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Company & Industry background World·s largest pasta producer in 1990 Pasta Share - 35% in Italy and 22% in Europe Channels of Distribution Products divided in 2 categories ² ´Freshµ and ´Dryµ Fresh Products had 21 day Shelf Lives Dry Products had Long ( 18 to 24 Months) or Medium(10 to 12 weeks) Shelf Lives Retail Outlets ² Small independent shops and Supermarkets (Chain and Independent)
Barilla suffered increasing operational inefficiencies and cost penalties that resulted from large week-to-week variations in its distributors· order patterns .The Issue During the late 1980s.
Distribution Procedure Original flow of goods and information PLANT CDC¶s Barilla run depots GD¶s DO¶s Chain supermarkets Independent supermarkets Signora Maria´ Shops Customers Customers Customers *CDC = Central Distribution Centre GD = Grand Distributors DO = Organized Distributors .
new product launches ² Work out ordering strategies for the retailer etc .Sales and Marketing Advertising ² Heavy. stockouts. typical duration of 4 to 5 weeks Distributor could buy as much product as desired to meet present and future needs at the offered discount Volume Discounts also given Sales representatives used more at DO·s than GD·s ² Merchandise Barilla Products ² Set up In-Store Promotion ² Take note of competitor·s prices. 10 to 12 in a year. Brand Positioned as the Highest Quality Trade promotions ² Frequent Canvass period.
Demand Fluctuations Just in Time Distribution .
Variability in Demand Reasons ² ² ² ² ² ² ² Transportation discounts Volume discount Promotional activity No minimum or maximum order quantities Product proliferation Long order lead times Lack of forecasting systems or sophisticated analytical tools at Distributer·s end .
Exhibit 12: Demand Fluctuations .
Variability in Demand Methods employed to counter variability ² Holding buffer FGs to meet Distributor requirements ² Asking Distributors/Retailers to carry additional inventory Impact ² ² ² ² ² ² Strained Manufacturing and Logistics operations* Poor Product delivery management Thinning retailer/distributor margins Increased Inventory Holding costs Impossible to anticipate Demand swings Changing customers due to lack of storage space .
Bullwhip effect Amplified Variation in demand as one moves up the Supply Chain (away from the customer) order Factory order Distributor Wholesaler order Retailer Order Variation .
The Causes of Bullwhip Effect Demand Forecast Long lead times Order Batching Price fluctuation (Promotional sales) Inflated orders in high estimated demand scenarios .
Counteracting the Bullwhip Effect Reduce Uncertainty .Information lead times: EDI .Centralizing demand information Reduce Variability ² Year round or Everyday low pricing Reduce Lead Times .POS .Sharing Information .Order lead times: Cross Docking Strategic Partnerships ² ² ² ² Quick Response Continuous Replenishment Advanced Continuous Replenishment Vendor managed Inventory (VMI) .
and then decide what to ship to the distributor and when to ship it Distributor provides Data on the shipment and current stock levels for each Barilla SKU ² Sell-through Info one step behind POS Data .Just-In-Time Distribution (JITD) Vendor-Managed Inventory Concept Treats end-customer as the Input Aims at managing the Input filter that Produces the Orders Decision-making authority for determining shipments in hands of Barilla SpA Barilla would monitor the flow of its products through the distributor·s warehouse.
Expected Benefits of JITD Manufacturer ² Reduced manufacturing costs ² Better Relationship with Distributors Increased supply chain visibility Increase Distributor·s dependence on Barilla ² Improvement in manufacturing planning using objective data ² Reduced inventory levels Distributors ² Improved fill rates to Retail stores ² Additional service without any extra cost ² Reduced Inventory Holding costs .
Internal Resistance Sales Representatives feared reduction in responsibilities Flattened sales levels Risk of Inability to adjust shipments quickly to stock-outs Lack of infrastructure to handle JITD Increased competitor shelf space at distributor Inability to run Trade promotions Unsure about the cost benefits .JITD .
JITD ² External Resistance Unconvinced Distributors Not willing to share warehouse data Perceived power transfer to Barilla Lack of faith in Barilla·s inventory management .
Possible methods to counter Resistance Demonstrate that JITD benefits the distributors ² Run experiment at one or more of the distributor sites Maggiali needs to look at JITD not as a logistics program. but as a company-wide effort ² Get Top management closely involved .
1 days to 3.8% Depot·s staff was not comfortable working with such low inventory levels ² Inventory levels finally allowed to increase to 5 days One of the arguments against JITD was that it will lead to waste empty spaces in the ware houses .6 days ² Service level to retail stores increased from 98.Experiments at Dry-product depots Barilla spa ran first JITD experiment at its Florence depot During the very first month of the program ² Inventory dropped from 10.9% to 99.
Experiments at Dry-product depots In Florence case ² Barilla growing at rapid rate in the region ² Plans to expand warehouse ² Existing warehouse able to accommodate the increased requirement ² Substantial investment on expansion was avoided JITD next tried at Milan Depot ² Similar performance improvement as Florence These experiments established the credibility of JITD system .
new services manager. O.Implementation at D. purchasing. Cortese The decision to implement JITD in Marchese DC of Cortese involved ² Barilla: Director of Logistics. Executive vice president of sales and Manager in charge of JITD implementation ² Cortese: Nine managers including Managing director. marketing and sales personnel from Cortese·s Marchese DC Consultant Claudio Ferrozzi was roped in ² Neutral party trusted by both the groups . logistics manager and logistics.
Implementation at D. Barilla team analyzed daily shipment data of the DC ² Created the data base of DC·s historical demand pattern ² Simulated shipments with JITD in place The implementation yielded phenomenal results ² Prior to JITD Stock out rate : 2 to 5% ( Occasionally as high as 10 to 13%) ² After JITD Negligible stock out rate of less than.25%(Never exceeded 1%) Average inventory level also dropped . O. Cortese For six months.
Adaptation to different distributors With new confidence they approached other customers Customers apprehensive about JITD repeating the same success as Cortese for them as they had varied systems Barilla·s team developed capacity to translate customer·s standard·s into internal standards .
Adaptation to different distributors Developed a protocol which could be used to communicate with all customers Each SKU identified with three different product codes ² Barilla·s code ² Customer·s code ² EAN (European article numbering system) barcode ² Most common barcode standard in Europe Advantages of the coding system ² Information can be received through any code ² Reduce impact of internal changes in product or code on client·s system .
Inventory for each SKU carried by DC 3. Stock outs on previous day for every Barilla SKU carried by DC 5. Customer code number to identify itself 2. An advance order for any promotions that the customer planned to run in the future 6.Communication with consumers Customer each day sent following information to Barilla via EDI:1. Preferred delivery carton size . Previous day·s ´sell throughµ-All shipments of Barilla products out of DC to consumers on the previous day 4.
If performance measures seem to create spare time/capacity instead of chucking them.(Like in Florence depot warehouse case) . Which never happened earlier ² Sometimes roping a consultant helps Market is ever growing. look out for ways to increase the market.Lessons learnt One needs to prove credibility of any new performance initiative for others to buy his/her idea Best place to experiment with an idea is within the organization To succeed in a new initiative. involvement of top management is imperative ² Barrilla could finally succeed in implementing JITD with Cortese. Whole of top management from both sides was involved in the decision making.
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