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Hout Perception

Hout Perception

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Credits to Prof. Marian Miguel
Credits to Prof. Marian Miguel

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Published by: Edward Araneta Queipo on Sep 04, 2010
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09/17/2012

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THRESHOLD

Perception
PERCEPTION

Least amount that can elicit a response Point in above in which a stimulus is perceived and below which it is not perceived Determines when we first become aware of a stimulus

Involves taking in of information, through the activity of our
sense organs responding to external stimulation, followed by the processing of that information to make sense of what we see, hear, smell, taste and touch A discernment of the nature of objects, their position, shape, size, distance, scent, taste, texture and their meaning Result when we interpret, organize and elaborate on the raw materials of sensation Five perceptual systems 1. Visual 2. Auditory 3. Haptic 4. Savor perceptual system 5. Basic orientational perceptual system Seeing Listening Touching Smelling and tasting Balance, posture and position of the body and its movements

Gustav Fechner defined absolute threshold as the
smallest amount of stimulus energy that can be observed under the same conditions However, he found out that individual’s threshold was not absolute and in fact, differed depending on the subject’s alertness and test situation.

Redefinition of ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD: intensity level
of a stimulus such that a person will have a 50% chance of detecting it

Absolute threshold: 50% chance of hearing message Subliminal stimulus: 0-49% chance of hearing message

100% chance of hearing message

SENSATION VS PERCEPTION Sensation is the first awareness of some outside stimulus Perception is usually the changed, biased, colored or distorted by our unique set of experiences – the personal interpretations of the real world

Increasing intensity

Subliminal stimulus

Has an intensity that gives the person a less than 50%
chance of detecting it JUST NOTICEABLE DIFFERENCE (JND) –JND refers to the smallest increase or decrease in the intensity of a stimulus that a person is able to detect Weber’s Law

Structuralists vs Gestalt Psychologists Structuralists: you add together hundreds of basic elements to form complex perceptions. You can work backward to break down perceptions into smaller and smaller units or elements Gestalt Psychologists: our brains follow a set or rules that specify how individual elements were to be organized into a meaningful pattern

The increase in intensity of a stimulus needed to produce a
JND grows in proportion to the intensity of the initial stimulus
Higher intensities: you need a larger difference to detect JND

Gestalt Psychologists won the debate –Personal perceptual experiences –Forming perceptions involved more than adding and combining elements. Our brains actually did follow a set of rules.

Lower intensities: you need only small differences to detect JND

PERCEPTION 1

ORGANIZATIONAL RULES Identified by Gestalt Psychologists Specified how our brains combine and organize individual pieces or elements into a meaningful perception Figure-ground We automatically distinguish between a subject and its background. The figure will stand out more than the background

Continuity We tend to see things in a constant flow, even if they do not go together. We look for constancy in most things.

PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY Refers to our tendency to perceive sizes, shapes, brightness, and colors as remaining the same even though their physical characteristics are constantly changing Similarity We tend to organize stimuli that appear similar, even if there is no relationship.

Size constancy Our tendency to perceive objects as remaining the same size even when their images on the retina are continually growing or shrinking

Closure We tend to "finish" items to make a shape, even if those parts we "finish" aren't actually drawn in.

Shape constancy Our tendency to perceive an object as retaining its same shape even though when you view it from different angels its shape is continually changing its image on the retina

Proximity When processing items, we tend to group them based on how close they are to other objects. In a series of dots, instead of seeing them as individual dots, we might see them as one group of four, one group of five and so on if there is space between them.

Brightness and color constancy Brightness constancy: Our tendency to perceive brightness as remaining the same in changing illumination Color constancy: Our tendency to perceive objects as remaining stable despite differences in lighting

Simplicity/Pragnanz We initially see things in the simplest way possible. After further review, we may see things more clearly. Think any type of visual illusion that may have two ways to see it

PERCEPTION 2

DEPTH PERCEPTION Refers to the ability of your eye and brain to add a third dimension, depth, to all visual perceptions, even though images projected on the retina are only two dimensions, height and width. MONOCULAR CUES Produced by signals from a single eye. Monocular cues most commonly arise from the way objects are arranged in the environment. Linear Perspective Results as parallel lines come together, or converge, in the distance

Texture Gradient Areas with sharp, detailed texture are interpreted as being closer, and those with less sharpness and poorer detail are perceived as more distant

Atmospheric Perspective We perceive clearer objects as being nearer and perceive hazy or cloudy objects as being farther away

Relative size Results when we expect two objects to be the same size and they are not. In that case, the larger of the two objects will appear closer and the smaller will appear farther away

Motion parallax We perceive objects that appear to be moving at high speed as closer to us than those moving more slowly or appearing stationary

Interposition When images overlap, they appear to be of different depths, with the figure at the front being the closest

BINOCULAR CUES Produced by signals from both eyes. Binocular cues operate because our brain receives two views of the visual world, one from each eye. Light and shadow Brightly lit objects appear closer, while objects in shadows appear farther away Convergence Perception based on signals sent from muscles that turn the eyes. To focus on near or approaching objects, these muscles turn the eyes inward, toward the nose. The brain uses the signals sent by these muscles to determine the distance of the object

PERCEPTION 3

Retinal disparity Perception that depends on the distance between the eyes. Because of their different positions, each eye receives a slightly different image. The difference between the right and left eye’s image is the retinal disparity. The brain interprets a large retinal disparity to mean a close object, and a small retinal disparity to mean a distant object

ILLUSION An optical illusion is characterized by visually perceived images that, at least in common sense terms, are deceptive or misleading. Ambiguous illusions Pictures or objects that elicit a perceptual 'switch' between the alternative interpretations. The Necker cube is a well known example; another instance is the Rubin vase.

Distorting illusions Characterized by distortions of size, length, or curvature. A striking example is the Café wall illusion. Another example is the famous Mueller-Lyer illusion.

Hallucinations Fictional illusion of objects that are genuinely not there to all but a single observer, such as those induced by schizophrenia or a hallucinogenic substance.

Paradox illusions Generated by objects that are paradoxical or impossible, such as the Penrose triangle or impossible staircases seen, for example, in M. C. Escher's Ascending and Descending and Waterfall.

PERCEPTION 4

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