Course 5


Creating Data Flow Diagrams
Creating DFDs is a highly iterative process of gradual refinement. General steps: 1. Create a preliminary Context Diagram 2. Identify Use Cases, i.e. the ways in which users most commonly use the system 3. Create DFD fragments for each use case 4. Create a Level 0 diagram from fragments 5. Decompose to Level 1,2,« 6. Go to step 1 and revise as necessary 7. Validate DFDs with users.

external entities that interact with the system and the major information flows between the entities and the system Example: Order system that a company uses to enter orders and apply payments against a customer¶s balance .Context Diagram    Top-level view of IS A data flow diagram (DFD) of the scope of an organizational system that shows the system boundaries.

 Sources and sinks (external entities) as squares  Main data flows depicted  No internal data stores are shown  They are inside the system External data stores are shown as external entities How do you tell the difference between an internal and external data store? .DFD Rules²Context Diagram One process. numbered 0.

Context Diagram of Order System .

all the connections that flow into and out of process 0 needs to be retained. data flows. and data stores at a high level of abstraction When the Context Diagram is expanded into DFD level-0. .Level-0 DFD   Shows the system¶s major processes.

Context Diagram of Order System .

Level-0 DFD of Order System .

Lower-Level Diagrams Functional Decomposition  Balancing  .

Decomposition of DFDs  Functional decomposition An iterative process of breaking a system description down into finer and finer detail Uses a series of increasingly detailed DFDs to describe an IS Act of going from one single system to many component processes Repetitive procedure Lowest level is called a primitive DFD  Level-N Diagrams A DFD that is the result of n nested decompositions of a series of subprocesses from a process on a level-0 diagram .

Balancing DFDs     When decomposing a DFD. notice that there is one input to the system. the customer order Three outputs:    Customer receipt Food order Management reports . you must conserve inputs to and outputs from a process at the next level of decomposition Ensures that the input and output data flows of the parent DFD are maintained on the child DFD This is called balancing Example: Hoosier Burgers In Figure 1.

Figure 1 Context diagram of Hoosier Burger¶s Food ordering system .

Balancing DFDs Example (Continued) Notice Figure 2. We have the same inputs and outputs  No new inputs or outputs have been introduced  We can say that the context diagram and level-0 DFD are balanced  .

Figure 2 Level-0 DFD of Hoosier Burger¶s food ordering system .

we have one input to the system.Balancing DFDs: An unbalanced example  Figure 3: In context diagram. C  These DFDs are not balanced . A and one output. B Level-0 diagram has one additional data flow.

0 2.Figure 3: An unbalanced set of data flow diagrams A SOURCE 0 B SINK (a) Context diagram A SOURCE 1 C SOURCE 2 1.0 B SINK (b) Level-0 diagram .

Balancing DFDs We can split a data flow into separate data flows on a lower level diagram (see Figure 4)  Balancing leads to four additional advanced rules  .

0 Composite data flow Payment x.2 Disaggregated data flow .Example of data flow splitting Payment & coupon x.1 Coupon x.

like a double line on the middle vertical line of data strore symbol. new data flows may be added to represent data that r transmitted under exceptional condition.Advanced Rule for DFD     A composite DF on 1 level can be split into component DF as the next level. or a diagonal line in a corner of a sink/source square to indicate a repeated symbol . these data flows typically represent error message To avoid having data flow lines cross each other. but no new data can be added n all data in the composite must be accounted for in 1 or more subfollows The inputs to a process must b sufficient to produce the outputs from the process At the lowest level of DFD. Use an additional symbol. u may repeat data strores or sources/sinks on a DFD.

then higherlevel diagrams . then low-level diagrams (Level-0 diagram).Strategies for Developing DFDs  Top-down strategy Create the high-level diagrams (Context Diagram). and so on  Bottom-up strategy Create the low-level diagrams.

When the order is shipped. and generates a shipping order to the warehouse.Exercise: Precision Tools sells a line of high-quality woodworking tools. the system checks to see if the items are in stock. such as inventory reports for Accounting. the customer is billed. which fills the order.  Draw a context diagram for the order system  Draw DFD diagram 0 for the order system . When customers place orders on the company¶s Web site. The system also produces various reports. issues a status message to the customer.

0 Order Data Status Data 2.0 Produce Reports  Data Stores D1 Pending Orders D2 Accounts Receivable .0 Order Data Invoice Shipping Confirmation 4.Data Stores & Data Flow  Entities Customer Warehouse Accounting  Data Flows Order In-Stock Request 1.0 Check Status 2.0 Status Message Shipping Order 3.0 Manage Accounts Receivable 5.0 Payment Accounting Data Accounts Receivable Data 5.Process.0 Generate Shipping Order 4.Identify Entities.0 Issue Status Messages 3.0 Order Data Inventory Reports  Processes 1.

Context Diagram of Order System .

Level-0 of Order System .

decompose the DFD to the next level DFDs Put them on your SRS¶s document as the attachment .HOMEWORK (group)  Based on the use cases. draw your project data flow in: Context diagram Level 0-DFD If neccesary.

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