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19458614-Anatomical-Terms

19458614-Anatomical-Terms

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ANATOMICAL
TERMS
AND THEIR DERIVATION

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TAIPEI . HONGKONG . LONDON . PETER LISOWSKI University of Tasmania. OXNARD University of Western Australia. SINGAPORE . CHENNAI . SHANGHAI . Australia CHARLES E.ANATOMICAL TERMS AND THEIR DERIVATION F. BEIJING . Austrlia World Scientific NEW JERSEY .

com Printed in Singapore. In this case permission to photocopy is not required from the publisher. .Published by World Scientific Publishing Co. may not be reproduced in any form or by any means. Singapore 596224 USA office: 27 Warren Street. This book. Ltd. please pay a copying fee through the Copyright Clearance Center. Ltd. London WC2H 9HE British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. electronic or mechanical. ANATOMICAL TERMS AND THEIR DERIVATION Copyright © 2007 by World Scientific Publishing Co. All rights reserved. NJ 07601 UK office: 57 Shelton Street. Suite 401-402. ISBN 981-270-387-X (pbk) Typeset by Stallion Press Email: enquiries@stallionpress. Inc.. Danvers. 222 Rosewood Drive. Pte. MA 01923. Hackensack. recording or any information storage and retrieval system now known or to be invented. Pte. or parts thereof. without written permission from the Publisher. including photocopying. Covent Garden. 5 Toh Tuck Link. USA. For photocopying of material in this volume.

it is certainly far wider than just surgery. Thus. the use of anatomy is widely misunderstood. This is partly because the curriculum is overcrowded and something has to go. pressing in left iliac fossa giving pain in right iliac fossa in appendicitis. the obturator test. a minor “surgery” of general practice that requires anatomy in situations where it cannot be “looked up. Even the finger (touching — palpation) or the eye (looking — observation) mislead if what is under the skin has been forgotten (or was never known).”The knife for a sebaceous cyst in the neck easily leads to paralysis of the trapezius if anatomical knowledge has gone (or never existed). thus. Anatomy helps understand signs and symptoms. Do we know how the local anatomy of special skin regions relates to oedema: swelling of the back of hand and foot in the upright patient. paradoxically. It is also because medical education assumes that anatomy’s main value is for surgery and will be learnt later by beginning surgeons. Do we know that accuracy in observation and v . There is. flexing and medially rotating the right thigh causes pain from a pelvic appendix lying on the obturator muscle? Anatomy is important in everything we do in medicine. Yet anatomy for surgery is.ANATOMICAL TERMS AND THEIR DERIVATION Anatomy is gradually disappearing from the medical curriculum. swelling around the eyes in the lying patient. the least of the reasons for doctors to know anatomy. The needle at the elbow or buttock readily causes problems if the simple anatomy is absent (or has disappeared). Do we understand: the opposite side test. swelling of the genitalia (especially alarming to the patient in a cardiac bed) in the sitting patient? Anatomy is important in clinical tests.

This is powerful first hand learning: listening. models. health care colleagues. atlases. experience: how it is used. patients. Paradoxically. and above all.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation description stem first from observation and description in anatomy? Do we realize that anatomical terms are the vocabulary of medicine. biological sciences are not vi . and with the patient? Learning anatomy is also widely misunderstood. of teachers. function: how it works. memorization is an important aid to learning in all disciplines. disappear in short order. pictures. Eastern Europe. mnemonics and memory (rote-learning) though all useful initially. application: when it goes wrong. speaking. it is certainly far wider than just memorization of facts. It can also be learnt from many bodies. fellow students. development: how it came to be during a life time. In today’s world. the Middle East) far removed from English. Anatomy can be learnt from text-books. All this communication requires an interface between the language of medicine and the language of life. not just anatomy: how doctors communicate with one another. questioning. evolution: how it came to be in myriads of life times. Anatomy is only truly known through understanding the underlying science. All this leads to a new problem for today’s students.” However. the information in texts. This is second hand learning. Questioning is the final basis of learning. they had biological and classical backgrounds. many lack the classics and biology that utilize the words (in Australia. discussing. notes. this is one of the reasons for eliminating anatomy. Africa. In prior times. Of course. lists. in contrast. of the living as well as the dead. using. they usually had English as their first language. they already “knew” what the words meant. it can be “looked up. many students are from language groups (Asia. prosections and computers. it seems that it does not need to be learnt. and of one’s own body as well as the patient’s. students were often relatives of doctors or other professionals already possessing a medical flavour.

Anatomical Terms and their Derivation even required at entry). the use of a standard biological or medical dictionary is recommended. or (2) commonly. or borrowing terms from the Greek and Arabic masters before them. Such students ask: “Why do things have such complex names?” “If only we knew the meaning it would be easier to understand!” The teacher of the old days who could have enlightened them is almost extinct. For a wider vocabulary. The following text provides some of the information that those teachers might have given. the book is organised into abbreviations. and to Dr K. as an aid to comprehension. Here. Secretary of the Anatomy and Physiology Department who did the original word processing.The small pocket word book is truly a vade mecum that goes with the student into all parts of medicine. and an alphabetical list covering the entire body. scientific names have been invented (1) by using certain classical words which appear to be descriptive of the part concerned. short lists for each major body part. In anatomic terminology. general terms common to all body regions. Most vii . Phua and Ms Lim Sook Cheng of World Scientific. many are baffled by the language of medicine. Anatomy began as descriptive science in the days when Latin was the universal scientific language. prefixes and suffixes. For practical convenience. and early anatomists described the structures they saw in that language. It has been tested on medical students in the Universities of Tasmania and Western Australia. Our thanks go to Ms Jill Aschman. the roots are also presented from which many of these descriptive terms and compounds are derived. common Latin or Greek words are used as such for any part of the body for which the ancients had a name. The student response has been most gratifying. Memorization of such terms without understanding their meaning can lead to mental indigestion. comparing them to common and familiar objects. For many other structures. by combining Greek or Latin roots to form a new compound term. K.

Their questions about meanings have stimulated our answers and this pocket book. Hobart and Perth FPL CEO 2006 viii .Anatomical Terms and their Derivation important thanks of all go to generations of medical students in all the medical schools in which we have worked.

. . . . . . Commonly Used Suffixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terms Important in the Abdomen and Pelvis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terms Specific to the Nervous System . . . . . . . . . Commonly Used Prefixes . . Terms Important in the Upper Limb . . . . . Terms Important in the Head and Neck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 6 7 21 28 35 44 58 74 85 ix . . . Alphabetical List of Terms . . . Terms Important in the Lower Limb . . . . . . . . . . . . Terms Common to All Anatomical Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terms Important in the Thorax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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ABBREVIATIONS AS. Latin NL. “New” Latin OF. Greek L. plural 1 . Arabic dim. diminutive F. French Ger. German G. Old French pl. Anglo-Saxon A.

on both sides. double G. from G. occipital base bicipital. lead towards afferent. opposed to G. lacking. anabadafamphiandroanteantiapoautobasibibrachycephalocircumchondro- Meaning G. two joints androgen. to. head measure circumduction. pertaining to the base L. forearm antihelix.COMMONLY USED PREFIXES Prefix a-. self L. reverse coil apocrine. without L. lead away adduction. twice. away from L. cartilage 2 Example asexual. head L. lead around chondrocyte. bring towards amphiarthrosis. toward L. self governing basiocciput. double G. a male L. autos. short G. forward. around. short head cephalometry. reverse. male producing antebrachium. about G. to. before G. toward G. chondras. two heads brachycephaly. secreting from autonomic. without sex abduction. cartilage cell . against.

under. exextraem-. in. stomach-colon reflex helicotrema. whole secretion homologous hypertrophy. joint apart ectoderm. within G. diadise-. deficient. below orbit 3 . on G. excessive G. over. outer layer extradural. bulging eye extracellular. between L. twice G. swallow down diaplegia. away G. over growth hypothalamus. twisted hole hemisphere. with L. over G. both sides diaphragm. not L. outside G. upon. not mature infraorbital. belly G. below L. twisted G. gaster. outside the dura embolism. enen-. the better of alternates G. ecto-. draw together deglutition. away from. above. endoepieuexoextragastrohelicohemiholohomohyperhypoim-. com-. together. wall between disarticulate. on outer side L. double. outside L.Commonly Used Prefixes co-. half G. outside G. outside the cell gastrocolic reflex. ininfraL. through. stomach. down G. extra. half a sphere holocrine. condedidi-. one and the same G. whole G. below the thalamus immature. over heart eugenics. within heart epicardium. better generation exophthalmos. apart. wedge inside endocardium. below constrictor.

Anatomical Terms and their Derivation interintraintroisomacromegametames-. between L. looking small combining form of muscle combining form of nerve (tendon. bone G. straight. straight walking osteocyte. inside. large cell megalocyte. equal G. large cell metacarpal. large G. mys. orthos. osteon. behind the axis prenatal. all G. see aponeurosis) omnipotent. after G. by the side of G. between the vertebrae intramuscular. nerve intervertebral. egg G. before G. before kidney omniomphaloooorthoosteoparaperipostprae-. around L. before. big. bone cell paravertebral. equal measure macrocyte. for 4 . look inside isometric. all powerful signifying the navel oocyte. into G. within. mesomicromyoneuroL. within L. after the carpus (wrist) mesogastrium microscope. middle G. direct G. after. great G. within muscle introspection. egg cell orthograde. small G. neuron. combining form (omphalos) G. omnis. prepro- L. change. muscle G. behind L. stretched around postaxial. oon. before birth pronephros. beside the vertebrae peritoneum.

across pylorus ultrasonic. in excess. behind the peritoneum semimembranosus. above G. half L. beyond reflect. turn back retroperitoneal. under L. synostosis transpyloric. again. across L.Commonly Used Prefixes reretrosemisubsuprasym-. with L. backward. behind L. above spine symphysis. under clavicle supraspinatous. back L. beyond (audible) sounds 5 . together. half membranous subclavius. syntransultraL.

suffering G. skopein. pain G. graphein. blood in urine 6 . to flow G. breast shaped diplopia. to write G. study of G. rhein. form. sight G. cutting out L. hollow G. spindle shaped radiograph conjunctivitis pathology mastoid. to cut G. resemblance G. temnein. forma.COMMONLY USED SUFFIXES Suffix -algia -coele -ectomy -form -graph -itis -logy -oid -opia -pathy -rhoea -scopy -tomy -uria Meaning G. ek-tome. logos. shape G. koilia. to view G. ouron. eidos. double vision sympathy diarrhoea endoscopy hysterectomy haematuria. suffix indicating inflammation G. algos. nerve pain blastocoele. word. urine Example neuralgia. pathos. opsis. treatise. hollow cell ball appendicectomy fusiform.

7 . L. agonistes. L. an. L. G. + ducere. + legen. L. ante. before. an. ante. G. Agonist. Adventia. Anlage. turning. L. to carry. + logos. ab. precursor). fat. before. bound. apertura. to. Adductor. Apocrine. to bring to a mouth. Ger. + venire. according to. L. Anatomy. a ring. L. to. + flexere. Analogy. to lead. Accessory. law. ad. to cut. rival. adeps. to stray. to bend. G.TERMS COMMON TO ALL ANATOMICAL REGIONS Abductor. to. Anteversion. Anomaly. from. ad. opening. Adnexa. away. + krinein. to come. Antagonist. to lead. + nexus. ana. cause to communicate. ad. ad. Apertura. L. Aditus. Adipose. without. opening. G. + ferre. Annulus. L. aditus. L. rival. away. + ducere. on. adhaereo. anti. to separate. + errare. apart. ante. Anterior. agonistes. to. to lay (a laying on — primordium. ana. Aberrant. to stick together. G. Anastomosis. anulus (annulus). L. G. treatise. + tennein. G. Afferent. anastomoein. supplementary. against. L. L. Adhesion. before. + nomos. ab. apo. L. L. + versio. accessorius. Anteflexion.

axis. Bulla. Brevis. + ectasis. autos. L. without. G. bis. axis. L. hence spherical in shape. self. small muscles in skin that erect the hairs. + tresis. a. articulatus. Atavistic. bi. 8 . Artery. aqua. Articulation. bis. brevis. arteria. footing. articulationes. to raise. incomplete. L. two. side. atavus. strength. L. + nomos. Bursa. without. to keep (L. axis. G. L. a. Artefact. ateles. L. L. a purse. without. a. expansion. made. grandfather. Axial. Bifid. L. G. hence purse-shaped object. + terein. Atelectasis. aer. by art. bursa. joint. axle of a wheel. two. a. artus. windpipe). L. belly. + factus. fork. G. L. bulbus. base. axon. Atrophy. + latus. L. G. + trophe. bis. bulb. air. L. L. bulla. L. rough. Bifurcate. Basal. order. thus arrectores pilorum. Arrector. little joint. Biventer. Autonomic. Bilateral. + findere. Ataxia. asper. two. short. G. swollen root. ancient belief that blood vessels contained air. without. to cleave. arrigere. Atresia. arte. G. hole. pl. + venter. nourishment. + furca. Bulbus. two. + taxis. law. a bubble. L. joints. + sthenos. G. the line about which any body turns. basis.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Aqueous. Axon. L. Aspera. L. Axis. Asthenic. axle of a wheel. water.

little hill. Chorda. Cartilage. Convolution. + eidos. Commissure. together. Cauda. pertaining to a door hinge. tail. around. caverna. comes. L. Collagen. cartilage. caudal Cava. skin. Chorion. dim. canalis. Colliculus. L. G. chorion. L. chorion. circum. L. L. + eidos. Choroid. con. L. cavus. L. L. to roll. cancelli. as above. kolla. L. Caruncle. L. shape. Corpus (pl. box. of caro. cauda. Comes. colliculus. corpora). Canaliculus. + volvo. begetter of. flesh. Circumflex. watepipe. a hollow or cave. side. commissura (cum + mittere). Cardinal. L. + facere. -um. Cancellous. hollow or cave. Cavum. Comitans (pl. Calcification. L. L. to bend. L. L. any fleshy eminence. on which something important or fundamental hinges. calx. 9 .Terms Common to All Anatomical Regions Calcar. shape. con. a hollow or cave. G. + flexere. companion. L. connection. G. dim. skin. glue. Cavernosus. to accompany. lime. L. cavum. latticework. G. Collateral. likeness. Callous. pertaining to the hair. comitantes). gristle. L. newly formed bone at fracture site. communicans. capillaris. likeness. Capsule. L. cord. L. L. body. G. calcar. glue. together. L. -a. Capillary. to make. cardinalis. kolla. gen. chorde. + L. communicating. + latus. L. cartilago. Communicans. spur. comitari. Colloid. of capsa. string of gut.

Ductule. to turn aside. back. G. out. crest. G. 10 . Cruciate. Dermal. deterere. + ferens. L. dendros. crux. Eminence. Decussation. skin. to push down. distare.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Corpuscle. ducere. down. G. skin. G. G. L. Endoderm. efficere. out. twice. skin. + mittere. as in Roman X. L. + zygoo. de. + ferre. Dermatome. outside. ektos. Detritus. ducere. + temnein. + derma. bag. G. out. L. Dorsal. kystis. cutis. L. skin. little body. L. crus. to rub away. Emissary. Cuticle. de. to bear. G. L. to stand apart. to bring to pass. cystic). to send. join together. carrying. within. Endochondral. L. L. + premere. cutis. G. Efferent. to lead. to lead or draw. Dermis. L. Distal. e. L. Dizygotic. e. Cyst (adj. cross. L. Effector. dis. intersection of two lines. derma. detrudere. G. Detrusor. L. derma. L. divertere. endon. Depressor. tree. + derma. leg. to jut. bladder. Crista. Crus (pl. endon. cutis. Ectoderm. L. skin. Diverticulum. Cutis. skin. L. L. L. derma. Dendrite. + minere. pouch. skin. Duct. to cut. L. within. crura). ex. corpusculum. L. to press. away. Deferens. L. + chondros. decussatio. cartilage. crista. dorsum. Cutaneous. skin. dim.

-iae). out. L. Fibroblast. Flexor. bud. muscle. epi. Extrinsic. Endothelium. L. L. likeness. G. 11 . extend. + mys. bone. Filament. + neuron. Fissure. something dug. G. Fundiform. fascia. a small bag. L. pipe. Endoskeleton. fossa. Fistula. Epimysium. + cartilago. a little thread. ex. fibre. + tendere. G. L. nerve. Fossa. nerve. G. extendo. forma. G.Terms Common to All Anatomical Regions Endomysium. flaccidus. L. Eversion. L. string. L. endon. endon. bundle. to turn. + krinein. L. L. + neuron. L. to stretch. endon. ex. L. out. fenestra. L. on. Epidermis. e. + blastos. weak. epi. fibre. + osteon. band. fibrilla. dried up. folliculus. shape. Fenestra. Fascia (pl. Fibrocartilage. Form. Follicle. ex. epi. shape. Extension. Fasciculus. sling. + derma. L. fissura (findo). G. window. foramen. Epithelium. endon. Flaccid. within. extrinsecus. gristle. Fiber. skin. channel. on. bent. ditch. Fibril. filamentum. L. L. a cleft. Foramen. Exocrine. L. + vertere. epi. upon. on the outside. fibra. Fibre. + forma. G. G. thread. + mys. + skeletos. Exudate. within. nipple. L. NL. to separate. fascis. + thele. L. within. funda. fistula. G. L. L. muscle. fibra. Endoneurium. to sweat. within. out. within. thin fibre. endon. Epineurium. fibre. nipple. hole. on. flexus. fibra. + thele. Endosteum. + sudare. out. G. Extensor.

+ L. G. + tegere. fundus. hypo. in. pellet. haima. acorn. in. G. Hilum. treatise. Haemal. glue. Funicular. incidere. spindle. in. G. to lead on. + plantere. Hormone. stroke. G. Incisura. fusus. hormaein. gestare. to cover. 12 Germinal. condition of the body. L. glans. + serere. Inductor. germen. haima. G. in. homos. Integument. L. + krinein. Implantation. L. bottom. Hemoglobin. G.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Fundus. axis. humor. Hemisphere. rope. gloia. Humor. Insertion. in. + plege. + L. creative. moisture. shape. Gland. to press. hemi. G. whole. germ. germen. habitus. inducere. ball. Holocrine. Hemopoietic. Germinative. to separate. same. over. L. + nervus. G. G. Haemoglobin. funis. L. holos. to plant. blood. Fusiform. to plant. to bear. dim. blood. axis. half. G. likeness. + forma. Gestation. a small thing. centre line. hemal. in. globus. + logos. to excite. Homology. L. L. Innervation. + premere. fluid. L. L. under. bud. Hemiplegia. Habitus. Impression. glandula. + poietikos. Hypaxial. in. L. + sphaira. hemi. L. L. Glia. in. bud. to cut into. in. L. nerve. hilum. blood. Haemopoietic. haima. L. L. germ. . excite. sphere. L. L. half.

inter. Lipid. juxta. Lacerate. in. Interstitial. lacuna. Ligamentum. lobe. G. + phagein. lympha. G. 13 . lateralis (latus). Leukocyte. G. + digitus. lympha. Intima. kinesis. innermost. G. Kinetic. Inversion. nucleus. Karyolysis. G. leukos. nucleus. thin plate. -ae). large. L. Lymph. to eat. L. L. Karyocyte. movement. near. G. leaf. in. G. L. Lateral. cell. a bandage. L. + eidos. Interdigitating. Macrophage. Lymphocyte. resemblance. + sistere. makros. spring water. in. thus placed in spaces or gaps. + positio. Locus. to turn. between. L. + calare. white. place. L. Leucocyte. I see. + vagina. cell. Invagination. lacerare. loosening.Terms Common to All Anatomical Regions Intercalated. intima. ligamentum. Lobus. inter. Lacuna. nut. karyon. + vertere. Intrinsic. + kytos. large. in. inserted or placed between. intrinsecus. lamina. locus. Lamella. Lamina (pl. spring water. to call. interlocked by finger-like processes. dim. karyon. L. + lysis. L. + G. nut. L. L. pertaining to a side. + kytos. pond. L. L. L. inward. to tear. fat. sheath. Juxtaposition. G. L. L. digit. place. lipos. lobos. between. of lamina. + skopeo. L. between. to set. cell. inter. makros. Macroscopic. kytos.

small. nerve. Nerve. + blastos. little mouse. mys. small. groundwork. thread. middle. G. metabole. molded. cordlike structure. mesos. G. single. nipple.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Marginal. G. Mucus. skin. + kytos. G. after. Necrosis. Neuralgia. nerve. + logos. formed. after. sight. cell. + tome. Neural. G. G. Microscope. meta. G. monos. L. thread. grain. G. nervus. mesos. a cutting. Metaphase. + chondrion. Meatus (pl. medianus. mold. form. body. neuron. Muscle. treatise. big. + skopeo. G. marginalis (margo). G. a killing. portion. Myotome. to separate. G. G. Mesenchyme. -us). + chymos. tendon. womb. G. in. nerve. middle. Mesothelium. I look. meta. G. pain. appearance. Myology. L. mikros. Matrix. + plasma. L. muscle. change. + algos. L. Membrane. nekrosis. nekros. G. Mitochondria. + logos. + derma. muxa. G. treatise. + soma. megas. Merocrine. meatus. corpse. Monocyte. G. juice. neuron. + en. + opsis. L. mucus. medialis (medius). bud. Mesoderm. snivel. G. Megaloblast. G. 14 . musculus. pertaining to the middle. in the middle. passage. matrix (mater). Microsome. hence middle lining layer. meros. middle. G. mesos. skin. morphos. bordering. G. Mitosis. neuron. Medial. mys. myos. mitos. G. + thele. mitos. Metaplasia. L. L. L. slippery secretion. muscle. + krinein. mikros. Metabolic. Morphology. Necropsy. Median. L. + phasis. membrana.

L. bone. nerve. neuron. L. equivalent of L. + claudo. in the way of. + gloia. square used by carpenters. Neuron. husk. excision. rule. norma. Os. + logos. L. L. L. osteon. Oedema. treatise. + blastos. cordlike structure. + dendron. sheath. bud. neuron. Occlusion. + lemma. bone. + axon. nerve. opening. small bone. Neurilemma. New derivation “small nucleus. G. nerve. neuron. G. norma. neuron. hence standard viewpoint. + positus. L. Neurology. Normoblast. ob. Nucleus. ossa). swelling. Neuroectomy. orificium. felt. oligos. bone. osteon. oistros. rule. G.” L. bud. bone. L. Osteology. + poros. + pilos. G. G. G. knot. hole. ossiculum. before. nerve. L. + blastos. tendon. hence. Nucleolus. nerve. Orifice. G. os. stinging insect. nerve. nerve. axis. G. G. few. Oligodendroglia. Osseous. oidema. + gloia. neuron. bone. + kytos. neuron. G. L. ob. + facere. neuron. Ossification. Opposition. bone. organum. nucleus. Neuropil. os (pl. nerve. Edema. + logos. Ossicle. Neuropore. Osteone. stung into activity at time of heat. nervus. glue. glue. treatise. L. L. + ektome. implement. I close. nut. 15 . nut. cell. Estrus. G. placed. sinew. neuron. osteon. Osteocyte. G. G. tree. Oestrus. Neuroglia.Terms Common to All Anatomical Regions Neuraxon. Organ. Norma. L. neuron. Node. nerve. os. G. to make. Neuroblast. nucleus. G. nodus.

+ kytos. side of foot. G. phagein. axle. Placode. G. pleon. + typos. Paraplegia. shape. Platelet. L. peri. + gradior. beside. Periosteum. Perimysium. G. Paradox. + morphe. form. G. Paraxial. G. alongside of. anything flat. + osteon. cell. plate. to generate. G. hence an outgrowth. para. paresis. Plexus (pl. G. Paraesthesia. alongside of. axis. + kytos. G. belief. G. + L. pathos. G. Ostium. treatise. 16 . knot. middle. alongside of. cartilage. Pleomorphic. plasma. to display. around. nut. G. alongside of. diversified. -us). pirum. peri. Paralysis. plaiting. bone. Plantigrade. + mesos. along. type.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Osteolysis. pear. likeness. Pathology. G. Phagocyte. plate. forms. something formed. planta. para. poikilos. morphos. + doxa. sensation. Piriform. disease. L. many. G. alongside of. + logos. osteon. + mys. hence mixed term. para. alongside of. cell. Polymorphonuclear. bone. G. L. G. G. nucleus. Paraganglion. Paresthesis. L. plexus. + forma. melting. + L. para. Parasympathetic. relaxation. muscle. alongside of. around. OF. Plasma. I strike. phainein. G. + lyein. plax. to eat. + lysis. peri. Paramedian. para. G. Phenotype. to walk. physikos. G. natural. Paresis. G. Physis. + chondros. G. braid. para. Poikilocyte. + sympathetikos. sympathetic. para. phyein. Physic. para. G. ostium. polys. more (or many) + G. door. + plesso. to loosen. around. + aisthesis. + ganglion. Perichondrium. G.

pyknos. L.Terms Common to All Anatomical Regions Pore. branch. + plasma. ramus. pyramid. pro. + ptosis. L. quadratus. L. Quadratus. squared. deep. G. + L. G. Radicle. passage. Quadrigeminus. Profundus. to take back. porta (pl. Portal. Protuberance. -ae). radix. Pyramid. L. G. L. going forwards. + chorde. pro. four-fold. L. Radix. proprius. angulus. + capere. + caput. in front of. Protoplasm. falling. Prochordal. before. promontorium. quattuor. L. shape. beginning. L. seam. + facere. pro. G. to cut. portio. G. -ae). Promontory. Porus. Raphe. raphe. Pyknosis. G. quattuor four + L. pyramis. four. L. recipere. processus. mountain ridge. passage. Quadriceps. Porta. L. root. first. L. + forma. L. gate. Quadrangular. G. branch. Proptosis. special. protubero. L. compact. primordium. to take. Progesterone. I swell. pyknos. secare. next. Proximal. gate. Pyknic. to bear. L. 17 . G. G. porus. four angles. Prosector. before. form. Ramus. compact. Processus. cord. G. root. L. L. Primordial. four. L. quadrigeminus. profundus. Pyriform. Proprioceptor. Receptor. Portio. Ramify. poros. before. porta (pl. L. to make. pirum. protos. L. + gerere. radix. pro. part. proximus. ramus. pear. G. L. head. receive.

likeness. G. Sinusoid. G. Scala. + eidos. -us). soma. L. to whirl about. cavity. body. Sinus (pl. Sinister. sagitta. sponge. Sigmoid. retrahere. Spongiosum. skleros. L. G. L. curve. L. G. a little bag. splanchna. reflecto. saccus. soma. Soma. shape. shape of saggital suture including the lambdoid suture. L. sinus. + lemma. G. sebum. Sebaceous. re. side. L. arrow. L. scale. Reflect. Somatic. Rostrum (pl. body. indicating origin. cavity. staircase. G. L. 18 . Reticulocyte.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Recess. reticulum. + trahere. body. shape. to turn back. left side or unlucky. sinus. Sagittal. Sclerotic. sack. L. + kytos. + eidos. + suffix -ite. G. L. little net. soma (pl. squama. spongia. L. to draw. Rotator. rostrum. Greek letter. L. G. G. bud. retreat. Squamo-. sarx. L. sacculus. -a). curve. grease. back. Reticulum. rotare. somata). spongia. scala. Somatopleure. sebum. cell. + blastos. likeness. + pleura. Spongioblast. husk. L. Sac. germ. sponge. G. viscera. bosom. sinister. flesh. L. little net. body. hard. soma. L. reticulum. Somite. sigma. beak. Sarcolemma. Retraction. tallow. L. Sebum. L. Sacculus. Retractor. to draw back. Splanchnic. recessus. tallow. skin.

G. G. Tract. Stria. + osteon. Synarthrosis. narrowing. a little beam. together. trophe.Terms Common to All Anatomical Regions Stenosis. G. L. streaked. syn. Tunica. Thrombocyte. work. 19 . tendere. stenosis. joint. L. thrombos. Teres. G. Synchrondosis. L. syn. theca. Thrombus. + haptein. Tendon. terminare. I grind. + cytos. L. Striatum. tennein. syn. G. Trabecula (pl. striatus. Terminalis. lump. G. G. syn. + blastos. tendere. G. blanket. cell. Syndrome. seam. to fasten. G. Tensor. tuber. L. G. together. rub. grooved. trabecula. strength. band. tractus. G. sewing together. Synovia. L. to stretch. together. syn. + pathein. Synapse. G. L. stroma. G. cell. syn. together. Synergy. G. syn. to suffer. syn. -ae). L. L. cartilage. bone. syndrome. Syndesmosis. Tome. to stretch. stratum. occurrence. undergarment. egg. sheath. together. Trophoblast. + kytos. + arthron. + desmosis. round smooth swelling. G. stria. bud. to limit. sthenos. Tuberosity. strata). Sulcus. sutura. Synostosis. Stroma. together. Sympathetic. wool drawn out for spinning. G. lump. L. syn. Syncytium. Suture. + ergon. G. L. + ovum. sulcus. to cut. Stratum (pl. Theca. together. Sthenic. envelope. together. nourishment. thrombus. tero. together. furrow. + chondros. L. furrow. L. L. tunica. layer.

L. L. L.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Unciform. belly. belt. vein. L. L. dim. whirl. valva. vertex. hook. L. vasculum. vestigium. leaf of door. uncinatus. vena. to yoke together. shape. Uncinate. Ventral. girdle. + forma. a little fold. vas. whirlpool. furnished with a hook. Vestige. Zonula. belt. venter. Vertex. vessel. L. Uncus. footprint. Vascular. Valve. Zygote. Vas. zona. L. uncus. L. small vessel. L. of zona. girdle. uncus. Valvula. Zona. Vein. L. valvula. L. L. trace. 20 . hook. G. valve. zygoein.

handle. L. L. 21 . + venter. Anconeus. L. inner vein. ansa. bis. + caput. + flexere. L. Bipennate. accessorius. akron. L. to. Brachial. extremity. ab. L. height. -ia). L. L. L. angle. angulus. + ducere. al-basilic.TERMS IMPORTANT IN THE UPPER LIMB Abductor. ante. Ansa. two. before. anulus (annulus). bis. head. L. + omos. + ducere. Antebrachium. arm. Bursa. small head. + brachium. adjectival form of appendix. away. bursa. axilla. belly. to lead. turning. two. Anteflexion. Basilic. Angle. L. a purse. L. L. dim. hence purse-shaped object. ante. a ring. (upper arm). to bend. L. L. Anteversion. Accessory. L. before. arm. Adductor. belonging to the arm (upper arm). A. Brachium (pl. feather. bis. armpit. Annulus. before. L. G. agkon. L. Biceps. brevis. shoulder. + pinna. G. Acromion. Capitulum. to lead. Appendicular. supplementary. Biventer. short. elbow. Brevis. + versio. Axilla. two. ad. ante. brachium. brachialis. caput.

L. cervix. Clavicle. Coraco-. cingulum. companion. likeness. wrist. dia. daktylos. crow. comitantes). L. derma. dorsum. letter in Greek alphabet. delta. Cubitus. to cut. to fasten by a joint. G. Comitans (pl. Diarthrosis. side. around. karpos. G. to bend. G. digitus. Disc. G. corpora). dia. korax or corone. neck. L. discus. girdle. Coracoid. Diaphysis. + temnein. Carpus. comitari. hence crowlike. crista. Digit. Corium. + flexere. of capsa. head. con. clavicula. Corpus (pl. L. Collateral.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Capsule. communicating. L. elbow. korax. finger. finger. + eidos. box. communicans. G. + latus. growth. Cervical. crow. Circumflex. disc. Dermatome. Collum. crest. caput. skin. cubitus. to stand apart. G. + physis. Cingulum. Distal. capita). G. back. knuckle. form. Communicans. kondylos. Caput (pl. dim. corono-. L. Deltoid. L. together. Comes. L. L. Condyle. to accompany. body. through. L. 22 . circum. L. Dorsal. Dactyl. skin. + arthroun. neck. Crista. L. collum. comes. chorion. L. between. L. triangular-shaped. L. distare. G. L. G. L. G. leather. a little key. L.

foramen. index. between. G. + vertere. + calare. ditch. growth. L. ganglion. Hypaxial. e. a swelling under the skin. below. glass. Glenoid. Integument. extendo. Intercalated. L. G. channel. epi. hyalos. likeness. -iae). fascia. in. hook-shaped. Fascia (pl. in. band. + spina. shoulder. + eidos. to plant. Index. fusus. + physis. Epithelium. Infraspinous. Extrinsic.Terms Important in the Upper Limb Epicondyle. flexus. dim. G. fascis. L. 23 . socket. humerus. + serere. G. to turn. Eversion. + tegere. incidere. hook. L. + L. bundle. G. to call. axis. G. epi. Hyaline. on. Ginglymus. Fossa. inter. inserted or placed between. L. to stretch. Flaccid. + forma. G. L. G. knuckle. flaccidus. out. L. L. Epiphysis. hole. Extensor. L. glene. Fasciculus. Extension. something dug. L. pointer. spine. shape. extend. bent. L. Insertion. to cut into. L. over. centre line. ex. hamatus. Fusiform. + tendere. ginglymus. Hamulus. Ganglion. L. L. L. + thele. axis. L. on the outside. infra. L. + kondylos. Foramen. Incisura. L. on. fossa. L. Humerus. out. hypo. epi. form. extrinsecus. under. to cover. on. in. likeness. hinge. weak. hamus. nipple. Flexor. L. Hamatum. spindle.

rim. to raise. Intrinsic. after. pertaining to a side. superlative. little breast. meta. marginalis (margo). carpus. breast. labrum. movement. L. locus. L. L. place. interlocked by finger-like processes. -a. -um. L. levare. L. womb. intima. Ligamentum. G. minimus. large. groundwork. Kinetic. Latissimus. latus. Mammillary. Metaphysis. manus. hand. + vertere. manubrium. Locus. hilt (as of a sword). inter. between. dim. Juxtaposition. in. after. L. Minimus. L. L. G. Manus. inward. L. sheath. kinesis. broad. lumbricus. + physis. + positio. Levator. Manubrium. in. bordering. ligamentum. near. Marginal. L. Invagination. L. digit. mamma. longus. L. Mammary. intrinsecus. to turn. least. therefore very broad. L. a bandage. in. G. L. + digitus. earthworm. Matrix. -ae). Magnus. Longus. magnus. meta. L. lateralis (latus). matrix (mater). Labrum. Lumbrical. mammillaris (mamma. L. L. Metacarpus. growth. Lateral. innermost. L. in. mold. Intima. 24 . wrist. + vagina. handle. + L. juxta. place. Inversion. L. L. L. long. L.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Interdigitating.

pollex. palma. Palma. + forma. alongside of. L. G. G.Terms Important in the Upper Limb Nerve. Node. pain. Neuron. hence standard viewpoint. square used by carpenters. + positus. Norma. rule. plexus. belonging to the breast. plate. G. cordlike structure. para. nerve. L. axis. Parasympathetic. to turn face downward. tendon. Neural. nerve. L. Plexus (pl. neuron. G. + sympathetikos. nervus. neuron. hence. Parasternal. sinew. G. L. + sternon. nodus. + L. 25 Olecranon. nerve. head. pronare. platysma. nervus. elbow. Osteology. os (pl. bone. the (open) hand. norma. osteon. originally denoted whole set of bones of a digit not just one bone. phalanx. axle. in the way of. shape. L. Ossification. ossa). G. Neuralgia. Pisiform. alongside of. os. Pollex. para. placed. Osseous. G. L. singular phalanx. Os. neuron. pea. Paramedian. G. L. L. alongside of. pectoralis (pectus). bone. small bone. + facere. L. Platysma. sympathetic. thumb. braid. band of soldiers. bone. para. G. nerve. + algos. os. cordlike structure. para. + mesos. ob. tendon. + kranion. L. chest. G. G. + logos. L. to make. olene. middle. Ossicle. bone. Phalanges. Pectoral. alongside of. Paraxial. knot. neuron. equivalent of L. treatise. pisum. . L. G. Opposition. plaiting. L. Pronator. -us). ossiculum. L.

Radial. likeness. L. rotare. L. L. Raphe.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Protuberance. above. L. radix. together. soma (pl. G. body. + suffix -ite. supra. Sagittal. L. to fasten. supinus. angulus. + trahere. L. ramus. body. + eidos. re. next. G. Scalene. radius. + spina. L. shape. indicating origin. syn. Supinator. G. rod. Somatic. Scapula. sesame plant. shape of saggital suture including the lambdoid suture. L. L. L. I swell. chest. spoke. Sinister. joint. Radius. soma. L. shape. sagitta. spina. protubero. Rotator. to draw back. sinister. Proximal. G. branch. Spina. scapulae. L. Synapse. to turn back. Sternum. boat. thorn. radius. + haptein. 26 . L. G. supinare. radix. likeness. shoulder-blades. reflecto. or seed. somata). Ramus. L. spoke. to bend backward. arrow. sesamen. L. seam. together. syn. G. root. Retraction. sternon. G. to draw. Sesamoid. L. Synarthrosis. G. quattuor four + L. + eidos. to whirl about. G. Radicle. L. Quadrangular. proximus. L. four angles. thorn. uneven. Reflect. L. lying on the back. left side or unlucky. skaphe. Somite. Retractor. + arthron. skalenos. rod. Supraspinatus. back. Supination. root. raphe. Radix. Scaphoid. retrahere.

L. + penna. + osteon. trace. palm of hand. likeness. syn. three-cornered. G. Ulna. together. G. wheel. Triceps. + eidos. hand. to stretch. Synergy. L. trapezion. to stretch. Theca. footprint. belly. envelope. L. L. G. L. 27 . Synovia. ulna. round smooth swelling. Tendon. egg. tero. + chondros. pulley. together. syn. Xiphoid. trochos. triquetrus. tendere. Trochlea. theca. together. bone. tendere. feather. pulley. rub. syn. Unipennate. Synostosis. cartilage. unus. G. Ventral. together. shape. three. one. G. G. Syndesmosis. G. syn. sheath. vestigium. trochilia. + ergon. L. + desmosis. L. xiphos. sword. Tuberosity. + ovum. uncus. syn. L. G. L. together. Uncus. triangular. Teres. thenar. + caput. L. L. hook. Thenar. tres. Vestige. venter. head. elbow. Trapezius. tuber. Tensor. I grind. L. work. Triquetrum. G. vola. L. small four-sided table. Volar. Trochanter. G. band.Terms Important in the Upper Limb Synchrondosis.

L. cause to communicate. + terein. to bring to a mouth. ante. rough. L.TERMS IMPORTANT IN THE LOWER LIMB Abductor. Amphiarthrosis. joints. Adhesion. L. anulus (annulus). L. G. air. shape of hip joint. before. tendon (earlier: nerve. Annulus. vinegar cup. G. Arcuate. away. axle of a wheel. arcualis. Adductor. L. joint. aer. G. + ducere. Adipose. on both sides. to lead. to lead. L. anastomoein. windpipe). ancient belief that blood vessels contained air. 28 . ad. L. fat. articulationes. angle. + arthrosis. adhaereo. Articulation. axis. angulus. pl. L. later: tendon). axle of a wheel. apo. arteria. ab. little joint. + ducere. + neuron. Artery. L. articulatus. L. acetabulum. to keep (L. L. amphi. Aspera. Anastomosis. artus. Axial. L. axis. joint. to. the line about which any body turns. adeps. Axis. arch-shaped. Acetabulum. a ring. Ankle. from. G. Anterior. to stick together. L. Aponeurosis. asper.

short. Diaphysis. caudal. L. Collateral. Caput (pl. girdle. crus. Cuneiform. cuneus. hence purse-shaped object. capita). commissura (cum + mittere). L. communicans. cingulum. L. L. dim. 29 Calcaneus. dia. bi. Cruciate. Condyle. digitus. G. to accompany. Calcar. bis. L. + forma. Crus (pl. L. Comitans (pl. + arthroun. L. L. connection. crest. to bend. Circumflex. circum. knuckle. . bursa. + flexere. spur. comitantes). Communicans. Cuboid. calcaneus. L. kuboeides. tail. head. coxa. + caput. + latus. finger. cross. L. Bipennate. L. L. L. calcar. to make. calx. Brevis. G. L. side. + latus. L. G. L. two. head. a purse. through. Coxa. Diarthrosis. Digit. to fasten by a joint. cauda. hip.Terms Important in the Lower Limb Biceps. brevis. growth. crista. + pinna. L. L. Comes. caput. lime. two. cube-shaped. feather. L. box. side. comes. L. Cauda. Bursa. two. dia. crux. L. shape. communicating. together. + facere. between. likeness. con. kondylos. leg. Calcification. crura). L. wedge. around. Cingulum. Capsule. Bilateral. heel. of capsa. L. + physis. Commissure. bis. L. Crista. companion. comitari. G.

knee. to turn. Dorsal. fibula. femur. flexus. ditch. fascis. 30 . something dug. L. L. L. + minere. likeness. out. genu. L. to stretch. on the outside. + mittere. L. Emissary. gemellus. Genu. L. on. Eversion. L. Gastrocnemius. geniculatus. L. + forma. hole. Epicondyle. brooch. falx. to jut. with bent knee. e. G. L. knuckle. L. G. ex. Foramen. discus. channel. Fascia (pl. Flexor. L. post. L. shape. skewer. Fibula. disc. epi. Fulcrum. spindle. Fossa. fulcrum. L. Falciform. Femur. e. to send. L. L. on. belly. bundle. e. thin. fascia. bent. -iae). shape. band. epi. sickle. back. thigh. fossa. Epiphysis. + physis. growth. L. pin. leg. Extrinsic. L. to stand apart. out.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Disc. L. foramen. out. fusus. likeness. Geniculate. Eminence. gaster. Fusiform. Distal. Extension. Gemellus. G. ginglymus. G. gracilis. Gracilis. L. twin. + vertere. Ginglymus. L. Fasciculus. extend. gloutos. + tendere. out. G. Extensor. distare. + kneme. L. L. + forma. L. + kondylos. rump. extendo. Gluteus. hinge. extrinsecus. dorsum.

Terms Important in the Lower Limb Hernia. Hiatus. Hilum. Hypaxial. Iliacus. Ilium. Incisura. Inductor. Inguinal. Innominate. Insertion. Intrinsic. Invagination. Inversion. Ischiofemoral. Ischium (pl. -ia). Kinetic. Labrum. Lateral. Ligamentum. Locus. Longus. Lumbrical. Magnus, -a, -um. Marginal. Medial. L. hernia, protrusion. L. hiatus, gap. L. hilum, a small thing. G. hypo, under, + L. axis, centre line, axis. See ilium. L. ileum, flank. L. incidere, to cut into. L. inducere, to lead on, excite. L. inguina, groin. L. in, in, + nomen, name, unnamed bone, unnamed artery. L. in, in, + serere, to plant. L. intrinsecus, inward. L. in, in, + vagina, sheath. L. in, in, + vertere, to turn. G. ischion, hip, + L. femur, thigh. G. ischion, hip. G. kinesis, movement. L. labrum, rim. L. lateralis (latus), pertaining to a side. L. ligamentum, a bandage. L. locus, place. L. longus, long. L. lumbricus, earthworm. L. magnus, large. L. marginalis (margo), bordering. L. medialis (medius), pertaining to the middle.

31

Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Median. Meniscus. Metatarsus. Minimus. Nates. Navicular. Obliquus. Obturator. Os. Osseous. Ossicle. Ossification. Osteone. Osteomalacia. Paraxial. Patella. Pedicle. Pelvic. Penniform. Peroneal. Pes. Phalanges. L. medianus, in the middle. L. menis, cresent, half-moon, dim. of mene, moon. G. meta, after, + L. tarsus, ankle. L. minimus, least. L. nates, buttocks. L. navicula, small boat. L. obliquus, slanting. L. obturo, I stop up. L. os, bone. L. os (pl. ossa), bone. L. ossiculum, small bone. L. os, bone, + facere, to make. G. osteon, bone. G. osteon, bone, + malakia, softness. G. para, alongside of, + L. axis, axle. L. patella, small pan. L. pes, foot. L. pelvis, basin. L. penna, feather, + forma, form, likeness. G. perone, = L. fibula, pin; hence pertaining to needle-shaped leg bone. L. pes, foot. G. phalanx, band of soldiers; singular phalanx, originally denoted whole set of bones of a digit not just one bone. L. pirum, pear, + forma, shape, likeness. L. planta, sole of the foot. L. planta, side of foot, + gradior, to walk.

Piriform. Planta. Plantigrade.

32

Terms Important in the Lower Limb Platycnemia. G. platys, flat, + kneme, knee; hence condition of side-to-side flattening of tibia giving prominence to it’s anterior border. G. platys, flat, + meros, thigh; as previous for thigh. L. poples, ham. L. profundus, deep. G. promontorium, mountain ridge. L. pronare, to turn face downward. L. pronus, bent downward, + gradus step. L. protubero, I swell. L. proximus, next. G. psoa, loin. L. pubes, mature. L. pubes, mature. L. pirum, pear, + forma, shape. L. quattuor four + L. angulus, four angles. L. quattuor, four, + caput, head. G. raphe, seam. L. reflecto, to turn back. L. re, back, + trahere, to draw. L. retrahere, to draw back. L. rotare, to whirl about. A. al-safin, hidden (later G. saphenes, visible). L. sartor, tailor. G. ischion, hip joint. L. semi, half, + luna, moon. L. semi, half, + membranosus, membrane. L. semi, half, + tendinosus, tendon. 33

Platymeria. Popliteus. Profundus. Promontory. Pronator. Pronograde. Protuberance. Proximal. Psoas. Pubes. Pubis (pl. -es). Pyriform. Quadrangular. Quadriceps. Raphe. Reflect. Retraction. Retractor. Rotator. Saphenous. Sartorius. Sciatic. Semilunar. Semimembranosus. Semitendinosus.

likeness. calf of leg. form. L. sinister. see Valgus). Ventral. thorn. + G. band. Supinator. L. feather. talus. Sural. valgus. L. supinare. claw. Valgus. sesamen. or seed. sole. L. Tuberosity. Tarsus. sandal. Talipes. lying on the back. round smooth swelling. Sinister. Spina.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Sesamoid. Vincula. G. belly. clubfoot). supinus. eidos. ankle-bone. tarsos. Supination. unguis. L. one. L. Tensor. Teres. I grind. spina. vinculum. cord. L. Sustentaculum. L. 34 . to stretch. talipedo. Synovia. G. tendere. long flute. L. L. shape. knock-kneed (term has become transposed. venter. solea. Talonid. together. Unipennate. weak in the feet (talipes. Tibia. + eidos. nail. Varus. syn. Soleus. L. L. + penna. L. L. ankle bone. Talus. support. L. sura. egg. sustentaculum. talus. rub. L. L. L. unus. Ungual. L. sole of the foot. varus. tendere. to bend backward. left side or unlucky. tibia. sesame plant. tuber. tero. L. Tendon. bow-legged (Genu valgus now means knock-kneed). + ovum. likeness. to stretch. L. G.

auricula. G. bulb. ad. to carry. a. ante. to moisten). Acinus. bolos. court. swollen root. a ring. to. L. 35 . L. Bolus. fat. + venire. L. L. yoke. bulbus. self. L. Autonomic. Bulbus. + zygon. L. + nexus. to. entrance hall. bronchiolus (dim. atrium. Annulus. + nomos. Bronchiole. unpaired. G. G. end of windpipe. Adipose. opening. before. external ear. acinus. L. L. adhaereo. not. mass. axis. L. Atrium. bound. Azygos. hence. G. Auricle. Adnexa. to. L. + ferre. Adventia. accessorius. autos. dim. L.TERMS IMPORTANT IN THE THORAX Accessory. Adhesion.. ad. ad. Aditus. Axon. aditus. G. axon. supplementary. of bronchus. brechein. also shape of heart chamber. adeps. law. grape. Alveolus. L. G. to stick together. Anterior. Bronchus. Afferent. bronchia. to come. anulus (annulus). little cavity. L. L. alveolus.

crus. korax. disc. side. Comitans (pl. string of gut. pertaining to the heart. skin. chorde. crista. dia. cartilago. Communicans. L. coronarius. + flexere. through. leg. circum. G. crura). L. to cut. form. -a. G. conus. crow. dia. communicating. Cava. Corona. comitantes). companion. comitari. Collateral. Cartilage. L. Cornu. Chorda. + latus. L. corona. comes. L. L. L. L. Diaphragm. G. Crista. Dermatome. Carina. hence purse-shaped object. horn. L. cavus. . cornu. con. hollow or cave. L. crown. Coronoid. wall. + temnein. hence. Circumflex. L. Diastole. rib. costal). + stellein. L. cord. to send. crest. Conus. L. + phragma. cone. carina. G. Coronary. L. L. Centrum. karon. keel. encircling. L. to bend. Costa (adj. -um.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Bursa. discus. Comes. around. Disc. centre. L. likeness. bursa. Deglutition. together. Cisterna. L. centrum. to swallow. derma. deglutire. L. Crus (pl. to accompany. cisterna. through. cartilage. Carotid. a purse. 36 Cardiac. G. deep sleep (pressure on artery produces stupor). gristle. costa. reservoir. L. communicans. G. kardiakos (kardia). pertaining to a wreath or crown. + eidos. G.

+ mittere. nerve. L. + kardia. to bear. L. G. Dorsal. extrinsecus. within. + kardia. Epicardium. ducere. G. G. muscle. to lead. 37 . Endochondral. band. Epineurium. pipe. G. plug. L. Filament. L. epi. endon. embolos. dorsum. filamentum. Endocardium. Endothelium. Extravasation. epi. Epidermis.Terms Important in the Thorax Diverticulum. ex. L. + tendere. + neuron. on. epi. muscle. within. ducere. L. to turn aside. Endoneurium. fistula. G. outside. L. fenestra. endon. Endomysium. Epimysium. + neuron. L. on. extend. G. L. within. out. growth. Emissary. endon. upon. -iae). endon. weak. + thele. on. out. heart. endon. + chondros. upon. L. fascia. extendo. on the outside. Embolus. + physis. Ductule. + gaster. extra. flaccidus. Duct. Endosteum. to stretch. to lead or draw. ex. skin. G. cartilage. dim. endon. to send. within. Epiphysis. out. L. + osteon. anything inserted. Extension. Epigastrium. + mys. Fenestra. L. Extensor. Extrinsic. Eminence. G. window. + mys. Flaccid. epi. within. on. G. + derma. nerve. L. G. epi. wedge. + ferre. G. L. L. belly. G. + vas. Fascia (pl. divertere. e. to jut. within. G. nipple. thin fibre. e. vessel. back. heart. L. Efferent. + minere. Fistula. epi. bone. out.

Intima. Intervertebral. incidere. nerve.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Flexor. joint. G. narrow connection. in. L. inserted or placed between. a small thing. bent. Interdigitating. L. L. L. axis. Lamella. L. to cut into. in. to suckle. inter. juxta. in. to tear. to turn. Hypaxial. inter. to cover. + serere. place. Incisura. digit. in. isthmos. 38 . dim. Kyphosis. axis. L. L. glans. + digitus. Inversion. dim. + vagina. G. hole. L. L. L. hilum. hernia. + nervus. L. Hiatus. lactare. lacerare. Foramen. inter. inter. gap. over. rib. L. between. in. + L. L. L. L. L. flexus. Juxtaposition. centre line. sheath. + vertebra. bent. kyphos. foramen. L. L. inward. near. in. hypo. between. G. + vertere. intima. L. Lactation. pellet. of lamina. + calare. in. Hilum. to call. Lacerate. innermost. Intercostal. between. Integument. + tegere. Invagination. Intercalated. Intrinsic. L. hiatus. Insertion. glandula. L. Gland. leaf. acorn. + costa. intrinsecus. between. under. + positio. Innervation. Hernia. to plant. Isthmus. in. interlocked by finger-like processes. in. protrusion. L.

drudge. but Hebrew priest headress the only head covering that the mitral valve resembles. dim. Lateral. L.Terms Important in the Thorax Lamina (pl. G. Medial. L. G. bordering. mys. musculus. L. Muscle. little mouse. Lung. G. lumen. muscle. servant. manubrium. Mesothelium. lateralis (latus). middle. nipple. mammillaris (mamma. L. medianus. + kardia. lingula. Median. L. Ligamentum. little breast. Mitral. L. light. Myology. Lobus. Lordosis. Mediastinum. Lumen. lunge. G. Lingula. medialis (medius). pertaining to the middle. handle. opening. lung. but anatomical term mediastinum probably derived from per medium tensum. Manubrium. breast. to raise. I bend. L. myos. L. L. 39 . in the middle. mys. L. L. thin plate. lordoo. L. a bandage. Locus. -ae). Myocardium. marginalis (margo). skin. Membrane. turban. L. ligamentum. treatise. Mammillary. lobe. L. mamma. L. small tongue. lobos. mediastinus. L. muscle. hilt (as of a sword). AS. locus. place. mitra. pertaining to a side. lamina. L. + logos. -ae). Mammary. hence middle lining layer. levare. Marginal. heart. membrana. mesos. tight in the middle. Levator. + thele. G.

Esophagus. Paraganglion. alongside of. + phagein. bone. Neuroblast. axis. os (pl. os. axis. G. Neuralgia. para. implement. oisein (phero). L. neuron. nerve. Paramedian. excision. nerve. + L. Parasternal. G. L. equivalent of L. + sternon. pouring out into the adjacent. 40 . G. swelling. to carry. Organ. axle. L. knot. alongside of.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Nerve. Parasympathetic. G. door. hence. Parietal. nodus. alongside of. G. to make. nerve. nerve. + logos. + sympathetikos. Oesophagus. cordlike structure. nerve. para. parenchyma. nerve. G. L. Paraxial. beside. os. neuron. Edema. knot. organum. to eat. nervus. para. pain. neuron. neuron. opening. Neuroectomy. tendon. Neurilemma. G. G. + blastos. Neuron. neuron. ostium. neuron. Neuroglia. treatise. bone. paries. G. G. Node. bud. para. glue. G. nerve. orificium. G. nervus. sheath. L. oidema. small bone. para. Ossicle. Ostium. + lemma. L. tendon. ossiculum. Oedema. wall. G. Orifice. L. nerve. neuron. L. Neuraxon. Os. Osseous. Parenchyma. Ossification. G. husk. cordlike structure. bone. + algos. ossa). middle. G. + axon. alongside of. chest. G. + gloia. + facere. along. nerve. neuron. L. Neural. + mesos. sinew. G. Neurology. + ganglion. neuron. nerve. neuron. + ektome. L. sympathetic. G.

L. L. Precordium. Praecordium. L.Terms Important in the Thorax Parieties. Pectoral. proximus. radix. L. braid. saw. sinister. peri. flesh. branch. cartilage. + chondros. Radix. striking. G. Raphe. Sarcolemma. around. peristaltikos. lung. raphe. sarx. + kardia. peri. wall. + mys. Ramus. Perimysium. branch. L. skin. percussio. Recess. prae. L. radix. Periosteum. to turn back. Perichondrium. Plexus (pl. L. G. in front of. pulmo. Perilymph. + facere. husk. L. Peristalsis. Pulmones. L. pneumatikos. L. plaiting. G. next. pulmo. G. L. around. root. belonging to the breast. heart. recessus. Sinister. serra. L. saeptum. peri. lung. fence. + L. rib. paries. Ramify. L. 41 . Pleura. L. around. reflecto. of the heart. G. muscle. ramus. Sacculus. left side or unlucky. to make. retreat. G. L. sacculus. Pulmonary. G. L. G. around. peri. pleura. Pericardial. Reflect. pectoralis (pectus). Sac. L. + lemma. Radicle. ie related to the ribs. fluid. root. G. G. Percussion. clasping and compressing. sack. Serratus. + cordis. -us). bone. pertaining to breath. ramus. Pneumatic. + osteon. Proximal. plexus. Septum. L. seam. lympha. peri. L. saccus. around. a little bag.

wandering. contraction. sub. Valve. G. inverted. L. chest. Sternum. L. G. tunica. valvula. + haptein. L. together. cavity. to bind tight. to fasten. syndrome. L.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Sinus (pl. body. + pathein. indicating origin. L. Vas. curve. Thorax (pl. truncus. breast-plate. + eidos. L. G. Somite. + suffix -ite. vas. Situs inversus viscerum. tracheia. L. + cytos. L. Tunica. thrombus. Stenosis. G. sphingein. Sinusoid. G. leaf of door. side. Valvula. soma. soma. soma (pl. Truncus. rib. + costa. likeness. Sympathetic. + inversus. above. stenosis. vessel. curve. Synapse. cavity. G. body. theca. Syncytium. G. to suffer. vagus. syn. splanchna. G. a little fold. Systole. -us). bosom. G. lump. Trachea. envelope. together. situs. thyme. sheath. G. Subcostal. systole. Splanchnic. L. shape. Syndrome. somata). G. L. Somatic. Vagus. position. under. rib. trunk of tree. thymos. Supracostal. G. + pleura. G. Theca. 42 . thoraces). + costa. + viscerum. cell. Thymus. viscera. G. L. G. site. breast. Thrombus. L. Sphincter. Somatopleure. sternon. occurrence. sinus. narrowing. thorax. supra. sinus. syn. syn. body. valva. undergarment. G. together. windpipe. of the viscera. valve.

bowels. xiphos. L. Vertex. Visceral. Vincula. + apophysis. Velum. L. vein. L. vertex. veil. Vertebra. internal organ. whirlpool. L. Vein. velum. little cavity. L. vena. small vessel. Zygapophysis. process of a bone. L. vertebra. Xiphoid. 43 . venter. viscus. joint. belly. band. likeness. ventriculus. L. vasculum. entrails. vinculum. Ventricle. G. cord. shape. viscera. + eidos. L. whirl. L.Terms Important in the Thorax Vascular. yoke. Ventral. sword. loculus. Viscus. G. zygon. L.

+ ferre. to lay (a laying on — primordium. L. adeps. cause to communicate. L. L. alveolus. a flask or vessel swelling in the middle. Allantois. kidneys. abortio. to. Ger. + eidos.TERMS IMPORTANT IN THE ABDOMEN AND PELVIS Abdomen. G. Adhesion. L. Adventia. ampulla. before. absorptio. + nexus. to swallow. to stick together. aditus. L. Anlage. on. to carry. adhaereo. ab. an. to. Adnexa. L. G. to. L. L. 44 . Aberrant. Aditus. Anterior. ante. L. L. to hide. Adipose. amnion. a ring. ad. + renes. Anastomosis. little cavity. Alveolus. acinus. bound. supplementary. Annulus. to abort. anulus (annulus). anastomoein. fetal membrane. precursor). L. + legen. ad. Amnion. L. to stray. to bring to a mouth. L. fat. + venire. Abortion. L. + errare. L. Acinus. ad. accessorius. appearance. Accessory. grape. near. opening. Ampulla. L. away. from abdere (?). G. to come. Afferent. form. L. ad. sausage. Absorption. Adrenal. allas.

+ latus. G. 45 . cauda. L. belly. Cecum. L. L. G. without. tail. to hang upon. aeiro. bolos. L. Aorta. a. Bolus. L. Atresia. L. opening. caudal. two. a. Biventer. + nomos. G. the line about which any body turns. Caecum. Centrum. G. cavum. arch-shaped. nourishment. without. Coeliac. law. Anus. + venter. arcus. turning. caecus. centre. fundament. + versio. husk. two. cup-shaped protective covering. Bicuspid. Autonomic. before. Coelom. L. a hollow or cave. + cuspis. L. atrium. L. bow. a hollow or cave. L. Cavum. ante. koiloma. a hollow. Calyx (pl. axis. -um. Cava. L. Arcuate. two. antron. Arcus. bi. appendere. axle of a wheel. G. arcualis. -um. G. centrum. Atrophy. calyx. apertura. blind. Appendix. caverna. G. Appendicular. cave. to raise. L. Apertura.Terms Important in the Abdomen and Pelvis Anteversion. G. bis. + tresis. belly. side. autos. hollow or cave. -a. bile. L. anus. L. bilis. bis. Bilateral. Atrium. Bile. -a. Celom (e). L. mass. L. point. Cauda. L. court. self. calices). + trophe. cavus. Celiac. adjectival form of appendix. Axial. L. Cavernosus. koilia. entrance hall. Antrum. L. hole.

cisterna. bladder. defaecare. Detritus. Deferens. to accompany. Corona. L. cloaca. L. deterere. detrudere. kolon. body. to bend. cornu. L. around. sewer. reservoir. dartos. kokkyx. bile. corpora). G. skinned. comitantes). comes. L. container. + ferens. Chyle. + flexere. wall. to push down. circum. + phragma. L. Dartos. juice. G. chylos. away. korax or corone. bag. Cisterna. Decidua. L. corona. carrying. (de + cado).Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Choledochus. Defecation. a cuckoo. crown. Comes. cystic). to cleanse. Defaecation. corono-. Commissure. 46 . Colon. drain. hence crowlike. dia. G. cremaster. Chyme. crow. Comitans (pl. through. L. L. Cyst (adj. + dochos (dechomai ). chole. Communicans. Coccyx. pouch. chymos. de. Deciduous). Cornu. L. L. communicans. (adj. G. commissura (cum + mittere). Cloaca. L. crura). kystis. crus. L. G. G. L. great gut. leg. horn. Cremaster. to rub away. companion. connection. communicating. suspender. G. L. Diaphragm. Coraco-. deciduus. juice. Circumflex. L. comitari. G. hence a structure shaped like a cuckoo’s bill. falling off. G. Corpus (pl. Detrusor. G. Crus (pl. L.

-iae). + cernere. Emboliformis. + metra. L. dim. L. L. + thele. falcis. spadias. disc. L. Epigastrium. epi. + gerere. F. + L. falx. + vas. G. divertere. 47 Ejaculatory. epiploon. out. endon. e.Terms Important in the Abdomen and Pelvis Digastric. Extrinsic. Exudate. G. Feces. on the outside. spadon. double. navel. L. endon. G. G. Extravasation. span. out. Dorsal. ex. Epispadias. + omphalos. to sift. nipple. G. L. back. erectus. G. plug. wedge. Exomphalos. Embolus. L.L. to lead. + N. eunuch. L. anything inserted. Fascia (pl. upon. Faeces. wedge. womb. + gaster. + didmoi. extrinsecus. testicles. to sweat. forma. belly. Distal. L. G. L. belly. Ductule. falx. epi. L. F. Diverticulum. L. Fasciculus. L. + gaster. (excretus) ex. faex. Falciform. to carry. outside. + sudare. discus. distare. out. L. on. Digestion. to turn aside. to draw L. twelve (meaning twelve fingerbreadths). to lead or draw. embolos. Epididymis. bundle. embolos. erect. Duodenum. within. Duct. L. omentum. shape. Excretion. epi. ducere. G. . likeness. apart. to throw. Falx. sickle. ducere. dis. band. within. shape. out. upon. Epiploic. extra. dregs. caul. fascis. Erector. Endometrium. ex. G. vessel. L. L. G. fascia. to stand apart. dis. sickle. L. duodeni. dorsum. Disc. + jacere. + forma. Endothelium.

glandula. pipe. L. spindle. a ball. L. foramen. L. Fraenum. funda. Granulation. bridge. Genital. dim. window. pellet. acorn. gravida. L. dim. fimbriae. gestare. fetus. threads. fundus. Filum. fourchette. Frenum. G. Germinal. L. gone. a little bridge. L. ditch. a small bag. fissura (findo). fossa. likeness. flaccidus. fraenum. offspring. Fusiform. granum. Gubernaculum. + forma. Granulum. Flaccid. L. Fundus. of glomus. bud. germen. Fistula. Glomerulus. likeness. shape. L. fusus. glans. + forma. L. Gravid. L. glans. Foetus. filum. Fornix. something dug. L. acorn. Gonad. Fissure. L. pertaining to birth. F. fornix. dim. fraenum. fenestra. weak. L. fork. thread. genitalis (gigno). channel.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Fenestra. L. Foramen. L. granulum. Fossa. germ. shape. Frenulum. to bear. L. bud. Fundiform. Fimbria. 48 . Glans. L. L. Fetus. germen. L. sling. Follicle. pregnant. L. hole. L. dim. fistula. Gland. grain. L. gubernaculum. L. a cleft. bottom. L. L. Fourchette. small grain. folliculus. fringe. arch or vault. Gestation. germ. Germinative. seed. helm. L. L.

Hypaxial. L. hymen. incidere. Invagination. + N. L. ikteros. + L. + nervus. in. a small thing. Intercostal. G. interlocked by finger-like processes. hepar. L. nerve. digit. within. G. or L. Haemoglobin. haima. span. Hemoglobin. to draw. to cut into. haima. liver. in. F. gap. between. G. L. in. inter. Intrinsic. hydor. Hepatic. hemal. Intervertebral. under. L. Ileum. Hydrocoele. Intestine. to press. G. in. centre line. rib. entrails. + premere. L. Hernia. haima. hiatus. joint. in. G. hepar. globus. L. between. hollow. L. L. + digitus. Hypospadias. sheath. protrusion. creative. inward.L. axis. 49 Icterus. groin. Impression. + koilos. L. hypo. + plantere. inguina. hernia. + ire. Hiatus. + L. + poietikos. jaundice. in. blood. to wind or turn. . to go. guts.Terms Important in the Abdomen and Pelvis Haemal. G. Hepar. L. intus. Interdigitating. Hymen. Introitus. intrinsecus. intestina. G. under. inter. G. spadon. Incisura. membrane. G. + vagina. blood. G. intima. Implantation. to plant. water. blood. F. hilum. axis. Hemopoietic. Hilum. L. sphere. innermost. inter. between. L. intro. in. Hydrocele. + costa. in. Inguinal. Innervation. L. spadias. liver. Intima. Haemopoietic. + vertebra. within. eilein. L. L. L. hypo.

spleen. lien. ligamentum. L. Labium. Meatus (pl. G. G. L. medianus. L. L. L. lumbare. labium. ligare. medialis (medius). womb. labialis (labia). L. Membrane. near. meatus. L. Isthmus. to suckle. place. Jejunum. membrana. section. liver. Lumbar. mold. narrow connection. cessation. to bind. AS. locus. rim. empty (of food). Labial. light. bordering. Luteum. pertaining to lips. Labrum. + pausis. L. L. spleen from original L. men. passage. + tome. L. L. L. month. Lieno-. G. lung. -us). groundwork. Juxtaposition. L. Median. place. lapara. Matrix. + positio. Medial. Lacteals. Lung. Lien. to turn. lip. L. luteus. Lordosis. splen (the sp having been dropped). skin. L. flank. + vertere. lien. Liver. L. pertaining to the middle. Ligature. marginalis (margo). lifer. 50 .Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Inversion. jejunus. G. yellow. L. lumen. apron for the loins. L. lobos. L. in the middle. labrum. that part of intestine that appears empty. AS. lunge. opening. in. Laparotomy. juxta. I bend. Locus. matrix (mater). lordoo. isthmos. lactare. a bandage. L. Lumen. in. Ligamentum. Lobus. Menopause. Marginal. L. lobe. cut. L.

L. G. Organ. L. Metanephros. nerve. + L. + thele. G. mys. ovarium. nafe. knot. pertaining to a month. Node. + algos. men. G. G. after. G. mucus. Mesovarium. midway between. snivel. slippery secretion. to give birth. nekrosis. menstruus. kidney. kidney. muscle. L. Neuralgia. Mesosalpinx. G. G. middle. nerve. mesos. egg. + kolon. gut. + enteron. many. back. Mesentery. stomach. G. organum. mesos. sight. + chorde. cordlike structure. nerve. oon. AS. nerve. Oogonium. muxa. hence middle lining layer. Nerve. month. G. G. Necropsy. hollow body. oon. middle. great gut. G. G. neuron. middle. G. oon. Notochord. neuron. nodus. G. L. gut. nekros. G. axis. + enteron. + opsis. G. nipple. + enteron. Navel. G. myos. in. middle. Necrosis. Mesogastrium. corpse. Myenteric. middle. mesos. + parire. noton. tendon. + kardia. middle. + en. ovary. Mesonephros. Mesothelium. a killing. Mesenchyme. mesos. nerve. Mucus. cord. mesos. + nephros. pain. middle. neuron. L. neuron. mesos. + salpinx. G. birth. muscle. G. multus. nervus. L. Neural. Oocyte. mesos. Neurenteric. mys. + kylos. Multiparous.Terms Important in the Abdomen and Pelvis Menstruation. implement. G. neuron. + gonos. G. Myocardium. Neuraxon. + gaster. gut. egg. egg. + axon. G. Mesocolon. meta. heart. + chymos. + genesis. juice. offspring. tube. + nephros. mesos. centre of hub of wheel. Oogenesis. G. 51 . G.

para. alongside of. ovum. Ostium. ova). Os. L. Ovum (pl. + kentesis. + kreas. + logos. hence covering of deeper tissues. making acid. egg. + plesso. bone. Paradidymis. osteon. Oviparous. opening. bone. Ovary. G. G. para. L. birth. pampineus. + parus. Paraganglion. Paraplegia. giving birth by laying eggs. + mesos. + forma. alongside of. axis. G. + didymos. swift. door. double. + sympathetikos. oxyntos. egg. para. Osteology. duct. + tokos. G. tube. osteon. Pampiniform. small piece of cloth. to make. all. cell. G. para. L. bone. Parasympathetic. bone. alongside of. G. Oviduct. womb. ossa). Parametrium. panniculus. alongside of. full of or wrapped around with vine leaves. L. para. Paraxial. Ossicle. ossiculum. os (pl. Paracentesis. L. sympathetic. + ductus. + L. G. Paramedian. osteon. Ossification. G. L. bone. G. Osteocyte. alongside of. G. L. G. bone. egg. along. L. + metra. ovum. alongside of. pan. egg. para. osteon. G. Panniculus. orificium. flesh. bone. likeness. ovum. L. + ganglion. 52 . beside. Oxytocin. para. + lysis. L. middle. Oxyntic. treatise. alongside of. L. axle. + facere. small bone. hence alongside the testes. G. knot. G. + kytos. os. puncture. ostium. G. Osseous. L. Osteone.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Orifice. I strike. Pancreas. os. oxys. melting. Osteolysis. ovum. para.

to bear. L. I produce. Phallus. phren. Paroophoron. Promontory. + teinein. pepsis. peri. parenchyma. Pregnancy. L. perinaion. Portal. portio. paries. -us). foreskin. L. peri. peri. part. Proctodeum. cartilage. G. Pepsin. porta (pl. pertaining to the penis. Placenta. + pherein. muscle. G. proktos. + gnascor. tail. L. Prepuce. Portio. L. G. Parieties. anus. phallus. processus. placenta. Peristalsis. around. L. gate. + hodaios. -ae). pertaining to a way. bone. Plexus (pl. plexus. porta (pl. -ae). percussio. Pepsinogen. pepsis. virgin. braid. G. G. Parous. paries. G. egg. diaphragm. digestion. around. Phrenic. birth. penis. Porta. striking. Periosteum. + genesis. + gennao. paresis. prae. going forwards. G. 53 . before. to be born. a flat cake. Percussion. digestion. mountain ridge. clasping and compressing. Perichondrium. L. G. relaxation. Phallic. peri. + oon. L. penis was a later meaning. L. Peritoneum. pario. perineum. L. peristaltikos. G. G. Parietal. Perimysium. Paresis. G. L. + osteon. + chondros. Processus. G. G. phallos. G. plaiting. praeputium. Perineum. L. pouring out into the adjacent. G. to bear. para. wall. around. Parthenogenesis. L. gate. G. G. to stretch. + mys. around. promontorium.Terms Important in the Abdomen and Pelvis Parenchyma. alongside of. phallikos. Penis. parthos. wall.

bosom. Rectum. form. Salpinx. Sac. retreat. renes. trough. pyelos. in front. gate-keeper. to stand. Scoliosis. + stare. Ramus. L. shape. Raphe. skin. Psoas. L. L. L. Sarcolemma. scrotum. semen. + eidos. raphe. saccus. pylouros. Pubis (pl. skoliosis. Pylorus. + forma. pudere. trough. L. Septum.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Pronephros. mature. L. sinister. cavity. whey. L. pro. L. psoa. + gramma. branch. G. G. skin. G. + nephros. before. pubes. fence. ramus. seed. shape. Greek letters. pubes. kidneys. Pyelogram. G. half. pyelos. -us). rectus. to make. serum. loin. ramus. L. Renal. sacculus. recessus. moon. restis. semi. Pyelograph. G. 54 . Pubes. G. tub. L. L. a little bag. mature. + facere. L. Restiform. to bear. Semilunar. L. + graphein. mark. kidney. G. sarx. + lemma. flesh. + luna. to draw. L. Sigmoid. semen. saeptum. sinus. L. Sacculus. pro. G. sigma. husk. likeness. sack. seam. Sinus (pl. G. left side or unlucky. Prostate. Semen. seed. Serum. tub. rectus. G. L. Sinister. rope. to be ashamed. Ramify. Pudendal. straight. curve. L. L. + ferre. Recess. branch. L. Scrotum. salpinx. curvature. Seminiferous. trumpet. L. -es).

seed. Spermatogenesis. sperma. body. + pleura. Stomach. L. Spermatocyte. body. L. G. sperma. Somatic. sub. narrowing. Spleen. seed. Spermatogonium. bud. supra. Somite. + kytos. cavity. situs. rib. band. stenosis. cell. ribbon. syndrome. Situs inversus viscerum. sponge. Sperm. Splanchnic. germ. syn. 55 . body. + logos. Tenia. soma (pl. G. testis. + genesis. G. Syndrome. + inversus. L. Spongiosum. Taenia. Symphysis. -a). generation. treatise. + physis. seed. G. Supracostal. together. Smegma. sphingein. splanchna. testiculus. inverted. spongia. L. G. Somatopleure. Stomodeum. mouth. + eidos. Spongioblast. animal. sponge. side. to suffer. soma. + costa. sinus. Terminalis. G. G. origin. + pathein. occurrence. + gone. gullet. seed. Sphincter. Spermatozoon (pl. indicating origin. sperma. L. G. smegma. G. stoma. Stenosis. somata). L. soma. Testicle. + suffix -ite. to limit. position. pertaining to a way. to bind tight. L. shape. spleen. + odaios. G. Sympathetic. L. splanknon. Splanchnology. oesophagus. viscera. spongia. + zoon. + blastos. syn. seed. curve.Terms Important in the Abdomen and Pelvis Sinusoid. site. splen. together. + viscerum. Subcostal. G. G. of the viscera. above. G. G. G. viscus. sperma. Stomatodeum. rib. G. G. likeness. soap. + costa. terminare. G. sperma. G. G. stomachos. under. growth. taenia.

Tunica. triangle. L. pillar. shedding of snake skin. Uterus. G. Tuberculum. womb. L. umbilicus. whirlpool. G. joint. 460 B. vas. + L. genitalis. Vesicle. a small bladder. truncus. venter. to preserve. testicle. Vein. entrance court. valvula. Ventral.C. worm. genital. 56 . L. + forma. tail. trunk of tree. a small hump. L. L. theca. vein. word invented by Hippocrates (c. Urogenital. L. Valve. Venter. vertex. ouethra. G. Vertex. G. L. wool drawn out for spinning. testis. ouron. vesicula. G. vernatio. Vesica. sheath. G. + stylos. urine. L. whirl. vermis. Umbilicus. uterus. L. Vernix. I pour. leaf of door. navel. Tract. Urethra. L. a witness. Vagina. L. belly. L. G. L. Urine. belly. L. venter. Truncus. tuberculum. Vas. L. Vertebra. a little fold. ouron. Ureter.). shape. urine. vena. valva. vagina. L. Urostyle. tunica.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Testis. Trigone. + cheo. valve. Vestibulum. L. L. bladder. ouron. urine. undergarment. + tereo. ouron. Urachus. vertebra. vesica. L. urine. L. tractus. vessel. L. sheath. L. Urea. vestibulum. Theca. L. Valvula. Vermiform. oura. urine. trigonum. envelope. ouron.

to beget. volvulus. L. 57 . zygon. L. Volvulus. yolk of egg. Vitelline. + apophysis. villi).Terms Important in the Abdomen and Pelvis Vestige. L. Vitellus. girdle. Viviparous. viscera. Villus (pl. little calf (became transferred to yolk of egg by Celsus c. Zona. dim. bowels. entrails. vitellus. volva. cover. L. Viscus. 10 A. Visceral. zona.). G. girdle. belt.D. L. vivus. internal organ. villus. living. L. footprint. of zona. L. L. hair. vitellus. + parere. yoke. Zygapophysis. L. twisted. viscus. Vulva. belt. trace. Zonula. L. L. vestigium. process of a bone.

to stray. Adenoid. L. goat. a. + eidos. Aphasia. L. Acrania. Ambiguus. anti. heads. + ducens. L. anti. to. to drive. coil. G. L. + agere. Aberrant. L. ab. without. pertaining to hearing. speech. without. G. without. away. Ansa. G. + helix. ansa. G. Ala. ampulla. + gnathos. (perhaps the small tuft of hair growing here was likened to a goat’s beard?). L. Annulus. a ring. G. anulus (annulus). acorn. a flask or vessel swelling in the middle. to. aditus. aden. + ferre. G. supplementary. Anencephaly. Aditus. accessorius. Antihelix. acinus. G.TERMS IMPORTANT IN THE HEAD AND NECK Abducens. Adductor. L. ab. L. antron. Amygdaloid. Acinus. form. + tragus. Accessory. handle. a. likeness. leading. + enkephalos. Ampulla. away. + phasis. almond. cave. before. ala. ad. brain. wing. to carry. Afferent. against. both ways. + ducere. + eidos. G. 58 . + krania. L. Acoustic. ad. form. L. without. L. Agnathism. akoustikos. jaw. before. against. G. opening. amb. to lead. an. grape. a. L. amydale. + errare. likeness. Antitragus. Antrum. G.

L. blepharon. arytana. auricula. Bolus. without. arcualis. arcus. base. L. baros. hole. axis. G. + nomos. wedgeshaped. point. + eidos. Auricle. Bregma. + trophe. audire. weight (pressure receptor). arch-shaped. to lead. Blepharal. L. Aqueduct. bolos. Aqueous. order. court.Terms Important in the Head and Neck Aphonia. G. Branchial. G. bis. L. . brechein. Basisphenoid. to hear. without. + taxis. Brachycephalic. brachys. of life. L. branchia. + cuspis.. axle of a wheel. entrance hall. shape. tree. G. G. footing. Arcuate. Atrophy. L. aster. or G. short. basis. eyelid. water. branchiae. Auditory. star. law. without. to moisten. aqua. nourishment. Buccal. two. Arbor vitae. G. likeness. principal. + phone. Archipallium. autos.. G. Arachnoid. (thought most humid part of infant skull). the line about which any body turns. bow. Atresia. + pallium. a. L. G. external ear. + ducere. + eidos. Ataxia. water. a. G. archi. mass. + vitae. G. G. spider. + sphenoeides. Axial. Autonomic. aqua. atrium. dim. L. cheek. 59 Baroreceptor. a. without. G. base. G. + kephale. G. G. Arcus. shape. Atrium. arbor. L. L. jug. a. head. Basion. Bicuspid. Asterion. cloak. L. bucca. + tresis. gills. L. basis. voice. Arytenoid. G. arachnes. likeness. self.

around. L. L. -ae). karon. shape. wall. Bursa. G. Circumflex.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Bulbus. Caruncle. -um. hence purse-shaped object. L. kochlias). L. flesh.. snail shell. funnel. Cervical. also a beam or rafter. kephale. cavum. bursa. chiasma. a hollow or cave. cilium (pl. spiral. Cavum. any fleshy eminence. Circumvallate. Cerebellum. G. L. bald. 60 Callosum. Caput (pl. Choroid. head. cochlea (G. cervix. -a. hollow or cave. rim on a wheel. Chiasma. chorion. skin. figure of X. head. brain. bulla. . to bend. L. Ciliary. + eidos. capita). Carotid. L. L. caverna. calvus. bulb. neck. -a. reservoir. cilia). Cava. claustrum. collum. Choana (pl. choane. Canine. L. Cochlea. L. L. a bubble. circum. dog. callosus. brain. centrum. likeness. cavus. L. -um. G. cerebrum. Cerebrum. a purse. rough stone. around. Collum. Bulla. caput. cerebrum. L. canis. dim. hence spherical in shape. dim. Cisterna. L. Centrum. G. L. Canthus. L. centre. barrier. Calvaria. L. L. + flexere. deep sleep (pressure on artery produces stupor). G. Cavernosus. Claustrum. thick-skinned. L. L. + vallum. L. L. swollen root. caementum. G. eyelash. Cementum. neck. bulbus. of caro. L. Cephalic. kanthos. circum. a hollow or cave. cisterna.

likeness. comitari. L. comitantes). + volvo. cortex. + eidos. Conjunctiva. L. form. L. connection. cranial). L. together + ruga. rind. bark of a tree. L. Cortex (adj. + petere. to copulate). L. Corona. Comitans (pl. communicating. + fugere. + eidos. communicans. coronarius. conus. Convolution. con. Coronary. corona. crista. wrinkle. Cornu. form. bark of a tree. L. to draw together. Crista. tie (from copulare. L. G. crow. conj. L. cornu. L. bark. pertaining to a wreath or crown. L. oyster shell. L. concha. crest + L. L. cone. companion. form. cock. Copula. corneus. to flee. Concha. gallus. 61 . hence cock’s comb. L. Constrictor. cribrum. corpora). skull. Cribriform. sieve. + forma. kranion. L. Coronoid. Conus. Cranial. ring. L. encircling.Terms Important in the Head and Neck Comes. cortex. horny. G. Corrugator. to accompany. cortical). con. crest. L. Commissure. Corticofugal. to seek. cortex. korax. Communicans. together. copula. crista. kranion. commissura (cum + mittere). L. to roll. Cricoid. L. G. horn. Corpus (pl. L. krikos. bivalve. hence. hence connecting. constringere. comes. likeness. G. skull. L. Cornea. Cranium (adj. Corticopetal. L. crown. together + jungo. Crista galli. I join. body.

G. culmen. G. within. dendros. within. L. Diplopia. crus. L. top. Dendrite. L. tooth. e. water. Diencephalon. dura. L. G. diploos. Ependyma. discus. Dacryon. hollow. to send. to turn aside. Endocranium. Eminence. G. e. cutting of teeth. double. endon. L. within. G. Encephalocele. out. head. Dentine. brain. L. + opsis. G. cross. enkephalos. G. intersection of two lines. L. tooth. kephale. dolichos. cupula. dens. + L. vision. Encephalon. upon. Emissary. disc. Diastema (pl. diploë. Decussation. long + G. dentitis. ducere. Cupula. L. en. + endyma. strong. to lead or draw. to lead. L. + kranion. Encephalocoele. Dura. Culmen. garment. G. tear. hard. Diverticulum. G. detrudere. L. Diploë. to jut. G. decussatio. L. a small cask or cup. Crus (pl. epi. crura). point. crux. L. dakryon. skull. interval. + mittere. 62 . Endolymph. Dens. dim. brain. through. tree. Ductule. as in Roman X.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Cruciate. dens. Duct. Dentition. divertere. to push down. diastema. + koilos. leg. endon. out. -ata). L. L. L. G. fold. lympha. Detrusor. + kephalos. Dolichocephalic. G. Disc. head. Cuspis. cuspis. ducere. + minere. dia. + enkephalos. L. L.

G. small pit. slope. + forma. L. fusus. fraenum. L. frons. fascis. window. G. likeness. bridge. arch or vault. fenestra. sickle. Fovea. L. falx. Flocculus. dim. on. Frenum. fastigium. L. L. + eidos. L. Funicular. channel. facies. L. folliculus. Falciform. epi. Frontal. ex. NL. Fontanelle. Ethmoid. fraenum. falx. -iae). L. upon. brow. Fauces. yellow. Facies. L. likeness. + kanthos. rim. upon. out. floccus. L. flavus. Fundus. L. hole. fontanelle. Follicle. + ophthalmos. form. Fastigius. Epiglottis. funis. epi. a little bridge. Foramen. bottom. L. L. G. L. fissura (findo). L. Fornix. a tuft of wool. Fenestra. F. L. Fasciculus. 63 . likeness. Fascia (pl. G. face. fascia. foramen. chamber. Fossa. a small fountain. + kranion. ethmos. Epithalamus. Flavum. G. throat. a cleft. a small bag. fourchette. fork. Fourchette. sickle. shape. L. dim. frontis. skull. L. Frenulum. Exophthalmos. upon. fovea. fundus. + forma. shape. Fissure. faux. bundle. rope. Facialis. eye. L. larynx. + glottis. fornix. L. band.Terms Important in the Head and Neck Epicanthus. Fusiform. forehead. ditch. sieve. epi. F. facies. spindle. L. Epicranium. falcis. L. fossa. G. epi. + thalamos. something dug. Falx. Fraenum. face.

Hypothalamus. cock. + thalamos. smooth. + kephale. G. glaber. + glossa. infundibulum. G. gyri). L. under. mouth of the windpipe. glossa. Hernia. G. Geniohyoid. ikteros. + L. + glossa. G. L. L. Genioglossus. Infundibulum. ball. G. under. L. L. hydor. + hyoeides. Globus. hypo. Gallus. G. hemi. G. Griseum. a turn. Icterus. head. U-shaped. water. G. chin. under. Hypaxial. G. L. hemi. incisus (incidere). Hippocampus. to cut into. glossa. hypo. gyros. galea. G. L. + sphaira. Gnathion. gnathos. griseus. G. Hypoglossal. L. G. a funnel. Hydrocephalus. + pharynx. + plege. chin. glottis. protrusion. throat. U-shaped. G. sphere. Glottis. G. L. bluish. + kampos. gallus. geneion. G. leather helmet. tongue. centre line. Gyrus (pl. gloia. hilum. globus. sea monster. Glossopharyngeus. Glossal. G.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Galea. Habenula. half. axis. L. hyoeides. tongue. Incisor. hypo. Glia. jaw. chin. couch. L. under. hypo. cut. Hiatus. a small thing. stroke. Hyoid. axis. growth. half. Hemisphere. incidere. strap. G. habena. glue. Glabella. tongue. tongue. jaundice. L. Incisura. Hypophysis. geneion. hernia. Hilum. G. Hemiplegia. hiatus. gap. G. chamber. horse. Genial. geneion. + physis. 64 . hippos.

labrum. L. lamina. jugum. labialis (labia). G. labyrinthos. membrane. Jugal. -ae). lens. L. lacrima. Jugular. L. Leminiscus. L. rainbow. Intima. narrow connection. L. tongue. G. L. jugularis (jugulum). shaped like Greek letter L. Lamella. Leptomeninges. lingua. 65 . Labium. Lambdoid. lingua. G. in. Ling-. maze. Isthmus.Terms Important in the Head and Neck Inion. G. of lamina. upper part of windpipe. G. Labyrinth. yoke. G. Invagination. Iris. L. Lacuna. Labrum. island. L. dim. insula. border. inion. pertaining to lips. G. intrinsecus. intima. leptos. L. lacuna. lip. Intrinsic. lacus. limen. limbus. L. tongue. pertaining to the neck. labium. L. L. Lingual. + vagina. band. thin. Lens. L. lake. threshold. Lamina (pl. sheath. Lemma. G. pond. + meninx. L. L. leminiskos. larynx. inward. Labial. L. jugum. Insula. lentil. L. to tear. tear. lingula. Lingula. skin. iris. lambda. Limen. thin plate. L. G. rim. Lacerate. L. isthmos. small tongue. lemma. lacerare. back of head. in. L. L. Larynx. Limbus. yoke. leaf. L. Lacrimal. Lacus. innermost. Jugum.

brain. Malleus. lucidus (lux). Marginal. to smell. matrix (mater ). + kephale. meninx. Lunate. membrane. chewing. I chew. G. hammer. medulla. macula. G. G. Microglia. after. L. Mater. small. luna. opening. chin. masticatio. clear. mentum. G. G. groundwork. Mastoid. + kephale. Malar. Meatus (pl. -us). G. forehead. full of light. + koilos. Meninges. L. moon. after. G. meninges). likeness. maxilla. Lumen. small. stain. head. L. Macula. mikros. membrane. bordering. Meninx (pl. Metathalamus. lobos. Locus. mala. meninx. L. Maxilla. chamber. + enkephalos. mikros. Microdont. light. Mental. + osmaomai. G. Mastication. cheek bone. head. Metencephalon. L. G. Medulla. mikros. Mandible. Mesencephalon. masseter. Meningocele. Matrix. + gloia. tooth. metopon. + en. marginalis (margo). Metopic. form. G. L. Meningocoele. Microcephaly. marrow. glue. G. + thalamus. in. mater. locus. malleus. A. lobe. pith. meatus. meta. spot. L.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Lobus. wrap or nutrient. L. mikros. G. G. L. mando. L. chewer. jaw. + eidos. middle. + odous. small. 66 . mesos. L. mastos. Microsmatic. passage. L. G. small. Masseter. womb. meta. meninx. membrane. Lucidum. now bone of upper jaw. L. L. place. L. hollow. lumen. breast. mold.

G. L. niger. + gloia. L. L. L. neuron. tendon. pertaining to a millstone. nostril. short sleep (during which rhythmic head movements occur). nape of neck. obelos. sheath. Nasion. Neurilemma. + logos. back of head. Neurology. sinew. cord. nystagma. hence. nerve. G. G. pain. nerve. neuron. neos. G. + axon. Neuralgia. rhythmic eye movements. Neuroglia. + enkephalos. L. Naris (pl. G. nervus. neuron. I close. G. Neural. Occipital. -es). + lemma. to wink. cordlike structure. back. nerve. 67 Obelion. Occlusion. nerve. + algos. myelos. Molar. Nuchal. nucha. pointed pillar. noton. L. Mylohyoid. + chorde. neuron. Neuroectomy. marrow. + ektome. nictare. G. Notochord. Nystagmus. myle. cordlike structure. Neuraxon. neuron. glue. G. mill. neuron. nerve. molaris (mola). nose. black. nervus. . ob. axis. G. nerve. L. modern use. Nerve. tendon. G. excision. neuron. equivalent of L. neuron. G. nerve. neuron. nerve. L. G. husk. Nucha. occipitium. L. nerve. Neopallium. nucha. hub. G. treatise. modiolus. + claudo. naris. L. nerve. Neuroblast. L. nodus. nasus. knot. new. + pallium. cloak. brain. L. Neuron. before. Nictitating. bud. U-shaped. Node. Myelencephalon. G. Nigra. + hyoeides. + blastos. G.Terms Important in the Head and Neck Modiolus. G. neuron. nape of neck.

Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Oculomotor. Odontoblast. Odontoid. Oligodendroglia. Omohyoid. L. oculus, eye, + motor, mover. G. odous, tooth, + blastos, bud. G. odous, tooth, + eidos, shape, likeness. G. oligos, few, + dendron, tree, + gloia, glue. G. omos, shoulder, + G. hyoeides, U-shaped; thus muscle passing from shoulder to U-shaped hyoid bone. G. opisthios, posterior. G. ophthalmos, eye. G. opsis, sight. L. os, oris, mouth; (compare L. os, bone, below). L. ora, edge, + serra, saw. L. orbis, anything circular. L. orificium, opening. L. os, bone. L. os (pl. ossa), bone. L. ossiculum, small bone. L. os, bone, + facere, to make. G. osteon, bone. G. osteon, bone, + kytos, cell. G. osteon, bone, + logos, treatise. G. osteon, bone, + lysis, melting. G. osteon, bone, + malakia, softness. L. ostium, door. G. otikos, belonging to the ear. G. ous, otos, ear, + lithos, stone. G. pachys, thick, + meninx, membrane. L. palatum, palate. L. pallidus, pale. L. pallium, cloak. L. palpebra, eyelid. 68

Opisthion. Ophthalmic. Optic. Oral. Ora serrata. Orbit. Orifice. Os. Osseous. Ossicle. Ossification. Osteone. Osteocyte. Osteology. Osteolysis. Osteomalacia. Ostium. Otic. Otolith. Pachymeninges. Palate. Pallidus. Pallium. Palpebra.

Terms Important in the Head and Neck Papilloedema, Papilledema. Paraesthesia, Paresthesis. Paraflocculus. Paraganglion. Paralysis. Paraplegia. Parasympathetic. Parathyroid. Paraxial. Paresis. Parotid. Periodontal. Petrosal. Petrous. Pharynx. Philtrum. Phonation. Pia. Pilus. Pineal. Pinna (pl. -ae). Piriform. Pituitary. L. papilla, nipple, + oedema, swelling. G. para, alongside of, + aisthesis, sensation. G. para, alongside of, + L. floccus, flock of wool. G. para, along, beside, + ganglion, knot. G. para, alongside of, + lyein, to loosen. G. para, alongside of, + plesso, I strike. G. para, alongside of, + sympathetikos, sympathetic. G. para, near, + thyreos, oblong shield, + eidos, form, likeness. G. para, alongside of, + L. axis, axle. G. paresis, relaxation. G. para, near, + ous, otos, ear. G. peri, around, + odous, tooth. L. petrosus, rocky. L. petrosus, rocky. G. pharynx, throat. G. philtron, love potion, anything that awakens love. G. phone, voice. L. pius, delicate. L. pilus, hair. L. pinea, pine cone. L. penna, pinna, feather; hence, wing. L. pirum, pear, + forma, shape, likeness. L. pituita, slime, phlegm; at one time believed to secrete a mucous material from the brain into the nose. G. platys, flat, + kephale, head. G. platysma, plate. 69

Platycephaly. Platysma.

Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Plexus (pl. -us). Plica. Pneumatic. Pons. Popliteus. Pore. Porta. Portal. Portio. Porus. Premolar. Presbyopia. Procerus. Processus. Prochordal. Prognathism. Promontory. Proptosis. Prosencephalon. Prosthion. Protuberance. Pterygoid. Ptosis. Pulvinar. Punctum. Pupil. Putamen. Pyramid. Pyriform. Quadrigeminus. L. plexus, plaiting, braid. L. plicare, to fold. G. pneumatikos, pertaining to breath. L. pons, pontis, bridge. L. poples, ham. L. porus, passage. L. porta (pl. -ae), gate. L. porta (pl. -ae), gate. L. portio, part. G. poros, passage. L. pre, in front, + molaris, molar. G. presbys, old man, + opsis, sight. L. procerus, tall, extended. L. processus, going forwards. G. pro, in front of, + chorde, cord. G. pro, in front of, + gnathos, jaw. G. promontorium, mountain ridge. G. pro, before, + ptosis, falling. G. pro, before, + enkephalos, brain. G. prosthen, before. L. protubero, I swell. G. pteryx, wing, + eidos, likeness, shape. G. ptosis, fall. L. pulvinar, cushioned couch. L. punctum, point. L. pupa, girl. L. putamen, shell, husk. G. pyramis, pyramid. L. pirum, pear, + forma, shape. L. quadrigeminus, four-fold, four.

70

Terms Important in the Head and Neck Recess. Reflect. Retina. Rhinal. Rhinencephalon. Rhinion. Rhombencephalon. Rima. Risorius. Rostrum (pl. -a). Ruga (pl. -ae). Sac. Sacculus. Salivary. Scala. Scalene. Scalp. Sclera. Sclerotic. Sella turcica. Semilunar. Septum. Sialogram. Sigmoid. Sinister. Sinus (pl. -us). Sphenoid. Stapes. Strabismus. Stratum (pl. strata). Stria. L. recessus, retreat. L. reflecto, to turn back. L. rete, net. G. rhis, nose. G. rhis, nose, + enkephalos, brain. G. rhinion, nostril. G. rhombos, rhomboid, + enkephalos, brain. L. rima, cleft. L. risus, laughter. L. rostrum, beak. L. ruga, wrinkle. L. saccus, sack. L. sacculus, a little bag. L. saliva, saliva. L. scala, staircase. G. skalenos, uneven. Teutonic. skalp, shell. G. skleros, hard. G. skleros, hard. L. sella, saddle, + turcica, Turkish. L. semi, half, + luna, moon. L. saeptum, fence. G. sialon, saliva, + gramma, mark. G. sigma, Greek letter S, + eidos, shape, likeness. L. sinister, left side or unlucky. L. sinus, curve, cavity, bosom. G. sphen, wedge, + eidos, likeness, shape. L. stapes, stirrup. G. strabismos, squinting. L. stratum, layer. L. stria, furrow. 71

Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Striatum. Styloid. Sublingual. Submandibular. Substantia. Sulcus. Superciliary. Sustentaculum. Sympathetic. Taenia, Tenia. Tapetum. Tectum. Tegmen. Tegmentum. Tela. Telencephalon. Tentorium. Teres. Terminalis. Thalamus. Theca. Tonsil. Tragus. Tympanic. Uvea. Uvula. Vallate. Vallecula. Valve. L. striatus, grooved, streaked. G. stylos, pillar, + eidos, likeness. L. sub, under, + lingua, tongue. L. sub, under, + mandibula, jaw. L. substantia, substance. L. sulcus, furrow. L. super, above, + cilium, eyelid. L. sustentaculum, support. G. syn, together, + pathein, to suffer. L. taenia, band, ribbon. L. tapete, carpet, tapestry. L. tectum (tego), roof. L. tegmen, covering. L. tegumentum, covering. L. tela, web. G. telos, end, + enkephalos, brain. L. tentorium, tent. L. tero, I grind, rub. L. terminare, to limit. G. thalamos, chamber. L. theca, envelope, sheath. L. tonsilla, mooring post. G. tragos, goat, from small tuft of hair (goat’s beard) in this region. L. tympanum, drum. L. uva, grape. L. uva, grape. L. vallum, rampart, walled. L. dim. of vallus, fossa. L. valva, leaf of door. 72

velum. L. Velum. joint. vertex. trace. footprint. Vomer. vermis. shape. vestibulum.Terms Important in the Head and Neck Valvula. ventriculus. transparent. L. of glass. + forma. Vermiform. vitreous. vestigium. valvula. worm. L. hence. Vertex. 73 . valve. zygon. vertebra. veil. L. whirl. little cavity. L. G. vitreus. loculus. Vitreus. Zygapophysis. L. L. whirlpool. + apophysis. L. entrance court. a little fold. yoke. Vestige. L. Vestibulum. L. worm. vomer. vermis. L. Vertebra. process of a bone. Vermis. Ventricle. ploughshare.

likeness. + eidos. Arcuate. L. L. accessorius. cave. Ambiguus. L. Arbor vitae. arch-shaped. audire. without. to. leading. form. arachnes. L. supplementary. L. antron. G. G. L. Amygdaloid. L. Aditus. G. to lead. aqua. ad. L. Accessory. + pallium. Archipallium. Antrum. a ring. bow. Ala. Ataxia. G. amydale. water. order. ansa. + agere. anulus (annulus). akoustikos. Aberrant. L. arcualis. to hear. both ways. L. + physis. a. cloak. aditus. amb. Ansa. arbor. to stray. voice. a. ala. aqua. + phasis. L. Aqueous. away. a. L. Arachnoid. apo. speech. Aqueduct. + eidos. wing. Apophysis. pertaining to hearing. G. opening. away. + ducens. ab. L. shape. likeness. 74 . almond. G. + errare. of life. L. principal. Annulus. ab. arcus. + phone. handle. to carry. G. G. + vitae. from. archi. water. G. Auditory. + taxis. Aphonia. without. Arcus. Aphasia. tree. to drive. growth. spider. Afferent. + ferre.TERMS SPECIFIC TO THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Abducens. without. + ducere. Acoustic. L.

Calyx (pl. to copulate). L. corpora). L. L. Cerebrum. tie (from copulare. -a. a hollow or cave. kochlias). L. also a beam or rafter. chiasma. L. Convolution. dim. calices).Terms Specific to the Nervous System Autonomic. L. A. barrier. callosus. cavum. + volvo. cilia). eyelash. Corpus (pl. Axon. bulb. communicans. Callosum. + nomos. -a. swollen root. Coeliac. concha. G. cup-shaped protective covering. wall. law. autos.. L. Ciliary. belly. Claustrum. Communicans. -um. Concha. hollow or cave. Cochlea. Baroreceptor. bulbus. communicating. 75 . -um. L. L. Circumvallate. spiral. bivalve. inner vein. commissura (cum + mittere). reservoir. L. cerebrum. G. together. con. cochlea (G. L. husk. L. claustrum. weight (pressure receptor). to roll. Commissure. L. a hollow or cave. cisterna. body. cilium (pl. cauda. caudal. Basilic. L. cerebrum. Cisterna. + vallum. baros. L. Cava. Cavernosus. L. cavus. figure of X. connection. G. Copula. brain. G. L. Cavum. L. self. Bulbus. oyster shell. L. Colliculus. koilia. Chiasma. Cauda. thick-skinned. circum. Cerebellum. L. axis. L. al-basilic. copula. Celiac. G. little hill. brain. axon. snail shell. tail. colliculus. around. caverna. calyx.

out. dendros. Diencephalon. G. hard. en. Fastigius. L. to flee. intersection of two lines. endon. bark. G. + enkephalos. Dendrite. garment. on. strong. Dermatome. lympha. within. Corticofugal. cortex. G. within. L. epi. Diplopia. L. top. fibre. dura. + fugere. enkephalos. 76 Efferent. + petere. to seek. + temnein. nerve. culmen. window. fibra. double. Encephalon. water. Fibre. brain. G. Dura. G. G. G. L. L. Epineurium. sickle. diploos. on. sickle. + ferre. Fenestra. Diverticulum. + neuron. upon. L. . Falx. Encephalocoele. to cut. L. cortical). Epithalamus. fenestra. L. joint. Dysarthria. Endoneurium. shape. Endolymph. bark of a tree. ex. hollow. cortex. through. arthron. fastigium. + forma. Cotyledon. falcis. endon. Encephalocele. vision. G. + thalamos. G. G. + L. cortex. dys. G. derma. bark of a tree. + koilos. L. head. tree. likeness. as in Roman X. epi. epi. slope. falx. G. Fiber. divertere. Culmen. dia. nerve. + neuron. within. chamber. + kephalos. Corticopetal. kotyledon. Ependyma. L. to bear. L. + opsis. Falciform. cup-shaped hollow. to turn aside. brain. skin.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Cortex (adj. hard. L. thread. falx. Decussation. rind. G. string. hence disjointed speech. L. + endyma. decussatio.

G. fork. likeness. Hiatus. G. small pit. + glossa. sphere. G. bluish. hiatus. Funicular. Globus. L. a cleft. sea monster. fusus. Griseum. G. bottom. glue. hypo. dim. + kephale. F. Fovea. under. gyri). a little thread. Hippocampus. fornix. L. spindle. Fissure. L. Hemisphere. funis. thread. folliculus. Hernia. G. Hilum. tongue. 77 . ball. filamentum. axis. Follicle. L. + plege. hernia. filum. Fourchette. Fundus. fundus. L. Gyrus (pl. hippos. L. Filum. arch or vault. Ganglion. Hypaxial. centre line. fovea. ganglion. strap. hydor. a turn. L. G. a tuft of wool. knee. water. NL. Filament. + pharynx. axis. fringe. Fimbria. under. G. hypo. hilum. L. + forma. L. stroke. Flocculus. L. fourchette. Genu. gloia. a small bag. thin fibre. Hydrocephalus. half. G. threads. a swelling under the skin. Hypoglossal. fissura (findo).Terms Specific to the Nervous System Fibril. head. glossa. + sphaira. G. protrusion. shape. rope. horse. fimbriae. NL. + kampos. throat. a small thing. genu. floccus. Fornix. tongue. gyros. hemi. fibrilla. L. griseus. + L. G. L. hemi. gap. Glia. Habenula. Hemiplegia. habena. L. Glossopharyngeus. globus. L. Fusiform. L. L. L. half.

to press. Indusium. couch. G. in. Intrinsic. unequal. border. Jugum. in. L. leptos. infundibulum. moon. Labyrinth. inward. Lucidum. Limbus. light. in. Lingula. -ae). limen. kinesis. a funnel. in. L. L. L. Jugular. G. sheath. Lamina (pl. lobe. pond. G. in. L. Infundibulum. + physis. Lumen. L. L. G. G. Lobus. + meninx. + premere. Impression. nerve. clear. labyrinthos. Limen. chamber. in.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Hypophysis. + vagina. band. lacuna. yoke. growth. small tongue. hypo. 78 . G. Innervation. limbus. narrow connection. Leptomeninges. tunic. insula. L. thin plate. L. + nervus. lamina. + thalamos. lumen. L. lingula. Hypothalamus. jugularis (jugulum). luna. Insula. movement. thin. indusium. opening. lucidus (lux). under. leminiskos. Lunate. L. membrane. Lacuna. island. L. Impar. G. L. L. isthmos. Invagination. impar. L. threshold. maze. L. L. Leminiscus. full of light. jugum. under. intrinsecus. to cut into. Isthmus. Incisura. incidere. lobos. L. L. hypo. Kinetic. pertaining to the neck. G.

mikros. G. Neuroglia. sheath. mys. G. after. + blastos. G. Nerve. + gloia. G. + ektome. G. -us). G. + lemma. Meninx (pl. + enkephalos. Neuroectomy. + axon. meninx. pith. meta. neuron. L. tendon. neos. Microcephaly. + algos. small. in. Neural. nerve. gut. neuron. neuron. brain. spot. G. membrane. 79 . neuron. G. G. to smell. Neurenteric. + koilos. + gloia. cloak. nerve. + kephale. neuron. medulla. myelos. + pallium. nerve. G. membrane. L. mater. Matrix. G. mesos. L. + kephale. Neurilemma. G. Metencephalon. after. chamber. muscle. Myelencephalon. Metathalamus. L. Microsmatic. Meninges. passage. macula. mold. Microglia. Mydriasis.Terms Specific to the Nervous System Macula. womb. gut. + logos. Neuroblast. G. mydriasis. nerve. G. nerve. nerve. glue. G. G. middle. meatus. G. groundwork. G. Mesencephalon. + osmaomai. Medulla. Neuraxon. G. marrow. nerve. treatise. nerve. dilation of pupil. Myenteric. Neurology. glue. wrap or nutrient. A. small. matrix (mater ). Neuralgia. head. Meningocoele. Mater. membrane. meninges). meninx. cordlike structure. G. nervus. neuron. meta. G. + enteron. mikros. brain. neuron. new. L. head. hollow. G. bud. neuron. neuron. pain. axis. + thalamus. small. + enkephalos. meninx. neuron. mikros. Neopallium. marrow. Meingocele. stain. nerve. Meatus (pl. + en. + enteron. excision. nerve. G. husk.

to make. Paraflocculus. oculus. G. para. L. Paraplegia. nerve. alongside of. + plesso. Papilledema. + meninx. to smell. sight. . mover. I strike. tendon. G. Nystagmus. para. Parasympathetic. ear. + L. L. Paralysis. nervus. Otolith. G. G. para. sympathetic. sinew. Pachymeninges. black. nodus. Papilloedema. alongside of. stone. L. + sympathetikos. Paraganglion. short sleep (during which rhythmic head movements occur). ophthalmos. cloak. nerve. + aisthesis. + gloia. Olfactory. para. + dendron. + oedema. alongside of. eye. para. + ganglion. eye. Ophthalmic. few. otikos. along. G. nystagma. sensation. Nigra. G. alongside of. pachys. para. olere. L. flock of wool. G. L. G. knot. oligos. door. neuron. G. Otic. neuron. rhythmic eye movements. 80 Oculomotor. swelling. neuron. otos. + poros. Pallidus. beside. tree. Ostium. hole. Oligodendroglia. G. glue. Neuropil. L. + lithos. + pilos. L. G. felt. nipple. G. + facere. G. Node. hence. ostium. Optic. floccus. G. Paraesthesia. nerve. G. alongside of. ous. equivalent of L. niger. L. pallidus. + lyein. to loosen. knot. membrane. pallium. thick. + motor. pale. Paresthesis. G. opsis. Neuropore. cordlike structure. belonging to the ear. modern use. Pallium.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Neuron. papilla.

pes. phone. pius. rocky. G. G. to fold. rocky. cord. lympha. + forma. profundus. G. voice. petrosus. alongside of. Parenchyma. to shine. L. pro. Pulvinar. G. plaiting. around. + enkephalos. Plexus (pl. paries. Phonation. Prosencephalon. at one time believed to secrete a mucous material from the brain into the nose. G. L. Photoreceptor. cushioned couch. to take. phren. fluid. bridge. L. Processus. L. braid. peri. processus. going forwards. + ptosis. pons. L. Pedunculus. + L. + chorde. G. point. sight. Pellucida. + L. before. anything flat. Prochordal. para. -us). Pons. brain. G. axle. L. . L. relaxation. L. Pituitary. Petrous. Proprioceptor. a little foot. light. Pia. perinaion. plexus. parenchyma. petrosus. L. G. L. + capere. falling. plax. paries. pulvinar. deep. Pedicle. Paresis. Proptosis. pituita. through. L. axis. pediculus. Piriform. Parietal. pear. before. diaphragm. presbys. Plica. L. foot. plicare. pontis. L. 81 Placode. pro. pirum. Profundus. Punctum. punctum. G. L. I receive. Perineum. G. likeness.Terms Specific to the Nervous System Paraxial. Phrenic. per. old man. Perilymph. L. proprius. G. L. delicate. paresis. G. slime. Petrosal. phlegm. pro. in front of. + opsis. wall. + lucere. perineum. shape. wall. L. phos. special. G. pouring out into the adjacent. + recipio. L. Parieties. Presbyopia.

ischion. hip joint. Septum. fence. Pyriform. to make. root. nose. Rhinencephalon. L. to take back. + facere. shape. + eidos. G. ramus. Radix. Sinus (pl. Receptor. Radicle. pyramid. Scala. Ramus. flesh. G. G. radix. four-fold. pupa. L. L. L. rhis. scala. G. sacculus. recipere. L. L. L. G. Sclerotic. sinus. curve. pyramis. -a). pear. seam. shape. Recess. likeness. four. skleros. Raphe. husk. reticulum. L. + enkephalos. L. Rhombencephalon. saeptum. Sciatic. L. -us). branch. Reticulum. L. shell. brain. L. saccus. form. rete. L. brain. Sclera. rope. G. girl. beak. + forma. Sarcolemma. Sacculus. Sinister. Ramify. a little bag. L. branch. rhomboid. cavity. sarx. + lemma. Rostrum (pl. retreat. shape. L. skin. ramus. sinus. G. L. Pyramid. cavity. bosom. G. Quadrigeminus. skleros. L. hard. husk. receive. L. curve. Sac. root. raphe. little net. Restiform. left side or unlucky. sack. L. pirum. L. L. hard. sinister. rhombos. net. + enkephalos. Putamen. radix. restis. quadrigeminus. Retina. putamen. 82 . + forma. rostrum. staircase. recessus.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Pupil. Sinusoid.

L. tapete. L. Tectum. strabismos. Trigeminus. jaw. Substantia. body. carpet. L. tegmen. Stria. strata). above. G. under. tentorium. Tunica. L. L. Stratum (pl. web. tunica. G. Tract. spina. undergarment. tractus. L. substantia. shape. L. Strabismus. L. Thalamus. tapestry. furrow. eyelid. sub. Spina. L. G. Tabular. tabula. stria. L. board. Telencephalon. Submandibular. tectum (tego). theca. L. L. layer. L. to suffer. Uncinate. Tentorium. body. together. Tela. L. striatus. + suffix -ite. grooved. Theca. L. somata). L.Terms Specific to the Nervous System Somatic. soma. to fasten. thalamos. L. furnished with a hook. syn. telos. squinting. G. wool drawn out for spinning. L. Unciform. terminare. trigeminus. to limit. Tegmen. Synapse. L. born three together. Tapetum. streaked. Sympathetic. substance. G. sulcus. uncus. + cilium. + mandibula. sub. + forma. G. tongue. brain. Somite. Tegmentum. indicating origin. Sulcus. covering. super. Striatum. envelope. hook. L. + lingua. soma (pl. covering. + enkephalos. 83 . + haptein. syn. thorn. Sublingual. tela. + pathein. end. table. furrow. roof. Superciliary. Terminalis. chamber. together. L. L. G. stratum. tegumentum. under. L. uncinatus. sheath. tent.

little cavity. wandering. entrance court. Vermis. girdle. girdle. L. dim. Uvea. belt. vermis. belt. vagus. L. L. Vestibulum. L. velum.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Uncus. L. uncus. vestibulum. of zona. Ventricle. uva. L. L. Zonula. loculus. L. veil. 84 . Zona. worm. ventriculus. L. zona. hook. Vagus. Velum. grape.

Adhesion. great. L. fat. pertaining to hearing. L. likeness. Abducens. ad. + eidos. supplementary. to grow up. L. + krania. ab. Adipose. to stray. Adenoid. adolesco. Absorption. kidneys. + nexus. Adductor. L. G. ab. G. leading. Acromegaly. aditus. extremity. Acoustic. Abductor. extremity. adhaereo. + errare. a. Adrenal. L. Acromion. opening. Adolescence. + megale. aden. without. vinegar cup. G. acorn. form. absorptio. L. acinus. height. L. away. Adnexa. + omos. to. akros. Abortion. shoulder. L. L. accessorius. akron. ad. Acinus. Acetabulum. L. Aberrant. adeps. L. Accessory. shape of hip joint. G. L. acetabulum. + ducere. L. to lead. akoustikos. G. Acrania. 85 . to lead. away. to swallow. to hide. + renes.ALPHABETICAL LIST OF TERMS A Abdomen. + ducens. to. L. to stick together. to abort. from abdere (?). bound. ab. + ducere. L. L. near. abortio. grape. away. ad. heads. Aditus.

treatise. G. + logos. G. G. angulus. sausage. 86 . precursor). amydale. andros. G. + mastos. almond. elbow. rival. without. Amphiarthrosis. Ansa. an. Anomaly. + venire. + eidos. on. vessel. Ampulla. ad. Angiology. Ankylosis. Ger. G. an. jaw. G. to. to produce. Ankle. andros. G. apart. handle. Ala. Android. G. a. ad. an. to cut. angle. Allantois. G. L. G. amphi. Androgen. Anlage. agonistes. angulus. Agonist. to lay (a laying on — primordium. + eidos. to come. wing. fetal membrane. a. amnion. G. L. angeion. cause to communicate. + agere.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Adventia. Alveolus. Anencephaly. likeness. without. Anconeus. joint. form. a flask or vessel swelling in the middle. L. man. ana. ansa. Anastomosis. man. Angle. treatise. Amnion. brain. anulus (annulus). Anatomy. + legen. anastomoein. ampulla. little cavity. + eidos. + ferre. form. + nomos. L. likeness. on both sides. without. form. L. L. + gennan. angle. Agnathism. Analogy. stiffening of the joint. Annulus. L. Amastia. breast. both ways. Ambiguus. ankylosis. + arthrosis. amb. appearance. to. without. G. agkon. G. L. alveolus. allas. according to. G. + gnathos. ala. G. + enkephalos. G. + tennein. L. Afferent. + logos. Amygdaloid. L. to bring to a mouth. to carry. G. to drive. ana. a ring. law.

without. ante. G. + tragus. G. + versio. to raise. Apocrine. to separate. Anus. to lead. arbor. from. apo. Anterior. ante. rival. arachnes. G. + brachium. bow. apo. + ducere. Arcus. (perhaps the small tuft of hair growing here was likened to a goat’s beard?). aeiro. a. 87 Antrum. from. adjectival form of appendix. principal. L. + krinein. before. speech. before. Anteflexion. Apophysis. Archipallium. later: tendon). anti. cave. G. of area. water. Arachnoid. likeness. appendere. cloak. against. + neuron. arcualis. to hang upon. G. turning. G. G. + eidos. G. L. Marfans syndrome. Arbor vitae. Arachnodactyli. to bend. fundament. form. apo. Antebrachium. likeness. L. as previous. aqua. ante. Antihelix. . G. Areola. + eidos. Aorta. Arcuate. areola (dim. G. Anthropoid. before. arm. tendon (earlier: nerve. G. agonistes. Appendicular. G. L. without. G. Appendix. shape. Aponeurosis. Aphonia. growth. archi. against. L. before. before. + vitae. spider fingers. + pallium. anus. Anteversion. + phasis. + physis. arch-shaped. voice. Antitragus. tree. ante.Alphabetical List of Terms Antagonist. opening. L. L. aqua. L. goat. coil. Aqueduct. L. apertura. L. L. arcus. + flexere. L. anti. man. antron. against. Aphasia. spider. of life. + helix. anti. Aqueous. a. Apertura. water. + phone. anthropos. before. L. open space). from.

joints. L. G. L. axle of a wheel. grandfather. without. Axilla. + zygon. by art. shape. L. atrium. Artery. self. autos. G. L. not. G. G. to keep (L. Asterion. G. aster. + tresis. air. auricula. articulationes. Atrium. a. axle of a wheel. Asthenic. Axon. little joint. rough. + terein. arteria. Atrophy. axis. star. L. joint. Articulation. hole. thus arrectores pilorum. yoke. small muscles in skin that erect the hairs. expansion. artus. G. court. axis. without. Artefact. Auditory. Atresia. L. L. Atlas. G. likeness. G. + ectasis. arte. incomplete. a. Axial. without. axilla. G. + taxis.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Arrector. dim. + trophe. arytana. ateles. Azygos. L. L. nourishment. order. external ear. pl. atavus. strength. I sustain (Greek god who bears the world). 88 . Axis. without. + eidos. Aspera. L. to hear. entrance hall. G. arrigere. + sthenos. law. Autonomic. aer. windpipe). Atelectasis. hence. articulatus. made. armpit. jug. Ataxia.. audire. G. G. axis. ancient belief that blood vessels contained air. a. axon. Arytenoid. L. a. Auricle. to raise. + factus. asper. Atavistic. the line about which any body turns. atlao. unpaired. + nomos. a.

two. inner vein. two. head. G. L. footing. point. brachialis. G. al-basilic. brachium. G. (thought most humid part of infant skull). bile. G. basis. L. two. end of windpipe. Buccal. gills. basis. bis. Biceps. Bronchus. L. bilis. L. two. Bregma. Bicuspid. cheek. bucca. brachys. + latus. branchiae. bulbus. Bipennate. Basilic. + pinna. baros. to moisten. two. + cornua. belly. A. L. bi. blepharon. G. L. Basisphenoid. fork. feather. L. Brevis. bis. L. Bifurcate. to cleave. + findere. bronchiolus (dim. Brachial. Bilateral. mass. brechein. to moisten). short. eyelid. wedgeshaped.Alphabetical List of Terms B Baroreceptor. side. + kephale. + caput. + cuspis. arm. footing. L. -ia). brevis. Brachycephalic. (upper arm). bolos. G. + furca. Blepharal. L. L. bis. Bifid. two. L. Brachium (pl. G. bronchia. of bronchus. bis. Bile. Biventer. Basion. + venter. bis. L. Bolus. base. basis. bulb. branchia. bis. Bronchiole. + sphenoeides. L. Bulbus. base. head. belonging to the arm (upper arm). G. short. or G. brechein. horns. bis. L. 89 . Bicornuate. Basal. two. base. Branchial. swollen root. two. weight (pressure receptor). G. L.

calcaneus. hence spherical in shape. C Calcaneus. Cancellous. + facere. G. bald. dog. box. Carneae. L. to make. canna. capillaris. keel. cancelli. pertaining to a door hinge. L. caput. cup-shaped protective covering. Calcar. L. L. calx. Cannula. a purse. carneus. lime. carina. small head. rim on a wheel. newly formed bone at fracture site. canalis. Cardiac. L. Cardinal. L. Calvaria. heel. L.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Bulla. L. Canine. L. Canaliculus. -a. L. dim. as above. reed. head. L. L. L. capita). calcar. caput. -um. calyx. a bubble. bursa. kardiakos (kardia). L. hence purse-shaped object. dim. L. bulla. L. calices). pertaining to the hair. kanthos. Capillary. latticework. G. also a beam or rafter. husk. dim. 90 Carina. Caput (pl. of capsa. fleshy. . Calcification. Capitulum. thick-skinned. pertaining to the heart. callosus. Bursa. calvus. on which something important or fundamental hinges. Callous. canis. Callosum. watepipe. cardinalis. L. L. Canthus. L. Capsule. Calyx (pl. spur. L.

a hollow or cave. 91 . Carotid. karon. Coelom.Alphabetical List of Terms Carnivorous. down. centrum. chorion. Cartilage. funnel. G. flesh. + vorare. head. L. blind. + eidos. kephale. caementum. L. -um. Cephalic. -um. fleshy. work. + lysis. -a. gristle. skin. of caro. rough stone. + dochos (dechomai). Cementum. koiloma. karpos. Catheter. chiasma. G. L. L. G. likeness. Caruncle. G. G. string of gut. Chirurgery. Chiasma. G. skin. Caecum. brain. Celiac. tail. carno. L. wrist. Carpus. caverna. belly. choane. carnosus. flesh. Cavernosus. G. + heimi. neck. cauda. Coeliac. Cavum. G. dissolution. Chorion. G. deep sleep (pressure on artery produces stupor). L. -a. Celom (e). Cerebellum. a hollow. cerebrum. Centrum. G. colour. Cervical. thrust. (hence surgery). cheir. cavum. caudal. -ae). koilia. Carnosus. hand. cerebrum. G. L. a hollow or cave. cartilago. shape. centre. cartilage. L. Chorda. hollow or cave. G. L. Choana (pl. chorion. Choledochus. caecus. Choroid. brain. + ergon. G. figure of X. kata. Cecum. chroma. dim. Cauda. cavus. L. Cerebrum. container. cervix. dim. chole. chorde. Chromatolysis. any fleshy eminence. L. to devour. G. L. Cava. bile. L. L. cord.

concha. neck. klimakter. Comes. Communicans. cilium (pl. L. Claustrum. kolla. Climacteric. cloaca. + flexere. connection. comes. Clava. L. colour. + L. Concha. clavicula. ladder). cisterna. Cingulum. kokkyx. L. around. claustrum. begetter of. communicating. G. comitari. cochlea (G. G. likeness. L. L. Chyle. G. commissura (cum + mittere). glue. a cuckoo. con. L. Colliculus. a little key. club. Constrictor. G. Chyme. snail shell. cilia). girdle. communicans. L. I join. body. kolon. colliculus. Conjunctiva. L. Condyle. Ciliary. Cloaca. Collum. to bend. L. sewer. kondylos. L. Cisterna. G. G. bivalve. knuckle. reservoir. chylos. around. side. drain. L. L. + eidos. Colon. juice. kochlias). 92 . G. to draw together. chymos. hence a structure shaped like a cuckoo’s bill. + soma. Comitans (pl. spiral. glue. great gut.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Chromosome. + latus. L. G. + vallum. L. eyelash. L. kolla. Collateral. shape. constringere. conj. L. Clavicle. L. L. Circumflex. circum. oyster shell. Coccyx. top of ladder (from klimax. Circumvallate. Colloid. gen. together. Commissure. barrier. companion. wall. chroma. Collagen. clava. cingulum. L. to accompany. L. comitantes). circum. juice. together + jungo. hence connecting. collum. G. Cochlea. little hill.

crow. little body. L. krikos. body. korax or corone. to flee. G. L. corona. likeness. corneus. Cremaster. G. cortex. costa. together. Cornu. + petere. G. L. form. likeness. G. cortex. form. Cotyledon. L. crista. skull. L. bark of a tree. crown. cornu. conus. korax. cup-shaped hollow. + eidos. to seek. + eidos. wrinkle. G. gallus. coronarius. L. Copula. Coracoid. L. Corpus (pl. cortical). + volvo. con. Cranial Cranium. rind. sieve. cortex. likeness. corpusculum. + forma. to roll. corpora). con. cock. cranial). L. form. + eidos. suspender. L. Cortex (adj. Cribriform. Coxa. cone. kranion. Corpuscle. pertaining to a wreath or crown. L. korax. + fugere. horn. bark of a tree. Corticofugal. crow. form. L. Coraco-. Cornea. to copulate). copula.Alphabetical List of Terms Conus. Convolution. ring. G. L. hence crowlike. L. L. Coronary. (adj. horny. G. leather. L. crow. G. G. kotyledon. L. costal). Coronoid. hip. kranion. cremaster. cribrum. coxa. encircling. Crista. L. skull. chorion. Crista galli. Cricoid. bark. hence cock’s comb. Corticopetal. rib. Corona. Corium. 93 . crest. corono-. together + ruga. L. tie (from copulare. Corrugator. crest + L. Costa (adj. crista. hence. skin.

cuneus. Cutis. Dens. cystic). 94 . away. falling off. cross. L. crux. G. elbow. skin. Decidua (adj. D Dacryon. dendros. (de + cado). cuspis. Cuneiform. L. Deciduous). G. kystis. + plasma. L. L. skinned. G. top. pouch. Cuspis. skin. tear. + ferens. cutis. dakryon. as in Roman X. intersection of two lines. bladder. + forma. L. Dactyl. wedge. G. likeness. anything molded. Decussation. finger. Cyst (adj. skin. G. Cytoplasm. cutis. G. Defecation. deciduus. Dartos. Cubitus. Culmen. L. de. L. tree. Defaecation. carrying. Deltoid. Cuticle. kytos. G. bag. delta. L. to cleanse. G. Cytology. + logos. L. L. G. cupula. L. plasma. cell. dens. treatise. L. kytos. L. cutis. L. Cupula. triangular-shaped. Cutaneous. Cuboid. crus. L. cell. dartos. a small cask or cup. tooth. crura). leg. daktylos. L. deglutire. decussatio. defaecare. cube-shaped. cubitus. point. shape. letter in Greek alphabet. Deglutition. kuboeides. Dendrite.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Cruciate. Crus (pl. to swallow. Deferens. culmen.

skin. 95 . + arthroun. skin. Diaphragm. disc. G. + enkephalos. Diploid. Depressor. Dermatoglyphics. + opsis. to lead or draw.Alphabetical List of Terms Dentine. + temnein. deterere. + gnosis. dia. double. Detritus. twice. to rub away. apart. dia. finger. growth. L. -ata). ducere. Dizygotic. + stellein. + gerere. G. through. to push down. distare. Diastema (pl. dolichos. fold. G. derma. Diagnosis. L. derma. through. Ductule. dis. dim. long + G. to carve. L. G. Distal. derma. through. G. L. between. Detrusor. dis. twofold. L. to send. Digit. dia. head. G. Duct. wall. L. diploos. belly. Digestion. back. G. L. to press. to turn aside. G. down. to cut. L. Dolichocephalic. G. Digastric. dia. skin. interval. diastema. G. L. Diploë. diploos. double. vision. de. G. to lead. divertere. G. knowledge. G. skin. + gaster. Diplopia. dentitis. G. Diaphysis. + zygoo. digitus. G. through. L. Diastole. G. Dentition. G. dens. discus. join together. kephale. Diencephalon. diploë. through. Dermis. Disc. dia. + glyphein. to fasten by a joint. + premere. + phragma. Dermal. + physis. tooth. derma. Diverticulum. ducere. dis. brain. L. detrudere. dia. L. cutting of teeth. Dorsal. to carry. to stand apart. dorsum. Diarthrosis. Dermatome. L.

embolos. G. efficere. to send. L. fruit in the womb. + derma. Ejaculatory. out. G. fruit in the womb. L. Endoderm. cartilage. + chondros. duodeni. to jut. Encephalon. dura. Dysarthria. G. Embolus. + ferre. Encephalocele. G. + L. anything inserted. bryein. hollow.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Duodenum. embolos. Embryo. head. joint. endon. G. wedge. Embryology. to throw. L. within. endon. Emboliformis. e. Endocrine. G. within. Encephalocoele. brain. G. endon. hard. G. G. en. skin. elastikos. to separate. G. wedge. impulsive. arthron. joint. Eminence. en. Endocardium. + kranion. skin. hence disjointed speech. shape. plug. endon. within. L. L. outside. within. Effector. + jacere. enkephalos. + koilos. + minere. + metra. L. ex. endon. Efferent. to bear. strong. out. womb. G. from G. ektopos. within. L. twelve (meaning twelve fingerbreadths). + kardia. Dura. Elastin. Enarthrosis. water. E Ectoderm. G. within. forma. G. G. out. G. embryon. endon. within. G. heart. 96 . + mittere. e. distant. e. dys. + kephalos. endon. Endolymph. + arthron. in. out. + L. skull. Endochondrial. G. Endocranium. within. embryon. Endometrium. to bring to pass. G. + krinein. Emissary. ektos. treatise. to grow. Ectopia. + derma. lympha. hard. + logos.

Epineurium. G. Excretion. en. + thele. G. G. G. epi. Ependyma. endon. Epicanthus. Epithelium. Epicranium. Epiglottis. Enzyme. + skeletos. G. G. ex. on. testicles. endon. to turn. ethmos. G. dried up. L. upon. sieve. in. epi. + thalamos. belly. growth. G. egg. L. + zyme. + cernere. Epispadias. Epoöphoron. + mys. spadon. epi. bearing. on. Erector. on. epi. (excretus) ex. eunuch. heart. F. + oön. Eugenics. Epithalamus. epi.L. G. upon. G. leaven. Epimysium. G. G. G. L. within. endon. + kardia. G. Exocrine. caul. Ethmoid. to draw. + vertere. nipple. G. garment. on. span. + neuron. epi. larynx. likeness. within. G. red. out. Endoneurium. omentum. + osteon. epi. upon. out.Alphabetical List of Terms Endomysium. upon. to sift. epi. Exomphalos. spadias. G. G. + endyma. + mys. cell. upon. epi. + physis. on. epi. on. endon. well. + neuron. + eidos. + gaster. upon. Epididymis. + derma. within. out. ex. epi. Endothelium. epi. + kondylos. G. to generate. 97 . out. + kanthos. G. to separate. bone. Endosteum. Erythrocyte. G. epiploon. upon. + kranion. epi. + omphalos. erectus. erect. + gennan. within. epi. + phoros. + krinein. on. Endoskeleton. G. Epiphysis. G. form. + thele. G. on. Epigastrium. muscle. en. rim. skin. G. G. Epicardium. nipple. endon. F. upon. Eversion. e. Epicondyle. Epidermis. erythros. + kytos. muscle. G. skull. within. epi. + didmoi. + N. nerve. G. chamber. nerve. + glottis. navel. Epiploic. epi. knuckle.

Extravasation. face. out. band. Fauces. L. brooch. extra.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Exophthalmos. Fenestra. L. L. Exoskeleton. outside. Fastigius. L. F. slope. Fascia (pl. Fasciculus. window. fenestra. ex. femur. out. filum. bundle. L. L. extend. pin. faex. L. fetus. fibra. L. -iae). fimbriae. L. thread. L. extrinsecus. a cleft. sickle. G. L. Fibula. L. facette. faux. Fibril. ex. + cartilago. + skeleton. NL. L. skeleton. gristle. Falciform. face. fibra. Faeces. thin fibre. Extension. F Facet. fissura (findo). skewer. fibre. sickle. Fetus. Fissure. Facies. fascia. offspring. 98 . fascis. fibra. Foetus. L. Falx. face. bud. Extrinsic. fibrilla. + forma. Filum. Fibrocartilage. Feces. L. L. G. threads. L. a little thread. L. + blastos. thread. L. fibre. to sweat. fastigium. to stretch. falx. eye. fringe. ex. out. on the outside. Extensor. + sudare. L. + ophthalmos. Facialis. vessel. fibre. Exudate. falcis. L. L. extendo. L. string. thigh. out. Fiber. L. + vas. Fibroblast. shape. dregs. Filament. L. fibula. ex. + tendere. falx. filamentum. Fibre. facies. facies. Fimbria. Femur. throat. likeness.

spouse. L. L. a small bag. hole. forma. Fundus. flexus. arch or vault. Foramen. a little bridge. something dug. dim. L. Gallus. galea. folliculus. bent. Fraenum. L. + forma. brow. funis. a tuft of wool. weak. gallus. Fulcrum. foramen. F. Flexor. Gametes. Gastrula. frons. likeness. G. belly. pincers. fistula. sling. Fundiform. a small fountain. Flaccid. forehead. L. Flavum. Folia. fork. shape. fusus. frontis. flaccidus. a swelling under the skin. L. G Galea. fraenum. fossa. Fossa. L. 99 . bottom. Follicle. pipe. small pit. NL. Gastrocnemius. leaf. leg. from G. leather helmet. yellow. Flocculus. L. G. Form. L. cock. fulcrum. shape. shape. dim. Fusiform.Alphabetical List of Terms Fistula. post. Fourchette. L. Forceps. L. L. NL. L. gaster. dim. Fornix. fontanelle. L. spindle. fourchette. gaster. rope. floccus. Frenulum. L. L. flavus. folium. ganglion. channel. fornix. F. Funicular. Fontanelle. + forma. bridge. Ganglion. ditch. L. gametes. L. Frenum. + kneme. Fovea. L. fundus. G. L. L. forceps. likeness. stomach. funda. L. fovea. Frontal. fraenum.

G. geneion. L. Gnathion. smooth. L. L. gloutos. glene. + pharynx. Gonion. dim. L. Genital. grain. L. germen. chin. bud. form. gracilis. acorn. Glabella. Gonad. Geniculate. Germinative. likeness. Ginglymus. bud. Glossal. geneion. Gracilis. thin. Genial. G. Genioglossus. L. L. pertaining to birth. bluish. Glans. tongue. dim. of glomus. pellet. glossa. granum. griseus. Glottis. G. glue. seed. mouth of the windpipe. dim. G. Gland.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Gemellus. Glossopharyngeus. Glenoid. angle. G. sphere. U-shaped. gone. gravida. genu. Gluteus. wedge-shaped nail. glans. jaw. Granulum. gubernaculum. knee. + eidos. Griseum. geniculatus. helm. tongue. a ball. Gomphosis. socket. Glia. L. globus. Glomerulus. gemellus. L. pregnant. G. G. granulum. L. G. gnathos. G. G. L. with bent knee. acorn. genitalis (gigno). gomphos. Geniohyoid. tongue. glossa. L. L. G. L. glans. glottis. rump. + glossa. chin. L. L. gonia. chin. Gubernaculum. G. Granulation. 100 . Genu. Gestation. twin. gestare. germen. germ. Gravid. glandula. geneion. small grain. gloia. L. throat. to bear. germ. Germinal. ginglymus. + hyoeides. hinge. glaber. Globus. G. G. L.

Hemoglobin. gap. hepar. L. condition of the body. ball. G. Hamulus. hyalos. Habitus. G. humerus. G. L. L. strap. G. L. Hiatus. + logos. hook. gyri). holos. glass. + sphaira. sea monster. Holocrine. G. hemi. G. haima. G. half. Hepar. + kampos. hiatus. a turn. blood. G. Hepatic. G.Alphabetical List of Terms Gynaecomastia. Histology. G. + poietikos. Hydrocephalus. liver. same. G. L. to excite. H Habenula. protrusion. + L. Humerus. web. Gyrus (pl. haima. hilum. gyne. + mastos. blood. + kephale. hemi. hook-shaped. Hyaline. L. L. breast. Hamatum. Haemal. Haploid. G. Hemiplegia. treatise. hormaein. Humor. creative. Haemoglobin. stroke. dim. globus. big toe. G. hippos. hepar. L. Gynecomastia. L. Hemopoietic. moisture. 101 . humor. Hernia. fluid. woman. Haemopoietic. + krinein. haima. hemal. G. histos. whole. sphere. Hormone. habena. hamus. horse. treatise. plain. Hallux. blood. Hemisphere. gyros. half. G. shoulder. hallux. hamatus. Homology. hernia. hydor. to separate. Hilum. haplos. liver. homos. + logos. habitus. G. water. a small thing. head. Hippocampus. L. L. + plege.

jaundice. + N. See ilium. L. pointer. infra. unequal. L. L. centre line. hypo. hypo. G. hypo. under. + premere. spadias. L. water. inguina. Inion. below. eunuch. U-shaped. F. G. Inguinal. Hymen. Hypophysis. + physis. hypo. couch. inducere. G. nerve. chamber. in. G. ileum. Hypaxial. Incisura. L. under. under. L. G. cut. hyoeides. index. L. + glossa. Hypothalamus. back of head. in. incidere. Iliacus. Indusium. to plant. infundibulum. L. spadon. L. anvil. in. axis. + koilos. Hyoid. inion. lowest. hydro.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Hydrocoele. F. L. growth. Impression. membrane. + nervus. L. Ileum. G. to draw. Incisor. to press. Ilium. L. L. + spina. Hypospadias. tunic. under. a funnel. Index. to wind or turn. + plantere. eilein. Incus. hypo. Infundibulum. spine. in. G. hollow. Infraspinous. impar. under. to lead on. Innervation. L. Inductor. span. incisus (incidere). tongue. G. G.L. I Icterus. Implantation. ikteros. to cut into. + thalamos. G. Ima. incus. flank. groin. in. L. ima. Impar. hymen. indusium. axis. excite. G. + L. 102 . Hypoglossal. Hydrocele. in.

intestina. rainbow. 103 . L. G. empty (of food). + vertebra. jugum. Ischiofemoral. Intervertebral. Introitus. inserted or placed between. hip. Intercalated. femur. L. near. Iris. Invagination. between. yoke. to go. J Jejunum. juxta. in. within. intus. unnamed bone. + sistere. inter. within. + tegere. inter. L. between. joint. inter. to set. L. L. G. Interstitial. Insertion. + ire. pertaining to the neck. yoke. in. Isthmus. digit. hip. -ia). jejunus. Intestine. L. in. + positio. inter. to plant. intima. + vagina. to call. Jugal. ischion. L. + L. L. intrinsecus. + costa. Juxtaposition. thigh. in. to turn. intro. + serere. Intercostal. guts. island. L. or L. between. unnamed artery. Intima. jugularis (jugulum). sheath. L. that part of intestine that appears empty. L. narrow connection. Intrinsic. name. Jugular. over. + digitus. + calare. inward. entrails. in. isthmos. jugum. between. L. L. innermost. Interdigitating. Ischium (pl. G. in. G. insula. in. in. ischion. to cover. thus placed in spaces or gaps. + vertere. L. L. L. rib. interlocked by finger-like processes. between. Insula. place. + nomen. Inversion. Jugum. iris. Integument.Alphabetical List of Terms Innominate. in. inter. L. L. L. L.

L. L. G. pond. broad. L. L. nut. pertaining to a side. superlative. kinesis. Latissimus. Lambdoid. Labrum. thin plate. lapara. L. kyphos. -ae). lip. Lacerate. loosening. rim. lanugo. + tome. G. Larynx. lemma. labyrinthos. nucleus. G. labialis (labia). latus. to tear. lacrima. pertaining to lips. cell. horn. L Labial. tear. L. Lamella. G. Leminiscus. L. L. L. nucleus. shaped like Greek letter L. cut. L. bent. L. lambda. maze. Kinetic. Lemma. to suckle. labium. + lysis. lamina. movement. lactare. section. Karyolysis. Keratin. Lacteals. leminiskos. Laparotomy. G. Kyphosis. lactare. fine hair. flank. Lacus. G. G. therefore very broad. Lanugo. upper part of windpipe. karyon. Lacuna. lake. Lacrimal. keras. Lamina (pl. 104 . of lamina. leaf. G. G. skin. to suckle. L. Lactation. L. Labyrinth. L. labrum. nut. lateralis (latus). lacuna. Labium. L.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation K Karyocyte. lacus. + kytos. G. dim. Lateral. lacerare. karyon. band. larynx.

Limen. + eidos. resemblance. apron for the loins. Lung. Lordosis. lentil. leukos. ligare. opening. lumbricus. Longus. G. Lipid. lumbare. Lymph. L. L. 105 . lifer. + kytos. lens. L. L. L. Lingula. place. to raise. spring water. L. lingula. Limbus. Leucocyte. lien. L. cell. spleen. fat. lucidus (lux). border. levare. Lumbrical. I bend. Ling-. Levator. + G. kytos. limen. spring water. white. lingua. L. lympha. L. AS. lobos. Lumbar. Lieno-. tongue. ligamentum. G. Lymphocyte. cell. moon. lien. G. small tongue. a bandage. Luteum. spleen from original L. tongue. L. Ligamentum. thin. L. Lien. longus. L. L. Lobus. L. lobe.Alphabetical List of Terms Lens. lung. to bind. liver. Locus. yellow. G. splen (the sp having been dropped). earthworm. L. L. leptos. luna. G. luteus. lordoo. Ligature. + meninx. Liver. threshold. L. L. lingua. Lunate. Lingual. lunge. L. AS. locus. Lumen. lumen. L. L. lipos. Leptomeninges. membrane. lympha. limbus. long. Leukocyte. Lucidum. light. full of light. clear.

G. meatus. + phagein. I chew. Macula. -us). big. Manus. membrana. hammer. + eidos. Meatus (pl. Malleus. Magnus. servant. G. . A. L. melas. dim. chewing. G. bordering. L. makros. mater. Membrane. little breast. Macroscopic. Medial. drudge. large. wrap or nutrient. medialis (medius). I see. Meiosis. -ae). medianus. now bone of upper jaw. pertaining to the middle. manus.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation M Macrophage. Matrix. mastos. masticatio. -a. marginalis (margo). mala. cheek bone. hilt (as of a sword). hand. L. jaw. L. 106 Medulla. L. L. breast. Mastication. form. L. Megaloblast. Manubrium. Mammillary. less. meion. L. breast. passage. black. pith. G. Mediastinum. mold. maxilla. large. Mastoid. Malar. groundwork. G. chewer. L. G. masseter. tight in the middle. Masseter. mando. L. L. in the middle. matrix (mater). malleus. L. Median. L. megas. to eat. magnus. L. L. likeness. womb. macula. skin. L. L. handle. bud. mediastinus. Melanin. large. -um. Maxilla. + blastos. L. Mater. but anatomical term mediastinum probably derived from per medium tensum. marrow. mamma. G. Marginal. manubrium. stain. L. Mammary. makros. + skopeo. Mandible. medulla. spot. mammillaris (mamma.

G. + L. meta. + plasma. in. Mesogastrium. head. G. Metaplasia. + nephros. moon. Metacarpus. G. + L. G. after. middle. mesos. + chymos. middle. middle. membrane. L. G. after. Mesocolon. in. mesos. + physis. hence middle lining layer. kidney. middle. cessation. + koilos. membrane. middle. men. skin. mesos. molded. Mesenchyme. meta. G. Mesovarium. G. Metamorphosis. change. + krinein. G. + en. G. form. meninges). mesos. Metathalamus. chamber. G. Meninx (pl. carpus. membrane. mesos. middle. month. G. 107 . G. Metanephros. + kephale. + enteron. meninx. tube. formed. meta. hollow. + derma. G. gut. juice. meninx. + thalamus. wrist. Metabolic. Metatarsus. G. meta. Meningocoele. chin. Mental. of mene. month. appearance. Mesentery. G. mesos.Alphabetical List of Terms Meninges. Mesencephalon. G. + phasis. to separate. + thele. mentum. L. Merocrine. kidney. Mesoderm. cresent. after. after. growth. + L. + kolon. meta. Menstruation. after. meta. + gaster. meros. mesos. after. G. G. meta. after + morphe. tarsus. middle. pertaining to a month. G. G. L. half-moon. + pausis. G. mesos. mesos. dim. portion. nipple. stomach. + nephros. Menopause. G. meta. ankle. + en. signifying change. G. meninx. Metaphase. middle. + salpinx. metabole. mesos. midway between. Metaphysis. Meningocele. middle. G. Mesosalpinx. ovary. Mesothelium. after. Meniscus. G. great gut. menis. ovarium. menstruus. men. Mesonephros.

G. G. + kytos. mons. Mitochondria. head. mikros. L. myelos.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Metencephalon. + tome. minimus. cutting. Mitral. cell. mill. Morphology. + logos. myos. L. hub. Multiparous. brain. Myelin. + gloia. G. L. thread. G. Microtome. mountain. small. mys. L. glue. muscle. Mitosis. morphos. Microglia. + chondrion. G. G. Myocardium. mucus. Microsmatic. . mikros. + kardia. much divided. Myenteric. mikros. L. multus. Myelencephalon. Mydriasis. form. treatise. + soma. small. G. small. G. least. mitos. Morula. G. Molar. gut. musculus. brain. multifidus. alone. mikros. G. monos. to smell. marrow. Morph-. morphe. + enteron. + parire. G. molaris (mola). + odous. Mucus. L. myelos. monos. L. mys. metopon. mikros. thread. meta. L. I look. small. L. Metopic. Mono-. G. slippery secretion. to give birth. snivel. 108 Modiolus. muxa. but Hebrew priest headress the only head covering that the mitral valve resembles. single. G. G. G. body. muscle. mydriasis. Microscope. many. grain. Mylohyoid. dilation of pupil. shape. + skopeo. Monocyte. + enkephalos. + osmaomai. after. + hyoeides. pertaining to a millstone. tooth. G. U-shaped. heart. Microsome. myle. small. + enkephalos. Mons. G. turban. G. Muscle. marrow. mulberry. mikros. little mouse. modiolus. G. morus. mitos. small. Microdont. G. mikros. Multifidus. L. G. G. small. Minimus. mitra. + kephale. Microcephaly. forehead.

gut. nekros. Neural. swelling. Navel. neuron. + blastos. + gloia. muscle. naris. hole. neuron. + lemma. G. myos. L. + algos. centre of hub of wheel. G. Neuropil. Neopallium. G. + opsis. neuron. small boat. G. + ektome. buttocks. a killing. + axon. axis. Myxedema. Myxoedema. + oidema. -es). nafe. nictare.A. G. neos. nerve. G. L. G. sheath. Neuralgia. Neuroglia. neuron. neuron. Neurenteric. L. + poros. neuron. neuron. Naris (pl. mys. nerve. Myotome. G. nerve. G. 109 .Alphabetical List of Terms Myology. neuron. Neuropore. Neurilemma. tendon. equivalent of L. G. neuron. nerve. to wink. Nomina Anatomica. N N. G. nerve. G. neuron. Nictitans. nerve. L. + logos. neuron. Necrosis. nasus. new. + logos. nerve. neuron. Neo-. G. Neuraxon. + pilos. G. + pallium. G. corpse. + tome. treatise. glue. AS. Navicular. treatise. tendon. a cutting. nekrosis. neos. Nates. nostril. felt. L. G. nervus. mys. nerve. Neurology. mucus. nerve. pain. nerve. Nerve. nerve. neuron. Necropsy. myxa. cordlike structure. + enteron. L. sinew. husk. nose. Neuroblast. cloak. G. bud. G. muscle. hence. navicula. Neuron. nervus. G. Neuroectomy. excision. nerve. G. cordlike structure. Nasion. nates. sight. new. nerve.

short sleep (during which rhythmic head movements occur). I stop up. L. G. Nucleolus. bud. to eat. Nucleus. oistros. odous. olene. elbow. ob. occipitium. obturo. + phagein. Oestrus. nucha. oidema. oculus. rule. Olecranon. Obliquus. nut. G. modern use. bud. nape of neck. + eidos. eye. L. Odontoblast. Edema. nucleus. L. rhythmic eye movements. odous. Olfactory. L. Oesophagus. 110 . nucleus. Oedema. shape. + blastos. G. to make. L. tooth. + blastos.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Nigra. Obturator. nodus. L. L. knot. O Obelion. back. obliquus. Nictitating. Norma. stung into activity at time of heat. black. G. tooth. L. Notochord. to smell. Nuchal.” L. mover. oisein (phero). Nucha. Occipital. G. before. + kranion. noton. L. to wink. + claudo. Estrus. likeness. nape of neck. back of head. G. L. L. Odontoid. olere. G. Esophagus. + motor. norma. niger. L. G. Normoblast. obelos. square used by carpenters. swelling. nucha. G. New derivation “small nucleus. hence standard viewpoint. norma. L. + facere. cord. nictare. rule. stinging insect. Oculomotor. Occlusion. nystagma. nut. slanting. pointed pillar. to carry. I close. L. Nystagmus. + chorde. head. Node.

Osteolysis. G. egg. omentum. bone. belonging to the ear. . ous. to make. L. L. Osteology. mouth. offspring. melting. G. + logos. Optic. Osseous. U-shaped. L. bone. L. Ostium. bone. egg. placed. L. Omohyoid. eye. oris. G. Operculum. anything circular. + gonos. birth. + positus. hyoeides. shoulder. treatise. oligos. G. + serra. bone. bone. sight. os (pl. door. + facere. os. oon. (compare L. L. osteon. omos. + dendron. Ossicle. Opposition. Ora serrata. ob. Oocyte. softness. Opisthion. Otic. Otolith. oon. saw. onta. otos. ossa). Omentum. + G. G. Orbit. L. G. hollow body. orificium. stone. osteon. below). os. G. ostium. 111 Ontogeny. ear. G. corner or lid. L. G. ora. otikos. Oral. opening. glue. Oogonium. opsis. operculum. G. Osteomalacia. Osteocyte. things that exist. bone. Ophthalmic.Alphabetical List of Terms Oligodendroglia. + gennan. + genesis. Orifice. L. osteon. ossiculum. + gloia. organum. small bone. implement. egg. posterior. opisthios. L. adipose membrane enclosing the bowels. bone. + lithos. + malakia. G. os. Oogenesis. + lysis. os. to beget. G. Ossification. G. thus muscle passing from shoulder to U-shaped hyoid bone. + kylos. Osteone. L. osteon. L. G. orbis. G. tree. bone. L. bone. G. oon. Organ. osteon. Os. few. edge. in the way of. + kytos. cell. ophthalmos.

pampineus. Palpebra. G. Paraesthesia. Palate. cloak. oxys. Papilloedema. L. Panniculus. Pallidus. double. + aisthesis.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Ovary. palma. L. + meninx. L. birth. ovum. alongside of. pan. L. para. nipple. ovum. Papilla. pallium. P Pachymeninges. Oviduct. palpebra. tube. hence alongside the testes. oxyntos. eyelid. panniculus. para. belief. + oedema. Oxyntic. Paradidymis. small piece of cloth. swelling. pachys. Pampiniform. G. L. G. + doxa. egg. Papilledema. egg. L. membrane. Oviparous. all. G. Oxytocin. + forma. nipple of breast. G. flock of wool. puncture. Paradox. the (open) hand. + kreas. + kentesis. + parus. pale. L. giving birth by laying eggs. + ductus. hence covering of deeper tissues. + didymos. L. para. alongside of. ova). likeness. G. egg. para. full of or wrapped around with vine leaves. Paracentesis. Paraflocculus. Palma. L. papilla. L. L. pallidus. duct. flesh. thick. swift. + L. floccus. Ovum (pl. G. alongside of. making acid. L. alongside of. Pallium. Pancreas. ovum. sensation. palate. 112 . G. egg. + tokos. palatum. G. L. Paresthesis. alongside of. para. papilla. ovum.

Pectoral. paries. para. Paresis. L. parthos. axis. Patulous. + metra. + sympathetikos. to loosen. through. + plesso. + eidos. para. G. Pecten. beside. Paroophoron. Pathology. wall. paresis. + genesis. para. patulus. L. Parenchyma. Paraxial. Parotid. patella. G. alongside of. middle. alongside of. virgin. Parieties. pathos. relaxation. G. L. + sternon. L. Pelvic. I strike. comb. L. pars. tail. alongside of. birth. sympathetic. Parous. along. G. chest. + L. G. + ous. to bear. G. to bear. L. near. Pars. foot. L. + pherein. para. paries. + lucere. pes. womb. per. knot. Pedunculus. G. G. Parasternal. G. alongside of. para. G. likeness.Alphabetical List of Terms Paraganglion. G. pecten. + lyein. disease. L. 113 . Parathyroid. basin. otos. L. pouring out into the adjacent. Paralysis. pario. para. form. para. + logos. wall. para. G. treatise. Parasympathetic. Paramedian. part. oblong shield. G. ear. alongside of. L. a little foot. axle. alongside of. egg. Patella. alongside of. belonging to the breast. Penis. pectoralis (pectus). para. + thyreos. para. + oon. small pan. penis. pediculus. L. Pedicle. + ganglion. standing open. pelvis. para. parenchyma. near. L. Parietal. L. G. Parthenogenesis. alongside of. Parametrium. to shine. Paraplegia. Pellucida. + mesos. G.

pin. . peri. G. Percussion. phren. peri. cartilage. I produce. pertaining to the penis. + kytos. G. + chondros. L. phos. Peritoneum. G. love potion. + recipio. G. + typos. L. G. Phallus. G. voice. G. G. penis was a later meaning. phainein. around. phallos. rocky. perineum. Phrenic. Petrous. to eat. pes. Pepsin. L. G. tooth. Periosteum. + osteon.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Penniform. muscle. peri. Perilymph. Perimysium. L. Phonation. G. around. Pericardial. I receive. Pepsinogen. G. philtron. phagein. Petrosal. likeness. G. throat. to stretch. around. band of soldiers. + forma. = L. fluid. striking. G. bone. diaphragm. + teinein. Pharynx. percussio. petrosus. petrosus. G. Phagocyte. + kardia. Peroneal. peristaltikos. Perineum. type. digestion. Peristalsis. singular phalanx. G. Pes. peri. Periodontal. Perichondrium. + L. pepsis. L. G. G. pepsis. originally denoted whole set of bones of a digit not just one bone. perinaion. G. G. anything that awakens love. foot. around. light. + mys. digestion. pharynx. around. G. form. Photoreceptor. heart. peri. phallikos. cell. lympha. phallus. around. peri. hence pertaining to needle-shaped leg bone. to display. clasping and compressing. around. phalanx. phone. 114 Phallic. penna. Philtrum. Phalanges. + gennao. feather. perone. G. + odous. G. peri. Phenotype. fibula. rocky.

anything flat. head. platys. physikos. more (or many) + G. OF. knee. plate. something formed. to fold. L. pisum. L. pius. Planta. L. G. hence condition of side-to-side flattening of tibia giving prominence to it’s anterior border. to generate. + meros. i. L. pinna. G. Pilus. platys. Pisiform. L. Pineal. phyein. thigh. shape. feather. G. flat. Pneumatic. Placode. G. plaiting. pneumatikos. + kephale. Plica. likeness. Platymeria. G. foot. L. L. hence. L. G. Pinna (pl. G. Pleomorphic.e. pituita. Physis. plasma. + forma. a flat cake. side of foot. forms. morphos. Pituitary. plax. placenta. Plasma. + kneme. penna. pleura. Pia. Platysma. to walk. shape. flat. L. pine cone. + forma. podos. plexus. -us). L. flat. pleon. hence an outgrowth. G. Pod. planta. plicare. natural. phlegm. + gradior. Platycephaly. Plantigrade. sole of the foot. related to the ribs.Alphabetical List of Terms Physic. Platycnemia. platys. G. at one time believed to secrete a mucous material from the brain into the nose. pinea. pilus. rib. L. pertaining to breath. plate. hair. G. pirum. braid. 115 Placenta. . delicate. G. pous. slime. pea. Platelet. pear. Pleura. Plexus (pl. as previous for thigh. plate. platysma. Piriform. G. planta. L. wing. -ae).

of the heart. poros. L. promontorium. L. Prepuce. foreskin. pro. presbys. to be born. gate. porta (pl. nucleus. L. L. mountain ridge. Profundus. pons. + molaris. many. thumb. L. beginning. Pronephros. ham. G. G. G. diversified. old man. kidney. pro. Pollex. Prognathism. L. + L. -ae). Precordium. Premolar. L. L. proktos. proprius. Porta. tall. Pregnancy. bridge. anus. pro. nut. sight. in front of. pro. before. before. Praecordium. + capere. porus. + cordis. + geras. to take. 116 . G. cell. before. pertaining to a way. pro. Portio. Prophase. G. L. L. Proctodeum. Pore. form. + kytos. hence mixed term. in front of. G. Progesterone. + chorde. pre. to show. extended. old age. + hodaios. pontis. L. L. G. special. gate. Promontory. poikilos. porta (pl. L. + nephros. polys. + gerere. Portal. + gnathos. L. profundus. before. Progeria. going forwards. L. passage. bent downward. prae. + gnascor. jaw. Processus. prae. pollex. G. Procerus. + gradus step. pro. L. procerus. G. Pronograde. portio. + opsis. G. praeputium. cord. part. + morphe. in front.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Poikilocyte. Pronator. + phainein. Porus. Proprioceptor. Prochordal. Polymorphonuclear. pronus. primordium. molar. deep. passage. G. L. -ae). processus. in front of. pronare. G. poples. Popliteus. Pons. to bear. before. Primordial. to turn face downward. L. Presbyopia.

lung. pubes. Pupil. pulmo. Pylorus. gate-keeper. psoa. first. + L. L. Prosector. + forma. pyknos. L. Prosthion. Pyelogram. soft part of animal body. putamen. pudere. protos. L. pulmo. pubes. Pulvinar. mature. shape. pirum. shape. protos. Protoplasm. L. ptosis. Prosencephalon. G. L. G. husk. to stand. pylouros. L. L. compact. Pyriform. G. Punctum. + plasma. fall. + stare. pubes. loin. Pudendal. shell. L. -es). protubero. L. pro. in front. to be ashamed. pupa. point. before. G. mature. Prostate. Pyknosis. wing. pyramid. G. Pubis (pl. Proximal. Puberty. Putamen. G. pro. G. pear. prosthen. compact. pulvinar. to cut. L. Pubes. pyramis. falling. trough. G. cushioned couch. Pulpa. before. tub. mature. + gramma. tub. secare. G. proximus. mark. G. G. Ptosis. G. before. lung. L. Pyramid. Pulmonary. form. Pterygoid. pyknos. G. Proto-. Pulmones. brain. trough. I swell. pulpa. punctum. pro. L. girl.Alphabetical List of Terms Proptosis. to draw. Psoas. 117 . Protuberance. G. pyelos. + enkephalos. L. first. + graphein. likeness. pyelos. + eidos. Pyelograph. pteryx. G. L. L. before. pro. next. + ptosis. Pyknic.

radix. root. radix. rectus. retrahere. Quadruplets. quadratus. little net. quadruplaris. Retraction. Radix. four angles. nose. four-fold. head. ramus. Quadrigeminus. Receptor. Renal. Retractor. Ramify. reticulum. racemosus. form. G. rhis. cell. + kytos. Radius. L. ramus. L. L. net. restis. recessus. L. Radial. L. Quadratus. receive. quattuor. rope. L. quattuor four + L.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Q Quadrangular. L. little net. to draw back. L. Raphe. seam. radius. reticulum. straight. L. retreat. rod. Reticulocyte. L. angulus. L. to turn back. Rhinencephalon. renes. Reticulum. radius. Recess. L. L. L. nose. Ramus. rod. L. L. Retinaculum. Retina. rete. 118 . Reflect. Quadriceps. re. branch. L. G. reflecto. squared. G. Rhinal. retinaculum. L. rete. L. recipere. L. + caput. band. clustering. raphe. Rete. to draw. four. spoke. quadrigeminus. to make. Restiform. R Racemose. rectus. network. Radicle. L. + enkephalos. kidneys. shape. to take back. L. L. rhis. fourfold. L. + facere. spoke. branch. brain. four. + trahere. back. Rectum. L. + forma. root.

sarx. Scaphoid.Alphabetical List of Terms Rhinion. Scalene. Saphenous. shoulder-blades. laughter. Sarcolemma. rotare. G. L. salpinx. sacculus. Scoliosis. knife. 119 . rima. rostrum. + eidos. sacred. skin. S Sac. + lemma. -a). scalprum. L. G. Ribosome. L. visible). scala. L. ruga. saliva. skaphe. flesh. shape. saccus. L. rhomboid. hard. L. L. risus. wrinkle. shell. G. Rima. body. Risorius. G. Salpinx. saphenes. nostril. sartor. hidden (later G. Scapula. L. skalp. tailor. Sartorius. cleft. skoliosis. skleros. trumpet. ribose. Scalp. Sclerotic. skleros. shape of saggital suture including the lambdoid suture. L. uneven. G. + soma. Sciatic. L. boat. -ae). hard. husk. Teutonic. L. + enkephalos. curvature. G. to whirl about. A. Rostrum (pl. L. sacer. L. Sagittal. L. Sacrum. al-safin. likeness. rhombos. Rhombencephalon. Scalpel. ischion. Sclera. Ruga (pl. arrow. saliva. Rotator. hip joint. brain. Sacculus. sagitta. G. Salivary. staircase. rhinion. skalenos. G. G. sack. a little bag. beak. G. scapulae. G. an aldopentose. Scala.

sinus. sperma. solea. origin. sebum. sperma. + turcica. soma. Semen. saeptum. whey. scrotum.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Scrotum. Sebaceous. semen. seed. body. Soleus. + eidos. Somatic. sesamen. G. likeness. Sinusoid. serum. Somite. likeness. G. membrane. Sperm. tendon. Soma. to bear. indicating origin. Greek letter. Sesamoid. Serum. cell. L. soap. semi. G. G. Semimembranosus. situs. sella. L. Spermatogenesis. + eidos. G. + luna. L. likeness. L. Semilunar. L. seed. Sinister. cavity. semi. sinus. saliva. G. serra. semen. skin. shape. sigma. Sella turcica. soma. inverted. Smegma. Spermatocyte. G. shape. + inversus. grease. + ferre. of the viscera. soma. L. L. left side or unlucky. body. dried. Situs inversus viscerum. L. or seed. tallow. Serratus. L. + tendinosus. L. mark. -us). Skeleton. saw. body. seed. saddle. + kytos. sperma. + pleura. curve. sebum. G. position. seed. tallow. bosom. Sialogram. somata). 120 . sesame plant. body. + genesis. + membranosus. G. Sebum. Sigmoid. + suffix -ite. half. + gramma. Somatopleure. L. G. soma (pl. smegma. G. site. G. half. Semitendinosus. Sinus (pl. Seminiferous. moon. skeletos. + viscerum. sandal. L. fence. L. seed. half. semi. sinister. sole. L. cavity. Turkish. Septum. shape. side. L. sialon. curve. + eidos. L. L.

Stria. seed. -a). spongia. splanchna. sponge. gullet. spongia. sperma. Stenosis. L. strata). + eidos. L. Sphincter. + eidos. Spleen. sulcus. + costa. Striatum. squama. + logos. Splanchnic. strength. stoma. wedge. Submandibular. Sternum. L. Stomach. substance. G. 121 . viscera. G. G. likeness. Stomatodeum. sphingein. chest. seed. tongue. L. narrowing. Superciliary. bud. Strabismus. striatus. stroma. L. Subcostal. splen. L. oesophagus. Spina. sphen. jaw. stria. Stroma. above. G. G. G. sub. animal. Squamo-. sternon. Stratum (pl. blanket. G. scale. treatise. germ. Substantia. spina. to bind tight. squinting. grooved. + mandibula. layer. L. Sphenoid. L. spleen. pillar. streaked. G. shape. Sublingual. Stapes. sperma. + odaios. Splanchnology. under. sponge. Spermatozoon (pl.Alphabetical List of Terms Spermatogonium. + cilium. G. + blastos. L. L. G. under. super. Sthenic. rib. stratum. + gone. furrow. Sulcus. likeness. G. stapes. splanknon. stenosis. Spongiosum. furrow. sub. mouth. G. sub. G. L. stirrup. + lingua. stomachos. L. generation. Styloid. sthenos. pertaining to a way. Stomodeum. L. thorn. eyelid. Spongioblast. stylos. viscus. G. G. substantia. G. strabismos. + zoon. under.

L. L. 122 . together. + haptein. above. G. likeness. seam. work. syn. together. syn. G. G. syndrome. together. sura. Synapse. hand. chirurgia. + desmosis. joint. sustentaculum. Tapetum. L. cartilage. table. together. Talus. L. weak in the feet (talipes. Talipes. Suture. Synovia. to bend backward. Synchrondosis. tapete. to fasten. G. G. ankle-bone. Supraspinatus. syn. to suffer. Taenia. G. Synarthrosis. + physis. systole. L. + pathein. + ergon. syn. supra. sewing together. L. growth. contraction. Synergy.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Supination. Synostosis. work. + G. Symphysis. G. Tarsus. sutura. occurrence. Syndesmosis. + ovum. roof. G. tarsos. together. talus. tabula. clubfoot). Sustentaculum. Systole. L. together. together. syn. supinus. L. band. lying on the back. tapestry. form. talus. Talonid. Sural. cheir. together. taenia. together. + costa. syn. egg. L. ankle bone. + chondros. Supracostal. syn. support. syn. + osteon. L. L. Tectum. eidos. Supinator. L. board. + spina. T Tabular. L. above. syn. Surgery. Syndrome. + cytos. from G. tectum (tego). rib. G. syn. G. talipedo. G. supra. bone. L. Sympathetic. cell. L. G. calf of leg. + ergon. + arthron. Syncytium. ribbon. G. thorn. sole of the foot. supinare. carpet. Tenia. band. together.

time. tendere. G. thyme. thorax. L. tela. Tentorium. Tetany. L. end. sheath. testis. web. L. tendere. G. tegmen. G. G. form. L. Tensor. Thyroid. Tegmentum. stiffness. L. thrombos. G. contemplate. testicle. testiculus.Alphabetical List of Terms Tegmen. a witness. thalamos. L. windpipe. Theory. + kytos. 123 . envelope. Tendon. thrombus. Thalamus. trabecula. hand. Tonsil. tele. G. L. covering. Terminalis. to cut. Teres. Testicle. L. shield. tempus. terminare. Telencephalon. L. I grind. L. wool drawn out for spinning. thoraces). Tibia. thyreos. tennein. G. rub. L. stage. the temples. mooring post. lump. tetanus. Theca. temporalis. G. Telophase. to stretch. belonging to time. L. Thorax (pl. to limit. telos. Temporalis. breast. + enkephalos. to stretch. G. tent. thenar. covering. G. Tract. L. breast-plate. theoreo. tegumentum. Thrombocyte. L. -ae). tentorium. G. chamber. L. testis. Trabecula (pl. Temporal. Testis. L. tero. Trachea. brain. Temporal. far. tonsilla. Thymus. theca. G. cell. Thenar. + eidos. L. Tome. L. a little beam. tractus. Thrombus. distant. Tela. tibia. lump. G. long flute. I consider. tracheia. tempora. + phasis. thymos.

triquetrus. + blastos. G. Tuberosity. tympanum.C. Uncinate. Trochanter. G. uncinatus. trunk of tree. ouron.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Tragus. tragos. Trapezius. G. L. a small hump. elbow. Triceps. urine. Urachus. Tunica. drum. L. L. one. trigonum. born three together. genital. U Ulna. 460 B. + penna. furnished with a hook. ouron. Tympanic. L. three. urine. + cuspis. L. triangle. L. G. Tuberculum. ouethra. + L. claw. small four-sided table. trigeminus. wheel. trochos. Urethra. ulna. unguis. 124 .). urine. L. + forma. Unciform. pulley. G. feather. nourishment. three-cornered. trapezion. uncus. Truncus. hook. L. G. Urea. goat. Tricuspid. G. ouron. uncus. head. umbilicus. L. word invented by Hippocrates (c. L. ouron. L. G. + cheo. tunica. Trigeminus. L. to preserve. three. tres. bud. nail. tres. Umbilicus. trophe. unus. pulley. Trochlea. G. Triquetrum. tuberculum. urine. tuber. Uncus. G. L. truncus. Urogenital. Trophoblast. I pour. L. Urine. triangular. + caput. navel. Ureter. + tereo. from small tuft of hair (goat’s beard) in this region. undergarment. ouron. G. shape. L. L. Ungual. L. point. round smooth swelling. genitalis. Unipennate. Trigone. hook. urine. trochilia.

L. vagus. entrance court. of vallus. grape. Vertex. walled. L. vagina. L. ventriculus. bladder. vein. L. Ventricle. small vessel. whirlpool. valvula. valgus. L. tail. L. L. varus. L. uterus. a little fold. vena. bow-legged (Genu valgus now means knock-kneed). L. vermis. L. wandering. G. valva. Vertebra. L. vas. L. L. fossa. L. small skin or leather bottle. Varus. 125 . Uterus. vermis. Vermis. see Valgus). Vesica. Vagus. Vallecula. Utriculus. L. L. grape. utriculus. vertebra. Vestibulum. belly. vasculum. Valvula. uva. L. vestibulum. shedding of snake skin. worm. sheath. a small bladder. little cavity. V Vagina. pillar. Ventral. L. + forma. whirl. knock-kneed (term has become transposed. worm. Valgus. womb. valve. L. L. L. L.Alphabetical List of Terms Urostyle. dim. rampart. + stylos. Venter. uva. venter. belly. veil. Vallate. Vas. vernatio. shape. Vernix. vertex. Vesicle. venter. L. Uvea. Valve. Uvula. Vein. L. vesica. vesicula. loculus. oura. leaf of door. L. vallum. L. joint. L. vessel. Vascular. Velum. velum. Vermiform.

D. zygoma. viscera. Zygoma. Viscus. vertex. skin. to yoke together. cord. likeness. L. Vitreus. ploughshare. 10 A. of zona. trace. L. Zygote. Vorticosae. Z Zona. zona. hence. zygoma. L. little calf (became transferred to yolk of egg by Celsus c. Zonula. whirl. belt. vomer. villus. Xiphoid. villi). + parere. G. vestigium. palm of hand. girdle. whirlpool. L. hair. to beget. transparent. L. volvulus. G. internal organ. volva. yolk of egg. vitreous. L. Viviparous. G. X Xanthoderm. G. vinculum. of glass. + apophysis. yoke. Vulva. Zygomatic. yellow. zygon. vitreus. 126 . Visceral. footprint. L. + eidos. Vitellus. vitellus. shape. yoke. vitellus. bowels. L. cover. L. process of a bone. entrails. L. belt. girdle. L. Volar. L.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Vestige. yoke. L. Vitelline. G. + dermos. Vomer. viscus. dim. vola. L. Volvulus. Vincula. sword. xanthos. vivus. Villus (pl. L. band.). L. xiphos. Zygapophysis. G. zygoein. living. twisted.

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