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State space is a collection of points, where each point is representing a state of a problem. There could be as many points in the state space, based on how many problem states are there. Each state of the problem is represented by a node of a tree. This tree is used to find the best solution for the problem by traversing the tree nodes by using certain algorithms to reach a goal. Example of a state space:

The nodes are representing each problem states, so it can be as much as it could, based on the problem

as it has the lowest number.(b) Hill-climbing (HC) is a better search technique than the depth-first search . This is actually useful for hill climbing search method. it backtracked and examines Node D. Do you agree with that statement? If your answer is yes . Since no defect is found. . for hill climbing search. in what way? If not. However. Notice that the first three branches are labelled with I. The nodes in each level are also examined completely before moving to the next level. II. and III and it has certain values for the nodes. Path A C F is not visited in this searching. the statement is very much agreed. Yes. each branches are going to be examined one by one before moving on to the next stage. until the solution is found. to be compared with depth-first search which examines each and every node in each stage one by one. it starts to examine the most promising node first. If we are using depth-first search. which is Branch I or Node B. Below is the explanation for it: Look at the image above. therefore it saves up more time and cost. then discuss why HC is better. The search goes on by examining the promising nodes. write down your arguments on why not .

(c) Show. sort all list [A] [B D C] [D C E I] [H G C E I] [G C E I] [J C E I] = A B D H G J (*Proven that Best-first search gives a shorter solution path) . Solution path by using Hill-climbing search: # Method: Order the children. by using a search tree that Best-first search can return a shorter solution path than a Hill-climbing search. put at front [A] [B D C] [E D C] [I D C] [D C] [H G C] [G C] [J C] =ABEIDHG J Solution by using Best-first search: # Method: Dump all children.

ii. ii. (e) Foothills and plateaus problems make hills hard to climb. that is why it is easy to understand. which means it misses the overall maximum. Explain the two problems. Simpler for decision maker to understand This is because heuristic search method in problem solving is knowledge and experience-based. . i. It has better when an optimal or best solution is too costly to generate Heuristic search method gives us a good enough solution. especially for the managers. Foothill problem It goes to the top of a hill and not advancing further. therefore even though the solution is not the best.(d) Give and discuss any TWO advantages of heuristic search methods. it still can be used and produces a good solution. The two advantages of heuristic search method are: i. or no more information to be explored because all nodes are equal and indifferent. Plateau problem It means there are no more hills to climb.

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