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Fluid Circulation

Fluid Circulation

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Fluid Circulation

Every cell of an organism requires constant supply of Nurients and immediate removal of waste. For this purpose all the animals developed some kind of circulatory system. Types of Circulatory systems 1. Intracellular circulation: - Circulation of fluid within the cell Eg: Cyclosis in protozoans. 2. Extra Cellular circulation:- In which fluid circulates outside the body of organism (i) Extra orgnaismic Circulation: In which fluid circulates outside the body of organism Eg. Porifers and Coelenterates. (ii) Intra Organismic Circulation: Circulation within the body or organism. (a) Parenchymatous Circulation: - In flat worms space between alimentary canal and body wall remain filled with parenchymatons tissue called Mesenchyme.. space between its cells form a network for the circulations of fluids. (b) Body Cavity circulation: - Fluid circulates within the body cavity eg. Aschelminthes. (c) Blood Vacular system or cardiovascular system. In which well developed heart pumps specialized blood in entire body. Types of B.V.S Open B.V.S Closed B.V.S In which blood do not travel within blood Blood travel within definite blood vessels vessels during it camplete circuit but it is during its complete circuit and never comes poured in Large spaces called Lacunae or in direct contact of tissues. Sinuses where the exchange between blood and cells takes place. Eg. Arthropods, Leeches, Molluscs except Eg: Annelids and Chordates cephalopods Components of B.V.S:It comprises Blood, Blood vessels and Heart. ARTERIES o Carry the blood away from the heart o Carry oxygenated blood except pulmonary Arteries. o Arteries are deeply placed in body.

o o o

o Blood pressure and velocity is high in o Arteries o Valves are absent o o Wall of arteries are thick, strong o elastic and non collapsible o Its Lumen is narrow o Histology of blood vessels: • Tunica externa or adventitia is made up of collagen rich fibrous tissue. • Tunica media is made up of circulary arranged smooth muscles and eleastic fibres. It is less developed in veins that’s why lumen is wider in vein. • Tunica inerna is made up of two layer  Outer made of yellow elastic fibres

VEINS Carry the blood towards the heart. Carry impure blood except Pulmonary veins. Veins are super ficially placed in body and appear blue in colour Blood pressure and velocity is lower in veins. Valves are present Wall of thin, weak, inelastic & collapsible. Its Lumen is wide


5µ or 75µ • Approximately 5 – 7 % blood is found in capillaries. Pulmonary Circulation 9%. In veins. Inner Endothelium –made up of simple squamous epithelium CAPILLARIES:Disc by Malpighi • Its wall is made up of a single layer of epithelial cells called endothelium. Arteries 13%. Reptiles: 3 – ½ Chambered (Two Auricles and incompletely divided ventricles) But 4 chambered in Crocodilians. Systemic cicuit:. Crustaceans. Singel chamberd – Herdmania/Amphioxus Two chamberd – Pisces Three chambered – Amphibians 31/2 chambered – Reptiles 4 Chambered – Aves and Mammals 7 Chambered – Scorpion 13 chambered – Cockroach Pulsatile and lateral heart – Earthworm VERTEBRATE HEARTS Pisces:2 Chambered. Myogenic Heart: When the heart beat is initiated by specialized cardiac muscles.Blood flows from left ventricle to body and back to the righ auricle. Heart 7%. veinules and sinusoids 64%. 2 . Pulmonary circuit:. Amphibians: 3 chambered (2 Auricle and one ventricle) Accessory chambers – Sinus venosus and Truncus arteriosus. • Lumen of capillaries is 7. Pumping organ TYPES:Neurogenic Heart:. Heart: Thick muscular. Single circuit circulation: Blood passes through heart only once during its course of circulation. Accessory chamber: only sinus venosus is present Arterio-venous heat Transitional circuit Avian & Mammalian Heart: 4 chambered (2A & 2V) Accessory chambers – absent Arterio-venous heart • Double circuit circulation as Blood passes Twice through heart during its course of circulation. some insects (cockroach). Annelids (Earthworm). Accessory chambers – Sinus venous and Conus arteriosus Piscian heart is also known as Venous or Brachial heart Venous heart as it Receive and pump deoxygenated blood only. Capillaries 7%. Branchial heart: As it pump the blood towards the gills. Chordates. Arteriovenous heart as it receive and pump pure as well as impure blood. Transitional circuit of blood is present: Because partial mixing of pure and impure blood takes place in ventricle. Eg.When heart beat is originated by excitation of nerve ganglion.(one auricle and one ventricle) In lung fishes heart is 3 chambered. Eg. Molluscs.In this circuit blood flows from R. Systematic circulation (84%).V to lungs and back to the left auricle.

Post caval is also called Inferior or Posterior vena cava • collect the blood from lower part of body • Its opening is guarded by Eustachian valve.Divides the Atrial part into Right and Left atrium.A.Upper broad-part is called base Lower conical part is called apex • Atrio-ventricular Groove: Transverse groove which indicate the division of heat into Atrial and Ventricular part • Inter Ventricular Groove: Oblique groove present over the ventricular part and indicates its division into righ and left one.Aperture present in I. Coronary sinus:. Post Caval and Coronary sinus Precaval is also called Superior or Anterior vena cava – It collect the blood from upper part of body • Its opening is guarded by Haversian valve. Right auricle receive the doxygenated blood from Pre Caval. Bicuspid or Mitral valve. 3 • • • .S during embryonic condition • Fossa ovallis:. lower. Left auricle open into let ventricle through. Pericardial fluid act as Shock Absorber and helps in frictionless movement. Receiving chambers. Thin walled becoz auricles pump blood only upto the ventricles. Inter Auritcular septum: . VENTRICLE:Larger. Musculi Pectinati: Ridges present on the inner surface of auricles. distributing chambers • Thicker – Because these have to pump the blood upto distant body parts. Anatomy Auricles or Atriums:Smaller.Collect the deoxygenated blood from heart muscles. Upper. Left ventricle is thickest because it has to pump the blood to whole body.Receive the pure blood from two pairs of pulmonary veins.  It lodges the Coronary blood vessels. Pyramidal.Mammalian Heart Busiest organ Central Pumping station of the body which regulates the traffic of blood.Remnant of foramen Ovale in form of thin depression. • Foramen ovale:. • Right Auricle open into Right Ventricle and its opening is guarded by Right Atrio-Ventricular valve (Tricuspid valve) Left Auricle:. Thick muscular. (1) Parietal pericardium outer layer (2) Visceral pericardium inner layer • Space between pericardial layers is called Pericardial space which remains filled with Pericardial fluid. Redish Brown structure found in thoracic cavity between the lungs in a space called Mediastenum • Size 12 × 9 cm (roughly fist size) • Weight In males 280 to 360 gms In females 230 to 280 gms • Pericardium: Protective covering present around the heart. • Its opening is guarded by Thebesius valve. Structure of Heart Morphology:.

(3) B. • It is also called Pace maker or Heart of the Heart or Right sided structure or Keith and Flock node.N and Convey it to the B. Ductus Botallis or Ductus arteriosus: Duct which connect the pulmonary trunk with Carotico systemico arch.O.N (Atrio Ventricular Node):• Present at the posterior part of I. Amphibian and Reptilian heart.H (Bundle of His or Atrio Ventricular Bundle) • Dis by HIS • Divide to form (i) Right branch of bundle of His. • Lower ridges are called Columnae Cornae or trabeculae. Left ventricle give rise to carotico systemico arch. (2) A.A. • Impulse is originated and conducted by specialized Cardiac Muscles called Cardiac Elements or Nodal Tissue or Junctional Tissue Cardiac Element comprises (1) S.A.N (Sino Auricular Node):• Present near the opening of precaval in right auricle. • Absent in Piscian.I. • Higher Ridges are called Mammary Muscles or Papillary Muscles Chordae tendinae – are white elastic fibres which connect the flaps of A.O.N. • For every 10C elevation of Body temperature heart beat Arrythemia – Irregular heart beat Tachycardia – Fast rate of heart beat (Over 100) 4 • .A. Ligamentum arteriosum: Yellow fibrous band which replaces Ductus arteriosus befor the birth Origin & conduction of Heart Beat: • Heart beat is wave of Electrical potential and Myogenic in origin.N. A.O.A. Sympathetic N. • In Lower Vertebrates like Amphibian (Frog) and Reptiles S.A. Purkinje Fibres:• Dis by Purkinje • Originated from branch of bundle of His and found embedded in the wall of ventricles.H. Right ventricle give rise to Pulmonary trunk. • It receive the impulse from S. CONTROL OF HEART BEAT Centre for Heart Beat is Medulla Oblongata.V.S • Dis by Kent • Also called as pace setter. S.S (Inter ventricular septum) divide the lower part into Right and Left Ventricles. B.N is present is Sinus venosus. System on excitation secretes Adrenaline which increases the heart beat.V. • Injection of KCl decrease the heart beat.V valves with the mammary muscles to hold them in proper position during ventricular systole. Some Ridges are present on inner surface of ventricles. • Na+ ions are necessary for maintenance of normal beat.H and its branches (4) Purkinge fibre. Parasympathetic nervous System & Vagus Nerves on excitation secrete Acetyl choline which decrease the heart beat. (ii) Left branch of bundle of His.V.

high pitched and of short duration • Produced by the closer of Semilumar valve at the start of ventricular diastole.P. 5 .) Pressure exerted on arterial wall when the ventricles are maximally relaxed. Hales Pressure exerted by blood on the wall of blood vessels with each heart beat while flowing through them Systolic pressure – (120 mmHg) Pressure exerted on the wall of vessels at the end of ventricular systole. is measured by Sphygmomanometer from the branchial arter of left arm. low pitched and of long duration • Produced by the closer of A. bones and thyroid HEART SOUND:Can be heard by Stethoscope Stethoscope was invented by LENNEC • Record of heart sound is called Cardiophonogram First sound or LUBB or Systolic sound • It is dull. valve at the start of ventricular systole. • Invented by RIVA RICCI/ KARROT KOFF • B.Sound produced by defective and leaky valves (Lubb-ssh) BLOOD PRESSURE • B. • Min volume = Stroke volume × Heart Rate 70 × 72 = 5040 ml Distribution of blood Heart – 10% Brain – 15% Kidneys – 25% Digestive system – 25% Other parts – 25% • During exercise blood supply decreases to liver & kidney • During exercise blood supply increases to skeletal muscle • During exercise blood supply remains as such brain.(80 mm Hg. was first of all measured by S. Second sound or DUPP or Diastolic sound • It is sharp. MURMUR: .Bradycardia – Slow rate of heart beat (Under 60) Heart Rate Number of beats Per minute In Adult – 70 to 80/min In Children – 100 beats/min In New Born Babies – 130 to 140/min In Rabbit – 200 to 210 In Frog – 64 beats/min Elephant – 25 beats/min Rat – 400 to 600 beats/min In Canary Bird – 2000 beats/min Heat Rate is inversely proportional to the size of organism Stroke volume or systolic discharge:• Volume of blood ejected out from the each ventricle per beat • Its value is 70 ml Minute Volume or Cardiac Output: • Volume of blood pumped by heart per minute.V. Diastolic Pressure. P.

is 120/80 Pulse Pressure – Difference between systolic and diastolic pressures (40 mm Hg) Dorsal aorta > Arteries > veins > capillaries E. Innominate (Brachiocephalic) Right sub clavian Vetebral artery Axillary Artery – Brachial Artery – Radial & Ulnare Mammary Artery R External carotid Right common corotid R Internal carotid Left common carotid L External carotid L Internal carotid Left Sub Clavian Artery After giving rise to the above braches caroticosystemic arch change to form Dorsal Aorta.C. graphy – Einthoven E. 6 .P. Electri Cardio Gram: Graphical Record of difference in Electrical potential during cardiac cycle.C.Device used to record the EC Gram.3 Sec Ventricular Diastole = 0.7 Sec Ventricular Systole = 0.4 Sec ARTERIAL SYSTEM Largest Artery – Dorsal Aorta In Rabbit – Iliac Artery Smallest Artery – Phrenic Artery. • Pulmonary Trunk divides into two Pulmonary Arteries (R and L) which carry deoxygenated blood to respective lungs.Normal B.interval: Resting time of heart. QRS complex – Ventricular depolarization Cardiac Cycle Cycle of rhythmic contraction (Systole) and relaxation (Diastole) Sequence of events that occur during each heart beat is called cardiac cycle. Gram was first of all recorded by Waller E.C. Electro Cardio Graph:.G (Electro Cardio Grapphy) / EKG(American) Technique used for the detection of heart diseases and functioning. P-wave – Represents atrial depolarization T. • Caroticosystemic Arch:Give rise to Right and Left Coronary arteries which carry blood to righ and left part of heart.wave – Represent ventricular repolarization TP .8 Sec Atrial Systole = 0.5 Sec Joint Diastole = 0.1 Sec Atrial Diastole = 0. Cardiac cycle time = 60/75 = 0.G is recorded in terms of PQRST.C. Father of E. It give rise to the following branches.

Fore limbs Azygous and Hemiazygous – Intercostal muscles and Dorsal body wall Post Caval It is formed by the union of two common Iliac veins Collect the blood from Hydpogastric. Hepatic and Phrenic Veins etc Portal Systems System in which blood passes through some organ before returning to the heart Portal Vein: • Vein which start from capillaries and also ends in capillaries • Which collect the blood from an organ by a set of capillaries and distribute it in another organ by another set of capillaries Hepatic Portal System: Found in all vertebrates 7 . Renal.Head Region Subclavian .• Intercostal Arteries • Oesophageal • Pericardial • Bronchial • Phrenic Abdominal Region Left Gastric Coeliac Hepatic Splenic Artery Superior / Mesenteric Colic Duodenal Intestinal Right Renal Artery Renal Left Renal Artery Testicular Genital Artery Ovarian Posterior or Inferior Mesenteric Artery Now dorsal Aorta Split to form External Iliac → Popliteal → Tibiole Arteries Right common Illiac Artery Internal Iliac Venous System Largest Vein – Inferior Vena cava Pulmonary Veins (2 Pairs) Coronary Sinus Precaval/Anterior or superior vena cava In rabbit while single in man It collects the blood from Jugular .

 Less Protein content. 8 .B. It act as reservoir (Blood bank) for blood It is found in abdominal cavity just behind the stomach near the tail of Pancreas.Cs. Adenoids. Which destroy the foreign particles through phagocytosis.Cs. alkaline fluid present between the blood capillaries and the tissues • Its amt is approximately 2 litre. • Lymph nodes can detect and destroy the cancerous cells.B.  Less amount of Ca & P. Lymph Glands: Spleen and Thymus. Lymphatic system Also called as Secondary or Subsidiary circulatory system Components:.B. This fluid when absorbed in lymph capillaries is called lymph. Payer’s Patches. Lymph glands. Some W. Lymph Nodes:Small oval or bean like bodies present over the lymphatic vessels which are abundant in neck.Duodenal Ant and Post mesenteric __________ Liver_____________ Hepatic vein ___________ Post caval _______ Heart Lineogastric veins Renal Portal System Present Amphibians & Pisces Reduced in Reptiles and Aves Absent in mammals Blood ___________ Renal portal vein _______ Kidneys ______ Renal Vein ________ Heart Hypophyseal Portal System Hypothalamus (Hypophyseal portal vein) Pituitary ________ Hypophyseal vein _____________ Heart. chest groin. • Red & white pulps are found in spleen • Cord of Billorths are found in spleen. Lymph nodes. Lymph is blood like but differ with blood in  Less leucocytes count  In absence of R. lymphatic vessel & ducts etc Lymph = Blood – R. • Lymph act as middle man between blood and tissues.B.Capillaries are very thin that’s why the some fluid oozes out in intercellular spaces by ultrfiltration.Cs. arm pit and sub maxillary area. Formation :.Cs are also squeezed by diapedesis. Lymphatic capillaries. • Lymph nodes produces Lymphoytes and Antiobodies. Eg. Spleen Largest Lymph Gland Graveyard of R. Tonsils. • Lymph have clotting properties. platelets & some proteins • Lymph is highly transluscent.Lymph.

Node fails to initiate the heart beat. Heart Block:. Cardiao vascular Diseases (Disease of Heart and blood) Heart Failur:. Right Lymphatic duct Right Lymphatic duct:.S. (1976) 9 .Server pain in chest region due to the arteriosclerosis of coronary artery. Node is Damaged and can not conduct the impulse to the ventricles Heart Attack or Coronary Attack or Mycoardial Infraction: .A sac like structure which collect the lymph from lacteals Functions of lymphatic system: • It drains excess tissue fluid from the extracellular spaces back into the blood.Some segment of blood vessel dilate and bursts. 1.A.Presence of bloodin vomiting • • • • • • First open heart surgery of India was done by Dr Gopinath Betts.V. Atherosclerosis:.• It act as Haemopoetic organ in Embryo • It also act as filter organ for Blood • It produces Lymph & Lymphocytes.Valves of heart becomes weak due to the frequent infection of rheumatic fever in children. First Coronary angioplasty was done by Gruntzig. TPA(Tissue Plasminogen Activator) etc dissolves blood clot hence used for the treatment. Cardiac Arrest:. First Coronary Artery Bypass was done by Vineburg. Lymphatic Duct: Different vessels unite to form two Lymphatic Duct. • It also destroy the invading microorganism in lymph nodes. Haemotomesis:. Cisternae Chyli or Receptaculum chyli:. First open Heart surgery was done by Lillethal (1953).Cardiac muscles dies due to the coronary thrombosis which interrupt the blood supply to the heart wall * Nitroglycerin. Rheumatic Heart Disease:.A. First Heart transplant was done by Dr Christian Bernard (1967). Lymphatic Capillaries:. Enterokinase.Baby with the defect in Atrial or Ventricular septum. Thoracic duct 2. P. But now it is thaught to be caused by a virus Cowsackie B –1 Blue Baby:. Haemengioma: Congenital red mark due to malformation of blood vessels.blood flow in the body Aneurysm:.Formed by the union of Lymphatic capillaries Many valves are found in it. arm. Amyl nitrate or enzymes Streptokinase.Cessation of heart beat Cirulatory Arrest:. • Takes lymphocytes & antibodies to the blood.It collect the lymph from rest part of body & pour it into the left sub clavian vein.These are blind capillaries found in close association with blood capillaries. Venugopalan of AIIMS.Collect the Lymph from right side of head. Lymphatic Vessels:. First Heart transplant of India was done by Dr. Angina Pectoris:. neck. thorax and pour it into the right sub clavian vein Thoracic duct:.Narrowing of lumen of artery because of deposition of fats.

plastics and Ceramics. Artificial pace maker was first developed by Chardac & Greatbach. First Pace Maker Bank of India is located in – Calcutta Angiography: Autoradiography of blood vessels after injection of certain tracers Angioplasty: Removal of blockage of an artery by ballon surgery. Vascular Graft Can be made by Rubber. steel etc But the valves of Teflon & Decron are more durable. Retia mirabilis:. glass.A band of muscles extending between the interventricular septum and right ventricular wall.• • • • • • • • • • • • First Robot Assisted Heart surgery in India w as done by Dr Trehan of Escorts heart research instt. 10 . Vasa vasorum:. Indigenous Pace Maker – LAYA. Artifical Valves (i) Mechanical Valves: Made up of metal alloys. Cardiac index = Cardiac output/Square meter of surface area of body. Franklin Starling Law of Heart: Within certain physiological limit heart pumps all the blood that comes to it. Moderator Band:. plastic. (ii) Tissue Valves: Formed from the pericardium of some animals like pigs etc.Thickening of the wall of arteries.Smaller blood vessels which supply the blood in the wall of Larger blood vessels.Those arteries or veins which divides into capillaries and reunite to form arteries or veins. Arterioslerosis :. silver.

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