

= (−1)
4+1
1
t
0 2 e
= −
t

e
t

t
2
− 2t + 2

2e
t
2e
t
77 LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS
1 t
4 3
t
2
= −
2

t
3
− 2t
2
+ 2t

⇒ v
1
= −
8 3

2
+ c
1
. +
t

1 t
2
e
t
¸
t
det

0 2t e
¸
¸

0 2 e
t
¸
v
2

= (−1)
4+2
1
t
2e
t
=
2e
t
t
2e
t
(t − 1) = t
2
− t
3 2
⇒ v
2
=
t

t
+

c
2
.
t
¸
3 2
1 t e
t
det

0 1 e
¸
¸

0 0 e
t
¸
v
3

= (−1)
4+3
1
t
= −
t
e
t
= −
2
t
2e
t
2e
t
2
⇒ v
3
= −
t
4
+ c
3
.

1 t t
2
¸
det

0 1 2t
¸
¸
¸
v
4

= (−1)
4+4
t
0 0 2
=
t
2 =
t
1 2e
t
2e
t
e
t
⇒ v
4
= −te

−t
t
4
− e

t
3
t
+ c
t
4
2
.

t
3
t
2

t
2

Thus x = −
8
+
3

2
+ c
1

1 +
3

2
+ c
2
t + −
4
+ c
3
t
2
+(−te
−t
− e
−t
+ c
4
) e
t
4 3

t t
+ c
1
+ c
2
t + c
3
t
2
+ c
4
e
t
is the general solution, x = −
24

6
where c
1
= c
1
− 1, c
2
= c
2
− 1, c
3
= c
3

2
1
.
at bt ct

e e e
¸
5. W = det

ae
at
be
bt
ce
ct
¸
. Factoring out e
at
, e
bt
and e
ct
from
a
2
e
at
b
2
e
bt
c
2
e
ct
the first, second and third column, respectively, we get

1 1 1
¸
W = e
at
e
bt
e
ct
det

a b c
¸
. Subtracting second column
a
2
b
2
c
2
from the third and, next, first column from the second to get

1 0 0
¸
W = e
(a+b+c)t
det

a
2
b
2
b − a
2 2
c − b
¸
. Factoring out b − a,
a − a c − b
2
and c − b from the second and third column, respectively, we get

1 0 0
¸
W = (b − a) (c − b) e
(a+b+c)t
det

a 1 1
¸
a
2
b + a c + b
= (b − a) (c − b) e
(a+b+c)t
(c + b − b − a)
= (b − a) (c − a) (c − b) e
(a+b+c)t
.
7. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

−2x

−x

+2x = e
t
,
we have the characteristic equation r
3
− 2r
2
− r + 2 = 0
t

(r − 1) (r + 1) (r − 2) = 0 r = 1, −1, 2. So x
1
= e , x
2
= e
−t
and
2t

x
3
= e are homogeneous solutions. The Wronskian, using Exercise
t 2t
5, is W

e , e
−t
, e
2t

= e
(1−1+2)t
(−1 − 1) (2 − 1) (2 + 1) = −6e = 0.
t
Thus
¸
e , e
−t
, e
2t
¸
is a fundamental set of solutions.

Here f = e
t
, n = 3, a
3
= 1.
Variation of parameters: x = v
1
x
1
+ v
2
x
2
+ v
3
x
3
.
78 CHAPTER 2

e
−t
e
2t
¸
t
So v
1

= (−1)
3+1
e
1
det

−e


6
t
e
2t
2e
2t
¸
= −
6
1
e
t
[2e
t
+ e
t
] = −
2
1
⇒ v
1
= −
2
t
+ c
1
.

t 2t
¸
e e
det

t 2t
¸
3+2
e 1 3t 1 2t
v
2

= (−1)
1
t e
−6e
2e
=

2e − e
3t

=
6
e
2t
6e
t
=
1
e
2t
+ c
2
. ⇒ v
2
12

e
t
e
−t
¸
t e
v
3

= (−1)
3+3
e
det

t
−e
−t
¸
1
[−1 − 1] =
1
e
−t
1 −6e
2t
= −
6e
t
3
⇒ v
3
= −
3
1
e

t
t
+ c
3
.
t
+

1 2t 1 2t
Thus x =

− + c
1

e e + c
2

e
−t
+

− e
−t
+ c
3

e
t t
2
t 1 t
12
1 t 2t
3

x = −
2
t
e + c
1
e +
12
e + c
2
e
−t

3
e + c
3
e ⇒
x = −
2
e
t
+ c
1
e
t
+ c
2
e
−t
+ c
3
e
2t
is the general solution,
where c
1
= c
1
+
1 1
.
12

3
9. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

+2x

−x

−2x = 1,
we have the characteristic equation r
3
+ 2r
2
− r − 2 = 0 ⇒
(r − 1) (r + 1) (r + 2) = 0 r = 1, −1, −2. So x
1
= e
t
, x
2
= e
−t

and x
3
= e
−2t
are homogeneous solutions. The Wronskian, using
t
Exercise 5, is W

e , e
−t
, e
−2t

= e
(1−1−2)t
(−1 − 1) (−2 − 1) (−2 + 1)
t
= −6e
−2t
= 0 . Thus
¸
e , e
−t
, e
−2t
¸
is a fundamental set of solutions.
Here f = 1, n = 3, a
3
= 1.
Variation of parameters: x = v
1
x
1
+ v
2
x
2
+ v
3
x
3
.

e
−t
e
−2t
¸
So v
1

= (−1)
3+1
1
det

−e
−t
−2e
−2t
¸
1

−2e
−3t
+ e
−3t

1 −6e
−2t
= −
6e
−2t
=
6
1
e
−t
⇒ v
1
= −

6
1
e

e
t
t
+ c
e
1

.
2t
¸
2
= (−1)
3+2
1
det

e
t
−2e
−2t
¸
=
1
− e
−t
] = −
1
e
t
v

1 −6e
−2t
6e
−2t
[−2e
−t
2
⇒ v
2
= −
2
1
e
t
+ c
2

.
t
¸
e e
−t
1 2t
v
3

= (−1)
3+3
1
1
det

e

t
6e


2t
e
−t
¸
= −
6e
−2t
[−1 − 1] =
1
3
e
v
3
=
1
e
2t
+ c
3
. ⇒
6
1 t 1 t 2t
Thus x =


6
e
−t
+ c
1

e +


2
e + c
2

e
−t
+

1
6
e + c
3

e
−2t
x = −
1
+ c
1
e
t 1
+ c
2
e
−t
+
1
+ c
3
e
−2t

6 2 6
1 t

+ c
3
e
−2t

x = −
2
+ c
1
e + c
2
e
−t
is the general solution.
11. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

+3x

−x

−3x = e
t
,
we have the characteristic equation r
3
+ 3r
2
− r − 3 = 0
t

(r − 1) (r + 1) (r + 3) = 0 r = 1, −1, −3. So x
1
= e , x
2
= e
−t
= e
−3t

and x
3
are homogeneous solutions. The Wronskian, using
t
Exercise 5, is W

e , e
−t
, e
−3t

= e
(1−1−3)t
(−1 − 1) (−3 − 1) (−3 + 1)
t
= −16e
−3t
t
= 0 . Thus
¸
e , e
−t
, e
−3t
¸
is a fundamental set of solutions.
Here f = e , n = 3, a
3
= 1.
LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 79
Variation of parameters: x = v
1
x
1
+ v
2
x
2
+ v
3
x
3
.

e
−t
e
−3t
¸
t
3+1
e
det

−e
−t
−3e
−3t
¸
1
So v
1

= (−1)
1 −16e
−3t
= −
16e
−4t

−3e
−4t
+ e
−4t

=
1
8
=
1
8
t + c
1
. ⇒ v
1

e
t
e
−3t
¸
det
v
2

= (−1)
3+2
e
t

e
t
−3e
−3t
¸
=
1

−3e
−2t
− e
−2t

= −
1
e
2t
1 −16e
−3t
16e
−4t
4
⇒ v
2
= −
8
1
e
2t
+ c
2

.
e
t
e
−t
¸
det

t
¸
t e
v
3

= (−1)
3+3
e
1 −16e


3
e
t
−t
= −
16e
1
−4t
[−1 − 1] =
8
1
e
4t
1 4t
⇒ v
3
=
32
e + c
3
.
t 1 2t 4t
Thus x =

1
t + c
1

e e + c
2

e
−t
+

1
e + c
3

e
−3t
8
+


8 32
t

x =
te
+ c
1
e
t 1
e
t
+ c
2
e
−t
+
1
e
t
+ c
3
e
−3t
8
t

8 32

x =
te
8
+ c
1
e
t
+ c
2
e
−t
+ c
3
e
−3t
is the general solution, where
1 1
. c
1
= c
1
+

32
e

αt
8
te
αt
t
2
e
αt
¸
13. W = det

αe
αt
e
αt
+ αte
αt
2te
αt
+ αt
2
e
αt
¸
.
α
2
e
αt
2αe
αt
+ α
2
te
αt
2e
αt
+ 4αte
αt
+ α
2
t
2
e
αt
Factoring out e
αt
from the first, second and third column,

1 t t
2
¸
respectively, we get W = e
αt
e
αt
e
αt
det

α 1 + αt 2t + αt
2
¸
α
2
2α + α
2
t 2 + 4αt + α
2
t
2
(expanding with respect to the second column)

1 t t
2
¸
1 0 t
2
¸¸
= e
3αt
¸
det

α αt 2t + αt
2
¸
+ det

α 1 2t + αt
2
¸
.
α
2
α
2
t 2 + 4αt + α
2
t
2
α
2
2α 2 + 4αt + α
2
t
2
The first determinant is zero since its second column equals the first
column after factoring out t. Then

1 0 t
2
¸
W = e
3αt
det

α 1 2t + αt
2
¸
α
2
2α 2 + 4αt + α
2
t
2
(expanding with respect to the last column)

1 0 t
2
¸
1 0 0
¸¸
= e
3αt
¸
det

α 1 αt
2
¸
+ det

α 1 2t
¸
α
2
2α α
2
t
2
α
2
2α 2 + 4αt
The first determinant is zero since its third column equals the first
column after factoring out t. Then

1 0 0
¸
W = e
3αt
det

α 1 2t
¸
= e
3αt
(2 + 4αt − 4αt) = 2e
3αt
.
α
2
2α 2 + 4αt
15. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

+ 3x

+ 3x

+ x
= t
−3
e
−t
, we have the characteristic equation r
3
+ 3r
2
+ 3r + 1 = 0
⇒ (r + 1)
3
= 0 ⇒ r = −1, −1, −1. So x
1
= e
−t
, x
2
= te
−t
and
x
3
= t
2
e
−t
are homogeneous solutions. The Wronskian, using
80 CHAPTER 2
Exercise 13, is W

e
−t
, te
−t
, t
2
e
−t

= 2e
−3t
= 0 . Here f = t
−3
e
−t
,
n = 3, a
3
= 1. Variation of parameters: x = v
1
x
1
+ v
2
x
2
+ v
3
x
3
.

te
−t
t
2
e
−t
¸
So v
1

= (−1)
3+1
t
−3
e
−t
det

e
−t
− te
−t
2te
−t
− t
2
e
−t
¸
=
1

t
2
e
−2t

1 2e
−3t
2t
3
e
−2t
=
2
1
t
v
1
=
2
1
ln t + c
1
. ⇒

e
−t
t
2
e
−t
¸
3+2
t
−3
e
−t
1
v
2

= (−1)
det

−e
−t
2te
−t
− t
2
e
−t
¸

2te
−2t

1 2e
−3t
= −
2t
3
e
−2t
1 1
= −
t
2
v
2
=
t
+ c
2
. ⇒

e
−t
te
−t
¸
det
3+3
t
−3
e
−t
1 1
v
3

= (−1)

−e
−t
e
−t
− te
−t
¸
=

e
−2t

=
1 2e
−3t
2t
3
e
−2t
2t
3
1
⇒ v
3
= −
4t
2
+ c
3
.
+

1 1

t
2
Thus x =

1
ln t + c
1

e
−t
+ c
2

te
−t
+


4t
2
+ c
3
e
−t
2 t
x =
1
2
1
(ln t) e
−t
+ c
1
e
−t
+ e
−t
+ c
2
te
−t

1
4
e
−t
+ c
3
t
2
e
−t


x =
2
(ln t) e
−t
+ c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
te
−t
+ c
3
t
2
e
−t
is the general solution,
where c
1
= c
1
+ 1 −
1
.
4
17. Substituting x = e
rt
in the homogeneous part of x

− 6x

+ 12x

− 8x
2t 3
= t
2
7
e , we have the characteristic equation r − 6r
2
+ 12r − 8 = 0
(r − 2)
3
= 0 r = 2, 2, 2. So x
1
= e
2t
, x
2
= te
2t
and ⇒
= t
2 2t

x
3
e are homogeneous solutions. The Wronskian, using
2t 6t
7
2t
2
e Exercise 13, is W

e , te
2t
, t
2
e
2t

= 2e = 0 . Here f = t ,
n = 3, a
3
= 1. Variation of parameters: x = v
1
x
1
+ v
2
x
2
+ v
3
x
3
.

te
2t
t
2
e
2t
¸
7
2t
det

e
2t
+ 2te
2t
2te
2t
+ 2t
2
e
2t
¸
So v
1

= (−1)
3+1
t 2 e
1 2e
6t
t 2 1
11
1
13
=
2e
7
4t

t
2
e
4t

=
2
t
2
v
1
=
13
t
2
+ c
1
.


e
2t
t
2
e
2t
¸
2
= (−1)
7
2t
det

2e
2t
2te
2t
+ 2t
2
e
2t
¸
7

2te
4t

v

3+2
t 2
1
e
2e
= −
2
t
e
2
6t 4t
9 11
2
2 2
= −t ⇒ v
2
= −
11
t

+
e
c
2
2
t
.
te
2t
¸
3+3
t 2 e
2t
t 2 1
7
2
v
3

= (−1)
7
det

2e
2t
e
2t
+ 2te
2t
¸
=
7

e
4t

= t
1 2e
6t
2e
4t
2
1
9
2
⇒ v
3
=
9
t + c
13
3
.
11 9
Thus x =

1
t + c
1

e
2t
+

2
t
2
+ c
2

te
2t
+

1
t
2
+ c
3

t
2
e
2t
13
2

11 9

2 2 2
x =
1
t
13
e
2t
+ c
1
e
2t 2
t
13
e
2t
+ c
2
te
2t
+
1
t
13
e
2t
+ c
3
t
2
e
2t
13 11 9
13
− ⇒
8 2t 2t 2t
2
x =
1287
t e + c
1
e + c
2
te
2t
+ c
3
t
2
e is the general solution.
19. Let x
1
= e
t
, x
2
= te
t
and x
3
= t
2
e
t
. The Wronskian, using Exercise
t 3t t
13, is W

e , te
t
, t
2
e
t

= 2e = 0 . Here f = e , n = 3, a
3
= 2.
Variation of parameters: x = v
1
x
1
+ v
2
x
2
+ v
3
x
3
.

te
t
t
2
e
t
¸
det

e
t
+ te
t
2te
t
+ t
2
e
t
¸
So v
1

= (−1)
3+1
e
t
1

t
2 2t

=
1
2
t
2 1
t
2
3
e
3t
=
2t
e v
1
= + c
1
.
4e 4 12

81 LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS

e
t
t
2
e
t
¸
t t
3+2
e 1
v
2

= (−1)
t
det

e 2te
t
+ t
2
e
¸

2te
2t

1 1
= −
2
t v
2
=
2

4
t
2
+ c
2
.
2e
3t
= −
4e
2t


e
t
te
t
¸
3+3
t
v
3

= (−1)
e
det

e
t
e
t
+ te
t
¸
=
1

e
2t

=
1
2 2e
3t
4e
2t
4
1
⇒ v
3
= t + c
3
.
t 1 t
Thus x =
4
1
+ c
1
+ c
2

te
t
t + c
3
e
12
t
3

e +


4
t
2
+

4
1

t
2
1
t
3 t t 1
t
3 t 1
t
3 t t

x =
12
e + c
1
e −
4
e + c
2
te
t
+
4
e + c
3
t
2
e ⇒
1
t
3 t t t
x =
12
e + c
1
e + c
2
te
t
+ c
3
t
2
e is the general solution.
1
2
21. Let x
1
= 1, x
2
= t and x
3

. The Wronskian is = t
¸
1
2
1 t t
W

1, t, t
1 3 1
2
1
4
t
− 1
=

t

¸
= − = 0. 0 1
2 2
2
3
2
0 0
1
4
t


Here f = t
3
, n = 3, a
3
= t
2
.
Variation of parameters: x = v
1
x
1
+ v
2
x
2
+ v
3
x
3
.
¸
1
2
t t
¸
det
1
2

= 2t
3
1
1
t

2
3 5 1
3+1
t 1
So v
1

= (−1) = −4t t −
2 2
3
t
2
2 1
t

2 −
4
v
1
=
1
t
4
+ c
1
. ⇒
2
¸
1
2
1 t
¸
det
1
2

1

= 2t
2
0
1
t

2
3
2
= (−1)
3+2
t

⇒ v
2
=
3
2
t
3
+ c
2
.

5 1
2
v

t

= 4t
2
3
t
2
2 1
t

2
4
¸
1 t
det

0 1
¸
3
3+3
t
t
2
5 5
v
3

= (−1) = −4t (1) = −4t
2 2
3
1
t

2 −
4
7
2
8
t + c
3
. ⇒ v
3
= −
Thus x =

1
7

1 +

2
3
t
3
+ c
2

t +
7 1
8
t
4
+ c
1
t + c
3
t −
2 2
2 7

+ c
3
t
1
2
1
1
t
4 2
t
4 8
t
4 t
2
+ c
1
+
3
+ c
2
t −
7
e x = ⇒
1
t
4
is the general solution. + c
1
+ c
2
t + c
3
t
2
x =
42
Chapter Three
The Laplace Transform
3.1 DEFINITION AND BASIC PROPERTIES
1. Graph.
f (t) is not piecewise continuous because lim f (t) does not exist.
t 2
+
3. Graph.

lim f (t) = 1, lim f (t) = 0 and f (1) =
1
2
. So f (t) is not continuous
t 1

t 1
+
→ →
at t = 1, however, it is piecewise continuous because lim f (t) and
t 1

lim f (t) exist.

t 1
+


1, 0 ≤ t ≤ 1,
5. f (t) =
0, t > 1.
e
−st

e
−st
f (t) dt =
1
e
−st
dt+

×e
−st
dt =
1 1
L [f (t)] =

0

0

1
0
−s
|
0
=
s
(1 − e
−s
) .

t, 0 ≤ t < 1,
7. f (t) = 2 − t, 1 ≤ t ≤ 2,

0, t > 2
L [f (t)] =


e
−st
f (t) dt =

1
te
−st
dt +

2
(2 − t) e
−st
dt +


0 × e
−st
dt
0 0 1 2
=


1
s
te
−st

s
1
2
e
−st

0
1
+


2
s
e
−st
+
1
s
te
−st
+
s
1
2
e
−st

1
2
= −
1
s
e
−s
s
1
2
e
−s
+
s
1
2

2
s
e
−2s
+
s
2
e
−2s
+
s
1
2
e
−2s
+
2
s
e
−s 1
e
−s
s
1
2
e
−s
s
=
1
2

1 −

2e
−s
+ e
−2s

.
− −
s
9. L [sin bt] =


e
−st
sin btdt = lim

a
e
−st
sin btdt. Using an integration
0
a→∞
0
a
a
e
−st
table, we get

e
−st
sin btdt =

(−s sin bt − b cos bt)

s
2
+b
2
0
0
=
e
−sa
(−s sin ba − b cos ba) +
b
s
2
+b
2
s
2
+b
2
.

e
−sa
b

b
Then L [sin bt] = lim (−s sin ba − b cos ba) + =
s
2
+b
2
s
2
+b
2
s
2
+b
2
.

a→∞

e
−st e
at
−e
−at
1


e
−st at
dt −

e
−st
e
−at
dt

11. L [sinh at] =

e
−st
sinh atdt =

dt =

e

2 2
1
0

1
0
1

1

s+a−s+
0
a

a
0
=
2
(L [e
at
] −L [e
−at
]) =
1
2 s−a

s+a
=
2 (s−a)(s+a)
=
s −a
2
.
2
ibt

13. L [sin bt] =


e
−st
sin btdt =


e
−st e −e
−ibt
dt =
1


e
−st
e
ibt
dt −

e
−st
e
−ibt
dt

2i 2i
0 0 0 0
=
1 ibt

−L

e
−ibt

=
1

1 1

=
1

s+ib−s+ib

2i

L

e
2i s−ib

s+ib 2i (s−ib)(s+ib)
THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 83
b
=
2
+b
2
.
s
2t
15. L [3 cosh 2t] = 3


e
−st e +e
−2t
dt =
3


e
−st
e
2t
dt +


e
−st
e
−2t
dt

2 2
=
3

L

e
0
3

1
+
1
0

=
3

s+2+
0
s−2

=
s
2
3s
2
2t

−L

e
−2t

=
2 s−2 s+2 2 (s−2)(s+2) −4
.
17. L [5 sin 6t] = 5
6
=
30
.
s
2
+6
2
s
2
+36
19. L [−t + 3] . Linearity implies −L [t] + L [3] = −
1
+
3
2
.
s s
s
21. L [2 + cos 5t] . Linearity implies L [2] + L [cos 5t] =
2
+ .
s s
2
+25
3t
23. L [sinh 3t] =


e
−st e −e
−3t
dt =
1


e
−st
e
3t
dt −


e
−st
e
−3t
dt

2 2
1
0
1

1
0
1

1

s
0
+3−s+3

3
=
2

L

e
3t

−L

e
−3t

=
2 s−3

s+3
=
2 (s
3

t

3)(
=
s+3)
=
s
2
−9
.
2 6
25. L

2e
−t
+ 6e
3t

. Linearity implies 2L [e
−t
] + 6L

e
s+1
+
s−3
.
27. L [3t − 1 + cosh 2t] . Note cosh 2t =
1
e
2t
+
1
e
−2t
. Linearity implies
1 3 1 1 1 1 1
3L [t] −L [1] +
1 2t

+
2 2
+ +
s s 2 2 s+2
=
s
3
2
1
s
+
s
2
s
2
.
L

e
2
L

e
−2t

=
2

s−2
29. L

7t
3

+ 11t + 8

4
. Linearity implies 7L

t
3

+ 11L [t] + L [8]
7(3!) 11 8 42 11 8
=
s
3+1
+
s
2
+
s
=
s
4
+
s
2
+
s
.
3(4!) 4(3!)
31. L

3t
4
+ 4t
3

. Linearity implies 3L

t
4

+ 4L

t
3

= +
s
4+1
s
3+1
=
72
5
+
24
4
.
s s
33. We apply shifting theorem L [e
ct
f (t)] = F (s − c) with c = 3 and
f (t) = sin 5t, so that F (s) = L [f (t)] = L [sin 5t] =
5
s
2
+25
.
So F (s − 3) =
(s−3)
5
2
+25
.
35. We apply shifting theorem L [e
ct
f (t)] = F (s − c) with c = 4 and
f (t) = cos 7t, so that F (s) = L [f (t)] = L [cos 7t] =
s
.
s
2
+49
So F (s − 4) =
(s−
s
4)

2
4
+49
.
37. We apply shifting theorem L [e
ct
f (t)] = F (s − c) with c = −3 and
f (t) = sin 5t, so that F (s) = L [f (t)] = L [sin 5t] =
5
.
s
2
+25
So F (s + 3) =
(s+3)
5
2
+25
.
39. We apply shifting theorem L [e
ct
f (t)] = F (s − c) with c = −4 and
f (t) = cos 7t, so that F (s) = L [f (t)] = L [cos 7t] =
s
s
2
+49
.
So F (s + 4) =
s+4
.
(s+4)
2
+49
41. We apply shifting theorem L [e
ct
f (t)] = F (s − c) with c = 2 and
6!
f (t) = t
6
, so that F (s) = L [f (t)] = L

t
6

=
7
.
s
So F (s − 2) =
(s−
6!
2)
7
.
43. We apply shifting theorem L [e
ct
f (t)] = F (s − c) with c = −2 and
6!
f (t) = t
6
, so that F (s) = L [f (t)] = L

t
6

=
s
7
.
So F (s + 2) =
6!
(s+2)
7
.
45. We apply shifting theorem L [e
ct
f (t)] = F (s − c) with c = 3 and
f (t) = t
5
+ t
3
+ 1, so that F (s) = L [f (t)] = L

t
5

+ L

t
3

+ L [1]
=
s
5!
6
+
s
3!
4
+
1
s
. So F (s − 3) =
(s−
5!
3)
6
+
(s−
6
3)
4
+
1
.
47. f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = L
−1

s
1

−L
−1

1
s

= t − 1.
s−3
2
84 CHAPTER 3
49. f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = L
−1

1

=
1
3
L
−1

3

=
1
sin 3t.
s
2
+9 s
2
+3
2
3
1
51. f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = L
−1

1+s

= L
−1

1
+

= L
−1

1

+ L
−1

1

2 2 2
s s s s s
= t + 1.
53. f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = L
−1

3 7
+
19

s

s
2
s
2
+1
= L
−1

3

+ L
−1

19

s

−L
−1

s
7
2
s
2
+1
= 3L
−1

1

− 7L
−1

1!

+ 19L
−1

1

= 3 − 7t + 19 sin t.
s s
2
s
2
+1
55. f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = L
−1

3s+7

= L
−1

3s

+ L
−1

7

s
2
+16 s
2
+16 s
2
+16
= 3L
−1

s

+
7
4
L
−1

4

= 3 cos 4t +
7
sin 4t.
s
2
+4
2
s
2
+4
2
4
57. f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = L
−1

5
+
7

= L
−1

5

+ L
−1

7

s+3 s−5 s+3 s−5
1 1 5t
= 5L
−1

s+3

+ 7L
−1

s−5

= 5e
−3t
+ 7e .
1 1
59. f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = L
−1

s
−6

= L
−1

1

=
5!
L
−1

5!

= t
5
.
2

2
s
6
3

2
s
6
5!
61. f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = L
−1

=
3
L
−1

= sin 3t.
s
2
+9 s
2
+3
2
3
3 3 9! 3
t
9
63. f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = L
−1

s

=
9!
L
−1

s

=
9!
.
10 9+1
3

¸
3

3 1

65. f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = L
−1

2s
2
+7
= L
−1
2(s
2
+
7
)
=
2
L
−1

s
2
+
7
2 2
3

2
¸

2
7
¸
3

2

7
=
2 7
L
−1

7

2
=
2 7
sin
2
t.
s
2
+
2
67. Let F (s − 4) =
(s−
1
4)
3
⇒ F (s) =
s
1
3
.
1 2! 1
So f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = L
−1

s
1
3

=
2
L
−1

s
2+1

= t
2
.
2
Now L
−1

1

= L
−1
[F (s − 4)] and the shifting theorem (14)
(s−4)
3
with c = 4 yields L
−1
[F (s − 4)] = e
4t
f (t) =
1
t
2
e
4t
.
2
69. Let F (s − 5) =
(s−5)
F (s) =
s
=
s
(s−5)
2
+9

s
2
+9 s
2
+3
2
.
s
So f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = L
−1

= cos 3t.
s
2
+3
2
Now L
−1

(s−5)

= L
−1
[F (s − 5)] and the shifting theorem
(s−5)
2
+9
(14) with c = 5 yields L
−1
[F (s − 5)] = e
5t
f (t) = e
5t
cos 3t.
7 7 7 4
71. Let F (s − 7) =
(s−7)
2
+16
⇒ F (s) =
s
2
+16
=
4 s
2
+4
2
.
So f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] =
7
4
L
−1

4

=
7
sin 4t.
s
2
+4
2
4
Now L
−1

7

= L
−1
[F (s − 7)] and the shifting theorem
(s−7)
2
+16
(14) with c = 7 yields L
−1
[F (s − 7)] = e
7t
f (t) =
7
e
7t
sin 4t.
4
(s+3) s s
73. Let F (s + 3) =
(s+3)
2
+5
⇒ F (s) =
s
2
+5
=
2
+(

5)
2
.
s
s
So f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = L
−1
¸
= cos

5t.
s
2
+(

5)
2
Now L
−1

(s+3)

= L
−1
[F (s + 3)] and the shifting theorem
(s+3)
2
+5
(14) with c = −3 yields L
−1
[F (s + 3)] = e
−3t
f (t) = e
−3t
cos

5t.

THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 85

2, t = 1;
75. f (t) = .
t, t = 1.
L [f (t)] =

1
te
−st
dt +

1
2e
−st
dt +


te
−st
dt
0 1 1
=


1
s
te
−st

s
1
2
e
−st

1
0
+ 0 + lim


1
s
te
−st

s
1
2
e
−st

b
1
1
e
−s
s
1
2
e
−s
+
1
+ lim
b→∞
1
be
−sb
s
1
2
e
−sb
+
1
e
−s
+
s
1
2
e
−s

= −
1
s

s
2
b→∞


s

s
=
s
(since lim e
−sb
= 0 and first two terms cancel with last two).
2
b→∞
Now L [t] =


te
−st
dt = lim


1
s
te
−st
s
1
2
e
−st

b
0
0
b→∞

b→∞
1

1
2
e
−sb 1 1
= lim


s
be
−sb
s
+
s

=
s
2 2
.
77. Yes, since e

t
≤ e
t
for t ≥ 1.
79.


Me
αt
e
−st
dt converges for s > α, and f (t) e
−st
≤ Me
αt
e
−st
by
0
| |
assumption.
d d

1

1
81. L

te
5t

= −
ds

L

e
5t

= −
ds s−5
=
(s−5)
2
.
2
d d

s

s −25
83. L [t cos 5t] = −
ds
(L [cos 5t]) = −
ds s
2
+25
=
(s
2
+25)
2
.
4s(s
2
85. L

t
2
cos 3t

=
d
2
(L [cos 3t]) =
d
2

s

=
−2s
+
−9)
.
ds
2
ds
2
s
2
+9 (s
2
+9)
2
(s
2
+9)
3
87. L

te
5t
sin 3t

= −
d

L

e
5t
sin 3t

= −
d

3

=
6(s−5)
ds ds (s−5)
2
+9
[(s−5)
2
+9]
2
.
d d

s+4

(s+4)
2
−25
89. L

te
−4t
cos 5t

= −
ds

L

e
−4t
cos 5t

= −
ds (s+4)
2
+25
=
[(s+4)
2
+25]
2
.
91. The derivative theorem for higher powers of t is L [t
n
e
at
] =
(s−a
n
)
!
n+1
.
So L
−1

(s−a
n
)
!
n+1

= t
n
e
at
.
1

1 5!

1
t
5
e
−3t
Thus L
−1

=
5!
L
−1

(s+3)
5+1
=
5!
.
(s+3)
6
93. L
−1

5s

=
6
5
L
−1

6s

=
6
5
L
−1

d

3

=
5
t sin 3t.
(s+9)
2
s
2
+9

ds s
2
+9 6
2
95. L
−1

s −9

= L
−1

d

s

= t cos 3t.
(s
2
+9)
2

ds s
2
+9
2
97. L
−1

5

=
5 1 s −9

(s
2
+9)
2
18
L
−1

(s
2
+9)

(s
2
+9)
2
2
5 3 s −9

=
18
L
−1

1
3 (s
2
+9)

(s
2
+9)
2
=
5

3
1
L
−1

3

−L
−1


d

s

18 (s
2
+9) ds s
2
+9
=
5

1
sin 3t − t cos 3t

.
99. L
−1
18

2
3
s+1

= L
−1

1
+
2s

(s
2
+1)
2
(s
2
+1)
2
(s
2
+1)
2
= L
−1

1 2
+
2s

2 (s
2
+1)
2
(s
2
+1)
2
2
=
2
1
L
−1

1 s −1

+ L
−1

2s

(s
2
+1)

(s
2
+1)
2
(s
2
+1)
2
=
1

L
−1

1

−L
−1


d

s

+ L
−1


d

1

2 (s
2
+1) ds s
2
+1 ds s
2
+1
=
1
(sin t − t cos t) + t sin t.
2
86 CHAPTER 3
101. L [f (ct)] =


e
−st
f (ct) dt. Let u = ct
1
u = t and
1
du = dt.
c c
0

s
c
Then this integral becomes
1
c


e
− u
f (u) du =
1
c
F

s
c

, since
0
L [f (t)] =


e
−st
f (t) dt = F (s) .
0
1
103. Using (T2), F (s) = L [f (t)] = L [e
at
] = = (s − a)
−1
. So
s−a
F

(s) = − (s − a)
−2
= (−1)
1
(s−
1!
a)
2
2!
F

(s) = − (−2) (s − a)
−3
= (−1)
2
(s−a)
3
F

(s) = − (−2) (−3) (s − a)
−4
= (−1)
3
(s−
3!
a)
4
F

(s) = − (−2) (−3) (−4) (s − a)
−5
= (−1)
4
(s−
4!
a)
5
... ... ... ...
n
n!
F
(n)
(s) = − (−2) (−3) (−4) ... (−n) (s − a)
−(n+1)
= (−1)
(s−a)
(n+1)
.
Now using Exercise 102, L [t
n
f (t)] = (−1)
n
F
(n)
(s) , we have
L [t
n
e
at
] = (−1)
n
(−1)
n
(s−a
n
)
(
!
n+1)
=
(s−a
n
)
(
!
n+1)
.
3.2 INVERSE LAPLACE TRANSFORMS (ROOTS,
QUADRATICS, & PARTIAL FRACTIONS)
1 1 A B
1. Using partial fractions,
s −9
=
(s−3)(s+3)
=
s−3
+
s+3
. Multiplying by
2
the
denominator gives 1 = A (s + 3) + B (s − 3) . Letting s = 3 and −3
in this equation gives A =
6
1
, B = −
6
1
.
1

1 1

1

1

1

2
Thus L
−1

s −9
= L
−1

1
6 s−3

s+3
=
6
L
−1

s−3
−L
−1

s−3
1 3t
6
3. L

=
1

5

s
e
−1


=
e

L
3

t

1
.

5s

1

= 5L
−1

s


1
7
L
−1
¸

7

s
2
+7 s
2
+7
−L
−1

s
2
+7 s
2
+7

s
2
+(

7)
2
1
= 5 cos

7t − sin

7t.

7
s+2 s+2 A B
5. Using partial fractions,
s
2
−1
=
(s−1)(s+1)
=
s−1
+
s+1
. Multiplying by
the denominator gives s + 2 = A (s + 1) + B (s − 1) . Letting s = 1
and −1 in this equation gives A =
3
2
, B = −
1
2
.
Thus L
−1

s+2

=
2
3
L
−1

1

2
1
L
−1

1

=
3
e
t 1
e
−t
.
s
2
−1 s−1

s+1 2

2
2s−1 A B
7. Using partial fractions,
2
s
s−1
=
s(s−1)
=
s
+ . Multiplying by
2
−s s−1
the denominator gives 2s − 1 = A (s − 1) + Bs. Letting s = 0
and 1 in this equation gives A = 1, and B = 1. Thus
2s−1 1 1
s
2
−s
=
s
+
s−1
.
So L
−1

2s−1

= L
−1

1

+ L
−1

1

= 1 + e
t
.
s
2
−s s s−1
−s−1 −s−1 A B
9. Using partial fractions,
s
2
+s−2
=
(s−1)(s+2)
=
s−1
+
s+2
. Multiplying
by the denominator gives −s − 1 = A (s + 2) + B (s − 1) . Letting
THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 87
s = 1 and −2 in this equation gives A = −
2
3
, B = −
1
3
.
Thus L
−1

−s−1

3
2
L
−1

1

3
1
L
−1

1

2
e
t 1
e
−2t
.
s
2
+s−2
= −
s−1

s+2
= −
3

3
11. Using partial fractions,
4
=
4
=
A
+
B
. Multiplying
s
2
+s−6 (s−2)(s+3) s−2 s+3
by the denominator gives 4 = A (s + 3) + B (s − 2) . Letting s = 2
and −3 in this equation gives A =
5
4
, B = −
5
4
.
4

4

1

1

4 2t
Thus L
−1

s
2
+s−6
=
5
L
−1

s−2
−L
−1

s+3
=
5

e − e
−3t

.
s s (s−1)+1
13.
−2s+26
=
(s−1)
2
+25
=
(s−1)
2
+5
2
. Replacing s − 1 by s, we compute
s
2
that L
−1

s+1

= L
−1

s

+
5
1
L
−1

5

= cos 5t +
1
sin 5t.
s
2
+5
2
s
2
+5
2
s
2
+5
2
5
Thus by the shifting theorem (T16) with c = 1, we have
f (t) = L
−1

s
2
−2
s
s+26

= e
t

cos 5t +
5
1
sin 5t

.
2s+5 2s+5 2(s−3)+11
15.
s −6s+18
=
(s−3)
2
+9 (s−3)
2
+3
2
. Replacing s − 3 by s, we compute
2
=
s

11 3 11
that L
−1

2s+11

= 2L
−1

+
3
L
−1

= 2 cos 3t+ sin 3t.
s
2
+3
2
s
2
+3
2
s
2
+3
2
3
Thus by the shifting theorem (T16) with c = 3, we have
2s+5 11
f (t) = L
−1

s
2
−6s+18

= 2e
3t
cos 3t +
3
e
3t
sin 3t.
3s−2 3s−2 3(s+5)−17
17.
s
2
+10s+26
=
(s+5)
2
+1
=
(s+5)
2
+1
2
. Replacing s + 5 by s, we compute
that L
−1

3s−17

= 3L
−1

s

− 17L
−1

1

= 3 cos t − 17 sin t.
s
2
+1
2
s
2
+1
2
s
2
+1
2
Thus by the shifting theorem (T16) with c = −5, we have
2s+5
f (t) = L
−1

s
2
−6s+18

= 3e
−5t
cos t − 17e
−5t
sin t.
s s A B
19. Using partial fractions,
s
2
−5s+6
=
(s−2)(s−3)
=
s−2
+
s−3
. Multiplying
by the denominator gives s = A (s − 3) + B (s − 2) . Letting s = 2
and 3 in this equation gives A = −2, B = 3.
Thus L
−1

s

L
−1

1

+ 3L
−1

1

= 3e
3t 2t
2
.
s −5s+6
= −2
s−2 s−3
− 2e
21. Using partial fractions,
1
=
1
=
A
+
B
+
C
.
s
3
−3s
2
+2s s(s−1)(s−2) s s−1 s−2
Multiplying by the denominator gives
1 = A (s − 1) (s − 2) + Bs (s − 2) + Cs (s − 1) . Letting s = 0, 1
and 2 in this equation gives A =
1
, B = −1, C =
1
.
Thus L
−1

1

=
1

L
−1

2
1

−L
−1

1

2
+
1
2
L
−1

1

s
3
−3s
2
+2s 2 s s−1 s−2
1 t 1 2t
=
2
− e +
2
e .
s
2
−2 s
2
−2 A B C
23. Using partial fractions,
s
3
+8s
2
+7s
=
s(s+1)(s+7)
=
s
+
s+1
+
s+7
.
Multiplying by the denominator gives
s
2
− 2 = A (s + 1) (s + 7) + Bs (s + 7) + Cs (s + 1) . Letting s = 0,
−1 and −7 in this equation gives A = −
2
, B =
1
, C =
47
.
7 6 42
2
s −2

2

+
1 1

47 1

Thus L
−1

s
3
+8s
2
+7s
= −
7
L
−1

1
s 6
L
−1

s+1
+
42
L
−1

s+7
2
+
1
e
−t
+
47
e
−7t
. = −
7 6 42
s+3 s+3 A B C
25. Using partial fractions,
s −s
=
s(s−1)(s+1)
=
s
+
s−1
+
s+1
.
3
Multiplying by the denominator gives
s + 3 = A (s − 1) (s + 1) + Bs (s + 1) + Cs (s − 1) . Letting s = 0, 1
88 CHAPTER 3
and −1 in this equation gives A = −3, B = 2, C = 1.
Thus L
−1

s+3

L
−1

1

+ 2L
−1

1

1

s
3
−s
= −3
s s−1
+ L
−1

s+1
= −3 + 2e
t
+ e
−t
.
2s+1 2s+1 A Bs+C
27. Using partial fractions,
s
3
+4s
2
+13s
=
s(s
2
+4s+13)
=
s
+
s
2
+4s+13
.
Multiplying by the denominator gives
2s+1 = A

s
2
+ 4s + 13

+(Bs + C) s = As
2
+4As+13A+Bs
2
+Cs.
Letting s = 0 in this equation gives A =
1
. Equating the coefficients:
13
2 1
s : 0 = A + B B = −A = −
13

4 22
s : 2 = 4A + C C = 2 − = . ⇒
13 13
Thus
2s+1
=
1 1 s−22
=
1 1 (s+2)−24
s
3
+4s
2
+13s 13s

13 s
2
+4s+13 13s

13 (s+2)
2
+3
2
1 1

(s+2) 3

=
13s

13 (s+2)
2
+3
2
− 8
(s+2)
2
+3
2
.
Now applying the shifting theorem (T16) with c = −2 in the second
and third terms, we have
L
−1

2s+1

=
1 1
e
−2t
(cos 3t − 8 sin 3t) .
s
3
+4s
2
+13s 13

13
29. Using partial fractions,
s
2
−3
=
s
2
−3
=
A
+
Bs+C
.
s
3
+2s
2
+26s s(s
2
+2s+26) s s
2
+2s+26
Multiplying by the denominator gives
2
s −3 = A

s
2
+ 2s + 26

+(Bs + C) s = As
2
+2As+26A+Bs
2
+Cs.
3
Letting s = 0 in this equation gives A = −
26
. Equating the
coefficients:
s
2
: 1 = A + B B = 1 +
3
=
29

26 26
2
s : 0 = 2A + C ⇒ C = −2A =
3
13
.
Thus
s −3 3
+
1 29s+6 3
+
1 29(s+1)−23
s
3
+2s
2
+26s
= −
26s 26 s
2
+2s+26
= −
26s 26 (s+1)
2
+5
2
3
+
1

29
(s+1) 23 5

. = −
26s 26 (s+1)
2
+5
2

5 (s+1)
2
+5
2
Now applying the shifting theorem (T16) with c = −1 in the second
and third terms, we have
2
L
−1

s −3

3
+
1
e
−t

29 cos 5t −
23
sin 5t

.
s
3
+2s
2
+26s
= −
26 26 5
s−8 A Bs+C
31. Using partial fractions,
(s−5)(s
2
+4)
=
s−5
+
s
2
+4
. Multiplying by the
denominator gives s − 8 = A

s
2
+ 4

+ (Bs + C) (s − 5)
s − 8 = As
2
+ 4A + Bs
2
+ (C − 5B) s − 5C.

Letting s = 5 in this equation gives A = −
3
. Equating the
29
coefficients:
s
2
: 0 = A + B B = −A =
3
s : 1 = C − 5B

C = 1 +
15
29
=
44
.
So
s−8 3 1
+
1 3s+44

29 29
(s−5)(s
2
+4)
= −
29 s−5 29 s
2
+4
3 1
+
1

3
s
+ 22
2

. Thus = −
29 s−5 29 s
2
+2
2
s
2
+2
2
s−8

3 5t 1
L
−1

(s−5)(s
2
+4)
= −
29
e +
29
(3 cos 2t + 22 sin 2t) .
33. Using partial fractions,
s
2
=
A
+
Bs+C
.
(s−3)(s
2
−2s+26) s−3 s
2
−2s+26
Multiplying by the denominator gives
2 2
s = A

s − 2s + 26

+ (Bs + C) (s − 3)
2

s = As
2
− 2As + 26A + Bs
2
+ (C − 3B) s − 3C.
89 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM
Letting s = 3 in this equation gives A =
9
. Equating the
29
coefficients:
s
2
: 1 = A + B B = 1 −
9
=
20
29 29

26A 78
2
1 : 0 = 26A − 3C ⇒ C = = .
3 29
Thus
s
=
9 1
+
1 20s+78
=
9 1
+
2 10(s−1)+49
(s−3)(s
2
−2s+26) 29 s−3 29 s
2
−2s+26 29 s−3 29 (s−1)
2
+5
2
=
9 1
+
2

10
(s−1)
+
49 5

.
29 s−3 29 (s−1)
2
+5
2
5 (s−1)
2
+5
2
Now applying the shifting theorem (T16) with c = 1 in the second
and third terms, we have
2
s

=
9
e
3t
+
2
e
t

10 cos 5t +
49
sin 5t

.
2
L
−1

(s−3)(s −2s+26) 29 29 5
s
3
−1 s
3
−1 As+B Cs+D
35. Using partial fractions,
s
4
+10s
2
+9
=
(s
2
+9)(s
2
+1)
=
s
2
+9
+
s
2
+1
.
Multiplying by the denominator gives
3
s − 1 = (As + B)

s
2
+ 1

+ (Cs + D)

s
2
+ 9

s
3
− 1 = (A + C) s
3
+ (B + D) s
2
+ (A + 9C) s +

B + 9D.
Equating the coefficients:
s
3
: 1 = A + C
s
2
: 0 = B + D
s : 0 = A + 9C
1 : −1 = B + 9D
Subtracting the first from the third we get, 8C C
1
.
9
= −1 ⇒ = −
8
Then from the third, A = −9C =
8
. Subtracting the second from
the fourth we get, 8D = −1 D = −
1
. Then from the second,
1

8
B = −D =
8
.
s 1

9s+1 s+1

1

9s+1 s+1

So
3
−1
= =
s
4
+10s
2
+9 8 s
2
+9

s
2
+1 8 s
2
+3
2

s
2
+1
2
1

9
s 1 3 s 1

= + . Thus
8 s
2
+3
2
3 s
2
+3
2

s
2
+1
2

s
2
+1
2
3
L
−1

s −1

=
1

9 cos 3t +
1
sin 3t − cos t − sin t

.
s
4
+10s
2
+9 8 3
3 3 3
s s s
37. Using partial fractions,
s
4
−5s
2
+4
=
(s
2
−1)(s
2
−4)
=
(s−1)(s+1)(s−2)(s+2)
A B C D
=
s−1
+
s+1
+
s−2
+
s+2
. Multiplying by the denominator gives
s
3
= A (s + 1) (s − 2) (s + 2) + B (s − 1) (s − 2) (s + 2)
+C (s − 1) (s + 1) (s + 2) + D (s − 1) (s + 1) (s − 2) .
Letting s = 1, −1, 2 and −2 in this equation gives A = −
6
1
, B = −
6
1
,
C =
2
3
, D =
2
3
.
3
s 1

1 1

2

1 1

So
s −5s
2
+4
= −
6 s−1
+
s+1
+
3 s−2
+
s+2
. Thus
4
3
L
−1

s
s
2
+4

= −
6
1
(e
t
+ e
−t
) +
2
3

e
2t
+ e
−2t

.
4
−5s
39. Using partial fractions,
s
=
s
=
s
s
4
−16 (s
2
−4)(s
2
+4) (s−2)(s+2)(s
2
+4)
=
A
+
B
+
Cs+D
. Multiplying by the denominator gives
s−2 s+2 s
2
+4
s = A (s + 2)

s
2
+ 4

+B (s − 2)

s
2
+ 4

+(Cs + D) (s − 2) (s + 2)
s = (A + B + C) s
3
+ (2A − 2B + D) s
2
+ (4A + 4B − 4C) s + 8A

+8B − 4D.
Letting s = 2 and −2 in this equation gives A =
1
, B =
1
.
16 16
Equating the coefficients:
90 CHAPTER 3
s
3
: 0 = A + B + C C
1 1 1
2
⇒ = −
16

16
= −
8
s : 0 = 2A − 2B + D D = 0
s 1

1 1

1 s

So
s −16
=
16 s−2
+
s+2

8 s
2
+4
. Thus
4
L
−1

4
s

=
1

e
2t
+ e
−2t


1
cos 2t.
s −16 16 8
41. The derivative theorem for higher powers of t is L [t
n
e
at
] =
(s−a
n
)
!
n+1
.
So L
−1

(s−a
n
)
!
n+1

= t
n
e
at
.
Thus using a = −3 and n = 5 we get
L
−1

4

=
4 5!

=
4
t
5
e
−3t
=
1
t
5
e
−3t
.
(s+3)
6
5!
L
−1

(s+3)
5+1
5! 30
43. The derivative theorem for higher powers of t is L [t
n
e
at
] =
(s−a
n
)
!
n+1
.
So L
−1

(s−a
n
)
!
n+1

= t
n
e
at
. Thus using a = −
1
and n = 4 we get
3
1
4

¸
4

4
¸
4!

1 t
3
L
−1

(3s+1)
5
= L
−1
3
5
(s+
1
)
5
=
4!3
5
L
−1
(s+
1
)
=
3!3
5
t
4
e

.
4+1
3 3
s
2
A B C D
45. Using partial fractions,
(s+3)
2
(s−3)
2
=
s+3
+
(s+3)
2
+
s−3
+
(s−3)
2
.
Multiplying by the denominator gives
s
2
= A (s + 3) (s − 3)
2
+ B (s − 3)
2
+ C (s − 3) (s + 3)
2
+ D (s + 3)
2
Letting s = 3 and −3 in this equation gives D =
1
, B =
1
.
4 4
Equating the coefficients:
s
3
: 0 = A + C
s
2
: 1 =
1
−3A + B + D + 3C ⇒ 1 −
1
4

1
4
= −3A + 3C

6
= −A + C
Adding them we get, C =
1
and then A = −C
1
.
12
= −
12
s
2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
So
(s+3)
2
(s−3)
2
= −
12 s+3
+
4 (s+3)
2
+
12 s−3
+
4 (s−3)
2
. Thus
2
s

1 1 1 3t 1
L
−1

(s+3)
2
(s−3)
2
= −
12
e
−3t
+
4
te
−3t
+
12
e +
4
te
3t
= e
−3t

1 1

+ e
3t

1
t +
1

.
4
t −
12 4 12
47. Using partial fractions,
s
=
A
+
B
+
Cs+D
.
(s+1)
2
(s
2
+1) s+1 (s+1)
2
s
2
+1
Multiplying by the denominator gives
2
s = A (s + 1)

s
2
+ 1

+ B

s
2
+ 1

+ (Cs + D) (s + 1)
Letting s = −1 in this equation gives B = −
1
2
.
Equating the coefficients:
s
3
: 0 = A + C
s
2
: 0 = A + B + 2C + D
s : 1 = A + C + 2D
1 : 0 = A + B + D
Substituting A + C = 0 (first equation) into the third equation
we get, D =
2
1
and then the last equation gives A = 0
(since B = −
2
1
). Finally, the first equation yields C = 0
(since A = 0).
s 1 1 1 1
So
(s+1)
2
(s
2
+1)
= −
2 (s+1)
2
+
2 s
2
+1
.
Thus L
−1

(s+1)
2
s
(s
2
+1)

= −
2
1
te
−t
+
2
1
sin t.
49. Using partial fractions,
s+5
=
A
+
B
+
C
+
D
(s+1)(s−1)
3
s+1 s−1 (s−1)
2
(s−1)
3
.
THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 91
Multiplying by the denominator gives
3 2
s +5 = A (s − 1) + B (s − 1) (s + 1) + C (s − 1) (s + 1) + D (s + 1)
Letting s = 1 and −1 in this equation gives D = 3, A = −
1
.
2
Equating the coefficients:
s
3
: 0 = A + B B = −A =
2
1
2

1 3
s : 0 = −3A − B + C C = = −1
2
s+5 1 1 1 1

2

So
(s+1)(s−1)
3
= −
2 s+1
+
2 s−1

(s−
1
1)
2
+ 3
(s−
1
1)
3
. Thus
s+5

1 1 t 3
t
2 t 1 t

1 3
t
2

. L
−1

(s+1)(s−1)
3
= −
2
e
−t
+
2
e −te
t
+
2
e = −
2
e
−t
+e
2
− t +
2
s
2
−s As+B Cs+D
51. Using partial fractions,
(s
2
+4)
2
=
s
2
+4
+
(s
2
+4)
2
.
Multiplying by the denominator gives
2
s −s = (As + B)

s
2
+ 4

+Cs+D = As
3
+Bs
2
+(4A + C) s+4B+D
Equating the coefficients:
s
3
: 0 = A
s
2
: 1 = B
s : −1 = 4A + C C = −1 ⇒
1 : 0 = 4B + D D = −4B
2
s 1 s+4

1 s
= −4
4
So
−s
= =
(s
2
+4)
2
s
2
+4

(s
2
+4)
2
s
2
+4

(s
2
+4)
2

(s
2
+4)
2
1 2 1 2 2 s 1 2 2
2
=
· · ·
2
s
2 s
2

+2
2
1

4 (s
2
+2
2
1
)
2

2 (s
2
+2
1
2

)
2
1
.
Thus L
−1

−s
= sin 2t − t sin 2t − sin 2t − t cos 2t

(s
2
+4)
2
2 4 2 2
=
1
sin 2t −
1
t sin 2t +
1
t cos 2t.
4 4 2
53. Using partial fractions,
s
3
−1
=
As+B
+
Cs+D
(s
2
+9)
2
s
2
+9 (s
2
+9)
2
.
Multiplying by the denominator gives
3
s −1 = (As + B)

s
2
+ 9

+Cs+D = As
3
+Bs
2
+(9A + C) s+9B+D
Equating the coefficients:
s
3
: 1 = A
s
2
: 0 = B
s : 0 = 9A + C C = −9A = −9 ⇒
So
s −1
1 :
=
s
−1 = 9
9s
B
+1
+ D
=

s
D = −1
9s 1
3
(s
2
+9)
2
s
2
+9

(s
2
+9)
2
s
2
+3
2

(s
2
+3
2
)
2

(s
2
+3
2
)
2
s 3 2 3 s 1 2 3
2
=
· · ·
s
2
+3
2

2 (s
2
+3
2
)
2

18 (s
2
+3
2
)
2
.
3
s 3 1

1
Thus L
−1

−1

= cos 3t − t sin 3t − sin 3t − t cos 3t

.
(s
2
+9)
2
2 18 3
55. Using partial fractions,
s
3
−s
2
=
As+B
+
Cs+D
(s
2
+36)
2
s
2
+36 (s
2
+36)
2
.
Multiplying by the denominator gives
3
s − s
2
= (As + B)

s
2
+ 36

+ Cs + D = As
3
+ Bs
2
+ (36A + C) s
+36B + D
Equating the coefficients:
s
3
: 1 = A
s
2
: −1 = B
s : 0 = 36A + C C = −36A = −36 ⇒
1 : 0 = 36B + D D = −36B = 36
3 2
So
s −s
=
s−1 36s−36
=

s 1 36s
+
36
(s
2
+36)
2
s
2
+36

(s
2
+36)
2
s
2
+6
2

s
2
+6
2

(s
2
+6
2
)
2
(s
2
+6
2
)
2
92 CHAPTER 3
s 1 6 2 6 s 1 2 6
2
= −
· ·
+
·
s
2
+6
2
6 s
2
+6
2
− 3
(s
2
+6
2
)
2
2 (s
2
+6
2
)
2
.
3 2
s 1 1

1
Thus L
−1

−s

= cos 6t− sin 6t−3t sin 6t+ sin 6t − t cos 6t

(s
2
+36)
2
6 2 6
= cos 6t −
1
sin 6t − 3t sin 6t −
1
t cos 6t.
12 2
(3s+3)−4 3(s+1) 4
(s
2
+2s+26)
2 2 2 2
57.
3s−1
=
[(s+1)
2
+5
2
]
=
[(s+1)
2
+5
2
]

[(s+1)
2
+5
2
]
3 2 5(s+1) 2 2.5
2
=
·
2
.
2
10
[(s+1)
2
+5
2
]

25
[(s+1)
2
+5
2
]
Thus L
−1

3s−1

=
3
te
−t
sin 5t −
2

1
e
−t
(sin 5t − 5t cos 5t)

(s
2
+2s+26)
2
10 25 5
3 2
= te
−t
sin 5t − e
−t

1
sin 5t − t cos 5t

.
10 25 5
s
2
As+B Cs+D
59. Using partial fractions,
(s
2
+6s+25)
2
=
s
2
+6s+25
+
(s
2
+6s+25)
2
.
Multiplying by the denominator gives
s
2
= (As + B)

s
2
+ 6s + 25

+ Cs + D
= As
3
+ (6A + B) s
2
+ (25A + 6B + C) s + 25B + D
Equating the coefficients:
s
3
: 0 = A
s
2
: 1 = 6A + B B = 1 ⇒
s : 0 = 25A + 6B + C C = −6 ⇒
1 : 0 = 25B + D D = −25
2
s 1 6s

+25
So =
(s
2
+6s+25)
2
s
2
+6s+25

(s
2
+6s+25)
2
1 6s+18 7
=
(s+3)
2
+4
2

[(s+3)
2
+4
2
]
2

[(s+3)
2
+4
2
]
2
1 4 3 2 4 (s+3) 7 2 4
2
=
· ·
2
.
4 (s+3)
2
+4
2

4
[(s+3)
2
+4
2
]
2

32
[(s+3)
·
2
+4
2
]
2
Thus L
−1

s

=
1
e
−3t
sin 4t−
3
te
−3t
sin 4t−
7

1
e
−3t
(sin 4t − 4t cos 4t)

(s
2
+6s+25)
2
4 4 32 4
=
1
e
−3t
sin 4t−
3
te
−3t
sin 4t−
7
e
−3t

1
sin 4t − t cos 4t

.
4 4 32 4
61. Using partial fractions,
s+5
=
A
+
B
+
C
+
D
(s+1)(s−1)
3
s+1 s−1 (s−1)
2
(s−1)
3
.
Multiplying by the denominator gives
3 2
s +5 = A (s − 1) + B (s − 1) (s + 1) + C (s − 1) (s + 1) + D (s + 1)
Letting s = 1 and −1 in this equation gives D = 3, A = −
1
2
.
Equating the coefficients:
s
3
: 0 = A + B B = −A =
2
1

s
2
: 0 = −3A − B + C C =
1 3
s+5 1 1 1 1

2

2
= −1
So
(s+1)(s−1)
3
= −
2 s+1
+
2 s−1

(s−
1
1)
2
+ 3
(s−
1
1)
3
. Thus
s+5

1 1 t 3 t 1 3
L
−1

(s+1)(s−1)
3
= −
2
e
−t
+
2
e −te
t
+
2
t
2
e = −
2
e
−t
+e
t

1
2
− t +
2
t
2

.
63. Using partial fractions,
12 A B C D E F G
s(s−8)
6
=
s
+
s−8
+
(s−8)
2
+
(s−8)
3
+
(s−8)
4
+
(s−8)
5
+
(s−8)
6
.
Multiplying by the denominator gives
6 5 4 3
12 = A (s − 8) + Bs (s − 8) + Cs (s − 8) + Ds (s − 8)
2
+Es (s − 8) + Fs (s − 8) + Gs
12 3
Letting s = 0 and 8 in this equation gives A =
8
6
, G =
2
.
Equating the coefficients:
s
6
: 0 = A + B B
12
5
⇒ = −A = −
8
6
12
s : 0 = −48A − 40B + C C = ⇒
8
5
THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 93
s
4
3
: 0 = 960A + 640B − 32C + D ⇒ D = −
12
8
4
12
s : 0 = −10240A−5120B +384C −24D +E E =
s
2
: 0 = 61440A + 20480B − 2048C + 192D −

16E +
8
F
3
F
12
= −
8
2
12 12 1

12 1 12 1 12 1 12 1 12 1
So =
8
6
8
6
+
8
5
8
4
+
8
3
8
2
s(s−8)
6
s

s−8 (s−8)
2

(s−8)
3
(s−8)
4

(s−8)
5
3 1
+
2 (s−8)
6
12 1 12 1 12 1! 12 1 2! 12 1 3!
=
8
6
s

8
6
s−8
+
8
5
(s−8)
1+1

8
4
2! (s−8)
2+1
+
8
3
3! (s−8)
3+1
12 1 4! 3 1 5!

8
2
(s−8)
4+1
+
(s−8)
5+1
.
4! 2 5!
Thus
12

12 12 8t 12
L
−1

s(s−8)
6
= −
8
6
e +
8
5
te
8t
8
6
4096 512 128 240
12 12 12 3 1 1 1
= + e
8t



+
6
t
2
e
8t
+
2
t
2
t
3
+
e
8t

t
3
1
t
4
e
8
t
t
4
+
+
3
t
t
5
5

e
8
.
t
8
6
8
6
8
5
t −
2048 256 128 80
s+5 A

B C D
65. Using partial fractions,
(s+1)
2
(s−1)
2
=
s+1
+
(s+1)
2
+
s−1
+
(s−1)
2
.
Multiplying by the denominator gives
2 2 2 2
s+5 = A (s + 1) (s − 1) +B (s − 1) +C (s − 1) (s + 1) +D (s + 1)
Letting s = 1 and −1 in this equation gives D =
3
, B = 1.
2
Equating the coefficients:
s
3
: 0 = A + C
s
2
: 0 = −A + B + C + D
5 3
⇒− = −A + C (since D = , B = 1)
2 2
s : 1 = −A − 2B − C + 2D
1 : 5 = A + B − C + D
Adding these equations we get, C = −
4
5
and then A = −C =
4
5
.
s+5 5 1 1 5 1 3 1
So
(s+1)
2
(s−1)
2
=
4 s+1
+
(s+1)
2

4 s−1
+
2 (s−1)
2
. Thus
s+5

=
5
e
−t
+ te
−t 5
e
t
+
3
te
t
5 3
L
−1

(s+1)
2
(s−1)
2
= e
4
−t

5
+ t

+

e
t
4

− +
2
t

.
4 4 2
67. Using partial fractions,
s As+B C D E F
(s
2
+1)(s−7)
4
=
s
2
+1
+
s−7
+
(s−7)
2
+
(s−7)
3
+
(s−7)
4
.
Multiplying by the denominator gives
4 3 2
s = (As + B) (s − 7) + C

s
2
+ 1

(s − 7) + D

s
2
+ 1

(s − 7)
+E

s
2
+ 1

(s − 7) + F

s
2
+ 1

Letting s = 7 in this equation gives F =
7
.
50
Equating the coefficients:
s
5
: 0 = A + C
s
4
: 0 = −28A + B − 21C + D
s
3
: 0 = 294A − 28B + 148C − 14D + E
s
2
: 0 = −1372A − 294B − 364C + 50D − 7E + F
s : 1 = 2401A − 1372B + 147C − 14D + E
1 : 0 = 2401B − 343C + 49D − 7E + F
Note this is a system of 6 equations with 5 unknowns as we know F.
So the system considering 5 equations (excluding the fourth one, for
example) with 5 unknowns can be solved (by using Maple, for
example) to get
94 CHAPTER 3
A =
527
, B =
−84
, C =
−527
, D =
161
, E =
−12
.
1562500 390625 1562500 62500 625
s 527s−336 1 527 1 161 1 12 1
So
(s
2
+1)(s−7)
4
=
1562500 s
2
+1

1562500 s−7
+
62500 (s−7)
2

625 (s−7)
3
7 1
+
50 (s−7)
4
527 s 84 1 527 1 161 1
=
1562500 s
2
+1

390625 s
2
+1

1562500 s−7
+
62500 (s−7)
2
12 2! 7 3!
625(2!) 50(3!) (s−7)
2+1
+
(s−7)
3+1
.
Thus L
−1

s


=
527
cos t −
84
sin t −
527
e
7t
(s
2
+1)(s−7)
4
1562500 390625 1562500
+
161
te
7t 6
t
2
e
7t
+
7
t
3
e
7t
62500 625 300
1

7t

7(15625)
t
3

=

527 cos t − 336 sin t + e −527 + 4025t − 15000t
2
+ .
1562500 3
3.3 INITIAL-VALUE PROBLEMS FOR DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS
1. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y

− 4y = 1 we get,
L [y

] − 4L [y] = L [1] ⇒ s
2
Y (
2
s) − sy (0) − y

(0) − 4Y (s) =
1

s
s
2
Y (s) − 1 − 4Y (s) =
1

s − 4

Y (s) =
1
+ 1
s s
1+s
⇒ ⇒
Y (s) =
s(s −4)
. Using partial fractions,
2
Y (s) =
1+s
=
1
=
A
+
B
+
C
.
s(s
2
−4) s(s−2)(s+2) s s−2 s+2
Multiplying by the denominator gives
1 + s = A (s + 2) (s − 2) + Bs (s + 2) + Cs (s − 2) . Letting s = 0, 2
and −2 in this equation gives A = −
4
1
, B =
8
3
and C = −
8
1
.
Thus Y (s) = −
1 1
+
3 1 1 1
.
4 s 8 8 s+2
So L
−1
[Y (s)] = −
1
4
L

s
1


2
1


+
3
8
L
−1

1

1
8
L
−1

1

s s+2 s−2
− ⇒
y (t) = −
1
+
3
e
2t

1
e
−2t
.
4 8 8
3. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y

+ 3y

− 4y = 0
we get, L [y

] + 3L [y

] − 4L [y] = 0
s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) + 3sY (s) − 3

y (0) − 4Y (s) = 0
s
2
Y (s) − s − 1 + 3sY (s) − 3 − 4Y (s) = 0

s+4

s+4 1

s
2
+ 3s − 4

Y (s) = s + 4 ⇒ Y (s) =
s
2
+3s−4
=
(s+4)(s−1)
=
s−1
.
So L
−1
[Y (s)] = L
−1

1

y (t) = e
t
.
s−1

5. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y

+5y

+6y = 1 we get,
L [y

] + 5L [y

] + 6L [y] = L [1]
s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) + 5sY (s

) − 5y (0) + 6Y (s) =
1
s
s
2
Y (s) − s − 1 + 5sY (s) − 5 + 6Y (s) =
1

s +6s+1 s
2
+6s+1

s
2
+ 5s + 6

Y (s) =
1
+ s + 6 Y (s) =
s

2
= .
s

s(s
2
+5s+6) s(s+2)(s+3)
s
2
+6s+1 A B C
Using partial fractions, Y (s) =
s(s+2)(s+3)
=
s
+
s+2
+
s+3
.
Multiplying by the denominator gives
s
2
+ 6s + 1 = A (s + 3) (s + 2) + Bs (s + 3) + Cs (s + 2) .
Letting s = 0, −2 and −3 in this equation gives A =
1
, B =
7
and
6 2
8 1 7 1 8 1
C = −
3
. Thus Y (s) =
1
6 s
+
2 s+2

3 s+3
THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 95
7 1

8 1

So L
−1
[Y (s)] =
1
6
L
−1

s
1

+
2
L
−1

s+2

3
L
−1

s+3
⇒ y (t) =
1
+
7
e
−2t

8
e
−3t
.
6 2 3
7. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y

− 3y

+ 2y = 1
we get, L [y

] − 3L [y

] + 2L [y] = L [1] ⇒
s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) − 3sY (s) + 3y (0) + 2Y (s) =
1
s
2
Y (s) − 1 − 3sY (s) + 2Y (s) =
1
s

2

s+1 s+1

s − 3s + 2

Y (s) =
1
s
+ 1 ⇒ Y (
s
s) =
s(s
2
−3s+2)
=
s(s−2)(s−1)
.
s+1 A B C
Using partial fractions, Y (s) =
s(s−2)(s−1)
=
s
+
s−2
+
s−1
.
Multiplying by the denominator gives
s + 1 = A (s − 1) (s − 2) + Bs (s − 1) + Cs (s − 2) .
Letting s = 0, 1 and 2 in this equation gives A =
1
2
, B =
3
2
and
1 3 1 1
C = −2. Thus Y (s) =
1
+
s−2
− 2
s−1
So L
−1
[Y (s)] =
1
2
L
−1

2
1
s

+
2
3
2
L
−1

1

− 2L
−1

1

s s−2 s−1
⇒ y (t) =
2
1
+
2
3
e
2t
− 2e
t
.
9. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y

+ 9y = e
−t
we get,
L [y

] + 9L [y] = L [e
−t
] s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) + 9Y (s) =
1

1 1
s+1
s
2
Y (s) − s − 2 + 9Y (s) =

s
2
+ 9

Y (s) = + s + 2 ⇒
s+1

s+1

Y (s) =
s
2
+3s+3
. Using partial fractions,
(s+1)(s
2
+9)
Y (s) =
s
2
+3s+3
=
A
+
Bs+C
.
(s+1)(s
2
+9) s+1 s
2
+9
Multiplying by the denominator gives
s
2
+ 3s + 3 = A

s
2
+ 9

+ (Bs + C) (s + 1) . Letting s = −1 in this
equation gives A =
1
10
.
Equating the coefficients:
s
2
: 1 = A + B B = 1 − A =
9
. ⇒
10
9 21
s : 3 = B + C C = 3 − B = 3 − =
Thus Y (s) =
1 1
+
9 s

+
21 1
10 10
.
10 s+1 10 s
2
+9 10 s
2
+9
1 1 9 s 21 1 3
=
10 s+1
+
10 s
2
+3
2
+
10 3 s
2
+3
2
.
So L
−1
[Y (s)] =
1 1

+
9 s

+
7 3

10
L
−1

s+1 10
L
−1

s
2
+3
2
10
L
−1

s
2
+3
2
y (t) =
1
e
−t
+
9
cos 3t +
7
sin 3t. ⇒
10 10 10
11. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y

+ 4y

+ 13y = 2
we get, L [y

] + 4L [y

] + 13L [y] = L [2] ⇒
s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) + 4sY (s) − 4y (0) + 13Y (s) =
2
s
2
Y (s) − s + 4sY (s) − 4 + 13Y (s) =
2
s


s
2
+4s+2

s
2
+ 4s + 13

Y (s) =
s
2
+ s + 4 ⇒ Y (
s
s) =
s(s
2
+4s+13)
.
Using partial fractions, Y (s) =
s
2
+4s+2
=
A
+
Bs+C
.
s(s
2
+4s+13) s s
2
+4s+13
Multiplying by the denominator gives
s
2
+ 4s + 2 = A

s
2
+ 4s + 13

+ (Bs + C) s.
2
Letting s = 0 in this equation gives A =
13
.
Equating the coefficients:
s
2
: 1 = A + B B = 1 − A =
11
. ⇒
13
8 44
s : 4 = 4A + C ⇒ C = 4 − 4A = 4 −
13
=
13
.
96 CHAPTER 3
Thus Y (s) =
2 1
+
1 11s+44
=
2 1
+
1 11(s+2)+22
13 s 13 s
2
+4s+13 13 s 13 (s+2)
2
+3
2
=
2 1
+
1

11
(s+2)
+
22 3

13 s 13 (s+2)
2
+3
2
3 (s+2)
2
+3
2
2 11 (s+2)

22 3

So L
−1
[Y (s)] =
13
L
−1

1
s

+
13
L
−1

(s+2)
2
+3
2
+
39
L
−1

(s+2)
2
+3
2
y (t) =
2
+
11
e
−2t
cos 3t +
22
e
−2t
sin 3t. ⇒
13 13 39
13. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y
(4)
− y = 1 we get,
L

y
(4)

−L [y] = L [1]
3 2

s
4
Y (s) − s y (0) − s y

(0) − sy

(0) − y

(0) − Y (s) =
1
s
s
4
Y (s) − 3s
3
− 5s
2
− Y (s) =
1
s


4 3 4 3
4 2 +5s +1 3s +5s +1

s − 1

Y (s) =
1
s
+3s
3
+5s Y (s) =
3s
s(s −1)
=
s(s+1)(s−1)(s
2
+1)
. ⇒
4
Using partial fractions,
3s
4
+5s
3
+1 A B C Ds+E
Y (s) =
s(s+1)(s−1)(s
2
+1)
=
s
+
s+1
+
s−1
+
(s
2
+1)
.
Multiplying by the denominator gives
4
3s
4
+5s
3
+1 = A

s − 1

+ Bs (s − 1)

s
2
+ 1

+ Cs (s + 1)

s
2
+ 1

+(Ds + E) s (s + 1) (s − 1) .
Letting s = 0, −1 and 1 in this equation gives A = −1, B = −
1
4
and
C =
4
9
.
Equating the coefficients:
s
4
: 3 = A + B + C + D D = 3 − A − B − C = 2. ⇒
1 9 5
s : 0 = −B + C − E E = −B + C = + =
2
.
1 1 1 9 1

s 5 1
4 4
Thus Y (s) = − + + 2 +
s 4 s+1 4 s
2
+1 2 s
2
+1

1
s−1
1

9 1

So L
−1
[Y (s)] = −L
−1

1
s


4
L
−1

s+1
+
4
L
−1

s−1
+2L
−1

s

+
2
5
L
−1

1

s
2
+1 s
2
+1
y (t) = −1 −
1
e
−t
+
9
e
t
+ 2 cos t +
5
sin t. ⇒
4 4 2
15. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y

− y = 1 − t we get,
L [y

] −L [y] = L [1] −L [t] ⇒ sY (s) − y (0) − Y (s) =
1
s

s
2
1

2
sY (s) + 1 − Y (s) =
s−1
(s − 1) Y (s) =
s−1
− 1 =
s−1−s
2
s
2

s
2
1 1
s
2
s
2

Y (s) =
s−1−s
=
s−1
= .
2
s
2
(s−1) s
2
(s−1)

s
2
(s−1) s
t
So L
−1
[Y (s)] = L
−1

1

−L
−1

1



y
s
(

t
1
) = t − e .
s
2
s−1
17. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y

+ 2y

+ y = e
−t
we get, L [y

] + 2L [y

] + L [y] = L [e
−t
] ⇒
1
s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) + 2sY (s) − 2y (0) + Y (s) = ⇒
s+1
s
2
Y (s) − 1 + 2sY (s) + Y (s) =
1

s
s+1

1 s+2 s+2 2
+ 2s + 1

Y (s) =
s+1
+ 1 Y (s) =
(s+1)(s
2
+2s+1)
=
(s+1)
3
. ⇒
Using partial fractions, Y (s) =
s+2
=
A
+
B
+
C
(s+1)
3
s+1 (s+1)
2
(s+1)
3
.
Multiplying by the denominator gives
2
s + 2 = A (s + 1) + B (s + 1) + C.
Letting s = −1 in this equation gives C = 1.
Equating the coefficients:
s
2
: 0 = A
s : 1 = 2A + B B = 1. ⇒
97 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM
Thus Y (s) =
1
+
1
=
1!
+
1 2!
(s+1)
2
(s+1)
3
(s+1)
1+1
2 (s+1)
2+1
1!

1 2!

So L
−1
[Y (s)] = L
−1

(s+1)
1+1
+
2
L
−1

(s+1)
2+1
y (t) = te
−t
+
1
t
2
e
−t
. ⇒
2
19. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y

+ 2y = e
−t
cos t
we get, L [y

] + 2L [y] = L [e
−t
cos t]
sY (s) − y (0) + 2Y (s) =
s+1

(s+1)
2
+1

sY (s) + 2Y (s) =
s+1
(s + 2) Y (s) =
s+1
s
2
+2s+2

s
2
+2s+2

s+1
Y (s) =
(s+2)(s
2
+2s+2)
. Using partial fractions,
s+1 A Bs+C
Y (s) =
(s+2)(s
2
+2s+2)
=
s+2
+
s
2
+2s+2
.
Multiplying by the denominator gives
s + 1 = A

s
2
+ 2s + 2

+ (Bs + C) (s + 2) .
Letting s = −2 in this equation gives A = −
2
1
.
Equating the coefficients:
s
2
: 0 = A + B B = −A =
1

2
s : 1 = 2A + C + 2B C = 1 − 2A − 2B = 1.
1 1 1 s+2

Thus Y (s) = − +
2 s+2 2 s
2
+2s+2
1 1 1

s+1 1

= −
2 s+2
+
2 (s+1)
2
+1
+
(s+1)
2
+1
So L
−1
[Y (s)] = −
2
1
L
−1

1

+
2
1
L
−1

s+1

+
2
1
L
−1

1

s+2 (s+1)
2
+1
2
(s+1)
2
+1
2
⇒ y (t) = −
2
1
e
−2t
+
2
1
e
−t
cos t +
2
1
e
−t
sin t.
21. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y

+ y = sin t we get,
L [y

] + L [y] = L [sin t] s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) + Y (s) =
1
s
2
Y (s) + Y (s) =
s
2
1
+1

s
2
+ 1

Y (s) =
s
2
1
+1
s
2
+1


Y (s) =
1
=
1 2·1
1

(s
2
+1)
2
2 (s
2
+1
2
)
2
.
So L
−1
[Y (s)] =
1
2
L
−1

2·1
1

y (t) =
1
[sin t − t cos t] .
(s
2
+1
2
)
2

2
23. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y

+ 9y = cos 3t
we get, L [y

] + 9L [y] = L [cos 3t]
s
⇒ s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) + 9Y (s) = ⇒
2
s
2
+9
s s s +s+9
s
2
Y (s) − 1 + 9Y (s) =
s
2
+9

s
2
+ 9

Y (s) =
s
2
+9
+ 1 =
s
2
+9
s
2
+s+9
⇒ Y (s) =
(s
2
+9)
2
. Using partial fractions,
Y (s) =
s
2
+s+9
=
As+B
+
Cs+D
(s
2
+9)
2
s
2
+9 (s
2
+9)
2
.
Multiplying by the denominator gives
2
s + s + 9 = (As + B)

s
2
+ 9

+ Cs + D.
Equating the coefficients:
s
3
: 0 = A
s
2
: 1 = B
s : 1 = A + C C = 1 ⇒
1 : 9 = 9B + D D = 0.
1 s

1 3 1 2 3 s
Thus Y (s) =
s
2
+9
+ =
3 s
2
+3
2
+
6
· ·
(s
2
+9)
2
(s
2
+3
2
)
2
.
So L
−1
[Y (s)] =
1
3
L
−1

3

+
6
1
L
−1

2·3·s

s
2
+3
2
(s
2
+3
2
)
2
98 CHAPTER 3
y (t) =
1
sin 3t +
1
t sin 3t. ⇒
3 6
25. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y

+4y = cos 2t we get,
L [y

] + 4L [y] = L [cos 2t] ⇒
s
s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) + 4Y (s) = ⇒
s
2
+4
s s
s
2
Y (s) + 4Y (s) =
s
2
+4

s
2
+ 4

Y (s) =
s
2
+4

Y (s) =
s
=
1 2·2·s

(s
2
+4)
2
4 (s
2
+2
2
)
2
.
So L
−1
[Y (s)] =
1
4
L
−1

2·2·s

y (t) =
1
t sin 2t.
(s
2
+2
2
)
2

4
27. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y

+ y = sin t + cos t
we get, L [y

] + L [y] = L [sin t] + L [cos t]
⇒ s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) −
1
y

(0) +
s
Y (s) =
s
2
1
+1
+
s
2
s
+1

1 s
s
2
Y (s) + Y (s) =
s
2
+1
+
s
2
+1

s
2
+ 1

Y (s) =
s
2
+1
+
s
2
+1
Y (s) =
1
+
s
=
1 2·1
2
+
1 2·1·s

(s
2
+1)
2
(s
2
+1)
2
2 (s
2
+1
2
)
2
2 (s
2
+1
2
)
2
.
So L
−1
[Y (s)] =
1
2
L
−1

2·1
2

+
1
2
L
−1

2·1·s

(s
2
+1
2
)
2
(s
2
+1
2
)
2
y (t) =
1
(sin t − t cos t) +
1
t sin t ⇒
=
2

1
2
t cos t +
1
2
sin t
2
+
1
2
t sin t.
29. L [f

(t)] =


e
−st
f

(t) dt. We use integration-by-parts taking
0
u = e
−st
⇒ du = −se
−st
dt and dv = f

(t) dt ⇒ v = f (t) .
So L [f

(t)] =


e
−st
f

(t) dt = uv|


vdu
0
0 0

= e
−st
f (t) |

+ s

0
e
−st
f (t) dt
0
= lim [e
−st
f (t)] − lim [e
−st
f (t)] + sF (s) = sF (s) − f (0
+
) .
t→∞ t→0
+
3.4 DISCONTINUOUS FORCING FUNCTIONS

0; 0 ≤ t < 2,
1. f (t) = 3; 2 ≤ t < 5,

t; 5 ≤ t.
Thus 3 [H (t − 2) − H (t − 5)] + t [H (t − 5)]
= 3H (t − 2) + (t − 3) H (t − 5) .
THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 99
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
t
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

sin t; 0 ≤ t < π,
0; π ≤ t < 2π,
3. f (t) =
sin t; 2π ≤ t < 3π,
0; 3π ≤ t.
Thus sin t [H (t) − H (t − π)] + sin t [H (t − 2π) − H (t − 3π)]
= sin t [1 − H (t − π)] + sin t [H (t − 2π) − H (t − 3π)] .

y
1
t
π 2π 3π 4π
5. f (t) =

1; 0 ≤ t < 1,
0; 1 ≤ t < 2,
1; 2 ≤ t < 3,
0, t ≥ 3

The unit-step function is H (t) − H (t − 1) + H (t − 2) − H (t − 3) .
0, 0 ≤ t < 1,
t − 1; 1 ≤ t < 2,
1; 2 ≤ t < 3,
4 − t; 3 ≤ t < 4,
7. f (t) =
0, t ≥ 4
The unit-step function is
(t − 1) [H (t − 1) − H (t − 2)]+1 [H (t − 2) − H (t − 3)]+(4 − t) [H (t − 3) − H (t − 4)] .
= (t − 1) H (t − 1)+(2 − t) H (t − 2)+(3 − t) H (t − 3)+(t − 4) H (t − 4) .
100 CHAPTER 3

0, 0 ≤ t < 1,

2 − t; 1 ≤ t < 3,
9. f (t) =

t − 4; 3 ≤ t < 5,

0, t ≥ 5
The unit-step function is
(2 − t) [H (t − 1) − H (t − 3)] + (t − 4) [H (t − 3) − H (t − 5)] .
= (2 − t) H (t − 1) + 2 (t − 3) H (t − 3) − (t − 4) H (t − 5) .
11. y (t) = tH (t − 2) . Here c = 2 and f (t − 2) = t. Let τ = t − 2.
Then t = τ + 2 and f (τ ) = τ + 2 f (t) = t + 2. Thus
1 2

F (s) = L [f (t)] = +
2
.
So Y (s) = L [y (t)] = L [tH (t − 2)] = L [f (t − 2) H (t − 2)] .
Then (T 15) gives that L [f (t − 2) H (t − 2)] = e
−2s
F (s)
s s
2 2
= e
−2s

s
1
+
s

. Thus Y (s) = e
−2s

s
1
+
s

.
2 2
13. y (t) =

t
3
+ 1

H (t − 1) . Here c = 1 and f (t − 1) = t
3
+ 1.
3
Let τ = t − 1.Then t = τ + 1 and f (τ) = (τ + 1) + 1, so that
f (t) = (t + 1)
3
+ 1 = t
3
+ 3t
2
+ 3t + 2. Thus
F (s) = L [f (t)] =
6
+
6
+
3
+
2
.
s
4
s
3
s
2
s
So Y (s) = L [y (t)] = L

t
3
+ 1

H (t − 1)

= L [f (t − 1) H (t − 1)] .
Then (T 15) gives that L [f (t − 1) H (t − 1)] = e
−s
F (s)
6 3 2 6 3 2
= e
−s

s
6
4
+
s
3
+
s
2
+
s

. Thus Y (s) = e
−s

s
6
4
+
s
3
+
s
2
+
s

.
15. y (t) = sin tH (t − π) . Here c = π and f (t − π) = sin t.
Let τ = t − π.Then t = τ + π and f (τ ) = sin (τ + π) = − sin τ.
⇒ f (t) = − sin t. Thus F (s) = L [f (t)] = −L [sin t] = −
s
2
1
+1
.
So Y (s) = L [y (t)] = L [sin tH (t − π)] = L [f (t − π) H (t − π)] .
Then (T 15) gives that L [f (t − π) H (t − π)] = e
−πs
F (s)
= e
−πs


1

. Thus Y (s) = e
−πs


1

.
s
2
+1 s
2
+1
17. y (t) = cos tH (t − 2π) . Here c = 2π and f (t − 2π) = cos t.
Let τ = t − 2π.Then t = τ + 2π and f (τ ) = cos (τ + 2π) = cos τ.
⇒ f (t) = cos t. Thus F (s) = L [f (t)] = L [cos t] =
s
.
s
2
+1
So Y (s) = L [y (t)] = L [cos tH (t − 2π)] = L [f (t − 2π) H (t − 2π)] .
Then (T 15) gives that L [f (t − 2π) H (t − 2π)] = e
−2πs
F (s)
= e
−2πs

s
2
s
+1

. Thus Y (s) = e
−2πs

s
2
s
+1

.
19. y (t) = e
2t
H (t − 3) . Here c = 3 and f (t − 3) = e
2t
.
Let τ = t − 3.Then t = τ + 3 and f (τ) = e
2τ +6
= e
6
e

.
6
⇒ f (t) = e
6
e
2t
. Thus F (s) = L [f (t)] = e
6
L

e
2t

=
s
e
−2
.
So Y (s) = L [y (t)] = L

e
2t
H (t − 3)

= L [f (t − 3) H (t − 3)] .
Then (T 15) gives that L [f (t − 3) H (t − 3)] = e
−3s
F (s)
6 6
= e
−3s

s
e
−2

. Thus Y (s) = e
−3s

s
e
−2

.
21. y (t) = te
5t
H (t − 2) . Here c = 2 and f (t − 2) = te
5t
.
Let τ = t − 2.Then t = τ + 2 and f (τ) = (τ + 2) e
5τ +10
= 2e
10
e

+ e
10
τe

f (t) = 2e
10
e
5t
+ e
10
te
5t
. ⇒
10
e
10
10

1 2

Thus F (s) = L [f (t)] =
2
s
e
−5
+
(s−5)
2
= e
(s−5)
2
+
s−5
.
So Y (s) = L [y (t)] = L

te
5t
H (t − 2)

= L [f (t − 2) H (t − 2)] .
101 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM
Then (T 15) gives that L [f (t − 2) H (t − 2)] = e
−2s
F (s)
= e
−2s
e
10

1
+
2

. Thus Y (s) = e
−2s
e
10

1
+
2

.
(s−5)
2
s−5 (s−5)
2
s−5
1 1 A B
23. Using partial fractions
s
2
+s
=
s(s+1)
=
s
+
s+1
. Multiplying
by the denominator we have 1 = A (s + 1) + Bs. Letting s = 0,
and s = −1 gives A = 1 and B = −1. So F (s) =
1
=
1

1
s
2
+s s s+1
⇒ f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = 1 − e
−t
. Now e
−2s
s
2
1
+s
and e
−3s
s
2
1
+s
are
of the form e
−cs
F (s) with c = 2 and c = 3, respectively.
Then using (T 15) we have
L
−1

e
−2s 1
+ e
−3s 1

= f (t − 2) H (t − 2) + f (t − 3) H (t − 3)
s
2
+s s
2
+s
=

1 − e
−(t−2)

H (t − 2) +

1 − e
−(t−3)

H (t − 3) .
25. F (s) =
s
2
+2
1
s+2
=
(s+1)
1
2
+1
2
⇒ f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = e
−t
sin t.
Now e
−3s
s
2
+2
1
s+2
is of the form e
−cs
F (s) with c = 3. Then
using (T 15) we have
e
−3s
L
−1

= f (t − 3) H (t − 3) = e
−(t−3)
sin (t − 3) H (t − 3) .
s
2
+2s+2
e
−s
27. The first term,
s
2
+1
, is of the form e
−cs
F
1
(s) with c = 1
where F
1
(s) =
s
2
1
+1
⇒ f
1
(t) = L
−1
[F
1
(s)] = sin t.
Then using (T 15) we have L
−1

e
−s

= L
−1
[e
−s
F
1
(s)]
s
2
+1
= f
1
(t − 1) H (t − 1) = sin (t − 1) H (t − 1) .
e
−2s
The second term,
s
2
+4
, is of the form e
−cs
F
2
(s) with c = 2
where F
2
(s) =
1
=
1 2
f
2
(t) = L
−1
[F
2
(s)] =
1
sin 2t.
s
2
+4 2 s
2
+2
2

2
Then using (T 15) we have L
−1

e
−2s

= L
−1

e
−2s
F
2
(s)

s
2
+1
= f
2
(t − 2) H (t − 2) =
1
sin (2t − 4) H (t − 2) .
Hence L
−1

e
−s
e
−2s
2

s
2
+1

s
2
+1
= sin (t − 1) H (t − 1) −
1
sin (2t − 4) H (t − 2) .
2
29. F
1
(s) =
4
f
1
(t) = L
−1
[F
1
(s)] = 4 and
s
6s
F
2
(s) =

= 6
s
f
2
(t) = L
−1
[F
2
(s)] = 6 cos 3t.
s
2
+9 s
2
+3
2

For both terms, c = 1. Then using (T 15) we have
L
−1

e
−s

4
+
6

= f
1
(t − 1) H (t − 1) + f
2
(t − 1) H (t − 1)
s s
2
+9
= [4 + 6 cos (3t − 3)] H (t − 1) .
31. g (t) = H (t − 2) − H (t − 5) and the differential eqution is
y

+ y = H (t − 2) − H (t − 5) , y (0) = y

(0) = 0.
Taking the Laplace transform of both sides gives
s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) + Y (s) =
e
−2s

e
−5s
(since, for example,
s s
H (t − 2) = f (t − 2) H (t − 2) with f (t − 2) = 1 f (t) = 1
F (s) =
1
and using (T 15) with c = 2, L [f (t − 2)

H (t − 2)] =

s
e
−2s
F (s) =
e

s
2s
).
e
−2s
e
−5s
e
−2s
e
−5s

s
2
+ 1

Y (s) =
s

s
⇒ Y (s) =
s(s
2
+1)

s(s
2
+1)
.
1 A Bs+C
Using partial fractions
s(s
2
+1)
=
s
+
s
2
+1
. Multiplying by
denominator we have 1 = A

s
2
+ 1

+ (Bs + C) s. Letting s = 0
¯
102 CHAPTER 3
gives A = 1. Equating the coefficients:
s
2
: 0 = A + B B = −A = −1 ⇒
s : 0 = C
So F (s) =
s(s
2
1
+1)
=
1
s

s
2
s
+1
⇒ f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = 1 − cos t.
Now
e
−2s
and
e
−5s
are of the form e
−cs
F (s) with c = 2 and
s(s
2
+1) s(s
2
+1)
c = 5, respectively.
Thus L
−1

e
−2s

= f (t − 2) H (t − 2) = [1 − cos (t − 2)] H (t − 2)
s(s
2
+1)
e
−5s
and L
−1

= f (t − 5) H (t − 5) = [1 − cos (t − 5)] H (t − 5) .
s(s
2
+1)
So y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)] = [1 − cos (t − 2)] H (t − 2)−[1 − cos (t − 5)] H (t − 5) .

t; 0 ≤ t < 1,
33. g (t) = 2 − t; 1 ≤ t < 2,

0; 2 ≤ t.
⇒ g (t) = t [H (t) − H (t − 1)] + (2 − t) [H (t − 1) − H (t − 2)]
= t + (2 − 2t) H (t − 1) − (2 − t) H (t − 2)
and the differential eqution is
y

− 3y = t + (2 − 2t) H (t − 1) − (2 − t) H (t − 2) , y (0) = 1.
For the second forcing term, (2 − 2t) H (t − 1) , c = 1 and
f (t − 1) = 2 − 2t. Let τ = t − 1.Then t = τ + 1 and
f (τ ) = 2 − 2τ + 2 = 4 − 2τ f (t) = 4 − 2t.
Thus F (s) = L [4 − 2t] =
4

2
2
.
So L [(2 − 2t) H (t − 1)] =
s
L

f
s
(t − 1) H (t − 1)

= e
−cs
F (s)
4e
−s
2e
−s
=
s

s
2
.
For the third forcing term, (2 − t) H (t − 2) , c = 2 and
f (t − 2) = 2 − t. Let τ = t − 2.Then t = τ + 2 and
f
¯
(τ ) = 2 − τ − 2 = −τ ⇒ f
¯
(t) = −t. Thus F
¯
(s) = L [−t] = −
s
1
2
.
So L [(2 − t) H (t − 2)] = L

f (t − 2) H (t − 2)

= e
−cs
F
¯
(s) = −
e
−2s
.
2
¯
s
Taking the Laplace transform of both sides differential eqution gives
sY (s) − y (0) − 3Y (s) =
1
+
4e
−s
2e
−s
+
e
−2s
s
2
s

s
2
s
2

sY (s) − 1 − 3Y (s) =
4e
−s
2e
−s
+
1
+
e
−2s
2 2 2
s

s s s

(s − 3) Y (s) =
4e
−s

2e
−s
+
1
+
e
−2s
+ 1
s s
2
s
2
s
2
Y (s) =
4e
−s
e
−s
+
1
+
e
−2s
+
1

s(s−3)
− 2
s
2
(s−3) s
2
(s−3) s
2
(s−3) (s−3)
Y (s) =
(4s−2)e
−s
+
1
+
e
−2s
+
1

s
2
(s−3) s
2
(s−3) s
2
(s−3) (s−3)
To find the inverse Laplace transform of the first term, we use
partial fractions by letting F
1
(s) =
4s−2
=
A
+
B
+
C
.
s
2
(s−3) s s
2
s−3
Multiplying by denominator we have
4s − 2 = As (s − 3) + B (s − 3) + Cs
2
. Letting s = 0 and 3 gives
B =
2
and C =
10
. Equating the coefficient of s
2
we get
3 9
10
0 = A + C A = −C = −
9
. ⇒
4s−2 10 1 2 1 10 1
So F
1
(s) =
s
2
(s−3)
= −
9 s
+
3 s
2
+
9 s−3
⇒ f
1
(t) = L
−1
[F
1
(s)] = −
10
+
2
t +
10
e
3t
.
9 3 9
(4s−2)e
−s
The first term,
s
2
(s−3)
, is of the form e
−cs
F
1
(s) with c = 1.
THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 103
Then using (T 15) , L
−1

(4s−2)e
−s

= L
−1
[e
−s
F
1
(s)] = f
1
(t − 1) H (t − 1)
=


9 3
s
2
9
(s−3)
10
+
2
(t − 1) +
10
e
3(t−1)

H (t − 1) .
To find the inverse Laplace transform of the second term, we
use partial fractions by letting F
2
(s) =
1
=
D
+
E
+
F
s
2
(s−3) s s
2
s−3
.
Multiplying by denominator we have
1 = Ds (s − 3) + E (s − 3) + Fs
2
. Letting s = 0 and 3 gives
E = −
1
3
and F =
1
9
. Then equating the coefficient of s
2
we have
0 = D + F D = −F = −
9
1
. ⇒
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2
So F
2
(s) =
s
2
(s−3)
= −
9 s

3 s
+
9 s−3
f
2
(t) = L
−1
[F
2
(s)] = −
1 1
t +
1
e
3t
.
3 9

e
−2s
9

The third term,
s
2
(s−3)
, is of the form e
−cs
F
2
(s) with c = 2.
e
−2s

Then using (T 15) , L
−1

s
2
(s−3)
= L
−1

e
−2s
F
2
(s)

= f
2
(t − 2) H (t − 2)
=


9
1

3
1
(t − 2) +
9
1
e
3(t−2)

H (t − 2) .
The inverse Laplace transform of the last term is L
−1

1

= e
3t
.
s−3
Thus y (t) = e
3t
+

10

1
9

2
1
t +
1
e
3t

3(t−1)

H (t − 1)
3 9
+

− + (t − 1) +
10
e
+


9
1
9

3
1
3
(t − 2) +
9
1
e
9
3(t−2)

H (t − 2) .
35. g (t) = H (t) − H (t − 3) and the differential eqution is
y

+ 2y

+ 10y = H (t) − H (t − 3) , y (0) = 1, y

(0) = 0.
Taking the Laplace transform of both sides gives
s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) + 2sY (s) − 2y (0) + 10Y (s) =
1

e
−3s
s s
(since, for example, H (t − 3) = f (t − 3) H (t − 3) with f (t − 3) = 1
f (t) = 1 F (s) =
1
s
and using (T 15) with c = 3, ⇒ ⇒
e
−3s
L [f (t − 3) H (t − 3)] = e
−3s
F (s) = ).
s
s
2
Y (s) − s + 2sY (s) − 2 + 10Y (s) =
1 e
−3s

e
−3s
− ⇒

s
2
+ 2s + 10

Y (s) =
1
s

s
+ s + 2
s s
Y (s) =
1 e
−3s
+
s+2

s(s
2
+2s+10)

s(s
2
+2s+10) (s
2
+2s+10)
.
First, we will find the inverse Laplace transform of the first term.
Using partial fractions
1
=
A
+
Bs+C
. Multiplying by
s(s
2
+2s+10) s s
2
+2s+10
denominator we have 1 = A

s
2
+ 2s + 10

+ (Bs + C) s. Letting
s = 0 gives A =
1
. Equating the coefficients:
10
2 1
s : 0 = A + B B = −A = −
10

2
s : 0 = 2A + C ⇒ C = −2A = −
10
1 1 1 1 s+2
So F (s) =
s(s
2
+2s+10)
=
10 s

10 s
2
+2s+10
1 1 1 (s+1) 1 3
=
10 s

10 (s+1)
2
+3
2

30 (s+1)
2
+3
2
f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] =
1 1
e
−t
cos 3t −
1
e
−t
sin 3t. ⇒
10

10 30
The second term is of the form e
−cs
F (s) with c = 3.
So using (T 15) , L
−1

e
−3s

= f (t − 3) H (t − 3)
s(s
2
+2s+10)
1 1
=

1
e
−(t−3)
cos 3 (t − 3) − e
−(t−3)
sin 3 (t − 3)

H (t − 3) .
10

10 30
For the third term:
104 CHAPTER 3
L
−1

s+2

= L
−1

s+1

+
3
1
L
−1

3

(s
2
+2s+10) (s+1)
2
+3
2
(s+1)
2
+3
2
= e
−t
cos 3t +
1
3
e
−t
sin 3t.
So using all three inverse Laplace transform we have
1 1 1
y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)] =
10

10
e
−t
cos 3t −
30
e
−t
sin 3t
1 1


1
e
−(t−3)
cos 3 (t − 3) − e
−(t−3)
sin 3 (t − 3)

H (t − 3)
10

10 30
+e
−t
cos 3t +
3
1
e
−t
sin 3t
=
1
+
9
e
−t
cos 3t +
3
e
−t
sin 3t
10 10 10
1 1


1
e
−(t−3)
cos 3 (t − 3) − e
−(t−3)
sin 3 (t − 3)

H (t − 3) .
10

10 30
37. g (t) = 1−H (t − 1)+H (t − 2)−H (t − 3) and the differential eqution
is y

+4y = 1−H (t − 1)+H (t − 2)−H (t − 3) , y (0) = 0, y

(0) = 0.
Taking the Laplace transform of both sides gives
s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) + 4Y (s) =
1 e
−s
+
e
−2s
e
−3s
e
−s
+
e
−2s
e
−3s
− − ⇒

s
2
+ 4

Y (s) =
1
s

s s

s
s

s s s
1 e
−s
e
−2s
e
−3s
Y (s) =
s(s
2
+4)

s(s
2
+4)
+
s(s
2
+4)

s(s
2
+4)
.
Using partial fractions F (s) =
1
=
A
+
Bs+C
. Multiplying by
s(s
2
+4) s s
2
+4
denominator we have 1 = A

s
2
+ 4

+ (Bs + C) s. Letting
s = 0 gives A =
1
4
. Equating the coefficients:
s
2
: 0 = A + B B = −A = −
4
1

s : 0 = C
So F (s) =
1
=
1 1 1 s
=
1 1 1 s
s(s
2
+4) 4 s

4 s
2
+4 4 s

4 s
2
+2
2
⇒ f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] =
4
1

1
cos 2t.
4
The second, third and fourth terms are of the form e
−cs
F (s) with
c = 1, 2 and 3, respectively. So using (T 15) , we have
L
−1

e
−s

= f (t − 1) H (t − 1) =
4
1

1
cos 2 (t − 1) H (t − 1)
s(s
2
+4) 4
L
−1

e
−2s

= f (t − 2) H (t − 2) =
1
4

1
cos 2 (t − 2) H (t − 2)
s(s
2
+4) 4
e
−3s

1
L
−1

s(s
2
+4)
= f (t − 3) H (t − 3) =
1
4

4
cos 2 (t − 3) H (t − 3) .
Thus y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)] =
1
4

1
cos 2t −
1
+
1
cos 2 (t − 1) H (t − 1)
4 4 4
+
1 1
cos 2 (t − 2) H (t − 2) −
1
+
1
cos 2 (t − 3) H (t − 3)
4 4 4
y (t) =
4
1

[− cos 2t + cos 2 (t − 1) H (t − 1) − cos 2 (t − 2) H (t − 2)

4
+ cos 2 (t − 3) H (t − 3)].
39. g (t) = H (t) − H (t − 2) + e
−t
H (t − 2) and the differential eqution is
y

+ 9y = H (t) − H (t − 2) + e
−t
H (t − 2) , y (0) = 0, y

(0) = 0.
For H (t − 2) = f (t − 2) H (t − 2) with f (t − 2) = 1 f (t) = 1
F (s) =
1
and using (T 15) with c = 2, L [f (t − 2) H (

t − 2)] =

s
e
−2s
F (s) =
e

s
2s
.
For the last forcing term, e
−t
H (t − 2) , c = 2 and f (t − 2) = e
−t
.
Let τ = t − 2.Then t = τ + 2 and f (τ) = e
−(τ +2)
=
e
1
2
e
−τ
1 1 1
f (t) =
e
2
e
−t
. Thus F (s) = L

e
1
2
e
−t

= ⇒
e
2
s+1
.
1 e
−2s
So L [e
−t
H (t − 2)] = L

f (t − 2) H (t − 2)

= e
−cs
F (s) = .
e
2
s+1
Then the Laplace transform of both sides of differential eqution gives
e
−2s
1 e
−2s
s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) + 9Y (s) =
1
s

s
+
s+1

e
2
THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 105
s
2
Y (s) + 9Y (s) =
1 e
−2s
+
1 e
−2s
e
−2s
1 e
−2s

s
2
+ 9

Y (s) =
1
s

s

s
s
+
e
2
e
s
2
+1
s+1

1 e
−2s
1 e
−2s
⇒ Y (s) =
s(s
2
+9)

s(s
2
+9)
+
e
2
(s+1)(s
2
+9)
.
First, we will find the inverse Laplace transform of the first term.
1 A Bs+C
Using partial fractions let F
1
(s) =
s(s
2
+9)
=
s
+
s
2
+9
.
Multiplying by denominator we have 1 = A

s
2
+ 9

+ (Bs + C) s.
Letting s = 0 gives A =
9
1
. Equating the coefficients:
s
2
: 0 = A + B B = −A = −
9
1

s : 0 = C
1 1 1 1 s 1 1 1 s
So F
1
(s) =
s(s
2
+9)
=
9 s

9 s
2
+9
=
9 s

9 s
2
+3
2
⇒ f
1
(t) = L
−1
[F
1
(s)] =
9
1

1
cos 3t.
9
The second term is of the form e
−cs
F
1
(s) with c = 2.
So L
−1

e
−2s

= f
1
(t − 2) H (t − 2)
s(s
2
+9)
1
=

1
9
− cos 3 (t − 2)

H (t − 2) .
9
For the third term, using partial fractions let
1 A Bs+C
F
3
(s) =
(s+1)(s
2
+9)
=
s+1
+
s
2
+9
. Multiplying by denominator
we have 1 = A

s
2
+ 9

+ (Bs + C) (s + 1) . Letting s = −1
1
gives A =
10
. Equating the coefficients
s
2
: 0 = A + B B
1
⇒ = −A = −
1
10
s : 0 = B + C C = −B =
10
.
1 1 1

1 s 1 1
F
3
(s) =
(s+1)(s
2
+9)
=
10 s+1

10 s
2
+9
+
10 s
2
+9
1 1 1 s 1 3
=
10 s+1

10 s
2
+3
2
+
30 s
2
+3
2
⇒ f
3
(t) = L
−1
[F
3
(s)] =
1
e
−t

1
cos 3t +
1
sin 3t
10 10 30
The third term is of the form e
−cs
F
3
(s) with c = 2.
So L
−1

1 e
−2s

=
1
f
3
(t − 2) H (t − 2)
e
2
(s+1)(s
2
+9) e
2
=
1

1
e
−(t−2)

1
cos 3 (t −
1
2) +
1
sin 3 (t
1
− 2)

H (t − 2)
e
2
10 10 30
So y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)] =
1
9
− cos 3t −

1
9
− cos 3 (t − 2)

H (t − 2)
+
1

1
e
−(t−2) 1
9
cos 3 (t − 2) +
9
1
sin 3 (t − 2)

H (t − 2) .
e
2
10 10 30
41. g (t) = e
3t
[H (t) − H (t −

4)] = e
3t
− e
3t
H (t − 4) and the differential
equation is y

− 5y = e
3t
− e
3t
H (t − 4) , y (0) = 0.
For the last forcing term, e
3t
H (t − 4) , c = 4 and f (t − 4) = e
3t
.
Let τ = t − 4.Then t = τ + 4 and f (τ) = e
3(τ+4)
= e
12
e

12 3t 12 12 1
f (t) = e e . Thus F (s) = L

e e
3t

= e . Then using ⇒
s−3
12 e
−4s
(T 15) , L

e
3t
H (t − 4)

= L

f (t − 4) H (t − 4)

= e
−4s
F (s) = e
s−3
.
Then Laplace transform of both sides of differential equation gives
1 12 e
−4s
sY (s) − y (0) − 5Y (s) =
s−3
− e
s−3
(s − 5) Y (s) =
1 12 e
−4s
s−3
− e
s−3

e
−4s
1 12
⇒ Y (s) =
(s−3)(s−5)
− e
(s−3)(s−5)
.
1 A B
Using partial fractions let F (s) =
(s−3)(s−5)
=
(s−3)
+
(s−5)
.
Multiplying by denominator we have 1 = A (s − 5) + B (s − 3) .
Letting s = 3 and 5 gives A = −
1
and B =
2
1
.
2
106 CHAPTER 3
So F (s) =
1 1 1
+
1 1
(s−3)(s−5)
= −
2 (s−3) 2 (s−5)
f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = −
1
e
3t
+
1
e
5t
. Now
e
−4s
is of the ⇒
2 2 (s−3)(s−5)
form e
−cs
F (s) with c = 4 and using (T 15) , L
−1

e
−4s

=
(s−3)(s−5)
L
−1

e
−4s
F (s)

= f (t − 4) H (t − 4) =


1
e
3(t−4)
+
1
e
5(t−4)

H (t − 4) .
2 2
Hence y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)]
= −
2
1
e
3t
+
2
1
e
5t
− e
12


2
1
e
3(t−4)
+
2
1
e
5(t−4)

H (t − 4) .
π
43. g (t) = cos tH

t −

and the differential equation is
π
y

+ 3y = cos tH

2
t −

, y (0) = 0.
2
π π π
For the forcing term, cos tH

t −

, c = and f

t −

= cos t.
2 2 2
π π π
Let τ = t − .Then t = τ + and f (τ ) = cos

τ +

= − sin τ
2 2 2
f (t) = − sin t. Thus F (s) = L [− sin t] = −
s
2
1
+1
. Then using ⇒
π π π
π
2
(T 15) , L

cos tH

t −

= L

f

t −

H

t −

= e
− s
F (s)
2 2 2
π
e

2
s
. = −
s
2
+1
Then Laplace transform of both sides of differential equation gives
π π
2 2
sY (s) − y (0) + 3Y (s) = −
e
− s
(s + 3) Y (s) = −
e
− s
π
s
2
+1

s
2
+1
Y (s) = −
e

2
s
. ⇒
(s+3)(s
2
+1)
1 A Bs+C
Using partial fractions let F (s) =
(s+3)(s
2
+1)
=
s+3
+
s
2
+1
.
Multiplying by denominator we have 1 = A

s
2
+ 1

+(Bs + C) (s + 3) .
Letting s = −3 gives A =
1
. Equating the coefficients
10
s
2
: 0 = A + B B
1
⇒ = −A = −
10
3
s : 0 = 3B + C C = −3B =
1 1 1

1 s 3
10
1
.
So F (s) =
(s+3)(s
2
+1)
=
10 s+3

10 s
2
+1
+
10 s
2
+1
⇒ f (t) = L
s
−1
[F (s)] =
1
e
−3t

1
cos t +
3
sin t.
10 10 10
π
2
Now
e

is of the form e
−cs
F (s) with c =
π
and using (T 15) ,
(s+3)(s
2
+1) 2
π
L
−1

e

2
s

= L
−1

e

π
s
F (s)

= f

t −
π

H

t −
π

2
(s+3)(s
2
+1) 2 2
π

1
e
−3(t−
2
) 1 π 3 π π

=
10

10
cos

t −
2

+
10
sin

t −
2

H

t −
2
π
2
=

1
e
−3(t− )

1
sin t −
3
cos t

H

t −
π

.
10 10 10 2
Hence y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)]
π

1
e
−3(t−
2
) 1
sin t −
3
cos t

H

t −
π

. = −
10

10 10 2
45. g (t) = sin tH (t − 3) and the differential equation is
y

+ 2y = sin tH (t − 3) , y (0) = 0.
For the forcing term, sin tH (t − 3) , c = 3 and f (t − 3) = sin t.
Let τ = t − 3.Then t = τ + 3 and f (τ) = sin (τ + 3)
⇒ f (t) = sin (t + 3) = cos 3 sin
1
t + sin 3 cos
s
t. Thus
F (s) = L [sin (t + 3)] = cos 3 + sin 3 . Then using (T 15) ,
s
2
+1 s
2
+1
L [sin tH (t − 3)] = L

f (t − 3) H (t − 3)

= e
−3s
F (s)
= cos 3
e
−3s
+ sin 3
se
−3s
.
s
2
+1 s
2
+1
Then Laplace transform of both sides of differential equation gives
sY (s) − y (0) + 2Y (s) = cos 3
e
−3s
+ sin 3
se
−3s
s
2
+1 s
2
+1
THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 107
(s + 2) Y (s) = cos 3
e
−3s
+ sin 3
se
−3s

s
2
+1 s
2
+1
Y (s) = cos 3
e
−3s
+ sin 3
se
−3s

(s+2)(s
2
+1) (s+2)(s
2
+1)
.
1 A Bs+C
Using partial fractions let F
1
(s) =
(s+2)(s
2
+1)
=
s+2
+
s
2
+1
.
Multiplying by denominator we have 1 = A

s
2
+ 1

+(Bs + C) (s + 2) .
Letting s = −2 gives A =
1
. Equating the coefficients
5
s
2
: 0 = A + B B
1
⇒ = −A = −
5
2
s : 0 = 2B + C C = −2B = .
1 1 1

1 s 2 1
5
So F
1
(s) =
(s+2)(s
2
+1)
=
5 s+2

5 s
2
+1
+
5 s
2
+1
f
1
(t) = L
−1
[F
1
(s)] =
1
e
−2t 1
cos t +
2
sin t.
5 5 5

e
−3s

Now
(s+2)(s
2
+1)
is of the form e
−cs
F
1
(s) with c = 3 and using (T 15) ,
L
−1

e
−3s

= L
−1

e
−3s
F
1
(s)

= f
1
(t − 3) H (t − 3)
(s+2)(s
2
+1)
e
−2(t−3) 1
=

1
cos (t − 3) +
2
sin (t − 3)

H (t − 3) .
5 5 5

s A Bs+C
Using partial fractions let F
2
(s) =
(s+2)(s
2
+1)
=
s+2
+
s
2
+1
.
Multiplying by denominator we have s = A

s
2
+ 1

+(Bs + C) (s + 2) .
Letting s = −2 gives A = −
2
. Equating the coefficients
5
s
2
: 0 = A + B ⇒ B = −A =
2
5
1
s : 1 = 2B + C C = 1 − 2B = .
s 2 1

2 s 1 1
5
So F
2
(s) =
(s+2)(s
2
+1)
= −
5 s+2
+
5 s
2
+1
+
5 s
2
+1
⇒ f
2
(t) = L
−1
[F
2
(s)] = −
5
2
e
−2t
+
5
2
cos t +
5
1
sin t.
Now
se
−3s
is of the form e
−cs
F
2
(s) with c = 3 and using (T 15) ,
(s+2)(s
2
+1)
L
−1

se
−3s

= L
−1

e
−3s
F
2
(s)

= f
2
(t − 3) H (t − 3)
(s+2)(s
2
+1)
2
e
−2(t−3) 2
=

− + cos (t − 3) +
1
sin (t − 3)

H (t − 3) .
5 5 5
Hence y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)]
e
−2(t−3) 1
= cos 3

1
cos (t − 3) +
2
sin (t − 3)

H (t − 3)
5 5 5
2
e
−2(t−3) 2
+ sin 3



+ cos (t − 3) +
1
sin (t − 3)

H (t − 3)
5 5 5
=
1
H (t − 3) [(2 cos 3 + sin 3) sin (t − 3)+(2 sin 3 − cos 3) cos (t − 3)
5
+ (cos 3 − 2 sin 3) e
−2(t−3)
].
47. g (t) = sin t [H (t) − H (t − 4)] = sin t − sin tH (t − 4) and the
differential equation is
y

+ 9y = sin t − sin tH (t − 4) , y (0) = 0, y

(0) = 1.
For the last forcing term, sin tH (t − 4) , c = 4 and f (t − 4) = sin t.
Let τ = t − 4.Then t = τ + 4 and f (τ) = sin (τ + 4) so that
f (t) = sin (t + 4) = cos 4 sin t + sin 4 cos t. Thus
F (s) = L [sin (t + 4)] = cos 4
1
+ sin 4
s
. Then using (T 15) ,
s
2
+1 s
2
+1
L [sin tH (t − 4)] = L

f (t − 4) H (t − 4)

= e
−4s
F (s)
= cos 4
e
−4s
+ sin 4
se
−4s
s
2
+1 s
2
+1
.
Then Laplace transform of both sides of differential equation gives
1
s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) + 9Y (s) =
2
+1
− sin 4
se
−4s
2
+1
− cos 4
e
−4s
s s s
2
+1

1
s
2
Y (s) − 1 + 9Y (s) =
s
2
+1
− sin 4
se
−4s
s
2
+1
− cos 4
e
−4s
s
2
+1
1

s
2
+ 9

Y (s) = 1 +
s
2
+1
− sin 4
se
−4s


s
2
+1
− cos 4
e
−4s
s
2
+1
108 CHAPTER 3
Y (s) =
1
+
1
2
+9)
− cos 4
e
−4s
2
+9)
− sin 4
se
−4s
. ⇒
s
2
+9 (s
2
+1)(s (s
2
+1)(s (s
2
+1)(s
2
+9)
Now we will find the inverse Laplace transform of all four terms.
Let F
1
(s) =
1
=
1 3
f
1
(t) = L
−1
[F
1
(s)] =
1
sin 3t.
s
2
+9 3 s
2
+3
2
3

1 As+B Cs+D
Using partial fractions, let F
2
(s) =
(s
2
+1)(s
2
+9)
=
s
2
+1
+
s
2
+9
.
Multiplying by denominator we have
1 = (As + B)

s
2
+ 9

+ (Cs + D)

s
2
+ 1

.
Equating the coefficients
s
3
: 0 = A + C C
2
⇒ = −A
s : 0 = B + D D = −B ⇒
s : 0 = 9A + C 9A − A = 0 A = 0 and so C = 0. ⇒ ⇒
1 1
1 : 1 = 9B + D 9B − B = 1 B = and so D = − .
1

1 1 1

1
8
1 1
8
1 3
Thus F
2
(s) =
(s
2
+1)(s
2
+9)
=
8 s
2
+1

8 s
2
+9
=
8 s
2
+1

24 s
2
+3
2
.
⇒ f
2
(t) = L
−1
[F
2
(s)] =
1
sin t −
1
sin 3t.
8 24
F
3
(s) =
e
−4s
is of the form e
−cs
F
2
(s) with c = 4 and using
(s
2
+1)(s
2
+9)
(T 15) , L
−1
[F
3
(s)] = L
−1

e
−4s

= L
−1

e
−4s
F
2
(s)

= f
2
(t − 4) H (t − 4)
(s
2
+1)(s
2
+9)
1
=

1
sin (t − 4) − sin 3 (t − 4)

H (t − 4) .
8 24
s As+B Cs+D
Using partial fractions let F
4
(s) =
(s
2
+1)(s
2
+9)
=
s
2
+1
+
s
2
+9
.
Multiplying by denominator we have
s = (As + B)

s
2
+ 9

+ (Cs + D)

s
2
+ 1

.
Equating the coefficients
s
3
: 0 = A + C C = −A
s
2
: 0 = B + D

⇒ D = −B
1 1
s : 1 = 9A + C 9A − A = 1 A =
8
and so C = −
8
. ⇒ ⇒
1 : 0 = 9B + D 9B − B = 0 B = 0 and so D = 0.
s

1 s 1

1 s 1 s s
Thus F
4
(s) =
(s
2
+1)(s
2
+9)
=
8 s
2
+1

8 s
2
+9
=
8 s
2
+1

8 s
2
+3
2
.
f
4
(t) = L
−1
[F
4
(s)] =
1
cos t −
1
cos 3t. ⇒
se
−4s
8 8
Now
(s
2
+1)(s
2
+9)
is of the form e
−cs
F
4
(s) with c = 4 and using (T 15) ,
L
−1

se
−4s

= L
−1

e
−4s
F
4
(s)

= f
4
(t − 4) H (t − 4)
(s
2
+1)(s
2
+9)
1
=

1
cos (t − 4) − cos 3 (t − 4)

H (t − 4) .
8 8
Hence y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)]
=
1
sin 3t +
1
sin t −
1
sin 3t
3 8 24
1
− cos 4

1
sin (t − 4) − sin 3 (t − 4)

H (t − 4)
1
− sin 4

8
1
cos (t − 4) −
24
cos 3 (t − 4)

H (t − 4)
8 8
=
1
sin 3t +
1
sin t −
1
sin 3t
3 8 24
+
1
H (t − 4) [
1
cos 4 sin 3 (t − 4) + sin 4 cos 3 (t − 4)
8 3
− cos 4 sin (t − 4) − sin 4 cos (t − 4)].
49. g (t) = (−1)
n−1
for n − 1 ≤ t < n, where n = 1, 2, ..., ∞⇒
g (t) = 1 [H (t) − H (t − 1)] − 1 [H (t − 1) − H (t − 2)]
+1 [H (t − 2) − H (t − 3)] − 1 [H (t − 3) − H (t − 4)] − ...∞
g (t) = 1 − 2H (t − 1) + 2H (t − 2) − 2H (t − 3) + 2H (t − 4) − ...∞
and the differential equation is
y

+ 4y = 1 − 2H (t − 1) + 2H (t − 2) − 2H (t − 3)
109 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM
+2H (t − 4) − ...∞, y (0) = 0, y

(0) = 0.
Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of differential equation
gives s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) + 4Y (s)
1 2e
−s
2e
−2s
2e
−3s
2e
−4s
2e
−s
2e
−2s
2e
−3s
2e
−4s

s
2
+ 4

Y (s) =
=
1
s


s
+
+
s


s
+
+
s


...
...


s s s s s
e
−ns
1

Y (s) = + 2
¸
(−1)
n
. ⇒
s(s
2
+4)
n=1
s(s
2
+4)
Using partial fractions, let F (s) =
1
=
A
+
Bs+C
.
s(s
2
+4) s s
2
+4
Multiplying by denominator we have 1 = A

s
2
+ 4

+ (Bs + C) s.
Letting s = 0 gives A =
1
4
. Equating the coefficients
s
2
: 0 = A + B B
1
⇒ = −A = −
4
s : 0 = C.
1 1 1 1 s 1 1 1 s
So F (s) =
s(s
2
+4)
=
4 s

4 s
2
+4
=
4 s

4 s
2
+2
2
⇒ f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] =
4
1

1
cos 2t.
4
e
−ns
Now
s(s
2
+4)
is of the form e
−cs
F (s) with c = n and using (T 15) ,
e
−ns
L
−1

= L
−1
[e
−ns
F (s)] = f (t − n) H (t − n)
s(s
2
+4)
1
=

1
4
− cos 2 (t − n)

H (t −
1
n) .
4
So y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)] =
1
4
− cos 2t
4

n

1 1
+2
¸
(−1) cos 2 (t − n)

H (t − n)
4 4

n=1

y (t) =
1
(1 − cos 2t) +
1
¸
(−1)
n
H (t − n) [1 − cos 2 (t − n)] . ⇒
4 2
n=1
3.5 PERIODIC FUNCTIONS
1. g (t) = sin t is a periodic function with period T = π and | |
π
1
|sin t| = sin t for 0 ≤ t < π.So G (s) = L [g (t)] =

e
−st
sin tdt.
1−e
−πs
0
Using integration table we have that
π
π
e
−st
1+e
−πs

e
−st
sin tdt =

2
(−s sin t − cos t)

=
1+s 1+s
2
.
0
0
1+e
−πs
Thus G (s) = .
(s
2
+1)(1−e
−πs
)
y
1
t
π 2π 3π 4π
110 CHAPTER 3
2 2
1
e
−st 1
3. L [g (t)] =
1−e
−2s

g (t) dt =
1−e
−2s
¸

1
t
2
e
−st
dt +

2 − t
2

e
−st
dt

.
0 0 1
We use the method of integration by parts twice to find

t
2
e
−st
dt = −
1
t
2
e
−st
s
2
2
te
−st
s
2
3
e
−st
.
s
1
Now L [g (t)] =
¸

1
t
2
e
−st
dt

+ 2

2
e
−st
dt −

2
t
2
e
−st
dt

1−e
−2s
0 1 1
=
1−e
1
−2s
[


1
s
t
2
e
−st
s
2
2
te
−st
s
2
3
e
−st

2
s
e
−st
1
1 2
1
t
2
e
−st 2
2
te
−st 2
3
e
−st

] −


s

s


s

2
1
0
− | |
=
1−e
1
−2s
[−
1
s
e
−s

s
2
2
e
−s

s
2
3
e
−s
+
s
2
3

2
s
e
−2s
+
2
s
e
−s
+
4
s
e
−2s
+
s
4
2
e
−2s
+
s
2
3
e
−2s

1
s
e
−s

s
2
2
e
−s

s
2
3
e
−s
]
1 4 4 2 2 4 2
=
1−e
−2s


s
2
e
−s

s
3
e
−s
+
s
+
s
e
−2s
+
s
2
e
−2s
+
s
3
e
−2s

3
1 2 4 4 2
=
1−e
−2s

+
s
3


s
4
3
+
s
2

e
−s
+

s
2
3
+
s
2
+
s

e
−2s

.
1
t
−1
1
e
−st 1
e
−st 1
5. L [g (t)] =
1−e
−s

1
g (t) dt =
1−e
−s

1
e
t
dt =
1−e
−s

1
e
(1−s)t
dt
0 0 0
=
1 e
(1−s)t
=
e
1−s
−1
.
1
1−e
−s

1−s

(1−s)(1−e
−s
)
0
7. ´ g (t) = 1 [H (t) − H (t − 1)] − 1 [H (t − 1) − H (t − 2)] = 1 − 2H (t − 1)

g (t) , 0 ≤ t ≤ 2,
+H (t − 2) . So ´ g (t) =
0, t > 2.
L [g (t)] =
1−e
1
−2s

2
e
−st
g (t) dt =
1−e
1
−2s
L [g´(t)] =
1−e
1
−2s
L [1 − 2H (t − 1) + H (t − 2)]
1−e
1
−2s

1

2
e

0
s 1
e
−2s

. = +
s s s
1
t
1 2 3 4 5
9. Let F (s) =
1
+
s
1
3
. Then f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = t +
1
t
2
.
So g (t) = L
s
2
−1

1−
1
e
−s

s
1
+
s
1

= L
−1

1−
1
e
−s
F (s
2
)

2 3
∞ ∞
=
¸
f (t − n) H (t − n) =
¸

(t − n) +
1
(t − n)
2

H (t − n) .
2
n=0 n=0
111 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM
s s
11. Let F (s) = =
2
+2
2
. Then f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = cos 2t.
s
2
+4 s
So g (t) = L
−1

1−
1
e
−s

s
2
s
+4

= L
−1

1−
1
e
−s
F (s)

∞ ∞
=
¸
f (t − n) H (t − n) =
¸
[cos 2 (t − n)] H (t − n) .
n=0 n=0
13. Let F (s) =
s
1
2
+
e
−s
. Then f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = t+
1
(t − 1)
2
H (t − 1) .
So g (t) = L
−1

s
1
3
−e
1
−2s

s
1
2
+
e
s

3
s

= L
−1

1−e
1
−2s
2
F (s)


=
¸
f (t − 2n) H (t − 2n)
n=0

2
=
¸

(t − 2n) +
1
(t − 2n − 1) H (t − 2n − 1)

H (t − 2n) .
2
n=0
+
e

2 π π
15. Let F (s) =
1
πs
. Then f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = 1+sin

t −

H

t −

.
s s
2
+1 2 2
πs
So g (t) = L
−1

1−e
1
−πs

1
+
e

2

= L
−1

1−e
1
−πs
F (s)

s s
2
+1

=
¸
f (t − nπ) H (t − nπ)
n=0

π π
=
¸
1 + sin

t − nπ −

H

t − nπ −

H (t − nπ)
2 2
n=0

π π
=
¸
H (t − nπ) + sin

t − nπ −

H

t − nπ −

.
2 2
n=0
17. Let F (s) =
s
1
3
+
e
−2s
. Then f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] =
1
t
2
+
1
(t − 2)
3
H (t − 2) .
s
4
2 6
1

1
+
e
−2s

1

So g (t) = L
−1

1+e
−5s
s
3
s
4
= L
−1

1+e
−5s
F (s)

=
¸
(−1)
n
f (t − 5n) H (t − 5n)
n=0

2
1
3
=
¸
(−1)
n

1
(t − 5n) + (t − 5n − 2) H (t − 5n − 2)

H (t − 5n)
2 6
n=0

n

1
2 3

=
¸
(−1) (t − 5n) H (t − 5n) +
1
(t − 5n − 2) H (t − 5n − 2) .
2 6
n=0
1 1

2

1

2e
−s

19. G (s) =
s
2
csch(s) =
s
2
e
s
−e
−s
=
1−e
−2s
s
.
2
Let F (s) =
2e
−s
. Then f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = 2 (t − 1) H (t − 1) .
2
So g (t) = L
−1
s

1−e
1
−2s

2e
s
−s

= L
−1

1−e
1
−2s
F (s)

2

=
¸
f (t − 2n) H (t − 2n)
n=0

=
¸
[2 (t − 2n − 1) H (t − 2n − 1)] H (t − 2n)
n=0

=
¸
2 (t − 2n − 1) H (t − 2n − 1) .
n=0
21. Graphing the step functions makes result simple.

1, t > b,
If b > a, H (t − a) H (t − b) = 0, a < t < b = H (t − b) ,

0, t < a.




.



112 CHAPTER 3

1, t > a,
If a > b, H (t − a) H (t − b) = 0, b < t < a = H (t − a) ,

0, t < b.
23. First, we will find the Laplace transform of sin 2t which is a
π
| |
periodic function with period T =
2
and sin 2t = sin 2t for | |
π

2
π 1
e
−st
sin 2tdt. Using 0 ≤ t < .So L [|sin 2t|] = π
2
s
1−e

2
0
π
integration table we have that

2
e
−st
sin 2tdt
0

1 + e

π
2
s

.
π
1 2
e
−st
(−s sin 2t − 2 cos 2t)
2
|

2
| = =
2
+4 0 s
2
+4

s
π
Thus L [|sin 2t|] =
2
+
s
2
+4
Taking the Laplace transform of the differential equation
1
e
− s
2
π .
s
2
+4
s
1−e

2
y

+ y = |sin 2t| , y (0) = y

(0) = 0 we have
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) + Y (s) =

2 s

1

π
+
2
e

s
2
+4
2
s π
s
2
+4
s
1−e

2
s

1

s
2
+ 1

Y (s) =
π
2 2
e

+
2
π
2
+4
2
+4

s
s s
2
e

π
2
1−e

s

2 2 1
Y (s) = + π .
2
+4)(s
2
+1) (s
2
+4)(s
2
+1) (s

s
1−e

2
Using partial fractions,
2 As+B Cs+D
let F
1
(s) =
(s
2
+4)(s
2
+1)
=
s
2
+1
+
s
2
+4
. Multiplying by the
denominator we get 2 = (As + B)

s
2
+ 4

+ (Cs + D)

s
2
+ 1

.
Equating the coefficients:
s
3
: 0 = A + C C = −A
s
2
: 0 = B + D

D = −B ⇒
s : 0 = 4A + C 4A − A = 0 A = 0 and then C = 0 ⇒ ⇒
2 2
1 : 2 = 4B + D 4B − B = 2 B = and then D = − .
2

2 1

2 1
3
2 1 1 2
3
Thus F
1
(s) =
(s
2
+4)(s
2
+1)
=
3 s
2
+1

3 s
2
+4
=
3 s
2
+1

3 s
2
+2
2
π
⇒ f
1
(t) = L

2
1
[F
1
(s)] =
2
F
2
(s) =
sin t −
1
sin 2t.
3 3
is of the form e
−cs
F
1
(s) with c =
π
2
. e
− s
2
(s
2
+4)(s
2
+1)
π π

t −
2

H

t −
2

1
So f
2
(t) = L
−1
[F
2
(s)] = f
1
π
=

2
3
sin

t −
2


3
sin (2t − π)

H

t −
2
2 2
π
π
e
− s
Let F (s) = F
1
(s) + F
2
(s) = +
2
.
(s
2
+4)(s
2
+1) (s
2
+4)(s
2
+1)
Then f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)]
2 1 π
=
3
sin t −
3
sin 2t +

2
3
sin

t −
2


π
1
sin (2t − π)

H

t −
π
3 2
s

1

2 2
e

and Y (s) = +
2
π
(s
2
+4)(s
2
+1) (s
2
+4)(s
2
+1)
s
1−e

2
1
s
F (s) . = π
1−e

2
Hence the inverse Laplace transform yields
y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)] = L
−1

1

F (s) π
s
1−e

2
=


¸
f

t −

H

t −
2
n=0

2

2 nπ 1 nπ
=
¸
3
sin

t −
2


3
sin 2

t −
2

n=0
{
113 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM
nπ π 1 nπ π nπ
+

2
3
sin

t −
2

2


3
sin (2t − nπ − π)

H

t −
2

2

}H

t −
2

1

nπ nπ
=
¸
{

2 sin

t −

− sin (2t − nπ)

H

t −

3 2 2
n=0
nπ π nπ π
+

2 sin

t − −

t
− sin (2t − nπ − π)

H

t − −

}.
2 2 2 2
25. From Exercise 5, g (t) = e and its Laplace transform is
1
e
−st 1
e
−st 1
L [g (t)] =

1
g (t) dt =

1
e
t
dt =

1
e
(1−s)t
dt
1−e
−s
1−e
−s
1−e
−s
0 0 0
1
(1−s)t 1−s
=
1

e

=
e −1
=

1 e
−s

1

.
1−e
−s
1−s (1−s)(1−e
−s
) s−1
− e
s−1 1−e
−s
0
Taking the Laplace transform of the differential equation
y

+ y = g (t) , y (0) = 1, we have

1 e
−s

1

sY (s) − y (0) + Y (s) =
s−1
− e
s−1 1−e
−s

1 e
−s

1

⇒ (s + 1) Y (s) = 1 +
s−1
− e
s−1 1−e
−s
1

1 e
−s

1

⇒ Y (s) =
s+1
+
(s−1)(s+1)
− e
(s−1)(s+1) 1−e
−s
.
Using partial fractions,
let F
1
(s) =
1
=
A
+
B
. Multiplying by the
(s−1)(s+1) s−1 s+1
denominator we get 1 = A (s + 1) + B (s − 1) . Letting s = 1 and
s = −1 gives A =
1
and B
1
. So F
1
(s) =
1 1 1 1
2
= −
2 2 s−1

2 s+1

t 1 e
−s
f
1
(t) = L
−1
[F
1
(s)] =
1
2
e −
2
e
−t
= sinh t. Now F
2
(s) =
(s−1)(s+1)
is of the form e
−cs
F
1
(s) with c = 1. So f
2
(t) = L
−1
[e
−s
F
1
(s)]
= f
1
(t − 1) H (t − 1) = sinh (t − 1) H (t − 1) .
1 e
−s

Then f (t) = f
1
(t) − ef
2
(t) = L
−1

(s−1)(s+1)
− e
(s−1)(s+1)
= sinh t − e sinh (t − 1) H (t − 1) .
So L
−1

1 e
−s

1

(s−1)(s+1)
− e
(s−1)(s+1) 1−e
−s

=
¸
f (t − n) H (t − n)
n=0

=
¸
[sinh (t − n) − e sinh (t − n − 1) H (t − n − 1)] H (t − n)
n=0

=
¸
sinh (t − n) H (t − n) − e sinh (t − n − 1) H (t − n − 1) .
n=0
Hence the inverse Laplace transform yields
e
−s
y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)] = L
−1

1
+

1

1

s+1 (s−1)(s+1)
− e
(s−1)(s+1) 1−e
−s

= e
−t
+
¸
sinh (t − n) H (t − n)−e sinh (t − n − 1) H (t − n − 1) .
n=0
27. From Exercise 7, g (t) =

1, 0 ≤ t < 1,
is a periodic
−1, 1 ≤ t < 2.
2
1
function with period 2. So L [g (t)] =
1−e
−2s
¸

1
e
−st
dt −

e
−st
dt

e
−st
e
−st
1 1

1 2 1
=
1−e
−2s
¸


s

1
0
+

s

2
1

=
1−e
−2s
0
s

s
e
−s
1
+
s
e
−2s

.
Taking the Laplace transform of the differential equation
114 CHAPTER 3
y

− 4y = g (t) , y (0) = y

(0) = 0, we have
s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) − 4Y (s) =
1−e
1
−2s

1
s
2
s
e
−s
+
1
s
e
−2s

2 1 2 1

s − 4

Y (s) =
1−e
−2s

1
s s
e
−s
+
s
e
−2s



Y (s) =
1

1

2
e
−s
+
1
e
−2s

. ⇒
1−e
−2s
s(s−2)(s+2)

s(s−2)(s+2) s(s−2)(s+2)
Using partial fractions,
1 A B C
let F
1
(s) =
s(s−2)(s+2)
=
s
+
s−2
+
s+2
. Multiplying by the
denominator we get 1 = A (s − 2) (s + 2) + Bs (s + 2) + Cs (s − 2) .
Letting s = 0, 2 and s = −2 gives A = −
1
, B =
1
and C =
1
.
4 8 8
So F
1
(s) = −
1 1
+
1 1
+
1 1
4 s 8 8 s+2 s−2

f
1
(t) = L
−1
[F
1
(s)] = −
1
+
1
e
2t
+
1
e
−2t
=
1
(cosh 2t − 1) .
4 8 8 4
So f
2
(t) = L
−1
[e
−s
F
1
(s)] = f
1
(t − 1) H (t − 1) =
1
[cosh (2t − 2) − 1] H (t − 1)
4
and f
3
(t) = L
−1

e
−2s
F
1
(s)

= f
1
(t − 2) H (t − 2) =
1
[cosh (2t − 4) − 1] H (t − 2)
4
Then f (t) = f
1
(t) − 2f
2
(t) + f
3
(t)
1 2 1
= L
−1

s(s−2)(s+2)

s(s−2)(s+2)
e
−s
+
s(s−2)(s+2)
e
−2s

=
1
(cosh 2t − 1)−
1
[cosh (2t − 2) − 1] H (t − 1)+
1
[cosh (2t − 4) − 1] H (t − 2) .
4 2 4
Hence the inverse Laplace transform yields
1

1 2 1
e
−2s

y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)] = L
−1

1−e
−2s
s(s−2)(s+2)

s(s−2)(s+2)
e
−s
+
s(s−2)(s+2)

=
¸
f (t − 2n) H (t − 2n)
n=0

1 1
=
¸
(cosh (2t − 4n) − 1)− [cosh (2t − 4n − 2) − 1] H (t − 2n − 1)
4 2
n=0
{
+
1
[cosh (2t − 4n − 4) − 1] H (t − 2n − 2)}H (t − 2n)
4
1

=
¸
{[cosh (2t − 4n) − 1] H (t − 2n)−2 [cosh (2t − 4n − 2) − 1] H (t − 2n − 1)
4
n=0
+ [cosh (2t − 4n − 4) − 1] H (t − 2n − 2)}.
n
29. The Laplace transform of each term,
t
, of e
t
is
n
1 n! 1
L

t

= =
n!
n! n! s
n+1
s
n+1
.
Applying the linearity property of Laplace transform we have
n n
¸

t

∞ ∞
1 1


n
L [e
t
] = L
¸
n!
=
¸
L

t
n!

=
¸
=
s
¸
1
s
. Now
s
n+1
n=0 n=0 n=0 n=0


1

n
1 s
¸
s
is a geometric series which converges to
1−
s
=
s−1
if
1
n=0
s 1

1
s

< 1 ⇒ s > 1. Thus for s > 1, L [e
t
] =
1
s s−1
=
s−1
.
3.6 INTEGRALS AND THE CONVOLUTION THEOREM
1. f (t) = t, and g (t) = e
t
. So f ∗ g =

t
τe
t−τ
dτ = e
t

t
τe
−τ
dτ. Now using
0 0
integration by parts (u = τ, dv = e
−τ
dτ) we get
f ∗ g = e
t
|−τe
−τ
− e
−τ
|
t
= e
t
(−
t
te
−t
− e
−t
+ 1) = −t − 1 + e
t
.
0
3. f (t) = 1, and g (t) = 1. So 1 ∗ 1 =

1 1dτ = t. ·
0
115 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM
5. Let F (s) =
1
and G (s) =
1
. Then f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = t and
s
2
s
2
+1
g (t) = L
−1
[G (s)] = sin t. So L
−1

1 1

= L
−1
[F (s) G (s)]
s
2
s
2
+1
· ·
=

t
f (τ ) g (t − τ ) dτ =

t
τ sin (t − τ) dτ. Now using integration by
0 0
parts (u = τ, dv = sin (t − τ) dτ) we get L
−1

1 1

s
2
s
2
+1
·
= |τ cos (t − τ) + sin (t − τ)|
t
= t − sin t.
0
7. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation
y

− 5y

+ 4y = f (t) , y (0) = y

(0) = 0, we have
s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) − 5sY (s) + 5y (0) + 4Y (s) = F (s)
2

s − 5s + 4

Y (s) = F (s) Y (s) = F (s) G (s) ⇒
1 1

where G (s) =
s
2
−5s+4
=
(s−4)(s−1)
.
Using partial fractions G (s) =
1
=
A
+
B
s
2
−5s+4 s−4
.
Multiplying by denominator we get 1 = A (
s
s


1
4)+B (s − 1) . Letting
1 1 1 1 1
s = 1 and 4 gives A = −
3
and B =
3
. So G (s) =
1
3 s−4

3 s−1

g (t) = L
−1
[G (s)] =
1
3
e
4t

1
3
e
t
. Now the inverse Laplace transform
using the convolution theorem yields
y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)] = L
−1
[F (s) G (s)]
4(t−τ ) 1
=

0
t
f (τ ) g (t − τ ) dτ =

0
t
f (τ)

1
e − e
t−τ

dτ.
3 3
9. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation
y

− 9y = f (t) , y (0) = y

(0) = 0, we have
s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) − 9Y (s) = F (s)
2

s − 9

Y (s) = F (s) Y (s) = F (s) G (s) ⇒
1

1
where G (s) =
s −9
=
(s+3)(s−3)
.
2
Using partial fractions G (s) =
1
=
A
+
B
(s+3)(s−3) s+3 s−3
.
Multiplying by denominator we get 1 = A (s − 3)+B (s + 3) . Letting
s = −3 and 3 gives A = −
1
and B =
1
. So G (s) =
1 1 1 1
6 6 6 s−3

6 s+3

g (t) = L
−1
[G (s)] =
1
e
3t

1
e
−3t
. Now the inverse Laplace transform
6 6
using the convolution theorem yields
y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)] = L
−1
[F (s) G (s)]
3(t−τ ) 1
=

0
t
f (τ ) g (t − τ ) dτ =

0
t
f (τ)

1
e − e
−3(t−τ )

dτ.
6 6
11. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation
y

+ 4y = f (t) , y (0) = 0, y

(0) = 7, we have
s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) + 4Y (s) = F (s)
7

s
2
+ 4

Y (s) = F (s) + 7 Y (s) = F (s) G (s) +
s
2
+4

1 1 2

where G (s) = = g (t) = L
−1
[G (s)] =
1
sin 2t.
s
2
+4 2 s
2
+2
2

2
Now the inverse Laplace transform using the convolution theorem
yields y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)] = L
−1
[F (s) G (s)] + L
−1

7

s
2
+4
7 1 7
=

t
f (τ ) g (t − τ ) dτ + sin 2t =

t
f (τ) sin 2 (t − τ) dτ + sin 2t.
2 2 2
0 0
13. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation
116 CHAPTER 3
y

+ 7y = f (t) , y (0) = 2, we have sY (s) − y (0) + 7Y (s) = F (s)
2
(s + 7) Y (s) = F (s) + 2 Y (s) = F (s) G (s) +
s+7

1

where G (s) = ⇒ g (t) = L
−1
[G (s)] = e
−7t
.
s+7
Now the invrese Laplace transform using the convolution theorem
yields y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)] = L
−1
[F (s) G (s)] + L
−1

2

s+7
=

t
f (τ) g (t − τ) dτ + 2e
−7t
=

t
f (τ ) e
−7(t−τ )
dτ + 2e
−7t
.
0 0
15. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation
y

− 2y

+ 10y = f (t) , y (0) = y

(0) = 0, we have
s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) − 2sY (s) + 2y (0) + 10Y (s) = F (s)
2

s − 2s + 10

Y (s) = F (s) Y (s) = F (s) G (s) ⇒ ⇒
where G (s) =
s −2
1
s+10
=
1
3 (s−1)
3
2
+3
2 2
⇒ g (t) = L
−1
[G (s)] =
1
e
t
sin 3t.
3
Now the inverse Laplace transform using the convolution theorem
yields y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)] = L
−1
[F (s) G (s)] =

t
f (τ) g (t − τ) dτ
0
1
=

t
f (τ) e
t−τ
sin 3 (t − τ) dτ.
3
0
17. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation
y

+ 4y

+ 13y = f (t) , y (0) = y

(0) = 0, we have
s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) + 4sY (s) − 4y (0) + 13Y (s) = F (s)

s
2
+ 4s + 13

Y (s) = F (s) Y (s) = F (s) G (s) ⇒ ⇒
where G (s) =
s
2
+4
1
s+13
=
3
1
(s+2)
3
2
+3
2
⇒ g (t) = L
−1
[G (s)] =
3
1
e
−2t
sin 3t.
Now the inverse Laplace transform using the convolution theorem
yields y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)] = L
−1
[F (s) G (s)] =

t
f (τ) g (t − τ) dτ
0
1
=

t
f (τ) e
−2(t−τ)
sin 3 (t − τ ) dτ.
3
0
19. x (t) =

t
cos (t − τ) x (τ ) dτ + sin t = (h ∗ x) (t) + sin t, where
0
h (t) = cos t. Now taking Laplace transform of both sides using the
convolution theorem we have
X (s) = L [h (t)] L [x (t)] + L [sin t] ⇒ X (s) =
s
2
s
+1
X (s) +
s
2
1
+1

s 1 1 2 2

1 −
s
2
+1

X (s) =
s
2
+1
⇒ X (s) =
s −s+1
=

3
(s−
1
2
)
2

3

2
3

2 2
+
Inverse Laplace transform then yields
1
x (t) = L
−1
[X (s)] =
2
e
t
sin

3
t.

3
2
2
21. x (t) =

t
e
−(t−τ )
x (τ) dτ + 2 = (h ∗ x) (t) + 2, where
0
h (t) = e
−t
. Now taking Laplace transform of both sides using the
convolution theorem we have
1
X (s) = L [h (t)] L [x (t)] + L [2] ⇒ X (s) =
s+1
X (s) +
2
s

THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 117
1 2(s+1) 2 2

1 −

X (s) =
2
X (s) =
2
= +
2
.
s+1 s s s s

Inverse Laplace transform then yields
x (t) = L
−1
[X (s)] = 2 + 2t.
23. x (t) =

t
2 sin (2t − 2τ ) x (τ) dτ + sin t = (h ∗ x) (t) + sin t, where
0
h (t) = 2 sin 2t. Now taking Laplace transform of both sides using
the convolution theorem we have
X (s) = L [h (t)] L [x (t)] + L [sin t] ⇒ X (s) =
s
2
4
+4
X (s) +
s
2
1
+1

4 1 s
2
+4

1 −

X (s) = ⇒ X (s) =
s
2
(s
2
+1)
. Using partial fraction
s
2
+4 s
2
+1
s
2
+4 A B Cs+D
s
2
(s
2
+1)
=
s
+
s
2
+
s
2
+1
. Multiplying by denominator we get
2
s
2
+ 4 = As

s
2
+ 1

+ B

s
2
+ 1

+ (Cs + D) s . Letting s = 0 in
this equation gives B = 4
Equating the coefficients:
s
3
: 0 = A + C
s
2
: 1 = B + D ⇒ D = 1 − B = −3
s : 0 = A. So C = 0 (from the first equation)
So
s
2
+4
=
4 3
. Hence X (s) =
4
2
3
.
2
s
2
(s
2
+1) s

s
2
+1 s

s
2
+1
Inverse Laplace transform then yields
x (t) = L
−1
[X (s)] = 4t − 3 sin t.
25. x (t) = −

t
sinh (t − τ ) x (τ) dτ + 3 = (h ∗ x) (t) + 3, where
0
h (t) = − sinh t = −
1
e
t
+
1
e
−t
. Now taking Laplace transform of
2 2
both sides using the convolution theorem we have

1 1
X (s) = L [h (t)] L [x (t)]+L [3] X (s) =
1
2 s+1


X (s)+
3
s

s−1

1 1 1 1 s
2
3

1 −
2 s+1
+
2 s−1

X (s) =
3
s

s −1
X (s) =
3
s
⇒ X (s) =
3
s

s
2 3
.
Inverse Laplace transform then yields
x (t) = L
−1
[X (s)] = 3 −
3
t
2
.
2
27. F (s) = L [f (t)] =


e
−st
f (t) dt.
0
So |F (s)| =


e
−st
f (t) dt


|e
−st
f (t)| dt =


e
−st
|f (t)| dt
0 0 0


e
−st
Me
αt
dt = M


e
−(s−α)t
dt =
M
for s > α. ≤
0 0
s−a
29. (i) Continuity at t = 1 :
lim g (t) = e and lim g (t) = −1 + e + 1 = e lim g (t) exists
t 1

t 1
+

t 1 → → →
and lim g (t) = e = g (1) g (t) is continuous at t = 1.
t 1


Differentiability at t = 1 :
g(1+h)−g(1)
1+h h
g

(1) = lim
h
= lim
−1+e
h
+e
does not exist.
h 0 h 0 → →
Now, in terms of unit step function, g (t) can be written as
t
e
t
[1 − H (t − 1)] +

−1 + e + e
t−1

H (t − 1)
t t−1
= e +

e − 1

H (t − 1)
118 CHAPTER 3
Taking Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation
y

− y = H (t − 1) , y (0) = 1, we have sY (s) − y (0) − Y (s) =
e
−s
(s − 1) Y (s) − 1 =
e
−s
Y (s) =

1 +
e
−s

1
=
1
+
e

s
s
. ⇒
s

s s−1 s−1 s(s−1)
1 A B
Using partial fraction let F (s) =
s(s−1)
=
s
+
s−1
. Multiplying by
denominator we get 1 = A (s − 1) + Bs. Letting s = 0 and 1 in this
equation gives A = −1 and B = 1. Hence F (s) =
1 1
s−1
− ⇒
f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = e
t
− 1. Thus L
−1

s(
e
s


s
1)

= L
−1
[e

s
s
F (s)]
t−1
= f (t − 1) H (t − 1) =

e − 1

H (t − 1) .
e
−s
Hence L
−1
[Y (s)] = L
−1

1

+ L
−1

s(s−1)

s−1

t t−1
y (t) = e +

e − 1

H (t − 1) which is the same as unit step
function of g (t) .
(ii) From (i)
dy
− y = H (t − 1)
dy
= y + H (t − 1) , y (0) = 1.
dt dt

Integrating from 0 to t we have
y (t) = y (0) +

t
[y (τ ) + H (τ − 1)] dτ
0

y (t) = 1 +

t
[y (τ ) + H (τ − 1)] dτ valid for all t including t = 1.
0
3.7 IMPULSES AND DISTRIBUTIONS
1.Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation
y

+ 8y = δ (t − 1) + δ (t − 2) , y (0) = 0, we have
sY (s) − y (0) + 8Y (s) = e
−s
+ e
−2s
e
−s
+
e
−2s
1
(s + 8) Y (s) = e
−s
+ e
−2s
Y (s) =
s+8
. Let F (s) = ⇒ ⇒
s+8 s+8
⇒ f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] = e
−8t
. Then using
L
−1
[e
−cs
F (s)] = f (t − c) H (t − c) the invese Laplace transform
yields y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)] = L
−1

e
−s

+ L
−1

e
−2s

s+8 s+8
= e
−8(t−1)
H (t − 1) + e
−8(t−2)
H (t − 2) .
3. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation
y

+ 6y

+ 109y = δ (t − 1) + δ (t − 7) , y (0) = y

(0) = 0, we
have s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) + 6sY (s) − y (0) + 109Y (s) = e
−s
+ e
−7s
e
−s
e
−7s

s
2
+ 6s + 109
1

Y (s) =
1
e
−s
+
10
e
−7s
⇒ Y (s) =
s
2
+6s+109
+
s
2
+6s+109
Let F (s) =
s
2
+6s+109
=
10 (s+3)
2
+10
2
⇒ f (t) = L
−1
[F (s)] =
1
e
−3t
sin 10t. Then using
10
L
−1
[e
−cs
F (s)] = f (t − c) H (t − c) the invese Laplace transform
yields y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)] = L
−1

e
−s 1

+L
−1

e
−7s 1

s
2
+6s+109 s
2
+6s+109
=
1
e
−3(t−1)
sin 10 (t − 1) H (t − 1)+
1
e
−3(t−7)
sin 10 (t − 7) H (t − 7) .
10 10
5. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation
y

+ 4y

+ 3y = 1 + δ (t − 3) , y (0) = 0, y

(0) = 1, we have
119 THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM
s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) + 4sY (s) − 4y (0) + 3Y (s) =
1
+ e
−3s
1+e
−3s
1

s
2
+ 4s + 3

Y (s) − 1 =
1
+ e
−3s
Y (s) =
s
+ ⇒
s

s
2
+4s+3 s(s
2
+4s+3)
Y (s) =
1
+
e
−3s
+
1
. Using partial fractions ⇒
(s+3)(s+1) (s+3)(s+1) s(s+3)(s+1)
let F
1
(s) =
1
=
A
+
B
1 = A (s + 1) + B (s + 3) .
(s+3)(s+1) s+3 s+1

Letting s = −3 and s = −1 gives A = −
1
and B =
2
1
. Thus
2
1 1 1 1
F
1
(s) =
2
1
s+1

2 s+3
⇒ f
1
(t) = L
−1
[F
1
(s)] =
2
1
e
−t

2
e
−3t
.
Then using L
−1
[e
−cs
F
1
(s)] = f
1
(t − c) H (t − c) we have
f
2
(t) = L
−1

e
−3s
F
1
(s)

=

1
e
−(t−3)

1
1
e
−3(t−3)
A

H (t −
B
3) .
C
2 2
Using partial fractions let F
3
(s) =
s(s+3)(s+1)
=
s+3
+
s+1
+
s
1 = As (s + 1) + Bs (s + 3) + C (s + 3) (s + 1) . ⇒
Letting s = −3, s = −1 and s = 0 gives A =
1
6
, B = −
1
2
and C =
1
3
.
1 1 1 1
Thus F
3
(s) =
1
6 s+3

2 s+1
+
3s
⇒ f
3
(t) = L
−1
[F
3
(s)] =
1
e
−3t

1
e
−t
+
1
.
6 2 3
Hence y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)] = f
1
(t) + f
2
(t) + f
3
(t)
=
1
e
−t 1
e
−3t
+

1
e
−(t−3) 1
e
−3(t−3)

H (t − 3) +
1
e
−3t 1
e
−t
+
1
2 2 2 2 6 2 3
1 1
=
1

e
−3t
+

1
e
−(t−3)

e
−3(t−3)

H (t − 3)

1
3 2
1

e
−(t−3)
2
=
3


1 − e
−3t

+

− e
−3(t−3)

H (t − 3) .
3 2
7. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation
y

+ y = 1 + δ (t − 2π) , y (0) = 1, y

(0) = 0, we have
s
2
Y (s) − sy (0) − y

(0) + Y (s) =
1
+ e
−2πs
1
+ e
−2πs 1

s
2
+ 1

Y (s) − s =
s
s
2
+ 1

Y (s) = s + e
−2πs
+
s s

s e
−2πs
1

⇒ Y (s) =
(s
2
+1)
+
(s
2
+1)
+
s(s
2
+1)
.
f
1
(t) = L
−1

s

= cos t
(s
2
+1)
1
f
2
(t) = L
−1

e
−2πs

= sin (t − 2π) H (t − 2π)
(s
2
+1)
Using partial fractions let F
3
(s) =
1
=
A
+
Bs+C
s(s
2
+1) s s
2
+1
1 = A

s
2
+ 1

+ (Bs + C) s. Now s = 0 yields A = 1. ⇒
Equating the coefficients:
s
2
: 0 = A + B ⇒ B = −A = −1
s : 0 = C.
s
Thus F
3
(s) =
1
s

s
2
+1
⇒ f
3
(t) = L
−1
[F
3
(s)] = 1 − cos t.
Hence y (t) = L
−1
[Y (s)] = f
1
(t) + f
2
(t) + f
3
(t)
⇒ y (t) = cos t + sin (t − 2π) H (t − 2π) + 1 − cos t
= 1 + sin (t − 2π) H (t − 2π) = 1 + sin tH (t − 2π) .
9. (a) The following are graphs of the solutions of Exercises 1 through 4.
120 CHAPTER 3
t
1
1 2
y
t
1
5
y
t
0.05
y
t
1
y
5
11. L

δ
(n)
(t − a)

=


e
−st
δ
(n)
(t − a) dt
0
=


δ
(n)
(t − a) e
−st
dt −

0
δ
(n)
(t − a) e
−st
dt
−∞ −∞
If t = a ⇒ t − a = 0 , then the property (i) gives δ
(n)
(t − a) = 0.
In this case, everything on the right hand side is 0. But for t = a
n
d
n
property (ii) gives


δ
(n)
(t − a) e
−st
dt = (−1) (e
−st
) |
t=a
dt
n
n
e
−as n
e
−as n
e
−as
= (−1)
n
(−1)
n
s
−∞
= s . Thus L

δ
(n)
(t − a)

= s .
Chapter Four
An Introduction to Linear Systems of Differential
Equations and Their Phase Plane
4.1 INTRODUCTION
There are no exercises in this section.
4.2 INTRODUCTION TO LINEAR SYSTEMS OF
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
¸
0 1

1. A =
−4 0
. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒
det
¸
−λ 1

= 0 λ
2
+ 4 = 0 λ = ±2i (complex).
¸
2
−4
1

−λ
⇒ ⇒
3. A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
1 2

det
¸
2 −
1
λ
2 −
1
λ

= 0 ⇒ (2 − λ)
2
− 1 = 0 ⇒ 2 − λ = ±1
λ = 3, 1. ⇒
¸
u
¸
2 − λ 1
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 1 v 0
¸
−1 1
¸
2
u


λ
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 3 : =
1 −1 v 0
¸
1

⇒−u + v = 0 ⇒ u = 1, v = 1 and eigenvector is
1
.
¸
1 1
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = u + v = 0
1 1 v 0
⇒ ⇒
¸
1

u = 1, v = −1 and eigenvector is .
−1
5. A =
¸
3 −1

. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
1 2
det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ det
¸
3 −
1
λ
2


1
λ

= 0
(3 − λ) (2 − λ) + 1 = 0 λ
2
− 5λ + 7 = 0 ⇒


25−28 5

3

⇒ λ = =
2
± i (complex).
2 2
0
122 CHAPTER 4
¸
1 0

7. A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
1 −3
det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ det
¸
1 − λ
−3
0
− λ

= 0
1
(1 − λ) (−3 − λ) = 0 λ = 1, −3. ⇒
¸
u


¸
1 − λ 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 1 −3 − λ v
¸
0 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 1 :
−4
= ⇒ u − 4v = 0 ⇒
1 v 0
¸
4

v = 1, u = 4 and eigenvector is .
1
¸
4 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = −3 :
1 0 v
=
0
⇒ 4u = 0
¸
0

u = 0, v is free to choose, say, v = 1 and eigenvector is .
1
9. A =
¸
4 −3

. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
1 0

det
¸
4 − λ −3

= 0 ⇒−λ (4 − λ) + 3 = 0
1 −λ
λ
2
− 4λ + 3 = 0 (λ − 1) (λ − 3) = 0 λ = 1, 3. ⇒
¸
u


¸
4 − λ −3

¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 1 −λ v 0
Eigenvector for λ = 1 :
¸
3 −3
¸
u

=
¸
0

3u − 3v = 0
1 −1 v 0
⇒ ⇒
¸
1

u = 1, v = 1 and eigenvector is .
1
Eigenvector for λ = 3 :
¸
1 −3
¸
u

=
¸
0

u − 3v = 0
1 −3 v 0

¸
1

u = 1, v = 3 and eigenvector is .
3
¸
3 2

11. A =
0 4
. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒
¸
3 − λ 2

det
0 4 − λ
= 0 ⇒ (3 − λ) (4 − λ) = 0 ⇒ λ = 3, 4.
¸
u
¸
3 − λ 2
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 0 4 − λ v 0
¸
0 2
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 3 : = 2v = 0
0 1 v 0
⇒ ⇒
¸
1

v = 0, u is free to choose, say, u = 1 and eigenvector is .
¸
−1 2
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 4 : =
0 0 v 0
¸
2

⇒−u + 2v = 0 v = 1, u = 2 and eigenvector is . ⇒
1
0
123 Linear Systems of Differential Equations and Their Phase Plane
¸
0 1

13. A = . trA = 0 + 0 = 0 and det A = 0 + 4 = 4.
−4 0
The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
1


det
¸
−λ
= 0 λ
2
+ 4 = 0 λ = ±2i (complex).
−4 −λ
⇒ ⇒
Let λ
1
= 2i and λ
2
= −2i. Then λ
1
+ λ
2
= 0 = trA and
λ
1
λ
2
= 2i (−2i) = −4i
2
= 4 = det A.
¸
2 1

15. A = . trA = 2 + 2 = 4 and det A = 4 − 1 = 3.
1 2
The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
¸
2 − λ 1

det = 0 ⇒
1 2 − λ
2
⇒ (2 − λ) − 1 = 0 ⇒ 2 − λ = ±1 ⇒ λ = 3, 1.
Let λ
1
= 3 and λ
2
= 1. Then λ
1
+ λ
2
= 4 = trA and
λ
1
λ
2
= 3 (1) = 3 = det A.
dx
¸
dt
¸
0 1
¸
x

d
¸
x
¸
0 1
¸
x

17.
dy
=
dt
=
dt
−4 0 y

y −4 0 y
¸
x
¸
u
¸
u

= e
λt
where λ is eigenvalue and is ⇒
y v v
¸
0 1

corresponding eigenvector of A = .
−4 0
The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
1


det
¸
−λ
= 0 λ
2
+ 4 = 0 λ = ±2i (complex).
−4 −λ
⇒ ⇒
dx
¸
dt
¸
2 1
¸
x

d
¸
x
¸
2 1
¸
x

19.
dy
=
1 2 y

dt
y
=
1 2 y
dt
¸
x
¸
u
¸
u

= e
λt
where λ is eigenvalue and is ⇒
y v v
¸
2 1

corresponding eigenvector of A = .
1 2
The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
det
¸
2 − λ 1

= 0 (2 − λ)
2
− 1 = 0 ⇒
1 2 − λ

⇒ 2 − λ = ±1 ⇒ λ = 3, 1.
¸
2 − λ
¸
u

1
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 1 2 − λ v 0
¸
−1 1
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 3 : =
1 −1 v 0
¸
1

⇒−u + v = 0 u = 1, v = 1 and eigenvector is . ⇒
1
¸
1

3t
Solution of the differential equation is e .
1
¸
1 1
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = u + v = 0
1 1 v 0
⇒ ⇒
124 CHAPTER 4
¸
1

u = 1, v = −1 and eigenvector is . Solution of the
¸
1

−1
differential equation is e
t
.
−1
General solution of the differential equation is
¸
x
¸
1

3t
¸
1

t
= c
1
e + c
2
e .
y 1 −1
dx
21.
¸
dt

=
¸
3 −1
¸
x

d
¸
x

=
¸
3 −1
¸
x

dy
1 2 y

dt
y 1 2 y
dt
¸
x

λt
¸
u
¸
u


y
= e
v
where λ is eigenvalue and
v
is
¸
3 −1

corresponding eigenvector of A = .
1 2
The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
¸
3 − λ


det
1 2


1
λ
= 0 ⇒ (3 − λ) (2 − λ) + 1 = 0

dx
λ
2
− 5λ + 7 = 0 ⇒ λ =


25−28
=
2
5
±

3
i (complex).
¸
dt
¸
1 0
¸
x

2
d
¸
x
¸
2
1 0
¸
x

23.
dy
=
1 y
dt
y
=
1 y
dt
−3

−3
¸
x

= e
λt
¸
u

where λ is eigenvalue and
¸
u

is ⇒
y v v
¸
1 0

corresponding eigenvector of A = .
1 −3
The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
⇒ det
¸
1 −
1
λ
−3
0
− λ

= 0 ⇒ (1 − λ) (−3 − λ) = 0
⇒ λ = 1, −3.
¸
u
¸
1 − λ 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 1 −3 − λ v 0
¸
0 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 1 :
1 −4 v
=
0
⇒ u − 4v = 0 ⇒
¸
4

v = 1, u = 4 and eigenvector is . Solution of the differential
1
equation is
¸
4

e
t
.
1
¸
4 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = −3 :
1 0 v
=
0
⇒ 4u = 0
¸
0

u = 0, v is free to choose, say, v = 1 and eigenvector is .
1
¸
0

Solution of the differential equation is e
−3t
.
1
General solution of the differential equation is
¸
x
¸
4
¸
0

= c
1
e
t
+ c
2
e
−3t
.
y 1 1
125 Linear Systems of Differential Equations and Their Phase Plane
dx
¸
dt
¸
4 −3
¸
x

d
¸
x
¸
4 −3
¸
x

25.
dy
=
1 0 y

dt
y
=
1 0 y
dt
¸
x
¸
u
¸
u

= e
λt
where λ is eigenvalue and is ⇒
y v v
corresponding eigenvector of A =
¸
4 −3

.
1 0
The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
det
¸
4 − λ −3

= 0 ⇒−λ (4 − λ) + 3 = 0 λ
2
− 4λ + 3 = 0 ⇒
1 −λ

(λ − 1) (λ − 3) = 0 λ = 1, 3. ⇒
¸
u


¸
4 − λ −3
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 1 −λ v 0
Eigenvector for λ = 1 :
¸
3 −3
¸
u

=
¸
0

3u − 3v = 0
1 −1 v 0
⇒ ⇒
¸
1

u = 1, v = 1 and eigenvector is . Solution of the differential
1
¸
1

t
equation is e .
1
¸
1 −3
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 3 :
1 v
=
0
⇒ u − 3v = 0
−3
¸
1

u = 1, v = 3 and eigenvector is . Solution of the differential
3
¸
1

3t
equation is e .
3
General solution of the differential equation is
¸
x
¸
1

t
¸
1

3t
= c
1
e + c
2
e .
y 1 3
dx
¸ ¸
3 2
¸
x

d
¸
x
¸
3 2
¸
x

27.
dt
= =
dy
0 4 y

dt
y 0 4 y
dt
¸
x

= e
λt
¸
u

where λ is eigenvalue and
¸
u

is ⇒
y v v
¸
3 2

corresponding eigenvector of A = .
0 4
The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
¸
3 − λ 2

⇒ det
0 4 − λ
= 0 ⇒ (3 − λ) (4 − λ) = 0 ⇒ λ = 3, 4.
¸
u
¸
3 − λ 2
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 0 4 − λ v 0
¸
0 2
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 3 : = 2v = 0
0 1 v 0
⇒ ⇒
¸
1

v = 0, u is free to choose, say, u = 1 and eigenvector is .
¸
1

3t
Solution of the differential equation is e .
0
0
126 CHAPTER 4
¸
−1 2
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 4 : =
0 0 v 0
¸
2

⇒−u + 2v = 0 v = 1, u = 2 and eigenvector is . ⇒
1
¸
2

4t
Solution of the differential equation is e .
1
General solution of the differential equation is
¸
x
¸
1

3t
¸
2

4t
= c
1
e + c
2
e .
y 0 1
dx
= x
¸
x
¸
1 0
¸
x

29.
dt
d
=
dy
= x + 2y

dt
y 1 2 y
dt
¸
x

= e
λt
¸
u

where λ is eigenvalue and
¸
u

is ⇒
y v v
¸
1 0

corresponding eigenvector of A = .
1 2
The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
¸
1 − λ 0


det
1 2 − λ
= 0 ⇒ (1 − λ) (2 − λ) = 0 ⇒ λ = 1, 2.
¸
u
¸
1 − λ 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 1 2 − λ v 0
¸
0 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = u + v = 0
1 1 v 0
⇒ ⇒
¸
−1

v = 1, u = −1 and eigenvector is . Solution of the differential
1
¸
−1

t
equation is e .
1
¸
−1 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 2 :
1 0 v
=
0
⇒−u = 0 ⇒
¸
0

u = 0, v is free to choose, say, v = 1 and eigenvector is .
1
Solution of the differential equation is
¸
0

e
2t
.
1
General solution of the differential equation is
¸
x
¸
−1

t
¸
0

= c
1
e + c
2
e
2t
.
y 1 1
dx
¸
x
¸
x

dt
= −x − 5y
d
¸
−1 −5
31.
dy
=
= x + y

dt
y 1 1 y
dt
¸
x
¸
u
¸
u

= e
λt
where λ is eigenvalue and is ⇒
y v v
corresponding eigenvector of A =
¸
−1 −5

.
1 1
The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0


det
¸
−1
1
− λ
1


5
λ
= 0 ⇒ (−1 − λ) (1 − λ) + 5 = 0
127 Linear Systems of Differential Equations and Their Phase Plane

dx
λ
2
+ 4 ⇒ λ = ±2i.
33.
dt
= x − y

d
¸
x

=
¸
1 −1
¸
x

dy
= x + y

dt
y 1 1 y
dt
¸
x

= e
λt
¸
u

where λ is eigenvalue and
¸
u


y v v
is corresponding eigenvector of A =
¸
1 −1

.
1 1
The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
2
det
¸
1 −
1
λ
1


1
λ

= 0 ⇒ (1 − λ) + 1 = 0

2
⇒ (1 − λ) = −1 ⇒ 1 − λ = ±i ⇒ λ = 1 ± i.
dx
¸ ¸
dt
= −5x − 4y
d
x
¸
−5 −4 x
35.
dy
=
= 2x + y

dt
y 2 1 y
dt
¸
x

= e
λt
¸
u

where λ is eigenvalue and
¸
u

is ⇒
y v v
¸
−5 −4

corresponding eigenvector of A = .
2 1
The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
¸
−5 − λ −4


det
1 − λ
= 0 ⇒ (−5 − λ) (1 − λ) + 8 = 0
2
λ
2
+ 4λ + 3 = 0 (λ + 1) (λ + 3) λ = −1, −3. ⇒
¸
u


¸
−5 − λ

¸
u

Eigenvector, , satisfies
−4
= 0.
v 2 1 − λ v
¸
−4 −4
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = −1 : =
2 2 v 0
¸
−1

⇒−4u − 4v = 0 ⇒ v = 1, u = −1 and eigenvector is
1
.
Solution of the differential equation is
¸
−1

e
−t
.
1
Eigenvector for λ = −3 :
¸
−2 −4
¸
u

=
¸
0

2 4 v 0
⇒−2u − 4v = 0 ⇒ v = 1, u = −2, and eigenvector is
¸

1
2

.
¸
−2

e
−3t
Solution of the differential equation is .
1
General solution of the differential equation is
¸
x
¸
−1

e
−t
¸
−2

e
−3t
= c
1
+ c
2
.
y 1 1
dx
= y
¸
x
¸
0 1
¸
x

dt
d
37.
dy
dt
=
= 2x + y

y 2 1 y
dt
¸
x
¸
u
¸
u

= e
λt
where λ is eigenvalue and is ⇒
y v v
¸
0 1

corresponding eigenvector of A = .
2 1
128 CHAPTER 4
The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
¸
−λ 1


det
2 1 − λ
= 0 ⇒−λ (1 − λ) − 2 = 0
⇒ λ
2
− λ − 2 = 0 ⇒ (λ + 1) (λ − 2) ⇒ λ = −1, 2.
¸
u
¸
−λ 1
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 2 v 0
¸
1 1
¸
1
u


λ
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = −1 : = u + v = 0
2 2 v 0
⇒ ⇒
¸
1

u = 1, v = −1 and eigenvector is . Solution of the differential
¸
1

−1
equation is e
−t
.
−1
¸
−2 1
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 2 : =
2 −1 v 0
¸
1

⇒−2u + v = 0 u = 1, v = 2, and eigenvector is . ⇒
2
¸
1

2t
Solution of the differential equation is e .
2
General solution of the differential equation is
¸
x
¸
1
¸
1

= c
1
e
−t
+ c
2
e
2t
.
dx
y −1
¸
x

2
¸
x

dt
= −5x − y
d
¸
−5 −1
39.
dy
dt
=
dt
= 3x − y

y 3 −1 y
¸
x
¸
u
¸
u

= e
λt
where λ is eigenvalue and is ⇒
y v v
¸
−5 −1

corresponding eigenvector of A = .
3 −1
The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
det
¸
−5 − λ
−1


1
λ

= 0 (−5 − λ) (−1

− λ) + 3 = 0
3

λ
2
+ 6λ + 8 = 0 (λ + 2) (λ + 4) λ = −2, −4. ⇒
¸
u


¸
−5 − λ

¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies
−1
= .
v 3 −1 − λ v 0
Eigenvector for λ = −2 :
¸
−3 −1
¸
u

=
¸
0

3 1 v 0
¸
1

⇒−3u − v = 0 ⇒ u = 1, v = −3 and eigenvector is
−3
.
¸
1

Solution of the differential equation is e
−2t
.
Eigenvector for λ = −4 :
¸
−1 −1
¸

u
3

=
¸
0

3 3 v 0
¸
1

⇒−u − v = 0 ⇒ u = 1, v = −1, and eigenvector is
−1
.
129 Linear Systems of Differential Equations and Their Phase Plane
¸
1

Solution of the differential equation is e
−4t
.
−1
General solution of the differential equation is
¸
x
¸
1
¸
1

= c
1
e
−2t
+ c
2
e
−4t
.
dx
y
= −x + 4y
−3
¸
x


¸
1
−1 4
¸
x

41.
dt
d
=
dy
dt
dt
= −4x − y

y −4 −1 y
¸
x

= e
λt
¸
u

where λ is eigenvalue and
¸
u

is ⇒
y v v
¸
−1 4

corresponding eigenvector of A = .
−4 −1
The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
4

2

det
¸
−1


4
λ
−1 − λ
= 0 ⇒ (−1 − λ) + 16 = 0
2

dx
(1 + λ) = −16 ⇒ 1 + λ = ±4i ⇒ λ = −1 ± 4i.
= 4x + 3y

d
¸
x
¸
4 3
¸
x

43.
dt
=
dy
= 3x + 4y

dt
y 3 4 y
dt
¸
x

= e
λt
¸
u

where λ is eigenvalue and
¸
u

is ⇒
y v v
¸
4 3

corresponding eigenvector of A = .
3 4
The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
¸
4 − λ 3

2

det
3 4 − λ
= 0 ⇒ (4 − λ) − 9 = 0
⇒ λ
2
− 8λ + 7 = 0 ⇒ (λ − 1) (λ − 7) ⇒ λ = 1, 7.
¸
u
¸
4 − λ 3
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 3 v 0
¸
3 3
¸
u

4 −
¸
λ
0

Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = 3u + 3v = 0
3 3 v 0
⇒ ⇒
¸
−1

v = 1, u = −1 and eigenvector is . Solution of the differential
1
¸
−1

t
equation is e .
1
¸
−3 3
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 7 : =
3 −3 v 0
¸
1

⇒−3u + 3v = 0 u = 1, v = 1, and eigenvector is . ⇒
1
¸
1

7t
Solution of the differential equation is e .
1
General solution of the differential equation is
¸
x
¸
−1
¸
1

= c
1
e
t
+ c
2
e
7t
.
y 1 1
¸
2
¸
0

45. α = 0, β = 3, a = , b = .
0 1
130 CHAPTER 4
¸
x

0t
¸
2
¸
0

y
= c
1
e
0
cos 3t −
1
sin 3t
¸
2
¸
0

+c
2
e
0t
sin 3t + cos 3t
0 1
¸
2 cos 3t
¸
2 sin 3t

= c
1
+ c
2
.
− sin 3t cos 3t
¸
1
¸
1

47. α = 1, β = 2, a = , b = .
0 3
¸
x

t
¸
1
¸
1

y
= c
1
e
0
cos 2t −
3
sin 2t
¸
1
¸
1

+c
2
e
t
sin 2t + cos 2t
0 3
¸
cos 2t − sin 2t
¸
cos 2t + sin 2t

= c
1
e
t
+ c
2
e
t
.
¸
1


3 sin 2t
¸
1

3 cos 2t
49. α = 0, β = 5, a = , b = .
0 1
¸
x

0t
¸
1
¸
1

y
= c
1
e
0
cos 5t −
1
sin 5t
¸
1
¸
1

+c
2
e
0t
sin 5t + cos 5t
0 1
¸
cos 5t − sin 5t
¸
cos 5t + sin 5t

= c
1
+ c
2
.
− sin 5t cos 5t
4.3 PHASE PLANE FOR LINEAR SYSTEMS OF
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
1.
0 2 −2
0
2
x
y
3.
131 Linear Systems of Differential Equations and Their Phase Plane
0 2 −2
0
2
x
y
5.
0 2 −2
0
2
x
y
¸
1 0

7. A =
1 2
. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒
¸
1 − λ 0

det
1 2 − λ
= 0 ⇒ (1 − λ) (2 − λ) = 0
λ = 1, 2, both positive Unstable node. ⇒ ⇒
¸
x
¸
u
¸
u

= e
λt
so that eigenvector, , satisfies
y v v
¸
1 − λ 0
¸
u
¸
0

= .
1 2 − λ v 0
¸
0 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = u + v = 0
1 1 v 0
⇒ ⇒
¸
−1

v = 1, u = −1, and eigenvector is . Solution of the
1
¸
−1

t
differential equation is e .
1
¸
−1 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 2 : =
1 0 v 0
⇒−u = 0 ⇒
1
132 CHAPTER 4
¸
0

u = 0, v is free to choose, say, v = 1 and eigenvector is .
¸
0

2t
Solution of the differential equation is e .
1
Phase plane:
¸
−1 −5

9. A =
1 1
. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒
det
¸
−1
1
− λ
1


5
λ

= 0 ⇒ (−1 − λ) (1 − λ) + 5 = 0
⇒ λ
2
+ 4 ⇒ λ = ±2i, complex with 0 real part ⇒Stable center.
0
0
x
y
11. A =
¸
1 −1

. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
1 1

det
¸
1 − λ
1


1
λ

= 0 (1 − λ)
2
+ 1 = 0
1

2
⇒ (1 − λ) = −1 ⇒ 1 − λ = ±i ⇒ λ = 1 ± i, complex with
positive real part Unstable spiral.
¸
−5 −4


13. A =
2 1
. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒
det
¸
−5
2
− λ
1


4
λ

= 0 ⇒ (−5 − λ) (1 − λ) + 8 = 0
λ
2
+ 4λ + 3 = 0 (λ + 1) (λ + 3) λ = −1, −3, both negative ⇒
¸
x


λt
¸
u


⇒ Stable node.
y
= e
v
so that eigenvector,
133 Linear Systems of Differential Equations and Their Phase Plane
¸
u
¸
−5 − λ −4
¸
u
¸
0

, satisfies = .
v 2 1 − λ v 0
Eigenvector for λ = −1 :
¸
−4 −4
¸
u

=
¸
0

2 2 v 0
¸
−1

⇒−4u − 4v = 0 ⇒ v = 1, u = −1 and eigenvector is
1
.
¸
−1

Solution of the differential equation is e
−t
.
1
Eigenvector for λ = −3 :
¸
−2 −4
¸
u

=
¸
0

2 4 v 0
¸
−2

⇒−2u − 4v = 0 v = 1, u = −2, and eigenvector is . ⇒
1
Solution of the differential equation is
¸
−2

e
−3t
.
1
¸
0 1

15. A =
2 1
. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒
det
¸

2
λ
1 −
1
λ

= 0 ⇒−λ (1 − λ) − 2 = 0
λ
2
− λ − 2 = 0 (λ + 1) (λ − 2) λ = −1, 2, one positive ⇒ ⇒ ⇒
¸
x
¸
u

and one negative ⇒Unstable saddle point.
y
= e
λt
v
so
¸
u
¸
−λ 1
¸
u
¸
0

that eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 2 1 − λ v 0
¸
1 1
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = −1 :
2 2 v
=
0
⇒ u + v = 0 ⇒
¸
1

u = 1, v = −1 and eigenvector is . Solution of the differential
¸
1

−1
equation is e
−t
.
−1
¸
−2 1
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 2 : =
2 −1 v 0
¸
1

⇒−2u + v = 0 ⇒ u = 1, v = 2, and eigenvector is
2
.
134 CHAPTER 4
¸
1

2t
Solution of the differential equation is e .
2
dx
dt
= −5x − y

d
¸
x
¸
−5 −1
¸
x

17. =
dy
dt
y 3 y
dt
= 3x − y

−1
¸
x
¸
u
¸
u

= e
λt
where λ, are eigenvalue and ⇒
y v v
corresponding eigenvector, respectively, of A =
¸
−5 −1

.
3 −1
The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
det
¸
−5
3
− λ
−1


1
λ

= 0 ⇒ (−5 − λ) (−1

− λ) + 3 = 0
⇒ λ
2
+ 6λ + 8 = 0 ⇒ (λ + 2) (λ + 4) ⇒ λ = −2, −4, both negative
Stable node. ⇒
¸
u
¸
−5 − λ −1
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
Eigenvector for
v
λ = −2 :
¸
−3 −
3
1
¸

u
1


=
λ
¸
0

v 0
3 1 v 0
¸
1

⇒−3u − v = 0 ⇒ u = 1, v = −3 and eigenvector is
−3
.
¸
1

Solution of the differential equation is e
−2t
.
Eigenvector for λ = −4 :
¸
−1 −1
¸

u
3

=
¸
0

3 3 v 0
¸
1

⇒−u − v = 0 u = 1, v = −1, and eigenvector is . ⇒
¸
−1
Solution of the differential equation is
1
e
−4t
.
−1
135 Linear Systems of Differential Equations and Their Phase Plane
dx
= −x + 4y
¸
x

4
¸
x

dt
d
¸
−1
19. =
dy

dt
y y
dt
= −4x − y −4 −1
¸
x
¸
u
¸
u

= e
λt
where λ, are eigenvalue and ⇒
y v v
¸
−1 4

corresponding eigenvector, respectively, of A = .
−4 −1
The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
¸
−1 − λ 4

2

det = 0 + 16 = 0
−4 −1 − λ
⇒ (−1 − λ)
2
⇒ (1 + λ) = −16 ⇒ 1 + λ = ±4i ⇒ λ = −1 ± 4i,
complex with negative real part Stable spiral.
dx
= 4x + 3y

d
¸
x
¸

4 3
¸
x

dt
21.
dy
=
= 3x + 4y

dt
y 3 4 y
dt
¸
x

= e
λt
¸
u

where λ,
¸
u

are eigenvalue and ⇒
y v v
¸
4 3

corresponding eigenvector, respectively, of A = .
3 4
The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
¸
4 − λ 3

2

det
3 4 − λ
= 0 ⇒ (4 − λ) − 9 = 0
⇒ λ
2
− 8λ + 7 = 0 ⇒ (λ − 1) (λ − 7) ⇒ λ = 1, 7, both positive
Unstable node. ⇒
¸
u
¸
4 − λ 3
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 3 4 − λ v 0
¸
3 3
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = 3u + 3v = 0
3 3 v 0
⇒ ⇒
¸
−1

v = 1, u = −1 and eigenvector is . Solution of the differential
1
¸
−1

t
equation is e .
1
¸
−3 3
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 7 : =
3 −3 v 0
¸
1

⇒−3u + 3v = 0 ⇒ u = 1, v = 1, and eigenvector is
1
.
136 CHAPTER 4
¸
1

7t
Solution of the differential equation is e .
1
¸
0 1

23. A =
−4
. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒
0
det
¸
−λ 1

= 0 ⇒ λ
2
+ 4 = 0 ⇒ λ = ±2i, complex with
−4 −λ
0 real part Stable center. ⇒
¸
2 1

25. A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
1 2
¸
2 − λ 1

2
⇒ det
1 2 − λ
= 0 ⇒ (2 − λ) − 1 = 0
¸
2 − λ = ±
¸
1 λ = 3, 1, both positive
¸
⇒ Unstable node. ⇒
x

= e
λt
u


so that eigenvector,
u

, satisfies
y v v
¸
2 − λ 1
¸
u
¸
0

= .
1 2 − λ v 0
¸
−1 1
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 3 : =
1 −1 v 0
¸
1

⇒−u + v = 0 u = 1, v = 1 and eigenvector is . ⇒
1
¸
1

Solution of the differential equation is e
3t
.
1
¸
1 1
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = u + v = 0
1 1 v 0
⇒ ⇒
¸
1

u = 1, v = −1 and eigenvector is . Solution of the
−1
137 Linear Systems of Differential Equations and Their Phase Plane
¸
1

t
differential equation is e .
−1
27. A =
¸
3 −1

. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
1 2

det
¸
3 −
1
λ
2


1
λ

= 0 ⇒ (3 − λ) (2 − λ) + 1 = 0
⇒ λ
2
− 5λ + 7 = 0 ⇒ λ =


25−28
=
2
5
±

3
i, complex with
2 2
positive real part Unstable spiral. ⇒
¸
1 0

29. A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
⇒ det
1
¸
1


1
3
λ 0

= 0 ⇒ (1 − λ) (−3 − λ) = 0
−3 − λ
λ = 1, −3, one positive and one negative ⇒
¸
x
¸
u

Unstable saddle point. = e
λt
so that eigenvector, ⇒
y v
¸
u
¸
1 − λ 0
¸
u
¸
0

, satisfies = .
v 1 −3 − λ v 0
¸
0 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 1 :
1 −4 v
=
0
⇒ u − 4v = 0 ⇒
¸
4

v = 1, u = 4 and eigenvector is . Solution of the differential
1
¸
4

t
equation is e .
1
¸
4 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = −3 :
1 0 v
=
0
⇒ 4u = 0
1
138 CHAPTER 4
¸
0

u = 0, v is free to choose, say, v = 1 and eigenvector is .
¸
0

Solution of the differential equation is e
−3t
.
1
¸
4 −3

31. A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
1 0
¸
4 − λ −3

⇒ det
1 −λ
= 0 ⇒−λ (4 − λ) + 3 = 0
λ
2
− 4λ + 3 = 0 (λ − 1) (λ − 3) = 0 λ = 1, 3, both positive ⇒
¸

¸

Unstable node.
x
= e
λt
u
so that eigenvector, ⇒
y v
¸
u

, satisfies
¸
4 − λ −3
¸
u

=
¸
0

.
v 1 v 0
Eigenvector for λ = 1 :
¸

3
λ
−3
¸
u

=
¸
0

3u − 3v = 0
1 −1 v 0
⇒ ⇒
¸
1

u = 1, v = 1 and eigenvector is . Solution of the differential
1
¸
1

t
equation is e .
1
¸
1 −3
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 3 :
−3
= ⇒ u − 3v = 0
1 v 0
¸
1

u = 1, v = 3 and eigenvector is . Solution of the differential
3
¸
1

3t
equation is e .
3
139 Linear Systems of Differential Equations and Their Phase Plane
33. A =
¸
2 −1

. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
1 0
¸
2 − λ −1

⇒ det
1
= 0 ⇒−λ (2 − λ) + 1 = 0
−λ
⇒ λ
2
− 2λ + 1 = 0 ⇒ (λ − 1)
2
⇒ λ = 1, 1.
Not two distinct eigenvalues.
¸
1 0

35. A =
0 −3
. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0
¸
1 − λ 0

⇒ det
−3 − λ
= 0 ⇒ (1 − λ) (−3 − λ) = 0
0
λ = 1, −3, one positive and one negative ⇒
Unstable saddle point.
¸
x

= e
λt
¸
u

so that eigenvector, ⇒
y v
¸
u
¸
1 − λ 0
¸
u
¸
0

, satisfies = .
v 0 −3 − λ v 0
¸
0 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 1 :
0 −4 v
=
0
⇒−4v = 0 ⇒
¸
1

v = 0, u is free to choose, say, u = 1 and eigenvector is .
0
¸
1

t
Solution of the differential equation is e .
0
¸
4 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = −3 :
0 0 v
=
0
⇒ 4u = 0 ⇒
¸
0

u = 0, v is free to choose, say, v = 1 and eigenvector is .
1
¸
0

Solution of the differential equation is e
−3t
.
1
140 CHAPTER 4
¸
1 0

37. (29) A = . det A = −3, trA = −2.
1 −3
2
Now 4 det A = −12 < 4 = (trA) eigenvalues are real. ⇒
Also det A < 0 implies unstable saddle point.
(31) A =
¸
4 −3

. det A = 3, trA = 4.
1 0
2
Now 4 det A = 12 < 16 = (trA) eigenvalues are real. ⇒
Also det A > 0 and trA > 0 imply unstable node.
(33) A =
¸
2 −1

. det A = 1, trA = 2.
1 0
2
Now 4 det A = 4 = (trA) eigenvalues are real (repeated).
¸
1 0


(35) A = . det A = −3, trA = −2.
0 −3
2
Now 4 det A = −12 < 4 = (trA) eigenvalues are real. ⇒
Also det A < 0 implies unstable saddle point.
39.
41.
141 Linear Systems of Differential Equations and Their Phase Plane
Chapter Five
Mostly Nonlinear First-Order Differential Equations
5.1 FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
There are no exercises in this section.
5.2 EQUILIBRIA AND STABILITY
1.
dx
= x (x − 1) = f (x)
dt
Equilibria: f = 0 x (x − 1) = 0 x = 0, 1.
dx
2
⇒ ⇒
3. = (x − 1) (x − 2) = f (x)
dt
2
dx
Equilibria: f = 0 ⇒ (x − 1) (x − 2) = 0 ⇒ x = 1, 2.
5.
dt
= sin x = f (x)
dx
Equilibria: f = 0 ⇒ sin x = 0 ⇒ x = nπ, for n = 0, ±1, ±2, ...
7. = x (a − bx) = f (x)
dt
Equilibria: f = 0 x (a − bx) = 0 x = 0,
a
. ⇒ ⇒
b
9.
dx
= x (x − 1)
2
= f (x)
dt
2
Equilibria: f = 0 x (x − 1) = 0 x = 0, 1.
2
⇒ ⇒
f

(x) = 3x − 4x + 1. For x = 0, f

(0) = 1 > 0
x = 0 is an unstable equilibrium. ⇒
Solution of the linearized differential equation
dy
= f

(x
e
) y = f

(0) y = y for this equilibrium is
dt
y = x − 0 = ce
f

(0)t
x = ce
t
. ⇒
Graph:
For x = 1, f

(1) = 0 Linear analysis is inconclusive.
11.
dx
=

x
2
− 1

x
2
− 3


= f (x) .
dt
2 2
Equilibria: f = 0

x − 1

x − 3

= 0 x = ±1, ±

3.
f

(x) = 2x

x
2
− 3

+

x
2
− 1

2x.

For x = 1, f

(1) = −4 < 0 x = 1 is a stable equilibrium. ⇒
Solution of the linearized differential equation
dy
= f

(x
e
) y = −4y for this equilibrium is
dt
y = x − 1 = ce
f

(1)t
= ce
−4t
x = ce
−4t
+ 1. ⇒
Graph:
For x = −1, f

(−1) = 4 > 0 x = −1 is an unstable equilibrium. ⇒
Solution of the linearized differential equation for this equilibrium is
y = x + 1 = ce
f

(−1)t
= ce
4t
x = ce
4t
− 1. ⇒
143 MOSTLY NONLINEAR FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
Graph:
For x =

3, f


3

= 4

3 > 0 x =

3 is an unstable ⇒
equilibrium. Solution of the linearized differential equation for
this equilibrium is
y = x −

3 = ce
f

(

3)t
= ce
4

3t
x = ce
4

3t
+

3. ⇒
Graph:
For x = −

3, f



3

= −4

3 < 0 x = −

3 is a stable ⇒
equilibrium. Solution of the linearized differential equation for this
equilibrium is
y = x +

3 = ce
f

(

3)t
= ce
−4

3t
x = ce
−4

3t


3. ⇒
Graph:
dx
13.
dt
= tan x = f (x) .
Equilibria: f = 0 tan x = 0 x = nπ, for all integer n. ⇒ ⇒
f

(x) = sec
2
x and f

(nπ) = 1 > 0 for all integer n.
So all equilibria are unstable.
Solution of the linearized differential equation
dy
= f

(x
e
) y = f

(nπ) y = y is
dt
y = x − nπ = ce
f

(nπ)t
= ce
t
x = ce
t
+ nπ for all integer n.
15.
dx
= e
−3x
− 5 = f (x) .

dt
Equilibria: f = 0 e
−3x
= 5
1
ln 5.
1
f

(x) = −3e
−3x
and f

− ln 5

=


x
15
=
<

0
3
.
3
So x = −
1
3
ln 5 is a stable equilibrium. Solution of the linearized
1
differential equation
dy
= f

(x
e
) y = f

− ln 5

y = −15y is
dt 3
y = x +
1
3
ln 5 = ce
f

(−
1
ln 5)t
= ce
−15t
⇒ x = ce
−15t

1
3
ln 5.
3
5.3 ONE DIMENSIONAL PHASE LINES
1.
dx
= x (x − 1) = f (x)
dt
Phase line:
dx
dt
x
1
Equilibria: f = 0 x (x − 1) = 0 x = 0, 1. ⇒ ⇒
From the graph above, x = 0 is stable and x = 1 is unstable.
144 CHAPTER 5
3.
dx
dt
= (x − 1) (x − 2)
2
= f (x)
Phase line:
0 1 2
5
dx
dt
x
2
Equilibria: f = 0 (x − 1) (x − 2) = 0 x = 1, 2. ⇒ ⇒
From the graph above, x = 1 is unstable and x = 2 is unstable.
dx
5.
dt
= sin x = f (x)
Phase line: see text page 411.
Equilibria: f = 0 sin x = 0 x = nπ, for n = 0, ±1, ±2, ... ⇒ ⇒
From the graph of the phase line, x = nπ is unstable if n is even
integer
and x = nπ is stable if n is odd integer.
dx
7.
dt
= x
2
+ 1 = f (x)
Phase line:
dx
dt
x
Equilibria: f = 0 x
2
+ 1 = 0 has no real solution (there ⇒
is no equilibrium in this problem).
9.
dx
= x
3
= f (x)
dt
Phase line:
145 MOSTLY NONLINEAR FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
dx
dt
x
Equilibria: f = 0 x
3
= 0 x = 0. ⇒ ⇒
From the graph above, x = 0 is unstable.
11.
dx
= (x − 3)
4
= f (x) .
dt
Phase line:
3
dx
dt
x
4
Equilibria: f = 0 (x − 3) = 0 x = 3. ⇒ ⇒
From the graph above, x = 3 is unstable.
13.
dx
= (x − 1) (x − 2) (x − 3) (x − 4) = f (x) .
dt
Phase line:
Equilibria: f = 0 (x − 1) (x − 2) (x − 3) (x − 4) = 0 ⇒
x = 1, 2, 3, 4. ⇒
From the graph above, x = 1 and 3 are stable but x = 2
and 4 are unstable.
15.
146 CHAPTER 5
0
1
x
t
17.
x
−1
0
1
3
3

t
19.
dx
= x
2
. Separation of variables gives
dx
= dt which,
dt x
2
on integration, yields −
x
1
= t + c x = −
t+
1
c
. Note ⇒
that c > 0 if x (0) < 0 and c < 0 if x (0) > 0. If x (0) > 0
and x (0) is close to zero, then x (t) increases since
dx 1
dt
=
(t+c)
2
> 0 and thus the solution is not stable.
21.
dx
= x
2
. Separation of variables gives
dx
= dt which,
dt x
2
on integration, yields −
1
= t + c x (t) = −
1
for t ≥ 0.
x

t+c
Initial condition 0 > x (0) = −
1
c
(thus c > 0). Then from
x (t) = −
t+
1
c
, we see that x (t) has a vertical asymptote at
t = −c which is less than zero (since c > 0). Thus there are
no vertical asymptotes for t ≥ 0. From x (t) = −
t+
1
c
,
0, but x (t) = 0 for finite t. as t →∞, x (t) →
5.4 APPLICATION TO POPULATION DYNAMICS: THE LO-
GISTIC EQUATION
dx
1. = ax − bx
3
=

a − bx
2

x = kx where k = a − bx
2
is the growth rate
dt
with a > 0, b > 0, x ≥ 0.
(a) k = a − bx
2
> 0 ⇒ bx
2
< a ⇒ x <

a
b
. That is, growth rate is
positive if the population x <

a
b
.
147 MOSTLY NONLINEAR FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
k = a − bx
2
< 0 ⇒ bx
2
> a ⇒ x >

a
b
. That is, growth rate is
negative if the population x >

a
.
b
(b)
a
b
dx
dt
x
(c)
0
a
b
x
t
3.
dx
= x (a − bx) = ax − bx
2
. Using partial fraction we write
dt
1 A B
= +
a−bx
. Multiplying by the denominator gives
x(a−bx) x
1 = A (a − bx) + Bx. Letting x = 0 and x =
a
we have
1 b dx
A = and B = . Then

=

dt
b
a a x(a−bx)

1

dx
+
b

dx
=

dt
1
ln x
1
ln a − bx = t + c
a x a a−bx a a
a
1
ln
x

= t + c


x

|
1
| −
ce
t
|
x
=
|
ce
at
a

a−bx a−bx
= ¯
a−bx
⇒ ⇒ ⇒
x = ace
at
− bce
at
x
at
a

x (t) =
ace
=
ac
=
b
.
1+bce
at
bc+e
−at
1+[
1
]e
−at

bc
a
So x (0) =
b
=
ac
c =
x(0)
.
1+
1
1+bc

a−bx(0)
bc
a a
Thus x (t) =
¸
b
¸
=
b
]e
−at
.
1+[
a−bx(0)
1+
1
e
−at bx(0)
bx(0)
a−bx(0)
5.
dx
= x (a − bx) . There are three parameters here: a, b, x (0) .
dt
a
Let x =
b
y (Note y (0) =
a
b
x (0)). Then differentiation gives
a dy dx a a
= = x (a − bx) = y (a − ay) = ya (1 − y)
b dt dt b b
dy
= ay (1 − y) which has two parameters, a and y (0) =
b
x (0) . ⇒
dt a
148 CHAPTER 5
7.
dx
dt
= ax + bx
2
= (a + bx) x = kx where k = a + bx is the growth rate
with a > 0, b > 0, x ≥ 0.
(a) growth rate k = a + bx is an increasing function because it is linear
with positive slope b. So growth rate increases as the population x
increases.
(b)
x
dx
dt
(c)
x
t
0
Finite time
explosion
(see d)
(d)
dx
= x (a + bx) = ax + bx
2
. Separation of variables gives
dt
dx

x(a+bx)
=

dt. Using integration table we get,
a
ln

= t + c ce = ce
a
1

a+
x
bx


a+
x
bx
1
= ¯
t

a+
x
bx
at
at
x = ace
at
+ bce
at
x x (t) =
ace

ac

x(0)
1−bce
at
.
So x (0) =
1−bc
c =
a+bx(0)
. ⇒
ace
at
1
Now x (t) = = ∞ when e
at
=
bc
. For this to occur
1−bce
at
when t > 0, we need bc < 1. However, bc =
bx(0)
< 1,
a+bx(0)
since x (0) ≥ 0.
a a
9. (a) x (t) = α + β
e 2
(t−t
0
)
−e

2
(t−t
0
)
a a
e 2
(t−t
0
)
+e

2
(t−t
0
)
a a a a

(t−t
0
) (t−t
0
)

(t−t
0
)
−e
− (t−t
0
)

α e 2 +e

2 +β e 2 2
= a
(t−t
0
)
a
(t−t
0
)
.
e 2 +e

2
Multiplying the numerator and denominator by e

a
(t−t0 )
we have
2
α[1+e
−a(t−t
0
)
]+β[1−e
−a(t−t
0
)
]
x (t) =
1+e
−a(t−t
0
)
and comparing this with
a
equation (2), x (t) =
b
, we obtain

a−bx
0

e
−at
1+
bx
0
149 MOSTLY NONLINEAR FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
a
=
b
.
α[1+e
−a(t−t
0
)
]+β[1−e
−a(t−t
0
)
]
1+e
−a(t−t
0
)
1+

a−bx
0

e
−at
bx
0
Equating
a
Numerator: α + β + (α − β) e
−a(t−t0 )
=

a−bx0

e
b
−at
Denominator: 1 + e
−a(t−t0)
= 1 +
bx0
.
From the first equation we equate exponential and nonexponential
terms to have α + β =
a
and α − β = 0.
b
Adding these, we get α =
2
a
b
and then β =
2
a
b
.
at0

a−bx0

e
−at
From the second equation, 1 + e
−at
e = 1 +
bx0
at0
a−bx0 a−bx0 1 a−bx0
e =
bx0
⇒ at
0
= ln

bx0

⇒ t
0
=
a
ln

bx0

.

a a
2
(t−t
0
)
2
(t−t
0
)
2 sinh
a
(t−t0)
(b) x (t) = α + β
e −e

a = α + β
2
a
e 2
(t−t
0
)
+e

2
(t−t
0
)
2 cosh
a
(t−t0)
2
= α + β tanh
a
(t − t
0
) .
2
(c)
tanh t
t
−1
1
Asymptotic behavior: lim tanh t = 1 and lim tanh t = −1.
t→∞ t→−∞
(d)
x(t)
a
b
α − β = 0
α + β =
a
b
(e) See part (a).
11. f (Q) = a + bQ + cQ
2
.
(i) f (0) = 0 a = 0 ⇒
(ii) f

(Q) = b + 2cQ ≈ b for Q small. So b > 0 for f

(Q) > 0.
(iii) f

(Q) = b + 2cQ ≈ 2cQ for Q large. So c < 0 for f

(Q) < 0.
Hence f (Q) = bQ + cQ
2
with b > 0, c < 0 and thus f (Q)
is a logistic equation.
¸ ¸

Chapter Six
Nonlinear Systems of Differential Equations in the
Plane
6.1 INTRODUCTION
There are no exercises in this section.
6.2 EQUILIBRIA OF NONLINEAR SYSTEMS, LINEAR
STABILITY ANALYSIS OF EQUILIBRIUM, AND PHASE PLANE
1.
dx
= x (1 + y) = x + xy = f
dt
dy
= y (2 − 4x) = 2y − 4xy = g
dt
(a) Equilibria: f = 0 and g = 0 ⇒
x (1 + y) = 0 Either x = 0 or y = −1 ⇒
1
2
1
y (2 − 4x) = 0 If x = 0, then y = 0. If y = −1, then x = ⇒
Thus equilibria are (0, 0) and

.
, −1

.
2
¸
1 + y
∂f ∂f
x
∂x ∂y
(b) A =
∂g ∂g
= .
−4y 2 − 4x
∂x ∂y
¸
1 0

For equilibrium (0, 0) , A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
0 2
det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ det
¸
1 − λ
2 −
0
λ

= 0
0
⇒ (1 − λ) (2 − λ) = 0 ⇒ λ = 1, 2 (both positive).
So the equilibrium (0, 0) is an unstable node.
¸
u
¸
1 − λ 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 0 v 0
¸
0 0
¸
u

2 −
¸
λ
0

Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = v = 0.
0 1 v 0

¸
u
¸
1

u is free to choose, say, u = 1 = . ⇒
v 0
¸
−1 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 2 : = u = 0.
0 0 v 0

¸
u
¸
0

v is free to choose, say, v = 1 = . ⇒
v 1



¸
151 NONLINEAR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN THE PLANE
¸
0
1
For equilibrium

1
2
, −1

, A =
2
. The eigenvalue, λ,
4 0
¸
−λ
4
= 0 λ
2
1
2
satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 det ⇒ − 2 = 0 ⇒
−λ
λ = ±

2 (one positive, one negative). So the equilibrium


is a saddle point.
¸
u
¸
−λ
Eigenvector, , satisfies
, −1

1
2
¸
u
¸
0

1
2
= .
v 4 −λ v
1
0
¸


2
4
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ =

2 :


2
v = 0. Let u = 1. Then v = 2

2.
2
=
0 v
⇒−
¸

2u +
u
1
2
¸
1

2

2
So =
v
.
¸ √
2
1
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = −

2 :
2
4

2 v 0
⇒ =

2u + v = 0. Let u = 1. Then v = −2

2.
1
¸
u

1
So = .
v −2

2
(c)
2
dy
dy
dt
y(2−4x)
(e) Nullclines:
dx
= =
x(1+y)
.
dx
dt
So
dy
= 0 y (2 − 4x) = 0 y = 0, x =
dx
⇒ ⇒

1
2
and
dy
dx
= ∞⇒ x (1 + y) = 0
y
x =
x = 0, y = −1.
x
y = −1
1

2
152 CHAPTER 6
3.
dx
= 2x − 2xy = 2x (1 − y) = f
dt
dy
= y − xy = y (1 − x) = g
dt
(a) Equilibria: f = 0 and g = 0 ⇒
2x (1 − y) = 0 Either x = 0 or y = 1 ⇒
y (1 − x) = 0 If x = 0, then y = 0. If y = 1, then x = 1. ⇒
Thus equilibria are (0, 0) and (1, 1) .
∂f
∂x ∂y
¸
2 − 2y −2x

¸
∂f
¸
(b) A =
∂g ∂g
= .
∂x ∂y
−y 1 − x
¸
2 0

For equilibrium (0, 0) , A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
0 1
det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ det
¸
2 −
0
λ
1 −
0
λ

= 0
⇒ (1 − λ) (2 − λ) = 0 ⇒ λ = 1, 2 (both positive).
So the equilibrium (0, 0) is an unstable node.
¸
u
¸
2 − λ 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 0 1 − λ v 0
¸
1 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = u = 0.
0 0 v 0

¸
u
¸
0

v is free to choose, say, v = 1 = . ⇒
v 1
¸
0 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 2 : = v = 0.
0 −1 v 0

¸
u
¸
1

u is free to choose, say, u = 1 = . ⇒
v 0
¸
0 −2

For equilibrium (1, 1) , A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
det (A − λI) = 0 det
¸
−λ


1
2

0
= 0 λ
2
− 2 = 0 ⇒
−1 −λ

λ = ±

2 (one positive, one negative). ⇒
So the equilibrium (1, 1) is a saddle point.
¸
u
¸
−λ −2
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
Eigenvector for
v
λ =

2 :
¸



1

2
1




2
λ
2
¸
v
u

=
¸
0
0

v 0
⇒ −

2u − 2v = 0. Let u =

2. Then v = −1.
¸
u
¸ √
2

So = is unstable direction.
v −1
Eigenvector for λ = −

2 :
¸ √
2 −2
¸
u

=
¸
0

−1

2 v 0


2u − 2v = 0. Let u =

2. Then v = 1. So
¸
u

=
¸ √
2

v 1
is stable direction.
153 NONLINEAR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN THE PLANE
(c)
dt
(e) Nullclines:
dy
=
dy
=
y(1−x)
.
dx
dx
2x(1−y)
dt
So
dy
= 0 y (1 − x) = 0 y = 0, x = 1
dx
⇒ ⇒
and
dy
= ∞⇒ 2x (1 − y) = 0 x = 0, y = 1.
dx

y
y = 1
x
x = 1
5.
dx
= x − y = f
dt
dy
= −2x + 2xy = −2x (1 − y) = g
dt
(a) Equilibria: f = 0 and g = 0 ⇒
x − y = 0 x = y ⇒
−2x (1 − y) = 0 ⇒−2x (1 − x) = 0 x = 0 or x = 1. ⇒
Then y = 0 or y = 1. Thus equilibria are (0, 0) and (1, 1) .
∂f ∂f
¸
∂x ∂y
¸
¸
1 −1

(b) A =
∂g ∂g
=
−2 + 2y 2x
.
∂x ∂y
For equilibrium (0, 0) , A =
¸
1 −1

. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
¸
1 − λ
−2
−1
0

det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ det
−2 −λ
= 0 ⇒−λ (1 − λ) − 2 = 0
⇒ λ
2
− λ − 2 = 0 ⇒ (λ + 1) (λ − 2)
⇒ λ = −1, 2 (one positive, one negative).
So the equilibrium (0, 0) is a saddle point.
¸
u
¸
1 − λ −1
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v −2 −λ v 0
154 CHAPTER 6
Eigenvector for λ = −1 :
¸

2
2

1
1
¸
u
v

=
¸
0
0


¸
u
¸
1

2u − v = 0. Let u = 1. Then v = 2 ⇒
v
=
2
is stable
direction.
Eigenvector for λ = 2 :
¸
−1 −1
¸
u
v

=
¸
0
0


−2 −2
¸
u
¸
1

−u − v = 0. Let u = 1. Then v = −1 ⇒
v
=
−1
is unstable direction.
For equilibrium (1, 1) , A =
¸
1 −1

. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
0 2
det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ det
¸
1 −
0
λ
2


1
λ

= 0
⇒ (1 − λ) (2 − λ) = 0 ⇒ λ = 1, 2 (both positive).
So the equilibrium (1, 1) is an unstable node.
¸
u
¸
1 − λ −1
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 0 2 − λ v 0
¸
0 −1
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = v = 0.
0 1 v 0

¸
u
¸
1

u is free to choose, say, u = 1. So = .
v 0
¸
−1 −1
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 2 : =
0 0 v 0

¸
u
¸
1

−u − v = 0. Let u = 1. Then v = −1. So
v
=
−1
.
(c)
dt
(e) Nullclines:
dy
=
dy
=
−2x(1−y)
.
dx
dx
x−y
dt
So
dy
= 0 ⇒−2x (1 − y) = 0 x = 0, y = 1
dx
and
dy
x

= y.
dx
= ∞⇒ x − y = 0 ⇒
155 NONLINEAR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN THE PLANE
y
y = 1
x
y = x
7.
dx
= 1 − y
2
= f
dt
dy
= 1 − x
2
= g
dt
(a) Equilibria: f = 0 and g = 0
1 − y
2
= 0 y = ±1

1 − x
2
= 0

x = ±1. ⇒
Thus equilibria are (1, 1) , (−1, −1) , (1, −1) and (−1, 1) .
¸
∂f
¸
¸
0

∂f
∂x ∂y
−2y
(b) A = = .
∂g ∂g
0
∂x ∂y
−2x
¸
0 −2

For equilibrium (1, 1) , A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
−2 0
λ
2
det (A − λI) = 0 det
¸
−λ −2

= 0 − 4 = 0 λ
2
= 4 ⇒
−2 −λ
⇒ ⇒
λ = −2, 2 (one positive, one negative). ⇒
So the equilibrium (1, 1) is a saddle point.
¸
u
¸
−λ −2
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v −2 −λ v 0
¸
−2 −2
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 2 : =
−2 −2 v 0

¸
u
¸
1

−2u − 2v = 0. Let u = 1. Then v = −1 = ⇒
v −1
is unstable direction.
¸
2 −2
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = −2 : =
−2 2 v 0

¸
u
¸
1

2u − 2v = 0. Let u = 1. Then v = 1 = ⇒
v 1
is stable direction.
¸
0 2

For equilibrium (−1, −1) , A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
2 0
2
det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ det
¸

2
λ
−λ

= 0 ⇒ λ
2
− 4 = 0 ⇒ λ
2
= 4
λ = −2, 2 (one positive, one negative). ⇒
So the equilibrium (−1, −1) is a saddle point.
1
156 CHAPTER 6
¸
u
¸
−λ 2
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 2 v 0
¸
−2
−λ
2
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 2 : =
2 −2 v 0
¸
u
¸
1

⇒−2u + 2v = 0. Let u = 1. Then v = 1 = ⇒
v
is unstable direction.
¸
2 2
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = −2 :
2 2 v
=
0

¸
u
¸
1

2u + 2v = 0. Let u = 1. Then v = −1 = ⇒
v −1
is stable direction.
¸
0 2

For equilibrium (1, −1) , A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
¸
−λ

2
2

0
det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ det
−2 −λ
= 0 ⇒ λ
2
+ 4 = 0
⇒ λ = ±2i (complex).
So the equilibrium (1, −1) is a center (nonlinear may be different).
For equilibrium (−1, 1) , A =
¸
0 −2

. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
2 0
det (A − λI) = 0 det
¸
−λ −2

= 0 λ
2
+ 4 = 0 ⇒
2 −λ

⇒ λ = ±2i (complex).
So the equilibrium (−1, 1) is a center (nonlinear may be different).
(c)
dy
2
(e) Nullclines:
dy
=
dt
=
1−x
dx
dx
1−y
2
.
dt
So
dy
= 0 1 − x
2
= 0 x = ±1
dx
⇒ ⇒
and
dy 2
= 0
dx
= ∞⇒ 1 − y ⇒ y = ±1.
157 NONLINEAR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN THE PLANE
y
x
9.
dx
= x − y + x
2
= f
dt
dy
= x + y = g
dt
(a) Equilibria: g = 0 x + y = 0 y = −x
f = 0 x − y + x

2
= 0 2x +

x
2
= 0 ⇒ ⇒ ⇒
x (2 + x) = 0 x = 0 or −2. So y = 0 or 2. ⇒
Thus equilibria are (0, 0) and (−2, 2) .
∂f
¸
∂f
¸
¸
1 + 2x

∂x ∂y
(b) A =
∂g ∂g
=
−1
.
1 1
∂x ∂y
For equilibrium (0, 0) , A =
¸
1 −1

. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
1 1
det (A − λI) = 0 det
¸
1 − λ −1

= 0 (1 − λ)
2
+ 1 = 0
λ
2


1

4−8
1 − λ

⇒ − 2λ + 2 = 0 ⇒ λ = = 1 ± i (complex with positive
2
real part). So the equilibrium (0, 0) is unstable spiral.
For equilibrium (−2, 2) , A =
¸
−3 −1

. The eigenvalue, λ,
1 1
satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ det
¸
−3 − λ
1


1
λ

= 0
1
(1 − λ) (−3 − λ) + 1 = 0 λ
2
+ 2λ − 2 = 0 ⇒
−2±

4+8

λ = = −1 ±

3 (one positive, one negative). ⇒
2
So the equilibrium (−2, 2) is a saddle point.
¸
u
¸
−3 − λ −1
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
Eigenvector for
v
λ = −1 +

3 :
1 1 − λ v 0
u
¸
−2 −
1

3
2 −
−1

3
¸
=
¸
0

−2 −

3

u − v = 0.
v 0
Let u = 1. Then v = −2 −

3 ⇒
¸
u
v

=
¸
−2 −
1

3

is unstable direction.
Eigenvector for λ = −1 −

3 :
¸
−2 +
1

3
2 +
−1

3
¸
u
v

=
¸
0
0

−2 +

3

u − v = 0.
158 CHAPTER 6
Let u = 1. Then v = −2 +

3 ⇒
¸
u
v

=
¸
−2 +
1

3

is stable direction.
(c)
dy
(e) Nullclines:
dy
=
dt
=
x+y
dx
dt
dx x−y+x
2
.
So
dy
= 0 x + y = 0 y = −x
and
dx
dy
⇒ ⇒
2
= 0 y = x + x
2
.
dx
= ∞⇒ x − y + x ⇒
Note intersections at equilibria.
y
x
dx
11.
dt
= −x − 2y = f
dy
= 2x − y + xy
2
= g
dt
(a) Equilibria: f = 0 ⇒−x − 2y = 0
g = 0 2x − y + xy
⇒ x = −2
3
y
= 0
−y

2y


2
= 0 ⇒−4y − y − 2y ⇒
2
+ 5

= 0 y = 0 (real only). So x = 0.
Thus equilibria is (0, 0) only.
∂f ∂f
(b) A =
¸
∂x ∂y
¸
=
¸
−1 −2

.
∂g ∂g
2 + y
2
−1 + 2xy
∂x ∂y
For equilibrium (0, 0) , A =
¸
−1 −2

. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
2 −1
det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ det
¸
−1 − λ
−1


2
λ

= 0
2
(−1 − λ)
2
+ 4 = 0 λ
2
+ 2λ + 5 = 0 ⇒
−2±

4−20

⇒ λ =
2
= −1 ± 2i (complex with negative real part).
159 NONLINEAR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN THE PLANE
So the equilibrium (0, 0) is a stable spiral.
(c)
dy
dy
2x−y+xy
2
(e) Nullclines: =
dt
= .
dx
dx
dt
−x−2y
So
dy
= 0 2x − y + xy
2
= 0 x

2 + y
2

= y
dx

y

x = ⇒
2+y
2
and
dy 1
x.
dx
= ∞⇒−x − 2y = 0 ⇒ y = −
2
y
x
13.
dx
= x − xy + γx
2
= x − xy − 8x
2
= f
dt
dy
= −y + xy = g
dt
(a) Equilibria: g = 0 ⇒−y (1 − x) = 0 y = 0 or x = 1.
f = 0 x − xy − 8x
2
= 0. If y = 0,

then x − 8x
2
= 0 ⇒
1
x (1 − 8x) = 0 x = 0, . ⇒ ⇒
8
If x = 1, then 1 − y − 8 = 0

1
⇒ y = −7.
Thus equilibria is (0, 0) , , 0

and (1, −7).
∂f ∂f
¸
∂x ∂y
¸
¸
1 −
8
y − 16x −x

(b) A = = .
∂g ∂g
y −1 + x
∂x ∂y
¸
1 0

For equilibrium (0, 0) , A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
¸
1 − λ
0 −1
0

det (A − λI) = 0 det = 0 ⇒
0 −1 − λ
⇒− (1 − λ) (1 + λ) = 0 λ = 1, −1 (one positive, one negative). ⇒
So the equilibrium (0, 0) is a saddle point.

.

¸
¸
160 CHAPTER 6
¸
−1
0
1
For equilibrium

1
8
, 0

, A =

8
7
. The eigenvalue, λ,
¸


1 − λ
8
1
8
= 0

7
8
satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 det ⇒
(−1 − λ)

− − λ

= 0
So the equilibrium

1
8
0 − λ
(both negative).

7 7
λ = −1, −
, 0

is a stable node.
8
⇒ ⇒
8
¸
−8 −1

0
For equilibrium (1, −7) , A = . The eigenvalue, λ,
−7
¸
−8 − λ −1

−8±

64+28
−7 −λ
2
satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 det ⇒ = 0
⇒ λ
2
+ 8λ − 7 = 0 ⇒ λ =
λ = −4 ±

23 (one positive, one negative). ⇒
So the equilibrium (1, −7) is a saddle point.
dx
= x − xy + γx
2 1
dt
2
15. = f = x − xy + x
3
dy
= −y + xy = g
(a) Equilibria: g = 0 ⇒−y (1 − x) = 0
2
= 0. If y = 0, then x +
1
dt
y = 0 or x = 1. ⇒
1
x
2
= 0 f = 0 x − xy +
x

= 0
1
x
3 3

x

1 +
1
x = 0, −3.
= 0 y =
3
⇒ ⇒
4
. ⇒
3 3
If x = 1, then 1 − y +
Thus equilibria is (0, 0) , (−3, 0) and

1,
∂f ∂f
¸
∂x ∂y
¸
¸
1 − y +
=
4
3
2
3
x −x
(b) A = .
∂g ∂g
−1 + x
¸
1 0

y
∂x ∂y
1
For equilibrium (0, 0) , A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
¸
1 − λ
0 −1
0

det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ det
0 −1 − λ
= 0
⇒− (1 − λ) (1 + λ) = 0 λ = 1, −1 (one positive, one negative). ⇒
So the equilibrium (0, 0) is a saddle point.
¸
−1 3

For equilibrium (−3, 0) , A =
0 −4
. The eigenvalue, λ,
satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ det
¸
−1
0
− λ
−4
3
− λ

= 0
⇒ (−1 − λ) (−4 − λ) = 0 ⇒ λ = −1, −4 (both negative).
So the equilibrium (−3, 0) is a stable node.
For equilibrium

1,

, A =
−1
0
4
3
3
4
. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
3
1
6
4
3
− λ −1


1−48
−λ
1 4
λ
2

3
det (A − λI) = 0 det ⇒ = 0 λ + = 0
3 3


47 1

2
− λ + 4 = 0 λ = ⇒ λ = i (complex ±
6 6
⇒ ⇒
with positive real part).
So the equilibrium

1,

is an unstable spiral.
4
3
17.
dx
= x − xy + γx
2
= x − xy + 8x
dt
2
= f
dy
= −y + xy = g
dt
¸ ¸


161 NONLINEAR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN THE PLANE
(a) Equilibria: g = 0 ⇒−y (1 − x) = 0 y = 0 or x = 1.
f = 0 x − xy + 8x
2
= 0. If y = 0,

then x + 8x
2
= 0 ⇒
1
8
⇒ x (1 + 8x) = 0 ⇒ x = 0, −
If x = 1, then 1 − y + 8 = 0
Thus equilibria is (0, 0) ,


1
.
y = 9. ⇒
, 0

and (1, 9).
8
∂f ∂f
¸
1 − y + 16x −x

−1 + x
∂x ∂y
(b) A =
∂g ∂g
=
∂x ∂y
.
y
¸
1 0

For equilibrium (0, 0) , A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
¸
1 − λ
0 −1
0

det (A − λI) = 0 det = 0 ⇒
0 −1 − λ
⇒− (1 − λ) (1 + λ) = 0 λ = 1, −1 (one positive, one negative). ⇒
So the equilibrium (0, 0) is a saddle point.
¸
−1
1
For equilibrium

− , 0

, A =
1
8
. The eigenvalue, λ,
9
8
8
0 −
¸
−1 − λ
1
8
satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 det ⇒
(−1 − λ)

− − λ

= 0
1
So the equilibrium


8
= 0
9
8
0 − λ −
9 9
8
λ = −1, − (both negative).
, 0

is a stable node.
⇒ ⇒
8
¸
8 −1

0
For equilibrium (1, 9) , A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
9
2
det (A − λI) = 0 det
¸
8 − λ −1

= 0 λ
2
− 8λ + 9 = 0 ⇒
9 −λ



64−36
λ = 4 ±

7 (both positive).
So the equilibrium (1, 9) is an unstable node.
λ = ⇒ ⇒
2
6.3 POPULATION MODELS
1. Two Competing Species Models
dx
= x (a − by − cx) = ax − bxy − cx
2
dt
dy
= y (q − rx − sy) = qy − rxy − sy
dt
a = 2, b = c = 1, and q = r = 6, s = 0. So
.
dx
= x (2 − y − x) = 2x − xy − x
dt
2
= f
dy
= y (6 − 6x) = 6y − 6xy = g
dt
(a) Equilibria: g = 0 y (6 − 6x) = 0 ⇒ ⇒
f = 0 x (2 − y − x) = 0. If y = 0, then x = 0, 2.
If x = 1, then y = 1.
y = 0 and x = 1.

Thus equilibria are (0, 0) , (2, 0) and (1, 1) .
∂f ∂f
¸
∂x ∂y
¸
¸
2 − y − 2x −x

Jacobian matrix A =
∂g ∂g
= .
−6y 6 − 6x
∂x ∂y
¸
2 0

For equilibrium (0, 0) , A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
0 6
162 CHAPTER 6
det (A − λI) = 0 det
¸
2 − λ
6 −
0
λ

= 0 ⇒
0
⇒ (2 − λ) (6 − λ) = 0 ⇒ λ = 2, 6 (both positive).
So the equilibrium (0, 0) is an unstable node.
¸
u
¸
2 − λ 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 0 6 − λ v 0
¸
0 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 2 : = v = 0.
0 4 v 0

¸
u
¸
1

u is free to choose, say, u = 1 = . ⇒
v 0
¸
−4 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 6 : = u = 0.
0 0 v 0

¸
u
¸
0

v is free to choose, say, v = 1 = . ⇒
v 1
For equilibrium (2, 0) , A =
¸
−2 −2

. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
0 −6
det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ det
¸
−2
0
− λ
−6


2
λ

= 0
⇒ (−2 − λ) (−6 − λ) = 0 ⇒ λ = −2, −6 (both negative).
So the equilibrium (2, 0) is a stable node.
¸
u
¸
−2 − λ −2
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 0 −6 − λ v 0
¸
0 −2
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = −2 : = ⇒−2v = 0
0 −4 v 0
¸
u
¸
1

v = 0. u is free to choose, say, u = 1. So = . ⇒
v 0
Eigenvector for λ = −6 :
¸
4 −2
¸
u

=
¸
0

0 0 v 0

¸
u
¸
1

4u − 2v = 0. Let u = 1. Then v = 2. So = .
v 2
¸
−1 −1

For equilibrium (1, 1) , A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
det (A − λI) = 0 det
¸
−1 −
−6
λ −
0
1

= 0 λ
2
+ λ − 6 = 0 ⇒
−6 −λ

⇒ (λ + 3) (λ − 2) = 0 ⇒ λ = 2, −3 (one positive, one negative).
So the equilibrium (1, 1) is a saddle point.
¸
u
¸
−1 − λ −1
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
Eigenvector for
v
λ = 2 :
¸
−3 −1
−6
¸
u


λ
=
¸
0
v

0
−6 −2 v 0
¸
u
¸
1

⇒−3u − v = 0. Let u = 1. Then v = −3. So
v
=
−3
is unstable direction.
¸
2
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = −3 :
−6

3
1
v
=
0

163 NONLINEAR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN THE PLANE
¸
u
¸
1

2u − v = 0. Let u = 1. Then v = 2. So =
v 2
is stable direction.
(b) Graph of phase portrait using linear systems.
0
dy
(c) Method of nullclines:
dy
=
dt
=
y(6−6x)
dx
dt
dx x(2−y−x)
.
So
dy
= 0 y (6 − 6x) = 0 y = 0, x = 1
dx
⇒ ⇒
and
dy
= ∞⇒ x (2 − y − x) = 0 x = 0, y = 2 − x.
dx

y
x
x = 1
1 2
(d) Graph improved by using eigenvectors.
¸ ¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
164 CHAPTER 6
x = 1
y
x
2
1 2
3. Two Competing Species Models
dx
= x (a − by − cx) = ax − bxy − cx
2
dt
dy
= y (q − rx − sy) = qy − rxy − sy
, b = 2, c = 4, and q = r = s = 1. So
= x

− 2y − 4x

= x − 2xy − 4x
3
2
.
dt
a =
dx 3 3 2
= f
dt
dy
2 2
2
3
= y (1 − x − y) = y − xy − y
dt
f = 0 x

− 2y − 4x

= 0
y = 0 or x + y = 1.
= g
3
4
. (a) Equilibria: x = 0 or 2x + y =
2
⇒ ⇒
g = 0 ⇒ y (1 − x − y) = 0 ⇒
If x = 0, then considering both equations obtained from g = 0
we have y = 0, 1. Equilibria are then (0, 0) and (0, 1) .
Again, if 2x + y =
3
4
, then considering both equations obtained
8
from g = 0, we solve:
and y = 0 to get

and x + y = 1 to get, by subtracting,


, 0

; and
3 3
2x + y =
4

, which
3 5 1
2x + y = ,
4 4 4
3
is out of the domain as we are considering x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0.
Thus equilibria are (0, 0) , (0, 1) and

, 0

.
8
∂f ∂f
3
2
− 2y − 8x −2x
1 − x − 2y
Jacobian matrix A =
∂x ∂y
= .
∂g ∂g
−y
∂x ∂y
0

3
2
For equilibrium (0, 0) , A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
0 1
− λ 0

0
3
2
det (A − λI) = 0 det ⇒

− λ

(1 − λ) = 0
= 0
1 − λ
, 1 (both positive).
3 3
λ =
2 2
⇒ ⇒
So the equilibrium (0, 0) is an unstable node.
¸
u
¸
− λ 0
¸
u
¸
0

=
0
3
2
Eigenvector, , satisfies .
0

1 −
¸
λ
0
v v
¸
u
1
2
0
Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = u = 0.
0

0 0 v
¸

¸



¸
165 NONLINEAR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN THE PLANE
¸
u
¸
0

v is free to choose, say, v = 1 = . ⇒
v 1
¸
0
¸
u
¸
0

0
3
Eigenvector for λ = v = 0. : =
1
2

0 0 − v
2
u
¸
1

1
2
For equilibrium (0, 1) , A =
¸

1
2
det (A − λI) = 0 det ⇒

− − λ

(−1 − λ) = 0 ⇒
1
2 2
1
, satisfies

1
.
2
Eigenvector,
v
1
1
2
Eigenvector for λ = −1 :
2
1
Eigenvector for λ = − :
1
2
2
−u −
1
2
5
3 3
For equilibrium

, 0

, A =
3
2 4
8
8
3
2
3
4
3
8 2

− − λ

− λ

= 0 ⇒
So the equilibrium

5
8
3 5 5 3
8 2

8
¸
u

3
2
3
4
Eigenvector, , satisfies
v 0
5
8
¸
0
3
u is free to choose, say, u = 1 = . ⇒
v 0
¸
− 0

. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
−1 −1
− λ
−1
0
= 0
−1 − λ
, −1 (both negative). λ = −
So the equilibrium (0, 1) is a stable node.
¸
u
¸
− − λ 0
¸
u
¸
0

=
−1
¸
−1 − λ v 0
¸
0 0 u
u = 0 =
0

¸
0
−1 0 v
¸
u

u = 0. v is free to choose, say, v = 1. So = . ⇒
v 1
¸
0 0
¸
u
¸
0

=
0

−1 − v
¸
u
¸
1
v = 0. Let u = 1. Then v = −2. So
¸
− −

= .
v −2
. The eigenvalue, λ,
0
¸
− − λ
0

− λ
satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 det = 0
λ = − (one positive, one negative).
, 0

is a saddle point.
,
¸

¸
u
¸
0

− λ
0

− λ
= .
v
¸ ¸
0


17
u
3
4
¸
1

2 4
3
Eigenvector for λ = − v = 0 : =
0
⇒−
0 v
8
¸
u

v = 0. u is free to choose, say, u = 1. So = ⇒
v 0
is stable direction.
¸
u
¸
0

17 3
5
8 4
Eigenvector for λ = : =
8
¸

0

0 0

v
¸
u

6


17
8
u −
3
4
v = 0. Let u = 6. Then v = −17. So =
v −17
is unstable direction.
(b) Graph of phase portrait using linear systems.
166 CHAPTER 6
0
1
3/8
dy
dt
(c) Method of nullclines:
dy
= =
y(1−x−y)
.
dx
dx
x(
3
dt 2
−2y−4x)
So
dy
= 0 y (1 − x − y) = 0 y = 0, y = 1 − x ⇒ ⇒
3
and
dx
dy
= ∞⇒ x

2
3
− 2y − 4x

= 0 ⇒ x = 0, y =
4
− 2x.
dx
Lines do not intersect for x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0.
Nullcline graph in combined figure in answer to part (d).
(d) Graph improved by using eigenvectors.
y
x
1
3/8
5. Predator-prey models:
dx
= x (a − by − cx) = ax − bxy − cx
2
dt
dy
= y (−q + rx − sy) = −qy + rxy − sy
2
.
dt
a = 3, b = c = 1, q = r = 1 and s = 0. So
dx 2
= x (3 − y − x) = 3x − xy − x = f
dt
dy
= y (−1 + x) = −y + xy = g
dt
(a) Equilibria: g = 0 y (−1 + x) = 0 y = 0 or x = 1. ⇒ ⇒
f = 0 x (3 − y − x) = 0. If y = 0, then x = 0, 3 and ⇒
if x = 1, then y = 2.
Thus equilibria are (0, 0) , (3, 0) and (1, 2) .
∂f ∂f
¸
∂x ∂y
¸
¸
3 − y − 2x −x

Jacobian matrix A = = .
∂g ∂g
y −1 + x
∂x ∂y
167 NONLINEAR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN THE PLANE
¸
3 0

For equilibrium (0, 0) , A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
¸
3 − λ
0 −1
0

det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ det
0 −1 − λ
= 0
⇒ (3 − λ) (−1 − λ) = 0 ⇒ λ = 3, −1 (one positive, one negative).
So the equilibrium (0, 0) is a saddle point.
¸
u
¸
3 − λ 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 0 −1 − λ v 0
¸
0 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 3 : = v = 0.
0 −4 v 0

¸
u
¸
1

u is free to choose, say, u = 1 = is unstable ⇒
v 0
direction.
¸
4 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = −1 :
0 0 v
=
0
⇒ u = 0.
¸
u
¸
0

v is free to choose, say, v = 1 = ⇒
v 1
is stable direction.
For equilibrium (3, 0) , A =
¸
−3 −3

. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
0 2
det (A − λI) = 0 det
¸
−3 − λ
2


3
λ

= 0 ⇒
0
⇒ (−3 − λ) (2 − λ) = 0 ⇒ λ = −3, 2 (one positive, one negative).
So the equilibrium (3, 0) is a saddle point.
¸
u
¸
−3 − λ −3
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 0 2 − λ v 0
¸
0 −3
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = −3 :
0 5 v
=
0
⇒ v = 0.
¸
u
¸
1

u is free to choose, say, u = 1. So = is stable
v 0
direction.
¸
−5 −3
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 2 : =
0 0 v 0

¸
u
¸
3

−5u − 3v = 0. Let u = 3. Then v = −5. So =
v −5
is unstable direction.
¸
−1 −1

For equilibrium (1, 2) , A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
2 0
det (A − λI) = 0 det
¸
−1 − λ −1

= 0 λ
2
+ λ + 2 = 0
−1±

1−8

2 −λ

λ = = 0 ⇒
1
2

7
⇒ λ = −
2
±
2
i (complex with negative real part).
So the equilibrium (1, 2) is a stable spiral.
(b) Graph of phase portrait using linear systems.
168 CHAPTER 6
0
dy
dt
(c) Method of nullclines:
dy
= =
y(−1+x)
.
dx
dx
x(3−y−x)
dt
So
dy
= 0 y (−1 + x) = 0 y = 0, x = 1.
dx
⇒ ⇒
and
dy
= ∞⇒ x (3 − y − x) = 0 x = 0, y = 3 − x.
dx

y
x 3
7. Predator-prey models:
dx 2
= x (a − by − cx) = ax − bxy − cx
dt
dy 2
= y (−q + rx − sy) = −qy + rxy − sy .
dt
a = 3, c = 0, q = r = s = b = 1. So
dx
= x (3 − y) = 3x − xy = f
dt
dy 2
= y (−1 + x − y) = −y + xy − y = g
dt
(a) Equilibria: f = 0 x (3 − y) = 0 x = 0 or y = 3. ⇒ ⇒
g = 0 y (−1 + x − y) = 0. If x = 0, then y = 0, −1 ⇒
and if y = 3, then x = 4. However, (0, −1) is not in the domain
since x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0.
Thus equilibria are (0, 0) , and (4, 3) .
∂f ∂f
¸
∂x ∂y
¸
¸
3 − y −x

Jacobian matrix A =
∂g ∂g
=
y −1 + x − 2y
.
∂x ∂y
¸
3 0

For equilibrium (0, 0) , A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
¸
3 − λ
0 −1
0

det (A − λI) = 0 det = 0 ⇒
0 −1 − λ
169 NONLINEAR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN THE PLANE
⇒ (3 − λ) (−1 − λ) = 0 ⇒ λ = 3, −1 (one positive, one negative).
So the equilibrium (0, 0) is a saddle point.
¸
u
¸
3 − λ 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 0 v 0
¸
0 0
¸
u


1 −
¸
λ
0

Eigenvector for λ = 3 : = v = 0.
0 −4 v 0

¸
u
¸
1

u is free to choose, say, u = 1 = is unstable ⇒
v 0
direction.
¸
4 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = −1 : = u = 0.
0 0 v 0

¸
u
¸
0

v is free to choose, say, v = 1 = is stable ⇒
v 1
direction.
¸
0 −4

For equilibrium (4, 3) , A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
¸
−λ
3


4
3

det (A − λI) = 0 det = 0 λ
2
+ 3λ + 12 = 0 ⇒
3 −3 − λ

−3±

9−48
λ = = 0 ⇒
3
2

39
⇒ λ = −
2
±
2
i (complex with negative real part).
So the equilibrium (4, 3) is a stable spiral.
(b) Graph of phase portrait using linear systems.
dy
dy y(−1+x−y)
dt
(c) Method of nullclines:
dx
=
dx
=
x(3−y)
.
dt
So
dy
= 0 y (−1 + x − y) = 0 y = 0, y = x − 1.
dx
⇒ ⇒
and
dy
= ∞⇒ x (3 − y) = 0 x = 0, y = 3.
dx

0
(c)

.

.
170 CHAPTER 6
y
x
(d) Graph improved by using eigenvectors.
y
x
9. Predator-prey models:
dx
= x (a − by − cx) = ax − bxy − cx
dt
dy
2
2
= y (−q + rx − sy) = −qy + rxy − sy
a = 3, b = 6, c = 2, q = r = s = 1. So
.
dt
dx 2
= f
2
= x (3 − 6y − 2x) = 3x − 6xy − 2x
dy
= y (−1 + x − y) = −y + xy − y
dt
f = 0
dt
= g
3
2
. (a) Equilibria: x (3 − 6y − 2x) = 0 ⇒ ⇒
g = 0 y (−1 + x − y) = 0 y = 0 or x − y = 1. ⇒
We solve x = 0 and g = 0
x = 0 or x + 3y =

(0, 0) , (0, −1) .
3
⇒ y = 0, y = −1 ⇒
However, (0, −1) is not in the domain since x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0.
Again we solve x + 3y = and g = 0, i.e

, 0
2
3
2
3 3
x + 3y = and y = 0 x = or
2 2
⇒ ⇒
3
2
1
x + 3y =
1 9
and x − y = 1. Subtracting we have, y = and
8
9
then x = ,
8 8 8

Thus equilibria are (0, 0) , , 0

and

3 1 9
,
2 8 8
¸
¸
171 NONLINEAR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN THE PLANE
∂f ∂f
¸
∂x ∂y
¸
¸
3 − 6y − 4x −6x

Jacobian matrix A =
∂g ∂g
=
y −1 + x − 2y
.
∂x ∂y
¸
3 0

For equilibrium (0, 0) , A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
¸
3 − λ
0 −1
0

det (A − λI) = 0 det = 0 ⇒
0 −1 − λ
⇒ (3 − λ) (−1 − λ) = 0 ⇒ λ = 3, −1 (one positive, one negative).
So the equilibrium (0, 0) is a saddle point.
¸
u
¸
3 − λ 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, , satisfies = .
v 0 −1 − λ v 0
¸
0 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = 3 : = v = 0.
0 −4 v 0

¸
u
¸
1

1
2
u is free to choose, say, u = 1 = is unstable ⇒
v 0
direction.
¸
4 0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ = −1 :
0 0 v
=
0
⇒ u = 0.
¸
u
¸
0

v is free to choose, say, v = 1 = is stable ⇒
v 1
direction.
¸
−3 −9

0
¸
−3 − λ
For equilibrium

, 0

, A =
3
. The eigenvalue, λ,
2
−9

− λ
3
2
satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 det ⇒
(−3 − λ) +

− λ

= 0
So the equilibrium

= 0
1
2
0
1 1
2
λ = −3,
, 0

is a saddle point.
(one positive, one negative). ⇒ ⇒
2
¸
u
¸
−3 − λ
0
−9
¸
u
¸
0

= Eigenvector, , satisfies
v
.
0
1
2

− λ
¸
0

v
7
¸
0 −9
¸
u
Eigenvector for λ = −3 : = v = 0.
0

0 v
2
u is free to choose, say, u = 1 = is stable direction. ⇒
v 0
u
¸
1

¸

0
−9
¸
u
¸
0

=
0
7
1
2
Eigenvector for λ = :
2

18

v 0
¸
u


7
2
1
9
¸

1
u − 9v = 0. Let u = 18. Then v = −7
¸


− λ
= ⇒
v −7
is unstable direction.
27

9
8
For equilibrium

, A =

1 9
4 4
. The eigenvalue, λ, ,
1
8 8
8
27

1

− λ

2
+ 19λ + 9 = 0
4 4
1
8
satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 det ⇒

− − λ

− − λ

+
= 0

8 8
9 27
= 0
4 32
⇒ ⇒
λ =
−19±

361−288
=
−19±

73
(both negative real roots).
16 16
So the equilibrium

is a stable node.

1 9
,
8 8
172 CHAPTER 6
9 27
Eigenvector,
¸
u

, satisfies
¸

4
1
− λ −
1
4
¸
u

=
¸
0

.
v
8

8
− λ v 0
¸
−17−

73 27
¸
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ =
−19+

73
:
16

4
=
16 1 17−

73
v 0

8 16
−17−

73 27
v = 0. Let u = 108. Then v = −17 −

73
¸
16
u

u −
¸
4
108

= . ⇒
v −17 −

73
¸
−17+

73 27
¸
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector for λ =
−19−

73
:
16

4
=
16 1 17+

73
v 0

8 16
−17+

73 27
v = 0. Let u = 108. Then v = −17 +

73
¸
16
u

u −
¸
4
108

= . ⇒
v −17 +

73
(b) Graph phase portrait using linear systems.
0 3/2
dy
dt
(c) Method of nullclines:
dy
= =
y(−1+x−y)
.
dx
dx
x(3−6y−2x)
dt
So
dy
= 0 ⇒ y (−1 + x − y) = 0 ⇒ y = 0, y = x −
1
1.
1
dx
and
dy
= ∞⇒ x (3 − 6y − 2x) = 0 x = 0, y = x.
dx 2

3

y
x
3/2
11. a = b = 1, c = 2, q =
2
1
, r = 1. So
dx y

x
dt
= x

1 −
1+x
= x −
1+x
y = f

¸

¸
¸
¸
¸
173 NONLINEAR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN THE PLANE
dy
dt
= y
1 1
2
x x
+ y + − = − y = g
2 1+x 1+x
x

= 0
1
2
(a) Equilibria: g = 0 y = 0 or x = 1. + y −

= 0. Substituting y = 0 we have x = 0.
1+x
⇒ ⇒
f = 0 x ⇒

1 −
y
1+x
Again substituting x = 1 in f = 0,we have y = 2.
Thus equilibria are (0, 0) and (1, 2) .
¸ ¸ ¸
1 −
∂f ∂f
Jacobian matrix A =
∂x ∂y
=
1
(1+
y
x)
2

1+x
x
.
∂g ∂g
(1+
y
x)
2
− +
x
2 1+x ∂x ∂y
¸
1 0

For equilibrium (0, 0) , A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
0

= 0
1
2
1
2
0 −
¸
1 − λ
0
det (A − λI) = 0 det ⇒
(1 − λ)

− − λ

= 0
− λ
(one positive, one negative).

1
λ = 1 − ,
So the equilibrium (0, 0) is a saddle point.
¸
u
¸
1 − λ
, satisfies
1
2 2
⇒ ⇒
0
¸
u
¸
0

Eigenvector, = .
1
2
v 0 −

− λ v 0
¸
0
¸
0 0
¸
u
Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = v = 0.
0

3
0 − v
2
u is free to choose, say, u = 1 = is unstable ⇒
v 0
direction.
u
¸
1

0
¸
u
¸
0

3
1
2
Eigenvector for λ = − u = 0. : =
2
0 0 v 0

¸
u
¸
0

v is free to choose, say, v = 1 = is stable direction. ⇒
v 1
1 1

0
2
1
2
2
For equilibrium (1, 2) , A = . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
1 1
1
2
− λ −
−λ
1 1
= 0 ⇒ λ
2

2 2
det (A − λI) = 0 det ⇒ λ + = 0
2 4

2
2λ + 1 = 0 −
1
8


4−16
=

3i (complex with positive real part).

1
4
λ = ±
4

So the equilibrium (1, 2) is an unstable spiral.
(b) Graph phase portrait using linear systems.
0
dy
+
1 x
y(−
2 1+x
)
dx
dx y
dt
x(1−
1+x
)
dy
=
dt
= (c) Method of nullclines: .

¸
174 CHAPTER 6

= 0 So
dy
dx
= 0
1
2
+
x
y = 0, x = 1. − y
1+x
⇒ ⇒
y
and
dy

1 −
dx

= 0 x = 0, y = 1 + x. = ∞⇒ x
1+x

Combined figure for (c) and (d)
y
x
(e) Graph by software.
3
2
3
4
y
1
0 1
x 2 3
13.
dT

= kT
0
V − bT

dt
dV
= NT

− cV
dt
kT
0
, b = 1, N = 1 and c = 2. So =
dT

dt
= −T

+
3
4
V = f
dV
= T

− 2V
Equilibria: f = 0 and g = 0 ⇒
−T

+
= g
dt
3
4
V = 0
T

− 2V = 0
Adding these we get V = 0 and then T

= 0.
Thus equilibria is (0, 0) .
∂f ∂f
A =
∂T

∂V
¸
−1
∂g ∂g
∂T

∂V
1 −2
3
4
. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies =


¸

175 NONLINEAR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN THE PLANE
¸
−1 − λ
1
3
4
= 0 det (A − λI) = 0 det ⇒
−2 − λ

2
+ 12λ + 5 = 0
3
4
(−1 − λ) (−2 − λ) − = 0 ⇒ ⇒
λ = −
1
2
5
2
(both negative). (2λ + 1) (2λ + 5) = 0 ⇒ ⇒ , −
So the equilibrium (0, 0) is a stable node.
¸
u
¸
−1 − λ
, satisfies
1
3
4
¸
u
¸
0

= . Eigenvector,
¸
−2 −

λ v 0 v
¸

1
¸
0

3 1
u
1
4 2
Eigenvector for λ = − : =
3
2
2

0
¸
3
− v
¸
u

1 3
v = 0. Let u = 3. Then v = 2 u + − = . ⇒
v 2
2 4
¸ ¸
0

3 3
u
5
2 4
1
Eigenvector for λ = − : =
2

1 v 0
2
¸
u
¸
1
3 3
v = 0. Let u = 1. Then v = −2 u + = . ⇒
v −2
2 4
1
(b) See text page 423 for the graph of the phase portrait.
dV
(c) Method of nullclines:
dV
=
dt
=
T

−2V
.
dT
∗ dT

−T

+
3
V
dt 4
3
So
dV
= 0 T

− 2V = 0 V =
dT

dV
= ∞⇒−T

+
T

.
2
⇒ ⇒
4
T

. and V = 0 V =
dT

4 3

v
T*
(d) Graph by software.
¸



¸


¸
3
176 CHAPTER 6
2 y
2
–2
x
–2
15.
dT

= kT
0
V − bT

dt
dV
= NT

− cV
9
4
dt
kT
0
, b = 1, N = 1 and c = 1. So =
dT

dt
= −T

+
9
4
V = f
dV
= g
dt
= T

− V
(a) Equilibria: f = 0 and g = 0 ⇒
−T

+
9
4
V = 0
T

− V = 0
Adding these we get V = 0 and then T

= 0.
Thus equilibria is (0, 0) .
∂f ∂f
A =
∂T

∂V
¸
−1
∂g ∂g
1
∂T

∂V
−1
¸
−1 − λ
det
1
9
4
. The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies =
9
4
det (A − λI) = 0 = 0 ⇒
5
2
1
2
−1 − λ

2
+ 8λ − 5 = 0
2
9
4
⇒ (−1 − λ)
(2λ − 1) (2λ + 5) = 0
= 0 − ⇒
λ = (one positive, one negative). , − ⇒
So the equilibrium (0, 0) is a saddle point.
¸
u
¸
−1 − λ
, satisfies
1
9
4
¸
u
¸
0

= . Eigenvector,
−1 − λ v 0
¸
0
v
¸

1
¸
9
4
3
2
u
1
2
: Eigenvector for λ = =
3
2
0

− v
¸
u


3
2
u +
9
4
v = 0. Let u = 3. Then v = 2 = ⇒
v 2
is unstable direction.
¸
u
¸
0

=
9
4
3
2
5
2
: Eigenvector for λ = −
1
3
2

v 0
¸
u
¸
3
3
2
u +
9
4
v = 0. Let u = 3. Then v = −2 = ⇒
v −2
is stable direction.
(b) Graph phase portrait using linear systems.
177 NONLINEAR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN THE PLANE
v
T*
dV
(c) Method of nullclines:
dV
=
dt
=
T

−V
.
dT
∗ dT
∗ 9
V
dt
−T

+
4
dV
So = 0 T

− V = 0 V
= ∞⇒−T

+
9
4
= T

.
dT

⇒ ⇒
dV 4 ∗
T .
9
and V = 0 V =
dT


y = v
T* = x
(d) Graph by software.
2 y
2
–2 x
–2
178 CHAPTER 6
6.4 MECHANICAL SYSTEMS
1.
saddle
Local maximum of potential is an unstable saddle point.
3.
saddle
center
179 NONLINEAR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN THE PLANE
Local maximum of potential is an unstable saddle point,
and local minimum of potential is a stable center.
5.
saddle
center center
Local maximum of potential is an unstable saddle point,
and two local minimum of potential are stable centers.
d
2
x
7.
dt
2
= x

1 + x
2

= f (x)
Equilibria: f = 0 ⇒ x

1 + x
2

= 0 ⇒ x = 0.
1 2 1 4
Potential: V (x) = −

f (x) dx = −

x + x
3

dx = −
2
x −
4
x .
180 CHAPTER 6
dx
dt
From the graph of the potential we see that the equlibrium
x = 0 is a local maximum and thus it is an unstable saddle point.
d
2
x
9. = x

1 − x
2

= f (x)
dt
2
Equilibria: f = 0 x

1 − x
2

= 0 x = 0 or x
2
= 1 ⇒ ⇒
⇒ x = 0, ±1.
1 2 1 4
Potential: V (x) = −

f (x) dx = −

x − x
3

dx = − x + x .
2 4
x= 0
x= -1 x= 1
NONLINEAR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN THE PLANE 181
From the graph of the potential we see that the equlibrium x = 0
is a local maximum and x = ±1 are local minimum. Thus x = 0 is
an unstable saddle point and x = ±1 are stable centers.
11.
d
2
x
= −x (6 − 3x) = −6x + 3x
2
= f (x)
dt
2
Equilibria: f = 0 ⇒−x (6 − 3x) = 0 x = 0 or 3x = 6 ⇒
x = 0, 2. ⇒
2 3
Potential: V (x) = −

f (x) dx = −

−6x + 3x
2

dx = 3x − x .
x=2
x=0
From the graph of the potential we see that the equlibrium
x = 0 is a local minimum and x = 2 is a local maximum. Thus
x = 0 is a stable center and x = 2 is an unstable saddle point.
13. Pendulum (nonlinear) without damping is given by
ml
d
2
x
+ mg sin x = 0
d
2
x
= −β sin x where β =
g
.
dt
2

dt
2
l
Let y =
dx
. Then
dy
=
d
2
x
= −β sin x.
dt dt dt
2
dy
dt
The slope field equation is then
dy
= =
−β sin x
dx
dx
y
dt

ydy = −β sin xdx. Integration yields
1
2
y
2
= β cos x + E, where
E is a constant of integration, known as energy. Thus the
conservation of energy for the pendulum without damping is
E =
1
y
2
− β cos x
2
E =
1

dx

2
− β cos x. ⇒
2 dt
15. The general conservative system is given by m
d
dt
2
2
x
= f (x) .
Multiplying this by
dx
we have m
dx d
2
x
= f (x)
dx
. Now we
dt dt dt
2
dt
d

dx

2
dx x
can rewrite this equation using the fact
1
2 dt dt
=
dt
d
dt
2
2
1 d

dx

2
= f (x)
dx
as m
2 dt dt dt
.
182 CHAPTER 6
Integrating this with respect to t we have
1
m
d

dx

2
dt =

f (x)
dx
dt
2 dt dt dt
1
m

dx

2

2 dt
=

f (x) dx + E
E =
1
m

dx

2


f (x) dx ⇒
2 dt
which is the conservation of energy.
17. Pendulum with resistive force is given by
x
ml
d
2
+ mg sin x = −δl
dx
.
dt
2
dt
In this problem m = δ = 1, l = 32. Also g = 32. So
32
d
2
x
+ 32 sin x = −32
dx d
2
x dx
− sin x.
dt
2
dt
d
2

dt
2
= −
dt
Let y =
dx
. Then
dy
=
x dx
− sin x = −y − sin x.
dt dt dt
2
= −
dt
Thus the diffrential equation can be written as a system:
dx
= y = f
dt
dy
= −y − sin x = g
dt
Equilibria: f = 0 y = 0 and then g = 0 gives sin x = 0 ⇒
x = nπ, n is an integer. Since the original equation is ⇒
for x only, the equilibrium is x = nπ, n is an integer.
¸
∂f ∂f
¸
¸
0 1

∂x ∂y
Jacobian A =
∂g ∂g
= .
∂x ∂y
− cos x −1
Since cos x has different values at even and odd π we separate
even and odd integers to have two sets of equilibria, x = 2nπ
and x = (2n + 1) π, n is an integer.
¸
0 1

For the equlibria x = 2nπ, A = . The eigenvalue,
¸
−λ
−1 −
1
1

λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = det = 0
−1 −1 − λ

λ
2
+ λ + 1 = 0
⇒ λ =
−1±

1−4
2
1
±

3
i (complex with negative real part).
2
= −
2
Thus the equlibria x = 2nπ are stable spirals.
¸
0 1

For the equlibria x = (2n + 1) π, A = .
1 −1
The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
1
det (A − λI) = det
¸

1
λ
−1 − λ

= 0 ⇒
λ
2
+λ−1 = 0 λ =
−1±

1+4
=
−1±

5
(one positive, one negative). ⇒
2 2
Thus the equlibria x = (2n + 1) π are unstable saddle points.
19. Pendulum with resistive force is given by
x
ml
d
2
+ mg sin x = −δl
dx
.
dt
2
dt
In this problem m =
3
1
, δ = 1, l = 32. Also g = 32. So
32 d
2
x
+
32
sin x = −32
dx d
2
x
= −3
dx
− sin x.
3 dt
2
3 dt dt
2
dt
Let y =
dx
. Then
dy
=
d
2
x

= −3
dx
− sin x = −3y − sin x.
dt dt dt
2
dt
Thus the diffrential equation can be written as a system:
dx
= y = f
dt
dy
= −3y − sin x = g
dt
183 NONLINEAR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN THE PLANE
Equilibria: f = 0 y = 0 and then g = 0 gives sin x = 0 ⇒
x = nπ, n is an integer. Since the original equation is ⇒
for x only, the equilibrium is x = nπ, n is an integer.
¸
∂f
¸
¸
0 1

∂f
∂x ∂y
Jacobian A =
∂g ∂g
= .
∂x ∂y
− cos x −3
Since cos x has different values at even and odd π we separate
even and odd integers to have two sets of equilibria, x = 2nπ
and x = (2n + 1) π, n is an integer.
¸
0 1

For the equlibria x = 2nπ, A = . The eigenvalue,
¸
−λ
−1 −
1
3

λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = det
−1 −3 − λ
= 0 ⇒
−3±

9−4 −3±

5
λ
2
+ 3λ + 1 = 0 λ =
2
=
2
(both negative). ⇒
Thus the equlibria x = 2nπ are stable nodes.
¸
0 1

For the equlibria x = (2n + 1) π, A = .
1 −3
The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies
¸
−λ 1

det (A − λI) = det
−3 − λ
= 0 ⇒
1
λ
2
+ 3λ − 1 = 0 λ =
−3±

9+4
=
−3±

13
(one positive, one ⇒
2 2
negative).
Thus the equlibria x = (2n + 1) π are unstable saddle points.
21. Graph using software. Same phase plane as in Figure 6.4.5.
23. Graph using software.
0
-2
−π
2
0 π 2π 3π 4π 5π
184 CHAPTER 6
25. Graph using software.
0
2
-2
−π
0 2π 3π 4π π 5π

Copyright c 2008 by Princeton University Press Published by Princeton University Press 41 William Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 In the United Kingdom: Princeton University Press 6 Oxford Street, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, 0X20 1TW All Rights Reserved
A This book has been composed in L TEX

press.princeton.edu

Contents

Preface Chapter 1. First-Order Differential Equations and Their Applications Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations Definite Integral and the Initial Value Problem First-Order Separable Differential Equations Direction Fields Euler’s Numerical Method (Optional) First-Order Linear Differential Equations Linear First-Order Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients and Constant Input 1.8 Growth and Decay Problems 1.9 Mixture Problems 1.10 Electronic Circuits 1.11 Mechanics II: Including Air Resistance 1.12 Orthogonal Trajectories (optional) Chapter 2. Linear Second and Higher-Order Differenial Equations 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 General Solution of Second-Order Linear Differential Equations Initial Value Problem (For Homogeneous Equation) Reduction of Order Homogeneous Linear Constant Coefficient Differential Equations (Second Order) 2.5 Mechanical Vibrations I: Formulation and Free Response 2.6 The Method of Undetermined Coefficients 2.7 Mechanical Vibrations II: Forced Response 2.8 Linear Electric Circuits 2.9 Euler Equation 2.10 Variation of Parameters (Second-Order) 2.11 Variation of Parameters (nth-Order) 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7

v 1 1 1 3 5 7 10 15 20 23 25 26 27 29 29 30 32 35 39 45 58 65 68 70 75 82 82 86 94 98 109 114 118

Chapter 3. The Laplace Transform 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Definition and Basic Properties Inverse Laplace Transforms (Roots, Quadratics, & Partial Fractions) Initial-Value Problems for Differential Equations Discontinuous Forcing Functions Periodic Functions Integrals and the Convolution Theorem Impulses and Distributions

An Introduction to Linear Systems of Differential Equations and Their Phase Plane 4. Nonlinear Systems of Differential Equations in the Plane 6. Linear Stability Analysis of Equilibrium.3 5.2 6.2 4.1 5.4 First-Order Differential Equations Equilibria and Stability One Dimensional Phase Lines Application to Population Dynamics: The Logistic Equation Chapter 6.1 4.2 5.1 6.3 Introduction Introduction to Linear Systems of Differential Equations Phase Plane for Linear Systems of Differential Equations 121 121 121 130 142 142 142 143 146 150 150 150 161 178 Chapter 5. and Phase Plane Population Models Mechanical Systems . Mostly Nonlinear First-Order Differential Equations 5.4 Introduction Equilibria of Nonlinear Systems.iv CONTENTS Chapter 4.3 6.

I take this opportunity to thank Professor Richard Haberman for his generous expert help. I would also like to thank Professor Stephen L. and my daughters. M. 2007. constructive comments and accuracy checking. 75275. Instead of providing only the answer with very few steps. Finally. Vickie Kearn of the publishing company for her patience and support. This manual has been written focusing student’s needs and expectations. I would like to thank many people who have provided invaluable help. First. in the preparation of this manual. Professor Peter K.A. I include a reasonably detailed solution with a fair amount of detail when explaining the solution of the problem. I must appreciate the patience of my wife. To master the concepts in a mathematics text the students must solve problems which sometimes may be challenging.S. . Zareen and Ehram for their understanding and compromise of summer time that was slighted because of my busy schedule. The solutions are self-explanatory and consistent with the notations and terminologies used in the text book. Rukshana. U. Campbell for assembling the final manuscript. in many ways. TX. I hope this manual will help students build problem-solving skills. July. Moore for facilitating support process and Ms.Preface This Student Solutions Manual contains solutions to the odd-numbered exercises in the text Introduction to Differential Equations with Dynamical Systems by Stephen L. Ziaul Haque Southern Methodist University Dallas. Campbell and Richard Haberman.

.

dx = =⇒ x d2 x dt2 = −15. 15. r. x = t − 1. Use of t et = 3 + 1 1+t dt.h. = dx = 6e3t .s. Hence l.s = t−1 = t−1 = 1. 1.s.s.h. Hence l. x = − 5 sin 6t + c. dx = −5 cos 6t. Integrating we get. Hence l.h.h. x = 3et + c. dt r.s. x=5+ 21. dt 11. Substitute expression for x into the differential equation 1. x(2) = 3.s.s. = dx = 1. l. Hence l.2 DEFINITE INTEGRAL AND THE INITIAL VALUE PROBLEM 1-7.h. x = 2e3t + 1.) dx dt = −15t + v0 . 9. Use of definite integral gives x = 8 = ln(4 + cos2 t). 5 5 5 5 ln t 19. Use of definite integral gives dt 13. t ln t dt.h. r.h. = dx = 2tet .h. 2 4+cos2 t t et dt 1 1+t x(1) = 3. 23.s.1 INTRODUCTION TO ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS There are no exercises in this section. x = et .s.s. definite integral gives .h. = dx = −2e−2t . x = e−2t . l.s. dt = t4 .h. = r.h. dx = 4+cos2 t .h. dx = 3et .h. Use of definite integral gives t x = 0 ln(4 + cos2 t)dt + c dx 17. = r. So x = 1 t5 − 17 .) 2 x−3= et 1+t dt. dt 7. = et 1+t . x t−1 3.h. = r. Integrating we get dx dx dt = −15t + c1 ( dt = v0 at t = 0 =⇒ c1 = v0 . Integrating we get. = −2e2t x2 = −2e2t (e−2t )2 = −2e−2t .h. Integrating again we get x = − 15 t2 + v0 t + c2 (x = 0 at t = 0 =⇒ c2 = 0.s. x(2) = 5.Chapter One First-Order Differential Equations and Their Applications 1.s. dx dt dx dt dx dt 1 2 2 2 t 0 cos t −1 2 dt + c. Integrating we get x = 1 t5 + c. = 3x − 3 = 3(2e3t + 1) − 3 = 6e3t .h.s = 2tx = 2tet . dt 6 = 8 cos(t− 2 ).s. 5 t = 2 =⇒ 3 = 32 + c =⇒ c = − 17 . dt r. l. dt 5. l.s. = r.

8 ( 9. = Q m /h.8 )2 + 9. Integrating again we get dt x = − 2500 t2 + v0 t + c2 (x = 0 at t = 0 =⇒ c2 = 0) 2 Car stops when dx = 0 =⇒ v0 − 2500t = 0 dt v0 =⇒ t = 2500 (stopping time). Integrating again we get dt x = − 2500 t2 + 60t + c2 (x = 0 at t = 0 =⇒ c2 = 0. 1 1 (b) dx = kt .8 y = − 92 t2 + v0 t + c2 (y = 0 at t = 0 =⇒ c2 = 0. So distance travelled is 60 602 x = − 2500 ( 2500 )2 + 2500 = 0. dt y = ct + c1 (y = 0 at t = 0 ⇒ c1 = 0).8t + c1 ( dt = v0 at t = 0 =⇒ c1 = v0 . Integrating again we get dt x = −t3 + 62t + c2 (x = 0 at t = 2 =⇒ c2 = −116. So dy = c ⇒ 31. t = 3 and x(3) = 0. Now consider the snowplow has moved ∆x over the time ∆t and the approximate change in volume over this time is ∆V.8t + v0 . So maximum height is √ 2 2 2 v0 v0 v0 1 v0 y = − 9.8 m/sec . So dx = −3t2 + 62. 1 1 1 4 x(4) = k ln 4 − k ln 3 = k ln 3 . Integrating we get dx = −2500t + c1 ( dx = 60 at t = 0 dt dt dt =⇒ c1 = 60).72 km.2 CHAPTER 1 v0 Car stops when dx = 0 =⇒ v0 − 15t = 0 =⇒ t = 15 (stopping time). 2 2 . Now taking limit ∆t ∆t Q 1 as ∆t → 0 we get dV = Q = wct dx ⇒ dx = wct = kt with dt dt dt wc k= Q.8 (time at maximum height). 2 2 x 29. d 2 = −2500. Separating the variables we get. Integrating again we get . d2 y 2 dt2 = −g = −9. So distance travelled is 62 3 (62 62 3 3 2 x = t(62 − t2 ) − 116 = = 62 2 3 ( 3 )62 − 62 3 ) − 116 33.8 =⇒ v0 = 1960 m/sec. Integrating we get dx = −2500t + c1 ( dx = v0 at t = 0 dt dt dt =⇒ c1 = v0 ). d 2 = −6t. So dx = −2500t + 60. (a) V =volume. Then at noon (t = 4). So 1 1 0 = k ln 3 + a ⇒ a = − k ln 3.) So dy dt = −9. Integrating we get dx = −3t2 + c1 ( dx = 50 at t = 2 dt dt dt =⇒ c1 = 62).) Car stops when dx = 0 =⇒ −3t2 + 62 = 0 dt v2 v2 =⇒ t = 62 3 (stopping time). Integrating we get dy dy dt = −9. At 11 A. d 2 = −2500. So distance travelled is v0 0 0 x = − 2500 ( 2500 )2 + 2500 = 5000 km.M. So dx = −2500t + v0 . 2 2 x 27. dV dt 3 − 116 = 2 − 116 km. 2 2 2 2 x 25.) 2 Car stops when dx = 0 =⇒ −2500t + 60 = 0 dt 60 =⇒ t = 2500 (stopping time).8t = 0 dt v0 =⇒ t = 9.8 = 2 9. Thus y = ct. dx = k 1 dt ⇒ dt t 1 x = k ln t + a. dt So distance travelled is 2 √ 2 2 v0 v0 v0 v0 x = − 15 ( 15 )2 + 15 = 1 15 =⇒ 75 = 1 15 =⇒ v0 = 15 10 m/sec.8 =⇒ 100 = 1 9. Let snow depth be y.) At maximum height dy = 0 =⇒ v0 − 9. Hence ∆V = w(∆x)y = wct∆x ⇒ ∆V = wct ∆x .

dx dt 1− cos(t )dt dx cos(x−1/2 ) = t cos(x−1/2 ). dx 3. Separating variables gives dt 2 dx (t + 4) dt.8t.FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 3 35. du dt = 2 t2 2 − 1 2 = t2 − 1 .3 FIRST-ORDER SEPARABLE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 1. Integrating we get. y = − 9.8 t2 + 200. Integrating we get. Separating variables gives dx = 3dt. = Separating variables gives . 11. Separating variables gives x 2 dx cos(x−1/2 ) t2 +1 u2 +4 .8 t2 + c2 dt 2 (y = 200 at t = 0 =⇒ c2 = 200). Using x(2) = 1 we get. u2 + 4 du = t2 + 1 dt.8 2 2 t = 200 =⇒ t = t 0 400 9. x = et + c. Separating variables gives x−2 dx = cos(t2 )dt. Separating variables gives |x+1| |t| dx x+1 = x+1 t dt t . So 0 = − 9.) dt = −9. 1. Separating variables gives dx = et dt. Integrating we get. dt = et . Integrating we get. the general solution x = t0 t0 f t dt + c becomes x0 = 0 t f t dt + c =⇒ c = x0 − t0 0 f t dt. x = 1 tdt ⇒ 15. Integrating we get dy dy ⇒ c1 = 0.8 = sec. dx 7.8t + c1 ( dt = 0 at t = 0 = So dy = −9. ln |x + 3| = t2 + 4t + c1 x+3 = t2 t2 ⇒ |x + 3| = ec1 e 2 +4t ⇒ x = ce 2 +4t − 3 where c = ±ec1 . dx = x5 . d y 2 dt2 = −g = −9.8 y = 0. 5. dx dt = x+1 t . Since x(t0 ) = x0 . − 1 = 2 + c ⇒ c = − 9 . 37. 4 4 −1/4 Substituting c we get x−4 = 9 − 4t ⇒ x = (9 − 4t) . 1 x−2 dx = 1 x t cos(t )dt 0 t 2 ⇒ 1 −x t +1= 0 1 t 0 cos(t )dt ⇒ 2 2 =1− cos(t )dt 0 2 ⇒x= 13. Separating variables gives x−5 dx = dt. dt −4 − x 4 = t + c.8 t2 2 + 200 ⇒ 9. Now to 2 2 fall. Using dt x definite integrals we get. dx cos(x−1/2 ) 1 2 t = tdt. Integrating we get. x = 3t + c. dt = 3. Integrating again we get y = − 9. dx = tx + 4x + 3t + 12 = (x + 3) (t + 4) . 20 √ 9.8 m/sec . dx = x2 cos(t2 ). Using definite integrals we get. ln |x + 1| = ln |t| + c1 ⇒ ln = c1 ⇒ = ec1 x+1 c1 ⇒ t = ±e = c ⇒ x = ct − 1. 9. Hence the solution is 0 t x= 0 f t dt + x0 − f t dt = x0 + t0 f t dt.

Then equating the coefficients of x2 we have A + B = 0 ⇒ B = −1. dx 17. u + 4u = t3 + t + c. A B 1 x(x−1) = x + x−1 ⇒ 1 = A (x − 1) + Bx. Since x = 0 and x = 1 both satisfy the differential equation they are also solutions. Putting x = 0 and 1. 1 1 + 1 dt + 1 + x dx = 0. 3 13 1 3 + 4 = c ⇒ c = 3 . tan−1 (x) = t3 + t + c x2 +1 = ⇒ x = tan 19. (z2 −9) + (t2dt = 0. Separating variables gives x(x−1) = dt. x = 1−ket . Hence dx dx dx dx = x−1 − x−2 + (x−2)2 = dt. Solving this 1 equation for x we obtain the general solution. Hence t3 3 the solution is x = tan + t + tan−1 (2) . x = 1 and x = 2. A B C 1 = x−1 + x−2 + (x−2)2 ⇒ (x−1)(x−2)2 1 sides we obtain the solution. t2 − 4 dz + z 2 − 9 dt = 0. dt = (x − 1) (x − 2) . dx dt t3 3 + t + c . Now integrating we have. Putting x = 1 and 2. (tx + x) dt + (tx + t) dx = 0. we have. Hence the solutions are 1 ln |x − 1| − ln |x − 2| − x−2 = t + c. Dividing by t2 − 4 z 2 − 9 dz we get. A = −1 and B = 1. Dividing by tx we get. dt = t2 x2 + x2 + t2 + 1 = x2 + 1 t2 + 1 . Hence dx dx dx dt ⇒ ln |x − 1| − ln |x| = t + c x(x−1) = x−1 − x = x−1 x−1 ⇒ ln x = t + c ⇒ x = ket where k = ±ec . t t + ln |t| + x + ln |x| = c ⇒ ln |tx| = −t − x + c ⇒ tx = ±ec e−t e−x ⇒ tet xex = c where c = ±ec . c = tan−1 (2). dx = x (x − 1) .4 3 3 CHAPTER 1 Integrating we get. Separating variables gives 3 dx t2 + 1 dt. we have. 23. respectively. x = 0 is not included in the general solution for any finite k. respectively. Integrating we get. 2 dx dx 21. Using u(0) = 1 we get. ln |x − 1| − ln |x − 2| − x−2 = t + c. 1 Hence the solutions are x = 1−ket and x = 0. Using partial fractions to the integral on the left we get. however. The solution x = 1 corresponds to k = 0. Separating variables gives (x−1)(x−2)2 = dt. Using partial fractions to the integral on the left we get. Integrating both (x−1)(x−2)2 2 = 1 2a ln u−a u+a (from integration table) to integrate and = c ⇒ ln ⇒ z−3 z+3 z−3 z+3 1/6 1 4 get ln z−3 z+3 z−3 z+3 z−3 1 t−2 z+3 + 4 ln t+2 1/6 1/4 t−2 = ec t+2 1/6 t−2 t+2 t−2 t+2 1/4 1/4 =c⇒ 3 2 = ±ec ⇒ t+2 t−2 1 6 = ±ec t−2 t+2 1 −4 = ±ec t+2 t−2 ⇒ z−3 z+3 =c . A = 1 and C = 1. Since x = 1 and x = 2 both satisfy the differential equation they are also solutions. Using x(0) = 2 we get. Substituting c we obtain the solution as u3 + 12u = t3 + 3t + 13. Now we use the formula −4) du u2 −a2 1 6 1 = A (x − 2) + B (x − 1) (x − 2) + C (x − 1) . 25.

−4x e−t dt + e−4x dx = 0. 2 tan 2 −1 dx t+x 33.FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 5 where c = (±ec ) . Now integrating we have. dt dt dz dt. dt = e (t + x) − 1. ze−z dz = dt. 27. et+x dt + e2t−3x dx = 0. Let z = t + 4x − 1. Dividing by ex e2t we get. −e−t − e 4 = c −4x −t −t ⇒e = −4e − 4c ⇒ −4x = ln (−4e − 4c) ⇒ 1 x = − 4 ln (−4e−t + k) where k = −4c. ⇒ v = −e−z . a+bf (z) = 31. Let z = t + x. Differentiating with respect to t we get. dx dt 2 6 1. Separating the dt dt variables we get. 29. This gives −e−z (z + 1) = t + c. z = at + bx + c. Then dx = ez z −1 − 1 dt and dz = 1 + dx = 1 + ez z −1 − 1 = ez z −1 . 2 x 0 −2 0 t 2 . We use integration by parts to integrate the left hand side as u = z ⇒ du = dz and dv = e−z dz. Then ze−z dz = udv = uv − vdu = −ze−z + e−z dz = −ze−z − e−z . Substituting z = t + x we get the solution as −e−(t+x) (t + x + 1) = t + c ⇒ e−t−x (t + x + 1) = −t + c. This gives 1 1+u2 = dt ⇒ 2 1 −1 (2z) = t + c ⇒ 1 tan−1 (2t + 8x − 2) = t + c. We use the substitution u = 2z ⇒ dz = 1 du 1+4z 2 = 2 du to integrate the left hand side. Then dx = z 2 = f (z) dt and dz = 1 + 4 dx = 1 + 4z 2 . = (t + 4x − 1) . Separating the variables we get.4 DIRECTION FIELDS 1. dz dx dz dt = a + b dt ⇒ dt = a + bf (z) which is a differential equation in z and t and can be solved by separation of variables as dz dt.

4. 13. x0 ) such that x0 + t0 = 0. x0 ) such that x0 = 1.So unique solution exists for all (t0 . So unique solution exists for all (t0 . x0 ) . So unique solution exists for all (t0 . 2 x 0 −2 0 t 2 1. x) and fx = (x−1)2 are not continuous at x = 1. 3. 9. So unique solution exists for all (t0 . So unique solution exists for all (t0 . dx cos t − cos t dt = x−1 = f (t. x) . x0 ) . 5. 2 CHAPTER 1 x 0 −2 0 t 2 5. x0 ) such that t0 = 0. x) and fx = 7 1 − t2 − x2 dt = 1 − t − x 3 continuous for all (t. x) is continuous for all (t. dx dt x 1 = 1+t2 = f (t. x) but fx = 5(x+t)4/5 dt = (x + t) is not continuous for x + t = 0. 11. x) . 1/5 dx 1 = f (t. x) is not continuous at t = 0 although fx = 0 is continuous everywhere. (a) Differentiating t2 + x2 = c wrt(with respect to) t we get. 7. 1/2 dx 2 2 3/2 = f (t.1 Existence and Uniqueness 1. x) and fx = −6x 1 − t2 − 2x2 dt = 1 − t − 2x 2 2 are continuous for 1 − t − 2x > 0. 4/3 dx 2 2 7/3 are = f (t. x) and fx = 1+t2 are continuous for all (t. 0 0 dx 1 dt = t1/3 = f (t. So unique solution exists for all (t0 . . x0 ) such that t2 + 2x2 < 1.6 3.

Hence the theorem fails to hold at this point. l. 1 + 2x dx = 0. As a result. uniqueness does not hold and two solutions in part (b) is not a surprise. (a) For x = 1.s. x0 = 1. x0 ) with x0 = 1.s. x) and fx = −2x are continuous dt everywhere. (a) Differentiating x = c sin t wrt t we get. is 4 5t (b) By separating the variables we r. ±1. as f (t.Hence the theorem fails to hold at the point t0 = nπ for n = 0. So there are at least two solutions through the point (t0 . (a) Differentiating x = t+c wrt t we get. t0 = 0. 1/5 21. = (x − 1) = 0. dt 7 For x = 4 5t +c 5/4 + 1. 15. 4 + 1. x) . dt 1 Hence x = t+c defines a solution. x) and fx = 2x2 are discontinuous at dt x0 = 0.s. .. = (x − 1) 1/5 = +c dx dt 5/4 = 4 5t +c 1/4 and 4 + 1. (b) graph 1 1 (c) Here dx = − 2x = f (t.. Another solution is one solution is x = 5 t − 4 t0 5 clearly x = 1 because it satisfies the initial condition as well as the differential equation. dt Hence t + x2 = c defines a solution. h = 0. ±2. dx = − (t+c)2 = −x2 . is dx = 0 and r. Hence there is NO point where the theorem fails to holds. Then using the integration..5 EULER’S NUMERICAL METHOD (OPTIONAL) 1. 1 1 19.h. = dt which.. Hence t2 + x2 = c defines dt dt a solution. . dx dt = x − t = f (t.s. dx x cos t dt = c cos t = c x cos t = cx c sin t = x cot t. We use recursive formula. ±1. ±2. x) and fx = cos t are discontinuous dt sin sin when sin t = 0 ⇒ t = nπ for n = 0. l. becomes x = 5 t + c initial condition x0 = 1 for any t0 we get c = − 4 t0 and thus 5 5/4 dx get. 17. on 1. (a) Differentiating t + x2 = c wrt t we get.h. Hence x = c sin t defines a solution. (b) graph t (c) At x0 = 0. (x−1)1/5 5/4 +1−1 1/5 = 4 5t +c 1/4 .h. 1 fx = (x−1)4/5 is not continuous at x0 = 1.FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS t 2t + 2x dx = 0 ⇒ dx = − x .h. (c) Graph 1/5 (d) Although f (t. (b) graph t t (c) Here dx = x cos t = f (t. x) = (x − 1) is continuous everywhere. (b) graph (c) Here dx = −x2 = f (t. . x) = − x and fx = xt2 are discontinuous at this point.5.

x) .5) = 2 at t2 = 1 x3 = x2 + h (x2 − t2 ) = 2 + 0. . x0 = 1. x) .. h = 0. xi = 0 at ti for all i = 0. dt We use recursive formula.5) = 3 at t2 = 1 x3 = 2 (x2 − t2 ) = 2(3 − 1) = 4 at t3 = 1.. (a) dx = −20x = f (t. x0 = 1. t0 = 0.5 x2 = x1 + 0.5) = 5 at t4 = 2 So estimate for x(2) is x4 = 5. where tn+1 = tn + h to approximate x1 = x0 + h (x0 − t0 ) = 1 + 0. n Here xn = (0.5) = 3 at t4 = 2 So estimate for x(2) is x4 = 3. x0 = 1. xn+1 = xn + hf (tn . xn+1 = xn + hf (tn .5(1 − 0) = 1. dt We use recursive formula. xn ) = xn + 0. where tn+1 = tn + h to approximate x1 = 2 (x0 − t0 ) = 2(1 − 0) = 2 at t1 = 0. dt xn+1 = xn + hf (tn . (b) In this case. 10 So estimate for x(2) is x10 = (−3) = 59049. n = 0.5. x0 = 1. 11. h = 0. 1. n = 0. dx = −tx2 = f (t.248 × 10−18 .248 × 10−18 is not too bad. t0 = 0.01 (−20xn ) = 0. So x10 = 59049 is not a very good approximation. 5.5 + 0.01n. so the numerical solution behaves like the actual solution x = e−20t and the statement x200 ≈ x(2) = e−40 = 4... dx = sin x = f (t. where tn+1 = tn + h to approximate x1 = x0 + 0.5 x4 = x3 + h (x3 − t3 ) = 2. h = 0. . h = 0. xn ) = xn + 0.5 + 0.5(2 − 1) = 2..8) at tn = 0. 2. x) . xn ) = xn − tn x2 .5 (sin xn ) .5 at t3 = 1.2. n Here xn = (−3) at tn = 0. x) . xn → 0 as n → ∞. x) .5 at t1 = 0. (a) dx = −20x = f (t. 3.1495 × 10−20 .8 CHAPTER 1 xn+1 = xn + hf (tn . We use recursive dt formula. So estimate for x(4) is x8 = 0. 1. xn ) = xn + 0.. . xn ) = xn + 0..5 sin x1 = 0 at t2 = 1 Similarly.5(1.5 − 1. dx = 2x − 4t = f (t. x(2) = e−40 = 4.8xn . 8. 2. (b) xn oscillates wildly as n → ∞.5 sin x0 = 0 at t1 = 0. xn+1 = xn + hf (tn .5 (xn − tn ).2n.5 − 0. 200 So estimate for x(2) is x200 = (0.5 x2 = 2 (x1 − t1 ) = 2(2 − 0. 1. t0 = 0.5 (2xn − 4tn ) = 2 (xn − tn ) . We use recursive dt formula.8) = 4. t0 = 0.2 (−20xn ) = −3xn . .5 x2 = x1 + h (x1 − t1 ) = 1. x0 = 0.5. xn+1 = xn + hf (tn .01.5(2. where tn+1 = tn + h n to approximate x1 = x0 − ht0 x2 = 1 − 0 = 1 at t1 = 1 0 x2 = x1 − ht1 x2 = 1 − 1 = 0 at t2 = 2 1 So estimate for x(2) is x2 = 0. h = 1. xn ) = xn + 0. 7. 9. We use recursive formula.5 x4 = 2 (x3 − t3 ) = 2(4 − 1. t0 = 0.

5 2 x6 = x5 + 0.2 (x2 − 1) = 2.1 (x7 − 1) = 0.1 (x3 − 1) = −0.2 at t1 = 0. xn+1 = xn + hf (tn .1908 at t8 = 0. that is 10 steps after initial step and the estimates for x(1) is x10 = 6. where tn+1 = tn + h to approximate 2 x1 = x0 + 0.4 1 x3 = x2 + 0.2 2 x2 = x1 + 0.1. xn+1 = xn + hf (tn .2 (x1 − 1) = 2. x0 = 1.591 at t8 = 1.2x2 = 1. x) .8 3 x5 = x4 + 0.1368 using software.2 (x8 − 1) = 1659.4 2 x5 = x4 + 0.488 at t2 = 0.2 (x6 − 1) = 19.2.01 the estimates for x(1) is 30.001 the estimates for x(1) is 193.6 2 x4 = x3 + 0.2 1 − 2xn + x2 n 2 = xn + 0.1 (x4 − 1) = −0. For h = 0.2 at t1 = 0.0148 at t6 = 0. dx dt .2 0 x2 = x1 + 0.2 (x0 − 1) = −5 + 7.3 2 x4 = x3 + 0.2 (x9 − 1) = 551627. t0 = 0.4913 at t3 = 0.6764 at t4 = 0.2x2 = 2.1 (xn − 1) .2689 at t4 = 0.676 at t4 = 0.488 at t2 = 0.109.2 = 2.265 at t9 = 1. xn ) = xn + 0.1 1 − 2xn + x2 n 2 = xn + 0. where tn+1 = tn + h n to approximate x1 = x0 + 0.9308 at t3 = 0. 17.57 and it seems to tend to infinity.488 + 0.4 at t1 = 0. h = 0.2x2 = 1 + 0. dx = 1 − 2x + x2 = f (t.2 (x4 − 1) = 5.57 at t10 = 2 So estimate for x(2) is x10 = 551627.1 2 x2 = x1 + 0. x) .4326 = 4.2 2 x3 = x2 + 0.1 (x0 − 1) = −1.1 (x1 − 1) = −0.6764 + 1. dx = 1 − 2x + x2 = f (t. 15.8 2 x5 = x4 + 0. h = 0.1 (x5 − 1) = 0. xn ) = xn + 0.2 = 1.486 at t6 = 1.2 2 x7 = x6 + 0.2x2 = 1.694 at t7 = 1.6 2 x4 = x3 + 0. xn ) = xn + 0.443 = 1. x0 = −5.2 (x7 − 1) = 89. h = 0. We use recursive formula.8 2 x10 = x9 + 0.1 (x6 − 1) = 0. There are 11 points this time. dt We use recursive formula. where tn+1 = tn + h to approximate 2 x1 = x0 + 0.2.2 + 0.6 2 x7 = x6 + 0.1 (x2 − 1) = −0.109 at t5 = 1 4 So estimate for x(1) is x5 = 4. t0 = 0. t0 = 0.9308 + 0.8 13.FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 9 = x2 = f (t.1079 at t5 = 0. xn+1 = xn + hf (tn .2 (x5 − 1) = 8.824 at t2 = 0.1289.2 (x3 − 1) = 3.288 = 1.2 (xn − 1) .109 at t5 = 1 2 x6 = x5 + 0.1119 at t7 = 0.6 2 x9 = x8 + 0. For h = 0.4 2 x3 = x2 + 0.931 at t3 = 0.7 2 x8 = x7 + 0.1 use the same formula and procedure as above. dt We use recursive formula.2x2 = 1.4 2 x8 = x7 + 0.7456 = 2. x0 = −5. x) .3897 using software and for h = 0.2x2 .

By separation we obtain dt + cos(t 1 dx = − cos(t− 2 )dt.4678 at t14 = 1. dx dt 0 t 1 . By separation we obtain x = 2 2 c1 t t2 ln |x| = t + c1 ⇒ |x| = e e ⇒ x = ce .1 (x18 − 1) = 0. Integration x 11.1 (x17 − 1) = 0. 2t dx + x = 0.1 (x9 − 1) = 0. 9.5652 at t18 = 1.1 (x13 − 1) = 0. Definite integration yields x ln |x| = − cos(s− 2 )ds + c1 ⇒ |x| = ec1 exp − cos(s− 2 )ds 0 0 t 1 t 1 ⇒ x = c exp − cos(s− 2 )ds . dx −1/2 ) x = 0. 5.2563 at t9 = 0. Integration yields ln |x| = − sin t + c1 ⇒ |x| = ec1 e− sin t ⇒ x = ce− sin t .2 Solutions of Homogeneous First-Order Linear Differential Equations 1.8 2 x19 = x18 + 0. Integration yields dt = 2tx.4 at t12 = 1.1 (x12 − 1) = 0.6 2 x17 = x16 + 0.9 2 x10 = x9 + 0.4961 at t15 = 1. dx dx 2tdt. By separation we obtain dx = 9 dt. = −5x.1 2 x12 = x11 + 0.2 2 x13 = x12 + 0.1 (x11 − 1) = 0.1 (x16 − 1) = 0.7 2 x18 = x17 + 0.5 2 x16 = x15 + 0. dt = 9x.436 at t13 = 1. By separation we obtain dx = −5 dt.6. dx dx dt + (cos t) x = 0. 3. where c = ±ec1 .359 at t11 = 1. dx dt 7.1 (x14 − 1) = 0.5841 at t19 = 1.5215 at t16 = 1.6. 1.1 (x8 − 1) = 0.1 Form of the General Solution There are no exercises in this subsection. c = 9 and the solution is x = 9e−5t . 2 CHAPTER 1 1.6014 at t20 = 2 So estimate for x(2) is x20 = 0.3116 at t10 = 1 2 x11 = x10 + 0.4 2 x15 = x14 + 0.6 FIRST-ORDER LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 1.5444 at t17 = 1. where c = ±ec1 . By separation we obtain dx = 3 dt. where c = ±ec1 .10 x9 = x8 + 0. dx 13. Using the initial condition x(0) = 9 we get. Integration x yields ln |x| = −5t + c1 ⇒ x = ±ec1 e−5t = ce−5t .6014. By separation we obtain x = − cos tdt. = 3x.9 2 x20 = x19 + 0. Integration dt x 2 t 1 yields ln |x| = − 2 ln |t| + c1 ⇒ ln |x| + ln t1/2 = c1 ⇒ ln xt1/2 = c1 ⇒ xt1/2 = ec1 ⇒ xt1/2 = ±ec1 ⇒ x = ct−1/2 where c = ±ec1 . By separation we obtain dx = − 1 dt .3 2 x14 = x13 + 0.1 (x15 − 1) = 0. Integration yields x ln |x| = 3t + c1 ⇒ |x| = ec1 e3t ⇒ x = ce3t .1 (x19 − 1) = 0. where c = ±ec1 .1 (x10 − 1) = 0.

s. Integration yields dt xe4t = te4t dt. By separation we obtain dx = − t1 dt. Integration yields dt t 2 x t + 1 = t + c ⇒ x = t2 +1 + t2 c .3 Integrating Factors for First-Order Linear Differential Equations 19. dt 23. x t Definite integration yields ln |x| = − t 5 sin s 4+es ds + c1 ⇒ x = c exp − 5 sin s 4+es ds . t Using the initial condition x(1) = 3 we get. 7 = ce27 ⇒ c = 7e−27 and the solution is x = 7e9t−27 = 7e9(t−3) . dt + 4+ett x = 0. c = 16 . p(t) = (t22t .= udv = uv − vdu = 4 te − 4 e4t dt = 4 te4t − 16 e4t . 1 Using the initial condition x(0) = 0 we have. Then 1 4t 1 1 1 r. We use integration by parts on the r. p(t) = 1 . dx + 4x = t. dx = 3et . t dx + x = et ⇒ dx + x = et . Hence the solution is xt = et + 1 − e ⇒ x = e +1−e .6. dx sin sin 15. 1 4t 1 4t 1 1 So xe4t = 4 te − 16 e + c ⇒ x = 4 t − 16 + ce−4t . 3 = ce 1 ⇒ c = 3e−1 and the solution is x = 3e( t −1) . as 1 u = t ⇒ du = dt and dv = e4t dt ⇒ v = 4 e4t . Integration yields xt = et + c.h. p(t) = 4. Using the initial condition x(3) = 7 we get. By integration we obtain dx = 3 et dt ⇒ x = 3et + c. Multiplying by integrating factor we get . t dx = 2x ⇒ dx − 2 x = 0. 5 1. 1 = e + c t ⇒ c = 1 − e. dx dt . t 21.s.h. dt Multiplying by integrating factor we get d e4t dx + 4e4t x = te4t ⇒ dt xe4t = te4t . +1 25. p(t) = − 2 . The integrating factor is dt dt t t e p(t)dt = eln|t| = t. Using the initial condition x(5) = 10 t sin s 4+es ds we get. 1 1 1 −4t Hence the solution is x = 4 t − 16 + 16 e . dt Using the initial condition x(1) = 1 we get. The integrating factor is dt dt t t 1 e p(t)dt = e−2 t dt = e−2 ln t = t−2 . The integrating factor is e p(t)dt = e4t . 27. t2 + 1 dx + 2tx = 1 ⇒ dx + (t22t x = (t21 . 2 x Integration yields ln |x| = 1 + c1 ⇒ x = ±ec1 e1/t = ce1/t . c = 10 and the solution is x = 10 exp − 17.FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 11 yields ln |x| = 9t + c1 ⇒ x = ±ec1 e9t = ce9t . dt dt +1) +1) +1) The integrating factor e p(t)dt = e (t2 +1) . 2t t dt Multiplying by integrating factor we get d t2 + 1 dx + 2tx = 1 ⇒ dt x t2 + 1 = 1. Multiplying by integrating factor we get d t dx + x = et ⇒ dt (xt) = et . By separation we obtain dx = − 4+ett dt. Using the substitution u = t2 + 1 we have (t22t dt = ln t2 + 1 and then the integrating +1) ln|t2 +1| 2 factor is e = t + 1 = t2 + 1 (since positive for real t). + t−2 x = 0.

Using the initial condition x(1) = 4 we have. dx dt t 0 es ds + c ⇒ x = e−t 2 2 t es ds + ce−t . All other solutions approaches ±∞ as t → 0. x t 35. Multiplying by integrating factor we get d t−1 dx + t−2 x = 1 ⇒ dt t−1 x = 1. Multiplying by integrating factor 2 2 2 2 2 d we get et dx + 2tet x = et ⇒ dt et x = et . Integration yields 3 2 dt x 2 = c. The integrating factor is 1 3 e p(t)dt = e 3 t . is continuous at (0. 0) . p(t) = 1 . 2 2 0 + t2 x = t. Multiplying by integrating factor we get d t3 dx + 3t2 x = t3 ⇒ dt t3 x = t3 . 33. p(t) = t2 . t dx + 3x = t ⇒ dx + 3 x = 1. p(t) = 3 . t2 dx + tx = 1 ⇒ dx + 1 x = t−2 . 29. c = 4.12 CHAPTER 1 d t−2 dx − t2 x = 0 ⇒ dt tx = 0. Multiplying by integrating factor we get d t dx + x = 1 ⇒ dt (xt) = 1 . The integrating dt dt t t 1 factor is e p(t)dt = e− t dt = e− ln t = t−1 . The integrating dt dt t t 1 factor is e p(t)dt = e3 t dt = e3 ln t = t3 . All solutions are continuous and pass through (0. Multiplying by integrating factor we get . p(t) = 2t. Integration yields dt −1 t x = t + c ⇒ x = t2 + ct. Integration yields dt t4 1 t3 x = 4 + c ⇒ x = 4 t + ct−3 . t dx − x = t2 ⇒ dx − 1 x = t. p(t) = − 1 . This can also be done by separation. Integration yields dt t t xt = ln t + c ⇒ x = t−1 ln t + ct−1 . 0) . Definite dt 2 integration yields et x = 37. 1 One solution. The integrating factor is 2 e p(t)dt = e 2tdt = et . 4 t. t Hence the solution is x = 4t2 . dx dt + 2tx = 1. 31. The integrating dt dt t t 1 factor is e p(t)dt = e t dt = eln t = t.

Then r. 41.s. p(t) = 7t . Multiplying by integrating factor t t d 1 we get t1/7 dx + 7t x = 7te ⇒ dt t1/7 x = 7te . Definite integration yields t−1/3 x = t 5 1 −1/3 3s sin sds + c. x(2) = 1. + et x = 3. The integrating dt dt 7 1 factor is e p(t)dt = e 7 ln t = t1/7 .= udv = uv − vdu = −xe−x + e−x dx = −xe−x − e−x . Using initial condition we get. as u = x ⇒ du = dx and dv = e−x dx ⇒ v = −e−x . p(t) = − 3t .h. The integrating factor is e p(t)dt = et . p(t) = et . Using initial condition we get. The integrating factor e p(x)dx = e−x . So te−x = −xe−x − e−x + c ⇒ t = −x − 1 + cex . Definite 6/7 6/7 dt integration yields t1/7 x = 1 x = 7 t−1/7 t 0 t 0 1 −6/7 s e ds 7s +c⇒ s−6/7 es ds + ct−1/7 . p(t) = 1. t 5 c = 0 and the solution is x = 1 t1/3 3 t s−1/3 sin sds. 1 1 45. Multiplying by integrating factor we get t t t t d ee dx + et x = 3ee ⇒ dt ee x = 3ee . Definite integration yields dt t 2 es s+1 ds et x = + c. Multiplying 1 1 by integrating factor we get t−1/3 dx − 3t x = 3 t−1/3 sin t dt d 1 −1/3 −1/3 ⇒ dt t x = 3t sin t.FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 13 e3t 1 3 dx dt + t2 x = te 3 t ⇒ t 1 3 d dt e 3 t x = te 3 t . 7t dx + x = et ⇒ dx + 7t x = 1 et .s. t 2 es s+1 ds c = e2 and the solution is x = e−t + e2−t . 1 1 43. . dx dt dt dt 1 = x+t ⇒ dx = x + t ⇒ dx − t = x. Multiplying by integrating factor we get et d et et dx + x = t+1 ⇒ dt (et x) = t+1 . Integration yields −x −x te = xe dx + c.h. x(5) = 0. dt Definite integration yields ee x = 3 ⇒ x = 3e −et t 0 t t ee ds + c s 0 e ds + ce es −et . Multiplying by integrating factor we get dt d e−x dx − t = xe−x ⇒ dx (te−x ) = xe−x . dx dt 1 + x = t+1 . We use integration by parts on the r. 3t dx − x = t sin t ⇒ dx − 3t x = 1 sin t. p(x) = −1. The integrating factor is t e p(t)dt = ee . dx dt −t3 3 1 3 se 0 s3 3 ds + c se 0 s3 3 ds + ce −t3 3 . t 1 3 1 3 Definite integration yields e 3 t x = ⇒ x=e 39. dt dt 3 1 The integrating factor is e p(t)dt = e− 3 ln t = t−1/3 . 47.

Let u = e p(t)dt be the integrating factor of dx + p(t)x = f (t). Then xp = e− t q t e 0 p(t)dt dt ⇒ xp = 0 e p(t)dt − e p(t)dt t q t dt = G t. Definite integral yields dt. Now dt dt dt dt dt d d since k is a constant dt (kux) = k dt (ux) = ku dx + xp(t) dt which implies that ku is also an integrating factor of (19) as the d product dt (kux) of l. From the change of variable x = u(t)x1 (t) we have dx = du x1 + u dx1 .14 CHAPTER 1 49. So dt d (ux) = u dx + x du = u dx + xp(t)u = u dx + xp(t) . Dividing by c2 e p(t)dt we get x = e− p(t)dt e p(t)dt f (t)dt c3 c3 + c2 e− p(t)dt . dx dt + p(t)x = f (t).h. t G t. dt dt dt dx1 = −x1 p(t). t = e p(t)dt e− p(t)dt = e Using definite integrals yields t t 0 p(t)dt− p(t)dt G t. = exp t = exp − t 55. on integration. u1 dx + p(t)x = u1 f (t) ⇒ dt d dt (u1 x) = u1 f (t) which. Integrating we get. t = exp 0 p(s)ds − t sin s s ds p(s)ds 0 = exp t t sin s s ds p(s)ds . the integrating factor is d e p(t)dt and so dt e p(t)dt x = f (t)e p(t)dt . Integrating we get. Thus dx = du x1 − ux1 p. Multiplying the differential equation by this new integrating factor we get. dx + sin t x = q(t) ⇒ dx + p(t)x = q(t) where p(t) = sin t . dt t dt t Multiplying this equation by the integrating factor e p(t)dt we get e p(t)dt dx + p(t)x = q(t)e p(t)dt dt ⇒ e d dt xe p(t)dt = q(t)e t p(t)dt . 51. Plugging in the dt dt dt original equation we get. t q t dt where . Now writing c2 = c we have the same general solution p(t)dt − p(t)dt x=e f (t)e dt + ce− p(t)dt as (23) . Let u = e p(t)dt be the integrating factor of dx + p(t)x = f (t). But since x1 = e− p(t)dt . dt e dt u = f (t)e p(t)dt dt. . If we dt introduce an arbitrary constant c1 while we compute p(t)dt then new integrating factor is u1 = e p(t)dt+c1 = ec1 e p(t)dt = c2 e p(t)dt where c2 = ec1 > 0. of (19) and ku is easily integrable with respect to t. Then x = e− p(t)dt f (t)e p(t)dt dt. du x1 − ux1 p + ux1 p = f (t) ⇒ dt du − p(t)dt = f (t) ⇒ du = e p(t)dt f (t). Particular solution with p(t)dt t p(t)dt x(t) = c + 0 q t e p(t)dt xp (0) = 0 gives c = 0. 53. becomes u1 x = u1 f (t)dt + c3 ⇒ c2 e p(t)dt x = c2 e p(t)dt f (t)dt + c3 .s. Comparison: From the original equation.

r = 5. 21. 4 Thus the general solution is x = − 15 + ce 5 t . dx rt we get. ⇒ −4A + 7A = 8 ⇒ A = 8 . we have. Let the associated homogeneous solution be x1 = ert . Dividing dt = −2x. r = −2. Let the associated homogeneous solution be x1 = ert . rert + 7ert = 0. r = −7. − 8x = 0. −4A = −9 ⇒ A = 4 . we have. rert + ert = 0. Thus the general solution is x = ce−t . rert = −2ert . Substituting xp = A we get. Thus the general solution is x = ce5t . dx rt we get. Then rert − 4ert = 0. 3. −A − 3 = 0 ⇒ A = − 3 . − 5 A = 3 ⇒ A = − 4 . Then rert = 2ert . 9. 4 dx 2 4 2 4 dt + 3 x = − 3 . Thus xp = − 17 . r = 8. Substituting xp = A we get. Thus xp = −2. we have. Let the associated homogeneous solution be x1 = ert . dt −4Ae−4t + 7Ae−4t = 8e−4t . 3 Then rert = −ert . Dividing by ert = 0. 4 4 15 dx 4 dt − 5 x = 3. we have. r = 5 . Then rert + 3ert = 0. Dividing by e−4t = 0.7 LINEAR FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS AND CONSTANT INPUT 1. we have. Dividing by ert = 0. Dividing dt + x = 0. r = − 2 . Substituting x = ert we get. we have. Substituting x = e rt by e = 0. Thus the general solution is x = ce−7t . 15 Thus xp = − 4 . Substituting x = e rt by e = 0. Thus 8 xp = 3 . 5. r = −1. Substituting xp = A we get. Dividing by ert = 0. we have. 2A + 18 = 0 ⇒ A = −9. 9 dx dt − 4x = −9. Let the associated homogeneous solution be x1 = ert . we have. Dividing dt + 7x = 0. 3 dx + 7x = 8e−4t .FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 15 dt. 11. Thus the general solution is x = ce8t . 7. 9 Thus xp = 4 . rert = 5ert . dx dt = 2x + 18. Thus the general solution is x = ce−2t . Thus xp = −9. 4 4 Then rert − 5 ert = 0. Substituting xp = Ae−4t we get. dx 8 dt + 3x = 8. we have. dx dt 13. 15. 8 Thus the general solution is x = 3 + ce−3t . 3 3 2 Thus the general solution is x = −2 + ce− 3 t . Substituting xp = A we get. r = 2. r = 4. Thus the general solution is x = − 17 + ce−t . 23. Thus the general solution is x = 9 + ce4t . Substituting xp = A we get. Dividing by ert = 0. Substituting x = e rt by e = 0. we have. e p(t)dt x= f (t)e p(t)dt dt ⇒ x = e− p(t)dt f (t)e p(t)dt 1. r = −3. dx 17 17 17 dt = −x − 3 . Thus the general solution is x = −9 + ce2t . 3 . we have. Dividing by ert = 0. dx rt we get. 3A = 8 ⇒ A = 3 . Let the associated homogeneous solution be x1 = ert . Substituting x = e rt by e = 0. rert − 8ert = 0. Substituting xp = A we get. Then rert + 2 ert = 0. Dividing by ert = 0. we have. dx rt we get. 17. Let the associated homogeneous solution be x1 = ert . 3 A = − 3 ⇒ A = −2. 19. Dividing dt = 5x. Thus 3 xp = 8 e−4t . Let the associated homogeneous solution be x1 = ert . Dividing by ert = 0. r = −1.

Substituting xp = Ae 3 Dividing by e4t = 0. Dividing by ert = 0. Thus 3 −5t xp = 7 e . we have. 3 Thus the general solution is x = 8 e4t + ce−4t . we have. r = −4. Equating the coefficients of t3 . Equating the coefficients of t and 1 we have 2A = 14 ⇒ A = 7 and 7 A + 2B = 0 ⇒ 2B = −A = −7 ⇒ B = − 2 . Then rert + 7ert = 0. 37. Substituting xp = At+B we get. and B +C = −8 ⇒ C = −8−B = −9 Thus xp = 2t2 + t − 9. 2 2 2At + B + At + Bt + C = 2t + 5t − 8. Thus the general solution is x = e−2t + ce−3t . 27. Thus the general solution is x = 8 e−4t + ce−7t .16 CHAPTER 1 25. Let the associated homogeneous solution be x1 = ert . 2A+B = 5 ⇒ B = 5−2A = 1. 6A cos 6t − 6B sin 6t + 2A sin 6t + 2B cos 6t = 3 sin 6t. Thus xp = 3 e4t . r = −7. Dividing by ert = 0. dx 2 2 dt + x = 2t + 5t − 8. Substituting xp = Ae−5t we get. Substituting xp = At + Bt + Ct + D we get. 2B + 3C = 0 ⇒ C = − 2 B = 9 . Substituting xp = At + Bt + C we get. dx dt + 5x = t. t and 1 we have 3A = 1 ⇒ A = 1 . A+7At+7B = 3+5t. Dividing by e−2t = 0. 3 2 C + 3D = 0 ⇒ D = − 1 C = − 27 3 1 3 1 2 2 2 Thus xp = 3 t − 3 t + 9 t − 27 . 4Ae4t + 4Ae4t = 3e4t . dt + 3x = 3e −2t −2Ae + 3Ae−2t = e−2t . we have. we have. we have. ⇒ −5A − 2A = −3 ⇒ A = 7 . 3 Thus the general solution is x = 7 e−5t + ce2t . Equating the coefficients of t and 1 we have 7A = 5 ⇒ A = 5 and 7 5 16 A + 7B = 3 ⇒ 7B = 3 − 7 = 16 ⇒ B = 49 7 16 Thus xp = 5 t + 49 . 8 Then rert + 4ert = 0. ⇒ −2A + 3A = 1 ⇒ A = 1. Let the associated homogeneous solution be x1 = ert . r = −3. 1 Thus xp = 1 t − 25 . Then rert − 2ert = 0. Dividing by ert = 0. Then rert + 3ert = 0. 1 Equating the coefficients of t and 1 we have 5A = 1 ⇒ A = 5 and 1 1 A + 5B = 0 ⇒ B = − 5 A = − 25 . 7 Thus xp = 7t − 2 . we have. 33. Substituting xp = A sin 6t + B cos 6t we get. we have. dx −2t . 41. Substituting xp = At + B we get. A + 2At + 2B = 14t. 3 Dividing by e−5t = 0. 31. Equating the coefficients of cos 6t and sin 6t we have . 2 3 2 3At + 2Bt + C + 3At + 3Bt + 3Ct + 3D = t3 . Let the associated homogeneous solution be x1 = ert . dx dt +7x = 3+5t. 5 dx dt + 2x = 3 sin 6t. dt + 4x = 3e . Thus xp = e−2t . dt − 2x = −3e −5Ae−5t − 2Ae−5t = −3e−5t . A + 5B + 5At = t. 3 dx −5t . dx 4t 4t we get. dx 3 3 2 dt + 3x = t . t2 . Substituting xp = Ae−2t we get. t and 1 we have A = 2. 29. Dividing by ert = 0. 7 dx dt + 2x = 14t. 35. 3 1 2 3A + 3B = 0 ⇒ B = −A = − 3 . ⇒ 4A + 4A = 3 ⇒ A = 8 . Equating the coefficients of t2 . r = 2. 39. Substituting xp = At + B we get.

−A sin t + B cos t − 5A cos t − 5B sin t = 2 cos t. 3 9 Thus xp = 20 sin 6t − 20 cos 6t. Similarly. dx dt − 9x = 5 + 2 sin 3t. −2A sin 2t + 2B cos 2t + 4A cos 2t + 4B sin 2t = 3 cos 2t + 5 sin 2t. dx dt + 6x = cos t + sin 5t. dx dt + 4x = 3 cos 2t + 5 sin 2t. Equating the coefficients of sin 2t and cos 2t we have sin 2t : −2A + 4B = 5 cos 2t : 4A + 2B = 3 Solving these equations for A and B (multiplying first equation by 2 1 and adding with the second) we get B = 13 and A = 10 . 10 1 13 Thus xp = 10 cos 2t + 10 sin 2t. Substituting xp = A cos t + B sin t + C sin 5t +D cos 5t we get. Equating the coefficients we have Non-t : −9A = 5 ⇒ A = − 5 9 cos 3t : 3B − 9C = 0 sin 3t : 9B − 3C = 2 Solving last pair of equations for B and C (multiplying the first equation by 3 and adding with the second) we get 5 1 1 C = − 15 and B = − 1 . to solve the second pair of equations for C and D. 49. 1 5 Thus xp = 13 sin t − 13 cos t. 3B cos 3t − 3C sin 3t − 9A − 9B sin 3t − 9C cos 3t = 5 + 2 sin 3t. Equating the coefficients we have cos t : 6A + B = 1 sin t : −A + 6B = 0 cos 5t : 5C + 6D = 0 sin 5t : 6C − 5D = 1 Solving the first pair of equations for A and B (multiplying second 6 1 equation by 6 and adding with the first) we get B = 37 and A = 37 . 47. 5 5 .FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 17 43. Substituting xp = A cos t + B sin t we get. dx dt − 5x = 2 cos t. Substituting xp = A + B sin 3t + C cos 3t we get. 6 multiply the first by 5 and the second by 6 and add to get C = 61 5 and D = − 61 . Substituting xp = A cos 2t + B sin 2t we get. −A sin t + B cos t + 5C cos 5t − 5D sin 5t + 6A cos t +6B sin t + 6C sin 5t + 6D cos 5t = cos t + sin 5t. Thus xp = − 9 − 1 sin 3t − 15 cos 3t. 6 1 6 5 Thus xp = 37 cos t + 37 sin t + 61 sin 5t − 61 cos 5t. 45. cos 6t : 6A + 2B = 0 sin 6t : 2A − 6B = 3 Solving these equations for A and B (multiplying first equation by 3 3 9 and adding with the second) we get A = 20 and B = − 20 . Equating the coefficients of sin t and cos t we have sin t : −A − 5B = 0 cos t : −5A + B = 2 Solving these equations for A and B (multiplying second equation 1 5 by 5 and adding with the first) we get A = − 13 and B = 13 .

Substituting xp = Ae 2t 2t 2t 2t 2Ae − 2Ae = 7e ⇒ 7e = 0 which is impossible becasue e2t = 0. 59. So let xp = Ate−t . Equating the coefficients we have 1 e3t : 3A + A = 2 ⇒ A = 2 cos t : B+C =0 sin t : B−C =1 Solving last pair of equations for B and C (adding ) we get 1 1 B = 2 and C = −B = − 2 . dt + 3x = 8e −3Ae−3t + 3Ae−3t = 8e−3t ⇒ 8e−3t = 0 which is impossible becasue e−3t = 0. rert − ert = 0 ⇒ r = 1. Substituting xp = Ae−3t we get. 61. Ae−3t . dv e2t + 2ve2t − 2ve2t = 7e2t dt Dividing by e2t = 0 we have dv = 7 ⇒ v = 7t + c. This indicates that we may find a particular solution by substituting Ate−3t . Let x1 = e homogeneous equation. dx 7t rt be the solution of the associated dt − 7x = 8e . So a simple exponential. 57. + x = 2e3t + sin t. Integrating we have dt 3t −3t xe = 8t + c ⇒ x = 8te + ce−3t . So let xp = Atet . dx dt CHAPTER 1 53. Aet + Atet − Atet = 4et ⇒ A = 4. Thus dt the general solution is x = 7te2t + ce2t . ∀t. Substituting this in the equation we get. Thus the general solution is x = 4tet + cet . Substituting x = ve2t we get. So x1 = c1 e−t (similar to the forcing function). So a simple exponential.Thus xp = 1 e3t + sin t − cos t . does not work as a particular solution becasue e2t is a solution of the associated homogeneous equation. 55. 2 dx −3t . Let x1 = e homogeneous equation. So x1 = c1 et (similar to the forcing function). Thus the general solution is x = 5te−t + ce−t . does not work as a particular solution becasue e−3t is a solution of the associated homogeneous equation.18 51. Let x1 = e . ∀t. Conjecture: Notice that the particular solution part of this general solution is a constant multiple of t times the exponential. We can make the same conjecture as in #53. Substituting this in the equation we get. Multiplying the equation by the integrating factor d we get e3t dx + 3x = 8 ⇒ dt xe3t = 8. 3Ae3t + B cos t − C sin t + Ae3t + B sin t + C cos t = 2e3t + sin t. rert + ert = 0 ⇒ r = −1. dt − 2x = 7e . On substitution we get. Ae2t . when simple exponential forcing e−3t is a solution of the associated homogeneous equation. Substituting xp = Ae3t + B sin t + C cos t we get. Solve by the integrating factor method : The integrating factor is e 3dt = e3t . dx t rt be the solution of the associated dt − x = 4e . On substitution we get. dx −t rt be the solution of the associated dt + x = 5e . dx 2t 2t we get. Ae−t − Ate−t + Ate−t = 5e−t ⇒ A = 5.

x(0) = 0. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2. So x(t) = 2e−2t for 0 ≤ t < 1. Thus the solution is x(t) = t. p(t) = 2 and so dx + 2x = 0 ⇒ dt x(t) = c1 e−2t . So x(t) = 2e−t for 0 ≤ t < 1. Substituting this in the equation we get. p(t) = 0. p(t) = 0. For 0 ≤ t < 1. dt Using x(0) = 0 we get c1 = 0. f (t) = 0 and so dx + x = 0 ⇒ x(t) = c1 e−t . x(0) = 2. p(t) = 1 and so dx −t dt + x = 0 ⇒ x(t) = c2 e . 0≤t<1 −1 −t 2e e . Thus the solution is x(t) = t→1 2e−2t . In order for x to be continuous at t = 1 we must have lim x(t) = x(1) ⇒ 2e−2 = c2 e−1 ⇒ − c2 = 2e−1 . f (t) = 1 and so dx = 1 ⇒ dt . 0 ≤ t ≤ 2. x(0) = 2. f (t) = −1 and so dx = −1 ⇒ x(t) = −t + c2 . dt + p(t)x = f (t). For 1 ≤ t ≤ 2. + p(t)x = f (t). Ae7t + 7Ate7t − 7Ate7t = 8e7t ⇒ A = 8. For 0 ≤ t < 1. For 1 ≤ t ≤ 2.FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 19 homogeneous equation. 1 ≤ t ≤ 2 x 1 0 dx dt 1 t 67. f (t) = 1 and so dx = 1 ⇒ x(t) = t + c1 . For 0 ≤ t < 1. Using x(0) = 2 we get c1 = 2. Thus the general solution is x = 8te7t + ce7t . dx 63. 1 ≤ t ≤ 2 2 x 1 0 1 t 2 65. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2. So x1 = c1 e7t (similar to the forcing function). On substitution we get. So x(t) = t for 0 ≤ t < 1. dx dt t→1− + p(t)x = f (t). rert − 7ert = 0 ⇒ r = 7. So let xp = Ate7t . dt Using x(0) = 2 we get c1 = 2. p(t) = 1. 0≤t<1 2 − t. For 1 ≤ t ≤ 2. dt In order for x to be continuous at t = 1 we must have lim x(t) = x(1) ⇒ 1 = −1 + c2 ⇒ c2 = 2. f (t) = 0.

e.5% = 0. P (t) = 10P (0) and so k 3 10P (0) = P (0)ekt ⇒ ekt = 10 ⇒ kt = ln 10 ⇒ 10 ln 10 t = lnk = 3 ln 2 ≈ 9.02 c 0. 1 ≤ t ≤ 2 2 x 1 0 1 t 2 1. In order for x to be continuous at t = 1 we must have lim x(t) = x(1) ⇒ 2e−1 = 1 + c2 ⇒ c2 = 2e−1 − 1. P (0) = 1500. t = 4). 1 ln 2 3 = k ⇒ k = 3 ln 2 ≈ 2. 0≤t<1 −1 t + 2e − 1.20 x(t) = t + c2 . t = 1 hour.01 B 0 100 t 200 0 100 t 200 7. and we will use this k formula throughout this section.2 years. Then 2P (0) = P (0)ekt ⇒ ekt = 2 ⇒ kt = ln 2 ⇒ t = ln 2 which is known as k doubling time. denoted by td as td = ln 2 . 3 A 10 Q 5 0. 1.97 years. After 4 hour (i. The population will be doubled when P (t) = 2P (0). Here. the growth rate is k = 1. k 1 3. 5. Using td = 8 hours = 3 day in the doubling time formula we get. td = ln 2 = 3 ⇒ k = ln 2 . P (1) = 2000.015 ≈ 46.015 and so ln 2 doubling time.08 = 208% per day. . 3 4 4 P (t) = 1500e4k = 1500e4 ln( 3 ) = 1500 4 . In this problem. So P (t) = P (0)ekt ⇒ 4 2000 = 1500ek ⇒ ek = 3 ⇒ k = ln 4 . Here. td = ln 2 = 0.8 GROWTH AND DECAY PROBLEMS 1 The growth rate k of a population P (t) is given by P dP = k ⇒ dP = kP dt dt whose solution with initial population P (0) is P (t) = P (0)ekt . Thus the solution is x(t) = t→1− CHAPTER 1 2e−t .

we get k = ln 2 .018 − 10 = 75. Thus T (t) = 30 + 170e−kt .15x(0) = x(0)e−kt ⇒ e−kt = 0. So. Here Q0 = 40.03 ⇒ ek = 1.80x(0) = x(0)e−10k ⇒ e−10k = 0.17 years. This is the case of exponential growth.15) ≈ 85. 23. k Here.03 ⇒ k = ln (1. using T (10) = 60.15) = 10 ln(0. 10 10 1 (a) T will be 400 C if 40 = 30 + 170e−kt ⇒ 170e−kt = 10 ⇒ e−kt = 17 10 ln(17) 1 ⇒ −kt = − ln (17) ⇒ t = k ln (17) = ln 17−ln 15 ≈ 226. 21.063 years.064) . So 0. ln(0. Again. x(t) = 30 g. dt With the interest rate of 3% per year: ln 2 Doubling time. 15 we get. t = 1. 17. 13. we get 100 = 40 + c ⇒ c = 60. Addition: dQ = k. that is. So x(t) = x(0)ekt .03 ≈ 23. using T (10) = 180. Newton’s law of cooling dT = −k (T − Q0 ) has particular solution Q0 dt so the general solution is T (t) = Q0 + ce−kt . Using the initial temperature T (0) = 100. Using the half-life formula T = ln 2 = 16 days. 19. we get 200 = 30 + c ⇒ c = 170. (b) T (t) = 30 + ce−kt . dt = −kx ⇒ x(t) = x(0)e So 0. The cost of living rose from x(0) = 10.15 ⇒ 1 −kt = ln (0.018 additional years.03) ≈ 23. 10 At t = 0. we get. T = 200. Thus T (t) = 40 + 60e−kt .8) Thus it will take 85. Using the initial temperature T (0) = 200. So 11000 = 10000ek ⇒ ek = 1. 60 = 40 + 60e−10k ⇒ 60e−10k = 20 ⇒ e−10k = 1 3 1 1 ⇒ −10k = ln 3 ⇒ −10k = − ln 3 ⇒ k = 10 ln 3 ≈ 0.1 ⇒ k = ln (1.064) ≈ 11.8) ⇒ 1 k = − 10 ln (0.80x(0).8 ⇒ −10k = ln (0.03) .1) ≈ 0. the growth after one year is ek − 1 = 0. ln 2 (a) Half-life: T = ln 2 = −10 ln(0. td = ln 2 = ln(1. in this case ln 2 Doubling time.8) . When t = 10 years.FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 21 9. 180 = 30 + 170e−10k ⇒ 170e−10k = 150 ⇒ e−10k = 17 ⇒ 15 1 ln 15−ln 17 15 ln 17−ln 15 −10k = ln 17 ⇒ k = − 10 ln 17 = − = . Again. td = ln 2 = 0.15x(0).45 years.53% per year.064 ⇒ ek = 1.15) ⇒ t = − k ln (0. ln 2 Then td = ln(1. Newton’s law of cooling dT = −k (T − Q0 ) has particular solution dt Q0 so the general solution is T (t) = Q0 + ce−kt . k (b) x(t) = 0.8) ≈ 31. Here Q0 = 30. 11.4 minutes.04 g. 000 in one year. where we previously had k = ln 17−ln 15 . .064 ⇒ k = ln (1.0953 = 9. 000 to x(1) = 11. x(t) = 0.1099.018 years.10 years. Death: dQ = −k2 Q. dx −kt . dt dt dt ⇒ dQ = k1 Q − k2 Q + k. so c = 170 and T (t) = 30 + 170e−kt . k > 0. Now we solve this equation for t : T (t) − 30 = 170e−kt ⇒ ln (T − 30) = ln (170) − kt ⇒ 10 −30 1 t = −k [ln (T − 30) − ln (170)] = ln 15−ln 17 ln T170 . k 16 At the end of t = 30 days. k With the 3% yield: Yield = ek − 1 = 0. Birth: dQ = k1 Q. Then x(t) = x(0)e−kt ⇒ ln 2 ln 2 30 = x(0)e− 16 (30) ⇒ x(0) = 30e 16 (30) ≈ 110. 15. Let Q be the number of organisms.

The 6% interest rate will effect the amount in excess of $500. Thus the general solution is T (t) = 10 + 10t + ce−t .79. Thus A(t) = 500 + 1500e0. dt (b) Substituting k = 1 in the equation we get.08t 0.06A = 0. (c) The full amount earns interest when dA = 0.08P = 365B. 365 365 So 10000 = − 0. (b) dA − 0.4 ⇒ B = 365(e0.08t 365e0. So the amount of interest per year will be $0. Let Ap = B ⇒ −0. Let T1 = ert be the solution of the dt homogeneous equation.08t 800 = B(t) 365e − 365 + 80e ⇒ B(t) 365e0. So dP dP dt = 0.08P + 365B ⇒ dt − 0.08t − 365 . (a) After t = 5 years P = $10.18.06t for the initial condition. 000.2Q = 400 cos (2πt) .2A cos (2πt) − 0. 29.08 B(t) e0. Using initial condition A(0) = 2000 we get.08 B. 365 Using initial condition P (0) = 1000 we get.08t for B(t) : 0.4 ⇒ 80(10−e0.08 B + ce0.08t − 365 = 800 − 80e0.08P is the amount of interest per year with 8% interest rate.08t Ph = ce .2B sin (2πt) = 400 cos (2πt) . Thus the rate of change of money can be written as the differential equation dA = 0.08 B e0.08 B e . So the general solution is P (t) = − 0.08A = 365B ⇒ A = − 0. 40 = 10 + c ⇒ c = 30. dt = 0.06 (A − 500) .06A = −30. 365 365 0.4 − 1 + 80e0.22 CHAPTER 1 25.24 which is $411.06B = −30 ⇒ B = 500 dt ⇒ Ap = 500 and Ah = ce0.08t . Constant deposit rate is $B/day means $365B/year and 0.06t which becomes A(t) = 2000e0.06t . Substituting Tp = A + Bt we get. After 10 years the amount will be A(10) = $3233.06t .08 B + 1000 + 0.06t . After 10 years the amount will be A(10) = $3644. Equating the coefficients of cos (2πt) and sin (2πt) we have −1 .08t Thus P (t) = − 0. a homogeneous equation with general solution dt A(t) = ce0. 27. c = 1000 + 0. dQ 31. c = 1500. Equating the coefficients of t and 1 we have B = 10 and A + B = 20 ⇒ A = 10. dt Substituting Qp = A cos (2πt) + B sin (2πt) we get −2πA sin (2πt) + 2πB cos (2πt) − 0.06 more than that in part (b) . (a) Let the amount invested be $A.08 B ⇒ Pp = − 0.4 −1) ≈ $3. So the general solution is A(t) = 500 + ce0.08 B(t) + 1000 + 0.06A ⇒ dt dA − 0. Thus T1 = ce−t .4 ) 800 = 365B e0.08 B + 1000 + 0.06 (A − 500) with dt initial condition A(0) = 2000. Let Pp = A ⇒ 365 365 −0. Then rert + ert = 0 ⇒ r = −1. Hence the solution is T (t) = 10 + 10t + 30e−t . B+ A + Bt = 20 + 10t. dT = −T + 20 + 10t dt ⇒ dT + T = 20 + 10t. (a) Newton’s law of cooling dT = −k (T − Q0 ) = −k [T − (20 + 10t)] . 365 365 (b) Solve 10000 = − 0.08t ⇒ B(t) = 800 − 80e0.08 B and 365 0. Using the initial temperature T (0) = 40 we get.2Q + 400 cos (2πt) ⇒ dQ − 0.

2 and the second equation by 2π and adding and simplifying) 200π we get. So the concentration of salt is C = 100 .01 (−20 cos (2πt) + 200π sin (2πt)) .2) and 4 100 (evaporated water contains no salt so that Q = 0).FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 23 cos (2πt) : 2πB − 0. (a) Let Q be the amount of salt in the tank of volume V = 300. Hence Q(t) = 1 π 2 +0.25 > 0.15e− 25 . Thus the rate of change in salt can be written as dQ Q dQ Q dt = 2(0.25 − 0.2e− 150 ⇒ e− 150 = 2 ⇒ 150 = ln 2 ⇒ t = 150 ln 2 ≈ 104 minutes. lim C(t) = 0.2B − 2πA = 0 Solving these equations for A and B (Multiplying the first equation by 0. Hence t t 2 Q(t) = 120 − 60e− 150 and C(t) = Q(t) = 5 − 1 e− 150 .02t .4) − 2 300 ⇒ dt + 150 = 0. This volume is constant as water is flowing in and out at the same Q rate (5 L/h).02t . Concentration of iodine is C = 5t+500 . The Q inflow and outflow rate of salt are 2(0. So the general solution is 1 Q(t) = π2 +0. respectively. (a) Let Q be the amount of iodine in the tank. Thus the particular solution is +0. k = −60. (a) Let Q be the amount of salt in the tank of volume V = 100. Thus the rate of change in salt can be written as dQ Q dQ Q dt = 5(0. Using initial condition Q(0) = 100(0. Substituting Qp = A t 1 we get. The Q inflow and outflow rate of salt are 5(0.01 (−20 cos (2πt) + 200π sin (2πt)) + ce0.1) = 10 we have. t→∞ 5. 20 Using the initial condition Q(0) = 100 we get c = 100 + π2 +0.2) = 60 we have. Q1 = ce0.9 MIXTURE PROBLEMS 1. Hence t t Q(t) = 25 − 15e− 25 and C(t) = Q(t) = 0. The inflow and . k = −15. respectively. t Thus Q(t) = 25 + ke− 25 .01 . So the concentration of salt is C = 300 .01 (−20 cos (2πt) + 200π sin (2πt))+ 100 + 20 π 2 +0. Using initial condition Q(0) = 300(0.4) and 2 300 . t Thus Q(t) = 120 + ke− 150 .01 1 Qp = π2 +0.4 − 0.2A = 400 sin (2πt) : −0. 300 5 (b) When does C(t) = 0.01 e0. This volume is constant as water is flowing in and out at the same Q rate (2 gal/min). 100 (b) No.02t . Water is flowing in and out at a different rate and so the volume is changing as dV dt = 6 − 1 = 5 ⇒ V (t) = 5t + 500 since the initial half-volume is Q 500 gal. A = 25 and Q1 = ert ⇒ r = − 25 ⇒ Q1 = e− 25 . Substituting Qp = A t 1 we get. 3.3 = 0.3? t t 1 t 0. 1.2. A = π2−20 and B = π2 +0.2) − 4 100 ⇒ dt + 25 = 1.01 . A = 120 and Q1 = ert ⇒ r = − 150 ⇒ Q1 = e− 150 .8.

After overflow. The inflow and Q outflow rate of pollutant are 5 × 7 and 2 3t+1000 . respectively. −1/5 1/5 10 = k (100) ⇒ k = 10 (100) . Thus 2Q the rate of change in pollutant can be written as dQ = 35 − 3t+1000 ⇒ dt 2Q dQ Q + 3t+1000 d dt Q(t) 100 Q(t) = 10 t+100 and C(t) = 5t+500 . tank overflows when 5t + 500 = 1000 means at t = 100. 7S1 1 Then dS1 = 13 × 3 − 7 S1 ⇒ dS1 = 39 − 6t+150 dt V dt 7S1 7S1 28S2 2 and dS2 = 6t+150 − 28 S2 ⇒ dS2 = 6t+150 − −21t+250 . mixture is leaving at the rate of 6 gal/min 6Q (as pure water is entering at this rate) and so for t ≥ 100. respectively. In order for Q(t) to be continuous at t = 100 we must have 1/5 lim Q(t) = lim Q(t) ⇒ 10 100 = c2 200 t→100− t→100+ −1/5 100 Hence Q(t) = 10 t+100 . Since volume increases as t increases. The integrating factor is e 2/3 2 3t+1000 dt = eln(3t+1000) 2/3 = (3t + 1000) we have . V = 1000 and Q C = 1000 . 1/5 outflow rate of iodine are 0 (Pure water has no concentration) and Q 1 5t+500 . V2 = (7 − 28) t + 250 = −21t + 250 Let S1 and S2 be the amount of salt in tank 1 and tank 2. C(t) = 3t+1000 = 7 − 500000 (3t + 1000) Let V1 and V2 be the volume of tank 1 and tank 2. Concentration of pollutant is C = 3t+1000 . V1 = (13 − 7) t + 150 = 6t + 150.24 CHAPTER 1 1 ln Q = − 5 ln (5t + 500) + k1 ⇒ Q(t) = k2 (5t + 500) −1/5 = k (t + 100) . Multiplying by integrating factor and rearranging 2/3 Q (3t + 1000) 2/3 −2/3 = 35 (3t + 1000) 2/3 5/3 2/3 ⇒ Q (3t + 1000) = 35 (3t + 1000) Q(t) = (3t + 1000) 5 7 (3t + 1000) −2 dt + k ⇒ 5 + k . dQ = − 1000 . Thus −2/3 5/3 Q(t) = (3t + 1000) 7 (3t + 1000) − 500000 −2/3 7 (10) + k ⇒ 9. Using initial condition Q(0) = 2000 we have. Let Q be the amount of pollutant in the lake. 1/5 = 35. 2000 = (10) 7 (10) + k = 200000 ⇒ k = −500000. tank will overflow when V = 1000. = 7 (3t + 1000) − 500000 (3t + 1000) and −5/3 Q(t) . 7. dt V dt . respectively. respectively. During overflow. (b) Tank overflows when t = 100. Using initial condition Q(0) = 10 we have. dt 3 3 Since it has constant coefficients. Q(t) = 10 (2) e−3(t−100)/500 and C(t) = 1000 . That is. Q(t) = c2 e− 500 t = c2 e− 500 (t−100) . So for 0 ≤ t ≤ 100. Water is flowing in and out at a different rate and so the volume is changing as dV dt = 5 − 2 = 3 ⇒ V (t) = 3t + 1000 since the initial volume is 1000 Q kL. Thus the rate of change in iodine can be Q dt written as dQ = − 5t+500 ⇒ dQ = − 5t+500 ⇒ dt Q −1/5 Q(t) So for t ≥ 100.

r = −1 ⇒ i1 = ce−t . i (t) = 9 − 9e−t . Then S1 dS1 18S1 dS1 dt = 11 × 5 − 18 V1 ⇒ dt = 55 − −7t+100 18S1 S2 dS2 18S1 18S2 dS2 dt = −7t+100 − 18 V2 ⇒ dt = −7t+100 − 200 and dS3 18S2 dt = 200 . Ri = v = i ⇒ R = 1. tank 2 and tank 3. 2 di 5. e = sin t. 1 Thus i (t) = 2 sin t − 1 cos t + ce−t . . Thus for 0 ≤ t < 10. respectively. e = 9. 1 A = 1 . The differential equation is L dt + Ri = e. Thus ip = 1 sin t − 1 cos t. Taking i1 = e we have r = −2 ⇒ i1 = ce−2t . At t = 0. V2 = 200 (same rate of inflow and outflow). respectively. So A = 9 ⇒ ip = 9. 18S1 1 Then dS1 = 21 × 5 − 18 S1 ⇒ dS1 = 105 − 3t+230 dt V dt 9S1 S2 9S1 4S2 dS2 dS2 and dt = 3t+230 − 4 V2 ⇒ dt = 3t+230 − 5t+275 . 1. Ri = v = i. Alternatively. Ri = v = i. L = 1. Let V1 . Let S1 . Tank 2 receives brine at the 1 rate 2 (18) = 9 gal/s. 2 2 1 1 1 Hence i (t) = 2 + i(0) − 2 e−2t . di 3.FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 25 11. Hence i (t) = 2 sin t − 1 cos t + i(0) + 2 e−t . Let ip = A. In this problem. Substituting all these we get. Ri = v = 2i ⇒ R = 2. Equating the coefficients of cos t and sin t we get: cos t : A+B =0 sin t : A−B =1 Solving these equations for A and B by adding we get. As t → ∞. i(0) = 1 + c ⇒ c = i(0) − 1 . L = 1. At t = 0. Let ip = A. In this problem. V1 = (21 − 18) t + 230 = 3t + 230. V1 = (11 − 18) t + 100 = −7t + 100. Substituting ip = A sin t + B cos t in the differential equation we get A cos t − B sin t + A sin t + B cos t = sin t. V3 = 300 (brine gets in and overflow so that volume remains the same). Taking i1 = e −t −t we have r = −1 ⇒ i1 = c1 e . i(0) = − 1 + c 2 2 1 1 1 ⇒ c = i(0) + 2 . respectively. L = 1. L = 1. tank 2 and tank 3. Let V1 and V2 be the volume of tank 1 and tank 2. di dt + i = sin t. B = − 2 . For 0 ≤ t < 10. Taking 2 2 2 rt i1 = e in the differential equation we have. di 1 dt + 2i = 1. i(t) → 2 . Using the initial condition i(0) = 0 we get 0 = 9 + c1 ⇒ c1 = −9. S2 and S3 be the amount of salt in tank 1. di rt dt + i = 9. For 10 ≤ t ≤ 20. The differential equation is L dt + Ri = e. 1 Thus i (t) = 2 + ce−2t . e = 1. 1 di for an equilibrium solution dt = 0 so that 2i = 1 ⇒ i = 2 .10 ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS di 1. V2 and V3 be the volume of tank 1. Substituting all these we get. 13. So V2 = (9 − 4) t + 275 = 5t + 275. Substituting all these we get. Let S1 and S2 be the amount of salt in tank 1 and tank 2. So i (t) = 9 + c1 e . respectively. The differential equation is L dt + Ri = e. So 2A = 1 ⇒ A = 2 . 1 rt So ip = 2 . e = 0.

t t v1 = ert ⇒ r = − 1 ⇒ v1 = ce− 2 .5. Hence q (t) = 3 (sin t − cos t) + 2 e−t . (a) The differential equation is m dv = −mg − kv ⇒ dt 1 20 dv = −20 (980) − 10v ⇒ dv + 2 v = −980. Substituting dt dt 1 vp = A we get. Thus qp = 2 sin t − 3 cos t.5 + 2 dt = 6 sin t ⇒ dq dt + q = 3 sin t. in fact. 10 ≤ t ≤ 20.26 CHAPTER 1 di Substituting all these we get. This is a homogeneous equation and. Substituting qp = A sin t + B cos t in this equation we get A cos t − B sin t + A sin t + B cos t = 3 sin t. Capacitance. Then dv = −32 + v 2 ⇒ g dt . Taking q1 = ert in the 2 2 differential equation we have r = −1 ⇒ q1 = ce−t . t→∞ v (t) = −1960 + 1960e− 2 = −1960 1 − e− 2 . 0 ≤ t < 10 9(e10 − 1)e−t . Using the condition v(5) = 12600 we have.36. t t 3. At t = 0. Ri = v = 2i ⇒ R = 2. (c) lim v(t) = −1960. 1 12600 = −9800 + ce− 2 ⇒ c = 36931. 10 A = −980 ⇒ A = −9800.79. (a) The differential equation is m dv = −mg + v 2 . Thus the solution is i(t) = t→10− 9(1 − e−t ). B = − 3 . Thus v (t) = −9800 + ce− 10 . dt + i = 0. So vp = −9800. C = 0. 2 Using initial condition v(0) = 0 we have. weight is dt mg = 32 so that m = 32 = 1. q(0) = 1 = − 3 + c 2 3 5 ⇒ c = 1 + 2 = 5 . Thus 3 q (t) = 2 (sin t − cos t) + ce−t . 7. the homogeneous part of the above equation. Here. t t 1 v1 = ert ⇒ r = − 10 ⇒ v1 = ce− 10 .36. Hence (b) v (10) = 1960 e−5 − 1 = −1946. Thus v (t) = −1960 + ce− 2 . So v (0) = −9800 + 36931. 2 2 1. The differential equation is m dv = −mg − kv ⇒ dt 1 70 dv = −70 (980) − 7v ⇒ dv + 10 v = −980. 5. In order for i(t) to be continuous at t = 10 we must have lim i(t) = i(10) ⇒ 9 − 9e−10 = c2 e−10 ⇒ c2 = 9e10 − 9. So vp = −1960. Equating the coefficients of cos t and sin t we get: cos t : A+B =0 sin t : A−B =3 Solving these equations for A and B by adding we get. Substituting dt dt 1 vp = A we get. 3 3 A = 2 . In order to find charge q we can use: C + Ri = e q dq dq q dq ⇒ C + R dt = e (since i = dt ) ⇒ 0. c = 1960.11 MECHANICS II: INCLUDING AIR RESISTANCE 1.36 = 27131. So i(t) = c2 e−t . voltage source q e = 6 sin t. 2 A = −980 ⇒ A = −1960.

Integrating we have. Integrating we have. 32 √ (b) lim v(t) = − 32. The slope of the orthogonal t (ln t) t family is thus dx = − x ln t ⇒ x ln xdx = − t ln tdt. 2 where c2 = 2c. x = tc ⇒ ln x = c ln t ⇒ 1 dx x dt ln x ln t = c. where k = 1000−√32 . x = t + c ⇒ x − t = c. t→∞ √ 1000+√32 . 1000− 32 √ −2 32t 1.FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS dv 2 ⇒ dt = − 32 − v √ v+√32 1 √ ln v− 32 = −t 2 32 dv 32−v 2 27 √ +c⇒ √ v+√32 v− 32 = − dt. Differentiating with respect to (wrt) t: dx dx dt − 1 = 0 ⇒ dt = 1. x = t2 + c ⇒ x2 − t2 = c2 . Differentiating wrt t: x + t dx = 0 ⇒ dx = − x . The slope of the orthogonal family is thus dx dt = −1. Using the initial condition v(0) = 1000 we have k = √ √ √ √ v+ So v−√32 = ke−2 32t ⇒ v 1 − ke−2 32t = − 32 1 + ke 32 √ √ √ 1000+ 1+ke−2 32t ⇒ v(t) = − 32 1−ke−2√32t . Integration dt ln x 1 parts on both sides yields. x t 5. x t 3. Differentiating wrt t: dx ln x = 0 ⇒ dt = x ln t .12 ORTHOGONAL TRAJECTORIES (OPTIONAL) 1. xt = c. dt dt t t The slope of the orthogonal family is thus dx = x ⇒ dt 2 2 xdx = tdt. Integrating using tables gives = ke−2 √ 32t . 1 x2 ln |x| − 1 x2 = − 1 t2 ln |t| + 4 t2 + c 2 4 2 ln t−ln x 1 t 2 by . where k = ±e2 32c . x(t) = −t + c2 .

Since c = tx . The 2 dt dt t t slope of the orthogonal family is thus dx = − 2x ⇒ 2xdx = − tdt. Integrating we have. 2t 17. dt = − 2t ⇒ 2 √t √ 2 9. x3 + t2 = c. Since c = cos t . where c2 = 2c. Integrating we have. where c2 = 2c. The slope of the orthogonal family is thus dt dx 1 1 + x2 dx = − dt. Differentiating wrt t: dx = −c sin t. where c2 = 4c. 3 x 13. Differentiating wrt t: dx = 2ct. 3 1 11. x = ct2 . Differentiating wrt t: 3x2 dx + 2t = 0 ⇒ dx = − 3x2 . dt 2 Integrating we have. 15. dt dt 2 The slope of the orthogonal family is thus dx = 3x ⇒ dt 2t 1 3 x−2 dx = 2 dt . Integrating we have. Integrating we have. x = tan (t + c) ⇒ tan−1 x = t + c. The slope of the orthogonal family is √ √ thus dx = ±2 t ⇒ dx = ±2 tdt. dt x = ± 4 t3/2 + c2 . − x = 3 ln |t| + c ⇒ t 2 −1 3 3 1 . where c2 = −c. The slope of the orthogonal family is thus 1 dx 1 dx = − 1 1 dt. t = (x − c) ⇒ x − c = ± t ⇒ x ± t = c. Integration yields. x = − 2 ln |t| + c2 . dx = 2x . x = c cos t. dt x2 2 2 = ln |sin t| + c ⇒ x = 2 ln |sin t| + c2 . x = − 2 ln |t| − c ⇒ x = c2 − 2 ln |t| . dt x dx dt = − cos t sin t = −x tan t.28 CHAPTER 1 ⇒ 2x2 ln |x| − x2 = t2 − 2t2 ln |t| + c2 . 7. x = t2 + c ⇒ x − t2 = c. Differentiating wrt t: dx dx dt − 2t = 0 ⇒ dt = 2t. The slope of the orthogonal family is 1 thus dx = x cot t ⇒ xdx = cot tdt. x2 = − t2 + c ⇒ 2x2 = −t2 + c2 . dt = − 1+x2 ⇒ 3 x + x = −t + c2 . Differentiating wrt t: 1+x2 dx = 1 dt ⇒ dx = 1 + x2 . Differentiating wrt t: 1 1 dx dx √ √ dt ± 2 t = 0 ⇒ dt = ± 2 t .

h. 3 1 Thus the solution of the initial value problem is x(t) = t + 2 − 2 e2t . x = cos t ⇒ x = − sin t ⇒ x = − cos t.1 GENERAL SOLUTION OF SECOND-ORDER LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 1. x = et ⇒ x = et ⇒ x = et . So x − 3x + 2x = 4e2t − 6e2t + 2e2t = 0. Thus the general solution is x(t) = 1 + c1 sin t + c2 cos t. Thus the solution of the initial value problem is x(t) = 1 − cos t.s. Thus {sin t.s. So x + 2x + 2x = e−t cos t + e−t sin t + e−t sin t − e−t cos t − 2e−t cos t −2e−t sin t + 2e−t cos t = 0. e−t sin t} is a set of solutions for the associated homogeneous equation. x (t) = c1 cos t − c2 sin t. Similarly it can be shown that for x = e−t sin t. So x + x = − sin t + sin t = 0. e2t is a set of solutions for 3 the associated homogeneous equation. Thus et . x = 2e2t and x = 4e2t . For x = e2t . 2 Differentiating this we get. Using the initial condition x(0) = 0 we have. Thus {e−t cos t. x = e cos t ⇒ x = −e cos t − e sin t ⇒ x = e−t cos t + e−t sin t + e−t sin t − e−t cos t. The initial condition x (0) = 0 gives c1 = 0. So x − 3x + 2x = et − 3et + 2et = 0. 0 = 1 + c2 ⇒ c2 = −1. Differentiating the general solution we get. x (t) = 1 + c1 et + 2c2 e2t .h. Thus the general solution is x(t) = 3+c1 e−t cos t+c2 e−t sin t. xp = 0 and so xp − 3xp + 2xp = −3 + 2t + 3 = 2t =r. Now xp = t + 2 ⇒ xp = 1. Now xp = 1 ⇒ xp = xp = 0 and so xp + xp = 1 =r. 1 = 2 + c1 + c2 and 0 = 1 + c1 + 2c2 . Solving these equations for c1 and c2 by 1 subtracting them we have c2 = − 2 and then c1 = 0. x + 2x + 2x = 0. −t −t −t 5.h. Now xp = 3 ⇒ xp = xp = 0 and so xp + 2xp + 2xp = 6 =r. Using the initial condition x(0) = 1 . Using the 3 initial conditions x(0) = 1 and x (0) = 0 we have. x = sin t ⇒ x = cos t ⇒ x = − sin t.s. Thus the general solution is x(t) = t + 3 + c1 et + c2 e2t . 3. cos t} is a set of solutions for the associated homogeneous equation. So x + x = 0.Chapter Two Linear Second and Higher-Order Differenial Equations 2.

e2t is a set of solutions for the associated homogeneous equation. xp = −e−t . Using x (0) = 1 and c1 = −2 we have. xp = cos t + cos t − t sin t and so xp + xp = 2 cos t − t sin t + t sin t = 2 cos t =r. Differentiating the general solution we get. 9. Solving these equations for for c1 and c2 we have c1 = c2 = 1.h.Thus the solution of the initial value problem is x = 2et + e2t + e−t . Thus et .s. xp = 2 cosh t ⇒ xp = 2 sinh t. 7. −1 = c2 .s. which is the same as before. 1 = 2 + c2 ⇒ c2 = −1. So xp − 3xp + 2xp = e−t + 3e−t + 2e−t = 6e−t =r. Using the same initial conditions for the second solution we get. So xp − 3xp + 2xp = 2 cosh t − 6 sinh t + 4 cosh t = 6 (cosh t − sinh t) = 6e−t =r. The general solution is thus x = c1 et + c2 e2t + e−t . So x + x = 0. So x − 3x + 2x = 4e2t − 6e2t + 2e2t = 0. xp = 2 cosh t. Thus the solution of the initial value problem is x(t) = 3 − 2e−t cos t − e−t sin t. x = 2e2t and x = 4e2t .h. Using x (0) = −1 we have. Thus the solution of the initial value problem is x(t) = t sin t − sin t + cos t. x = sin t ⇒ x = cos t ⇒ x = − sin t. 2. So x + x = − sin t + sin t = 0. x1 x2 sin t cos t The Wronskian is W [x1 . x2 ] = det = det cos t − sin t x1 x2 . Thus the general solution is x(t) = t sin t + c1 cos t + c2 sin t. For xp = e−t .s. c2 = 1. x2 = cos t ⇒ x2 = − sin t ⇒ x2 = − cos t = −x2 ⇒ x2 + x2 = 0. 4 = c1 + c2 + 1 and 3 = c1 + 2c2 − 1. x (0) = 3 for the first solution we get. 1 = 3 + c1 ⇒ c1 = −2. Differentiating the general solution we get. 4 = c1 + c2 + 2 and 3 = c1 + 2c2 .30 CHAPTER 2 we have. So x − 3x + 2x = et − 3et + 2et = 0. For x = e2t . Solving these equations for for c1 and c2 we have c1 = 2. (b) Using the initial conditions x(0) = 4. Thus x1 and x2 both are solutions of x + x = 0.2 INITIAL VALUE PROBLEM (FOR HOMOGENEOUS EQUATION) 1. x1 = sin t ⇒ x1 = cos t ⇒ x1 = − sin t = −x1 ⇒ x1 + x1 = 0. Using the initial condition x(0) = 1 we have. Thus the solution of the initial value problem is x = et + e2t + 2 cosh t = et + e2t + et + e−t = 2et + e2t + e−t . 1 = c1 . The general solution is thus x = c1 et + c2 e2t + 2 cosh t. xp = sin t + t cos t. x (t) = sin t + t cos t − c1 sin t + c2 cos t. Thus {sin t. x (t) = −c1 e−t cos t−c1 e−t sin t−c2 e−t sin t+c2 e−t cos t.h. Now xp = t sin t. (a) x = et ⇒ x = et ⇒ x = et . xp = e−t . cos t} is a set of solutions for the associated homogeneous equation. x = cos t ⇒ x = − sin t ⇒ x = − cos t.

x2 = e2t ⇒ x2 = 2e2t ⇒ x2 = 4e2t . Then l.h. x2 ] = det x1 x2 cos t − sin t = − sin2 t + cos2 t = −1 = 0. x1 x2 Then the Wronskian is W (t) = det = x1 x2 − x1 x2 . The Wronskian is W [x1 .s. (b) x3 = c1 x1 + c2 x2 ⇒ x3 = c1 x1 + c2 x2 . α = x3 (t0 ) = c1 x1 (t0 ) + c2 x2 (t0 ) = c1 × 1 + c2 × 0 = c1 β = x3 (t0 ) = c1 x1 (t0 ) + c2 x2 (t0 ) = c1 × 0 + c2 × 1 = c2 Thus x3 = αx1 + βx2 . W (t) = W (t0 )e for the equation x + p(t)x + q(t)x = 0. x = r (r − 1) tr−2 . (a) The Wronskian is W (1) = det = det x1 (1) x2 (1) 1 −1 = −1 = 0. x2 } is a fundamental set of solutions. x1 = sin t ⇒ x1 = cos t ⇒ x1 = − sin t = −x1 ⇒ x1 + x1 = 0. x2 ] = det = 0. In this problem p(t) = 0 so that W (t) = W (t0 ) =constant. Now x3 = c1 x1 + c2 x2 ⇒ x3 = c1 x1 + c2 x2 . 3.s. x1 x2 sin t cos t = det The Wronskian is W [x1 . Then x = rtr−1 . Hence {x1 . 2 = x3 (1) = c1 x1 (1) + c2 x2 (1) = c1 and 0 = x3 (1) = c1 x1 (1) + c2 x2 (1) = c1 − c2 = 2 − c2 ⇒ c2 = 2. = x1 − 3x1 + 2x1 et − 3et + 2et = 0 =r. 9. Thus et and e2t both are solutions of x − 3x + 2x = 0. Let x = tr . Hence {x1 . cos t} is a fundamental set of solutions. t According to (13). x1 x2 dW dt = x1 x2 + x1 x2 − x1 x2 − x1 x2 = x1 x2 − x1 x2 = x1 (−tx2 ) − x2 (−tx1 ) =0 So W (t) is constant. t0 − p(s)ds . 13. Hence {sin t.s. x1 = et ⇒ x1 = x1 = et = x1 . x2 = cos t ⇒ x2 = − sin t ⇒ x2 = − cos t = −x2 ⇒ x2 + x2 = 0. They don’t 1 1 form a fundamental set of solutions.h. 1 0 x1 (t0 ) x2 (t0 ) = det 7. Then l. So t2 x − tx + x = 0 ⇒ tr [r (r − 1) − r + 1] = 0 ⇒ (r − 1) (r − 1) = 0 (since tr = 0) ⇒ r = 1(repeated). Thus x3 = 2x1 + 2x2 . 11.h.s. x1 (1) x2 (1) 1 0 5.= x2 − 3x2 + 2x2 = 4e2t − 6e2t + 2e2t = 0 =r. So we have two solutions: x = t which are the t t same. Thus x1 and x2 both are solutions of x + x = 0. x2 } is a fundamental set of solutions. Using all three sets of initial conditions we have. The Wronskian is W (t0 ) = det 0 1 x1 (t0 ) x2 (t0 ) = 1 = 0. Using all three sets of initial conditions we have. Let x1 and x2 be two solutions of Airy’s equation x + tx = 0. so that x1 + tx1 = 0 and x2 + tx2 = 0.h.LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 31 = − sin2 t + cos2 t = −1 = 0.

h. p(s)ds t0 According to (13). 5.s. since the v terms cancel. Writing w = v and then dividing by t we get dw + 1 w = 0. x1 = 2t−3 . Then l. 15. W (t) = W (t0 )e for the equation x + p(t)x + q(t)x = 0. x2 = 6t−4 .3 REDUCTION OF ORDER ln t t0 −4 = −t−4 .h. Thus t−1 and t−2 both are solutions of t2 x + 4tx + 2x = 0. x1 = t−1 ⇒ x1 = −t−2 and x1 = 2t−3 so that 2t−1 − 3t−1 + t−1 = 0. so that v = c2 t−1 . x1 = e−t ⇒ x1 = −e−t and x1 = e−t .s. t−1 ln t . Thus the general solution is x = vx1 = ve−5t = c2 te−5t + c1 e−5t . x1 = t−1 ⇒ x1 = −t−2 . 3.s.s. on integration. = t2 x2 + 4tx2 + 2x2 = 6t−2 − 8t−2 + 2t−2 = 0 =r. x2 = t−2 ⇒ x2 = −2t−3 . so te−t − (t − 1) e−t − e−t = 0. x1 = e−5t ⇒ x1 = −5e−5t and x1 = 25e−5t so that 25e−5t − 50e−5t + 25e−5t = 0.32 The Wronskian is W (t) = det et et − CHAPTER 2 e2t 2e2t t = 2e3t − e3t = e3t . dt t w t which. t−1 t−2 The Wronskian is W (t) = det −t−2 −2t−3 = −2t−4 + t−4 = −t−4 . = t2 x1 + 4tx1 + 2x1 = 2t−1 − 4t−1 + 2t−1 = 0 =r. Then l. W (t) = W (t0 )e for the equation x + p(t)x + q(t)x = 0. Now integrating again we get v = c2 ln t + c1 . Let x = vx1 = vt−1 and substitute this in the original equation to get t2 vt−1 + 3t vt−1 + vt−1 = 0 ⇒ t2 v t−1 − 2v t−2 + 2vt−3 + 3t v t−1 − vt−2 + vt−1 = 0 ⇒ v t + v = 0. Now integrating twice we get v = c2 t + c1 . A fundamental set of solutions would be t−1 . Substitute x = vx1 = ve−5t in the original equation to get ve−5t +10 ve−5t +25ve−5t = 0 ⇒ v e−5t − 10v e−5t + 25ve−5t +10 v e−5t − 5ve−5t +25ve−5t = 0 ⇒ v e−5t = 0. But w = v . In this problem p(t) = 4 so that t t0 − p(s)ds W (t) = W (t0 )e−4(ln t−ln t0 ) = −t−4 e 0 2. te−5t . Let x = vx1 = ve−t and substitute this in the original equation to get t (ve−t ) + (t − 1) (ve−t ) − ve−t = 0 ⇒ t (v e−t − 2v e−t + ve−t ) + (t − 1) (v e−t − ve−t ) − ve−t = 0 ⇒ . Thus the general solution is x = vx1 = vt−1 = c2 t−1 ln t + c1 t−1 . t According to (13). By separation. A fundamental set of solutions would be e−5t .h. yields ln |w| = − ln t + c ⇒ w = c2 t−1 . since the v (and v ) terms cancel ⇒ v = 0 since e−5t = 0. dw = − dt . 1. In this problem p(t) = −3 so that W (t) = W (t0 )e3t−3t0 = e3t0 e3t−3t0 = e3t .h.

since the v terms cancel. But w = v . r (r − 1) tr − 3rtr + 4tr = 0 ⇒ 2 r2 − 4r + 4 = 0 (since tr = 0). Substituting these into t2 x − 3tx + 4x = 0 we get. But w = v . Dividing by te−t = 0 we get. −3 −3 So x1 = t is a solution. dt t 2 By separation. Writing w = v and then dividing by t we get dw + 2 + t w = 0. w = t on integration. Thus the general solution is x = vt2 = (c2 ln t + c1 ) t2 = c2 t2 ln t + c1 t2 (i. x1 = t ⇒ x1 = 1 and x1 = 0 so that x1 + tx1 − x1 = t − t = 0. Substituting these into t2 x + 7tx + 9x = 0 we get. 11. which. t Writing w = v we get dw + 1 w = 0. But w = v . Writing w = v we get t dw 1 dw 1 dt + t w = 0. on integration. since the v terms cancel. which. Let x = tr . since the v terms cancel. Let x = vx1 = vt and substitute this in the original equation to get (vt) + t (vt) − vt = 0 ⇒ (v t + 2v ) + t (v t + v) − vt = 0 ⇒ v t + 2 + t2 v = 0. Thus the general solution is x = vx1 = ve−t = (c2 (t − 1) et + c1 ) e−t = c2 (t − 1)+c1 e−t . By separation. 7. 1 2 9. Then x = rtr−1 and x = r (r − 1) tr−2 . Let x = tr . dw = − 1 dt dt t w t ⇒ ln |w| = − ln |t| + c ⇒ w = c2 e− ln|t| = c2 t−1 . v + 1 v = 0. By separation. so that . so that v = c2 tet . Let x = vx1 = vt and substitute this in the original equation to get t2 vt−3 + 7t vt−3 + 9vt−3 = 0 ⇒ t2 t−3 v − 6t−4 v + 12t−5 v + 7t t−3 v − 3t−4 v + 9vt−3 = 0. 1 2 But w = v . t 1 s−2 e− 2 s ds . Now w = v yields t dw dw 1 1 + 1 dt. t 1 2 1 2 Thus the general solution is x = vx1 = vt = c2 t s−2 e− 2 s ds + c1 t. t−1 v + t−2 v = 0 ⇒ v + 1 v = 0. Now using integration by parts we get v = c2 (t − 1) et + c1 . A fundamental set of solutions would be {e−t .LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 33 tv e−t − (t + 1) v e−t = 0. yields w t 1 2 1 2 1 ln |w| = −2 ln |t| − 2 t2 + c ⇒ w = c2 e−2 ln|t|− 2 t = c2 t−2 e− 2 t . dw = − + t dt. v − 1 + 1 v = 0.e. Let x = vx1 = vt and substitute this in the original equation to get t2 vt2 − 3t vt2 + 4vt2 = 0 ⇒ t2 t2 v + 4tv + 2v − 3t t2 v + 2tv + 4vt2 = 0 ⇒ t4 v + t3 v = 0. so that v = c2 1 . 1 t A fundamental set of solutions would be t. v = c2 ln t + c1 . t − 1} . Then x = rtr−1 and x = r (r − 1) tr−2 . Now integrating by t using definite integral we get. Thus (r + 3) = 0 ⇒ r = −3. so that v = c2 t−2 e− 2 t . By separation. Thus (r − 2) = 0 ⇒ r = 2. Now integrating t again we get. w =− t dt ⇒ ln |w | = − ln |t| + c ⇒ − ln|t| −1 w = c2 e = c2 t . the second solution is t2 ln t). yields ln |w| = t + ln |t| + c ⇒ w = c2 tet . v = c2 1 s−2 e− 2 s ds + c1 .since the v terms cancel. So x1 = t2 2 is a solution.. r (r − 1) tr + 7rtr + 9tr = 0 2 ⇒ r2 + 6r + 9 = 0 (since tr = 0). dt − 1 + t w = 0.

v sin (2t) + 4v cos (2t) = 0 ⇒ v + 4 cos(2t) v = 0. the second solution is t−3 ln t). Now integrating again we get. v = c2 ln t + c1 . Let x = ert ⇒ x = rert and x = r2 ert . sin(2t) we have w = ce−4 sin (2t) But w = v . Substituting these into x + 2x + x = 0 we get. So x1 = sin (2t) is a solution. Integrating twice we have. Thus (r − 2) = 0 ⇒ r = 2. Thus the general solution sin(2t) 4 cos(2t) w = 0. Now integrating again we get. since the v (and v ) terms cancel. Let x = vx1 = v sin (2t) and substitute this in the original equation to get (v sin (2t)) + 4v sin (2t) = 0 ⇒ (v sin (2t) + 4v cos (2t) − 4v sin (2t)) + 4v sin (2t) = 0. So w = ce−4t . Substituting these into x − 4x = 0 we get. v e2t + 4v e2t = 0 ⇒ v + 4v = 0(since e2t = 0). Thus (r + 1) = 0 ⇒ r = −1. since the v terms cancel. Then x = r cos (rt) and x = −r2 sin (rt) . Substituting these into x − 4x + 4x = 0 we get. Thus the general solution is x = ve2t = (c1 + c2 t) e2t = c1 e2t + c2 te2t . Thus the t general solution is x = vt−3 = (c2 ln t + c1 ) t−3 = c2 t−3 ln t + c1 t−3 (i. sin(2t) Writing w = v we get dw dt + cos(2t) dt sin(2t) is x = v sin (2t) = c2 cos(2t) + c1 sin (2t) = c1 sin (2t) + c2 cos (2t) . So x1 = e2t is a solution. so dt that v = ce−4t . But w = v . So x1 = e2t is a solution. v e−t = 0 ⇒ v = 0(since e−t = 0). Writing w = v we get dw + 4w = 0. v = c1 + c2 t. Let x = vx1 = ve2t and substitute this in the original equation to get ve2t − 4 ve2t + 4ve2t = 0 ⇒ v e2t + 4v e2t + 4ve2t − 4v e2t − 8ve2t + 4ve2t = 0. r2 − 4r + 4 ert = 0 ⇒ r2 − 4r + 4 = 0 2 (since ert = 0). Let x = ert ⇒ x = rert and x = r2 ert . sin(2t) 1 = ce−4( 2 ln(sin(2t))) = c 21 = c csc2 (2t) . since the v (and v ) terms cancel. r2 − 4 ert = 0 ⇒ r2 − 4 = 0 (since ert = 0). 19. 17. 13. Let x = ert ⇒ x = rert and x = r2 ert . Thus the general solution is . By integrating factors. v e2t = 0 ⇒ v = 0(since e2t = 0).. Let x = vx1 = ve and substitute this in the original equation to get (ve−t ) + 2 (ve−t ) + ve−t = 0 ⇒ v e−t − 2v e−t + ve−t + 2v e−t − 2ve−t + ve−t = 0. Thus r2 = 4 ⇒ r = ±2. Integrating twice we have. Thus r = 2. Now using integration table we c get. r2 + 2r + 1 ert = 0 2 ⇒ r2 + 2r + 1 = 0 (since ert = 0). v = c1 + c2 t. 4 − r2 sin (rt) = 0 ⇒ 4 − r2 = 0 (since sin (rt) = 0 as nontrivial solution). Substituting these into x + 4x = 0 we get. Let x = sin (rt) . 15. Let x = vx1 = ve2t and substitute this in the original equation to get ve2t − 4ve2t = 0 ⇒ v e2t + 4v e2t + 4ve2t − 4ve2t = 0. Thus the general solution is x = ve−t = (c1 + c2 t) e−t = c1 e−t + c2 te−t . v = − 2 cot (2t) + c1 = c2 cos(2t) + c1 .e. v = − 1 ce−4t + c1 = 4 c2 e−4t + c1 . since the v terms cancel. −t −t So x1 = e is a solution. so that v = c csc2 (2t) .34 CHAPTER 2 v = c2 1 .

LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS

35

x = ve2t = c2 e−4t + c1 e2t = c1 e2t + c2 e−2t . 21. x2 = vx1 where v must be a non-constant function of t (otherwise x2 is a scalar multiple of x1 and so they are linearly dependent). x1 vx1 x1 x2 The Wronskian is W [x1 , x2 ] = det = det x1 x2 x1 v x1 + vx1 2 2 = v (x1 ) + vx1 x1 − vx1 x1 = v (x1 ) = 0 (since v = 0 as v is a non-constant function of t and x1 = 0 as a nontrivial solution). Hence {x1 , x2 } forms a fundamental set of solutions. 2.4 HOMOGENEOUS LINEAR CONSTANT COEFFICIENT DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (SECOND ORDER) 1. Substituting x = ert into the equation x + x − 6x = 0 we get r2 + r − 6 = 0 ⇒ (r + 3) (r − 2) = 0 ⇒ r = 2, −3.Thus the general solution is x = c1 e2t + c2 e−3t . 3. Substituting x = ert into the equation x + x = 0 we get r2 +1 = 0 ⇒ r = ±i. Thus the general solution is x = c1 cos t+c2 sin t. 5. Substituting x = ert into the equation x + 4x + 5x = 0 we get √ r2 + 4r + 5 = 0 ⇒ r = −4± 216−20 = −2 ± i.Thus the general solution is x = e−2t (c1 cos t + c2 sin t) . 7. Substituting x = ert into the equation x − 3x + 2x = 0 we get r2 − 3r + 2 = 0 ⇒ (r − 1) (r − 2) ⇒ r = 1, 2.Thus the general solution is x = c1 et + c2 e2t . 9. Substituting x = ert into the equation x − x = 0 we get r2 − r = 0 ⇒ r (r − 1) = 0 ⇒ r = 0, 1.Thus the general solution is x = c1 +c2 et . 11. Substituting x = ert into the equation 3x = 0 we get 3r2 = 0 ⇒ r = 0, a repeated root with multiplicity 2. Thus the general solution is x = c1 + c2 t. 13. Substituting x = ert into the equation 3x + 2x − x = 0 we get 1 3r2 + 2r − 1 = 0 ⇒ (r + 1) (3r − 1) = 0 ⇒ r = −1, 3 . Thus 1 the general solution is x = c1 e−t + c2 e 3 t . 15. Substituting x = ert into the equation x + x − 2x = 0 we get r2 + r − 2 = 0 ⇒ (r + 2) (r − 1) = 0 ⇒ r = 1, −2. Thus the general solution is x = c1 et + c2 e−2t . So x = c1 et − 2c2 e−2t . Using the initial conditions x(0) = 0 and x (0) = 1 we get c1 + c2 = 0 and c1 − 2c2 = 1. Solving these equations for 1 1 c1 and c2 , we have c1 = 3 and c2 = − 3 . 1 −2t 1 t Hence x = 3 e − 3 e . 17. Substituting x = ert into the equation 2x + 4x = 0 we get √ 2r2 + 4 = 0 ⇒ r2 = −2 ⇒ r = ±i 2. Thus the general solution √ √ is x = c1 cos 2t + c2 sin 2t. 19. Substituting x = ert into the equation 2x + 8x + 6x = 0 we get 2r2 + 8r + 6 = 0 ⇒ r2 + 4r + 3 = 0 ⇒ (r + 3) (r + 1) = 0

36

CHAPTER 2

21.

23.

25.

27.

29.

31.

33.

⇒ r = −1, −3.Thus the general solution is x = c1 e−t + c2 e−3t . So x = −c1 e−t − 3c2 e−3t . Using the initial conditions x(0) = 2 and x (0) = 0 we get c1 + c2 = 2 and −c1 − 3c2 = 0. Solving these equations for c1 and c2 , we have c1 = 3 and c2 = −1. Hence x = 3e−t − e−3t . Substituting x = ert into the equation x + 10x + 25x = 0 we 2 get, r2 + 10r + 25 = 0 ⇒ (r + 5) = 0 ⇒ r = −5, repeated twice. Thus the general solution is x = c1 e−5t + c2 te−5t . Substituting x = ert into the equation x − 14x + 49x = 0 we 2 get, r2 − 14r + 49 = 0 ⇒ (r − 7) = 0 ⇒ r = 7, repeated twice. Thus the general solution is x = c1 e7t + c2 te7t . Substituting x = ert into the equation x − 6x + 25x = 0 we get √ r2 − 6r + 25 = 0 ⇒ r = 6± 36−100 = 3 ± 4i.Thus the general 2 solution is x = e3t (c1 cos 4t + c2 sin 4t) . Substituting x = ert √ the equation x − 12x = 0 we get into r2 − 12 √ 0 ⇒ r = √ 12. Thus the general solution is = ± x = c1 e 12t + c2 e− 12t . Substituting x = ert into the equation x + 4x + 8x = 0 we get √ r2 + 4r + 8 = 0 ⇒ r = −4± 216−32 = −2 ± 2i.Thus the general solution is x = e−2t (c1 cos 2t + c2 sin 2t) . Substituting x = ert√ into the √ equation x + 8x = 0 we get r2 + 8 = 0 ⇒ r = ± √ = ± 8i.Thus the general −8 √ solution is x = c1 cos 8t + c2 sin 8t. Substituting x = ert into the equation x + 6x + 7x = 0 we get √ √ r2 + 6r + 7 = 0 ⇒ r = −6± 236−28 = −3 ± 2.Thus the general solution is x = c1 e(−3+
αt √ 2)t

+ c2 e(−3−
αt

2)t

= e−3t c1 e

2t

+ c2 e−

2t

.

35. The Wronskian W [e cos βt, e sin βt] eαt cos βt eαt sin βt = det αt αt e (α cos βt − β sin βt) e (α sin βt + β cos βt) = e2αt α sin βt cos βt + β cos2 βt − α sin βt cos βt + β sin2 βt = βe2αt cos2 βt + sin2 βt = βe2αt = 0 (since β = 0). So {eαt cos βt, eαt sin βt} forms a fundamental set of solutions. b2 37. Repeated roots have b2 − 4ac = 0 ⇒ c = 4a , so that ar2 + br + c = ar2 + br +
b2 4a = b − 2a . b a r2 + a r + b2 4a2

=a r+

b 2 2a

.

So repeated root is r = 39. Choose #21. This problem has a repeated root, r = −5. So one solution is x1 = e−5t . Let x = vx1 = ve−5t and substitute this in the original equation to get ve−5t + 10 ve−5t + 25ve−5t = 0 ⇒ v e−5t − 10v e−5t + 25ve−5t +10 v e−5t − 5ve−5t + 25ve−5t = 0 −5t ⇒v e = 0 ⇒ v = 0 since e−5t = 0. Now integrating twice we get v = c2 t + c1 . Thus the general solution is x = vx1 = ve−5t = c2 te−5t + c1 e−5t .

LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS

37

41. c1 e−t + c2 e−2t will be the general solution if r = −1 and r = −2 are the roots of the characteristic equation. One such characteristic equation would be (r + 1) (r + 2) = r2 + 3r + 2 = 0. A corresponding differential equation is x + 3x + 2x = 0. 43. c1 e3t + c2 te3t will be the general solution if r = 3 is a repeated (twice) root of the characteristic equation. One such characteristic 2 equation would be (r − 3) = r2 − 6r + 9 = 0. A corresponding differential equation is x − 6x + 9x = 0. 45. c1 sin 4t + c2 cos 4t will be the general solution if r = ±4i is a complex root of the characteristic equation. One such characteristic equation would be (r + 4i) (r − 4i) = r2 + 16 = 0. A corresponding differential equation is x + 16x = 0. 47. c1 sin 3t + c2 cos 3t will be the general solution if r = ±3i is a complex root of the characteristic equation. One such characteristic equation would be (r + 3i) (r − 3i) = r2 + 9 = 0. A corresponding differential equation is x + 9x = 0. 49. c1 + c2 t will be the general solution if r = 0 is a repeated root of the characteristic equation. One such characteristic equation would be r2 = 0. A corresponding differential equation is x = 0. 51. c1 et sin t + c2 et cos t will be the general solution if r = 1 ± i is a complex root of the characteristic equation. One such characteristic equation would be (r − 1 − i) (r − 1 + i) = r2 − 2r + 2 = 0. A corresponding differential equation is x − 2x + 2x = 0. 2.4.1 Homogeneous Linear Constant Coefficient Differential Equations (nth-Order) 1. Substituting x = ert into the equation x − 6x + 12x − 8x = 0 3 we get, r3 − 6r2 + 12r − 8 = 0 ⇒ (r − 2) = 0 ⇒ r = 2 is a repeated root of multiplicity 3.Thus the general solution is x = c1 e2t + c2 te2t + c3 t2 e2t . 3. Substituting x = ert into the equation x − 5x + 4x = 0 we get, r4 − 5r2 + 4 = 0 ⇒ r2 − 1 r2 − 4 = 0 ⇒ r = ±1, ±2. Thus the general solution is x = c1 et + c2 e−t + c3 e2t + c4 e−2t . 5. Substituting x = ert into the equation x + x − 2x = 0 we get, r3 + r2 − 2r = 0 ⇒ r (r − 1) (r + 2) = 0 ⇒ r = 0, 1, −2. Thus the general solution is x = c1 + c2 et + c3 e−2t . 7. Substituting x = ert into the equation x + 4x + 6x + 4x + x = 0 4 we get, r4 + 4r3 + 6r2 + 4r + 1 = 0 ⇒ (r + 1) = 0 ⇒ r = −1 is a repeated root of multiplicity 4. Thus the general solution is x = c1 e−t + c2 te−t + c3 t2 e−t + c4 t3 e−t . 9. Substituting x = ert into the equation x − 3x = 0 we get, r − 3 = 0 ⇒ r = 3. Thus the general solution is x = c1 e3t .

25. Substituting x = ert into the equation x + 4x + 8x + 8x + 4x = 0 we get. Thus the general solution is x = c1 et + e−t (c2 cos t + c3 sin t) . 15. 27. 13. Thus the general solution is x = c1 et + c2 tet + c3 t2 et + c4 e−t + c5 te−t + c6 t2 e−t . c1 e−2t + c2 te−2t + c3 t2 e−2t will be the general solution if r = −2 is a root with multiplicity 3 of the characteristic equation. Substituting x = ert into the equation x(4) −4x(3) +6x(2) −4x(1) +x = 0 4 we get. One such 3 characteristic equation would be (r + 2) = r3 + 6r2 + 12r + 8 = 0. r6 − 3r4 + 3r2 − 1 = 0 3 2 ⇒ r2 − 3 r2 . c1 sin 5t + c2 cos 5t + c3 t sin 5t + c4 t cos 5t will be the general solution if r = ±5i is a complex root with multiplicity 2 of the characteristic 2 equation. ±i. r3 + r2 − 2 = 0 ⇒ (r − 1) r2 + 2r + 2 = 0 ⇒ r = 1. r4 + 4r3 + 8r2 + 8r + 4 = 0 ⇒ r4 + 4r3 + 4r2 + 4r2 + 8r + 4 = 0 ⇒ r + 2r + 2 = 0 ⇒ r = −1 ± i is a repeated root of multiplicity 2. Thus the general solution is x = c1 et + e−2t (c2 cos t + c3 sin t) . Substituting x = ert into the equation x + 3x + x − 5x = 0 we get. each repeated with multiplicity 3. One such characteristic equation would be r (r − 2) = r3 − 4r2 + 4r = 0. A corresponding differential equation is x − 4x + 4x = 0. 23. r4 + 50r2 + 625 = 0 ⇒ r2 + 25 = 0 ⇒ r = ±5i repeated twice. 21.1 + 3 r2 . Thus the general solution is x = e−t (c1 cos t + c2 sin t) + te−t (c3 cos t + c4 sin t) . Substituting x = ert into the equation x + x − 2x = 0 we get. r4 − 1 = 0 ⇒ r2 − 1 r2 + 1 = 0 ⇒ r2 = 1 and r2 = −1 ⇒ r = ±1. 17. −1 ± i. r4 − 4r3 + 6r2 − 4r + 1 = 0 ⇒ (r − 1) = 0 ⇒ r = 1 is a repeated root of multiplicity 4. . c1 e2t + c2 te2t + c3 will be the general solution if r = 2 is a root with multiplicity 2 and r = 0 is a simple root of the characteristic 2 equation. Thus the general solution is x = c1 et + c2 tet + c3 t2 et + c4 t3 et . ⇒ r2 − 1 = 0 ⇒ r = ±1. r3 + 3r2 + r − 5 = 0 ⇒ (r − 1) r2 + 4r + 5 = 0 ⇒ r = 1. Substituting x = ert into the equation x(4) − x = 0 we get. A corresponding differential equation is x + 6x + 12x + 8x = 0.38 CHAPTER 2 11. A corresponding differential equation is x + 50x + 625x = 0.12 − 13 = 0 3 ⇒ r2 + 2r 2 2 + 4 r2 + 2r + 4 = 0 2 19. 29. Thus the general solution is x = c1 cos 5t + c2 sin 5t + c3 t cos 5t + c4 t sin 5t. −2 ± i. Substituting x = ert into the equation x(6) − 3x(4) + 3x(2) − x = 0 we get. Thus the general solution is x = c1 et + c2 e−t + c3 cos t + c4 sin t. Substituting x = ert into the equation x + 50x + 625x = 0 2 we get. One such characteristic equation would be ((r − 5i) (r + 5i)) 2 = r2 + 25 = r4 + 50r2 + 625 = 0.

37. Since there are 9 roots. The amplitude is R = c2 + c2 = 9 + 49 = 58. other two pairs simple). 41. 2. One such characteristic equation would be 2 2 ((r − 1 − i) (r − 1 + i)) = r2 − 2r + 2 = 4 3 2 r − 4r + 8r − 8r + 4 = 0. c1 second quadrant. first quadrant. The phase 1 2 angle φ is given by tan φ = c2 = − 7 . 6 √ √ √ 5. the general solution is a linear combination of 6 homogeneous solutions using 6 arbitrary constants: x = e2t c1 + c2 t + c3 t2 cos t + c4 + c5 t + c6 t2 sin t . 4 4 φ = tan−1 = 1 √ 3 π 6 . 1 2 6 The phase angle φ is given by tan φ = c2 = −6 = −1. Thus x (t) = 2 cos 14t − π . The phase angle 1 c2 1 φ is given by tan φ = c1 = √3 .1659 radians. 39.1659) . So φ = tan−1 (−1) + π = − π + π = 3π radians. four real (repeated). the general solution is a linear combination of 9 homogeneous solutions using 9 arbitrary constants: x = c1 + c2 t + c3 t2 + e4t (c4 cos 5t + c5 sin 5t) + (c6 + c7 t) cos 5t + (c8 + c9 t) sin 5t. c1 et sin t + c2 et cos t + c3 tet sin t + c4 tet cos t will be the general solution if r = 1 ± i is a complex root with multiplicity 2 of the characteristic equation. c1 sin t + c2 cos t + c3 t sin t + c4 t cos t will be the general solution if the roots of the characteristic equation is r = ±i repeated twice.5 MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS I: FORMULATION AND FREE RESPONSE √ √ 1.LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 39 31. one pair of complex (repeated twice) and one pair of complex (simple). So radians. 35. Since there are 6 roots. A corresponding differential equation is x − 4x + 8x − 8x + 4x = 0. Since there are 8 complex roots (one pair repeated twice. Since there are six complex roots (one pair repeated three times). The amplitude is R = c2 + c2 = 36 + 36 = 72 = 6 2. Thus x (t) = 58 cos (5t + 1. two complex. 2 2 One such characteristic equation would be ((r − i) (r + i)) = r2 + 1 = r4 + 2r2 + 1 = 0. fourth quadrant. the general solution is a linear combination of 6 homogeneous solutions using 6 arbitrary constants: x = e8t c1 + c2 t + c3 t2 + c4 t3 + e8t (c5 cos 7t + c6 sin 7t) . A corresponding differential equation is x + 2x + x = 0. √ 2 3. the general solution is a linear combination of 8 homogeneous solutions using 8 arbitrary constants: x = e2t (c1 cos 6t + c2 sin 6t) + e−2t (c3 cos 6t + c4 sin 6t) + (c5 + c6 t) cos 6t + (c7 + c8 t) sin 6t. So c1 3 √ 7 φ = tan−1 − 3 = −1. 33. The amplitude is R = c2 + c2 = 3 + 1 = 2. three real (repeated).

k = 64 gm/s2 . Hence the general solution is x (t) = c1 cos 8t + c2 sin 8t ⇒ x (t) = −8c1 sin 8t + 8c2 cos 8t. g = 980 cm/s2 and ∆L = 20 cm. c1 = 0 and c2 = 10 m k. c2 + c2 = 2 ⇒ c2 + c2 = 4 ⇒ 1 2 1 2 √ √ 2 c2 + 3c1 = 4 ⇒ 4c2 = 4 ⇒ c1 = 1 and then c2 = 3. g = 32 f t/s2 and ∆L = 2 f t. fourth quadrant. second quadrant. Using the initial conditions x (0) = 10 and x (0) = 0 we get. Thus the motion is x = 2 cos 8t + 1 sin 8t. Hence the general solution is x (t) = c1 cos + c2 sin k mt ⇒ k k k k x (t) = − m c1 sin m t + m c2 cos m t. phase. Hence the general solution is x (t) = c1 cos 7t + c2 sin 7t ⇒ x (t) = −7c1 sin 7t + 7c2 cos 7t. k 19. 20 The differential equation is mx + kx = 0 ⇒ 30x + 1470x = 0 ⇒ x + 49x = 0. So k = 8×32 = 128. Substituting x = ert we have r2 + 64 = 0 ⇒ r = ±8i. We determine the spring constant k from k∆L = mg where m = 30 gm. 13. Frequency 2π = 5 cycles/sec⇒ ω = 10π ⇒ k m 17. 2 For spring-mass system m = 2 slugs. Substituting x = ert we have r2 + 49 = 0 ⇒ r = ±7i. The phase angle 1 2 −1 φ is given by tan φ = c2 = √3 . (a) The differential equation is mx + kx = 0 ⇒ x + m x = 0. Using the initial conditions x (0) = 0 and x (0) = 10 we get. We determine the spring constant k from k∆L = mg where m = 8 slugs. The amplitude is R = c2 + c2 = 16 + 48 = 8. c1 = 10 and c2 = 0. The differential equation is 16x + 64x = 0 ⇒ x + 4x = 0. 6 6 √ 9. φ = π = tan−1 c2 ⇒ c2 = tan π = 3 ⇒ 3 c1 c1 3 √ c2 = 3c1 and amplitude. Here m = 16 g. √ Now. 1 1 √ Thus the initial conditions must be x (0) = 1 and x (0) = 2 3. So c1 1 φ = tan−1 − √3 = − π radians. Thus x (t) = 2 cos 6t + π . c1 = 2 1 and c2 = 8 . 3 11.40 CHAPTER 2 √ Thus x (t) = 6 2 cos 5t − 3π . Here m = 10. =0⇒r=± k mt k m i. Thus the motion is x = 10 cos 7t. So k = 980×30 = 1470. Using the initial conditions x (0) = 2 and x (0) = 1 we get. Substituting x = ert we have r2 + 4 = 0 ⇒ r = ±2i. Substituting x = ert we have r2 + k m = 10π ⇒ k 10 = 100π 2 ⇒ k = 1000π 2 lb/ft. So √ φ = tan−1 − 3 + π = − π + π = 2π radians. So x (0) = c1 and x (0) = 2c2 . 3 3 Thus x (t) = 8 cos 2t − 2π . Hence the general solution is x (t) = c1 cos 2t + c2 sin 2t. 4 √ 7. the differential equation is 2x + 128x = 0 ⇒ x + 64x = 0. Thus x (t) = 10 m k sin k mt . The amplitude is R = c2 + c2 = 3 + 1 = 2. . 8 ω 15. The phase angle 1 2 √ √ c2 φ is given by tan φ = c1 = 4−43 = − 3.

LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS

41

(b) The amplitude is R = c2 + c2 = 10 m . 1 2 k (c) From part (b) the amplitude decreases as k increases. (d) From part (b) the amplitude increases as m increases. k 21. (a) The differential equation is mx + kx = 0. ⇒ x + m x = 0. Substituting x = ert we have r2 +
k m

=0⇒r=±
k mt

k m i.

Hence the general solution is x (t) = c1 cos

+ c2 sin

k mt

k k k k ⇒ x (t) = − m c1 sin m t + m c2 cos m t. Using the initial conditions x (0) = 1 and x (0) = 1 we get, c1 = 1

and c2 =

m k.

Thus the motion is x (t) = cos
m k.

k mt

+

m k

sin

k mt

.

23.

25. 27. 29.

(b) The amplitude is R = c2 + c2 = 1 + 1 2 (c) From part (b) the amplitude decreases to 1 as k increases and increases as m increases. Multiplying mx + kx = 0 by x we get, mx x + kxx = 0. Now integrating this equation with respect to t we have mx x dt + kxx dt =constant. ⇒ 2 2 d d m 1 dt (x ) dt + k 1 dt (x) dt =constant 2 2 2 2 1 1 ⇒ 2 m (x ) + 2 k (x) =constant ⇒ 1 mv 2 + 1 kx2 =constant. 2 2 √ d2 x rt we have r2 + 7 = 0 ⇒ r = ± 7i. 2 + 7x = 0. Substituting x = e dt √ √ Hence the general solution is x (t) = c1 cos 7t + c2 sin 7t. √ d2 x rt we have r2 − 7 = 0 ⇒ r = ± 7. dt2 − 7x = 0. Substituting x = e √ √ Hence the general solution is x (t) = c1 e 7t + c2 e− 7t . √ d2 x rt we have r2 + 5 = 0 ⇒ r = ± 5i. dt2 + 5x = 0. Substituting x = e √ √ Hence the √ general solution is x (t) = c1 cos 5t + c2 sin 5t and √ √ √ dx (t) = − 5c1 sin 5t + 5c2 cos 5t. Using the initial conditions dt 3 x (0) = 2 and dx (0) = 3 we have, c1 = 2 and c2 = √5 . dt √ √ 3 Thus x (t) = 2 cos 5t + √5 sin 5t. The amplitude is R=
2 c2 + c2 = 1 c2 c1

4+

9 5

=

29 5

and phase angle is

φ = tan−1

Hence x (t) =

31. Suppose dθ = c1 (constant). The circle of radius r can be represented dt parametrically by x = r cos θ, y = r sin θ. Integrating the differential equation we have, θ = c1 t + c2 , where c2 is constant. Thus x component of the object satisfies a simple harmonic motion x = r cos (c1 t + c2 ) . Hence the number of cycles per second is c1 ω0 2π = 2π (here ω0 = c1 ). That is, c1 =cycles per 2π seconds, which is the circular frequency. 33. Here m = 10, k = 30, δ = 40. The differential equation is 10x + 40x + 30x = 0 ⇒ x + 4x + 3x = 0, x (0) = 3, x (0) = −5.

3 = tan−1 2√5 = 0.59087. √ 29 5t − 0.59087 . 5 cos

42

CHAPTER 2

Substituting x = ert we have r2 + 4r + 3 = 0 ⇒ (r + 1) (r + 3) = 0 ⇒ r = −1, −3. Hence the general solution is x (t) = c1 e−t + c2 e−3t . Also x (t) = −c1 e−t − 3c2 e−3t . Using initial conditions we get, c1 + c2 = 3 −c1 − 3c2 = −5 Adding these equations we get c2 = 1 and then c1 = 2 . Thus x (t) = 2e−t + e−3t . Here, the roots are real (and negative), so the system is overdamped. 35. Here m = 1, ∆L = 20, k∆L = mg = 980 ⇒ k = 980 = 49, δ = 0. 20 The differential equation describing the motion is x + 49x = 0, x (0) = 1, x (0) = 7. Substituting x = ert we have r2 + 49 = 0 ⇒ r = ±7i. Hence the general solution is x (t) = c1 cos 7t + c2 sin 7t. Also x (t) = −7c1 sin 7t + 7c2 cos 7t. Using initial conditions we get, c1 = 1 and c2 = 1. Thus x (t) = cos 7t + sin 7t. This motion is harmonic. 2 37. Here ∆L = 2 3 , k = 12, mg = k∆L = 32 ⇒ m = 1, δ = 7. The differential equation describing the motion is x + 7x + 12x = 0, x (0) = −1, x (0) = 1. Substituting x = ert we have r2 + 7r + 12 = 0 ⇒ (r + 4) (r + 3) = 0 ⇒ r = −4, −3. Hence the general solution is x (t) = c1 e−4t + c2 e−3t . Also x (t) = −4c1 e−4t − 3c2 e−3t . Using initial conditions we get, c1 + c2 = −1; −4c1 − 3c2 = 1 ⇒ c1 = 2 and c2 = −3. Thus x (t) = 2e−4t − 3e−3t . Here, the roots are real (and negative), so the system is overdamped. 39. Here k = 5, m = 1, δ = 4. The differential equation describing the motion is x + 4x + 5x = 0, x (0) = 2, x (0) = 0. Substituting x = ert we have r2 + 4r + 5 = 0 ⇒ r = −2 ± i. Hence the general solution is x (t) = e−2t (c1 cos t + c2 sin t) . Also x (t) = e−2t ((−2c1 + c2 ) cos t − (c1 + 2c2 ) sin t) . Using initial conditions we get, c1 = 2; −2c1 + c2 = 0 ⇒ c2 = 4. Thus x (t) = e−2t (2 cos t + 4 sin t) . Here, the roots are complex (with negative real part), so we have a damped oscillation. The amplitude is √ √ R = c2 + c2 = 4 + 16 = 20 and the phase angle is 1 2 = tan−1 (2) = 1.107. √ Hence x (t) = e−2t 20 cos (t − 1.107) . 41. (Refer to the equation (36) of the text) The general solution for the δ δ critically damped motion is x (t) = c1 e− 2m t + c2 te− 2m t ⇒ δ δ x (t) = − 2m (c1 + c2 t) + c2 e− 2m t . The mass may change direction at the point where the derivative is zero. So we solve δ δ x (t) = 0 for t. Since e− 2m t = 0, − 2m (c1 + c2 t) + c2 = 0 ⇒ c1 2m t = δ − c2 , which is just one number. If t < 0, this does not happen. √ 43. If δ < √ 4mk, then damped oscillation. If δ > 4mk, then overdamped. φ = tan−1
c2 c1

LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS

43 √ And if δ = 4mk, then critically damped. δ2 For small m (0 < m < 4k ) motion will be overdamped. As m is δ2 increased, motion will be critically damped at m = 4k and motion δ2 will be a damped oscillation if m is increased further (m > 4k ). √ k 45. Without damping: natural frequency, ω0 = m = k (since m = 1). √ Now ω0 = 5 ⇒ k = 10π ⇒ k = 100π 2 . 2π √ √ 2 2 With damping: pseudo frequency, β = 4mk−δ = 4k−δ (as m = 1). 2m 2 √ 2 β So 2π = 4 ⇒ 4k−δ = 8π ⇒ 4k − δ 2 = 256π 2 ⇒ 2 2 2 2 δ = 400π − 256π = 144π 2 ⇒ δ = 12π. 2 x 47. Substituting x = ert in 2 d 2 + 4 dx + 3x = 0, we have 2r2 + 4r + 3 = 0 dt dt √ ⇒ r = −1 ± 22 i. Thus the general solution is x (t) = e−t c1 cos 22 t + c2 sin 22 t . Here, underdamped system since the roots are complex (with negative real part). 2 x 49. Substituting x = ert in 3 d 2 + 5 dx + 4x = 0, we have 3r2 + 5r + 4 = 0 dt dt √ 23 5 ⇒ r = − 6 ± 6 i. Thus the general solution is x (t) = e−t c1 cos
√ 23 6 t √ √

+ c2 sin

23 6 t

.

51.

53.

55.

57.

Here, underdamped system since the roots are complex (with negative real part). 2 x Substituting x = ert in 3 d 2 + 8 dx + 4x = 0, we have 3r2 + 8r + 4 = 0 dt dt 2 ⇒ (r + 2) (3r + 2) = 0 ⇒ r = −2, − 3 . Thus the general solution is 2 −2t −3t x (t) = x (t) = c1 e + c2 e . Here, overdamped system since the roots are real (and negative). 2 x Substituting x = ert in 9 d 2 + 12 dx + 4x = 0, we have dt dt 2 2 9r + 12r + 4 = 0 ⇒ (3r + 2) = 0 ⇒ r = − 2 repeated twice. 3 2 2 Thus the general solution is x (t) = c1 e− 3 t + c2 te− 3 t . Here, critically damped system since the roots are repeated negative real. 2 x Substituting x = ert in 3 d 2 + 4 dx + x = 0, we have 3r2 + 4r + 1 = 0 dt dt 1 ⇒ (r + 1) (3r + 1) = 0 ⇒ r = −1, − 3 . Thus the general solution is 1 −t −3t x (t) = c1 e + c2 e . Here, overdamped system since the roots are real (and negative). For an overdamped spring-mass system, (Refer to the equation (34) and (35) of the text) the general solution is x (t) = c1 er1 t + c2 er2 t . So x (t) = r1 c1 er1 t + r2 c2 er2 t . Using initial condition x (0) = 1 we get, c1 + c2 = 1 ⇒ c2 = 1 − c1 and x (0) = v0 we get, r1 c1 + r2 c2 = v0 ⇒ r1 c1 + r2 (1 − c1 ) = v0 ⇒ 0 c1 (r1 − r2 ) = v0 − r2 ⇒ c1 = − r2 −v2 and then r1 −r r2 −v0 r1 −v0 c2 = 1 − c1 = 1 + r1 −r2 = r1 −r2 . 0 0 So x (t) = −r1 r2 −v2 er1 t + r2 r1 −v2 er2 t . Now local maximum or r1 −r r1 −r minimum (if exists) occurs at t such that x (t) = 0 ⇒

Similar procedure δ →2+ δ →2+ rt and then simplifying we get lim+ δ+ δ →2+ δ →2 1 produces lim c2 = 2 . √ +1 δ2 lim+ c1 = lim+ − rr12−r2 = lim+ δ+2√δ2−4−2 . δ 2 −4 δ →2+ δ →2 δ →2 √ Let Q = δ 2 − 4. x (t) = c1 r1 e√ t + c2 r2 er2 t where √ 1 2 − 4 and r = 1 −δ − δ2 − 4 . Then r1 = r2 = −δ = −1 and 2 x2 (t) = c1 e−t + c2 te−t . r1 . √ √ t tQ −tQ δ 2 −4 −t δ 2 −4 √−e 2 So lim+ e 2 = lim e 2 −e 2 Q δ 2 −4 Q→0 δ →2 0 (This is of the form 0 . ln v 1− r0 1 v0 1− r 2 59. Using L’Hospital’s Rule −4 δ →2 δ →2 √ δ →2 δ 2 −4 2δ 1 = 2 . we have r2 + δr + 1 = 0 √ 2 ⇒ r = −δ± 2 δ −4 . c2 = r2 −r1 . Substituting x = e in x + δx + x = 0. r1 Then x (t) = c1 er1 t + c2 er2 t . Hence x2 (t) = e−t .44 0 0 r1 r2 −v2 er1 t = r2 r1 −v2 er2 t ⇒ r1 −r r1 −r CHAPTER 2 er 1 t er 2 t = e(r1 −r2 )t = t= 1 (r1 −r2 ) v 1− r0 1 v 1− r0 2 r2 (r1 −v0 ) r1 (r2 −v0 ) v 1− r0 1 v 1− r0 2 = ⇒ v 1− r0 1 v0 1− r 2 ⇒ ⇒ (r1 − r2 ) t = ln . (If δ → 2+ . x (t) = c1 r1 e√ t + c2 r2 er2 t where √ 1 2 − 4 and r = 1 −δ − r1 = 2 −δ + δ δ2 − 4 . we have r2 + δr + 1 = 0 √ 2 ⇒ r = −δ± 2 δ −4 . . In order to find lim xδ (t) we must find limits of c1 . r1 Then x (t) = c1 er1 t + c2 er2 t . and r2 when δ → 2+ as they depend on δ. √ √ t t 2 2 t e 2 δ −4 −e− 2 δ −4 1 r2 t −2δ √ Thus xδ (t) = + r2 −r1 e = e 2 −4 δ √ √ t δ 2 −4 −t δ 2 −4 t √−e 2 lim xδ (t) = lim+ e− 2 δ lim+ e 2 . Substituting x = ert in x + δx + x = 0. 1 1 r1 c1 + r2 c2 = 1 ⇒ c1 (r1 − r2 ) = 1 ⇒ c1 = r1 −r2 . c1 = 1 and −c1 + c2 = −1 ⇒ c2 = 0. 2 2 For δ > 2 : Using the initial conditions x (0) = 0 and x (0) = 1 we get c1 + c2 = 0 ⇒ c2 = −c1 . δ →2 . c2 . 2 δ →2 δ →2+ 61. r1 = 2 −δ + δ 2 2 For δ > 2 : Using the initial conditions x (0) = 1 and x (0) = −1 we get c1 + c2 = 1 ⇒ c2 = 1 − c1 and +1 r1 c1 + r2 c2 = −1 ⇒ c1 (r1 − r2 ) = −1 − r2 ⇒ c1 = − rr12−r2 r2 +1 r1 +1 r2 +1 r1 t +1 and c2 = 1 + r1 −r2 = r1 −r2 . It is obvious that lim r1 = lim r2 = −1. then Q → 0). Thus xδ (t) = − r1 −r2 e + rr11−r2 er2 t . So use L’Hospital’s Rule) 1 r1 t r1 −r2 e For δ = 2 : δ 2 − 4 = 0 ⇒ critically damped. 1 Thus lim+ xδ (t) = 1 e−t + 2 e−t = e−t . Using initial conditions we get. So x2 (t) = −c1 e−t + c2 e−t − c2 te−t . Thus lim+ xδ (t) = x2 (t) = e−t for all t ≥ 0.

because forcing includes t−1 which is not a polynomial. Then δ →2 lim+ xδ (t) = t lim+ e− 2 δ = te−t . 11. So x2 (t) = −c1 e−t + c2 e−t − c2 te−t . No. c1 = 0 and −c1 + c2 = 1 ⇒ c2 = 1. Then r1 = r2 = −δ = −1 and 2 x2 (t) = c1 e−t + c2 te−t . 13. r2 + 9 = 0 ⇒ r = ±3i. because it is a constant coefficients problem with polynomial times sinusoidal forcing. r2 + 8r = 0 ⇒ r (r + 8) = 0 ⇒ r = 0. 2A2 + 6A3 t + 9 A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 + A3 t3 = t3 + 6 ⇒ 9A0 + 2A2 + (6A3 + 9A1 ) t + 9A2 t2 + 9A3 t3 = t3 + 6 Equating the coefficients of like powers of t gives t3 : 9A3 = 1 ⇒ A3 = 1 9 2 t : 9A2 = 0 ⇒ A2 = 0 6 2 t: 6A3 + 9A1 = 0 ⇒ A1 = − 6 A3 = − 81 = − 27 9 6 2 0 t : 9A0 + 2A2 = 6 ⇒ A0 = 9 = 3 2 6 Thus xp = 3 − 81 t + 1 t3 and the general solution is x = xp + xh ⇒ 9 2 x = 2 − 27 t + 1 t3 + c1 cos 3t + c2 sin 3t. The forcing function is a polynomial of degree 3. Substituting these in the original equation we have.function sinh 3t is 1 e3t − 2 e−3t . The forcing function is a polynomial of degree 1 and r = 0 is a root of multiplicity 1 ⇒ k = 1. 64 . Substituting these in the original equation we have. So xp = A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 + A3 t3 . xp = A1 + 2A2 t + 3A3 t2 .LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 45 t = lim t t t 2Q t + 2 e− 2 Q 2e For δ = 2 : δ 2 − 4 = 0 ⇒ critically damped. Using initial conditions we get. Thus lim+ xδ (t) = x2 (t) for all t ≥ 0. r = 0 is not a root ⇒ k = 0. because forcing includes ln |t| which is not a polynomial. 3. No. t 7. No. δ →2 Q→0 1 = t. 2A1 + 8A0 + 16A1 t = 7t + 11. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 9x = t3 + 6 we get. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 8x = 7t + 11 we get. Equating the coefficients of like powers of t gives 7 t: 16A1 = 7 ⇒ A1 = 16 81 0 t : 2A1 + 8A0 = 11 ⇒ A0 = 64 81 7 2 Thus xp = 64 t + 16 t and the general solution is x = xp + xh ⇒ 7 x = 81 t + 16 t2 + c1 + c2 e−8t . δ →2 2. Yes. xp = 2A1 . because cos t is not allowed as a sinusoidal forcing. because it is not a constant coefficients problem. −8. No. because it is a constant coefficients problem and the second part 1 of forcing. So xp = t (A0 + A1 t) = A0 t + A1 t2 . Thus xh = c1 cos 3t + c2 sin 3t. Thus xh = c1 + c2 e−8t . 9. 3 9 15. Hence x2 (t) = te−t .6 THE METHOD OF UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS 1. a linear combination of 2 exponential functions. Yes. xp = 2A2 + 6A3 t. xp = A0 + 2A1 t. sin 5.

Substituting x = e in the homogeneous part of x − 3x + 2x = 2et we get r2 − 3r + 2 = 0 ⇒ (r − 1) (r − 2) = 0 ⇒ r = 1. 2. xp = −3Ae−3t − 3Ae−3t + 9Ate−3t . r2 + 2r + 5 = 0 ⇒ r = −2± 2 4−20 ⇒ r = −1 ± 2i. 2 2 rt 19.46 CHAPTER 2 17. So xp = Atet . Since sin t is not a homogeneous solution. xp = Aet . 2 2 x = 5e2t + 3c1 e3t + 4c2 e4t . 23. Thus xh = c1 e3t + c2 e−3t . Thus xh = c1 et + c2 e2t . So xp = Aet . The forcing function is of the form eαt . Substituting these in the original equation we have. Thus xp = et and the general solution is x = et +et (c1 cos 2t + c2 sin 2t) . c1 = −1. 21. xp = 4Ae2t . xp = Aet . xp = 2Aet + Atet . we get r2 − 2r + 5 = 0 ⇒ r = 2± 2 t Thus xh = e (c1 cos 2t + c2 sin 2t) . α = 1 and r = 1 is a root with multiplicity 1 ⇒ k = 1. Then c2 = − 1 . Thus x = 5 e2t − e3t − 2 e4t . Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x − 7x + 12x = 5e2t we get r2 − 7r + 12 = 0 ⇒ (r − 3) (r − 4) = 0 ⇒ r = 3. α = 1 but r = 1 is not a root ⇒ k = 0. Thus xh = c1 e3t +c2 e4t . 4Ae2t − 14Ae2t + 12Ae2t = 5e2t ⇒ 2Ae2t = 5e2t ⇒ A = 5 . xp = −A cos t − B sin t. The forcing function is of the form eαt . 5 −3t Thus xp = − 6 te and the general solution is x = − 5 te−3t + c1 e3t + c2 e−3t . The forcing function is of the form eαt . . Thus xp = −2tet and the general solution is x = xp + xh = −2tet + c1 et + c2 e2t . Substituting these in the original equation we have. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 2x + 5x = 3 sin t √ we get. xp = 2Ae2t . So xp = Ae2t . α = 2 but r = 2 is not a root ⇒ k = 0. −3Ae−3t − 3Ae−3t + 9Ate−3t − 9Ate−3t = 5e−3t 5 ⇒ −6Ae−3t = 5e−3t (since te−3t terms cancel) ⇒ A = − 6 . xp = Aet + Atet . The forcing function is of the form eαt . 2 Thus xp = 5 e2t and the general solution is x = 5 e2t + c1 e3t + c2 e4t . since tet terms cancel −Aet = 2et ⇒ A = −2. Thus xh = e−t (c1 cos 2t + c2 sin 2t) . Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x − 9x = 5e−3t we get r2 − 9 = 0 ⇒ r = ±3. Using the initial conditions we get. So xp = Ate−3t . Substituting these in the original equation we have. xp = A cos t + B sin t. 4. xp = Ae−3t − 3Ate−3t . Substituting these in the original equation we have Aet − 2Aet + 5Aet = 4et ⇒ 4Aet = 4et ⇒ A = 1. −A cos t − B sin t − 2A sin t + 2B cos t + 5A cos t + 5B sin t = 3 sin t Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. α = −3 and r = −3 is a root with multiplicity 1 ⇒ k = 1. 2Aet + Atet − 3Aet − 3Atet + 2Atet = 2et . Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x − 2x + 5x = 4et √ 4−20 ⇒ r = 1 ± 2i. 6 25. Substituting these in the original equation we have. xp = −A sin t + B cos t. 1 = 5 + c1 + c2 2 0 = 5 + 3c1 + 4c2 Multiplying the first equation by 4 and then subtracting the second 1 from it we have.

3 3 x = 10 sin t + 5 cos t + e−t (−2c1 sin 2t + 2c2 cos 2t) −e−t (c1 cos 2t + c2 sin 2t) Using the initial conditions we get. xp = A cos 3t + B sin 3t + t (−3A sin 3t + 3B cos 3t) . Substituting these in the original equation we have. 3 1 Using the initial conditions we get. k = 0. Substituting these in the original equation we have. cos 3t : 6B = 0 ⇒ B = 0 2 sin 3t : −6A = 4 ⇒ A = − 3 . xp = −2A sin 2t + 2B cos 2t. So xp = A cos 2t + B sin 2t. −6A sin 3t + 6B cos 3t − 9At cos 3t − 9Bt sin 3t + 9At cos 3t +9Bt sin 3t = 4 sin 3t ⇒ −6A sin 3t + 6B cos 3t = 4 sin 3t (since last 4 terms cancel) Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. 0 = − 3 + c1 ⇒ c1 = 1 . 31. Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. α = 3 but r = 3 is not a root ⇒ k = 0. 1 cos 2t : −3A = 1 ⇒ A = − 3 sin 3t : −3B = 0 ⇒ B = 0. 3 1 1 Thus x = − 3 cos 2t + 3 cos t + 2 sin t. The forcing function is of p(t)eαt where p(t) is a first degree polynomial. 3 29. Thus xp = − 1 cos 2t and the general solution is 3 2 x = − 1 cos 2t + c1 cos t + c2 sin t ⇒ x = 3 sin 2t − c1 sin t + c2 cos t. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 9x = 4 sin 3t we get r2 + 9 = 0 ⇒ r = ±3i. −4A cos 2t − 4B sin 2t + A cos 2t + B sin 2t = cos 2t ⇒ −3B sin 2t − 3A cos 2t = cos 2t. 2 = c2 . Thus xh = c1 e2t + c2 e−2t . r2 − 4 = 0 ⇒ r = ±2 . 27. 3 17 3 1 = − 10 + c1 ⇒ c1 = 13 and 1 = 5 + 2c2 − c1 ⇒ c2 = 20 . 10 3 3 17 −t 13 Thus x = − 10 cos t + 5 sin t + e 10 cos 2t + 20 sin 2t . 3 3 3 10B = 6 ⇒ B = 5 and then A = − 10 . xp = −4A cos 2t − 4B sin 2t. xp = −3A sin 3t + 3B cos 3t − 3A sin 3t + 3B cos 3t +t (−9A cos 3t − 9B sin 3t) = −6A sin 3t + 6B cos 3t − 9At cos 3t − 9Bt sin 3t. Thus xp = − 10 cos t + 3 sin t 5 and the general solution is 3 3 x = − 10 cos t + 5 sin t + e−t (c1 cos 2t + c2 sin 2t) . Since β = 2 but r = βi = 2i is not a root of characteristic equation. Thus xh = c1 cos 3t + c2 sin 3t. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + x = cos 2t we get r2 + 1 = 0 ⇒ r = ±i. So xp = (A0 + A1 t) e3t . k = 1. So xp = t (A cos 3t + B sin 3t) . .LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 47 cos t : 4A + 2B = 0 sin t : −2A + 4B = 3 Multiplying the second equation by 2 and then adding we get. Thus xh = c1 cos t + c2 sin t. 2 Thus xp = − 3 t cos 3t and the general solution is x = − 2 t cos 3t + c1 cos 3t + c2 sin 3t. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x − 4x = te3t we get. Since β = 3 and r = βi = 3i is a root of characteristic equation with multiplicity 1.

1 tet : −4A1 = 1 ⇒ A1 = − 4 t e : −2A0 + 2A1 = 0 ⇒ A0 = A1 = − 1 4 1 1 2 Thus xp = − 4 t − 4 t et and the general solution is 1 1 x = xp + xh = − 4 tet − 4 t2 et + c1 et + c2 e3t . Since β = 4 and r = βi = 4i is a root of characteristic equation with multiplicity 1. So xp = t (A cos 4t + B sin 4t) . Substituting x = e in the homogeneous part of x − 4x + 3x = tet we get r2 − 4r + 3 = 0 ⇒ (r − 1) (r − 3) ⇒ r = 1.48 CHAPTER 2 xp = A1 e3t + 3 (A0 + A1 t) e3t = (3A0 + A1 ) e3t + 3A1 te3t . Substituting these in the original equation we have 2A0 + 2A1 + (A0 + 4A1 ) t + A1 t2 et −4 A0 + (A0 + 2A1 ) t + A1 t2 et +3 A0 t + A1 t2 et = tet ⇒ (−2A0 + 2A1 ) et − 4A1 tet = tet (since t2 et terms cancel). Thus xh = c1 et + c2 e3t . 3 . So xp = t (A0 + A1 t) et = A0 t + A1 t2 et . rt 35. 3 cos 4t : 8B = 3 ⇒ B = 8 sin 4t : −8A = 0 ⇒ A = 0. (9A0 + 6A1 ) e3t + 9A1 te3t − 4 (A0 + A1 t) e3t = te3t ⇒ (5A0 + 6A1 ) e3t + 5A1 te3t = te3t Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. α = 1 and r = 1 is a root of homogeneous equation with multiplicity 1 ⇒ k = 1. Substituting these in the original equation we have. xp = −4A sin 4t + 4B cos 4t − 4A sin 4t + 4B cos 4t +t (−16A cos 4t − 16B sin 4t) = −8A sin 4t + 8B cos 4t + t (−16A cos 4t − 16B sin 4t) . k = 1. Substituting these in the original equation we have. 1 te3t : 5A1 = 1 ⇒ A1 = 5 6 3t e : 5A0 + 6A1 = 0 ⇒ A0 = − 25 6 1 3t Thus xp = − 25 + 5 t e and the general solution is 6 1 x = xp + xh = − 25 e3t + 5 te3t + c1 e2t + c2 e−2t . xp = 3 (3A0 + A1 ) e3t +3A1 e3t +9A1 te3t = (9A0 + 6A1 ) e3t +9A1 te3t . −8A sin 4t + 8B cos 4t + t (−16A cos 4t − 16B sin 4t) +16t (A cos 4t + B sin 4t) = 3 cos 4t ⇒ −8A sin 4t + 8B cos 4t = 3 cos 4t (since last 4 terms cancel) Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. 3 Thus xp = 8 t sin 4t and the general solution is 3 x = 8 t sin 4t + c1 cos 4t + c2 sin 4t. The forcing function is of the form p(t)eαt where p(t) is a first degree polynomial. xp = (A0 + 2A1 t) et + A0 t + A1 t2 et = A0 + (A0 + 2A1 ) t + A1 t2 et . xp = (A0 + 2A1 + 2A1 t) et + A0 + (A0 + 2A1 ) t + A1 t2 et = 2A0 + 2A1 + (A0 + 4A1 ) t + A1 t2 et . rt 33. xp = A cos 4t + B sin 4t + t (−4A sin 4t + 4B cos 4t) . Thus xh = c1 cos 4t + c2 sin 4t. Substituting x = e in the homogeneous part of x + 16x = 3 cos 4t we get r2 + 16 = 0 ⇒ r = ±4i. .

1 1 = c1 + c2 + 5 3 17 5 1 = 8 + 1 − 4c2 ⇒ c2 = 8 4 = 15+8−40 = − 160 . 8 Using the initial conditions we get. Then from 5 160 1 4 17 29 the first equation we have. So xp = t At2 + Bt + C + Det . 1 et cos 3t : −5A = 1 ⇒ A = − 5 t e sin 3t : −5B = 0 ⇒ B = 0. 8 5 3 1 x = 3t2 − 2 t + 3 + 5 et − 4c2 e−4t . The first forcing term is a second degree polynomial and r = 0 is a root with multiplicity 1 ⇒ k = 1. xp = et (A cos 3t + B sin 3t) + et (−3A sin 3t + 3B cos 3t) = [(A + 3B) cos 3t + (B − 3A) sin 3t] et . et : D + 4D = 1 ⇒ D = 1 5 2 t : 12A = 12 ⇒ A = 1 3 t: 6A + 8B = 0 ⇒ B = − 4 3 0 t : 2B + 4C = 0 ⇒ C = 8 Thus xp = t t2 − 3 t + 3 + 1 et and the general solution is 4 8 5 3 x = xp + xh = t3 − 4 t2 + 3 t + 1 et + c1 + c2 e−4t . [(6B − 8A) cos 3t + (−6A − 8B) sin 3t] et −2 [(A + 3B) cos 3t + (B − 3A) sin 3t] et +5et (A cos 3t + B sin 3t) = et cos 3t ⇒ [(6B − 8A) − 2 (A + 3B) + 5A] et cos 3t+[(−6A − 8B) − 2 (B − 3A) + 5B] = et cos 3t t ⇒ −5Ae cos 3t − 5Bet sin 3t = et cos 3t. 160 3 2 3 1 t 29 17 −4t 3 Thus x = t − 4 t + 8 t + 5 e + 32 − 160 e . 3 + 1 −1 . Substituting these in the original equation we have. Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. So xp = et (A cos 3t + B sin 3t) . Thus xp = − 1 et cos 3t and the general solution is 5 x = − 1 et cos 3t + et (c1 cos 2t + c2 sin 2t) . xp = 3At2 + 2Bt + C + Det . 41. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of √ 4−20 x − 2x + 5x = et cos 3t we get r2 − 2r + 5 = 0 ⇒ r = 2± 2 t ⇒ r = 1 ± 2i. xp = [(A + 3B) cos 3t + (B − 3A) sin 3t] et + [−3 (A + 3B) sin 3t + 3 (B − 3A) cos 3t] et = [(6B − 8A) cos 3t + (−6A − 8B) sin 3t] et . 6At + 2B + Det + 12At2 + 8Bt + 4C + 4Det = 12t2 + et . Thus xh = c1 + c2 e−4t . Since α = 1 and β = 3 but r = 1 ± 3i is not root of characteristic equation ⇒ k = 0. Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 4x = 12t2 + et we get r2 + 4r = 0 ⇒ r (r + 4) = 0 ⇒ r = 0.LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 49 37. −4. c1 = 1 − 5 − c2 = 5 + 160 = 145 = 32 . xp = 6At + 2B + Det . 5 39. The second forcing term is of the form eαt with α = 1 and r = 1 is not a root. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 2x + x = 3e−t 2 we get r2 + 2r + 1 = 0 ⇒ (r + 1) = 0 ⇒ r = −1 with multiplicity 2. Substituting these in the original equation we have. Thus xh = e (c1 cos 2t + c2 sin 2t) .

Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. Thus xh = c1 e2t + c2 te2t . 43. α = 1 but r = 1 is not a root. xp = 2A2 − 4B1 cos 2t − 4B2 sin 2t. 2Ae−t − 4Ate−t + At2 e−t + 4Ate−t − 2At2 e−t + At2 e−t = 3e−t ⇒ 2Ae−t = 3e−t (since te−t and t2 e−t terms cancel). (A0 + 2A1 + A1 t) et +9A2 e3t −4 (A0 + A1 + A1 t) et −12A2 e3t + 4 (A0 + A1 t) et + 4A2 e3t = tet − et + 2e3t ⇒ (A0 − 2A1 ) et + A1 tet + A2 e3t = tet − et + 2e3t Equating the coefficients of like terms we have e3t : A2 = 2 tet : A1 = 1 et : A0 − 2A1 = −1 ⇒ A0 = 2A1 − 1 = 1. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 5x + 4x = 8t2 + 3 + 2 cos 2t = 8t2 + 3 + 2 cos 2t we get. xp = 2Ae−t − 2Ate−t − 2Ate−t + At2 e−t = 2Ae−t − 4Ate−t + At2 e−t . . Thus xp = (1 + t) et + 2e3t and the general solution is x = xp + xh = (1 + t) et + 2e3t + c1 e2t + c2 te2t .50 CHAPTER 2 Thus xh = c1 e−t + c2 te−t . In the second part β = 2 and r = βi = 2i is not a root ⇒ k = 0. 3 e−t : 2A = 3 ⇒ A = 2 3 2 −t Thus xp = 2 t e and the general solution is 3 x = 2 t2 e−t + c1 e−t + c2 te−t . So xp = A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 + B1 cos 2t + B2 sin 2t. Substituting these in the original equation we have. The second forcing term is of the form eαt with α = 3 but r = 3 is not a root ⇒ k = 0. 45. Substituting these in the original equation we have. Thus xh = c1 e−t + c2 e−4t . r2 −4r +4 = 0 2 ⇒ (r − 2) = 0 ⇒ r = 2 with multiplicity 2. xp = A1 et + (A0 + A1 + A1 t) et + 9A2 e3t = (A0 + 2A1 + A1 t) et + 9A2 e3t . The first forcing term is of the form p(t)eαt where p(t) is a first degree polynomial. So xp = (A0 + A1 t) et + A2 e3t . Substituting these in the original equation we have. The forcing term is of the form eαt with α = −1 and r = −1 is a root with multiplicity 2 ⇒ k = 2. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x −4x +4x = tet −et +2e3t = (t − 1) et +2e3t we get. r2 + 5r + 4 = 0 ⇒ (r + 1) (r + 4) = 0 ⇒ r = −1. −4. xp = A1 et + (A0 + A1 t) et + 3A2 e3t = (A0 + A1 + A1 t) et + 3A2 e3t . xp = A1 + 2A2 t − 2B1 sin 2t + 2B2 cos 2t. Here first part of the forcing function is a second degree polynomial and r = 0 is not a root. 2A2 − 4B1 cos 2t − 4B2 sin 2t + 5 (A1 + 2A2 t − 2B1 sin 2t + 2B2 cos 2t) +4 A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 + B1 cos 2t + B2 sin 2t = 8t2 + 3 + 2 cos 2t ⇒ (2A2 + 5A1 + 4A0 )+(10A2 + 4A1 ) t+4A2 t2 +10B2 cos 2t−10B1 sin 2t = 8t2 + 3 + 2 cos 2t Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. xp = 2Ate−t − At2 e−t . So xp = At2 e−t .

Here the forcing function is a second degree polynomial and r = 0 is not a root ⇒ k = 0. Since β = 2 and r = 2i = βi is a root with multiplicity 1. So xp = A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 . Substituting these in the original equation we have. 1 t2 : 3A2 = 1 ⇒ A2 = 3 t: 3A1 + 2A2 = 0 ⇒ A1 = − 2 9 0 t : 3A0 + A1 = 1 ⇒ A0 = 11 27 11 2 Thus xp = 27 − 9 t + 1 t2 and the general solution is 3 11 2 1 2 x = 27 − 9 t + 3 t + ce−3t . Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of 3x − 2x = tet 2 2 we get. 51 . −4A sin 2t + 4B cos 2t + t (−4A cos 2t − 4B sin 2t) +4t (A cos 2t + B sin 2t) = sin 2t ⇒ −4A sin 2t + 4B cos 2t = sin 2t (since t cos 2t terms cancel) Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. Substituting these in the original equation we have. Thus xh = c1 cos 2t + c2 sin 2t. Substituting these in the original equation we have. xp = −2A sin 2t + 2B cos 2t − 2A sin 2t + 2B cos 2t +t (−4A cos 2t − 4B sin 2t) = −4A sin 2t + 4B cos 2t + t (−4A cos 2t − 4B sin 2t) . xp = A1 et + (A0 + A1 t) et . A1 + 2A2 t + 3 A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 = t2 + 1 ⇒ 3A0 + A1 + (3A1 + 2A2 ) t + 3A2 t2 = t2 + 1 Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. So xp = (A0 + A1 t) et . k = 1 and so xp = t (A cos 2t + B sin 2t) . 3r − 2 = 0 ⇒ r = 3 . Thus xh = ce−3t . The forcing term is of the form p(t)eαt where p(t) is a first degree polynomial. 4 51.LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 1 cos 2t : 10B2 = 2 ⇒ B2 = 5 sin 2t : 10B1 = 0 ⇒ B1 = 0 t2 : 4A2 = 8 ⇒ A2 = 2 t: 10A2 + 4A1 = 0 ⇒ A1 = −5 t0 : 2A2 + 5A1 + 4A0 = 3 ⇒ A0 = 6 Thus xp = 6 − 5t + 2t2 + 1 sin 2t and the general solution is 5 1 x = 6 − 5t + 2t2 + 5 sin 2t + c1 e−t + c2 e−4t . xp = A1 + 2A2 t. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 3x = t2 + 1 we get r + 3 = 0 ⇒ r = −3. 3A1 et + 3 (A0 + A1 t) et − 2 (A0 + A1 t) et = tet ⇒ (A0 + 3A1 ) et + A1 tet = tet Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. 49. xp = A cos 2t + B sin 2t + t (−2A sin 2t + 2B cos 2t) . Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 4x = sin 2t we get. 47. cos 2t : 4B = 0 ⇒ B = 0 1 sin 2t : −4A = 1 ⇒ A = − 4 1 Thus xp = − 4 t cos 2t and the general solution is x = − 1 t cos 2t + c1 cos 2t + c2 sin 2t. α = 1 but r = 1 is not a root ⇒ k = 0. Thus xh = ce 3 t . r2 + 4 = 0 ⇒ r = ±2i.

r2 − 4 = 0 ⇒ (r + 2) (r − 2) = 0 ⇒ r = 2. Thus e3t and e4t are independent homogeneous solutions. The forcing term is of the form p(t)eαt where p(t) is a fifth degree polynomial. Thus e−2t and e−3t are independent homogeneous solutions. So the form is xp = At2 e−3t . Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x − 6x + 9x = t4 e3t 2 we get r2 − 6r + 9 = 0 ⇒ (r − 3) = 0 ⇒ r = 3 with multiplicity 2. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x − 4x = 5e2t we get. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 2x + x = t3 e−t 2 we get r2 + 2r + 1 = 0 ⇒ (r + 1) = 0 ⇒ r = −1 with multiplicity 2. So the form is xp = A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 + A3 t3 + A4 t4 + A5 t5 . −9. 3. The . 57. Thus xp = (−3 + t) et and the general solution is 2 x = xp + xh = (−3 + t) et + ce 3 t . The forcing term is of the form eαt where α = −3 and r = −3 is a root with multiplicity 2 ⇒ k = 2. −t −t Thus e and te are independent homogeneous solutions. −3. 61. α = 4 and r = 4 is a root with multiplicity 1 ⇒ k = 1. Thus e2t and e3t are independent homogeneous solutions. So the form is xp = t A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 + A3 t3 . So the form is xp = t A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 + A3 t3 + A4 t4 + A5 t5 e4t . Thus 1 and e−9t are independent homogeneous solutions. The forcing term is of the form p(t)eαt where p(t) is a third degree polynomial. Thus e2t and e−2t are independent homogeneous solutions. 55. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x −7x +12x = t5 e4t we get r2 − 7r + 12 = 0 ⇒ (r − 3) (r − 4) = 0 ⇒ r = 3. tet : A1 = 1 et : A0 + 3A1 = 0 ⇒ A0 = −3A1 = −3. So the form is xp = Ae4t . 67. So the form is xp = t2 A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 + A3 t3 e−t . The forcing term is of the form eαt where α = 4 but r = 4 is not a root ⇒ k = 0. The forcing term is of the form eαt where α = 2 and r = 2 is a root with multiplicity 1 ⇒ k = 1. 4. −3t −3t Thus e and te are independent homogeneous solutions. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 9x = t3 we get r2 + 9r = 0 ⇒ r (r + 9) = 0 ⇒ r = 0. Here forcing function is a third degree polynomial and r = 0 is a root with multiplicity 1 ⇒ k = 1. 59. α = −1 and r = −1 is a root with multiplicity 2 ⇒ k = 2. −2.52 CHAPTER 2 53. 63. So the form is xp = Ate2t . Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 6x + 9x = e−3t 2 we get r2 + 6r + 9 = 0 ⇒ (r + 3) = 0 ⇒ r = −3 with multiplicity 2. Here forcing function is a fifth degree polynomial but r = 0 is not a root. 65. 3t 3t Thus e and te are independent homogeneous solutions. rt Substituting x = e in the homogeneous part of x − 5x + 6x = t5 + 7t3 + 4t we get r2 − 5r + 6 = 0 ⇒ (r − 2) (r − 3) = 0 ⇒ r = 2. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 5x + 6x = 5e4t we get r2 + 5r + 6 = 0 ⇒ (r + 2) (r + 3) = 0 ⇒ r = −2.

Thus e3t and e4t are independent homogeneous solutions. r2 + 9 = 0 ⇒ r = ±3i. 79. Combining them we get. Here the forcing term is of the form p(t)eαt sin βt where p(t) is a first degree polynomial and α = −1. So the form is xp = (A0 + A1 t) e−t cos 2t + (B0 + B1 t) e−t sin 2t. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of √ x + 2x + 2x = t2 et sin t we get. So the form is xp = A cos 5t + B sin 5t. Thus e2t and e−5t are independent homogeneous solutions. So the form is xp2 = Be5t . r2 + 2r + 2 = 0 ⇒ r = −2±2 4−8 ⇒ r = −1 ± i. 4. Since the forcing function cos 5t is not a homogeneous solution. 81. So the form is xp = t2 A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 + A3 t3 + A4 t4 e3t . β = 2 but r = α + βi = −1 + 2i is not a root ⇒ k = 0. Here β = 5 and r = βi = 5i is a root with multiplicity 1 ⇒ k = 1. So the form is xp = t (Aet cos 2t + Bet sin 2t) . −5. r2 + 3r − 10 = 0 ⇒ (r − 2) (r + 5) = 0 ⇒ r = 2. So the form is xp1 = t A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 e2t . Thus 1 and e−5t are independent homogeneous solutions.LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 53 69. α = 2 and r = 2 is a root with multiplicity 1 ⇒ k = 1. Here the forcing term is of the form eαt sin βt with α = 1. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 5x = cos 5t we get. β = 2 and r = α + βi = 1 + 2i is a root with multiplicity 1 ⇒ k = 1. 73. r2 − 2r + 5 = 0 ⇒ r = 2± 2 t t ⇒ r = 1 ± 2i. the form to be xp = t A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 e2t + Be5t . α = 3 and r = 3 is a root with multiplicity 2 ⇒ k = 2. Thus cos 5t and sin 5t are independent homogeneous solutions. r2 + 5r = 0 ⇒ r (r + 5) = 0 ⇒ r = 0. 77. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 25x = cos 5t we get r2 +25 = 0 ⇒ r = ±5i. k = 0. Thus e−t cos t and e−t sin t are independent homogeneous solutions. Thus e cos 2t and e sin 2t are independent homogeneous solutions. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x − 7x + 12x = t2 sin 4t we get. So the form is xp = t (A cos 5t + B sin 5t) . Thus cos 3t and sin 3t are independent homogeneous solutions. 75. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of √ 4−20 x − 2x + 5x = 3et sin 2t we get. β = 4 but r = βi = 4i is not a root ⇒ k = 0. Here the forcing term is of the form p(t)eαt sin βt where . forcing term is of the form p(t)eαt where p(t) is a fourth degree polynomial. −5. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 9x = te−t sin 2t we get. So the form is xp = A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 cos 4t+ B0 + B1 t + B2 t2 sin 4t. Here the first forcing term is of the form p(t)eαt where p(t) is a second degree polynomial. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 3x − 10x = t2 e2t + e5t we get. 71. The second forcing term is not a homogeneous solution ⇒ k = 0. r2 − 7r + 12 = 0 ⇒ (r − 3) (r − 4) = 0 ⇒ r = 3. Here the forcing term is of the form p(t) sin βt where p(t) is a second degree polynomial.

So the form is xp2 = A2 e−t cos 4t + B2 e−t sin 4t. β = 4 and r = βi = 4i is a root with multiplicity 1 ⇒ k = 1. r2 + 16 = 0 ⇒ r = ±4i. r2 + 2r + 2 = 0 ⇒ + r = −2±2 4−8 ⇒ r = −1 ± i. So the form is xp1 = t [(A0 + A1 t) cos 4t + (B0 + B1 t) sin 4t] . β = 1 and r = α + βi = 1 + i is not a root ⇒ k = 0. β = 1 and r = α + βi = 1 + i is a root with multiplicity 1 ⇒ k = 1. β = 1 and r = α + βi = −1 + i is not a root ⇒ k = 0. So the form is xp3 = A3 e−4t . p(t) is a second degree polynomial and α = 1. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 2x √ 2x = e−t cos t + et sin t we get. 87. r = α + βi = 1 + i is not a root. So for the first and second forcing terms k = 1. r2 − 1 = 0 ⇒ r = ±1. 89. Thus e−t cos t and e−t sin t are independent homogeneous solutions. So the form is xp = A1 te−t cos t + B1 te−t sin t + A2 et cos t + B2 et sin t. r2 − 2r + 2 = 0 ⇒ √ r = 2± 24−8 ⇒ r = 1 ± i. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x − 2x + 2x = t3 e−t sin t + et cos t we get. For the second forcing term. Thus et and e−t are independent homogeneous solutions. Now combining them we have the form as xp = t [(A0 + A1 t) cos 4t + (B0 + B1 t) sin 4t] + A2 e−t cos 4t +B2 e−t sin 4t + A3 e−4t . The third forcing term is of the form eαt with α = −4 but r = α = −4 is not a root ⇒ k = 0. Here the first forcing term is of the form eαt sin βt with α = −1. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x − x = e−t − et + et cos t we get. β = 1 and r = α + βi = −1 + i is a root with multiplicity 1 ⇒ k = 1. So the form is xp = Ate−t + Btet + Cet cos t + Det sin t. So the form is xp = A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 et cos t+ B0 + B1 t + B2 t2 et sin t. The second forcing term is of the form eαt cos βt where α = 1. . 85. Now combining them we have the form as xp = A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 + A3 t3 e−t cos t+ B0 + B1 t + B2 t2 + B3 t3 e−t sin t +Ctet cos t + Dtet sin t. So the form is xp1 = A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 + A3 t3 e−t cos t+ B0 + B1 t + B2 t2 + B3 t3 e−t sin t. The first forcing term is of the form p(t)eαt sin βt where p(t) is a third degree polynomial. β = 4 but r = α + βi = −1 + 4i is not a root ⇒ k = 0. The third forcing term is of the form eαt sin βt with α = 1. Thus cos 4t and sin 4t are independent homogeneous solutions. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 16x = t cos 4t + e−t sin 4t + 3e−4t we get. β = 1 but r = α + βi = 1 + i is not a root ⇒ k = 0. So the form is xp2 = t (Cet cos t + Det sin t) . Thus et cos t and et sin t are independent homogeneous solutions.54 CHAPTER 2 83. α = −1. The first forcing term is of the form p(t) sin βt where p(t) is a first degree polynomial. The second forcing term is of the form eαt sin βt where α = −1.

Substituting x = e in the homogeneous part of x − 3x + 3x − x = e2t we get. Thus e−2t cos 2t and e−2t sin 2t are independent homogeneous solutions. xp = 8Ae2t . 93. α = 1. The forcing term is of the form p(t)eαt cos βt + q(t)eαt sin βt where p(t) is a first degree polynomial. 95. Integrating this again with respect to t we 4 1 5 7 1 7 get. r3 − 3r2 + 3r − 1 = 0 ⇒ 3 (r − 1) = 0 ⇒ r = 1 with multiplicity 3. Thus xh = c1 et + c2 tet + c3 t2 et . The forcing term is a third degree polynomial. 2) = 2. 97. (a) Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x = t3 + 7t − 2 we get. α = −2. The forcing term is of the form eαt with α = 2 but r = 2 is not a root⇒ k = 0. and r = 0 is a root with multiplicity 2 ⇒ k = 2. s = max (0. The last two terms correspond to the homogeneous solution and 7 1 hence the particular solution is xp = t2 20 t3 + 6 t − 1 . Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 4x + √ = t3 e−2t sin 3t we get r2 + 4r + 13 = 0 13x ⇒ r = −4± 216−52 ⇒ r = −2 ± 3i. So xp = Ae2t . So the form is xp = t A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 e−2t sin 2t + B0 + B1 t + B2 t2 e−2t cos 2t . x = 20 t + 6 t3 − t2 + c2 t + c1 = t2 20 t3 + 6 t − 1 + c2 t + c1 . β = 2 and r = α + βi = −2 + 2i is a root with multiplicity 1 ⇒ k = 1. β = 3 and r = α + βi = −2 + 3i is a root with multiplicity 1 ⇒ k = 1. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 4x √ 8x = t2 e−2t sin 2t + te−2t cos 2t we get. Thus e−t and te−t are independent homogeneous solutions. The forcing term is of the form p(t)eαt cos βt + q(t)eαt sin βt where p(t) is a polynomial of degree zero. Thus 1 and t are independent homogeneous solutions. xp = 2Ae2t . α = −2.LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 55 91. (b) Integrating x = t3 + 7t − 2 with respect to t we get. 1) = 1. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 2x + x = tet sin 3t + et cos 3t we get. s = max (1. 8Ae2t − 12Ae2t + 6Ae2t − Ae2t = e2t ⇒ Ae2t = e2t ⇒ A = 1. r2 = 0 ⇒ r = 0 with multiplicity 2. r2 + 2r + 1 = 0 ⇒ 2 (r + 1) = 0 ⇒ r = −1 with multiplicity 1. q(t) is a second degree polynomial. So the form is xp = t A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 + A3 t3 e−2t cos 3t+t B0 + B1 t + B2 t2 + B3 t3 e−2t sin 3t. Thus xp = e2t and the general solution is x = e2t +c1 et +c2 tet +c3 t2 et . q(t) is a polynomial of degree one. So the form is xp = t2 A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 + A3 t3 . Thus e−2t cos 3t and e−2t sin 3t are independent homogeneous solutions. . Substituting these in the original equation we have. xp = 4Ae2t . The forcing term is of the form p(t)eαt sin βt where p(t) is a third degree polynomial. β = 3 and r = α + βi = 1 + 3i is not a root ⇒ k = 0. 7 x = 1 t4 + 2 t2 − 2t + c2 . rt 99. So the form is xp = (A0 + A1 t) et sin 3t + (B0 + B1 t) et cos 3t. r2 + 4r + 8 = 0 ⇒ + r = −4± 216−32 ⇒ r = −2 ± 2i.

Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + x = 3 + 2 cos t we get.56 CHAPTER 2 101. A sin t − B cos t + A sin t − B cos t = sin t ⇒ 2A sin t − 2B cos t = sin t. 103. ±1. ±2i. Thus x = 3t − t cos t − 2 sin t. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x − 16x = 5tet we get r4 − 16 = 0 ⇒ r4 = 16 ⇒ r2 = ±4 ⇒ r = ±2. . The first forcing term is a constant and r = 0 is a root ⇒ k = 1. ±i. α = 1. xp = A cos t + B sin t. Thus xh = c1 e2t + c2 e−2t + c3 cos 2t + c4 sin 2t. xp = A sin t − B cos t. r3 + r = 0 ⇒ r r2 + 1 = 0 ⇒ r = 0. 105. cos t : −2B = 2 ⇒ B = −1 sin t : −2C = 0 ⇒ C = 0 t0 : A=3 Thus xp = 3t − t cos t and the general solution is x = 3t − t cos t + c1 + c2 cos t + c3 sin t x = 3 − cos t + t sin t − c2 sin t + c3 cos t x = sin t + sin t + t cos t − c2 cos t − c3 sin t Using the initial conditions we have. xp = At + Bt cos t + Ct sin t. xp = −A cos t − B sin t. Substituting these in the original equation we have. xp = −A sin t + B cos t. Thus xh = c1 +c2 et +c3 e−t . xp = A + B cos t − Bt sin t + C sin t + Ct cos t. The forcing function is of the form p(t)eαt where p(t) is a first degree polynomial. r3 − r = 0 ⇒ r r2 − 1 = 0 ⇒ r = 0. Combining them we get. Thus xh = c1 + c2 cos t + c3 sin t. So xp2 = Bt cos t + Ct sin t. Substituting these in the original equation we have. The second forcing term involves cos t which is also a homogeneous solution. Equating the coefficients of like terms cos t : −2B = 0 ⇒ B = 0 sin t : 2A = 1 ⇒ A = 1 2 1 Thus xp = 2 cos t and the general solution is 1 x = 2 cos t + c1 + c2 et + c3 e−t . Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x − x = sin t we get. Then c1 = 0. xp = −B sin t − B sin t − Bt cos t + C cos t + C cos t − Ct sin t = −2B sin t + 2C cos t − Bt cos t − Ct sin t. −3B cos t − 3C sin t + Bt sin t − Ct cos t + A + B cos t − Bt sin t +C sin t + Ct cos t = 3 + 2 cos t ⇒ A − 2B cos t − 2C sin t = 3 + 2 cos t (since t cos t and t sin t terms cancel) Equating the like terms we have. So xp1 = At. Since sin t is not a homogeneous solution. xp = −2B cos t − 2C sin t − B cos t + Bt sin t − C sin t − Ct cos t = −3B cos t − 3C sin t + Bt sin t − Ct cos t. 0 = c1 + c2 0 = 3 − 1 + c3 ⇒ c3 = −2 0 = −c2 ⇒ c2 = 0.

So xp2 = Be3t . Thus xh = c1 et + c2 e−t + c3 e2t + c4 e−2t . t e and t e are independent homogeneous solutions. The first forcing function. xp = 4Ae2t + 4Ate2t + 9Be3t . 4 r4 − 4r3 + 6r2 − 4r + 1 = 0 ⇒ (r − 1) = 0 ⇒ r = 1 with multiplicity t t 2 t 3 t 4. xp = 12Ae2t + 8Ate2t + 27Be3t . is also a homogeneous solution ⇒ k = 1. Combining them we get.LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 57 and r = 1 is not a root ⇒ k = 0. where p(t) is a third degree polynomial. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x − 5x + 4x = e2t − e3t we get r4 − 5r2 + 4 = 0 ⇒ r2 − 1 r2 − 4 = 0 ⇒ r2 = 1. Equating the like terms we have. Substituting these in the original equation we have. te . 111. 3 r3 − 3r2 + 3r − 1 = 0 ⇒ (r − 1) = 0 ⇒ r = 1 with multiplicity 3. 1 e2t : 12A = 1 ⇒ A = 12 1 3t e : 40B = −1 ⇒ B = − 40 . t t 2 t Thus e . xp = Ae2t + 2Ate2t + 3Be3t . 1 1 3t 2t Thus xp = 12 te − 40 e and the general solution is 1 1 x = 12 te2t − 40 e3t + c1 et + c2 e−t + c3 e2t + c4 e−2t . e2t . Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x − 4x + 6x − 4x + x = t3 et + t2 e−t we get. xp = 32Ae2t + 16Ate2t + 81Be3t . Equating the like terms we have. The forcing term is of the form p(t)eαt where p(t) is a second degree polynomial. 4 t 1 t Thus xp = − 45 e − 3 te and the general solution is 4 x = − 45 et − 1 tet + c1 e2t + c2 e−2t + c3 cos 2t + c4 sin 2t. A0 et + 4A1 et + A1 tet − 16A0 et − 16A1 tet = 5tet ⇒ −15A0 et + 4A1 et − 15A1 tet = 5tet . xp = A0 et + 3A1 et + A1 tet . α = 1 and r = 1 is a root with multiplicity 3 ⇒ k = 3. Thus e . Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x − 3x + 3x − x = t2 et − 3et = t2 − 3 et we get. xp = A0 et + 2A1 et + A1 tet . So the form is xp = t3 A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 et . xp = Ate2t + Be3t . The second forcing term is of the form p(t)eαt . and t e are independent homogeneous solutions. ±2. The first forcing term is of the form p(t)eαt . where p(t) is a second . 109. 3 107. te . Substituting these in the original equation we have. So the form is xp1 = t4 A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 + A3 t3 et . The second forcing function e3t is not a homogeneous solution ⇒ k = 0. 32Ae2t + 16Ate2t + 81Be3t − 5 4Ae2t + 4Ate2t + 9Be3t +4 Ate2t + Be3t = e2t − e3t ⇒ 12Ae2t + 40Be3t = e2t − e3t (since te2t terms cancel). 4 ⇒ r = ±1. xp = A0 et + 4A1 et + A1 tet . α = 1 and r = 1 is a root with multiplicity 4 ⇒ k = 4. So xp = (A0 + A1 t) et = A0 et +A1 tet xp = A0 et + A1 et + A1 tet . 1 tet : −15A1 = 5 ⇒ A1 = − 3 4 4 t e : −15A0 + 4A1 = 0 ⇒ A0 = 15 A1 = − 45 . So xp1 = Ate2t .

The forcing term is of the form eαt cos βt where α = −1.7. Now combining them we have the form as xp = t4 A0 + A1 t + A2 t2 + A3 t3 et + B0 + B1 t + B2 t2 e−t .Thus e−t cos t. is 36r2 + k = 0 which has pure imaginary roots r = ±i k Resonance occurs if ω = 36 . 3. The characteristic equation of mx + 10x = F cos ωt. te−t cos t and te−t sin t are independent homogeneous solutions.58 CHAPTER 2 degree polynomial. If forcing function has a frequency ω of 22 Hz. 5. by substituting x = ert . If forcing function has a frequency ω 1 4 of 20 Hz. So the form is xp = t (Ae−t cos t + Be−t sin t) . and e−t sin t are independent homogeneous solutions. β = 1 and r = α + βi is a root with multiplicity 1 ⇒ k = 1. k So 44π = 36 ⇒ k = 36 (44π) = 69696π 2 . by substituting x = ert . then 2π = 22 ⇒ ω = 44π.. r3 + 2r2 + 2r = 0 ⇒ r r2 + 2r + 2 = 0 ⇒ r = 0. So 40π = m ⇒ m = 400π2 . Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 4x + 8x + 8x + 4x = 7e−t cos t we get r4 + 4r3 + 8r2 + 8r + 4 = 0 ⇒ r4 + 4r2 + 4 + 4r3 + 8r + 4r2 = 0 (regrouping) ⇒ r + 2r + 2 = 0 ⇒ r = −1±i with multiplicity 2. The characteristic equation of 36x + kx = 4 cos ωt. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 2x + 2x = 3e−t cos t we get. 113. is mr2 + 10 = 0 which has pure imaginary roots r = ±i Resonance occurs if ω = 10 . e−t cos t. ⇒ r2 + 2 2 2 + 4r r2 + 2 + 4r2 = 0 (perfect square form) 2 2.7 MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS II: FORCED RESPONSE 2. The forcing term is of the form eαt cos βt where α = −1. 4 m. The characteristic equation of mx + 4x = 13 cos ωt. then 10 < 2π < 70 ⇒ 20π < ω < 140π ⇒ 20π < 10 m 10 m. by substituting x = ert . So the form is xp = t2 (Ae−t cos t + Be−t sin t) . then 2π = 20 ⇒ ω = 40π. If forcing function has a frequency m ω between 10 and 70 Hz. β = 1 and r = α + βi is a root with multiplicity 2 ⇒ k = 2. 115. Thus 1. So the form is xp2 = B0 + B1 t + B2 t2 e−t . −1 ± i. α = −1 but r = −1 is not a root ⇒ k = 0. 2 k 36 .1 Friction is Absent(δ = 0) 1. < 140π ⇒ 1 (140π)2 < m 10 < 1 (20π)2 . e−t sin t. is mr2 + 4 = 0 which has pure imaginary roots r = ±i Resonance occurs if ω = 4 m.

The characteristic equation of 15x +8x = f (t). 8 15 . Let φ = Now using the given formula we have. Substituting these in the original equation we have. ω 1 8 Then the frequency of the forcing function is 2π = 2π 15 . 15 m. is 15r2 + 8 = 0 which has pure imaginary roots r = ±i Resonance occurs if ω = 8 15 . 9. 17. 11. by substituting x = ert . The characteristic equation of mx + kx = F cos ωt. xp = −Aω sin ωt + Bω cos ωt. cos ωt : Ak − Amω 2 = F ⇒ A = k−F 2 mω 0 sin ωt : Bk − Bmω 2 = 0 ⇒ B = k−mω2 = 0 (since k = mω 2 ) So xp = k−F 2 cos ωt and thus the general solution is mω x = k−F 2 cos ωt + c1 cos ω0 t + c2 sin ω0 t mω Fω x = − k−mω2 sin ωt − c1 ω0 sin ω0 t + c2 ω0 cos ω0 t Using the initial conditions x(0) = x0 = k−F 2 + c1 ⇒ c1 = x0 − k−F 2 mω mω and x (0) = 0 = c2 ω0 ⇒ c2 = 0 (since ω0 = 0). mx = FT = −k (x + d) + mg = −kx. The characteristic equation of mx + 15x = F sin ωt by substituting x = ert . is mr2 + 15 = 0 which has pure imaginary roots r = ±i Resonance occurs if ω = is ω 2π β+ω 2 t. 7. mg = kd. mx + kx = 0. 15 m. cos(φ − θ) = cos φ cos θ + sin φ sin θ and cos(φ + θ) = cos φ cos θ − sin φ sin θ. 15. by substituting x = ert . β−ω 2 t. is mr2 + k = 0 which has pure imaginary roots r = ±i k m θ= Then φ − θ = ωt and φ + θ = βt. The characteristic equation of mx + kx = F sin ωt. Since the forcing term. is mr2 + k = 0 which has pure imaginary roots r = ±i k m F k−mω 2 cos ωt + x0 − F k−mω 2 cos ω0 t ⇒ = . = k ±iω0 where ω0 = m . Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. is not a homogeneous solution (because ω = ω0 ). Thus xh = c1 cos ω0 t + c2 sin ω0 t. 2 2 = 30 ⇒ ω = 60π. xp = A cos ωt + B sin ωt. −Amω 2 cos ωt − Bmω 2 sin ωt + Ak cos ωt + Bk sin ωt = F cos ωt ⇒ Ak − Amω 2 cos ωt + Bk − Bmω 2 sin ωt = F cos ωt. So 60π = ⇒m= 15 (60π)2 = 1 240π 2 gm. xp = −Aω 2 cos ωt − Bω 2 sin ωt. cos ωt. The frequency of the forcing function 15 m 13. Thus x = F k−mω 2 x= (cos ωt − cos ω0 t) + x0 cos ω0 t. by substituting x = ert . Subtracting we get. cos(φ − θ) −cos(φ + θ) = 2 sin φ sin θ ⇒ cos ωt − cos βt = 2 sin β+ω t sin β−ω t .LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 59 10 10 ⇒ (140π)2 < m < (20π)2 .

Thus xh = c1 cos ω0 t + c2 sin ω0 t. Substituting x = e in the homogeneous part of x + 4x = 8 cos 5t we have. Substituting these in the original equation we have. xp = −Aω 2 cos ωt − Bω 2 sin ωt. Thus xh = c1 cos ω0 t + c2 sin ω0 t. xp = −Aω sin ωt + Bω cos ωt. 0 cos ωt : Ak − Amω 2 = 0 ⇒ A = k−mω2 = 0 (since k = mω 2 ) F sin ωt : Bk − Bmω 2 = F ⇒ B = k−mω2 F So xp = k−mω2 sin ωt and thus the general solution is x = k−F 2 sin ωt + c1 cos ω0 t + c2 sin ω0 t mω Fω x = k−mω2 cos ωt − c1 ω0 sin ω0 t + c2 ω0 cos ω0 t Using the initial conditions x(0) = x0 = c1 and x (0) = 0 ω F Fω = k−mω2 + c2 ω0 ⇒ c2 = − ω0 k−mω2 . m −2Aω sin ωt + 2Bω cos ωt − t Aω 2 cos ωt + Bω 2 sin ωt +kt (A cos ωt + B sin ωt) = F cos ωt Since k = mω 2 . F cos ωt : 2Bmω = F ⇒ B = 2ωm sin ωt : −2Amω = 0 ⇒ A = 0. t cos ωt and t sin ωt terms cancel. r2 + 4 = 0 ⇒ r = ±2i. rt 21. Since the forcing term. Substituting these in the original equation we have. Since the forcing term. xp = t (A cos ωt + B sin ωt) . is not a homogeneous solution (no resonance) xp = A cos 5t + B sin 5t. −Amω 2 cos ωt − Bmω 2 sin ωt + Ak cos ωt + Bk sin ωt = F sin ωt ⇒ Ak − Amω 2 cos ωt + Bk − Bmω 2 sin ωt = F sin ωt.60 CHAPTER 2 k ±iω0 where ω0 = m . F So xp = 2mω t sin ωt and thus the general solution is F x = 2mω t sin ωt + c1 cos ω0 t + c2 sin ω0 t F F x = 2mω sin ωt + 2m t cos ωt − c1 ω0 sin ω0 t + c2 ω0 cos ω0 t Using the initial conditions x(0) = 0 = c1 and x (0) = 0 = c2 ω0 F ⇒ c2 = 0 (since ω0 = 0). Substituting these in the original . is not a homogeneous solution (because ω = ω0 ). xp = −25A cos 5t − 25B sin 5t. Since the forcing term. Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. cos 5t. Thus xh = c1 cos 2t + c2 sin 2t. cos ωt. xp = −2Aω sin ωt + 2Bω cos ωt − t Aω 2 cos ωt + Bω 2 sin ωt . sin ωt. The characteristic equation of mx + kx = F cos ωt by substituting x = ert . is mr2 + k = 0 which has pure imaginary roots r = ±i k m sin ωt − ω ω0 sin ω0 t + x0 cos ω0 t. Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. xp = A cos ωt + B sin ωt. xp = −5A sin 5t + 5B cos 5t. ω Thus x = k−F 2 sin ωt + x0 cos ω0 t − ω0 k−F 2 sin ω0 t ⇒ mω mω x= F k−mω 2 19. is a homogeneous solution (because ω = ω0 ). −2Amω sin ωt + 2Bmω cos ωt = F cos ωt. xp = (A cos ωt + B sin ωt) + t (−Aω sin ωt + Bω cos ωt) . = k ±iω0 where ω0 = m . Thus x = 2mω t sin ωt.

cos 5t. −25A cos 5t − 25B sin 5t + 4A cos 5t + 4B sin 5t = 8 cos 5t ⇒ −21A cos 5t − 21B sin 5t = 8 cos 5t Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. 8 cos 5t : −21A = 8 ⇒ A = − 21 sin 5t : −21B = 0 ⇒ B = 0. Substituting these in the original equation we have. −4A sin 2t+4B cos 2t = 3 cos 2t. r2 − 4 = 0 ⇒ r = ±2. is a homogeneous solution xp = t (A cos ωt + B sin ωt) . Thus xh = c1 cos 2t + c2 sin 2t. cos 2t. m −2Aω sin ωt + 2Bω cos ωt − t Aω 2 cos ωt + Bω 2 sin ωt . xp = −25A cos 5t − 25B sin 5t. 8 cos 5t : −29A = 8 ⇒ A = − 29 sin 5t : −21B = 0 ⇒ B = 0. Thus xh = c1 e2t + c2 e−2t . By substituting x = ert . xp = A cos 2t + B sin 2t + t (−2A sin 2t + 2B cos 2t) . the characteristic equation of mx + kx = F cos ωt is mr2 + k = 0 which has pure imaginary roots k k r = ±i m = ±iω where ω = m . −4A sin 2t + 4B cos 2t + t (−4A cos 2t − 4B sin 2t) +4t (A cos 2t + B sin 2t) = 3 cos 2t ⇒ Since t cos 2t and t sin 2t terms cancel. xp = (A cos ωt + B sin ωt) + t (−Aω sin ωt + Bω cos ωt) . is not a homogeneous solution (no resonance) xp = A cos 5t + B sin 5t. Since the forcing term. xp = −2Aω sin ωt + 2Bω cos ωt − t Aω 2 cos ωt + Bω 2 sin ωt . 25. Substituting these in the original equation we have. cos ωt. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 4x = 3 cos 2t we have. 3 cos 2t : 4B = 3 ⇒ B = 4 sin 2t : −4A = 0 ⇒ A = 0. Since the forcing term. 8 So xp = − 21 cos 5t and thus the general solution is 8 x = − 21 cos 5t + c1 cos 2t + c2 sin 2t. Substituting these in the original equation we have. r2 + 4 = 0 ⇒ r = ±2i.LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 61 equation we have. −25A cos 5t − 25B sin 5t − 4A cos 5t − 4B sin 5t = 8 cos 5t ⇒ −29A cos 5t − 29B sin 5t = 8 cos 5t Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. 8 So xp = − 29 cos 5t and thus the general solution is 8 x = − 29 cos 5t + c1 e2t + c2 e−2t . is a homogeneous solution (resonance) xp = t (A cos 2t + B sin 2t) . Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x − 4x = 8 cos 5t we have. Thus xh = c1 cos ωt + c2 sin ωt. 4 27. 3 So xp = 4 t sin 2t and thus the general solution is x = 3 t sin 2t + c1 cos 2t + c2 sin 2t. xp = −4A sin 2t + 4B cos 2t + t (−4A cos 2t − 4B sin 2t) . Since the forcing term. 23. xp = −5A sin 5t + 5B cos 5t. Equating the like coefficients of terms we have.

Substituting these in the original equation we have. Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. The forcing term. F So xp = 2mω t sin ωtand thus the general solution is F x = 2mω t sin ωt + c1 cos ωt + c2 sin ωt.7.2 Friction is Present(δ > 0) (Damped Forced Oscillations) 29. −4A cos 2t − 4B sin 2t − 8A sin 2t + 8B cos 2t + 13A cos 2t +13B sin 2t = 5 cos 2t ⇒ (9A + 8B) cos 2t + (9B − 8A) sin 2t = 5 cos 2t Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. 40 8 9 145B = 40 ⇒ B = 145 = 29 and then A = 9 B = 29 . tan−1 8 3 = √ = 1. In order to find this in amplitude-phase form. xp = −2A sin 2t + 2B cos 2t.212) . 31. cos 2t. . F cos ωt : 2Bmω = F ⇒ B = 2ωm sin ωt : −2Amω = 0 ⇒ A = 0. Multiplying the first equation by 8 and then adding we get. x + 4x + 13x = 5 cos 2t. So xp = A cos 2t + B sin 2t.62 +kt (A cos ωt + B sin ωt) = F cos ωt Since k = mω 2 . cos 4t : 9A + 24B = 3 ⇒ 3A + 8B = 1 sin 4t : 9B − 24A = 0 ⇒ −24A + 9B = 0. 8 . −2Amω sin ωt + 2Bmω cos ωt = F cos ωt. xp = −4A sin 4t + 4B cos 4t. 8 9 3 73B = 8 ⇒ B = 73 and then A = 24 B = 73. So xp = A cos 4t + B sin 4t. The forcing term. x + 6x + 25x = 3 cos 4t. cannot be a homogeneous solution because δ = 4 > 0 is present. cos 4t.212. we find R = φ = tan √ 73 73 3 2 + 73 8 −1 73 3 73 8 2 73 = 73 73 . Then xp = cos (4t − 1. 3 8 So xp = 73 cos 4t + 73 sin 4t. cannot be a homogeneous solution because δ = 6 > 0 is present. CHAPTER 2 2. Substituting these in the original equation we have. xp = −4A cos 2t − 4B sin 2t. xp = −16A cos 4t − 16B sin 4t. cos 2t : 9A + 8B = 5 sin 2t : −8A + 9B = 0 Multiplying the first equation by 8 and the second equation by 9 and then adding we get. −16A cos 4t − 16B sin 4t − 24A sin 4t + 24B cos 4t + 25A cos 4t +25B sin 4t = 3 cos 4t ⇒ (9A + 24B) cos 4t + (9B − 24A) sin 4t = 3 cos 4t Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. t cos ωt and t sin ωt terms cancel.

8198. −A cos t−B sin t−8A sin t+8B cos t+41A cos t+41B sin t = 3 sin t ⇒ (40A + 8B) cos t + (40B − 8A) sin t = 3 sin t Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. Multiplying the first equation by 3 and then adding we get.7682) . = 0. form.8198) . 3 Then xp = − 2. So xp = A cos t + B sin t. we find R= φ = tan−1 3 − 208 2 + 15 2 208 = √ 234 208 = √ 3 26 208 . Then A = −3B = − 10 . cos (2t − 0.7266) . In order to find this in amplitude-phase 8 2 29 form. xp = −A sin t + B cos t. Substituting these in the original equation we have. sin t.7266. cos t : A + 3B = 0 sin t : −3A + B = 1. In order to find this in amplitude-phase 15 208 3 − 208 √ 3 + π (Since − 208 < 0) = tan−1 (−5) + π = 1. 1 3 10B = 1 ⇒ B = 10 . . we find R = φ = tan−1 − 3 √ 10 10 10 cos (t 1 10 3 − 10 2 + + π (Since √ 10 1 2 = 10 . xp = −A sin t + B cos t. The forcing term. cos t : 40A + 8B = 0 ⇒ 5A + B = 0 ⇒ B = −5A sin t : −8A + 40B = 3 ⇒ −8A − 200A = 3 (substitution) 3 15 3 15 ⇒ A = − 208 . Substituting these in the original equation we have. So xp = A cos t + B sin t. xp = −A sin t + B cos t. 26 Then xp = 3208 cos (t − 1. xp = −A cos t − B sin t. x + 8x + 41x = 3 sin t. The forcing term. Then B = 208 . In order to find this in amplitude-phase form. 35.7682. cannot be a homogeneous solution because δ = 2 > 0 is present.LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 63 So xp = 9 29 cos 2t + 8 29 9 29 √ 8 29 sin 2t. cannot be a homogeneous solution because δ = 8 > 0 is present. Then xp = 33. we find R = φ = tan−1 = 145 29 9 2 + 29 tan−1 8 9 = √ 145 29 . cannot be a homogeneous solution because δ = 3 > 0 is present. −A cos t − B sin t − 3A sin t + 3B cos t + 2A cos t + 2B sin t = sin t ⇒ (A + 3B) cos t + (B − 3A) sin t = sin t Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. x + 2x + 2x = sin t. 3 1 So xp = − 10 cos t + 10 sin t. 10 3 − 10 < 0) = tan−1 − 1 + π = 2. sin t. x + 3x + 2x = sin t. So xp = − 208 cos t + 208 sin t. sin t. 37. So xp = A cos t + B sin t. The forcing term. xp = −A cos t − B sin t.

6779) .6779. xp = −A sin t + B cos t. cannot be a homogeneous solution because δ = 2 > 0 is present. If γ < 22 then z = 1 − 2γ 2 > 0 2 and thus (1 − z) + 4γ 2 z > 0. cos t : A + 2B = 0 sin t : −2A + B = 1. [(1−z)2 +4γ 2 z] 2 [(1−z)2 +4γ 2 z] 2 The critical point is z such that y = 0 ⇒ 1 − z − 2γ 2 = 0 ⇒ z = 1 − 2γ 2 . 2 2 1 Then xp = 2 cos (t − π) . 2 2 1 5 −2 √ 5 2 1 + π (Since − 5 < 0) = tan−1 − 2 + π = 2. So xp = − 2 cos t + 5 sin t. So z = 1 − 2γ 2 is a valid critical 2 point. 2 So xp = − 1 cos t. Let z = ω2 .This will be a solution if the denominator is defined √ 2 (i. ω2 1 41. Substituting these in the original equation we have. If γ → 0 then ω → ω0 .e. −A cos t − B sin t − 2A sin t + 2B cos t + A cos t + B sin t = sin t ⇒ 2B cos t − 2A sin t = sin t Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. 1 2 1 5B = 1 ⇒ B = 5 . 39. Then xp = 55 cos (t − 2. From equation (30) in the text we have. −A cos t − B sin t − 2A sin t + 2B cos t + 2A cos t + 2B sin t = sin t ⇒ (A + 2B) cos t + (B − 2A) sin t = sin t Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. 5 In order to find this in amplitude-phase form. cos t : 2B = 0 ⇒ B = 0 sin t : −2A = 1 ⇒ A = − 1 . 1 we find R = − 1 = 1 . 2m m 4m m 4mk . (1 − z) + 4γ 2 z > 0). So xp = A cos t + B sin t. Then A = −2B = − 5 . xp = −A cos t − B sin t. φ = tan−1 (0) + π (Since − 2 < 0) = π. Multiplying the first equation by 2 and then adding we get. 2 1− ω2 ω0 2 + 4γ 2 ω2 2 ω0 0 Then y = √ ⇒ y = −1 2 ω = ω0 1 − 2γ 2 . sin t. 43. δ δ 2m √ k = √ δ2 k = √ δ .64 CHAPTER 2 xp = −A cos t − B sin t. y = . γ = √k = m 1−z−2γ 3 = 3 . Substituting these in the original equation we have. The forcing term. we find R= φ = tan−1 −2 5 2 + 1 2 5 = √ 5 5 . In order to find this in amplitude-phase form. Hence maximum occurs at ω2 = z = 1 − 2γ 2 ⇒ ω 0 1 (1−z)2 +4γ 2 z −2(1−z)+4γ 2 = (1 − z) + 4γ 2 z 2 2 1 −2 . x + 2x + x = sin t.

qp = A cos t + B sin t. cos t : 4A + 6B = 6 sin t : −6A + 4B = 0 ⇒ −3A + 2B = 0 Multiplying the second equation by 3 and then subtracting from 6 3 9 the first we get. qp = −A sin t + B cos t. 13A = 6 ⇒ A = 13 and then B = 2 A = 13 . L = 1 . d 2 + 3 dq + 1 q = 2 ⇒ dt dt dt 2 dt 2 rt 2q + 3q + q = 3. qp = −A cos t − B sin t. qp = 0. qp = A. e = 3 cos t in the equation 2 5 q q 1 L d 2 + R dq + C q = e we have. C = 2. A = 3 Thus qp = 3 and the general solution is 1 q = 3 + c1 e−t + c2 e− 2 t . Since cos t is not a homogeneous solution. Substituting these in the original equation we have. −A cos t − B sin t − 6A sin t + 6B cos t + 5A cos t + 5B sin t = 6 cos t Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. −5. 2 Using the initial conditions q(0) = 2. i(0) = 4 we get. 6 9 Thus qp = 13 cos t + 13 sin t and the general solution is 6 9 q = 13 cos t + 13 sin t + c1 e−t + c2 e−5t . Thus qh = c1 e−t + c2 e− 2 t . γ is the ratio of the damping coefficient to the damping coefficient at the critical damping. Graph 2. Substituting these in the original equation we have. Substituting q = e in the homogeneous part of we get. 13 2 6 9 1 −t 1 −5t Thus q = 13 cos t + 13 sin t − 2 e + 26 e and 9 5 6 i = − 13 sin t + 13 cos t + 1 e−t − 26 e−5t . 45. r2 + 6r + 5 = 0 ⇒ (r + 5) (r + 1) = 0 ⇒ r = −1. 3 = 1 c2 ⇒ c2 = 6 and then c1 = −7. Thus qh = c1 e−t + c2 e−5t .LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 65 √ Since 4mk is the damping coefficient for the critically damped motion. 1 Adding them we get. qp = 0. L = 1. e = 3 in the equation 2 q q 1 3 L d 2 + R dq + C q = e we have. Since the constant forcing is not a homogeneous solution. Using the initial conditions q(0) = 0. 6 9 i = q = − 13 sin t + 13 cos t − c1 e−t − 5c2 e−5t . 2 Adding them we get. 6 0 = 13 + c1 + c2 9 1 = 13 − c1 − 5c2 . 1 = 15 − 4c2 ⇒ c2 = 26 and then c1 = − 1 . 2 3 3. 2 2 2 2 2 . − 2 . Substituting q = ert in the homogeneous part we get. 1 d 2 + 3 dq + 5 q = 3 cos t ⇒ dt dt 2 dt dt 2 q + 6q + 5q = 6 cos t. Substituting R = 2 . Substituting R = 3. 2r2 + 3r + 1 = 0 ⇒ (2r + 1) (r + 1) = 0 ⇒ 1 1 r = −1. 2 = 3 + c1 + c2 ⇒ −1 = c1 + c2 4 = −c1 − 1 c2 . 1 i = q = −c1 e−t − 1 c2 e− 2 t . C = 2 . i(0) = 1 we get.8 LINEAR ELECTRIC CIRCUITS 1.

constant forcing. So q = e−t (c1 cos t + c2 sin t) i = q = −e−t (c1 cos t + c2 sin t) + e−t (−c1 sin t + c2 cos t) . Substituting these in the original equation 1 we have. 1. 1 1 −t (cos t + sin t) . For t > π. t ≤ π 0. qp = qp = 0. Substituting R = 0. 1 1 −π 1 = −c1 e−π ⇒ c1 = − 2 eπ − 1 = − 1 (eπ + 1) and 2 + 2e 2 2 from i(π− ) = i(π+ ). L The forcing term has frequency between 20 and 30 i. if 40π < 10 < 60π ⇒ (60π)2 < L < L L Hence resonance does not occur for L such that 10 10 L < (60π)2 or L > (40π)2 . 1 5. Substituting R = 2.e. 2A = 1 ⇒ A = 2 . t ≤ π. e = sin ωt in the equation −1t 2 −1t 2 CHAPTER 2 q q 1 L d 2 + R dq + C q = e we have. π < t ≤ 2π. dt dt 1. C = 10 . L d 2 + 10q = sin ωt.e. C = 2 . For t ≤ π. q + 2q + 2q = 0 ⇒ q is just the homogeneous solution. t > π q 1 in the equation L d 2 + R dq + C q = e we have. t ≤ π q + 2q + 2q = . e = 2 Lr2 + 10 = 0 ⇒ r = ± 10 . . 1 0 = 2 + c1 ⇒ c1 = − 1 2 1 0 = −c1 + c2 ⇒ c2 = c1 = − 2 . Resonance occurs if 10 . 1 Thus q = − 2 (eπ + 1) e−t [cos t + sin t] for t > π. Using the initial conditions q(π− ) = q(π+ ) we get. dt dt dt rt By substituting q = e .66 Thus q = 3 − 7e−t + 6e and i = 7e−t − 3e . 0. we have 0 = e−π (c1 − c2 ) ⇒ c1 − c2 = 0 1 ⇒ c2 = c1 = − 2 (eπ + 1) . t > π Substituting q = ert in the homogeneous part. we get r2 + 2r + 2 = 0 √ ⇒ r = −2±2 4−8 = −1 ± i. we obtain the characteristic equation 2 2 10 ω = 10 i. L = 1. ω 20 < 2π < 30 ⇒ 40π < ω < 60π. 1 1 −t Thus q = 2 − 2 e (cos t + sin t) and i = q = e−t sin t for t ≤ π. 2 − 2e Hence the solution is q = 1 π − 2 (e + 1) e−t [cos t + sin t] . So qp = 1 and the general solution 2 1 −t is q = 2 + e (c1 cos t + c2 sin t) . is not a homogeneous solution. So qp = A. (40π)2 1. Using the initial conditions q(0) = i(0) = 0 we get. i = q = −e−t (c1 cos t + c2 sin t) + e−t (−c1 sin t + c2 cos t) . 1 7. Thus qh = e−t (c1 cos t + c2 sin t) .

C = 1. qp = −2A sin 2t + 2B cos 2t. 1 1 Thus q (t) = 10 LC sin LC t . e = 4 cos 2t in the equation 2 q 1 L d 2 + R dq + C q = e. −36A cos 2t − 36B sin 2t + A cos 2t + B sin 2t = 4 cos 2t Equating the coefficients of like terms we have. qp = −4A cos 2t − 4B sin 2t. Substituting R = 0. Substituting q = ert we have r2 + 1 LC 1 Cq d q 1 L 2 1 2 we have. L dt2 + C q = 0. (a) The differential equation is Lq + C q = 0 ⇒ q + LC q = 0. If the free response. i = q = 35 sin 2t. 4 cos 2t : −35A = 4 ⇒ A = − 35 sin 2t : −35B = 0 ⇒ B = 0. 1 1 13. 1 1 15. t t 4 q = − 35 cos 2t + c1 cos 3 + c2 sin 3 . Substituting R = 0. Substituting q = ert dt dt i in the homogeneous part.LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 67 q 0. 1 2 (c) From part (b) the amplitude increases as C increases. we have 9q + q = cos 2t. Hence the general solution is q (t) = c1 cos + c2 sin 1 LC t ⇒ . is absent then q = − 35 cos 2t. t t Thus qh = c1 cos 3 + c2 sin 3 . dt dt 2 =e =0⇒r=± 1 LC t 1 LC i. Substituting these in the original equation we have. Using the initial conditions q (0) = 0 and q (0) = 10 we get. Since cos 2t is not a homogeneous solution. Hence the general solution is q (t) = c1 cos + c2 sin 1 LC t ⇒ 1 1 1 1 q (t) = − LC c1 sin LC t + LC c2 cos LC t. (a) The differential equation is Lq + C q = 0 ⇒ q + LC q = 0. Given that E = 2 i + 2C q ⇒ dq dq d2 q dq dE L di 1 1 dq dt = 2 2i dt + 2C 2q dt = L dt dt2 + C q dt (since i = dt ) 2 q 1 = dq L d 2 + C q = 0 ⇒ E is constant. Substituting q = ert we have r2 + 1 LC =0⇒r=± 1 LC t 1 LC i. we get 9r2 + 1 = 0 ⇒ r = ± 3 .5 t π 2π q 9. √ (b) The amplitude is R = c2 + c2 = 10 LC. L = 9. c1 = 0 and c2 = 10 1 LC . qp = A cos 2t + B sin 2t. 4 So the initial conditions are q(0) = − 35 and i(0) = 0. e = 0 in the equation L d 2 + R dq + dt dt 2 11. t t 4 8 c1 cos 3 + c2 sin 3 .

Thus x = 2t−1 − t−2 . we have 4r (r − 1) tr +8rtr +tr = 0. −1. Let x = tr ⇒ x = rtr−1 ⇒ x = r (r − 1) tr−2 . Dividing by tr = 0 yields the indicial equation r (r − 1) + r − 1 = 0 ⇒ r2 − 1 = 0 ⇒ r = 1. Thus the general solution is x = c1 t−1 + c2 t−1 ln t. 3.68 CHAPTER 2 1 1 1 1 q (t) = − LC c1 sin LC t + LC c2 cos LC t. Using the initial conditions q (0) = 1 and q (0) = 1 we get. 9. Substituting these in the equation t2 x + tx − x = 0. Substituting these in the equation t2 x +3tx +8x = 0. ω = 3. 2 1 (c) From part (b) the amplitude increases as C and/or L increases. 1 = c1 + c2 0 = −c1 − 2c2 . 7. we have r (r − 1) tr + 3rtr + tr = 0. Substituting these in the equation t2 x +4tx +2x = 0. Substituting these in the equation 4t2 x +8tx +x = 0. Dividing by tr = 0 yields the indicial equation r (r − 1)+3r+1 = 0 ⇒ 2 r2 + 2r + 1 = 0 ⇒ (r + 1) ⇒ r = −1. C = 13 . Dividing by tr = 0 yields the indicial equation 4r (r − 1) + 8r + 1 = 2 1 0 ⇒ 4r2 + 4r + 1 = 0 ⇒ (2r + 1) ⇒ r = − 1 . x = −c1 t−2 − 2c2 t−3 . Eω to obtain Plug these in the formula I = 2 1 ( C −Lω2 ) +R2 ω2 3 3 3 = √16+324 = √340 . Let x = tr ⇒ x = rtr−1 ⇒ x = r (r − 1) tr−2 . Thus the motion is q (t) = cos LC t+ LC sin LC t . I=√ 2 (13−9) +36×9 2. 1 17. Let x = tr ⇒ x = rtr−1 ⇒ x = r (r − 1) tr−2 . Thus the general solution is x = c1 t−1 + c2 t−2 . R = 6. 5. Using the initial conditions we get. Let x = tr ⇒ x = rtr−1 ⇒ x = r (r − 1) tr−2 . Given that E = 1. −2. −1. Let x = tr ⇒ x = rtr−1 ⇒ x = r (r − 1) tr−2 . Substituting these in the equation t2 x + 3tx + x = 0. Dividing by tr = 0 yields the indicial equation r (r − 1) + r + 4 = 0 ⇒ r2 + 4 = 0 ⇒ r = ±2i. − 2 . Thus the general solution is x = c1 t + c2 t−1 . we have r (r − 1) tr + rtr − tr = 0. we have r (r − 1) tr +4rtr +2tr = 0. Substituting these in the equation t2 x + tx + 4x = 0. 11. L = 1. Dividing by tr = 0 yields the indicial equation r (r − 1)+4r+2 = 0 ⇒ r2 + 3r + 2 = 0 ⇒ (r + 1) (r + 2) ⇒ r = −1. √ (b) The amplitude is R = c2 + c2 = 1 + LC.9 EULER EQUATION 1. Let x = tr ⇒ x = rtr−1 ⇒ x = r (r − 1) tr−2 . we have r (r − 1) tr +3rtr +8tr = 0. . c1 = 1 √ √ 1 1 and c2 = LC. −c2 = 1 ⇒ c2 = −1 and then c1 = 2. Adding them we have. Thus the general solution is x = c1 cos (2 ln t) + c2 sin (2 ln t) . we have r (r − 1) tr + rtr + 4tr = 0. Thus the general 2 1 −1 −2 solution is x = c1 t 2 + c2 t ln t.

13. 2 dt dt ds dt dt ds ds2 2 x So the Euler equation at2 d 2 + bt dx + cx = 0 becomes dt dt 2 as2 d x + bs dx + cx = 0. x = v t−1 − vt−2 and x = v t−1 − 2v t−2 + 2vt−3 in the original equation we have. Let w = v . Note that the roots are repeated so r1 = r2 and thus c1 k r1 sr1 +c2 k r1 sr1 (ln k + ln s) = c1 sr1 +c2 sr1 ln s. c1 (ks) 1 + c2 (ks) 2 r1 r2 r1 r1 r1 r2 r2 = c1 k s + c2 k s = c1 s + c2 s . dx = dx ds = k dx and dt ds dt ds 2 d x dx d 1 1 d d 1 2 = ds dx ds ds = ds k dx k = k2 d x . Substituting these in the equation t2 x + 3tx + x = 0. t2 v t−1 − 2v t−2 + 2vt−3 + 3t v t−1 − vt−2 + vt−1 = 0. Choose #3. c1 (ks) 1 +c2 (ks) 2 ln (ks) r2 r2 r1 r1 = c1 k s + c2 k s (ln k + ln s) .√ ⇒ Thus the general solution is x = t−1 c1 cos 7 ln t + c2 sin 7 ln t . Now t dx = ks dx ds = s dx and dt dt ds dt ds 2 2 2 x d d 1 t2 d 2 = k 2 s2 dx dx = k 2 s2 ds dx ds ds = k 2 s2 d x k2 = s2 d x . α α c1 (ks) cos (β ln (ks)) + c2 (ks) sin (β ln (ks)) α α = c1 k s cos (β ln k + β ln s) + c2 k α sα sin (β ln k + β ln s) = c1 k α sα [cos (β ln k) cos (β ln s) − sin (β ln k) sin (β ln s)] +c2 k α sα [sin (β ln k) cos (β ln s) + cos (β ln k) sin (β ln s)] = c1 sα cos (β ln s) + c2 sα sin (β ln s) . dw = − dt ⇒ w t ln |w| = − ln t + c ⇒ w = c2 t−1 . 2 ds ds 1 (ii) In this case. r r (iv) Substituting t = ks in c1 tr1 +c2 tr2 ln t we get. After cancellation of v terms and simplification this yields tv + v = 0. where c1 = c1 k and c2 = c2 k r2 are real constants. (i) t = ks ⇒ s = k t ⇒ ds = k . where c1 = k r1 (c1 + c2 ln k) and c2 = c2 k r1 are real constants. Substituting these in the equation t4 x + 6t3 x + 7t2 x + tx − x = 0. −1 (repeated roots). Thus the general solution is x = vt−1 = (c2 ln t + c1 ) t−1 = c1 t−1 + c2 t−1 ln t. Let x = tr ⇒ x = rtr−1 ⇒ x = r (r − 1) tr−2 . Then tw + w = 0. By separation. So one −1 solution is t . Let x = tr ⇒ x = rtr−1 ⇒ x = r (r − 1) tr−2 ⇒ x = r (r − 1) (r − 2) tr−3 ⇒ x = r (r − 1) (r − 2) (r − 3) tr−4 . ds2 ds ds2 ds r r (iii) Substituting t = ks in c1 tr1 + c2 tr2 we get. (v) Substituting t = ks in c1 tα cos (β ln t) + c2 tα sin (β ln t) we get. Let the other solution be x = vt−1 .LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 69 Dividing by tr = 0 yields the indicial equation r (r − 1)+3r+8 = 0 ⇒ √ r2 + 2r + 8 = 0 √ r = −1 ± i 7. we have r (r − 1) (r − 2) (r − 3) tr + 6r (r − 1) (r − 2) tr + 7r (r − 1) tr . Dividing by tr = 0 yields the indicial equation r (r − 1)+3r+1 = 0 ⇒ 2 r2 + 2r + 1 = 0 ⇒ (r + 1) ⇒ r = −1. Integration yields v = c2 ln t + c1 . 17. Then substituting x. 1 1 15. Since w = v . 2 = dx dt dt ds dt dt ds ds2 d2 x dx So the constant coefficient equation a dt2 + b dt + cx = 0 becomes 2 1 1 2 a k2 d x + b k dx + cx = 0 ⇒ a d x + bk dx + ck 2 x = 0. we have r (r − 1) tr + 3rtr + tr = 0. where c1 = c1 k α cos (β ln k) + c2 k α sin (β ln k) and c2 = −c1 k α sin (β ln k) + c2 k α cos (β ln k) are real constants. v = c2 t−1 .

we have r (r − 1) (r − 2) tr + rtr − tr = 0. Substituting these in the equation t3 x + tx − x = 0. −1. 2. e−t ] = det = −2et e−t = −2 = 0. 19. Variation of parameters: x = v1 x1 + v2 x2 . x2 ] is the Wronskian of the independent homogeneous solutions x1 and x2 and f is the forcing function. cos t sin t W [cos t. Dividing by tr = 0 yields the indicial equation r (r − 1) (r − 2) (r − 3)+6r (r − 1) (r − 2)+7r (r − 1)+r −1 = 0 ⇒ r4 − 1 = 0 ⇒ r2 = 1. 1 3. Thus {et . . − sin t cos t 1 Thus {cos t. In the other problems. So x1 = cos t and x2 = sin t are homogeneous solutions.70 CHAPTER 2 +rtr − tr = 0.10 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS (SECOND-ORDER) In problems 21 and 23 we derive the solution obtained by variation of parameters. 2 Thus x = 1 et + c1 x1 + − 1 e3t + c2 x2 ⇒ 2 6 1 x = 2 e2t + c1 et + − 1 e2t + c2 e−t ⇒ x = 1 e2t + c1 et + c2 e−t 6 3 is the general solution. the method of undetermined coefficients could have been used because of exponential forcing. 1. 2 2 1 Integrating we have. 1. −1 ⇒ r = 1. The Wronskian. v1 = 1 et + c1 and v2 = − 6 e3t + c2 . sin t} is a fundamental set of solutions and here f = sin t . 2t −t 2t t x x e So v1 = − fW2 = e 2 = 1 et and v2 = fW1 = − e 2e = − 1 e3t . sin t] = det = cos2 t + sin2 t = 1 = 0. e−t } et −e−t is a fundamental set of solutions and here f = e2t . et e−t W [et . So x1 = et and x2 = e−t are homogeneous solutions. Dividing by tr = 0 yields the indicial equation r (r − 1) (r − 2) + r − 1 = 0 3 ⇒ r3 − 3r2 + 3r − 1 = 0 ⇒ (r − 1) = 0 ⇒ r = 1. 2 Thus the general solution is x = c1 t + c2 t ln t + c3 t (ln t) . −1. ±i. Let x = tr ⇒ x = rtr−1 ⇒ x = r (r − 1) tr−2 ⇒ x = r (r − 1) (r − 2) tr−3 . Thus the general solution is x = c1 t+c2 t−1 +c3 cos (ln t)+c4 sin (ln t) . Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x − x = e2t we have the characteristic equation r2 − 1 = 0 ⇒ r = 1. Variation of parameters: x = v1 x1 + v2 x2 . Yes. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + x = sin t we have 2 the characteristic equation r + 1 = 0 ⇒ r = ±i. the algebraic system of equations (obtained from the variation of parameters) v1 x1 + v2 x2 = 0 v1 x1 + v2 x2 = 0 x will be solved for v1 and v2 by using the formulae v1 = − fW2 and x v2 = fW1 where W [x1 . 1. The Wronskian.

is the general solution. The Wronskian. −2t x x 1 e et 1 e−t So v1 = − fW2 = − 1+e2t −e−3t = 1+e2t and v2 = fW1 = 1+e2t −e−3t e e = − 1+e2t . Integrating we have. Variation of parameters: x = v1 x1 + v2 x2 . 3 9. e is a fundamental set of solutions and here f = 1+1 2t . Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + x = tan t we have the characteristic equation r2 + 1 = 0 ⇒ r = ±i. Thus e . tan t is not a right form of forcing function for using the method of undetermined coefficients. e−2t = det −t −e −2e−2t −3t −3t −3t −t −2t = −2e +e = −e = 0. Thus x = (−t + c1 ) x1 + (ln |sin t| + c2 ) x2 ⇒ x = (−t + c1 ) cos t + (ln |sin t| + c2 ) sin t ⇒ x = sin t ln |sin t| − t cos t + c1 cos t + c2 sin t is the general solution. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 3x + 2x = 1+1 2t e we have the characteristic equation r2 + 3r + 2 = 0 ⇒ (r + 1) (r + 2) = 0 ⇒ r = −1. v1 = − 1−cost t dt = − sec tdt + cos tdt cos = − ln |sec t + tan t| + sin t + c1 and v2 = − cos t + c2 . sin Integrating we have. The Wronskian. Thus x = tan−1 (et ) + c1 x1 + − 1 ln 1 + e2t + c2 x2 ⇒ 2 1 x = tan−1 (et ) + c1 e−t + − 2 ln 1 + e2t + c2 e−2t ⇒ 1 x = e−t tan−1 (et ) − 2 e−2t ln 1 + e2t + c1 e−t + c2 e−2t is the general solution. No. No. −2. 5. 1 No. v1 = 1+e2t dt (Substitution: u = et ) 1 ⇒ v1 = 1+u2 du = tan−1 u + c1 = tan−1 (et ) + c1 and 2t 2t t e v2 = − 1+e2t dt (Substitution: u = 1 + e2t ) ⇒ v2 = − 1 du 2 u 1 1 = − 2 ln u + c2 (since u = 1 + e2t > 0 ) ⇒ v2 = − 2 ln 1 + e2t + c2 . So x1 = cos t and x2 = sin t are homogeneous solutions. Thus x = (− ln |sec t + tan t| + sin t + c1 ) x1 + (− cos t + c2 ) x2 ⇒ x = (− ln |sec t + tan t| + sin t + c1 ) cos t + (− cos t + c2 ) sin t Since sin t cos t terms cancel x = − (cos t) ln |sec t + tan t| + c1 cos t + c2 sin t.LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 71 x x 1 t So v1 = − fW2 = − sin t sin t = −1 and v2 = fW1 = cos t . So x1 = e−t and x2 = e−2t are homogeneous e−t e−2t solutions. v1 = −t + c1 and v2 = ln |sin t| + c2 . 7. sin t} is a fundamental set of solutions and here f = tan t. sin t] = det = cos2 t + sin2 t = 1 = 0. sin t is not a right form of forcing function for using the method of undetermined coefficients. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x − 6x + 9x = e3t t 2 . W e−t . 2 x x So v1 = − fW2 = − tan t sin t = − sin tt and v2 = fW1 = tan t cos t = cos 2 sin t. − sin t cos t Thus {cos t. e Variation of parameters: x = v1 x1 + v2 x2 . 1+1 2t is not a right form of forcing function for using the method e of undetermined coefficients. Integrating we have. cos t sin t W [cos t.

v1 = −t 2 dt = − 7 t 2 + c1 and 3 5 v2 = t 2 dt = 2 t 2 + c2 . Thus e− 2 . Thus e . Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x − x − 6x = e−2t we have the characteristic equation r2 − r − 6 = 0 ⇒ (r − 3) (r + 2) = 0 ⇒ r = 3. W e . 3. − 1 . Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of 4x +4x +x = t−2 e− 2 2 we have the characteristic equation 4r2 + 4r + 1 = 0 ⇒ (2r + 1) = 0 t t 1 ⇒ r = − 2 .72 CHAPTER 2 we have the characteristic equation r2 − 6r + 9 = 0 ⇒ (r − 3) = 0 ⇒ r = 3. The Wronskian. t−2 e− 2 is not a right form of forcing function for using the method of undetermined coefficients. te− 2 t −2 t t is a fundamental 2 x v2 = fW1 = t−2 e− 2 e −t = t−2 . The Wronskian. of solutions and here f = e t Variation of parameters: x = v1 x1 + v2 x2 . Variation of parameters: x = v1 x1 + v2 x2 . 5 2 Thus x = − 7 t 2 + c1 x1 + 7 2 2 5 2 5t x= x= x= solution. No. W e3t . 13. The Wronskian. So x1 = e3t and x2 = e−2t are homogeneous solutions. e Integrating we have. 3t 3 5 3 3t 3 x x So v1 = − fW2 = −e3t t 2 te6t = −t 2 and v2 = fW1 = e3t t 2 e6t = t 2 . te is a fundamental set 3t 3 2. te t t t 1 − 2 e− 2 e− 2 − 1 te− 2 2 set of solutions and here f = t−2 e . t −t t −t 5 2 7 − 7 t 2 + c1 e3t + 2 t 2 + c2 te3t ⇒ 5 2 7 2 7 − 7 t 2 e3t + 5 t 2 e3t + c1 e3t + c2 te3t ⇒ 4 7 3t 3t 3t 2 is the general 35 t e + c1 e + c2 te 3 3t 2 + c2 x2 ⇒ 1 1 = e−t − 2 te−t + 2 te−t = e−t = 0. −2. t No. W e3t . So x1 = e− 2 and x2 = te− 2 are homogeneous 2 t t t t e− 2 te− 2 −2 −2 = det solutions. te3t = det 3t 3t 3e e + 3te3t 6t 6t 6t 6t 3t 3t = e + 3te − 3te = e = 0. e e 5 2 7 Integrating we have. v1 = −t−1 dt = − ln t + c1 and v2 = t−2 dt = −t−1 + c2 . e t is not a right form of forcing function for using the method of undetermined coefficients. t 11. Thus x = (− ln t + c1 ) x1 + −t−1 + c2 x2 ⇒ t t x = (− ln t + c1 ) e− 2 + −t−1 + c2 te− 2 ⇒ t t t t x = −e− 2 ln t − t−1 te− 2 + c1 e− 2 + c2 te− 2 ⇒ t t t t −2 −2 −2 −2 x = −e ln t − e + c1 e + c2 te ⇒ t t t x = −e− 2 ln t + (c1 − 1) e− 2 + c2 te− 2 ⇒ t t t x = −e− 2 ln t + c1 e− 2 + c2 te− 2 (where c1 = c1 − 1) is the general solution. e−2t = x So v1 = − fW2 = −t−2 e− 2 te−t2 = −t−1 and e . So x1 = e3t and x2 = te3t are homogeneous e3t te3t solutions.

LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 73 e3t e−2t = −2et − 3et = −5et = 0. t−1 = det = −t−2 .x2 ](t) x1 (t) f (t)dt.x2 ](t) and v2 = f (t)x1 (t) W [x1 . we do not have any arbitrary constants of integration and the particular solution is thus xp = v1 x1 + v2 x2 ⇒ t 0 xp = −x1 (t) 0 x2 (t) f (t)dt W [x1 . x x So v1 = − fW2 = −t and v2 = fW1 = 1. The fundamental set is t. If the Wronskian is W [x1 . v1 = 1 e−5t dt = − 25 e−5t + c1 and 5 1 v2 = − 1 dt = − 5 t + c2 .x2 ](t) t + x2 (t) 0 x1 (t) f (t)dt W [x1 . Thus x = −t−1 + c1 x1 +(− ln t + c2 ) x2 = −t−1 +c1 +(− ln t + c2 ) t−1 ⇒ x = −t−1 − t−1 ln t + c1 + c2 t−1 is the general solution. 5 1 −5t Thus x = − 25 e + c1 x1 + − 1 t + c2 x2 ⇒ 5 1 x = − 25 e−5t + c1 e3t + − 1 t + c2 e−2t ⇒ 5 1 1 1 1 x = − 25 e−2t − 5 te−2t +c1 e3t +c2 e−2t = − 5 te−2t +c1 e3t + c2 − 25 e−2t 1 −2t 1 −2t 3t x = − 5 te + c1 e + c2 e . Variation of parameters: x = v1 x1 + v2 x2 . 1 2 v1 = − 2 t + c1 and v2 = t + c2 . t−1 and dividing the equation by t2 we have the forcing function f = t−3 . Let x1 = 1 and x2 = t−1 . The fundamental set is 1. e−2t is 3t 3e −2e−2t a fundamental set of solutions and here f = e−2t . t2 = det 1 2t = 2t2 − t2 = t2 . 5 5 1 Integrating we have. x2 ] (t) and the variation of parameters is x = v1 x1 + v2 x2 then definite integral yields det f (t)x2 (t) v1 = − W [x1 . 0 −t−2 Variation of parameters: x = v1 x1 + v2 x2 . 17. Yes. −1 v1 = −t + c1 and v2 = − ln t + c2 . x x So v1 = − fW2 = t−2 and v2 = fW1 = −t−1 . The Wronskian.x2 ](t) ⇒ . Integrating we have. Variation of parameters: x = v1 x1 + v2 x2 . 1 Thus x = − 2 t2 + c1 x1 + (t + c2 ) x2 = − 1 t2 + c1 t + (t + c2 ) t2 ⇒ 2 1 3 3 x = − 2 t + t + c1 t + c2 t2 ⇒ x = 1 t3 + c1 t + c2 t2 2 is the general solution. t2 and dividing the equation by t2 we t t2 have the forcing function f = t. 1 t−1 W 1. 15. (where c2 = c2 − 25 ) is the general solution. W t. The Wronskian.x2 ](t) ⇒ v1 = − t 0 t x2 (t) f (t)dt W [x1 . x x e3t e−2t So v1 = − fW2 = −e−2t −5et = 1 e−5t and v2 = fW1 = e−2t −5et = − 1 . Let x1 (t) and x2 (t) be the homogeneous solutions of x +px +qx = f. Thus e3t . Integrating we have. W [x1 .x2 ](t) ⇒ v2 = Since we have used definite integrals. the method of undetermined coefficients could have been used because of exponential forcing. 19. Let x1 = t and x2 = t2 .

We set v1 e−2t + v2 e−3t = 0 such that x = −2v1 e−2t − 3v2 e−3t ⇒ x = 4v1 e−2t + 9v2 e−3t − 2v1 e−2t − 3v2 e−3t . So x = v1 et − v2 e−t + v1 et + v2 e−t . e−3t is a fundamental set of solutions and here f = t+1 . Now we solve the system of equations v1 et + v2 e−t = 0 2 v1 et − v2 e−t = e−t 2 2 for v1 and v2 . Variation of parameters: x = v1 et + v2 e−t . The Wronskian. 1 23. So x = −2v1 e−2t − 3v2 e−3t + v1 e−2t + v2 e−3t . W [et . We set v1 et + v2 e−t = 0 such that x = v1 et − v2 e−t ⇒ x = v1 et + v2 e−t + v1 et − v2 e−t . The Wronskian.74 t CHAPTER 2 xp = 0 x2 (t)x1 (t)−x1 (t)x2 (t) f (t)dt. e−3t = det = −e−5t = 0. e−t ] = det et −e−t = −1 − 1 = −2 = 0. −2t −2e −3e−3t 1 Thus e−2t .x2 ](t) 2 21. −1. we have 2 v1 et + v2 e−t + v1 et − v2 e−t − v1 et − v2 e−t = e−t ⇒ 2 v1 et − v2 e−t = e−t . Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 5x + 6x = t+1 we have the characteristic equation r2 + 5r + 6 = 0 ⇒ (r + 2) (r + 3) = 0 ⇒ r = −2. e−t } is a fundamental set 2 of solutions and here f = e−t . 2 Thus x = x= x= 0 t 1 t 2e t t 0 e−s e−s ds + c1 et + − 1 2 ds + c1 e − 2 t 0 es e−s ds + c2 e−t ⇒ ds + c2 e−t ⇒ 2 e −s −s2 e t 1 −t 2e t 0 e e s −s2 1 t−s 2e − 1 e−(t−s) e−s ds + c1 et + c2 e−t ⇒ 2 2 x= 0 sinh (t − s) e−s ds + c1 et + c2 e−t is the general solution. Substituting this in the original equation. Thus {et . Adding them yields 2v1 et = e−t ⇒ v1 = 1 e−t e−t 2 2 2 and v2 e−t = −v1 et = − 1 e−t ⇒ v2 = − 1 et e−t . e−2t e−3t W e−2t . 2 2 Definite integral yields. . Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x − x = e−t we have the characteristic equation r2 − 1 = 0 ⇒ (r − 1) (r + 1) = 0 ⇒ r = 1. −3. v1 = v2 = 1 −2 t 0 1 2 t 0 1 2 t e−s e−s ds + c1 and 2 0 e e s −s2 ds + c2 . W [x1 . So x1 = et and x2 = e−t are homogeneous et e−t solutions. So x1 = e−2t and x2 = e−3t are homogeneous solutions. −2t −3t Variation of parameters: x = v1 e + v2 e .

v1 = 2 et + c1 and v2 = − 2 t s2 es ds...11 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS (N TH-ORDER) The algebraic system of equations in this section (obtained from the variation of parameters) v1 x1 + v2 x2 + . Now we solve the system of equations v1 e−2t + v2 e−3t = 0 1 −2v1 e−2t − 3v2 e−3t = t+1 for v1 and v2 . The Wronskian..... 1 −t−2 Thus t. −1. t−1 is a fundamental set of solutions and here f = et . 2. + vn xn = 0 v1 x1 + v2 x2 + . Substituting x = tr .. v1 = 0 t e2s s+1 ds t 0 t + c1 and v2 = − e3s s+1 ds 0 e3s s+1 ds + c2 . we have 4v1 e−2t + 9v2 e−3t − 2v1 e−2t − 3v2 e−3t − 10v1 e−2t − 15v2 e−3t 1 1 +6v1 e−2t + 6v2 e−3t = t+1 ⇒ −2v1 e−2t − 3v2 e−3t = t+1 . . 25. . . . x = rtr−1 . x = r (r − 1) tr−2 in the homogeneous part of t2 x + tx − x = et and then dividing by tr = 0 we have r (r − 1) + r − 1 = 0 ⇒ r2 − 1 = 0 ⇒ r = 1. 0 Thus x = 1 t 2e + c1 t + 1 2 t 0 −1 2 t 0 s e ds + c2 t 2 s −1 ⇒ 1 x = 2 tet + c1 t − t−1 s2 es ds + c2 t−1 ⇒ x = 1 tet − 2 1 2 t 0 t−1 s2 es ds + c1 t + c2 t−1 is the general solution. Variation of parameters: x = v1 x1 + v2 x2 .LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 75 Substituting this in the original equation. .. So x1 = t and x2 = t−1 are homogeneous solutions. t t−1 W t. + vn xn = 0 .. Multiplying the first equation by 2 and adding with 1 1 the second yields −v2 e−3t = t+1 ⇒ v2 = − t+1 e3t and then 1 1 2t −2t −3t v1 e = −v2 e = t+1 ⇒ v1 = t+1 e .. x x t−1 1 t So v1 = − fW2 = −et −2t−1 = 2 et and v2 = fW1 = et −2t−1 = − 1 t2 et . Thus x = 0 e2s s+1 ds + c1 e−2t + − t 0 + c2 e−3t ⇒ x = e−2t t t 0 e2s s+1 ds + c1 e−2t − e−3t 1 s+1 ds e3s s+1 ds + c2 e−3t ⇒ x= 0 e2(s−t) − e3(s−t) + c1 e−2t + c2 e−3t is the general solution. t−1 = det = −t−1 − t−1 = −2t−1 = 0.. 2 1 1 Definite integral yields. t Definite integral yields..

76
(n−1) (n−1) (n−1)

CHAPTER 2

v1 x1 + v2 x2 + ... + vn xn =0 will be solved for v1 , v2 , ..., vn by using the formulae n+i f Wi vi = (−1) an W [x1 ,x2 ,...,xn ] where W [x1 , x2 , ..., xn ] is the Wronskian of the independent homogeneous solutions x1 , x2 , ..., xn , f is the forcing function and an = 0 is the coefficient of the nth-derivative term. 1. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x − x = e2t , we have the characteristic equation r3 − r = 0 ⇒ r r2 − 1 = 0 ⇒ r = 0, 1, −1. So x1 = 1, x2 = et and x3 = e−t are homogeneous solutions. The Wronskian,   1 et e−t W [1, et , e−t ] = det  0 et −e−t  = 2 = 0. Thus {1, et , e−t } 0 et e−t is a fundamental set of solutions. Here f = e2t , n = 3, a3 = 1. Variation of parameters: x = v1 x1 + v2 x2 + v3 x3 .   et e−t   det et −e−t 3+1 e2t So v1 = (−1) = e2t −2 = −e2t 1 2 2 1 2t ⇒ v1 = − 2 e + c1 .  1 e−t  det 0 −e−t −t 3+2 e2t 1 v2 = (−1) = −e2t −e = 2 et 1 2 2 ⇒ v2 = 1 et + c2 . 2
 3+3 e2t v3 = (−1) = 1 e2t et = 1 e3t 1 2 2 2 1 3t ⇒ v3 = 6 e + c3 . 1 1 Thus x = − 2 e2t + c1 1 + 1 et + c2 et + 6 e3t + c3 2 1 2t 1 2t 1 2t t −t x = − 2 e + c1 + 2 e + c2 e + 6 e + c3 e ⇒ 1 x = 6 e2t + c1 + c2 et + c3 e−t is the general solution. rt det 

1 et 0 et

e−t ⇒

3. Substituting x = e in the homogeneous part of x − x = t, we have the characteristic equation r4 − r3 = 0 ⇒ r3 (r − 1) = 0 ⇒ r = 0, 0, 0, 1. So x1 = 1, x2 = t, x3 = t2 and x4 = et are homogeneous solutions. The Wronskian,     1 t t2 et 1 2t et  0 1 2t et  t    W 1, t, t2 , et = det   0 0 2 et  = det 0 2 et 0 0 e 0 0 0 et t = 2e = 0. Thus 1, t, t2 , et is a fundamental set of solutions. Here f = t, n = 4, a4 = 1. Variation of parameters: x = v1 x1 v2 x2 + v3 x3 + v4 x4 . +  t t2 et    det 1 2t et   t 0 2 e 4+1 t t So v1 = (−1) = − 2et et t2 − 2t + 2 1 2et

LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS
4 3 2

77

+ (−te−t − e−t + c4 ) et ⇒ 3 t4 x = − 24 − t6 + c1 + c2 t + c3 t2 + c4 et is the general solution, 1 where c = c1 − 1, c2 = c2 − 1, c3 = c3 − 2 . 1  at bt ct e e e 5. W = det  aeat bebt cect  . Factoring out eat , ebt and ect from a2 eat b2 ebt c2 ect the first, second and third column, respectively, we get   1 1 1 W = eat ebt ect det  a b c  . Subtracting second column a2 b2 c2 from the third and, next, first column from the second to get   1 0 0 b−a c − b  . Factoring out b − a, W = e(a+b+c)t det  a a2 b2 − a2 c2 − b2 and c − b from the second and third column, respectively, we get   1 0 0 1 1  W = (b − a) (c − b) e(a+b+c)t det  a 2 a b+a c+b = (b − a) (c − b) e(a+b+c)t (c + b − b − a) = (b − a) (c − a) (c − b) e(a+b+c)t . 7. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x −2x −x +2x = et , we have the characteristic equation r3 − 2r2 − r + 2 = 0 ⇒ (r − 1) (r + 1) (r − 2) = 0 ⇒ r = 1, −1, 2. So x1 = et , x2 = e−t and x3 = e2t are homogeneous solutions. The Wronskian, using Exercise 5, is W et , e−t , e2t = e(1−1+2)t (−1 − 1) (2 − 1) (2 + 1) = −6e2t = 0. Thus et , e−t , e2t is a fundamental set of solutions. Here f = et , n = 3, a3 = 1. Variation of parameters: x = v1 x1 + v2 x2 + v3 x3 .

1 = − 2 t3 − 2t2 + 2t ⇒ v1 = − t8 + t3 − t2 + c1 .   1 t2 et  t  det 0 2t e    0 2 et 4+2 t t = 2et 2et (t − 1) = t2 − t v2 = (−1) 1 2et 3 2 ⇒ v2 = t3 − t2 + c2 .   1 t et   det 0 1 et    0 0 et 4+3 t t t = − 2et et = − 2 v3 = (−1) 1 2et 2 ⇒ v3 = − t4 + c3 .   1 t t2   det 0 1 2t    0 0 2 4+4 t t = 2et 2 = ett v4 = (−1) 1 2et −t −t ⇒ v4 = −te − e + c4 . 4 3 2 3 2 2 Thus x = − t8 + t3 − t2 + c1 1 + t3 − t2 + c2 t + − t4 + c3 t2

78
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CHAPTER 2

So ⇒

9. Substituting x = e in the homogeneous part of x +2x −x −2x = 1, we have the characteristic equation r3 + 2r2 − r − 2 = 0 ⇒ (r − 1) (r + 1) (r + 2) = 0 ⇒ r = 1, −1, −2. So x1 = et , x2 = e−t and x3 = e−2t are homogeneous solutions. The Wronskian, using Exercise 5, is W et , e−t , e−2t = e(1−1−2)t (−1 − 1) (−2 − 1) (−2 + 1) = −6e−2t = 0. Thus et , e−t , e−2t is a fundamental set of solutions. Here f = 1, n = 3, a3 = 1. Variation of parameters: x = v1 x1 + v2 2 + v3 x3 . x  e−t e−2t  det −e−t −2e−2t 3+1 1 1 = − 6e−2t −2e−3t + e−3t So v1 = (−1) 1 −6e−2t 1 −t 1 −t = 6 e ⇒ v1 = −  e + c1 . 6  et e−2t  det t e −2e−2t 3+2 1 1 1 v2 = (−1) = 6e−2t [−2e−t − e−t ] = − 2 et 1 −6e−2t 1 t . ⇒ v2 = − 2 e + c2  et e−t   det et −e−t 3+3 1 1 1 v3 = (−1) = − 6e−2t [−1 − 1] = 3 e2t 1 −6e−2t ⇒ v3 = 1 e2t + c3 . 6 1 1 Thus x = − 6 e−t + c1 et + − 2 et + c2 e−t + 1 e2t + c3 e−2t ⇒ 6 1 1 1 x = − 6 + c1 et − 2 + c2 e−t + 6 + c3 e−2t ⇒ x = − 1 + c1 et + c2 e−t + c3 e−2t is the general solution. 2 11. Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x +3x −x −3x = et , we have the characteristic equation r3 + 3r2 − r − 3 = 0 ⇒ (r − 1) (r + 1) (r + 3) = 0 ⇒ r = 1, −1, −3. So x1 = et , x2 = e−t and x3 = e−3t are homogeneous solutions. The Wronskian, using Exercise 5, is W et , e−t , e−3t = e(1−1−3)t (−1 − 1) (−3 − 1) (−3 + 1) = −16e−3t = 0. Thus et , e−t , e−3t is a fundamental set of solutions. Here f = et , n = 3, a3 = 1.

 3+3 et 1 1 v3 = (−1) = − 6et [−1 − 1] = 3 e−t 1 −6e2t 1 −t ⇒ v3 = − 3 e + c3 . t 1 1 Thus x = − 2 + c1 et + 12 e2t + c2 e−t + − 3 e−t + c3 t t 1 t 1 t t −t 2t x = − 2 e + c1 e + 12 e + c2 e − 3 e + c3 e ⇒ t x = − 2 et + c1 et + c2 e−t + c3 e2t is the general solution, 1 1 where c1 = c1 + 12 − 3 . rt

3+2 et v2 = (−1) 1 1 ⇒ v2 = 12 e2t + c2 . det

3+1 et v1 = (−1) 1 t v1 = − 2 + c1 .  det

e−t −e−t e2t 2e2t

e2t 2e2t

−6e2t 

= − 61t [2et + et ] = − 1 e 2

et et et et

−6e2t

=

1 6et

2e3t − e3t = 1 e2t 6

e−t −e−t

e2t ⇒

1 2t W = e3αt det  α 2 α 2α 2 + 4αt 15. Then  1 0 0  = e3αt (2 + 4αt − 4αt) = 2e3αt . Substituting x = ert in the homogeneous part of x + 3x + 3x + x = t−3 e−t . 1  et e−3t   det et −3e−3t 3+2 et v2 = (−1) = 16e1 −3e−2t − e−2t = − 1 e2t −4t 1 −16e−3t 4 1 ⇒ v2 = − 8 e2t + c2 . x2 = te−t and 2 −t x3 = t e are homogeneous solutions. So x1 = e−t . Then   1 0 t2  1 2t + αt2 W = e3αt det  α 2 α 2α 2 + 4αt + α2 t2 (expanding with respect to the last column)      1 0 t2 1 0 0  1 αt2  + det  α 1 2t = e3αt det  α 2 α 2α α2 t2 α2 2α 2 + 4αt The first determinant is zero since its third column equals the first column after factoring out t. W = det  αeαt 2 αt αt 2 αt αt αt 2 2 αt α e 2αe + α te 2e + 4αte + α t e Factoring out eαt from the first. 8   eαt teαt t2 eαt . where 8 1 c1 = c1 + 32 − 1 . The Wronskian. second and third column. 1 1 Thus x = 1 t + c1 et + − 8 e2t + c2 e−t + 32 e4t + c3 e−3t ⇒ 8 t 1 x = te + c1 et − 1 et + c2 e−t + 32 et + c3 e−3t ⇒ 8 8 t x = te + c1 et + c2 e−t + c3 e−3t is the general solution. we get W = eαt eαt eαt det  α 2 2 2 2 α 2α + α t 2 + 4αt + α t (expanding with respect to the second column)      1 1 0 t2 t t2  . using . eαt + αteαt 2teαt + αt2 eαt 13.LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS 79 Variation of parameters: x = v1 x1 + v2 x2 + v3 x3 .  + det  α 1 2t + αt2 2t + αt2 = e3αt det  α αt 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 α 2α 2 + 4αt + α t α α t 2 + 4αt + α t The first determinant is zero since its second column equals the first column after factoring out t.   1 t t2  1 + αt 2t + αt2 respectively. −1.  et e−t  det t e −e−t 3+3 et 1 v3 = (−1) = − 16e1 [−1 − 1] = 8 e4t −4t 1 −16e−3t 1 4t ⇒ v3 = 32 e + c3 . we have the characteristic equation r3 + 3r2 + 3r + 1 = 0 3 ⇒ (r + 1) = 0 ⇒ r = −1. −1.   e−t e−3t  det −e−t −3e−3t 3+1 et So v1 = (−1) = − 16e1 −3e−4t + e−4t −4t 1 −16e−3t 1 1 = 8 ⇒ v1 = 8 t + c.

3  tet t2 et  det t e + tet 2tet + t2 et 3+1 et So v1 = (−1) 2 2e3t 1 1 1 = 4e2t t2 e2t = 4 t2 ⇒ v1 = 12 t3 + c1 . 2 11 1 9 1 13 2t 2t 2 2t 2 + c 1 e + − 11 t 2 + c2 te + 9 t 2 + c3 t e ⇒ 13 t 13 1 13 2 13 x = 13 t 2 e2t + c1 e2t − 11 t 2 e2t + c2 te2t + 1 t 2 e2t + c3 t2 e2t ⇒ 9 13 8 x = 1287 t 2 e2t + c1 e2t + c2 te2t + c3 t2 e2t is the general solution. = −t 2 2 11 t   e2t te2t  det 7 7 2e2t e2t + 2te2t 3+3 t 2 e2t t 1 7 = 2e2 e4t = 2 t 2 v3 = (−1) 6t 4t 1 2e 1 9 ⇒ v3 = 9 t 2 + c3 .  2t e t2 e2t   det 7 7 2e2t 2te2t + 2t2 e2t 3+2 t 2 e2t v2 = (−1) = − 2te2 2te4t 4t 1 2e6t 9 2 11 2 ⇒ v = − 2 + c .   e−t te−t   det −e−t e−t − te−t 3+3 t−3 e−t 1 1 v3 = (−1) = 2t3 e−2t e−2t = 2t3 1 2e−3t 1 ⇒ v3 = − 4t2 + c3 . te−t . t2 e2t = 2e6t = 0. . 2. 1 where c1 = c1 + 1 − 4 . we have the characteristic equation r3 − 6r2 + 12r − 8 = 0 3 ⇒ (r − 2) = 0 ⇒ r = 2. a3 = 2. is W et . Let x1 = et . tet . x2 = tet and x3 = t2 et . t2 e−t = 2e−3t = 0.80 CHAPTER 2 Exercise 13. n = 3. x2 = te2t and 2 2t x3 = t e are homogeneous solutions. a3 = 1. Here f = t 2 e2t . The Wronskian. is W e2t . 2  te−t t2 e−t  det −t e − te−t 2te−t − t2 e−t 3+1 t−3 e−t 1 So v1 = (−1) = 2t3 e−2t t2 e−2t 1 2e−3t 1 1 = 2t ⇒ v1 = 2 ln t + c1 . of  te2t t2 e2t  det 2t 7 e + 2te2t 2te2t + 2t2 e2t 3+1 t 2 e2t So v1 = (−1) 1 2e6t 1 1 ⇒ t2 e4t = 2 t 2  v1 = 13 t 2 + c1 . t2 et = 2e3t = 0. using Exercise 13. Variation  parameters: x = v1 x1 + v2 x2 + v3 x3 . 1 Thus x = 1 ln t + c1 e−t + 1 + c2 te−t + − 4t2 + c3 t2 e−t ⇒ 2 t 1 1 −t −t −t −t −t x = 2 (ln t) e + c1 e + e + c2 te − 4 e + c3 t2 e−t ⇒ 1 x = 2 (ln t) e−t + c1 e−t + c2 te−t + c3 t2 e−t is the general solution. Here f = t−3 e−t . is W e−t . te2t . n = 3. Thus x = Variation of parameters: x = v1 x1 + v2 x2 + vx3 . Variation of parameters: x = v1 x1 + v2 x + v3 x3 . = t2 2e4t 7 11 13 19. rt 17. a3 = 1. using 7 Exercise 13. Substituting x = e in the homogeneous part of x − 6x + 12x − 8x 7 = t 2 e2t . 2.  e−t t2 e−t  det −e−t 2te−t − t2 e−t 3+2 t−3 e−t 1 v2 = (−1) = − 2t3 e−2t 2te−2t 1 2e−3t 1 1 = − t2 ⇒ v2 = t + c2 . n = 3. So x1 = e2t . Here f = et . The Wronskian.

Variation of parameters: x = v1 x1+ v2 x2 + v3 x3 .LINEAR SECOND AND HIGHER-ORDER DIFFERENIAL EQUATIONS det  81  3+3 et 1 1 v3 = (−1) = 4e2t e2t = 4 2 2e3t 1 ⇒ v3 = 4 t + c3 . n = 3. t. Let x1 = 1.  1 t t2  det 1 1 1 t− 2 1 5 3+1 t3 2 So v1 = (−1) = −4t 2 − 1 t 2 3 2 t 2 1 − 1 ⇒ v1 = 2 t4 + c1 . 3+2 t3 (−1) t2 −4t 2 1 = 2t3 v2 = det   1 0 2 ⇒ v2 = 3 t3 + c2 . t 2 =  0 1 4 2t 3 1 −2 0 0 −4t Here f = t3 . et tet t t e e + tet   1 = − 4e2t 2te2t ⇒ 21. The Wronskian is   1 1 t t2 1 1 −1  = − 1 t− 3 = 0. 2 3 3 t + c2 t + 1 8 c2 t − 7 t4 et + c3 t 2 − 8 t 2 + c3 t 2 ⇒ 7 1 . 1 1 1 Thus x = 12 t3 + c1 et + − 4 t2 + c2 tet + 4 t + c3 t2 et 1 3 t 1 3 t 1 3 t t t x = 12 t e + c1 e − 4 t e + c2 te + 4 t e + c3 t2 et ⇒ 1 x = 12 t3 et + c1 et + c2 tet + c3 t2 et is the general solution. x2 = t and x3 = t 2 . − 1 t− 2 4 = −4t 2 (1) = −4t 2 7 5 5 Thus x = 1 4 2t + c1 1 + 1 ⇒ x = 2 t4 + c1 + 2 t4 + 3 1 1 x = 42 t4 + c1 + c2 t + c3 t 2 is the general solution. 3 − 1 t− 2 4 t2 1 −1 2 2t   1   = 4t 2 5 1 −1 2 2t = 2t2 v3 = 3+3 t3 (−1) t2 7 det 1 0 t 1 3 8 ⇒ v3 = − 7 t 2 + c3 . 3+2 et v2 = (−1) 2 1 1 = − 2 t ⇒ v2 = − 4 t 2  det et et t2 et 2te + t2 et t 2e3t  + c2 . 2 2 W 1. a3 = t2 .

0 1 1 1 1 1 at −at = 2 (L [e ] − L [e ]) = 2 s−a − s+a = 2 ∞ ∞ ibt −ibt L [sin bt] = e−st sin btdt = e−st e −e dt 2i 0 0 1 1 1 1 = 2i L eibt − L e−ibt = 2i s−ib − s+ib −e−at dt 2 = 0 0 s+a−s+a a (s−a)(s+a) = s2 −a2 .Chapter Three The Laplace Transform 3. we get = e−sa s2 +b2 e−st sin btdt = e−st s2 +b2 Then L [sin bt] = lim 11.1 DEFINITION AND BASIC PROPERTIES 1. 2 9. f (t) =  0. it is piecewise continuous because lim f (t) and − lim f (t) exist. lim f (t) = 1. So f (t) is not continuous 2 t→1− t→2 t→1+ at t = 1. 0 ≤ t ≤ 1. L [sin bt] = ∞ 0 e−st sin btdt = lim a 0 a a→∞ 0 e−st sin btdt. 7. Graph. t→1 t→1+ 5. t > 2 L [f (t)] = ∞ 0 1 e−st dt+ 0×e−st dt = 1 ∞ e−st 1 −s |0 = 1 s (1 − e−s ) . 0 ≤ t < 1. b b s2 +b2 = s2 +b2 . 2 − t. t > 1. ∞ ∞ 1 = 2i e−st eibt dt − e−st e−ibt dt 0 0 1 s+ib−s+ib = 2i (s−ib)(s+ib) 1 2 e e dt − e e dt . L [sinh at] = ∞ 0 (−s sin ba − b cos ba) + a→∞ e−sa s2 +b2 b s2 +b2 . ∞ ∞ −st at −st −at (−s sin ba − b cos ba) + ∞ e−st sinh atdt = e−st e at 13. + 3. 0. Graph. ∞ 1 0 L [f (t)] = e−st f (t) dt =  0  t. 1 ≤ t ≤ 2. f (t) = 1. lim f (t) = 0 and f (1) = 1 . e−st f (t) dt = 1 0 te−st dt + 2 1 (2 − t) e−st dt + 2 ∞ 2 0 × e−st dt = − 1 te−st − s1 e−st 0 + − 2 e−st + 1 te−st + s1 e−st 1 2 2 s s s = − 1 e−s − s1 e−s + s1 − 2 e−2s + 2 e−2s + s1 e−2s + 2 e−s − 1 e−s − s1 e−s 2 2 2 2 s s s s s = s1 1 − 2e−s + e−2s . Using an integration (−s sin bt − b cos bt) a 0 table. however. f (t) is not piecewise continuous because lim f (t) does not exist.

We apply shifting theorem L [ect f (t)] = F (s − c) with c = −2 and 6! f (t) = t6 . 6! So F (s − 2) = (s−2)7 . +36 19. 6 17. Linearity implies 7L t3 + 11L [t] + L [8] = 7(3!) + 11 + 8 = 42 + 11 + 8 . so that F (s) = L [f (t)] = L [cos 7t] = s2 +49 . e−st e−3t dt = 3 s2 −9 . f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = L−1 1 s2 L e3t − L e−3t = 1 2 1 s−3 − 1 s+3 −t 0 s+3−s+3 (s−3)(s+3) 2 e3t = s+1 − L−1 1 s = t − 1. Linearity implies L [2] + L [cos 5t] = 2 + s L e2t − L e−2t = 3 2 1 s−2 + 0 s+2+s−2 (s−2)(s+2) 23. We apply shifting theorem L [ect f (t)] = F (s − c) with c = 3 and 5 f (t) = sin 5t. 2 s 21. Linearity implies 2L [e ] + 6L 27. We apply shifting theorem L [ect f (t)] = F (s − c) with c = 2 and 6! f (t) = t6 . We apply shifting theorem L [ect f (t)] = F (s − c) with c = −3 and 5 f (t) = sin 5t. s 47. so that F (s) = L [f (t)] = L t5 + L t3 + L [1] 5! 6 1 3! 5! = s6 + s4 + 1 . so that F (s) = L [f (t)] = L t6 = s7 . 5 So F (s − 3) = (s−3)2 +25 . We apply shifting theorem L [ect f (t)] = F (s − c) with c = 4 and s f (t) = cos 7t. L [sinh 3t] = = 1 2 ∞ 0 e−st e 3t −e−3t dt 2 = 1 2 ∞ 0 e−st e3t dt − = 1 2 ∞ s s2 +25 . L [3t − 1 + cosh 2t] . L [3 cosh 2t] = 3 = 3 2 ∞ 0 e−st e 2t +e−2t dt 2 = 3 2 e−st e2t dt + = 3 2 e−st e−2t dt = 3s s2 −4 . 35. 15. 43. We apply shifting theorem L [ect f (t)] = F (s − c) with c = 3 and f (t) = t5 + t3 + 1. So F (s − 3) = (s−3)6 + (s−3)4 + s−3 . L [−t + 3] . s3+1 s2 s s4 s2 s 31. L 3t4 + 4t3 . 45. L 7t3 + 11t + 8 . 5 4 s s 33. So F (s − 4) = (s−s−24+49 . L [2 + cos 5t] . Linearity implies 2 2 1 1 1 1 3L [t] − L [1] + 1 L e2t + 1 L e−2t = s3 − 1 + 2 s−2 + 2 s+2 2 2 2 s 1 s 3 = s2 − s + s2 −4 . L [5 sin 6t] = 5 s2 +62 = s230 . 4) 37. so that F (s) = L [f (t)] = L [cos 7t] = s2 +49 . 39. s+4 So F (s + 4) = (s+4)2 +49 . 29. so that F (s) = L [f (t)] = L [sin 5t] = s2 +25 . Linearity implies −L [t] + L [3] = − s1 + 3 . L 2e−t + 6e3t .THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 83 ∞ 0 1 s+2 ∞ = b s2 +b2 . so that F (s) = L [f (t)] = L [sin 5t] = s2 +25 . 5 So F (s + 3) = (s+3)2 +25 . + 25. Linearity implies 3L t4 + 4L t3 = 3(4!) + 4(3!) s4+1 s3+1 = 72 + 24 . 6 s−3 . We apply shifting theorem L [ect f (t)] = F (s − c) with c = −4 and s f (t) = cos 7t. 6! So F (s + 2) = (s+2)7 . . so that F (s) = L [f (t)] = L t6 = s7 . Note cosh 2t = 1 e2t + 1 e−2t . 41.

f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = L−1 = t + 1. f (t) = L = 5L−1 59. 7 s2 +16 + 7 L−1 4 −1 = 3 cos 4t + =L 1 s6 −1 −1 [F (s)] = L + 7L−1 [F (s)] = L + 5 s+3 + L−1 5! s6 7 s−5 1 s+3 −1 1 s−5 = −1 −6 5e−3t + 7e5t . 1 1 −1 1 −1 s2 + s = L s2 + L 1 s − − L−1 7 s2 + L−1 1! s2 19 s2 +1 1 s2 +1 − 7L−1 + 19L−1 3s+7 s2 +16 4 s2 +42 5 s+3 = 3 − 7t + 19 sin t. Let F (s − 7) = (s−7)2 +16 ⇒ F (s) = s2 +16 = 7 s2 +42 . 67. Now L−1 (s+3) (s+3)2 +5 . 4 7 So f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = 4 L−1 −1 7 (s−7)2 +16 4 s2 +42 = L−1 [F (s − 5)] and the shifting theorem = 7 4 sin 4t. 4 (s+3) √ 73. 53. 7 2 t. = L−1 = 3 s2 +32 9! 1 −1 5! L s = 1 5 5! t . s + ( 5) −1 Now L =L −1 [F (s − 7)] and the shifting theorem = L−1 [F (s + 3)] and the shifting theorem √ (14) with c = −3 yields L−1 [F (s + 3)] = e−3t f (t) = e−3t cos 5t. (14) with c = 5 yields L−1 [F (s − 5)] = e5t f (t) = e5t cos 3t. f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = L−1 = L−1 = 3L−1 3 s 1 s = L−1 7 s2 = 1 L−1 3 + 19 s2 +1 1 3 s2 +32 = 3 sin 3t. f (t) = L s s2 +42 −1 = L−1 7 s−5 + L−1 sin 4t. Let F (s + 3) = (s+3)2 +5 ⇒ F (s) = s2s = 2 s 2 . 61. 3s s2 +16 7 4 55. f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = L−1 63. 2 = cos 3t. +9 So f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = L−1 Now L−1 (s−5) (s−5)2 +9 s s2 +32 = L−1 [F (s − 4)] and the shifting theorem (14) = 1 L−1 2 2! s2+1 = 1 t2 . Let F (s − 4) = Now L−1 1 (s−4)3 So f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = L−1 1 (s−4)3 ⇒ F (s) = 1 s3 with c = 4 yields L−1 [F (s − 4)] = e4t f (t) = 1 t2 e4t . Let F (s − 5) = (s−5)2 +9 ⇒ F (s) = s2s = s2 +32 . (14) with c = 7 yields L [F (s − 7)] = e7t f (t) = 7 e7t sin 4t. 2 (s−5) s 69. 3 9 9! t . = √7 2 √7 2 = L−1 2 7 3 2( s 2 + 7 ) 2 3 = 2 L−1 1 7 s2 + 2 2 = 3 2 sin 1 s3 . f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = L−1 1 s2 +9 1+s s2 3 s CHAPTER 3 51. f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = L−1 = 3 2 2 −1 7L s2 + 2 2 s2 +9 = 3 L 3 3 −1 s10 = 9! L 3 2s2 +7 s9+1 = 2 3 sin 3t.84 49. f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = L−1 = 3L−1 57. f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = L−1 65. 7 7 4 71. +5 s + ( 5) √ √ So f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = L−1 2 s 2 = cos 5t.

and |f (t) e−st | ≤ M eαt e−st by d = − ds 1 s−5 ≤ e for t ≥ 1. s −9 (s2 +9)2 2 = 5 −1 18 L 1 (s2 +9) 5 −1 18 L 1 3 3 (s2 +9) − s2 −9 (s2 +9)2 − 1 −1 3 −1 3L (s2 +9) − L 1 3 sin 3t − t cos 3t . 5! t e 3 s2 +9 5 = 6 L−1 d 5 = 6 L−1 − ds s s2 +9 = 5 t sin 3t. L−1 95. Yes. [(s−5)2 +9] d 89. L t2 cos 3t = d2 ds2 = 1 . L te5t sin 3t = − ds L e5t sin 3t 3 (s−5)2 +9 4s(s2 −9) . (s+4)2 +25] [ n! .THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 85 75. f (t) = 2. (s2 +9)3 6(s−5) = 2. 6 d = L−1 − ds = t cos 3t. L te−4t cos 5t = − ds L e−4t cos 5t d = − ds s+4 (s+4)2 +25 = 91. (s2 +25)2 (L [cos 3t]) = d2 ds2 −2s (s2 +9)2 + d 87. 2 2 2 s b→∞ √ t t 0 −st − + 1 −s s2 e last two). . L [t cos 5t] = − ds (L [cos 5t]) = − ds s s2 +25 s s2 +9 d = − ds = = s2 −25 . ∞ 0 b 1 −st 1 + 0 + lim − 1 te−st − s1 e−st 1 2 s2 e s 0 b→∞ = − 1 e−s − s1 e−s + s1 + lim − 1 be−sb − s1 e−sb + 1 e−s 2 2 2 s s s b→∞ 1 −sb = 0 and first two terms cancel with = s2 (since lim e b→∞ ∞ b Now L [t] = te−st dt = lim − 1 te−st − s1 e−st 0 2 s b→∞ 0 = lim − 1 be−sb − s1 e−sb + s1 = s1 . d 81. L 5 18 5 = 18 −1 5s (s+9)2 s2 −9 (s2 +9)2 5 (s2 +9)2 1 (s+3)6 1 −1 5! L 6s s2 +9 5! (s+3)5+1 = 1 5 −3t . t = 1. since e 79. (s−a)n+1 = tn eat . = Thus L−1 93. Me e αt −st dt converges for s > α. L−1 = = 99. The derivative theorem for higher powers of t is L [tn eat ] = So L−1 n! (s−a)n+1 (s+4)2 −25 2. 2s+1 1 = L−1 (s2 +1)2 (s2 +1)2 1 2 2 (s2 +1)2 1 (s2 +1) d − ds s s2 +9 + 2s (s2 +1)2 = L−1 = 1 L−1 2 = = 1 2 1 2 + − 2s (s2 +1)2 s2 −1 (s2 +1)2 + L−1 2s (s2 +1)2 d + L−1 − ds 1 s2 +1 (sin t − t cos t) + t sin t. L−1 1 (s2 +1) d − L−1 − ds s s2 +1 . (s−5)2 d d 83. t. L−1 97. t = 1. assumption. 1 L [f (t)] = = − 1 te s te−st dt + 1 1 2e−st dt + ∞ 1 te−st dt 77. L te5t = − ds L e5t 85.

Multiplying by 2 −1 the denominator gives s + 2 = A (s + 1) + B (s − 1) .2 INVERSE LAPLACE TRANSFORMS (ROOTS.. Letting s = 3 and −3 1 in this equation gives A = 6 . L−1 s+2 A B 5. Using partial fractions.. Multiplying 9.. L [f (ct)] = ∞ 0 CHAPTER 3 e−st f (ct) dt... & PARTIAL FRACTIONS) 1 A B 1. (s−a)(n+1) Now using Exercise 102. 6 Thus L−1 = 1 6 5s−1 s2 +7 e3t − e 1 s2 −9 −3t . Letting s = 1 1 and −1 in this equation gives A = 3 . A B s + s−1 . Let u = ct ⇒ 1 u = t and 1 du = dt. 1 s−a 103. B = − 1 . −s−1 A −s−1 s2 +s−2 = (s−1)(s+2) = s−1 . .. Using partial fractions. s21 = (s−3)(s+3) = s−3 + s+3 . since e−st f (t) dt = F (s) . 22 −s = s(s−1) = s the denominator gives 2s − 1 = A (s − 1) + Bs. Multiplying by −9 the denominator gives 1 = A (s + 3) + B (s − 3) . B = − 2 . ss+2 = (s−1)(s+1) = s−1 + s+1 . √ −L−1 1 s2 +7 = 5L−1 s s2 +7 1 − √7 L−1 s2 + √ 7 √ ( 7) 2 Thus L−1 s+2 s2 −1 3 = 2 L−1 1 s−1 1 − 2 L−1 1 3 t 1 −t s+1 = 2 e − 2 e .86 101. QUADRATICS. c c 1 c ∞ 0 Then this integral becomes L [f (t)] = ∞ 0 e− c u f (u) du = 1 F c s s c . L [tn f (t)] = (−1) F (n) (s) . we have n n ! ! L [tn eat ] = (−1) (−1) (s−an(n+1) = (s−an(n+1) . Letting So L−1 2s−1 s2 −s = L−1 1 1 t −1 s +L s−1 = 1 + e ... Using partial fractions. 2 2s−1 s−1 7. (−n) (s − a) = (−1) n (s) = − (−2) (−3) (s − a) = (−1) −5 2! (s−a)3 3 3! (s−a)4 4 n! . Using partial fractions. by the denominator gives −s − 1 = A (s + 2) + B (s − 1) . = L−1 5s s2 +7 1 6 1 s−3 − 1 s+3 = 1 6 L−1 1 s−3 − L−1 1 s−3 3. √ = 5 cos 7t − = L−1 1 √ 7 sin 7t.. Letting s = 0 and 1 in this equation gives A = 1. . So = (−1) −4 2 4! F (s) = − (−2) (−3) (−4) (s − a) = (−1) (s−a)5 . Multiplying by B + s+2 . and B = 1. F (s) = L [f (t)] = L [eat ] = −2 1 1! F (s) = − (s − a) = (−1) (s−a)2 F F (s) = − (−2) (s − a) −3 = (s − a) −1 . .. ) ) 3. Using (T2). Thus 2s−1 1 1 s2 −s = s + s−1 . −(n+1) n F (n) (s) = − (−2) (−3) (−4) .

s 1 1 Thus L−1 s2 −5s+6 = −2 L−1 s−2 + 3L−1 s−3 = 3e3t − 2e2t . 13. Using partial fractions. Using partial fractions. B = − 4 . Letting s = 2 and 3 in this equation gives A = −2. Letting s = 0. = cos 5t + Thus by the shifting theorem (T16) with c = 1. = 1 2 L−1 1 s − L−1 1 s−1 + 1 L−1 2 1 s−2 Thus L−1 L−1 1 s + 1 L−1 6 1 s+1 47 + 42 L−1 1 s+7 25. Multiplying by the denominator gives s = A (s − 3) + B (s − 2) . B = 6 . Using partial fractions. 1 1 and 2 in this equation gives A = 1 . 5 = − 2 L−1 3 1 s−1 1 − 3 L−1 1 s+2 A s−2 1 2 = − 3 et − 3 e−2t . B = −1. 2(s−3)+11 2s+5 2s+5 s2 −6s+18 = (s−3)2 +9 = (s−3)2 +32 . B = − 1 . Using partial fractions. s Multiplying by the denominator gives s2 − 2 = A (s + 1) (s + 7) + Bs (s + 7) + Cs (s + 1) . ss+3 3 −s Thus L−1 1 s3 −3s2 +2s 1 2t 2e . s2 −5s+6 = (s−2)(s−3) = s−2 + s−3 . B = 3. 1 . C = 2 . s Multiplying by the denominator gives 1 = A (s − 1) (s − 2) + Bs (s − 2) + Cs (s − 1) . we compute 1 B C 1 21. Replacing s − s 1 5 s+1 that L−1 s2 +52 = L−1 s2 +52 + 5 L−1 s2 +52 Thus L−1 = 4 5 e2t − e−3t . we have 2s+5 f (t) = L−1 s2 −6s+18 = 3e−5t cos t − 17e−5t sin t. 3 3 Thus L−1 −s−1 s2 +s−2 4 B 4 + s+3 . Using partial fractions. Replacing s + 5 (s+5)2 +1 (s+5)2 +12 s 1 3s−17 −1 −1 s2 +12 = 3L s2 +12 − 17L s2 +12 by s. 2 s s A B 19. s2 +s−6 = (s−2)(s+3) = by the denominator gives 4 = A (s + 3) + B (s − 2) . 1 5 1 by s. that L Thus by the shifting theorem (T16) with c = −5. 3 = −1 3s−2 = 3(s+5)−17 . we compute sin 5t. Letting s = 0. Letting s = 2 4 and −3 in this equation gives A = 5 . s+3 B C = s(s−1)(s+1) = A + s−1 + s+1 . Replacing s − 3 s 3 that L−1 2s+11 = 2L−1 s2 +32 + 11 L−1 s2 +32 s2 +32 3 f (t) = L−1 by s. 1 −1 and −7 in this equation gives A = − 2 . = 1 − et + 2 s2 −2 s2 −2 B C 23. 7 42 s2 −2 2 s3 +8s2 +7s = − 7 1 47 2 = − 7 + 6 e−t + 42 e−7t . we have 2s+5 f (t) = L−1 s2 −6s+18 = 2e3t cos 3t + 11 e3t sin 3t. C = 47 . 3s−2 s2 +10s+26 Thus by the shifting theorem (T16) with c = 3. we compute = 2 cos 3t+ 11 sin 3t. s3 −3s2 +2s = s(s−1)(s−2) = A + s−1 + s−2 . 4 1 1 4 −1 −1 s2 +s−6 = 5 L s−2 − L s+3 (s−1)+1 s s s2 −2s+26 = (s−1)2 +25 = (s−1)2 +52 . 3 17. s Multiplying by the denominator gives s + 3 = A (s − 1) (s + 1) + Bs (s + 1) + Cs (s − 1) . = 3 cos t − 17 sin t. s3 +8s2 +7s = s(s+1)(s+7) = A + s+1 + s+7 . s 1 t s2 −2s+26 = e cos 5t + 5 sin 5t . Multiplying 11. we have 15.THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 87 s = 1 and −2 in this equation gives A = − 2 . Letting s = 0.

Multiplying by the s2 +4 denominator gives s − 8 = A s2 + 4 + (Bs + C) (s − 5) ⇒ s − 8 = As2 + 4A + Bs2 + (C − 5B) s − 5C. Equating the coefficients: 1 2 s : 0 = A + B ⇒ B = −A = − 13 4 s: 2 = 4A + C ⇒ C = 2 − 13 = 22 . 3 1 29s+6 3 1 29(s+1)−23 s2 −3 Thus s3 +2s2 +26s = − 26s + 26 s2 +2s+26 = − 26s + 26 (s+1)2 +52 A s−8 31. 13 2s+1 1 1 s−22 1 1 (s+2)−24 Thus s3 +4s2 +13s = 13s − 13 s2 +4s+13 = 13s − 13 (s+2)2 +32 (s+2) 1 1 3 = 13s − 13 (s+2)2 +32 − 8 (s+2)2 +32 . Multiplying by the denominator gives s2 −3 = A s2 + 2s + 26 +(Bs + C) s = As2 +2As+26A+Bs2 +Cs. Equating the coefficients: 3 s2 : 0 = A + B ⇒ B = −A = 29 15 s: 1 = C − 5B ⇒ C = 1 + 29 = 44 . . Using partial fractions. Multiplying by the denominator gives s2 = A s2 − 2s + 26 + (Bs + C) (s − 3) ⇒ s2 = As2 − 2As + 26A + Bs2 + (C − 3B) s − 3C. s2 A Bs+C (s−3)(s2 −2s+26) = s−3 + s2 −2s+26 . B = 2. 1 Thus L−1 ss+3 = −3 L−1 1 + 2L−1 s−1 + L−1 3 −s s CHAPTER 3 1 s+1 = −3 + 2et + e−t . Thus 3 = − 29 e5t + Now applying the shifting theorem (T16) with c = −1 in the second and third terms. 3 Letting s = 5 in this equation gives A = − 29 .88 and −1 in this equation gives A = −3. s3 +4s2 +13s = s(s22s+1 +4s+13) = s + s2 +4s+13 . Multiplying by the denominator gives 2s+1 = A s2 + 4s + 13 +(Bs + C) s = As2 +4As+13A+Bs2 +Cs. Now applying the shifting theorem (T16) with c = −2 in the second and third terms. 2s+1 A Bs+C 27. Using partial fractions. 1 29 (3 cos 2t + 22 sin 2t) . 29 s−8 3 1 1 So (s−5)(s2 +4) = − 29 s−5 + 29 3s+44 s2 +4 3 1 = − 29 s−5 + 1 29 s 2 3 s2 +22 + 22 s2 +22 . we have 2s+1 1 1 L−1 s3 +4s2 +13s = 13 − 13 e−2t (cos 3t − 8 sin 3t) . s3 +2s−3 2 +26s = s(s2 +2s+26) = s + s2 +2s+26 . L−1 s−8 (s−5)(s2 +4) 33. (s−5)(s2 +4) = s−5 + Bs+C . we have 3 1 s2 = − 26 + 26 e−t 29 cos 5t − 23 sin 5t . 3 Letting s = 0 in this equation gives A = − 26 . Using partial fractions. C = 1. L−1 s3 +2s−3 2 +26s 5 3 = − 26s + 1 26 (s+1) 29 (s+1)2 +52 − 23 5 5 (s+1)2 +52 . Equating the coefficients: 3 s2 : 1 = A + B ⇒ B = 1 + 26 = 29 26 3 s: 0 = 2A + C ⇒ C = −2A = 13 . 1 Letting s = 0 in this equation gives A = 13 . 2 2 s s −3 A Bs+C 29. Using partial fractions.

we have s2 9 2 L−1 (s−3)(s2 −2s+26) = 29 e3t + 29 et 10 cos 5t + 49 sin 5t . 1 Letting s = 1. L−1 = 1 8 9 cos 3t + 3 sin 3t − cos t − sin t . 8 1 B = −D = 8 . A = −9C = 8 . s s3 Using partial fractions. s4 +10s2 +9 = (s2 +9)(s2 +1) = As+B + Cs+D . s2 +9 s2 +1 Multiplying by the denominator gives s3 − 1 = (As + B) s2 + 1 + (Cs + D) s2 + 9 ⇒ s3 − 1 = (A + C) s3 + (B + D) s2 + (A + 9C) s + B + 9D. (s−1) 9 1 2 5 = 29 s−3 + 29 10 (s−1)2 +52 + 49 (s−1)2 +52 . D = 3. B = − 1 . −1. Equating the coefficients: s3 s4 −5s2 +4 3 = −1 6 1 s−1 + 1 s+1 + 2 3 1 s−2 + 1 s+2 . 6 2 2 C = 3. 2 and −2 in this equation gives A = − 6 . B = 16 . Then from the second. s4 −5s2 +4 = (s2 −1)(s2 −4) A B C D = s−1 + s+1 + s−2 + s+2 .THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 89 s −1 s −1 35. Thus . Equating the coefficients: s3 : 1=A+C s2 : 0=B+D s: 0 = A + 9C 1: −1 = B + 9D Subtracting the first from the third we get. Using partial fractions. 8C = −1 ⇒ C = − 1 . Multiplying by the 3 s = (s−1)(s+1)(s−2)(s+2) denominator gives s = A (s + 1) (s − 2) (s + 2) + B (s − 1) (s − 2) (s + 2) +C (s − 1) (s + 1) (s + 2) + D (s − 1) (s + 1) (s − 2) . Thus 3 37. Using partial fractions. 29 9 1 1 20s+78 9 1 2 s2 Thus (s−3)(s2 −2s+26) = 29 s−3 + 29 s2 −2s+26 = 29 s−3 + 29 10(s−1)+49 (s−1)2 +52 So = s3 −1 s4 +10s2 +9 = 1 8 9s+1 s2 +9 − s+1 s2 +1 = 1 8 9s+1 s2 +32 − s+1 s2 +12 1 8 s 9 s2 +32 + s −1 s4 +10s2 +9 3 1 3 3 s2 +32 − s s2 +12 − 1 3 1 s2 +12 . s4 −16 = (s2 −4)(s2 +4) = (s−2)(s+2)(s2 +4) B Cs+D A = s−2 + s+2 + s2 +4 . Multiplying by the denominator gives s = A (s + 2) s2 + 4 +B (s − 2) s2 + 4 +(Cs + D) (s − 2) (s + 2) ⇒ s = (A + B + C) s3 + (2A − 2B + D) s2 + (4A + 4B − 4C) s + 8A +8B − 4D. So s 2 L−1 s4 −5s2 +4 = − 1 (et + e−t ) + 3 e2t + e−2t . Subtracting the second from the fourth we get. 5 Now applying the shifting theorem (T16) with c = 1 in the second and third terms. 8 9 Then from the third. 6 s s s 39. 1 1 Letting s = 2 and −2 in this equation gives A = 16 . Equating the coefficients: 9 s2 : 1 = A + B ⇒ B = 1 − 29 = 20 29 26A 1: 0 = 26A − 3C ⇒ C = 3 = 78 . 8D = −1 ⇒ D = − 1 . 5 3 3 9 Letting s = 3 in this equation gives A = 29 .

Using partial fractions. (s−a)n+1 1 = tn eat . the first equation yields C = 0 2 (since A = 0). 2 +1 49. A B s+1 + s−1 + C (s−1)2 + D . Thus L−1 s2 (s+3)2 (s−3)2 47. s2 +1 1 1 = − 12 e−3t + 4 te−3t + = − 1 te−t + 2 = 1 2 sin t. 30 t e n at n! . 4 4 Equating the coefficients: s3 : 0=A+C 1 s2 : 1 = −3A + B + D + 3C ⇒ 1 − 4 − 1 = −3A + 3C 4 1 ⇒ 6 = −A + C 1 1 Adding them we get. Finally. 1 1 So (s+1)2s(s2 +1) = − 2 (s+1)2 + 1 s21 . B = 1 . (s+1)2 (s2 +1) = s+1 + (s+1)2 + Cs+D . C = 12 and then A = −C = − 12 . Equating the coefficients: s3 : 0=A+C s2 : 0 = A + B + 2C + D s: 1 = A + C + 2D 1: 0=A+B+D Substituting A + C = 0 (first equation) into the third equation we get. D = 1 and then the last equation gives A = 0 2 (since B = − 1 ). (s−1)3 . Thus using a = − 3 and n = 4 we get 4 1 5 35 (s+ 3 ) 2 = L−1 = 4 −1 4!35 L 4! 4+1 (s+ 1 ) 3 = 1 4 −1t 3 . Using partial fractions.90 s3 : s2 : So s s4 −16 1 0 = A + B + C ⇒ C = − 16 − 0 = 2A − 2B + D ⇒ D = 0 1 1 + s+2 − 8 s2s . (s−a)n+1 43. Thus +4 1 8 1 16 CHAPTER 3 1 = −8 = 1 16 1 s−2 1 16 41. s2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 So (s+3)2 (s−3)2 = − 12 s+3 + 4 (s+3)2 + 12 s−3 + 4 (s−3)2 . The derivative theorem for higher powers of t is L [tn eat ] = n! So L−1 (s−a)n+1 = tn eat . (s+3)2 (s−3)2 = s+3 + (s+3)2 + s−3 + (s−3)2 . 4 4 s A B fractions. Thus using a = −3 and n = 5 we get 4 4 5! 4 L−1 (s+3)6 = 5! L−1 (s+3)5+1 = 5! t5 e−3t = L−1 s s4 −16 = e2t + e−2t − cos 2t. n! . Multiplying by the denominator gives 2 2 2 2 s2 = A (s + 3) (s − 3) + B (s − 3) + C (s − 3) (s + 3) + D (s + 3) Letting s = 3 and −3 in this equation gives D = 1 . Thus L−1 s (s+1)2 (s2 +1) s+5 (s+1)(s−1)3 1 3t 1 3t 12 e + 4 te 1 1 = e−3t 1 t − 12 + e3t 1 t + 12 . 3!35 t e A C B D s 45. The derivative theorem for higher powers of t is L [t e ] = So L−1 L−1 n! (s−a)n+1 4 (3s+1)5 1 5 −3t . Using partial Multiplying by the denominator gives 2 s = A (s + 1) s2 + 1 + B s2 + 1 + (Cs + D) (s + 1) 1 Letting s = −1 in this equation gives B = − 2 .

Equating the coefficients: 1 s3 : 0 = A + B ⇒ B = −A = 2 1 2 s : 0 = −3A − B + C ⇒ C = 2 − 3 = −1 2 1 1 1 s+5 1 1 1 So (s+1)(s−1)3 = − 2 s+1 + 2 s−1 − (s−1)2 + 3 (s−1)3 . 2 s2 +4 Multiplying by the denominator gives s2 −s = (As + B) s2 + 4 +Cs+D = As3 +Bs2 +(4A + C) s+4B+D Equating the coefficients: s3 : 0=A s2 : 1=B s: −1 = 4A + C ⇒ C = −1 1: 0 = 4B + D ⇒ D = −4B = −4 2 −s s 4 s+4 So (ss +4)2 = s21 − (s2 +4)2 = s21 − (s2 +4)2 − (s2 +4)2 2 +4 +4 1 1 2·2·s 2· 2 2 4 (s2 +22 )2 − 2 (s2 +22 )2 . 4 3 Cs+D −1 Using partial fractions. 2 1 −s Thus L−1 (ss +4)2 = 1 sin 2t − 1 t sin 2t − 2 1 sin 2t − 2 2 4 2 1 1 = 1 sin 2t − 4 t sin 2t + 2 t cos 2t. . (ss2 +9)2 = As+B + (s2 +9)2 . 1 cos 3t − 3 t sin 3t − 18 1 sin 3t 2 3 3 2 s −s Cs+D = As+B + (s2 +36)2 . (ss +4)2 = As+B + (s2 +4)2 . s2 +36 (s2 +36)2 − t cos 3t .THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 91 Multiplying by the denominator gives 3 2 s + 5 = A (s − 1) + B (s − 1) (s + 1) + C (s − 1) (s + 1) + D (s + 1) 1 Letting s = 1 and −1 in this equation gives D = 3. Using partial fractions. Thus −s Cs+D 51. Multiplying by the denominator gives s3 −1 = (As + B) s2 + 9 +Cs+D = As3 +Bs2 +(9A + C) s+9B+D Equating the coefficients: s3 : 1=A s2 : 0=B s: 0 = 9A + C ⇒ C = −9A = −9 1: −1 = 9B + D ⇒ D = −1 3 −1 s 1 +1 9s So (ss2 +9)2 = s2s − (s9s+9)2 = s2 +32 − (s2 +32 )2 − (s2 +32 )2 2 +9 = s s2 +32 Thus L−1 s3 −1 (s2 +9)2 − = 55. Using partial fractions. s2 +9 L−1 s+5 (s+1)(s−1)3 1 1 = − 1 e−t + 2 et −tet + 3 t2 et = − 2 e−t +et 2 2 2 1 2 − t + 3 t2 . 2 = 1 2 2 s2 +22 − t cos 2t 53. A = − 2 . Multiplying by the denominator gives s3 − s2 = (As + B) s2 + 36 + Cs + D = As3 + Bs2 + (36A + C) s +36B + D Equating the coefficients: s3 : 1=A s2 : −1 = B s: 0 = 36A + C ⇒ C = −36A = −36 1: 0 = 36B + D ⇒ D = −36B = 36 3 s−1 s 1 36 36s−36 −s2 So (ss +36)2 = s2 +36 − (s2 +36)2 = s2 +62 − s2 +62 − (s236s2 )2 + (s2 +62 )2 2 +6 1 3 2·3·s 2· 3 2 2 (s2 +32 )2 − 18 (s2 +32 )2 .

Thus 1 −3t (sin 4t − 4t cos 4t) 4e 1 −3t 3 −3t 7 −3t 1 = 4e sin 4t− 4 te sin 4t− 32 e 4 sin 4t − t cos 4t .92 = s s2 +62 CHAPTER 3 1 2· 6 2 (s2 +62 )2 . (s+1)(s−1)3 = s+1 + s−1 + (s−1)2 + (s−1)3 . Thus L−1 3s−1 (s2 +2s+26)2 59. s+5 A D B C fractions. 3 −s2 Thus L−1 (ss +36)2 = cos 6t− 1 sin 6t−3t sin 6t+ 1 1 sin 6t − t cos 6t 2 6 2 6 1 = cos 6t − 12 sin 6t − 3t sin 6t − 1 t cos 6t. [(s+3)2 +42 ] [(s+3)2 +42 ] s2 (s2 +6s+25)2 s+5 1 1 3 L−1 (s+1)(s−1)3 = − 1 e−t + 2 et −tet + 3 t2 et = − 2 e−t +et 1 − t + 2 t2 . 2 Equating the coefficients: 1 s3 : 0 = A + B ⇒ B = −A = 2 1 2 s : 0 = −3A − B + C ⇒ C = 2 − 3 = −1 2 1 1 1 s+5 1 1 1 So (s+1)(s−1)3 = − 2 s+1 + 2 s−1 − (s−1)2 + 3 (s−1)3 . G = 2 . 2 2 2 63. 7 = 1 e−3t sin 4t− 3 te−3t sin 4t− 32 4 4 . s2 As+B Cs+D fractions. 2 3(s+1) (3s+3)−4 4 3s−1 = = − 2 2 2 (s2 +2s+26)2 [(s+1)2 +52 ] [(s+1)2 +52 ] [(s+1)2 +52 ] 2·5(s+1) 3 2 2. A = − 1 . Using partial Multiplying by the denominator gives s2 = (As + B) s2 + 6s + 25 + Cs + D = As3 + (6A + B) s2 + (25A + 6B + C) s + 25B + D Equating the coefficients: s3 : 0=A s2 : 1 = 6A + B ⇒ B = 1 s: 0 = 25A + 6B + C ⇒ C = −6 1: 0 = 25B + D ⇒ D = −25 1 s2 6s+25 So (s2 +6s+25)2 = s2 +6s+25 − (s2 +6s+25)2 = 1 (s+3)2 +42 3 2 1 −t sin 5t − 25 5 e−t (sin 5t − 5t cos 5t) 10 te 3 2 −t 1 = 10 te−t sin 5t − 25 e 5 sin 5t − t cos 5t . (s2 +6s+25)2 = s2 +6s+25 + (s2 +6s+25)2 . Using partial Multiplying by the denominator gives 3 2 s + 5 = A (s − 1) + B (s − 1) (s + 1) + C (s − 1) (s + 1) + D (s + 1) Letting s = 1 and −1 in this equation gives D = 3.52 = 10 2 − 25 2. [(s+1)2 +52 ] [(s+1)2 +52 ] − 1 6 6 s2 +62 2· 6· − 3 (s2 +6s )2 + 2 2 57. = − = Thus L−1 4 1 4 (s+3)2 +42 6s+18 7 2 − 2 [(s+3)2 +42 ] [(s+3)2 +42 ] 3 2·4·(s+3) 7 2· 4 2 −4 2 − 32 2. 86 Equating the coefficients: s6 : 0 = A + B ⇒ B = −A = − 12 86 5 s : 0 = −48A − 40B + C ⇒ C = 12 85 61. 12 D E F G B C = A + s−8 + (s−8)2 + (s−8)3 + (s−8)4 + (s−8)5 + (s−8)6 . Using partial fractions. s s(s−8)6 Multiplying by the denominator gives 6 5 4 3 12 = A (s − 8) + Bs (s − 8) + Cs (s − 8) + Ds (s − 8) 2 +Es (s − 8) + F s (s − 8) + Gs 3 Letting s = 0 and 8 in this equation gives A = 12 .

A C B s+5 Using partial fractions. 82 = Thus L−1 − + 12 1 3! 83 3! (s−8)3+1 65. 4 4 2 67. (s−1)2 Multiplying by the denominator gives 2 2 2 2 s+5 = A (s + 1) (s − 1) +B (s − 1) +C (s − 1) (s + 1) +D (s + 1) 3 Letting s = 1 and −1 in this equation gives D = 2 . for example) with 5 unknowns can be solved (by using Maple. B = 1) 2 s: 1 = −A − 2B − C + 2D 1: 5=A+B−C +D 5 5 Adding these equations we get. s2 +1 (s2 +1)(s−7)4 Multiplying by the denominator gives 4 3 2 s = (As + B) (s − 7) + C s2 + 1 (s − 7) + D s2 + 1 (s − 7) +E s2 + 1 (s − 7) + F s2 + 1 7 Letting s = 7 in this equation gives F = 50 .THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 93 s4 : s3 : s2 : So 12 s(s−8)6 0 = 960A + 640B − 32C + D ⇒ D = − 12 84 0 = −10240A − 5120B + 384C − 24D + E ⇒ E = 12 83 0 = 61440A + 20480B − 2048C + 192D − 16E + F ⇒ F = − 12 82 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 = 86 s − 12 s−8 + 12 (s−8)2 − 12 (s−8)3 + 12 (s−8)4 − 12 (s−8)5 6 8 85 84 83 82 3 1 + 2 (s−8)6 12 1 86 s 12 1 12 1 12 1! 2! 86 s−8 + 85 (s−8)1+1 − 84 2! (s−8)2+1 1 4! 5! 3 1 − 12 4! (s−8)4+1 + 2 5! (s−8)5+1 . C D E F s = As+B + s−7 + (s−7)2 + (s−7)3 + (s−7)4 . 12 12 8t 12 8t 86 − 86 e + 85 te 6 2 1 3 − 4096 t2 e8t + 512 t3 e8t − 128 t4 e8t + 240 t5 e8t 12 12 12 3 1 3 1 4 1 8t 2 = 86 + e − 86 + 85 t − 2048 t + 256 t − 128 t + 80 t5 . for example) to get L−1 s+5 (s+1)2 (s−1)2 3 = 5 e−t + te−t − 5 et + 2 tet 4 4 . 5 1 5 1 s+5 1 3 1 So (s+1)2 (s−1)2 = 4 s+1 + (s+1)2 − 4 s−1 + 2 (s−1)2 . B = 1. Using partial fractions. Equating the coefficients: s5 : 0=A+C s4 : 0 = −28A + B − 21C + D s3 : 0 = 294A − 28B + 148C − 14D + E s2 : 0 = −1372A − 294B − 364C + 50D − 7E + F s: 1 = 2401A − 1372B + 147C − 14D + E 1: 0 = 2401B − 343C + 49D − 7E + F Note this is a system of 6 equations with 5 unknowns as we know F. (s+1)2 (s−1)2 = s+1 + (s+1)2 + s−1 12 s(s−8)6 = + D . Thus = e−t 5 + t + et − 5 + 3 t . C = − 4 and then A = −C = 4 . So the system considering 5 equations (excluding the fourth one. Equating the coefficients: s3 : 0=A+C s2 : 0 = −A + B + C + D 5 ⇒ − 2 = −A + C (since D = 3 .

. 3. 8e 1 s−2 1 − 8 L−1 1 s+2 ⇒ So L−1 [Y (s)] = L−1 1 s−1 ⇒ y (t) = et . C = 1562500 .94 CHAPTER 3 527 −84 −527 161 A = 1562500 . L [y ] − 4L [y] = L [1] ⇒ s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) − 4Y (s) = 1 ⇒ s s2 Y (s) − 1 − 4Y (s) = 1 ⇒ s2 − 4 Y (s) = 1 + 1 ⇒ s s 1+s Y (s) = s(s2 −4) . L [y ] + 5L [y ] + 6L [y] = L [1] ⇒ s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) + 5sY (s) − 5y (0) + 6Y (s) = 1 ⇒ s s2 Y (s) − s − 1 + 5sY (s) − 5 + 6Y (s) = 1 ⇒ s s2 s2 +6s+1 s2 + 5s + 6 Y (s) = 1 + s + 6 ⇒ Y (s) = s(s2+6s+1 = s(s+2)(s+3) . B = 3 and C = − 1 . Thus Y (s) = 1 1 + 2 s+2 − 3 s+3 6s 2 So L−1 [Y (s)] = − 1 L−1 4 1 −4 3 2t 8e 1 3 −1 s + 8L 1 −2t . s +5s+6) s +6s+1 B C Using partial fractions. Letting s = 0. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y − 4y = 1 we get. L [y ] + 3L [y ] − 4L [y] = 0 ⇒ s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) + 3sY (s) − 3y (0) − 4Y (s) = 0 ⇒ s2 Y (s) − s − 1 + 3sY (s) − 3 − 4Y (s) = 0 ⇒ s+4 1 s+4 s2 + 3s − 4 Y (s) = s + 4 ⇒ Y (s) = s2 +3s−4 = (s+4)(s−1) = s−1 . B = 7 and 6 2 8 7 1 8 1 C = − 3 .3 INITIAL-VALUE PROBLEMS FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 1. s 527 84 527 = 1562500 cos t − 390625 sin t − 1562500 e7t (s2 +1)(s−7)4 6 7 161 + 62500 te7t − 625 t2 e7t + 300 t3 e7t 1 = 1562500 527 cos t − 336 sin t + e7t −527 + 4025t − 15000t2 = Thus L−1 + 7(15625) 3 t 3 . 625 s 527s−336 1 12 527 1 161 1 1 So (s2 +1)(s−7)4 = 1562500 s2 +1 − 1562500 s−7 + 62500 (s−7)2 − 625 (s−7)3 7 1 + 50 (s−7)4 527 s 84 1 527 1 161 1 1562500 s2 +1 − 390625 s2 +1 − 1562500 s−7 + 62500 (s−7)2 2! 3! 7 12 − 625(2!) (s−7)2+1 + 50(3!) (s−7)3+1 . 4 8 8 3 1 1 1 Thus Y (s) = − 1 1 + 8 s−2 − 8 s+2 . Using partial fractions. 5. −2 and −3 in this equation gives A = 1 . 1+s 1 B C Y (s) = s(s2 −4) = s(s−2)(s+2) = A + s−2 + s+2 . 4s y (t) = + − 3. s Multiplying by the denominator gives 1 + s = A (s + 2) (s − 2) + Bs (s + 2) + Cs (s − 2) . E = −12 . Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y + 5y + 6y = 1 we get. 2 and −2 in this equation gives A = − 1 . D = 62500 . Y (s) = s(s+2)(s+3) = A + s+2 + s+3 . Letting s = 0. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y + 3y − 4y = 0 we get. s Multiplying by the denominator gives s2 + 6s + 1 = A (s + 3) (s + 2) + Bs (s + 3) + Cs (s + 2) . B = 390625 .

L [y ] − 3L [y ] + 2L [y] = L [1] ⇒ s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) − 3sY (s) + 3y (0) + 2Y (s) = 1 ⇒ s s2 Y (s) − 1 − 3sY (s) + 2Y (s) = 1 ⇒ s s+1 s2 − 3s + 2 Y (s) = 1 + 1 ⇒ Y (s) = s(s2s+1 s −3s+2) = s(s−2)(s−1) . s2 +3s+3 A Bs+C (s+1)(s2 +9) = s+1 + s2 +9 .THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 95 1 s 1 ⇒ y (t) = 6 + 7 e−2t − 8 e−3t . Using partial fractions. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y + 4y + 13y = 2 we get. 9. Y (s) = s(s2 +4s+13) = A + s2Bs+C . 2 Letting s = 0 in this equation gives A = 13 . 9 s: 3 = B + C ⇒ C = 3 − B = 3 − 10 = 21 . Equating the coefficients: 11 s2 : 1 = A + B ⇒ B = 1 − A = 13 . Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y + 9y = e−t we get. 2 3 7. s +4s+13 Multiplying by the denominator gives s2 + 4s + 2 = A s2 + 4s + 13 + (Bs + C) s. So L−1 [Y (s)] = 1 −1 1 9 −1 s 10 L s+1 + 10 L s2 +32 9 7 1 −t + 10 cos 3t + 10 sin 3t. s s +4s+2 Using partial fractions. 10 e + 7 −1 10 L 3 s2 +32 . Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y − 3y + 2y = 1 we get. Equating the coefficients: 9 s2 : 1 = A + B ⇒ B = 1 − A = 10 . B = 3 and 2 2 1 3 1 1 C = −2. 13 2 s2 +3s+3 (s+1)(s2 +9) . Y (s) = s(s−2)(s−1) = A + s−2 + s−1 . L [y ] + 4L [y ] + 13L [y] = L [2] ⇒ s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) + 4sY (s) − 4y (0) + 13Y (s) = 2 ⇒ s s2 Y (s) − s + 4sY (s) − 4 + 13Y (s) = 2 ⇒ s s2 +4s+2 s2 + 4s + 13 Y (s) = 2 + s + 4 ⇒ Y (s) = s(s2 +4s+13) . 1 L [y ] + 9L [y] = L [e−t ] ⇒ s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) + 9Y (s) = s+1 1 1 ⇒ s2 Y (s) − s − 2 + 9Y (s) = s+1 ⇒ s2 + 9 Y (s) = s+1 + s + 2 ⇒ So L−1 [Y (s)] = 1 L−1 6 + 7 L−1 2 1 s+2 − 8 L−1 3 1 s+3 So L−1 [Y (s)] = 1 L−1 2 1 s t + 3 L−1 2 1 s−2 − 2L−1 1 s−1 Y (s) = Y (s) = Multiplying by the denominator gives s2 + 3s + 3 = A s2 + 9 + (Bs + C) (s + 1) . Letting s = 0. 8 s: 4 = 4A + C ⇒ C = 4 − 4A = 4 − 13 = 44 . s Multiplying by the denominator gives s + 1 = A (s − 1) (s − 2) + Bs (s − 1) + Cs (s − 2) . 10 3 ⇒ y (t) = 11. Thus Y (s) = 2 1 + 2 s−2 − 2 s−1 s 1 3 ⇒ y (t) = 2 + 2 e2t − 2e . s+1 B C Using partial fractions. Letting s = −1 in this 1 equation gives A = 10 . 10 1 1 9 s 21 1 Thus Y (s) = 10 s+1 + 10 s2 +9 + 10 s2 +9 s 3 1 1 9 = 10 s+1 + 10 s2 +32 + 21 1 s2 +32 . 1 and 2 in this equation gives A = 1 .

Letting s = 0. −1 and 1 in this equation gives A = −1. 2 (s−1) + 5 L−1 2 17. s Multiplying by the denominator gives 3s4 + 5s3 + 1 = A s4 − 1 + Bs (s − 1) s2 + 1 + Cs (s + 1) s2 + 1 + (Ds + E) s (s + 1) (s − 1) . (s+1)3 . L [y ] + 2L [y ] + L [y] = L [e−t ] ⇒ 1 s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) + 2sY (s) − 2y (0) + Y (s) = s+1 ⇒ 1 s2 Y (s) − 1 + 2sY (s) + Y (s) = s+1 ⇒ 1 s+2 s+2 2 s + 2s + 1 Y (s) = s+1 + 1 ⇒ Y (s) = (s+1)(s2 +2s+1) = (s+1)3 . L [y ] − L [y] = L [1] − L [t] ⇒ sY (s) − y (0) − Y (s) = 1 − s1 ⇒ 2 s 2 sY (s) + 1 − Y (s) = s−1 ⇒ (s − 1) Y (s) = s−1 − 1 = s−1−s ⇒ s2 s2 s2 s2 1 s−1−s2 Y (s) = s2 (s−1) = s2s−1 − s2 (s−1) = s1 − s−1 . Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y + 2y + y = e−t we get. Letting s = −1 in this equation gives C = 1. L y (4) − L [y] = L [1] ⇒ s4 Y (s) − s3 y (0) − s2 y (0) − sy (0) − y (0) − Y (s) = 1 ⇒ s s4 Y (s) − 3s3 − 5s2 − Y (s) = 1 ⇒ s 4 +5s3 +1 3s4 +5s3 +1 s4 − 1 Y (s) = 1 +3s3 +5s2 ⇒ Y (s) = 3ss(s4 −1) = s(s+1)(s−1)(s2 +1) .96 Thus Y (s) = 1 11s+44 2 1 1 11(s+2)+22 13 s2 +4s+13 = 13 s + 13 (s+2)2 +32 (s+2) 2 1 3 = 13 1 + 13 11 (s+2)2 +32 + 22 (s+2)2 +32 s 3 (s+2) 2 11 22 L−1 [Y (s)] = 13 L−1 1 + 13 L−1 (s+2)2 +32 + 39 L−1 s 22 2 y (t) = 13 + 11 e−2t cos 3t + 39 e−2t sin 3t. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y − y = 1 we get. 4 Equating the coefficients: s4 : 3 = A + B + C + D ⇒ D = 3 − A − B − C = 2. B = − 1 and 4 C = 9. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y − y = 1 − t we get. s+2 A Using partial fractions. Y (s) = (s+1)3 = s+1 + Multiplying by the denominator gives 2 s + 2 = A (s + 1) + B (s + 1) + C. B C Ds+E 3s4 +5s3 +1 Y (s) = s(s+1)(s−1)(s2 +1) = A + s+1 + s−1 + (s2 +1) . Equating the coefficients: s2 : 0=A s: 1 = 2A + B ⇒ B = 1. + C . 13 (4) 2 1 13 s CHAPTER 3 + So 3 (s+2)2 +32 ⇒ 13. s Using partial fractions. 4 4 1 1 1 9 1 s 5 1 Thus Y (s) = − s − 4 s+1 + 4 s−1 + 2 s2 +1 + 2 s2 +1 So L−1 [Y (s)] = −L−1 1 s − 1 L−1 4 1 s+1 + 9 L−1 4 1 s2 +1 1 s−1 +2L−1 s s2 +1 9 5 1 ⇒ y (t) = −1 − 4 e−t + 4 et + 2 cos t + 2 sin t. 5 s: 0 = −B + C − E ⇒ E = −B + C = 1 + 9 = 2 . B (s+1)2 So L−1 [Y (s)] = L−1 1 s2 − L−1 1 s−1 ⇒ y (t) = t − et . 15.

2 +9 3 1 So L−1 [Y (s)] = 3 L−1 3 s2 +32 1 + 6 L−1 2·3·s (s2 +32 )2 . Using partial fractions. 1 (s+1)2 + 1 (s+1)2 +1 1 1 ⇒ y (t) = − 2 e−2t + 2 e−t cos t + 1 e−t sin t. Using partial fractions. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y + 9y = cos 3t we get. s 3 1 2· 3· Thus Y (s) = s21 + (s2 +9)2 = 1 s2 +32 + 6 (s2 +3s )2 . ⇒ s2 + 9 Y (s) = s s2 +9 +1= s2 +s+9 s2 +9 Y (s) = Multiplying by the denominator gives s2 + s + 9 = (As + B) s2 + 9 + Cs + D. (s2 +1)2 +1 1 (s)] = 1 L−1 (s22·1 2 )2 2 +1 ⇒ y (t) = 1 2 [sin t − t cos t] . 2 21. Equating the coefficients: 1 s2 : 0 = A + B ⇒ B = −A = 2 s: 1 = 2A + C + 2B ⇒ C = 1 − 2A − 2B = 1. L [y ] + 9L [y] = L [cos 3t] ⇒ s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) + 9Y (s) = s2s ⇒ +9 ⇒ Y (s) = s2 Y (s) − 1 + 9Y (s) = s2 +s+9 . (s2 +9)2 s2 +s+9 Cs+D = As+B + (s2 +9)2 . L [y ] + L [y] = L [sin t] ⇒ s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) + Y (s) = s21 ⇒ +1 s2 Y (s) + Y (s) = s21 ⇒ s2 + 1 Y (s) = s21 +1 +1 1 So L−1 [Y (s)] = − 2 L−1 + 1 L−1 2 s+1 (s+1)2 +12 + 1 L−1 2 1 (s+1)2 +12 23. s2 +9 (s2 +9)2 s s2 +9 So L−1 [Y ⇒ Y (s) = 1 1 1 = 2 (s22·1 2 )2 . Multiplying by the denominator gives s + 1 = A s2 + 2s + 2 + (Bs + C) (s + 2) . Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y + y = sin t we get.THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 97 + Thus Y (s) = So L−1 [Y ⇒ y (t) = 19. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y + 2y = e−t cos t we get. L [y ] + 2L [y] = L [e−t cos t] ⇒ s+1 sY (s) − y (0) + 2Y (s) = (s+1)2 +1 ⇒ s+1 s+1 sY (s) + 2Y (s) = s2 +2s+2 ⇒ (s + 2) Y (s) = s2 +2s+2 ⇒ s+1 Y (s) = (s+2)(s2 +2s+2) . 1 1 s+2 Thus Y (s) = − 1 s+2 + 2 s2 +2s+2 2 1 1 = − 2 s+2 + 1 2 s+1 (s+1)2 +1 1 s+2 1 1! 2! = (s+1)1+1 + 1 (s+1)2+1 2 (s+1)3 1! 2! (s)] = L−1 (s+1)1+1 + 1 L−1 (s+1)2+1 2 1 te−t + 2 t2 e−t . 1 Letting s = −2 in this equation gives A = − 2 . s+1 A Bs+C Y (s) = (s+2)(s2 +2s+2) = s+2 + s2 +2s+2 . Equating the coefficients: s3 : 0=A s2 : 1=B s: 1=A+C ⇒C =1 1: 9 = 9B + D ⇒ D = 0.

2 ≤ t < 5. t→0+ 3. 5 ≤ t. 0 ≤ t < 2. We use integration-by-parts taking ∞ 0 ⇒ du = −se−st dt and dv = f (t) dt ⇒ v = f (t) . . 4 29. 2 ∞ −st So L−1 [Y (s)] = 1 L−1 4 2·2·s (s2 +22 )2 ⇒ y (t) = 1 t sin 2t. f (t) =  t. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y + y = sin t + cos t we get. 27.4 DISCONTINUOUS FORCING FUNCTIONS   0. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of y + 4y = cos 2t we get. Thus 3 [H (t − 2) − H (t − 5)] + t [H (t − 5)] = 3H (t − 2) + (t − 3) H (t − 5) . 3. 3 6 25.98 CHAPTER 3 ⇒ y (t) = 1 sin 3t + 1 t sin 3t. L [y ] + 4L [y] = L [cos 2t] ⇒ s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) + 4Y (s) = s2s ⇒ +4 s2 Y (s) + 4Y (s) = s2s ⇒ s2 + 4 Y (s) = s2s +4 +4 1 2·2·s s ⇒ Y (s) = (s2 +4)2 = 4 (s2 +22 )2 . 2 (s2 +1)2 +1 2 2·1·s 1 L−1 [Y (s)] = 2 L−1 (s22·1 2 )2 + 1 L−1 (s2 +12 )2 2 +1 y (t) = 1 (sin t − t cos t) + 1 t sin t 2 2 1 1 = − 2 t cos t + 1 sin t + 2 t sin t. L [f (t)] = u=e −st e f (t) dt. 1. L [y ] + L [y] = L [sin t] + L [cos t] ⇒ s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) + Y (s) = s21 + s2s ⇒ +1 +1 s2 Y (s) + Y (s) = s21 + s2s ⇒ s2 + 1 Y (s) = s21 + s2s +1 +1 +1 +1 ⇒ Y (s) = So ⇒ 2 1 s 1 2·1·s + (s2 +1)2 = 1 (s22·1 2 )2 + 2 (s2 +12 )2 . ∞ 0 0 So L [f (t)] = e−st f (t) dt = uv|∞ − 0 ∞ 0 vdu = e−st f (t) |∞ + s 0 t→∞ e−st f (t) dt = lim [e−st f (t)] − lim [e−st f (t)] + sF (s) = sF (s) − f (0+ ) .

THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 99 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 t sin t. 1 ≤ t < 2. 2 ≤ t < 3. 0 ≤ t < 1. t ≥ 4 The unit-step function is (t − 1) [H (t − 1) − H (t − 2)]+1 [H (t − 2) − H (t − 3)]+(4 − t) [H (t − 3) − H (t − 4)] .  1.   0. f (t) =  sin t. 7. 0 ≤ t < 1. f (t) =  1. f (t) =   4 − t. 3π ≤ t. π ≤ t < 2π.   0.    t − 1. 2π ≤ t < 3π. = (t − 1) H (t − 1)+(2 − t) H (t − 2)+(3 − t) H (t − 3)+(t − 4) H (t − 4) . y     1 t π 2π 3π 4π   1.   0. t ≥ 3 The unit-step function is H (t) − H (t − 1) + H (t − 2) − H (t − 3) . 0. 1 ≤ t < 2. 2 ≤ t < 3. Thus sin t [H (t) − H (t − π)] + sin t [H (t − 2π) − H (t − 3π)] = sin t [1 − H (t − π)] + sin t [H (t − 2π) − H (t − 3π)] . . 0 ≤ t < π.    0. 3. 5. 3 ≤ t < 4.   0.

Then t = τ + 2 and f (τ ) = (τ + 2) e5τ +10 = 2e10 e5τ + e10 τ e5τ ⇒ f (t) = 2e10 e5t + e10 te5t . Thus F (s) = L [f (t)] = e6 L e2t = se . 0 ≤ t < 1. Thus Y (s) = e +1 . Thus Y (s) = e s−2 .Then t = τ + 1 and f (τ ) = (τ + 1) + 1.   0. Here c = 2π and f (t − 2π) = cos t. y (t) = te5t H (t − 2) . Thus Y (s) = e−s s6 + s6 + s3 + 2 . 2 2 s s 13. Thus F (s) = L [f (t)] = s6 + s6 + s3 + 2 . Here c = 3 and f (t − 3) = e2t . y (t) = tH (t − 2) . Let τ = t − 2. = (2 − t) H (t − 1) + 2 (t − 3) H (t − 3) − (t − 4) H (t − 5) . Here c = π and f (t − π) = sin t. Then (T 15) gives that L [f (t − 2) H (t − 2)] = e−2s F (s) = e−2s s1 + 2 . 3 ≤ t < 5. Let τ = t − 2π. ⇒ f (t) = − sin t. Then (T 15) gives that L [f (t − π) H (t − π)] = e−πs F (s) −πs = e−πs − s21 − s21 +1 . 17. 2 s So Y (s) = L [y (t)] = L [tH (t − 2)] = L [f (t − 2) H (t − 2)] . Here c = 1 and f (t − 1) = t3 + 1. Then (T 15) gives that L [f (t − 3) H (t − 3)] = e−3s F (s) 6 e6 −3s = e−3s se −2 . Thus Y (s) = e s2 +1 . 3 Let τ = t − 1. y (t) = cos tH (t − 2π) . 9. Thus F (s) = L [f (t)] = L [cos t] = s2s . y (t) = e2t H (t − 3) . t ≥ 5 The unit-step function is (2 − t) [H (t − 1) − H (t − 3)] + (t − 4) [H (t − 3) − H (t − 5)] .Then t = τ + 2π and f (τ ) = cos (τ + 2π) = cos τ. +1 So Y (s) = L [y (t)] = L [sin tH (t − π)] = L [f (t − π) H (t − π)] . ⇒ f (t) = cos t. 11. Then (T 15) gives that L [f (t − 2π) H (t − 2π)] = e−2πs F (s) s −2πs = e−2πs s2s +1 . 19. Thus F (s) = L [f (t)] = 2e10 s−5 5t + e10 (s−5)2 = e10 1 (s−5)2 + 2 s−5 . so that 3 3 2 f (t) = (t + 1) + 1 = t + 3t + 3t + 2. So Y (s) = L [y (t)] = L te H (t − 2) = L [f (t − 2) H (t − 2)] . −2 So Y (s) = L [y (t)] = L e2t H (t − 3) = L [f (t − 3) H (t − 3)] . 1 ≤ t < 3.Then t = τ + 3 and f (τ ) = e2τ +6 = e6 e2τ . Then (T 15) gives that L [f (t − 1) H (t − 1)] = e−s F (s) = e−s s6 + s6 + s3 + 2 . 4 3 2 s So Y (s) = L [y (t)] = L t3 + 1 H (t − 1) = L [f (t − 1) H (t − 1)] . Here c = 2 and f (t − 2) = t. 21. y (t) = t3 + 1 H (t − 1) . Let τ = t − 2. Here c = 2 and f (t − 2) = te5t . +1 So Y (s) = L [y (t)] = L [cos tH (t − 2π)] = L [f (t − 2π) H (t − 2π)] .100     CHAPTER 3 0. Then t = τ + 2 and f (τ ) = τ + 2 ⇒ f (t) = t + 2. Thus F (s) = L [f (t)] = s1 + 2 . Let τ = t − π. 6 ⇒ f (t) = e6 e2t . Thus Y (s) = e−2s s1 + 2 . f (t) =  t − 4. Thus F (s) = L [f (t)] = −L [sin t] = − s21 . 4 3 2 4 3 2 s s 15. Let τ = t − 3. y (t) = sin tH (t − π) . . 2 − t.Then t = τ + π and f (τ ) = sin (τ + π) = − sin τ.

So F (s) = s21 = 1 − s+1 +s s ⇒ f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = 1 − e−t .THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 101 Then (T 15) gives that L [f (t − 2) H (t − 2)] = e−2s F (s) = e−2s e10 1 (s−5)2 + 2 s−5 . H (t − 2) = f (t − 2) H (t − 2) with f (t − 2) = 1 ⇒ f (t) = 1 ⇒ F (s) = 1 and using (T 15) with c = 2. For both terms. 4 −1 29. F (s) = s2 +2s+2 = (s+1)2 +12 ⇒ f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = e−t sin t. +2s+2 = f (t − 3) H (t − 3) = e −s Then using (T 15) we have L−1 se +1 = L−1 [e−s F1 (s)] 2 = f1 (t − 1) H (t − 1) = sin (t − 1) H (t − 1) . e−2s The second term. is of the form e−cs F1 (s) with c = 1 2 where F1 (s) = s21 ⇒ f1 (t) = L−1 [F1 (s)] = sin t. Multiplying by s s2 +1 denominator we have 1 = A s2 + 1 + (Bs + C) s. L [f (t − 2) H (t − 2)] = s −2s e−2s F (s) = e s ). Letting s = 0 . Then using (T 15) we have = 1 − e−(t−2) H (t − 2) + 1 − e−(t−3) H (t − 3) . respectively. 1 1 25. 1 and s = −1 gives A = 1 and B = −1. = L−1 e−2s F2 (s) = [4 + 6 cos (3t − 3)] H (t − 1) . −2s −5s e−2s e−5s ⇒ s2 + 1 Y (s) = e s − e s ⇒ Y (s) = s(s2 +1) − s(s2 +1) . = = + Multiplying 23. Then using (T 15) we have −3s −(t−3) L−1 s2 e sin (t − 3) H (t − 3) . Then using (T 15) we have = f1 (t − 1) H (t − 1) + f2 (t − 1) H (t − 1) L−1 e−s 4 + s26 s +9 Hence L − e s2 +1 −2s sin (2t − 4) H (t − 2) . Thus Y (s) = e−2s e10 1 s(s+1) A s B s+1 . +4 2 = f2 (t − 2) H (t − 2) = −1 e s2 +1 −s Then using (T 15) we have L−1 1 2 e−2s s2 +1 1 = sin (t − 1) H (t − 1) − 2 sin (2t − 4) H (t − 2) . is of the form e−cs F2 (s) with c = 2 2 1 where F2 (s) = s21 = 1 s2 +22 ⇒ f2 (t) = L−1 [F2 (s)] = 2 sin 2t. Now e−2s s21 and e−3s s21 are +s +s of the form e−cs F (s) with c = 2 and c = 3. Letting s = 0. se +1 . Taking the Laplace transform of both sides gives −2s −5s s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) + Y (s) = e s − e s (since. c = 1. The first term. y (0) = y (0) = 0. g (t) = H (t − 2) − H (t − 5) and the differential eqution is y + y = H (t − 2) − H (t − 5) . 31. Using partial fractions by the denominator we have 1 = A (s + 1) + Bs. for example. +1 −s 1 Now e−3s s2 +2s+2 is of the form e−cs F (s) with c = 3. s2 +4 . 1 Using partial fractions s(s2 +1) = A + Bs+C . 1 (s−5)2 + 2 s−5 . F1 (s) = s ⇒ f1 (t) = L [F1 (s)] = 4 and 6s s F2 (s) = s2 +9 = 6 s2 +32 ⇒ f2 (t) = L−1 [F2 (s)] = 6 cos 3t. L−1 e−2s s21 + e−3s s21 +s +s = f (t − 2) H (t − 2) + f (t − 3) H (t − 3) 1 s2 +s 27.

Taking the Laplace transform of both sides differential eqution gives −s −s −2s sY (s) − y (0) − 3Y (s) = s1 + 4es − 2e 2 + e s2 ⇒ 2 s −s −2s −s sY (s) − 1 − 3Y (s) = 4es − 2e 2 + s1 + e s2 ⇒ 2 s −s −s −2s (s − 3) Y (s) = 4es − 2e 2 + s1 + e s2 + 1 2 s −s −s 4e 1 e−2s 1 ⇒ Y (s) = s(s−3) − 2 s2e (s−3) + s2 (s−3) + s2 (s−3) + (s−3) −s −2s −2s and L−1 e−5s s(s2 +1) −1 = f (t − 5) H (t − 5) = [1 − cos (t − 5)] H (t − 5) . s For the third forcing term. e−2s Thus L−1 s(s2 +1) = f (t − 2) H (t − 2) = [1 − cos (t − 2)] H (t − 2) gives A = 1. 2 − t. (2 − t) H (t − 2) . Let τ = t − 2. The first term. g (t) =  0. 2 s So L [(2 − 2t) H (t − 1)] = L f (t − 1) H (t − 1) = e−cs F (s) −s −s = 4es − 2e 2 . s +1 −2s −5s So y (t) = L [Y (s)] = [1 − cos (t − 2)] H (t − 2)−[1 − cos (t − 5)] H (t − 5) . (2 − 2t) H (t − 1) .   t. Equating the coefficient of s2 we get 9 0 = A + C ⇒ A = −C = − 10 . Thus F (s) = L [−t] = − s1 . y (0) = 1. c = 2 and f (t − 2) = 2 − t.102 CHAPTER 3 e e Now s(s2 +1) and s(s2 +1) are of the form e−cs F (s) with c = 2 and c = 5. 1 ≤ t < 2. Thus F (s) = L [4 − 2t] = 4 − s2 . 33. we use B C 4s−2 partial fractions by letting F1 (s) = s2 (s−3) = A + s2 + s−3 . 2 ≤ t. respectively. For the second forcing term. .Then t = τ + 1 and f (τ ) = 2 − 2τ + 2 = 4 − 2τ ⇒ f (t) = 4 − 2t. Let τ = t − 1. Letting s = 0 and 3 gives 2 B = 3 and C = 10 . 2 So L [(2 − t) H (t − 2)] = L f (t − 2) H (t − 2) = e−cs F (s) = − e s2 . is of the form e−cs F1 (s) with c = 1. 9 4s−2 2 1 So F1 (s) = s2 (s−3) = − 10 1 + 3 s1 + 10 s−3 2 9 s 9 2 10 3t 10 ⇒ f1 (t) = L−1 [F1 (s)] = − 9 + 3 t + 9 e . s Multiplying by denominator we have 4s − 2 = As (s − 3) + B (s − 3) + Cs2 . ⇒ g (t) = t [H (t) − H (t − 1)] + (2 − t) [H (t − 1) − H (t − 2)] = t + (2 − 2t) H (t − 1) − (2 − t) H (t − 2) and the differential eqution is y − 3y = t + (2 − 2t) H (t − 1) − (2 − t) H (t − 2) .Then t = τ + 2 and f (τ ) = 2 − τ − 2 = −τ ⇒ f (t) = −t. (4s−2)e−s s2 (s−3) . c = 1 and f (t − 1) = 2 − 2t. 0 ≤ t < 1. 1 1 ⇒ Y (s) = (4s−2)e + s2 (s−3) + s2e(s−3) + (s−3) s2 (s−3) To find the inverse Laplace transform of the first term. Equating the coefficients: s2 : 0 = A + B ⇒ B = −A = −1 s: 0=C 1 So F (s) = s(s2 +1) = 1 − s2s ⇒ f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = 1 − cos t.

3 − (s+1) 1 3 1 10 (s+1)2 +32 − 30 (s+1)2 +32 1 1 1 (s)] = 10 − 10 e−t cos 3t − 30 e−t −cs 1 1 = 10 − 10 e−(t−3) cos 3 (t − 3) − For the third term: sin 3 (t − 3) H (t − 3) . Then using (T 15) . L−1 s(s2 +2s+10) = f (t − 3) H (t − 3) 1 −(t−3) 30 e 1 1 10 s −1 The inverse Laplace transform of the last term is L−1 3t (t − 2) + e−2s s2 (s−3) 1 3(t−2) H 9e (t − 2) . y (0) = 1. H (t − 3) = f (t − 3) H (t − 3) with f (t − 3) = 1 ⇒ f (t) = 1 ⇒ F (s) = 1 and using (T 15) with c = 3. for example. Equating the coefficients: 1 2 s : 0 = A + B ⇒ B = −A = − 10 2 s: 0 = 2A + C ⇒ C = −2A = − 10 1 1 1 1 s+2 So F (s) = s(s2 +2s+10) = 10 s − 10 s2 +2s+10 = ⇒ f (t) = L [F sin 3t. −2s The third term. Letting 1 s = 0 gives A = 10 . First. is of the form e−cs F2 (s) with c = 2. Then equating the coefficient of s2 we have 1 0 = D + F ⇒ D = −F = − 9 . s2e(s−3) . s Multiplying by denominator we have 1 = Ds (s − 3) + E (s − 3) + F s2 . . 9 −s + (t − 1) = To find the inverse Laplace transform of the second term. Letting s = 0 and 3 gives 1 1 E = − 3 and F = 9 . y (0) = 0. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides gives −3s s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) + 2sY (s) − 2y (0) + 10Y (s) = 1 − e s s (since. 1 Using partial fractions s(s2 +2s+10) = A + s2Bs+C . we 1 E F use partial fractions by letting F2 (s) = s2 (s−3) = D + s2 + s−3 . Multiplying by s +2s+10 denominator we have 1 = A s2 + 2s + 10 + (Bs + C) s. The second term is of the form e F (s) with c = 3.THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 103 (4s−2)e = L−1 [e−s F1 s2 (s−3) + 10 e3(t−1) H (t − 1) . L−1 − 10 9 2 3 (s)] = f1 (t − 1) H (t − 1) Thus y (t) = e + + 35. 1 + − 9 − 1 t + 1 e3t 3 9 − 10 + 2 (t − 1) + 10 e3(t−1) H (t − 1) 9 3 9 1 1 − 9 − 1 (t − 2) + 9 e3(t−2) H (t − 2) . g (t) = H (t) − H (t − 3) and the differential eqution is y + 2y + 10y = H (t) − H (t − 3) . 1 11 1 1 1 So F2 (s) = s2 (s−3) = − 9 s − 3 s1 + 9 s−3 2 1 1 1 −1 ⇒ f2 (t) = L [F2 (s)] = − 9 − 3 t + 9 e3t . L−1 = −1 − 9 1 3 Then using (T 15) . s −3s L [f (t − 3) H (t − 3)] = e−3s F (s) = e s ). = L−1 e−2s F2 (s) = f2 (t − 2) H (t − 2) 1 s−3 = e3t . −3s ⇒ s2 Y (s) − s + 2sY (s) − 2 + 10Y (s) = 1 − e s ⇒ s −3s s2 + 2s + 10 Y (s) = 1 − e s + s + 2 s 1 e−3s s+2 ⇒ Y (s) = s(s2 +2s+10) − s(s2 +2s+10) + (s2 +2s+10) . e−3s So using (T 15) . we will find the inverse Laplace transform of the first term.

e−t H (t − 2) . Equating the coefficients: 4 s2 : 0 = A + B ⇒ B = −A = − 1 4 s: 0=C 1 1 1 s So F (s) = s(s2 +4) = 1 1 − 4 s2s = 1 1 − 4 s2 +22 4s +4 4s 1 ⇒ f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = 1 − 4 cos 2t. g (t) = 1−H (t − 1)+H (t − 2)−H (t − 3) and the differential eqution is y +4y = 1−H (t − 1)+H (t − 2)−H (t − 3) . Letting s = 0 gives A = 1 . 3 CHAPTER 3 = So using all three inverse Laplace transform we have 1 1 1 y (t) = L−1 [Y (s)] = 10 − 10 e−t cos 3t − 30 e−t sin 3t 1 1 1 − 10 − 10 e−(t−3) cos 3 (t − 3) − 30 e−(t−3) sin 3 (t − 3) H (t − 3) 1 −t −t +e cos 3t + 3 e sin 3t 1 9 3 = 10 + 10 e−t cos 3t + 10 e−t sin 3t 1 1 −(t−3) 1 − 10 − 10 e cos 3 (t − 3) − 30 e−(t−3) sin 3 (t − 3) H (t − 3) . 2 s+1 Then the Laplace transform of both sides of differential eqution gives −2s −2s s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) + 9Y (s) = 1 − e s + e1 e 2 s+1 ⇒ s −2s . 2 and 3. Let τ = t − 2. 1 1 1 4 cos 2t − 4 + 4 cos 2 (t − 1) H (t − 1) 1 1 2) − 4 + 4 cos 2 (t − 3) H (t − 3) ⇒ So L [e−t H (t − 2)] = L f (t − 2) H (t − 2) = e−cs F (s) = e1 e . 2 2 2 1 4 cos 2 (t − 3) H (t − 3) . third and fourth terms are of the form e−cs F (s) with c = 1. respectively. y (0) = 0. 1 Using partial fractions F (s) = s(s2 +4) = A + Bs+C . we have e−s 1 L−1 s(s2 +4) = f (t − 1) H (t − 1) = 1 − 4 cos 2 (t − 1) H (t − 1) 4 L−1 L−1 e−2s s(s2 +4) e s(s2 +4) −3s + 1 L−1 3 3 (s+1)2 +32 = f (t − 2) H (t − 2) = = f (t − 3) H (t − 3) = 1 4 1 4 − − 1 4 cos 2 (t − 2) H (t − 2) 1 Thus y (t) = L−1 [Y (s)] = 4 − 1 1 + 4 − 4 cos 2 (t − 2) H (t − y (t) = 1 [− cos 2t + cos 2 (t − 1) H (t − 1) − cos 2 (t − 2) H (t − 2) 4 + cos 2 (t − 3) H (t − 3)]. For H (t − 2) = f (t − 2) H (t − 2) with f (t − 2) = 1 ⇒ f (t) = 1 ⇒ F (s) = 1 and using (T 15) with c = 2. c = 2 and f (t − 2) = e−t . For the last forcing term.Then t = τ + 2 and f (τ ) = e−(τ +2) = e1 e−τ 2 1 ⇒ f (t) = e1 e−t . 4 The second. y (0) = 0. Thus F (s) = L e1 e−t = e1 s+1 . y (0) = 0.104 L−1 s+2 s+1 −1 (s2 +2s+10) = L (s+1)2 +32 e−t cos 3t + 1 e−t sin 3t. So using (T 15) . 39. Multiplying by s s2 +4 denominator we have 1 = A s2 + 4 + (Bs + C) s. 37. y (0) = 0. g (t) = H (t) − H (t − 2) + e−t H (t − 2) and the differential eqution is y + 9y = H (t) − H (t − 2) + e−t H (t − 2) . L [f (t − 2) H (t − 2)] = s −2s e−2s F (s) = e s . Taking the Laplace transform of both sides gives −s −2s −3s s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) + 4Y (s) = 1 − e s + e s − e s ⇒ s −s −2s −3s s2 + 4 Y (s) = 1 − e s + e s − e s ⇒ s 1 e−s e−2s e−3s Y (s) = s(s2 +4) − s(s2 +4) + s(s2 +4) − s(s2 +4) .

Multiplying by denominator s2 +9 2 we have 1 = A s + 9 + (Bs + C) (s + 1) . s−3 Then Laplace transform of both sides of differential equation gives −4s 1 sY (s) − y (0) − 5Y (s) = s−3 − e12 e s−3 1 s−3 −4s 1 e ⇒ Y (s) = (s−3)(s−5) − e12 (s−3)(s−5) . e3t H (t − 4) . using partial fractions let 1 A F3 (s) = (s+1)(s2 +9) = s+1 + Bs+C . s2 Y (s) + 9Y (s) = s2 + 9 Y (s) = 1 s 1 s(s2 +9) ⇒ Y (s) = − First. Equating the coefficients 1 2 s : 0 = A + B ⇒ B = −A = − 10 1 s: 0 = B + C ⇒ C = −B = 10 . − cos 3 (t − 2) H (t − 2) . Equating the coefficients: 1 2 s : 0 = A + B ⇒ B = −A = − 9 s: 0=C 1 1 1 1 s So F1 (s) = s(s2 +9) = 9 1 − 9 s2s = 1 1 − 9 s2 +32 s +9 9s 1 1 −1 ⇒ f1 (t) = L [F1 (s)] = 9 − 9 cos 3t.Then t = τ + 4 and f (τ ) = e3(τ +4) = e12 e3τ 1 ⇒ f (t) = e12 e3t . Thus F (s) = L e12 e3t = e12 s−3 . The second term is of the form e−cs F1 (s) with c = 2. c = 4 and f (t − 4) = e3t . Multiplying by denominator we have 1 = A (s − 5) + B (s − 3) . Letting s = −1 1 gives A = 10 .THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 105 1 s 1 e e2 s+1 ⇒ e 1 e−2s s + e2 s+1 e−2s 1 e−2s s(s2 +9) + e2 (s+1)(s2 +9) . g (t) = e [H (t) − H (t − 4)] = e − e H (t − 4) and the differential equation is y − 5y = e3t − e3t H (t − 4) . Then using ⇒ (s − 5) Y (s) = (T 15) . 2 − e12 e s−3 −4s −4s . 1 Letting s = 0 gives A = 9 . y (0) = 0. Let τ = t − 4. s s2 +9 2 Multiplying by denominator we have 1 = A s + 9 + (Bs + C) s. 1 Letting s = 3 and 5 gives A = − 1 and B = 2 . = For the third term. 1 A B Using partial fractions let F (s) = (s−3)(s−5) = (s−3) + (s−5) . 1 Using partial fractions let F1 (s) = s(s2 +9) = A + Bs+C . L e3t H (t − 4) = L f (t − 4) H (t − 4) = e−4s F (s) = e12 e . For the last forcing term. e−2s So L−1 e1 (s+1)(s2 +9) = e1 f3 (t − 2) H (t − 2) 2 2 So L−1 1 9 e−2s s(s2 +9) 1 9 − − e −2s s + −2s −2s = f1 (t − 2) H (t − 2) 1 1 1 = e1 10 e−(t−2) − 10 cos 3 (t − 2) + 30 sin 3 (t − 2) H (t − 2) 2 1 1 −1 So y (t) = L [Y (s)] = 9 − 9 cos 3t − 1 − 1 cos 3 (t − 2) H (t − 2) 9 9 1 1 1 + e1 10 e−(t−2) − 10 cos 3 (t − 2) + 30 sin 3 (t − 2) H (t − 2) . 2 3t 3t 3t 41. 1 1 1 1 1 F3 (s) = (s+1)(s2 +9) = 10 s+1 − 10 s2s + 10 s21 +9 +9 s 1 3 1 1 1 = 10 s+1 − 10 s2 +32 + 30 s2 +32 1 1 1 ⇒ f3 (t) = L−1 [F3 (s)] = 10 e−t − 10 cos 3t + 30 sin 3t −cs The third term is of the form e F3 (s) with c = 2. we will find the inverse Laplace transform of the first term.

Now (s−3)(s−5) is of the 2 e−4s form e−cs F (s) with c = 4 and using (T 15) . c = 3 and f (t − 3) = sin t. For the forcing term. Then using +1 π (T 15) . 1 A Using partial fractions let F (s) = (s+3)(s2 +1) = s+3 + Bs+C . Thus F (s) = L [− sin t] = − s21 . . s2 Then Laplace transform of both sides of differential equation gives −3s e−3s sY (s) − y (0) + 2Y (s) = cos 3 s2 +1 + sin 3 se +1 s2 Hence y (t) = L [Y (s)] π 1 1 = − 10 e−3(t− 2 ) − 10 sin t − 1 10 −1 3 10 cos t H t − 3 10 . s2 +1 2 Multiplying by denominator we have 1 = A s + 1 +(Bs + C) (s + 3) . y (0) = 0. Then using (T 15) .106 So F (s) = 1 (s−3)(s−5) −1 1 1 = − 2 (s−3) + CHAPTER 3 1 1 2 (s−5) 1 e−4s ⇒ f (t) = L [F (s)] = − 2 e3t + 1 e5t . Thus F (s) = L [sin (t + 3)] = cos 3 s21 + sin 3 s2s . +1 +1 L [sin tH (t − 3)] = L f (t − 3) H (t − 3) = e−3s F (s) −3s e−3s = cos 3 s2 +1 + sin 3 se +1 . Let τ = t − 3. Equating the coefficients 1 2 s : 0 = A + B ⇒ B = −A = − 10 3 s: 0 = 3B + C ⇒ C = −3B = 10 .Then t = τ + 3 and f (τ ) = sin (τ + 3) ⇒ f (t) = sin (t + 3) = cos 3 sin t + sin 3 cos t. g (t) = sin tH (t − 3) and the differential equation is y + 2y = sin tH (t − 3) . L−1 (s−3)(s−5) = L−1 e−4s F (s) = f (t − 4) H (t − 4) = − 1 e3(t−4) + 1 e5(t−4) H 2 2 −1 (t − 4) . g (t) = cos tH t − 2 and the differential equation is y + 3y = cos tH t − π . y (0) = 0. L cos tH t − π = L f t − π H t − π = e− 2 s F (s) 2 2 2 2 = − e 2 +1 . sin tH (t − 3) . 2 For the forcing term. Hence y (t) = L [Y (s)] 1 1 = − 2 e3t + 1 e5t − e12 − 2 e3(t−4) + 1 e5(t−4) H (t − 4) . π 2 cos t H t − . cos tH t − π . 1 Letting s = −3 gives A = 10 . c = π and f t − π = cos t.Then t = τ + π and f (τ ) = cos τ + π = − sin τ 2 2 2 ⇒ f (t) = − sin t. π 2 π 2 = = 1 −3(t− π ) 2 10 e 1 −3(t− π ) 2 10 e F (s) = f t − + 3 10 π 2 H t− H t− − − cos t − sin t − sin t − π 2 π 2 45. 2 2 2 Let τ = t − π . 2 2 π 43. 1 1 1 s 3 1 So F (s) = (s+3)(s2 +1) = 10 s+3 − 10 s2 +1 + 10 s21 +1 1 1 3 ⇒ f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = 10 e−3t − 10 cos t + 10 sin t. e− 2 s (s+3)(s2 +1) π e− 2 s L−1 (s+3)(s2 +1) π Now is of the form e−cs F (s) with c = = L−1 e 1 10 −πs 2 π 2 π 2 and using (T 15) . s Then Laplace transform of both sides of differential equation gives −πs −πs 2 2 sY (s) − y (0) + 3Y (s) = − e 2 +1 ⇒ (s + 3) Y (s) = − e 2 +1 s s −πs −πs e 2 ⇒ Y (s) = − (s+3)(s2 +1) .

y (0) = 0. 47. Equating the coefficients 2 2 s : 0 = A + B ⇒ B = −A = 5 1 s: 1 = 2B + C ⇒ C = 1 − 2B = 5 . Then using (T 15) . = Hence y (t) = L [Y (s)] 1 2 = cos 3 5 e−2(t−3) − 1 cos (t − 3) + 5 sin (t − 3) H (t − 3) 5 2 −2(t−3) 2 1 + sin 3 − 5 e + 5 cos (t − 3) + 5 sin (t − 3) H (t − 3) 1 = 5 H (t − 3) [(2 cos 3 + sin 3) sin (t − 3)+(2 sin 3 − cos 3) cos (t − 3) + (cos 3 − 2 sin 3) e−2(t−3) ]. s 2 1 2 s 1 1 So F2 (s) = (s+2)(s2 +1) = − 5 s+2 + 5 s2 +1 + 5 s2 +1 2 2 ⇒ f2 (t) = L−1 [F2 (s)] = − 5 e−2t + 5 cos t + 1 sin t. Let τ = t − 4. 1 A Using partial fractions let F1 (s) = (s+2)(s2 +1) = s+2 + Bs+C . For the last forcing term. = 5 s A Using partial fractions let F2 (s) = (s+2)(s2 +1) = s+2 + Bs+C . se−3s −1 (s+2)(s2 +1) = L − 2 e−2(t−3) + 2 cos (t 5 5 −1 e−3s (s+2)(s2 +1) 1 1 −2(t−3) −5 5e = L−1 e−3s F1 (s) = f1 (t − 3) H (t − 3) 1 − 3) + 5 sin (t − 3) H (t − 3) . 5 se−3s −cs Now (s+2)(s2 +1) is of the form e F2 (s) with c = 3 and using (T 15) . 1 Letting s = −2 gives A = 5 . g (t) = sin t [H (t) − H (t − 4)] = sin t − sin tH (t − 4) and the differential equation is y + 9y = sin t − sin tH (t − 4) . 1 1 1 s 2 1 1 So F1 (s) = (s+2)(s2 +1) = 5 s+2 − 5 s2 +1 + 5 s2 +1 1 ⇒ f1 (t) = L−1 [F1 (s)] = 5 e−2t − 1 cos t + 2 sin t. 2 Letting s = −2 gives A = − 5 . s2 Then Laplace transform of both sides of differential equation gives −4s e−4s s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) + 9Y (s) = s21 − cos 4 s2 +1 − sin 4 se +1 ⇒ +1 s2 L−1 e−3s F2 (s) = f2 (t − 3) H (t − 3) s2 Y (s) − 1 + 9Y (s) = ⇒ s + 9 Y (s) = 1 2 1 e−4s se−4s s2 +1 − cos 4 s2 +1 − sin 4 s2 +1 −4s e−4s + s21 − cos 4 s2 +1 − sin 4 se +1 +1 s2 ⇒ . +1 +1 L [sin tH (t − 4)] = L f (t − 4) H (t − 4) = e−4s F (s) −4s e−4s = cos 4 s2 +1 + sin 4 se +1 . Thus F (s) = L [sin (t + 4)] = cos 4 s21 + sin 4 s2s . 5 5 −3s e Now (s+2)(s2 +1) is of the form e−cs F1 (s) with c = 3 and using (T 15) . s2 +1 2 Multiplying by denominator we have 1 = A s + 1 +(Bs + C) (s + 2) . s2 +1 Multiplying by denominator we have s = A s2 + 1 +(Bs + C) (s + 2) . L−1 cos (t − 3) + 2 sin (t − 3) H (t − 3) .THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM e ⇒ (s + 2) Y (s) = cos 3 s2 +1 + sin 3 se +1 s2 −3s −3s −3s −3s 107 e se ⇒ Y (s) = cos 3 (s+2)(s2 +1) + sin 3 (s+2)(s2 +1) . c = 4 and f (t − 4) = sin t.Then t = τ + 4 and f (τ ) = sin (τ + 4) so that f (t) = sin (t + 4) = cos 4 sin t + sin 4 cos t. Equating the coefficients 1 2 s : 0 = A + B ⇒ B = −A = − 5 2 s: 0 = 2B + C ⇒ C = −2B = 5 . sin tH (t − 4) . y (0) = 1.

L−1 [F3 (s)] = L−1 e−4s (s2 +1)(s2 +9) 1 = 1 sin (t − 4) − 24 sin 3 (t − 4) H (t − 4) . g (t) = (−1) for n − 1 ≤ t < n. . s2 +1 s2 +9 Multiplying by denominator we have s = (As + B) s2 + 9 + (Cs + D) s2 + 1 .. 1: 1 = 9B + D ⇒ 9B − B = 1 ⇒ B = 1 and so D = − 1 . 2. 8 e−4s F3 (s) = (s2 +1)(s2 +9) is of the form e−cs F2 (s) with c = 4 and using −4s (T 15) .. 8 8 Hence y (t) = L−1 [Y (s)] 1 1 = 3 sin 3t + 1 sin t − 24 sin 3t 8 1 1 − cos 4 8 sin (t − 4) − 24 sin 3 (t − 4) H (t − 4) 1 − sin 4 8 cos (t − 4) − 1 cos 3 (t − 4) H (t − 4) 8 1 1 = 3 sin 3t + 1 sin t − 24 sin 3t 8 1 + 8 H (t − 4) [ 1 cos 4 sin 3 (t − 4) + sin 4 cos 3 (t − 4) 3 − cos 4 sin (t − 4) − sin 4 cos (t − 4)]. Equating the coefficients s3 : 0 = A + C ⇒ C = −A s2 : 0 = B + D ⇒ D = −B 1 s: 1 = 9A + C ⇒ 9A − A = 1 ⇒ A = 1 and so C = − 8 .108 −4s CHAPTER 3 1 e se ⇒ Y (s) = s21 + (s2 +1)(s2 +9) − cos 4 (s2 +1)(s2 +9) − sin 4 (s2 +1)(s2 +9) . 8 1: 0 = 9B + D ⇒ 9B − B = 0 ⇒ B = 0 and so D = 0. = L−1 e−4s F2 (s) = f2 (t − 4) H (t − 4) = 1 cos (t − 4) − 1 cos 3 (t − 4) H (t − 4) . where n = 1. s 1 1 1 1 s Thus F4 (s) = (s2 +1)(s2 +9) = 8 s2s − 8 s2s = 8 s2s − 8 s2 +32 . let F2 (s) = (s2 +1)(s2 +9) = As+B + Cs+D . 8 8 1 1 1 1 1 3 Thus F2 (s) = (s2 +1)(s2 +9) = 8 s21 − 8 s21 = 8 s21 − 24 s2 +32 .... s2 +1 s2 +9 Multiplying by denominator we have 1 = (As + B) s2 + 9 + (Cs + D) s2 + 1 .. 8 −4s se Now (s2 +1)(s2 +9) is of the form e−cs F4 (s) with c = 4 and using (T 15) . +1 +9 +1 1 ⇒ f4 (t) = L−1 [F4 (s)] = 1 cos t − 8 cos 3t.. ∞ ⇒ g (t) = 1 [H (t) − H (t − 1)] − 1 [H (t − 1) − H (t − 2)] +1 [H (t − 2) − H (t − 3)] − 1 [H (t − 3) − H (t − 4)] − . Equating the coefficients s3 : 0 = A + C ⇒ C = −A s2 : 0 = B + D ⇒ D = −B s: 0 = 9A + C ⇒ 9A − A = 0 ⇒ A = 0 and so C = 0.∞ and the differential equation is y + 4y = 1 − 2H (t − 1) + 2H (t − 2) − 2H (t − 3) L−1 se−4s (s2 +1)(s2 +9) = L−1 e−4s F4 (s) = f4 (t − 4) H (t − 4) . +1 +9 +1 1 ⇒ f2 (t) = L−1 [F2 (s)] = 1 sin t − 24 sin 3t. 3 1 Let F1 (s) = s21 = 1 s2 +32 ⇒ f1 (t) = L−1 [F1 (s)] = 3 sin 3t. +9 Now we will find the inverse Laplace transform of all four terms. n−1 49. +9 3 1 Using partial fractions. 8 s Using partial fractions let F4 (s) = (s2 +1)(s2 +9) = As+B + Cs+D .∞ g (t) = 1 − 2H (t − 1) + 2H (t − 2) − 2H (t − 3) + 2H (t − 4) − .

∞ s −s −2s −3s −4s ⇒ s2 + 4 Y (s) = 1 − 2es + 2e s − 2e s + 2e s − .. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of differential equation gives s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) + 4Y (s) −s −2s −3s −4s = 1 − 2es + 2e s − 2e s + 2e s − .5 PERIODIC FUNCTIONS 1. = So L−1 ⇒ e−ns −1 −ns [e F (s)] = f (t − n) H (t − n) s(s2 +4) = L 1 1 4 − 4 cos 2 (t − n) H (t − n) .. y (0) = 0. Thus G (s) = 1+e−πs (s2 +1)(1−e−πs ) . 3. y (0) = 0.. let F (s) = s(s2 +4) = A + Bs+C ..THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 109 +2H (t − 4) − . 4 4 e−ns Now s(s2 +4) is of the form e−cs F (s) with c = n and using (T 15) .∞. n=1 e−ns s(s2 +4) .. 1 1 1 1 1 s So F (s) = s(s2 +4) = 4 1 − 4 s2s = 4 1 − 4 s2 +22 s +4 s ⇒ f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = 1 − 1 cos 2t. e−st sin tdt = 0 e−st 1+s2 (−s sin t − cos t) π 0 = 1+e−πs 1+s2 . 1 y (t) = L−1 [Y (s)] = 1 − 4 cos 2t 4 ∞ n 1 (−1) 4 − 1 cos 2 (t − n) H (t − n) +2 4 n=1 ∞ n 1 1 (−1) H (t − n) [1 − cos 2 (t y (t) = 4 (1 − cos 2t) + 2 n=1 − n)] . s s2 +4 Multiplying by denominator we have 1 = A s2 + 4 + (Bs + C) s. Equating the coefficients 2 s : 0 = A + B ⇒ B = −A = − 1 4 s: 0 = C. 1 Letting s = 0 gives A = 4 . g (t) = |sin t| is a periodic function with period T = π and |sin t| = sin t for 0 ≤ t < π. ∞ s ⇒ Y (s) = 1 s(s2 +4) +2 ∞ (−1) n 1 Using partial fractions.. y 1 t π 2π 3π 4π .So G (s) = L [g (t)] = Using integration table we have that π π 0 1 1−e−πs e−st sin tdt.

. L [g (t)] = = 1 1−e−2s 1 1−e−2s 1 s 2 e−st g (t) dt = + 1 e−2s . L [g (t)] = = 1 1−e−s 1 1−e−s 1 0 e−st g (t) dt = 1 0 1 1−e−s 1 0 e−st et dt = 1 1−e−s 1 0 e(1−s)t dt e(1−s)t 1−s = e1−s −1 (1−s)(1−e−s ) . s − 0 2 −s se 1 1−e−2s L [g (t)] = 1 1−e−2s L [1 − 2H (t − 1) + H (t − 2)] 1 t 1 2 3 4 5 9. L [g (t)] = 1 1−e−2s 2 0 CHAPTER 3 e−st g (t) dt = 1 1−e−2s 1 0 t2 e−st dt + 2 1 2 − t2 e−st dt . 2 = L−1 1 1−e−s F 1 2 (s) 2 (t − n) + (t − n) H (t − n) . t > 2. 7. 2 3 s Now L [g (t)] = = = = = 1 1−e−2s 1 t2 e−st dt + 2 2 1 1 2 1 [ − 1 t2 e−st − s2 te−st − s2 e−st 0 − 2 |e−st |1 2 3 1−e−2s s s 2 − − 1 t2 e−st − s2 te−st − s2 e−st 1 ] 2 3 s 1 −s 1 − s2 e−s − s2 e−s + s2 − 2 e−2s + 2 e−s 2 3 3 1−e−2s [− s e s s 4 −2s 4 −2s +se + s2 e + s2 e−2s − 1 e−s − s2 e−s − s2 e−s ] 3 2 3 s 1 4 −s − s4 e−s + s2 + 2 e−2s + s4 e−2s + s2 e−2s 3 3 2 3 1−e−2s − s2 e s 1 + s2 − s4 + s4 e−s + s2 + s4 + 2 e−2s . We use the method of integration by parts twice to find t2 e−st dt = − 1 t2 e−st − s2 te−st − s2 e−st . g (t) = 1 [H (t) − H (t − 1)] − 1 [H (t − 1) − H (t − 2)] = 1 − 2H (t − 1) g (t) . 3 3 2 3 2 1−e−2s s 0 1 e−st dt − 2 t2 e−st dt 1 t −1 5. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2.110 3. Let F (s) = So g (t) = = ∞ n=0 f (t − n) H (t − n) = 1 1 s2 + s3 . Then f (t) = L−1 1−1 −s s1 + s1 2 3 e ∞ n=0 L−1 [F (s)] = t + 1 t2 . So g (t) = 0. +H (t − 2) .

(s) = −s Let F (s) = 2e 2 . 21. Then f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = 1+sin t − s s So g (t) = L−1 ∞ n=0 ∞ n=0 ∞ n=0 1 1−e−πs + πs e− 2 s2 +1 π 2 = L−1 1 1−e−πs F (s) H t− π 2 . Then f (t) = −2s 1 L−1 1+e−5s s1 + e s4 3 n −2s H t − nπ − = L−1 . 2e−s s2 3 19.  t > b. 1 1−e−2s F = = n=0 ∞ n=0 ∞ n=0 f (t − 2n) H (t − 2n) [2 (t − 2n − 1) H (t − 2n − 1)] H (t − 2n) 2 (t − 2n − 1) H (t − 2n − 1) . 11. Let F (s) = 1 + e 2 +1 .THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 111 s s2 +22 . Let F (s) = So g (t) = = = ∞ n=0 ∞ n=0 1 e−s s2 + s3 . Let F (s) = ∞ So g (t) = L = n=0 s s2 +4 −1 = 1 1−e−s s s2 +4 Then f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = cos 2t. t < a. a < t < b = H (t − b) . H (t − a) H (t − b) =  0. 1 L−1 [F (s)] = t+ 2 (t − 1) H (t − 1) . Graphing the step functions makes result simple. = = = f (t − nπ) H (t − nπ) 1 + sin t − nπ − π 2 H t − nπ − π 2 π 2 H (t − nπ) π 2 H (t − nπ) + sin t − nπ − 1 e s3 + s4 . . Then f (t) = −s 1 L−1 1−e−2s s1 + es3 2 = L−1 1 1−e−2s F (s) f (t − 2n) H (t − 2n) (t − 2n) + 1 2 − πs (t − 2n − 1) H (t − 2n − 1) H (t − 2n) . 2 6 1 1+e−5s F (s) (−1) f (t − 5n) H (t − 5n) (−1) (−1) 1 s2 n n 1 2 1 2 (t − 5n) + 2 2 1 6 (t − 5n − 2) H (t − 5n − 2) H (t − 5n) 1 6 3 (t − 5n) H (t − 5n) + 1 s2 2 es −e−s (t − 5n − 2) H (t − 5n − 2) . 1 s 2 2 15. 2 13. G (s) = csch(s) = = −1 1 1−e−2s . If b > a. ∞ n=0 = L−1 1 1−e−s F (s) f (t − n) H (t − n) = [cos 2 (t − n)] H (t − n) . Then f (t) s −s 1 So g (t) = L−1 1−e−2s 2e 2 s ∞ =L = L−1 [F (s)] = 2 (t − 1) H (t − 1) . 0. 3 17.  1. Let F (s) = So g (t) = = = = ∞ n=0 ∞ n=0 ∞ n=0 L−1 [F (s)] = 1 t2 + 1 (t − 2) H (t − 2) .

π s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) + Y (s) = 2 s2 +4 2 s2 +4 + 2 −πs 2 s2 +4 e 1 π 1−e− 2 s ⇒ s2 + 1 Y (s) = + 2 . 0.So L [|sin 2t|] = 1 π 1−e− 2 s π 2 π 2 e−st sin 2tdt. Equating the coefficients: s3 : 0 = A + C ⇒ C = −A s2 : 0 = B + D ⇒ D = −B s: 0 = 4A + C ⇒ 4A − A = 0 ⇒ A = 0 and then C = 0 2 1: 2 = 4B + D ⇒ 4B − B = 2 ⇒ B = 2 and then D = − 3 . 3 2 −πs F2 (s) = (s2 +4)(s2 +1) e 2 is of the form e−cs F1 (s) with c = π . 2 3 2 π 2 2 Let F (s) = F1 (s) + F2 (s) = (s2 +4)(s2 +1) + (s2 +4)(s2 +1) e− 2 s . we will find the Laplace transform of |sin 2t| which is a periodic function with period T = π and |sin 2t| = sin 2t for 2 0≤t< π 2 .  1. Then f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] 1 = 2 sin t − 3 sin 2t + 2 sin t − π − 1 sin (2t − π) H t − π 3 3 2 3 2 1 π 1−e− 2 s π 1 2 −2s π (s2 +4)(s2 +1) e 1−e− 2 s 2 −πs 2 s2 +4 e and Y (s) = = Hence the inverse Laplace transform yields 1 y (t) = L−1 [Y (s)] = L−1 − π s F (s) 2 = = ∞ 1−e n=0 ∞ n=0 2 (s2 +4)(s2 +1) 1 π F (s) . t < b. If a > b. y (0) = y (0) = 0 we have 2 |e−st (−s sin 2t − 2 cos 2t)|0 = π 2 s2 +4 1 + e− 2 s . Multiplying by the s2 +1 s2 +4 denominator we get 2 = (As + B) s2 + 4 + (Cs + D) s2 + 1 . 23. b < t < a = H (t − a) . Using 0 integration table we have that 0 e−st sin 2tdt π = 1 s2 +4 1 Thus L [|sin 2t|] = s22 + s22 e− 2 s . 2 So f2 (t) = L−1 [F2 (s)] = f1 t − π H t − π 2 2 2 = 3 sin t − π − 1 sin (2t − π) H t − π . 2 let F1 (s) = (s2 +4)(s2 +1) = As+B + Cs+D . H (t − a) H (t − b) =  0. 3 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 Thus F1 (s) = (s2 +4)(s2 +1) = 3 s2 +1 − 3 s2 +4 = 3 s2 +1 − 3 s2 +22 1 ⇒ f1 (t) = L−1 [F1 (s)] = 2 sin t − 3 sin 2t. First.112 CHAPTER 3  t > a. ⇒ Y (s) = (s2 +4)(s2 +1) + Using partial fractions. 1−e− 2 s + 2 −πs 2 (s2 +4)(s2 +1) e 1 π 1−e− 2 s f t− nπ 2 H t− nπ 2 nπ 2 1 3 2 { 3 sin t − − sin 2 t − nπ 2 . π +4 +4 1−e− 2 s Taking the Laplace transform of the differential equation y + y = |sin 2t| .

So F1 (s) = 2 s−1 − 2 s+1 ⇒ 2 −s = sinh t − e sinh (t − 1) H (t − 1) . So f2 (t) = L−1 [e−s F1 (s)] = f1 (t − 1) H (t − 1) = sinh (t − 1) H (t − 1) . 1 A B let F1 (s) = (s−1)(s+1) = s−1 + s+1 . e−st g (t) dt = 1 1 1−e−s 1 0 e−st et dt = 1 1−e−s −s 1 0 e(1−s)t dt . 0 ≤ t < 1. Multiplying by the denominator we get 1 = A (s + 1) + B (s − 1) . So L [g (t)] = = 1 1−e−2s e−st dt − 1 s 2 1 e−st dt −e s −st 1 0 + e−st s 2 1 = − 2 e−s + 1 e−2s . is a periodic −1. s s Taking the Laplace transform of the differential equation . e−s 1 So L−1 (s−1)(s+1) − e (s−1)(s+1) = = = ∞ n=0 ∞ n=0 ∞ n=0 1 1−e−s f (t − n) H (t − n) [sinh (t − n) − e sinh (t − n − 1) H (t − n − 1)] H (t − n) sinh (t − n) H (t − n) − e sinh (t − n − 1) H (t − n − 1) . g (t) = et and its Laplace transform is L [g (t)] = 1 1−e−s 1 0 (1−s)t n=0 { 2 sin t − nπ 2 − 1 3 sin (2t − nπ − π) H t − nπ 2 nπ 2 − π 2 }H t − π 2 nπ 2 − sin (2t − nπ) H t − }. From Exercise 5. From Exercise 7.THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 113 π 2 + = 2 3 1 3 sin t − ∞ nπ 2 − + 2 sin t − nπ − π − sin (2t − nπ − π) H t − nπ − 2 2 2 25. g (t) = function with period 2. y (0) = 1. Using partial fractions. e −1 1 e 1 = (1−s)(1−e−s ) = s−1 − e s−1 = 1−e−s e 1−s 0 Taking the Laplace transform of the differential equation y + y = g (t) . Letting s = 1 and 1 1 1 1 1 s = −1 gives A = 2 and B = − 1 . 1 ≤ t < 2. 1 1−e−2s 1 1−e−2s 1 0 27. 1 1−e−s Hence the inverse Laplace transform yields 1 e−s 1 y (t) = L−1 [Y (s)] = L−1 s+1 + (s−1)(s+1) − e (s−1)(s+1) = e−t + ∞ n=0 sinh (t − n) H (t − n)−e sinh (t − n − 1) H (t − n − 1) . we have 1 e−s 1 sY (s) − y (0) + Y (s) = s−1 − e s−1 1−e−s 1−s 1 1−e−s ⇒ (s + 1) Y (s) = 1 + 1 s−1 e − e s−1 −s 1 1−e−s −s 1 e f1 (t) = L−1 [F1 (s)] = 1 et − 2 e−t = sinh t. Now F2 (s) = (s−1)(s+1) 2 is of the form e−cs F1 (s) with c = 1. 1. 1 e−s Then f (t) = f1 (t) − ef2 (t) = L−1 (s−1)(s+1) − e (s−1)(s+1) 1 e 1 1 ⇒ Y (s) = s+1 + (s−1)(s+1) − e (s−1)(s+1) 1−e−s .

114 CHAPTER 3 1 1 2 1 ⇒ Y (s) = 1−e−2s s(s−2)(s+2) − s(s−2)(s+2) e−s + s(s−2)(s+2) e−2s . Multiplying by the s denominator we get 1 = A (s − 2) (s + 2) + Bs (s + 2) + Cs (s − 2) . f (t) = t. 4 Hence the inverse Laplace transform yields 1 1 2 1 −s y (t) = L−1 [Y (s)] = L−1 1−e−2s + s(s−2)(s+2) e−2s s(s−2)(s+2) − s(s−2)(s+2) e ∞ n=0 ∞ n=0 1 4 = = f (t − 2n) H (t − 2n) 1 1 { 4 (cosh (2t − 4n) − 1)− 2 [cosh (2t − 4n − 2) − 1] H (t − 2n − 1) + 1 [cosh (2t − 4n − 4) − 1] H (t − 2n − 2)}H (t − 2n) 4 ∞ = n=0 {[cosh (2t − 4n) − 1] H (t − 2n)−2 [cosh (2t − 4n − 2) − 1] H (t − 2n − 1) + [cosh (2t − 4n − 4) − 1] H (t − 2n − 2)}. t 3. of et is n! n 1 n! 1 L t = n! sn+1 = sn+1 . 2 and s = −2 gives A = − 1 . dv = e−τ dτ ) we get t f ∗ g = et |−τ e−τ − e−τ |0 = et (−te−t − e−t + 1) = −t − 1 + et . Now using integration by parts (u = τ. Thus for s > 1. 3. f (t) = 1. 1 B C let F1 (s) = s(s−2)(s+2) = A + s−2 + s+2 . L [et ] = = 1 s−1 . 4 8 11 1 1 1 1 So F1 (s) = − 4 s + 8 s−2 + 8 s+2 ⇒ 1 f1 (t) = L−1 [F1 (s)] = − 1 + 8 e2t + 1 e−2t = 1 (cosh 2t − 1) . 4 8 4 −1 −s So f2 (t) = L [e F1 (s)] = f1 (t − 1) H (t − 1) = 1 [cosh (2t − 2) − 1] H (t − 1) 4 and f3 (t) = L−1 e−2s F1 (s) = f1 (t − 2) H (t − 2) = 1 [cosh (2t − 4) − 1] H (t − 2) 4 Then f (t) = f1 (t) − 2f2 (t) + f3 (t) 1 1 2 = L−1 s(s−2)(s+2) − s(s−2)(s+2) e−s + s(s−2)(s+2) e−2s y − 4y = g (t) . n 29. So f ∗ g = t 0 τ et−τ dτ = et t 0 τ e−τ dτ. we have 1 s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) − 4Y (s) = 1−e−2s 1 − 2 e−s + 1 e−2s s s s 1 1 2 −s 2 ⇒ s − 4 Y (s) = 1−e−2s s − s e + 1 e−2s s 1 1 = 4 (cosh 2t − 1)− 2 [cosh (2t − 2) − 1] H (t − 1)+ 1 [cosh (2t − 4) − 1] H (t − 2) . Using partial fractions. n! Applying the linearity property of Laplace transform we have L [et ] = L ∞ n=0 1 s < 1 n s ∞ n=0 tn n! = ∞ n=0 L tn n! = ∞ n=0 1 sn+1 = 1 s ∞ n=0 1 1− 1 s 1 n s . . 1 Letting s = 0. y (0) = y (0) = 0. Now if is a geometric series which converges to 1 s s s−1 = s s−1 1 ⇒ s > 1. and g (t) = 1.6 INTEGRALS AND THE CONVOLUTION THEOREM 1. and g (t) = et . t . So 1 ∗ 1 = 0 1 · 1dτ = t. B = 1 and C = 8 . The Laplace transform of each term.

Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation y − 9y = f (t) . y (0) = 0. we have s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) + 4Y (s) = F (s) ⇒ s2 + 4 Y (s) = F (s) + 7 ⇒ Y (s) = F (s) G (s) + s27 +4 2 1 where G (s) = s21 = 1 s2 +22 ⇒ g (t) = L−1 [G (s)] = 2 sin 2t. y (0) = 7. So L−1 0 Then f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = t and 1 s2 · 1 s2 +1 = L−1 [F (s) · G (s)] = 0 f (τ ) g (t − τ ) dτ = τ sin (t − τ ) dτ. = |τ cos (t − τ ) + sin (t − 7. y (0) = y (0) = 0. we have s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) − 9Y (s) = F (s) ⇒ s2 − 9 Y (s) = F (s) ⇒ Y (s) = F (s) G (s) 1 where G (s) = s21 = (s+3)(s−3) . Letting 1 1 1 1 1 s = −3 and 3 gives A = − 6 and B = 6 . So G (s) = 3 s−4 − 3 s−1 ⇒ 1 g (t) = L−1 [G (s)] = 3 e4t − 1 et . Letting 1 1 1 1 1 1 s = 1 and 4 gives A = − 3 and B = 3 . −9 1 A B Using partial fractions G (s) = (s+3)(s−3) = s+3 + s−3 . Multiplying by denominator we get 1 = A (s − 3)+B (s + 3) . 11. we have s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) − 5sY (s) + 5y (0) + 4Y (s) = F (s) ⇒ s2 − 5s + 4 Y (s) = F (s) ⇒ Y (s) = F (s) G (s) 1 1 where G (s) = s2 −5s+4 = (s−4)(s−1) . Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation y − 5y + 4y = f (t) . +4 2 Now the inverse Laplace transform using the convolution theorem yields y (t) = L−1 [Y (s)] = L−1 [F (s) G (s)] + L−1 s27 +4 t = 0 f (τ ) g (t − τ ) dτ + 7 2 sin 2t = 1 2 t 13. y (0) = y (0) = 0. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation y + 4y = f (t) . So G (s) = 1 s−3 − 6 s+3 ⇒ 6 1 −3t 1 3t g (t) = L−1 [G (s)] = 6 e − 6 e .THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 115 1 s2 +1 . Now using integration by 1 s2 t τ )|0 = t − sin t. . dv = sin (t − τ ) dτ ) we get L−1 · 1 s2 +1 = 0 f (τ ) g (t − τ ) dτ = f (τ ) 0 1 4(t−τ ) 3e 1 − 3 et−τ dτ. Let F (s) = g (t) = L t 1 s2 −1 and G (s) = t [G (s)] = sin t. Multiplying by denominator we get 1 = A (s − 4)+B (s − 1) . Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation 0 f (τ ) sin 2 (t − τ ) dτ + 7 2 sin 2t. Now the inverse Laplace transform using the convolution theorem yields y (t) = L−1 [Y (s)] = L−1 [F (s) G (s)] t t = 0 f (τ ) g (t − τ ) dτ = f (τ ) 0 1 3(t−τ ) 6e 1 − 6 e−3(t−τ ) dτ. 5. 9. Now the inverse Laplace transform 3 using the convolution theorem yields y (t) = L−1 [Y (s)] = L−1 [F (s) G (s)] t t parts (u = τ. 1 A B Using partial fractions G (s) = s2 −5s+4 = s−1 + s−4 .

we have s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) + 4sY (s) − 4y (0) + 13Y (s) = F (s) ⇒ s2 + 4s + 13 Y (s) = F (s) ⇒ Y (s) = F (s) G (s) 1 3 where G (s) = s2 +41 s+13 = 3 (s+2)2 +32 ⇒ g (t) = L−1 [G (s)] = 1 e−2t sin 3t.116 CHAPTER 3 y + 7y = f (t) . 17. where h (t) = e−t . 3 Now the inverse Laplace transform using the convolution theorem yields y (t) = L−1 [Y (s)] = L−1 [F (s) G (s)] = = 1 3 t 0 t 0 f (τ ) g (t − τ ) dτ f (τ ) e−2(t−τ ) sin 3 (t − τ ) dτ. Now taking Laplace transform of both sides using the convolution theorem we have 1 X (s) = L [h (t)] L [x (t)] + L [2] ⇒ X (s) = s+1 X (s) + 2 ⇒ s . x (t) = cos (t − τ ) x (τ ) dτ + sin t = (h ∗ x) (t) + sin t. we have s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) − 2sY (s) + 2y (0) + 10Y (s) = F (s) ⇒ s2 − 2s + 10 Y (s) = F (s) ⇒ Y (s) = F (s) G (s) 1 3 where G (s) = s2 −2s+10 = 1 (s−1)2 +32 3 1 ⇒ g (t) = L−1 [G (s)] = 3 et sin 3t. x (t) = 0 e−(t−τ ) x (τ ) dτ + 2 = (h ∗ x) (t) + 2. 15. y (0) = y (0) = 0. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation y + 4y + 13y = f (t) . where h (t) = cos t. we have sY (s) − y (0) + 7Y (s) = F (s) 2 ⇒ (s + 7) Y (s) = F (s) + 2 ⇒ Y (s) = F (s) G (s) + s+7 1 −1 −7t where G (s) = s+7 ⇒ g (t) = L [G (s)] = e . Now the invrese Laplace transform using the convolution theorem 2 yields y (t) = L−1 [Y (s)] = L−1 [F (s) G (s)] + L−1 s+7 t = 0 f (τ ) g (t − τ ) dτ + 2e−7t = t f (τ ) e−7(t−τ ) dτ + 2e−7t . Now taking Laplace transform of both sides using the convolution theorem we have X (s) = L [h (t)] L [x (t)] + L [sin t] ⇒ X (s) = s2s X (s) + s21 ⇒ +1 +1 1− s s2 +1 X (s) = 1 s2 +1 ⇒ X (s) = 1 s2 −s+1 = 2 2 √ 3 (s− 1 )2 + 2 √ 3 √ 3 2 2 Inverse Laplace transform then √ yields 2 1 −1 √ e 2 t sin 3 t. x (t) = L [X (s)] = 3 2 t 21. y (0) = 2. t 0 19. Now the inverse Laplace transform using the convolution theorem t 0 0 yields y (t) = L−1 [Y (s)] = L−1 [F (s) G (s)] = = 1 3 t 0 f (τ ) g (t − τ ) dτ f (τ ) et−τ sin 3 (t − τ ) dτ. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation y − 2y + 10y = f (t) . y (0) = y (0) = 0.

So C = 0 (from the first equation) s2 +4 So s2 (s2 +1) = s4 − s23 . Letting s = 0 in this equation gives B = 4 Equating the coefficients: s3 : 0=A+C s2 : 1 = B + D ⇒ D = 1 − B = −3 s: 0 = A. Using partial fraction A B Cs+D s2 +4 s2 (s2 +1) = s + s2 + s2 +1 . Now taking Laplace transform of both sides using the convolution theorem we have 1 1 1 X (s) = L [h (t)] L [x (t)]+L [3] ⇒ X (s) = 2 s+1 − s−1 X (s)+ 3 ⇒ s 1 1 s 1 − 1 s+1 + 1 s−1 X (s) = 3 ⇒ s2 −1 X (s) = 2 2 s Inverse Laplace transform then yields 3 x (t) = L−1 [X (s)] = 3 − 2 t2 . e−st M eαt dt = M ∞ 0 M s−a 29. ∞ 0 e −st 0 ∞ 0 f (t) dt ≤ |e−st f (t)| dt = e−(s−α)t dt = ∞ 0 e−st |f (t)| dt for s > α. Hence X (s) = s4 − s23 . 2 2 +1 +1 Inverse Laplace transform then yields x (t) = L−1 [X (s)] = 4t − 3 sin t. Now taking Laplace transform of both sides using the convolution theorem we have X (s) = L [h (t)] L [x (t)] + L [sin t] ⇒ X (s) = s24 X (s) + s21 ⇒ +4 +1 1− s + 4 = As s + 1 + B s + 1 + (Cs + D) s . where h (t) = 2 sin 2t. 23. 27. x (t) = − sinh (t − τ ) x (τ ) dτ + 3 = (h ∗ x) (t) + 3. t→1 h→0 h→0 t→1+ t→1 Differentiability at t = 1 : 1+h h g (1) = lim g(1+h)−g(1) = lim −1+e h +e does not exist. 2 0 3 s ⇒ X (s) = 3 s − 3 s3 . t 2 s 117 + 2 s2 . in terms of unit step function. h Now. where 1 1 h (t) = − sinh t = − 2 et + 2 e−t . g (t) can be written as et [1 − H (t − 1)] + −1 + et + et−1 H (t − 1) = et + et−1 − 1 H (t − 1) . t 4 1 s2 +4 s2 +4 X (s) = s2 +1 ⇒ X (s) = s2 (s2 +1) . Multiplying by denominator we get 2 2 2 2 25. F (s) = L [f (t)] = So |F (s)| = ≤ t→1− ∞ ∞ 0 e−st f (t) dt. x (t) = 0 2 sin (2t − 2τ ) x (τ ) dτ + sin t = (h ∗ x) (t) + sin t. (i) Continuity at t = 1 : lim g (t) = e and lim g (t) = −1 + e + 1 = e ⇒ lim g (t) exists and lim g (t) = e = g (1) ⇒ g (t) is continuous at t = 1.THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 1 1 − s+1 X (s) = 2 ⇒ X (s) = 2(s+1) = s s2 Inverse Laplace transform then yields x (t) = L−1 [X (s)] = 2 + 2t.

y (0) = 1. y (0) = 1. + L−1 e− s s(s−1) = L−1 [e−s F (s)] e−s s(s−1) y (t) = e + e − 1 H (t − 1) which is the same as unit step function of g (t) .118 CHAPTER 3 Taking Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation −s y − y = H (t − 1) . (ii) From (i) dy − y = H (t − 1) ⇒ dy = y + H (t − 1) . we have sY (s) − y (0) − Y (s) = e s ⇒ (s − 1) Y (s) − 1 = e−s s f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = et − 1. we have sY (s) − y (0) + 8Y (s) = e−s + e−2s −2s e−s 1 ⇒ (s + 8) Y (s) = e−s + e−2s ⇒ Y (s) = s+8 + e . 3. dt dt Integrating from 0 to t we have t ⇒ y (t) = y (0) + 0 t [y (τ ) + H (τ − 1)] dτ ⇒ y (t) = 1 + 0 [y (τ ) + H (τ − 1)] dτ valid for all t including t = 1. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation y + 6y + 109y = δ (t − 1) + δ (t − 7) . y (0) = 0. Then using L−1 [e−cs F (s)] = f (t − c) H (t − c) the invese Laplace transform −2s e−s yields y (t) = L−1 [Y (s)] = L−1 s+8 + L−1 e s+8 = e−8(t−1) H (t − 1) + e−8(t−2) H (t − 2) . 5. Then using −1 −cs L [e F (s)] = f (t − c) H (t − c) the invese Laplace transform = 1 1 yields y (t) = L−1 [Y (s)] = L−1 e−s s2 +6s+109 +L−1 e−7s s2 +6s+109 1 −3(t−1) 10 e 1 sin 10 (t − 1) H (t − 1)+ 10 e−3(t−7) sin 10 (t − 7) H (t − 7) . y (0) = y (0) = 0.Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation y + 8y = δ (t − 1) + δ (t − 2) . Letting s = 0 and 1 in this 1 equation gives A = −1 and B = 1. we have s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) + 6sY (s) − y (0) + 109Y (s) = e−s + e−7s e−7s e−s ⇒ s2 + 6s + 109 Y (s) = e−s +e−7s ⇒ Y (s) = s2 +6s+109 + s2 +6s+109 1 10 1 Let F (s) = s2 +6s+109 = 10 (s+3)2 +102 1 ⇒ f (t) = L−1 [F (s)] = 10 e−3t sin 10t. Let F (s) = s+8 s+8 −1 −8t ⇒ f (t) = L [F (s)] = e . Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation y + 4y + 3y = 1 + δ (t − 3) .7 IMPULSES AND DISTRIBUTIONS 1. = f (t − 1) H (t − 1) = et−1 − 1 H (t − 1) . 3. Thus L−1 Hence L−1 [Y (s)] = L−1 t t−1 1 s−1 1 Multiplying by Using partial fraction let F (s) = s(s−1) = denominator we get 1 = A (s − 1) + Bs. = 1 s−1 + e− s s(s−1) . y (0) = 0. we have . y (0) = 1. Hence F (s) = s−1 − 1 ⇒ s ⇒ Y (s) = 1 + e−s 1 s s−1 A B s + s−1 .

2 1 A B Using partial fractions let F3 (s) = s(s+3)(s+1) = s+3 + s+1 + C s ⇒ 1 = As (s + 1) + Bs (s + 3) + C (s + 3) (s + 1) . 2 Then using L−1 [e−cs F1 (s)] = f1 (t − c) H (t − c) we have 1 f2 (t) = L−1 e−3s F1 (s) = 2 e−(t−3) − 1 e−3(t−3) H (t − 3) . we have s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) + Y (s) = 1 + e−2πs s ⇒ s2 + 1 Y (s) − s = 1 + e−2πs ⇒ s2 + 1 Y (s) = s + e−2πs + 1 s s e−2πs 1 ⇒ Y (s) = (s2s + (s2 +1) + s(s2 +1) . +1) s2 Y (s) − sy (0) − y (0) + 4sY (s) − 4y (0) + 3Y (s) = 1 + e−3s s −3s 1 ⇒ s2 + 4s + 3 Y (s) − 1 = 1 + e−3s ⇒ Y (s) = s1+e 2 +4s+3 + s(s2 +4s+3) s −3s f1 (t) = L−1 s (s2 +1) = cos t = sin (t − 2π) H (t − 2π) 1 Using partial fractions let F3 (s) = s(s2 +1) = A + Bs+C s s2 +1 2 ⇒ 1 = A s + 1 + (Bs + C) s. s +1 Hence y (t) = L−1 [Y (s)] = f1 (t) + f2 (t) + f3 (t) ⇒ y (t) = cos t + sin (t − 2π) H (t − 2π) + 1 − cos t = 1 + sin (t − 2π) H (t − 2π) = 1 + sin tH (t − 2π) . 2 7. Using partial fractions 1 A B let F1 (s) = (s+3)(s+1) = s+3 + s+1 ⇒ 1 = A (s + 1) + B (s + 3) . s = −1 and s = 0 gives A = 1 . Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation y + y = 1 + δ (t − 2π) . 6 1 1 1 1 1 Thus F3 (s) = 6 s+3 − 2 s+1 + 3s 1 1 1 ⇒ f3 (t) = L−1 [F3 (s)] = 6 e−3t − 2 e−t + 3 . Now s = 0 yields A = 1. B = − 2 and C = 3 . y (0) = 1. Equating the coefficients: s2 : 0 = A + B ⇒ B = −A = −1 s: 0 = C. −1 Hence y (t) = L [Y (s)] = f1 (t) + f2 (t) + f3 (t) 1 1 1 1 = 2 e−t − 2 e−3t + 1 e−(t−3) − 1 e−3(t−3) H (t − 3) + 1 e−3t − 2 e−t + 3 2 2 6 1 1 −3t 1 −(t−3) 1 −3(t−3) H (t − 3) = 3 − 3e + 2e − 2e 1 = 3 1 − e−3t + 1 e−(t−3) − e−3(t−3) H (t − 3) . Thus 1 1 1 1 1 −t −1 F1 (s) = 2 s+1 − 2 s+3 ⇒ f1 (t) = L [F1 (s)] = 2 e − 1 e−3t . (a) The following are graphs of the solutions of Exercises 1 through 4. f2 (t) = L−1 1 −2πs (s2 +1) e . 9.THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM 119 1 e 1 ⇒ Y (s) = (s+3)(s+1) + (s+3)(s+1) + s(s+3)(s+1) . y (0) = 0. 1 1 Letting s = −3. 1 1 Letting s = −3 and s = −1 gives A = − 2 and B = 2 . Thus F3 (s) = 1 − s2s ⇒ f3 (t) = L−1 [F3 (s)] = 1 − cos t.

120 y CHAPTER 3 1 t 1 y 2 1 5 y t 0. then the property (i) gives δ (n) (t − a) = 0. But for t = a property (ii) gives = (−1) (−1) s e n −∞ n n −as −∞ δ (n) (t − a) e−st dt δ (n) (t − a) e−st dt = (−1) n dn dtn (e−st ) |t=a = sn e−as . . In this case. Thus L δ (n) (t − a) = sn e−as . L δ (n) (t − a) = = ∞ 0 ∞ e−st δ (n) (t − a) dt δ (n) (t − a) e−st dt − ∞ 0 −∞ If t = a ⇒ t − a = 0.05 t y 1 t 5 11. everything on the right hand side is 0.

Chapter Four An Introduction to Linear Systems of Differential Equations and Their Phase Plane 4.1 INTRODUCTION There are no exercises in this section. A = . . v 1 v 0 2−λ u −1 1 0 Eigenvector for λ = 3 : = 1 −1 v 0 1 ⇒ −u + v = 0 ⇒ u = 1. satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ 1 2 2−λ 1 2 det = 0 ⇒ (2 − λ) − 1 = 0 ⇒ 2 − λ = ±1 1 2−λ ⇒ λ = 3. 4. λ. λ. −4 −λ 2 1 3. satisfies 1 2 3−λ −1 =0 det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ det 1 2−λ ⇒ (3 − λ)√ − λ) + 1 = √ ⇒ λ2 − 5λ + 7 = 0 (2 0 5± 25−28 5 ⇒λ= = 2 ± 23 i (complex). A = 0 1 . The eigenvalue. λ. The eigenvalue. −1 3 −1 5. 1. 2 . u 2−λ u 0 1 Eigenvector. v = −1 and eigenvector is . satisfies = . A = . v = 1 and eigenvector is . The eigenvalue.2 INTRODUCTION TO LINEAR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 1. satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ −4 0 −λ 1 det = 0 ⇒ λ2 + 4 = 0 ⇒ λ = ±2i (complex). 1 u 0 1 1 Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = ⇒u+v =0⇒ 1 1 v 0 1 u = 1.

1 0 u 4 0 = Eigenvector for λ = −3 : 0 1 0 v det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ det u v = 0 0 . . v = 1 and eigenvector is 9. λ. A = 1 1 0 −3 . 1 0 u 1 −3 ⇒ u − 3v = 0 = Eigenvector for λ = 3 : 1 −3 v 0 1 u = 1. u = 2 and eigenvector is 1 . . ⇒ −u + 2v = 0 ⇒ v = 1. The eigenvalue. u = 1 and eigenvector is . u is free to choose. 3. . satisfies = . satisfies = . ⇒ u − 4v = 0 ⇒ ⇒ 4u = 0 0 1 . v 1 −λ v 0 0 3 −3 u ⇒ 3u − 3v = 0 ⇒ = Eigenvector for λ = 1 : 1 −1 v 0 1 u = 1. A = . λ. The eigenvalue.122 7. v = 1 and eigenvector is . say. v 0 4−λ v 0 u 0 0 2 ⇒ 2v = 0 ⇒ = Eigenvector for λ = 3 : 0 1 v 0 1 v = 0. The eigenvalue. satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ 1 0 4 − λ −3 det = 0 ⇒ −λ (4 − λ) + 3 = 0 1 −λ 2 ⇒ λ − 4λ + 3 = 0 ⇒ (λ − 1) (λ − 3) = 0 ⇒ λ = 1. −3. v = 3 and eigenvector is . satisfies CHAPTER 4 1−λ 0 =0 1 −3 − λ ⇒ (1 − λ) (−3 − λ) = 0 ⇒ λ = 1. λ. A = 4 −3 . say. 4. u = 4 and eigenvector is . 1−λ u 0 Eigenvector. v is free to choose. 3 3 2 11. satisfies v 1 −3 − λ u 0 0 0 Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = 1 −4 v 0 4 v = 1. 0 −1 2 0 u Eigenvector for λ = 4 : = 0 0 v 0 2 . det 0 4−λ u 3−λ u 0 2 Eigenvector. satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ 0 4 3−λ 2 = 0 ⇒ (3 − λ) (4 − λ) = 0 ⇒ λ = 3. u = 0. u 4 − λ −3 u 0 Eigenvector.

1 1 e3t . 1. Let λ1 = 3 and λ2 = 1. −4 0 The eigenvalue. = = dy 1 2 y y 1 2 y dt x u u ⇒ = eλt where λ is eigenvalue and is y v v 2 1 corresponding eigenvector of A = . 2 1 15. v = 1 and eigenvector is . Then λ1 + λ2 = 0 = trA and λ1 λ2 = 2i (−2i) = −4i2 = 4 = det A. satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ −λ 1 det = 0 ⇒ λ2 + 4 = 0 ⇒ λ = ±2i (complex). 1 2 The eigenvalue. A = . 1 2 The eigenvalue. trA = 2 + 2 = 4 and det A = 4 − 1 = 3. = = dy −4 0 y y −4 0 y dt x u u is where λ is eigenvalue and = eλt ⇒ y v v 0 1 corresponding eigenvector of A = . A = . 1. −4 0 The eigenvalue. λ.Linear Systems of Differential Equations and Their Phase Plane 123 0 1 . det −4 −λ Let λ1 = 2i and λ2 = −2i. −4 −λ dx x x x 2 1 2 1 d dt ⇒ dt 19. u 0 u 1 2−λ = . Then λ1 + λ2 = 4 = trA and λ1 λ2 = 3 (1) = 3 = det A. satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 2−λ 1 ⇒ det =0 1 2−λ 2 ⇒ (2 − λ) − 1 = 0 ⇒ 2 − λ = ±1 ⇒ λ = 3. λ. satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 2−λ 1 2 ⇒ det = 0 ⇒ (2 − λ) − 1 = 0 1 2−λ ⇒ 2 − λ = ±1 ⇒ λ = 3. λ. Solution of the differential equation is 1 u 0 1 1 Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = ⇒u+v =0⇒ 1 1 v 0 13. trA = 0 + 0 = 0 and det A = 0 + 4 = 4. satisfies 1 2−λ v 0 v u 0 −1 1 Eigenvector for λ = 3 : = 1 −1 v 0 1 ⇒ −u + v = 0 ⇒ u = 1. Eigenvector. λ. satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ −λ 1 = 0 ⇒ λ2 + 4 = 0 ⇒ λ = ±2i (complex). . dx x x x 0 1 0 1 d dt ⇒ dt 17.

2 dx x x x 1 0 1 0 d dt = = 23. 1 0 u 4 0 = ⇒ 4u = 0 Eigenvector for λ = −3 : 0 1 0 v 0 u = 0.124 u = 1. et + c2 = c1 1 1 y . 1 0 e−3t . . v = 1 and eigenvector is . e3t + c2 = c1 −1 y 1 dx 3 −1 x x 3 −1 d dt ⇒ dt 21. say. ⇒ dt dy 1 −3 y y 1 −3 y dt x u u ⇒ = eλt where λ is eigenvalue and is y v v 1 0 corresponding eigenvector of A = . Solution of the CHAPTER 4 1 et . −1 General solution of the differential equation is x 1 1 et . 1 2 The eigenvalue. satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ 3−λ −1 det = 0 ⇒ (3 − λ) (2 − λ) + 1 = 0 1 2−λ √ √ x y is 5 ⇒ λ2 − 5λ + 7 = 0 ⇒ λ = 5± 25−28 = 2 ± 23 i (complex). λ. satisfies = . 1 −3 The eigenvalue. u = 4 and eigenvector is . v 1 −3 − λ v 0 u 0 0 0 Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = ⇒ u − 4v = 0 ⇒ 1 −4 v 0 4 v = 1. Solution of the differential equation is 1 General solution of the differential equation is 0 4 x e−3t . Solution of the differential 1 4 equation is et . −3. v is free to choose. = = dy 1 2 y y 1 2 dt u u x where λ is eigenvalue and = eλt ⇒ v v y 3 −1 corresponding eigenvector of A = . satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 1−λ 0 ⇒ det = 0 ⇒ (1 − λ) (−3 − λ) = 0 1 −3 − λ ⇒ λ = 1. u 1−λ u 0 0 Eigenvector. λ. v = −1 and eigenvector is differential equation is 1 −1 .

4. 0 4−λ u 3−λ u 0 2 Eigenvector.Linear Systems of Differential Equations and Their Phase Plane 125 4 −3 x 1 0 y x u ⇒ where λ is eigenvalue and is y v 4 −3 corresponding eigenvector of A = . = −3 0 u = eλt v ⇒ d dt dx dt dy dt 4 1 x y x y = . v 0 4−λ v 0 0 2 u 0 Eigenvector for λ = 3 : = ⇒ 2v = 0 ⇒ 0 1 v 0 1 v = 0. satisfies = . u is free to choose. say. u 4 − λ −3 u 0 Eigenvector. 3. satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 3−λ 2 ⇒ det = 0 ⇒ (3 − λ) (4 − λ) = 0 ⇒ λ = 3. satisfies = . 0 1 Solution of the differential equation is e3t . . = = dy y 0 4 y y 0 4 dt x u u ⇒ = eλt where λ is eigenvalue and is y v v 3 2 corresponding eigenvector of A = . 0 4 The eigenvalue. satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 4 − λ −3 ⇒ det = 0 ⇒ −λ (4 − λ) + 3 = 0 ⇒ λ2 − 4λ + 3 = 0 −λ 1 ⇒ (λ − 1) (λ − 3) = 0 ⇒ λ = 1. Solution of the differential 1 1 et . equation is 1 u 0 1 −3 Eigenvector for λ = 3 : = ⇒ u − 3v = 0 1 −3 v 0 1 u = 1. λ. = c1 et + c2 y 1 3 dx 3 2 3 2 x x x d dt ⇒ dt 27. v = 3 and eigenvector is . v 1 −λ v 0 3 −3 u 0 Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = ⇒ 3u − 3v = 0 ⇒ 1 −1 v 0 1 u = 1. 3 General solution of the differential equation is x 1 1 e3t . λ. 1 0 The eigenvalue. . Solution of the differential 3 1 equation is e3t . 0 25. u = 1 and eigenvector is . v = 1 and eigenvector is .

satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ −1 − λ −5 = 0 ⇒ (−1 − λ) (1 − λ) + 5 = 0 det 1 1−λ . = c1 0 1 y dx =x 1 0 x x d ⇒ dt 29.126 Eigenvector for λ = 4 : −1 0 2 0 u v = 0 0 2 1 . 1 2 The eigenvalue. v = 1 and eigenvector is . CHAPTER 4 ⇒ −u + 2v = 0 ⇒ v = 1. u = −1 and eigenvector is . 2. 1 1 The eigenvalue. satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ 1−λ 0 = 0 ⇒ (1 − λ) (2 − λ) = 0 ⇒ λ = 1. satisfies = . Solution of the differential 1 −1 equation is et . v is free to choose. dy dt = y y 1 2 = x + 2y dt u u x is where λ is eigenvalue and = eλt ⇒ y v v 1 0 corresponding eigenvector of A = . say. et + c2 = c1 1 1 y dx = −x − 5y x x −1 −5 d ⇒ dt 31. λ. v 1 2−λ v 0 0 0 u 0 ⇒u+v =0⇒ Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = 1 1 v 0 −1 v = 1. dtdy = y y 1 1 dt = x + y u u x is where λ is eigenvalue and = eλt ⇒ y v v −1 −5 corresponding eigenvector of A = . Solution of the differential equation is 1 General solution of the differential equation is −1 x 0 e2t . det 1 2−λ u 1−λ u 0 0 Eigenvector. 1 0 e2t . 1 General solution of the differential equation is x 2 1 e3t + c2 e4t . u = 2 and eigenvector is Solution of the differential equation is 2 e4t . λ. 1 u 0 −1 0 Eigenvector for λ = 2 : = ⇒ −u = 0 ⇒ 1 0 v 0 0 u = 0. .

1 0 −2 −4 u = Eigenvector for λ = −3 : 2 4 v 0 −2 ⇒ −2u − 4v = 0 ⇒ v = 1. u u −5 − λ −4 Eigenvector. 1 1 The eigenvalue. −3. λ. satisfies = 0. dx x 1 −1 x d dt = x − y ⇒ dt 33. dy dt = y 2 1 y = 2x + y dt u u x is where λ is eigenvalue and = eλt ⇒ y v v 0 1 corresponding eigenvector of A = . satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ −5 − λ −4 det = 0 ⇒ (−5 − λ) (1 − λ) + 8 = 0 2 1−λ ⇒ λ2 + 4λ + 3 = 0 ⇒ (λ + 1) (λ + 3) ⇒ λ = −1. dtdy = y 2 1 y = 2x + y dt u u x is where λ is eigenvalue and = eλt ⇒ y v v −5 −4 corresponding eigenvector of A = . 1 −2 Solution of the differential equation is e−3t . 1 −1 Solution of the differential equation is e−t . dy = y 1 1 y =x+y dt u u x where λ is eigenvalue and = eλt ⇒ y v v 1 −1 is corresponding eigenvector of A = . v 2 1−λ v 0 u −4 −4 Eigenvector for λ = −1 : = 2 2 v 0 −1 ⇒ −4u − 4v = 0 ⇒ v = 1. 2 1 The eigenvalue. u = −2.Linear Systems of Differential Equations and Their Phase Plane 127 ⇒ λ2 + 4 ⇒ λ = ±2i. λ. 2 1 . 1 General solution of the differential equation is x −2 −1 e−3t . and eigenvector is . . dx = −5x − 4y x −5 −4 x d ⇒ dt 35. u = −1 and eigenvector is . e−t + c2 = c1 1 1 y dx =y x x 0 1 d ⇒ dt 37. satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ 1−λ −1 2 det = 0 ⇒ (1 − λ) + 1 = 0 1 1−λ 2 ⇒ (1 − λ) = −1 ⇒ 1 − λ = ±i ⇒ λ = 1 ± i.

satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ −λ 1 = 0 ⇒ −λ (1 − λ) − 2 = 0 det 2 1−λ ⇒ λ2 − λ − 2 = 0 ⇒ (λ + 1) (λ − 2) ⇒ λ = −1. v = −3 and eigenvector is −3 1 Solution of the differential equation is e−2t . −3 −1 −1 u 0 Eigenvector for λ = −4 : = 3 3 v 0 1 ⇒ −u − v = 0 ⇒ u = 1. λ. −5 − λ −1 u 0 u = . and eigenvector is . equation is −1 u 0 −2 1 Eigenvector for λ = 2 : = 2 −1 v 0 1 ⇒ −2u + v = 0 ⇒ u = 1. u u 0 −λ 1 Eigenvector. v = −1. 3 −1 The eigenvalue. satisfies = . −4. . satisfies −1 − λ v 0 v 3 −3 −1 u 0 Eigenvector for λ = −2 : = 3 1 v 0 1 . v = 2. . = c1 e−t + c2 2 y −1 dx = −5x − y −5 −1 x x d ⇒ dt 39. −1 . λ. and eigenvector is . 2 1 e2t . Solution of the differential equation is 2 General solution of the differential equation is x 1 1 e2t . Solution of the differential −1 1 e−t . dt = dy y 3 −1 y dt = 3x − y u u x ⇒ = eλt where λ is eigenvalue and is y v v −5 −1 corresponding eigenvector of A = . Eigenvector.128 CHAPTER 4 The eigenvalue. v 2 1−λ v 0 0 1 1 u Eigenvector for λ = −1 : = ⇒u+v =0⇒ 2 2 v 0 1 u = 1. satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ −5 − λ −1 det = 0 ⇒ (−5 − λ) (−1 − λ) + 3 = 0 3 −1 − λ 2 ⇒ λ + 6λ + 8 = 0 ⇒ (λ + 2) (λ + 4) ⇒ λ = −2. ⇒ −3u − v = 0 ⇒ u = 1. 2. v = −1 and eigenvector is .

satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ 4−λ 3 2 = 0 ⇒ (4 − λ) − 9 = 0 det 3 4−λ ⇒ λ2 − 8λ + 7 = 0 ⇒ (λ − 1) (λ − 7) ⇒ λ = 1. 1 General solution of the differential equation is x 1 −1 et + c2 e7t . = c1 1 1 y 2 0 . . dy = y y 3 4 = 3x + 4y dt x u u ⇒ where λ is eigenvalue and is = eλt y v v 4 3 corresponding eigenvector of A = . −1 General solution of the differential equation is x 1 1 = c1 e−2t + c2 e−4t . v = 1. β = 3. λ. −4 −1 The eigenvalue. satisfies 4−λ v 3 v 0 u 3 3 0 Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = ⇒ 3u + 3v = 0 ⇒ 3 3 v 0 −1 v = 1. satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ −1 − λ 4 2 det = 0 ⇒ (−1 − λ) + 16 = 0 −4 −1 − λ 2 ⇒ (1 + λ) = −16 ⇒ 1 + λ = ±4i ⇒ λ = −1 ± 4i. 7. α = 0. 45. λ. a = 0 1 Solution of the differential equation is . y −3 −1 dx x x −1 4 d dt = −x + 4y ⇒ dt = 41. dx x x 4 3 d dt = 4x + 3y ⇒ dt 43. 1 u 0 −3 3 Eigenvector for λ = 7 : = 3 −3 v 0 1 . dy y y −4 −1 = −4x − y dt x u u ⇒ = eλt where λ is eigenvalue and is y v v −1 4 corresponding eigenvector of A = . Solution of the differential 1 −1 equation is et . Eigenvector. u 0 4−λ u 3 = . ⇒ −3u + 3v = 0 ⇒ u = 1.b= . and eigenvector is 1 1 Solution of the differential equation is e7t .Linear Systems of Differential Equations and Their Phase Plane 129 1 e−4t . 3 4 The eigenvalue. u = −1 and eigenvector is .

130 x y = c1 e0t +c2 e0t 2 0 cos 3t − 0 1 sin 3t CHAPTER 4 2 0 cos 3t sin 3t + 0 1 2 sin 3t 2 cos 3t = c1 + c2 . 0 1 x 1 1 sin 5t cos 5t − = c1 e0t 1 0 y 1 1 +c2 e0t sin 5t + cos 5t 0 1 cos 5t + sin 5t cos 5t − sin 5t . α = 1. a = 0 3 1 1 x cos 2t − = c1 et sin 2t 0 y 3 1 1 +c2 et sin 2t + cos 2t 0 3 cos 2t + sin 2t cos 2t − sin 2t + c2 et = c1 et 3 cos 2t −3 sin 2t 1 1 49. β = 2. β = 5. 2 . . − sin 3t cos 3t 1 1 .b= .b= .3 PHASE PLANE FOR LINEAR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 1. + c2 = c1 cos 5t − sin 5t 4. 47. y0 −2 0 x 2 3. a = . α = 0.

and eigenvector is differential equation is Eigenvector for λ = 2 : −1 et . 2 y0 −2 0 x 2 7. both positive ⇒Unstable node. λ. Solution of the 1 u v = 0 0 ⇒ −u = 0 ⇒ . satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ 1 2 1−λ 0 det = 0 ⇒ (1 − λ) (2 − λ) = 0 1 2−λ ⇒ λ = 1. 0 0 0 1 1 u v . x u = eλt y v 0 1−λ 1 2−λ so that eigenvector.Linear Systems of Differential Equations and Their Phase Plane 131 2 y 0 −2 0 x 2 5. 2. u = −1. satisfies Eigenvector for λ = 1 : v = 1. The eigenvalue. A = 1 0 . u v = 0 . 1 −1 0 1 0 0 u ⇒u+v =0⇒ = v 0 −1 .

The eigenvalue. λ. satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ 1 1 −1 − λ −5 det = 0 ⇒ (−1 − λ) (1 − λ) + 5 = 0 1 1−λ ⇒ λ2 + 4 ⇒ λ = ±2i. both negative u x so that eigenvector. −5 −4 . CHAPTER 4 0 1 . 9. The eigenvalue. A = 1 −1 . complex with positive real part ⇒Unstable spiral. y 0 0 x 11. −3. v is free to choose. A = −1 −5 .132 u = 0. A = 2 1 −5 − λ −4 det = 0 ⇒ (−5 − λ) (1 − λ) + 8 = 0 2 1−λ ⇒ λ2 + 4λ + 3 = 0 ⇒ (λ + 1) (λ + 3) ⇒ λ = −1. say. The eigenvalue. λ. complex with 0 real part ⇒Stable center. v y . λ. satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ 13. v = 1 and eigenvector is Solution of the differential equation is Phase plane: 0 1 e2t . = eλt ⇒ Stable node. satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ 1 1 1−λ −1 2 = 0 ⇒ (1 − λ) + 1 = 0 det 1 1−λ 2 ⇒ (1 − λ) = −1 ⇒ 1 − λ = ±i ⇒ λ = 1 ± i.

A = 0 1 . one positive x u and one negative ⇒Unstable saddle point. v = −1 and eigenvector is . 2. satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ 2 1 −λ 1 det = 0 ⇒ −λ (1 − λ) − 2 = 0 2 1−λ ⇒ λ2 − λ − 2 = 0 ⇒ (λ + 1) (λ − 2) ⇒ λ = −1. and eigenvector is Solution of the differential equation is −2 1 e−3t . 2 .Linear Systems of Differential Equations and Their Phase Plane 133 u 0 −5 − λ −4 = . u = −1 and eigenvector is Solution of the differential equation is Eigenvector for λ = −3 : −2 −4 2 4 −1 e−t . 2 1−λ v 0 0 u −4 −4 = Eigenvector for λ = −1 : 2 2 v 0 . v = 2. The eigenvalue. satisfies ⇒ −4u − 4v = 0 ⇒ v = 1. Solution of the differential −1 1 e−t . = eλt so y v u u 0 −λ 1 that eigenvector. 15. u v ⇒ −2u − 4v = 0 ⇒ v = 1. satisfies = . 1 u 0 = v 0 −2 1 . v 2 1−λ v 0 1 1 0 u ⇒u+v =0⇒ = Eigenvector for λ = −1 : 0 2 2 v 1 u = 1. u = −2. equation is −1 u 0 −2 1 Eigenvector for λ = 2 : = 2 −1 v 0 1 ⇒ −2u + v = 0 ⇒ u = 1. −1 1 . and eigenvector is . . λ.

−3 1 Solution of the differential equation is e−2t .134 Solution of the differential equation is 1 2 e2t . and eigenvector is . λ. both negative ⇒ Stable node. satisfies v 0 v 3 −1 − λ −3 −1 u 0 Eigenvector for λ = −2 : = 3 1 v 0 1 ⇒ −3u − v = 0 ⇒ u = 1. 3 −1 The eigenvalue. −4. −1 ⇒ d dt dx dt = −5x − y dy dt = 3x − y x y = . . respectively. = eλt ⇒ y v v −5 −1 corresponding eigenvector. −3 −1 −1 u 0 Eigenvector for λ = −4 : = 3 3 v 0 1 ⇒ −u − v = 0 ⇒ u = 1. v = −1. −1 1 Solution of the differential equation is e−4t . 0 u u −5 − λ −1 = . v = −3 and eigenvector is . satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ −5 − λ −1 det = 0 ⇒ (−5 − λ) (−1 − λ) + 3 = 0 3 −1 − λ ⇒ λ2 + 6λ + 8 = 0 ⇒ (λ + 2) (λ + 4) ⇒ λ = −2. CHAPTER 4 17. Eigenvector. x −5 −1 y 3 −1 u u x are eigenvalue and where λ. of A = .

complex with negative real part ⇒Stable spiral. 3 4 The eigenvalue. are eigenvalue and −1 4 −4 −1 . Solution of the differential 1 −1 equation is et . 7. 1 u 0 −3 3 Eigenvector for λ = 7 : = 3 −3 v 0 1 . v = 1. = −x + 4y = −4x − y x ⇒ = eλt y dx dt dy dt ⇒ u v d dt x y = u v −1 4 −4 −1 x y where λ. ⇒ −3u + 3v = 0 ⇒ u = 1. respectively. are eigenvalue and y v v 4 3 corresponding eigenvector. satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ −1 − λ 4 2 det = 0 ⇒ (−1 − λ) + 16 = 0 −4 −1 − λ 2 ⇒ (1 + λ) = −16 ⇒ 1 + λ = ±4i ⇒ λ = −1 ± 4i. dx x x 4 3 d dt = 4x + 3y ⇒ dt 21. respectively. dy = y y 3 4 = 3x + 4y dt x u u ⇒ = eλt where λ.Linear Systems of Differential Equations and Their Phase Plane 135 19. 4−λ u 0 u 3 Eigenvector. v 3 4−λ v 0 3 3 u 0 ⇒ 3u + 3v = 0 ⇒ = Eigenvector for λ = 1 : 3 3 v 0 −1 v = 1. both positive ⇒Unstable node. satisfies = . satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ 4−λ 3 2 det = 0 ⇒ (4 − λ) − 9 = 0 3 4−λ ⇒ λ2 − 8λ + 7 = 0 ⇒ (λ − 1) (λ − 7) ⇒ λ = 1. u = −1 and eigenvector is . corresponding eigenvector. of A = . λ. and eigenvector is 1 . . λ. of A = The eigenvalue.

The eigenvalue. = eλt . 1 1 Solution of the differential equation is e3t . Solution of the −1 . A = 2 1 . satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ 0 1 = 0 ⇒ λ2 + 4 = 0 ⇒ λ = ±2i. complex with −λ ⇒Stable center. 1. satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 1 2 1 2−λ 2 ⇒ det = 0 ⇒ (2 − λ) − 1 = 0 1 2−λ ⇒ 2 − λ = ±1 ⇒ λ = 3. λ. A = 0 −4 −λ det −4 0 real part 1 . λ. 1 u 0 1 1 Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = ⇒u+v =0⇒ 1 1 v 0 1 u = 1. satisfies y v v 2−λ 0 u 1 = . both positive ⇒ Unstable node. The eigenvalue. u x u so that eigenvector. v = −1 and eigenvector is . 1 2−λ v 0 u 0 −1 1 Eigenvector for λ = 3 : = 1 −1 v 0 1 ⇒ −u + v = 0 ⇒ u = 1.136 Solution of the differential equation is 1 1 e7t . CHAPTER 4 23. 25. v = 1 and eigenvector is .

one positive and one negative x u so that eigenvector. A = det ⇒ λ2 − 5λ + 7 = 0 ⇒ λ = 5± 25−28 = 2 positive real part ⇒ Unstable spiral. ⇒ Unstable saddle point. Solution of the differential 1 4 et . satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 1 −3 1−λ 0 ⇒ det = 0 ⇒ (1 − λ) (−3 − λ) = 0 1 −3 − λ ⇒ λ = 1. λ. λ. 27. −3. A = 1 0 . v 1 −3 − λ v 0 u 0 0 0 Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = ⇒ u − 4v = 0 ⇒ 1 −4 v 0 4 v = 1. The eigenvalue. equation is 1 u 0 4 0 Eigenvector for λ = −3 : = ⇒ 4u = 0 1 0 v 0 . 3 −1 . satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 ⇒ 1 2 3−λ −1 = 0 ⇒ (3 − λ) (2 − λ) + 1 = 0 1 2−λ √ 5 2 ± √ 3 2 i. u = 4 and eigenvector is . = eλt y v 0 u 1−λ u 0 . complex with 29.Linear Systems of Differential Equations and Their Phase Plane 137 differential equation is 1 −1 et . The eigenvalue. satisfies = .

138 u = 0, v is free to choose, say, v = 1 and eigenvector is Solution of the differential equation is 0 1 e−3t .

CHAPTER 4

0 1

.

31. A =

4 −3 . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies det (A − λI) = 0 1 0 4 − λ −3 ⇒ det = 0 ⇒ −λ (4 − λ) + 3 = 0 1 −λ ⇒ λ2 − 4λ + 3 = 0 ⇒ (λ − 1) (λ − 3) = 0 ⇒ λ = 1, 3, both positive x u so that eigenvector, ⇒Unstable node. = eλt y v u 0 4 − λ −3 u = . , satisfies −λ v 1 v 0 3 −3 u 0 Eigenvector for λ = 1 : = ⇒ 3u − 3v = 0 ⇒ 1 −1 v 0 1 u = 1, v = 1 and eigenvector is . Solution of the differential 1 1 et . equation is 1 u 0 1 −3 Eigenvector for λ = 3 : = ⇒ u − 3v = 0 1 −3 v 0 1 u = 1, v = 3 and eigenvector is . Solution of the differential 3 1 equation is e3t . 3

Linear Systems of Differential Equations and Their Phase Plane

139

33. A =

2 −1 . The eigenvalue, λ, satisfies de