1

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Historical Evolution of Production and
Operations Management
1.3 Concept of Production
1.4 Production System
1.5 Production Management
1.6 Operating System
INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION
AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT
1
1.7 Operations Management
1.8 Managing Global Operations
1.9 Scope of Production and Operations
Management
• Exercises
• Skill Development
• Caselet
C HAPTER O UTLINE
1.1 I NTRO DUC TI O N
Production/operations management is the process, which combines and transforms various
resources used in the production/operations subsystem of the organization into value added
product/services in a controlled manner as per the policies of the organization. Therefore, it is
that part of an organization, which is concerned with the transformation of a range of inputs into
the required (products/services) having the requisite quality level.
The set of interrelated management activities, which are involved in manufacturing certain
products, is called as production management. If the same concept is extended to services
management, then the corresponding set of management activities is called as operations
management.
1.2 HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
For over two centuries operations and production management has been recognised as an
important factor in a country’s economic growth.
2 PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
The traditional view of manufacturing management began in eighteenth century when Adam
Smith recognised the economic benefits of specialisation of labour. He recommended breaking
of jobs down into subtasks and recognises workers to specialised tasks in which they would
become highly skilled and efficient. In the early twentieth century, F.W. Taylor implemented
Smith’s theories and developed scientific management. From then till 1930, many techniques
were developed prevailing the traditional view. Brief information about the contributions to
manufacturing management is shown in the Table 1.1.
TABLE 1.1 Historical summary of operations management
Date Contribution Contributor
1776 Specialization of labour in manufacturing Adam Smith
1799 Interchangeable parts, cost accounting Eli Whitney and others
1832 Division of labour by skill; assignment of jobs by skill;
basics of time study Charles Babbage
1900 Scientific management time study and work study
developed; dividing planning and doing of work Frederick W. Taylor
1900 Motion of study of jobs Frank B. Gilbreth
1901 Scheduling techniques for employees, machines jobs in
manufacturing Henry L. Gantt
1915 Economic lot sizes for inventory control F.W. Harris
1927 Human relations; the Hawthorne studies Elton Mayo
1931 Statistical inference applied to product quality: quality
control charts W.A. Shewart
1935 Statistical sampling applied to quality control: inspection
sampling plans H.F. Dodge & H.G. Roming
1940 Operations research applications in World War II P.M. Blacker and others.
1946 Digital computer John Mauchlly and
J.P. Eckert
1947 Linear programming G.B. Dantzig, Williams &
others
1950 Mathematical programming, on-linear and stochastic A. Charnes, W.W. Cooper
processes & others
1951 Commercial digital computer: large-scale computations
available. Sperry Univac
1960 Organizational behaviour: continued study of people
at work L. Cummings, L. Porter
1970 Integrating operations into overall strategy and policy, W. Skinner J. Orlicky and
Computer applications to manufacturing, Scheduling G. Wright
and control, Material requirement planning (MRP)
1980 Quality and productivity applications from Japan: W.E. Deming and
robotics, CAD-CAM J. Juran.
Production management becomes the acceptable term from 1930s to 1950s. As
F.W. Taylor’s works become more widely known, managers developed techniques that focussed
on economic efficiency in manufacturing. Workers were studied in great detail to eliminate
wasteful efforts and achieve greater efficiency. At the same time, psychologists, socialists and
INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT 3
other social scientists began to study people and human behaviour in the working environment.
In addition, economists, mathematicians, and computer socialists contributed newer, more
sophisticated analytical approaches.
With the 1970s emerges two distinct changes in our views. The most obvious of these,
reflected in the new name operations management was a shift in the service and manufacturing
sectors of the economy. As service sector became more prominent, the change from ‘production’
to ‘operations’ emphasized the broadening of our field to service organizations. The second, more
suitable change was the beginning of an emphasis on synthesis, rather than just analysis, in
management practices.
1.3 C O NC EPT O F PRO DUC TIO N
Production function is that part of an organization, which is concerned with the transformation
of a range of inputs into the required outputs (products) having the requisite quality level.
Production is defined as “the step-by-step conversion of one form of material into
another form through chemical or mechanical process to create or enhance the utility of
the product to the user.” Thus production is a value addition process. At each stage of
processing, there will be value addition.
Edwood Buffa defines production as ‘a process by which goods and services are created’.
Some examples of production are: manufacturing custom-made products like, boilers with a
specific capacity, constructing flats, some structural fabrication works for selected customers,
etc., and manufacturing standardized products like, car, bus, motor cycle, radio, television, etc.
Fig. 1.1 Schematic production system
1.4 PRO DUC TIO N SYSTEM
The production system of an organization is that part, which produces products of an organization.
It is that activity whereby resources, flowing within a defined system, are combined and transformed
in a controlled manner to add value in accordance with the policies communicated by management.
A simplified production system is shown above.
4 PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
The production system has the following characteristics:
1. Production is an organized activity, so every production system has an objective.
2. The system transforms the various inputs to useful outputs.
3. It does not operate in isolation from the other organization system.
4. There exists a feedback about the activities, which is essential to control and improve
system performance.
1.4.1 C la ssific a tion of Prod uc tion Syste m
Production systems can be classified as Job Shop, Batch, Mass and Continuous Production
systems.
Fig. 1.2 Classification of production systems
JOB SHOP PRODUCTION
Job shop production are characterised by manufacturing of one or few quantity of products
designed and produced as per the specification of customers within prefixed time and cost. The
distinguishing feature of this is low volume and high variety of products.
A job shop comprises of general purpose machines arranged into different departments.
Each job demands unique technological requirements, demands processing on machines in a
certain sequence.
Characteristics
The Job-shop production system is followed when there is:
1. High variety of products and low volume.
2. Use of general purpose machines and facilities.
3. Highly skilled operators who can take up each job as a challenge because of uniqueness.
4. Large inventory of materials, tools, parts.
5. Detailed planning is essential for sequencing the requirements of each product, capacities
for each work centre and order priorities.
INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT 5
Advantages
Following are the advantages of job shop production:
1. Because of general purpose machines and facilities variety of products can be produced.
2. Operators will become more skilled and competent, as each job gives them learning
opportunities.
3. Full potential of operators can be utilised.
4. Opportunity exists for creative methods and innovative ideas.
Limitations
Following are the limitations of job shop production:
1. Higher cost due to frequent set up changes.
2. Higher level of inventory at all levels and hence higher inventory cost.
3. Production planning is complicated.
4. Larger space requirements.
BATCH PRODUCTION
Batch production is defined by American Production and Inventory Control Society (APICS) “as
a form of manufacturing in which the job passes through the functional departments in lots
or batches and each lot may have a different routing.” It is characterised by the manufacture
of limited number of products produced at regular intervals and stocked awaiting sales.
Characteristics
Batch production system is used under the following circumstances:
1. When there is shorter production runs.
2. When plant and machinery are flexible.
3. When plant and machinery set up is used for the production of item in a batch and
change of set up is required for processing the next batch.
4. When manufacturing lead time and cost are lower as compared to job order production.
Advantages
Following are the advantages of batch production:
1. Better utilisation of plant and machinery.
2. Promotes functional specialisation.
3. Cost per unit is lower as compared to job order production.
4. Lower investment in plant and machinery.
5. Flexibility to accommodate and process number of products.
6. Job satisfaction exists for operators.
Limitations
Following are the limitations of batch production:
1. Material handling is complex because of irregular and longer flows.
2. Production planning and control is complex.
6 PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
3. Work in process inventory is higher compared to continuous production.
4. Higher set up costs due to frequent changes in set up.
MASS PRODUCTION
Manufacture of discrete parts or assemblies using a continuous process are called mass production.
This production system is justified by very large volume of production. The machines are arranged
in a line or product layout. Product and process standardisation exists and all outputs follow the
same path.
Characteristics
Mass production is used under the following circumstances:
1. Standardisation of product and process sequence.
2. Dedicated special purpose machines having higher production capacities and output rates.
3. Large volume of products.
4. Shorter cycle time of production.
5. Lower in process inventory.
6. Perfectly balanced production lines.
7. Flow of materials, components and parts is continuous and without any back tracking.
8. Production planning and control is easy.
9. Material handling can be completely automatic.
Advantages
Following are the advantages of mass production:
1. Higher rate of production with reduced cycle time.
2. Higher capacity utilisation due to line balancing.
3. Less skilled operators are required.
4. Low process inventory.
5. Manufacturing cost per unit is low.
Limitations
Following are the limitations of mass production:
1. Breakdown of one machine will stop an entire production line.
2. Line layout needs major change with the changes in the product design.
3. High investment in production facilities.
4. The cycle time is determined by the slowest operation.
CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION
Production facilities are arranged as per the sequence of production operations from the first
operations to the finished product. The items are made to flow through the sequence of operations
through material handling devices such as conveyors, transfer devices, etc.
Characteristics
Continuous production is used under the following circumstances:
1. Dedicated plant and equipment with zero flexibility.
INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT 7
2. Material handling is fully automated.
3. Process follows a predetermined sequence of operations.
4. Component materials cannot be readily identified with final product.
5. Planning and scheduling is a routine action.
Advantages
Following are the advantages of continuous production:
1. Standardisation of product and process sequence.
2. Higher rate of production with reduced cycle time.
3. Higher capacity utilisation due to line balancing.
4. Manpower is not required for material handling as it is completely automatic.
5. Person with limited skills can be used on the production line.
6. Unit cost is lower due to high volume of production.
Limitations
Following are the limitations of continuous production:
1. Flexibility to accommodate and process number of products does not exist.
2. Very high investment for setting flow lines.
3. Product differentiation is limited.
1.5 PRO DUC TIO N M ANAG EM ENT
Production management is a process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling the activities
of the production function. It combines and transforms various resources used in the production
subsystem of the organization into value added product in a controlled manner as per the policies
of the organization.
E.S. Buffa defines production management as, “Production management deals with
decision making related to production processes so that the resulting goods or services are
produced according to specifications, in the amount and by the schedule demanded and
out of minimum cost.”
1.5.1 O b je c tive s of Prod uc tion M a na g e me nt
The objective of the production management is ‘to produce goods services of right quality and
quantity at the right time and right manufacturing cost’.
1. RIGHT QUALITY
The quality of product is established based upon the customers needs. The right quality is not
necessarily best quality. It is determined by the cost of the product and the technical characteristics
as suited to the specific requirements.
2. RIGHT QUANTITY
The manufacturing organization should produce the products in right number. If they are produced
in excess of demand the capital will block up in the form of inventory and if the quantity is
produced in short of demand, leads to shortage of products.
8 PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
3. RIGHT TIME
Timeliness of delivery is one of the important parameter to judge the effectiveness of production
department. So, the production department has to make the optimal utilization of input resources
to achieve its objective.
4. RIGHT MANUFACTURING COST
Manufacturing costs are established before the product is actually manufactured. Hence, all
attempts should be made to produce the products at pre-established cost, so as to reduce the
variation between actual and the standard (pre-established) cost.
1.6 O PERATING SYSTEM
Operating system converts inputs in order to provide outputs which are required by a customer.
It converts physical resources into outputs, the function of which is to satisfy customer wants i.e.,
to provide some utility for the customer. In some of the organization the product is a physical
good (hotels) while in others it is a service (hospitals). Bus and taxi services, tailors, hospital and
builders are the examples of an operating system.
Everett E. Adam & Ronald J. Ebert define operating system as, “An operating system
( function) of an organization is the part of an organization that produces the organization’s
physical goods and services.”
Ray Wild defines operating system as, “An operating system is a configuration of resources
combined for the provision of goods or services.”
1.6.1 C onc e p t of O p e ra tions
An operation is defined in terms of the mission it serves for the organization, technology it employs
and the human and managerial processes it involves. Operations in an organization can be categorised
into manufacturing operations and service operations. Manufacturing operations is a conversion
process that includes manufacturing yields a tangible output: a product, whereas, a conversion process
that includes service yields an intangible output: a deed, a performance, an effort.
1.6.2 Distinc tion be twe e n Ma nufa c turing Ope ra tions a nd Se rvic e Ope ra tions
Following characteristics can be considered for distinguishing manufacturing operations with
service operations:
1. Tangible/Intangible nature of output
2. Consumption of output
3. Nature of work (job)
4. Degree of customer contact
5. Customer participation in conversion
6. Measurement of performance.
Manufacturing is characterised by tangible outputs (products), outputs that customers consume
overtime, jobs that use less labour and more equipment, little customer contact, no customer
participation in the conversion process (in production), and sophisticated methods for measuring
production activities and resource consumption as product are made.
INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT 9
Service is characterised by intangible outputs, outputs that customers consumes immediately,
jobs that use more labour and less equipment, direct consumer contact, frequent customer
participation in the conversion process, and elementary methods for measuring conversion activities
and resource consumption. Some services are equipment based namely rail-road services, telephone
services and some are people based namely tax consultant services, hair styling.
1.7 O PERATIO NS M ANAG EM ENT
1.7.1 A Fra me work for M a na g ing O p e ra tions
Managing operations can be enclosed in a frame of general management function as shown in
Fig. 1.3. Operation managers are concerned with planning, organizing, and controlling the activities
which affect human behaviour through models.
PLANNING
Activities that establishes a course of action and guide future decision-making is planning.
The operations manager defines the objectives for the operations subsystem of the organization,
and the policies, and procedures for achieving the objectives. This stage includes clarifying the
role and focus of operations in the organization’s overall strategy. It also involves product
planning, facility designing and using the conversion process.
ORGANIZING
Activities that establishes a structure of tasks and authority. Operation managers establish a
structure of roles and the flow of information within the operations subsystem. They determine
the activities required to achieve the goals and assign authority and responsibility for carrying
them out.
CONTROLLING
Activities that assure the actual performance in accordance with planned performance. To
ensure that the plans for the operations subsystems are accomplished, the operations manager
must exercise control by measuring actual outputs and comparing them to planned operations
management. Controlling costs, quality, and schedules are the important functions here.
BEHAVIOUR
Operation managers are concerned with how their efforts to plan, organize, and control affect
human behaviour. They also want to know how the behaviour of subordinates can affect
management’s planning, organizing, and controlling actions. Their interest lies in decision-making
behaviour.
MODELS
As operation managers plan, organise, and control the conversion process, they encounter many
problems and must make many decisions. They can simplify their difficulties using models like
aggregate planning models for examining how best to use existing capacity in short-term,
break even analysis to identify break even volumes, linear programming and computer
simulation for capacity utilisation, decision tree analysis for long-term capacity problem of
facility expansion, simple median model for determining best locations of facilities etc.
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Fig. 1.3 General model for managing operations
INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT 11
1.7.2 O b je c tive s of O p e ra tions M a na g e me nt
Objectives of operations management can be categorised into customer service and resource
utilisation.
CUSTOMER SERVICE
The first objective of operating systems is the customer serivce to the satisfaction of customer
wants. Therefore, customer service is a key objective of operations management. The operating
system must provide something to a specification which can satisfy the customer in terms of cost
and timing. Thus, primary objective can be satisfied by providing the ‘right thing at a right price
at the right time’.
These aspects of customer service—specification, cost and timing—are described for four
functions in Table 1.2. They are the principal sources of customer satisfaction and must, therefore,
be the principal dimension of the customer service objective for operations managers.
TABLE 1.2 Aspects of customer service
Principal Principal customer wants
function Primary considerations Other considerations
Manufacture Goods of a given, requested or Cost, i.e., purchase price or cost of obtaining
goods.
acceptable specification Timing, i.e., delivery delay from order or request
to receipt of goods.
Transport Management of a given, requested Cost, i.e., cost of movements. Timing, i.e.,
or acceptable specification 1. Duration or time to move.
2. Wait or delay from requesting to its commen-
cement.
Supply Goods of a given, requested or Cost, i.e., purchase price or cost of obtaining
acceptable specification goods.
Timing, i.e., delivery delay from order or request
to receipt of goods.
Service Treatment of a given, requested or Cost, i.e., cost of movements.
acceptable specification Timing, i.e.,
1. Duration or time required for treatment.
2. Wait or delay from requesting treatment to
its commencement.
Generally an organization will aim reliably and consistently to achieve certain standards and
operations manager will be influential in attempting to achieve these standards. Hence, this
objective will influence the operations manager’s decisions to achieve the required customer
service.
RESOURCE UTILISATION
Another major objective of operating systems is to utilise resources for the satisfaction of
customer wants effectively, i.e., customer service must be provided with the achievement of
12 PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
effective operations through efficient use of resources. Inefficient use of resources or inadequate
customer service leads to commercial failure of an operating system.
Operations management is concerned essentially with the utilisation of resources, i.e., obtaining
maximum effect from resources or minimising their loss, under utilisation or waste. The extent
of the utilisation of the resources’ potential might be expressed in terms of the proportion of
available time used or occupied, space utilisation, levels of activity, etc. Each measure indicates
the extent to which the potential or capacity of such resources is utilised. This is referred as the
objective of resource utilisation.
Operations management is also concerned with the achievement of both satisfactory customer
service and resource utilisation. An improvement in one will often give rise to deterioration in the
other. Often both cannot be maximised, and hence a satisfactory performance must be achieved
on both objectives. All the activities of operations management must be tackled with these two
objectives in mind, and many of the problems will be faced by operations managers because of
this conflict. Hence, operations managers must attempt to balance these basic objectives.
Table 1.3 summarises the twin objectives of operations management. The type of balance
established both between and within these basic objectives will be influenced by market
considerations, competitions, the strengths and weaknesses of the organization, etc. Hence, the
operations managers should make a contribution when these objectives are set.
TABLE 1.3 The twin objectives of operations management
1.8 M ANAG ING G LO BAL O PERATIO NS
The term ‘globalization’ describes businesses’ deployment of facilities and operations around the
world. Globalization can be defined as a process in which geographic distance becomes a factor
of diminishing importance in the establishment and maintenance of cross border economic, political
and socio-cultural relations. It can also be defined as worldwide drive toward a globalized
economic system dominated by supranational corporate trade and banking institutions that are not
accountable to democratic processes or national governments.
There are four developments, which have spurred the trend toward globalization. These are:
1. Improved transportation and communication technologies;
2. Opened financial systems;
3. Increased demand for imports; and
4. Reduced import quotas and other trade barriers.
When a firm sets up facilities abroad it involve some added complexities in its operation.
Global markets impose new standards on quality and time. Managers should not think about
domestic markets first and then global markets later, rather it could be think globally and act
The customer service objective.
To provide agreed/adequate levels of customer
service (and hence customer satisfaction) by
providing goods or services with the right
specification, at the right cost and at the right time.
The resource utilisation objective. To achieve
adequate levels of resource utilisation (or
productivity) e.g., to achieve agreed levels of
utilisation of materials, machines and labour.
INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT 13
locally. Also, they must have a good understanding of their competitors. Some other important
challenges of managing multinational operations include other languages and customs, different
management style, unfamiliar laws and regulations, and different costs.
Managing global operations would focus on the following key issues:
l To acquire and properly utilize the following concepts and those related to global operations,
supply chain, logistics, etc.
l To associate global historical events to key drivers in global operations from different
perspectives.
l To develop criteria for conceptualization and evaluation of different global operations.
l To associate success and failure cases of global operations to political, social, economical
and technological environments.
l To envision trends in global operations.
l To develop an understanding of the world vision regardless of their country of origin,
residence or studies in a respectful way of perspectives of people from different races,
studies, preferences, religion, politic affiliation, place of origin, etc.
1.9 SC O PE O F PRO DUC TIO N AND O PERATIO NS M ANAG EM ENT
Production and operations management concern with the conversion of inputs into outputs, using
physical resources, so as to provide the desired utilities to the customer while meeting the other
organizational objectives of effectiveness, efficiency and adoptability. It distinguishes itself from
other functions such as personnel, marketing, finance, etc., by its primary concern for ‘conversion
by using physical resources.’ Following are the activities which are listed under production and
operations management functions:
1. Location of facilities
2. Plant layouts and material handling
3. Product design
4. Process design
5. Production and planning control
6. Quality control
7. Materials management
8. Maintenance management.
LOCATION OF FACILITIES
Location of facilities for operations is a long-term capacity decision which involves a long term
commitment about the geographically static factors that affect a business organization. It is an
important strategic level decision-making for an organization. It deals with the questions such as
‘where our main operations should be based?’
The selection of location is a key-decision as large investment is made in building plant and
machinery. An improper location of plant may lead to waste of all the investments made in plant
and machinery equipments. Hence, location of plant should be based on the company’s expansion
14 PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
plan and policy, diversification plan for the products, changing sources of raw materials and many
other factors. The purpose of the location study is to find the optimal location that will results
in the greatest advantage to the organization.
PLANT LAYOUT AND MATERIAL HANDLING
Plant layout refers to the physical arrangement of facilities. It is the configuration of departments,
work centres and equipment in the conversion process. The overall objective of the plant layout
is to design a physical arrangement that meets the required output quality and quantity most
economically.
According to James Moore, “Plant layout is a plan of an optimum arrangement of
facilities including personnel, operating equipment, storage space, material handling
equipments and all other supporting services along with the design of best structure
to contain all these facilities”.
‘Material Handling’ refers to the ‘moving of materials from the store room to the machine
and from one machine to the next during the process of manufacture’. It is also defined as the
‘art and science of moving, packing and storing of products in any form’. It is a specialised
activity for a modern manufacturing concern, with 50 to 75% of the cost of production. This cost
can be reduced by proper section, operation and maintenance of material handling devices.
Material handling devices increases the output, improves quality, speeds up the deliveries and
decreases the cost of production. Hence, material handling is a prime consideration in the
designing new plant and several existing plants.
PRODUCT DESIGN
Product design deals with conversion of ideas into reality. Every business organization have to
design, develop and introduce new products as a survival and growth strategy. Developing the
new products and launching them in the market is the biggest challenge faced by the organizations.
The entire process of need identification to physical manufactures of product involves three
functions: marketing, product development, manufacturing. Product development translates the
needs of customers given by marketing into technical specifications and designing the various
features into the product to these specifications. Manufacturing has the responsibility of selecting
the processes by which the product can be manufactured. Product design and development
provides link between marketing, customer needs and expectations and the activities required to
manufacture the product.
PROCESS DESIGN
Process design is a macroscopic decision-making of an overall process route for converting the
raw material into finished goods. These decisions encompass the selection of a process, choice
of technology, process flow analysis and layout of the facilities. Hence, the important decisions
in process design are to analyse the workflow for converting raw material into finished product
and to select the workstation for each included in the workflow.
PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL
Production planning and control can be defined as the process of planning the production in advance,
setting the exact route of each item, fixing the starting and finishing dates for each item, to give
production orders to shops and to follow up the progress of products according to orders.
INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT 15
The principle of production planning and control lies in the statement ‘First Plan Your Work
and then Work on Your Plan’. Main functions of production planning and control includes
planning, routing, scheduling, dispatching and follow-up.
Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do it, when to do it and who is to do
it. Planning bridges the gap from where we are, to where we want to go. It makes it possible
for things to occur which would not otherwise happen.
Routing may be defined as the selection of path which each part of the product will follow,
which being transformed from raw material to finished products. Routing determines the most
advantageous path to be followed from department to department and machine to machine till
raw material gets its final shape.
Scheduling determines the programme for the operations. Scheduling may be defined as
‘the fixation of time and date for each operation’ as well as it determines the sequence of
operations to be followed.
Fig. 1.4 Scope of production and operations management
Dispatching is concerned with the starting the processes. It gives necessary authority so
as to start a particular work, which has already been planned under ‘Routing’ and ‘Scheduling’.
Therefore, dispatching is ‘release of orders and instruction for the starting of production for any
item in acceptance with the route sheet and schedule charts’.
The function of follow-up is to report daily the progress of work in each shop in a prescribed
proforma and to investigate the causes of deviations from the planned performance.
16 PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
QUALITY CONTROL
Quality Control (QC) may be defined as ‘a system that is used to maintain a desired level of
quality in a product or service’. It is a systematic control of various factors that affect the quality
of the product. Quality control aims at prevention of defects at the source, relies on effective
feed back system and corrective action procedure.
Quality control can also be defined as ‘that industrial management technique by means of which
product of uniform acceptable quality is manufactured’. It is the entire collection of activities which
ensures that the operation will produce the optimum quality products at minimum cost.
The main objectives of quality control are:
l To improve the companies income by making the production more acceptable to the
customers i.e., by providing long life, greater usefulness, maintainability, etc.
l To reduce companies cost through reduction of losses due to defects.
l To achieve interchangeability of manufacture in large scale production.
l To produce optimal quality at reduced price.
l To ensure satisfaction of customers with productions or services or high quality level, to
build customer goodwill, confidence and reputation of manufacturer.
l To make inspection prompt to ensure quality control.
l To check the variation during manufacturing.
MATERIALS MANAGEMENT
Materials management is that aspect of management function which is primarily concerned with
the acquisition, control and use of materials needed and flow of goods and services connected
with the production process having some predetermined objectives in view.
The main objectives of materials management are:
l To minimise material cost.
l To purchase, receive, transport and store materials efficiently and to reduce the related cost.
l To cut down costs through simplification, standardisation, value analysis, import substitution, etc.
l To trace new sources of supply and to develop cordial relations with them in order to
ensure continuous supply at reasonable rates.
l To reduce investment tied in the inventories for use in other productive purposes and to
develop high inventory turnover ratios.
MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT
In modern industry, equipment and machinery are a very important part of the total productive
effort. Therefore, their idleness or downtime becomes are very expensive. Hence, it is very
important that the plant machinery should be properly maintained.
The main objectives of maintenance management are:
1. To achieve minimum breakdown and to keep the plant in good working condition at the
lowest possible cost.
2. To keep the machines and other facilities in such a condition that permits them to be used
at their optimal capacity without interruption.
3. To ensure the availability of the machines, buildings and services required by other sections
of the factory for the performance of their functions at optimal return on investment.
INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT 17
EXERC I SES
Section A
1. What do you mean by ‘Production’?
2. What do you mean by production system?
3. Mention the different types of production systems.
4. What is job shop production?
5. What is batch production?
6. What is mass production?
7. What is continuous production?
8. Mention any four advantages of job shop production.
9. Mention any four limitations of job shop production.
10. Mention any four advantages of batch production.
11. Mention any four limitations of batch production.
12. Mention any four advantages of mass production.
13. Mention any four limitations of mass production.
14. Mention any four advantages of continuous production.
15. Mention any four limitations of continuous production.
16. Define production management.
17. Mention any four objectives of production management.
18. Define operating system.
19. How do you manage operations?
20. What do you mean by operations?
21. What do you mean by manufacturing operations?
22. What do you mean by service operations?
23. What do you mean by ‘globalization’?
Section B
1. Briefly explain the production system and its characteristics.
2. What is job shop production? What are its characteristics, advantages and limitations?
3. What is batch production? What are its characteristics, advantages and limitations?
4. What is batch production? What are its characteristics, advantages and limitations?
5. What is mass production? What are its characteristics, advantages and limitations?
6. What is continuous production? What are its characteristics, advantages and limitations?
7. Explain in brief the objectives of production management.
8. Explain in brief the objectives of operations management.
9. Distinguish between manufacturing operations and service operations.
10. Explain the key issues to be considered for managing global operations.
Section C
1. Explain the different types of production systems.
2. Explain the framework of managing operations.
3. Explain the scope of production and operations management.
18 PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
Skill De ve lop me nt
Visit a fast food restaurant like Pizza hut, Pizza corner to understand the concept of this
chapter by getting the information for the following questions.
1. Identify the type of production system followed.
2. Check how production system is managed.
3. Find out utilisation of the resources namely manpower, capacity and material.
4. How the customer services is rendered [feedback system exist or not]
C A SELET
SHEENA
Sheena had worked for the same Fortune 500 Company for most 15 years. Although the
company had gone through some tough times, things were starting to turn around. Customer
orders were up, and quality and productivity had improved dramatically from what they had been
only a few years earlier due company wide quality improvement program. So, it comes as a real
shock to Sheena and about 400 of her co-workers when they were suddenly terminated following
the new CEO’s decision to downsize the company.
After recovering from the initial shock, Sheena tried to find employment elsewhere. Despite
her efforts, after eight months of searching she was no closer to finding a job than the day she
started. Her funds were being depleted and she was getting more discouraged. There was one
bright spot, though: She was able to bring in a little money by mowing lawns for her neighbors.
She got involved quite by chance when she heard one neighbor remark that now that his children
were on their own, nobody was around to cut the grass. Almost jokingly, Sheena asked him how
much he’d be willing to pay. Soon Sheena was mowing the lawns of five neighbors. Other
neighbors wanted her to work on their lawns, but she didn’t feel that she could spare any more
time from her job search.
However, as the rejection letters began to pile up, Sheena knew she had to make an
important decision in her life. On a rainy Tuesday morning, she decided to go into business for
herself taking care of neighborhood lawns. She was relieved to give up the stress of job hunting,
and she was excited about the prospects of being her own boss. But she was also fearful of being
completely on her own. Nevertheless, Sheena was determined to make a go of it.
At first, business was a little slow, but once people realized Sheena was available, many
asked her to take care of their lawns. Some people were simply glad to turn - the work over
to her; others switched from professional lawn care services. By the end of her first year in
business, Sheena knew she could earn a living this way. She also performed other services such
as fertilizing lawns, weeding gardens, and trimming shrubbery. Business became so good that
Sheena hired two part-time workers to assist her and, even then, she believed she could expand
further if she wanted to.
Q ue stio ns
1. In what ways are Sheena’s customers most likely to judge the quality of her lawn care services?
2. Sheena is the operations manager of her business. Among her responsibilities are forecasting,
inventory management, scheduling, quality assurance, and maintenance.
INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT 19
(a) What kinds of things would likely require forecasts?
(b) What inventory items does Sheena probably have? Name one inventory decision she has
to make periodically.
(c) What scheduling must she do? What things might occur to disrupt schedules and cause
Sheena to reschedule?
(d) How important is quality assurance to Sheena’s business? Explain.
(e) What kinds of maintenance must be performed?
3. What are some of the trade-offs that Sheena probably considered relative to:
(a) Working for a company instead of for herself?
(b) Expanding the business?
4. The town is considering an ordinance that would prohibit putting grass clippings at the curb for
pickup because local landfills cannot handle the volume. What options might Sheena consider
if the ordinance is passed? Name two advantages and two drawbacks of each option.
[Source: Production/Operations Management by William J.Stevenson, Irwin/McGraw-Hill]
WEGMANS FOOD MARKETS
Wegmans Food Markets, Inc., is one of the premier grocery chains in the United States.
Headquartered in Rochester, NY, Wegmans operates over 70 stores. The company employs over
23,000 people, and has annual sales of over Rs. 2.0 billion.
Wegmans has a strong reputation for offering its customers high product quality and excellent
service. Through a combination of market research, trial and error, and listening to its customers,
Wegmans has evolved into a very successful organization. In fact, Wegmans is so good at what
it does that grocery chains all over the country send representatives to Wegmans for a firsthand
look at operations.
SUPERSTORES
Many of the company’s stores are giant 100,000 square foot superstores, double or triple the size
of average supermarkets. A superstore typically employs from 500 to 600 people.
Individual stores differ somewhat in terms of actual size and some special features. Aside
from the features normally found in supermarkets, they generally have a large bakery Section
(each store bakes its own bread, rolls, cakes, pies, and pastries), and extra large produce
sections. They also offer film processing a complete pharmacy, a card shop and video rentals.
In-store floral shops range in size up to 800 square feet of space, and offer a wide variety of
fresh-cut flowers, flower arrangements, varies and plants. In-store card shops covers over 1000
square feet of floor of floor space. The bulk foods department provides customers with the
opportunity to select what quantities they desire from a vast array of foodstuffs and some
nonfood items.
Each store is a little different. Among the special features in some stores are a dry cleaning
department, a wokery, and a salad bar. Some feature a Market Cafe that has different food
stations, each devoted to preparing and serving a certain type of food. For example, one station
has pizza and other Italian specialties, and another oriental food. There are also being a sandwich
bar, a salad bar and a dessert station. Customers often wander among stations as they decide
20 PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
what to order. In several affluent locations, customers can stop in on their way home from work
and choose from a selection of freshly prepared dinner entrees. Some stores have a coffee shop
section with tables and chairs where shoppers can enjoy regular or specialty coffees and variety
of tempting pastries.
PRODUCE DEPARTMENT
The company prides itself on fresh produce. Produce is replenished as often as 12 times a day.
The larger stores have produce sections that are four to five times the size of a produce section
of an average supermarket. Wegmans offers locally grown produce a season. Wegmans uses
a ’farm to market’ system whereby some local growers deliver their produce directly to individual
stores, bypassing the main warehouse. That reduces the company’s inventory holding costs and
gets the produce into the stores as quickly as possible. Growers may use specially designed
containers that go right onto the store floor instead of large bins. This avoids the bruising that
often occurs when fruits and vegetables are transferred from bins to display shelves and the need
to devote labor to transfer the produce to shelves.
MEAT DEPARTMENT
In addition to large display cases of both fresh and frozen meat products, many stores have a
full-service butcher shop that offers a variety of fresh meat products and where butchers are
available to provide customized cuts of meat for customers.
ORDERING
Each department handles its own ordering. Although sales records are available from records of
items scanned at the checkouts, they are not used directly for replenishing stock. Other factors,
such as pricing, special promotions, local circumstances must all be taken into account. However,
for seasonal periods, such as holidays, managers often check scanner records to learn what past
demand was during a comparable period.
The superstores typically receive one truckload of goods per day from the main warehouse.
During peak periods, a store may receive two truckloads from the main warehouse. The short
lead-time greatly reduce the length of the time an item might be out of stock, unless the main
warehouse is also out of stock.
The company exercises strict control over suppliers, insisting on product quality and on-time
deliveries.
EMPLOYEES
The company recognises the value of good employees. It typically invests an average of Rs.7000
to train each new employee. In addition to learning about stores operations, new employees learn
the importance of good customer service and how to provide it. The employees are helpful,
cheerfully answering customer questions or handling complaints. Employees are motivated through
a combination of compensation, profit sharing, and benefits.
QUALITY
Quality and Customer satisfaction are utmost in the minds of Wegmans management and its
employees. Private label food items as well as name brands are regularly evaluated in test
kitchens, along with the potential new products. Managers are responsible for checking and
INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT 21
maintaining products and service quality in their departments. Moreover, employees are encouraged
to report problems to their managers.
If a customer is dissatisfied with an item and returns it, or even a portion of the item, the
customer is offered a choice of a replacement or a refund. If the item is a Wegmans brand food
item, it is then sent to the test kitchen to determine the cause of the problem. If the cause can
be determined, corrective action is taken.
Q ue stio ns
1. How do customers judge the quality of a supermarket?
2. Indicate how and why each of these factors is important to the successful operation of a
supermarket:
(a) Customer satisfaction.
(b) Forecasting.
(c) Capacity planning.
(d) Location
(e) Inventory management.
(f) Layout of the store.
(g) Scheduling.
[Source: Production/Operations Management by William J.Stevenson, Irwin/McGraw-Hill]

PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

The traditional view of manufacturing management began in eighteenth century when Adam Smith recognised the economic benefits of specialisation of labour. He recommended breaking of jobs down into subtasks and recognises workers to specialised tasks in which they would become highly skilled and efficient. In the early twentieth century, F.W. Taylor implemented Smith’s theories and developed scientific management. From then till 1930, many techniques were developed prevailing the traditional view. Brief information about the contributions to manufacturing management is shown in the Table 1.1.
TABLE 1.1 Historical summary of operations management Date 1776 1799 1832 1900 1900 1901 1915 1927 1931 1935 1940 1946 1947 1950 1951 1960 1970 Contribution Specialization of labour in manufacturing Interchangeable parts, cost accounting Division of labour by skill; assignment of jobs by skill; basics of time study Scientific management time study and work study developed; dividing planning and doing of work Motion of study of jobs Scheduling techniques for employees, machines jobs in manufacturing Economic lot sizes for inventory control Human relations; the Hawthorne studies Statistical inference applied to product quality: quality control charts Statistical sampling applied to quality control: inspection sampling plans Operations research applications in World War II Digital computer Linear programming Mathematical programming, on-linear and stochastic processes Commercial digital computer: large-scale computations available. Organizational behaviour: continued study of people at work Integrating operations into overall strategy and policy, Computer applications to manufacturing, Scheduling and control, Material requirement planning (MRP) Quality and productivity applications from Japan: robotics, CAD-CAM Contributor Adam Smith Eli Whitney and others Charles Babbage Frederick W. Taylor Frank B. Gilbreth Henry L. Gantt F.W. Harris Elton Mayo W.A. Shewart H.F. Dodge & H.G. Roming P.M. Blacker and others. John Mauchlly and J.P. Eckert G.B. Dantzig, Williams & others A. Charnes, W.W. Cooper & others Sperry Univac L. Cummings, L. Porter W. Skinner J. Orlicky and G. Wright W.E. Deming and J. Juran.

1980

Production management becomes the acceptable term from 1930s to 1950s. As F.W. Taylor’s works become more widely known, managers developed techniques that focussed on economic efficiency in manufacturing. Workers were studied in great detail to eliminate wasteful efforts and achieve greater efficiency. At the same time, psychologists, socialists and

flowing within a defined system.1 Schematic production system 1. rather than just analysis. economists. more suitable change was the beginning of an emphasis on synthesis. are combined and transformed in a controlled manner to add value in accordance with the policies communicated by management. in management practices. constructing flats.” Thus production is a value addition process. etc. Edwood Buffa defines production as ‘a process by which goods and services are created’. With the 1970s emerges two distinct changes in our views. etc. mathematicians. Production is defined as “the step-by-step conversion of one form of material into another form through chemical or mechanical process to create or enhance the utility of the product to the user. car. In addition. which produces products of an organization. Some examples of production are: manufacturing custom-made products like. some structural fabrication works for selected customers. more sophisticated analytical approaches. boilers with a specific capacity. motor cycle. which is concerned with the transformation of a range of inputs into the required outputs (products) having the requisite quality level. television. At each stage of processing. 1.. there will be value addition. Fig. radio. The second. 1. As service sector became more prominent. and manufacturing standardized products like. A simplified production system is shown above.4 PRODUCTION SYSTEM The production system of an organization is that part. It is that activity whereby resources. the change from ‘production’ to ‘operations’ emphasized the broadening of our field to service organizations. and computer socialists contributed newer. reflected in the new name operations management was a shift in the service and manufacturing sectors of the economy. The most obvious of these. bus.3 CONCEPT OF PRODUCTION Production function is that part of an organization.INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT ! other social scientists began to study people and human behaviour in the working environment. .

Batch. Use of general purpose machines and facilities. Characteristics The Job-shop production system is followed when there is: 1. 3." PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT The production system has the following characteristics: 1. Each job demands unique technological requirements. 2. It does not operate in isolation from the other organization system. which is essential to control and improve system performance.4. so every production system has an objective. Production is an organized activity. Highly skilled operators who can take up each job as a challenge because of uniqueness. 1. capacities for each work centre and order priorities. 4. The distinguishing feature of this is low volume and high variety of products. A job shop comprises of general purpose machines arranged into different departments. Large inventory of materials. demands processing on machines in a certain sequence.1 Classification of Production System Production systems can be classified as Job Shop. 5. 2. Mass and Continuous Production systems. There exists a feedback about the activities. Detailed planning is essential for sequencing the requirements of each product. High variety of products and low volume. 4. The system transforms the various inputs to useful outputs. .2 Classification of production systems JOB SHOP PRODUCTION Job shop production are characterised by manufacturing of one or few quantity of products designed and produced as per the specification of customers within prefixed time and cost. tools. parts. 3. 1. Fig.

Better utilisation of plant and machinery. 2. Characteristics Batch production system is used under the following circumstances: 1. 3. When there is shorter production runs. Job satisfaction exists for operators. 3.INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT # Advantages Following are the advantages of job shop production: 1. 4. 2. 4. as each job gives them learning opportunities. Lower investment in plant and machinery. Higher level of inventory at all levels and hence higher inventory cost. When manufacturing lead time and cost are lower as compared to job order production. Advantages Following are the advantages of batch production: 1. Limitations Following are the limitations of job shop production: 1. 5. 3. 4.” It is characterised by the manufacture of limited number of products produced at regular intervals and stocked awaiting sales. Flexibility to accommodate and process number of products. Higher cost due to frequent set up changes. Promotes functional specialisation. Opportunity exists for creative methods and innovative ideas. BATCH PRODUCTION Batch production is defined by American Production and Inventory Control Society (APICS) “as a form of manufacturing in which the job passes through the functional departments in lots or batches and each lot may have a different routing. When plant and machinery are flexible. Material handling is complex because of irregular and longer flows. Limitations Following are the limitations of batch production: 1. Operators will become more skilled and competent. Production planning is complicated. When plant and machinery set up is used for the production of item in a batch and change of set up is required for processing the next batch. 2. 2. 3. Full potential of operators can be utilised. . 6. Larger space requirements. 2. Cost per unit is lower as compared to job order production. 4. Because of general purpose machines and facilities variety of products can be produced. Production planning and control is complex.

Standardisation of product and process sequence. 6. Perfectly balanced production lines. . Product and process standardisation exists and all outputs follow the same path. 8. Limitations Following are the limitations of mass production: 1. Breakdown of one machine will stop an entire production line. 9. Higher rate of production with reduced cycle time. 5. 4. Less skilled operators are required. 2. 2. 4. CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION Production facilities are arranged as per the sequence of production operations from the first operations to the finished product. Lower in process inventory. 7.$ PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 3. The items are made to flow through the sequence of operations through material handling devices such as conveyors. 4. 2. etc. Work in process inventory is higher compared to continuous production. Higher capacity utilisation due to line balancing. The machines are arranged in a line or product layout. Manufacturing cost per unit is low. 3. Flow of materials. Characteristics Continuous production is used under the following circumstances: 1. Dedicated plant and equipment with zero flexibility. 4. Advantages Following are the advantages of mass production: 1. Line layout needs major change with the changes in the product design. 5. Large volume of products. MASS PRODUCTION Manufacture of discrete parts or assemblies using a continuous process are called mass production. Low process inventory. The cycle time is determined by the slowest operation. Material handling can be completely automatic. 3. Shorter cycle time of production. components and parts is continuous and without any back tracking. transfer devices. Characteristics Mass production is used under the following circumstances: 1. This production system is justified by very large volume of production. High investment in production facilities. Production planning and control is easy. Higher set up costs due to frequent changes in set up. 3. Dedicated special purpose machines having higher production capacities and output rates.

Higher rate of production with reduced cycle time. Manpower is not required for material handling as it is completely automatic. Product differentiation is limited. If they are produced in excess of demand the capital will block up in the form of inventory and if the quantity is produced in short of demand. 5. RIGHT QUANTITY The manufacturing organization should produce the products in right number.S. directing and controlling the activities of the production function. 3. Planning and scheduling is a routine action. 3. 4. 2. 2. Material handling is fully automated. Person with limited skills can be used on the production line. 1. Very high investment for setting flow lines. organizing. 2. .1Objectives of Production Management The objective of the production management is ‘to produce goods services of right quality and quantity at the right time and right manufacturing cost’. It is determined by the cost of the product and the technical characteristics as suited to the specific requirements. Unit cost is lower due to high volume of production. in the amount and by the schedule demanded and out of minimum cost. 4. Buffa defines production management as. 1. Standardisation of product and process sequence.” 1. The right quality is not necessarily best quality. Process follows a predetermined sequence of operations. leads to shortage of products. Higher capacity utilisation due to line balancing. Limitations Following are the limitations of continuous production: 1.5. 5. It combines and transforms various resources used in the production subsystem of the organization into value added product in a controlled manner as per the policies of the organization. 6.INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT % 2. Advantages Following are the advantages of continuous production: 1. Flexibility to accommodate and process number of products does not exist. Component materials cannot be readily identified with final product. “Production management deals with decision making related to production processes so that the resulting goods or services are produced according to specifications.5 PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT Production management is a process of planning. RIGHT QUALITY The quality of product is established based upon the customers needs. 3. E.

Manufacturing operations is a conversion process that includes manufacturing yields a tangible output: a product. an effort. Measurement of performance. the function of which is to satisfy customer wants i. whereas. hospital and builders are the examples of an operating system. so as to reduce the variation between actual and the standard (pre-established) cost. Nature of work (job) 4.” 1. Consumption of output 3. So. 4. 1. all attempts should be made to produce the products at pre-established cost.6.1 Concept of Operations An operation is defined in terms of the mission it serves for the organization. tailors. 1. Ebert define operating system as. Degree of customer contact 5. little customer contact. Customer participation in conversion 6. and sophisticated methods for measuring production activities and resource consumption as product are made. Everett E.” Ray Wild defines operating system as. to provide some utility for the customer. jobs that use less labour and more equipment. RIGHT TIME Timeliness of delivery is one of the important parameter to judge the effectiveness of production department.6 OPERATING SYSTEM Operating system converts inputs in order to provide outputs which are required by a customer.e. a performance. outputs that customers consume overtime. Adam & Ronald J. RIGHT MANUFACTURING COST Manufacturing costs are established before the product is actually manufactured. technology it employs and the human and managerial processes it involves.& PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT 3.6. Tangible/Intangible nature of output 2. no customer participation in the conversion process (in production). In some of the organization the product is a physical good (hotels) while in others it is a service (hospitals). “An operating system is a configuration of resources combined for the provision of goods or services. “An operating system ( function) of an organization is the part of an organization that produces the organization’s physical goods and services. Manufacturing is characterised by tangible outputs (products). the production department has to make the optimal utilization of input resources to achieve its objective. It converts physical resources into outputs. . Bus and taxi services.. Hence. Operations in an organization can be categorised into manufacturing operations and service operations.2Distinction between Manufacturing Operations and Service Operations Following characteristics can be considered for distinguishing manufacturing operations with service operations: 1. a conversion process that includes service yields an intangible output: a deed.

and control the conversion process. and control affect human behaviour. They can simplify their difficulties using models like aggregate planning models for examining how best to use existing capacity in short-term. 1. outputs that customers consumes immediately. This stage includes clarifying the role and focus of operations in the organization’s overall strategy. quality. They also want to know how the behaviour of subordinates can affect management’s planning. ORGANIZING Activities that establishes a structure of tasks and authority.1 OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT A Framework for Managing Operations Managing operations can be enclosed in a frame of general management function as shown in Fig. BEHAVIOUR Operation managers are concerned with how their efforts to plan.INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT ' Service is characterised by intangible outputs. CONTROLLING Activities that assure the actual performance in accordance with planned performance. Some services are equipment based namely rail-road services. and the policies. and schedules are the important functions here. they encounter many problems and must make many decisions. frequent customer participation in the conversion process. . Operation managers are concerned with planning. They determine the activities required to achieve the goals and assign authority and responsibility for carrying them out.7. telephone services and some are people based namely tax consultant services. organizing. hair styling. PLANNING Activities that establishes a course of action and guide future decision-making is planning.3. Controlling costs. direct consumer contact. Their interest lies in decision-making behaviour. and controlling actions. It also involves product planning. To ensure that the plans for the operations subsystems are accomplished. jobs that use more labour and less equipment. organize. simple median model for determining best locations of facilities etc. organizing. Operation managers establish a structure of roles and the flow of information within the operations subsystem. decision tree analysis for long-term capacity problem of facility expansion. 1. and controlling the activities which affect human behaviour through models. and procedures for achieving the objectives. break even analysis to identify break even volumes. the operations manager must exercise control by measuring actual outputs and comparing them to planned operations management. organise. MODELS As operation managers plan. linear programming and computer simulation for capacity utilisation. and elementary methods for measuring conversion activities and resource consumption. The operations manager defines the objectives for the operations subsystem of the organization. facility designing and using the conversion process.7 1.

 PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Fig.3 General model for managing operations . 1.

These aspects of customer service—specification.e. Duration or time to move..e.e.. RESOURCE UTILISATION Another major objective of operating systems is to utilise resources for the satisfaction of customer wants effectively. They are the principal sources of customer satisfaction and must. TABLE 1. i. 2.e. i. be the principal dimension of the customer service objective for operations managers. customer service is a key objective of operations management.7. i. Cost. Timing. requested or acceptable specification Service Treatment of a given.. Wait or delay from requesting treatment to its commencement.INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT  1.. Timing.. i.e. i. 1.e. 1.e. primary objective can be satisfied by providing the ‘right thing at a right price at the right time’. cost and timing—are described for four functions in Table 1. Supply Goods of a given. this objective will influence the operations manager’s decisions to achieve the required customer service.. Cost. Timing. delivery delay from order or request to receipt of goods..2 Objectives of Operations Management Objectives of operations management can be categorised into customer service and resource utilisation. The operating system must provide something to a specification which can satisfy the customer in terms of cost and timing. requested or acceptable specification Generally an organization will aim reliably and consistently to achieve certain standards and operations manager will be influential in attempting to achieve these standards. Therefore. i. Timing. CUSTOMER SERVICE The first objective of operating systems is the customer serivce to the satisfaction of customer wants. Cost. delivery delay from order or request to receipt of goods.. requested or acceptable specification Cost. Duration or time required for treatment. Wait or delay from requesting to its commencement. purchase price or cost of obtaining goods. 2. requested or acceptable specification Transport Management of a given.2.e. customer service must be provided with the achievement of . i.e. Hence. Thus. i. cost of movements. i.2 Aspects of customer service Principal function Manufacture Principal customer wants Primary considerations Other considerations Goods of a given. therefore.. purchase price or cost of obtaining goods. cost of movements.

rather it could be think globally and act . to achieve agreed levels of utilisation of materials. Opened financial systems. and hence a satisfactory performance must be achieved on both objectives. Operations management is concerned essentially with the utilisation of resources. competitions.g. obtaining maximum effect from resources or minimising their loss. 2. These are: 1.e. Hence. All the activities of operations management must be tackled with these two objectives in mind. i.. which have spurred the trend toward globalization. The extent of the utilisation of the resources’ potential might be expressed in terms of the proportion of available time used or occupied. When a firm sets up facilities abroad it involve some added complexities in its operation. TABLE 1. Often both cannot be maximised. under utilisation or waste. 3. and 4. the strengths and weaknesses of the organization. An improvement in one will often give rise to deterioration in the other.3 summarises the twin objectives of operations management. There are four developments. To provide agreed/adequate levels of customer service (and hence customer satisfaction) by providing goods or services with the right specification.8 MANAGING GLOBAL OPERATIONS The term ‘globalization’ describes businesses’ deployment of facilities and operations around the world. To achieve adequate levels of resource utilisation (or productivity) e. etc. Increased demand for imports. The resource utilisation objective. Table 1. Inefficient use of resources or inadequate customer service leads to commercial failure of an operating system. The type of balance established both between and within these basic objectives will be influenced by market considerations. and many of the problems will be faced by operations managers because of this conflict. operations managers must attempt to balance these basic objectives. It can also be defined as worldwide drive toward a globalized economic system dominated by supranational corporate trade and banking institutions that are not accountable to democratic processes or national governments. political and socio-cultural relations. Managers should not think about domestic markets first and then global markets later. Operations management is also concerned with the achievement of both satisfactory customer service and resource utilisation. This is referred as the objective of resource utilisation. levels of activity. Globalization can be defined as a process in which geographic distance becomes a factor of diminishing importance in the establishment and maintenance of cross border economic. at the right cost and at the right time.. Each measure indicates the extent to which the potential or capacity of such resources is utilised. Global markets impose new standards on quality and time. Hence. PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT effective operations through efficient use of resources. etc. Improved transportation and communication technologies. space utilisation. 1. machines and labour.3 The twin objectives of operations management The customer service objective. the operations managers should make a contribution when these objectives are set. Reduced import quotas and other trade barriers.

An improper location of plant may lead to waste of all the investments made in plant and machinery equipments. Managing global operations would focus on the following key issues: l To acquire and properly utilize the following concepts and those related to global operations. studies. etc. Location of facilities 2. LOCATION OF FACILITIES Location of facilities for operations is a long-term capacity decision which involves a long term commitment about the geographically static factors that affect a business organization.INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT ! locally. unfamiliar laws and regulations. Plant layouts and material handling 3. l To develop an understanding of the world vision regardless of their country of origin.9 SCOPE OF PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Production and operations management concern with the conversion of inputs into outputs. l To associate success and failure cases of global operations to political. place of origin. It distinguishes itself from other functions such as personnel. Quality control 7. l To develop criteria for conceptualization and evaluation of different global operations. l To associate global historical events to key drivers in global operations from different perspectives. supply chain. different management style. economical and technological environments. preferences. 1. by its primary concern for ‘conversion by using physical resources..’ Following are the activities which are listed under production and operations management functions: 1. finance. residence or studies in a respectful way of perspectives of people from different races. It is an important strategic level decision-making for an organization. Product design 4. and different costs. religion. using physical resources. It deals with the questions such as ‘where our main operations should be based?’ The selection of location is a key-decision as large investment is made in building plant and machinery. marketing. social. efficiency and adoptability. Also. Maintenance management. Hence. Process design 5. politic affiliation. location of plant should be based on the company’s expansion . logistics. they must have a good understanding of their competitors. Production and planning control 6. so as to provide the desired utilities to the customer while meeting the other organizational objectives of effectiveness. l To envision trends in global operations. Materials management 8. etc. etc. Some other important challenges of managing multinational operations include other languages and customs.

changing sources of raw materials and many other factors. with 50 to 75% of the cost of production. manufacturing. “Plant layout is a plan of an optimum arrangement of facilities including personnel. packing and storing of products in any form’. PRODUCT DESIGN Product design deals with conversion of ideas into reality. Every business organization have to design." PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT plan and policy. It is a specialised activity for a modern manufacturing concern. speeds up the deliveries and decreases the cost of production. setting the exact route of each item. Product design and development provides link between marketing. Manufacturing has the responsibility of selecting the processes by which the product can be manufactured. process flow analysis and layout of the facilities. It is the configuration of departments. develop and introduce new products as a survival and growth strategy. customer needs and expectations and the activities required to manufacture the product. operation and maintenance of material handling devices. product development. The overall objective of the plant layout is to design a physical arrangement that meets the required output quality and quantity most economically. the important decisions in process design are to analyse the workflow for converting raw material into finished product and to select the workstation for each included in the workflow. PLANT LAYOUT AND MATERIAL HANDLING Plant layout refers to the physical arrangement of facilities. ‘Material Handling’ refers to the ‘moving of materials from the store room to the machine and from one machine to the next during the process of manufacture’. Hence. According to James Moore. improves quality. choice of technology. PROCESS DESIGN Process design is a macroscopic decision-making of an overall process route for converting the raw material into finished goods. The purpose of the location study is to find the optimal location that will results in the greatest advantage to the organization. to give production orders to shops and to follow up the progress of products according to orders. Product development translates the needs of customers given by marketing into technical specifications and designing the various features into the product to these specifications. These decisions encompass the selection of a process. . It is also defined as the ‘art and science of moving. Material handling devices increases the output. storage space. work centres and equipment in the conversion process. The entire process of need identification to physical manufactures of product involves three functions: marketing. Developing the new products and launching them in the market is the biggest challenge faced by the organizations. This cost can be reduced by proper section. Hence. operating equipment. material handling equipments and all other supporting services along with the design of best structure to contain all these facilities”. diversification plan for the products. fixing the starting and finishing dates for each item. material handling is a prime consideration in the designing new plant and several existing plants. PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL Production planning and control can be defined as the process of planning the production in advance.

dispatching and follow-up. how to do it. when to do it and who is to do it. dispatching is ‘release of orders and instruction for the starting of production for any item in acceptance with the route sheet and schedule charts’. Therefore. 1. Scheduling may be defined as ‘the fixation of time and date for each operation’ as well as it determines the sequence of operations to be followed. It makes it possible for things to occur which would not otherwise happen. Fig.4 Scope of production and operations management Dispatching is concerned with the starting the processes. scheduling. It gives necessary authority so as to start a particular work. Planning bridges the gap from where we are. Main functions of production planning and control includes planning. Routing determines the most advantageous path to be followed from department to department and machine to machine till raw material gets its final shape. Planning is deciding in advance what to do. routing.INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT # The principle of production planning and control lies in the statement ‘First Plan Your Work and then Work on Your Plan’. The function of follow-up is to report daily the progress of work in each shop in a prescribed proforma and to investigate the causes of deviations from the planned performance. . which being transformed from raw material to finished products. Scheduling determines the programme for the operations. to where we want to go. Routing may be defined as the selection of path which each part of the product will follow. which has already been planned under ‘Routing’ and ‘Scheduling’.

To achieve minimum breakdown and to keep the plant in good working condition at the lowest possible cost. MATERIALS MANAGEMENT Materials management is that aspect of management function which is primarily concerned with the acquisition.. by providing long life. l To reduce investment tied in the inventories for use in other productive purposes and to develop high inventory turnover ratios. l To produce optimal quality at reduced price. l To check the variation during manufacturing. relies on effective feed back system and corrective action procedure. confidence and reputation of manufacturer. To keep the machines and other facilities in such a condition that permits them to be used at their optimal capacity without interruption. 2. l To achieve interchangeability of manufacture in large scale production. Hence. etc. MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT In modern industry. control and use of materials needed and flow of goods and services connected with the production process having some predetermined objectives in view. 3. The main objectives of materials management are: l To minimise material cost. It is a systematic control of various factors that affect the quality of the product. transport and store materials efficiently and to reduce the related cost. l To purchase.e. It is the entire collection of activities which ensures that the operation will produce the optimum quality products at minimum cost.$ PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT QUALITY CONTROL Quality Control (QC) may be defined as ‘a system that is used to maintain a desired level of quality in a product or service’. Quality control aims at prevention of defects at the source. l To trace new sources of supply and to develop cordial relations with them in order to ensure continuous supply at reasonable rates. it is very important that the plant machinery should be properly maintained. value analysis. receive. The main objectives of maintenance management are: 1. to build customer goodwill. buildings and services required by other sections of the factory for the performance of their functions at optimal return on investment. greater usefulness. l To ensure satisfaction of customers with productions or services or high quality level. import substitution. maintainability. standardisation. their idleness or downtime becomes are very expensive. etc. . Therefore. l To cut down costs through simplification. Quality control can also be defined as ‘that industrial management technique by means of which product of uniform acceptable quality is manufactured’. To ensure the availability of the machines. l To make inspection prompt to ensure quality control. The main objectives of quality control are: l To improve the companies income by making the production more acceptable to the customers i. l To reduce companies cost through reduction of losses due to defects. equipment and machinery are a very important part of the total productive effort.

advantages and limitations? What is batch production? What are its characteristics. Explain the framework of managing operations. Explain the different types of production systems. 1. Section B 10. advantages and limitations? What is mass production? What are its characteristics. Mention any four limitations of batch production. Section C 1. 2. 8. 7. 16. 3.INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT % EXERCISES Section A 1. 11. 19. 4. 23. Define production management. 3. 15. Mention any four advantages of batch production. advantages and limitations? What is continuous production? What are its characteristics. Mention any four limitations of job shop production. Explain the key issues to be considered for managing global operations. Define operating system. 21. 2. 18. Explain in brief the objectives of operations management. Mention any four advantages of continuous production. 17. 4. 7. 8. 20. 3. 9. Mention any four objectives of production management. What is job shop production? What is batch production? What is mass production? What is continuous production? Mention any four advantages of job shop production. 14. 10. 12. Mention any four advantages of mass production. 6. . Distinguish between manufacturing operations and service operations. 6. 9. Mention any four limitations of continuous production. 5. 22. Explain the scope of production and operations management. 2. 13. advantages and limitations? Explain in brief the objectives of production management. Mention any four limitations of mass production. How do you manage operations? What do you mean by operations? What do you mean by manufacturing operations? What do you mean by service operations? What do you mean by ‘globalization’? Briefly explain the production system and its characteristics. What do you mean by ‘Production’? What do you mean by production system? Mention the different types of production systems. advantages and limitations? What is batch production? What are its characteristics. 5. What is job shop production? What are its characteristics.

4. Sheena asked him how much he’d be willing to pay. Check how production system is managed. Business became so good that Sheena hired two part-time workers to assist her and. Identify the type of production system followed. business was a little slow. So. 2. she decided to go into business for herself taking care of neighborhood lawns. Find out utilisation of the resources namely manpower. Soon Sheena was mowing the lawns of five neighbors. nobody was around to cut the grass. weeding gardens. though: She was able to bring in a little money by mowing lawns for her neighbors. At first. even then. Nevertheless. Other neighbors wanted her to work on their lawns. Sheena knew she could earn a living this way. scheduling. However. She got involved quite by chance when she heard one neighbor remark that now that his children were on their own. Sheena was determined to make a go of it.& PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Skill Development Visit a fast food restaurant like Pizza hut. quality assurance. Customer orders were up. but she didn’t feel that she could spare any more time from her job search. There was one bright spot. many asked her to take care of their lawns. capacity and material. Questions 1. . she believed she could expand further if she wanted to. She also performed other services such as fertilizing lawns. Among her responsibilities are forecasting. but once people realized Sheena was available. Pizza corner to understand the concept of this chapter by getting the information for the following questions. and maintenance. Sheena knew she had to make an important decision in her life.the work over to her. and she was excited about the prospects of being her own boss. inventory management. after eight months of searching she was no closer to finding a job than the day she started. In what ways are Sheena’s customers most likely to judge the quality of her lawn care services? 2. Sheena is the operations manager of her business. But she was also fearful of being completely on her own. By the end of her first year in business. On a rainy Tuesday morning. Sheena tried to find employment elsewhere. others switched from professional lawn care services. Despite her efforts. Her funds were being depleted and she was getting more discouraged. things were starting to turn around. and quality and productivity had improved dramatically from what they had been only a few years earlier due company wide quality improvement program. and trimming shrubbery. 1. Almost jokingly. How the customer services is rendered [feedback system exist or not] CASELET SHEENA Sheena had worked for the same Fortune 500 Company for most 15 years. as the rejection letters began to pile up. She was relieved to give up the stress of job hunting. it comes as a real shock to Sheena and about 400 of her co-workers when they were suddenly terminated following the new CEO’s decision to downsize the company. Although the company had gone through some tough times. After recovering from the initial shock. 3. Some people were simply glad to turn .

0 billion.000 square foot superstores. NY. trial and error. and another oriental food. varies and plants. cakes.Stevenson. In fact. They also offer film processing a complete pharmacy. and pastries). In-store floral shops range in size up to 800 square feet of space. Each store is a little different. The bulk foods department provides customers with the opportunity to select what quantities they desire from a vast array of foodstuffs and some nonfood items. a salad bar and a dessert station. Inc.INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT ' (a) What kinds of things would likely require forecasts? (b) What inventory items does Sheena probably have? Name one inventory decision she has to make periodically. [Source: Production/Operations Management by William J. Through a combination of market research. flower arrangements. rolls. Among the special features in some stores are a dry cleaning department. For example. pies. (e) What kinds of maintenance must be performed? 3. The town is considering an ordinance that would prohibit putting grass clippings at the curb for pickup because local landfills cannot handle the volume. The company employs over 23. a card shop and video rentals. Some feature a Market Cafe that has different food stations. (c) What scheduling must she do? What things might occur to disrupt schedules and cause Sheena to reschedule? (d) How important is quality assurance to Sheena’s business? Explain. they generally have a large bakery Section (each store bakes its own bread. A superstore typically employs from 500 to 600 people. 2. a wokery.. Customers often wander among stations as they decide . SUPERSTORES Many of the company’s stores are giant 100. Wegmans has a strong reputation for offering its customers high product quality and excellent service. Irwin/McGraw-Hill] WEGMANS FOOD MARKETS Wegmans Food Markets. each devoted to preparing and serving a certain type of food. Wegmans operates over 70 stores. In-store card shops covers over 1000 square feet of floor of floor space. Aside from the features normally found in supermarkets. and a salad bar. There are also being a sandwich bar. and offer a wide variety of fresh-cut flowers. double or triple the size of average supermarkets. and has annual sales of over Rs. Individual stores differ somewhat in terms of actual size and some special features. one station has pizza and other Italian specialties. Wegmans is so good at what it does that grocery chains all over the country send representatives to Wegmans for a firsthand look at operations. Wegmans has evolved into a very successful organization.000 people. and extra large produce sections. What are some of the trade-offs that Sheena probably considered relative to: (a) Working for a company instead of for herself? (b) Expanding the business? 4. What options might Sheena consider if the ordinance is passed? Name two advantages and two drawbacks of each option. is one of the premier grocery chains in the United States. and listening to its customers. Headquartered in Rochester.

for seasonal periods. It typically invests an average of Rs. a store may receive two truckloads from the main warehouse. they are not used directly for replenishing stock. such as pricing. The company exercises strict control over suppliers. In addition to learning about stores operations. managers often check scanner records to learn what past demand was during a comparable period. such as holidays. special promotions. This avoids the bruising that often occurs when fruits and vegetables are transferred from bins to display shelves and the need to devote labor to transfer the produce to shelves. unless the main warehouse is also out of stock. In several affluent locations. The superstores typically receive one truckload of goods per day from the main warehouse. Produce is replenished as often as 12 times a day. bypassing the main warehouse. Wegmans offers locally grown produce a season. along with the potential new products. customers can stop in on their way home from work and choose from a selection of freshly prepared dinner entrees. PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT what to order. Managers are responsible for checking and . insisting on product quality and on-time deliveries. QUALITY Quality and Customer satisfaction are utmost in the minds of Wegmans management and its employees. and benefits. During peak periods. Other factors. However. Private label food items as well as name brands are regularly evaluated in test kitchens.7000 to train each new employee. Although sales records are available from records of items scanned at the checkouts. The short lead-time greatly reduce the length of the time an item might be out of stock. many stores have a full-service butcher shop that offers a variety of fresh meat products and where butchers are available to provide customized cuts of meat for customers. The larger stores have produce sections that are four to five times the size of a produce section of an average supermarket. Wegmans uses a ’farm to market’ system whereby some local growers deliver their produce directly to individual stores. cheerfully answering customer questions or handling complaints. new employees learn the importance of good customer service and how to provide it. Growers may use specially designed containers that go right onto the store floor instead of large bins. Employees are motivated through a combination of compensation. local circumstances must all be taken into account. MEAT DEPARTMENT In addition to large display cases of both fresh and frozen meat products. profit sharing. The employees are helpful. Some stores have a coffee shop section with tables and chairs where shoppers can enjoy regular or specialty coffees and variety of tempting pastries. EMPLOYEES The company recognises the value of good employees. PRODUCE DEPARTMENT The company prides itself on fresh produce. That reduces the company’s inventory holding costs and gets the produce into the stores as quickly as possible. ORDERING Each department handles its own ordering.

or even a portion of the item. Capacity planning. Irwin/McGraw-Hill] . employees are encouraged to report problems to their managers. Moreover. corrective action is taken. the customer is offered a choice of a replacement or a refund. it is then sent to the test kitchen to determine the cause of the problem.INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT  maintaining products and service quality in their departments. Layout of the store. [Source: Production/Operations Management by William J. Forecasting. Questions 1. (g) Scheduling. If a customer is dissatisfied with an item and returns it. If the cause can be determined. How do customers judge the quality of a supermarket? 2.Stevenson. If the item is a Wegmans brand food item. Location Inventory management. Indicate how and why each of these factors is important to the successful operation of a supermarket: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Customer satisfaction.