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It includes study of transmission lines, bus bars, circuit breakers, isolators, earth switches, various types of transformers such as power transformer, capacitor voltage transformer, current transformers, lightning arresters, wave traps and grounding system of substation. We will also discuss about the various protection scheme applied in the substation for this equipments. The protection system is designed to limit the effects of disturbances in power system, which when allowed persisting, may damage the substation and interrupt the supply of electrical energy. It covers various types of protection used in substation for 220/132/33 KV transmission lines such as bus bar protection relays, auto reclosing schemes, etc., The present day electrical power system is AC i.e., electric power is generated, transmitted and distributed in the form of alternating current. The electric power is produced at the power stations which are located at favourable places, generally quite away from the consumers. It is delivered to the consumers through a large network of transmission and distribution. At many places in the line of the power, it may be desirable and necessary to change some characteristics of power supply. This is accomplished by suitable apparatus called Substation. Generating voltage at the power station is stepped upto high voltage for transmission of electric power. The assembly of apparatus used for this purpose is the substation. Similarly,near the consumers localities, the voltage may have to be stepped down to utilization level. This job is again accomplished by a suitable apparatus called substation. The type of equipment needed in the substation will depend upon the service requirement.
An electrical substation is a subsidiary station of an electricity generation, transmission and distribution system where voltage is transformed from high to low or the reverse using transformers. Electric power flows through several substations between generating plant and consumer changing the voltage level in several stages. A substation that has a step-up transformer increases the voltage with decreasing current, while a step-down transformer decreases the voltage with increasing the current for domestic and commercial distribution. The word substation comes from the days before the distribution system became a grid. At first substations were connected to only one power station where the generator was housed and were subsidiaries of that power station.
2.2 Elements of Substation
Substations generally contain one or more transformers and have switching, protection and control equipment. In a large substation, circuit breakers are used to interrupt any short-circuits or overload currents that may occur on the network. Smaller distribution stations may use re-closer circuit breakers or fuses for protection of branch circuits. A typical substation will contain line termination structures, high-voltage switchgear, one or more power transformers, low voltage switchgear, surge protection, controls, grounding (earthing) system, and metering. Other devices such as power factor correction capacitors and voltage regulators may also be located at a substation. Substations may be on the surface in fenced enclosures, underground, or located in special-purpose buildings. High-rise buildings may have indoor substations. Indoor substations are usually found in urban areas to reduce the noise from the transformers, to protect switchgear from extreme climate or pollution conditions.
2.3 Types of Substation
Substations are of three types. They are: a) Transmission Substation b) Distribution Substation c) Collector Substation
a) Transmission Substation
A transmission substation connects two or more transmission lines. The simplest case is where all transmission lines have the same voltage. In such cases, the substation contains high-voltage switches that allow lines to be connected or isolated for fault clearance or maintenance. A transmission station may have transformers to convert the voltage from voltage level to other, voltage control devices such as capacitors, reactors or Static VAR Compensators and equipment such as phase shifting transformers to control power flow between two adjacent power systems. The largest transmission substations can cover a large area (several acres/hectares) with multiple voltage levels, many circuit breakers and a large amount of protection and control equipment (voltage and current transformers, relays and SCADA systems). Modern substations may be implemented using International Standards such as IEC61850.
b) Distribution Substation
A distribution substation transfers power from the transmission system to the distribution system of an area. It is uneconomical to directly connect electricity consumers to the high-voltage main transmission network, unless they use large amounts of power. So the distribution station reduces voltage to a value suitable for local distribution. The input for a distribution substation is typically at least two transmission or sub transmission lines. Input voltage may be, for example, 220KV or whatever is
4 . and the collector substation steps up voltage to a transmission voltage for the grid. Distribution substations may also be the points of voltage regulation. Complicated distribution substations can be found in the downtown areas of large cities. transmission substations are mainly classified into two types depending on changes made to the voltage level. Most of the typical distribution substations have a switch. between 33 and 66 kV depending on the size of the area served and the practices of the local utility. metering and control of the wind farm.4 Substation Transformer Type Further. voltage regulation equipment may also be installed along the line. Usually for economy of construction the collector system operates around 35 KV. switching and backup systems on the low-voltage side. It somewhat resembles a distribution substation although power flow is in the opposite direction. one transformer. the job of the distribution substation is to isolate faults in either the transmission or distribution systems.common in the area. They are: a) Step-Up Transmission Substations. c) Collector substation In distributed generation projects such as a wind farm. b) Step-Down Transmission Substations. Distribution voltages are typically medium voltage. with high-voltage switching and. although on long distribution circuits (several km/miles). 2. and minimal facilities on the low-voltage side. The collector substation also provides power factor correction. Besides changing the voltage. a collector substation may be required.
iv. They connect different parts of a grid and are a source for sub transmission lines or distribution lines. To Switch transmission and distribution circuits into and out of the grid system. vi. iii. 2.To Regulate voltage to compensate for system voltage changes.a) Step-Up Transmission Substation A step-up transmission substation receives electric power from a near by generating facility and uses a large power transformer to increase the voltage for transmission to distant locations. ii. To Connect communication signals to the circuits.design and different layouts of the substation. To Eliminate lightning and other electrical surges from the system. b) Step-Down Transmission Substation Step-down transmission substations are located at switching points in an electrical grid. vii. v. 5 .5 General Considerations The general considerations regarding the substation that are discussed are functions. To Measure electric power quantity flowing in the circuits. a) The Functions of the substation are: i. To Connect electric generation plants to the system. There can also be a tap on the incoming power feed from the generation plant to provide electric power to operate equipment in the generation plant. To Change voltage from one level to another.
the substation site must be reasonably central to the distribution area to be served. gas insulated switchgear may save money overall. if required. b) Design The main issues facing a power engineer are reliability and cost. there is an ease of operation of the substation.viii.1 shows single bus bar Substation 6 . Where land is costly such as in urban areas. c) Different Layouts for Substation i) Single Bus Bar: With this design. The design should also allow easy expansion of the station. Grounding (earthing) and ground potential rise must be calculated to protect passers-by during a short-circuit in the transmission system. The site must have room for expansion due to load growth or planned transmission additions. Environmental effects of the substation must be considered such as drainage. Additionally there is the facility to support the economical operation of future feeder bays. This design also places minimum reliance on signaling for satisfactory operation of protection. Fig 2. A good design attempts to strike a balance between these two to achieve sufficient reliability without excessive cost. To Make interconnections between the electric systems of more than one utility. And of course. Sufficient land area is required for installation of equipment with necessary clearances for electrical safety and for access to maintain large apparatus such as transformers. noise and road traffic effects. Selection of the location of a substation must consider many factors.
Such a substation has the following characteristics. a. Each circuit is protected by its own circuit breaker and hence plant outage does not necessarily result in loss of supply. b. A fault on the feeder or transformer circuit breaker causes loss of the transformer and feeder circuit, one of which may be restored after isolating the faulty circuit breaker. c. A fault on the bus section circuit breaker causes complete shutdown of the substation. All circuits may be restored after isolating the faulty circuit breaker. d. A bus-bar fault causes loss of one transformer and one feeder. Maintenance of one bus-bar section or isolator will cause the temporary outage of two circuits. e. Maintenance of a feeder or transformer circuit breaker involves loss of the circuit. ii) Mesh Substation The general layout for a full mesh substation is shown in the schematic Fig2.2 The characteristics of such a substation are as follows a. Operation of two circuit breakers is required to connect or disconnect a circuit, and disconnection involves opening of a mesh. b. Circuit breakers may be maintained without loss of supply or protection, and no additional bypass facilities are required. c. Bus-bar faults will only cause the loss of one circuit breaker. Breaker faults will involve the loss of a maximum of two circuits. d. Generally, not more than twice as many outgoing circuits as infeeds are used in order to rationalise circuit equipment load capabilities and rating. Mesh substation
Fig 2.2 shows mesh substation.
Principle of Substation Layouts
Substation layout consists essentially in arranging a number of switchgear
components in an ordered pattern governed by their function and rules of spatial separation.
i. Earth Clearance: This is the clearance between live parts and earthed structures, walls, screens and ground. ii. Phase Clearance: This is the clearance between live parts of different phases. iii. Isolating Distance: This is the clearance between the terminals of an isolator and the connections.
iv. Section Clearance: This is the clearance between live parts and the terminals of a
work section. The limits of this work section, or maintenance zone, may be the ground or a platform from which the man works.
Separation of maintenance zones
Two methods are available for separating equipment in a maintenance zone that
has been isolated and made dead. i. The provision of a section clearance ii. Use of an intervening earthed barrier The choice between the two methods depends on the voltage and whether horizontal or vertical clearances are involved.
A section clearance is composed of the reach of a man taken as 8 feet plus an earth clearance. For the voltage at which the earth clearance is 8 feet the space required will be the same whether a section clearance or an earthed barrier is used.
Maintenance plays a major role in increasing the efficiency and decreasing the
breakdown. The rules and basic principle are discussed. Separation by earthed barrier = Earth Clearance + 50mm for barrier + Earth Clearance Separation by section clearance = 2.44m + Earth clearance i. For vertical clearances it is necessary to take into account the space occupied by the equipment and the need for an access platform at higher voltages.
ii. The height of the platform is taken as 1.37m below the highest point of work.
Maintenance is done through two ways:
a) By Establishing Maintenance Zones. b) By Electrical Separations.
a) Establishing Maintenance Zones Some maintenance zones are easily defined and the need for them is self evident as in the case of a circuit breaker. and to separate it from adjacent live parts when isolated either by section clearances or earth barriers b) Electrical Separations Together with maintenance zoning. 10 . There should be a means of isolation on each side of the circuit breaker. the separation. Between the terminals of the bus bar isolator and their connections. Between the terminals of the circuit breaker and their connections. of the substation components and of the conductors interconnecting them constitute the main basis of substation layouts. There are at least three such electrical separations per phase that are needed in a circuit: i. 2. Between the terminals of the feeder isolator and their connections. iii. ii. by isolating distance and phase clearances.8 Conclusion: We have studied in detail about the substation description and in the next chapter we are going to discuss about the line diagram of shapurnagar 220/132/33KV substation.
GACHIBOWLI circuit No. 220 KV SHAPURNAGAR . but it is a common convention to organize the diagram with the same left-to-right.GACHIBOWLI circuit No. 220 KV SHAPURNAGAR . a one-line diagram or single-line diagram is a simplified notation for representing a three-phase power system.GACHIBOWLI circuit No. The single line diagram of 220/132/33 kV SHAPUR NAGAR sub station is shown at the end of this report. The one-line diagram has its largest application in power flow studies. Elements on the diagram do not represent the physical size or location of the electrical equipment. bus bars. named as Malkaram1 & Malkaram 2. top-to-bottom sequence as the switchgear or other apparatus represented.3. 3. 2. 1. also about the lines that feeds this substation from 3. 220 KV SHAPURNAGAR . only one conductor is represented. 11 . capacitors. transformers. It is a form of block diagram graphically depicting the paths for power flow between entities of the system.2 Line diagram: In power engineering. and conductors are shown by standardized schematic symbols. 4.GACHIBOWLI circuit No. 3. Instead of representing each of three phases with a separate line or terminal. We are getting power supply from two thermal power plants one is KTPS1 and the other from which have two lines.3 The interconnection of 220 KV Grid Substations The interconnection of 220KV to different grid substations is given below. 220 KV SHAPURNAGAR . Electrical elements such as circuit breakers.1 Introduction We are going to discuss about the line diagram and number of feeders of 220KV substation and the voltage that has been transmitted to other substations and inter connection of 220 KV line and generating units.
4 Feeders Feeder circuits are the connections between the output terminals of a distribution substation and the input terminals of primary circuits.BHONIGIR. x. The distribution feeder circuit conductors leave the substation from a circuit breaker via underground cables.1.I circuit No.GUNROCK. The underground cables connect to a nearby overhead primary circuit outside the substation. SHAPURNAGAR .1 shows 3-phase distribution feeder bay This substation has two types of feeder i. xii. iv.IDPL.MEDCHAL. called substation exit cables. v. vii. SHAPURNAGAR . SHAPURNAGAR .e. 2. a) The interconnection of 132KV Grid Substations The interconnection of 132KV to different grid substations is given below.R. 132 KV and 33 KV feeder. vi. viii.NARSAPUR. SHAPURNAGAR . ix. xi.MOULALI.GUMMADI DALA. SHAPURNAGAR . Fig.3. They are 12 feeders of 132 KV which are basically collector substation and it has 16 feeders of 33KV which are industries and for domestic user. SHAPURNAGAR . SHAPURNAGAR . SHAPURNAGAR . 12 .3.ALER. SHAPURNAGAR . ii.BOLLARAM. SHAPURNAGAR . iii.MEDCHAL-I circuit No. SHAPURNAGAR . i.PURAM. This eliminates multiple circuits on the poles adjacent to the substations there by improving the overall appearance of the substation.C.SANATHNAGAR RAILWAY. SHAPURNAGAR .
T 3.SATYAM circuit No. xiii.A. ii. viii.JAIRAJ circuit No.1 SHAPURNAGAR . 13 . iv.B. 2 SHAPURNAGAR .AIRFORCE ACADEMY circuit No.JEEDIMETLA circuit No.5 Conclusion We have discussed about the line diagram of 220 KV Shapurnagar substation and interconnection of this substation with other grid and number of feeders that are connected to this substation and in the next chapter we are going to discuss about the transformers.RCC SHAPURNAGAR . xi. iii.JEEDIMETLA circuit No.SATYAM circuit No. 2 SHAPURNAGAR .2 SHAPURNAGAR . 1 SHAPURNAGAR . vi.PALLIY SHAPURNAGAR . 4 SHAPURNAGAR .b) The interconnection of 33KV Grid Substations The interconnection of 33KV to different substations is given below.H. SHAPURNAGAR . xiv. 2 SHAPURNAGAR .JEEDIMETLA circuit No.1 SHAPURNAGAR . v. xii.AIRFORCE ACADEMY circuit No.3 SHAPURNAGAR . xvi.L SHAPURNAGAR . i.H. vii. ix.JEEDIMETLA circuit No.JAIRAJ circuit No. xv. 1 SHAPURNAGAR .M. x.SHAPURNAGAR SHAPURNAGAR .IDPL SHAPURNAGAR .
Firstly. the conductors are commonly wound around a single iron-rich core.1 shows step down transformer 14 .1 Introduction We are going to discuss about the basic principle of transformer. application and the transformers used in substation and their tapping details. working. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or voltage in the secondary winding. Changing the current in the primary coil changes the magnitude of the magnetic field. or around separate but magnetically-coupled cores. losses. an electric current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism) and secondly that a changing magnetic field within the a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction). Fig 4. b) Basic Principle The transformer is based on two principles. construction. A varying current in the primary winding creates a varying magnetic field in the core (or cores) of the transformer. Except for air-core transformers. The changing magnetic flux link with the secondary coil where a voltage is induced across its ends.4. a) Definition A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors through the transformer's coils or windings. This effect is called mutual induction.
core crosssectional area a and peak magnetic flux density B is given by the universal EMF equation: The EMF of a transformer at a given flux density increases with frequency. Transformer universal EMF equation If the flux in the core is sinusoidal. This ensures that most of the magnetic field lines produced by the primary current are within the iron core and pass through the secondary coil as well as the primary coil. number of turns N. which makes long distance transmission economically practical. the flux would rise to the point where magnetic saturation of the core occurs. transformers can be physically more compact because a given core is able to transfer more power without reaching saturation and fewer turns are needed to achieve the same impedance.A simplified transformer design is shown in Fig 4. Practical Considerations Effect of frequency The time-derivative term in Faraday's Law shows that the flux in the core is the integral of the applied voltage. such as iron. A current passing through the primary coil creates a varying magnetic field. The primary and secondary coils are wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability. Hypothetically an ideal transformer would work with direct-current excitation. causing a huge increase in the magnetizing current and overheating the transformer. c) i. ii. 15 . All practical transformers must therefore operate with alternating current. and the supply frequency f. Transformers are essential for high voltage power transmission. with the core flux increasing linearly with time. In practice. By operating at higher frequencies. the relationship for either winding between its Voltage of the winding E.1.
Magnetostriction v. Eddy currents iv. Transformer losses are divided into losses in the windings.However properties such as core loss and conductor skin effect also increase with frequency.Experimental transformers using superconducting windings achieve efficiencies of 99. and would be 100% efficient. Stray losses 16 . and those rated for electricity distribution usually perform better than 98%. termed copper loss. termed iron loss.85%. core. while the increase in efficiency is small. Larger transformers are generally more efficient. Mechanical losses vi. Energy Losses An ideal transformer would have no energy losses. Hysteresis losses iii. In practical transformers energy is dissipated in the windings. and surrounding structures. Losses in the transformer arise from: i. and those in the magnetic circuit. when applied to large heavily-loaded transformers the annual savings in energy losses are significant. Aircraft and military equipment employ 400 Hz power supply which reduce core and winding weight. Winding resistance ii. iii.
White: insulator. 4. Fig. Black: Primary winding made of oxygen-free copper. Red: Secondary winding.2 Construction The constructional details of the transformer are a. The black windings are made of film. Top left: Toroidal transformer. 17 . Green spiral: Grain oriented silicon steel.4. Top: Equally low capacitance between all ends of both the windings. Since most cores are at least moderately conductive they also need insulation at Bottom.) Cores i ii iii iv Laminated steel cores Solid cores Toroidal cores Air cores b) Windings Windings are usually arranged concentrically to minimize flux leakage. but Ecore would be similar.2 (i) shows Cut view through transformer windings. Right: C-core.2(i) shows windings of transformer The Fig 4.
Power transformers rated up to several hundred KVA can be adequately cooled by natural convective air-cooling. which detect gas evolved during internal arcing and rapidly de-energize the transformer to avert catastrophic failure. Experimental power transformers in the 2 MVA range have been built with superconducting windings which eliminates the copper losses. Oil-filled transformers may be equipped with Buchholz relays. aided by external fans or watercooled heat exchangers. This helps to prevent electrical breakdown under load. 18 .c) Coolant The oil reservoir is visible at the top.2(ii) shows coolant of transformer High temperatures will damage the winding insulation. The oil-filled tank often has radiators through which the oil circulates by natural convection some large transformers employ forced circulation of the oil by electric pumps. Some power transformers are immersed in transformer oil that both cools and insulates the windings. sometimes assissted by fans. Oil-filled transformers undergo prolonged drying processes to ensure that the transformer is completely free of water vapuor before the cooling oil is introduced. The oil is a highly refined mineral oil that remains stable at transformer operating temperature. Radioactive fins aid the dissipation of heat Fig 4. but not the core steel loss but these are cooled by liquid nitrogen or helium.
Larger transformers may have heavy bolted terminals. All taps should have full capacity ratings. bus bars or high-voltage insulated bushings made of polymers or porcelain. Since no-load taps are not capable of interrupting any current including transformer charging current. the transformers have to be de-energized when the manual no-load tap position is changed. e) Terminals Very small transformers will have wire leads connected directly to the ends of the coils and brought out to the base of the unit for circuit connections.3 Types and Classification Factors A wide variety of transformer designs are used for different applications though they share several common features. Auto transformer b. usually in 2. Important common transformer types include: a.d) Tappings No-load tap changers (NLTC) or load tap changers (LTC) can be obtained on power transformers. 4. The addition of no-load taps in the primary of a substation transformer makes it possible to adapt the transformer to a range of supply voltages (usually a 10 percent overall range of which 5 percent is above nominal and 5 percent below nominal. Poly Phase transformers 19 . A large bushing can be of complex structure since it must provide careful control of the electric field gradient without letting the transformer leak oil.5 percent steps). Any decision to use load tap changing transformers should be based on a careful analysis of the particular voltage requirements of the loads served and consideration of the advantages and disadvantages including costs of alternatives such as separate voltage regulators.
impedance matching. By power capacity: from a fraction of a volt-ampere (VA) to over a thousand MVA. Both current and voltage instrument transformers are designed to have predictable characteristics on overloads. By end purpose: distribution. step-down. fan cooled. v. isolating (equal or near-equal ratio). output voltage and current stabilizer. By cooling type: air cooled. useable levels of current or voltage in a variety of power monitoring and measurement applications.c. or radio frequency. 20 . By winding turns ratio: step-up.1 Instrument Transformer: Instrument transformers are used to step-down the current or voltage to measurable values. arc furnace. By application: such as power supply. Leakage transformer d. ii. Resonant transformers Instrument transformers Classification of Transformers is based on following factors. Proper operation of over-current protection relays requires that current transformers provide a predictable transformation ratio even during a short –circuit.3. amplifier output. or water cooled. By voltage class: from a few volts to hundreds of kilovolts. They provide standardized. i. audio. Hence only instrument transformers are discussed in this section. rectifier. vii. oil filled. iii. iv. 4. or circuit isolation. and variable. vi. By frequency range: power. Among the above mentioned transformers only instrument transformers are widely used in the sub station.
21 . some of the primary current or the primary ampere-turns are utilized for magnetizing the core. a) Current Transformers b) Voltage Transformers a) Current Transformers: i.These are further classified into two types which are discussed below. In the ideal current transformer. This naturally introduces an error in the transformation. thus leaving less than the actual primary ampere turns to be transformed into the secondary ampere-turns. This highlights the accuracy requirement of the current transformer but also important is the isolating function. Rated primary current: The value of current which is to be transformed to a lower value. the load of the CT refers to the primary current. Definitions: Typical terms used for specifying current transformer are. In CT parallence. ii. Principle of Operation A current transformer is defined as as an instrument transformer in which the secondary current is substantially proportional to the primary current (under normal conditions of operation) and differs in phase from it by an angle which is approximately zero for an appropriate direction of the connections. which means no matter what the system voltage the secondary circuit need to be insulated only for a low voltage. as in the voltage transformer. secondary current would be exactly equal (when multiplied by the turns ratio) and opposite to the primary current. The error is classified into current ratio error and the phase error. But. The current transformer works on the principle of variable flux.
10 or 15. 10 or 15 times the rated primary current. a summation current transformer can be used. 22 . Their performance is defined in terms of a knee-point voltage (KPV). Knee point voltage: The point on the magnetizing curve where an increase of 10% in the flux density (voltage) causes an increase of 50% in the magnetizing force (current). The time specified is usually 1 or 3 seconds. Typical values of secondary current are 1 A or 5 A. Class PS/ X CT: In balance systems of protection. the magnetizing current (Image) at the knee point voltage or 1/2 or 1/4 the knee-point voltage. Summation CT: When the currents in a number of feeders need not be individually metered but summated to a single meter or instrument. CT s with a high degree of similarity in their characteristics are required. and the resistance of the CT secondary winding corrected to 75C. These requirements are met by Class PS (X) CT s. under steady state conditions. Rated burden: The apparent power of the secondary circuit in Volt-amperes expressed at the rated secondary current and at a specific power factor.Rated secondary current: The current in the secondary circuit and on which the performance of the CT is based. Accuracy limit factor: The value of primary current up to which the CT compiles with composite error requirements. which means that the composite error of the CT has to be within specified limits at 5. Accuracy is defined in terms of the turns ratio. Short time rating: The value of primary current (in kA) that the CT should be able to withstand both thermally and dynamically without damage to the windings with the secondary circuit being short-circuited. Composite Error: The RMS value of the difference between the instantaneous primary current and the instantaneous secondary current multiplied by the turns ratio. This is typically 5.
and a single secondary winding. no current flows in the secondary of the CBCT. which means that three primary feeders of 5 are to be summated to a single 5A meter. Standards: The Indian and international standard references for CT s are as given in the table 4.The summation CT consists of two or more primary windings which are connected to the feeders to be summated. iii. The concept is similar to the RVT. Typical specification for a 11 kV CT System voltage:11 kV 23 . Core balance CT (CBCT): The CBCT.1 shows standard reference for CTs Standard Standard Number IS 2705 BS 3938 ANSI C. also known as a zero sequence CT.57. the residual current (zero phase sequence current) of the system flows through the secondary of the CBCT and this operates the relay. When the system is fault free. A typical ratio would be 5+5+5/ 5A. the three core cable or three single cores of a three phase system pass through the inner diameter of the CT. Interposing CT’s (ICT’s): Interposing CT’s are used when the ratio of transformation is very high.1. the relay setting and the primary operating current need to be furnished.13 Year 1992 1973 1978 Indian British American iv. In order to design the CBCT. the relay type. It is also used to correct for phase displacement for differential protection of transformer. the inner diameter of the CT. is used for earth leakage and earth fault protection. Table 4. When there is an earth fault. In the CBCT. which feeds a current proportional to the summated primary current.
c. ISF<10 Core 2: 1 A. This in essence means that the voltage transformer has to be as close as possible to the ideal transformer. metering. Over wall or roof bushings. Accommodation of CT's over isolator bushings or bushings through walls or roofs is usually confined to indoor substations. b. the CT's occupy incidental space and do not affect the size of the layout. In an ideal transformer. Over moving bushings of some types of insulators. Over cables. protection. In separate post type housings. In all except the second of the list. f. e. RCT at 75 C<=2 Short time rating:20 kA for 1 second CT's may be accommodate in one of six manners: a. Over Circuit Breaker bushings or in pedestals.1 . the secondary voltage vector is exactly opposite and equal to the primary voltage vector when multiplied by the turn’s ratio.577 A. KPV>= 150 V.577 A Core 1: 1A. 24 . b) Voltage Transformers i.0.Img at Vk/2 <=30 mA. d. 15 VA/5P10 Core 3: 0. Principle of operation The standards define a voltage transformer as one in which the secondary voltage is substantially proportional to the primary voltage and differs in phase from it by an angle which is approximately equal to zero for an appropriate direction of the connections. 15 VA/class 1. Over power transformers of reactor bushings. The CT's become more remote from the circuit breaker in the order listed above.Class PS.Insulation level voltage (ILV) : 12/28/75 kV Ratio: 200/1 .
In a practical transformer. d.2 below is adopted from Indian and International standards. The VT is required to be accurate at both the rated burden and 25% of the rated burden. errors are introduced because some current is drawn for the magnetization of the core and because of drops in the primary and secondary windings due to leakage reactance and winding resistance. c. Rated voltage factor: Depending on the system in which the VT is to be used. the rated voltage factors to be specified are different.2 1. This includes the burden imposed by the connecting leads. Definitions Typical terms used for specifying a voltage transformer (VT) are: a. b. Rated burden: This is the load in terms of volt-amperes (VA) posed by the devices in the secondary circuit on the VT.2 shows rated votage factor for VTs Rated voltage factor 1. Between phase and in an effectively earthed neutral system. Rated secondary voltage: This is the voltage at which the meters and protective devices connected to the secondary circuit of the voltage transformer operations. ii. 1. Rated primary voltage: This is the rated voltage of the system whose voltage is required to be stepped down for measurement and protective purposes.2 Rated time Continuous Method of connecting primary winding in system Between phases in any network. The table 4. Between transformer star-point and earth in any network. One can thus talk of a voltage error which is the amount by which the voltage is less than the applied primary voltage and the phase error which is the phase angle by which the reversed secondary voltage vector is displaced from the primary voltage vector.5 Continuous 25 . Table 4.
1.9 1. f. Under normal conditions of operation. Temperature class of insulation: The permissible temperature rise over the specified ambient temperature. When using a three phase RVT. Residual voltage transformer (RVT): RVTs are used for residual earth fault protection and for discharging capacitor banks. or otherwise third harmonic voltages will appear across the residual winding. Standards The Indian and international standard references for VT s are as given in the table below 4.3 Table 4. e. The secondary residual voltage winding is connected in open delta.9 Continuous for 30 seconds Continuous for 8 hours Between phase and earth in a non-effectively earthed neutral system with automatic fault tripping.2 1. Between phase and earth in an isolated neutral system without automatic fault tripping or in a resonant earthed system without automatic fault tripping. B and F.3 shows standard references for VTs Standard Standard Number Year 26 . classes E. Typically. phase RVTs typically have 5 limb constructions. the primary neutral should be earthed. When there is an earth fault. a voltage is developed across the open delta winding which activates the relay. there is no voltage output across the residual voltage winding. iii.2 1.
as a more economical alternative to inductive voltage transformers. are devices used for coupling to a power line to provide low voltage for the operation of relays and metering instruments. Coupling capacitor voltage transformers are commonly supplied without carrier accessories. Power line carrier accessories or provisions for future installation of carrier accessories may be included in the base.57. especially at voltages above 11 kV.5 for 30 seconds with provision for fuse c) Coupling capacitor voltage transformers: Coupling capacitor voltage transformers.5 Voltage Factor: 1.2 continuous and 1.Indian British American IS 3156 BS 3841 ANSI C.13 1992 1973 1978 Typical specification for a 11 kV VT System voltage: 11 kV Insulation level voltage (ILV): 12 /28/75 kV Number of phases: Three Vector Group: Star / Star Ratio: 11 kV/ 110 V Burden: 100 VA Accuracy: Class 0.2(iii) showing Coupling capacitor voltage transformers 27 . Coupling capacitor voltage transformers can be provided with the same ratings and accuracy as inductive voltage transformers Fig 4. commonly termed capacitor voltage transformers (CVTs).
and control and instrumentation applications EHV power transformers are usually oil immersed with all three phases in one tank. 4. For economy of service roads.: Oil immersed. O.A.: Oil immersed. O. OF. The amount of distortion is related to CCVT capacitance and the burden (secondary load) value and configuration. The different classes of power transformers are: i. Power transformers are usually the largest single equipment in a substation. Accuracy tests ii.2 Power Transformers Power transformers convert power-level voltages from one level or phase configuration to another. Modern CCVT designs are available to minimize this problem.B.F. They can include features for electrical isolation. O. air blast cooling. transformers are located on one side of a substation and the connection to switchgear is by bare conductors. oil circulation forced.However. it is essential to take precaution against the spread of fire.4 Tests A number of routine and type tests have to be conducted on VT s and CTs before they can meet the standards specified above. oil circulation forced.3.N. natural cooling. Because of the large quantity of oil. The tests can be classified as: i. Hence. Auto transformers can offer advantage of smaller physical size and reduced losses. sudden reductions in the power line voltage may result in momentary distortion of the CCVT secondary voltage. iv. power distribution. the transformer is usually located around a sump used to collect the excess oil. ii. Dielectric insulation tests 28 .: Oil immersed. iii. because of the energy-storage capability of capacitors.: Oil immersed. 4. air blast cooling.N.
D. Check Earthing. the following need to be checked i. Check the primary terminals. iii.6 Applications and General Instructions There are certain applications of transformers and general instructions for erection.D.5 Commissioning Once the unit is received and packing is opened first thing is to check whether there are any transit damages. Check Insulation Resistance: For primary (H. Check oil level v. In case of major damages. If everything is all right. Once the unit is found to have received in good condition.C Merger.C. vi. It should be minimum 25M ohms with 500V. ii. such as loose screws or likewise.Meggar and for secondary (L. uses and maintenance. 4.iii. Temperature rise tests iv. the report for this is to be sent to the supplier who can immediately attend these. Check Ratio.for this (a) Pass the rated primary current through primary (b) Check the secondary current across the respective Terminals.T) winding it should be minimum 500m ohms with 1000V. put transformer into operation verification of terminal markings and polarity 4. In case of minor damages. Check the secondary terminals. 29 .T) winding. iv. they can be attended immediately. Short circuit tests.
Wires have resistance and so dissipate electrical energy at a rate proportional to the square of the current through the wire. The transformer can be lifted and moved only in vertical direction by means of transport equipment (crane.a) Applications A major application of transformers is to increase voltage before transmitting electrical energy over long distances through wires. head or high voltage connections. It is forbidden to move transformer grasping it from insulator. chains and similar) from getting in touch with insulator thus avoiding damaging of glaze or insulator itself. viii. By transforming electrical power to a high-voltage (and therefore low-current) form for transmission and back again afterward. Properly carryout earthing on all intended spots on boxes and or base frame of transformers. iv. ii. Check up whether base to which transformer is fixed is in horizontal position. b) General Instructions for erection These instructions should be adhered to with all types of instrument transformers regardless of their technical characteristics. transformers enable economic transmission of power over long distances. Connecting cables/conductors by means of which transformer is connected to high voltage bus-bar or supply system should be correctly dimensioned placed and mounted not to cause additional over stresses of transformer connections. It is required to undertake all necessary steps to prevent any metal part of transport equipment (ropes. vi. i. vii. fork truck etc. v. Transformers should be mounted on corresponding supports or base and firmly tightened for this purpose. 30 . Prior to the connection of transformer compare connection diagram with indications on the transformer and carryout connection in compliance with corresponding indications. iii.).
Put connected transformer on line. vi. c) General Instructions for use i. no case transformer should be opened.ix. Upon completion of above check up prior to putting in operation if assembly properly done. ii. Check up of primary and secondary connections. if any Cleaning of insulator and possible painting of transformer. viii. Check up of all placement of diaphragm and oil level in oil level indicators. Regular periodical inspection Check up of all sealed spots in order to ascertain oil leak. xi. they should be cleaned and tightened. iii. In case of damage of diaphragm or if there is no oil level indicators. their cleaning and tightening is precaution. Transformer should not be opened barring in service workshop. Compare instrument indicated with operational condition in supply system. All earthed parts should be checked and if required. x. ix. v. flanges etc. This should be carried out at least once a year or in two. vii. Painting of originally painted transformer parts is advisable if required during regular check-ups. x. d) General Instructions for Maintenance 31 . iv. transformer should be thoroughly checked up by the service mechanic since probably more serious defect occurred. Check up of sealed places consists of detection of oil around connections.
1 Introduction We are going to discuss about the various equipment used in the substation like lightning arresters. Control and Relay panel . 4. but if possible also on the spot.Circuit Breakers. 32 . 5.Bus bar and Isolators and their working principle and maintenances. commissioning & inspection. After the maintenance. conductor systems .7 Conclusion We have discussed in detailed about the working and malignances of transformers and in the next chapter we are going to discuss about the various instrument used in substation for protection of substation. Follow all steps as said under erection.DC Battery and Charger . ii Measure insulation resistance and loss angle after major maintenance.Wave Taper .The maintenance of transformer is usually done in specialized workshops. i.
i.2(i) lightning arresters The Pressure Relief arrangement transfers the internal arc to outside in the remote event of arrester failure. Installation of Lightning Arresters Three simple rules to be followed in installing lightning arresters for the effective protection of the equipment 33 . no gaps either in series or in parallel. The striking aspect of this arrester is its simplicity of construction with no grading components. Construction: The assembly consists of stack of Metal Oxide elements with contact plates between discs and held rigidly by a tie rod assembly.2 Types of Instruments a) Lightning Arresters Surge arrester protects the costly outdoor electrical equipment from over voltages caused by atmospheric disturbances due to lightning and internal disturbances due to switching surges. A system of silicone bumpers on each contact plate provides dissipation of the heat generated in the elements for Temporary Over Voltages and Transmission Line Discharges in addition to rugged support to prevent damage in shipping. Fig 5. Doubling Gaskell seal and pressure relief vents are provided as in convention design. ii.5.
i. On both the line and ground side to reduce the inductive effects of the leads while discharging large surge currents. the Maximum Continuous Power Frequency Voltage between phase and ground appearing the arrester should exceed the arrester M.C. iii. iv. v. The arrester should be mounted close to equipment to be protected and connected with shortest possible leads.V is the designated maximum permissible power frequency voltage that may be applied continuously across the arrester terminal.O.C. This interconnection reduces the stress imposed on the transformer winding by the surge currents to the extent of the drop across the ground. iii. To protect the transformer windings.O. Maximum Continuous Operating Voltage Under actual service conditions METOVAR functions as insulators at the maximum line to ground operating voltage.V as specified in the name plate. It is desirable to interconnect the ground lead of the arrester with the tank and also the neutral of the secondary. There for M. The terminal connectors are also packed in the same wooden box taken to see that the arrester housing is not damaged due to rough handling b) Control and Relay Panel 34 . The arrester should be connected to a ground of low resistance for effective discharge of the surge current. For each arrester rating there is a limit to the magnitude of the voltage that may be continuously applied. Caution Under no circumstances. ii. Packing Each arrester is packed in a wooden box with proper cushioning material.
All protective. Aux AC and battery supplies. c) Protective Relaying Protective relays are used to detect defective lines or apparatus and to initiate the operation of circuit interrupting devices to isolate the defective equipment. 220V/10V DC supply is used for control supply of all internal relays and timers and also for energizing closing and tripping coils of the breakers. Provision is made for terminating incoming cables at the bottom of the panels by providing separate line-up terminal blocks. indicating and control elements are mounted on the front panel for ease of operation and control. The hinged rear door will provide access to all the internal components to facilitate easy inspection and maintenance.The control and relay panel is of cubical construction suitable for floor mounting. Under voltage and over voltage Relays. Relays are also used to detect abnormal or undesirable operating conditions other than those caused by defective equipment and either operate an alarm or initiate operation of circuitinterrupting devices. The control and relay panel accepts CT. PT aux 230 AC and 220V/10V DC connections at respective designated terminal points. 35 . Protective HRC fuse are provided with in the panel for P. For cable entry provision is made both from top and bottom.T secondary. Each Capacitor Bank is controlled by breaker and provided with a line ammeter with selector switch for 3 phase system & Over current relay (2 phase and 1 Earth fault for 3 ph system). Protective relays protect the electrical system by causing the defective apparatus or lines to be disconnected to minimize damage and maintain service continuity to the rest of the system There are different types of relays. Neutral Current Unbalance Relays are for both Alarm and Trip facilities breaker control switch with local/remote selector switch. 230V AC station auxiliary supply is used for internal illumination lamp of the panel and the space heater. master trip relay and trip alarms acknowledge and reset facilities.
Static over current relays are equipped with multiple curve characteristics and can duplicate almost any shape of electromechanical relay curve.i. Static types convert the current to a proportional D. In a special type of rotating induction-disc relay. Directional over current relay i. With the microprocessor relay. The digital signal can then be compared to the setting values input into the relay. the disc rotates by electromagnetic induction when the current exceeds a specified value. static. Differential relay iv. ii. Some relays allow the user to define the curve with points or calculations to determine the output characteristics. Over current relay ii. a plunger is moved by magnetic attraction when the current exceeds a specified value. various curves or multiple time-delay settings can be input to set the relay operation. called the voltage restrained over current relay. In the plunger type. Microprocessor relays convert the current to a digital signal.C mill volt signal and apply it to a level detector with voltage or contact output. Distance Relay 36 . which is a motor. and microprocessor type. Over Current Relay The over current relay responds to a magnitude of current above a specified value. The magnitude of voltage restrains the operation of the disc until the magnitude of the voltage drops below a threshold value. rotating disc. There are four basic types of construction: They are plunger. Distance relay iii. Such relays can be designed to have various current-versus-time operating characteristics. In the rotating induction-disc type.
A current differential relay provides restraint coils on the incoming current circuits. When time delay is required. The relay operates instantaneously (within a few cycles) on a 60-cycle basis for values of impedance below the set value. the relay will trip. The differential relay is used to provide internal fault protection to equipment such as transformers. and buses. the error current flows to cause the relay to operate and trip the circuit. such as transformers. The relay works on the basis of the differential principle that what goes into the device has to come out .The distance relay responds to a combination of both voltage and current. The relay is inherently directional. the relays energizes a separate time-delay relay or function with the contacts or output of this time-delay relay or function performing the desired output functions. Differential Relay The differential relay is a current-operated relay that responds to the difference between two or more device currents above a set value. iii. The voltage restrains operation. generators. When the impedance is such that the impedance point is within the impedance characteristic circle. These relays are very sensitive. The operation of the device usually means major problems with the protected equipment and the likely failure in re-energizing the equipment 37 . The restraint coils in combination with the operating coil provide an operation curve. Differential relays are often used with a lockout relay to trip all power sources to the device and prevent the device from being automatically or remotely reenergized. The relay operates on the magnitude of impedance measured by the combination of restraint voltage and the operating current passing through it according to the settings applied to the relay. Relays are designed to permit differences in the input currents as a result of current transformer mismatch and applications where the input currents come from different system voltages. and the fault current causes operation that has the overall effect of measuring impedance. The line impedance typically corresponds to the diameter of the circle with the reach of the relay being the diameter of the circle.If the current does not add to zero. above which the relay will operate.
such as applying residual current or voltage or negative sequence current or voltage polarizing functions to the relay. and the combination is called a directional over current relay. An electromechanical overcorrect relay is made directional by adding a directional unit that prevents the over current relay from operating until the directional unit has operated. Circuit breakers for large currents or high 38 . the directional element is mounted inside the same case as the relay it controls. Microprocessor relays often provide a choice as to the polarizing method that can be used in providing the direction of fault.iv. For example. voltage. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and these by interrupting continuity. current rating and type of the circuit breaker. static. and microprocessor constructions. an over current relay and a directional element are mounted in the same case. so that it will not limit the sensitivity of the relay (such as an over current relay that it controls). In most cases. Directional Over current Relay A directional over current relay operates only for excessive current flow in a given direction. and the phase angle between them or to the product of two currents and the phase angle between them. The value of this product necessary to provide operation of the directional unit is small. i. Principle of Operation All circuit breakers have common features in their operation. to immediately discontinue electrical flow. although details vary substantially depending on the voltage class. The directional unit responds to the product of the magnitude of current. The circuit breaker must detect a fault condition in low-voltage circuit breakers this is usually done within the breaker enclosure. d) Circuit Breakers A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Directional over current relays are available in electromechanical.
and extinguished in a controlled way. Lengthening of the arc ii. contacts within the circuit breaker must open to interrupt the circuit. insulating gas. the contacts must again be closed to restore power to the interrupted circuit. Zero point quenching v. Service life of the contacts is limited by the erosion due to interrupting the arc. and must also withstand the heat of the arc produced when interrupting the circuit. although some high-voltage circuit breakers are self-contained with current transformers. Different techniques are used to extinguish the arc including: i.voltages are usually arranged with pilot devices to sense a fault current and to operate the trip opening mechanism. Once a fault is detected. so that the gap between the contacts can again withstand the voltage in the circuit. Miniature circuit breakers are usually discarded when the contacts are worn. Some mechanically-stored energy (using something such as springs or compressed air) contained within the breaker is used to separate the contacts. Contacts are made of copper or copper alloys. silver alloys and other materials. air. cooled. When a current is interrupted. The circuit breaker contacts must carry the load current without excessive heating. Intensive cooling (in jet chambers) iii. Division into partial arcs iv. but power circuit breakers and high-voltage circuit breakers have replaceable contacts. ii. or oil as the medium in which the arc forms. an arc is generated . Different circuit breakers use vacuum. Connecting capacitors in parallel with contacts in DC circuits Finally. The trip solenoid that releases the latch is usually energized by a separate battery. once the fault condition has been cleared. although some of the energy required may be obtained from the fault current itself. Arc Interruption 39 .this arc must be contained. protection relays and an internal control power source.
Air circuit breakers may use compressed air to blow out the arc. Typically the arc is extinguished between 30 ms and 150 ms after the mechanism has been tripped. or alternatively. Gas (usually sulfur hexafluoride) circuit breakers sometimes stretch the arc using a magnetic field. Short circuit current A circuit breaker must incorporate various features to divide and extinguish the arc.Miniature low-voltage circuit breakers use air alone to extinguish the arc. Vacuum circuit breakers have minimal arcing (as there is nothing to ionize other than the contact material). and then rely upon the dielectric strength of the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) to quench the stretched arc. so the arc quenches when it is stretched a very small amount (<2-3 mm). Circuit breakers are usually able to terminate all current very quickly. depending upon age and construction of the device. 40 . oil circuit breakers rely upon vaporization of some of the oil to blast a jet of oil through the arc. Magnetic blowout coils deflect the arc into the arc chute. Application of a breaker in a circuit with a prospective short-circuit current higher than the breaker's interrupting capacity rating may result in failure of the breaker to safely interrupt a fault. In a worst-case scenario the breaker may successfully interrupt the fault. The maximum short-circuit current that a breaker can interrupt is determined by testing. In larger ratings. Vacuum circuit breakers are frequently used in modern medium-voltage switchgear to 35. only to explode when reset. the contacts are rapidly swung into a small sealed chamber. Larger ratings will have metal plates or non-metallic arc chutes to divide and cool the arc. the escaping of the displaced air thus blowing out the arc.000 volts. iii.
These circuit breakers are called "supplemental circuit protectors" to distinguish them from distribution-type circuit breaker. protecting equipment and busses from various types of overload or ground/earth fault. High-voltage circuit breakers 400KV SF6 circuit breakers Electrical power transmission networks are protected and controlled by high-voltage breakers. with current sensing protective relays operated through current transformers. 41 . High-voltage breakers are nearly always solenoid-operated.2 circuit breaker (iii) shows High-voltage circuit breakers used on transmission systems may be arranged to allow a single pole of a three-phase line to trip. Air blast iv.500 V or higher according to a recent definition by the International Electro technical Commission (IEC). Minimum oil iii. Bulk oil ii.Miniature circuit breakers used to protect control circuits or small appliances may not have sufficient interrupting capacity to use at a panelboard. High-voltage breakers are broadly classified by the medium used to extinguish the arc. In substations the protection relay scheme can be complex.5. i. iv.For some classes of faults this improves the system stability and availability. instead of tripping all three poles. SF6 Fig. The definition of "high voltage" varies but in power transmission work is usually thought to be 72.
5. ii. Should need the minimum number of supporting insulators. Should be economical. three different types have been utilized. and weight of other conductors and equipment. Flat surfaced Conductors. Should be capable of carrying the specified load currents and short time currents. v. short circuit forces and atmospheric forces such as wind and ice loading. Steel may be used but has limitations of poor conductivity and high susceptibility to corrosion. iv. Tubular Conductors.e) Conductor Systems An ideal conductor should fulfill the following requirements: i. These forces comprise self weight. The most suitable material for the conductor system is copper or aluminum. Stranded Conductors. vii. Fig. Should be able to withstand forces on it due to its situation.2(iii) shows Conductor systems In an effort to make the conductor ideal. iii. iii. Should have the minimum number of joints. ii. f ) DC Power Supply 42 . and these include: i. Should be corona free at rated voltage. vi.
switchgear operating mechanisms.i. some communications equipment. DC power is used to feed essential services such as circuit breaker trip coils and associated relays.1: Capital cost and reliability objectives must first be considered before defining the battery/battery charger combination to be used for a specific installation. This describes how these auxiliary supplies are derived and explains how to specify such equipment. lighting. ii. anti-condensation heaters and motors. heating and ventilation. The comparison given in Table 5.1 describes the advantages and disadvantages of three such combinations. The comparison given describes the advantages and disadvantages of three such combinations Type Advantages Disadvantages No standby DC System outage for 1. supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and communications equipment. DC Battery and Charger All but the smallest substations include auxiliary power supplies. Semiduplicate 50% batteries and Medium capital cost Standby DC provided which is 100% capacity on loss of one charger Each battery or charger can be Low capital cost maintenance Need to isolate battery/charger combination from load under boost charge conditions in order to prevent high boost voltages appearing on DC distribution system ------------------------------ 43 . Single 100% battery and 100% charger 2. Battery and Charger configurations Capital cost and reliability objectives must first be considered before defining the battery and battery charger combination to be used for a specific installation. AC power is required for substation building small power. Table 5.
3 Phase Output Rating: Float: 220 V. . iii. Each battery can be isolated and. of Cells: 110 No.2(iv) shows 220V Battery Charger g) Wave Trapper This is relevant in Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC) systems for communication among various substations without dependence on the telecom company network.1: Capital cost and reliability objectives must first be considered before defining the battery/battery charger combination to be used for a specific installation. No. Date of installation: 06/200 Make: Universal.. Sr.5. : BC 1020/82 Date of installation: 1983 Input Rating: Voltage: 415 V + 10 % Frequency: 50 Hz. The signals are primarily teleportation signals and in addition. voice and data communication signals. h) Bus Bar 44 . Line trap also is known as Wave trap. Capacity: 300 AH at 27° No. 10 Amp Boost: 180 V.. The comparison given describes the advantages and disadvantages of three such combinations Type Advantages Disadvantages 100% chargers maintained in turn. 30Amp Fig.Table 5. 220V DC Battery Make: Exide.
The most common fault is phase to ground. A hollow section has higher stiffness than a solid rod of equivalent currentcarrying capacity. distribution board. which usually results from human error. substation. i. A bus bar may either be supported on insulators or else insulation may completely surround it. which allows a greater span between bus bar supports in outdoor switchyards. A bus bar must have its own protection. Bearing in mind the risk of unnecessary trips. Bus bars may be enclosed in a metal housing. segregated-phase bus. Neutral bus bars may also be insulated. A special attention should be made to current transformer selection since measuring errors need to be considered. or other electrical apparatus. called 'through faults'. 45 . There are many types of relaying principles used in bus bar. or isolated-phase bus. Protection Bus bars are vital parts of a power system and so a fault should be cleared as fast as possible. the protection should be dependable. so hollow or flat shapes are prevalent in higher current applications. Bus bars are protected from accidental contact either by a metal enclosure or by elevation out of normal reach. Earth bus bars are typically bolted directly onto any metal chassis of their enclosure. The size of the bus bar is important in determining the maximum amount of current that can be safely carried.A bus bar in electrical power distribution refers to thick strips of copper or aluminum that conduct electricity within a switchboard. in the form of bus duct or bus way. selective and should be stable for external faults. although they have high degrees of reliability. Bus bars are typically either flat strips or hollow tubes as these shapes allow heat to dissipate more efficiently due to their high surface area to crosssectional area ratio. The skin effect makes 50-60 Hz AC bus bars more than about 8 mm (1/3 in) thick inefficient.
iii. Space Factor Insulation Security Standardization Ease of Maintenance Cost Some types of isolators include: i. Moving contact assembly for mounting on the centre rotating insulator stack and the fixed contact assembly with terminal pad or two outer insulator stacks. iv. Three post insulators stacks one for mounting one the centre rotating stool and other two stacks on both ends of the base channel. A Galvanized Fabricated Base out of MS Channel having one supporting insulation mounting stool. The design of isolators is closely related to the design of substations. These are essentially off load devices although they are capable of dealing with small charging currents of bus bars and connections. Tandem pipe for interlinking the three poles and operating down pipe to link the tandem pipe with the bottom operating mechanism of 3 phase system. ii. v.i) Isolators Isolators are used to connect and disconnect high voltage power systems under no load conditions. Moving Bushing types i. Horizontal Isolation types ii. Vertical Isolation types iii. ii. iii. Isolator design is considered in the following aspects: i. iv. 46 . Properties The isolators comprises three identical poles (in the case of the three phase system only) each pole consisting of i.
1 Introduction This chapter describes the different types of overhead line and substation insulators. vii. In the next chapter we are going to discusses about the insulators and they importance’s in substation 6. Earthing switch operating down pipe to link earth switch tandem pipe to the bottom Bottom operating mechanism box Mechanical interlock between main switch and earthling switch. viii. x. their design characteristics and their application. Bottom operating mechanism box. ix. 5. Conductors are attached to 47 . Earthing switch moving contact assembly Earthing switch fixed contact assembly for fixing to the main switch fixed contacts.v.3 Conclusion We have discussed about the various types of instrument used in substances and for protection of substation in detailed. vi.
The task is particularly complex.2 Types of Insulators a) Porcelain pin type insulators These were originally used for telephone lines and lightning conductors.2(i)and 6. bearing in mind the multiple extreme stresses present are mechanical. For overhead lines up to 33 kV and for outdoor substation equipment. In addition. 6.2(i) Porcelain Insulator b) Cap and Pin Type Insulators 48 . The air surrounding the bare high voltage threshold. have been adapted for power transmission and some variations are still in use for medium voltage systems. The problem of reliably suspending the conductors of high voltage transmission lines has therefore been with us since the turn of the century.2(ii) Fig. It is however necessary to attach the conductors at certain points onto the cross arms of the pylons. voltage flashover must be prevented under the worst weather and pollution situations with leakage currents kept to negligible proportions a) Principle The principle dielectric used on overhead power lines is air at atmospheric pressure. Insulators must be capable of supporting the conductor under the most onerous loading conditions.their support by means of an insulator unit. the insulator is typically of the post insulator type. For overhead lines above 33 kV and substation aerial conductor bus bars. electrical and environmental stresses. 6. A pin-type insulator is shown schematically in figure 6. suspension or tension cap and pin or long rod insulator units are employed.
6 to 11 kV. They are therefore un puncturable.age length. it is usual to have a one-piece insulator shed in which the porcelain is loaded largely in compression. corrugated to increase the leak. Toughened glass pin-type insulators require a metal cap. the shortest distance through the porcelain exceeds 50% of the shortest distance through air between the electrodes. 6. For low voltage systems. A typical pin-type insulator is shown in Figure 6. They are used to support the high voltage conductor and are mounted on pedestals or on the power line cross arms. Fig. The sketches show that the top of the porcelain body is formed into a groove into which the conductor is bound by means of wire or fixed with the aid of special clips. with metalware on each end.2(ii). A typical example of a post insulator is shown schematically in figure 6.62 (ii): shows cap & pin insulator c) Post Type Insulator These insulators consist of a solid porcelain cylinder.The pin-type insulator is so called because in use it is screwed onto a galvanized forged steel 'pin' which mounted vertically on a metal or wooden cross arm. this holds together the 'diced' pieces of glass which result if the glass becomes shattered. These insulators are Class A.2(iii) 49 . Post insulators are tall and are mainly used in substations.
it is necessary to describe the insulator dimensions. using foil cylinders is often used to improve the axial and radial field distribution. transformer bushings are manufactured using porcelain.4 Terminology When applying insulators. Fig. Capacitive grading. using the following terms: 50 . 6.6.6.Fig. Long rod insulators have the apparent advantage over cap and pin insulators in that metal fittings exist only at the ends of the insulators.3 Bushings Bushings are used to insulate the conductors of the high voltage terminals of a transformer as is shown schematically in figure 5.2(iii)post insulator d) Porcelain Long Rod Insulators Long rod insulators are similar to post insulators but are lighter. slimmer and are used as suspension insulators.3 shows bushings 6. 3 Traditionally.
Creep age distance: The shortest distance between the metal ware at the two ends of the insulator. they may then become conducting when wetted.5 Pollution Deposition Process Insulators exposed to the environment collect pollutants from various sources. acids are also deposited on the insulator. This distance is easily measured by sticking masking tape to the insulator surface. Connecting length: The axial length of the insulator between the end terminals. Pollutants that become conducting when moistened are of particular concern. Inter shed spacing: The distance between corresponding points on adjacent sheds. Specific Creep age distance: The quotient of the creep age distance in mm and the line-to- line rms. a) The role of the weather Wind is instrumental in the deposition process. The materials will absorb moisture to different degrees. when following the contours of the insulator. These layers become conducting during periods of high humidity and fog. excluding intermediate metal fittings. and apart from salts. High humidity. These materials are usually dry when deposited. fog or light rain cause wetting of the pollution layers. Coastal pollution: the salt spray from the sea or wind-driven salt laden solid material such as sand collects on the insulator surface. Two major sources are: i. Heavy rain removes the pollution layer especially 51 . Industrial pollution: substations and power lines near industrial complexes are subject to the stack emissions from nearby plants. 6. ii. voltage of the three phase system in kV. Arcing distance: The distance between the metal ware. measured as the length of a tightly pulled piece of string. Sodium chloride is the main constituent of this type of pollution.
generally do not cause physical damage to the insulators and the system can often be restored by means of auto closing. Punctures caused by severe stress over dry bands also occur on composite insulators on sheds and through the sheath. A puncture of the sheath is particularly serious as this exposes the glass fiber rod to the environment . Some other events. Leakage current flows over the insulator surface and the heating effect of the current causes drying out of the layer at certain spots and the formation of ’dry bands’. Depending on the gap configuration. a) Puncture As previously mentioned. the insulator may flash over 6. ionization can occur. 52 . Arcs occur across these bands and if the pollution is of sufficient severity. however cause ir-repairable damage to the insulators.on the upper sides of the sheds b) Air flashover versus pollution flashover If the electric stress in air at atmospheric pressure exceeds 3 kV mm. where the time delay for air flashover exceeds that of puncture of porcelain. These occurrences are usually caused by very steep impulse voltages.6 Failure Modes of Insulators Flashovers. One advantage is that they retain their mechanical integrity. caused by air breakdown or pollution. flashover may follow. The power flashover voltage of a clean dry single cap and pin insulator with a 280 mm creep age distance is 72 kV. porcelain pin-type and cap and pin insulators may suffer punctures between the pin and the either the pin or the high voltage conductor. b) Shattering Glass insulators shatter when exposed to severe arcing or puncturing due to vandalism.
coupled with the influence of weak acids. a) Washing b) Greasing c) Choice of Creep age length a) Washing Substation or line insulators can be washed when de-energized or when energized. These tracks are conductive.a result of the tempering process used during manufacture. Arcing and corona over long periods may cause removal of shed or sheath material in the case of polymeric insulators. e) Brittle Fracture Water entry into the glass fiber core of composite insulators. 6. has been shown to lead to brittle fracture of the rod. Automatic washing schemes and helicopters have been used for this purpose. The integrity of the metal/polymer and glass/polymer interfaces is therefore extremely important . 53 . This may lead to shattering of the glass discs .especially if acid-resistant glass is not used. The byproducts of partial discharges in the presence of water can lead to the formation of weak acids. Severe erosion may lead to the exposure of the glass fiber core.c) Erosion Prolonged arcing of glass insulators leads to erosion of the surface layer of the glass. d) Tracking Tracking occurs when carbonized tracks form because of arcing.7 Remedies There are certain remedies provided for different equipments available in substation from being damaged. This phenomenon only occurs in carbon-based polymers. They are .
Recent research indicates that under conditions of severe research results or revised specifications are available it is considered a safe approach to use IEC 815 for non-ceramic insulators as well. 7. We face Pollution particles that are deposited on the insulator surface are also encapsulated by the grease and protected from moisture. Research is still in progress to evaluate their aging processes. These coatings have good hydrophobic properties when new. 6.1 Introduction We are going to discusses about the various earthing techniques used in sub station 54 . b) Greasing Room temperature cured silicone rubber coatings are available to be used on ceramic substation insulators. it is advisable to use a shorter creepage length especially in locations of severe pollution. c) Choice of Creep age Length When using non-ceramic insulators. usually annually. when applied to ceramic insulators increases the hydro-phobicity of the insulators. The disadvantage of greasing is that the spent grease must be removed and new grease applied.8 Conclusion: We have discussed about the insulator used in substation and various types of insulators. A thin layer of silicone grease.The costs are usually prohibitive.
g. system grounding means earthing some part of the electrical system e. Therefore. improves the overall safety and reliability of an electrical system. substation reliability must be as "built-in" as possible because of the high available fault current levels present and unlikely occurrence of follow-up grounding inspections.1 shows grounding 7. Equipment grounding deals with earthing the non current carrying metal parts of the electrical equipment. Fig.2 Types and Methods of Grounding There are different types and methods of grounding which ensures the reliable performance of a substation.a) Grounding A properly designed and installed grounding system ensures reliable performance of electrical substations . On the other hand.7. earthing of neutral point of star connected system in generating stations and substations. 55 . a) Types Grounding of earth may be classified as (i) Equipment grounding (ii) System grounding and (iii) Neutral grounding. made possible by good grounding. Just how important is substation reliability? Fast clearing of faults.
one conductor of the secondary of a transformer) to earth is called System grounding.g. System Grounding The process of connecting some electrical part of the power system (neutral point of a star connected system.) is called Neutral grounding. iii. Neutral grounding provides protection to personal and equipment.i. b) Methods of Grounding The methods commonly used for grounding the neutral point of a 3-phase system are: (i) Solid or effective grounding (ii) Resistance grounding (iii) Reactance grounding (iv) Resonant grounding i. It is because during earth fault the current path is completed through the earthed neutral and the protective devices operate to isolate the faulty conductor from the rest of the system. ii. the voltage of any conductor to earth will not exceed the normal phase voltage of the system. Equipment Grounding The process of connecting non current carrying metal parts of the electrical equipment to earth in such a way that in case of insulation failure. Under fault conditions. 56 . resistance or reactance etc. Neutral Grounding The process of connecting neutral point of 3-phase system to earth either directly or through some circuit element (e. the enclosure effectively remains at earth potential is called Equipment grounding. Solid Grounding When the neutral point of a 3-phase system is directly connected to earth through a wire of negligible resistance and reactance is called Solid or Effective grounding.
b) The increased earth fault current results in greater interference in the neighboring communication lines. iii. interference with communication circuits is reduced. b) Since the system neutral is displaced during earth faults the equipment has to be insulated for higher voltages. The value of R should be neither very low nor very high. the earth fault will be large and the system becomes similar to the solid grounding system.Advantages: a) The neutral is effectively held at earth potential. Therefore. Disadvantages: a) This system is costlier than the solidly grounded system. Disadvantages: a) It causes the system to become unstable. ii. b) No arcing phenomenon or over voltage condition can occur. Resistance Grounding When the neutral point of a 3-phase system is connected to earth through a resistor. The value of R is so chosen such that the earth fault current is limited to safe value but still sufficient to permit the operation of earth fault protection system. Advantages: a) The earth fault current is small due to the presence of earthing resistance. the system becomes similar to the ungrounded neutral system. On the other hand if the earthing resistance is very high. If the value of earthing resistance is very low. b) It improves the stability of the system. c) Permits the easy operation of earth fault relay. Reactance Grounding 57 . it is called Resistance grounding.
the earth fault current can be changed to obtain the conditions similar to that of solid grounding. the capacitance of the network changes from time to time. (b) High transient voltages appear under fault conditions. It is also called as Peterson coil grounding as the arc suppression coil used here is the Peterson coil which is an iron cored connected between the neutral and earth. a reactance is inserted between the neutral and ground. Disadvantages: The Peterson coil grounding has following disadvantages: a) Due to varying operational conditions. The resultant current in the fault will be zero or can be reduced by adjusting the tappings on the Peterson coil.In this system. By changing the earthing reactance. iv. it is called Resonant grounding. 7. This method is not always used these days because of the following reasons (a) In this system. b) The lines should be transposed. The purpose of reactance is to limit the earth fault current. the fault current required to operate the protective devices is higher than that of the resistance grounding for the same fault conditions.3 Earthing and Bonding 58 . inductance L of Peterson coil requires readjustment. Advantages: The Peterson coil grounding has the following advantages: a) The Peterson coil is completely effective in preventing any damage by an arcing ground. b) This coil has the advantage of ungrounded neutral system. Therefore. Resonant Grounding When the value of L of arc suppression coil is such that the fault current If exactly balance the capacitive current Ic.
5m. The copper bars themselves usually have a cross-sectional area of 95 square millimeters. A grid layout with particular conductors is then analyzed to determine the effective substation earthing resistance. the face of the joints should be tinned. The earthing system also ensures that no thermal or mechanical damage occurs on the equipment within the substation. it is normal to take the highest fault level for substation earth grid calculation purposes. In addition to the buried potential earth grid. To determine the earth resistivity. probe tests are carried out on the site. In practice. Joints are usually bolted. thereby resulting in safety to operation and maintenance personnel. b) Earthing Materials i) Conductors Bare copper conductor is usually used for the substation earthing grid.The function of an earthing and bonding system is to provide an earthing system connection to which transformer neutrals or earthing impedances may be connected in order to pass the maximum fault current. The earthing system also guarantees equi-potential bonding such that there are no dangerous potential gradients developed in the substation. 59 . a separate above ground earthing ring is usually provided. ii) Connections: Connections to the grid and other earthing joints should not be soldered because the heat generated during fault conditions could cause a soldered joint to fail. in 3-7m squares. a) Substation Earthing Calculation Methodology Calculations for earth impedances and touch and step potentials are based on site measurements of ground resistivity and system fault levels. to which all metallic substation plant is bonded. These tests are best performed in dry weather such that conservative resistivity readings are obtained. and they are laid at a shallow depth of 0. and in this case. from which the earthing voltage is calculated.25-0.
5m beyond the fence perimeter. iv) Switchyard Fence Earthing: The switchyard fence earthing practices are possible and are used by different utilities. These rods are usually made of solid copper or copper clad steel.5m-1. 60 .iii) Earthing Rods: The earthing grid must be supplemented by earthing rods to assist in the dissipation of earth fault currents and further reduce the overall substation earthing resistance.4 Conclusion In this chapter we have discussed about the various earthing /grounding technique used in substation for the protection of the equipment from the high voltage and external faults. Place the fence beyond the perimeter of the switchyard earthing grid and bond the fence to its own earthing rod system. The fence is then bonded to the grid at regular intervals. This earthing rod system is not coupled to the main substation earthing grid. 7. Extend the substation earth grid 0.
reactive power drawn from the supply is minimized 8. and the corrected power factor is cos Ø2 (where Ø2 is the phase angle between the corrected load and unity). The series capacitor is connected to compensate for the line inductance and thus decrease the line reactance so that more power can be transferred through the line thus the system stability can be increased. When the phase shift reaches 360°. The uncorrected power factor of a load is cos Ø (where Ø is the phase angle between the uncorrected load and unity). KVAR).. arc furnaces and fluorescent lighting would fall into this category. the amplifier will oscillate. 61 .1 Introduction In this chapter we are going to discuss about the various power factor correction technique used in the substation and they mentions as well as protection of this equipments. but is necessary for the equipment to operate correctly. Without this capacitor.8. This reactive power has no useful function. the phase shift is in the vicinity of 270°. The compensating capacitor produces a low critical frequency and decreases the voltage gain at a rate of 20 dB per decade above the mid-band. welding equipment. Under normal operating conditions certain electrical loads draw not only active power from the supply (kilowatts KW) but also reactive power (reactive KVA.2 Compensating Capacitor A capacitor inside an op-amp that prevents oscillations is called compensating ca[acitor. the voltage gain is less than 1 and oscillations are impossible. Loads such as induction motors. As cos Ø approaches to unity. a) Definition The Power Factor of a load is defined as being the ratio of active power to total demand. At the unity gain frequency. Also any capacitor that stabilizes an amplifier with a negative-feedback path.
3 P. the total KVAR on the load side of the motor controller should not exceed the value required to raise the no-load power factor to unity.8. Individual motor or lamp loads may have capacitors for power factor correction. Power factor will be improved by connecting capacitors in parallel to the load.3 Power factor correction In electric power distribution. the values of these capacitors are given not in farads but rather as a reactive power in voltamperes reactive (VAR). Such capacitors often come as three capacitors connected as a three phase load. 62 . Usually. 8. capacitors are used for power factor correction.The question is about connecting Capacitors in SERIES. Fig. Over corrective ness of this value may cause high transient voltages. The purpose is to counteract inductive loading from devices like electric motors and transmission lines to make the load appear to be mostly resistive.e to improve the power transfer capability but not for improving power factor.F Correction When using power factor correction capacitors. Series connection is done for improving STABILITY of the network and for transferring more power (by reducing the resultant reactance) i. or larger sets of capacitors (usually with automatic switching devices) may be installed at a load center within a building or in a large utility substation.
776 0.526 0.289 0.458 0.156 0.182 0.020 0.292 0.240 0.266 0.937 0.130 0. multi-speed motors or open transition. Original Power Factor Percent 60% 62% 64% 66% 68% 70% 72% 74% 76% 78% 79% 80% 81% 1. This does not change the current flowing through motor overload protectors.580 0.344 0.480 0. The table 8.266 1.964 0.646 0.201 1.371 0.235 0.717 0.473 0.849 0.749 0.909 0.518 0.104 0.581 0.654 0.currents.782 0.750 0.691 0.872 0.421 0.855 0. auto-transformer starting and some part-winding start motors.388 0.105 0.447 0.214 0. plugging or jogging applications.425 0.1 below shows the power factor correction.809 0. Be sure bus power factor is not increased above 95% under all loading conditions to avoid over excitation.026 100% 95% 90% 85% 80% Desired Power Factor Percent 63 .713 0.536 0.635 0.078 1.516 0. wyedelta.583 0.004 0.594 0. Connection of capacitors at position 3 requires a change of overload protectors. and torques that can increase safety hazards to personnel and possibly damage motor driven equipment.400 0.052 0. capacitors should be located at position 2 .318 0. Capacitors should be located at position 1 for applications listed in paragraph 2 above.451 0.395 0.333 1.138 1. Never connect power factor correction capacitors at motor terminals on elevator motors.724 1. If possible.802 0.270 0.328 0.159 0.
291 0.292 0.369 0.028 - 0. nearest standard rating (60 KVAR) should be used.183 0.646 0.620 0.395 0.3).034 0. This results in the following: a) The load on the cables and switches is reduced.317 0. 99% 0.583) which gives KVAR (58.162 0.066 0.136 0.083 0.593 0. b) The supply is now able to support additional load c) The charges made by the electricity supply company are likely to be reduced 64 .251 - 0.426 0.155 0.188 0.214 0.127 0.109 0.567 0.363 0.329 0.097 0.206 - - Assume Total plant load is 100 KW at 60% power factor.264 0. Capacitor KVAR rating necessary to improve power factor to 80% is found by multiplying KW (100) by the multiplier in table (0.484 0.078 0.456 0.672 0.052 0.698 0.238 0.143 - The connection of a capacitor capable of "correcting" half of the reactive power of a load leads to a reduction in the demand on the supply of approximately 15%.512 0.343 0.82% 83% 84% 85% 86% 87% 89% 90% 91% 92% 93% 94% 95% 96% 97% 0.
The protection system is designed to limit the effects of disturbances in power system. may damaging the substation and interrupting 65 . We also covered various types of transformers such as power transformer and capacitor voltage and they maintenance. bus bars. earth switches. which when allowed persisting. In our project we have studied about the operation of different equipments in substation. power loss is reduced and life is extended. wave traps and grounding system of substation. voltage transformers. It includes study of transmission lines. isolators. current transformers. 8. circuit breakers. The facility to connect additional load is always useful to an expanding company.4 Conclusion In this chapter we have discussed about the various power factor correction techniques involved in substation and benefits of it. lightning arresters.By reducing the load on cables and switches.
. auto reclosing schemes. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. etc.. 66 . Publisher CRC. Electric Power Substations Engineering By James C. Burke and Anne-Marie Sahazizian. Electric Power Systems: A Conceptual Introduction By Alexandra von Meier Publisher: Wiley-IEEE. It cover various types of protection used in substation for220/132/33kv transmission lines such as bus bar protection relays.the supply of electrical energy. 2.
3.Gupta. By A. 4. William M.U.Soni .CHAND & COMPANY LTD. Publisher: Dhanpat Rai & Co 5.L.V. P.By. Flanagan Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional.L. Power System Engineering. By B. Distribution and Utilization Volume III.THERAJA Publisher: S. Handbook of Transformer Design and Applications .S Bhatnagar.THERAJA & A.K. Transmission. 2004 67 . M.Chakrabarti.
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