RD&D, Technology

February 1999

A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management

RD&D, Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management

August 1993 i

Executive Summary The principal objective of asset management is to achieve value-for-money throughout an asset's service life. In order to provide cost-effective solutions to the various demands placed upon a facility adequate decision making tools must be available. The need for such tools is more significant when resources are limited.

Maintenance levels directly affect the asset performance as well as their economic lives by altering the rate and nature of the deterioration process. Current understanding and explanation of the degradation mechanisms tend to be subjective. Government Services Canada recognizes that further development of performance indicators is required.

A basic responsibility of GSC is to supply client departments with facilities which provide stated functions for an optimum life-cycle at an ideal level of maintenance. GSC has in-place the necessary framework for quality management. The Project Delivery System (PDS) provides guidance for the delivery of initial facility quality while systems such as the Preventative Maintenance Support System (PMSS) attempt to sustain the required asset function. Despite use of these tools, more complete and updateable knowledge of the future service lives of facilities is required.

The key goals stated in this strategy are: i) ii) iii) the development of tools to assess service life and performance at any point within the service life; the retention, via databases, of the knowledge/experience obtained; the optimization of maintenance practices, on a life-cycle basis, in order to maximize facility service life and more effectively allocate resources; and iv) the on-going identification, investigation and quantification of deterioration mechanisms.

The tools to be developed will be used to examine performance indicators at any point within the life span of the asset. It is crucial to methodology that the information gathered, and the tools themselves, be useful for on-going supervision of O&M on an annual basis.

RD&D, Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management

August 1993 ii

Due to the dynamic nature of the factors which describe performance, the use of probabilistic (reliability-based) techniques is the only approach that will provide realistic analysis of the likelihood of fulfilling performance requirements. The reliability-based methodology hinges upon the identification of functions which describe the conditions governing performance of the components for any given system.

The wealth of information found within GSC will form the basis for developing our future reliability-based maintenance and management procedures and practices. Application of the life-cycle asset and quality management concept will help asset managers, engineers and architects to make rational and cost-effective decisions.

This document proposes a concept utilizing a reliability-based analysis system, based on our GSC knowledge, will provide asset managers with a dependable and easy-to-use tool for their decision making processes in the management of buildings. The creation of such a tool will permit the monitoring and management of quality during the building's life-cycle; eventually resulting in improved asset performance and significant savings in repair and maintenance expenditures on our facilities.

The continued enhancement of these knowledge bases should result in better selection of materials, equipment and maintenance procedures. A direct effect of application of this knowledge would be heightened life-cycle performance of our assets.

To strengthen the assessment capability, all expertise in the Department must be marshalled to work toward the same objectives. More effective communication ties must be established between the respective domains in order to effectively link the economic and technical aspects of the same asset. By establishing this link the Department will have created the necessary mechanisms to fulfil Real Property's roles in Asset and Investment Management.

2.1 Performance Indicators 5.0 Strategy 16 5.1 Assessing Service Life 5.RD&D.1.0 Conclusion 27 .2 5.2.3 Provision of Quality via the Project Delivery System 3.0 Scope of Application 1 3.4 Sustaining In-service Quality 3.2 Determining Economic Factors 5.3 5.1 3.4 Maintenance.2.2.0 Purpose Page 1 2.2 Need to enhance Quality of Life-cycle Asset Management Existing Quality Assurance Framework 3. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 iii Table of Contents 1. Expected Performance and Inspection Data/Knowledge Base Potential Applications 18 18 22 23 24 6.2 Role of the Service Branches 3.1 Role of Real Property Branch 3.1.0 Implementation of Enhanced Quality Management Framework 5.0 Background 3.3 Difficulties with Existing Framework 2 6 8 14 4.

Service Life and Premature Deterioration 3 3 Typical Service Life Ranges for Principal Building Subsystems 4 4 Comparison of Repair vs. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 iv List of Figures Page 1 Concept of Life-cycle Asset and Quality Management 2 2 Conceptual Relationship of Performance.RD&D. Replacement of Parking Slab 25 List of Appendices Appendix A Potential Impact of Maintenance upon Life-cycle .

and sustain. 3. and iii) that the department is committed to an ethic of continuous improvement. The methodology proposed in this document should be developed as an integral tool of the Project Delivery System. is dependent upon the optimum level of investment (money).0 Purpose The purpose of the strategy is: a) to strengthen Government Services Canada's capability to assess and provide value-for-money throughout asset service life. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 1 1. for any particular facility. b) to identify the techniques necessary for the successful enhancement of the existing Asset Management procedures. Both the value to be obtained and the monies available for investment vary with time. Basic assumptions are: i) that PWC (GSC) will continue to be the major provider of real property services and of office and general purpose facilities to the Federal Government. ii) that inter-branch cooperation for the provision of products and services to fulfil client requirements will be nurtured.0 to provide background information on the methodology being proposed as well as that currently in place. Continuing investigation of it's applicability to various building components is recommended. The relationship . fit-up and repair. Scope of Application The strategy and implementation presented in this document are in keeping with Public Works Canada's vision of the future. This includes new construction. and c) 2. This type of information is not currently available or rationally determined. Full implementation of the enhanced procedures will provide insight into the anticipated long-term performance of our assets. value-for-moneythroughout the entire service life of an asset.0 Background The principal objective of asset management is to attain.RD&D. The optimum potential value which may be realized. As such these techniques would be applied to all GSC real property projects.

There are many mathematical models and formulae which represent the relationships between money and time for numerous economic situations. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 2 between these three elements is graphically depicted below in Figure 1. Facilities may be considered to have value if they can generate revenue. Revenue generating potential is usually a reflection of a facility's capability to meet the ongoing functional requirementsof clients. systems or equipment. Considerably more work needs to be done in establishing reproducible criteria of measurement. Very little future development work is required for the horizontal plane of Figure 1. . The extent to which a facility is capable of providing for those needs is related directly to quality.RD&D. Relatively soft expressions or notional relationships between quality and time are available for a number of building components. neither the true value of an asset nor the variation of that value with time are readily defined. Figure 1 Concept of Life-cycle Asset and Quality Management The relationship between money and time is the primary concern of economists and financial analysts. However.

yet these subsystems are expected to perform satisfactorily throughout the anticipated service life of the facility. Figure 2 . which rarely coincide with one another (Figure 3). Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 3 For any given building component. there is a distinct anticipated service life which will be directly dependent upon its environment. building subsystems have typical service life ranges.RD&D. Similarly. material properties as well as operations and maintenance (O&M) (Figure 2).

The pressure to make sound decisions regarding alternative construction/ repair/rehabilitation methods and priorities is never greater than it is during difficult economic times. In addition. and other aspects of a "productive work environment" . Those preparing and managing investment plans would benefit from an ongoing refinement in the prediction of facility service lives and from that the relative impacts of various maintenance options and schedules would guide annual O&M allocations. the downstream operating and maintenance costs. future value of the asset as well as the ability to maintain a safe and healthy working environment.RD&D. with an acceptable degree of reliability. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 4 SERVICE LIFE . Current maintenance levels impact upon the economic life of the facility. the capability to provide fundamental tenant functional needs. Thorough examination of the relative efficiency of repair and replacement as well as the long and short term returns on investment is crucial to the decision making process.YEARS Figure 3 The ability to accurately evaluate performance throughout an asset's life-cycle and then to manage that asset to alter future performance would be particularly useful.

Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 5 is directly influenced by the maintenance levels. Other functional aspects should be provided in order to demonstrate that the facilities are being operated with prudence and probity. It also may be suspected that mandatory requirements are being met. We must enhance our knowledge of the factors influencing asset performance. 3. which was poorly or under maintained.RD&D. The effect of timeliness of maintenance must not be overlooked. The GSC funding levels for maintenance should be compared to industry norms (Building Owners & Managers Association). yet comparative tools do not exist. including basic occupant requirements such as lighting. It is generally believed that considerable more reinvestment capital would be required to restore a deteriorated facility. It is believed that our existing maintenance practices may not be cost effective. Certain asset functions. heating plumbing and electrical supply as well as those functions dealing with health and safety concerns. must be provided and appropriate maintenance procedures implemented to assure the required reliability of service. or systems. particularly those pertaining to life safety issues and to the provision of tenant functional requirements. The development of a framework for the systematic collection of the information necessary to verify or to deny these suspicions is being performed as an initial task of the implementation phase. It is desirable to control the condition of assets throughout their service lives. provide equivalent initial effectiveness or long term performance. . The strategy and proposed implementation described in this paper attempt to quantitatively examine asset deterioration as well as the impact of various maintenance procedures.1 Need to enhance Quality of Life-cycle Asset Management Not all building materials. The majority of the existing knowledge related to the deterioration of performance and the required procedures to arrest that deterioration is subjective. than it would cost to have adequately preserved the facility in the first place.

make relative comparisons of the performance of construction options. All of the above statements are generally accepted as truths yet many of the key words they contain have not or can not be specified with certainty. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 6 By properly maintaining facilities the owner/operator will prolong asset life. "To assess the cost-effectiveness of the (Real Property) Program's operations. Appropriate measures may then be taken to synchronize the service lives of the various systems to the overall estimated life span for the asset. The causes of performance degradation should be identified so that similar circumstances are not repeated and that the information may be used to develop remedial strategies. Understanding of the rates at which material degradation affects overall performance is very limited. Financial information is essential to these analyzes since the ability of any given option to provide its required function is not necessarily directly proportional to either their implementation price or their O&M costs. Once the degradation processes are understood and described it is possible to: predict the performance of a facility at any point in time.RD&D. Clearly. and return on investment targets. including: unit cost comparisons with the private sector and across regions. That is. Without these pieces of information little may objectively be said concerning performance." 1 1 1992-93 MYOP Real Property Program -Asset Management -Business Methodology . Knowledge of the deterioration mechanisms is often weaker. service lives or the appropriateness of either material selection or maintenance scheduling. to examine the impact of maintenance scenarios upon asset life-cycle and value. there is a need to investigate degradation of performance of building systems in order to predict at what point the system will no longer be capable of meeting its intended function. to define service life. the Accommodation Branch (Real Property) will continue to develop and monitor against certain performance indicators.

3. We must recognize that for GSC to provide facilities which initially meet client needs does not necessarily assure the client satisfaction or that the function being performed will remain relevant. The clients must be fully aware of the ongoing maintenance requirements if the service is to remain satisfactory. The goal is to provide the desired functionality for an optimum life-cycle at an ideal level of maintenance expenditure. It is extremely important that the facilities turned over to the clients be of the best possible quality in keeping with stated requirements and budget. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 7 This objective acknowledges that further development of performance indicators is required. standards and norms required to support the operational needs of the tenants and the public. analysis should be based on actual life-cycle performance of each individual asset.2. 3. GSC's ability to provide the level of service requested by its clients depends upon many factors. If realistic appraisals of the relative worth of various assets and/or their performance histories is to be conducted.2 Existing Quality Assurance Framework Government Services Canada (GSC) supplies office and general purpose accommodation and the related technical services support to client departments and agencies.1 Role of Real Property Branch The mission of the Real Property Branch is to manage a diverse portfolio of federal real property to appropriately accommodate federal tenants and to optimize the investment in the asset. to ensure that maintenance decisions taken reflect a reasonable return on investment. and that a productive work environment is provided to federal tenants -Investment Management .RD&D. -Asset Management the management of assets to ensure that they meet all codes. one of the most significant being inter-branch cooperation and communication. Two of the business activities undertaken by the Real Property Branch are of particular interest to this discussion and are briefly described below.

2 1992-93 MYOP Real Property Program . including such functions as revenue generation. forecasting and collection. The review of GSC office buildings is scheduled for completion by March 1994. design and construction services as well as related engineering and architectural advise and support. Some of the issues considered in these plans are: provision of tenants' needs. Dependant upon the size and type of Project.2. Architectural and Engineering Services (A&ES) provides planning. usability/functionality. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 8 - the management of the capital and leasing investments to ensure that investment and disinvestment decisions optimize the long-term economic advantages to the Crown and take into account land use plans and policies of levels of government Real Property "Branch must ensure that the quality and condition of the real property asset base does not deteriorate. Asset Managers of Real Property purchase operations.2 Role of the Service Branches A primary responsibility of the Service Branches to Real Property is the provision of expertise to assess technical quality and merit.RD&D. Real Property Branch will engage the services of Project Managers from either A&ES or Realty Services Branch. practices and procedures. maintenance and property management services from the Realty Services Branch. 3. The Branch must not only preserve the economic value of the assets but also ensure the assets continue to meet operational needs of the tenants and the public. By improving this management process the Branch is attempting to collect all revenues possible. and the effectiveness of management from a tenant. recognition. repair versus disposal. The Real Property Branch is currently reviewing its revenue management policies." 2 Asset Management Plans which include detailed building condition studies are currently being conducted for each of GSC's assets. building performance and return on investment perspective.Overview .

The Planning stage produces the Investment Analysis Report. Success of project execution is measured relative to the criteria for content. The Project Brief defines the project requirements in verifiable technical criteria and specifies the implementation strategy. It is applicable to new construction. The . The net expenditures associated with owning and operating a facility over its useful life are compared to the potential revenue sources throughout and at the conclusion of that life. the recommended solution. All feasible alternatives are examined and the most viable means of meeting the stated requirement(s) is recommended.RD&D. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 9 The Service Branches provide verification that the assets and facilities are designed. The Definition phase provides a quantification of the required quality described in the Investment Analysis Report. Verification that the end product meets the initial performance expectations is conducted in the Commissioningphase. the budget. and schedule. fit-up and repair of existing and leased facilities and is intended to provide an initial quality of the asset. The Service Branches also estimate expected facility service life and associated operation and maintenance costs. 3. The PDS acknowledges that the Planning stage of any project will require input from numerous sources of expertise.2. constructed and maintained in accordance with the existing codes and state-of-the-art knowledge. cost.3 Provision of Quality via the Project Delivery System PWC (GSC) policy calls for the use of the Project Delivery System on all real property projects in which the Department is involved. time and quality as defined in the Investment Analysis Report and the Project Brief. Identified by this report are: the need. The Investment Analysis Report serves as a guide for subsequent phases of the project delivery and therefore will greatly influence the initial quality of product which may be delivered. Implementation of the project is to be conducted in accordance with the strategy laid out in the Project Brief. the objectives. Technical assessment of GSC's assets is usually performed by Service Branch staff. Comparison of the relative economic worthiness of options usually takes the form of lifecycle cost analysis.

bare grave impact upon the functionality and/or the level of performance. A systematic comparison of the final project against the stated goals is undertaken in the Evaluation phase. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 10 facility is taken to an operating state.RD&D.) Property Managers allocate. if not performed. The understanding of the interrelationship and the relative importance of the various systems of a facility is dependent upon the thoroughness of the Commissioning Report and the capabilities of the Property Manager.Planning Stage). 3. performance data is gathered as input for planning of future projects (feedback loop for PDS . where applicable. priority should ideally be given to activities which. The outcome of this phase is a facility operating as intended and staffed with personnel conversant in the operational and maintenance requirements. Relative to the future service life of the facility this is the most important phase of the PDS since a poorly commissioned or non-commissioned facility is considerably less likely to provide the initial level of performance required ( Refer to Section 3. on an annual basis. The life-cycle performance of any given facility is directly dependant upon the O&M practices. Often the regular operations are conducted by the same personnel who had brought the facility into operation (Operation phase). into Occupancy/User Agreements. This information is documented in an Evaluation Report. usually a Property Manager from GSC Realty Services Branch.4 Sustaining In-service Quality Once the Operation phase of the PDS has been concluded the custodian is responsible for the continued performance of the facility. O&M funds for designated works within an asset.2.4 ) . The Operationphase of the project brings the facility to in-service operations in response to needs identified in the preliminary phases of the project. The Commissioning Reportdocuments the performance compared to the stated requirements. (Subsequent discussions shall assume that the facilities management is being conducted by GSC staff. Following resolution of health and safety issues. In addition. These needs are transferred. .2.

Asset management evaluates an overall investment plan. material properties and specifications as well as inspection logs of all components used in systems of facilities maintained by Realty Services Branch.RD&D. for a portfolio of facilities throughout their expected service lives. relative to asset performance. It is intended to readily provide information on maintenance requirements and records. As the reliability of providing a function increases so does the expected service life and the revenue generating capability of that as . Information on the various projects vying for funds is submitted by the Property Managers for consideration. The Asset Managers must weigh the factors which affect the ability of any particular facility to fulfil predefined functions. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 11 The Preventative Maintenance Support System is an information base in ongoing development by Realty Services Branch.

RD&D. be guided by the potential future service which may be realized from the property. With current technology. In order to manage the revenue generation from an asset. do not make comparative evaluations of alternatives and the knowledge-base is not readily transferable. Rules of thumb and manufacturers' performance and materials specifications provide some expectations and estimates of service life of components. questionable since the surveyed conditions are static in time and do not necessarily provide an indication of the future performance. These practises. The decisions to invest or divest in facilities should. little other than "gut-feelings" and "standard-operating-procedures" dictate the selection of materials. The building construction and maintenance is generally conducted by people with years of experience in the field. in part. The intent of the Real Property's Asset Management Plans is very good. however. The applicability of the information gleaned from the condition surveys to make decisions as to appropriate investment scenarios is. The usefulness of life-cycle cost analysis for the assessment of options hinges upon the accurate determination of service life of the asset and the costs and revenue expected over that life. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 12 3. maintenance schedules and scenarios. Often. Traditionally. are relatively inflexible. the procedure has been used to examine the asset's financial . there should be reliable forecasts of that facility's future life span as well as an indication of any potential breaks in its revenue generating capability. while generally satisfactory.3 Difficulties with Existing Framework Real Property Branch's goal of ensuring that maintenance decisions provide reasonable return on investment cannot be achieved in an objective manner without thorough knowledge of asset service life (past and future) as well as the impact of various maintenance scenarios. rigorous determination of service life (initial or remaining) of any given asset is not readily conducted. Little is passed-on concerning either the service life of the systems comprising any given asset or the effect which particular maintenance scenarios may have upon the service life.

component and system options available may imply vastly differing maintenance budgets and asset service life. The material. the impact which initial design considerations may have upon long term building performance and the subsequent maintenance requirements is often overlooked. The budgets associated with the capital investment and the annual maintenance of assets are separate. For this reason. .RD&D. In the first of these instances the analysis is speculative and in the latter it is of historical significance only. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 13 performance either before the life-cycle is initiated or when it has concluded.

Information to be used in the preliminary planning of the latter of the key elements shall describe the functional requirements of the various types of GSC building stock. in order to maximize facility service life and more effectively allocate resources. The life-cycle asset and quality management concept being proposed attempts to unite economic indicators of performance to the asset's ability to continue to provide the function(s) for which it was designed. The typical levels of funding (normal practise) to maintain each of the systems may then be compared to actual GSC funding levels. the system(s) that control and/or influence the provision of function will be identified and the inter-relationship(s) between the systems described. For each of these systems. and the on-going identification. By employing this concept at the planning stage of the PDS more realistic indications of expected life-cycles will be available for the options analyses. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 14 4. rehabilitation and major maintenance alternatives. The concept and techniques presented in the following section should be used to assess the relative merits of various construction. via databases. investigation and quantification of deterioration mechanisms. When the facilities are on-line. of the knowledge/experience obtained. use of the modified framework will provide insight to the best procedures of assuring continued reliability of service. . categorizing the asset functions as either basic or occupant driven.RD&D. on a life-cycle basis. the optimization of maintenance practices. the retention. For each of the functional requirements. It recognizes that both the functionality and required maintenance of a facility are time dependant. The key goals of the proposed strategy are: the development of tools to assess service life and performance (financial and technical) at any point within the service life.0 Strategy The most evident shortcoming of the existing quality assurance framework is the technical inability to analytically assess the service life of an asset. the key equipment and components will be identified and the economic factors which influence capital reinvestment and disinvestment decisions shall be described.

RD&D. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 15 .

More complex systems may be modelled by combining parallel and series subsystems. In series systems. Reassessment of the service lives and economic factors affecting any given facility must be conducted frequently enough to provide an accurate reflection of the asset performance and to allow for modification of the O&M practices if (and as) deemed necessary. vary from case to case dependant upon the functional requirements of the occupant.RD&D.1 Performance Indicators The performance indicators to be used in this methodology are of two basic types. the calculation of the expected (or remaining) service life of a facility. the conditions which govern performance of the various components and systems may be determined. This would permit: i) ii) iii) the calculation of the likelihood that these governing conditions will exceed designated acceptable limits. if one component fails so does the system.1 Assessing Service Life Based upon experience. 5. .1. economic and technical. A system can be defined as a number of components combined in parallel or in series. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 16 5. Generally. All components of a parallel system must fail for system failure to occur.0 Implementation of Enhanced Quality Management Framework By scrutinizing the condition of any given asset the merits of various construction and maintenance options may be determined on an economic as well as scientific basis. dealing primarily with the net expenditures and net benefits associated with a particular option. The technical indicators. Since the intent of this analysis will be to examine the performance indicators at any point within the life span of the asset. the economic indicators used are considerably less variable. it is crucial to methodology that the information gathered be useful for on-going supervision of O&M on an annual basis. those describing the physical performance of the asset. 5. and the updating of service life predictions of an asset from within the life-cycle.

A deterministic approach. The use of probabilistic. These governing conditions describe the mathematical relationships between various parameters and component performance. Therefore. Governing Parameters are the physical and chemical properties which are used to mathematically define the function. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 17 The performance of any particular component. describing the likelihood that a particular variable will take a specific value . x . the methodology should be capable of reflecting changes in these physical and/or chemical conditions. the analysis must consider the potential variation in physical conditions and their inter-relationships to accurately portray the asset performance. Reliability is the probability that a function will be fulfilled. techniques is the only approach which will provide realistic analysis of the likelihood of fulfilling performance requirements. should not be used to assess facility performance since it can not take the natural variation of the physical parameters into account. the likelihood of having a particular value of RH may vary with the geographic location and building usage as well as with other considerations. . or reliabilitybased. Probability Density Function is the frequency function.RD&D. Only in rare instances would the values of any of these variables or their interactions be known categorically. using fixed or arbitrary values for pertinent variables. For example. Within that range. In most instances the values and nature of these variables are in accordance with definable distribution functions. Probability of Exceedance is the likelihood that the value of the defined function will exceed designated acceptable limits. Analysis by probabilistic means will permit consideration of inherent randomness and shall determine the probability that certain events may occur. Some fundamental terminology related to reliability-based techniques is presented below.f(x). subsystem or system of an asset depends upon numerous variables. The reliability-based methodology hinges upon the identification of functions which describe the conditions governing performance of the components for any given system. the relative humidity (RH) in office buildings may reasonably be expected to range between 20 % and 60 %. More significantly.

RD&D. System Reliability is the probability that the system of components will fulfil its function. the asset age when reliability falls below an acceptable level. Specific revenue. over the expected service life of the asset. the annual revenue and annual profit (where applicable) indices can then easily be determined and controlled. at a given rate of interest. and - annual operating cost is composed of the cost of labour. material. expression of performance in terms of reliability. calculation of the probability that the asset will fail to provide its predefined function(s). The principles associated with the manipulation of these factors (such as Net Present Value and Capital Recovery Factor) are widely understood and shall not be described further in this discussion. Economic or investment performance indicators will be based upon the expressions of annual owning and operating costs as defined below: annual owning costis derived from the amortization of the initial cost. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 18 Component Reliability is the probability that the component will provide its defined function. taxes (and grants in-lieu-of) and other cost incurred on a regular basis. From these costs. 5. operating costs. is an example of one such indicator that can serve as a very useful asset performance . pf. revenue per unit of production.pf .2 Determining Economic Factors The economic elements required for this analysis (initial cost. revenues and profit) can be relatively easily acquired. R = 1 . prioritization and quantification of the conditions governing performance. The basic methodology to be used for analysis of individual components and systems is: a) b) c) d) e) identification.1. and determination of service life. The concept of ongoing management of operations and maintenance is complementary to that of asset management from within the life-cycle. determination of the nature (probability density functions) of relevant physical parameters.

. lowering the annual owning cost.RD&D. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 19 management tool. 5. the PMSS. Output from the analysis will. to be obtained from the PMSS and other sources. if better and more appropriate operation and maintenance practices are conducted the service life will be extended. be available to modify the output of. Each of these parameters is considered to vary according to a definable distribution function. will be used to indicate tendencies in observed conditions which reflect physical conditions. maintenance procedures have direct impact upon both the annual owning and operating costs. Expected Performance and Inspection For any identified deterioration mechanism there will be a variety of physical and chemical characteristics which play a significant role. Once established this sum may be set in accordance with (or determine) the expected revenue and funding requirements for the asset. Analysis could identify the scope of operation and maintenance that would yield the lowest sum of annual owning cost and annual operating cost. Ideally. and its implementation within the methodology. The exact distributions are evasive. If the service life of an asset deviates from initial predictions. Inspection data and the records of performance of various facilities. By influencing the service lives of facilities. or input to. It is believed that. through extensive collection of field performance data. Maintenance cost is a principal component of the annual operating cost. the annual cost of owning will change accordingly.2 Maintenance. similarly. This link provides essential input to the reliabilitybased analysis. the confidence in the distributions being chosen and hence in the methodology itself shall steadily increase.

The methodology may be applied at any time. 5.RD&D.4 Potential Applications The strengths of various construction and maintenance options may be determined on an economic as well as scientific basis by scrutinizing the condition of any given asset and comparing the performance to previous predictions. within or after the asset service life. prior-to. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 20 5. repair and replacement scenarios. The relative impacts of various O&M scenarios on asset performance will become more evident as the experience/knowledge base grows. The costs associated with various levels of maintenance may then be used to manage the assets in a fiscally prudent manner so as to optimize financial performance. By regularly collecting data which reflect performance the knowledge of the costs associated with owning the asset as well as of the effect of the maintenance procedures upon the asset's service life will be continually improved. as well as the long and short term returns on investment is crucial to the decision making process. As our knowledge of the controlling conditions grows so will the understanding of the maintenance levels required to provide functional continuity from our assets at an acceptable level of reliability.3 Data/Knowledge Base The maintenance options chosen over the life of a facility undoubtedly influence both the annual cost of operating the asset and its service life. Thorough examination of the relative efficiencies of various design options. The ability to manage annual O&M activities should be greatly increased once the desired service life of an asset has been determined and translated into annual operations budgets. . Such assessment can only be accomplished if adequate suitable data exists.

it may be used for needs identification purposes by demonstrating the advantages of different material selections or by providing substantive evidence of the relative effectiveness of various building system options. The horizontal dashed line in this plot indicates the risk acceptance level for this particular system as determined by economic and physical performance characteristics. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 21 As a planning tool this procedure will be applied to various GSC activities. By anticipating when the system is likely to provide less than the acceptable reliability. inspection schedules may be optimized to confirm or denounce the predicted asset condition. remedial action should be taken to restore function. If the reliability of the system falls below this level. Figure 4 Comparison of Repair vs. Similar potential applications will also arise for retrofit and rehabilitation projects.RD&D. . In the early stages of new capital projects. Replacement of Parking Slab An example of the potential applications of the methodology to assess the relative merits of repair and/or replacement scenarios is presented in Figure 4. In cases where the required service life is definitively stated and system selection has been made the procedure will provide an indication of the required maintenance funding levels.

and 9 yrs. Different maintenance options will undoubtedly result in variations of the expected service life and of the annual maintenance costs. As the life-cycle of the facility varies with the maintenance practises so does its revenue generating capability. The two projected scenarios indicate reliability falling to the risk acceptance level at approximately 6 yrs. the slab could be completely replaced at that time. The cycle of prediction-inspection-action should be continued throughout the desired asset life-cycle. an optimum annual operating cost may be determined for each asset and/or component. plotted with +'s. Having predicted the potential life extensions to be achieved. The sum of the costs associated with owning and operating the asset should not outweigh the benefits. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 22 The initial curve of Figure 4 estimates that the reliability will fall to the risk acceptance level at approximately three and a half years. The curve indicated with F's represents the expected performance projection resulting from the slab repair at an age of 4 years. The modified performance curve for the replaced slab. 4 months confirmed the condition of the slab to be comparable to that predicted. Continued use of the procedure and recording of the findings will provide further knowledge of the effectiveness of various scenarios. The most significant of the benefits is the revenue generated from rental/lease agreements. results from an unfavourable inspection at an age of 10 years. The projected reliability curve for the latter option is plotted with G's. By having an informed idea of the rate of deterioration of any given asset the operational personnel may optimize their inspection and maintenance schedules. respectively.RD&D. . An inspection conducted at 3 yrs. Maintenance budgets will reflect not only the appropriate level of funding but also will indicate the most effective placement of those funds. The revenue and profit (potential as well as real) to be acquired from a facility influence the investment plan and should therefore determine the maintenance scheme(s) to be implemented. a comprehensive economic analysis/comparison of the each of the alternatives is possible. inspections would be scheduled in accordance with the predicted performance of the chosen scenario. An example of the potential effect of the level of maintenance upon the life-cycle viability of an asset is presented as Appendix A. Alternatively.

RD&D. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 23 .

reinvestment and disinvestment). is essential if GSC is to fulfil its responsibility to prudently manage the assets. A comprehensive and rational decision making framework. . linking all aspects of facility life-cycle (from the planning stage through to operations and maintenance. condition and economic value of the asset base. Due to the dynamic nature of the factors which describe performance. Implementation of the methodology presented in the preceding paper will develop a continually strengthening knowledge base as well as providing non-subjective evidence on the effectiveness of various construction.RD&D. Technology A Proposed Strategy for Quality in Life-cycle Asset Management August 1993 24 6.0 Conclusion Government Services Canada provides client departments and agencies with accommodation while attempting to preserve the quality. the reliability-based technique is the only approach which permits rational prediction and assessment of asset life-cycle and thereby provides the necessary tools to manage federal real property in an efficient and cost-effective manner. maintenance and refurbishing alternatives.

1 OMa = 12.intended for discussion purposes only) August 1993 A-1 Assumptions Unit capital Cost Interest rate Annual Owning Cost P = 1000 i = 10 % per annum A = P i(1 + i)n / ( (1 + i)n . The economic advantages that particular maintenance schemes and funding levels would provide are not accurately known.) Annual Operating & Maintenance Cost OMa = Oa + Ma where Oa = annual operations cost Ma = annual maintenance cost Annual Cost AC = A + OMa Annual Revenue AR = AC + Overhead + Profit where Overhead = 300% OMa Profit = 0% (break-even) Typical Example Expected Service Life Annual Operating & Maintenance Cost Operations Maintenance Annual Owning Cost Annual Cost Annual Break-even Revenue Therefore Annual Maintenance Cost is : 12. Technology Appendix A Potential Impact of Maintenance upon Life-cycle (Hypothetical Example . OMa = P / 8 = 125.5 .50 A = 117. The following table illustrates three possible scenarios of maintenance funding and the estimated service lives as well as presenting likely tendencies of the relative economic indictors.RD&D. Capital Cost P = 1000 n = 20 yrs.00 Oa = . 617 Maintenance has a very direct impact upon the service life of any given asset. 2% of the Annual Revenue. and 242 12.9 OMa = 112.50 Ma = .5 .1) where n = service life (yrs. 5% of the Annual Cost.00 AC = A + OMa = 117 + 125 = 242 AR = AC + 3 OMa = 242 + 375 = 617 (P /8 as per BOMA norm) .

5 (constant) nexp = 20 yrs. Annual Maintenance Cost Estimated Service Life Ma nest * (yrs.0 131.0 .0 617.intended for discussion purposes only) August 1993 A-2 Interest rate Annual Operations Cost Expected Service Life -amortization period- i = 10 % per annum Oa = 112.398 .5 20 18.0 117. .464 1.8 592.392 1.2 242. More accurate.3 117.0 Annual Owning Cost A Annual Cost Annual Revenue (break-even) Annual Cost / Revenue AC / AR AC AR 235. Technology Appendix A Potential Impact of Maintenance upon Life-cycle (Hypothetical Example .8 117.2 .0 125.386 Total Cost Ct=(nest x OMa)+(nexp x A) Total Revenue Rt= nest x AR 4122 8883 4840 12340 5622 16055 Total Cost / Revenue Ct / Rt Normalized .392 .18 .0 248.89 * These service lives and annual maintenance costs are presented to demonstrate the tendencies of the cost-to-revenue ratios.3 642.350 .3 15 12.8 25 Annual O&M Cost OMa 118. rational estimates of asset service lives should be determined.RD&D.) 6.