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chapter6-psychrometry

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Gas-Vapor Mixtures and AirConditioning

Content: Dry and Atmospheric Air Dew-point Temperature Properties in the Psychrometric Chart Air Conditioning Processes
       

Dry and Atmospheric Air
Dry air is a mixture of N2, O2, and small amount of other gases. Normally, atmospheric air contain moisture (or water vapor). Atmospheric air = dry air + water vapor In air-conditioning applications ranges from about – 10 to about 50oC, the atmospheric air can be treated as an ideal gas with constant specific heats. Taking 0oC as the reference temperature then hdry air = Cp(T-Tref) = CpT (14.1a) (Thdry air = Cp(T2 –T1) = Cp T (14.1b)

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Total Atmospheric Air Pressure
When the mixture temperature is below 50oC, the water vapor is an ideal gas with negligible error (<0.2%). Then, the atmospheric air (Dry air + Water Vapor) can be treated as ideal gas mixture. The total atmospheric air pressure (P) is sum of P partial pressure of dry air (Pa) and that of water P pressure (Pv): P P = Pa + Pv (14.2)

Enthalpy of Water Vapor
For Air conditioning temperature (-10oC to 50oC), the enthalpy of water vapor in air can be taken to be equal to the enthalpy of saturated vapor at the same temperature. temperature hv(T, low P) ~ hg(T) (T, (T) and can be expressed as hg (T) = hg(T=0oC) + Cp(T2 –T0) (T=0 hg (T) = 2,500.9 + 1.82(T) (14.4) (14.3)

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6) (14.9) (14.7) (14.11a) (14.11b) where Then.8) PvV/RvT PaV/RaT Z Pv /Rv Pa /Ra 0.10) (14.622 Pv Pa Relative Humidity ( ) Relative humidity ( ) vapor at the specified vapor if saturated temperature.622IPg P  IPg (0.622  Z ) Pg 3 . and I Z Psat @T 0.Specific Humidity ( Z) Absolute humidity or specific humidity (sometimes called humidity ratio. Z mv ma Z mv ma (kg water vapor/kg dry air) (14. specific humidity.622 Pv ( P  Pv ) 0. mv I mg is the ratio of mass of condition to mass of condition at the water water same PvV/RvT PgV/RvT Pg ZP Pv Pg (14. Z) is the ratio of mass of water vapor to mass of dry air.

h ha  Z hg (kJ/kg dry air) Note : Temperature of atmospheric air is called Dry .1 A 5-m x 5-m x 3-m room contains air at 25oC and 100 kPa at a relative humidity of 75 percent. and (d) the masses of dry air and water vapor in the room. Then enthalpy of moist air is expressed per unit mass of dry air instead of per unit mass of air-water vapor mixture. (b) the specific humidity (c) the enthalpy per unit mass of dry air. Solution 4 .12) since hv # hg then. Example 14.Bulb Temperature For an amount of moist air. the mass of dry air is not change but water vapor may condense causing mass of vapor change. Determine (a) the partial pressure of dry air.Total Enthalpy of Air (Water Vapor Mixture) H h Ha  Hv H ma ha  ma ha  mv hv mv hv ma ha  Z hv (14.

.......... 622 Pv ( P  Pv ) .(a) Pa (b) I P  Pv Z Z Pv Pg and . Pg Psat @ T 97... ........ air T  Z h g Pa V ma .. 0. answer answer answer answer (c) (d ) h # C p. 8 kJ/kg dry air 85...30 kg or mv Zma Dew Point Temperature Dew-point temperature (Tdp) is the temperature at which condensation begins when the air is cooled at constant pressure or Tdp is the saturation temperature of water corresponding to the vapor pressure...... Tdp = Tsat@Pv (14....61 kg 1.0152 kg water/kg dry air h h a  Z h g (kJ/kg dry air) 63 .. ..62 kPa answer 0 ... RaT mv Pv V R vT .13) 5 ..

Example 14.622 Pv/Pa) dew point temp. that contains air at 20oC and 75 percent relative humidity. Pv (Tdp = Tsat@Pv) čon°¥¤µ„˜nª´—¥µ„ ˜n™oµ¦¼o „È‹³®µ ŗo ¨³‡Îµœª–®µ ¨³ ŗoץŤn¥µ„ —³Šœ³Êœ˜o°Š¡¥µ¥µ¤®µª·›¸„µ¦®µ „³ž¦·¤µ–š¸Éª³—Šnµ¥ Ánœ ¨´ ×¥„µ¦ª³— T. consider a house shown. condensation frequently occurs on the inner surfaces of the windows due to the lower air temperatures near the window surface. and Specific humidity.4oC Adiabatic Saturation Temperature Relative humidity. ( = Pv/Pg. = mv/ma = 0. P 6 . At what window temperature will the moisture in the air start condensation on the inner surfaces of the windows? Solution Tdp = Tsat@Pv Pv = Pg@20C Tdp = 15.2 In clod weather.

where I 1.15) So.Consider an Adiabatic Saturation Process MassBalance : m a1 and : or : thus : m aZ1  m f m w1  m f mf ma2 m a (dry air) m aZ 2 m w 2 (Water & Vapor) m a (Z 2 . it need a very long channel or spray mechanism. Z1 Energy Balance : SSSF Q 0. At normal atmospheric Wet-Bulb Temperature and Adiabatic WetSaturation Temperature of air and water vapor mixture are approximately equal.Z1 ) h f (C p T1  Z1hg1 )  (Z 2 .14) from (14. just measure T1.11b) for state 2. Wet-Bulb Temperature (experiment) 7 . T2 and Ptotal. 0. we can get 1 To make exit stream saturated.0 .Z1 ) h f 2 which yield. W m a h1  m f h f m a h2 C p (T2  T1 )  Z 2 h fg 2 hg 1  h f 2 (C p T2  Z 2 hg 2 ) (14.622 Pg2 Z2 P  Pg 2 (14.Z1 ) 0 h2 devided by m a : h1  (Z 2 .

11a) : (c) h1 Pg1=Psat@Tdb Pg2=Psat@Twb hg1=hg@Tdb hg2=hg@Twb ha1  Z1hv # C p T1  Z1hg1 Properties in the Psychrometric Chart 8 .622  Z1 ) Pg1 (b) eqn.8 kJ/kg dry air Z1 P2 (0. Solution (a) Z1 C p (T2  T1 )  Z 2 hg 2 hg1  h f 2 I1 Tdb=T1 .332 or 33.Example 14.3 The Specific and Relative Humidity of Air The dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures of atmospheric air at 1 atm (101.00653 kg water/kg dry air 0. and (c) the enthalpy of the air. respectively.(14. Patm = P2 0. (b) the relative humidity. Twb=T2 .2% 41.325 kPa) pressure are measured with a sling psychrometer and determined to be 25 and 15oC. Determine (a) the specific humidity.

1. What is a dry bulb temperature? It is measured with an ordinary thermometer. It is independent of moisture.001 . ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ 0oC dry bulb temperature 50oC 2. What is absolute humidity (humidity ratio)? It is the ratio of the weight of moisture contained in 1 kg of dry air. It is located on the “Y” axis of the chart.003 . It is also called Humidity Ratio or Specific Humidity . It is the kg water / kg of dry air. It is located on the “X” axis of a psychometric chart.002 .000 9 .

Values are on the saturation curve. What is the saturation curve? It includes the wet bulb and dew point temperatures. It is dependent on moisture in the air. The lines slope downward to the “X” axis. ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ Saturation Curve “Y” Axis “X” Axis 4.3. 350 300 250 50 100 “ X” Axis “ Y” Axis 10 . What is the wet bulb temperature? The temperature at which an equilibrium exists between an air-vapor mixture and water. It completes the psychrometric chart outline.

5. ? 11 . The answer is read on the saturation curve horizontally to the left of the point where the dry bulb andwet bulb meet. ¡ ¡ 80q 65 50 ï ï How to Find Dew Point Temp. What is dew point? It is the temperature at which condensation occurs as heat is removed from an air-vapor mixture.

Lines are parallel to the wet bulb temp. lines. It is the heat in an air vapor mixture. Values are in kJ per kg dry air.6. What is relative humidity? ‰ It is the ratio of actual pressure of water vapor in the air to the pressure if the air were saturated and with a constant temperature. kJ per kg 50 dry air 40 60 12 . 100% 60% 30% 20% 7. What are enthalpy lines? „ „ „ „ Enthalpy is a thermal (heat) property.

It represents the m3 / kg of dry air.8.88 0.84 0. 13 .80 0. Specific Volume = m3 / kg of dry air 0.92 Psychrometric Chart The psychrometric chart has seven lines. The values are read below the dry bulb readings. What is specific volume? „ „ „ The volume occupied by 1 kg of dry air.

Typical comfort conditions: 22 – 27oC and 40 – 60 %RH Air motion also effect human feeling (body heat loss).Example 14. not cold.da.325 kPa) 35 oC. det er mine (a) t he specif ic humidit y. (b) t he ent halpy (c) of wet -bulb t emper at ur e. Human Comfort Human wants: Not hot.893 m3/kg.0142 kg water/kg.4 The Use of t he Psychr omet r ic Char t Consider a r oom t hat cont ains air at 1 at m (101. £ £ £ £ 14 . Using t he psychr omet r ic char t .5 kJ/kg. (d) t he dew-point t emper at ur e. not humid.da. h = 71. and (e) t he specif ic volume of t he air Solut ion = 0. not dry Î just COMFORTABLE Î Air-conditioning.da.4 oC v = 0. and 40% r elat ive humidit y. Twb = 24 oC Tdp = 19.

cooling. humidifying and dehumidifying.Z1 ) 15 . Air-Conditioning Processes The processes are normally considered as SSSF process.17) 1 . * mass of dry air remains the same * water vapor added/removed * 1st law treat dry air and water vapor separately.in and 1 .16) 1 .out MassBalanc e for water : ¦ mw maZ 1  m f mw1  m f mf in m a1 ma 2 ma ¦m out w (14 . MassBalanc e for dry air : ¦ ma in ¦m out a (14 .Air-Conditioning Processes Maintaining space desired temperature and humidity requires “ air-conditioning processes” processes” airincluding simple heating.out or : thus : maZ 2 mw 2 ma (Z 2 .in and 1 .

) Water mass balance : mw1  m f or : but mf 0 Qcv maZ 1  m f air mass balance : m a1 ma 2 ma mw 2 Z2 WHY change and HOW ma (Z 2 .Z 1 ) Ÿ Z1 ma ( h2  h1 ) ma Z 2 Energy Balance : SSSF 16 .Air-Conditioning Processes Energy Balance : SSSF Qcv  ¦ mh in Wcv  ¦ mh out (14  18) ma h2 if. W 0 : Qcv  ma h1  m f h f Simple Heating and cooling ( = const.

Solution (a) = 673 kJ/min. (b) = 0.Heating with Humidification ( air mass balance : = increases) Control Volume Heating Section ma1 ma 2 Water mass balance : mw1 Energy Balance : SSSF Qcv mw 2 then Z1 Z 2 ma ( h2  h1 ) ma Control Volume Humidifyin g Section air mass balance : then mw 2 Water mass balance : mw1  mw 2 ma (Z 3  Z 2 ) m a1 ma 2 ma mw 3 0 Energy Balance : SSSF Qcv ma ( h3  h2 ) Example 14. and (b) the mass flow rate of the steam required in the humidifying section. and 30% relative humidity at a steady rate of 45 m3/min and to condition it to 22oC. and 60% relative humidity.5 Heating and Humidification of Air An air-conditioning is to take in outdoor air at 10oC. Assuming the entire process takes place at a pressure of 100 kPa.539 kg/min 17 . determine (a) the rate of heat supply in the heating section. The outdoor air is first heated to 22oC in the heating section and then humidified by the injection of hot steam in the humidifying section.

131kg/min Solut ion Evaporative Cooling • • • °µœÊε œÊεĜðŠ—·œÁŸµ ¡´—¨¤œÊε – Á¥Èœ­µ¥ šµÂ°¨„°±°¦r ®¦º°Á®¥º°„—·œÁŸµ – Á¥Èœªµ Á¥Èœ„ªnµž„˜· Ä®o¨¤š¸Á¥Èœ„ªnµ¡´—¨¤›¦¦¤—µ É • Evapor at ive cooling pr ocess: As wat er evapor at es. (b) = 0. bot h of t hem ar e cooled. • Evapor at ive cooling pr ocess ~ Adiabat ic sat ur at ion pr ocess: T wb ~ const .Example 14. As a r esult . 30 oC. 18 . t he lat en heat of vapor isat ion is absor bed f r om t he wat er body and t he sur r ounding air .6 Cooling and Dehumidif icat ion of Air Air ent er s a window t ype air condit ioner at 1 at m. and h ~ const . and 80% r elat ive humidit y at a r at e of 10 m3 / min and leaves as sat ur at ed air at 14 oC det er mine t he r at e of heat and moist ur e r emoval f r om t he air . (a) = 511 kJ/min.

•Normally Q very small. and (b) t he lowest t emper at ur e t o which t he air can becooled by t his evapor at ive cooler . 35 oC. •ie.Z1 19 .21) (14.h3 h3 .h1 (14.Example 14.Z3 Z 3 . (a) 21.24) Water mass balance : Z 1 m a1  Z 2 m a 2 Energy Balance : SSSF Elminating ma 3 : m a1 ma 2 ma1h1  ma 2 h2 Z2 .7 Evapor at ive cooling Air ent er s an evapor at ive cooler at 1 at m. and 20% r elat ive humidit y and it exit s at 80% r elat ive humidit y det er mine (a) t he exit t emper at ur e of air . Fresh air + Return air.3oC (b) 18.9oC Solut ion Adiabatic Mixing of Airstreams •Many air-conditioning applications require the mixing of two airstream. and KE and PE =0 air mass balance : m a1  m a 2 ma 3 Z 3 ma 3 ma 3 h3 h2 .23) (14.22) (14. no work.

Assuming that the mixing occure at 1 atm. the dry-bulb temperature. and 60% relative humidity at a rate of 20 m3/min. •A wet cooling tower ~ semi-closed evaporative cooling cooler. V3 = 70. Natural draft •Other cooling method: Spray pond. the specific humidity. Cooling pond 20 .0oC . •Type of cooling tower: Mechanical draft (Induced. large A-C system. Forced). and the volume flow rate of the mixture. Solution = 0. some industrial process need to reject a large amount of waste heat. determine. Tbd3 = 19.0122 kg/kg da. = 89%. the relative humidity.1 m3/min 3 3 Wet Cooling Tower •Power plant.8 Mixing of Conditioned Air with Outdoor Air Satureated air leaving the cooling section of an air conditioning system at 14oC with a rate of 50 m3/min is mixed adiabatically with the outside air at 32oC.Example 14.

9 Cooling of a Power Plant by a Cooling Tower Cooling water leaves the condenser of a power plant and enters a wet cooling tower at 35oC at a rate of 100 kg/s.Example 14. (b) the mass flow rate of the required makeup water.6 m3/s. (b) mf = 1. Water is cooled to 22oC in the cooling tower by air that enters the tower at 1 atm. Neglecting power input to the fan. determine (a) the volume flow rate of the air into the cooling tower. 20oC. Solution (a) Va = 81.80 kg/s šÎµÅ¤˜o°Š¤¸ 0DNHXS :DWHU œÊεÁ¥Èœ¨ŠÅ—o°¥nµŠÅ¦ °³Å¦‡º° 0HFKDQLVP š¸É­Îµ‡´ °³Å¦‡º 21 . and 60% relative humidity and leaves satureted at 30oC.

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