Units of Measure

System MKS CGS English Length Meter CM Inch Force Mass Time Sec Pressure N/M2 = Pascal D/CM2 PSI Newton Kg Dyne Pound

Gram Sec Slug Sec

How Much is a Pascal (Pa)
‡ A Newton is the force necessary to accelerate a mass of 1 kg at a rate of 1 meter per second per second. ‡ The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/sec2 ‡ The force due to gravity on a 1 kg mass is 9.8 N is 1 kg weight. ‡ 1 Newton is 0.102 kg weight.

How Much is a Pascal (Pa)
‡ 1 n/m2 is a very small pressure ‡ Therefore kilopascal (kPa) ‡ 1 atmosphere (14.7 psi, 750mmHg) is approximately 100 kPa = 1 bar ‡ 1 kPa is about 7 mmHg

Mechanical Methods of pressure measurement
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Manometry Bourdon Bellows Aneroid Diaphragm Diaphragm Capsule Strain gauge

Manometry

Bourdon

Bourdon Tube Types

Aneroid

Diaphragm Types

Diaphragm Types (cont.)

From Mechanical to Electronic
‡ After the 1920s, automatic control ‡ By the 1950s pressure transmitters and centralized control rooms. ‡ Bourdon tube, bellows, and diaphragm no longer had to be connected to a local pointer, but served to convert a process pressure into a transmitted (electrical or pneumatic) signal.

From Mechanical to Electronic
‡ Mechanical linkage, pneumatic pressure transmitter, 3-15 psig output signal, for transmission over distances of several hundred feet. ‡ Later, as solid state electronics matured and transmission distances increased, pressure transmitters became electronic. ‡ The early designs generated dc voltage outputs (10-50 mA; 1-5 V; 0-100 mV), but later were standardized as 420 mA dc current output signals.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

1930s, the first unbonded-wire strain gages. bonded thin-film strain gages. diffused semiconductor strain gages. Semiconductor pressure sensors are sensitive, inexpensive, accurate and repeatable. ‡ Capacitance

Strain Gage Based Pressure Transducer
Narrow-span pressure Gauge Pressure Differential pressure Absolute Pressure Full Scale: 3 inches of water to 200,000 psig (1400 MPa). ‡ Accuracy: 0.1% to 0.25% of full scale. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Capacitance-Based Pressure Transducer
‡ Capacitance change results from the movement of a diaphragm element. ‡ Stainless steel is the most common diaphragm material used. ‡ Balanced or unbalanced mode ‡ Two Capacitors ‡ Single Capacitor with moving plate on a diaphragm.

Capacitance-Based Pressure Transducer
‡ Widespread in part because of their wide rangeability. ‡ Full Scale: from high vacuums in the micron range to 10,000 psig (70 MPa). ‡ Differential pressures as low as 0.01 inches of water ‡ In compared with strain gage transducers, they do not drift much. ‡ Accuracy: within 0.1% of reading or 0.01% of full scale. ‡ A typical temperature effect is 0.25% of full scale per 1000 F. ‡ Applications: low-differential and low-absolute pressure

Potentiometer-Based Pressure Transducer
‡ Electrical output from mechanical pressure gauge. ‡ Unavoidable errors ‡ Temperature effects cause additional errors ‡ Strong output ‡ Low power applications ‡ Full scale: 5- 10,000 psig ‡ Accuracy: 0.5-1%

Resonant Wire Pressure Transducer
Introduced in the late 1970s.

Based on resonant frequency

1 f ! 2T

k m

Resonant Wire Pressure Transducer
‡ Advantage: Inherently digital output ‡ Limitations:
‡ sensitivity to temperature variation ‡ nonlinear output signal ‡ sensitivity to shock and vibration

‡ Absolute pressures from 10 mm Hg ‡ Differential pressures up to 750 in. water ‡ Gauge pressures up to 6,000 psig (42 MPa). ‡ Accuracy: 0.1%

Piezoelectric Based Pressure Transducer
‡ Dynamic Pressure ‡ NO Static Pressure ‡ FS: 0.1 and 10,000 psig ‡ Accuracy: 1% FS ‡ Temp. Compensated ‡ FS: 3 psi to 14,000 psi (21 KPa to 100 MPa).

Optical Pressure Transducer
‡ Infrared light ‡ Compensation for the LED light source by means of a reference diode. ‡ Immune to temperature effect ‡ Movement is very small (under 0.5 mm) ‡ hysteresis and repeatability errors are nearly zero. ‡ No much maintenance ‡ Excellent stability ‡ Long-duration measurements ‡ FS: 5 psig to 60,000 psig (35 kPa to 413 MPa) ‡ Accuracy: 0.1% fullscale.

Magnetic Pressure Transducer

Electronic Pressure Sensors Range

Practical Considerations
‡ In industrial applications, good repeatability often is more important then absolute accuracy. ‡ For a wide range, transducers with good linearity and low hysteresis are the preferred choice. ‡ Ambient and process temperature variations also cause errors in pressure measurements, particularly in detecting low pressures and small differential pressures. In such applications, temperature compensators must be used ‡ Power supply variations reduce the performance of pressure transducers.

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