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English Grammar

English Grammar

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Sections

  • BY
  • AND
  • INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS
  • GENDER
  • I. Gender shown by Prefixes
  • II. Gender shown by Suffixes
  • III. Gender shown by Different Words
  • NUMBER
  • I. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en
  • II. Plurals formed by Vowel Change
  • III. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es
  • Special Lists
  • CASE
  • I. Uses of the Nominative
  • II. Uses of the Objective
  • III. Uses of the Possessive
  • Case Inflection
  • Special Remarks on the Possessive Case
  • HOW TO PARSE NOUNS
  • MODEL FOR PARSING
  • PERSONAL PRONOUNS
  • FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS
  • Remarks on These Forms
  • CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS
  • I The Nominative
  • II. The Possessive
  • III. The Objective
  • SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS
  • REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS
  • INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS
  • DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS
  • RELATIVE PRONOUNS
  • REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS
  • DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS
  • HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES
  • INDEFINITE RELATIVES
  • OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES
  • PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS
  • OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES
  • ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS
  • DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
  • DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS
  • NUMERAL PRONOUNS
  • INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
  • HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS
  • DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES
  • ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY
  • DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES
  • PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES
  • INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES
  • COMPARISON
  • Remarks on Irregular Adjectives
  • CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING
  • ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES
  • HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES
  • USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE
  • USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE
  • HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES
  • VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE
  • TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS
  • VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE
  • MOOD
  • INDICATIVE MOOD
  • SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
  • Subjunctive in Independent Clauses
  • I. Expressing a Wish
  • II. A Contingent Declaration or Question
  • Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses
  • I. Condition or Supposition
  • STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
  • II. Subjunctive of Purpose
  • III. Subjunctive of Result
  • IV. In Temporal Clauses
  • V. In Indirect Questions
  • VI. Expressing a Wish
  • VII. In a Noun Clause
  • VIII. Concessive Clauses
  • IMPERATIVE MOOD
  • TENSE
  • PERSON AND NUMBER
  • CONJUGATION
  • Indicative Mood
  • Subjunctive Mood
  • Imperative Mood
  • FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE
  • ACTIVE VOICE
  • VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM
  • Remarks on Certain Verb Forms
  • DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS
  • Shall and Will
  • Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose)
  • Exercises on Shall and Will
  • Some Troublesome Verbs
  • GERUNDS
  • SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING
  • I. VERBS
  • II. VERB PHRASES
  • III. VERBALS
  • ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING
  • ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE
  • COMPARISON OF ADVERBS
  • HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS
  • COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS
  • SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS
  • SPECIAL REMARKS
  • USES OF PREPOSITIONS
  • CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS
  • PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE
  • PREPOSITIONS OF TIME
  • EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION
  • MISCELLANEOUS PREPOSITIONS
  • At
  • By
  • For
  • From
  • Of
  • I. The From Relation
  • On, Upon
  • To
  • With
  • HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS
  • WHAT
  • BUT
  • AS
  • LIKE
  • ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE
  • Things used as Subject
  • Things used as Direct Object
  • Things used as Complement
  • Modifiers
  • I. Modifiers of Subject, Object, or Complement
  • II. Modifiers of the Predicate
  • Logical Subject and Logical Predicate
  • Independent Elements of the Sentence
  • PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES
  • INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES
  • OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS
  • CLAUSES
  • Adjective Clauses
  • ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES
  • OUTLINE
  • OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES
  • PERSONAL PRONOUNS
  • I. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS
  • II. POSSESSIVE FORMS
  • I. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES
  • II. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT
  • III. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE
  • IV. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME
  • V. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS
  • AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS
  • COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS
  • CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER
  • AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON
  • USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES
  • LIST I
  • LIST II

roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

Produced by Stephen Schulze and the Distributed Proofreaders Team

AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES

BY

W.M. BASKERVILL
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.

AND

J.W. SEWELL
OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.

1895

PREFACE.
Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION I. SPEECH.

PART THE NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS Verbs. Verbals. How To ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS.. WORDS INTERJECTIONS. PART ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION Simple Contracted Complex

PARTS

OF

AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.

Parse

THAT

NEED

WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.

OF ACCORDING ACCORDING TO NUMBER

Compound PART SYNTAX INTRODUCTORY. NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS. INDIRECT VERBALS. INFINITIVES. ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS INDEX

Sentences. III.

DISCOURSE.

INTRODUCTION.
So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

so that a small grammar will hold them all. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). if rightly presented. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. then. is worthy of serious study. Making rules is risky." What grammar is. their forms. assist the classification of kindred expressions. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). An æsthetic benefit. with its enormous vocabulary. from the question. If. rightly considered. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. however. as. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. "Analysis. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). and their uses and relations in the sentence. but this is bad English now. Few inflections." and "Syntax. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. . lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. and thus incite his observation. its peculiar and abundant idioms. This will take in the usual divisions. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes.The province of English grammar is. Mental training. It is also evident. there is still much for the grammarian to do. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. A broader view. Surely our noble language. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. as compared with Latin or Greek. to those who have studied the language historically. Coming back." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. The work it will cover. it will at the same time. Literary English. Authority as a basis.

then. reference will be made to vulgar English.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. NOUNS. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. which belongs to a people. Analysis of Sentences. Occasionally. Spoken English. The following pages will cover. three divisions:² Part I. or standard. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. Such words are called nouns. . but. 1. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. and may belong to any of those objects. too. the nation is free. besides this one. PART I. The words state. or Syntax. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. and will are evidently names of a different kind.²GIBBON. by which is meant the free. from the eighteenth century on. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. Vulgar English. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. Part II. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. and Inflections. not objects. The Parts of Speech. The Uses of Words.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. submission. the words sons and master name objects. and the word nation stands for a whole group.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. Part III. that is. as they stand for ideas. In the more simple state of the Arabs. The plainest name is Arabs.

Name for any individual of a class. 3. Thus. animals. or things. Besides considering persons. place. This does not imply. or a mob. Collective. representing directly to the mind an object. whether person. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied.Definition. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. Common. 5. substance. Individual. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. as here used. (a) 4. ATTRIBUTE. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. Name for a group or collection of objects. or thing. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. reducing it to a narrow application. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. the name of each is an individual or proper name. We may say. but Chicago names one city. and appropriate names to the groups. possessed by all. or a congress. a committee. A noun is a name word. Abstract. 2. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. . men in groups may be called a crowd. is from a Latin word which means general. or idea. (b) Common. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. the man here. animals. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. however. For instance. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. Classes of nouns. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. They properly belong under common nouns. or the man in front of you. or a council. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. belonging to one. we may think of them in groups. and things separately. because each group is considered as a unit. Thus. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. Proper. MATERIAL. etc.

granite. iron. etc. soap. or that which shows a thing has been proved. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. etc. rain. . paint. such as sun. frost. snow. frost. proof means the act of proving." 9. platinum. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. "Painting is a fine art. rice. The quality is still there as much as before. It may. expressing state. NOTE. there is no such intention. They remain common class names. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). celluloid.Names for things thought of in mass. (3) Geological bodies: mud. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. condition. but it is taken merely as a name. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. dew. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. Words naturally of limited application not proper. mist. rock. world. sugar." "Learning is hard to acquire. or apart from their natural connection. stone. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. wine. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. instead of to each individual or separate object. as in calling a city Cincinnati. rubber. etc. or action. etc. expressing attributes or qualities. conditions. earth. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. etc. and fasten a special name to the object considered. etc. considered abstractly. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. but which are not called proper names. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. we speak of the wisdom of the man. 7. wheat." "a man of understanding. sugar. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. sand.²There are some nouns. When we speak of a wise man. and so on. .. tea. etc. Such are glass. cloud. we may say. however. not things. clay. potash. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. or actions. moon. Names of ideas. etc. earth. gold. wheat. Again. 6. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. but in the words sun. The reason is. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person.

service from serve. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. as their name implies. stupidity from stupid. five proper. as glad²joy. a wedding or a festival. the rude drawings of the book. ease." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. and they cannot express action. etc. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. there is time for such reasonings. the well-being of her subjects. Thus. The verb. hope. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. childhood from child. Such are beauty. shadow. Exercises. by altering its function. 12. thunder. II. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. To avoid difficulty. They are only the husks of verbs. the main bearings of this matter. Caution. etc. he spread his blessings over the land. speech from speak. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. summer.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. (1) prudence from prudent. night. five abstract. theft from thieve. Underived abstract nouns. is used as a noun.. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. in the beginning of his life. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. action from act." "a brisk walk. energy. 10. They cannot govern a word. 272. kingship from king. 273). those opinions and feelings. height from high. "a long run" "a bold move. mastery from master. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. hopeful²hope. the teachings of the High Spirit. as in the expressions. 1. (2) peerage from peer. Verbal abstract nouns. winter. the moon caused fearful forebodings. her longing for their favor. but are merely names of actions. day. etc. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. . masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. redness from red. the great Puritan awakening. joy. lightning. NOTE. etc.Attribute abstract nouns.

Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. as pneumonia. Using a dictionary. mathematics? 3. (b) branches of knowledge. catarrh. geology. typhus. algebra. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases.2. as physics. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . diphtheria. pleurisy.

y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. who was its inventor. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. Material nouns may be used as class names. from Calicut.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. arras. Sodom was famous for wickedness. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. but we may say. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. currants. We know a number of objects made of iron. it imposes its classification on other men. in Portugal. a Lavoisier. Guillotin. from a town in France.²EMERSON. and lo! a new system. thus. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. from the name of Dr. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. 14. etc. 119). Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. damask. Nouns change by use. from Oporto. "The cook made the irons hot. from Damascus. 13. the guillotine. 15. above. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. or to go over to it entirely. a Hutton. Others of similar character are calico. for example. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. from Corinth. from China. a Fourier. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. port (wine). a Bentham." referring to flat- . and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. the word port. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. as a davy. Proper names transferred to common use. a Locke. but most of them are in the following groups. levant and morocco (leather). A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE.

²COLLINS. which are made plural.²BYRON. etc. a steel to whet a knife on. and only Vice and Misery. that disposition is the thing to be created. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. clays. For example. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. oils. Traffic has lain down to rest. tins. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. are still names of abstract ideas. to prowl or to moan like night birds.irons. purity. or used as class nouns. though not confined to verse. a rubber for erasing marks. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. These are the same in material. his mask melting like a nightmare dream.²CARLYLE. Test this in the following sentences:² .In lightnings owned his secret stings. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. candies. abstract in meaning.²HAYNE. or the arts and sciences. 16. and so on. papers. as stones. The words preceded by the article a.²RUSKIN. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. A halfway class of words. or. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. and say teas. etc.²BRYANT. 17. Death. Next Anger rushed. nor are they common class nouns. smiled. From all around²Earth and her waters. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. or made plural. paints. When it is said that art differs from science. the abstract idea is partly lost. This is a poetic usage. (3) By poetical use. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. slates. but on dispositions which require to be created. are abroad. but in case an art or a science. mists. They are not then pure abstract nouns. not material things. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. coals. that is. on fire. Personification of abstract ideas. be spoken of. Class nouns in use.²PERCIVAL. his eyes. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. clouds. tobaccos. that the power of art is founded on fact. but differ in strength. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind.

18. as each repeated pleasure tired. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. sir!" and the "What then. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms.Let us. as descriptive adjectives are. All these. fear thy blow. meaning a walk in the morning. Conjunctions. or from any expression. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. But it is better to consider them as nouns.The Solitary can despise. etc. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. the wealthy. a bill as to tax on the banks. And still.²IRVING.² BURNS. They are more like the possessive noun. Adjectives. sir?" and the "No. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech." which contains a pure adjective. were mere terrors of the night. Then comes the "Why. Nouns used as descriptive terms. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. NOTE. 19." "a morning walk. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE.²BURNS.² GOLDSMITH. or describe it. "a family quarrel. loves. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns." "a New York bank. nouns used to modify. for example. if we must have great actions. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. sir!"²MACAULAY . which belongs to another word. Every why hath a wherefore. but is still a noun.²SHAKESPEARE. a bank in New York. The noun may borrow from any part of speech.²SHAKESPEARE. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. make our own so." "the State Bank Tax bill. When I was young? Ah. however. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. Adverbs.²EMERSON. they do not express quality. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions.²If the descriptive word be a material noun." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. they cannot be compared. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. By ellipses. But ah! those pleasures.

6. without reference to its function in the sentence. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. Stone walls do not a prison make. of words rather than of their meaning. 7. 4. that cobweb of the brain. When. In the other sentences. of course. is ambiguous. in a sentence above. 5. Power laid his rod aside." and another of Dr.Nor iron bars a cage. and tell to which class each belongs. 2. Now. whether it mean the sun or the cold. to such words as become pure nouns by use. why and wherefore. so. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. at the beginning. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. Caution. . are spoken of as if pure nouns. Learning. or a state secret. FRANKLIN. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. but have an adjectival meaning.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. but as a figure of speech. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. The it.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. or a faithful domestic. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. It is to be remembered."²B." or "legal. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another.²These remarks do not apply. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. 3. When. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. 1. 8. and Then. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. in speaking of the principal of a school. or a criminal. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. is the word "just. 20. There are many of these. however. are used. etc. the wealthy. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. NOTE. too. the terms the great. Exercise. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force..

that waits you here. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. A fool speaks all his mind. 14. 10. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. and names of females are usually feminine. the silver moon is gone. and many other languages. shattered and disabled. What gender means in English.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. 17. And see. 11. Male beings are.9. German. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. for every dropHinders needle and thread. in English grammar. returned to Spain. 18. 12. 19. always feminine. female.You seize the flower. the welcome.Fair guests. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. 24. 15. 16. There are exceptions even to this general statement. It is founded on sex. The hours glide by. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. The fleet. 22. 23. GENDER. 13. . 21. always masculine. A little weeping would ease my heart. 20. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. he cried. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. its bloom is shed. But pleasures are like poppies spread. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. 21. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. In Latin. Greek. but not so in English. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea.

the sex being of no consequence. clapping his burnished wings. but are spoken of as neuter. must be divided into two principal classes. Hence: Definition. 24. in other languages gender follows the form. according to their use. The great difference is. "A little child shall lead them.² I have seenA curious child . inanimate things are spoken of. Gender nouns. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. and neuter nouns. das Messer (knife) is neuter.. those distinguishing the sex of the object. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock." .²IRVING. He next stooped down to feel the pig." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. the word child is neuter in the sentence. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. are named by gender nouns. 22. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID.²masculine and feminine. .. 23. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. corpus (body) is neuter.When. came to a stand just by the bridge. according to use. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. however. in German. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. those which do not distinguish sex. those with which man comes in contact often. then. and consequently without sex.. No "common gender. or additions to words.. Of animals. the name of it is masculine. that pattern of a husband. that is. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. mensa (table) is feminine. or which arouse his interest most. hortus (garden) is masculine. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words.² IRVING. if there were any signs of life in it. der Tisch (table) is masculine.. Thus. All nouns. For instance: in Latin.. if of the female sex. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. in English. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. with its gizzard under its wing. Neuter nouns. or names of things without life.²gender nouns.²LAMB. the name of it is feminine. Gunpowder .

I. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. or the lack of it. According to the definition. 29. Male nouns beings. ruler. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. These remain in vixen and spinster. (2) By adding a suffix. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. from the masculine fox. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. teacher. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. Very few of class I. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. (3) By using a different word for each gender. . The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. The inflections for gender belong. he-bear²she-bear. II. for from they said vram. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. they are neuter words. servant. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. generally to a masculine word. Native suffixes. cousin. One feminine. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. 26. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. Put in convenient form. though both words have lost their original meanings. 28. Gender shown by Suffixes. is. the division of words according to sex. puts a prefix before the masculine man. as in wine vat. only to masculine and feminine nouns.. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. Gender shown by Prefixes.25. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. woman. If such words as parent. of course. as he-goat²she-goat. but spinster has now no connection with it. domestic. etc. relative. and for the older word fat they said vat.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. 27. For fox they said vox.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. Hence vixen is for fyxen.

Unaltered and little used. trickster. señorita. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. executrix.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. Ending of masculine not changed. but in most cases it has not. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . and are never used for words recognized as English. as seam-stress. as. song-str-ess. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. donna. These are attached to foreign words. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. it has none now in the words huckster. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. -ess (French esse. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. Slightly changed and widely used. gamester. as. as czarina. 30. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. the one most used. punster.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. Low Latin issa).

31. as. teacheresse. to represent persons of either sex.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. from the French -esse. or servauntesse. etc. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. as was said in the sixteenth century. from Latin imperatricem. Thus.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely." III. neighbor (masculine and feminine). wagoness. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. we use the masculine termination. we use the feminine. chairman. frendesse. Gender shown by Different Words. Some of them have an interesting history. 32. editor.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . neighboresse. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. We frequently use such words as author. fosteress. others have in their origin the same root. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. as in the fourteenth century. the ending -ess. as. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. In some of these pairs. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. NOTE. teacher or lady teacher. Instead of saying doctress.

34. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). Madam is the French ma dame. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. probably meaning house dweller). Besides gander and drake. Mare. the old sign of the masculine. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). It is not connected historically with our word duck. among others) to be from the same root word. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. lhauerd. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. for example. etc. Witch is the Old English wicce. Widower. not immediately connected with witch.). Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. The older forms. had the masculine mearh (horse). The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. 33. finally gander. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom.² . from Latin mea domina. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). or lauerd in Middle English. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). Two masculines from feminines. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. gand-ra. though both are ultimately from the same root. written loverd. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). as in many other words. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. widuwa²widuwe. became identical. 16). The masculine was formed by adding -a. Icelandic gás. Three letters of ened have fallen away.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. Personification. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. leaving our word drake. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. but this has long been obsolete. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. in Old English mere. Danish gaas.

There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. (3) By adding -s (or -es). shoon (shoes). we make its plural by adding -s or -es. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. But other words were inflected afterwards.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. 36. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. I. NUMBER. in Old English. 37. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way.Her home is on the deep. The -en inflection. whenever we adopt a new word. Our language has two numbers. the engineer speaks so of his engine. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. Effect of personification. 39. 38. eyen (eyes). which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. This is not exclusively a poetic use. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of.No towers along the steep. 35."Now. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. Definition. Britannia needs no bulwarks. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. . (2) By changing the root vowel. The first two methods prevailed. together with the third. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. the plural.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. and not by the form of the noun.²CAMPBELL. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible."²BYRON. that is. for instance. In nouns.²singular and plural. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. etc.²KEATS. treen (trees). more than one.²COLERIDGE.

swine. Brethren has passed through three stages. and get settled. then brothre or brethre. and is still found in dialects. finally brethren.² "God bless me! so then. when they mean soldiery. 40. folk. as. Examples of this inflection are. as. ditch. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. cross. Kine is another double plural. II.²WHITTIER. etc. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. . In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance.²MACAULAY. Such are box. wight. retain the same form for plural meaning. salmon. after all. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. by. etc. turf. brace. The old plural was brothru."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. into Frederick town. borough²formerly had the same inflection. people. Instead of -s. head. sail.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. Other words following the same usage are.²THOREAU. after numerals (if not after numerals.²Over the mountains winding down. glass. Akin to this class are some words.Horse and foot. originally neuter. such as deer. but has now no singular.The horse are thousands ten. dozen. 41. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. they add -s): also trout. The words horse and foot.² The foot are fourscore thousand. pair. Children has passed through the same history. heathen. cannon. III. 42. sheep. quartz. Lee marched over the mountain wall. etc. lens. but they now add the ending -s. or if preceded by the prepositions in.-En inflection imitated by other words. that have the singular and plural alike.

Means plural.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. DANA. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. Examples of these are. the Washingtons. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. When such words take a plural ending.-Es added in certain cases. e. optics. 44. half²halves.² Politics. 45. etc.g. chaise²chaises. these words ended in -ie. mathematics. and the real ending is therefore -s. etc. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. means: as. It served simply as a means of sight. in its widest extent. also news. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. molasses. house²houses. though this sound combines readily with -s. etc. shelf²shelves. Proper nouns are regularly singular. daisies. 15 and 17). knife²knives. allies. Some words are usually singular. though they are plural in form. is both the science and the art of government. Words in -ies.²BRYANT. means and politics. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. Special Lists. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. they lose their identity. niche²niches. some adding -s. and many branches of learning. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. So live. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. politics. fancies. e. fairies. pains (care). The lilie on hir stalke grene. hero²heroes. and some -es. 43. economics.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . however.²PROF.. volcano² volcanoes. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). and go over to other classes (Secs. race²races. Formerly.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. as. physics.. the Americas. summons. prize²prizes.g. quoth then that ladie milde. that when thy summons comes. a new syllable is made. negro²negroes. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. etc. Two words.

²GOLDSMITH. it is furnished with a forceps.²MOTLEY. Sometimes. by those means which we have already mentioned. With great dexterity these means were now applied. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. he pronounced to have been a tongs. if I recollect right. Now I read all the politics that come out. however.² MACAULAY. riches will accumulate. I say.²G. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. by strongly conveying the passions. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns.²BURKE. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other.²GOLDSMITH. L. LAUGHLIN. CURTIS.²J. W. Besides this.²GOLDSMITH. 46. Politics plural. By these means.Words.²IRVING. Some words have no corresponding singular. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. . A relic which.

One plural. In speaking of coins. dice (for gaming). In Early Modern English thank is found. fishes (individuals or kinds). eaves. in mournful numbers. (2) literature.²LONGFELLOW. for the numbers came. die²dies (stamps for coins. (2) poetry. as in the lines. Other words have one plural form with two meanings.²was it subdued when. Tell me not. or copies. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). number²numbers: (1) figures. These make the last part plural. DANA. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. the other unlike it. indices (signs in algebra).). may add -s. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. sixpence. making a double plural. Three words were originally singular. pea²peas (separately). or work in a bellows?²PROF. or epistles. 49. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47.²POPE. index²indexes (to books). 50. brethren (of a society or church). etc. 48. carry off chaff. riches. pease (collectively).the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. genii (spirits).² I lisped in numbers. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). two meanings. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet.²one corresponding to the singular. pence (collectively). (2) abilities. trouble. of a periodical... shots (number of times fired). genius²geniuses (men of genius). as two sixpences. (2) care. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. Numbers also means issues. shot²shot (collective balls). twopence. Two classes of compound words.The air. part²parts: (1) divisions.. (2) revenue duties. etc. fish²fish (collectively). faculties. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. . A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. penny²pennies (separately). ways. two plurals. clothes (garments).

for example.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. as the Messrs. .y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. there is some disagreement among English writers. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. the Drs. Brahman. 52. HOLMES. German.²DR. The chief member adds -s in the plural. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. or the name may be pluralized. Briggs. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. Allen. woman servant. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. and Mrs. The title may be plural. manservant. but add -s. Two methods in use for names with titles. the Misses Rich. Norman. then Silas Peckham. and then the three Miss Spinneys. As to plurals of names with titles. woman singer.² Then came Mr. though the latter is often found. 51. Brown. such as talisman. as man singer. firman. Ottoman. Mussulman.

Exercise. These are said to be domesticated. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. Domesticated words.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh.²DICKENS. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. and retain their foreign plurals. The Messrs. Others have been adopted. 53.²GIBBON. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh.²GOLDSMITH. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es.²THE CRITIC. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. FROM THE LATIN. or Anglicized. or Englished. Du Maurier. FROM THE GREEK. y y analysis antithesis . They are then said to be naturalized. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. The domesticated words may retain the original plural.

also add -s or 's. Letters.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. Definition. they form their plurals in the regular way. In the sentence. 56." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). . etc. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. 55. and expresses a relation akin to possession. 54. cell has another relation. without reference to their meaning. In the general wearing-away of inflections. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. as." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). as." the word felon's modifies cell. figures. form their plurals by adding -s or 's." CASE. Only two case forms.. etc. figures. "He sleeps in a felon's cell.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). Words quoted merely as words. helping to express the idea of place with the word in.

completing a verb. 3. they returned to their homes. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. 2. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. may be said to have three cases. 1. Uses of the Nominative. 57. and merit. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. when asked unawares. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases.²person. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. 5. the objective. Excuses are clothes which. and the possessive. Three properties belong to wisdom. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. and experience. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. three things characterize man. Human experience is the great test of truth. fate. .Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. I. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations.²one for the nominative and objective." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. then. excessive grief. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. Nouns.²nature." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus." (2) As a predicate noun.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. 4. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. 58. the enemy of the living. learning." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise.²the nominative. whether inflected or not. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. must be understood for purposes of analysis.

spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb.6. taking the object enemies. 68. Tender men sometimes have strong wills.Save. But the flood came howling one day. they are sands of precious gold." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. the word toward which the preposition points. 3. 8." Exercise. distance. and tell which use each has:² 1. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. wounded lies. a patriarch of the village. But of all plagues. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. reconciles. thy wrath can send. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. save. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. how have I frighted thee? II. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. taking the object storm. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder." "Thou makest the storm a calm. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. . Conscience." (3) Adverbially. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. and makest a calm. Uses of the Objective. 9. Set a high price on your leisure moments." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. 4. measure." (4) As the second object. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. 2. and meaning calmest. They charged." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. and being equivalent to one verb. 59. (5) As the object of a preposition. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. her first law broken. completing the verb. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. (in the older stages of the language. etc. and landlord of the inn. sword in hand and visor down. good Heaven. as will be seen in Sec. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends.

6. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. The possessive case always modifies another word. 9. 10. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. It is a poetic expression. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. the most common of all. as.Does his Creator's power display. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i.²BYRON.²ADDISON. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. and forfeits paid. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. tempests that . There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. And whirling plate.² The unwearied sun. (2) Objective possessive. as in these expressions.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. 61. from day to day. Possession in some sense is the most common. 8. (3) Subjective possessive. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations.²HAWTHORNE. expressed or understood. III.e. Uses of the Possessive. 60. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder.5. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. the Great Stone Face. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping.²SHELLEY.His winter task a pastime made. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. The noblest mind the best contentment has. or in writing yesterday's elegy.. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. 7. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. as shown in the sentences.And gave the leper to eat and drink. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio.

the panther which the forest hides). the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. however.e." Use of the apostrophe. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s.. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. making the possessive singular. The use of the apostrophe. in Chaucer.winter is likely to have). "From every schires ende. child NOTE. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. 63. Nom. . How the possessive is formed. 62. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. PLURAL. Poss. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. 56). Nom. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. as schoolboys sometimes write. "George Jones his book. and Obj. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. there are only two case forms. and Obj. 62. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). 1.. To form the possessive plural." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. Declension or inflection of nouns." etc. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. A suggestion." "at his beddes syde." "mannes herte [heart]. growth which several days had developed). Case Inflection. lady Poss. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. 64. A false theory. As said before (Sec. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his.e. One is the simple form of a word.

Peter's. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. the items of my son's. Cervantes' satirical work. containing words in apposition." "A postscript is added. being understood with it: for example. a word with a phrase. etc.Though this opinion was untrue. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. and from a desire to have distinct forms. for goodness' sake. James's.² LOWELL." Possessive with compound expressions. some such word as house. and she walked off from the don's. Kate saw that. store. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. church. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. the possessive sign is usually last. etc.²RUSKIN. In compound expressions.²HOLMES. stands up for God's truth one man. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. as by the countess's command. instead of the emperor their master's name. They invited me in the emperor their master's name.. as. 67. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. To the eye all the forms are now distinct.. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. Possessive and no noun limited. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys.²DE QUINCEY. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. the poor miner Hans Luther's son.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. Captain Scrapegrace's. know the amount of my income. dwelling. as. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. I remember him in his cradle at St.²SWIFT. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. but to the ear all may be alike. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. my neighbors. 65. in the name of the emperor their master. ."²DE QUINCEY.²CARLYLE.²THACKERAY. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. 66. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike.

The double possessive. HALE. sometimes they are used together. Clearness. ill-lighted except where she stands. no.²the introduction which Atterbury made. Both of these are now used side by side. corresponding to 's. that. E. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. every. For example. and I used to like whatever they bade me like.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. (See also Sec. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. and at the same time by a possessive noun. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. and tell whether each is appositional. as one modifier. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. the sentence might be understood as just explained. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. In most cases. especially when used with this or that. or subjective. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English.. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. any. Emphasis. 1. the statement clearly means only one thing. 87. (1) When a word is modified by a. objective.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. (b) Rewrite the sentence. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. however. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. 2. If. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns.²FROUDE. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. making a double possessive. this. each. in such a sentence as. Exercises. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun.²CARLYLE. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan.²E. etc. A peculiar form. Blair). we use the phrase of Atterbury. a double possessive. 68. (3) It prevents ambiguity. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. the. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? .

we state. it seemed. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. and destroy the other. 4. 13. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. let him seasonably water the one. in parsing a noun. Hence. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. 69. At lovers' perjuries.3.² . 14. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. some idioms²the double possessive. Friend. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. 9. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. 12.Comes dancing from the East.They say. with every garland crowned. 6. Nature herself.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. 7. 11. Jove laughs. 10. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. There Shakespeare's self. 5. In parsing. Now the bright morning star. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. therefore. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. 8.A weary waste expanding to the skies. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. day's harbinger. 15. I must not see thee Osman's bride. 70.

MODEL FOR PARSING. hence objective case. therefore masculine gender. masculine. it denotes only one person. Thief is a common class noun. it expresses possession or ownership. has no governing word. and to have it found out by accident. object of the verb takes. An old cloak makes a new jerkin.²common. names one thing. gender. and therefore nominative case. it has no sex.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. proper. Throat is neuter. therefore singular number. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. which gender. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. as to case. and limits neckcloth. it is the object of the preposition by.(1) The class to which it belongs. therefore possessive case. (3) Whether singular or plural number. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. hence it is a common noun. but is the adverbial objective. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. 3. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. like miller's. Exercise.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. and number. the connection shows a male is meant. 71. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. hence it is objective case. hence it is a gender noun. In parsing any word. 4. therefore singular number. singular number. and relations. . NOTE. a fresh tapster. determining its case. it is the name of a male being. etc. Neckcloth. 68). it expresses time. 2. subject of the verb is understood. inflections. therefore neuter. (4) Its office in the sentence. a withered serving man. The correct method. That in the captain's but a choleric word. is a common class noun. if the latter.

and representative words. and prison. A pronoun is a reference word. Definition. all in one. where the Rhone enters the lake. 76). "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. instead of saying.And hated her for her pride. were natives of Geneva. Madame de Staël. sleep! 6.. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome.5." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. 9. blessings light on him that first invented . Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally.. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. Jarley's back being towards him. . from a necessity for short. Mrs. definite. Classes of pronouns. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth.. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. Time makes the worst enemies friends." Again. For instance. 8. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. 73. 11. or for a person or thing.²palace. or for a group of persons or things. 10. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. (2) Interrogative pronouns. castle. 7. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. A few miles from this point. 72. The need of pronouns. but by a question we say. Necker. PRONOUNS. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. He giveth his beloved sleep. Now. and his daughter. financial minister to Louis XVI. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. standing for a name. which are used to ask questions about persons or things.

. pronoun. my Plural. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. that is. Nom. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. even if it had a special form. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 76. Person in grammar. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. Three persons of pronouns. the person or thing spoken to. representing a person or thing spoken to. (2) Second person. (3) Third person. From analogy to pronouns. 74. words. "the distinction of person. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. 75.(3) Relative pronouns. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. which relate or refer to a noun. (4) Adjective pronouns. which cannot be used as adjectives. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. mine. they must represent the person talking. they are said to have person by agreement. which have forms for person. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. primarily adjectives. I Poss. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. Singular. (5) Indefinite pronouns. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. representing the person speaking. 77. ours . This gives rise to a new term. and the person or thing talked about. standing for a person or thing spoken of. or other word or expression. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. as nouns have the same form." Person of nouns. we our. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking.

Obj. But the third person has. you your. and also for the neuter. Obj. your. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. feminine h o. Singular. Third person singular has gender. so also with the person or thing spoken to. or. she her. yours Poss. Old forms. 78. thy Remarks on These Forms. masculine h . neuter hit. of all Three. Obj. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. . Poss. namely. Nom. neuter. me us Singular. he his him Fem. yours you Plural. Old Form Common Form.. Obj. Nom. Masc. Nom. a separate form for each gender.Obj. by personification. hers her Plur. it its it Poss. thine. yours you THIRD PERSON. they their. theirs them Neut. thou thee ye you you your. Poss. The speaker may be either male or female. SECOND PERSON. Nom. in the singular. First and second persons without gender.

etc. Thou.:² (1) In elevated style.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar.²SHELLEY.² Oh. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. thy. just as we now say.Thou lovest. In spoken English. which is a neuter noun. their. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. This is of comparatively recent growth. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. and sometimes its. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. Second person always plural in ordinary English. however. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. the forms they. . even when referring to a single object. which was often sounded with the h silent. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. etc. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. especially in poetry. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. for example. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). The plurals were h . as possessive of it. heom. The consequence is. There are. 79. in Old English. The form its. that didst comfort thy people of old. to thy care we commit the helpless. (2) In addressing the Deity. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. two modern uses of thou. it." As shown above. etc.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). 80. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. thee. heora. as in prayers. 82. thou Shepherd of Israel. 81.. Two uses of the old singulars. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. We use it with a plural verb always.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee..² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. as. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels.²BEECHER. them.

²COWPER. its. . Thine are the city and the people of Granada. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. and follow the usage of literary English. The forms mine. That is. her. 84. us. ye. their. for. sometimes his and its. some say. and sometimes in ordinary speech. 83. hers. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. theirs. our. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. him. ²SHAKESPEARE. 58). though those named in Sec. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. they have a nominative form. me. have a peculiar use. however. Old use of mine and thine. In spoken English. to personify objects (Sec. her. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. The forms my. I The Nominative. though ye is occasionally used as objective. them. Absolute personal pronouns. him. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns.²LANDOR. besides a nominative use. "I am sure it was him. his.Use of the pronouns in personification. 84 are always subjects. us. we. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. your. II. Additional nominatives in spoken English. them. when they occur in the predicate position. in such a sentence as. and has been slave to thousands. and not make more classes. 'tis his. And since thou own'st that praise. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. I spare thee mine. she. he." the literary language would require he after was. or. thy. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. thine. 85. The Possessive. The words I. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. 34). they.²BULWER. her. 86. thou. Not a separate class. yours. note the following:² 'Twas mine. Yet careful speakers avoid this. Nominative forms.

in that old Edinburgh house of his." said Henry Woodstall. ours. are really double possessives. anger. we have. Long Allen. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. . This ancient silver bowl of mine. thine. Besides this. 87. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent.²J. we find. Like the noun possessives. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. hers. ours.²THACKERAY.²SWIFT. If thine eye offend thee. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham.²ID. sometimes its.²J. thus. Their uses. (2) To bring emphasis. his.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. commenting upon a letter of mine. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. for example. Double and triple possessives.²BIBLE. theirs. The forms hers. it tells of good old times. yours. F. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. yours. or satire. and with mine. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. but few thy voice.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns.²CARLYLE. theirs. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. COOPER. thus. as in nouns. (3) To express contempt. T.² CARLYLE. pluck it out.²THACKERAY. Give every man thine ear. This usage is still preserved in poetry. "Hold thy peace.²ID. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE."²SCOTT. ²HOLMES. FIELDS.

this dative use. as it is called. The Objective. 88. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. and mine in the second has an objective use." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. 20. Both joined in making him a present." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. for whose benefit. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. mine stands for my praise in the second. as shown in Sec.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. "The good alone are great." "None but the brave deserves the fair. . They may be spoken of as possessive in form.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine.²BIBLE. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. They all handled it. III. but the form is the same as the objective. But the first two have a nominative use. in the first sentence. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. was marked by a separate case. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. 90. The old dative case. In such sentences as. but nominative or objective in use. Now the objective.²ID. In their function. but expresses for whom. 86: mine stands for my property.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. or use in a sentence. but not in form. In pronouns. Curse me this people. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. his for his property. Besides this use of the objective. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. 89. the thing is done. In Old English there was one case which survives in use.

as.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. you must condense there.²IRVING To empty here. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber.² NEWMAN. or that he has not a great deal more. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar.²DE QUINCEY. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles.²EMERSON. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. has not made its progress.²BULWER. WEBSTER. 92. like Chinese skill.Time is behind them and before them. It is a pity that he has so much learning. or to the idea.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject.²CARLYLE. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. Society. in this century. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. The peasants take off their hats as you pass.²ADDISON." (3) As a grammatical subject.² . to stand for the real. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. why.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. ²EMERSON. thus. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. as in the sentences. was passed by with indulgence. Indefinite use of you and your. Your mere puny stripling. (3) In apposition.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. logical subject. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. you sneeze. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. You have oaten cakes baked some months before.²D. The word you. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. and they cry. 91. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. which follows the verb. as.²BACON.

but seldom in prose. we use such expressions as. (thyself). For when it dawned. that is. farms it. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. as they are also called. 93.²SCOTT. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. "I found me a good book. themselves. There was nothing for it but to return. yourselves. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively." "He bought him a horse.²THOREAU. keeps a school. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. who in turn tries all the professions." and there is an end of it. 94.²BURNS. who teams it. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. peddles it. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. They are myself.²IRVING. I made up my mind to foot it. itself. since firstThe flight of years began. herself. I set me down and sigh.² Now I lay me down to sleep. however. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns.²COLERIDGE.²HOLMES. And when I awoke. (ourself). Poor Christian was hard put to it. used in poetry.²DE QUINCEY. as. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. ourselves. A sturdy lad . when they are direct objects. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw.. And millions in those solitudes. ..It is finger-cold. For example. yourself. and its plural selves. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self.²BUNYAN.²ID. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Of the two forms in parentheses." etc. It was late and after midnight. have laid them downIn their last sleep. they dropped their arms.²BRYANT. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. -selves.²EMERSON. it rained. This occurs in poetry.²HAWTHORNE."²IRVING.²ANON. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. the second is the old form of the second person. himself.

and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood.² The great globe itself .? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. I shrink with pain.. after the analogy of myself. BROWNING.To you yourself. and the others were formed by analogy with these. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. Held dead within them till myself shall die. NOTE.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. ourselves. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. 96. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. Threats to all.²SHAKESPEARE.² TENNYSON. especially in the speech of rulers. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. as we ourself have been. as. etc. Origin of these reflexives.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. for example. B. and build the lofty rhyme. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. thyself.²EMERSON.² Only itself can inspire whom it will.. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. as. We fill ourselves with ancient learning.²ID. theself.²MILTON.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. were changed into the possessive myself.As girls were once.²E.² . for example. shall dissolve. as in vulgar English. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. to every one. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. with self.²WORDSWORTH. As if it were thyself that's here. 95. In Middle English the forms meself. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. Use of the reflexives. not the possessive forms. to us. The question might arise.

If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR.² THACKERAY. all conform to it. but it is the soonest spoiled. where the word is one with that it tells of. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active.²B. 6. 97. 10. . Infancy conforms to nobody. 8. let him lowly confess it. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. and neuter. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. and how to do it. One obsolete. Courage. father. is wisdom. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. 2. 3. some each of masculine. FRANKLIN. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). 9. and what. 7.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. some of them being double possessives. fight it out. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. feminine. And it grew wondrous cold. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. To know what is best to do. 4. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive.On the light fantastic toe. Years ago. 5. Three now in use.²DE QUINCEY. Come and trip it as we go. which.

or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. or case. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. it is selective. Whose was that gentle voice. whispering sweet. referring to things. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. that. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. . From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. The use of who. As shown here. 100. 99. but for case alone. shall we say. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. it refers to either persons or things. as it always asks about somebody. the gold.. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. ideas. whether. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. having three forms. actions. not to persons. 98. These show that what is not inflected for case. it is always third person. which is not inflected for gender. that it is always singular and neuter. Which of you. etc. number. that it is not inflected for gender or number. Use of who and its forms. used formerly to mean which of two. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. Use of which. What wouldst thou do.There is an old word. methought. with its possessive and objective. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. Use of what. but now obsolete.Promised. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. that is. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects.

which is called the antecedent of the relative. and so to make smoother discourse. or other word or expression. in Sec. These bards sang of Border chivalry. subject of doth love. SINGULAR Nom. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. For instance. since it is subject of the verb had. who evidently refers to Bards. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. "The last of all the Bards was he. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. what may be an adverb in some expressions. whose? Obj. AND PLUR. being the direct object of the verb shall take. pronoun. which. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word.101. It usually precedes the pronoun. AND PLUR. who? Poss. as. and also in having a conjunctive use.Who sung of Border chivalry. who is used as objective instead of whom. 105. as they take the place usually of a word already used. which and what. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. it may be shortened into. objective in the last. Function of the relative pronoun. 103. 127). 102. 104. for which the pronoun stands. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. The antecedent. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. 99. nominative in the second also. SING." In the latter sentence. Thus we may say." Or. Who. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. Further treatment of who.²by the use of the words.² "The last of all the Bards was he. and what are also relative pronouns. as.² . whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. which is nominative in the first sentence. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. which and what are sometimes adjectives. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun.

what.Whose flag has braved. a simple relative is meant. Who and its forms.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. The origin of language is divine. a thousand years.. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. with all its capabilities . They had not their own luster. 2. The men whom men respect. Generally speaking. 4. 106. When the word relative is used. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. 3. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. 3. The nurse came to us. 107. Two kinds. but the look which is not of the earth. both his and who have the antecedent priest. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON.² COX.²W.²PARTON Which and its forms. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. .Whom universal nature did lament.²MILTON.. in the same sense in which man's nature. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. 4.. is a divine creation. 2. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. that. Ye mariners of England. WHITNEY.That guard our native seas. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1.²DR JOHNSON. For her enchanting son. 6.²LOWELL In this. 108. Indefinite relatives. which.²SCOTT.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us.²THACKERAY. will be discussed further on. the women whom women approve. D. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. are the men and women who bless their species. 5.²BYRON.

107. 6. 110. Who.. stratagems...²LAMB 3. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. Reader. 4.5. bought up all the pigs that could be had. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. Examples of the relative that:² 1. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. BEECHER 5. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives.²EMERSON.² SHAKESPEARE 2. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.²GOLDSMITH. That. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. no bad type of what often happens in that country..Is fit for treasons. For what he sought below is passed above. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . Already done is all that he would do.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death..²DE QUINCEY. (a) This gradation . that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship.²IRVING.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. The man that hath no music in himself. which it certainly is not. else this description will seem exaggerated. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²H. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. W.. 3. The Tree Igdrasil. 109. ought to be kept in view.²BURKE. and spoils. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them.. 2. which prevented him from taking his usual ride.²MARGARET FULLER. What. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. 111. The judge . you will not be angry with me for telling you.

and 6. possessive case of which. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. a man. The robins.²LOWELL.. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin.whose.²IRVING. Smollett. Gibbon. son. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. (4) It has two case forms.²LEIGH HUNT. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. flung its arms around my neck. In sentence 4. 107. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. whom. The little gorilla. (2) It has three case forms. who. Scott. Kingsley. in 5. whom. in the second. . Which.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. seemed as much excited as myself. they are plural. or ideas.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. JOHNSON.²which for the nominative and objective. The sentences in Sec. Who referring to animals. the relatives are singular. things.. who is first person. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. Cooper. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. that man. not persons. whose. referring to animals. and 3. It has been seen (Sec. the others are all third person. (3) It is nearly always third person. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. whose wound I had dressed. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. whose is second person. Witness the following examples:² And you... in the first sentence. My horse. in the third.²SWIFT. in 4. In 1. 96). whose for the possessive. Sec. 5.. p. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. and so on. Examples of whose.who. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature.²THACKERAY. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent.²DR. 112. 113. and others.²who. 2..

secondly (which made her stare). and to persecute without pity. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. The last two sentences in Sec. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. (3) It is the same form for first. Kingsley. This often occurs. In the sentences of Sec.²RUSKIN. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. Sometimes. and third persons. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. 109. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. and numerous others. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. (2) It has only one case form. Which and its antecedents. This moribund '61. let us enter the church itself.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. So in Matthew Arnold. the antecedent follows which. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. Primarily. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. Men may be ready to fight to the death.²DE QUINCEY.114. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. thus."²RUSKIN.² MCMASTER. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. which is very notable and curious. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. second. That. . as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. Burke.²SCOTT. 115.²BEECHER. and things. for a religion whose creed they do not understand.²first.²THACKERAY. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent.²SHAKESPEARE.² And. animals. which is worse. no possessive. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. too. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus.² I swept the horizon. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. 116.

either of which would be neuter. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. third person." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. as. . what we said?²CARLYLE. for example. When expressed. by taking them out.²SHAKESPEARE. as in sentence 6. that do I not. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. consequently is neuter. 119. that men must needs abide. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things.² What I would. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS." (3) "These people heard him. and person of the relatives who. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. it usually follows. Sec." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. which.²EMERSON. is always neuter. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. What a man does.²BIBLE What fates impose. The gender. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. 118. 109. Nom." That evidently refers to truths. For example. number. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. Who plainly stands for those or the people. that do I. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. whose Obj. that he has. and is emphatic. The sentences of Sec. plural number.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. plural number. third person. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. 117. but what I hate. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. we can. who Poss. What.

6. above. in (1). .We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. 7. people is the object of the preposition of. the highest result of all education. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. is what we call nature. The whole expression is its subject. is in the nominative case. Exercise. is subject of wrought upon and molded. subject of heard. we is the subject." Here the subject of is. The relative what is handled differently. neuter. after all. and hence is in the nominative case. Now. so is in the objective case."²EMERSON. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. because it has usually no antecedent. who is sure to be cunninger than they. 3. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. third person. What can't be cured. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. but is singular. nobler souls with that which they are. etc. it is object of uttered. Some prefer another method of treatment. it is subject of the verb heard. then parse the relatives. in the following sentences:² 1. however. The word what. In (2). In the same way who. What must be endured? Answer. and what is the direct object of the verb call. As shown by the following sentences. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. standing for the people understood. In the sentence. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. is subject of the verb can't be cured. "What can't be cured must be endured. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. but of this. in (3). Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. Truths in sentence (2)." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. 120. that takes the case of the truths in (2). 8. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. the simple relative. which is. 5.. First find the antecedents. Parsing what. 4. Another way. I think they are trying to outwit nature.

2. It is clear that in 1. Only itself can inspire whom it will. Do what we can. object of with] which [singular. or what else soever. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. List and examples. They are whoever. whichever. summer will have its flies. The simple relatives who.²BURKE. Take which you please. Meaning and use. whatsoever. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. It is no proof of a man's understanding.²you cannot have both. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. by meaning and use. that is. less common are whoso. object of do] they do. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. 4.²BURKE.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. 6. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. 121. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. . whichsoever. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. Death is there associated. whatever. and parse that in the first clause. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. no certain antecedent. 3. whosoever. 7. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. and which in the second clause. to everything that. in a new and original way. that nothing else can stand in their presence.²MACAULAY. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. or stand on their head. 122. Hence some take what as a double relative. 5. 2. So with the other indefinites. whatever is equivalent to all things which. "common souls pay with that [singular. and in 2. being referred to. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. not as direct as the simple relatives. which. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. no particular thing. 123. and his friend a fool. whatsoever.

²EMERSON. thus. as shown by the last sentence in Sec.² some particular thing. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. Sec. 126. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. the conjunctions wherein. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. as was used just as we use that or which. Proof that they have the force of relatives. 417). The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3.As shown in Sec. what means anything that. . nothing that does not interest us. for example. This. by which.²DE QUINCEY. 124. but and as. 120. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. 125. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. etc.²HAWTHORNE. Two words. There is nothing but is related to us. for example.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. everything that (or everything which). whereby. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. has been my heaviest affliction. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions..² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England.² 1. 2. Instead of the phrases in which. Other substitutes. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. but mean any one whom.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. whereupon. either one that. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. upon which. 121. etc.. 121. In early modern English. not following the word such. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. 4. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. are used. but which only wealth could have purchased. etc. Former use of as. But and as. and that as after such is equivalent to which.

The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. But in 1 (b). it is an interrogative. Thus. if not. showing that who is plainly interrogative. (b) Well we knew who stood behind.²ID. 1 (b). Special caution needed here. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). and 3 (b). "But what had become of them? They knew not. 3. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does.²EMERSON. (b) But what had become of them they knew not." Likewise with which in 3 (b). . "Who stood behind? We knew.²WHITTIER. second. would be. what is interrogative. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. if expanded. 2. Another caution. In sentences 1 (a). But compare the following in pairs:² 1. though the earthwork hid them. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. who having the antecedent gentleman. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. which would indicate that they are not relatives. 2 (b). How to decide. the full expression being. if not. it is an indefinite relative)." etc. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. 127. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized.. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. it is a simple relative. a question is disguised in each sentence. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. no antecedent is expressed. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. In studying such sentences. So in 2 (b). which having the antecedent lines. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. and whether what = that + which (if so.

The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. and Court Calendars.128.²G. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. which. whose has the antecedent you. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. When Goldsmith died. which has the antecedent hue. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. In the first. Relative omitted when object.²FLETCHER. and asks no question. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. ELIOT. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. Thus. Examine the following:² 1. but the life of man in England. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. Put in the relatives who. On the other hand.²FORSTER 6. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences.² THACKERAY. 129. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3.²HOLMES. In the third. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed.²GOLDSMITH. whence is the interrogative word. . In the second. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb.² These are the sounds we feed upon. 3. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. 5. Exercise. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES.²CARLYLE. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. I visited many other apartments. the question is asked by the verb. The insect I am now describing lived three years. 2.²SWIFT. 4.

5. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude.²SHAKESPEARE.²Id. 2. 6.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. The nobles looked at each other.² LOWELL. Relative omitted when subject. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. simple relatives.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift.Ne'er looks upon the sun.7. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men.²SCOTT. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 3. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. that. or indefinite relatives:² 1. Function of adjective pronouns. Also in literary English we find the same omission. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. the house was full. who were to be rulers over whom. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. which was already proceeding.²CAMPBELL. which. . Examples are. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. and what. There was such a crowd went. 130. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. and comparatively so in poetry. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. It is rare in prose.

expressed or understood. either. etc." Classes of adjective pronouns. "these pranks. but have lost their adjective use. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. 132. "The dead are there. or may be the whole of a sentence. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. none.²BRYANT." in the second. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. not pronouns. such as this. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. as some. and stand for a noun. in order to be an adjective pronoun. such as each. in the second they retain an adjective meaning." in the others. Caution. "each cube.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these.²IRVING.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. few.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. and on each is written. Adjectives. must not modify any word. 'Truth. any. Primarily they are adjectives. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. "another bank. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. or an argument in a paragraph. the former. in the first." that is. 133." "Where two men ride on a horse. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. In the first use they are adjectives. or they may stand for nouns. which we have seen in such expressions as. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS." "one man. that. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. a word. but in this function. For instance. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. . in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. For example." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. and another to get cool under. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. etc. or use. necessarily thought of: thus. neither. many. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. in letters of gold. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. etc. all.²EMERSON.131.

(b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. but these were of the best. Exercises.All these he saw. Such are a few isolated instances. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. accidentally preserved. Simple. Compound. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. 3. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. but what he fain had seen He could not see. They have not shunned the one.² They stood. and they have well performed the other. . Definition and examples. NOTE. and sow wickedness. Some of these are simple pronouns.²EMERSON 4. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. as seemed good to each. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. Even as I have seen. because he was not lying in wait for these.²ID. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. or reclined.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number.²LOWELL. when the latter was the King of Spain. 134. 5. they that plow iniquity.²ID. Their minds accorded into one strain. A man inspires affection and honor.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. or sat. 2. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. They had fewer books. reap the same. for example.

²each other. with the superstitions of his time. The Soldan. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number.²HOLMES. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. Some inflected. as. None shall rule but the humble. Much might be said on both sides. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. imbued. They led one another. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul.²EMERSON. paused over a horoscope. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. such as one other.²HAWTHORNE. one another. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. you quickly come to the end of all. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. Definition and examples. The word one has a reflexive form. Another opposes him with sound argument. .It felt the guidance that it does not claim. ²HAWTHORNE. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. another. or melt for others' woe.Two are compound pronouns. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. as most were. for example. Men take each other's measure when they react. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. we might the more easily discharge them.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. as some of the rangers had gone astray.² One reflexive. 135. Exercise.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good.²KINGSLEY. as it were.

etc. and was indefinite in Old English. no one. they are never used as adjectives. something. as shown in the words everybody's. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. and they. they say. etc. as. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man.. anybody.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. unlike adjective pronouns. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. 136. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List." It means something.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. naught. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. nothing. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. every one (or everyone). . somebody else. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. every one else. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. anything. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. nobody. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. anyone else. anybody else's. some one. Now. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. any one (or anyone). Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America.Exercise. what. also aught. 137. and somewhat. Somebody. everything. everybody else.² At lovers' perjuries. in building of chaises. everybody.²SHAKESPEARE. Jove laughs. I tell you what. Exercise. but. Definition and examples. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. They indefinite means people in general.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. Every one else stood still at his post.

round as the shield of my fathers! 15. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. 11. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. 16. The table was good. 3. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. 5. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. 7. For this did God send her a great reward. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. Hutchinson tells us of herself. 4. 13. O thou that rollest above. and of no other. but not to quite so enormous an extent. indeed. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. All was now ready for action. Whoever deals with M. I first found myself among the mountains. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. 10. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. Others did the same thing.See also "Syntax" (Sec. . but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. to which. in his negotiations. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). 12. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. 6. 9. 2. 17. were suffered to depart. 138.²a feature of natural scenery for which. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. A reminder. 14. 8. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. from my earliest days. Exercise. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. 18.

whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. And I had done a hellish thing.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. They know not I knew thee. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. I who alone am. behold now the semblance of my being. 21. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. And will your mother pity me.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. who take the world easy. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . A smile of hers was like an act of grace. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. 35. 34. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. oh. that let him communicate. thou rollest now. 31. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. hear. well-oiled dispositions. variety. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. eat white bread or brown. He sate him down. 29. and seized a pen.19. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. in all its height. 32.And it would work 'em woe. 25. Whatever he knows and thinks. 27. 30. 26. hear! 33.Destroyer and preserver. 23. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. Who and what was Milton? That is to say.Who knew thee too well.

As to the kind of words used." The office of an adjective. 43. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. etc. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. 38. We are by nature observers. then. He teaches who gives. 139. so that no other will be mistaken for it. 39. 41. Office of Adjectives. who understands me." "some cities. as. position. adjectives are used. For example. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. heavy or light. We need to add some words to tell its color. if we are at a distance." etc. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. 45. "one hat. 40. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. 44.. white or red. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. If a chemist discovers a new substance. in pointing out an object. or gaseous.36. It may have this office alone. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. Substantives. becomes mine. which was no bad step towards my liberation. 37. etc. that is our permanent state. So with any object. the number is limited by adjectives. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. and if we are near. . we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. He knew not what to do. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. brittle or tough. or liquid. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. size. and so he read. 42. such as in the expressions "this man. Again." "that house." "a hundred men. Instead of using nouns indefinitely." "yonder hill. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. or with persons. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. ADJECTIVES. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. and he learns who receives. Who hears me.

such as safe. 142. With exception of the "and then." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. To err is human." "ice-cold water.²COLERIDGE." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White." they constitute all his connections. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. Classes of adjectives. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. beautiful. divine. "Heaven-derived power. it shows that he weighs men's minds. Examples are. 143." "ivory-handled pistols." "unlooked-for burden. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. derived from proper nouns. They include relative and interrogative words." "next-door neighbor. fair.140.²POPE. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES." and the still less significant "and so. to forgive. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives." . used to tell how many things are spoken of. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. words primarily pronouns." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. remotest. (2) Adjectives of quantity. (4) Pronominal adjectives. If he be thankful for small benefits. terrible." the "and there." "this life-giving book. Definition. Nouns are not. to describe it or to limit its application." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. however. and their trash. or how much of a thing. To make this clear. deep. "an old English manuscript. such as. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression." "the Christian pearl of charity. Infinitives. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun." "half-dead traveler. rash." "the Roman writer Palladius.² BACON. etc. 141. happy. pointing out particular things. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives.

² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. Oxenham.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. but small thoughts have I of sleep. Examples are. no." was accomplished is a verb. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady." "The shattered squares have opened into line. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. and accomplished is an adjective. 2. 'Tis midnight." "trailing clouds. 143. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. and another is drunken." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. considerable." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. . Care is needed. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. which are either pure participles used to describe. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. having some of each subclass named in Sec. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb." "an aged man. 144.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. some. sometimes small.But ever she looked on Mr. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. in studying these last-named words. 1. any. For instance: in the sentence. 145. Exercises.²MACDONALD." was is the verb." "It came on like the rolling simoom. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman." Caution." "One is hungry." "a charming sight. in this.²COLERIDGE." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. much.

²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity.²THACKERAY. no." "In came some five and twenty more. The demonstrative adjectives are this. those). How many." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. Thus. the former²the latter. When some.²VAUGHAN. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of.²KINGSLEY.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. are used with plural nouns." (b) Indefinite numerals. The following sentences present some examples:² . Not primarily pronouns. any. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. latter." "He had lived by hunting for some months. instead of modifying them." Single ones of any number of changes." "Then we wandered for many days.² Every town had its fair. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. The list. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. "one blaze of musketry. Exercise.²CARLYLE. its wake. former. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. and with them a few negroes. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. 146. as. every village. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. but I have gained fourscore." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. yonder (or yon).Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. they come under the next division of adjectives. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. An arrow was quivering in each body. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives." "a dozen volunteers. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts." "I have lost one brother.²ID. Examples. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. (plural these. that.

we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be.²RUSKIN. skill which was progressive²in the other. just as the corresponding pronouns do. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns.²GOLDSMITH. for example. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator."²B.²BULWER. 148. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. skill which was at pause. what revenues or garnitures. These were thy charms.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. These do not. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives.²D.²ID.²BANCROFT. 147. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you.. Oxenham fought desperately. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. 149. Definition.²KINGSLEY. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. I verily believe. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned.² It matters not what rank he has. The silver and laughing Xenil. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. but.²WORDSWORTH. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. like the other numerals. The taking of which bark. they are changed to adjectives. Exercise. ²CARLYLE. but in the one case.but all these charms are fled. Indefinite relative adjectives. tell how many things are meant.²ID. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. As has been said. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. They are of two kinds. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. Modify names of persons or things. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. of equal skill. WEBSTER. . When we speak of the seventeenth century. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. In which evil strait Mr.. FRANKLIN.

and new tormentedAround me. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. whatever. what inquires about things or persons not known. or whether any. and gaze. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY.And whichsoever way I turn.²LAMB. But when the Trojan war comes.. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. whichsoever way I move. which. Was there. whatsoever. you at least give him full authority over your son. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. Examples of their use are.²IRVING. In direct questions. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best.²CARLYLE. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. 151. Adjective what in exclamations.²ID. New torments I behold. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. which is selective among what is known. whichever. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. In indirect questions. They may be used in direct and indirect questions.. Whatsoever kind of man he is. . make what sour mouths he would for pretense.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. nature will be sure to bear us out in. proved not altogether displeasing to him. it is impossible to determine. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. the debt to the rich. A lady once remarked. as it rather seemed. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what.²AGASSIZ.150. He was turned before long into all the universe. whichsoever. As in the pronouns. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE).²RUSKIN.² EMERSON. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight.

th s (modern those).. etc. or size. color. When we place two objects side by side.Adjectives have two inflections. In exclamatory expressions. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these.152. COMPARISON. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. as. and when we compare the objects. This is the old demonstrative. and those as the plural of that. or amount. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. 155. etc. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. Meaning of comparison.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE.² Oh. the making of it right. Exercise. gold is heavier than iron. we notice some differences between them as to size. or weight. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. It is neither relative nor interrogative. Those borrowed from this. weight. NUMBER. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. The article that was used with neuter nouns.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. . 153 . a sapphire is bluer than the sky. And yet. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. 154. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this.²number and comparison. those). and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this.²This. alas. But this had also another plural. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. which was fully inflected in Old English. Thus. of the quality. All these have certain qualities.²but not the same degree. History of this²these and that²those. That. we do so by means of their qualities. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep.

The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. So with the words sole. to the simple form. supreme. indomitable. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. whether they attend their own affair or not." "It is a nobler valor. giant-like. bluer. or amounts in quantity." "no fewer than a hundred. easiest." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. Substitute for inflection in comparison. as. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. red. They came into use about the thirteenth century. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. 159. The two forms. expressing a greater degree of quality. These are properly the only degrees. though the simple. they are not compared. 156. immemorial. blue. 157. infinite." Words that cannot be compared." "the largest soul. with less wit.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. The comparative is formed by adding -er. and the superlative by adding -est. sufficient. great. redder. "untamed thought. "more matter. Freedom is a perpetual. These are called degrees of comparison." "the commonest speech. indefatigable. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. 160. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. but. 158. organic. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. and the superlative. universal institution. bluest. and many others. easier.²THACKERAY. reddest. but were not common until a century later. Definition. strictly considered. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. whose favorite pupil he was. expressing the greatest degree of quality. as. easy. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. A main difference betwixt men is. for example. enormous. .²SEWARD.

examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives." "distantest relationships. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. there needed to be a most genuine substance." "the wonderfulest little shoes. polished. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. strange. and yet familiar.²ID. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. The following lists include the majority of them:² . easy.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. falling on his knees. 163." "sorrowfulest spectacles. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. mournfulest." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. most small. I will. finest chiseling.²ID. These are adjectives irregularly compared. admirablest. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. "So help me God." "more austere and holy." "more odd. who.² CARLYLE A gentleman. These long. and other words are preceded by more and most. The general rule is. which hung behind in the queerest way.Which rule.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. though born in no very high degree. harsh forms are usually avoided. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English." "the immensest quantity of thrashing.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. 162. etc. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. peaceablest." Carlyle uses beautifulest. madam. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. witty. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. honestest. indisputablest. quiet." said Henry Esmond. was most finished.²The Nation. as. and patientest fusing. Adjectives irregularly compared. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words.

and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. 3. (3) Little is used as positive to less. 8. 164. uttermost Upmost. older Nigher Nearer Later. 6. throw away the worser part of it. next Nearest Latest. is often used. 2. Hind 2. lesser. [Out] Outer. as in the sentence (14th century). further Farthest. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. evil was the positive to worse. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. Worser was once used. [In] Inner Inmost. latter Hinder LIST II. though from a different root. List I. The superlative I form was betst. hindermost Much or many More Farther. These have no adjective positive:² 1. 9. furthest 10. lesser Elder. oldest Nighest. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. A double comparative. uppermost LIST III.LIST I. a double comparative. as in Shakespeare. utter 3.² O.² We have it in a much lesser degree. 7. which has gone out of use. 5. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. There was an old comparative bet. 1. as. Good or well Evil. 4. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. worst.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). innermost Outmost. which has softened to the modern best. (2) In Old English. outermost Utmost.²HAMLET. bad. last Hindmost. least. .

to England we sailed. since the m is for -ma. doubling the inflection. making the modern farther. Between the two sets as they now stand. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. further. farrest. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. but originally the comparison was nigh. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. are earlier than older." Its spelling has been micel. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. Since later. moche. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. a distinction has grown up between the two series. oldest. ²LAMB. except the form next. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. greatest. etc. great. and the superlative nearest. to which is added -ost. eldest.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it.²forth. In imitation of further. muchel. The most part kept a stolid indifference. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. the old forms.. much. next. and refer to time.² The more part being of one mind. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective.. as. or series. instead of lenger. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. meaning the largest part.²HAWTHORNE. came into use. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. etc. "Many a little makes a mickle. . an old superlative ending. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. is quite common. List II.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. The meanings greater. strong. latest. The latter. as long. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. near. but not in meaning. First became entirely detached from the series. furthest. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. (5) The forms elder. the parallel form mickle being rarely used.²ID. th came into the others. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. strenger. first. there is scarcely any distinction.²KINGSLEY. are shown in such phrases as. farthest. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. for example.

Her bows were deep in the water. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives.²KINGSLEY. Think what each adjective belongs to. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink.²DE QUINCEY. BEECHER.165. The adjectives in List III. 167. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain." "the innermost moral soul. all may belong to the same noun. or each may modify a different word or group of words. Highest and midmost. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. The comparatives are so in form. 168.²H. being merely descriptive." "their utmost exertion. In List II. was descried The royal banner floating wide. by the by.²DE QUINCEY. in having no adjective positives. are like the comparative forms in List II. . but they have no adjective positives. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. 166. or have no comparative forms. W. Decidedly handsome. Her.²SCOTT.²HAWTHORNE." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. There. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. but not in their meaning.²EMERSON. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. and have no comparative force. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. They have no superlatives." "The outer is of the day. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. (Sec. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. List III. but her after deck was still dry." -Most added to other words. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection." "far-seeing as the sun. the upper light of the world. on the very topmost twig.

Exercise. in prose. therefore. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. instead of saying.For example. ²TROLLOPE.²NOAH PORTER.²BIBLE. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. philosophical.²RUSKIN. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank." making then an adjective. 169. The seldom use of it. deep." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. and thine often infirmities. In the following quotations. usual modifies incomparable decision. the then and still owners. round. and heaven-defying oaths. 7." in which then is an adverb. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. our new government. May we not. 3. and moral truth. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives.²A. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. and broken. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. 6. 4." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. H. . STOWE. But in this sentence.² My then favorite. Our sometime sister. satisfactory. Other instances are. STEPHENS 5. now our queen. It may still be argued. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. For thy stomach's sake.²HOLMES. Bradbury and Evans. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. solid. A few improper jests and a volley of good. we may say "the then king. By a convenient brevity. This.²HAWTHORNE. as. in this sentence. 2. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. rich.²TRENCH.²MRS. Richard Hooker. "the one who was then king.²HAWTHORNE. deeply black eyes. bright. not decision alone.

6. 9. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. cannot be compared. MODEL FOR PARSING. if it has number. (4) What word or words it modifies. frank. 2. seventy-five drachmas. To every several man. then. positive degree.What to tell in parsing. or case. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. 3. To every Roman citizen he gives. manly way. compared by prefixing more and most. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. the method of parsing is simple. I ask nothing of you. having a singular. 4. not inflected for number. 170. Since adjectives have no gender. She made no reply. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. modifies truths. person. Unfamiliar describes truths. 10. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. plural number. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. 5. modifies the word truths. and I waited for none. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. In parsing an adjective. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. 8. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. this. therefore descriptive. therefore demonstrative. This gave the young people entire freedom. (3) Its degree of comparison. across the plain. These points out what truths. Exercise. and very few have number. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. . Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. with awkward but rapid pace. and most astounding were those frightful yells. (2) Its number. if it can be compared. 7.

the same love to France would have been nurtured. Nearer to our own times. the tomahawk fell. I know not what course others may take. and many poles supported the lower ones. 23. 16. 28. during which time I waited. 21. oxen. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. 25. 12. 13. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. are immutably fishes. those dogs in the yard. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. not so much for travelers that were few. 26. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. 14. 19. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. 29. 32. In music especially. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. 22. as for armies that were too many by half. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. Two hours elapsed. . His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17.11. suggests such thoughts as these. Here lay two great roads. it rests on reality. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. it is so noble a fruit. Like most gifted men. growing in the most unfavorable position. 33. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. he won affections with ease. 20. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. and therefore more interesting to us. To say what good of fashion we can. yonder oxen in the pasture. 18. Their name was the last word upon his lips. 27. 31. 24. With every third step. is the settlement of our own country. and dogs.

nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant." An with consonant sounds. with an ordinary little garden. in vulgar English. An before vowel sounds. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. Our expressions the one." "an orange. when the word is not accented on the first syllable." the words the and an belong to nouns. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized." "a European. In the sentence. meaning one. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. ðat. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. . later th . 172. the tother. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. or the tane. sometimes the tother. In Middle English the became an article. Their origin. but the former is used. 35. and a before consonant sounds. such as we have been attempting to describe. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. for example. 173. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. the tither. 171.²MACAULAY.34. s o. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. A hard-struggling." "an honor. Two relics. even when not silent. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . the tother. Many writers use an before h. Examples: "a house.² We ca' her sometimes the tane.²SCOTT. a before consonant sounds. th o. these occurring as the tane. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. weary-hearted man was he. were formerly that one. he is no literary man. 37. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. ARTICLES. An or a came from the old numeral n. just as adjectives do. An historian. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds.²BREWER." "a yelling crowd. that other. the latter is still preserved in the expression. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. 174. the other. that) which was also an article in Old English.

on opening a story. since it points out a particular individual. a person is introduced by a. An or a is the indefinite article. 177. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing.. With names of rivers. and when the word river is omitted. or any individual of a group or class.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri..²THOMAS JEFFERSON.²THACKERAY. An hereditary tenure of these offices. Definition. which cannot be used alone. as "the Mississippi. When the is prefixed to a proper name. Kinds. and not a state or other geographical division.²COLERIDGE. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. NOTE. 175. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with." the article indicates clearly that a river. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings.² . as in the sentence. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. 179. An article is a limiting word. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. or class. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me.²HEROES OF ASGARD. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. The Dakota tribes. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. or a group or class of things. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. thus. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair.² Don't you remember how.²IRVING. Articles are either definite or indefinite. 176. The is the definite article. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. BANCROFT. the older n. Reference to a known object. or group. To call attention to attributes. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE.²This use is noticed when. 178. An and a are different forms of the same word. is referred to.²G." "the Ohio.. doubtless. not descriptive.

Half abstract. One thing for its class. but into the region of all the virtues.²SCOTT. the song sparrow.²ID. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. For possessive person pronouns.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. Caution. Kant. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. laid it on the miry spot. for example. and the redwing.² The faint.²ID. 183.²EMERSON.²KINGSLEY.²EMERSON. If the good is there. The. as. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. the gallant. 2. .The Bacon. NOTE.² As she hesitated to pass on. With adjectives used as nouns. the Spinoza. The simple rise as by specific levity.²G. Common. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. the Hume. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities.²MOTLEY. BANCROFT. 181. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind.²GIBBON. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. His messages to the provincial authorities. 180. etc. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. her. or a match put between the fingers. not into a particular virtue. 1. 182. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. so is the evil. With plural of abstract nouns. Schelling. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. would speedily extract the required information.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.
Caution.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.
Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES.
198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

VERBS AND VERBALS.. VERBS.
Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

By examining a few verbs. and not a verb. as. we consider a verb as one word. a noun. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. 203. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. and to receive the action expressed. or an idea. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. "Put money in thy purse. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. Hence Definition. a preposition. c). care. the most astute. b). in (2. Now. b). an adverb. the word following. all do not express it in the same way. In each case. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. in (3. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. for example. 204. and a preposition unite as a verb. Of those expressing action. 202. Definition and caution. lone took what? answer. All these are called transitive verbs. and. with some word understood.In (a). Has takes the object hypocrisy. In the sentence. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. or a material thing. which may be a person. endured what? anguish. "Put thou money in thy purse. taking the staff which always guided her steps. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. The nature of intransitive verbs. to say something to or about some person or thing. Each influences some object. A verb is a word used as a predicate. the most penetrating. a verb. In the first. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. or the object. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. an article. from the Latin transire. 200: In (1). can deceive has an object. in this sentence from Bulwer. in (b). but cannot be predicates. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. in (c). in (3. to go is no predicate. in (2. which means to go over." put is the predicate. and shame the most astute. representing something which it influences or controls."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. etc." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. but fearing is not a predicate. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate." Examine the sentences in Sec. In giving a definition. obeyed is a predicate. The nature of the transitive verb.²BULWER . (can) shame also has an object. a). 201. hence is not a verb. All do not express action: some denote state or condition.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence
Definition.

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.
Definition.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.
Definition.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.

MOOD.
Definition.

213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.
Definition.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Cautions.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.
Definition.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds.²BRYCE.²may or may not be true. popular government must be pronounced impossible. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. as. the writer can make the statement following. as. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. Unreal²cannot be true. the representative system ultimately fail.² If. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. .I could lie down like a tired child. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. 2). There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. he will see the need of these ethics. for example. they were recorded in the Book of Life.²D.²SHELLEY. ²EMERSON.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. 215. and may or may not be regarded true. 222. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. Again. the second founder. in our case. 221. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. WEBSTER. Ideal. I. the first great founder of the Empire.²LONGFELLOW.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. but. Most excellent stranger. If this be the glory of Julius. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same.²FRANKLIN. Condition or Supposition.² Now. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. or be fulfilled.²MACAULAY. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses.

²FRANKLIN. would have sat still with joy and peace. But in no case could it be justified. I told him. do you think.²FRANKLIN. though. If he had reason to dislike him. but when the verb precedes the subject. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. Epaminondas. if he speak to you. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. 7. is used to express purpose. especially be.. The voice.. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. etc. that he might be strong to labor.²EMERSON. and striven energetically to save Ney. 5. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. is of similar physiognomy. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. Subjunctive of Purpose. 6. he had better not have written. society could not hold together. NOTE. 223.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact.²MACAULAY. to drink strong beer.²CALHOUN. the clause being introduced by that or lest. In the following conditional clauses. 4. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. WILLIS. and what kind of condition:² 1. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. would you.²SWIFT." etc. .² CARLYLE. unless.²N. that we cannot but regret its absence. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. if his lot had been mine. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. if he was the man I take him for. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. might.. except. which cannot be true. Exercise. and sonorous. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. II. 8.²BAYNE.. she was regarded as a prodigy. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. clear.² If these things were true.² It was necessary. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. 2. thus. ²LOWELL. as. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. and should. may. he supposed. melodious. 3. P. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. since he [Byron] was dead. The subjunctive.

The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon.Were wafted off to seas unknown. In Indirect Questions. none of us could say.²SOUTHEY. I would it were! ²EMERSON.²MOORE.²WORDSWORTH. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. In Temporal Clauses.. like the quarry-slave at night. Expressing a Wish. III. 224. Subjunctive of Result. Let it rise.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. In a Noun Clause. the answer being regarded as doubtful.²CARLYLE. within its fairy bowers. 226.²ID.And we. The English subjunctive. So live. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. I've wished that little isle had wings..²BRYANT. like the Latin. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. WEBSTER.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. VI. After a verb of wishing. till it meet the sun in his coming.²D. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. Rise up. .I have been the more particular.That vain it were her eyes to close. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan..Thou go not. To tell of what had passed. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode.²DE QUINCEY. 227..²COLERIDGE. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. 225. V. Ask the great man if there be none greater. VII. IV.

228.²THOREAU. is. (b) Adjective. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. See that there be no traitors in your camp.²CARLYLE. After verbs of commanding. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.²WORDSWORTH.² Be the matter how it may. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. we'll turn aside. often contains a subjunctive. of cash. Whatever betide.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word.. object. is the ultimate fact of man's life.²COLERIDGE. Come.²SCOTT. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. that everything be in its place. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. The first merit. Complement. VIII. for example. 229. which may be (a) Pronoun. That hunger of applause. etc. Some might lament that I were cold. The essence of originality is not that it be new.And look thou tell me true. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart.² DICKENS.²COLERIDGE.And see the Braes of Yarrow. Concessive Clauses. I have no thought what men they be. tell me all that thou hast seen.²DE QUINCEY.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. The noun clause. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. or whatsoever victual it may be. . in apposition. Object.²TENNYSON. in its various uses as subject.²SHELLEY.Subject.

but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. (2) Entreaty. point to their immortal works. we had found [should have found] a poem here. Honor all men. though. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. for example.(c) Adverb. 230. since commands are directed to a person addressed.²J. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected.The spirit he loves remains. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. In spoken English. to express a wish. Oh. fear none. (1) Command. . 231. or requests. entreaties. love all men. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. IMPERATIVE MOOD. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. ADAMS. Q. Usually second person. a concession. (3) Request.²SHELLEY. At the present day. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. 232. however.² CARLYLE. It must be remembered. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. Definition. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time.²CHANNING.²BRYANT. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. and condition contrary to fact.

Oh. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. Sometimes with first person in the plural."²DICKENS Tell me.. noble earl. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. Quoth she. Mark thou this difference. Part we in friendship from your land. or I + they.²SHAKESPEARE. lest we rust in ease. to you implied in it. we may use the imperative with we in a command. there will her heart and her prayers be. 3."Hush! mother. but I + you. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4.And God forget the stranger!" . "Come along with me. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. receive my hand. 2. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. nothing is to be preferred before justice. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1.One glance at their array! 5." whispered Kit. request. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. etc. child of earth!While each performs his part.And. 6." Exercises on the Moods.²SCOTT. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. 8.²CAMPBELL." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. Break we our watch up. Whatever inconvenience ensue.. "The Devil take the goose. etc. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. 7.

Except. Marshall." 16. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. whether he do it right or wrong. 20. Though he were dumb. let him live where else he like. He is. "Mr. she ought to have it.High up in silver spikes! 22. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. then. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. my dear madam. or do it at all. 18. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. in what pomps and prosperities he like.That they might answer him. Though abyss open under abyss." cried he. He." continued Old Morgan. . no literary man. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. as though an instrument. ruined. That a man parade his doubt. how he may do his work.9. will it not fall unbound. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. Forget thyself to marble. 13.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote." 25.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. 11.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. That sheaf of darts. 23. 10. but repentant child. 19. 21. 14. Well. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. and opinion displace opinion. "tell me where I may find my poor. "Oh. Think not that I speak for your sakes. it would speak. 26. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15.

called auxiliaries. five in the subjunctive. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. 235.² present. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. five in the imperative." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions.²the present tense." . We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. as will be shown later on. will." "If he comes. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. the past. tell him to wait. "I go away tomorrow. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages." past. shall. 28. "Thou walkest. PERSON AND NUMBER. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. which represented present and future time. to direct his steps. as. Tense means time. a form ending in -eth.²nothing could exceed the amiable. Meantime. such as Latin and Greek. When the older pronoun thou was in use. "Thou walkedst. as. such as be. Tenses in English. in the third person singular. Siddons. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. also. 233. and future perfect tenses. as the classical languages have. Definition. Old English had only two tenses. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. kind.27. whatever she did. or agree with it." present. past perfect. and the past tense. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. have. 234. "It is not in man that walketh. or whether it were as one member of a general party. in the conjugations. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. and future. TENSE. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. by means of the present. or future time. past. The tenses in detail. and the future tense. past. and unassuming deportment of Mrs.

Singular 1. I were 2. as. 238. Few forms. walketh. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast.²choose. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. moods. etc. Such verbs as choose have five. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. since it is composed of several different roots. In classical languages. I be 2. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. chose. chosest). were. choosest. choosing. "He walks. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. singular number. Singular 1. is. Singular 1. and numbers. are. Definition. walked. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. walking. You (thou) be 3. chosen (old. Singular 1. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. chooses. for example. PRESENT TENSE.²am. [He] is [They] are 3. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. been. persons. mood. 237. PRESENT TENSE. etc. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. tenses. 236. Indicative Mood. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. The verb be has more forms. walkedst. walks.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. wert) 3. but in English. CONJUGATION. tense. You are 2. chooseth. [He] were [They] were . This is the third person. walk has walk." and this only in the present tense indicative.

This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am.²SHELLEY. 240.²BURKE . which was now become an occasional banquet. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. condition. same as the German sind. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. Instead of the plural are. 239. thus. as.²WORDSWORTH. though it is usually a dialect form.. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. in four ways.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses.Imperative Mood. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground.²SCOTT.²ID.²THACKERAY.. (3) be. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. etc. -en. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. (2) was.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. (d) With the infinitive. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. (2) As auxiliary verbs. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. obligation.²GOLDSMITH. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. for example. etc. The light that never was on sea and land. to form the passive voice. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. Remarks on the verb be.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. is. to express intention. Broadswords are maddening in the rear.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades.His infancy was nurtured. were. (b) With the past participle in -ed.

there are many periphrastic or compound forms. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. You choose Plural. "I shall be. 1. In addition to the above inflected forms. etc. Singular. tenses. 1. Machinery of a verb in the voices. 242. tenses. Indicative Mood. I chose 2. . and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. PRESENT TENSE. I choose 2. (2). You choose Plural. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. "I have gone" (present perfect). as. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). We chose You chose 3. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. PRESENT TENSE. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. had. as. I chose 2. Singular. 240. We chose You chose 3. 1. I choose 2. Singular." (2) Present perfect. You chose Plural. "I had gone" (past perfect). 1. You chose Plural. past perfect. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. by placing have. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. Singular. [He] choose [They] choose 3." "He will choose. future perfect. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. [He] chooses [They] choose 3.241.

Present perfect. He chose. he have chosen. lest." "You are chosen. Imperative Mood. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. He was choosing. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. he have been choosing. He has chosen. Present perfect definite. "I am running. (2d per. Only the third person." (4) The passive forms. Past perfect. Present definite. He had chosen. He will he choosing. singular number. Past perfect definite. " Be choosing. Subjunctive Mood. Present. Indicative Mood. "I was chosen. Present definite. He had been choosing. He will have been choosing. Past definite. Present perfect." "They had been running. Past definite. etc. " " " " " " " he be choosing. ACTIVE VOICE. Present.] he choose. .) Choose. he chose (or were to choose). Future definite. Present." 243. will be given. as. Future. Past. He chooses. Past perfect. Present perfect definite. Past perfect definite. though. He will have chosen. He will choose. Same as indicative. of each tense. Present definite. as. He has been choosing. Past. [If. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). He is choosing. Same as indicative. Future perfect definite. Future perfect.(3) The definite form of each tense.

Future perfect. None. he were being chosen. Subjunctive Mood. (2d per. etc. " " " " " " " None. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. 262).NOTE. though. Past. Past perfect. Past perfect definite. None.²This table is not to be learned now. he have been chosen. None. Past definite. "He does strike. lest. Exercises should be given. Past perfect definite. Indicative Mood. as. He is chosen. None. Also. None. Future. Present perfect definite. Past definite. they will be discussed later (Sec.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. however. he had been chosen. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. Present definite. He has been chosen. in affirmative sentences.) Be chosen. Past Perfect. Future definite. He will have been chosen. Present perfect. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). Imperative Mood. None. He is being chosen. He will be chosen.] [If.] he be chosen. if learned at all. Present perfect. Present. Past. . but verbals." [Note to Teacher. Present definite. Present tense. He was being chosen. He was chosen.." "He did strike. Future perfect definite. PASSIVE VOICE. He had been chosen. Present perfect definite. Present.

ran. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. lay. bounden] bitten. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. Kinds. but adds no ending. which are in parentheses Present Tense. 245. beg. drove. According to form. sleep. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle.[adj. catch.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. 244. laid. as. and may or may not change the vowel: as. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . Definition. begged. verbs are strong or weak. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. caught. slept. NOTE. drive. run. Past Tense. bid bound. Some of these also have weak forms. bit blown broken chidden.

eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung .drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. drunken] driven eaten. drank[adj.

stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. trod worn woven won wound . sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. sunken] sat slain slidden. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang.

²MILTON. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. instead of ate and eaten. Historically. cleft." Stricken is used mostly of diseases.²B. "stricken with paralysis. as. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. Our cock. especially in that of an earlier period. only one set remains certain. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). but is much used in vulgar English. nor a dog barked. which always crew at eleven.²as (from Shakespeare).²GOLDSMITH.²COLERIDGE.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. as (from Holmes). the other. clave or clove.² Thou hast clomb aloft. for example.²IRVING. as. cleft (to split). 246. cleave. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. Not a cock crew. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. The form clomb is not used in prose."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. and another (born) for the passive.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. cloven.² We had each drank three times at the well. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink.²one meaning to adhere or cling.²cleave." "the cloven hoof. cleaved. now told us it was time for repose. to split. "his bounden duty.²TENNYSON. cleaved. TAYLOR. and sometimes occurs in poetry." "a sunken snag. ²THACKERAY. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. borne is also a passive. When it means to carry or to endure. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. and." "a drunken wretch." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. Sometimes in literary English. . as. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro." In this confusion of usage. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. and the latter. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). probably to avoid confusion with this.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. The former used to be cleave.

make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. shook. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. begun. as "a shorn lamb. broke. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. (a) From the table (Sec.² We had all got safe on shore. and seized a pen. threw. One example out of many is." but not much as a participle. Find. shaken.²SCOTT. 9. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. Break. for example. He sate him down. flung. found. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting.²BIBLE. drove. broken. maiden. fallen. 2. We usually say. froze. given. Fall. 3. driven. shore is rare. Freeze. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. 7.²TENNYSON.²DE FOE. which is seldom used except in poetry. 10. 6. 5. found. Throw."²KINGSLEY. . Drive. Shake.²BYRON. as. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. thrown. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. This heard Geraint. 8. gave. flung. Exercises.² If. Give. began." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. Begin. The butler was hanged.²WORDSWORTH. 245).The form gotten is little used. Fling. Usually shear is a weak verb. 4. for example. and grasping at his sword. frozen. fell. even in poetry.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs.

A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. (See also Sec. etc. ability. which survives in the sentence.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons.²PAINE. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. 251. or. PAST. They are as follows:² PRESENT.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. from the obsolete verb motan.²HAWTHORNE. as it sometimes does. it is used only in the indicative mood. Have we valuable territories and important posts.[To the Teacher. purpose. according to the infinitive used. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. "far off his coming shines. there is one general principle. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. PRESENT.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. Subjunctive use. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. HAMILTON. All must concede to him a sublime power of action.²SCOTT. Ability.²CHANNING This. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. of course. but came through analogy with should and would. "So mote it be. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts.. The same remarks apply to ought. Must is historically a past-tense form.. 223. 249. His superiority none might question."²WINIER.. as.. Like must. 247. etc. Can is used in the indicative only. for full drill on the forms. must have been an ocular deception." Must is present or past tense. It is indicative when it expresses permission. 220. 250.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. Could may be subjunctive. PAST.²CHANNING. . Indicative Use: Permission. The l in could did not belong there originally. as in Sec. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. or when it expresses wish.. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. as it has two meanings.

to the neglect of shall and should. not plod along like apeasant. shall and should are used.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. Second and third persons. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. They shall have venison to eat. future action). promise. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. in the form of command. The following are examples:² Never mind. especially in the United States. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. yea.² Futurity and questions²first person.² The time will come full soon. 252. as. (b) In indirect quotations. while ought always has to. he said.²COOPER. "I think I will go.. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. WEBSTER.²LONGFELLOW. (b) In questions asking for orders. for example. my lad.e. BROCKDEN BROWN. C. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. . The sea shall crush thee.²BULWER. I shall be gone.²MACAULAY. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. She should not walk. with pronouns of the first person.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. MOULTON. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. She rejects his suit with scorn.²THAXTER. shall and should are used. what shall I say?²N. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. as. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C.²IRVING. and corn to hoe. she should ride like a queen.² (a) To express authority.² With respect to novels. Shall and Will.Nay. as. to use will and would. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition.²L. or confident prediction. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON." Uses of shall and should.

JR. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. I never was what I should be. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour.²SCOTT.. LARNED. BROWN. B.²A.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. for example. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS.²WORDSWORTH. was to be expected.²WORDSWORTH. time. (1) With the FIRST PERSON.²H.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. .²BYRON. for example. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. as the sole inventor.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener.that I would do him justice. or a promise.²CABLE. and will not return until all is finished. JAMES... Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. First.²SWIFT. 253. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. with the conviction that he should win in the end.²C.²WINTER. purpose.²WORDSWORTH. and is equivalent to ought. as. thus. etc. second and third persons.² I will go myself now.²ROGERS. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. (c) With direct questions of the second person. And promised.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. Disguising a command. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.

SECOND. Mere futurity. BROWN. as. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. through storms their brothers are afraid of. In this stately chair would he sit. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose).. without regard to future time. for punishment or intimidation.² Thou wilt take the skiff. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. They will go to Sunday schools.² DICKENS. The gift of Beauty.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion..² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. Roland. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. when thou wast born.²LANDOR.. etc. Thine was a dangerous gift. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it.²IRVING.² Subject I omitted: often so.. 254. (4) With FIRST. would is used to express a wish.²the original meaning of the word will. will and would often denote an action as customary. When I am in town.²BANCROFT. AND THIRD PERSONS. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. .. This puts the order more mildly.²SCOTT. for example. for example. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. and two of my people.²SCOTT. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. action merely expected to occur. and mark on the grounds the works. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. so you will. will and would are used to express simple futurity. as if it were merely expected action.²War Records.²BURKE. Would thou hadst it not.² All this will sound wild and chimerical.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. To be sure. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. B. as. PASSIVE VOICE. will is used to express command.. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke.

Thou art what I would be. We will choose. [They] will choose. (b) Examine the following sentences. 3. Plural. [They] will be chosen. 3. [He] will be chosen. You will be chosen.:² ACTIVE VOICE. yet only seem. and justify the use of shall and will. You will choose. [They] shall be chosen. You will be chosen. [He] shall choose. 3. To express determination. 2. 2. He informed us. You will choose. 1. Plural. Exercises on Shall and Will. 5. 1. 2. 3.Singular. [He] will choose. [He] shall be chosen. 2. . "I shall not run. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. 252 and 253. Singular. and that of the newest cut. promise. 1. 6. 2." answered Herbert stubbornly. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. 3. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. etc. You shall choose. 1. (a) From Secs. 3. 2. We shall choose. You shall be chosen. [They] shall choose. You shall be chosen. 4. Singular. We will be chosen. We shall be chosen. Plural. I shall choose. I shall be chosen. Plural. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. PASSIVE VOICE. 1. I will be chosen. Thou shalt have a suit. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. I will choose. You shall choose. Singular.

(2) Those which end in -d or -t. Lucy stood still." 14. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. 12. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. 256. and wondering whether she should see anything alive.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. But the rest. need some attention and explanation. The old ending to verbs of Class II. or mylk and wastel breed. No.7. bereave beseech bereft. was -de or -te. bereft. Without having attended to this.²CHAUCER. 255. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. and I have nothing to say. 9. put. and have no change of vowel. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. put. The beast made a sluggish movement. This ending has now dropped off. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. as if he would have more of the enchantment.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used].²Class I. bereaved besought . 13. Past Tense. my son. which may be called irregular weak verbs. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. then. "I am a wayfarer. very anxious. set. put." the stranger said. Present Tense.²ID. 11. Irregular Weak Verbs. WEAK VERBS. 10. 257. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. set. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. Of smale houndes hadde she. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. as. bereave besought Past Participle. that sche fedde With rosted flessh.

burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. leant leaped. leapt left lost meant paid penned. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leant leaped. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. spelt spilt staid. leapt left lost meant paid penned. hid kept knelt laid leaned. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.

VERBALS.
Definition.

262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.
Kinds.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.

PARTICIPLES.
Definition.

263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall.6.. 9.. 266. will (with should and would). 10. expressing purpose. To with the infinitive.. When active. Imperfect. Perfect definite. Perfect. have no tense. Infinitives. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. Cases when to is omitted. 267. In Sec. and a perfect definite form. they have an indefinite. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. an indefinite and a perfect form. 7. 8. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. 268. and when passive. Perfect. [To] have chosen. ACTIVE VOICE. Nothing of the kind having been done. [To] choose. But later. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. [To] have been chosen. when inflections became fewer. PASSIVE VOICE. [To] be chosen. to was used before the infinitive generally. [To] have been choosing. an imperfect. . Indefinite. like participles. [To] be choosing. as in the Old English.²the creature warring against the creating power. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. Three saplings. INFINITIVES. I returned to reflection on my situation. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. a perfect. formed a kind of bedstead. Indefinite. try clemency. to express action unconnected with a subject.

²COOPER.). as the credulous imagine. watch. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. sometimes need (as. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. hear. GERUNDS. 272. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. But there was nothing to do. bid (command). as. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative." "I shall have chosen. While the gerund expresses action.²DE QUINCEY. The gerund is like the participle in form. also let. as in the expression. or the object of a verb or a preposition. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. They shall have venison to eat. see. and emphatic forms of the present and past. it has several attributes of a noun. also in the imperative.²GOLDSMITH.²E. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. it may be the subject of a verb.² She was a kind. too. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER." Examples are. 269. it is often preceded by the definite article. "He will choose.(2) After the verbs may (might).²it may be governed as a noun. feel. do (as. make. HALE. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. negative. as." etc. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. as. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. poor woman!" cried Charles. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning.²HOWELLS.² What! doth she..²MACAULAY. 271. "She ask my pardon. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. . "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. E. please. "a house to let. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. under "Analysis. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. liberal woman. "I do go" etc.²IRVING. and corn to hoe. must.²TENNYSON. and like a noun in use. can (could). 270." (4) In exclamations. learn [doth learn is one verb.

which express action and also modify. (5) Gerunds. five infinitives. b). brilliant. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use." "Certainly dueling is bad. which name an action or state. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. 273. and has been put down. II)." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. (3) Participial adjectives. Then how pleasing is it. above. (4) Pure adjectives." also (2. 2. according to use as well as meaning. (2) Pure participles. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. which express action. (6) Verbal nouns." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. 4. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. Words in -ing are of six kinds. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. and wonderful store of learning! . but do not assert. on your leaving the spot.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun.²Find sentences containing five participles. but cannot govern. to see the returning hope of the parents. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. What a vast. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. when. Sec." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. Exercise. which have lost all verbal force. and five gerunds. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. making the definite tenses. after examining the nest. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths." Exercise. which express action. may govern and be governed." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature.

14. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. slowly. VERBS.5. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form.²strong or weak. like Sir Walter Scott. 10.²active or passive. Caution. (4) Tense. bearing her national emblem. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. 6. 275. In parsing verbs. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. He spread his blessings all over the land. 7. subjunctive. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. 234. he gave out sentence by sentence. by object lessons. 16. (2) Voice. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. (5) Person and number. (3) Mood. 9. 13. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. but. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. 11. giving principal parts. Thackeray did not. you must. I. 15. give reality to your teaching. I suppose I was dreaming about it. write twenty pages without stopping. 12. (b) as to use.²indicative. round which is an iron railing. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing.²which of the tenses given in Sec. What is dreaming? 8. or imperative. much corroded.²transitive or intransitive. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. The only means of ascending was by my hands. dictating from his chair. . The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking.

imperfect. therefore active. 278(2). II. (a) From what verb derived. In 2. You are gathered to your fathers. call might a weak verb. and ends in -s. Let it rise! let it rise. III. (b) its use (Sec. see Sec. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. and parting day linger and play on its summit. past tense. VERB PHRASES. could.276. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. then parse it as an adjective. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. But unless the verb is present. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. perfect. in the world. call should a weak verb. (2) Infinitive. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. has for its subject Lee. must. 2. 2. intransitive. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. (1) Participle. give points (a) and (b). would. definite. might. we must beware of the rule. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. 235. 278. etc. (c) to what word it belongs. indicative. verbals. VERBALS. has the subject government. etc. 277. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. Exercise. 4. Take these examples:² 1. and not taken as single verbs. The government might have been strong and prosperous. Especially frequent are those made up of should. It has been intimated in Sec. Parse the verbs. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. indicative (as it means could)." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. can. . In such sentences as 1.. perfect. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. 3. past tense. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. active. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. If a participial adjective. intransitive. and should always be analyzed as phrases. (b) whether active or passive. followed by a pure infinitive without to. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. may. (b) whether indefinite. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. no sin nor sorrow. (3) Gerund." Sometimes it does. usually it does not. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. till it meet the sun in his coming. 273). The verb be has more forms than other verbs.

²a getting-out of their bodies to think. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts.Henceforth in me instill. When he arose in the morning. 13. as rolled from wing to wing. 12. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. morning is not a new issuing of light. The soul having been often born. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. Whatever ground you sow or plant. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. 24.5. 11. 20. from a sort of temporary death. as the Hindoos say. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. However that be. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. With them. 19.Down all the line. In going for water. 15. 14. 22. or. . He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. 18. 8. So. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. He passed across the room to the washstand. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. Right graciously he smiled on us. 21. he thought only of her. as usual. and wondered if she were yet awake. 17. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. see that it is in good condition. 16.O God. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. 10. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. 23. 6. leaving me upon the bed. a sweet good will. 9. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. a new waking up of all that has life. a new bursting forth of the sun. a deafening shout. "God save our Lord the King!" 7.

Is it only poets. and so on." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. to consent. because. as. "William's private life was severely pure. who live with nature?²ID. The word adverb means joined to a verb. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. A verb." "He was absolute. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree." An adjective or an adverb. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. When action is expressed. place. 29. ADVERBS.²THACKERAY. and men of leisure and cultivation. 27.²time. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. Adverbs modify. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain.²SHELLEY. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. Nor was it altogether nothing.²CARLYLE. to speak truly.² The young man reveres men of genius. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. or manner: as. . for the hour of rest is at hand. 26. and limit adjectives or adverbs. Oh. they are more himself than he is.²EMERSON. And now wend we to yonder fountain. 279. and live ere life be spent.Feast while we may." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. To the almost terror of the persons present.25. thou sayest. Better it were." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. for example."²DE QUINCEY. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend.

.²TROLLOPE. before. NOTE. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. ²IRVING. not simply the forms used in predication. is a modifying word.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. (2) according to their use in the sentence. lately.² FRANKLIN. like the light of heaven.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. Thus considered. Make music to the lonely ear. I draw forth the fruit. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb.²THOREAU. ever. as shown in the sentences. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. perhaps. there are six classes:² (1) Time. 169. while those in Sec.²BYRON. being adverbs naturally and fitly. and that. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. 169 are felt to be elliptical. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. as now. thus. or a word group used as such. ALDRICH.²T. to-day. but some verb understood. and half awfully. then. as. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. A clause or sentence. for example. 282. has induced some of us to attend it. all wet and glossy. Definition. not the noun. NOTE. but really modifying. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed.He was incidentally news dealer.² LOWELL. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. and rather forced into the service of adjectives.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. but still with a rich bloom to it. We are offered six months' credit. Surely happiness is reflective. A phrase. B. 280. It may also modify a sentence. hitherto. 281.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. which may qualify an action word or a statement.²LEIGH HUNT.²These last differ from the words in Sec. etc. An adverb.

(4) Number. Motley.. bravely. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. just. as perhaps.. or how far he believes it to be true. the more evidently they love liberty. etc.²BROWNING. whithersoever.² The master.²BURKE.²R.²IRVING. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. and others. slowly. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. [Sidenote The status of such. . above.yonder. I was. slightly. (5) Degree. as little. better.was for this once of her opinion. 283.²LECKY. So also in Grote. telling how much. enough.²SHAKESPEARE.there. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. (3) Manner. The more they multiply. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. etc. as hence. telling how anything is done. and not infrequently are found in literary English. (see also Sec. too. Emerson. as hither. very. singly. twice. the more perfect will be their obedience.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun.. greatly. etc. as here. White. while so precedes only the adjective usually.thence. possibly. This long's the text. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. (6) Assertion. etc. beautifully. Meekness. whencesoever. two by two. probably. 283). surely. (b) PLACE TO WHICH.near. maybe.which gained him such universal popularity.where.. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. thus. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. that these adverbs form a very large class.whence. partly.(2) Place. etc.²HAWTHORNE. telling how many times: once. for example. the more friends you will have.. Thackeray. at least.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. LOUIS STEVENSON.²DE QUINCEY.whither. especially the comparative of these words. not. much. etc.thither. as well.

STOWE. 286. . Hard blows and hard money.² KINGSLEY. Kingsley.²HAWTHORNE. Notice meanings. A pretty large experience.²THACKERAY.² "Mighty well. Burke."²SCOTT. Mighty. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. 284. "Peace. for example. besides modifying. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. Direct questions. Some adverbs. Defoe. 285. Interrogative. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English.Pretty." "The house. Neville. De Quincey. Holmes. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples.²GOLDSMITH. Beau Fielding. Franklin.²BULWER. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. Dickens.²THACKERAY. and its lawn before [place]. Simple.²BAYNE." said the king. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister.²"He walked too far [place]. and other writers." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. and art but a fool." "That were far better [degree]. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H." "I have seen you before [time]. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs.² You are mighty courteous. Such are most of those given already in Sec. 282. It is only occasionally used in literary English. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. Emerson.²FIELDING. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Aldrich. B. for example. have the additional function of asking a question. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal." "He spoke positively [manner]. Pretty is also used by Prescott. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. a mighty fine gentleman. Again.

Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. . When did this humane custom begin?²H. WEBSTER. (4) Degree.²BYRON (3) Manner.²D. I will not ask where thou liest low. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. (4) Degree. I know not why. for example. (5) Reason. they smiled. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. I do not remember when I was taught to read. CLAY. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know.²BYRON.²BULWER. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. while having the office of adverbs in modifying.²POE. 287.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. (2) Place.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. (2) Place. I hearkened.

For further discussion. high.²EMERSON. Its strings boldlier swept.. highest. Many adjectives have the same ending. Then must she keep it safelier. Form vs.²TENNYSON. as.eyes. Tell what each word in ly modifies. 288. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. when does not express time and modify. use.²BYRON." Exercise. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form.. have the same inflection as adjectives.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. not an adverb.²SHAKESPEARE. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. Superlative. 290. see Sec. only occasionally having -er and -est. soonest. and. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. obs. .) rather 289. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. Many adverbs are compared. sooner. soon. when. but the whole clause. when compared. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. Only that we may wiselier see. well much little far late Comparative. just as adjectives do.²COLERIDGE. The following. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. irregularly compared. furthest (rathe. representing four classes. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. Exercise. further farthest. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. higher. I should freelier rejoice in that absence.But in reality. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions.

Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. 3. 291. hardly. or down the leaves laughed through.²IRVING. There are eyes.²WORDSWORTH. nearly. etc. merely introduces a sentence. quick-flashing eye. whether adverbs or adjectives. Frequently the word there. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. 2. that in Old and Middle English. But he must do his errand right. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. to be sure. kindly and good-natured in secret. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride.And his mien of kingly state. 8.²ID. 5.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face.² EMERSON. 4. 292. And all about.²CHAUCER. curiously jolly. . The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth.1. The reason is. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. 6. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. if it has the verb be. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. He is inexpressibly mean.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. instead of being used adverbially." Compare these:² 1. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence.²THACKERAY. evenly. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. many words without -ly have the same form. Not near so black as he was painted. but with a different meaning. Special use of there. even. 7. Such are most. near. mostly. as. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. Again. With his proud. 2. more courtly in their manners. hard. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang.²TENNYSON.

The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. 15. 293. In parsing adverbs. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. 18. 17. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. 3. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. but from my fall? 6. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. But a few steps farther on. and sate down on the steps of a house. according to meaning and also use. (2) Degree of comparison. 9. 7. 2.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. For the impracticable. is always politically unwise. Thither we went. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. if the word is compared. at the regular wine-shop. 11. . 12. burning in the center of the temple. 5. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. and always. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. 10. 16. but continually shifted. The higher we rise in the scale of being. the Madonna is in great glory. 4. give² (1) The class. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. (3) What word or word group it modifies. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. It is the Cross that is first seen. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. Exercise. however theoretically enticing.

21. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. Clauses. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. 22. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. nor. hence." Paragraphs. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. 20. or sentence groups. 295. It was pretty bad after that. however. 294. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. word groups. A conjunction is a linking word. but the student will readily find them. upon which the sun now shone forth. then." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. etc. Unlike adverbs. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. . Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. CONJUNCTIONS. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. connecting words. Definition. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. But now the wind rose again. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. but side by side within the American Union. therefore. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority.19." Sentences. sentences. and found room to wonder how it could have got there.

Some of these go in pairs.nor... 297.or. answering to each other in the same sentence. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. of the same rank.. as and. Causal.but (or but also). etc. as well as. (4) ALTERNATIVE.or. neither.. else. neither... They are or. for. "Howbeit. nor. also.but. Alternative. either. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. both. only. (3) CAUSAL. serves but to show their ignorance. usually between two things.. either. and not man corn. Correlatives.. yet. whether.. as well as the room door. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. word groups. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. still. the window being open.. Adversative. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. The chief ones are. etc. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. While the earth bears a plant. as.nor. therefore. then. nor. moreover..and. the butter too. whether.. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. expressing a choice.. neither. had its weight. as but. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair.. or the sea rolls its waves. not only.or. ." Nevertheless. the bread was spent.or whether. however. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative.. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. while. Some go in threes. likewise..or. hence. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man.Classes of conjunctions.. as. not only. The assertion. Nor mark'd they less. introducing a reason or cause... Your letter. joining words. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. but is emperor in his own right. (2) Subordinate.. whether.. 298. 296.. either. and.. (2) ADVERSATIVE.. however. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks.. etc.

in case. so. etc. whereto. whence. (6) PURPOSE: that. sometimes if. Time. (2) TIME: when. provided. so. now. seeing. although.²WILSON. unless. It is. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. etc. ²ALLSTON. on condition that. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. in order that.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body.²IRVING. He is not only bold and vociferous. as. after. so that. nor echo. that. however.²DE QUINCEY. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. whithersoever. ere. in apposition. etc. though. as.as.²PAULDING. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. provided that. howsoever.. whereas. so that. (3) MANNER: how. . whither. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. so.²BURKE.²BIBLE. since. etc. while. except.. wherever. nor creeping thing. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. whenever. 299. etc. until. Neither the place in which he found himself. (7) RESULT: that.. even if. nor green leaf. QUINCY. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. especially that after so. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. before..²J. as. lest. object. since. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. whether. Where the treasure is. there will the heart be also.²COOPER. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. nor wing of bird.

seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. We wish for a thousand heads.So I behold them not. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant.²AMES.² EMERSON. So many thoughts moved to and fro.That vain it were her eyes to close. Sparing neither whip nor spur. Concession.²COLERIDGE.That he gave her wounds repose. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. Cause. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. . As a soldier. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. Purpose.² WORDSWORTH. not as they were expected or intended. JACKSON. reason.²AMES. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.²DEFOE.²IRVING. I was again covered with water. Manner. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. but not so long but I held it out. Condition. Let the world go how it will.²EMERSON.² HAWTHORNE. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²EMERSON. Substantive. H. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.²BYRON. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life.²CAMPBELL. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. a thousand bodies.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France.²EMERSON. Result.²AMES.²CARLYLE Events proceed.²BURKE. Then Denmark blest our chief. Now he is dead.² H. Comparison.

that. . They. While a faction is a minority. No one had yet caught his character. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. 7. as he shot in air. since. Exercises. And they lived happily forever after. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. then. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. 6. some words²for example. she faintly pressed her hand. the lady called her servant.Let us see whether the greatest. her real merit is known at home. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. 4. He was brought up for the church. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. 10. While patriotism glowed in his heart. 14. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. 12. And then recovering. 15. 3. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. 9. Crept under the leaf. The moth fly. while. as. it will remain harmless. hold a subordinate rank. After he was gone. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. however. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. the wisest. etc. As will have been noticed. 300. Besides. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. In what point of view.²RUSKIN. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. 5. and hid her there. 2. 13. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence.

As though a rose should shut. and be a bud again. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. (2) What words. In poetry. for example..² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H.So slowly moved about. As if.16. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. expressing degree if taken separately. 303. word groups. So silently we seemed to speak.Clouded. His voice .²IRVING. As for as if. 304. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. 302. in this case." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. . the expression would be.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. thus. In parsing conjunctions. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. SPECIAL REMARKS. Consequently. even as they would weep. If analyzed. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. As though. as is often equivalent to as if. GREELEY.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. and part as though we parted not. etc.²HOOD.²BYRON.. they connect. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. In Emerson's sentence." as. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. as is shown by the use of as though. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. "We meet. 301. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner..²EMILY BRONTE. and the frame will suit the picture. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. none of the lashings having given way.

"Doctor. 4.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. or in the snow.² 1. so means provided. For example. he sleeps as warm.²DEFOE 2.²EMERSON 3. 11. 12. Exercise. so it be faithfully imparted. He dismisses without notice his thought. 9.Caution. etc. 5. It continued raining. and. and its clause depends on the other. in 2. he is also the correlative of nature. because it is his. so means therefore. 13. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. in 3. Some conjunctions. are regularly of one particular class. so they paddled on. 10.²I find them true in Concord. or in the forest. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. such as nor. others belong to several classes. they are not known. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. as beside his own chimneys. At sea. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye.²that the fairies do not like to be named.. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. compare the sentences. so that I could not stir abroad. He is the compend of time. when. In classifying them." said his wife to Martin Luther. but of the natural. 6. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. and very seldom?" 8. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. 7. If he could solve the riddle. 3. 2. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. . so that expresses result.²is subordinate of condition. When the gods come among men. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. All the postulates of elfin annals. and associates as happily. that it might testify of that particular ray. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. and its clause is independent. the Sphinx was slain. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. because. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. and the like. dines with as good an appetite. It may be safely trusted.

I speak. It is clear. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. save it were sinful like herself. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. Goodness must have some edge to it. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. therefore. And whether consciously or not. whose names I omit. she might have the family countenance.²else it is none. 21. 18. you must be. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. however. 23. 16. 25. enthroned.. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. I rejoice to stand here no longer. There was no iron to be seen. when it was presented to them. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. 20. Now you have the whip in your hand. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. in this they agree. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. . 27. 19. in many a heart. 26. 305. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. 29. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. 28. It may be so in the majority of cases. won't you lay on? 17. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. 22. 15. the whole conditions are changed. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. Still. PREPOSITIONS. 24. 30.14. that both were wayward. of good novels only. For.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.
Definition.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.

USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
Inseparable.

310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.
Separable.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.

CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS.

312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE.
313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME.
314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION.
315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

MISCELLANEOUS PREPOSITIONS.
316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

At.
319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

Like at. at random.²COOPER. H. at first. Exercise. By. at once.²DE QUINCEY. at work.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last.²EVERETT. Richard was standing by the window. D. at least. at length. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside.²ALDRICH.²B. She saw the boat headed for her. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. and phrases signifying state or condition of being.²R. as. etc.²M. at any rate. by many a million of acres. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. (3) Agency or means.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by.² (1) The general meaning of place. 321. at rest. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. he stopped. At that time [the earth] was richer. (2) Time.²ID. ²PARTON. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. Helena. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. At St. by means near or close to. by the ruins of nations. (4) Measure of excess. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. . 320. By my faith. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. etc. at war. CONWAY. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. at the best. STODDARD. at one. at most. at peace. TAYLOR The angel came by night..²SWIFT. at the worst. at play.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. For. by the blessed memory of the departed. at all. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. the first port made by the ship. Exercise. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation.²WARNER. at naught. by the wrecks of time. expressing the degree of difference.

²W. An Arab woman. poor fellow.²IRVING." said the Lady of Lochleven. (4) Substitution or exchange. or extent of space. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. For the rest. for famine. The twilight being. "thou hast counseled wisely. meaning in the character of. H.²EMERSON. considering that etc. or in spite of. ate her child. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. etc. "Nay. Still. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. (8) Meaning notwithstanding." answered Master Brackett. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous.²PARKMAN.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. . Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster.One of Eve's family. (9) Motive. (3) Duration of time. (5) Reference.²LAMB. reason.(2) In favor of.²HOLMES. cause.²PARKMAN. (6) Like as. respecting. as to. GARRISON. but a few sunsets since. incitement to action.²E. for all slips of hers. E. the Colonna motto would fit you best. he repented of his folly. There are gains for all our losses. as being.² RUSKIN. BANCROFT. But the Colonel. meaning although.²STODDARD."²SCOTT By my faith.. in behalf of.²H. if your worship can accomplish that. they are now for us. and leaped for joy.. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE.²ID. etc. meaning with regard to. L. had a forest of poor relations.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. for the benefit of. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. He and they were for immediate attack. a person or thing. "For a fool. (7) Concession. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline.²HOOD. For him. for all his title. etc.

Like boys escaped from school. (3) Time. A distrustful. nay. like from.²HIGGINSON. It may be with regard to² (1) Place.²MILTON. (2) Origin.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. ceased to be merciful. From harmony. The general idea in from is separation or source. from a desire of seeming valiant. or reason. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. It was from no fault of Nolan's. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. (1) Origin or source. The king holds his authority of the people. and having the same meaning as a noun clause.²ID. more. Exercise.²HALE. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. The original meaning of of was separation or source. Exercise. cause. Of.²HUXLEY. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. .²HUME. H. From. The From Relation.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. The young cavaliers. if not a desperate man.²H. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. 323.²DRYDEN. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. 322. (4) Motive.²BANCROFT. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE.

The author died of a fit of apoplexy. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. "I am glad of that. motive. (3) With expressions of material. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. reason.²BANCROFT. deprive. rid. cure. (c) After nouns expressing lack. such as ease. wide of.²LEW WALLACE. beg. He is away of his own free will. Back of that tree. divest. You cannot make a boy know.²ALDRICH. (d) With words expressing distance. south of. ²GAVARRE.²BAYARD TAYLOR. demand. deprivation. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. Of the Forty. etc. ²PARTON.²PARKMAN. etc. . Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles.²BOSWELL. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. (6) Partitive. disarm. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. etc. E.²ID."²E. free. Sandals. (b) After some adjectives.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. rob.² HUXLEY. A singular want of all human relation. weeds. clear.²DICKENS II.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. that Cromwell once ruled England. out of the most unpromising materials. More than one altar was richer of his vows. (5) Expressing agency.²HIGGINSON. Asked no odds of. of his own knowledge. HALE. Other Relations expressed by Of. etc.²SCOTT Who formed. etc. as north of.. there were only twenty-one members present.²clear of. free of. relieve. or breastpin of native gold. White shirt with diamond studs. The hills were bare of trees. bound with thongs of boar's hide. especially out of. and grass. expressing a part of a number or quantity. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. ask. bare of. purge. acquitted them of.

In the vain hope of appeasing the savages.²BANCROFT. (c) Two nouns. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. E.He washed out some of the dirt. Besides the phrases of old. See also Sec.²PRESCOTT.²COOPER.²FROUDE. of a sudden.. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. Not even woman's love. (10) Of reference. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. when the first is descriptive of the second.²ID.²W. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. being equivalent to an infinitive. (9) Of time. could give shelter from his contumely. and the dignity of a queen.²HALLECK. standing. CHANNING. (7) Possessive.²BANCROFT.²ALDRICH. of late. (b) Noun and gerund.²LAMB. . etc. The fair city of Mexico.²SWIFT. (8) Appositional. for the possessive. concerning. Idiomatic use with verbs. The nation of Lilliput.²LOWELL. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. with regard to. ²IRVING. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. Such a book as that of Job.²BANCROFT. 309. of is used in the sense of during. equal to about. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. with its object.

²EMERSON. It also accompanies the verbs tire. you are eighteen. and others. ²BANCROFT. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. disapprove. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. equal to about. on the wing. etc. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence.²BRYANT.²PARKMAN. Cannon were heard close on the left. such as admit.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. on the alert.²PARKMAN. on high. Upon my reputation and credit. (3) Reference. Upon is seldom used to express time. . (4) In adjurations. The general meaning of on is position or direction. on trial. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. repent. allow. Exercise. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. 325.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. 324. concerning.²PARKMAN. Upon. complain. on board. without adding to their meaning. Exercise. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. and not a day more. (2) Time. To. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. on view.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. avail (one's self). permit. (b) With motion. consist. approve. SIGOURNEY.²ALDRICH. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand.²Find sentences with six uses of of. On. On my life. etc. accept. on a sudden.²MRS.²DE QUINCEY.

to him. We cook the dish to our own appetite. He usually gave his draft to an aid. His brother had died. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with.²often to the loss of vigor.²IRVING. gay Comedy appears.Come to the bridal chamber. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. With. Revolutions. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. had ceased to be.. interest.²HALE. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. 268). To the few.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. mid meant in company with.²BRYANT. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. Ben Lomond was unshrouded.. it may be genuine poetry.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. does the mere music. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification..²PARTON.²PARKMAN. But when.²B.to be written over. In Old English. .²BULWER. Nor. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. whose influence is felt to this hour. (2) Expressing result. 326.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. (b) Referring to time.²LANG. to my taste.²BENTON To our great delight. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. Exercise. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. (5) Equivalent to according to. unmasked.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. Death!²HALLECK..²GOLDSMITH.

Exercise. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. as with you. 327. with all his boldness. HALE. (4) Estimation. first of all. or with the haunch of our near leader.²DE QUINCEY.²DE QUINCEY. E. It seemed a supreme moment with him. in spite of. he gave millions to the sword. reason. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. Either with the swingle-bar. With all his sensibility. She seemed pleased with the accident.The advance. transmitted from the beginning. (3) Cause.²CHANNING. it is necessary.²Find sentences with four uses of with. "poetry is not a pursuit. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. to find the object of the preposition. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was.²HOWELLS. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits.²ALDRICH.²COLERIDGE. He expired with these words. with Heyward at its head.²EMERSON. I think. . With my crossbow I shot the albatross.²LANG. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. had already reached the defile. but with you. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. He was wild with delight about Texas.²SCOTT. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires.²HOWELLS. felt it unsafe to trifle further.²E. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. motive. (2) Instrumentality. (5) Opposition. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. but a pleasure"?²LANG. Messala.²HALE. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding.²COOPER.²WALLACE (7) Time. opinion.

though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. 5. but all to no purpose. In (3). The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. To our general surprise. he followed us one day into those gardens. because I had given the provocation. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. of from. I speak these things from a love of justice. or was. The object of on board is ships.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. of without. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. hence we say. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. by which a dozen apples. telling what man. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. (2) on which. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. without a country modifies man. we met the defaulter here. the malicious rogue. 4.²SWIFT 2.²ID. 2. 3. Exercises. and knocked me down flat on my face. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. shook it directly over my head. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. I remember. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. Be that as it will. beginning. I felt my box raised very high in the air. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. I called out several times. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. In (1). like the clapping of wings. before the dwarf left the queen. which. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. . the phrase answers the question where. I heard a noise just over my head. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. In (2). And so on. came tumbling about my ears. I looked towards my windows. The guns were cleared of their lumber. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. but I received no other hurt. (4) from the beginning. country. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. of on. (3) without a country. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. Whereupon.

The savage army was in war-paint. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. 17. 15. His breeches were of black silk. He locked his door from mere force of habit. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. 20. plumed for battle. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. when. after a restful morning. 9. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 12. 13. 22. he favored the world with his opinions. 29. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. For my part. 24. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. . On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 14.6. 26.Without stop or stay. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. 19. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. in town. Carteret was far from being a pedant. The mother sank and fell. 25. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. On all subjects known to man. 16. in this respect. 11. to one dark and gloomy. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. I like to see the passing. grasping at the child. 23. 18. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. 10. 21. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service.He spurred his courser on. With all his learning. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. 8. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. 7. 27. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand.

A few are discussed below. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. . WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING.²STOCKTON. 328.²HUXLEY. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. (b) Of result. (4) As an adverb of degree.²BEECHER. and not according to form. 330.² JOHNSON. (2) As an adjective pronoun. THAT. 329.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. That night was a memorable one. (a) Indefinite relative. (3) As a relative pronoun.30.²WEBSTER.²WEBSTER. That was a dreadful mistake. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use.²COLERIDGE. and be proud in the midst of its toil. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. And now it is like an angel's song. (c) Substantive conjunction. That is what I understand by scientific education. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. He will raise the price.²WEBSTER. (1) Relative pronoun. WHAT. that you might behold this joyous day. We wish that labor may look up here. not merely by the amount of the tax. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them.That makes the heavens be mute.

What." (4) Relative adjective.. At what rate these materials would be distributed.. or not only. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question.²EMERSON. . "I'll tell you what. partly. (a) Indefinite relative adjective.it is impossible to determine. to see what might be hidden.²ID. 331. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage...²WEBSTER.Those shadowy recollections. (6) Exclamatory adjective. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying..²THACKERAY. (7) Adverb of degree. (9) As an exclamation.S.these sounds are only to be heard.but. (b) Indirect question. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. (8) Conjunction. silent still. he knows what good people are to be found there. and silent all!²BYRON. To say what good of fashion we can. Cox..Are yet the fountain light of all our day. What with the Maltese goats. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning..²WORDSWORTH. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question.²ID.²S. after not only. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. (b) Copulative. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way.in Pera.. it rests on reality. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. but the result of calculation.Which be they what they may. If he has [been in America].. nearly equivalent to partly.. What.. BUT.. (b) Indirect question.²EMERSON.

than. (b) Substantive.²MRS BROWNING. (d) Of reason.. meaning only. at all moments. like the dog. (c) Of degree. . AS.²IRVING.He yearned to our patriot bands.²SHELLEY.²IRVING. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. after such. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. after a negative. meaning otherwise . Doing duty as a guard.. (2) Relative pronoun. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night.²SCOTT... not.²EMERSON. As orphans yearn on to their mothers.²HAWTHORNE. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. on all sides. (e) Introducing an appositive word. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction.. Who knows but.. (4) Relative pronoun. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven.²IRVING.²CARLYLE. (b) Of manner.. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. sometimes same. but piercing cries. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. 332.Then arose not only tears. To lead but one measure. I shall see but little of it. or who . not. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE..²FRANKLIN. stands for that . equivalent to that . (3) Preposition. (5) Adverb. towards order.²LAMB. meaning except. not. ²CARLYLE.

If the verb is expressed.²MAYHEW.²HIGGINSON. 333.²HALLECK. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. like drops out. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks.²ALDRICH. In this second use. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle.²LAMB.²ALDRICH. and is followed by a dative-objective. . just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. like him awhile ago.²HAWTHORNE. This follows a verb or a verbal. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal.²DARWIN. like a cook beating eggs. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. They look. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²LONGFELLOW. Give Ruskin space enough. indeed.-SCOTT. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. There is no statue like this living man. (1) An adjective. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. and was clearly an adjective.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. Note the difference between these two uses. nervous child. That face. Through which they put their heads. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. Introduces a clause. No Emperor.LIKE.²CASS. but this is not considered good usage: for example. In each case. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark.²EMERSON.² HAWTHORNE. and as or as if takes its place.² A timid. like summer ocean's. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. staring like a bewildered man. this. ²PARKMAN. I do with my friends as I do with my books.²EMERSON.²SHAKESPEARE. but its verb is omitted. Stirring it vigorously. like Martin was. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. NOTE. Modifier of a noun or pronoun.

. but it still retains its identity as noun. pronoun. Definition. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun].: for example. Value of analysis. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation." PART II." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. entering into the structure of a sentence. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. verb. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin.INTERJECTIONS. 334. that is.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. tut! buzz! etc. as. What analysis is. Definition. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. clauses introduced by conjunctions. Some of these are imitative sounds. . 335. 336. in separating them into their component parts. etc." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. subject and predicate.²in determining case. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. that is. etc." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective].

A rare old plant is the ivy green. "Hath he not always treasures.²a subject and a predicate. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. Definition. which expresses command. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. Definition: Predicate. you must not die!" interrogative. Examples of these three kinds are. or request. "Come to the bridal chamber. 337. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. "Old year. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. question. (3) Imperative. old man?" "Be thou familiar. always friends?" imperative. 2." 340." "What wouldst thou do. which puts the thought in a question. not according to the form in which a thought is put. 338. interrogative. but the sentence would still be declarative. entreaty. (2) Interrogative. This is the most common one. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. 339. . which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. but by no means vulgar.Kinds of sentences as to form. according to form. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. but according to how many statements there are. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. or command: for example. "The quality of mercy is not strained. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. declarative. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. or imperative. Every sentence must contain two parts. Division according to number of statements. hence. But now all is to be changed. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. SIMPLE SENTENCES.

But if we try this with the second sentence. Consequently. all. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. . Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. 341.²What is the ivy green? Answer.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate." Exercise. thou. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. we say all is the subject of the sentence. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. or adverb that asks about the subject. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. 4. we have some trouble. always reduce them to the order of a statement. 6. Listen. 3.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. In the interrogative sentence. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. and our definition must be the following.²What is to be changed? Answer. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. The last of all the Bards was he. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. not of a rare old plant. Slavery they can have anywhere. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. Thus. the subject is frequently after the verb. to an ignorant man. or an interrogative pronoun. 7. especially in poetry. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. 5. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. adjective. In analyzing such sentences. as. "[You] behold her single in the field. to suit all cases:² Subject. but about the ivy green. the subject (you. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. 2. on the other hand. a rare old plant. or ye) is in most cases omitted. and the real subject is the latter. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. and is to be supplied. 8.

(3) The object. for example. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. and by object we mean the direct object. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. 342.²transitive and intransitive. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. (6) Independent elements. (2) The predicate. but it is a true complement. Direct Object. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. but chief belongs to the verb. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. "Ye honor me. (5) Modifiers. in addition to the object. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed." Complement: 344. "Ye call me chief. or second object." indirect. Indirect object. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. (4) The complements.10. The subject and predicate have been discussed. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. . but of call chief. Of a transitive verb. The transitive verb often requires. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. direct. just as if to say. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. and me here is not the object simply of call. 343." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). and means summoned. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning.

taste. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. appear. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. A phrase is a group of words. for instance. 355. feel. as. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. he was now getting old. to the completion of this man of the world. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. etc." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. and of massive weight." (3) INFINITIVE." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. Phrases." "The good man. above sixty. 364. or." 345." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. "A cheery." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. Complement of an intransitive verb. become. Thom of the Gills. but used as a single modifier. more familiarly. and barring the door. sir!' rang out in response." All these complete intransitive verbs. and. An intransitive verb. As to form. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. especially the forms of be. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. See sentence 19. ay. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. "Brow and head were round. 347. seem. I mentioned a case of that nature.." "He was termed Thomas.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. in the original Opium Confessions. introduced by a preposition: for example." Also an expression used as a noun. not containing a verb. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. 351. as in the sentence. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. as in drowning. 346. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court." (2) PARTICIPIAL. 352." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . in exercise following Sec. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. 'Ay." Things used as Subject. in the popular judgment.

The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb.²the infinitive phrase. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. or their religion from their sect. my deficiency. and by Saint George!' said the King. .²the talent of starting the game." In this sentence. "Therein has been. asserting eyes." The for did not belong there originally." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. but they will be given in detail here. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject." "There are asking eyes." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. (2) In interrogative sentences. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. I saw the quick and the dead. and ever will be." etc. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as." Also expressions used as nouns: for example.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. (4) After "there introductory." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. or the thundering of organs. but obscures the real subject. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. prowling eyes." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust)." "Never. 341. for which see Sec. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud." Things used as Complement." 348. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. Disguised infinitive subject." "The dead are there. was heard one syllable to justify." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. 349. from their lips. but the real or logical subject is to print. "'By God. etc." Things used as Direct Object.

" "I hear the echoes throng. I." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. the shepherd girl." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. the object is made the subject by being passive. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. they are adjuncts of the object. and the words italicized are still complements. Object. Of a transitive verb." Modifiers." . Like all the complements in this list.350. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. and whenever the complement is a noun. or Complement. doubtless." In this last sentence.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office.²heads or tails." "Their tempers." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. and. Modifiers of Subject. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. As complement of an intransitive verb. trusting the hearts of his countrymen." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. and explaining or modifying the subject." "Serving others is serving us. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. (3) Infinitive. complements of the predicate." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. 351." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards." (4) Participle. or the equivalent of the noun." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun.²completing the predicate." "She asked her father's permission. at the same time. As complement of a transitive verb.

not with nature. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. Retained with passive." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. this young idolater. object. tell whether the subject." (For participial and infinitive phrases. 352. I have seasoned for thee. but it is really a contracted clause. was the scene from King John. or ." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Exercise. the prisoner at the bar. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. or complement is modified. unforgiving.²proud.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. see further Secs. 351. Tells how." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation." In such a sentence as." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. Since the predicate is always a verb." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. given at the request of a Dutch lady." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. II." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase." "In the twinkling of an eye." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. but with other men. and leading him from star to star." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him." "Him." "Give them not only noble teachings. no sociable angel. 357-363. was now called upon for his defense. and modify the predicate in the same way. the verb being omitted.²In each sentence in Sec. austere. "He died like a God." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. but noble teachers. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. Modifiers of the Predicate.

no emotion. To the men of this world. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. His books have no melody. and as many to oppose it. 6." (6) Adverbial objective. and. These answer the question when. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. On the voyage to Egypt. the indirect object is retained. (a) Pick out subject." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster.When the verb is changed from active to passive. after dinner. predicate. 7. a sort of personality to the whole writing. and (direct) object:² 1." "All such knowledge should be given her. They do not wish to be lovely. to the animal strength and spirits. and the direct object is retained: for example. but the children of the great. gives wonderful animation. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. no humor. negative. or how long." Exercises. 7. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. in this center? 4. (b) Pick out the subject. is good in the making. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. . But anger drives a man to say anything. 5. in regard to particulars. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. according to old philosophers. etc. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. Why does the horizon hold me fast. he liked. 3. 5. 3. Fashion does not often caress the great. This. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. no relief to the dead prosaic level. 4. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy." "One way lies hope. and other measures of precaution. I took. but to be loved." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. 2. how far. 2. 8. with my joy and grief. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. predicate. 6. Evil..

viz. in little peaceful Easedale. and a member of the world. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. a room seventeen feet by twelve. 2. 4. 4. Compound Predicate. Paint me.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. That night. the attorney. Yes. I gave him an address to my friend. burthened with the anxieties of a man. Their intention was to have a gay. Unhorse me. to the right and to the left. then. this dragoon so lovely. I felt myself. happy dinner. A river formed the boundary. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. 3. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. 5. To suffer and to do. 3. this imperial rider. 5. after their long confinement to a ship. 3. Not compound sentences.²the river Meuse. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. the present Archbishop of Dublin. must visit again the home of her childhood. In one feature. I promised her protection against all ghosts. at the chief hotel. then. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. the blooming cornet. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. 2. 4. for the first time. . this nun so martial. downwards. Not the less I owe thee justice. expecting the return of their parents. 2. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. etc. upwards.y 8. that was thy portion in life. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. y y y y Compound Subject. six children sat by a peat fire.. at length the warrior lady. 6. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately.

ulcer." "Voyages and travels I would also have. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. however." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are." And so with complements. several modifiers. the tone of her voice. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. Of this. Bishop. the air of the mother. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. The exclamatory expression. may be the person or thing addressed. the predicate. 355." Sentences with compound predicates are. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. two or more subjects of the same predicate. hurry. etc. my brave young man!" . hurry. the object. and the rest is the logical predicate. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. in all such sentences as we quote below. together with all its modifiers. etc. etc. the verb). Larger view of a sentence. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. but it is to be noticed that. Independent Elements of the Sentence. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. modifiers." "The name of the child. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. shouldered the rusty firelock. and returned to the more important concerns of the election.353. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. in the sentence. "The company broke up. For example. 354. "Ah. Examples of compound subjects are. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. they are not a necessary part. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative.. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence." "He shook his head. together with its modifiers. forming a sentence: "Oh. exposes. turned his steps homeward. same as (1). that is. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. complements. the simple subject is situation." "Ye crags and peaks. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. and. and its object or complement. above: thus." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. then the grammatical subject and predicate. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. I'm with you once again.

then. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. this story runs thus. etc. 352. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. six quill-driving gentlemen. such as perhaps. 355. see Sec." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat.. . 350. moreover. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. 356. "Oh. (1) Adjectival. 4). such as however. In their use. besides. There are some adverbs. or complement (see Sec. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. These need close watching. 6). modifying a noun. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. 357. he was a conscientious man. instances of which were seen in Sec. 4). prepositional phrases may be. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES." "Why." "Truth to say. and some conjunctions. modifying the predicate. truly. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. her noticing even this is creditable." (2) Adverbial. 351. how you're winking!" "Now. really. 3. or word used as a noun: for example. object." "At all events." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. yes! everybody knew them. (b) As a modifier of subject. etc. he somehow lived along. therefore." "Well.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. generally speaking. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. already noticed. nevertheless.. y (2) The adverbial use. see Sec." Another caution." "No. the company broke up. pronoun. grandma. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples." (6) Single words: as." (5) Participial phrase: "But. undoubtedly. let him perish. now. that have an office in the sentence." (3) Independent. and so on. he closed his literary toils at dinner. The words well. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. why. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. to the best of my remembrance. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow.

" In this sentence. or as nearly so as the student will require. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. but having no other office than a verbal one.: as in the sentences. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. The verbal use. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. modifying was speedily run through." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. "The letter of introduction.]." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor.seem. ought. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. therefore. necessity. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. I." "There. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . but require somewhat closer attention." etc. Wilt thou. 355." (b) With the forms of be. This case excepted." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. and they will be presented here in full. "Because I was.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. containing no matters of business.can (could). y (a) With may (might). being equivalent to a future with obligation. etc. and hence is adverbial. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble." (c) With the definite forms of go. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. my dear. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business.should. etc. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes.would. and teach her how to be happy and good. 358. (1) Completing an incomplete verb.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. thus. he should not have known them at all. (5). "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. See Sec. was speedily run through.

" "To teach is to learn. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. . may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause.²both purpose clauses." "To say what good of fashion we can. etc.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). The fact that the infinitives in Sec. III.. already examined. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. Don Guzman." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again." "Are you mad." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. notice the following:² In (1). it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. result." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. The adjectival use. "But there was no time to be lost. The substantive use. (4) In apposition. 5). The adverbial use." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. is evident from the meaning of the sentences." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. 361 are used adverbially." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death." 360. 351. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. and the eyes to fill?" 359. modifying a noun that may be a subject. hang the idiot. complement. explanatory of a noun preceding: as." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. 361. to hear McOrator after dinner. object." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). II." "He insisted on his right to forget her. the Scotch fighting all the battles. To test this. IV. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. 362.: for example. etc. to please is equivalent to that he may please. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. above." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). to look means that he might look.

²both expressing condition. to find shows the result of the return. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. give² (1) The predicate. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. etc. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. etc. to part means because I part. to hear means if you should hear. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. . In (5). In (3). The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these.. and to say is equivalent to if we say.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. 355. which is of two kinds. 352). 3. 351). 349). object. 268. In analyzing simple sentences. 347). 363. must be in a life. (3). In (4). 2. give the complement (Secs. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. 364. (5) The subject (Sec. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. 355). (2) The object of the verb (Sec. (7) Independent elements (Sec. 4. V. not in a book. and to betray and to bring express the reason. If it is an incomplete verb. 351). but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers." (See also Sec. equivalent to that you betray.. as in Sec. I will try to keep the balance true. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. savage and serene in one hour. 351). etc." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. Our life is March weather. The independent use.In (2).² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence.

and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. 24. 18.He sat in the shower. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. nor generals. to the moral sphere. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. a skilled musician. 5. 20. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. and every moment discover something new. 7. and to the purpose. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. We are always in peril. a good shot. a graceful dancer. 16. 22. 19.²to preserve her throne. two stricken hours. 13. To be hurried away by every event. neither ammunition. The whole figure and air. 10. To these gifts of nature. like a witch's oils. in popular use. The water. always in a bad plight. 23. through evil agents. His opinion is always original. to restore civil and religious order. and spared nothing. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. Old Adam.Burnt green and blue and white.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. 21. to keep England out of war. an accomplished scholar. 12. nor money. He risked everything. nor troops. 17.4. and only to be saved by invention and courage. 6. the carrion crow. nor himself. 14. I have heard Coleridge talk. Her aims were simple and obvious. through toys and atoms. with eager energy. The word conscience has become almost confined. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. Through the years and the centuries. 11. 8. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. You may ramble a whole day together. might be called flabby and irresolute. 15. is to have no political system at all. 9. just on the edge of destruction. . This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. good and amiable otherwise. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest.The old crow of Cairo. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language.

34. Must we in all things look for the how. 27. secluded. the present capital of New England. to be a reproach to such goodness.Effacing many a stain of former crime. proud foe. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. and the wherefore? . "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. Of the same grandeur. and no provisions but wild berries. I hate him and myself. Oxford. 38. in less heroic and poetic form. had but one foible. the ship was in an uproar. on the shores of the Basin of Minas.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. and in my own garden. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. haply. and the why. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. 35. Upon this shore stood.25. 37. Now. time-honored. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. Fair name might he have handed down. 39. 36. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. 40. in front of all this mighty crowd. 31. the prime minister of Spain. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. an elderly man. Supposing this computation to be correct. 29. The villain. Few in number. The cry. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. This amiable relative.Distant. it would not have been filial or ladylike. 41. 26. baggage far in the rear. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. 30. and. or perhaps one virtue. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. still. ready to receive her. the same Condé Olivarez. upon my own ground. In the Acadian land. I dare this. She had made a two days' march. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. to bid you leave the place now and forever. But yield. 33. 32. in this world.

333)." This must. The simple sentence the basis." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly." Sentences with like.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. as would be the connective instead of like. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. if they were expanded. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. made merely for convenience and smoothness. though often treated as phrases. Some sentences look like simple ones in form.CONTRACTED SENTENCES." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. thus.² "She is like some tender tree. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. which is the unit of speech. however. . Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. are really contracted clauses. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]." To show that these words are really omitted. 365. as. (Sec. the expressions of manner introduced by like.From her own loved island of sorrow. the pride and beauty of the grove. As shown in Part I. 366." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. Words left out after than or as." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. COMPLEX SENTENCES. 367. but.

Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. object. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. murmur. CLAUSES. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. then we recognize this as the main statement. logically depends on suffering. and the next one. and the last. containing a verb with its subject. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. A principal.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. 370. how great . 371. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. each clause has its subject. A clause is a division of a sentence.. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). modifiers. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. Hence the following definition:² Definition.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. suffering. complement.. 369.. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. or it may be applied to the others. predicate. we are aware. which are so united that one member is the main one. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. main.²the backbone. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. that . etc. is taken in. or dependent on it.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint.. complements. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. as in this sentence. Independent clause. 368. Definition. that is. and modifier. .²the other members subordinate to it. object. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses.

infinitive... But since they are complex in form.. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. adjectives. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. clauses are divided into NOUN. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. ADJECTIVE. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. (b) that are ." 374. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh.. but logically the sentence is. for example. 352. 373." (2) Object of a verb. . that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. and the whole clause is not." "I was told that the house had not been shut." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. for example. verbal.. thus. for a time." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. and ADVERB clauses. 372. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. pronoun.Dependent clause. impertinences²would be grammatical. 'I know that he can toil terribly. Noun Clauses." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials." (4) Apposition.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. so the object clause is retained. 5). and it is . night or day. impertinences.. with a noun clause in apposition with it. attention is called to them here. We ourselves are getting . Kinds. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition.. put an end to my fancies." Just as the object noun. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. (a) Ordinary apposition. over which the torrent came tumbling. etc.' is an electric touch. or adverbs. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. for a hundred years. As to their office in the sentence." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs.

whereby. Other examples of this construction are. as. But the fact is. I was napping. where. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. As the office of an adjective is to modify. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. which. Frequently there is no connecting word. 3. 5. still remains reasonable. 8. 4. whether he should choose one or not. a relative pronoun being understood. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. a falsehood incarnate. no man will ever know. Examples of adjective clauses. whence. he could know nothing. etc. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. how it changed from shape to shape. 7. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. 10. Such a man is what we call an original man. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. and not on the sentiment. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. whither. sometimes by the conjunctions when. What history it had. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. 375. 9. that. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. but. The reply of Socrates. 2. of a nation. that he was a scheming impostor. 6. Adjective Clauses. Except by what he could see for himself. . that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one.² "It is on the understanding. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. or equivalent of a noun. wherein." Exercise. that all safe legislation must be based. that. in the sentence. he would repent it.

This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. 5. 3.." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse.376." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. he begins to help us more as an effect." Exercise. Pick out the adjective clauses. and tell what each one modifies.e." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. the champions advanced through the lists." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. No man is reason or illumination. 1. 4. i. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. 7. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. which Rowena tasted. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. I walked home with Calhoun." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. or that essence we were looking for." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. all is vacancy. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. Adverbial Clauses. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. 11. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. etc. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. 2. 8. 9. 10. 6. . which formed the center of the mansion. whether subject. object.

however. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. etc." (3) REASON. that we should try. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. the milestones are grave-stones. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. no matter what remains. an adjective." These mean no matter how good." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. adverbs. Joanna is better. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent." "After leaving the whole party under the table. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. Exercise. etc. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. introduced by indefinite relatives." (7) RESULT. but they require careful study.377. he goes away as if nothing had happened. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome.. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. with examples. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. expressing the degree in which the horizon. however good she may be as a witness." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. to make up our shortcomings. shaping our actions. it takes precedence of everything else. or an adverb. and adverbial conjunctions.: "But still. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. the wider is the horizon of their thought. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself." "Who cares for that." (9) CONCESSION. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. and what it modifies:² . 378. so far as we can. is wider." "He went several times to England." (5) DEGREE. a verbal." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. whatever. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. and will be given in detail. etc.² whoever. tell what kind each is." "The broader their education is. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. since he was too great to care to be original." "The right conclusion is." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming." "When he was come up to Christian.

'Well. of which clause Odin is the subject. and modifiers. with shrill. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. If the children gathered about her. howling and whistling. snatching up stones to fling at them.1. as they sometimes did. find the principal subject and principal predicate. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. to tell the truth." 2. so as to picture the parts and their relations. 379. its object is that Odin was a reality. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. incoherent exclamations. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. object. in the sentence. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. and twirling weathercocks. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. then treat noun clauses as nouns. 380. on a dark wintry night. predicate. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. For example. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. when the wind was unruly. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. we are a little disappointed. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. 3. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. etc. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. they might perhaps say of their visitors. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. banging about doors and windows." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it.

380). (2) Analyze it according to Sec. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. as seen in the "map" (Sec. 3. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. (1) Find the principal clause.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. Exercises. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. 2. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . . This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. 364. d... Take the place and attitude which belong to you. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. 364. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists.

Now. the flower should revive for us. This is she. 23. could not have been effected. 19. Here lay two great roads. 11. 20. The night proved unusually dark. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. 24. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 6. as for armies that were too many by half. 8. 22. .4. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. The deep eyes. had we been worse. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. if applied to the Bible. 14. 13. And those will often pity that weakness most. Next came a wretched Dominican. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. 17. 15. counselor that had none for herself. But now that she has become an establishment. of a light hazel. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. which. He was what our country people call an old one. for yours. 12. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. the mixed result. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. 21. bishop. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. 5. namely. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. 9. dying for them. 7. that pressed her with an objection. 10. that. not so much for travelers that were few. who would yield to it least. 18. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. I like that representation they have of the tree. whom I choose. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. Had they been better chemists. the shepherd girl. or whether any. Whether she said the word is uncertain. 16. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. M.

should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. That which we do not believe. and not from his heart. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. speed. is to speak and write sincerely. 3. if continuously extended. and stamped with his right number. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. 26." 4. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. "No book. and what content I can find in conversing with each. or commands. would easily reach. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. 380. questions. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. . 30. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face.² Definition. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength." said Bentley. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. but above it. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. that it was no more than his daily walk. we cannot adequately say.²which will not be disposed of. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. While the complex sentence has only one main clause.25. These things we are forced to say. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. It makes no difference how many friends I have. COMPOUND SENTENCES. 6. then map out as in Sec. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. 7. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. and temper. 27. the following complex sentences:² 1. How formed. (b) First analyze. "was ever written down by any but itself. Hence the definition. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. 2. 28. though we may repeat the words never so often. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. 382. 5. 383. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. if there be one to whom I am not equal.

however. and which complex:² 1. and nor the second and third complex members. if there are any. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. the waving grass. he dilates. "Only the star dazzles. he walks with arms akimbo. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. whereas. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. . (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. a simple member. 297). etc." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. he is twice a man. etc. Exercise. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. as but. or but. from the second. yet.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. Study the thought. the planet has a faint. now adverbs or prepositions. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. others sometimes coördinate. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. in (3). Thus in (1). for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. Speak your latent conviction. 383 (1). introduce independent clauses (see Sec. as in Sec. 385. and not the form of the connective. which are simple statements. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3)." 384. a complex member. moon-like ray" (adversative). and connects the first and second complex members. The division into members will be easier. he soliloquizes. while (whilst). 386.. for. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. The coördinate conjunctions and. Of the following illustrative sentences. Connectives. Some of these are now conjunctions. the semicolon separates the first." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. nor does he know until he has tried. tell which are compound. nor. Another example is. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. and it shall be the universal sense. in (2).

12. and thou shalt be loved. 3. for example. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. and not by what each is. all pain. and as yet very early in the morning. 381. 387. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. unobtrusive boy. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. 13. All loss. 7. Man does not stand in awe of man. However some may think him wanting in zeal. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. 14. 4. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. 6. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. passed in that time. Exercise. 8. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. 5. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. that it was Easter Sunday. quiet. 11. so is every one of its parts. is particular. 4. Whilst the world is thus dual. For everything you have missed. Love. you have gained something else. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. 2. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. however. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night.2. yield to them heart and life. 3. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. In this manner. I can still receive. you lose something. or. 10. to find a pot of buried gold. . he grew up to be a mild. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. The gain is apparent. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. from a happy yet often pensive child. 9. nay. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. the tax is certain. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. (i) Separate it into its main members. I can yet love. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. 364. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. and for everything you gain.

but the day never shines in which this element may not work. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. or we read books. and not an emotion of bravery. or men will never know and honor him aright. 16. Trust men. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. puts the parties on a convenient footing. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. "the iron is white. and makes their business a friendship." says the smith. We go to Europe. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. and they will show themselves great. Whatever he knows and thinks. 8. and you are without effort impelled to truth. 19.5. 14. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. or we pursue persons. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. crook and hide. 6. or sail with God the seas. whilst frankness invites frankness. because. . 21. He teaches who gives. and the other dares not." says the haymaker. 11. modesty. if you rip up his claims. feign to confess here. 7. and the peace of society is often kept. Stand aside. or hope. and each shows only what lies at its focus. Come into port greatly. as children. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. why should we intrude? 10. 17. 9. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood." 13. and they repel us. abide by it. 18. When you have chosen your part." "keep the rake. and he learns who receives. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. and not a thought has enriched either party. which always make the Actual ridiculous. give those merits room. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. 15. treat them greatly. and the cart as nigh the rake. let them mount and expand. They will shuffle and crow. is as thin and timid as any. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. only that they may brag and conquer there. We see the noble afar off. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. one is afraid. 20. "Strike. and they will be true to you. "as nigh the scythe as you can. that let him communicate.

verb and subject. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. but its leading characteristic is. pronoun and antecedent. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. it ends in headache. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . 380. they lose themselves in the crowd. but they never acquit the debt. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. By way of introduction. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. they die young. so readily and lavishly they promise. it never was known to fall into the rear. We see young men who owe us a new world. the department of syntax will be a small affair. adjective and noun.22. So does culture with us. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. but go about your business anywhere. Do not craze yourself with thinking. if they live. 25. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. Following the Latin method. Essential point in English syntax. 23. 24. and dodge the account. PART III. 390. 388. INTRODUCTORY. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. SYNTAX. Ground covered by syntax.²agreement and government. or. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English.

there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. some of which conform to classical grammar. Some rules not rigid. also expressing a possessive relation. or when they exist side by side in good usage. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. In some cases. and it would not matter which one stood first. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). and to think clearly of the meaning of words. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. and imitate it. Second. the sentence. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund." is ambiguous. and whose judgment. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree." In this there is a possessive form. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. When usage varies as to a given construction. distinct forms would be used. In Latin. then. As an illustration of the last remark. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. There is. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's.² First. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. sometimes verb and subject. This is not logical. 393. the order being inverted. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. following the regular order of subject. as to study inflected forms. For example. take the sentence. therefore. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. Why study syntax? 391. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. pronoun and antecedent. The basis of syntax. . Also in the sentence." that is. or the same writer will use both indifferently. authorities²that is. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. good English. and added to it the preposition of. both forms will be given in the following pages. "None remained but he. "The savage here the settler slew. Savage may be the subject. but are not now. etc." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. 392. or settler may be the subject. and nothing but important points will be considered.

. sense and nature's easy fool. Use of the possessive. and Peter's." Juletta tells. as. for example. Putting Mr. the possessive sign is used with each noun. etc. or indicate joint ownership or possession. 397. the shore of Galilee.²EMERSON. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. and Paul's. ²ID. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. Mill's and Mr.² He lands us on a grassy stage. Woman. He kept Bolingbroke's. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. PRONOUNS. and Peterborough's. but imply separate possession or ownership. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. and Pope's.NOUNS. 395. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY.²MACAULAY. and Harley's.²RUSKIN. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them.²MILTON. Joint possession. 396.²THACKERAY. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case.²BYRON. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. Bentham's principles together. 394. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. Separate possession. 408). In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage.²MCCULLOCH.²ROWE. the antechamber of the High Priest.² Live your king and country's best support.

NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. Not to render up my soul to such as thee.²TROLLOPE.²WHITCHER. sanctioned. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. others are generally. for example. there are two general rules that require attention. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. whom is the complement after the verb am. No mightier than thyself or me.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. thus. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. who. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. Still. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. 398. But he must be a stronger than thee.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. together with the relative who. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. the real thought being forgotten.) "The young Harper. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. Some of the violations are universally condemned. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. This should be "as she. Objective for the nominative. if not universally." 400. 399.²SHAKESPEARE. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). I.²BYRON.²THACKERAY. as.²POPE.²SOUTHEY.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. General rules. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. Since most of the personal pronouns. the last expression has the support of many good writers. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. Bedott Papers. and should be the nominative form. .

² For there was little doubt that it was he. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. A safe rule. is. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. In spoken English. BLACK. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402."²WINTHROP.²LONGFELLOW. they are yet holier than we. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. Patrick the Porter. I have no other saint than thou to pray to."²KINGSLEY. and the other forms of the verb be. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. The camp of Richard of England. but such is the fact. The usage is too common to need further examples. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. And it was heThat made the ship to go.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. as. on the other hand.²COLERIDGE.²FIELDING. unless a special. . both in England and America. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable."²WM. for example." There is no special reason for this. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. "Than whom.²PARTON.²KINGSLEY. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. But still it is not she.² One I remember especially. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was.²RUSKIN. namely.²SCOTT. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. are. One exception is to be noted. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. "If there is any one embarrassed. "Who's there?"²"Me. the objective form is regularly found. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so.²MACAULAY.²THACKERAY. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS." 401. it will not be me.

The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. 7. you or me. 8. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). in the case of words used in apposition with the object.Exercise. . used after verbs. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences." the word being in apposition with murderer). or us). The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. Nominative for the objective. I speak not to" (he should be him. Truth is mightier than us all.²MILTON. the object of to). Whom they were I really cannot specify. You know whom it is that you thus charge. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. It is not me you are in love with. now. 4. verbals. 404. or this. "Ask the murderer. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. or preposition which governs it. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. as this from Shakespeare. 2. (3) By forgetting the construction. but not he" (he should be him. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned." 6. it is me. Me in exclamations. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. verbal. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. 9. and prepositions. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. object of saw).² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. 403. 5. 11.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. If there ever was a rogue in the world. as. as. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. 10. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. 3. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. as.

who interrogative.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. partial Nature.²KINGSLEY. after the preposition but (sometimes save). 405. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. "Who did you see?" or. Exercise. 406.² All were knocked down but us two. for they say there are none such in the world. Who have we here?²ID. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. as well as the objective.Shall be left upon the morn. I've sworn. as. and is usually avoided. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. Let you and I look at these. all but he. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON.²BYRON.Exception 1. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. We regularly say. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. but he. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. Thou. "Who were they talking to?" etc. save thou and thine. etc.²GOLDSMITH. 2. None. . Nature.²STEELE.²KINGSLEY. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT.²KINGSLEY. changed in all save thee. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. Thy shores are empires. for example. Exception 2.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. as.²BYRON. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. I arraign.

²THACKERAY. They are coming for a visit to she and I. POSSESSIVE FORMS.²DE QUINCEY. II.²RUSKIN.²C. 12. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. Markland. 407. or objective? . Bartholomew." 4.²SCOTT.3. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence.Ye I salute. 5. who. Preceding a gerund. B.²possessive. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. BROWN. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. 6. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. with Jortin and Thirlby. This usage is not frequent.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. 10. They crowned him long ago. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. As antecedent of a relative. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. 9. 11. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. 8. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach.²MACAULAY. and they know that as well as me. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. 7.

We heard of Brown. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. and the meaning is. Both types of sentences are found. and that in the second.²DICKENS. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. Why both are found.² THACKERAY.²CARLYLE. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. that the bitterness of death was past.²BREWER. and asked why it was not made. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern.²DE QUINCEY. Here I state them only in brief." or "We heard of Brown's studying law.²RUSKIN.²MACAULAY. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. The last incident which I recollect. object of heard of. Possessive. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. etc. In the examples quoted.408. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. both are gerunds. as he turned away from his wife. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. sometimes it has the objective. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. But in common use there is no such distinction.² SCOTT. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life.² IRVING. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. studying is a gerund. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him." That is. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. Objective. . [who was] studying law. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. The use of the objective is older.² CARLYLE.

²DE QUINCEY. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.²AUDUBON. in one person.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²C.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth.²THOREAU. and ought to agree with them in person. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. and gender. number.²RUSKIN.²HOLMES. The pale realms of shade. taking in each of many persons. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. Watch for the real antecedent. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun.²THACKERAY. the pronoun will be neuter singular. it was his own fault.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.² BRYANT. 409.²CABLE. If any one did not know it. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. if the antecedent is neuter. . Examples of these constructions are. Every city threw open its gates. Everybody had his own life to think of. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.²DE QUINCEY. preceded by a distributive. In such a case as the last three sentences. BROCKDEN BROWN. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. 410. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.²HUXLEY.²DEFOE.²EMERSON III. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. or is a distributive word.²when the antecedent. where there were examinations.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular.

Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way.²PAULDING.² Not the feeblest grandame. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. not a mowing idiot. It is a game which has been played for untold ages.Avoided: By using both pronouns. till they have lost him. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. The sun. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. Whosoever hath any gold.²BYRON. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves.²THACKERAY. for example. If the part deserve any comment. let them break it off. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. as anybody in their senses would have done. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. This is not considered the best usage.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. 411. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. By using the plural pronoun.²FIELDING. and giving them means of being so. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world.²BIBLE.²ID. Every one must judge of their own feelings. . every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own.²PALEY.²HUXLEY. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. Struggling for life. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²RUSKIN.²AUSTEN.²DEFOE.²EMERSON. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go.²SCOTT.²ID. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.²PALGRAVE. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.

in each instance:² Who. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. As to their conjunctive use." This means. 1. as. A relative.) and a personal pronoun. I." A relative. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. or unrestrictive. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. when coördinating. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. That is in most cases restrictive. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word.² SHERIDAN. 413.²HAWTHORNE. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. unless both genders are implied. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. the definite relatives who." It defines beggar. who went away. according to the practice of every modern writer. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. but. Exercise. which. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. and he went away. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. tell whether who.²In the above sentences. 2.²ID. and does not add a new statement. when restrictive. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. and that always restrictive.²ADDISON. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. but. "I gave it to the beggar. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. that being considered already clear. What these terms mean. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. . In the following examples.Where she was gone. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. no one could take upon them to say. because. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. which. It adds a new statement to what precedes. Exercise. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. or what was become of her. and that are restrictive or not. etc. 412.

it makes the verb third person singular. and it is called logic. 7.²DE QUINCEY. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. in the sentence. However. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive.²DE QUINCEY. A grizzly-looking man appeared. which was to go over the Cordilleras. 14..² IRVING. In what sense true. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. BEECHER 5. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. 13.3. etc. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. . but. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. The rule. II. 8. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. 6.² CARLYLE. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. 10. W. that were often vicious. That.²HOLMES. etc. as that does not vary for person or number. Yet how many are there who up. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand.²ID. you." that is invariable as to person and number. he.² NEWMAN. which Mr. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. On hearing their plan. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him.²H. who. 9. they. etc. and over England are saying. these or that which.²ID. she agreed to join the party. Which.²ADDISON. 414.²THOREAU. We say I. So different from the wild. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. Hare has printed. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. down. 12. For example. The general rule is. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. With narrow shoulders.² MOTLEY. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. 11. 4. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. long arms and legs. because of its antecedent.

This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. [plural] that who. A disputed point. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent... He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. etc. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal.²LOWELL. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. and in improving a victory. The fiery youth .] Both constructions are frequently found. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.²SCOTT. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY.²MACAULAY. when he derided the shams of society.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. or which .²HOLMES." One of . "one of the finest books that have been published.²whether we should say. with one as the principal word. . but speaks of him as that sort. in winning a battle. Franklin. JR. "one of the finest books that has been published. MORSE.²ADDISON. and write the verb in the plural. etc. [singular or plural. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. who rarely speak at all. French literature of the eighteenth century..²LOWELL. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. but myself.. others regard books as the antecedent. He is one of those that deserve very well. T.²ADDISON. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed..²BOWLES. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest." or.²M.²J. The latter is rather more frequent. Singular. ARNOLD. but the former has good authority.²HOWELLS. the true antecedent. Let us be of good cheer..²LECKY. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.. 415.

A rare Roundabout performance. III.²IRVING. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as.²CARLYLE.² .² THACKERAY. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. 416. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. 417. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention.²SCOTT.²SWIFT.²EMERSON. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. object of a preposition understood.In that same state I came. where. or is equivalent to the conjunction when.²In the above sentences.² RUSKIN."²DICKENS.²BURNS.And. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers.²EMERSON.²DEFOE. when the relative word is a pronoun. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. when this dust falls to the urn. return. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed.²ADDISON. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning." "India is the place [in which. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.²ID. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. and such like: as. But I by backward steps would move. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. The same day I went aboard we set sail.²GOLDSMITH.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. or where] he died. whence. and see if the sentence is made clearer.²VAUGHAN. I could see nothing except the sky. that is. IV. Exercise.

²GOLDSMITH. 418. as of knives.² Which. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin.² THACKERAY. or lack of proper connection between the clauses.²SWIFT. CHURCH. but which is usually carefully avoided. and working in the same spirit.me as his apprentice. or that.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. Mr. if I had resolved to go on with. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. V.²R. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited.²FRANKLIN.² MACAULAY. with Turner. W. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who.²SCOTT. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. They believe the same of all the works of art. That. looking-glasses. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. as is not used. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. The regular construction.. she passed the lamp over her face and person. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. etc.²WORDSWORTH.² BURKE. but we find the relative who. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. boats.. he. Which. if same is followed by a complete clause. for example. which. I might as well have staid at home. Anacoluthic use of which. but. Caution.²ADDISON. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. was a discoverer. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. .He considered.

The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. Exercise." etc. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. This was a gentleman. As the sentences stand..²RUSKIN. which when Mr. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. or leave out both connective and relative. etc. once a great favorite of M. and this be placed in the proper clause. or.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them.²GOLDSMITH.²which if they once heard. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. but.²DE QUINCEY. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. and who are now. now thrown upon their. After this came Elizabeth herself.²HAWTHORNE." etc.. That is. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. Express both relatives." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who.She'd come again. 4. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. (1) "Among those who are poor. 1. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. And who. etc. or omit the conjunction. but none is expressed.. 3. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. Thornhill had read.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch." etc.²SHAKESPEARE. He delivered the letter. (3) "Among the poorer sort. Exercise. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. he said that all submission was now too late. who are now thrown. 2. and which. 419. .²THACKERAY. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. le Conte. (2) "Among the poorer sort.²SCOTT. But who.² Direction for rewriting.

He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. Exercise. 12.. 9. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. etc. which the Scotch had learned. 11. and repeat this for any further reference.²DE QUINCEY. like that spoken in the towns. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. 13. 10. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. "What knight so craven. Akin to the above is another fault. Dr. Or who.²IRVING.²PEARSON. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. either from imitation of their frequent allies. 8.5. But which.²SCOTT.. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. "A mockery. and which. who.²HAWTHORNE. then. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . 1. 7.. etc. And which. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. 420. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. . I shall have complete copies. I saw upon the left a scene far different.²DE QUINCEY.² MOTLEY. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man.²SCOTT. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. That . or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. indeed. 6. the French. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. English by name. and to whom no door is closed. and which may even be heard a mile off. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. as a false and astucious mark.. one of signal interest." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. and which has never been described. Or which. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT.

. 13. such as they have very probably been bred to. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. that. the cent. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity.²SCOTT. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. Which . 14. He flung into literature. which. Such as . appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion.²SCOTT That which . and whose examples and principles we inherit. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. G. That . even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. whom. I give to such men as do not belong to me.. SIMMS..²EMERSON. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. Such as .²HOLMES. E. 8. and to whom I do not belong. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. I recommend some honest manual calling. In my native town of Salem. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. 11.²HALLAM. the dime.. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after.²W.. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me.. 15. 10.²HOWELLS. 7. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love.²DE QUINCEY. what. was a bustling wharf. 6.. He. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. in his present condition. I grudge the dollar. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. but which.2..²W. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. 9. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with.²DEFOE. in his Mephistopheles..² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. 3.²BEECHER. half a century ago. at the head of what. was hung in air.²HAWTHORNE. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. CHANNING. that .. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. 12. The Tree Igdrasil... Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. which. 5.²EMERSON. 4. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. It rose into a thrilling passion. . but which is perhaps not so different from it.

The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. as. 421. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. for example. one another. By their original meaning. whether or not the two are equivalent. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. Each other. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY.²GOLDSMITH. in which case any should be used instead.²RUSKIN. always at war with one another. as.²EMERSON. England was then divided between kings and Druids. as it were. Use of any.²ID. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. We call ourselves a rich nation.² HAWTHORNE. Distributives either and neither. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time.²DICKENS.²MACAULAY. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. Assume that no one is in want of either.²RUSKIN. .ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. that not all combined.²HAWTHORNE. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.² Some one must be poor. 422. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. and in want of his gold²or his corn.

for him have I offended.²BEECHER Whenever. I beseech you.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . usually plural. as. whilst I still cherish their genius.²EMERSON. then in Plutarch. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. Do you think. and is isolated. even in Bettine. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). then in Plotinus. Do you think. any was often singular. The adjective pronoun none is. as none of the French philosophers were. 424. any of his friends had died. that I know of. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours.²CARLYLE. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. Any usually plural. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. as.²SCOTT.. Caution. during his stay at Yuste. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. speak. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. etc.²FRANKLIN. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. in the prose of the present day.²BURKE.²PROF.² EMERSON. when any of them are so good as to visit me.²SHAKESPEARE. afterwards in Goethe.²BIBLE.. in Shakespeare. which is plural as often as singular. Examples of its use are.²THACKERAY. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage.²STIRLING. let him ask of God. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. None usually plural. If any of you lack wisdom. .² If any. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. if ever man was. In earlier Modern English. None of Nature's powers do better service. 423.. before that. I mean that any of them are dead? None are.² In earnest. at one time in Bacon.

the plural. fixing his eyes on the mace. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else.² None of them was cleansed.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. and all was lost on the other.. which is used absolutely.. etc.²SCOTT Like the use of any. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. 425. when it means all persons: for example. any one else. etc.²NAPIER Plural. Somebody's else. etc.²THOREAU. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . saving Naaman the Syrian.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. that all was lost.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. are treated as units. and less rarely in poetry.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. and Ford has nobody's else.² Singular.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. etc.² PEARSON. for example. When all were gone.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August..²McMASTER. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. The light troops thought . as. nobody else. or somebody else's? 426. The compounds somebody else. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings.

²MULOCH. for example. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. Whitefield or Wesley. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. unlike anybody else's in the world. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. 427. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots." "all manner of men.SYDNEY SMITH.²SHERIDAN. etc. or some other such great man as a bishop. P."²MRS. Again. or those sort of people. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. ELIOT.²in such as "these sort of books. etc.²RUSKIN. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. STOWE." the nouns being singular..²RUSKIN. His hair. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those).²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. . Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. London. "Ye see.²DICKENS. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. the adjectives plural.² These kind of knaves I know. all manner of. WILLIS. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.² FIELDING.." "those kind of trees. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. A suit of clothes like somebody else's.² Saturday Review.²N.curled once all over it in long tendrils. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.²SWEET.²THACKERAY. These sort. ADJECTIVES.²G.²AUSTEN.

²a strong man with nothing but his fists.The library was open. Burke's sentence. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. Use of the comparative degree. According to the approved usage of Modern English. more alarming than a total silence. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. as." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). which accounts for the construction. History of this construction. or the nouns to the plural.² PRESCOTT." A question. In Old and Middle English. or one object with a class of objects. Consequently we have a confused expression. 428. At the source. such as. The result. ." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. for example. This the modern expression reverses. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. in spoken English. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. made to agree with it. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. Should we say. they said. Later form. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. "This kind of rules are the best.²RUSKIN. the victor or the vanquished. "These kind of trees are best. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. gradually displacing the old. "This sort of trees should be planted. and in this way may take a plural verb." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject.² Which is the better able to defend himself. when the necessary dispositions concur. "A sort of uncertain sounds are." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. not "all kinds of wild animals. and the adjective is. to express a higher degree of quality. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. Of two such lessons. with all manner of amusing books.

2.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. Gary.²HAWTHORNE. 4. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. Even Dodd himself.²THACKERAY.²MACAULAY. by almost the breadth of my nail. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. Compare the first three sentences in Sec.²CARLYLE. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr.²MACAULAY. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY.² THACKERAY. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things.A braver ne'er to battle rode. 6. etc. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. would not have had the face.²WIRT. if not. 5."²ID. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. has sanctioned. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest.²LOWELL. 429. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. To the man who plays well. the highest stakes are paid. 430. Exercise. He is taller. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity.²TROLLOPE. I am concerned to see that Mr.²HUXLEY. than any of his court. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. 3. the object would really be compared with itself: thus.²SCOTT.²SWIFT. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. Other after the comparative form. . Superlative with two objects. Use of the superlative degree. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. Henry.

OLIPHANT. Double comparative and superlative. who eat white bread or brown. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. Also from the same period. CÆSAR.²TEMPEST. 1611.²DR BLAIR. .. Mary. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. The following examples are used purposely. The eldest. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. These two properties seem essential to wit. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. After the most straitest sect of our religion. Examples from Shakespeare are.²Bible.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. and the other contains the best men.²GOLDSMITH.²ADDISON. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. Nor that I am more better than Prospero.. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. ha.²SCOTT. "Ha. Rip was one of those . and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest.²HAMLET. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est."²BULWER. 431. and differ only in form. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. more particularly the last of them.²RUSKIN.²MRS."²HAWTHORNE.²BEN JONSON. In all disputes between States. "Let us see which will laugh loudest.²J."²GOLDSMITH. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians.²EMERSON. not a bit of high life among them. whichever can be got easiest. Come you more nearer.²IRVING. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. I should say that one has the best cause. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them.

the Spanish. The meaning intended is the same.²DE QUINCEY. and conceit in the last. not only so in popular speech. As to these two expressions.² With a singular noun. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. The merit of the Barb. For Carlyle.²GIBBON. Examples of this construction are. The delay in the first three lines.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. The first five had specific names. Instances of both are given below. and Secretary Walsingham also. etc. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. jar upon us constantly. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. Three first. ²COWPER. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. First three. etc. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. These are the three first needs of civilized life.²PRESCOTT. . and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. but in literary English. 433. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood.²ADDISON.²RUSKIN.²RUSKIN. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots.²GIBBON. ARTICLES.²KINGSLEY. Definite article. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood.² SMOLLETT.²LAMB.

No. and the presents.²PRESCOTT. With a plural noun. the thought and the word. 433.² MACAULAY. distinct. with a plural noun. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. Here the youth of both sexes. were placed at a very tender age. as in Sec. The flowers. Meaning same as in Sec.²MACAULAY. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. with a singular noun. melodious. The lofty. of the eighteenth century. of the higher and middling orders.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. .² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. Frequently. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. 435. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. One object and several modifiers. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. and the trunks and bonnet boxes .²CARLYLE.. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. but inseparable from each other. 433. I think. as. Indefinite article. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. Origin of the Aryans. 434. The not repeated. or to emphasize the meaning.²TAYLOR. to distinguish clearly. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side.²NEWMAN. but is used with one only.²SCOTT. as. 1508.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS.. the greatest poems. and flexible language.²TENNYSON.²THE NATION. however.² RUSKIN.²THACKERAY. the hour of parting came. He is master of the two-fold Logos.²ID. having been arranged.

a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference.² BURKE. a collegian. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other.²BULWER. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. or clearness to each of several nouns. and inexhausted vein. The indefinite article is used. to limit two or more modified nouns. 437. COLERIDGE. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. He saw him in his mind's eye. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. Examples of this use are. and a usurper. For rhetorical effect. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. as. 434) is used to lend special emphasis.²DICKENS.²JOHNSON. interest. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. 433 and 436. as in the first three of Sec. only one of which is expressed." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. But in the following sentences. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. In the sentences of Secs. 436). a round and a square one alternately.An early." and "a red and a white geranium.² MACAULAY.²BEECHER. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec.²THACKERAY.436. a tyrant. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. like the definite article.²MACAULAY. One article with several adjectives. 438. one noun is expressed.²MACAULAY. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist.²B. 435.²DRYDEN.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. JONSON.²S. T. a murderer. . The indefinite article (compare Sec. rich.

It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. has got already. 276. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. Another writer might.. was the earliest American land. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. as. Such.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment.²W. like some others in this series. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time.²COOPER. In English.²The Nation.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. as.²GIBBON. all that academies can give. Collective noun of singular meaning.²FROUDE.²G. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. then. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. Singulars connected by or or nor. and the following illustrations prove it.²AGASSIZ. ARNOLD.²CARLYLE This usage. . ELIOT. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. This was spoken of in Part I. Singular verb. A broad and loose rule. 440. for example.²M.VERBS. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. or the great intellectual life of our nation. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. 439. without academies. He sees that it is better to live in peace. Sec.

² Politics is the only field now open for me. or as making up one general idea. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances.Jesus is not dead. a cruel disappointment. A fever. is gone.² GOLDSMITH.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph.²GIBBON. but considered as meaning about the same thing. and every four hours.²BURKE.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit.²EMERSON .²J. nor Paul.²GOLDSMITH. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. ADAMS. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. a loss of friends. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON.² The unbought grace of life. the cheap defense of nations. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa.²CRITIC. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise.² In a word. nor John. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. No.²DE QUINCEY. as. for example. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. ²EMERSON. and other singulars of plural form.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. Q. that of a large town. (4) When the subject is plural in form. seems at the moment unpaid loss. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. other names. or considered as appositional. but each one emphatic. Between ourselves.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. for example. nor Mahomet. a loss of wealth. Plural form and singular meaning. a mutilation.²WHITTIER. as.

Then comes the "Why. Plural verb. 441.²BUTLER. in a judge. a cuirass. To receive presents or a bribe.²ID. Every sound. wineBegins to stir itself. the partisan.² . was dazzled.²NEWMAN. as. and greaves.² Asia. For wide is heard the thundering fray. Every week. sir!"²MACAULAY.The author. the wit. sir?" and the "No. the ruin. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration.² There is a right and a wrong in them.²MACAULAY.²EMERSON. Here is no ruin. many a. There is a moving tone of voice.The rout. was listened to for five hours. every boor.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. Her back. the dismay. was like to crack. was punished. Every fop. as well as sides. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two.²LONGFELLOW. nay. an impassioned countenance.²M ARNOLD.²SCOTT. a gorget. no discontinuity. and such like adjectives. is a man of wit. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. The Epic.²HAWTHORNE. sir!" and the "What then.²PRESCOTT.²PRESCOTT. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. as well as the Drama. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. does not take the place of the man.²RUSKIN. no matter if the second is plural). no.²ID. every echo. every valet. Subjects after the verb. as well as the newest. no spent ball. with death.²MACAULAY. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. as well as Europe. the fine gentleman. The oldest. each. almost every day. an agitated gesture. thus.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. as.

The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. as. A party of workmen were removing the horses. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT.²ADDISON. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. Conjunction omitted. shirt.These bits of wood were covered on every square. All our household are at rest.²SCOTT. The travelers.²THOREAU.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village.²DE QUINCEY.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. its date. 440 (5.² One or two of these perhaps survive. but the verb is plural. a stream of fresh water.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad.²FRANKLIN. TAYLOR.²COLERIDGE.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. The conjunction may be omitted. a green pasture. making up a plural subject. as in Sec. Far. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. as with a subject of plural form. His clothes. . for example.²FROUDE. are sufficient to attract a colony.²GOLDSMITH. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.²GIBBON. A shady grove.² GIBBON. were men of insignificant characters. The Dauphin.²FROUDE. Philip of Anjou. b). (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.²CARLYLE But its authorship.²B. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent.²SWIFT. of whom there were a number.² A multitude go mad about it. and its history are alike a mystery to us. the Duke of Berri. far away thy children leave the land. as.²EMERSON.

but thou. Second or third and first person in the subject. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. we never talk politics. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. ARNOLD. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. Exceptional examples. You and I are farmers. This construction is at the best a little awkward. Ah.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness.But notice the construction of this. When the subjects. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now.²GOLDSMITH. Nothing which Mr. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. the verb takes the construction of the first person. If there is only one person in the subject.²BYRON. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. the subject being really equivalent to we. his blood dost shed." or. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject.²SMOLLETT. 442. . It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as.²RUSKIN. "I have never said so. nor has she"). WEBSTER.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser." "She or you may be sure. that is. Not I. You and I are tolerably modest people.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision.²THACKERAY.²WHITTIER.²RUSKIN. of different persons. as. General usage. 443. "You would not be wiser.²ROWE. 444.²D.²DE QUINCEY. for example.²THACKERAY. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. but thou. "He or I can go.). hadst been my lord. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. Pattison or I have said.²LOWELL. Not Altamont. nor should I. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as.²M." etc.

Neither of their counselors were to be present.²BURKE. Exercise.²BYRON. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. Also in verbals. Both death and I am found eternal. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. as illustrated above (Secs. 8. 2. 9. nor tree. Nor wood. How each of these professions are crowded.² TROLLOPE.²ADDISON. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. BANCROFT. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. 3. In a word. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Neither of them. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. The following illustrate exceptional usage.Her course to intercept. 4.²ID. nor bush are there.²G. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb.That neither of their intellects are vast. 446. In this sentence from Defoe.²SMOLLETT. in my opinion.445.²ADDISON. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . which it is proper to mention. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan.²MILTON.²EMERSON. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). 5. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. 12. 6. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage.²perhaps the devil." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. 11. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. In the following sentence. 7.²THACKERAY. 440-444):² 1. as we would hope. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. 10. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc.²and.²SCOTT. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie.

²MACAULAY.²THACKERAY.²DE QUINCEY 2. change them to a better form:² 1. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. 3. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² .. Definitions. Two samples of indirect discourse.² PALGRAVE 5. Indirect discourse means reported speech.²KINGSLEY. Of course. CHURCH. 447. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. as." .² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas.²FRANKLIN 6. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. It should be remarked. W.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. if not. to have seen should be changed to to see. for exact connection. meaning..²R. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. Direct discourse²that is. But I found I wanted a stock of words. 448. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. The present rule is recent. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. however. 4. Exercise. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. I gave one quarter to Ann. on my return.²IRVING. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. to have divided with her whatever might remain.

449. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. and the indirect question by whether or if. Direct. etc. under interrogative pronouns. will. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. His exact words were. Oh. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. 2. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. Summary of the expressions. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words.. "Oh. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. Direct. This includes the auxiliaries be.. interrogative adverbs." etc. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. introductory verb is in the past tense. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. Sebastian's. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat." etc. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis.. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. 1. The substance of his lamentation was.. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. . Her prudence whispered eternally. "I cannot oblige you . or regular interrogatives. She thought to herself." Indirect. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. have.

FRANKLIN. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. my first observation will be found nearly true.Exercise. The trouble is. the sound of their balls.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. the first discoverer of the river and country. 450. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. with his crew of the Half-moon. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book.²ADDISON. . Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. in the sentences first quoted. PARTICIPLES. VERBALS. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. like distant peals of thunder. and that he himself had heard.²B. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress.²ID." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly.²GOLDSMITH. Careless use of the participial phrase. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. one summer afternoon. handed down from his ancestor the historian." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. Notice this. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. if this were expanded into a verb. he assured me that nothing was more easy.

than to first imperfectly conceive such idea.. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. 2. . many things to be carefully considered. In the following citations. purposely or not. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. universal assertion. This is the more common arrangement. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. while defended or excused by others. avoid it. Exercise. leaving the principal statement as it is. There are. For example. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects.²LAUGHLIN." Exercise.²SCOTT. my first collection was.. Adverb between to and the infinitive. Consequently one of two courses must be taken.² HERBERT SPENCER. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself." etc.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. ..²ID. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. and often.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . The practice is condemned by many grammarians.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. 3. then.²RUSKIN. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. It is a solemn.. if a strike is to succeed. INFINITIVES.Correction. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. Standard writers often use it.. the first sentence would be. either "As I was pleased. 451.

BLAIR. 8. etc. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. etc.4.²BURKE.²RUSKIN. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. Now. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel.²TROLLOPE. 5. are used. is to be very cautiously admitted. 13. if they modify single words. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. 452.² ADDISON. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. but they are often removed from the exact position. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. when such adverbs as only. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. etc. this kind of grandeur. 10. No. Position of only. even. A little sketch of his. 11. Exercise. 6. I wish the reader to clearly understand. and earthenware. The spirits. but it is placed before the infinitive.²DR. 7.²GOLDSMITH. therefore. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position.²The Nation. The rigid rule in such a case would be. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks.²SCOTT.. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. even. ADVERBS. which consists in multitude. 1533..²ID. In works of art. 9. but cannot misunderstand the thought. china. from Irving. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks.² MACAULAY. 12. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² .

GROTE. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard.²MRS. whence he was never destined to return. His last journey to Cannes. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam.²ID. to avoid a crowd.²EMERSON. 7.²SWIFT. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. No sonne. 16. 8.²SYDNEY SMITH.²COOPER. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius.²RUSKIN. 6.²CHAUCER.²ID. 2. might not marry.²MACAULAY. My master. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once.²N.² THACKERAY. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. 14. He shouted in those clear. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death.²HIGGINSON.²PALGRAVE. 4. In Old and Middle English. 3. 10. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. In relating these and the following laws.1. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. 5. He could only afford to keep one old horse.²MOTLEY. The old usage. 11. for example. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. 13.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. 17. Irving could only live very modestly. . I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. ²ASCHAM. During the whole course of his administration.²ID. 12. 15. WILLIS. were he never so old of yeares.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. 9. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays.²THACKERAY. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. 453. P.

²MRS. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. the usual way of regarding the question now is. But. The prosperity of no empire.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. ²PAGE. Not only could man not acquire such information.²DE QUINCEY. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. There weren't no pies to equal hers.²BAYNE.²HAWTHORNE. 2. 3. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. neither. 7. Regular law of negative in modern English. is not common. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. however. . I did not act so hastily. Exercise. who hadn't been to school for nothing.²BURKE. etc. Therefore. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. uncommon. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect.²GROTE. can so agreeably affect. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness.² HAMILTON.²DEFOE. However. but ought not to labor after it. under the influence of Latin syntax."²four negatives. in Ole Virginia. as. and why:² 1. This. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. nor never shall. one of the negatives is often a prefix. STOWE. nor the grandeur of no king. Exceptional use. as infrequent.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. 5."²MRS. 6. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. denying each other. In the execution of this task. and is still kept in vulgar English. In the latter case.²HOLMES. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities.²LOWELL. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. I never did see him again. if two negatives are found together. 4. STOWE. when one of the negatives is a connective.

not merely . not only . but to their own safety. and. and which. the first ought to be placed before a verb.... or. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not .. or. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. In the sentence.." said the King. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here.. or to reply to it. The sentence. nor is often changed to not²either . either. if the second precedes a phrase. as the use of the conjunction." may be changed to "This loose . 454. neither .. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs.. not only to the success of their common cause.. as well as of the pronoun. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. even neither . Things to be watched. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever..8. the first should also. And who. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. or with advantage. there we were. nor.. either . a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind.²LOWELL.."²SCOTT.. not or is the proper correlative of neither.. Correction. "A weapon.. The sentences given in Secs.. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. Choice and proper position of correlatives. especially both . and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. 455." . if the last precedes a verb.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. or to reply to it.. but (also).. should be scrutinized. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. "well worthy to confer honor.²SCOTT.. but. CONJUNCTIONS. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical.²PRESCOTT." both of the above requirements are violated.. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives." Besides neither . The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace.

Correct the following sentences:² 1. JEWETT. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. Some exceptions. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. Now. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. but. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. substitute that. 6. But what.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. 4. but.²RUSKIN.²GIBBON. and chop up their own kin. In the following sentences. 2. 8. not merely interest children. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. or but that for the words but what:² 1. murder.²S. 457. 5. too. but they will outrage. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity.²MACAULAY. or but that.²BAIN.²THACKERAY. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. .²ID.Exercise. Try and avoid the pronoun.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW.²FRANKLIN. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. 456. O.²THACKERAY. Try and for try to." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. 3. They will. as. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. 7. and I don't know but what he was right. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. or the negative relative but.²GOLDSMITH. etc. but grown-up persons. nor the disgrace of assailing him. as. Exercise.² ADDISON.

Between is used most often with two things only. as already seen in Sec. 4. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. 313. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate.² BULWER. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. 6.²EMERSON. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. 459. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised.2.² SWIFT. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth.²ADDISON. Between and among. . The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. 458.²SCOTT.²TROLLOPE. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning).²ADDISON. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. no separation or division by twos being implied. 3. PREPOSITIONS.²BURKE. see Sec. 5. 305. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science.²EMERSON.

by custom. Derogatory to.²between philosophers like Spinoza. 461. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Conversant with. averse. or one object and a group. a soldier of the Cross. and Stewart. Dependent on (upon). confer. LIST I. ²EMERSON. and another to convey a different meaning. Different from. different. Paley. correspond.: Words with particular prepositions. and Coleridge. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Accord with. Conform to. Some of them have.²RUSKIN What have I. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Two groups or one and a group. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Such are derogatory. 460. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. . and philosophers like Locke. Kant. Abhorrent to. Dissent from.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Comply with. etc. Acquit of. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. involve. as. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. List I. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. as.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Mackintosh. Bestow on (upon). Affinity between. Such are absolve. Averse to.²KINGSLEY.

Independent of. LIST III. Change to (become). "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. in the sense of making friends with. A taste for (art. Change with (a person). "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Confer on (upon) (give to). Reconcile with (note below). as. as meaning to be in keeping with. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. A taste of (food)." List III. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to.y y y Deprive of. "The exile became reconciled to his fate.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. Change for (a thing). as. Confide in (trust in). LIST II. but it is not good usage. Agree to (a proposal). . "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. and sometimes creeps into standard books. etc. Differ with (note below). Reconcile to (note below). Disappointed in (a thing obtained).). List II. Confer with (talk with)." also of persons. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). as." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. Correspond to (a thing). "The king is reconciled to his minister. Differ from (note below). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). 462. 463. Confide to (intrust to).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Involve in. Correspond with (write to).

²MACAULAY. ²ATHENÆUM. She died of hard work. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. Expect of. Illustrations of "die of. One of them said he would die for her.²MACAULAY. instrument). die from. Who. Take thought and die for Cæsar. Part from. ELIOT.:² "Die of.²BULWER. It is a man of quality who dies for her. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. People do not die of trifling little colds.²GOLDSMITH.²G.²SCOTT.²ADDISON.²BOSWELL." (material cause." (in behalf of). "Die from.²GOLDSMITH.²MACAULAY. It would take me long to die of hunger. die for. ²THACKERAY. ELIOT. die with." The author died of a fit of apoplexy." She would have been ready to die with shame.²FIELDING. "Die with. He died at last without disease." "die from. died for love of the fair Marcella. privation. "Die for. part with. .²POPE. as Cervantes informs us.²BURNETT. "Die by. they shall die by this hand.²SHAKESPEARE. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. and ill treatment." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. "Die for." etc. No one died from want at Longfeld. expect from.y y y Die by.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. If I meet with any of 'em." (because of).²G. I am positively dying with hunger. die of.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. simply from old age.

" "expect from:"² "Expect of. ELIOT.²WALPOLE. just parted from her. His precious bag.²BULWER.²MACAULAY.²TROLLOPE. I part with all that grew so near my heart. That is more than I expected of you. Illustrations of "part with.²AUSTEN. as my friend. Kind in you.²G. "Part from. 464. I can part with my children for their good." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things.²MARRYAT. It was a little bad of you. I have just seen her. kind of you. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. which he would by no means part from.²POE. 465.²MACAULAY." To part from you would be misery.²G. ELIOT. Illustrations of "expect of.²DICKENS. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. "Expect from. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. ELIOT.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. I have long expected something remarkable from you. . Of Doctor P.²G. nothing better was to be expected. and hated to part with them.²SHAW. either of or in is used indifferently.²WALLER. Burke parted from him with deep emotion." She will expect more attention from you.²SCOTT. With words implying behavior or disposition. as shown in the following quotations:² Of.²BULWER. 466." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH." "part from:"² "Part with. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general.

²DICKENS. thunder. . 15. but which the story renders necessary. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. 1. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. or artillery. This narrative. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. 10. In the friction between an employer and workman. 3. and ran up the alley. tedious perhaps. or that they are any way dependent on each other. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. 7. Hampden. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. 5. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. nor of a pale red. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. Very natural in Mr.²BULWER.He did not think it handsome of you. thrown it over Amyas's head. It will be anything but shrewd in you. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. nor yellow. nor blue. But this is idle of you. or which we are most imperatively required to do. 4. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. with seraphims.²BULWER. 11. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. raging storms.²BEACONSFIELD. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. 13.²TENNYSON.²CARLYLE. In. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. 6. 14. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. Thou tread'st. nor green. 8. The noise of vast cataracts. 9. it is commonly said that his profits are high. the vast abyss.

These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. you or me. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. Every one of these letters are in my name. 21. 26. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. were down with raging fever. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 23. 19. (Sec. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. . We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. Squares. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach.I would wish me only he. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. Friday. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. 33. but in the price paid to them. When the glass or liquor are transparent. 27. and most of us do know. 38. 31. 20.And were I anything but what I am. 16. and other angular figures. or how beautiful it is. 37. and almost as good as a pony.) 34. 18. what is a just and unjust act. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. 32. The effect of proportion and fitness. 36. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. 411. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 28. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. save Amyas. 24. 17. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. produce approbation. You have seen Cassio and she together. the acquiescence of the understanding. But every man may know. 30. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. 35. 29. 22. 25. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. That night every man of the boat's crew. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. triangles. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves.

FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. as. Abstract with Active Address. (2) Middle English. nouns. 124. 90. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 260. . and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. 91. of. origin of. 133. of. 92. of. 239. from about 1500 to the present time. A.000 between them. 25. 47. nominative. from nominative clauses. as comparison definition demonstrative. 20. demonstrative. 107. 102.39. 119. 124. of. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. syntax uses Absolute. voice. adverbs used complements. numeral. 98. Adjectives. 40. INDEX. 116. pronouns. (3) Modern English. 47. 89. He had four children. of. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. adjectives. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 310. article. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century.

262. 328. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 48. of. 325. 103. to used of. 27. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 99. of. 184. Against. 239. adjectives. 114. 115. 194. from to of. 97. nouns. of. 104. antecedent. clauses. 302. 116. antecedent. 190. nouns. of. of. as nouns. 287. of. 195. 323. 190. 291. 187. parse. with with with subject. 109.from function how in not of of ordinal. modify. objective. adjectives. . 101. 316. 183. of. Alms. 303. predicate. sentence. 116. Agreement. 106. 27. 325. 42. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. form as as they to in as uses uses of. quality. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. adjectives. 148. infinitive. quantity. compared. parse. 275. plural pronominal. 194. conjunction. between of. conjunctions. 242. 207. and 185. 207. 303. 191.

of. 296. 294. derivation in definite. 300. sentences. as uses verbs. syntax. 231. 275. pronouns. 309. after of. which. 120. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. possessive. parse. . 207. definition of of of Any. 67. uses As At. same.Among. 252. and. syntax As. sentences. 264. definition how indefinite. 124. it. 84. Agreement. 74. 51. 295. sentences. in in. of. An. 47. adjective. 331. of. agreement personal as pronoun. which. 271. 148. of and pronoun of. Auxiliary if. A. though. Arrangement Articles. 101. which. of. 120. of of of And Antecedent. 79. 127. 208. 198. 67. 150. 287. See with definition complex compound simple who. See 74. Anacoluthon Analysis. 90. 240. Are. 225. of. 49. words between. to of.

45. Children. uses nominative of. Case. Can. Cause. objective. of nouns. 150. 195. Brethren. 37. in Old and Modern English. of pronouns. double possessive. 262. 54. But. 330. uses of. 279. 64. 210. of. 110. Case.Bad. Between. 48. Clause. 194. 46. 39. 66. with But By. conjunctions Cherub. . 262. 84. 47. Be. See of. 62. best. 283. of pronouns. 149. 161. possessive. 224. of. 260. 278. of pronouns. of nouns. 39. 278. nominative. pronoun. 46. of what. 63. of nouns. Bridegroom. uses Better. of nouns. comparison conjugation of. definition could. forms. syntax of. 279. 110. adverb. of. adjective. number of. plurals of. 49. 111. Among. clauses of. of pronouns.

English. defective. 157. 257. 307. 24. double. predicate of and from from of. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 248. 264. nouns. predicate. 189. plural of. 53. Clomb. 18. 307. superlative. of. nouns. 244. 315. Cleave. 271. 257. of. 108. 257. adjectives. 43. subject. 110. material.definition kinds noun. 18. in analysis. 43. Cloths. of. and forms of. 113. 107. 263. of. 12. . 258. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. and sentence. analysis of. of. adverbs. 268. 111. infinitive. clothes. 108. of. of. 239. 158. 312. of. 23. definition degrees irregular. proper. of. sentence. 305. verb. nouns.

151. replaced by objective. interrogative pronouns. Dative Declarative Declension of case. of. Conjunctions. 143. 255.with Concord. definition be. 199. 263. 139. pronoun. analysis. adverbs. of of Conjunctions. See English. 149. to of. in Old vs. 149. pronouns. 195. 193. . 194. sentences. 196. conjunctions. conjunction. of. parse. pronoun. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. sentences. verbs. coördinate. 138. sentence. Agreement. See analysis clauses. other other parts of speech. 66. See in subjunctive. and clause. 231. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 289. 188. definition how subordinate. correlative. 73. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. Can. subjunctive. conjunctions. 194. 328. 207. 195. 194. 269. same words.

303. discourse. Case. 102. Comparative. by. of personal relative verbs. Articles. 160. passive adjectives. of. Subordinate clause. with. See See 48. pronouns. See 148. 35. comparative. vs. of. 90. 242. adverbs See adjectives. See adjectives. nouns. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 315. use of dies. duck. 43. pronouns. 242. . 99. 26. of. indirect. 152. Comparison. 91. 60. 333. 51. pronouns. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. 80. Degrees. object. clause. 300. of. tenses. 320. with of. 102.Declension. verb. 288. possessive. article. 287. for. 185. nouns. pronouns. from. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake.

of subject. original. 51. . in 'Em. of. 194. 241. 112. of. to suffix. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. literary. of. 40. 12. adjective. drunk. one ( t). -En. 280. pronoun. pronoun. 102. 39. 255. adjective. 299. 33. 328. 62. spoken. 240. Each. vulgar. 38. 110. ending. object. 158. 234. the of sentence. of. syntax Each Eat Eaves. added suffix. 32. 287. 92. 158. 92. possessive suffix. 34. feminine plural English. conjunction. of. another. Either. pronouns.Drank. Empress. plural. 90. other. predicate. older. of. error in sentence. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. 300. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 287. suffix. 92. 257. Elements Ellipsis. complement. 90. 42. 33.

Farther. gender. of. 334. 30. two. 308. used of. etc. 112. Gender." 31. 45. 30. the. 48. nouns. Few. Future Future tense. pronoun. from. definition distinguished in English. 212. two a further. Further. 319. 152. See Gander. 287. Feminine. with in sex. plurals. 91. fishes. with infinitive. uses redundant. 238. First Fish.. 147. 189. 102. first. For. From. 212. 32. 36. as a noun. 235. object. of. uses Foreign Former. First. 29. 30. few. other languages. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. modes "common goose. perfect. 43. 112. of. 152. 126. to of. as of from compared marking. 148. 211. have adjective. etc. 102. . adjective. 103. expect gone.. 110.Every.

177. of. kinds of. she. . Gerund. participle. person. possessive pronouns. 43. 60. 13. personal relative geniuses. it. 159.of of Genii. 144. rather. 10. Had Hanged. and case verbal with. definition basis of. His Husband. an better. definition divisions opinions province H. He. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. noun. its. 60. 173. 61. on. 159. 61. of. 9. Got. 80. pronouns. 12. 12. 101. 35. 145. 120. pronoun. 176. 275. distinguished syntax. 285. 36. adjective. of. from participle of. forms in Girl. had hung. for before. 231. 175. Grammar. first sentence. of. Government. I.

of. 72. 178. 283. 110. mood. sentence. See Articles. adverbs. 105. 136. adjectives. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. words. of. 153. 320. 93. a object.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. of. . your. transitive. 131. 73. uses discourse. 227. of. 131. 233. Direct object. 85. 231. verbs. 176. in compared syntax. 188. pronouns. 43. 257. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 323. of clause. indirect of. 276. See you. with of. pronoun. questions. 319. Questions. summary See passive mood. meaning. 245. elements. 67. indices. questions. use article. 248. adjectives.

predicate.. of. King. of. 110. 113. Less. Kind. 36. 170. Latter. Logic Logical Lord. 190. 303. 63." history etc. subject form. Lay. a vs. lie. 91. 67. 276. etc. Lay. Lady. 12. 113. "It Its. queen.adverbs. 61. 189. Kine. lesser. English. syntax the. See Madam. 36. plural. of. syntax. Like. was uses me. and See words in. 39. in little. 126. lord. 281. uses Literary Little. these double kind. pronoun. 110. Last. It. -Ly. latest. 245.. 227. 36. adjective. of. . 226. Lady. Lie. 102.

construction as of adverb. 194. Mighty Mine. 189. Modifiers. 144. 110. double. Negative. out of. of.. 137-144. of. 112. Enlargement. 110. Mood. of. Must. syntax nearer. Means. 325. 187. 256. subjunctive. 328. 64. 189. 287. 113. adjective. superlatives. 326. Neither. 41. might. 112. 112. 36. of. nigh. 114. 265. of. 34. 161. See definition 136. conjunctions Many. imperative. 137. of. comparison Near. etc. of. Much. in adverbs comparison a. 110. indicative. . 185.Manner. position adverb. May. 126. mine. 188. 160. Many Mapping Mare. 195. -Most. mistress. syntax conjunction. 135. sentences. 102. Modifier. Master. of.

Not Noun Nouns. 124. number once other plural. to use. of. 30. definition descriptive. common. material. 258. nouns. 56. of of of of of a. in. 26. 42. gender how kinds material. 300. of. 38. 46. 45. now plural. clause. nouns. abstract. 18.pronoun. used as. 301. of. 25. 20. 21. 17 19. proper. Case. parse. 32. 19. of. 92. etc. to of. analysis. 46. and figures. See 194. gender nouns. Nor. syntax Neuter or two News. of. 41 43. 126. 38-41. . foreign. None. kinds 90. 30. 41. 125. of. class used singular. syntax in gender nouns. of. 246. 30. formed. abstract. 29. 17. 41. definition according of. become neuter. 17. 27. become become formation case collective. words how compound. half abstract. 328. 25. letters as 24. etc. No Nominative.

form. Numeral Object. 106. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 48. Nouns. 39. 282. 242. and analysis. adjectives. 42. 23. as forms titles. 48. dative. English. 42 44. or plural. with case. 60. 279. of. plural no two singular construction. plural. of. 281. 48. 43. 41. in article.. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. 48. in nouns. 92. spoken of instead nouns. pronouns. 42. adjectives. personal. etc. 278. 195. 242. 41. singular. See in in in Numeral distributive. 66. nominative. 278. 124. . with with with Now Number. 196. 41. adverbial. of. 18. of different possessive definite of. verbs. 48. 101. definite. meanings. plural form. become syntax use with with with Nouns. 240. indefinite. preposition. pronouns. passive adverbial.of same two with proper. common. See verb. 235. conjunction. singular. of. 285. 148. 101. 102. indirect. of. 121. of. Preposition. article. meaning.

inverted. Pains. nouns. Ourself. 293. as other. 213. of. 117. 101. ours. of of of of of models adjectives. of syntax. for. part analysis. 237. indefinite possessive One One as Only. Each adjective. with (the). of. of upon. 127. 216. 233. adverb. 91. 161.syntax Of. 116. 38. Oxen. Ordinal Other Ought. 279. uses numeral pronoun. Elder. 306. 87. 103. 191. Older. 64. definite relative uses of. 115. Omission On. 199. treatment comparatives. another. See the as of. 69. adjective. Our. 93 other. See pronoun. 94. a in adjectives. 194. of. 325 275. pronoun. Parsing. 56. 103. One. conjunctions. as of. position Order. 41. . conjunction. 56. articles. adverbs.

61. reflexive. pronouns. possessive and of. pronouns. 247. article 150. of. 62. 322. pennies. 287. 28. 335. in. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 95. verbs. or of. them. of. pronoun. 119. of. 70. 59. 56. of. verb idioms it from. 64. 63. antecedent. 69. verbs. nominative. 80. 179. 317. 62. 43. predicate use of. with. 59. 148. agreement of verb nouns. 134. included various. 181. from definition other of. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. and subject in. used as voice. 172. 43. of. phrase. of. 56. relatives. 177. -ing words. 172. Person. 219. 100. speech. phrases. of. absolute with of. . pease. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. part adjective. 174. 281. not is. 59. verbals. 27.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. 173. Pence. 180. parsed.

omitted. 247. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. Place. Personification. 247. 278. of. 37. 63. 50. nouns. 303. 54. 195. relative. 106. simple. 245. prepositional. 303. English. objects. 53. 's. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 281. 61. 53. double. plural. in of. Comparison. kinds infinitive. or See of of See 185. 41. adjectives. pronoun. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. Positive Possessive. of. conjunctions prepositions Plural. singular degree. of. of. 206. nouns. 67. 64. 281. See 60. of Phrase. 51. 49. 188. noun nouns. 245. . 60. it. 236. syntax of of Politics. 241. Nouns. pronouns. 278. Personal subjective. 232. pronoun. as double. nouns. 285. 52. 25. antecedent of of pronouns. of nouns. complete. vs. participial. of. spoken of. of. appositional. adverbs of. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 236. 248. 235. of.objective syntax table triple uses of. singular. of.

singular usually other. each either. 219. 89. words. 208. Pronouns. 207. for predicate nominative. of. 64. 285. plural. 300. after but. interrogative. plural. 206. of. by with shown certain of. Prepositions. same used as adjectives. 332. 331. case. 301. with tense certain. 287. verbs. 202. of. interrogative. 72. any. as 54. adjective. 58. adverb. 333. 95. by parts of of. 280. meaning. 105. 205. parse. all. future. 203. 187. case. 302.Prefixes. 299. expressed as other of. 195. of. of. 105. possessive nominative to of. neither. parse. 147. 129. somebody definition how indefinite. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. usually to as than. 58. none. exclamatory. 284. 283. objective. by. objective. another. 300. forms of. of. 132. 282. and one with else's. plural. 283. who personal. as antecedent of relative. and form form form form of. as. 279. 281. . of. 203. 59. 32. 104. 303. speech. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 93. what. 186. in exclamations.

69. of. 85. 74. personal pronoun. 295. use in as. 87. 105. 142. 99. with with gerund. 295. See of. of. 263. unrestrictive. 68. of. nouns. Direct same and different. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. of. 286. Quantity. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115.possessive relative. discourse. 195. parse. Nouns. 101. which. 297. indirect. in. 74. 289. of. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. use of history formed. to of. pronominal pronouns indirect. and which. same antecedent. Rank. of. of. Questions. 291. 80. with who. 189. questions. 69. 74. 289. adverbs in. of. that. who. agreement anacoluthon and as. pronoun. 84. 293. Quotations. 279. or of. in. which after same. 58. Rather. of. 83. 85. indirect compound. and antecedent. 296. from and interrogative. conjunctions Quality. 188. 87. and relatives. 293. in. pronouns. .

42. Self Sentences. will. 255. 26 271. Shot. ending. 'S. of. 40. 196. 242. tenses. 252. 159. complex. 159. 231. in form. sentence. Simple in sate. that. 259. effect. Sex Shall. kinds Sequence Set. would. S. 319. 29.syntax use Result. in of. simple. of sit. pronoun. plural possessive as. elliptical. conjunctions Retained Riches. 43. 170. of. gender. Same Sat. suffix. 69. of of of complex Sentences. and should. 231. object. forms shots. 294. 196. 195. conjunction. 162. reflexive analysis of compound. which. clauses of. 74. simple of. 289. 263. who. definition . of. 51. of. See Sentences. Shear. Seeing.

-es. of. of. 258. English. 186. 258. 257. adverb. Somebody Sort. definition how kinds noun. 233. of. names as a. 257. 38. to of. of. these number. 245. of. literary clause. definition 67. 237. 126. 12. etc. as. Subject. 38. 303. distinguish. Spelling Spinster. 144. in Middle English. of. 260. 303. of. 137. 258. sort. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. other Such Such Suffix -s. Split Spoken -Ster. 169.. 257. verbs. 257. English.Singular Sir. English. -en. See -En. in feminine suffix. vs. phonetic in infinitive. 262. 33. 323. English. 36. . 33. Modern use becoming else's. adverb. used mood. 270. 32. for. logical. 245. disuse in spoken complete. 144. 138. 240.

in Modern number sequence table Than That. 275. of. 116. me. objects. 306.. they. There These kind. 107. as history The. 277. degree. 222. in double. in comparison. syntax of. 280. coördinating. restrictive. of languages. when relative. 87. 297. form. 123. than of. of. Then. of . adverbs. 108. 186. of. 148. 189. of. "the then foreign. Tenses." introductory. 33. 275. king. meaning made up in Old of. 307. as adverbs. of. 147. when as of. article. 109. two basis not same definition definite. See etc. plural as adverb. 106. English. meaning. 309. definition in English Tense. 88. 152. 191. Kind. that uses That. omission whom. object.Suffixes. as history syntax Their. 147. 290. 319. of. adjectives. 119. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. 186. of. 61.. . 147. classical of. this. subject. 106. not suggesting adjectives. of.. which. and and of. 120. 306. English. auxiliaries. 289.

Thou.. See That. 176. 322.These. 181. gerund. 217. etc. 175. 33. uses history of. 172. uses of. Try Two Under. certain as the before with of. how infinitive. kinds participle. of. 175. of. thee. 247. . first. infinitive. in omitted uses T'other. of. exclamations. 119. 61. used. 175. analysis. first adjective. tother. 322. Time. in of. infinitive. -Trix. 114. phrases. See On. uttermost. 21. 308. 20. 323. verbs. of. 128. suffix. Upon. Utter. 207. 114. thy. 248. 172. of. adverbs those. 114. of. 195. other noun. parse. carelessly uses syntax this. 185. 330. feminine and. -ing 111. 188. preposition. 173. words. 180. Upper. try two. of. conjunctions prepositions To. to. from cleft to 174. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals.

Vocative in Voice. 151. 160. conjugation of. past tense formed nominative. 148. 154. 33. 133. in indirect discourse. 169. formed by. but uses what. regular. how to parse. of incomplete predication. defective. 147. 12. verbs. 157. 39. 245. of English. 319. retained object with passive. strong. 312. passive form. active meaning. person and number of. auxiliary. 236. 167. definition of. 312-316. 169. with subject in number. spelling of. 129. 179. . intransitive. made transitive. verbs by. definition of. remarks on certain. agreement of. What. table of irregular. 154. becoming irregular. table of. 134. syntax of. 154. passive. 330. 167. change. 130.Verbs. phonetic. voice of. definition of. of. 149. 155. 133. weak. sequence of. of. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. 47. 223. active. in person. 135. Vixen. tense of. 320. 148. analysis. 317. 159. transitive and intransitive. 150. 242. 131. mood of.

296. English. questions. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 299.what Whereby. 85. whereto. 190. relative indirect relative. 178. 72. Witch. pronoun. referring syntax Widower. animals. Wife. 32. in. 83. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 105. 105. Yes ending analysis. relative. 73. 104. questions. would. 85. 295-299. of. questions. 78. 79. in -ly. uses See Shall. of. plural of in nouns -ing. 37. 75. questions. 40. . 111. 83. 246. 72. wizard. Will. 85. in in indefinite objective. Who. conjunction. antecedent adjective. Whether. 77. spoken in of. 218. interrogative Which. a. Woman. relative. direct of. 36. Y. 126. With. 36. 75.. 194. Words in Worse. etc. worser. 72. pronoun.

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