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Evolution of Strategic Management
Global considerations impact virtually all strategic decisions.
± Geographical boundaries no longer define the limits of our imaginations. ± The survival of businesses hinges on the perception of others about your business. ± The success of St. Mgt depends upon the manager¶s degree of understanding of competitors, markets, prices, suppliers, distributors, governments, creditors, shareholders, and consumers on worldwide basis.
Evolution of Strategic Management
Technological Changes Electronic Commerce (e-commerce) has become a vital St. Mgt tool.
± Companies getting competitive advantage by using internet for direct selling and comm. with suppliers, customers, creditors, partners/shareholders, clients and competitors dispersed globally. ± E- Commerce allows firms to sell products, advertise, purchase supplies bypassing intermediaries, track inventory, eliminate paperwork and share information. ± E-commerce is reducing expense, time, distance and space in doing business thus giving better customer service, greater efficiency improved product and higher profitability.
± It promotes endless comparison shopping thus enabling consumers worldwide to band together to demand discounts. friends neighbors etc. ± Buyers can get best price and service by quickly scanning hundreds of vendor offerings.Evolution of Strategic Management Internet and PCs are changing our lifestyle the way we interact with our families. . ± It has transferred power from businesses to individuals .may lead to regulation on consumers in future.
e-commerce. ± According to seventy four percent Americans in a survey.Evolution of Strategic Management Internet has changed the economics of business in every single industry worldwide. e-Trade. ± Business to Business e-commerce is five time greater than consumer e-commerce. e-mail and e-toys have become integral part of everyday life worldwide. ± Slogans and company¶s like e-Bay. the Internet will change society more than telephone and television combined. .
It focuses on integrating management.Strategic Management Definition The art and science of formulating implementing and evaluating cross-functional decisions that enable an organization to achieve it¶s objectives. research and development. production /operations. finance/ accounting. The purpose of strategic management is to exploit and create new and different opportunities for tomorrow. marketing. . and computer information systems to achieve organizational objectives.
logical. ± Strategy evaluation. ± Strategy formulation. determining internal strengths and weaknesses. Three stages of Strategic Management Process. . ± Strategy implementation.Strategic Management Process Strategic Management Process It is an objective. establishing long term objectives. It attempts to organize qualitative and quantitative information in a way that allows effective decision making under uncertainty. systematic approach for making major decisions in an organization. Strategy Formulation Developing a vision and mission. identifying an organization¶s external opportunities and threats. generating alternative strategies and choosing particular strategy to pursue.
³ To be the first choice in the printed communication business. and being the best is what Atlanta Web pledges to work hard at being ± every day. .Strategic Management Process Vision Statement What do we want to become? A vision statement of an eye clinic. The first choice is the best choice. ³ Our vision is to take care of your vision´ A vision statement of Atlanta Web Printers.
.Strategic Management Process Mission Statement An enduring statement of purpose that distinguishes one organization from other similar enterprise. .it is a declaration of an organization¶s ³ reason for being ³answering the pivotal question ³ what is our business´. A clear mission statement is essential for effectively establishing objectives and formulating strategies.
Establish a general tone or organizational climate.Strategic Management Process Importance of Vision and Mission Statements Ensure unanimity of purpose within the organization. Specify organization¶s purpose and then translate these into objectives in such a way that cost. or standard. time and performance parameters can be assessed and controlled. Facilitate the translation of objectives in to work structure involving the assignment of tasks to responsible elements in organization. for allocating organizational resources. Provide a basis. .
Firms to formulate strategies to take advantage of external opportunities and to avoid/reduce the impact of external threats. political. governmental. social. technological or competitive trends. cultural.Strategic Management Process External Opportunities and Threats The trends and events that could significantly benefit or harm an organization in the future are referred to external opportunities and threats like economic. environmental. legal. . They are largely beyond the control of a single organization-thus the word external. demographic.
research and development and management information system activities of a business. . production/ operations. marketing.Strategic Management Process Internal Strengths and weaknesses An organization¶s controllable activities that are performed especially well or poorly. Organizations strive to pursue strategies that capitalize on Internal strengths and eliminate internal weaknesses. finance/accounting. They arise in the management.
Strategic Management Process Strengths and weaknesses are determined relative to competitors. Strengths and weaknesses can be determined relative to a firm¶s own objectives. advertising effectiveness and customer loyalty. Strengths and weaknesses can be determined by elements of being rather than performance. . Internal factors can be determined by computing ratios. measuring performance and comparing to past periods and industry averages. production efficiency. Survey method could be used to determine employee morale.
Strategic Management Process Long Term Objectives Specific results that an organization seeks to achieve in pursuing its basic mission during a period of more than one year. motivating and controlling activities. focus coordination and provide a basis for effective planning. organizing. aid in evaluation. reveal priorities. . measurable. create synergy. Objectives state direction. Objectives should be challenging. consistent. reasonable and clear.
liquidation and joint venture. market penetration. diversification.oriented having multifunctional or multidivisional consequences for the organization. product development. . Strategies are potential actions thus future. acquisition. retrenchment.Strategic Management Process Strategy It is the means by which long-term objectives can be achieved. Business strategies may include geographic expansion.
How to allocate resources. Whether to enter international market. Whether to merge or form a joint venture How to avoid a hostile takeover.Strategic Management Process Strategy formulation issues Deciding what new business to enter What businesses to close. Whether to expand operations or diversify. .
Developing a strategy-supporting culture Creating an effective organizational structure.Strategic Management Process Strategy Implementation It is also called ³the action stage of strategic management´. motivate employees. devise policies. Redirecting marketing efforts. Developing and utilizing information systems. Strategy Implementation includes. It entails establishment of annual objectives. Preparing budget. and Linking employee compensation to organizational performance . and allocate resources so that formulated strategies can be executed.
Strategic Management Process Implementing Strategies Strategy implementation is different than strategy formulation. Strategy formulation ± positioning forces before the action Strategy implementation ± managing forces during the action Strategy formulation .focuses on effectiveness Strategy implementation .requires special motivation and leadership skills .requires good intuitive and analytical skills Strategy implementation .focuses on efficiency Strategy formulation ± primarily an intellectual process Strategy implementation ± primarily an operational process strategy formulation .
requires coordination among many individuals Strategy formulation .concepts and tools similar for small.Strategic Management Process Strategy formulation .requires coordination among a few individuals Strategy implementation . for profit or nonprofit organizations Strategy implementation .varies substantially among different types and sizes of organizations . large.
± Taking corrective actions. ± Measuring performance.Strategic Management Process Strategy Evaluation It is the means for management to determine whether the strategy is working or otherwise. Three fundamental strategy evaluation activities are. All strategies are subject to future modifications because of persistent changes in the external and internal environment of an organization. ± Review external and internal environment factors which are bases for current strategies. Strategy evaluation is necessary because success today is no guarantee of success tomorrow .
± 4. Program A complex single-use plan consisting of a set of interrelated actions aimed at achieving a one-time major goal.Strategic Planning Types of Plans Single use plan A plan designed to fit one-time situation. Two common types of single-use plans are programs and projects. The plan becomes obsolete when its one-time goals have been achieved. Divide the course of action into steps. Decide who will be responsible for each step. Establish and provide the sources necessary to complete each step. . ± 3. managers. To develop a program. ± 1. Determine the logical sequence of steps. ± 2.
Bhasha Dam project in the national program of provision of electricity to the whole country. procedures. Projects integrate fewer activities and resources than programs and are often developed as subunits of programs. and ± 6.Policy ± a standing plan that provides broad guidelines for directing managerial activities in pursuit of organizational goals . . Project A single-use plan that is narrower in scope than a program and aimed at achieving a specific one-time goal. Prepare a schedule for implementation. Standing plans A plan for guiding management decisions and activities in situations that recur repeatedly. Three commonly used types of standing plans are policies.Strategic Planning -5. for example. and rules. Gauge the time needed to finish each step.
± Rule ± a standing plan specifying the circumstances in which certain activities can or cannot be performed.Strategic Planning ± Procedure ± a standing plan encompassing a series of detailed steps to be followed in particular recurring situation. . Contingency Plans Alternative courses of actions to be followed if unforeseen environmental shifts occur.
Strategic Planning Levels of Planning Strategic Tactical Operational General Time Period Considered for Plans Strategic Plans .1 year .3 years Operational Plans .5 years Tactical Plans .
The Managerial Pyramid Mission Strategic Goals/ Plans (organization as a whole) Tactical Goals/ Plans (major divisions. functions) Operational Goals/ Plans (departments and units) .
Who Does the Planning?
Small businesses: ± Entrepreneurs do most of the planning. Large firms: ± Traditional: A central corporate planning group works with top management and each division to solicit, challenge, and refine the company¶s plan. ± Current: Planning is decentralized and includes the firms¶ product and divisional managers, aided by small headquarters advisory groups.
How to Develop a Plan
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Set an objective. Evaluate the situation. Determine the procedures. Set a timetable. Assign responsibility. Check the plan for feasibility and cost
WELL CONCEIVED PLANS MUST HAVE
1.Resources 2.Methods 3.Tasks 4.Sequence 5.Individuals 6.Location 7.Deadlines 8.Stop points 9.Measurement
Businesses show significant improvement in sales. High performing firms do systematic planning to prepare for future fluctuations in their external and internal environment. . These firms generally exhibit superior long-term financial performance relative to their industry. profitability and productivity.Strategic Planning Benefits of Strategic Planning Financial Benefits Organizations using strategic management concepts are more profitable and successful than those who do not.
. Reduced resistance to change. Increased employee productivity. Strategic management enhances the problem-prevention capabilities of organizations because it promotes interaction among managers at all divisional and functional levels. Clear understanding of performance-reward relationships. Enhanced awareness of external threats An improved understanding of competitors¶ strategies.Strategic Planning Nonfinancial Benefits Strategic management offers.
prioritization and exploitation of opportunities. Creates a framework for internal communication among personnel. Facilitates managerial control through setting of standards for monitoring and measuring performance. Encourages forward thinking. avoiding piecemeal decision making. Directs decision making to support established objectives. Allows more effective allocation of time and resources to identified opportunities. Helps integrate the behavior of individuals into a total effort.Strategic Planning Benefits of Strategic Planning Allows for identification. Presents a framework for improved coordination and control of activities. and provides a unifying framework. Provides a basis for clarifying individual responsibilities. .
Laziness ± may not want to put effort needed for planning. Content with success ± they think no need to plan because things are fine as they stand. Too Expensive ± culturally opposed to spending resources. ( time spent on planning is investment). . Fire-fighting ± busy in crisis management and not finding time to plan.Strategic Planning Reasons For No Strategic Planning By Firms Poor reward structure ± often fail to reward success but ready to punish for failure. Waste of time ± see planning as waste of time since no marketable product is produced.
Fear of Unknown ± uncertain of abilities to learn new skills. no risk of failure. can also be done badly. . they may rely less on formal planning. or privilege through effectively using old system. Self-interest ± when some one has achieved status. Overconfidence ± as individuals amass experience. Honest difference of opinion ± sincerely believe the plan is wrong as they are watching the situation from different viewpoing. like anything else. he/she sees anew plan as threat. Planning. or inflexible.Strategic Planning Fear of failure ± not doing anything. impractical. there is some risk of failure. However whenever something worthwhile is attempted. of aptitude with new system or of their ability to take on new roles. However. being overconfident or overestimating experience can bring failure Prior bad experience ± plans have been long. cumbersome.
. you cant follow a combination strategy for too long. According to Hansen and Smith. Strategic planning involves ³choices that risk resources´ and ³tradeoffs that sacrifice opportunity´.Types of Strategies Integration Strategies Intensive Strategies Diversification Strategies Defensive Strategies Michael Porter¶s Generic Strategies Strategy is choosing among the alternatives.
± Opening company¶s stores.Types of Strategies Integration Strategies Forward integration Backwind integration Horizontal integration Forward Integration Gaining ownership or increased control over distributors or retailers by.costs and opportunities are spread across many individuals. ± Franchising .. ± Establishing websites to sell products directly to consumers. retail outlets .
unreliable or incapable of meeting the firms distribution needs. Advantages of stable productions are high. Availability of quality distributors is limited. When organization has both the capital and human resources. firms having forward integration are availing competitive advantage.Types of Strategies Situations when forward integration may be an effective strategy. forward integration reduces organization¶s ability to diversify if it¶s basic industry falters. When the industry is growing and expected to continue growing. however. . organizations can increase the predictability of the demand through forward integration. When profit margins for distributors or retailers are high. Organizations present distributors are expensive.
Types of Strategies Backward Integration A strategy of seeking ownership or increased control of a firm¶s suppliers particularly in situations when firm¶s suppliers are unreliable. Global competition is prompting firm¶s to reduce number of suppliers and to demand higher level of service and quality from selected ones. Firms increasingly use websites on backward integration opportunities. . too costly or cannot meet firm¶s requirements Firms having global sources of supply opt for deintegration.
or incapable of meeting the firms needs. when the number of suppliers is small and the number of competitors is large. When an organization competes in an industry that is growing rapidly.Types of Strategies Situations when backward integration may be an effective strategy When present suppliers are expensive. When an organization has both capital and human resources to manage the new business of supplying its own raw material. unreliable. .
When present supplies have high profit margin. When an organization needs to acquire a needed resource quickly. . tempting to invest into the venture. as organization can stabilize the cost of its raw materials and associated products through backward integration.Types of Strategies Situations when backward integration may be an effective strategy (contd) When the advantages of stable prices are particularly important.
It is increasingly being used by the firms as growth strategy. Mergers between direct competitors create efficiencies because of potential for eliminating duplicate facilities.Types of Strategies Horizontal Integration A strategy of seeking ownership of or increased control over a firm¶s competitors. Mergers. . acquisitions and takeovers among competitors allow for increased economies of scale and enhanced transfer of resources and competencies.
and overall industry sales are declining. when a firm competes in a growing industry. When increased economies of scale provide major competitive advantage. .( not if competitors are doing poorly.Types of Strategies Situations when horizontal integration may be an effective strategy When an organization can gain a monopolistic characteristics without being challenged by the law (SECP). When the firm has the necessary resources of capital and human talent to manage the expanded organization. when competitors are faltering due to lack of managerial expertise or a need for particular resources that an organization possesses.
Market Penetration Market Development Product Development Market Penetration This strategy seeks to increase market share for present product or services in present markets through greater marketing efforts.Types of Strategies Intensive Strategies Requires intensive effort from the firm to improve it¶s competitive position with existing products. publicity efforts or offering extensive sales promotion items. advertising expenditure. Market penetrations includes increasing number of salespersons. .
Increased economies of scale provide major competitive advantage. Market shares of major competitors have been declining while total industry sales have been increasing.Types of Strategies Situations when market penetration may be an effective strategy Current markets are not saturated with a particular product or service. The usage rate of present customers could be increased significantly. . The correlation between dollar sales and dollar marketing expenditure has been high.
Types of Strategies Market Development It involves introducing present products or services into new geographic areas. reliable. inexpensive and good quality channels of distribution are available. Organization¶s basic industry is becoming global. Situations when market development may be an effective strategy New. Organization has the necessary resources to expand operations. New untapped or unsaturated markets exist. Organization has excess production capacity. . Organization is very successful at what it does.
Situations when Product development may be an effective strategy Organization¶s successful product has reached the maturity stage and organization wants its customers to try it¶s new or improved product. It normally entails large R & D expenditure.Types of Strategies Product Development A strategy that seeks increased sales by improving or modifying present products or services. Organization competes in an industry that is characterized by rapid technological development. .
Concentric Diversification Acquiring new. .Types of Strategies Major competitors offer better -quality products at comparable prices. but related. especially when the company is competing in an un attractive industry. Organization competes in a high-growth industry. Organization has strong research and development capabilities Diversification Strategies Diversification strategy is followed to avoid dependence on any single industry. There are three types of diversification strategies. Concentric. Horizontal and conglomerate. products or services.
When new related products have seasonal sales levels that counterbalance a company¶s existing peaks and lows. When new related products could be offered at highly competitive prices. When the company¶s products are in the declining stage of the product¶s life cycle. When adding new but related products would significantly enhance the sales of current products. .Types of Strategies Situations when Concentric diversification may be an effective strategy When an organization competes in a no-growth/ slowgrowth industry. When an organization has strong management team.
unrelated products or services for present customers.Types of Strategies Horizontal Diversification Adding new. Revenue of the organization would increase significantly. The new product has countercyclical sales patterns compared to an organization¶s present products. Organization¶s present marketing channels can be used to market new products to current customers. Organization competes in a highly competitive and / or a no growth industry yielding low returns and profit margins. . Situation when Horizontal Diversifications may be an effective strategy.
. There exists financial synergy between the acquired and acquiring firms. Antitrust action could be charged against an organization that has concentrated on a single industry. Organization¶s basic industry is experiencing decline in sales / profits.Types of Strategies Conglomerate Diversification Adding new. Organization has the opportunity to purchase unrelated business providing an attractive investment opportunity. The existing markets for company¶s present products are saturated. Situations when conglomerate diversification may be an effective strategy. unrelated products or services. Organization has the capital and managerial talent to successfully compete in a new industry.
automating processes. pruning product lines. closing obsolete factories. Also called a turnaround or reorganization strategy.. . Retrenchment An organization regroups through cost and asset reduction to reverse declining sales and profits. Bankruptcy can be an effective type of retrenchment strategy. allowing a firm to avoid major debt obligations and to void union contracts. closing marginal businesses.Types of Strategies Defensive Strategies Retrenchment. is designed to fortify an organization¶s basic distinctive competence. Entails selling off land and buildings to raise needed cash. Divestiture and Liquidation are defensive strategies. reducing the number of employees and controlling expenses.
An organization has failed to meet it¶s objectives and goals repeatedly overtime. minimize external threats. Organization has grown so large so quickly that major internal reorganization is needed. low profitability. could not capitalize on external opportunities. . The organization¶s strategic managers have failed. The organization is plagued by inefficiency.Types of Strategies Situations when retrenchment may be an effective strategy. The organization is a weaker competitor in the industry. take advantage of internal strengths and overcome internal weaknesses overtime. and pressure from stakeholders to improve performance. poor employee morale.
or that do not fit well with the firm¶s other activities.Types of Strategies Divestiture Selling a division or part of an organization. that require too much capital. The strategy is used to raise capital for further strategic acquisition or investments. . Divestiture can be apart of an overall retrenchment strategy to rid an organization of businesses that are unprofitable.
may be due to different markets. values or needs. The organization has pursued a retrenchment strategy but failed to accomplish needed improvements. A division is responsible for an organization¶s overall poor performance. A division is misfit with the rest of an organization.Types of Strategies Situations when Divestiture may be an effective strategy. employees. managers. customers. A division needs more resources to be competitive than the company can provide. A large amount of cash is required quickly and cannot be obtained from other sources. Government antitrust action threatens an organization .
than liquidation is the only way to orderly get max cash from firm¶s assets. in parts. It is better to cease operating than to continue loosing large sums of money. Situations when liquidation may be an effective strategy to pursue.Types of Strategies Liquidation Selling all of a company¶s assets. . for their tangible worth is called liquidation. When stockholders of a firm can minimize their losses by selling the organization¶s assets. Liquidities is a recognition of defeat and therefore. When only alternative left is bankruptcy. Organization has pursued both a retrenchment strategy and divestiture strategy and both have failed. can be an emotionally difficult strategy.
. cost leadership. Large firms with greater resources compete on a cost leadership and or differentiation basis while small firms often compete on focus basis.Types of Strategies Michael Porter¶s Generic Strategies. These strategies imply different organizational arrangements. Differentiation and focus. control procedures and incentive systems. Cost leadership emphasis on producing standardized products at a very low per unit cost for price sensitive consumers. Differentiation strategy aims at producing unique products for relatively price sensitive consumers and focus means producing products & services to fulfill the needs of small groups of consumers. Strategies allow organizations to gain competitive advantage from three different bases.
. there is few ways of achieving product differentiation. It is an effective strategy in situations where customers are price sensitive. buyer are not bothered about brands and there are large no. backward and horizontal integration is to gain cost leadership. Pursue cost leadership in conjunction with differentiation. of buyers with significant bargaining power. Perform cost-benefit analysis to evaluate ³sharing opportunities´ of resources and knowledge among firm¶s existing and potential business units.Types of Strategies Cost Leadership Strategy Reason for forward.
buyer¶s interest switching to other differentiating features beside price. Competitors imitation of strategy may result in lowering overall Industry profits. . technology break through make strategy ineffective. lower overheads. rewards linked with cost containment. limited perks. intolerance of waste.Types of Strategies Implies high efficiency.
Types of Strategies Differentiation Strategy. product performance. Strategy requires strong coordination between R&D and marketing functions. Special features could be superior service. Follow a strategy after careful study of buyers needs and preferences to determine and incorporation of one or more differentiations features. gas mileage or ease of use. spare parts availability. . useful life. Will allow a firm to charge high price. gain customer loyalty. engineering design.
± Consumers have distinctive preferences or requirements. or on a particular product-line segments in order to serve a well defined but narrow market better than competitors who serve a broader market. geographic market. ± Rival firms are not attempting to specialize in the same target market. . Focus Strategies are most effective when. Market Penetration and Market Development strategies offer substantial focusing advantages.Types of Strategies Focus Strategies To concentrate on a particular group of customers.
The consumer preferences drifting towards the product attributes desired by the market as a whole.Types of Strategies Medium to large firms can pursue focus strategies only in conjunction with differentiation or cost leadership-based strategies. . Risks of pursuing Focus Strategies. The possibility of many competitors recognizing the successful focus strategy and copying it.
± Cross-distribution agreements.Types of Strategies Means For Achieving Strategies Joint Venture / Partnership It is a popular strategy when two or more companies form a temporary partnership or consortium for the purpose of capitalizing on some opportunity. ± Cross-licensing agreements. . ± Research and development partnerships. Other types of cooperative arrangements could be. The sponsoring firms normally form a separate organization with shared ownership.
Types of Strategies ± Cross-manufacturing agreements.Managers who must collaborate daily in operating the venture are not involved in forming or shaping the venture. and ± Joint-bidding consortia.The venture may begin to compete more with one of the partners than the other. . Common Problems Leading To Failure Of Joint Ventures 1. 2. if supported unequally. The venture may not be supported equally by both partners. problems arise. 3.
Types of Strategies Merger / Acquisition Merger ± When two organizations of about equal size unite to form one enterprise.If the acquisition is desired by both firms. Friendly Merger .When a merger or acquisition is not desired by both parties. Takeover/Hostile Takeover . .when a large organization purchases (acquires) a smaller firm. or vice versa. Acquisition.
Types of Strategies Forces driving Mergers/ Acquisitions Technological Change Excess capacity Inability to boost profits through price increases A depressed stock market Need to gain economies of scale Bargains galore as companies struggle and while stock prices are low. Not all mergers are effective and successful ± about half produced negative returns to shareholders (Wall Street Journal studies) .
distributors. . products and creditors. To reduce tax obligations. To gain access to new suppliers. customers.Types of Strategies Reasons for Mergers and Acquisitions To provide improved capacity utilization. To reduce managerial staff. To gain new technology. To gain economies of scale To smooth out seasonal trends in sales. To make better use of the existing sales force.
Types of Strategies
First Mover Advantages The benefits a firm may achieve by entering a new market or developing a new product or service prior to rival firm is known as first mover advantages. It may include;
± Securing access to rare resources. ± Gaining new knowledge of key factors of issues, and ± Carving out market share and a position that is easy to defend and costly for rival firms to overtake.
Risk associated being first mover ± unexpected and unanticipated problems and costs may occur being the first firm doing business in the new market.
Types of Strategies
According to research, first mover advantages tend to be greatest when competitors are roughly the same size and possess similar resources. Otherwise, larger competitors can wait while others make initial investments and mistakes, and then respond with greater effectiveness and resources Out Sourcing Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) involves companies taking over the functional operations, such as human resource, information systems, payroll, accounting, customer service, and even marketing of other firms.
Types of Strategies
Companies choose to outsource because; It is less expensive, It allows the firms to focus on its core business, and It enables the firm to provide better service. BPO is the means for achieving strategies that are similar to partnering and joint venture.
Within the external environment are the forces of the general environment or macro environment and the forces of the task environment or industry environment . The organizational environment consists of the internal environment and the external environment.Strategic Management Process The Organizational Environment All forces with potential to influence the organization and its performance is known as organizational environment.
THE ENVIRONMENT The macro-environment Industry Operating Envrnmt Internal Environment The organization Task Environment .
.Strategic Management Process Environmental Scanning Scan external environment to identify possible opportunities and threats. It is a tool used by corporations to avoid strategic surprise and to ensure long-term health . Scan Internal environment to ascertain strengths and weaknesses Monitor. evaluate and disseminate information from external and internal environment to the management. Thus.
and gain a full understanding of key external factors relationships within that industry. . the external (industry) factors are more important than internal factors in a firm achieving competitive advantage. IO perspective requires the firms to compete in attractive industries. finance etc. avoid weak or faltering industries.Strategic Management Process The Industrial Organization (IO) View According to IO approach. Competitive advantage is determined largely by competitive positioning within and industry. The IO theorist argue that the industry in which a firm competes has stronger influence on the firm¶s performance than the internal functional decisions managers make in marketing.
such as economies of scale. structures.Strategic Management Process Firm performance is primarily based more on industry properties. and operations. whereas 36 percent of the profitability is attributed to the firm¶s internal factors. product differentiation. barriers to market entry. and level of competitiveness than on internal resources. . Research findings suggest that approximately 20 percent of a firm¶s profitability can be explained by the industry. However. capabilities.
Competitive forces. Managers. Social. Trade Associations. governmental and legal forces. Communities. Organization¶s Operating Environment: Competitors. Technological forces. Suppliers. Customers.Strategic Management Process Key External Forces: ± ± ± ± ± Economic forces. Special interest groups. cultural. Stockholders. Services. . Employees. Creditors. Governments. Markets and Natural Environment. Labor Unions. Political. Products. demographic and environmental forces. Distributors.
External opportunities /threats enable organizations to develop clear missions and strategies to achieve their objectives. ± The choice of businesses to acquire or sell. External forces directly effect both suppliers and distributors. ± The nature of positioning and market segmentation strategies.Strategic Management Process The effects/influences of external environment on organizations operating environments give rise to opportunities and threats for the organization. . Changes in external forces is reflected into: ± Changes in consumer demand for both industrial and consumer products and services.
± Important for achieving long-term and annual objectives. human resources and internet. Gather competitive intelligence about key external force¶s trends by using print/electronic media. . number of managers and employees.Strategic Management Process Get the participation of max. Evaluate and assimilate the info. ± Measurable. to identify key external factors which are. List of key external factors be communicated to all in the organization. ± Applicable to all competing firms. ± Hierarchical effecting overall company and functional/ divisional areas.
etc. OPEC. Interest rates. Low/ high value of dollar Gross domestic product trend Right sizing/ downsizing or derecruiting Deregulation of Industries to restrain inflation Emergence of economic blocs/ organizations like EEC. The firm must consider. The level of disposable income. stock prices. NAFTA. Consumption patterns are effected by the relative affluence of various market segments-the firm to consider economic trends in the segments that affect its industry.Strategic Management Process Economic Forces The Nature and direction of economy in which firm operates. ± ± ± ± ± ± ± General availability of credit. .
services. and all industries are challenged by the opportunities and threats arising from these changes. Changes in social.Strategic Management Process Social. Cultural. Demographic and Environmental forces. . markets and customers and all sorts of organizations. cultural. demographic and environmental factors have impact on virtually all products.
(Golden hand shake) under Govt. Governmental and Legal Forces Federal. Companies have to pay heavy penalty in shape of expensive severance packages. governmental and legal factors can represent key opportunities or threats for both small and large organizations.Strategic Management Process Political. local and foreign governments are major regulators. employers and customers of organizations. subsidizers. rules for laying off employees . Political. state.
. special tariffs can affect firms significantly. Mass communication and high technology is creating similar patterns of consumption in diverse cultures world wide. contracts. Changes in tax rates. facilities. Political forecasts is critical for multinational firms that depend on foreign countries for natural resources. companies relying only on domestic market may find it difficult to survive. subsidies. or markets for their products. import duty on raw materials.Strategic Management Process Political forecast is vital part of external audit for industries/ firms depending on Govt.
Strategic Management Process Technological Forces Technological advances have brought revolution in business operations. Internet is saving companies billions of dollars in distribution and transaction from direct sales. . New positions of CIO and CTO are being introduced in companies to effectively capitalize on e-commerce. It is changing the nature of opportunities and threats by altering the life cycle of products. increasing speed of distribution . altering economies of scale and changing entry barriers. erasing limitations of traditional geographical markets.
services. customers. ± Create shortage in technical skills. operations. ± Change the relative cost position in an industry. managers and customers. ± Create shorter production runs. manufacturing processes. ± Create new more powerful competitive advantage. Technological breakthroughs can dramatically affect. marketing practices and competitive position. ± Change values and expectations of employees. . suppliers. distributors. ± Products. markets. ± Render existing products and services obsolete.Strategic Management Process Technological forces represent major opportunities and threats which should be taken care of while formulating strategies.
weaknesses. ± There is no substitute for quality and no greater threat than failing to be cost-effective on a global basis. .Strategic Management Process Competitive Forces It is imperative in external audit to identify rival firms and determine their strengths. Characteristics of a competitive firm. not just in product but the whole company. ± Understanding and remembering precisely what is your business. Nothing quite recedes like success. ± Acquisition is essential to growth. ± Bringing improvement. ± Market share. The most-successful purchases are in niches that add technology or a related market. ± People make a difference. ± Innovate or evaporate. threats. tired of hearing it? Too bad. objectives and strategies. opportunities. capabilities.
Competitive intelligence is equally applicable for strategy formulation. . Major competitor¶s weakness can represent external opportunity and major strength may represent key threat.Strategic Management Process Competitive Intelligence (CI) A systematic and ethical process for gathering and analyzing info about competitors activities and general business trends to further a business¶ own goals. implementation and evaluation decisions. lower costs and better decision making. Benefits of corporate spying include increased revenues. Good competitive intelligence in business is one of the key to success.
employees. suppliers. newspaper articles. wiretapping. trade journals. Identify areas in which competitors are vulnerable and assess the impact strategic actions would have on competitors. managers. customers. creditors. distributors. Sources of CI Internet. . Cooperation Among Competitors Unethical tactics like bribery. Identify competitors potential moves that might endanger a firm¶s position in the market. and computer break-ins should not be used in CI.Strategic Management Process Objectives of Competitive Intelligence (CI) To provide general understanding of an industry and its competitors. want ads. online interviews with celebrities and government filings.
± ± ± ± ± Rivalry among competing firms. According to Model. Bargaining power of suppliers. the nature of competitiveness in a given industry can be viewed as a composite of five forces. Bargaining Power of consumers. A widely used approach for developing strategies in many industries. . Potential entry of new competitors. Potential development of substitute products.Strategic Management Process Industry Environment Competitive Analysis: Porter¶s Five-Forces Model.
Michael Porter¶s Model POTENTIAL ENTRANTS Threat of new entrants INDUSTRY COMPETITORS Bargaining power of suppliers SUPPLIERS Bargaining power of customers CUSTOMS Rivalry Among Existing Firms Threat of substitute products or services SUBSTITUTES .
enhancing quality. adding features. ± By becoming more equal in size and capability. . extending warranties or increasing advertising.Strategic Management Process Rivalry among Competing firms The most powerful of five Competitive forces. Change in strategy by one firm may be met with retaliating countermoves like lowering of prices. A successful strategy giving competitive advantage to a firm can be pursued by rival firms. ± with the increase in number of competitors. providing services. The intensity of rivalry increases.
± When fixed costs are high. ± The industry becomes Inherently unattractive. _ Consumers can switch brands easily.Strategic Management Process -With decrease in demand of industry¶s products. As rivalry among competing firms intensifies. ± Industry¶s profits decline. ± when product is perishable. . ± When mergers and acquisitions are common in the industry. ± Barriers to leaving the market are high.
increases the intensity of competitiveness among the firms. Economy of scale. possession of patents. strong brand preference.Strategic Management Process Potential Entry of New Competitors Easy entry of a firm in an industry. large capital requirement. Govt. Barriers to entry include. sophisticated technology and know how. counterattack by entrenched firms or potential saturation of the market: . undesirable locations. lack of access to raw materials. strong customer loyalty. regulatory policies.
Strategic Management Process New firms enter the industry with. . ± High quality products. their strategies. ± Substantial market resources. Strategist must identify new entrants. ± lower prices. plan counter attack if required and capitalize on existing strengths and weaknesses.
paperboard. Presence of substitute put ceiling on the price of a product. Competitive strength of the substitute product could be measured by its market share. or aluminum can producer.Strategic Management Process Potential Development of Substitute Products Firms are in close competition with producers of substitute products. . like plastic container producer competing with glass. Or the firms plane for increased capacity and market penetration. competitive pressure arise when price of the substitute product decreases or consumer¶s switching cost decreases.
± There is large number of suppliers.Strategic Management Process Bargaining Power of Suppliers It affects the intensity of competition in industry when. ± When cost of switching raw materials is high. This strategy is effective when suppliers are unreliable. . Firms may pursue a backward integration strategy to gain control or ownership of suppliers. ± There are only few substitute raw materials. too costly or not capable of meeting a firm¶s demand on consistant bases.
Rival firms offer extended warranties or special services to gain consumer loyalty.Strategic Management Process Bargaining Power of Consumers Intensity of competition in an industry increases by the bargaining power of consumers if. ± Consumers are concentrated or large. warranty coverage. and accessory packages. . ± Products being purchased are standard or undifferentiated. ± Buy in volume. Consumers can negotiate selling price.
and competitive information. technological. political. social. governmental. demographic.Strategic Management Process The External Factor Evaluation (EFE) Matrix The matrix allows the strategists to summarize and evaluate economic. by writing opportunities first and than threats. legal. cultural. . The Matrix can be developed in five steps. environmental. ± i) List external factors identified in external audit (about 10 to 20 factors) including both opportunities and threats.
The weight indicates the relative importance of that factor in success of the firm¶s industry. 2 = the response is average. .0 (not important) to 1. Appropriate weight can be determined by comparing successful with unsuccessful competitors or by discussing the factor and reaching a group consensus.Strategic Management Process ± ii) Assign each factor a weight ranging from 0. where. ± iii) Assign a rating of 1 to 4 to each key external factor to indicate how effectively the firm¶s current strategies respond to the factor.0 (very important). The total of all weight assigned to the factors must be equal 1. and 1 = the response is poor. 3 = the response is above average. 4 = the response is superior.0.
5. whereas the weights in step 2 are industry based. The highest possible total weighted score for an organization is 4.0 indicates that the organization is responding in an outstanding way to existing opportunities and threats in its industry.0. . The average total weighted score is 2.0 and the lowest 1.Strategic Management Process Ratings are based on effectiveness of the firm¶s strategies thus company-based. ± iv) Multiply each factor¶s weight by its rating to determine a weighted score. The score of 4. or taking advantage of opportunities and minimizing effects of threats. ± v) Sum the weighted score for each variable to determine the total weighted score for the organization.
15 .05 .05 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 .15 .05 .15 .V Increasing free cash flow Owns one mile on beach Strong management team Buffet at most facilities Long-range planning Reputation as family friendly Financial ratios Weight Rating Weighted Score .05 .Strategic Management Process A SAMPLE INTERNAL FACTOR EVALUATON MARTRIX Key Internal Factors Internal Strength Largest Casino in country Room Occupancy 95% in L.40 .20 .15 .15 .20 .10 .05 .60 .05 .05 .15 .
05 .10 .10 1.05 .75 .Strategic Management Process Key Internal Factors Internal Weaknesses Most properties located in L.05 .V Little diversification Family reputation.05 .10 2.00 1 2 2 1 .10 . not high Recent loss of joint venture Total Weight Rating Weighted Score .
therefore the ratings refer to strengths and weaknesses. Critical success factors in a CPM include both internal and external issues. where. However. ± 4 = major strength ± 3 = minor strength ± 2 = minor weakness ± 1 = major weakness . The weights and total weighted scores in both a CPM and EFE have the same meaning.Strategic Management Process The Competitive Profile Matrix (CPM) The CPM identifies a firm¶s major competitors and its particular strengths and weaknesses in relation to a competitor firm¶s strategic position.
location of facilities. . global expansion and market share. product quality. technological advantages and e-commerce expertise. production capacity and efficiency. union relations. could be. management. financial position customer loyalty. Other than critical success factors. breadth of product line. price competitiveness. effectiveness of sales distribution. experience. proprietary or patent advantages.Strategic Management Process For example critical success factors for firms may include advertising.
± Strategy to place realistic requirements on the firm¶s resources.Strategic Management Process Internal Environment Analysis The Importance of Internal Analysis Internal strengths/ weaknesses coupled with external opportunities/threats and a clear statement of mission. provide the basis for establishing objectives and strategies. ± Strategy be consistent with conditions in competitive environment. ± Strategy be carefully executed. Involvement of representatives of managers and employees from throughout the firm to determine firm¶s internal strengths and weaknesses . Three critical ingredients of a successful strategy.
location. and organizational resources. Physical Resources Plant and equipment. human resources. The organizational performance will primarily be determined by internal resources. raw materials and machines. internal resources are more important for a firm than external factors in achieving and sustaining competitive advantage.Strategic Management Process The Resource-Based View (RBV) According to RBV approach. . Three Basic Resources Physical resources. technology. which can be grouped into three categories.
training. amount. intelligence. knowledge. experience. . trademarks. and abilities Organizational Resources Firm structure. copyrights. planning processes. and nature of a firm¶s internal resources first in devising strategies that can lead to sustainable competitive advantage. The firm must consider the mix. type. accumulated experience within organization and so on. RBV theory asserts that sources are actually what helps a firm exploit opportunities and neutralize threat.Strategic Management Process Human Resources All employees. patents. skills. databases. information systems.
people. becomes the basis for lasting competitive advantage. either with greater efficiency in the processes or greater quality in the output or both. Finely developed capabilities can be a source of sustained competitive advantage. They enable the firm to take the same input factors as rivals and convert them into products and services. nurtured and deployed throughout the firm. . Core Competence A capability or skill running through a firm¶s businesses and that once identified. abilities and ways of combining assets.Strategic Management Process Organizational Abilities The skills. and processes that a company uses to transform inputs into outputs.
. ± Commodities. Easy to imitate.Strategic Management Process What Makes a Resource valuable? Competitive Superiority : Does the resource help fulfill a customer¶s needs better than those of the firm¶s competitors? Resource scarcity: Is the resource in short supply? Inimitability: Is the resource easily copied or acquired? Inimitability doesn¶t last for ever. ± Cash. competitors will match or better any resource sooner than later.
± capacity ± Economy of scale Difficult to Imitate ± Brand loyalty. ± Reputation for fairness. ± Patents.Strategic Management Process Can be imitated (but may not be). ± Unique locations. ± Employee Satisfaction. . ± Unique assets (mineral rights). Cannot be Imitated.
Involves identifying and evaluating firm¶s resources that possess strategic value and can provide basis for future competitive advantage.Based View in Internal Analysis.Strategic Management Process Durability: How rapidly will the resource depreciate? Substitutability: Are other alternatives available? Using Resource. .
Utilize a functional perspective. . Look at organizational processes and combinations of resources and not only at isolated assets or capabilities. Disaggregate resources: Break them into more specific competencies rather than stay with broad categorizations. Use value chain approach to identify capabilities.Strategic Management Process Methods to identify resources with strategic value. Separating tangible and intangible assets as well as organizational capabilities can uncover value-building resources and activities. activities and processes having potential competitive advantage.
window decorations ± Table layout Table materials . ± Features/décor. Theme. color scheme. ± External Signs/ welcome Offering a delightful ambiance ± Floor design. floor materials. Providing ease of access ± Parking (where appropriate). ± Bar positioning. ± Door Positioning and style.Strategic Management Process Disaggregating a Restaurant¶s Customer Service Resource.
± Marketing literature. ± Visible queuing system.Strategic Management Process Providing a Special welcome ± Host greeting ± Welcome drinks/ eats ± Menu introduction ± Table decoration Ensuing waiting time at the table is´ as expected´ and as enjoyable as possible. . ± Entertainment for queuers.
Daily Meetings. Menu training.Strategic Management Process Providing a customer with delightful service Developing a special relationship between waiter/ waitress and table ± Waiter selection ± waiter training/ development Personality training Assessing customers Handling disasters Coping with pressures. Job experience Motivation awards. ± System of gaining waiter¶s attention . coaching process Discipline system.
Strategic Management Process Ensuring that Menu is fun to use and caters to the diners¶ needs. ± Kitchen queuing system ± Service standards Reducing the pain of paying the bill. ± Size of Menu ± Material Menus made off ± Menu dishes ± Menu layout Providing speed of service appropriate to the occasion. .
beliefs. thing. myths. Cultural products or dimensions include values. rituals. ceremonies. symbols.Strategic Management Process Organizational Culture A pattern of behavior (that has been) developed by an organization as it learns to cope with its problem of external adaptation and internal integration. language. rites. and heroines. stories. and feel. legends. metaphors. This definition emphasizes the importance of matching external with internal factors in making strategic choices. heroes. saga. . and that has worked well enough to be considered valid and to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive.
or likable. Every organization like an individual¶s personality have different cultures ± they could be warm. conservative. An organization¶s culture must support the collective commitment of its people to a common purpose. liberal. and evaluation activities. harsh. open. The strategic management process takes place largely within a particular organization culture.Strategic Management Process These dimensions are levers that strategists can use to influence and direct strategy formulation. aggressive. innovative. It must foster competence and enthusiasm among managers and employees . implementation. friendly.
If the firm¶s culture is not supportive. . then management can implement changes swiftly. strategic changes may be ineffective or even counterproductive. and evaluation of strategies. like strong work ethic or highly ethical beliefs.Strategic Management Process Organizational culture significantly affects business decisions and thus must be evaluated during an internal strategic management audit. If strategies can capitalize on cultural strengths. The challenge of strategic management is to bring about the changes in organizational culture and individual mindsets that are needed to support the formulation. However. implementation.
an unquestioned belief about the practical benefits of certain techniques and behaviors that is not supported by facts.Relatively elaborate. technical consequences of practical importance. usually used to explain origins or transformation of something.Strategic Management Process Cultural Products or Dimensions Rites . Also. detail set of techniques and behaviors that manage anxieties. planned sets of activities that consolidate various forms of cultural expressions into one event. . but seldom produce intended. carried out through social interactions. dramatic. Ritual ± A standardized. Ceremonial ± A system of several rites connected with a single occasion or event. usually for the benefit of an audience. Myth ± A dramatic narrative of imagined events.
Legend ± A handed down narrative of some wonderful event that is based on history but has been blown up with fictional details. sometimes a combination of truth and fiction.Strategic Management Process Saga ± A historical narrative describing the unique accomplishments of a group and its leaders. usually by representing another thing. Folktale ± A completely fictional narrative. Story ± A narrative based on true events. or relation that serves as a vehicle for conveying meaning. usually in heroic terms. event. Symbol ± Any object. Language ± A particular form or manner in which members of a group use sounds and written signs to convey meanings to each other. act. .
Values . . Heroes/Heroines ± Individuals whom the organization has legitimized to model behavior for others.life-directing attitudes that serve as behavioral guidelines. Belief ± An understanding of a particular phenomenon.Strategic Management Process Metaphors ± Shorthand words used to capture a vision or to reinforce old or new values.
and planning is the essential bridge between the present and the future that increases the likelihood of achieving the desired results. . Planning enables a firm to take into account relevant factors and focus on the critical ones. motivating. planning. Planning is an up-front investment in success.Strategic Management Process Management The function of management are five basic activities. Planning enables a firm to gather the resources needed and carry out tasks in the most efficient way. staffing. organizing. and controlling. Planning The only thing certain about the future of any organization is change.
Strategic Management Process Planning enables a firm to identify precisely what is to be achieved and to detail precisely the who. Successful organizations strive to control their own futures rather than merely react to external forces and events as they occur. where. what. . Strategic management can be viewed as a formal planning process that allows an organization to pursue proactive rather than reactive strategies. and how needed to achieve desired objectives. Planning helps ensure that the firm can be prepared for all reasonable eventualities and for all changes that will be needed. why. when.
and ± Delegation authority.Strategic Management Process Organizing The purpose of organizing is to achieve coordinated efforts by defining tasks and authority relationship. ± Breaking tasks down into jobs ( work specialization ). The organization function consist of three sequential activities. Resources are allocated more effectively and used more efficiently in a well organized firm than in a disorganized firm. . Organizing means determining who does what and who reports to whom. ± Combining jobs to form departments ( departmentalization).
Strategic Management Process Breaking tasks down into jobs require development of job description and job specification. deleted. business unit. The most common forms of departmentalization are functional. which lead to specialization and according to Adam Smith (Wealth of Nations published 1776) would lead to higher productivity. and chain of command. . span of control. Combining jobs to form departments results in an organizational structure. Changes in strategy often require changes in structure because positions may be created. divisional. and matrix. or merged. strategic.
. They expect to be delegated authority and responsibility. and to be held accountable for results Delegation of authority is embedded in strategic management process. Employees of today are more educated and capable of participation in organizational decision making.Strategic Management Process Delegation authority is an important activity as evidenced in old saying ³ you can tell how good a manager is by observing how his/her department functions when he or she is not there´.
understandable.Strategic Management Process Strategic Objectives Strategic objectives or long-term objectives represent the results expected from pursuing certain strategies. Growth in sales. Objectives are commonly stated in terms of. . and obtainable. hierarchical. Profitability. ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Growth in assets. Degree and nature of diversification. measurable. challenging. Objectives should be quantitative. Earning per share and Social responsibilities. realistic. Market share.
an organization can minimize potential conflicts later during implementation .Strategic Management Process Clearly stated objectives help stakeholders understand their role in an organization. They provide basis for consistent decision making by managers whose values and attitudes differ. By making objectives through consensus.
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Strategy Analysis And Choice
Identifying and evaluating alternative strategies should involve maximum number of managers and employees. All the participant should have the firm¶s external and internal audit information by their sides. The firm¶s external/internal audit, coupled with mission statement, will help participants to crystallize the particular strategy that could benefit the firm most. All the feasible alternate strategies be discussed and ranked in the order of attractiveness, like; ± 1. Should not be implemented.
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± 2. Possibly should be implemented. ± 3. Probably should be implemented. ± 4. Definitely should be implemented. The process will result in prioritized list of best strategies reflecting the collective wisdom of the group.
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but also to broader set of moral principles expected by all or by a segment of society. Ethical Behavior Conduct that is considered µright¶ or µgood¶ in the context of a governing moral code. . expectations and morals comprising standards of conduct for a population or profession. It conforms not only to the law.Internal Environment Analysis Business Ethics and Social Responsibility Ethics A system of behaviors. Unethical Behavior Conduct that is considered µwrong¶ or µbad¶ in the context of a moral code.
Code Of Ethics A formal statement of the organization¶s values. Ethical Standard A guidelines governing moral conduct of a particular group. . ethical principles. and ethical rules.
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