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English Grammar

English Grammar

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  • BY
  • AND
  • I. Gender shown by Prefixes
  • II. Gender shown by Suffixes
  • III. Gender shown by Different Words
  • I. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en
  • II. Plurals formed by Vowel Change
  • III. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es
  • Special Lists
  • CASE
  • I. Uses of the Nominative
  • II. Uses of the Objective
  • III. Uses of the Possessive
  • Case Inflection
  • Special Remarks on the Possessive Case
  • Remarks on These Forms
  • I The Nominative
  • II. The Possessive
  • III. The Objective
  • Remarks on Irregular Adjectives
  • MOOD
  • Subjunctive in Independent Clauses
  • I. Expressing a Wish
  • II. A Contingent Declaration or Question
  • Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses
  • I. Condition or Supposition
  • II. Subjunctive of Purpose
  • III. Subjunctive of Result
  • IV. In Temporal Clauses
  • V. In Indirect Questions
  • VI. Expressing a Wish
  • VII. In a Noun Clause
  • VIII. Concessive Clauses
  • Indicative Mood
  • Subjunctive Mood
  • Imperative Mood
  • Remarks on Certain Verb Forms
  • Shall and Will
  • Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose)
  • Exercises on Shall and Will
  • Some Troublesome Verbs
  • I. VERBS
  • At
  • By
  • For
  • From
  • Of
  • I. The From Relation
  • On, Upon
  • To
  • With
  • WHAT
  • BUT
  • AS
  • LIKE
  • Things used as Subject
  • Things used as Direct Object
  • Things used as Complement
  • Modifiers
  • I. Modifiers of Subject, Object, or Complement
  • II. Modifiers of the Predicate
  • Logical Subject and Logical Predicate
  • Independent Elements of the Sentence
  • Adjective Clauses
  • LIST I

roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

Produced by Stephen Schulze and the Distributed Proofreaders Team







Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

as compared with Latin or Greek. it will at the same time. This will take in the usual divisions. rightly considered. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. Authority as a basis. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. and their uses and relations in the sentence. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. to those who have studied the language historically.The province of English grammar is. Few inflections. their forms. if rightly presented. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). so that a small grammar will hold them all. its peculiar and abundant idioms. . as.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. Mental training. and thus incite his observation. Literary English. The work it will cover. It is also evident. is worthy of serious study. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. assist the classification of kindred expressions. An æsthetic benefit. If. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. A broader view. with its enormous vocabulary. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. there is still much for the grammarian to do. "Analysis. from the question. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. Coming back." What grammar is." and "Syntax. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. Surely our noble language. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. then. however. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. we have tabulated the inflections of the language." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. Making rules is risky. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. but this is bad English now. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time.

or standard. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. the nation is free. The Uses of Words. Vulgar English. Occasionally. Part II.²GIBBON. Such words are called nouns. not objects. from the eighteenth century on. In the more simple state of the Arabs. Part III. besides this one. Spoken English. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. or Syntax. submission. The words state. and the word nation stands for a whole group. and will are evidently names of a different kind. NOUNS. which belongs to a people. as they stand for ideas. The plainest name is Arabs. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. the words sons and master name objects. reference will be made to vulgar English. and may belong to any of those objects. by which is meant the free. too. The Parts of Speech. that is.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. 1. . three divisions:² Part I. The following pages will cover. but. PART I. and Inflections. Analysis of Sentences. then. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions.

This does not imply. Besides considering persons. but Chicago names one city. . A noun is a name word. Proper. Collective. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. and appropriate names to the groups. ATTRIBUTE. Common. however. (b) Common. We may say. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. MATERIAL. the name of each is an individual or proper name. Name for any individual of a class.Definition. 3. or things. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. Classes of nouns. reducing it to a narrow application. Thus. 2. substance. place. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. Thus. Name for a group or collection of objects. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. Abstract. is from a Latin word which means general. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. because each group is considered as a unit. we may think of them in groups. For instance. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. belonging to one. possessed by all. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. a committee. They properly belong under common nouns. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. Individual. or idea. or a council. men in groups may be called a crowd. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. as here used. or a congress. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. 5. whether person. etc. or a mob. representing directly to the mind an object. animals. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. the man here. and things separately. or thing. animals. (a) 4. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. or the man in front of you. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS.

we speak of the wisdom of the man. Abstract nouns are names of qualities.Names for things thought of in mass. proof means the act of proving. They remain common class names. mist. earth. potash. platinum. iron. or action. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. instead of to each individual or separate object. rain. not things. Words naturally of limited application not proper. or that which shows a thing has been proved. "Painting is a fine art. as in calling a city Cincinnati.. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. world. etc. earth. expressing attributes or qualities.²There are some nouns. dew. Again. we may say. celluloid. condition. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. . etc. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). soap. or apart from their natural connection. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. expressing state. stone. there is no such intention. gold. rock. ." "a man of understanding. The quality is still there as much as before. etc. but in the words sun. etc. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. snow. 6. tea. sand. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. wine. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. granite. paint." 9. and fasten a special name to the object considered. rice. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. or actions. frost. etc. Such are glass. rubber. The reason is. moon. but it is taken merely as a name. conditions. Names of ideas. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. When we speak of a wise man. etc. NOTE." "Learning is hard to acquire. cloud. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. sugar. etc. sugar. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. however. 7. considered abstractly. and so on. clay. wheat. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. frost. wheat. such as sun. etc. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. (3) Geological bodies: mud. It may. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. but which are not called proper names.

273). lightning. 12. winter. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. the moon caused fearful forebodings. a wedding or a festival. 1.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. Underived abstract nouns. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. etc. those opinions and feelings. energy. . The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. They are only the husks of verbs. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. Verbal abstract nouns. summer. shadow. in the beginning of his life. is used as a noun. mastery from master. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. thunder. the teachings of the High Spirit. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. 272. Caution." "a brisk walk. Such are beauty. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. "a long run" "a bold move. kingship from king. speech from speak. service from serve. (1) prudence from prudent. NOTE. II. by altering its function. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. as in the expressions.Attribute abstract nouns. five proper. five abstract. They cannot govern a word. The verb. theft from thieve. her longing for their favor. he spread his blessings over the land. stupidity from stupid. etc. etc. height from high. as glad²joy. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. but are merely names of actions. action from act. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. hope. the rude drawings of the book. the great Puritan awakening. ease. etc. 10. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. day. (2) peerage from peer. joy. and they cannot express action. hopeful²hope. Thus. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. To avoid difficulty. as their name implies. the well-being of her subjects. the main bearings of this matter. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning.. night. childhood from child. Exercises. redness from red. there is time for such reasonings.

Using a dictionary. geology. diphtheria.2. catarrh. (b) branches of knowledge. as physics. pleurisy. mathematics? 3. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . typhus. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. algebra. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. as pneumonia.

" referring to flat- . Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. thus. Material nouns may be used as class names. "The cook made the irons hot. 14. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. a Fourier. from Calicut. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. Sodom was famous for wickedness. Others of similar character are calico. We know a number of objects made of iron. from Oporto. a Hutton. 13. port (wine). 15.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. from China. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. the guillotine. levant and morocco (leather). as a davy. the word port. Guillotin. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. Nouns change by use. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. from Damascus. from the name of Dr. arras. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. but we may say. from a town in France. a Locke. from Corinth. or to go over to it entirely.²EMERSON. above. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. Proper names transferred to common use. 119). as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. a Bentham. in Portugal. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. damask. currants. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. it imposes its classification on other men. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. but most of them are in the following groups. who was its inventor. for example. etc. and lo! a new system. a Lavoisier.

the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. For example. are abroad. Test this in the following sentences:² . Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. tobaccos. or made plural. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. which are made plural. Death. Traffic has lain down to rest. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron.²HAYNE.irons. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. papers. but in case an art or a science. are still names of abstract ideas. not material things. a steel to whet a knife on. etc.In lightnings owned his secret stings. but differ in strength. clouds. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. Next Anger rushed. or the arts and sciences.²CARLYLE. Personification of abstract ideas. as stones. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. mists. and so on. These are the same in material. The words preceded by the article a. on fire. candies. They are not then pure abstract nouns. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. or used as class nouns. When it is said that art differs from science. and only Vice and Misery. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. etc.²PERCIVAL.²COLLINS. but on dispositions which require to be created. smiled. tins. 16. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. coals. nor are they common class nouns. a rubber for erasing marks. that the power of art is founded on fact. slates. A halfway class of words.²BRYANT. his eyes. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. though not confined to verse. Class nouns in use. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. This is a poetic usage. From all around²Earth and her waters.²RUSKIN.²BYRON. or. be spoken of. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. purity. the abstract idea is partly lost. that disposition is the thing to be created. and say teas. paints. abstract in meaning. to prowl or to moan like night birds. oils. that is. clays. 17. (3) By poetical use.

Every why hath a wherefore. Nouns used as descriptive terms.² BURNS. 19. or describe it. make our own so. etc. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. sir!" and the "What then. or from any expression. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. a bank in New York.²BURNS.Let us. as each repeated pleasure tired. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. Adverbs. fear thy blow. but is still a noun. But ah! those pleasures. 18. sir!"²MACAULAY . (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. were mere terrors of the night. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. All these.²IRVING.²SHAKESPEARE. "a family quarrel.The Solitary can despise. By ellipses. loves. sir?" and the "No. which belongs to another word. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. Conjunctions." "the State Bank Tax bill. they do not express quality. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. meaning a walk in the morning. however.²EMERSON. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. And still. When I was young? Ah. they cannot be compared." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. a bill as to tax on the banks." "a New York bank. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns.² GOLDSMITH." "a morning walk." which contains a pure adjective. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. Adjectives. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. the wealthy. But it is better to consider them as nouns. Then comes the "Why. if we must have great actions. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow.²SHAKESPEARE. NOTE. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. for example. They are more like the possessive noun. nouns used to modify. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. as descriptive adjectives are.

they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. and Then. There are many of these. 5. or a faithful domestic. the terms the great. 1. without reference to its function in the sentence. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. 4. In the other sentences. . also titles of books are treated as simple nouns.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. are spoken of as if pure nouns. whether it mean the sun or the cold. in speaking of the principal of a school. 20. etc.²These remarks do not apply. The it. in a sentence above. It is to be remembered. but have an adjectival meaning. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies.. so. 3. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. but as a figure of speech. NOTE. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. of words rather than of their meaning.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. Stone walls do not a prison make. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words." and another of Dr. that cobweb of the brain. of course. 6. why and wherefore. Learning. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. FRANKLIN. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. is ambiguous. 8. the wealthy. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods." or "legal. When. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. 2. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. Exercise."²B." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. however. too.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. or a criminal.Nor iron bars a cage. When. to such words as become pure nouns by use. is the word "just. 7. Caution. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. or a state secret. are used. Power laid his rod aside. Now. and tell to which class each belongs. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. at the beginning.

13. always feminine. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. The hours glide by. There are exceptions even to this general statement. And see. its bloom is shed. . 11. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. returned to Spain. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. 14. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. 24. In Latin.Fair guests. 12. 17. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. always masculine. he cried. but not so in English. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 16. A little weeping would ease my heart. A fool speaks all his mind.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. Greek. female. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. 22. What gender means in English. 19. German. that waits you here. 20. 15. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter.9. 21. But pleasures are like poppies spread. for every dropHinders needle and thread. and many other languages. shattered and disabled. the welcome. 21.You seize the flower. the silver moon is gone. It is founded on sex. in English grammar. 10. and names of females are usually feminine.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. 18. GENDER. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. Male beings are. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. The fleet. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. 23.

. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. 24. however. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. the name of it is feminine. and consequently without sex. must be divided into two principal classes.²IRVING.²LAMB. der Tisch (table) is masculine. Gender nouns. Gunpowder . those which do not distinguish sex. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. Of animals. For instance: in Latin. according to their use. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. according to use. in other languages gender follows the form. those distinguishing the sex of the object. and neuter nouns. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up.²gender nouns. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. those with which man comes in contact often. that is. if there were any signs of life in it.² I have seenA curious child . the name of it is masculine.. das Messer (knife) is neuter. are named by gender nouns. "A little child shall lead them.. . if of the female sex. came to a stand just by the bridge. Thus. that pattern of a husband." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. 22. in German." . inanimate things are spoken of. then. or which arouse his interest most.. in English. All nouns. Hence: Definition. but are spoken of as neuter. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. or names of things without life. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. with its gizzard under its wing. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. Neuter nouns. corpus (body) is neuter.²masculine and feminine. 23. the word child is neuter in the sentence. No "common gender. or additions to words. mensa (table) is feminine. He next stooped down to feel the pig. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. The great difference is.. clapping his burnished wings. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word.² IRVING. hortus (garden) is masculine.When. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. Some words either gender or neuter nouns.. the sex being of no consequence.

generally to a masculine word. For fox they said vox. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. but spinster has now no connection with it. Male nouns beings. they are neuter words. According to the definition. I. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. etc. Very few of class I. Put in convenient form. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. 28. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. of course. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. (2) By adding a suffix. One feminine.25. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. 29. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. Gender shown by Suffixes. II. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. as he-goat²she-goat. though both words have lost their original meanings. The inflections for gender belong. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. is. as in wine vat. do not show the sex to which the persons belong.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. and for the older word fat they said vat. he-bear²she-bear. domestic. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. ruler. servant. 26. woman. only to masculine and feminine nouns. Hence vixen is for fyxen. Gender shown by Prefixes. or the lack of it. relative. 27.. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. puts a prefix before the masculine man. These remain in vixen and spinster. cousin.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. (3) By using a different word for each gender. . for from they said vram. from the masculine fox. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. Native suffixes. the division of words according to sex. teacher. If such words as parent. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster.

as czarina. executrix. Slightly changed and widely used. punster. 30. These are attached to foreign words. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). as seam-stress. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . song-str-ess. donna. and are never used for words recognized as English. as. -ess (French esse. Low Latin issa). Unaltered and little used. señorita. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. as. the one most used. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. it has none now in the words huckster.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. trickster. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. gamester.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. but in most cases it has not. Ending of masculine not changed.

the ending -ess." III. Thus. as. we use the feminine. We frequently use such words as author. others have in their origin the same root. Gender shown by Different Words. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. as.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. we use the masculine termination. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. editor. neighboresse. from the Old French maistre²maistresse.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). from the French -esse. as in the fourteenth century. In some of these pairs. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. 31. etc. teacheresse. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. wagoness. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. Instead of saying doctress. NOTE. from Latin imperatricem. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. neighbor (masculine and feminine). Ending -ess less used now than formerly. or servauntesse. Some of them have an interesting history. chairman. as was said in the sixteenth century. fosteress. 32. to represent persons of either sex. teacher or lady teacher. frendesse.

Two masculines from feminines. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general.² . King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. had the masculine mearh (horse). Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. lhauerd. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. finally gander. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. in Old English mere. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). as in many other words. It is not connected historically with our word duck. Mare. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. Icelandic gás. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. etc. written loverd. the old sign of the masculine. Personification. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). The masculine was formed by adding -a. leaving our word drake.). not immediately connected with witch. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). probably meaning house dweller). Witch is the Old English wicce. 34. gand-ra. Danish gaas. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). among others) to be from the same root word. 16). became identical. though both are ultimately from the same root. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. Widower. The older forms. Besides gander and drake. widuwa²widuwe. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). for example. 33. from Latin mea domina. Three letters of ened have fallen away. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). but this has long been obsolete. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. or lauerd in Middle English. Madam is the French ma dame. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy.

Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. (3) By adding -s (or -es). eyen (eyes). in Old English. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. for instance. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. together with the third. . the plural. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. 38."²BYRON. whenever we adopt a new word. Britannia needs no bulwarks. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. more than one. 35. Effect of personification.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. 39."Now. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural.²CAMPBELL. The first two methods prevailed. 37.No towers along the steep. treen (trees). 36. shoon (shoes).Her march is o'er the mountain waves. that is.²COLERIDGE. The -en inflection. the engineer speaks so of his engine. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. In nouns. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. NUMBER. I. etc. Definition. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of.²singular and plural.²KEATS. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. But other words were inflected afterwards. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. (2) By changing the root vowel.Her home is on the deep. and not by the form of the noun. Our language has two numbers. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. This is not exclusively a poetic use.

Lee marched over the mountain wall."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. and get settled. The words horse and foot. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. The old plural was brothru. 41. dozen. heathen. III. by. people. glass. salmon. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. Instead of -s. Akin to this class are some words. etc. 40. and is still found in dialects. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. they add -s): also trout.² The foot are fourscore thousand.²Over the mountains winding down. Such are box. pair.Horse and foot. turf. after numerals (if not after numerals. sail. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. borough²formerly had the same inflection. Brethren has passed through three stages. Other words following the same usage are.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. cannon. originally neuter. into Frederick town.²MACAULAY. Kine is another double plural. 42. cross. Children has passed through the same history. . swine.²THOREAU. II.-En inflection imitated by other words. or if preceded by the prepositions in.² "God bless me! so then. Examples of this inflection are. such as deer.The horse are thousands ten. after all. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. ditch. then brothre or brethre. but has now no singular. that have the singular and plural alike. etc. brace. etc. as. finally brethren. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. folk. wight. when they mean soldiery. lens. quartz. as. retain the same form for plural meaning. but they now add the ending -s. sheep.²WHITTIER. head.

Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. politics.Of maladie the which he hadde endured.. race²races. and some -es. hero²heroes.-Es added in certain cases.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. they lose their identity. The lilie on hir stalke grene. daisies. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. 15 and 17). And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. etc. economics. It served simply as a means of sight. allies. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . negro²negroes. and many branches of learning. means: as. half²halves. physics. house²houses. mathematics. Special Lists. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. 43.g.² Politics. as. When such words take a plural ending. however. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. So live. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. fancies. that when thy summons comes. these words ended in -ie.. fairies.²BRYANT. and the real ending is therefore -s. summons. Two words. though they are plural in form. prize²prizes. Words in -ies. etc. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. DANA. etc. though this sound combines readily with -s. chaise²chaises.²PROF. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. e. shelf²shelves. niche²niches. quoth then that ladie milde. etc. molasses. Formerly. a new syllable is made. 44. 45. and go over to other classes (Secs. means and politics. is both the science and the art of government.g. the Washingtons. Examples of these are. in its widest extent. also news. some adding -s. optics. volcano² volcanoes.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. Means plural. the Americas. pains (care). Proper nouns are regularly singular. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. e. knife²knives. Some words are usually singular.

LAUGHLIN. CURTIS. .² MACAULAY. Besides this. he pronounced to have been a tongs. By these means. Sometimes.²GOLDSMITH.²BURKE. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. if I recollect right. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. 46. by strongly conveying the passions.²GOLDSMITH.Words. Some words have no corresponding singular.²J.²G.²MOTLEY.²IRVING. With great dexterity these means were now applied. Now I read all the politics that come out. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. however. it is furnished with a forceps. Politics plural. W. riches will accumulate. by those means which we have already mentioned. A relic which. I say. L. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words.²GOLDSMITH.

fish²fish (collectively). indices (signs in algebra). Three words were originally singular. One plural. two plurals. or copies. sixpence.²was it subdued when. brethren (of a society or church). . shots (number of times fired). index²indexes (to books). fishes (individuals or kinds). but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. genii (spirits). (2) care.²LONGFELLOW. etc. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. die²dies (stamps for coins. genius²geniuses (men of genius). (2) literature. Tell me not. or epistles.. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth).² I lisped in numbers. in mournful numbers.. the other unlike it.).²one corresponding to the singular. of a periodical. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. two meanings. carry off chaff. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. 48. (2) poetry. may add -s. dice (for gaming). (2) revenue duties. riches. trouble. or work in a bellows?²PROF. making a double plural.The air. 49. pea²peas (separately). Two classes of compound words. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. clothes (garments).. as in the lines.²POPE. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. for the numbers came. as two sixpences. 50. In Early Modern English thank is found. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). etc. pence (collectively).the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. In speaking of coins. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. faculties. penny²pennies (separately). shot²shot (collective balls). Numbers also means issues. (2) abilities. pease (collectively). DANA. eaves. These make the last part plural. number²numbers: (1) figures. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. part²parts: (1) divisions. twopence. ways.

² Then came Mr. The title may be plural. 51. German. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. there is some disagreement among English writers. then Silas Peckham.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. and Mrs. Brown. Norman. Briggs. or the name may be pluralized. for example. such as talisman. as man singer. and then the three Miss Spinneys. . firman.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. HOLMES. the Drs. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. Ottoman. woman servant. manservant. the Misses Rich. as the Messrs. Mussulman. but add -s. though the latter is often found. Brahman. woman singer.²DR. As to plurals of names with titles. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. Two methods in use for names with titles. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. 52. Allen. The chief member adds -s in the plural.

The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. Du Maurier. or Anglicized.²DICKENS. They are then said to be naturalized. Domesticated words. or Englished.²GIBBON. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. Others have been adopted. and retain their foreign plurals. 53. These are said to be domesticated. FROM THE LATIN. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. y y analysis antithesis . Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. FROM THE GREEK.²GOLDSMITH. The Messrs. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form.²THE CRITIC. Exercise. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh.

. without reference to their meaning. Definition. "He sleeps in a felon's cell.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. they form their plurals in the regular way. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. figures. cell has another relation. In the general wearing-away of inflections. In the sentence. 56. 55.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. figures. etc." the word felon's modifies cell." CASE. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s)." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). etc. and expresses a relation akin to possession. Letters. Only two case forms. also add -s or 's. Words quoted merely as words. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. as. helping to express the idea of place with the word in." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). 54. as.. form their plurals by adding -s or 's.

" (3) In apposition with some other nominative word.²person. the objective. Excuses are clothes which.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. 4. learning. 5. 57. fate. Three properties belong to wisdom. must be understood for purposes of analysis. when asked unawares." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. completing a verb. they returned to their homes. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done.²the nominative. Human experience is the great test of truth. I. 58. excessive grief. Uses of the Nominative. the enemy of the living. 2. 1. 3. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. and the possessive. three things characterize man. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. whether inflected or not. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. . (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. then. and experience.²one for the nominative and objective.²nature. may be said to have three cases." (2) As a predicate noun. Nouns. and merit. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree.

as will be seen in Sec. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. Conscience. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. save. reconciles. the word toward which the preposition points. wounded lies. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. her first law broken. Tender men sometimes have strong wills." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. how have I frighted thee? II. and tell which use each has:² 1. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. 4. and meaning calmest. a patriarch of the village. taking the object enemies. measure. But the flood came howling one day. good Heaven." Exercise. and landlord of the inn.Save. 3. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. (in the older stages of the language. they are sands of precious gold. But of all plagues." "Thou makest the storm a calm." (3) Adverbially. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. Set a high price on your leisure moments." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. and makest a calm. sword in hand and visor down. 2. distance. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. 8. 68. 9. and being equivalent to one verb.6. They charged. taking the object storm. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. . (5) As the object of a preposition. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. thy wrath can send. completing the verb. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. etc. 59." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. Uses of the Objective." (4) As the second object.

²HAWTHORNE. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive.e.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. 60. the most common of all. as. an elegy to commemorate yesterday..Does his Creator's power display. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. 9. as shown in the sentences. III. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. tempests that .²ADDISON. 8.His winter task a pastime made.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. Uses of the Possessive. 10. (2) Objective possessive. 61. from day to day. expressed or understood. Possession in some sense is the most common. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping.²BYRON. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. It is a poetic expression. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. 7. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. The possessive case always modifies another word. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. and forfeits paid. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow.5. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. as in these expressions. And whirling plate. 6. The noblest mind the best contentment has. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective.²SHELLEY. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. (3) Subjective possessive.And gave the leper to eat and drink. or in writing yesterday's elegy.² The unwearied sun. the Great Stone Face. and in the bay [of] Baiæ.

63. PLURAL..e. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. Nom. child NOTE.e.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. the panther which the forest hides). A false theory. Case Inflection. and Obj. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. How the possessive is formed. lady Poss." Use of the apostrophe. Declension or inflection of nouns. 62. 56). In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. Poss. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. 64. 62. expressing the relations of nominative and objective." "mannes herte [heart]. there are only two case forms. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. "From every schires ende. growth which several days had developed). Nom. as schoolboys sometimes write. As said before (Sec.winter is likely to have).. making the possessive singular. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses)." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. The use of the apostrophe. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. "George Jones his book." etc. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. One is the simple form of a word. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. 1. . in Chaucer. A suggestion. and Obj. however. To form the possessive plural. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general." "at his beddes syde.

²CARLYLE. containing words in apposition.²RUSKIN."²DE QUINCEY. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. Captain Scrapegrace's.²HOLMES. and from a desire to have distinct forms.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. In compound expressions. know the amount of my income. the possessive sign is usually last. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase." Possessive with compound expressions. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. a word with a phrase. as. 67. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. but to the ear all may be alike." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. Kate saw that. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive.²DE QUINCEY. instead of the emperor their master's name. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. store. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. my neighbors.Though this opinion was untrue. the items of my son's. dwelling. stands up for God's truth one man. as by the countess's command.." "A postscript is added. Cervantes' satirical work. Possessive and no noun limited. church. Peter's. some such word as house.. 65. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. in the name of the emperor their master. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. . and she walked off from the don's. being understood with it: for example. tailor's bill²THACKERAY.²THACKERAY. as. etc. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. for goodness' sake. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that.²SWIFT. etc. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. James's. 66.² LOWELL. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. I remember him in his cradle at St.

Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. E. in such a sentence as. etc. each. Clearness. Blair). sometimes they are used together. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. 2. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. the sentence might be understood as just explained.The double possessive. Emphasis. objective. a double possessive. A peculiar form. (See also Sec. as one modifier. ill-lighted except where she stands. the. and at the same time by a possessive noun.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. especially when used with this or that. that. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. 87. (1) When a word is modified by a. making a double possessive. 68. any. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. Both of these are now used side by side. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. every. or subjective. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. (b) Rewrite the sentence. and tell whether each is appositional. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. this. Exercises. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears.. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. however. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. HALE.²FROUDE. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? .) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. 1. If. no. (3) It prevents ambiguity. For example. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury.²CARLYLE.²E. corresponding to 's. the statement clearly means only one thing. we use the phrase of Atterbury. In most cases. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of.²the introduction which Atterbury made.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us.

A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. 69. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. In parsing. therefore.3. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. There Shakespeare's self. Nature herself. Friend. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. 70. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. Jove laughs. 4.Comes dancing from the East. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. 15. we state. 10. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. Now the bright morning star. with every garland crowned.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. 13. let him seasonably water the one. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. 12. 5. 7. 6. Hence. At lovers' perjuries. never in the tongueOf him that makes it.They say. in parsing a noun. day's harbinger. 14. 8.A weary waste expanding to the skies. some idioms²the double possessive. it seemed. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. I must not see thee Osman's bride. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it.² . 9. and destroy the other. 11.

²common. is a common class noun. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. hence objective case. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. object of the verb takes. (3) Whether singular or plural number. inflections.(1) The class to which it belongs. like miller's. but is the adverbial objective. Thief is a common class noun. therefore masculine gender. therefore possessive case. gender. 3. it has no sex. That in the captain's but a choleric word. it is the object of the preposition by. Neckcloth. and limits neckcloth. and relations. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. determining its case.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. 4. 68). 2. hence it is a common noun. MODEL FOR PARSING. hence it is objective case. it is the name of a male being. therefore neuter. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. a withered serving man. In parsing any word. and to have it found out by accident. names one thing. the connection shows a male is meant. and number. a fresh tapster. singular number. therefore singular number. it expresses time. . proper. which gender. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. NOTE. if the latter. therefore singular number. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. masculine. Throat is neuter. etc. has no governing word. hence it is a gender noun. as to case. it denotes only one person. Exercise. subject of the verb is understood. 71. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. it expresses possession or ownership. (4) Its office in the sentence. The correct method. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. and therefore nominative case.

"Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus." Again. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. For instance. sleep! 6. Definition. 76). and prison. and representative words. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. Madame de Staël. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. 8. financial minister to Louis XVI. and his daughter. Time makes the worst enemies friends. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. or for a person or thing. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. Classes of pronouns. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. A pronoun is a reference word.²palace. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house... 73. but by a question we say. Necker.And hated her for her pride. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. 72. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. PRONOUNS. He giveth his beloved sleep. definite. A few miles from this point. 7. castle. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally.. or for a group of persons or things. where the Rhone enters the lake. were natives of Geneva. Now. 9. .5. from a necessity for short. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. all in one. 11. blessings light on him that first invented . instead of saying. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. The need of pronouns. 10. (2) Interrogative pronouns. Jarley's back being towards him. Mrs. standing for a name.

that is. even if it had a special form. as nouns have the same form. which have forms for person. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. which relate or refer to a noun. and the person or thing talked about. we our. pronoun. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. representing a person or thing spoken to. This gives rise to a new term. I Poss. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. Three persons of pronouns. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. primarily adjectives. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. standing for a person or thing spoken of. Person in grammar. they must represent the person talking. 75. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. 76. mine. representing the person speaking. 74. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON.(3) Relative pronouns. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. 77. or other word or expression. Nom. which cannot be used as adjectives. (3) Third person. my Plural. the person or thing spoken to. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. "the distinction of person. (4) Adjective pronouns." Person of nouns. From analogy to pronouns.. (5) Indefinite pronouns. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. ours . and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. they are said to have person by agreement. words. (2) Second person. Singular.

a separate form for each gender. thou thee ye you you your. me us Singular.. 78. by personification. Nom. Obj. Obj. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. thine. hers her Plur. yours you Plural. your. and also for the neuter. or. yours you THIRD PERSON. Singular. Nom. yours Poss. The speaker may be either male or female. Old forms. Masc. Nom. in the singular. Nom. Poss. Obj. they their. Poss. But the third person has. he his him Fem. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. neuter hit. you your. theirs them Neut. Old Form Common Form. of all Three. so also with the person or thing spoken to. First and second persons without gender. masculine h . it its it Poss. Obj. Third person singular has gender. she her. .Obj. SECOND PERSON. thy Remarks on These Forms. namely. feminine h o. neuter.

for example. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. which is a neuter noun. especially in poetry. Thou. the forms they.²BEECHER." As shown above. This is of comparatively recent growth. thy. 81.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. Second person always plural in ordinary English. two modern uses of thou. it. thee. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. In spoken English. The plurals were h . are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. The consequence is. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. . as possessive of it.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English.:² (1) In elevated style.. however. 80.Thou lovest. which was often sounded with the h silent. to thy care we commit the helpless. them. etc. (2) In addressing the Deity. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. just as we now say. even when referring to a single object. The form its. as in prayers. There are. We use it with a plural verb always. thou Shepherd of Israel. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. heom. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. but make the plural you do duty for the singular.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. heora. 82.² Oh.²SHELLEY. and sometimes its. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). etc. 79. in Old English. Two uses of the old singulars. as.. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. their. etc. that didst comfort thy people of old.

he. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. Old use of mine and thine. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. thine. note the following:² 'Twas mine. them.²COWPER. 34). are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. she. 85. The words I. its. Additional nominatives in spoken English. In spoken English. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. us. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. Absolute personal pronouns. besides a nominative use. hers. her. us. Yet careful speakers avoid this. or. him. 84. in such a sentence as. 58). though ye is occasionally used as objective. me. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. they. 84 are always subjects. her. "I am sure it was him.Use of the pronouns in personification. ²SHAKESPEARE. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. his. they have a nominative form. I spare thee mine. have a peculiar use. our. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. when they occur in the predicate position. however. . 86. yours. 83. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. I The Nominative. 'tis his. her. Not a separate class. The forms mine. them. him. ye. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. and follow the usage of literary English. Nominative forms. II. The Possessive. we. to personify objects (Sec. thy. thou. theirs. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. and not make more classes. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. their. That is. for.²LANDOR. sometimes his and its. some say. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are." the literary language would require he after was. and has been slave to thousands. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. and sometimes in ordinary speech. your. And since thou own'st that praise.²BULWER. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. though those named in Sec. The forms my.

for example. or satire. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. The forms hers. and with mine. but few thy voice. yours. (3) To express contempt. thus.²ID. thine.²BIBLE." said Henry Woodstall. ours. F. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day.²ID. This usage is still preserved in poetry. FIELDS. ours. theirs. anger.²J. Double and triple possessives.²CARLYLE. sometimes its. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens.²J.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. Long Allen.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. ²HOLMES. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. Give every man thine ear. If thine eye offend thee. pluck it out.² CARLYLE. Like the noun possessives.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. as in nouns.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. hers. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. yours. Their uses. theirs. commenting upon a letter of mine. .²THACKERAY. his. in that old Edinburgh house of his. 87. This ancient silver bowl of mine. COOPER.²SWIFT. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. are really double possessives. Besides this. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. it tells of good old times. we have. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. thus. we find."²SCOTT.²THACKERAY. "Hold thy peace. (2) To bring emphasis. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. T.

according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. for whose benefit. or use in a sentence. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. III.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. Now the objective. In such sentences as." "None but the brave deserves the fair. The old dative case. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. 20. the thing is done. They all handled it. 90. was marked by a separate case. But the first two have a nominative use.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. . Curse me this people. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. In pronouns. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. The Objective. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen.²ID. but expresses for whom. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. this dative use. but not in form. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. Besides this use of the objective.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. 88. his for his property. in the first sentence. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. In their function. but nominative or objective in use. as it is called. 86: mine stands for my property. Both joined in making him a present. "The good alone are great. 89." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force.²BIBLE. mine stands for my praise in the second. and mine in the second has an objective use. but the form is the same as the objective. as shown in Sec.

²BULWER. you must condense there. ²EMERSON. (3) In apposition. and they cry.Time is behind them and before them. him that so often and so gladly I talked with.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. as.²BACON. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. has not made its progress. like Chinese skill.²EMERSON. as. WEBSTER. Indefinite use of you and your. thus.²IRVING To empty here. The word you.²ADDISON. It is a pity that he has so much learning. to stand for the real. You have oaten cakes baked some months before.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march.² . in this century.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it." (3) As a grammatical subject.² NEWMAN.²CARLYLE. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. was passed by with indulgence. why. yet it is but like the thorn or brier.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.²DE QUINCEY. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. or to the idea. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. as in the sentences. Your mere puny stripling. logical subject. or that he has not a great deal more. which follows the verb.²D. you sneeze. Society. 92. 91. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding.

however. It was late and after midnight. herself. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. Of the two forms in parentheses. . keeps a school. For when it dawned. yourself. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. but seldom in prose. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. as.²SCOTT. that is. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw.²ID. And when I awoke. have laid them downIn their last sleep.It is finger-cold. I made up my mind to foot it.²ANON. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. it rained.²THOREAU.²EMERSON.. they dropped their arms. -selves.²COLERIDGE. itself."²IRVING. themselves." "He bought him a horse. 94.²HOLMES. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self.²IRVING. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined.² Now I lay me down to sleep. we use such expressions as. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. And millions in those solitudes.. 93. farms it.²BUNYAN. the second is the old form of the second person. who teams it.²BRYANT. peddles it. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. when they are direct objects. (ourself). The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. This occurs in poetry. They are myself. as they are also called." etc.²BURNS. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. (thyself). This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. "I found me a good book. Poor Christian was hard put to it. I set me down and sigh." and there is an end of it. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples.²HAWTHORNE. A sturdy lad . and its plural selves. who in turn tries all the professions. used in poetry. since firstThe flight of years began.²DE QUINCEY. ourselves. For example. yourselves. himself. There was nothing for it but to return.

as in vulgar English. etc. especially in the speech of rulers. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. for example. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. Threats to all. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. ourselves. as. 95. B. BROWNING.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person.As girls were once. As if it were thyself that's here. 96.²E. and build the lofty rhyme. after the analogy of myself. In Middle English the forms meself. were changed into the possessive myself.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. Origin of these reflexives. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. to every one.² The great globe itself .? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms.²SHAKESPEARE. NOTE. not the possessive forms. with self. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves.² . Held dead within them till myself shall die.²WORDSWORTH. Use of the reflexives.To you yourself.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. thyself. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural..²EMERSON.. as we ourself have been. as. and the others were formed by analogy with these. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. I shrink with pain. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. theself. to us. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian.²MILTON. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject.²ID. The question might arise. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. shall dissolve. for example.² TENNYSON.

The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. 7. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it.²B. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. FRANKLIN. 3. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. 10.On the light fantastic toe. To know what is best to do. some each of masculine. and what. which. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. is wisdom. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR.²DE QUINCEY. where the word is one with that it tells of. Infancy conforms to nobody. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. One obsolete. 5. Three now in use. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. 2. Courage. 8. Come and trip it as we go. feminine. . but it is the soonest spoiled. fight it out. 6. and how to do it. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. 97. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. 4. let him lowly confess it. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. father. and neuter. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. 9. all conform to it. some of them being double possessives. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. Years ago.² THACKERAY. And it grew wondrous cold.

ideas. or case. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. whether. the gold. which is not inflected for gender. as it always asks about somebody.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. that is. methought. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. actions. not to persons. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. number. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. used formerly to mean which of two. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES.Promised. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. These show that what is not inflected for case. . Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. whispering sweet. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. What wouldst thou do. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. it is always third person. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. having three forms. it is selective. but now obsolete. etc. Use of what. with its possessive and objective. 98. referring to things.. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. The use of who. 99. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. Use of who and its forms. it refers to either persons or things. but for case alone.There is an old word. that it is always singular and neuter. Which of you. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. shall we say. 100. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. Use of which. that it is not inflected for gender or number. that. Whose was that gentle voice. As shown here.

"The last of all the Bards was he. which is nominative in the first sentence. and so to make smoother discourse. Further treatment of who. It usually precedes the pronoun. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. nominative in the second also. in Sec. subject of doth love." Or. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. Function of the relative pronoun.²by the use of the words. which and what. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. who is used as objective instead of whom. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. who? Poss. For instance. or other word or expression. whose? Obj. being the direct object of the verb shall take. AND PLUR. Who. for which the pronoun stands. 105.² . whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. 104. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. 127). SINGULAR Nom. AND PLUR. SING. which. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. objective in the last. 103. it may be shortened into.² "The last of all the Bards was he. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns." In the latter sentence. These bards sang of Border chivalry. as they take the place usually of a word already used. Thus we may say. pronoun. as. what may be an adverb in some expressions. who evidently refers to Bards.101. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. and what are also relative pronouns. and also in having a conjunctive use. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences.Who sung of Border chivalry. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. since it is subject of the verb had. which and what are sometimes adjectives. 99. 102. which is called the antecedent of the relative. The antecedent. as.

²SCOTT.² COX. The men whom men respect.²W. 4. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. with all its capabilities . The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. 6. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. which.²MILTON. what.²DR JOHNSON. D. 107.²BYRON. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. both his and who have the antecedent priest. They had not their own luster.. Two kinds. Indefinite relatives. Generally speaking. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. in the same sense in which man's nature. a thousand years.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us.Whom universal nature did lament.²PARTON Which and its forms. 2. The origin of language is divine. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. When the word relative is used.²THACKERAY. that. the women whom women approve. The embattled portal arch he pass'd.²LOWELL In this. 3. but the look which is not of the earth. 108.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. . 4. The nurse came to us.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. 2. 3. are the men and women who bless their species. is a divine creation. will be discussed further on..Whose flag has braved. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. 5. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. Who and its forms. WHITNEY. 106.That guard our native seas. For her enchanting son. a simple relative is meant.. Ye mariners of England.

.²IRVING. Who. which it certainly is not. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. 107.² SHAKESPEARE 2. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1.5. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. and spoils.²DE QUINCEY.²EMERSON. W... 110.²MARGARET FULLER. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. 6. Reader... you will not be angry with me for telling you. (a) This gradation . What. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. The Tree Igdrasil. Already done is all that he would do. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. That. 111. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec.Is fit for treasons. 3. Examples of the relative that:² 1..²BURKE.. 4.²LAMB 3. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² .²H. For what he sought below is passed above. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. 2. BEECHER 5. ought to be kept in view. else this description will seem exaggerated.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. stratagems. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 109. The judge . bought up all the pigs that could be had.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. no bad type of what often happens in that country.²GOLDSMITH. The man that hath no music in himself.

that man. or ideas.. whom. p. and others.²LEIGH HUNT.²LOWELL. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water.²SWIFT. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. Who referring to animals. 2. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. seemed as much excited as myself.²who. in the first sentence.. in the third. Gibbon. whose wound I had dressed. The robins.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. 107. 113. and 6. and so on. Cooper.²which for the nominative and objective. Kingsley.who. flung its arms around my neck. It has been seen (Sec. in the second.²DR. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. referring to animals. Sec. son. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. Which. whose is second person. 112. they are plural. In 1. The little gorilla. the others are all third person.. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. 5. a man. who is first person. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. . the relatives are singular.whose. (2) It has three case forms. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. 96). whom. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. Witness the following examples:² And you.. Scott. My horse. The sentences in Sec. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. in 4. whose for the possessive. things. JOHNSON.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. not persons. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. in 5. Examples of whose.²THACKERAY. and 3. whose.. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. possessive case of which. (3) It is nearly always third person. (4) It has two case forms. Smollett. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. who.²IRVING. In sentence 4..

too. Kingsley. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. which is worse. This often occurs. That.²THACKERAY. . which is very notable and curious.² MCMASTER. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. and to persecute without pity. This moribund '61.²RUSKIN. no possessive. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. The last two sentences in Sec. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations.²SCOTT.²SHAKESPEARE. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. 115. In the sentences of Sec. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. thus. and numerous others. and things. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich."²RUSKIN. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. Men may be ready to fight to the death. secondly (which made her stare). Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. and third persons. Burke. let us enter the church itself. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. (3) It is the same form for first.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. Sometimes. the antecedent follows which. second. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest.² And. animals.² I swept the horizon.²first. Which and its antecedents. So in Matthew Arnold. 116.²BEECHER. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. (2) It has only one case form.114. Primarily. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds.²DE QUINCEY. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. 109.

as in sentence 6. third person." Since the relatives hold the sentence together.²SHAKESPEARE. that men must needs abide. third person. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. The sentences of Sec. who Poss." (3) "These people heard him. . The gender. number. 118. plural number. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. and is emphatic.²EMERSON. What a man does. as. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. either of which would be neuter. and person of the relatives who. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. that do I not. 117. For example. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. it usually follows. Sec." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. what we said?²CARLYLE. whose Obj. which. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. is always neuter. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. When expressed. by taking them out.²BIBLE What fates impose.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. Who plainly stands for those or the people. 119. but what I hate. that he has." That evidently refers to truths. 109. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Nom. plural number. we can. that do I. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. for example. consequently is neuter. What.² What I would.

it is subject of the verb heard." Here the subject of is. 7. The whole expression is its subject. is what we call nature. Exercise. but is singular. is subject of wrought upon and molded. above. Some prefer another method of treatment. nobler souls with that which they are. in (3). Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. What must be endured? Answer. neuter. 8. who is sure to be cunninger than they. 6.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. Another way. and what is the direct object of the verb call. 4. the highest result of all education. In the same way who. but of this. people is the object of the preposition of. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. then parse the relatives. is subject of the verb can't be cured. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. which is. in (1). third person. etc. standing for the people understood. after all. The word what. subject of heard. First find the antecedents. As shown by the following sentences. Now. that takes the case of the truths in (2). 120. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. What can't be cured. In the sentence. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody."²EMERSON. so is in the objective case." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. In (2). I think they are trying to outwit nature. Parsing what. 3. . Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. however.. in the following sentences:² 1. The relative what is handled differently. "What can't be cured must be endured. it is object of uttered. 5. because it has usually no antecedent. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. we is the subject. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. is in the nominative case. Truths in sentence (2). whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. the simple relative. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. and hence is in the nominative case.

What simple relative and what indefinite relative. 7. that nothing else can stand in their presence.²you cannot have both. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. or stand on their head. and which in the second clause. Meaning and use. less common are whoso. Death is there associated. They are whoever.²BURKE. to everything that. The simple relatives who. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. that is. whichever. being referred to. and in 2. no certain antecedent. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. and parse that in the first clause. 2. Do what we can. "common souls pay with that [singular. It is clear that in 1. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. object of do] they do. object of with] which [singular. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. by meaning and use. 3. whatever. in a new and original way. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. Take which you please. 123. Hence some take what as a double relative. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. 5. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. . It is no proof of a man's understanding. 4. whatsoever. no particular thing. whatever is equivalent to all things which." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. which. List and examples. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. 2. whatsoever. not as direct as the simple relatives. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. and his friend a fool. 6. summer will have its flies. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. whosoever. or what else soever. whichsoever. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. So with the other indefinites.²MACAULAY. 121. 122. Only itself can inspire whom it will.²BURKE.

show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. Instead of the phrases in which.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England.. but which only wealth could have purchased. etc. Former use of as. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. whereby. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. nothing that does not interest us. . thus. etc. what means anything that. Other substitutes. 2. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. either one that.² 1. upon which. There is nothing but is related to us.²DE QUINCEY. 124.² some particular thing.. not following the word such. 121.As shown in Sec. Two words. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. but and as. 120. But and as. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not.²EMERSON. 125. as what hardly ever has an antecedent.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. 126. Proof that they have the force of relatives. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. but mean any one whom. 121. are used. etc. Sec. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. 417). 4. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. by which. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. for example.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. has been my heaviest affliction. This. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. In early modern English. everything that (or everything which). the conjunctions wherein. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. as was used just as we use that or which. and that as after such is equivalent to which. for example. whereupon.²HAWTHORNE.

if expanded.²EMERSON. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. . The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. Another caution. and 3 (b). (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. it is a simple relative. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. 127. How to decide.²WHITTIER. and whether what = that + which (if so. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. In studying such sentences. showing that who is plainly interrogative. "But what had become of them? They knew not. no antecedent is expressed. which would indicate that they are not relatives. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. But in 1 (b). PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. "Who stood behind? We knew. So in 2 (b).A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide." etc. it is an interrogative. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. if not. 2. if not. would be.. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. In sentences 1 (a). The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. though the earthwork hid them. which having the antecedent lines. Special caution needed here." Likewise with which in 3 (b). second. 3. the full expression being. what is interrogative. a question is disguised in each sentence. Thus. 1 (b). there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. who having the antecedent gentleman. 2 (b).²ID. it is an indefinite relative). it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized.

² These are the sounds we feed upon.²CARLYLE. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. which has the antecedent hue. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. When Goldsmith died. and asks no question.²FORSTER 6. 129. whence is the interrogative word. Put in the relatives who. 4. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. In the second. Relative omitted when object.²GOLDSMITH. In the first.128. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. Exercise. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. I visited many other apartments. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed.²FLETCHER. In the third. Examine the following:² 1. and Court Calendars. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. 5.² THACKERAY. .²G. On the other hand. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. The insect I am now describing lived three years. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. ELIOT. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. whose has the antecedent you. Thus. the question is asked by the verb. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. 2. which. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. 3.²SWIFT. but the life of man in England. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor.²HOLMES.

the house was full. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge.²SCOTT. which was already proceeding. Relative omitted when subject. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. which.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. and comparatively so in poetry. or indefinite relatives:² 1. 6. . 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. 5.²SHAKESPEARE. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. Examples are. Function of adjective pronouns. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. who were to be rulers over whom.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. It is rare in prose.7. 2. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. There was such a crowd went. that. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. 3.Ne'er looks upon the sun. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen.²CAMPBELL. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns.² LOWELL. 130. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. simple relatives. The nobles looked at each other.²Id. Also in literary English we find the same omission. and what. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. He went on speaking to who would listen to him.

²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. expressed or understood. It must come under the requirement of pronouns." that is. and on each is written. none. etc. or use. 'Truth. etc. in the first. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. Caution. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. "these pranks. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. which we have seen in such expressions as. in letters of gold.²BRYANT.²IRVING. "another bank. in order to be an adjective pronoun. few. or they may stand for nouns.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these.131. 133. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. Adjectives. or an argument in a paragraph. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. not pronouns." in the others. such as this. and stand for a noun. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. In the first use they are adjectives. that. but have lost their adjective use. "each cube." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will." Classes of adjective pronouns. many. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. as some. any. all. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. or may be the whole of a sentence. Primarily they are adjectives. etc." "Where two men ride on a horse." "one man. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. must not modify any word. 132. such as each. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. . That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²EMERSON. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. "The dead are there. necessarily thought of: thus. neither. either. but in this function. For example. and another to get cool under. For instance. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence." in the second.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. a word. the former.

Some of these are simple pronouns. 134. 2. or sat. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. Definition and examples. but what he fain had seen He could not see. or reclined. Simple. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. Their minds accorded into one strain. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. They had fewer books. they that plow iniquity. NOTE.²EMERSON 4. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil.²ID. Such are a few isolated instances. and they have well performed the other. reap the same. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. for example. They have not shunned the one. 3.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.²LOWELL.² They stood. accidentally preserved. . A man inspires affection and honor. when the latter was the King of Spain. Even as I have seen. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. Exercises. but these were of the best.²ID. and sow wickedness. Compound. as seemed good to each. because he was not lying in wait for these. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. 5.All these he saw.

Men take each other's measure when they react. as most were. None shall rule but the humble.²EMERSON.²HAWTHORNE.Two are compound pronouns. as.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. 135.²KINGSLEY. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with.²HOLMES. such as one other. The Soldan. . Some inflected. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. we might the more easily discharge them. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. Much might be said on both sides. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. imbued. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. The word one has a reflexive form. Definition and examples. for example. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. you quickly come to the end of all. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. as some of the rangers had gone astray. another.² One reflexive. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many.²each other. Another opposes him with sound argument. paused over a horoscope. or melt for others' woe. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. one another. Exercise. as it were. They led one another. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. ²HAWTHORNE. with the superstitions of his time. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. The lines sound so prettily to one's self.

²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. what. Somebody. somebody else. unlike adjective pronouns. Definition and examples. every one (or everyone). The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. as. in building of chaises. nobody. etc.Exercise. anybody else's.. anybody. Now. and was indefinite in Old English. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. but. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. Every one else stood still at his post. They indefinite means people in general. any one (or anyone). and somewhat. . everybody. anything. every one else. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. etc. as shown in the words everybody's. 137. everybody else. I tell you what.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. they say. anyone else. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. naught. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. These other souls draw me as nothing else can.²SHAKESPEARE. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. Jove laughs. no one. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. everything. and they. Exercise. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things.² At lovers' perjuries. nothing. also aught. some one. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. they are never used as adjectives. something.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. 136." It means something.

were suffered to depart. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. 2. and of no other. O thou that rollest above. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. to which. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. 4. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. 3. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. 9. Exercise. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. I first found myself among the mountains.²a feature of natural scenery for which. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. in his negotiations. Whoever deals with M. 14. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. 17. Others did the same thing. 7. Hutchinson tells us of herself. indeed. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). 6. . 5. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. All was now ready for action. 11. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. 13. 138. but not to quite so enormous an extent. The table was good. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings.See also "Syntax" (Sec. 8. 18. from my earliest days. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. 16. 10. A reminder. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. For this did God send her a great reward. 12.

what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. 26.Who knew thee too well.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. And I had done a hellish thing. Whatever he knows and thinks. thou rollest now. 31. that let him communicate. hear. They know not I knew thee. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. 30. 29. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. eat white bread or brown. I who alone am. 34. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . oh. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. 35. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. And will your mother pity me.And it would work 'em woe. He sate him down. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. who take the world easy. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 23. 25. and seized a pen. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. 32. in all its height. 21. behold now the semblance of my being. well-oiled dispositions. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble.19. hear! 33. 27.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. variety.Destroyer and preserver.

44. It may have this office alone. Substantives. 42." etc. and if we are near. etc. 45. Office of Adjectives. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. Who hears me. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. which was no bad step towards my liberation. and he learns who receives. 40. If a chemist discovers a new substance. that is our permanent state. 139. who understands me. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. 39." "a hundred men." "some cities. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. white or red. as. position. He knew not what to do. We need to add some words to tell its color. or liquid. 37. We are by nature observers. and so he read. He teaches who gives. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. then." "that house. heavy or light.. "one hat. or with persons. 43. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. size. becomes mine." The office of an adjective. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. brittle or tough. Again. in pointing out an object. so that no other will be mistaken for it. ADJECTIVES. 41. the number is limited by adjectives." "yonder hill. .36. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. adjectives are used. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. 38. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. For example. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. if we are at a distance. such as in the expressions "this man. etc. As to the kind of words used. or gaseous. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. So with any object. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid.

(4) Pronominal adjectives." "ivory-handled pistols. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES." "ice-cold water." "next-door neighbor. divine. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives." "half-dead traveler. 143. 142. With exception of the "and then. fair. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. terrible. To make this clear. pointing out particular things. to describe it or to limit its application. to forgive. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. Examples are. Definition." the "and there." "this life-giving book.² BACON. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. or how much of a thing. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets." "the Christian pearl of charity." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. remotest. used to tell how many things are spoken of. happy. derived from proper nouns. They include relative and interrogative words." "unlooked-for burden. Classes of adjectives.²COLERIDGE." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck." they constitute all his connections." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White.140. To err is human." . and their trash. "an old English manuscript. "Heaven-derived power. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. Nouns are not. deep. Infinitives. (2) Adjectives of quantity." and the still less significant "and so. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. words primarily pronouns. such as safe. (3) Demonstrative adjectives.²POPE. etc. such as." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. however. beautiful. rash. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. If he be thankful for small benefits. 141." "the Roman writer Palladius. it shows that he weighs men's minds.

" "One is hungry. . They have these three subdivisions:² How much. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. sometimes small. For instance: in the sentence. Care is needed. no. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished." "The clearness and quickness are amazing." "a charming sight. some. much.²MACDONALD. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. in this.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. in studying these last-named words. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. and another is drunken.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. considerable. having some of each subclass named in Sec." Caution. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb." "It came on like the rolling simoom.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting." "an aged man. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman.But ever she looked on Mr. 143. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. 'Tis midnight. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted." was is the verb." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. 145. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. Examples are. 1. Exercises. which are either pure participles used to describe. and accomplished is an adjective." was accomplished is a verb. 2." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. 144." "trailing clouds. Oxenham. but small thoughts have I of sleep." "The shattered squares have opened into line. any. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY.²COLERIDGE.

Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. When some." "In came some five and twenty more. instead of modifying them. that. the former²the latter." "a dozen volunteers. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show." Single ones of any number of changes. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. How many. The following sentences present some examples:² . and with them a few negroes.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking.² Every town had its fair. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. The demonstrative adjectives are this." "I have lost one brother. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head.²KINGSLEY. those). as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives.²ID. Examples. An arrow was quivering in each body. no. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts." "He had lived by hunting for some months.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity.²THACKERAY." (b) Indefinite numerals. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. "one blaze of musketry. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound." "Then we wandered for many days. but I have gained fourscore. former.²VAUGHAN." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. its wake. The list. they come under the next division of adjectives. Not primarily pronouns. yonder (or yon). Thus. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. every village. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of.²CARLYLE. Exercise. latter. are used with plural nouns. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. as. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. any. (plural these. 146.

Oxenham fought desperately. 149. was the ruin of every mother's son of us.²ID. like the other numerals. skill which was at pause. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. skill which was progressive²in the other. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here.²GOLDSMITH. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. Modify names of persons or things. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. tell how many things are meant.²ID.²BANCROFT. When we speak of the seventeenth century.²KINGSLEY. Exercise. These do not.²D. Indefinite relative adjectives. 148. WEBSTER.. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove.but all these charms are fled. As has been said. Definition. what revenues or garnitures. for example. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. 147.²WORDSWORTH. but in the one case. ²CARLYLE. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. They are of two kinds. just as the corresponding pronouns do. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century.²BULWER. but. FRANKLIN. I verily believe. they are changed to adjectives. The silver and laughing Xenil.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. . when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. These were thy charms.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. The taking of which bark. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. In which evil strait Mr.²RUSKIN..² It matters not what rank he has. of equal skill. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art."²B. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be.

²AGASSIZ. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. . Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. the debt to the rich.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). which. you at least give him full authority over your son. In direct questions. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. New torments I behold. Whatsoever kind of man he is. As in the pronouns. whatsoever. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. In indirect questions. proved not altogether displeasing to him. whichever. nature will be sure to bear us out in. 151.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor.²RUSKIN. it is impossible to determine. and gaze.²IRVING. whatever.. or whether any. as it rather seemed.²LAMB. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. A lady once remarked. But when the Trojan war comes.And whichsoever way I turn. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. and new tormentedAround me. Examples of their use are. what inquires about things or persons not known.²CARLYLE. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. Adjective what in exclamations.² EMERSON.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. and points to yonder glade?² POPE.150. whichsoever way I move.. Was there. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. whichsoever.²ID. which is selective among what is known. He was turned before long into all the universe.

When we place two objects side by side. color.Adjectives have two inflections. which was fully inflected in Old English. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. And yet. In exclamatory expressions.²but not the same degree. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. 153 . gold is heavier than iron. NUMBER. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. weight. or amount. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. etc. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. All these have certain qualities.. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE.²This.152. as. or size.² Oh. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. we notice some differences between them as to size. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. Meaning of comparison. COMPARISON. This is the old demonstrative. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs.²number and comparison. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. etc. alas. 154.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. Those borrowed from this. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. of the quality. or weight. Thus. Exercise. and when we compare the objects. and those as the plural of that. 155. . But this had also another plural. we do so by means of their qualities. History of this²these and that²those. It is neither relative nor interrogative. That. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. th s (modern those). the making of it right. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. The article that was used with neuter nouns. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. those).

whether they attend their own affair or not. sufficient. . as. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. 156. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. redder.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. but were not common until a century later. they are not compared. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. for example." "the commonest speech. strictly considered. 157.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. So with the words sole. The comparative is formed by adding -er. These are properly the only degrees. indomitable. easier. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. with less wit. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. great. expressing the greatest degree of quality. These are called degrees of comparison. and the superlative. whose favorite pupil he was. red. giant-like.²SEWARD." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. infinite.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. expressing a greater degree of quality. Freedom is a perpetual. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. bluest. or amounts in quantity. and the superlative by adding -est. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. reddest. to the simple form. 159. supreme. indefatigable. universal institution. bluer. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. "more matter. Definition." Words that cannot be compared." "the largest soul. They came into use about the thirteenth century. "untamed thought." "no fewer than a hundred. 160. The two forms. blue. as. easiest.²THACKERAY. A main difference betwixt men is. easy. though the simple. and many others. enormous. organic. but. Substitute for inflection in comparison." "It is a nobler valor. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. immemorial. 158.

honestest.² CARLYLE A gentleman. peaceablest. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given." Carlyle uses beautifulest. strange. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most.² -er and -est or more and most? 161." "the wonderfulest little shoes.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. 162. falling on his knees. etc. and other words are preceded by more and most. These are adjectives irregularly compared. there needed to be a most genuine substance.²ID. admirablest. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. Adjectives irregularly compared.Which rule. easy." said Henry Esmond. The following lists include the majority of them:² . so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. mournfulest." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. who. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. "So help me God. 163. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. and yet familiar. and patientest fusing.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. indisputablest. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. madam. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. harsh forms are usually avoided. quiet. finest chiseling.²The Nation. I will. which hung behind in the queerest way. was most finished." "more odd. These long. polished. as. though born in no very high degree." "more austere and holy. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. The general rule is. most small. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. witty." "sorrowfulest spectacles. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree." "distantest relationships.²ID.

A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. next Nearest Latest.LIST I. latter Hinder LIST II. last Hindmost. The superlative I form was betst. oldest Nighest. (2) In Old English. as in Shakespeare. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. 7. [Out] Outer. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. 3. 2. (3) Little is used as positive to less. 164. evil was the positive to worse. There was an old comparative bet. least. a double comparative.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. which has softened to the modern best. though from a different root. older Nigher Nearer Later. which has gone out of use. lesser. lesser Elder. throw away the worser part of it. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative.² We have it in a much lesser degree. 6. uttermost Upmost. further Farthest. is often used. as in the sentence (14th century). innermost Outmost. bad. worst. Hind 2. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. uppermost LIST III. 4. These have no adjective positive:² 1.² O. List I. 8. 5. as. Worser was once used. utter 3. 9. Good or well Evil. 1. furthest 10. A double comparative. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. hindermost Much or many More Farther. [In] Inner Inmost. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. .²HAMLET. outermost Utmost. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost).

(6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. etc.²forth. but originally the comparison was nigh. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. are earlier than older. near. latest. moche. first.²KINGSLEY. or series. and the superlative nearest. "Many a little makes a mickle. next. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. strenger. The most part kept a stolid indifference. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series.² The more part being of one mind. furthest. The meanings greater. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. making the modern farther.²HAWTHORNE. great.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. since the m is for -ma. except the form next. oldest. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. a distinction has grown up between the two series. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. (5) The forms elder. greatest. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. Since later. instead of lenger. are shown in such phrases as. farrest. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. but not in meaning. The latter. doubling the inflection. further. First became entirely detached from the series.²ID. came into use. In imitation of further. eldest. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. . and refer to time. the old forms. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. th came into the others.. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. as long. as. to which is added -ost. there is scarcely any distinction. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. List II. farthest. meaning the largest part." Its spelling has been micel. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. an old superlative ending. strong. Between the two sets as they now stand.. ²LAMB. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. is quite common. muchel. much. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. to England we sailed. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. for example. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. etc. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force.

in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. in having no adjective positives." "The outer is of the day." "the innermost moral soul. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. or have no comparative forms. The adjectives in List III. List III. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. all may belong to the same noun. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives.²HAWTHORNE. 168. There. Think what each adjective belongs to. by the by." "far-seeing as the sun. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. They have no superlatives. the upper light of the world. Highest and midmost. 166.²DE QUINCEY. Decidedly handsome. . Her. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. on the very topmost twig. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain." -Most added to other words.²KINGSLEY. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. In List II. but her after deck was still dry. BEECHER. or each may modify a different word or group of words." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. was descried The royal banner floating wide." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man.²H. being merely descriptive. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. The comparatives are so in form." "their utmost exertion.²SCOTT. are like the comparative forms in List II. (Sec. Her bows were deep in the water. 167. and have no comparative force.²EMERSON. but they have no adjective positives.²DE QUINCEY. but not in their meaning.165. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. W.

²NOAH PORTER. 2. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. But in this sentence. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES.² My then favorite. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. solid. 169. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. ²TROLLOPE. . The seldom use of it." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. deep. STOWE. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. not decision alone. round.²HAWTHORNE. This. By a convenient brevity. Whenever that look appeared in her wild." in which then is an adverb.²HOLMES. our new government. Other instances are. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives.²TRENCH. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. 7. A few improper jests and a volley of good. in prose. 6. Our sometime sister. "the one who was then king.²BIBLE. as.²A.For example. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. and heaven-defying oaths. in this sentence. STEPHENS 5." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. we may say "the then king. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. now our queen. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID." making then an adjective. 3. bright. therefore. In the following quotations.²HAWTHORNE. Bradbury and Evans. Richard Hooker. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. rich. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. and broken. 4.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. It may still be argued.²MRS. H.²RUSKIN. philosophical. and thine often infirmities. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. the then and still owners. May we not. For thy stomach's sake. usual modifies incomparable decision. Exercise. deeply black eyes. and moral truth. instead of saying. satisfactory. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision.

across the plain. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. seventy-five drachmas. modifies truths. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. 10. She made no reply. modifies the word truths. 4. with awkward but rapid pace. 170. 5. if it can be compared. MODEL FOR PARSING. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. (2) Its number. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. Exercise. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. 7. plural number. Since adjectives have no gender. These points out what truths. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. 6. then. the method of parsing is simple. 3. 2. or case. manly way. This gave the young people entire freedom. therefore demonstrative. not inflected for number. (4) What word or words it modifies. Unfamiliar describes truths. cannot be compared. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. 8. frank. if it has number. To every several man. I ask nothing of you. To every Roman citizen he gives. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. (3) Its degree of comparison. therefore descriptive. . A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. and most astounding were those frightful yells. this. having a singular. positive degree. and very few have number. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. and I waited for none. 9. compared by prefixing more and most. In parsing an adjective.What to tell in parsing. person.

the same love to France would have been nurtured. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. Their name was the last word upon his lips. I know not what course others may take. In music especially. 14. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. Two hours elapsed. 18. With every third step. 28. 20. 26.11. To say what good of fashion we can. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. not so much for travelers that were few. 31. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. 12. 16. 24. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. Nearer to our own times. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. 13. and therefore more interesting to us. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. and dogs. growing in the most unfavorable position. it is so noble a fruit. it rests on reality. 21. 23. he won affections with ease. 32. during which time I waited. suggests such thoughts as these. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. yonder oxen in the pasture. is the settlement of our own country. the tomahawk fell. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. oxen. . Here lay two great roads. 25. as for armies that were too many by half. 22. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. and many poles supported the lower ones. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. 33. are immutably fishes. 29. those dogs in the yard. 19. Like most gifted men. 27.

The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. A hard-struggling. 35. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. An historian. Our expressions the one. with an ordinary little garden. 173. 174.34. weary-hearted man was he. even when not silent.²BREWER. meaning one. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. just as adjectives do. Examples: "a house. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. the other. these occurring as the tane. 172. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. the tother. for example. later th . or the tane. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road." "an honor. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. the tither. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect." An with consonant sounds. Two relics. that) which was also an article in Old English. 37. Many writers use an before h. that other. th o. but the former is used. a before consonant sounds. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. s o. the latter is still preserved in the expression. In Middle English the became an article." "an orange.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. and a before consonant sounds. he is no literary man. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. were formerly that one." "a European." "a yelling crowd. ðat.²SCOTT. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general." the words the and an belong to nouns. An before vowel sounds. in vulgar English. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. An or a came from the old numeral n. In the sentence. . when the word is not accented on the first syllable. 171. such as we have been attempting to describe. sometimes the tother. the tother. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. Their origin. ARTICLES.²MACAULAY.

not descriptive. and when the word river is omitted.²THACKERAY. An or a is the indefinite article.² Don't you remember how. 175. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. since it points out a particular individual. When the is prefixed to a proper name. The is the definite article. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. which cannot be used alone. or class.²IRVING. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. 177. Kinds.. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. 176. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. as in the sentence. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. An and a are different forms of the same word. 179. and not a state or other geographical division.²G. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of." the article indicates clearly that a river. or any individual of a group or class. or group. is referred to. doubtless.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. Articles are either definite or indefinite. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. Reference to a known object.²HEROES OF ASGARD. the older n. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. a person is introduced by a. thus. NOTE. The Dakota tribes. An article is a limiting word.² . or a group or class of things. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. Definition. as "the Mississippi.²COLERIDGE.." "the Ohio. With names of rivers. BANCROFT. 178. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images.. To call attention to attributes. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. An hereditary tenure of these offices.²This use is noticed when. on opening a story.

²KINGSLEY. Kant. not into a particular virtue. With adjectives used as nouns. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. but into the region of all the virtues. her.²EMERSON. as.² The faint.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. Half abstract. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. 182. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. The.²SCOTT. so is the evil. Schelling. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. the Hume. BANCROFT. 181. If the good is there.²ID. Caution.²MOTLEY. the Spinoza. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs.The Bacon. With plural of abstract nouns. 180. for example. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. 2. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. laid it on the miry spot.²ID. 1. NOTE. and the redwing.²G.²EMERSON.²GIBBON. . or a match put between the fingers. Common. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. For possessive person pronouns. His messages to the provincial authorities. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. etc. 183. The simple rise as by specific levity. the gallant. would speedily extract the required information. One thing for its class. the song sparrow. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift.² As she hesitated to pass on.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

all do not express it in the same way. with some word understood. but fearing is not a predicate. All these are called transitive verbs. a). lone took what? answer. hence is not a verb. which means to go over. c). in (b). The nature of intransitive verbs. a preposition. Hence Definition. 203. In the first. a noun. and a preposition unite as a verb. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. "Put thou money in thy purse.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. or an idea. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. A verb is a word used as a predicate. and shame the most astute. Now. or a material thing. b). it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. from the Latin transire. representing something which it influences or controls. By examining a few verbs. Has takes the object hypocrisy. the word following. in (2." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. In each case. the most astute. but cannot be predicates. taking the staff which always guided her steps. 201. care. or the object. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis." put is the predicate."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. etc. for example. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. and not a verb. endured what? anguish. in (3. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. an article. In giving a definition. In the sentence. 204. in (3.²BULWER . a verb." Examine the sentences in Sec. in this sentence from Bulwer. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. in (c). and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. and to receive the action expressed. which may be a person. Definition and caution. 202. b). Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. to go is no predicate. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. Of those expressing action. an adverb. to say something to or about some person or thing. The nature of the transitive verb.In (a). we consider a verb as one word. can deceive has an object. the most penetrating. (can) shame also has an object. 200: In (1). "Put money in thy purse. and. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. in (2. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. obeyed is a predicate. as. Each influences some object.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. If this be the glory of Julius.²FRANKLIN. but. he will see the need of these ethics. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. I. the first great founder of the Empire. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same.²SHELLEY. in our case. Again. WEBSTER. the second founder. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. and may or may not be regarded true.²may or may not be true.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. 2).I could lie down like a tired child.²MACAULAY. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. Ideal. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. 222. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. they were deeply read in the oracles of God.²BRYCE. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. Unreal²cannot be true. the representative system ultimately fail.² If. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. popular government must be pronounced impossible. for example. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. they were recorded in the Book of Life. 221.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. or be fulfilled. the writer can make the statement following. as. Most excellent stranger.²LONGFELLOW. . If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. Condition or Supposition.² Now. 215. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. as. ²EMERSON. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road.²D. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same.

If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. 223. melodious. and sonorous. the clause being introduced by that or lest. if he speak to you. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other.² It was necessary.. 2. thus. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. would you. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. that he might be strong to labor. she was regarded as a prodigy. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. do you think.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. he supposed. the conjunction is often omitted: for example.² If these things were true. and should. Exercise. But in no case could it be justified. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. NOTE. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. and striven energetically to save Ney. if he was the man I take him for. is used to express purpose. I told him. . except.. to drink strong beer. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. would have sat still with joy and peace. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true.²FRANKLIN. 8. but when the verb precedes the subject. The voice. Epaminondas. P. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. is of similar physiognomy.²N. II. and what kind of condition:² 1. which cannot be true. that we cannot but regret its absence. society could not hold together.²BAYNE.²EMERSON.²SWIFT. clear. if his lot had been mine.²FRANKLIN. The subjunctive. since he [Byron] was dead. 4. especially be. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. If he had reason to dislike him. In the following conditional clauses. though. be any the happier?²THACKERAY.² CARLYLE.. ²LOWELL. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed..²MACAULAY. he had better not have written. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. 6." etc.²CALHOUN. 7. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. might. WILLIS. 5. unless. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. Subjunctive of Purpose. 3. as. may. etc.

that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. So live. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon.Thou go not. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. 226.²D. III. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. VII. In Indirect Questions. within its fairy bowers. I would it were! ²EMERSON.²SOUTHEY. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan.²CARLYLE. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. the answer being regarded as doubtful. like the Latin. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside.Were wafted off to seas unknown. IV. .. till it meet the sun in his coming. V.²DE QUINCEY.And we.That vain it were her eyes to close. none of us could say. Subjunctive of Result. 227.. Expressing a Wish. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. After a verb of wishing.²BRYANT. WEBSTER. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. In a Noun Clause.I have been the more particular. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. 224. In Temporal Clauses.. Ask the great man if there be none greater.²ID.. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. VI. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. Rise up. like the quarry-slave at night.²WORDSWORTH.²MOORE.²COLERIDGE.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. To tell of what had passed. Let it rise. I've wished that little isle had wings. The English subjunctive. 225.

that everything be in its place. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. object. The noun clause. often contains a subjunctive. of cash. is the ultimate fact of man's life. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. .Subject.²COLERIDGE.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. 229.²SCOTT.²WORDSWORTH. we'll turn aside. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. See that there be no traitors in your camp. tell me all that thou hast seen. After verbs of commanding. Some might lament that I were cold. Complement. The first merit.²DE QUINCEY. or whatsoever victual it may be. 228. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. That hunger of applause.² Be the matter how it may. for example.And look thou tell me true. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air.²THOREAU.²CARLYLE.²TENNYSON. is. (b) Adjective. Whatever betide. etc. I have no thought what men they be. Object.² DICKENS.²COLERIDGE.²SHELLEY. Come.And see the Braes of Yarrow. Concessive Clauses. in apposition.. VIII. which may be (a) Pronoun. The essence of originality is not that it be new. in its various uses as subject. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent.

As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. (1) Command.(c) Adverb. fear none. Oh. point to their immortal works. (3) Request. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. Definition. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. 231. Usually second person. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. 232. since commands are directed to a person addressed. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. or requests. a concession. though. we had found [should have found] a poem here. Q. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. 230.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. (2) Entreaty. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. however.² CARLYLE. It must be remembered. entreaties. At the present day.²BRYANT. for example. Honor all men. In spoken English. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person.The spirit he loves remains. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. and condition contrary to fact. to express a wish. IMPERATIVE MOOD.²CHANNING. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are.²J.²SHELLEY. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. . ADAMS. love all men.

"Come along with me. 3. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID.And.. "The Devil take the goose.One glance at their array! 5. request. 2. or I + they.And God forget the stranger!" .²SHAKESPEARE." whispered Kit. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. Sometimes with first person in the plural. etc. child of earth!While each performs his part. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. Break we our watch up. noble earl. 8. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. etc. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1.²CAMPBELL. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed.²SCOTT. lest we rust in ease. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. nothing is to be preferred before justice. receive my hand. Mark thou this difference. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. 7. Part we in friendship from your land. we may use the imperative with we in a command. Quoth she. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. to you implied in it. Whatever inconvenience ensue. 6.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart."²DICKENS Tell me.. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. Oh." Exercises on the Moods."Hush! mother. there will her heart and her prayers be. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. but I + you. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life.

26. will it not fall unbound. then. "Oh. Think not that I speak for your sakes. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. 11. 14. ruined. but repentant child. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. how he may do his work. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. whether he do it right or wrong. Well. Though he were dumb. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. He." 16. let him live where else he like. . 21. 19. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. 20. That a man parade his doubt." continued Old Morgan. Marshall. That sheaf of darts. no literary man.Till you might faint with that delicious pain.9. or do it at all.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. 10.Except. "tell me where I may find my poor.High up in silver spikes! 22. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. 18.That they might answer him. as though an instrument." 25. my dear madam. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. "Mr. in what pomps and prosperities he like. she ought to have it. 13. Forget thyself to marble. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. Though abyss open under abyss. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. it would speak. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. and opinion displace opinion." cried he. He is.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. 23. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12.

234. "It is not in man that walketh. shall. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. and future perfect tenses. by means of the present. Old English had only two tenses. Siddons. such as Latin and Greek. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. past. also. as. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being." past. a form ending in -eth. have. past perfect. as the classical languages have. or agree with it. and the future tense. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. Tense means time. called auxiliaries. such as be. 233. which represented present and future time. and future. Tenses in English. as. in the conjugations. or whether it were as one member of a general party. past.27. 235. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. Meantime.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. or future time. the past.² present. five in the subjunctive. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. PERSON AND NUMBER. to direct his steps. The tenses in detail. "I go away tomorrow. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. in the third person singular. will.²nothing could exceed the amiable. TENSE. When the older pronoun thou was in use. Definition. and the past tense.²the present tense. kind." "If he comes." present. whatever she did. tell him to wait. five in the imperative. 28. "Thou walkedst. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. "Thou walkest. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions." .²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. as will be shown later on. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs.

²choose. Singular 1. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. CONJUGATION. chooses. etc. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. for example. PRESENT TENSE. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. persons. singular number. are. but in English. walketh. etc. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. I were 2. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. choosest. is. were. Few forms. walk has walk. walkedst. 236. 238. Singular 1. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. tense. been. Indicative Mood. walked. Such verbs as choose have five. I be 2. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. This is the third person. [He] is [They] are 3. Singular 1. In classical languages. walks. chose. chooseth. You are 2. "He walks. You (thou) be 3. Definition. mood. moods.²am. [He] were [They] were . chosest). The verb be has more forms. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. chosen (old. wert) 3. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. 237. Singular 1. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. since it is composed of several different roots. and numbers. as. PRESENT TENSE." and this only in the present tense indicative. walking. choosing. tenses. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE.

Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. in four ways. for example. 239. -en. Remarks on the verb be.. (2) was. 240. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. though it is usually a dialect form.²BURKE . By solemn vision and bright silver dream. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. (2) As auxiliary verbs. condition. thus. obligation. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. (b) With the past participle in -ed. The light that never was on sea and land.Imperative Mood.His infancy was nurtured. to form the passive voice.²GOLDSMITH. same as the German sind. Instead of the plural are.²SHELLEY. is. (d) With the infinitive.²WORDSWORTH.²ID. etc.²THACKERAY. (3) be. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva.²SCOTT.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active.. as. were. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. which was now become an occasional banquet. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. etc. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. to express intention. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs.

. future perfect. "I have gone" (present perfect). Singular. We chose You chose 3. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). Singular. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. You choose Plural. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. as. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. as. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. You choose Plural. Indicative Mood. In addition to the above inflected forms. by placing have. tenses. Singular. I chose 2. Singular. etc. We chose You chose 3. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood." "He will choose. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. past perfect. 242. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. 240. You chose Plural. I choose 2. [He] choose [They] choose 3. I chose 2. 1. You chose Plural.241. had. PRESENT TENSE. 1." (2) Present perfect. 1. PRESENT TENSE. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. I choose 2. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. "I had gone" (past perfect). tenses. "I shall be. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. 1. (2). Machinery of a verb in the voices.

lest." "You are chosen. Present. He is choosing. Future perfect. (2d per. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Past definite. Present perfect definite. He had chosen. will be given. Past perfect.] he choose. Future definite." 243. Present perfect. [If. He will he choosing. Present. He will have chosen. He chooses. He has been choosing." (4) The passive forms. He chose. he have been choosing.(3) The definite form of each tense. though. he chose (or were to choose). He will choose. Future perfect definite. as. Only the third person. Subjunctive Mood. " " " " " " " he be choosing. of each tense. ACTIVE VOICE. Present perfect definite. Present. "I was chosen. Present definite. Present perfect. Same as indicative. singular number. He was choosing. Future. Past perfect definite." "They had been running. Same as indicative. he have chosen. He had been choosing. He has chosen. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. Imperative Mood. Past. Indicative Mood. Past definite. etc. Past. " Be choosing. "I am running.) Choose. Present definite. . he were choosing (or were to be choosing). as. Past perfect. Past perfect definite. He will have been choosing. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. Present definite.

Present. Past perfect. Past perfect definite. Past definite. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). He will have been chosen. Present perfect. Future perfect definite. PASSIVE VOICE. Indicative Mood. Exercises should be given.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. they will be discussed later (Sec. . " " " " " " " None. None. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. Present tense. Past Perfect. Present definite. Present definite. Past. None. Present perfect definite.) Be chosen. "He does strike. but verbals. lest. Present perfect definite.] [If. etc. He was being chosen.²This table is not to be learned now. None. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. however. (2d per. he had been chosen. Imperative Mood." "He did strike. Future definite. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. in affirmative sentences. He had been chosen. Past definite. he have been chosen. as. Past. None. Present perfect.NOTE. he were being chosen.. Also. Future. Subjunctive Mood. though. He was chosen. None. He is chosen. None. Future perfect.] he be chosen. He has been chosen." [Note to Teacher. He will be chosen. He is being chosen. 262). Present. Past perfect definite. if learned at all.

bit blown broken chidden. sleep. but adds no ending. drove. 244. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. bid bound. NOTE. which are in parentheses Present Tense. drive. ran. bounden] bitten. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. 245. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . run. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. begged. beg. Kinds. Definition. caught. lay. and may or may not change the vowel: as. laid. verbs are strong or weak. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. Some of these also have weak forms. According to form. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. catch.[adj. Past Tense.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. as. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. slept. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden.

eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drank[adj.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. drunken] driven eaten. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk.

sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. trod worn woven won wound . stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. sunken] sat slain slidden. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck.

²IRVING. as. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. to split. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. and. "his bounden duty. and sometimes occurs in poetry. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. 246. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. and the latter. but is much used in vulgar English.²cleave." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. When it means to carry or to endure. the other. cleft. as.²GOLDSMITH. nor a dog barked.²TENNYSON.² We had each drank three times at the well. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t)."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove." Stricken is used mostly of diseases.² Thou hast clomb aloft. cloven. cleave. The former used to be cleave. "stricken with paralysis.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. Not a cock crew. and another (born) for the passive. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. The form clomb is not used in prose.²COLERIDGE. Our cock. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro." "a drunken wretch. Sometimes in literary English. cleaved. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. cleaved.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. instead of ate and eaten. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. borne is also a passive. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English.²one meaning to adhere or cling." "a sunken snag.²B. now told us it was time for repose." In this confusion of usage.²as (from Shakespeare). ²THACKERAY. especially in that of an earlier period. Historically. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). for example. clave or clove. . as. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink." "the cloven hoof. as (from Holmes).²MILTON. only one set remains certain. Crew is seldom found in present-day English.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. TAYLOR. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. which always crew at eleven. probably to avoid confusion with this. cleft (to split).

2.The form gotten is little used. shore is rare. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. Fling.² If. 9. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. for example. broke." but not much as a participle. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. 3. Find. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. This heard Geraint. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. froze. maiden.²TENNYSON. 7. 10. 8.²DE FOE. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. 245). . Usually shear is a weak verb. Give. Throw.² We had all got safe on shore. Begin. broken.²SCOTT. began. 4. Drive. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. found. flung. He sate him down. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. The butler was hanged. One example out of many is. frozen. drove. threw. which is seldom used except in poetry. Exercises. gave. 6. fallen."²KINGSLEY. as. and grasping at his sword. shaken. found. thrown. as "a shorn lamb. Shake. shook. Fall.²BIBLE." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense.²BYRON. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. fell. Freeze. even in poetry.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. Break. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. given. (a) From the table (Sec. 5. flung.²WORDSWORTH. begun. driven. for example. We usually say. and seized a pen.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow.

²CHANNING This.²SCOTT. . Subjunctive use. which survives in the sentence.. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. must have been an ocular deception. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. PAST. of course. or when it expresses wish. Must is historically a past-tense form.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. 250. according to the infinitive used. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. Indicative Use: Permission. "So mote it be.. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. Could may be subjunctive.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. or. there is one general principle. Ability. (See also Sec. Can is used in the indicative only. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. "far off his coming shines. purpose. The l in could did not belong there originally. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. Have we valuable territories and important posts. 251. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. etc." Must is present or past tense. as it has two meanings.. His superiority none might question. HAMILTON..²PAINE. for full drill on the forms. ability. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action..which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. PAST. it is used only in the indicative mood. They are as follows:² PRESENT. 247. as. 223.²CHANNING. The same remarks apply to ought. 220. but came through analogy with should and would. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. Like must. etc.²HAWTHORNE. 249. from the obsolete verb motan. as in Sec. PRESENT."²WINIER. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. It is indicative when it expresses permission. as it sometimes does.[To the Teacher.

shall and should are used. what shall I say?²N.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave.²MACAULAY. WEBSTER. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. . The sea shall crush thee.Nay. not plod along like apeasant. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. MOULTON.²L.² The time will come full soon. with pronouns of the first person. The following are examples:² Never mind. while ought always has to. as. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. Shall and Will. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. (b) In indirect quotations." Uses of shall and should.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you.²COOPER.² Futurity and questions²first person. in the form of command. promise. C. as. I shall be gone. They shall have venison to eat. to use will and would.e.² (a) To express authority. and corn to hoe.²IRVING. (b) In questions asking for orders. my lad. she should ride like a queen. Second and third persons. he said. to the neglect of shall and should. yea. She rejects his suit with scorn. "I think I will go.²LONGFELLOW. future action).² With respect to novels. as.²THAXTER. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. especially in the United States.²BULWER. shall and should are used. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time.. for example. or confident prediction. 252. She should not walk. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. BROCKDEN BROWN.

(c) With direct questions of the second person. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. etc. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. and is equivalent to ought.²WORDSWORTH.²A. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. First.²SCOTT.²WORDSWORTH. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. 253.²BYRON.. for example. I never was what I should be. as the sole inventor. purpose. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. second and third persons.that I would do him justice.²CABLE. was to be expected. JR. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. time. thus.²ROGERS. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted..²C. or a promise. JAMES. for example. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. and will not return until all is finished. BROWN. as.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS.² I will go myself now. B.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. with the conviction that he should win in the end. LARNED.. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. Disguising a command.²WINTER.²H.²SWIFT. . And promised. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener.²WORDSWORTH. (1) With the FIRST PERSON.

for example. and two of my people. without regard to future time.. when thou wast born.²BURKE. for punishment or intimidation. AND THIRD PERSONS. . They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. The gift of Beauty. will and would are used to express simple futurity. for example.²SCOTT. and mark on the grounds the works. action merely expected to occur.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. Roland. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C.. so you will.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. To be sure. They will go to Sunday schools. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). Mere futurity. as if it were merely expected action. will and would often denote an action as customary.²BANCROFT. (4) With FIRST. PASSIVE VOICE. Would thou hadst it not. SECOND... This puts the order more mildly. will is used to express command. etc. as. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. as.² Subject I omitted: often so. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. BROWN.²IRVING.² Thou wilt take the skiff. and fetch off certain plate and belongings.²LANDOR.²War Records. 254. B.. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. In this stately chair would he sit.(2) With the SECOND PERSON.²the original meaning of the word will.. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. would is used to express a wish. Thine was a dangerous gift.² DICKENS. through storms their brothers are afraid of. When I am in town.²SCOTT. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.

the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. Plural. You will choose. [He] shall choose. 3. [He] will be chosen. [They] shall be chosen. promise. We will be chosen. [They] shall choose. 3. 2. 1. Thou art what I would be.:² ACTIVE VOICE. [He] shall be chosen.Singular. 5. He informed us. 252 and 253. You will be chosen. Exercises on Shall and Will. 1. . You will choose. 1. You shall be chosen. [They] will be chosen. I will be chosen. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. I will choose. We shall be chosen. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. Plural. 3. You will be chosen. We shall choose. 1. Thou shalt have a suit. 3. 2. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. "I shall not run. We will choose. I shall be chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. 2. To express determination. [He] will choose. 4. (b) Examine the following sentences. 2. 1. I shall choose. and that of the newest cut. Singular. You shall choose." answered Herbert stubbornly. 2. Plural. 3. 2. You shall be chosen. You shall choose. etc. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. Singular. 3. Singular. 6. and justify the use of shall and will. Plural. (a) From Secs. [They] will choose. yet only seem.

12. 13. set. set.²ID. need some attention and explanation. WEAK VERBS. Past Tense. 256." the stranger said. This ending has now dropped off.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. "I am a wayfarer. bereft. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. and have no change of vowel.²CHAUCER. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. as. 257. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. or mylk and wastel breed. bereave beseech bereft. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. 9. put. No. was -de or -te. which may be called irregular weak verbs. Lucy stood still. put. and I have nothing to say. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. Of smale houndes hadde she. bereave besought Past Participle. Present Tense. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. 10. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. But the rest.²Class I. bereaved besought . are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. The beast made a sluggish movement. very anxious. then. 11. Irregular Weak Verbs. put." 14.7. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. my son. 255. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. as if he would have more of the enchantment. The old ending to verbs of Class II. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. Without having attended to this. (2) Those which end in -d or -t.

spelt spilt staid. hid kept knelt laid leaned.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. leant leaped. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. leant leaped. leapt left lost meant paid penned. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leapt left lost meant paid penned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

To with the infinitive. ACTIVE VOICE. [To] have chosen. Infinitives. Perfect. try clemency. they have an indefinite.. 10. will (with should and would). I returned to reflection on my situation. Three saplings. when inflections became fewer.. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. PASSIVE VOICE. [To] be chosen. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. formed a kind of bedstead. In Sec. But later. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. 9. [To] have been choosing. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. Cases when to is omitted.. 267. an indefinite and a perfect form. and a perfect definite form. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. to express action unconnected with a subject. When active. INFINITIVES. as in the Old English. 266. [To] choose. Indefinite. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. like participles. have no tense. Imperfect. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. Nothing of the kind having been done.6. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). [To] be choosing. 8. 268. Indefinite. Perfect.²the creature warring against the creating power. . a perfect. an imperfect. expressing purpose. Perfect definite. to was used before the infinitive generally. and when passive. 7. [To] have been chosen.

also let.² She was a kind. negative. as. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. "She ask my pardon. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. HALE. feel.²HOWELLS.²IRVING. make. bid (command). and emphatic forms of the present and past. poor woman!" cried Charles. liberal woman.²GOLDSMITH. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. and like a noun in use. it has several attributes of a noun. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. "He will choose. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE.²COOPER. 271. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. the gerund may be called a noun verbal.²TENNYSON. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. sometimes need (as. please. GERUNDS. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). and corn to hoe. too. under "Analysis. "I do go" etc. do (as." "I shall have chosen. E. "a house to let. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. or the object of a verb or a preposition. 270. The gerund is like the participle in form. But there was nothing to do. must. watch.²MACAULAY.²E. as in the expression. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. it may be the subject of a verb.²it may be governed as a noun. They shall have venison to eat. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay." (4) In exclamations. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. as.. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. it is often preceded by the definite article.² What! doth she. as.). 272. 269. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent.²DE QUINCEY. learn [doth learn is one verb." Examples are. as the credulous imagine.(2) After the verbs may (might). hear. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. also in the imperative. can (could). While the gerund expresses action. ." etc. see.

(6) Verbal nouns.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun." also (2. (5) Gerunds. (4) Pure adjectives. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. after examining the nest. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. and wonderful store of learning! ." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. which express action." Exercise. 4. Then how pleasing is it. and has been put down. may govern and be governed. 2. which express action. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. on your leaving the spot. but do not assert. above." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. according to use as well as meaning. What a vast. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. which have lost all verbal force." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. (3) Participial adjectives. brilliant. to see the returning hope of the parents. and five gerunds. 273." "Certainly dueling is bad. when. but cannot govern. Words in -ing are of six kinds.²Find sentences containing five participles. Sec. which name an action or state. II). which express action and also modify. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. b). making the definite tenses. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. five infinitives. (2) Pure participles. Exercise. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1.

he gave out sentence by sentence. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. Thackeray did not.²which of the tenses given in Sec. I. you must. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. (3) Mood. The only means of ascending was by my hands. I suppose I was dreaming about it. VERBS. (b) as to use. 13. 10. Caution. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. 11. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. 234.²transitive or intransitive. 15. slowly.²active or passive. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow.²strong or weak. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. (5) Person and number. 275. 9. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. or imperative. 14. 7. What is dreaming? 8. but. subjunctive. . (2) Voice.5. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. write twenty pages without stopping. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. by object lessons.²indicative. In parsing verbs. 6. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. give reality to your teaching. giving principal parts. He spread his blessings all over the land. like Sir Walter Scott. much corroded. 12. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. (4) Tense. round which is an iron railing. bearing her national emblem. dictating from his chair. 16.

II. usually it does not. definite. 2. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. Let it rise! let it rise. might. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. (2) Infinitive. perfect. Exercise. could. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. would. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. no sin nor sorrow. VERB PHRASES. etc. past tense. 4. past tense. in the world. and ends in -s. perfect. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. VERBALS. 278. The government might have been strong and prosperous. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. 2. active. see Sec. 3. (b) its use (Sec. call should a weak verb. and parting day linger and play on its summit. (c) to what word it belongs. intransitive. indicative. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. can. You are gathered to your fathers. (3) Gerund. (b) whether indefinite. therefore active. etc. 235. . But unless the verb is present. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. has the subject government. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. 273). call might a weak verb. may. followed by a pure infinitive without to. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. indicative (as it means could). then parse it as an adjective. Parse the verbs. intransitive. Take these examples:² 1. If a participial adjective. and should always be analyzed as phrases. must. (1) Participle. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. imperfect." Sometimes it does. In 2. (a) From what verb derived. 278(2). till it meet the sun in his coming. (b) whether active or passive. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. we must beware of the rule. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. III. In such sentences as 1. Especially frequent are those made up of should. 277. has for its subject Lee. It has been intimated in Sec. and not taken as single verbs. give points (a) and (b)..276. verbals." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived.

He passed across the room to the washstand.Henceforth in me instill. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. 17. as usual. The soul having been often born. 19. With them. and wondered if she were yet awake. Read this Declaration at the head of the army.5. 8. 10.O God. a deafening shout. 16. In going for water. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. he thought only of her. So. When he arose in the morning. 13. Whatever ground you sow or plant. see that it is in good condition. 11. "God save our Lord the King!" 7.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 22. leaving me upon the bed. a sweet good will. morning is not a new issuing of light. or. as the Hindoos say. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. Right graciously he smiled on us. from a sort of temporary death. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. 6. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. 20. 9. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. a new waking up of all that has life. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. 12. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. However that be.Down all the line. 15. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. 23. 18. . 24. 14. a new bursting forth of the sun. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. as rolled from wing to wing. 21. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor.

place. Nor was it altogether nothing." An adjective or an adverb. 279. 29. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. And now wend we to yonder fountain. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. for the hour of rest is at hand. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. thou sayest. When action is expressed. .²CARLYLE. and so on." "He was absolute. they are more himself than he is. for example.Feast while we may.² The young man reveres men of genius. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. A verb.²EMERSON. and limit adjectives or adverbs. as. To the almost terror of the persons present." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. The word adverb means joined to a verb. ADVERBS." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. who live with nature?²ID. Oh. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. and live ere life be spent. because.²SHELLEY. or manner: as. Is it only poets. "William's private life was severely pure. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. Better it were. 26. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it.25. Adverbs modify. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. to speak truly. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way."²DE QUINCEY. to consent.²THACKERAY. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. and men of leisure and cultivation.²time. 27.

before.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. An adverb. and half awfully. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. for example. 169. being adverbs naturally and fitly.² LOWELL.²BYRON. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. etc. or a word group used as such. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. Make music to the lonely ear. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. not the noun. has induced some of us to attend it. B. all wet and glossy. lately. Surely happiness is reflective. 280. then. thus. but still with a rich bloom to it.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. but really modifying. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it.²LEIGH HUNT. NOTE. is a modifying word.²These last differ from the words in Sec. A phrase. ²IRVING.²TROLLOPE. to-day. We are offered six months' credit.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. while those in Sec. 282. like the light of heaven. . Thus considered. as shown in the sentences. and that. A clause or sentence. there are six classes:² (1) Time. Definition. (2) according to their use in the sentence. I draw forth the fruit. but some verb understood. as now.²T. which may qualify an action word or a statement. 169 are felt to be elliptical. NOTE. 281. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. as. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. ever. not simply the forms used in predication. hitherto. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis.He was incidentally news dealer.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words.²THOREAU. It may also modify a sentence. ALDRICH. perhaps.² FRANKLIN.

²R. as well. while so precedes only the adjective usually. telling how much.near. the more perfect will be their obedience. probably. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. Emerson.. Meekness.²BROWNING. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. surely. the more evidently they love liberty.²DE QUINCEY. etc. The more they multiply. (5) Degree. thus. too.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. just. or how far he believes it to be true. greatly. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. the more friends you will have.thither. slightly. (4) Number. etc. (b) PLACE TO WHICH.. (3) Manner. slowly. at least. as little. bravely. 283. This long's the text. singly. White. two by two.² The master.²HAWTHORNE. etc. not. [Sidenote The status of such. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. I was.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun.²BURKE.. maybe. possibly.yonder.where.. So also in Grote. very. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. etc.²LECKY.was for this once of her opinion.(2) Place. as hence. and others. that these adverbs form a very large class. Thackeray. Motley. telling how anything is done. whencesoever. .²SHAKESPEARE. as perhaps.there. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. for example. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. Special remarks on adverbs of degree.thence. 283).²IRVING. (see also Sec. telling how many times: once. etc.whence.which gained him such universal popularity. (6) Assertion. especially the comparative of these words. and not infrequently are found in literary English. as hither. better. enough. twice.whither. as here. partly. LOUIS STEVENSON. whithersoever.. above. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. much. etc. beautifully. Death! To die! I owe that much To what.

for example. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. for example.²THACKERAY. Again.²"He walked too far [place]. and art but a fool. Some adverbs. have the additional function of asking a question. B. Hard blows and hard money. "Peace.² "Mighty well." "He spoke positively [manner]. 285. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs." "I have seen you before [time].²THACKERAY. Burke. It is only occasionally used in literary English.²FIELDING.²BAYNE. STOWE. Direct questions. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived.Pretty. Aldrich.²HAWTHORNE.²BULWER. besides modifying." "That were far better [degree]. Pretty is also used by Prescott. 282. Neville. 284. De Quincey. Notice meanings. Franklin.² KINGSLEY. Interrogative. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. 286. Holmes. Kingsley. and its lawn before [place]. a mighty fine gentleman. Mighty. A pretty large experience. Defoe.² You are mighty courteous. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. Such are most of those given already in Sec. and other writers. Simple. . The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Dickens.²GOLDSMITH." said the king. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. Emerson. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for." "The house. I perceived his sisters mighty busy."²SCOTT. Beau Fielding. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise.

I hearkened. . When did this humane custom begin?²H. I do not remember when I was taught to read. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. WEBSTER.²D. (2) Place. for example. 287.²BYRON. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. (2) Place. they smiled. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. (4) Degree. (5) Reason.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. I know not why. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. CLAY. while having the office of adverbs in modifying.²BULWER. (4) Degree.²POE. I will not ask where thou liest low. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he.²BYRON (3) Manner.

Tell what each word in ly modifies. Many adjectives have the same ending. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. and. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form.²BYRON. Then must she keep it safelier. higher. Form vs. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. Only that we may wiselier see. as. but the whole clause. furthest (rathe. only occasionally having -er and -est. have the same inflection as adjectives. 288. representing four classes. highest. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. Exercise. further farthest. obs." Exercise. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb.²TENNYSON. just as adjectives do. soon. well much little far late Comparative. high.²SHAKESPEARE. soonest. The following. see Sec. not an adverb.But in reality. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. when compared. sooner. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. Its strings boldlier swept. use. .) rather 289. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. Many adverbs are compared.. irregularly compared. when.eyes.²COLERIDGE..²EMERSON. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. For further discussion. 290. when does not express time and modify. Superlative.

² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. near. Special use of there. Not near so black as he was painted. whether adverbs or adjectives. or down the leaves laughed through. 2. evenly. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. kindly and good-natured in secret. 292. But he must do his errand right. hard. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. hardly. He is inexpressibly mean.² EMERSON.²THACKERAY. 4. 5. quick-flashing eye.²WORDSWORTH. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. etc. 3. 6. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. Again. It is true he was rarely heard to speak.²TENNYSON. nearly." Compare these:² 1. . instead of being used adverbially. many words without -ly have the same form. as. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. merely introduces a sentence. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries.²IRVING. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. more courtly in their manners. 7. that in Old and Middle English. 2. if it has the verb be. but with a different meaning. Such are most.²ID. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. 8.²CHAUCER. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. There are eyes. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. even. And all about. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. Frequently the word there. to be sure. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. With his proud.1. 291. mostly. curiously jolly.And his mien of kingly state. The reason is.

(2) Degree of comparison. give² (1) The class. 18. 7. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. 16. But a few steps farther on. however theoretically enticing. 17. The higher we rise in the scale of being. and always. is always politically unwise. and sate down on the steps of a house. burning in the center of the temple. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. 293. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. 3. . 15. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. if the word is compared. Exercise. For the impracticable. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 4. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. In parsing adverbs. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. 10. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. It is the Cross that is first seen. 11. 12. but from my fall? 6. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. Thither we went. (3) What word or word group it modifies. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. 9. 2. according to meaning and also use. but continually shifted. at the regular wine-shop. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. the Madonna is in great glory. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. 5.

conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. Definition." Paragraphs. or sentence groups. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but.19. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. Unlike adverbs. A conjunction is a linking word. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. she would undoubtedly have succumbed." Sentences. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. sentences. 295. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. Clauses. upon which the sun now shone forth. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. . But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. etc. CONJUNCTIONS. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. however. 21. word groups." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. nor. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. then. But now the wind rose again. therefore. hence. but side by side within the American Union. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. 294. 22. It was pretty bad after that. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. but the student will readily find them. connecting words. 20.

. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. moreover. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. still. however.. usually between two things. not only. neither.or.or. serves but to show their ignorance.. Alternative...nor. Correlatives. etc. expressing a choice. I have nothing to do with the governor and council.. or the sea rolls its waves.Classes of conjunctions.. not only. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. as. nor... (2) Subordinate. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. Adversative.. while. as well as. neither. nor. whether. and. whether. of the same rank. answering to each other in the same sentence. Some go in threes. joining words.. (4) ALTERNATIVE. had its weight. "Howbeit. as but. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. word groups. then.. They are or. While the earth bears a plant. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. the window being open. The chief ones are. likewise. 298. Your letter..or whether.and. etc. (3) CAUSAL. etc.. for.but. only. 297. The assertion. Some of these go in pairs. neither. either.or. but is emperor in his own right. as well as the room door. Nor mark'd they less.. introducing a reason or cause. either. Causal. and not man corn. as.. hence.. as and.. the butter too. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. (2) ADVERSATIVE. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. however. either.. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought.. therefore.. both." Nevertheless. whether. . the bread was spent..or.but (or but also).. else... where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. 296. also. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. yet.nor.

etc. so. whithersoever. as.²COOPER. so.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. lest. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. etc. so. nor green leaf. except. He is not only bold and vociferous. however.²PAULDING. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. since. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. while. nor echo. in order that. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. unless. or whether such a body is moved along my hand.. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. nor creeping thing.²WILSON. Time. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. on condition that. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. etc. ²ALLSTON. there will the heart be also. (2) TIME: when. though. especially that after so.as. although. It is. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. whether. whence. . even if.²IRVING. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. that. howsoever. QUINCY.²DE QUINCEY. object. as. etc. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. sometimes if. whenever.²J. after. nor wing of bird. provided. whereas. before.. (3) MANNER: how. as. 299. (7) RESULT: that. since. so that. ere. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because.²BURKE. whither. until.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. in apposition. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. etc..²BIBLE. now. whereto. seeing.. in case. provided that. so that. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. (6) PURPOSE: that. Neither the place in which he found himself. Where the treasure is. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. wherever. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if.

Result.² WORDSWORTH.²IRVING. Condition.²BYRON. I was again covered with water.² H. Purpose. JACKSON.²CAMPBELL. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²COLERIDGE.² EMERSON. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.That he gave her wounds repose. . seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. Concession. a thousand bodies. but not so long but I held it out.²EMERSON.² HAWTHORNE. reason. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend.²DEFOE.²CARLYLE Events proceed. Now he is dead. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. Then Denmark blest our chief.²EMERSON. Sparing neither whip nor spur.²AMES. As a soldier.So I behold them not. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. Substantive.That vain it were her eyes to close. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. So many thoughts moved to and fro. We wish for a thousand heads. H.²EMERSON. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. Comparison.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. not as they were expected or intended. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.²AMES. Cause. Manner.²BURKE.²AMES. Let the world go how it will.

Exercises. 9. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. After he was gone. And they lived happily forever after. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. While patriotism glowed in his heart. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. it will remain harmless. she faintly pressed her hand. while. 4. They. He was brought up for the church. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. however. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. 300. 5. and hid her there. And then recovering. 6. that. hold a subordinate rank.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. 10. the lady called her servant. 12. then. as he shot in air. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. Crept under the leaf. 3. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. her real merit is known at home. since. some words²for example. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. 13. While a faction is a minority. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. 15. 2. In what point of view. As will have been noticed. the wisest. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. Besides. 7. as. . etc.Let us see whether the greatest. No one had yet caught his character. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. 14. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished.²RUSKIN. The moth fly.

as is often equivalent to as if. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. As for as if. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. So silently we seemed to speak. the expression would be. If analyzed. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words.²HOOD. word groups.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. for example. .²IRVING. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if.. they connect. In poetry.16. GREELEY. even as they would weep. As though." as. none of the lashings having given way. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. His voice . In parsing conjunctions. and be a bud again." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc.²EMILY BRONTE. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. expressing degree if taken separately.So slowly moved about. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. In Emerson's sentence. Consequently. 301. "We meet.. in this case. as is shown by the use of as though. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. thus. 304. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. (2) What words.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. As if.Clouded.As though a rose should shut. and part as though we parted not.. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. SPECIAL REMARKS.²BYRON. and the frame will suit the picture. etc. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. 303. 302.

Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. Exercise. so that I could not stir abroad. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor.²DEFOE 2. he sleeps as warm. He dismisses without notice his thought. 12. For example. so that expresses result. that it might testify of that particular ray. In classifying them.²I find them true in Concord. so means therefore. 13. and very seldom?" 8. At sea. but of the natural. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted." said his wife to Martin Luther. in 3. 4. or in the snow. and associates as happily. he is also the correlative of nature. such as nor.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1.²EMERSON 3. and its clause is independent. 2. All the postulates of elfin annals. so they paddled on. as beside his own chimneys. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. When the gods come among men.² 1. they are not known. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. 9. It may be safely trusted. and its clause depends on the other. are regularly of one particular class. Some conjunctions. "Doctor. 3. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. If he could solve the riddle. etc. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. so means provided. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. others belong to several classes.²is subordinate of condition. . He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed.. 5. dines with as good an appetite. in 2. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. 11. It continued raining. compare the sentences.Caution. when. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. and. the Sphinx was slain. 7. so it be faithfully imparted. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. He is the compend of time. 6. because it is his. or in the forest. because. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. and the like.²that the fairies do not like to be named. 10.

30. There was no iron to be seen. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. Now you have the whip in your hand. the whole conditions are changed. therefore. 22. you must be. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. 26. Still. of good novels only. won't you lay on? 17. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more.. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. 27. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. in many a heart. she might have the family countenance. 29. 15. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. . when it was presented to them. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. whose names I omit. 28. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. Goodness must have some edge to it. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. however. that both were wayward. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. For. 19. 16. 20. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. 18. 25. And whether consciously or not. It may be so in the majority of cases. I speak. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. in this they agree. 24. 305.14. 21. enthroned. It is clear. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. save it were sinful like herself.²else it is none. I rejoice to stand here no longer. PREPOSITIONS. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. 23.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. at naught.²R. at one.² (1) The general meaning of place. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. Exercise.²WARNER. .²B.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. etc. (2) Time.²ALDRICH. CONWAY. Like at. D. By.²DE QUINCEY.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. at most. the first port made by the ship. For. at least. at all. at random. (3) Agency or means.²ID. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. 320. at the worst. by the blessed memory of the departed. at work. by the ruins of nations. Richard was standing by the window.²SWIFT. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. by means near or close to. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. STODDARD. Exercise. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. at play. At that time [the earth] was richer.²COOPER. at length. Helena. at the best. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. expressing the degree of difference. by the wrecks of time. 321. at rest. at first. etc. (4) Measure of excess.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. ²PARTON. at once. at peace. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object.²M. H. at any rate. TAYLOR The angel came by night. At St. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. as. he stopped.. by many a million of acres. at war. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. She saw the boat headed for her. By my faith.²EVERETT.

poor fellow. L. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland.²LAMB.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. (8) Meaning notwithstanding.(2) In favor of. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. "For a fool. respecting.²HOOD.²IRVING. There are gains for all our losses. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. "thou hast counseled wisely. but a few sunsets since. An Arab woman. (7) Concession. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. meaning with regard to. "Nay. etc. The twilight being. etc. or extent of space. for famine. For him." said the Lady of Lochleven. (6) Like as. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE."²SCOTT By my faith. cause. (4) Substitution or exchange. or in spite of. incitement to action. etc. in behalf of..²PARKMAN. and leaped for joy. GARRISON. But the Colonel. they are now for us.. for all his title. For the rest." answered Master Brackett. (3) Duration of time. meaning although.²ID. . E. ate her child. the Colonna motto would fit you best. he repented of his folly. if your worship can accomplish that.²E. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. a person or thing. He and they were for immediate attack. considering that etc. for all slips of hers. BANCROFT.² RUSKIN.²STODDARD.²HOLMES. meaning in the character of. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous.²PARKMAN The people were then against us.²W. for the benefit of. (9) Motive.One of Eve's family. as to. H. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. Still. (5) Reference. reason. as being.²EMERSON.²H.²PARKMAN. had a forest of poor relations.

more. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. Of. (4) Motive.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. The original meaning of of was separation or source. ceased to be merciful.²HUME. Like boys escaped from school. . nay. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies.²MILTON. The general idea in from is separation or source. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. (1) Origin or source.²ID. Exercise.²HALE. Coming from a race of day-dreamers.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. From harmony. A distrustful. Exercise. The king holds his authority of the people.²DRYDEN. (2) Origin. if not a desperate man. From. It was from no fault of Nolan's.²BANCROFT. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. or reason. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. H. 323. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. from a desire of seeming valiant. (3) Time.²H. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. like from. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. The young cavaliers.²HUXLEY. 322. cause.²HIGGINSON. The From Relation.

Other Relations expressed by Of. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. or breastpin of native gold. etc.²HIGGINSON.²SCOTT Who formed. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. reason.²BANCROFT. (5) Expressing agency. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame.²LEW WALLACE. A singular want of all human relation. Asked no odds of. relieve. etc. rob. (3) With expressions of material. etc. E. "I am glad of that. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. The hills were bare of trees.²BAYARD TAYLOR. Back of that tree. etc. You cannot make a boy know. that Cromwell once ruled England. More than one altar was richer of his vows.²clear of. wide of. especially out of. motive. weeds. rid. cure. expressing a part of a number or quantity. and grass. deprive. ²GAVARRE. disarm. Sandals. such as ease. divest. deprivation. (6) Partitive. demand. ask. He is away of his own free will. free of.²BOSWELL.²ALDRICH.² HUXLEY. south of. bare of.²DICKENS II. HALE. ²PARTON. (b) After some adjectives.²PARKMAN. there were only twenty-one members present. acquitted them of.. clear. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. .²ID. purge.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. out of the most unpromising materials. of his own knowledge.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. Of the Forty."²E. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. beg. White shirt with diamond studs. bound with thongs of boar's hide. as north of. free. (d) With words expressing distance. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. etc. (c) After nouns expressing lack.

with regard to.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. (9) Of time. . could give shelter from his contumely. The nation of Lilliput. ²IRVING. of is used in the sense of during.²BANCROFT. (7) Possessive. 309. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. E. Besides the phrases of old. (b) Noun and gerund. Not even woman's love.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. (10) Of reference. (8) Appositional. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. Such a book as that of Job. See also Sec. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns.²W. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop.²LAMB. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. with its object. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour.²COOPER. standing. of late. when the first is descriptive of the second.. equal to about. being equivalent to an infinitive.²ID.²PRESCOTT. CHANNING.²BANCROFT. (c) Two nouns. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. and the dignity of a queen. for the possessive.²FROUDE.He washed out some of the dirt.²HALLECK.²BANCROFT.²LOWELL. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. Idiomatic use with verbs. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist.²ALDRICH. The fair city of Mexico. of a sudden. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. concerning.²SWIFT. etc.

. disapprove. on high. avail (one's self). The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. To. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. Exercise. permit. on a sudden. SIGOURNEY. Cannon were heard close on the left. etc. It also accompanies the verbs tire. on the alert. on trial.²BRYANT.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire.²MRS. Exercise. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. and others.²DE QUINCEY. Upon. 325.²PARKMAN. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. (b) With motion.²PARKMAN. equal to about. without adding to their meaning. On.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. on the wing. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. such as admit. complain. approve.²EMERSON.²Find sentences with six uses of of. accept. on board. and not a day more. 324. etc. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. (4) In adjurations. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. The general meaning of on is position or direction. allow. On my life. Upon is seldom used to express time. on view.²ALDRICH. Upon my reputation and credit.²PARKMAN. ²BANCROFT. (2) Time. (3) Reference. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. you are eighteen. repent. consist. concerning.

mid meant in company with. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. whose influence is felt to this hour.²IRVING. With. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.²BRYANT. His brother had died. .Come to the bridal chamber.. Revolutions. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. Death!²HALLECK.²GOLDSMITH. interest. In Old English. to my taste.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.²PARTON. unmasked. to him.²often to the loss of vigor.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him.²PARKMAN. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. (2) Expressing result. Exercise. it may be genuine poetry.. does the mere music. 268)..²BULWER.²HALE. (b) Referring to time. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. He usually gave his draft to an aid. To the few. gay Comedy appears.. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT.²LANG. (5) Equivalent to according to. had ceased to be. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. 326.²B. We cook the dish to our own appetite.to be written over.²Find sentences containing three uses of to.²BENTON To our great delight. But when. Nor.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern.

(5) Opposition. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig.²SCOTT. "poetry is not a pursuit. Messala. He was wild with delight about Texas. he gave millions to the sword. but a pleasure"?²LANG. with all his boldness.²EMERSON. it is necessary.²DE QUINCEY.²HALE. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. E.²COLERIDGE. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. (3) Cause. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. He expired with these words. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. opinion. It seemed a supreme moment with him. (4) Estimation. With all his sensibility. reason. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS.²E. as with you. . motive. transmitted from the beginning. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea.²COOPER.²HOWELLS.²LANG.²WALLACE (7) Time. with Heyward at its head. in spite of.The advance. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. to find the object of the preposition. had already reached the defile. felt it unsafe to trifle further. (2) Instrumentality. or with the haunch of our near leader. but with you. I think.²DE QUINCEY. She seemed pleased with the accident. first of all. Either with the swingle-bar. Exercise.²Find sentences with four uses of with. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things.²CHANNING.²HOWELLS. 327. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. HALE.²ALDRICH.

but I received no other hurt. In (3). the phrase answers the question where. because I had given the provocation.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. I felt my box raised very high in the air. Be that as it will. he followed us one day into those gardens. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. (2) on which. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. came tumbling about my ears. the malicious rogue. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. 5. Exercises. like the clapping of wings. The guns were cleared of their lumber. 4. telling what man. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. before the dwarf left the queen. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. but all to no purpose. and knocked me down flat on my face. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. country. I heard a noise just over my head. or was. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. of on. In (2). we met the defaulter here. hence we say. And so on. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. without a country modifies man. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. shook it directly over my head. In (1).²ID. The object of on board is ships. 2. I remember. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. by which a dozen apples. which.²SWIFT 2. I speak these things from a love of justice. I called out several times. 3. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. of from. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. beginning. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. of without. I looked towards my windows. (4) from the beginning. . (3) without a country. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. To our general surprise. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. Whereupon. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1.

26. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. 15. His breeches were of black silk. For my part. 17. 25. in town. 7. grasping at the child. 16. On all subjects known to man. With all his learning. plumed for battle. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 29. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. 22. to one dark and gloomy. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 18. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. when. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. 23. 13.He spurred his courser on. Carteret was far from being a pedant. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. 10. He locked his door from mere force of habit. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. 24. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 19. The savage army was in war-paint. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. 12. The mother sank and fell. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony.Without stop or stay. 20. after a restful morning. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. in this respect. 21. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. 14. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 11. he favored the world with his opinions. 9. . I like to see the passing.6. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 8. 27.

(2) As an adjective pronoun. (3) As a relative pronoun. THAT. 330. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. (b) Of result. (a) Indefinite relative. and be proud in the midst of its toil.²WEBSTER. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. and not according to form.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. (4) As an adverb of degree. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective.²COLERIDGE. not merely by the amount of the tax. That was a dreadful mistake.That makes the heavens be mute.²WEBSTER. that you might behold this joyous day. (1) Relative pronoun. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them.²STOCKTON. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. We wish that labor may look up here. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. . 328.30. 329. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING.²BEECHER. That is what I understand by scientific education.²WEBSTER.²HUXLEY. That night was a memorable one. (c) Substantive conjunction. And now it is like an angel's song. A few are discussed below. He will raise the price. WHAT.² JOHNSON.

he knows what good people are to be found there.. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. At what rate these materials would be distributed. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative.. Cox. (b) Copulative. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. or not only.but.. it rests on reality. What..Are yet the fountain light of all our day." (4) Relative adjective.. BUT. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. nearly equivalent to partly. to see what might be hidden.. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT.²EMERSON.. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. silent still.²WORDSWORTH.²THACKERAY..Those shadowy recollections. and silent all!²BYRON. who go tinkling by to their pasturage.. but the result of calculation. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. (b) Indirect question. 331. If he has [been in America].²ID.²S. "I'll tell you what. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. What with the Maltese goats.. after not only.Which be they what they may. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. (7) Adverb of degree.in Pera. To say what good of fashion we can.. (6) Exclamatory adjective.²ID.it is impossible to determine. (b) Indirect question.²EMERSON. (8) Conjunction.S.²WEBSTER. . partly. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. What. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way.. (9) As an exclamation. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying.these sounds are only to be heard.

332.²CARLYLE.²SCOTT. but piercing cries. like the dog. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction.²IRVING. (5) Adverb.He yearned to our patriot bands.²IRVING. stands for that .²MRS BROWNING. than. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. equivalent to that . Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. meaning only. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. (3) Preposition.. on all sides. (4) Relative pronoun. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time.²HAWTHORNE. Who knows but. AS. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. I shall see but little of it.. sometimes same. not.. after such. ... after a negative. towards order.²LAMB. (e) Introducing an appositive word.²SHELLEY. (b) Of manner.²IRVING. or who . (b) Substantive. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.. ²CARLYLE. To lead but one measure. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. not. Doing duty as a guard. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result.²EMERSON. meaning otherwise . (d) Of reason. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night.Then arose not only tears. (2) Relative pronoun.²FRANKLIN.. (c) Of degree. at all moments. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal.. meaning except. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. not.

(2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. nervous child. (1) An adjective.²MAYHEW. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. In this second use.² A timid. like him awhile ago. If the verb is expressed. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. but its verb is omitted. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. NOTE. like summer ocean's.²ALDRICH. Introduces a clause. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle.²EMERSON. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. No Emperor.²SHAKESPEARE. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal.-SCOTT. but this is not considered good usage: for example.²EMERSON. That face. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. I do with my friends as I do with my books. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun.²HIGGINSON. In each case.²LAMB. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. Give Ruskin space enough. 333.LIKE. and as or as if takes its place. Note the difference between these two uses.²CASS. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. Through which they put their heads. ²PARKMAN.²LONGFELLOW. staring like a bewildered man. and is followed by a dative-objective. This follows a verb or a verbal.²HALLECK. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases.²DARWIN. like a cook beating eggs. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. and was clearly an adjective.²ALDRICH. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. . indeed. Stirring it vigorously. this. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks.²HAWTHORNE. They look. like drops out. like Martin was.² HAWTHORNE. There is no statue like this living man.

that is. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. Some of these are imitative sounds. pronoun. in separating them into their component parts." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. tut! buzz! etc. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. that is. subject and predicate. etc. entering into the structure of a sentence.INTERJECTIONS. Definition. Definition. etc. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. Value of analysis. but it still retains its identity as noun. 334. as." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words.. clauses introduced by conjunctions. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. verb. What analysis is. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin." PART II.: for example.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb].²in determining case. . 335. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. 336. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc.

The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence.²a subject and a predicate. Definition: Predicate. question. not according to the form in which a thought is put. interrogative. SIMPLE SENTENCES.Kinds of sentences as to form. according to form. (3) Imperative. A rare old plant is the ivy green. 337. old man?" "Be thou familiar. always friends?" imperative. Division according to number of statements. or command: for example. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. . which puts the thought in a question. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. "The quality of mercy is not strained. entreaty. but by no means vulgar. you must not die!" interrogative. But now all is to be changed. 338. hence. or request. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation." 340. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. Every sentence must contain two parts. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. "Hath he not always treasures. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement." "What wouldst thou do. but the sentence would still be declarative. "Old year. or imperative. 2. "Come to the bridal chamber. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. Examples of these three kinds are. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. (2) Interrogative. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. This is the most common one. declarative. Definition. which expresses command. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. but according to how many statements there are. 339.

But if we try this with the second sentence. or an interrogative pronoun. but about the ivy green. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. The last of all the Bards was he. Consequently. the subject is frequently after the verb. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. 6. thou. all.²What is the ivy green? Answer." Exercise. we say all is the subject of the sentence. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. 8. 4. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. Slavery they can have anywhere. adjective. and our definition must be the following. 341. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. or adverb that asks about the subject. In analyzing such sentences. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. especially in poetry. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. 2. and is to be supplied. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. on the other hand. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. we have some trouble. . to suit all cases:² Subject. and the real subject is the latter. In the interrogative sentence. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves.²What is to be changed? Answer. Listen.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. or ye) is in most cases omitted. 5. not of a rare old plant. 3. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. 7. the subject (you. to an ignorant man. "[You] behold her single in the field. Thus. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. a rare old plant. as. always reduce them to the order of a statement.

just as if to say. but it is a true complement. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. Direct Object.10. Indirect object.²transitive and intransitive. 342. but chief belongs to the verb. but of call chief. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. . (3) The object. direct. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. or second object. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. in addition to the object." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. and means summoned. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. "Ye honor me." indirect. and me here is not the object simply of call. (2) The predicate. for example." Complement: 344. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. (5) Modifiers. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. and by object we mean the direct object. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. The subject and predicate have been discussed. (6) Independent elements. (4) The complements. "Ye call me chief. Of a transitive verb. 343. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. The transitive verb often requires.

'Ay. 346. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness.. Complement of an intransitive verb. A phrase is a group of words. As to form. as. 352. 351." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . An intransitive verb. See sentence 19. become." 345. and barring the door. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. sir!' rang out in response. but used as a single modifier. etc." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. introduced by a preposition: for example. seem. not containing a verb. ay." Also an expression used as a noun." Things used as Subject." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. he was now getting old. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. more familiarly. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. as in drowning. and." (2) PARTICIPIAL. feel. Thom of the Gills. 364. I mentioned a case of that nature. or. above sixty." (3) INFINITIVE. 347. in exercise following Sec. "Brow and head were round.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. for instance. especially the forms of be. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. to the completion of this man of the world. "A cheery. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. (1) PREPOSITIONAL." All these complete intransitive verbs." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk." "He was termed Thomas. in the original Opium Confessions." "The good man." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. appear. as in the sentence. in the popular judgment. and of massive weight. taste. 355. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. Phrases.

"'By God. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. etc." "The dead are there. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. or their religion from their sect." "There are asking eyes. was heard one syllable to justify. asserting eyes. (4) After "there introductory. I saw the quick and the dead. but they will be given in detail here." In this sentence. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). for which see Sec. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. but obscures the real subject. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. but the real or logical subject is to print." "Never. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. or the thundering of organs." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. ." The for did not belong there originally.²the infinitive phrase. 341. and by Saint George!' said the King." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time." etc. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. prowling eyes. (2) In interrogative sentences.²the talent of starting the game. from their lips. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. my deficiency." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec." Things used as Direct Object." 348. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. Disguised infinitive subject. "Therein has been." Things used as Complement. and ever will be. 349.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect.

350. As complement of an intransitive verb. Modifiers of Subject. at the same time. Object. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation." "I hear the echoes throng. they are adjuncts of the object.²completing the predicate." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. Of a transitive verb. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. or the equivalent of the noun." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun." Modifiers. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. or Complement." "Serving others is serving us. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. (3) Infinitive." (4) Participle." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me." ." In this last sentence. Like all the complements in this list. the shepherd girl. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. the object is made the subject by being passive. and whenever the complement is a noun. and the words italicized are still complements. As complement of a transitive verb.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. and explaining or modifying the subject. and. trusting the hearts of his countrymen.²heads or tails. I." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. doubtless. complements of the predicate." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot." "Their tempers. 351." "She asked her father's permission.

" "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. "He died like a God." In such a sentence as. see further Secs.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. given at the request of a Dutch lady. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. Modifiers of the Predicate. and leading him from star to star." "In the twinkling of an eye. 357-363. no sociable angel." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. was now called upon for his defense. 351. not with nature." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. I have seasoned for thee." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. austere. but noble teachers." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. the verb being omitted. II. Retained with passive. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. but it is really a contracted clause." "Him. but with other men. or ." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour." (For participial and infinitive phrases. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. tell whether the subject." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. unforgiving. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on." Exercise. Tells how. Since the predicate is always a verb. and modify the predicate in the same way." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. 352.²proud." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. or complement is modified. this young idolater. was the scene from King John.²In each sentence in Sec. object." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. the prisoner at the bar." "Give them not only noble teachings.

6. 5. and other measures of precaution. 4. no emotion. or how long." "All such knowledge should be given her. 6." (6) Adverbial objective. I took. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. 8. he liked. These answer the question when.. no humor. predicate. after dinner. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. but to be loved. and as many to oppose it. To the men of this world. negative." "One way lies hope. But anger drives a man to say anything. They do not wish to be lovely. in regard to particulars. His books have no melody. 3. how far. with my joy and grief. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. 5. predicate. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. a sort of personality to the whole writing. and (direct) object:² 1. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. the indirect object is retained." Exercises. gives wonderful animation.When the verb is changed from active to passive. is good in the making. 2. (a) Pick out subject. 7." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. but the children of the great. etc. 7. no relief to the dead prosaic level. to the animal strength and spirits. and." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. (b) Pick out the subject. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. On the voyage to Egypt. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. in this center? 4. Fashion does not often caress the great. Why does the horizon hold me fast. This. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. and the direct object is retained: for example. 3. according to old philosophers. . 2. Evil.

expecting the return of their parents. then. To suffer and to do. I gave him an address to my friend. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. y y y y Compound Subject. for the first time. . 4. burthened with the anxieties of a man. 2. I felt myself. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. a room seventeen feet by twelve. at length the warrior lady. six children sat by a peat fire. 4. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. 5. Yes. 5.. 3. the blooming cornet. Not the less I owe thee justice. 3. this nun so martial. that was thy portion in life. 2. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. must visit again the home of her childhood. A river formed the boundary. In one feature. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. at the chief hotel. then. Not compound sentences.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. I promised her protection against all ghosts. downwards. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. after their long confinement to a ship. 2. 6. to the right and to the left. Paint me. the present Archbishop of Dublin. Unhorse me. happy dinner. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. 4. 3. this imperial rider.²the river Meuse. Compound Predicate. etc. the attorney. viz.y 8. this dragoon so lovely. and a member of the world. That night. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. Their intention was to have a gay. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. in little peaceful Easedale. upwards.

Of this. etc. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. then the grammatical subject and predicate. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided." "Voyages and travels I would also have. ulcer. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. several modifiers. forming a sentence: "Oh. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. and. hurry." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer." Sentences with compound predicates are. I'm with you once again." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind." And so with complements. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences." "Ye crags and peaks. may be the person or thing addressed. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. Examples of compound subjects are. Independent Elements of the Sentence. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. shouldered the rusty firelock. same as (1). they are not a necessary part. the simple subject is situation. etc. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. but it is to be noticed that. Bishop. however. above: thus. in all such sentences as we quote below. The exclamatory expression. that is. my brave young man!" . in the sentence. 355. two or more subjects of the same predicate. Larger view of a sentence. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. modifiers. and the rest is the logical predicate. the object. hurry. "The company broke up. 354. together with its modifiers. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. the air of the mother. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. the predicate. turned his steps homeward.. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. exposes.353. "Ah. complements. together with all its modifiers. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. etc." "He shook his head." "The name of the child. and its object or complement." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. For example. the tone of her voice. the verb). The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject.

" (2) Adverbial. nevertheless. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. There are some adverbs. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb." "Why. "Oh. (1) Adjectival. etc." (6) Single words: as. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife." "Truth to say. grandma. her noticing even this is creditable. he somehow lived along." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. The words well.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. undoubtedly. moreover. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. or complement (see Sec. modifying a noun. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. how you're winking!" "Now. (b) As a modifier of subject. 6). pronoun. These need close watching. etc. therefore." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes." Another caution. 357. ." "Well. instances of which were seen in Sec. 355. generally speaking. object. 4). really. 350. or word used as a noun: for example. now. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as.. why. such as perhaps. this story runs thus. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. 356. besides." (5) Participial phrase: "But. then. and so on.." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. yes! everybody knew them." "At all events. truly. 352. already noticed. 3. prepositional phrases may be. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. 4). he closed his literary toils at dinner. y (2) The adverbial use. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. see Sec. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. 351. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. that have an office in the sentence. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. see Sec. to the best of my remembrance. and some conjunctions. six quill-driving gentlemen. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. modifying the predicate. such as however. let him perish. the company broke up. he was a conscientious man." (3) Independent." "No. In their use.

should. and hence is adverbial. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. containing no matters of business." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. (5). but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. "The letter of introduction. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason.]. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening." etc. therefore." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. and teach her how to be happy and good. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. This case excepted. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15." (b) With the forms of be. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. but require somewhat closer attention. ought.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. I. he should not have known them at all.would." "There. etc. 358. and they will be presented here in full. (1) Completing an incomplete verb." (c) With the definite forms of go. was speedily run through. my dear. y (a) With may (might). the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter.: as in the sentences.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. being equivalent to a future with obligation. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. or as nearly so as the student will require. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . See Sec. "Because I was. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. thus.seem. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. etc.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. Wilt thou. necessity. modifying was speedily run through. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public.can (could). The verbal use. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. 355. but having no other office than a verbal one." In this sentence.

but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. hang the idiot. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. The adverbial use. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. III. "Do they not cause the heart to beat." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. to hear McOrator after dinner." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. modifying a noun that may be a subject. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions." 360." (3) As complement: See examples under (1)." "To say what good of fashion we can. etc. 351." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. II. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. etc. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. The adjectival use. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor.. (4) In apposition. "But there was no time to be lost. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. to look means that he might look. already examined. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. 361 are used adverbially." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. 361." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. notice the following:² In (1)." "He insisted on his right to forget her. the Scotch fighting all the battles. The substantive use. 362." "Are you mad." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. result. to please is equivalent to that he may please. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. Don Guzman. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). To test this.: for example." "To teach is to learn. IV. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). ." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. above.²both purpose clauses. object. and the eyes to fill?" 359. complement. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. 5).

" (See also Sec. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. 351). to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. 355. 351). 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. give the complement (Secs. (5) The subject (Sec. 352). as in Sec. 363. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. In (4). .) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. (7) Independent elements (Sec. 3. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. etc. 2. give² (1) The predicate. 355).²both expressing condition. to part means because I part. (3). 347). The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. In (3). not in a book. If it is an incomplete verb. 364. 268. 4. 349).In (2). (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. V. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. equivalent to that you betray. In (5)..² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. The independent use. and to say is equivalent to if we say. savage and serene in one hour. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. to find shows the result of the return. etc. etc. 351). and to betray and to bring express the reason. In analyzing simple sentences. must be in a life. which is of two kinds. Our life is March weather. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. to hear means if you should hear. object.. I will try to keep the balance true.

8. He risked everything. a good shot. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. to keep England out of war. The whole figure and air. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. 7. 11. like a witch's oils. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. 10. and spared nothing.Burnt green and blue and white. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. to restore civil and religious order. You may ramble a whole day together. nor generals. Her aims were simple and obvious. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. 14. 19. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. 16. Old Adam. and to the purpose. two stricken hours. with eager energy. neither ammunition. 24. in popular use. The word conscience has become almost confined. to the moral sphere. 15. nor himself. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman.4. a graceful dancer. just on the edge of destruction. through evil agents. I have heard Coleridge talk. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. 23. and every moment discover something new. an accomplished scholar. His opinion is always original. The water. nor money. through toys and atoms. 20. 18. We are always in peril. To these gifts of nature. . is to have no political system at all. and only to be saved by invention and courage. 12.²to preserve her throne.He sat in the shower. 6. the carrion crow. a skilled musician.The old crow of Cairo. 22. 5. 17. nor troops. always in a bad plight. Through the years and the centuries. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. 13. 9. might be called flabby and irresolute. good and amiable otherwise. To be hurried away by every event. 21.

²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. Fair name might he have handed down. secluded. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. I dare this. it would not have been filial or ladylike. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. Must we in all things look for the how. Supposing this computation to be correct. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. still. in this world. haply. 32. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. 34. and the why. 35. 30. The cry. I hate him and myself. an elderly man. in less heroic and poetic form. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. the ship was in an uproar. Now. 33. 29. the same Condé Olivarez. This amiable relative. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. and no provisions but wild berries. Upon this shore stood. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. to bid you leave the place now and forever. to be a reproach to such goodness. 41.Distant. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. the prime minister of Spain. 27. 26. in front of all this mighty crowd. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. 39. or perhaps one virtue. and in my own garden. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. 36. ready to receive her. The villain. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. time-honored. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. had but one foible. 38. baggage far in the rear. She had made a two days' march. and the wherefore? . and.Effacing many a stain of former crime. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. 40. upon my own ground. proud foe. Few in number. 31. In the Acadian land. Of the same grandeur.25. the present capital of New England. Oxford. 37. But yield.

compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. the expressions of manner introduced by like.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. as." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. 366. As shown in Part I. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. (Sec. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. are really contracted clauses. but." This must. the pride and beauty of the grove.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. COMPLEX SENTENCES. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. Words left out after than or as.² "She is like some tender tree. thus. which is the unit of speech. made merely for convenience and smoothness. 365." To show that these words are really omitted. however.From her own loved island of sorrow. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. 333). though often treated as phrases. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. The simple sentence the basis." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. if they were expanded. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]." Sentences with like. . as would be the connective instead of like. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. 367.

. that .² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. murmur. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. or dependent on it. 368. predicate.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. modifiers.. suffering. A principal. as in this sentence. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. then we recognize this as the main statement. object. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. 371. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. and modifier. . complements. Independent clause. 370. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. A clause is a division of a sentence.. object. that is. and the next one. CLAUSES. which are so united that one member is the main one. Definition.. or it may be applied to the others.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence.²the other members subordinate to it.²the backbone. complement. we are aware. etc. Hence the following definition:² Definition.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. and the last. 369. main. how great . drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. is taken in. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. containing a verb with its subject. logically depends on suffering. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). each clause has its subject.

"The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. 352. (a) Ordinary apposition. adjectives.. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. 'I know that he can toil terribly. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. for example. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. for example. 372. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. night or day. put an end to my fancies. for a hundred years. with a noun clause in apposition with it. thus." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. and the whole clause is not.Dependent clause. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences.' is an electric touch. or adverbs. Kinds. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. for a time. attention is called to them here. pronoun. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. We ourselves are getting ." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. .. over which the torrent came tumbling.." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. 373.. etc." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are." (4) Apposition.. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. But since they are complex in form. verbal.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some.." (2) Object of a verb. but logically the sentence is. (b) that are ." 374." "I was told that the house had not been shut." Just as the object noun." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. and it is . As to their office in the sentence. and ADVERB clauses." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. ADJECTIVE. impertinences. impertinences²would be grammatical. infinitive. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. 5). clauses are divided into NOUN. so the object clause is retained.. Noun Clauses.

that. What history it had. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. that he was a scheming impostor. a relative pronoun being understood. how it changed from shape to shape. Adjective Clauses. whether he should choose one or not. he would repent it. I was napping. whence. 5. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. but. and not on the sentiment." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. The reply of Socrates. . Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind.² "It is on the understanding. in the sentence. Except by what he could see for himself. Such a man is what we call an original man. sometimes by the conjunctions when. or equivalent of a noun. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. 4. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. 8. As the office of an adjective is to modify. a falsehood incarnate. 6. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. 375. which. Other examples of this construction are. whither. 9. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. 7. no man will ever know. Frequently there is no connecting word. etc.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. still remains reasonable. where. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. he could know nothing. 3. 2. Examples of adjective clauses. that all safe legislation must be based. 10. But the fact is. as. wherein. whereby. of a nation. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream." Exercise. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. that.

i. the champions advanced through the lists." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight.. all is vacancy.e. he begins to help us more as an effect." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left." Exercise. and tell what each one modifies. 5. 3. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. object." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. No man is reason or illumination. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. or that essence we were looking for. 7. Adverbial Clauses. etc. 8. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. 9. which formed the center of the mansion. One of the maidens presented a silver cup." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. 6. . 1. 4. which Rowena tasted. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. whether subject. I walked home with Calhoun. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. 11.376. Pick out the adjective clauses. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. 10. 2.

that we should try. however good she may be as a witness." (7) RESULT. Joanna is better. is wider. expressing the degree in which the horizon. tell what kind each is. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. Exercise." (3) REASON. no matter what remains. etc." "He went several times to England. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand." "The right conclusion is. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. adverbs." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. etc. or an adverb.² whoever." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. 378. so far as we can. and will be given in detail. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. it takes precedence of everything else. the wider is the horizon of their thought." These mean no matter how good. with examples." "When he was come up to Christian." "Who cares for that. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. shaping our actions." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience." "After leaving the whole party under the table." "The broader their education is." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. introduced by indefinite relatives. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences.. since he was too great to care to be original. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming." (9) CONCESSION. whatever. and adverbial conjunctions. however. but they require careful study. etc. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. an adjective. a verbal. the milestones are grave-stones." (5) DEGREE. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. he goes away as if nothing had happened. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention.377. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. and what it modifies:² ." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. to make up our shortcomings.: "But still. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go.

the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. If the children gathered about her. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. and twirling weathercocks. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. etc. howling and whistling. find the principal subject and principal predicate. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. 3. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time.1. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . and communicated itself to a thousand objects. 379. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. we are a little disappointed. snatching up stones to fling at them. when the wind was unruly. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists." 2. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. of which clause Odin is the subject. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. 'Well. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. its object is that Odin was a reality. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. then treat noun clauses as nouns. in the sentence. banging about doors and windows. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. incoherent exclamations. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. object. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. and modifiers. on a dark wintry night. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. predicate. so as to picture the parts and their relations. 380. with shrill. to tell the truth. For example. as they sometimes did. they might perhaps say of their visitors. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES.

d. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . 364. .. 380). 3. Exercises. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. (1) Find the principal clause. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. as seen in the "map" (Sec.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. 364. (2) Analyze it according to Sec.. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. 2. Take the place and attitude which belong to you.

the flower should revive for us. as for armies that were too many by half. The night proved unusually dark. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. could not have been effected. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. or whether any. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. Now. This is she. the shepherd girl. 22. namely. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. 18. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. which. 19. But now that she has become an establishment. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. Had they been better chemists. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. not so much for travelers that were few. 9. that. who would yield to it least. 10. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. 24. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. M. of a light hazel. 16. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. He was what our country people call an old one. 17. 12. 15. 13. . counselor that had none for herself. for yours. 14. The deep eyes. dying for them. 7. And those will often pity that weakness most. Next came a wretched Dominican. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English.4. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. 20. Whether she said the word is uncertain. had we been worse. the mixed result. I like that representation they have of the tree. 5. 8. bishop. that pressed her with an objection. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. whom I choose. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 6. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. 21. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. if applied to the Bible. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. Here lay two great roads. 23. 11.

if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. and temper. that it was no more than his daily walk. and not from his heart. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation.² Definition. 7. but above it. 27. 382. questions. 5. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. Hence the definition. 380. COMPOUND SENTENCES. (b) First analyze. if continuously extended. and stamped with his right number. That which we do not believe. It makes no difference how many friends I have. 3." said Bentley. or commands. How formed. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. 383. is to speak and write sincerely.25. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. then map out as in Sec. . "No book. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. 28. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. "was ever written down by any but itself. and what content I can find in conversing with each. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. 6. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. speed. if there be one to whom I am not equal. 2. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. the following complex sentences:² 1. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia." 4. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. 30. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. 26. though we may repeat the words never so often. These things we are forced to say. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened.²which will not be disposed of. would easily reach. we cannot adequately say.

From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. etc. and which complex:² 1. and it shall be the universal sense. in (2)." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. a simple member. Another example is. which are simple statements. while (whilst). moon-like ray" (adversative). for. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). now adverbs or prepositions. . The division into members will be easier. he soliloquizes. Thus in (1). But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. he dilates. 383 (1). Speak your latent conviction. or but. Of the following illustrative sentences. Exercise. 386. a complex member. in (3). tell which are compound. as but. the planet has a faint. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. yet." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. 297). from the second. and connects the first and second complex members. and nor the second and third complex members. if there are any. he is twice a man. The coördinate conjunctions and. nor. 385. the semicolon separates the first. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached." 384. the waving grass. Some of these are now conjunctions. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. he walks with arms akimbo. and not the form of the connective. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. "Only the star dazzles. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. whereas. etc.. Connectives.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. as in Sec. others sometimes coördinate. nor does he know until he has tried. however. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. Study the thought.

364. For everything you have missed. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. 9. . and sun-browned with labor in the fields. All loss. Exercise. or. However some may think him wanting in zeal.2. you have gained something else. The gain is apparent. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. unobtrusive boy. yield to them heart and life. for example. (i) Separate it into its main members. quiet. 7. 14. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. however. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. Love. passed in that time. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. Man does not stand in awe of man. and not by what each is. so is every one of its parts. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. you lose something. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. 387. 2. 5. 13. and thou shalt be loved. the tax is certain. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. 12. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. 381. from a happy yet often pensive child. 10. 8. I can yet love. 4. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. and for everything you gain. 3. all pain. 6. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. 4. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. is particular. that it was Easter Sunday. to find a pot of buried gold. 3. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. he grew up to be a mild. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. In this manner. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. 11. I can still receive. nay. and as yet very early in the morning. Whilst the world is thus dual. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none.

and not a thought has enriched either party. modesty. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. and they repel us." says the smith. why should we intrude? 10. puts the parties on a convenient footing. is as thin and timid as any. which always make the Actual ridiculous. When you have chosen your part. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. "as nigh the scythe as you can. 21.5. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. 8. give those merits room. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. let them mount and expand. 17. because. and they will show themselves great. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. and they will be true to you. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. abide by it. whilst frankness invites frankness." says the haymaker. if you rip up his claims. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. 7. feign to confess here. Stand aside. treat them greatly. Whatever he knows and thinks. 9. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. and not an emotion of bravery. and the cart as nigh the rake. and you are without effort impelled to truth. 20. and makes their business a friendship. 14. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. Come into port greatly. one is afraid. crook and hide. 15." 13. or men will never know and honor him aright. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves." "keep the rake. They will shuffle and crow. We see the noble afar off. "Strike. He teaches who gives. that let him communicate. "the iron is white. or we read books. as children. 18. only that they may brag and conquer there. or hope. 6. and he learns who receives. We go to Europe. 19. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. or we pursue persons. 16. and the other dares not. 11. and the peace of society is often kept. . or sail with God the seas. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. and each shows only what lies at its focus. Trust men.

but its leading characteristic is. 25. the department of syntax will be a small affair. they lose themselves in the crowd.22. if they live. Essential point in English syntax. and dodge the account. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. PART III. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. By way of introduction. but go about your business anywhere. but they never acquit the debt. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. adjective and noun. pronoun and antecedent. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. 24. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. Following the Latin method. 380. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. they die young.²agreement and government. so readily and lavishly they promise. 23. verb and subject. 390. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. it never was known to fall into the rear. So does culture with us. SYNTAX. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. 388. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. Ground covered by syntax. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. it ends in headache. Do not craze yourself with thinking. or. INTRODUCTORY. We see young men who owe us a new world. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their .

while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). There is. As an illustration of the last remark. Why study syntax? 391. both forms will be given in the following pages. therefore. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. and whose judgment. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. etc. authorities²that is. When usage varies as to a given construction. distinct forms would be used. Second. "None remained but he." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. but are not now. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. pronoun and antecedent. and imitate it. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. as to study inflected forms. some of which conform to classical grammar. good English. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard." that is. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. take the sentence. or the same writer will use both indifferently. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. This is not logical. Some rules not rigid. For example. also expressing a possessive relation. The basis of syntax. "The savage here the settler slew. the order being inverted. then. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan." is ambiguous. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. Savage may be the subject." In this there is a possessive form. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. and nothing but important points will be considered. In some cases. 393. the sentence. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. or settler may be the subject. and it would not matter which one stood first. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. Also in the sentence. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. . 392. following the regular order of subject.² First. sometimes verb and subject. or when they exist side by side in good usage. In Latin. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. and added to it the preposition of.

When two or more possessives modify the same noun. and Peterborough's. Putting Mr. etc. the antechamber of the High Priest. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec.²MILTON. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. and Pope's. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. Use of the possessive. Mill's and Mr. Separate possession. or indicate joint ownership or possession. .² Live your king and country's best support.NOUNS. for example. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. 408).²ROWE. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. He kept Bolingbroke's. Woman.²RUSKIN.²MACAULAY. the shore of Galilee." Juletta tells. PRONOUNS.²THACKERAY.² He lands us on a grassy stage. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. Bentham's principles together. and Paul's. the possessive sign is used with each noun. and Peter's. as.²MCCULLOCH. ²ID.²EMERSON.²BYRON. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. 394. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. Joint possession.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. but imply separate possession or ownership. 397. and Harley's. 395. 396. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. sense and nature's easy fool.

²TROLLOPE. Bedott Papers. the real thought being forgotten. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. together with the relative who. Some of the violations are universally condemned.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out." 400.²WHITCHER. for example. sanctioned. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this.²SOUTHEY. 399.²THACKERAY. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as.²BYRON. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. as. thus. This should be "as she. others are generally.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. there are two general rules that require attention. the last expression has the support of many good writers. General rules. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. I. No mightier than thyself or me. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. and should be the nominative form.²POPE. Since most of the personal pronouns. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. . as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. Still. But he must be a stronger than thee. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was)." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. Objective for the nominative. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. 398.) "The young Harper. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. if not universally. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. who. whom is the complement after the verb am.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE.²SHAKESPEARE.

And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed.²FIELDING. In spoken English. The usage is too common to need further examples. as. One exception is to be noted.² For there was little doubt that it was he. unless a special." There is no special reason for this. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. BLACK.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. Patrick the Porter. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. "If there is any one embarrassed. both in England and America. . than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe.²RUSKIN.²COLERIDGE.² One I remember especially.²THACKERAY. But still it is not she. the objective form is regularly found.²KINGSLEY." 401. "Who's there?"²"Me."²WINTHROP. is. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. namely. The camp of Richard of England.²SCOTT. And it was heThat made the ship to go.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. A safe rule. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. but such is the fact. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule."²KINGSLEY. for example. they are yet holier than we. it will not be me. "Than whom.²LONGFELLOW. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable.²MACAULAY. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent.²PARTON. are. on the other hand."²WM. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. and the other forms of the verb be. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne.

They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. (3) By forgetting the construction. used after verbs. or preposition which governs it. Me in exclamations." 6. or this. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. You know whom it is that you thus charge. as. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. as." the word being in apposition with murderer). he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. It is not me you are in love with. verbals. "Ask the murderer. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. it is me. you or me. I speak not to" (he should be him. 3.Exercise. and prepositions. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. 7. 404. If there ever was a rogue in the world. 10. 403. the object of to).²MILTON. Truth is mightier than us all. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. object of saw). . verbal. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. 5.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. 2. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. 9. 8. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. 4. as this from Shakespeare. 11. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. or us). now. as. Whom they were I really cannot specify. but not he" (he should be him. Nominative for the objective. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger.

changed in all save thee.²KINGSLEY. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. who interrogative. 406. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. as well as the objective. Who have we here?²ID. after the preposition but (sometimes save). . "Who were they talking to?" etc. Thou.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I.²STEELE.²BYRON. for example. Thy shores are empires. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. None. partial Nature. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. etc. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. Let you and I look at these. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. and is usually avoided.²KINGSLEY. Exception 2. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. I arraign. "Who did you see?" or. 2.Shall be left upon the morn.²GOLDSMITH. as. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. Exercise.²BYRON. save thou and thine.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who.²KINGSLEY.Exception 1. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. Nature. 405. but he.² All were knocked down but us two. I've sworn. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. as. We regularly say. all but he. for they say there are none such in the world.

Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. 5. or objective? . We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada.²C. 10. 8. This usage is not frequent. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence.²SCOTT. As antecedent of a relative. and they know that as well as me.²MACAULAY. POSSESSIVE FORMS. 407. BROWN. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. 6. 11. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. Preceding a gerund.Ye I salute. Markland. 12. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set.²possessive. 9.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. who. with Jortin and Thirlby. They are coming for a visit to she and I. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. They crowned him long ago.²THACKERAY. 7.3. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. Bartholomew." 4. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me.²RUSKIN. B. II.²DE QUINCEY. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives.

There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass.²CARLYLE. The use of the objective is older. Why both are found. sometimes it has the objective. studying is a gerund. and the meaning is.²MACAULAY. Here I state them only in brief. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it.²BREWER. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. Both types of sentences are found.² THACKERAY. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life.408. Possessive.² SCOTT.²DE QUINCEY." That is. that the bitterness of death was past. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. and that in the second. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair.² IRVING. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. The last incident which I recollect. Objective. as he turned away from his wife. In the examples quoted.²RUSKIN. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. both are gerunds." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. object of heard of. and asked why it was not made. We heard of Brown. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. . in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea.²DICKENS.² CARLYLE. [who was] studying law. etc. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. But in common use there is no such distinction. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth.

The pale realms of shade. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. Everybody had his own life to think of.²THACKERAY. . number. taking in each of many persons. and ought to agree with them in person.²RUSKIN. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition.²EMERSON III.²DEFOE.² BRYANT.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. where there were examinations.²CABLE.²THOREAU.²C. in one person. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. it was his own fault. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary.²when the antecedent. Every city threw open its gates. Examples of these constructions are. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects.²HUXLEY.²DE QUINCEY.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. If any one did not know it. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. Watch for the real antecedent. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. In such a case as the last three sentences.²HOLMES.²AUDUBON. or is a distributive word. 409.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. preceded by a distributive. if the antecedent is neuter. BROCKDEN BROWN. 410. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. and gender. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS.²DE QUINCEY. the pronoun will be neuter singular.

and giving them means of being so. Whosoever hath any gold. This is not considered the best usage. If the part deserve any comment. Every one must judge of their own feelings.²PALEY.² Not the feeblest grandame. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way.²BYRON. The sun.²AUSTEN. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat.²FIELDING. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²RUSKIN. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. .²SCOTT. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. Struggling for life. as anybody in their senses would have done. It is a game which has been played for untold ages.²ID. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. let them break it off. not a mowing idiot. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. for example.Avoided: By using both pronouns.²DEFOE.²HUXLEY.²ID. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.²EMERSON. By using the plural pronoun. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. 411. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²PAULDING. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.²PALGRAVE. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. till they have lost him. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go.²BIBLE.²THACKERAY. is to use the plural of the pronoun following.

In the following examples. or what was become of her.²In the above sentences." A relative. or unrestrictive. but. that being considered already clear. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. because. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. 413. the definite relatives who.²ADDISON. What these terms mean. It adds a new statement to what precedes. Exercise. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. and he went away. Exercise. and that are restrictive or not. "I gave it to the beggar. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. 2. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. etc. unless both genders are implied. 412. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. and does not add a new statement. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. and that always restrictive. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. when restrictive.²ID. but. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. no one could take upon them to say. That is in most cases restrictive. as. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide.Where she was gone.² SHERIDAN. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. in each instance:² Who. according to the practice of every modern writer. who went away." This means. which. A relative. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. tell whether who. RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²HAWTHORNE. As to their conjunctive use. 1.) and a personal pronoun. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. . which. I. when coördinating." It defines beggar.

II. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. 13.² CARLYLE.²HOLMES. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch.² MOTLEY. 12. they. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. W. that were often vicious. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand.3. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. 414. etc. BEECHER 5. Hare has printed. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive.. That.² IRVING. it makes the verb third person singular. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. he. 10. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old.²ID. The rule. down.²H.²DE QUINCEY. etc.²ADDISON. With narrow shoulders. A grizzly-looking man appeared. 14. So different from the wild. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. . However. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. which was to go over the Cordilleras. which Mr. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. you. We say I. Yet how many are there who up. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. Which. The general rule is. 7. In what sense true. etc. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. 6.²DE QUINCEY. but. On hearing their plan." that is invariable as to person and number.²THOREAU. as that does not vary for person or number. in the sentence. 11. 8. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. and it is called logic. these or that which. For example. 9.²ID. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. who. because of its antecedent. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. 4.² NEWMAN. she agreed to join the party. long arms and legs. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. and over England are saying.

I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. He is one of those that deserve very well. but myself. 415. Let us be of good cheer. T.²MACAULAY. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.²M.²HOWELLS. with one as the principal word. "one of the finest books that has been published..²ADDISON.²LOWELL.²J.. etc.²BOWLES. or which . the true antecedent. who rarely speak at all. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. ARNOLD. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed.²HOLMES.. "one of the finest books that have been published.²ADDISON.. [singular or plural. in winning a battle.²SCOTT.. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. [plural] that who. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. JR. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.²LOWELL. but speaks of him as that sort.²whether we should say. . when he derided the shams of society.." or." One of . others regard books as the antecedent.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. etc.] Both constructions are frequently found. The latter is rather more frequent. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. French literature of the eighteenth century. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. Singular. A disputed point. and write the verb in the plural. but the former has good authority. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions..²LECKY. and in improving a victory. MORSE. Franklin. The fiery youth . remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come.

THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. or where] he died.²DEFOE.A rare Roundabout performance. and see if the sentence is made clearer. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race.²CARLYLE. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers.²ADDISON.In that same state I came.²SCOTT.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts.²BURNS. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. 417.² RUSKIN.²IRVING. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. when the relative word is a pronoun." "India is the place [in which. IV. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire."²DICKENS. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.²VAUGHAN. that is.²EMERSON. I could see nothing except the sky. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. where. when this dust falls to the urn.² . object of a preposition understood.²GOLDSMITH. III. 416. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. But I by backward steps would move.²SWIFT. return. and such like: as.²ID.²In the above sentences. The same day I went aboard we set sail. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. Exercise. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE.And. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention.²EMERSON.² THACKERAY. whence.

With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. That. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. The regular construction. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. ²GOLDSMITH. Which. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. if I had resolved to go on with. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.²SCOTT.²SWIFT.² MACAULAY. was a discoverer. if same is followed by a complete clause.² BURKE. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. . or that. but we find the relative who. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. Caution. 418. and working in the same spirit. she passed the lamp over her face and person.²WORDSWORTH.² Which. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. but which is usually carefully avoided. but. CHURCH.² THACKERAY.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do.me as his apprentice. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest..He considered. as of knives. for example. V. which.²FRANKLIN.²ADDISON. boats. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. W. They believe the same of all the works of art. he. Anacoluthic use of which. with Turner. Mr.. looking-glasses. as is not used. or lack of proper connection between the clauses.²R. etc. I might as well have staid at home.

and who are now thrown upon their compassion.²GOLDSMITH. Exercise. but none is expressed.² Direction for rewriting. he said that all submission was now too late. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. This was a gentleman. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. 419.²SCOTT. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. 3.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. Exercise." etc. etc.She'd come again. etc. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and.²which if they once heard. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. 4. who are now thrown. and this be placed in the proper clause. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each.. And who. or.²HAWTHORNE. As the sentences stand. But who." etc. 2.²THACKERAY. But still the house affairs would draw her thence.²RUSKIN. Express both relatives. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. That is. or leave out both connective and relative. now thrown upon their." etc.. (3) "Among the poorer sort. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. which when Mr.. but. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. . Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. or omit the conjunction. and in whom I myself was not a little interested.²SHAKESPEARE. (2) "Among the poorer sort. le Conte. Thornhill had read. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. 1. once a great favorite of M. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. After this came Elizabeth herself. (1) "Among those who are poor. and which. He delivered the letter.²DE QUINCEY. and who are now.

10. Or who. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. "A mockery. But which. Exercise. 8. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. etc. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. and which may even be heard a mile off.. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. and repeat this for any further reference. like that spoken in the towns. and to whom no door is closed.5.²SCOTT. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary.. "What knight so craven.² MOTLEY. indeed. the French. 9. 6. 420. Dr. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam.²DE QUINCEY.. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. either from imitation of their frequent allies. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. as a false and astucious mark.. one of signal interest. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity.²PEARSON. Akin to the above is another fault. 1. I shall have complete copies. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties.²SCOTT. and which has never been described. . 7. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. 12.²IRVING. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. etc. 11. which the Scotch had learned. then. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That .²DE QUINCEY. That .²HAWTHORNE. 13. English by name. Or which. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. and which. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. And which. I saw upon the left a scene far different. who.

. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President.. That .. 11. 7.. that. half a century ago. I recommend some honest manual calling. 9.. 14.²HOLMES. 6.²DEFOE.²HALLAM. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. whom. It rose into a thrilling passion. and to whom I do not belong. I give to such men as do not belong to me.²W.²HOWELLS.. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. Such as . and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. the dime. 10. He flung into literature. such as they have very probably been bred to..²EMERSON. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others.2. G. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages.²W. I grudge the dollar. He. in his present condition.²SCOTT.²DE QUINCEY. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. Such as . 3. and whose examples and principles we inherit. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard.. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. 4. was a bustling wharf. The Tree Igdrasil.²EMERSON.²SCOTT That which . Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. what.²BEECHER. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. the cent. 12. Which .² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. CHANNING. was hung in air. In my native town of Salem.²HAWTHORNE. but which.. 8. . 13. 15. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. 5. that . E.. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. in his Mephistopheles. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. SIMMS. at the head of what. which... but which is perhaps not so different from it. which. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.

may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. as. in which case any should be used instead.²DICKENS. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. We call ourselves a rich nation. as it were. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another.²HAWTHORNE. always at war with one another. By their original meaning. for example. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. and in want of his gold²or his corn. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. Assume that no one is in want of either. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY.²GOLDSMITH.² Some one must be poor.²EMERSON. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. whether or not the two are equivalent. 421. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. as. that not all combined.²MACAULAY. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. . either and neither refer to only two persons or objects.²ID. Each other. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. Use of any.²RUSKIN.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. 422. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. let us not increase them by dissension among each other.² HAWTHORNE. Distributives either and neither. one another.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. carrying off each other's cattle and wives.²RUSKIN. England was then divided between kings and Druids. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.

when any of them are so good as to visit me. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. afterwards in Goethe. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. during his stay at Yuste. and is isolated. If any of you lack wisdom. which is plural as often as singular. before that. Any usually plural. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. None usually plural. None of Nature's powers do better service. I beseech you. let him ask of God. then in Plotinus.² EMERSON.²PROF. that I know of. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. in Shakespeare. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY.²STIRLING. Caution. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. whilst I still cherish their genius.. any of his friends had died.²EMERSON. as none of the French philosophers were.²BURKE. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. speak.²BEECHER Whenever. Do you think.²FRANKLIN. etc. in the prose of the present day. then in Plutarch. 424. Do you think.²BIBLE.. Examples of its use are. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). usually plural. . any was often singular.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly.² If any. if ever man was. at one time in Bacon. In earlier Modern English.²SCOTT.²SHAKESPEARE. as.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. 423. even in Bettine.²THACKERAY..² In earnest. for him have I offended.²CARLYLE. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. The adjective pronoun none is. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. as.

The compounds somebody else. are treated as units. when it means all persons: for example. Somebody's else.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. which is used absolutely. nobody else. the plural.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples..²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. etc.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. and less rarely in poetry. etc. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. 425. any one else. and Ford has nobody's else. When all were gone.² Singular.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. etc.²NAPIER Plural.²McMASTER. etc..Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August.² PEARSON.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. as. fixing his eyes on the mace. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side.. for example. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. that all was lost. or somebody else's? 426.²SCOTT Like the use of any.² None of them was cleansed. saving Naaman the Syrian. The light troops thought . and all was lost on the other.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled.²THOREAU.

These sort.²MULOCH. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. WILLIS.² These kind of knaves I know. P. "Ye see.²RUSKIN.²G. unlike anybody else's in the world. 427. ."²MRS. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. etc. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. A suit of clothes like somebody else's." "all manner of men. STOWE.² Saturday Review. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got.²THACKERAY. etc. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes.²in such as "these sort of books.²N.²SWEET.² FIELDING.²AUSTEN. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. His hair. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural.. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. for example.²RUSKIN. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. or those sort of people.²DICKENS.. the adjectives plural." the nouns being singular. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. all manner of. ADJECTIVES. Whitefield or Wesley. ELIOT.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. or some other such great man as a bishop. London." "those kind of trees. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic.curled once all over it in long tendrils.²SHERIDAN. Again. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.SYDNEY SMITH.

The result. such as. the victor or the vanquished. Use of the comparative degree. and in this way may take a plural verb. they said. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. for example." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. and the adjective is. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. as. made to agree with it. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. "These kind of trees are best. In Old and Middle English. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. or the nouns to the plural." A question. Burke's sentence. According to the approved usage of Modern English. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. 428. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. Later form. or one object with a class of objects. to express a higher degree of quality. not "all kinds of wild animals. This the modern expression reverses. Should we say. gradually displacing the old. History of this construction. "This sort of trees should be planted. Consequently we have a confused expression. more alarming than a total silence." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. . with all manner of amusing books. when the necessary dispositions concur.² PRESCOTT. which accounts for the construction.² Which is the better able to defend himself. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. Of two such lessons. in spoken English.The library was open." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun.²a strong man with nothing but his fists.²RUSKIN. At the source. "This kind of rules are the best.

to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. He is taller.²TROLLOPE. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. Gary. Use of the superlative degree."²ID. 5. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. Henry. Exercise. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. 3.²MACAULAY. if not. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. .²MACAULAY. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY.²SWIFT. 2. I am concerned to see that Mr. 4. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read.²THACKERAY.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. Even Dodd himself. would not have had the face.A braver ne'er to battle rode.²HAWTHORNE. Other after the comparative form. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things.²WIRT. To the man who plays well. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. has sanctioned. than any of his court. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. Superlative with two objects. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. the highest stakes are paid. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold.²HUXLEY.²LOWELL. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. by almost the breadth of my nail.² THACKERAY.²SCOTT.²CARLYLE. 430. 429. etc. 6.

²HAMLET. Double comparative and superlative."²BULWER.²TEMPEST. Rip was one of those . In all disputes between States. more particularly the last of them.²BEN JONSON. and the other contains the best men. "Let us see which will laugh loudest.²Bible.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. Mary.²GOLDSMITH. not a bit of high life among them. These two properties seem essential to wit. Nor that I am more better than Prospero.²J. 431. I should say that one has the best cause. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. CÆSAR.²SCOTT."²GOLDSMITH. Also from the same period.. whichever can be got easiest. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians.²DR BLAIR. "Ha.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature.²IRVING."²HAWTHORNE. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. the weaker is often so in a minor degree.²MRS.²ADDISON. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. who eat white bread or brown. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. OLIPHANT. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest.²RUSKIN. The following examples are used purposely. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. Examples from Shakespeare are. The eldest. . to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. ha.²EMERSON. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. 1611. After the most straitest sect of our religion.. and differ only in form. Come you more nearer.

For Carlyle. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs.² With a singular noun. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. These are the three first needs of civilized life. but in literary English. Instances of both are given below. Examples of this construction are. The meaning intended is the same.²LAMB.² SMOLLETT.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots.²DE QUINCEY.²GIBBON. ARTICLES.²PRESCOTT. jar upon us constantly.²ADDISON. The merit of the Barb. ²COWPER. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. The delay in the first three lines.²RUSKIN. and Secretary Walsingham also. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. . when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use.²RUSKIN. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. the Spanish. Definite article. etc. etc.²KINGSLEY. 433. Three first. The first five had specific names. As to these two expressions. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²GIBBON. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. not only so in popular speech. First three. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. and conceit in the last.

²TENNYSON. 435. to distinguish clearly.²ID. having been arranged. With a plural noun.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. as. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. with a plural noun. The lofty. . the hour of parting came. No. the thought and the word. but is used with one only. with a singular noun. were placed at a very tender age. Here the youth of both sexes. the greatest poems.²CARLYLE. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . of the eighteenth century. melodious. Origin of the Aryans. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. and the presents. One object and several modifiers. 433. as in Sec.. and flexible language.²TAYLOR. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume.²NEWMAN.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. The flowers. distinct. He is master of the two-fold Logos. 433. 1508. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece.²MACAULAY.²PRESCOTT. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. The not repeated. as. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict.²THE NATION. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. I think. Meaning same as in Sec.. Frequently.²SCOTT.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. but inseparable from each other. of the higher and middling orders. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. or to emphasize the meaning. Indefinite article.² MACAULAY. 434.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. however.²THACKERAY.² RUSKIN.

²BEECHER. In the sentences of Secs. and inexhausted vein.²JOHNSON.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. a murderer. rich. to limit two or more modified nouns. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. One article with several adjectives. like the definite article. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. and a usurper. only one of which is expressed.²S. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.²DICKENS.² BURKE. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. COLERIDGE. as.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. a round and a square one alternately. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian.²MACAULAY.²BULWER. . JONSON. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec.An early. The indefinite article (compare Sec.²THACKERAY. 436). 434) is used to lend special emphasis. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. or clearness to each of several nouns." and "a red and a white geranium. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. But in the following sentences. The indefinite article is used. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. a tyrant. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. 438. interest. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. For rhetorical effect. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. Examples of this use are. a collegian. 435.²MACAULAY.²B. as in the first three of Sec. T. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind.436. He saw him in his mind's eye. 433 and 436. 437.² MACAULAY.²DRYDEN. one noun is expressed.

prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. 439. Sec. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number.²The Nation.. for example. or the great intellectual life of our nation. was the earliest American land.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. then. and the following illustrations prove it.²AGASSIZ. has got already.²CARLYLE This usage. Singulars connected by or or nor. as. A broad and loose rule. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER.²W.²FROUDE. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. as. Collective noun of singular meaning. 276. all that academies can give. . It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. ARNOLD.²COOPER. He sees that it is better to live in peace. Singular verb.²G.VERBS. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. 440. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. This was spoken of in Part I.²M. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. without academies. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. ELIOT. In English. Such. Another writer might.²GIBBON. like some others in this series.

in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. but considered as meaning about the same thing.² In a word. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. other names. a cruel disappointment. for example.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. A fever. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated.Jesus is not dead.² Politics is the only field now open for me.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. as.²EMERSON . or considered as appositional. Q. the cheap defense of nations. No.²GIBBON.²CRITIC. (4) When the subject is plural in form. or as making up one general idea. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated.²GOLDSMITH. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. Plural form and singular meaning.²J. for example. nor John.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. a loss of wealth. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. a loss of friends.² The unbought grace of life. that of a large town. a mutilation. is gone. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. seems at the moment unpaid loss. ²EMERSON. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. nor Mahomet.²WHITTIER.²BURKE. as. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. Between ourselves. ADAMS. but each one emphatic. and other singulars of plural form.² GOLDSMITH. and every four hours.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right.²DE QUINCEY. nor Paul. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa.

²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. Every week. Then comes the "Why. as well as sides.²BUTLER. and greaves.²M ARNOLD. an impassioned countenance.² There is a right and a wrong in them. To receive presents or a bribe. The oldest. as well as the Drama. no. is a man of wit. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. the ruin.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. Subjects after the verb. the wit. is divided into tragedy and Comedy.²EMERSON. every boor. as well as Europe.The rout.²RUSKIN. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb.²MACAULAY. does not take the place of the man.²HAWTHORNE. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. sir!" and the "What then. no discontinuity.² Asia. Every sound. sir!"²MACAULAY. There is a moving tone of voice. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. each. Her back. as well as the newest. nay. the dismay. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath.The author. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. the partisan.²PRESCOTT. was dazzled. thus. sir?" and the "No. was like to crack. wineBegins to stir itself. a cuirass. no spent ball. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. The Epic. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. an agitated gesture.²ID. no matter if the second is plural).²LONGFELLOW.²NEWMAN. in a judge. every valet. Here is no ruin. almost every day.²PRESCOTT. a gorget. Every fop.²ID.²MACAULAY. 441.²SCOTT. as. For wide is heard the thundering fray. and such like adjectives. was punished.² .²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. was listened to for five hours. many a. with death. the fine gentleman. as. every echo. Plural verb.

. as in Sec.²FROUDE. shirt.²EMERSON. Conjunction omitted. but the verb is plural.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.²B. a stream of fresh water. All our household are at rest. His clothes.²ADDISON.²GOLDSMITH.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.² One or two of these perhaps survive.These bits of wood were covered on every square. making up a plural subject.²COLERIDGE. The Dauphin. A party of workmen were removing the horses. the Duke of Berri.²FROUDE. Philip of Anjou.²GIBBON. of whom there were a number. its date. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. The travelers. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. and its history are alike a mystery to us.²THOREAU. Far. were men of insignificant characters. as. are sufficient to attract a colony. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.²FRANKLIN.²SCOTT. a green pasture. The conjunction may be omitted.² GIBBON. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. 440 (5. A shady grove. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word.²CARLYLE But its authorship.²DE QUINCEY.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. b). TAYLOR. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. as. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.²SWIFT. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. for example. as with a subject of plural form. far away thy children leave the land.² A multitude go mad about it.

Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. for example. Second or third and first person in the subject." "She or you may be sure. as. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. of different persons.²RUSKIN.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. nor should I. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON.But notice the construction of this. WEBSTER. his blood dost shed.²WHITTIER.²SMOLLETT.²GOLDSMITH. "You would not be wiser. Not I. When the subjects.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. Not Altamont.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. . General usage.²DE QUINCEY." or.²M. 443. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. "He or I can go. ARNOLD. "I have never said so.²ROWE. Nothing which Mr.²D. but thou.²THACKERAY. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. Ah. This construction is at the best a little awkward. 442. nor has she"). If there is only one person in the subject.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. 444.²LOWELL. the verb takes the construction of the first person. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. we never talk politics. You and I are farmers. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. the subject being really equivalent to we.). but thou. that is." etc. hadst been my lord.²BYRON.²THACKERAY.²RUSKIN. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. Exceptional examples. Pattison or I have said. You and I are tolerably modest people. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as.

" the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. Nor wood. 10. 2. BANCROFT. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Neither of them. 6.²SCOTT. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. 440-444):² 1. nor bush are there. 8. Also in verbals. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. in my opinion. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. 11. How each of these professions are crowded. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. Both death and I am found eternal.²ADDISON.²EMERSON.Her course to intercept. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder.²BURKE. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage.That neither of their intellects are vast. 12.²perhaps the devil. 9.²and. nor tree. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. 3. In this sentence from Defoe.²G. which it is proper to mention. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. 4.²MILTON. 7.445. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. 5. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb.²ID. as we would hope. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. as illustrated above (Secs. 446.²BYRON.²ADDISON. In the following sentence. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). Neither of their counselors were to be present.²THACKERAY.² TROLLOPE. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. Exercise. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. The following illustrate exceptional usage. In a word.²SMOLLETT.

² PALGRAVE 5. But I found I wanted a stock of words. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. 448. to have divided with her whatever might remain. if not.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. as.²R. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. I gave one quarter to Ann. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. meaning.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes.²THACKERAY. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. to have seen should be changed to to see. W. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . Indirect discourse means reported speech.. 447. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. Of course. however. It should be remarked. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. Exercise. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. CHURCH.²FRANKLIN 6. 4.²KINGSLEY.²MACAULAY. Direct discourse²that is. for exact connection. The present rule is recent. 3. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece.²IRVING. on my return. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head." . Definitions. change them to a better form:² 1.²DE QUINCEY 2.. Two samples of indirect discourse.

The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. have. "I cannot oblige you . 449. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. or regular interrogatives. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. Oh. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. etc. under interrogative pronouns. not attempting to follow the entire quotation.. Direct. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. introductory verb is in the past tense. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. Summary of the expressions. "Oh.. Sebastian's. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. 2. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat.. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead." Indirect. and the indirect question by whether or if. This includes the auxiliaries be. . 1. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect." etc. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. The substance of his lamentation was. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse." etc. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. His exact words were.. will. interrogative adverbs. She thought to herself. Her prudence whispered eternally. Direct.

The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress.Exercise. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. one summer afternoon. . being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. The trouble is. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. the first discoverer of the river and country. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. Careless use of the participial phrase. handed down from his ancestor the historian. 450. Notice this. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. the sound of their balls.²ADDISON. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. like distant peals of thunder. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. he assured me that nothing was more easy. my first observation will be found nearly true.²GOLDSMITH. in the sentences first quoted. and that he himself had heard. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. with his crew of the Half-moon. PARTICIPLES. FRANKLIN. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years.²ID. if this were expanded into a verb. VERBALS.²B. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill.

He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. and often. while defended or excused by others.. many things to be carefully considered. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them.Correction." Exercise.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. This is the more common arrangement. Exercise. In the following citations. my first collection was. INFINITIVES. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress..²RUSKIN.. universal assertion. if a strike is to succeed..²ID. 3. It is a solemn. avoid it. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. leaving the principal statement as it is. Adverb between to and the infinitive. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. Standard writers often use it. . Consequently one of two courses must be taken.²LAUGHLIN. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. There are. 451. the first sentence would be.² HERBERT SPENCER." etc.. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea .² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. . The practice is condemned by many grammarians. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. For example. either "As I was pleased. 2. purposely or not.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. then.²SCOTT. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase.

Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up.4. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. 6. from Irving. 13. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another.²BURKE.²RUSKIN. china. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. In works of art. etc. when such adverbs as only. No. if they modify single words. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. but cannot misunderstand the thought. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. 12. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. even. 1533. but they are often removed from the exact position. 11. Position of only. 452. The rigid rule in such a case would be.. which consists in multitude.²The Nation. is to be very cautiously admitted. but it is placed before the infinitive. A little sketch of his. 9. Exercise. ADVERBS.²GOLDSMITH. and earthenware. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . 8. BLAIR. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success.²TROLLOPE. even.²ID. 7. etc. etc.² ADDISON.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. are used.²SCOTT. therefore.. 5. Now. I wish the reader to clearly understand. 10. The spirits. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. this kind of grandeur.² MACAULAY.²DR. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks.

12. 5.²HIGGINSON. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. 7.²SYDNEY SMITH. Irving could only live very modestly.² THACKERAY. 4. P. were he never so old of yeares. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. 16. 453.²CHAUCER.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde.²SWIFT. to avoid a crowd. 6.²ID. 14.1. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. 9. 15. 11.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. 13. In relating these and the following laws.²COOPER. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard.²THACKERAY.²MRS. 10.²MOTLEY. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival.²MACAULAY. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. The old usage. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius.²ID. 3. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon.²EMERSON. His last journey to Cannes. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. 2.²N. for example. During the whole course of his administration. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. He could only afford to keep one old horse. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. . 17. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. ²ASCHAM. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. WILLIS. whence he was never destined to return.²PALGRAVE.²RUSKIN.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. No sonne. might not marry. My master. In Old and Middle English. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. He shouted in those clear.²ID. 8. GROTE. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me.

I never did see him again. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. uncommon.²MRS.²HOLMES. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements.²DE QUINCEY. etc.²GROTE. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative."²MRS. one of the negatives is often a prefix. 4.²HAWTHORNE. is not common. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. however. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. STOWE.² HAMILTON. This.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. There weren't no pies to equal hers. Not only could man not acquire such information. Therefore. 5. neither. Exceptional use. as. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. STOWE. under the influence of Latin syntax. 7. as infrequent. . I did not act so hastily. but ought not to labor after it. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. and is still kept in vulgar English. The prosperity of no empire. when one of the negatives is a connective. if two negatives are found together. in Ole Virginia. In the latter case. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man.²BURKE. 2. denying each other.²LOWELL. and why:² 1. ²PAGE."²four negatives.²DEFOE. who hadn't been to school for nothing. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. In the execution of this task. nor never shall. But. Regular law of negative in modern English. 3. nor the grandeur of no king. Exercise. However. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. 6.²BAYNE. can so agreeably affect. the usual way of regarding the question now is. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way.

not merely .. nor is often changed to not²either . even neither . "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals.. nor. as well as of the pronoun."²SCOTT. and which. Things to be watched. not or is the proper correlative of neither. 455. if the second precedes a phrase.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind... or to reply to it... Correction. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace.8. especially both . The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . and... as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. Choice and proper position of correlatives.. "A weapon..²SCOTT. 454. or to reply to it. In the sentence... the first should also. The sentence. neither . and an equivalent pronoun by the other. if the last precedes a verb. or with advantage.²LOWELL. "well worthy to confer honor.. but." may be changed to "This loose . CONJUNCTIONS.. not only . or. either.. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. but to their own safety.. the first ought to be placed before a verb. or. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. there we were." Besides neither .. either ." said the King. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical.. not only to the success of their common cause.. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. as the use of the conjunction.. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder." both of the above requirements are violated. but (also).²PRESCOTT. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. The sentences given in Secs. And who." . should be scrutinized.

I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. 7.²S. as. O. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself.²RUSKIN. 5. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. Some exceptions. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. but grown-up persons. murder. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. 3. Try and for try to. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. as.²GOLDSMITH. and chop up their own kin. Exercise. or but that. but. 2. Now. Try and avoid the pronoun. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. JEWETT. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. and I don't know but what he was right.²GIBBON.Exercise." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. In the following sentences.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. But what.² ADDISON. Correct the following sentences:² 1. too. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity.²ID. nor the disgrace of assailing him. 8.²MACAULAY. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart.²BAIN. . 4. or the negative relative but. etc. not merely interest children. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that.²FRANKLIN. They will. but they will outrage. but. substitute that. We will try and get a clearer notion of them.²THACKERAY. 6. or but that for the words but what:² 1.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW.²THACKERAY. 456. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. 457. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID.

459. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things.²EMERSON. 458. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction.² BULWER. 6.2. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised.² SWIFT. Between and among.²ADDISON. 5. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. PREPOSITIONS. 4.²EMERSON. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects.²SCOTT. 313. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans.²TROLLOPE. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. no separation or division by twos being implied. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. 305. 3. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages.²ADDISON. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once.²BURKE. see Sec. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. . as already seen in Sec. Between is used most often with two things only.

as. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. Averse to. Different from. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words.: Words with particular prepositions. Kant. Derogatory to. as. Such are absolve. Dependent on (upon). Dissent from. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. or one object and a group.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Acquit of. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Conform to. Abhorrent to. and Coleridge. Comply with. Conversant with. Affinity between. Mackintosh. Paley. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Accord with. etc. ²EMERSON. Bestow on (upon). 460. confer. LIST I. 461. by custom. involve.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. averse. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. a soldier of the Cross. Some of them have. Such are derogatory. Two groups or one and a group. and Stewart.²KINGSLEY.²between philosophers like Spinoza. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope.²RUSKIN What have I. correspond. . different. List I. and philosophers like Locke. and another to convey a different meaning.

Change with (a person). Independent of. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. LIST III. 463. Agree to (a proposal)." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. Differ with (note below). . as. as. A taste of (food). Change for (a thing). Disappointed in (a thing obtained). Confer with (talk with).y y y Deprive of. as. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). but it is not good usage. and sometimes creeps into standard books. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. List II. as meaning to be in keeping with.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. etc." also of persons. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. 462.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. LIST II. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). in the sense of making friends with." List III. A taste for (art. Correspond with (write to). Confide to (intrust to). Change to (become). "The king is reconciled to his minister. Confer on (upon) (give to). Confide in (trust in). Involve in. Differ from (note below). Reconcile to (note below). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. Reconcile with (note below).). "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. Correspond to (a thing).

She died of hard work." "die from.²G.²MACAULAY. "Die for. die for. die with." (in behalf of)." (because of).²SHAKESPEARE.:² "Die of.²GOLDSMITH.²MACAULAY. ²THACKERAY.y y y Die by. .²FIELDING. died for love of the fair Marcella.²POPE.²MACAULAY." She would have been ready to die with shame. "Die for. Who. It is a man of quality who dies for her." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. ²ATHENÆUM. they shall die by this hand. ELIOT." (material cause. One of them said he would die for her. ELIOT. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. and ill treatment. "Die from. "Die with." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. die of. "Die by. part with. People do not die of trifling little colds.²SCOTT. die from.²BULWER. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread.²BOSWELL.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. I am positively dying with hunger. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. Expect of. Take thought and die for Cæsar. It would take me long to die of hunger. expect from. If I meet with any of 'em. No one died from want at Longfeld. privation. Part from." etc. instrument). Illustrations of "die of.²G.²BURNETT. simply from old age.²ADDISON. He died at last without disease. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire.²GOLDSMITH. as Cervantes informs us.

"Expect from.²WALLER. .²G. as shown in the following quotations:² Of.²SHAW.²BULWER.²TROLLOPE. which he would by no means part from. 465. ELIOT." To part from you would be misery." She will expect more attention from you.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. Illustrations of "part with. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. ELIOT. Illustrations of "expect of. just parted from her. I have long expected something remarkable from you. kind of you.²MARRYAT.²WALPOLE. 466. ELIOT. It was a little bad of you. I can part with my children for their good." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. Kind in you.²MACAULAY." "part from:"² "Part with.²DICKENS. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things.²G. nothing better was to be expected. and hated to part with them.²POE." "expect from:"² "Expect of. either of or in is used indifferently. How cruel of me!²COLLINS.²MACAULAY. I have just seen her." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. That is more than I expected of you. Of Doctor P. I part with all that grew so near my heart.²AUSTEN.²BULWER. 464.²SCOTT. "Part from.²G. His precious bag. With words implying behavior or disposition. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. as my friend.

8.²BULWER. The noise of vast cataracts. 13. 4. 10. with seraphims.²TENNYSON. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. 7. Hampden. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. nor blue. 3.²CARLYLE. . 14. it is commonly said that his profits are high. Very natural in Mr. thrown it over Amyas's head. Thou tread'st.²DICKENS. nor green. thunder. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. nor of a pale red. or that they are any way dependent on each other. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. but which the story renders necessary. or which we are most imperatively required to do. raging storms. 15. the vast abyss. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. or artillery. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. 9. nor yellow. It will be anything but shrewd in you.He did not think it handsome of you. In the friction between an employer and workman. 1. But this is idle of you. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. 11. In. This narrative. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss.²BEACONSFIELD.²BULWER. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. 5. tedious perhaps. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. and ran up the alley. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. 6.

24. 33.And were I anything but what I am. 35. you or me. 411. 21. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. 27. or how beautiful it is. 31. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. 25. 36. 38. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. produce approbation. 26. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. The effect of proportion and fitness. 32. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. 30. 17. save Amyas. were down with raging fever. but in the price paid to them. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. You have seen Cassio and she together. what is a just and unjust act. Squares. and almost as good as a pony. (Sec. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. 29.) 34. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. 23. 18. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. . 37. 20. and other angular figures. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. When the glass or liquor are transparent. triangles. 19. Friday.I would wish me only he. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. Every one of these letters are in my name. 28. the acquiescence of the understanding. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. 16. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. and most of us do know. That night every man of the boat's crew. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. But every man may know. 22. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles.

of. 47. . 310. 124. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. nominative. of. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. as comparison definition demonstrative. article. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. 133. pronouns. 25. 91. of. from about 1500 to the present time. 102. syntax uses Absolute. adverbs used complements. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 119. INDEX. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. voice. 98. (2) Middle English. 116. as. 20. 40.000 between them. 47.39. 107. nouns. numeral. 89. Abstract with Active Address. adjectives. of. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. origin of. demonstrative. Adjectives. 92. 260. from nominative clauses. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. 124. 90. 239. A. He had four children. (3) Modern English. of.

323.from function how in not of of ordinal. plural pronominal. of. adjectives. 99. adjectives. of. 103. infinitive. 101. 287. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 242. 109. conjunctions. 148. 262. antecedent. of. 191. of. 48. parse. 190. objective. quality. 183. 303. 115. 291. 325. modify. 184. 207. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 195. 187. 97. 104. sentence. from to of. as nouns. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. of. to used of. 303. 316. 194. 106. conjunction. parse. form as as they to in as uses uses of. of. 239. 194. nouns. between of. 27. adjectives. 302. Alms. 116. and 185. nouns. compared. 275. clauses. quantity. antecedent. with with with subject. of. 325. 116. 114. Against. . predicate. 207. 190. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 27. Agreement. 328. 42.

See with definition complex compound simple who. 300. of. 240. Agreement. 67. 331. adjective. of. 127. 90. 275. 198. syntax. 271.Among. 225. 294. 101. same. of. 295. which. 67. 120. 309. 49. sentences. 287. Auxiliary if. A. of and pronoun of. 148. An. 264. which. . 124. definition of of of Any. in in. definition how indefinite. parse. 51. and. agreement personal as pronoun. 231. sentences. 208. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. 74. it. Are. 84. uses As At. as uses verbs. pronouns. Arrangement Articles. which. See 74. 207. 252. 120. to of. sentences. 79. of. though. after of. words between. derivation in definite. possessive. 150. Anacoluthon Analysis. 47. syntax As. of of of And Antecedent. of. 296.

number of. 195. Can. with But By. 149. 66. 150. forms. 37. Brethren. possessive. best. comparison conjugation of. conjunctions Cherub. in Old and Modern English. But. adverb. uses nominative of. syntax of. uses of. Children. 210. Clause. nominative. adjective. 194. plurals of. definition could. of pronouns. 110. 279. 260. 330. Cause. 283. Bridegroom. 39. Be. 262. 262. clauses of. pronoun. 47. 45. 39.Bad. 63. of. of pronouns. 49. of pronouns. Among. 64. Case. of. objective. 54. Case. 278. of nouns. 278. of. Between. 46. of what. 110. 224. See of. of nouns. uses Better. 46. 48. 161. . of nouns. of nouns. double possessive. 111. 84. of pronouns. 279. 62.

248. and sentence. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. Clomb. 108. definition degrees irregular. nouns. superlative. 43. Cleave. 264. 268. 158. of. 108. 23. 271. of. nouns.definition kinds noun. proper. of. analysis of. nouns. material. 257. defective. adjectives. 113. predicate of and from from of. Cloths. of. predicate. 307. 305. 189. 307. 315. 244. 18. subject. of. 258. of. 110. of. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. verb. 43. sentence. . 111. 312. 263. and forms of. clothes. 24. English. of. 257. 12. 107. 53. 257. in analysis. 157. 18. adverbs. double. of. 239. infinitive. plural of.

coördinate. 255. Agreement. 199. Can. sentences. 151. sentence. 195. other other parts of speech. of of Conjunctions. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. See English. definition how subordinate. same words. of. 231. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. Conjunctions. correlative. 149. 207. pronouns. 195. parse. 188. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 194. 193. See in subjunctive. See analysis clauses. 196. 263. and clause. to of. Dative Declarative Declension of case. conjunctions. conjunction. 73. 328. 269. 194. in Old vs. pronoun. sentences. definition be. 138. of. analysis. interrogative pronouns. 139. 149. adverbs. 289. .with Concord. verbs. conjunctions. 66. 143. subjunctive. pronoun. replaced by objective. 194.

with of. discourse. adverbs See adjectives. object. pronouns. 80. with. 315. from. Degrees. 43. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 152. 35. of. tenses. for. indirect. 26. 300. 91. nouns. 242. nouns. 90. 287. pronouns. . See adjectives. possessive. 303. vs. 242. pronouns. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. 99. by. clause. 288. Comparative. 185. 160. of. passive adjectives. duck. 333. Subordinate clause. article. See See 48. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. Comparison. Articles. 320. of. of personal relative verbs. 102. pronouns. use of dies. Case. verb.Declension. 60. of. 102. 51. See 148. comparative.

92. original. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. complement. to suffix. pronoun. adjective. 255. another. . of. 32. feminine plural English. pronouns. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 12. 90. pronoun. drunk. 51. 62.Drank. 112. 328. 241. 299. one ( t). Elements Ellipsis. of subject. the of sentence. of. 42. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 287. Empress. conjunction. 158. of. object. 257. older. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 110. 287. 92. 234. -En. 90. 92. 102. 240. ending. added suffix. plural. vulgar. 38. 158. predicate. Each. 40. 194. 300. possessive suffix. of. spoken. 280. 33. of. suffix. 34. literary. adjective. error in sentence. in 'Em. other. Either. 39. of. 33.

32. 152. two. Feminine. First. of. few. 287. 148.. adjective. 29." 31. 147. gender. 43. uses Foreign Former. 36. object. expect gone. as a noun. uses redundant. with infinitive. For. 103. 211. Further. 308. etc. perfect. 238. the. of. 102. See Gander. modes "common goose. plurals. Few.. 30. 126. other languages. two a further. of. 110. 112. 189. First Fish. definition distinguished in English. 30. 152.Every. 235. from. 319. From. 45. etc. used of. pronoun. have adjective. 30. 212. . 102. 112. 91. Future Future tense. to of. Farther. fishes. first. as of from compared marking. Gender. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 334. nouns. 212. 48. with in sex.

231. 176. 36. rather. and case verbal with. pronouns. possessive pronouns. 80. Grammar. 285. I. 60. from participle of. 12. 173. 175. 61. participle. His Husband. 275. she. 9. for before. 13. . 43. 159. Government. on. adjective. kinds of. of.of of Genii. 10. 12. 60. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. Had Hanged. it. 120. definition divisions opinions province H. 177. pronoun. Gerund. of. noun. distinguished syntax. 145. of. first sentence. 35. an better. person. 101. its. personal relative geniuses. 144. 61. of. 159. forms in Girl. He. had hung. Got. definition basis of.

276. indices. pronouns. mood. questions. 188. of. pronoun. in compared syntax. summary See passive mood. 176. of. 233. See Articles. 131. See you. 72. 245. adverbs. 43. 153. 231.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. your. 73. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. elements. 105. transitive. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. with of. 227. of clause. 136. 67. adjectives. use article. 93. 257. Questions. 320. sentence. 323. of. of. 319. . uses discourse. adjectives. a object. 248. verbs. indirect of. 283. questions. 178. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 131. 85. words. 110. meaning. Direct object.

63. lord. Lady. 126. queen. 276. of. plural. 12. Less. 281. of. Logic Logical Lord. Lay. syntax the. Latter. 36. 190.adverbs. Lie. 226. 36. Lay. pronoun. lesser. syntax.. 110. was uses me. and See words in. "It Its. 61. 189. Kine. latest. 227. Kind. adjective. See Madam. -Ly. 303. a vs. in little. 113. Lady. . 110. 67. of. English. 170. Last." history etc. uses Literary Little. Like. 39. of. predicate. King. 245. It. 113. 102. 91. lie. these double kind. subject form. 36.. etc.

syntax conjunction. of. Much. May. double. 110. Many Mapping Mare. 187. might. 34. 41. of. 112. Negative. 161. of. position adverb. adjective. Mood. 189. Master. Means. mine.. 325. 126. 137-144. 188. 102. 326. . of. 112. sentences. of.Manner. of. Modifiers. 189. 113. of. comparison Near. 112. in adverbs comparison a. 137. 328. 36. Modifier. 114. -Most. conjunctions Many. indicative. 185. 110. imperative. of. mistress. 64. superlatives. Mighty Mine. 287. Enlargement. 160. construction as of adverb. syntax nearer. See definition 136. etc. Must. 144. nigh. 195. out of. 265. 256. Neither. 110. subjunctive. 194. 135.

definition descriptive. gender how kinds material. of of of of of a. 17 19. 30. 328. 25. common. 246. clause. See 194. 27. 20. 42. 125. 32. 56. words how compound. 46. 30. used as. nouns. become become formation case collective. syntax Neuter or two News. number once other plural. of. of. Nor. 29. 124. 41. formed. Not Noun Nouns. nouns. foreign. 46. of. 38. of. in. to of. 18. 17. parse. abstract. 301. 45. 41 43. gender nouns. proper. etc. 26. 25. class used singular. abstract. Case. 300. of. definition according of. of. 21. 19. etc.pronoun. letters as 24. 92. become neuter. 38-41. now plural. syntax in gender nouns. of. material. 17. No Nominative. 258. to use. 126. 30. and figures. analysis. 41. . None. kinds 90. half abstract.

definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. plural form. etc. meaning. 41. 282. 48. . 278. 42 44. of. 148. as forms titles. or plural. singular. 278. in article. See verb. indirect. adverbial. adjectives. become syntax use with with with Nouns. 39. 41. indefinite. 60. 41. 242. of different possessive definite of. 240. Preposition. spoken of instead nouns. 281. of. 23. 101. pronouns. nominative. 48. meanings. of. 42. Numeral Object. 102. 18. 121. 196. 235. definite. 48. pronouns. Nouns.of same two with proper. with with with Now Number. 285. 43. See in in in Numeral distributive. plural no two singular construction. with case. plural. 92. dative. 195. passive adverbial. in nouns. adjectives. of. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. article. personal. of. preposition. English. 66. 242. 101. 124. 48. and analysis. 48. 106. 42. singular. verbs.. of. conjunction. form. 279. common.

of. Older. 161. part analysis. 325 275. 38. as of. 117. inverted. 213. with (the). adverb. conjunctions. pronoun. definite relative uses of. 233. See the as of. 56. Each adjective. nouns. Ourself. as other. treatment comparatives. 64. Parsing. adverbs.syntax Of. Omission On. 103. 56. position Order. for. . another. 101. Elder. 279. uses numeral pronoun. 41. See pronoun. 69. 127. adjective. of of of of of models adjectives. 94. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 91. a in adjectives. 293. ours. One. 199. 237. 191. Ordinal Other Ought. 116. Our. of. of syntax. 103. of upon. Pains. 93 other. articles. 194. Oxen. 306. of. 216. 87. conjunction. 115.

verbs. 28. -ing words. 70. and subject in. 180. predicate use of. . 62. of. 80. part adjective. possessive and of. pease. of. phrases. or of. 56. 59. Pence. 335.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. 100. with. antecedent. 181. reflexive. 177. Person. 219. 95. of. 148. absolute with of. of. 281. 59. article 150. used as voice. 43. them. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 61. pronouns. 62. 59. relatives. 179. 317. 119. not is. 134. 247. 174. phrase. pennies. from definition other of. 64. speech. 69. 27. verbals. 56. of. nominative. pronouns. included various. verb idioms it from. 63. verbs. 172. in. 172. agreement of verb nouns. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. of. 322. of. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. parsed. 173. 43. pronoun. 287.

objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. kinds infinitive. of. as double. 303. 281. or See of of See 185. 195. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. of. singular degree. conjunctions prepositions Plural. antecedent of of pronouns. of. 206. adverbs of. . 278. in of. objects. pronoun. 281. appositional. 235. of. of. of nouns. 49. relative. 50. adjectives. 's. nouns. complete. of Phrase. noun nouns. participial. 232. it. of. 53. 52. vs. 188. 241. 248. Personification. 245. simple. Personal subjective. 236. pronouns. 25. pronoun. double. spoken of. 60. nouns. Positive Possessive. English. syntax of of Politics. singular. 285. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. of. 53. prepositional. 245. omitted. 64.objective syntax table triple uses of. plural. Place. 278. 247. 106. 236. 247. Nouns. 54. nouns. 37. 61. Comparison. See 60. 67. of. 303. 63. 51. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. 41.

129. objective. of. 104. parse. plural. of. forms of. each either. 203. by with shown certain of. 64. of. adverb. 202. 195. as antecedent of relative. 59. 72. 105. 302. singular usually other. case. adjective. 95. usually to as than. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. 205. 333. what. 299. Prepositions. somebody definition how indefinite. 32. 283. 89. meaning. all. 283. 219. any. by. future. 93. . Pronouns. 147. 303. 207. plural. 282. 132. by parts of of. of. 187. in exclamations. plural. 300. 332. 208. expressed as other of. 203. speech. case. verbs. 279. 285. objective. 280. of. who personal. of. for predicate nominative. 105. possessive nominative to of. with tense certain. none. another. 58. 301. words. 206. interrogative. and form form form form of. 281. 331. same used as adjectives. 284. after but. 300. parse.Prefixes. 186. neither. as. as 54. 287. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 58. and one with else's. exclamatory. of. interrogative.

which. 83. 286. who. Direct same and different. of. 297. 295. pronoun. 142. same antecedent. and antecedent.possessive relative. Nouns. to of. 189. Questions. which after same. Rank. 291. and which. in. indirect compound. 69. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. nouns. unrestrictive. 289. of. discourse. pronominal pronouns indirect. and relatives. 74. or of. 296. pronouns. use of history formed. of. 74. 99. questions. of. 195. indirect. Quantity. 87. of. of. from and interrogative. 263. 101. in. use in as. of. 295. . 293. 58. 74. with who. 279. 69. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. that. of. parse. 85. Rather. agreement anacoluthon and as. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. adverbs in. Quotations. with with gerund. See of. 84. conjunctions Quality. 80. 188. 87. 293. personal pronoun. 289. 68. 85. of. in. 105.

159. ending. 196. conjunction. of. 'S. 195. 170. will. of sit. 43. Seeing. suffix. Shear. complex. 259. would.syntax use Result. 51. 319. and should. 289. forms shots. reflexive analysis of compound. 231. 162. simple of. 242. of. Self Sentences. 294. clauses of. simple. Sex Shall. tenses. object. 40. 69. in of. 74. gender. 42. of. definition . 231. 252. 196. which. who. Simple in sate. conjunctions Retained Riches. elliptical. of. of of of complex Sentences. 263. 255. plural possessive as. S. Shot. 26 271. pronoun. Same Sat. effect. See Sentences. in form. 29. kinds Sequence Set. sentence. that. 159.

as. logical. 270. Modern use becoming else's. 36. 38. distinguish. to of. literary clause. 138. in Middle English.. other Such Such Suffix -s. 144. Spelling Spinster. of. vs. definition 67. of. Subject. 245. in feminine suffix. 186. 257. of. adverb. of. 257. these number. 262. of. disuse in spoken complete.Singular Sir. adverb. Split Spoken -Ster. 258. 33. -es. 33. 258. 258. etc. sort. of. See -En. -en. phonetic in infinitive. 169. 257. 12. 237. 32. used mood. English. 38. 126. 303. 137. of. 257. . names as a. 323. 144. for. 260. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 303. verbs. definition how kinds noun. 245. 240. English. English. Somebody Sort. English. 233.

of. this. 289. of. 280. than of.. adjectives. 123. and and of. of languages. 106. when relative. 61. of. which. 107. as history syntax Their. they.Suffixes. 186. of. meaning made up in Old of. subject. adverbs. definition in English Tense. form. syntax of. 319. 186. in Modern number sequence table Than That. as adverbs. not suggesting adjectives. classical of. 116. See etc. 307. 275. 290. article. of.. 119. coördinating. 106. in double. two basis not same definition definite. omission whom. me. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. 297. Kind. in comparison. 191. restrictive. There These kind. 306. 120. that uses That. object. 147. "the then foreign. meaning. Then. king. 147. auxiliaries. 87. of. 152. as history The. 222. plural as adverb. of . 147. English. Tenses. . 275. 277. English. 309. degree.. of. 88. 108. when as of. 306. of." introductory. 189. 148. 109. 33. objects.

128. suffix. how infinitive. Time. -ing 111. exclamations. 114. 61. 180. -Trix. of. Upper. certain as the before with of.These. infinitive. 172. 114. feminine and. tother. to. Upon. 175. kinds participle. preposition. 185. 172. of. 181. uses of. 114.. words. of. thee. 176. 247. Try Two Under. infinitive. 20. try two. 175. from cleft to 174. gerund. thy. 308. of. 322. analysis. 195. carelessly uses syntax this. 207. 21. parse. first adjective. 33. of. used. 322. 188. 173. first. Thou. uttermost. conjunctions prepositions To. of. 330. See That. Utter. 175. in omitted uses T'other. 217. 119. of. 323. other noun. uses history of. See On. phrases. in of. . 248. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. verbs. etc. adverbs those.

regular. retained object with passive. table of irregular. definition of. of English. 155. 167. of incomplete predication. sequence of. weak. 169. 312-316. verbs by. becoming irregular. 160. agreement of. passive. in person. 223. 154. how to parse. spelling of. defective. What. 133. formed by. 147. active meaning. 151. Vixen. voice of. strong. 319. made transitive. person and number of. 133. 154. 148. of. in indirect discourse. passive form. 179. tense of. 159. but uses what. syntax of. 33. 149. 317. conjugation of. 154. past tense formed nominative. table of. definition of. phonetic. 167. 130. 12. 135. 245. analysis. change. 134. 39. verbs. . with subject in number. 236. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. active. auxiliary. 312. 148. 47. intransitive. 150. 169. 330. Vocative in Voice. transitive and intransitive. remarks on certain. 320.Verbs. 131. of. definition of. 157. 242. mood of. 129.

105. questions. in in indefinite objective. Whether. questions. a. of. Will. 178. 75. 83. Y. 111. Wife. wizard. uses See Shall. 36. would. 37. spoken in of.. 85. Yes ending analysis. interrogative Which. 299. 296. in -ly. 190. 295-299. Words in Worse. With. whereto. relative. 85. pronoun. 83. 78. 246. questions. English. 77. relative. worser. Who. pronoun. relative indirect relative. 40. plural of in nouns -ing. 105. antecedent adjective. 75. 218. 72.what Whereby. 104. 126. 194. 72. Woman. conjunction. animals. questions. 79. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 85. Witch. referring syntax Widower. 36. . pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 32. 72. 73. direct of. of. etc. in.

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