Electricity generation is the process of creating electricity from other forms of energy. The fundamental principles of electricity generation were discovered during the 1820's and early 1830's by the British scientist Michael Faraday. His basic method is still used today: electricity is generated by the movement of a loop of wire, or disc of copper between the poles of a magnet. For electric utilities, it is the first process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. The other processes, electric power transmission, electricity distribution, and electrical power storage and recovery using pumped storage methods are normally carried out by the electrical power industry. Electricity is most often generated at a power station by electromechanical generators, primarily driven by heat engines fueled by chemical combustion or nuclear fission but also by other means such as the kinetic energy of flowing water and wind. There are many other technologies that can be and are used to generate electricity such as solar photovoltaics and geothermal power.

Centralised power generation became possible when it was recognized that alternating current power lines can transport electricity at very low costs across great distances by taking advantage of the ability to raise and lower the voltage using power transformers. Electricity has been generated at central stations since 1881. The first power plants were run on water power or coal, and today we rely mainly on coal, nuclear, natural gas, hydroelectric, and petroleum with a small amount from solar energy, tidal harnesses, wind generators, and geothermal sources.

Methods of generating electricity
There are seven fundamental methods of directly transforming other forms of energy into electrical energy:
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Static electricity, from the physical separation and transport of charge (examples: triboelectric effect and lightning) Electromagnetic induction, where an electrical generator, dynamo or alternator transforms kinetic energy (energy of motion) into electricity Electrochemistry, the direct transformation of chemical energy into electricity, as in a battery, fuel cell or nerve impulse Photoelectric effect, the transformation of light into electrical energy, as in solar cells Thermoelectric effect, direct conversion of temperature differences to electricity, as in thermocouples and thermopiles

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Piezoelectric effect, from the mechanical strain of electrically anisotropic molecules or crystals Nuclear transformation, the creation and acceleration of charged particles (examples: betavoltaics or alpha particle emission)

Static electricity was the first form discovered and investigated, and the electrostatic generator is still used even in modern devices such as the Van de Graaff generator and MHD generators. Electrons are mechanically separated and transported to increase their electric potential. Almost all commercial electrical generation is done using electromagnetic induction, in which mechanical energy forces an electrical generator to rotate. There are many different methods of developing the mechanical energy, including heat engines, hydro, wind and tidal power. The direct conversion of nuclear energy to electricity by beta decay is used only on a small scale. In a full-size nuclear power plant, the heat of a nuclear reaction is used to run a heat engine. This drives a generator, which converts mechanical energy into electricity by magnetic induction. Most electric generation is driven by heat engines. The combustion of fossil fuels supplies most of the heat to these engines, with a significant fraction from nuclear fission and some from renewable sources. The modern steam turbine invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884 - today generates about 80 percent of the electric power in the world using a variety of heat sources.

All turbines are driven by a fluid acting as an intermediate energy carrier. Many of the heat engines just mentioned are turbines. Other types of turbines can be driven by wind or falling water. Sources includes:

Steam - Water is boiled by: o nuclear fission, o the burning of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, or petroleum). In hot gas (gas turbine), turbines are driven directly by gases produced by the combustion of natural gas or oil. Combined cycle gas turbine plants are driven by both steam and natural gas. They generate power by burning natural gas in a gas turbine and use residual heat to generate additional electricity from steam. These plants offer efficiencies of up to 60%. o Renewables. The steam generated by:  Biomass  The sun as the heat source: solar parabolic troughs and solar power towers concentrate sunlight to heat a heat transfer fluid, which is then used to produce steam.  Geothermal power. Either steam under pressure emerges from the ground and drives a turbine or hot water evaporates a low boiling liquid to create vapour to drive a turbine.


Other renewable sources: o Water (hydroelectric) - Turbine blades are acted upon by flowing water, produced by hydroelectric dams or tidal forces. o Wind - Most wind turbines generate electricity from naturally occurring wind. Solar updraft towers use wind that is artificially produced inside the chimney by heating it with sunlight, and are more properly seen as forms of solar thermal energy. o Tidal power, sometimes called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into electricity or other useful forms of power. Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power.

Reciprocating engines
Small electricity generators are often powered by reciprocating engines burning diesel, biogas or natural gas. Diesel engines are often used for back up generation, usually at low voltages. Biogas is often combusted where it is produced, such as a landfill or wastewater treatment plant, with a reciprocating engine or a microturbine, which is a small gas turbine.

Photovoltaic panels
Unlike the solar heat concentrators mentioned above, photovoltaic panels convert sunlight directly to electricity. Although sunlight is free and abundant, solar electricity is still usually more expensive to produce than large-scale mechanically generated power due to the cost of the panels. Low-efficiency silicon solar cells have been decreasing in cost and multijunction cells with close to 30% conversion efficiency are now commercially available. Over 40% efficiency has been demonstrated in experimental systems. Until recently, photovoltaics were most commonly used in remote sites where there is no access to a commercial power grid, or as a supplemental electricity source for individual homes and businesses. Recent advances in manufacturing efficiency and photovoltaic technology, combined with subsidies driven by environmental concerns, have dramatically accelerated the deployment of solar panels. Installed capacity is growing by 40% per year led by increases in Germany, Japan, California and New Jersey.

Other generation methods
Various other technologies have been studied and developed for power generation. Solid-state generation (without moving parts) is of particular interest in portable applications. This area is largely dominated by thermoelectric (TE) devices, though thermionic (TI) and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems have been developed as well. Typically, TE devices are used at lower temperatures than TI and TPV systems. Piezoelectric devices are used for power generation from mechanical strain, particularly in power harvesting. Betavoltaics are another type of solid-state power generator which produces electricity from radioactive decay. Fluidbased magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation has been studied as a method for extracting electrical power from nuclear reactors and also from more conventional fuel

in the United States. production of carbon dioxide .combustion systems. contributing about one-third of U. known as fuel cells.. Fuel cells can be used to extract power either from natural fuels or from synthesized fuels (mainly electrolytic hydrogen) and so can be viewed as either generation systems or storage systems depending on their use.. Currently. .) Electrochemical electricity generation is also important in portable and mobile applications.S. have been undergoing a great deal of research and development in the last few years. which are arguably utilized more as storage systems than generation systems. Osmotic power finally is another possibility at places where salt and sweet water merges (eg deltas. but open electrochemical systems. Global warming It has been suggested that emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases from electricity generation account for a significant portion of world greenhouse gas emissions. electricity generation accounts for nearly 40 percent of emissions. the largest of any source. Transportation emissions are close behind. most electrochemical power comes from closed electrochemical cells ("batteries"). .

meaning that whilst solar power is not available at all times. Developing countries have started to build solar power plants. Photovoltaics were initially used to power small and medium-sized applications. which normally focuses the sun's energy to boil water which is then used to provide power. but recently multi-megawatt photovoltaic plants have been built. from the calculator powered by a single solar cell to off-grid homes powered by a photovoltaic array. The largest solar power plants. Completed in 2008. . the 46 MW Moura photovoltaic power station in Portugal and the 40 MW Waldpolenz Solar Park in Germany are characteristic of the trend toward larger photovoltaic power stations. These store spare solar energy in the form of heat which is made available overnight or during periods that solar power is not available to produce electricity. Solar power is a predictably intermittent energy source. which normally focuses the sun's energy to boil water which is then used to provide power. or indirectly with concentrating solar power (CSP). or indirectly with concentrating solar power (CSP). replacing other sources of energy generation. such as solar thermal concentrators have an element of thermal storage.SOLAR POWER Solar power is the result of converting sunlight into electricity. and the 600 MW Rancho Cielo Solar Farm. Solar power plants can face high installation costs. and technologies such as the Stirling engine dishes which use a Stirling cycle engine to power a generator. such as the 550 MW Topaz Solar Farm. Much larger ones are proposed. Sunlight can be converted directly into electricity using photovoltaics (PV). Some technologies. although this has been decreasing due to the learning curve. such as molten salts. we can predict with a very good degree of accuracy when it will and will not be available. are concentrating solar thermal plants. like the 354 MW SEGS. Sunlight can be converted directly into electricity using photovoltaics (PV). Applications Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity.

but on days with no sun and no wind the difference needs to be made up in some manner. using a mix of wind. Credits are normally rolled over month to month and any remaining surplus settled annually. Energy storage methods Solar energy is not available at night. from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation one. have the potential to eliminate the intermittency of solar power. and solar power generation. a combined power plant has been demonstrated. although for small distributed producer/consumers. Wind power and solar power can be complementary. The Solar Two used this method of energy storage. over transmission lines. biogas and hydrostorage to provide load-following power around the clock. with an efficiency of about 99%. or transported. net metering makes this transparent to the consumer. effectively using the grid as a storage mechanism. entirely from renewable sources. wind. Net metering programs give these systems a credit for the electricity they deliver to the grid. as the heat source can be used to generate electricity at will. This credit offsets electricity provided from the grid when the system cannot meet demand. Solar power installations are normally supplemented by storage or another energy source. and using this heat overnight or during periods that solar power is not available to produce electricity. in Germany. Pumped-storage hydroelectricity stores energy in the form of water pumped when surplus electricity is available. meaning that all available output must be taken when it is available and either stored for when it can be used. to where it can be used. The Institute for Solar Energy Supply Technology of the University of Kassel pilot-tested a combined power plant linking solar. by storing spare solar power in the form of heat. . for example with wind power and hydropower. Combining power sources in a power plant may also address storage issues. in locations that experience more wind in the winter and more sun in the summer. biomass. excess electricity can be sent to the transmission grid. solar power generation is usually combined either with storage or other energy sources to provide continuous power. The energy is recovered when demand is high by releasing the water: the pump becomes a turbine. This technology has the potential to make solar power dispatchable. Solar energy can be stored at high temperatures using molten salts.Since solar radiation is intermittent. Off-grid PV systems have traditionally used rechargeable batteries to store excess electricity. Salts are an effective storage medium because they are low-cost. Both wind power and solar power are intermittent energy sources. resulting in 100% renewable energy. On a slightly larger scale. With grid-tied systems. allowing it to store enough heat in its 68 m³ storage tank to provide full output of 10 MWe for about 40 minutes. hydro-. and the motor a hydroelectric power generator. have a high specific heat capacity and can deliver heat at temperatures compatible with conventional power systems. making energy storage an important issue in order to provide the continuous availability of energy.

which are much cheaper. Advantages of Solar Power Since solar energy comes directly from the sun. in terms of gases. households around the world use the planet¶s energy resourcesConventional energy sources will be depleted quickly. This is why solar-powered devices. the use of solar power minimizes negative impacts on the surrounding environment. it is not only renewable. unless more renewable sources are utilized. But most of the cost involved is in the initial purchase and installation of a solar power system ± not running costs. Solar panels placed on rooftops also double as a heat absorbers. One source of clean and renewable energy is solar power. Most manufacturers of solar panels provide twenty-year warranties for their equipment. but it also causes zero noise pollution ± since there are no moving parts in any of the devices which are used to capture the sunlight. or nighttime strikes. and produces no greenhouse gases or waste products. guaranteeing long-life operation. considering the other devices involved. energy collection comes to a halt. Fortunately. the entire process. maintenance costs are low as well ± only occasional cleaning and periodic battery replacements are needed. including flashlights. This includes portable devices that utilize solar energy.ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SOLAR ENERGY Every day. using the application of simple do-it-yourself techniques. unlimited amounts of solar power can be collected and put to good use. but also accessible in any part of the world. Disadvantages of Solar Power The most obvious drawback of solar energy is its sole dependence on the sun. And even when these materials are taken out of the equation. can be a bit costly. Solar power is also one of the cleanest forms of energy. Solar panels can also be expensive. are gaining in popularity and are proving to be efficient energy savers. However. slightly cooling the top area of the house which is directly below the roof. . because of the materials that are used to create them. since it creates no pollution. there are some people who sell damaged solar cells. For residential uses. recent advancements of technology now allow the generated power to be stored in special batteries which provide roughly enough electricity to last a night. Once the weather becomes cloudy. These damaged solar cells can be used to build fully functional solar panels. Not only is solar energy non-pollutant. making it a safer alternative to wind or hydro power. As long as the proper equipment is utilized. Because no moving parts are used.

but it makes a great complimentary addition to other energy forms WIND POWER . it is also true that direct sunlight is needed in order to make the most of the sun¶s energy ± and to generate the highest amounts of power. solar energy isn¶t perfect. What s the Bottom Line? More research and development continues to be invested into this growing technology. This significantly restricts the placement of solar panels. and that¶s a good sign for the future of our households ± as solar power may one day be used more frequently than other energy sources.Although in every part of the world. Of course. due to lesser sunlight. And some areas in the world may receive little benefit. there is at least some point in time when the sun shines.

Other resources. NUCLEAR POWER . and 7% in Germany and the Republic of Ireland in 2008. Several countries have achieved relatively high levels of wind power penetration. renewable. Utility companies increasingly buy back surplus electricity produced by small domestic turbines. At the end of 2008. and standard load management techniques must be used to match supply with demand. wind power produced about 1. In 2008. worldwide nameplate capacity of wind-powered generators was 121. Wind energy as a power source is attractive as an alternative to fossil fuels. Wind power is non-dispatchable. Where wind is to be used for a moderate fraction of demand such as 40%. because it is plentiful. smaller facilities are used to provide electricity to isolated locations. The intermittency of wind seldom creates problems when using wind power to supply a low proportion of total demand. clean.5% of worldwide electricity usage. additional costs for compensation of intermittency are considered to be modest. widely distributed. 11% in Spain and Portugal. such as 19% of stationary electricity production in Denmark. the construction of wind farms is not universally welcomed due to their visual impact and other effects on the environment.Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy. having doubled in the three years between 2005 and 2008. Large-scale wind farms are connected to the electric power transmission network. eighty countries around the world are using wind power on a commercial basis. such as electricity. However. such as hydropower. using wind turbines. As of May 2009. and is growing rapidly. meaning that for economic operation. all of the available output must be taken when it is available. and produces no greenhouse gas emissions.2 gigawatts (GW).

with the U. The only method in use today produces power via nuclear fission. have no active nuclear power stations. Nuclear Power generators are forecast to be worth $18 billion. Estonia. while the Coal and Gas Electricity industry is projected to be worth $85 billion by 2013. increases in the load factor for the current fleet of reactors appear to have plateaued. Also. more than 150 nuclear-powered naval vessels have been built. the IAEA reported there were 439 nuclear power reactors in operation in the world. Also..1% of the world's energy and 15% of the world's electricity. In the European Union as a whole. The United States produces the most nuclear energy. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency. France. and Japan together accounting for 56. and Ireland. while France produces the highest percentage of its electrical energy from nuclear reactors²78% as of 2006. In 2007. 14% of the world's electricity came from nuclear power. In 2007. France has a large number of these plants. In the US. In 2007.Nuclear power is any nuclear technology designed to extract usable energy from atomic nuclei via controlled nuclear reactions. nuclear power provided 2. which is then converted into mechanical work for the purpose of generating electricity or propulsion.5% of nuclear generated electricity. Use As of 2005. such as Austria. operating in 31 countries. All utility-scale reactors heat water to produce steam. which shut down all seven reactors at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant. In comparison.S. with nuclear power providing 19% of the electricity it consumes. nuclear energy provides 30% of the electricity. the main reason for this was an earthquake in western Japan on 16 July 2007. with 16 multi-unit stations in current use. nuclear power's share of global electricity generation dropped to 14%. Nuclear energy policy differs between European Union countries. and a few radioisotope rockets have been produced. though other methods might one day include nuclear fusion and radioactive decay (see below). and some. There were also several other reductions and "unusual outages" experienced in Korea and Germany. .

It is therefore usually more economical to run them as long as possible. a form of nuclear propulsion. Proponents also point out that nuclear power is the only viable course to achieve energy independence for most Western countries. operation and maintenance costs. and dispute whether the risks can be reduced through new technology. . A few space vehicles have been launched using full-fledged nuclear reactors: the Soviet RORSAT series and the American SNAP-10A. International research is continuing into safety improvements such as passively safe plants. or construct additional reactor blocks in existing facilities. Critics believe that nuclear power is a potentially dangerous energy source. can give nuclear power a cost advantage.Many military and some civilian (such as some icebreaker) ships use nuclear marine propulsion. Debate on nuclear power Proponents of nuclear energy contend that nuclear power is a sustainable energy source that reduces carbon emissions and increases energy security by decreasing dependence on foreign oil. and construction time could reduce the gap. in contrast to the chief viable alternative of fossil fuel combustion. and for use in district heating systems. and the disadvantages of centralized electricity production. for desalinating sea water. plausible reductions by industry in capital cost. estimates for the cost of a new plant in the U. and additional uses of process heat such as hydrogen production (in support of a hydrogen economy). new nuclear power plant construction costs were rising faster than the costs of other types of power plants. the use of nuclear fusion. In 2008. Critics point to the issue of storing radioactive waste. the continuing possibility of nuclear proliferation. However. if enacted by government. the history of and continuing potential for radioactive contamination by accident or sabotage. Proponents also emphasize that the risks of storing waste are small and can be further reduced by using the latest technology in newer reactors and that the operational safety record in the Western world is excellent when compared to the other major types of power plants. A prestigious panel assembled for a 2003 MIT study of the industry found the following: In deregulated markets. with decreasing proportion of nuclear energy in production. Economics The economics of nuclear power plants are primarily influenced by the high initial investment necessary to construct a plant. Carbon emission credits. In 2009. ranged from $6 to $10 billion. Proponents advance the notion that nuclear power produces virtually no air pollution.S. nuclear power is not now cost competitive with coal and natural gas. Arguments of economics and safety are used by both sides of the debate.

10 percent this year by government estimates. The number of unemployed Americans is nearing 15 million and prospects for the job market remain gloomy.S.2 percent jump recorded last year. utilities say. it will likely be less than half the 6.DEMAND FOR ELECTRICITY Consumers and businesses may finally be seeing some relief from rising utility bills. While rates will probably begin edging up again in 2010.7 percent this year. This pullback by some of the biggest energy users in the U. Prices on wholesale markets are expected to decline for the rest of 2009. electricity demand in decades. Given the broad apprehension over the economy. The decline in power usage over the past year is a rarity and also an indication of how badly the recession has jolted the economy and changed the way Americans spend. at the very least. The recession has suppressed demand for coal. when power consumption fell 1. Government forecasters see consumption falling another 2. less of an increase. This has sent a ripple through wholesale electric markets. executive director of the National Association of State Utility Consumer Advocates." said Charlie Acquard. And these days that's not bad. "You might see a decrease in your bill or. . Retailers just reported their 12th straight month of declining sales and many people are buying only what they must.6 percent. natural gas and oil. That would mark the first time since 1949 that the nation has seen energy demand fall in consecutive years. energy demand has only moved in one direction and prices have followed suit. air conditioners and other gizmos. Power consumption by the industrial and manufacturing companies that make everything from cars to cotton swabs has fallen faster than anywhere else . Carolinas and the South during the second quarter.S. You can trace the shift from major industrial power users all the way back to individual consumers to see what has happened. where fossil fuels are turned into energy. For decades as Americans bought more electronics. Industrial consumption fell about 20 percent in parts of the Midwest. may provide a silver lining for millions of people and businesses in the form of declining or flattening utility bills. thanks to the biggest decline in U. The shift began last year. according to the Energy Information Agency. more appliances. any money consumers can keep in their pockets may help.

you stand a good chance of getting some relief.000 customers are up this summer. prices for Pepco's 750. about 250. will spend tens of billions of dollars to come up with ways to remove carbon dioxide from emissions. . The difference is that TXU buys power based off spot natural gas prices. Customers will feel it in their wallets when they do. The big wild card is the legislation pending in Congress that may require utilities to cut emissions of carbon dioxide to address global warming. There are many factors that affect your bill and most of them tend to drive it higher. In the Washington. enjoy it while you can. West or in a central state like Texas where rates are based on spot prices. D.S. "Nobody wants that when you're budgeting energy for home or business.2 million customers of TXU Energy saw monthly rates fall 15 percent in August. What's more. If you are getting a break from your power provider already. They are going to want to recoup some of those costs. especially those that rely on coal.In the PJM wholesale market that coordinates prices in all or parts of 13 states in the eastern half of the country. rates tend to be more stable. Customers in more regulated markets or in spots where utilities calculate bills based on longterm contracts will not benefit so much. Utilities. most meteorologists see a relatively warm winter on the way. In those markets. After a very mild summer in which it made more sense to open the windows of your home rather than crank up the air conditioning. the U.000 of the 2. The weather is helping as well. area. He expects prices to begin dropping gradually. Pepco buys power on wholesale markets with a three-year time horizon that is designed to eliminate roller-coaster like swings in prices. down about 80 percent in the past year. if any. How much of a break you get in your bill." Pepco spokesman Clay Anderson said. prices are down about 40 percent from a year ago. and for how long comes down to where you live. A rebounding economy will certainly give energy prices a boost. power infrastructure is aging and new plants and transmission lines must be built or replaced.C. If you reside in the Northeast. That is going to cost businesses and consumers in the years ahead. In Texas.

generation types. The major reason for not including the DSM alternatives is due to the difficulty in integrating these in the modeling approach adopted here. plan capacity additions to bridge the existing gap and to meet future increase in demand. an integrated mathematical model. energy and power shortages. In India. lack of enthusiasm among the private and foreign investors. The main focus of the present research work is on the development of an integrated approach for electricity planning using a mathematical modeling framework in the context of resource constrained systems. which is expected to generate a target plan for a detailed generation scheduling exercises and a requirement plan for a regular generation expansion planning. Therefore it is not surprising to observe the economic growth of a country being related to the increase in electricity consumption. appropriate nonsupply options (rationing measures) for effective management of shortages are identified. this kind of integration is very essential. which are characterized by shortages. However. These reasons have made the electric power industry one of the fastest growing sectors in most developing countries and particularly in India. in the case of constrained electricity systems. the supply and demand situation has been studied in the context of resource constraints. and strong opposition from the environmentalists have further contributed to this slow pace of new generating capacity addition. In terms of supply. The other important alternative "DemandSide-Management (DSM)". new supply and non-supply (rationing) of electricity. The electricity system of the state of Karnataka. the growth rate of demand for power is generally higher than that of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In the present approach we have used typical daily load curves (RLCs) to . Also. has been developed. The demand patterns have been studied by introducing a new concept of "Representative Load Curves (RLCs)". Indeed it is the fulcrum which can leverage the future pace of growth and development. However. medium and long term issues in electricity planning. which is severely constrained by both limited capital and energy resources. Incorporating this information. These RLCs are used to model the temporal and structural variations in demand for electricity. There are very few attempts in the literature to integrate short. To achieve this. It is probably one of the most vital infrastructural inputs for economic development of a country. to achieve this kind of growth in electricity supply. because of its quality and convenience of usage.SUPPLY OF ELECTRICITY Electricity is the most preferred source of energy. As a first step. planned and proposed capacity additions by public and private sectors. The integrated approach is expected to achieve effective supply-demand matching on a continuous basis encompassing both the short term and long term horizons. This is understandable from the point of view of unconstrained electricity systems where this type of integration is unnecessary since such systems have a luxury of surplus capacity to meet the current demand and capacity additions are required only for meeting predicted future increase in demand. These systems have to manage with inadequate capacity in the present. import potential. and always explore the possibility of adding capacity with short gestation period. technical constraints. we have considered three alternativesexisting supply. this is inadequate to add the required quantum of new generation capacity to keep pace with the increase in demand for electricity. etc. This has resulted in severely constrained systems in India. the capital investments required are very huge. both existing and future additions are studied in detail with respect to the potential created. Even though the electricity sector generally gels a major share in the budgetary allocations in India. which could be considered as an effective option to achieve efficient supply-demand matching has not been included in the present research work. has been selected for this purpose. Additional constraints like capital scarcity in the public sector.

This. Therefore. (ii) operational and strategic planning in terms of providing target plans for the former and requirement plans for the latter. Two types of integrations are attempted (i) existing supply. The results show that these RLCs adequately model the variations in demand and bring out the distinctions in the demand patterns existed during the unconstrained and constrained years. Concerning the second objective. These are aggregate load curves and do not contain any sector-wise or end-use-wise details. The first objective of the research pertains to the development of a new approach to model the varying demand for electricity. and to meet the future increases in demand. Multiple discriminant analysis has been used to cluster the 365 load curves into nine RLCs for each of the four years. Multifactor ANOVA analyses are performed to quantify the statistical significance of the ability of the logically obtained factors in explaining the overall variations in demand. The overview also presented a discussion on reasons for non-supply of electricity. Broadly. we attempted to bring out the differences in various approaches in terms of solution methods adopted. a separate section is devoted to present an overview of the non-supply of electricity and its economic impacts on the consumers. impacts of constraints on preferred pattern of electricity consumption. We also attempted to explain what we mean by non-supply of electricity. Using the concept of Representative Load Curves (RLCs) we model the hourly demand for a period of four years. For the present study. Finally. For this purpose it may be required to have end-use-wise daily load curves. The results of the ANOVA analysis clearly showed that the considered factors accounted for maximum variations in demand at very high significance levels. what are its cost implications and the methods available in the literature to estimate these costs. we explained in detail. To incorporate DSM alternatives. On the other hand. we briefly reviewed the literature on models for power and energy rationing. we restricted our focus to supply planning alone. because management of shortages is an important aspect of the present study. 1993-94. Also. we should have information on end-use-wise power demand (kW or MW). optimal rationing plan to effectively manage shortages and rationally decide on the new capacity additions both to bridge the existing gap between supply and demand. A detailed literature review is conducted to understand different types of modeling approaches to electricity planning. to understand the demand patterns of both unconstrained and constrained years. nonsupply and new supply options for dynamically matching supply and demand. There is also an attempt to arrive at an optimal mix of public and private capacity additions for a given situation. The demand analysis using RLCs helped to study the differences in demand patterns with and without constraints. and the types of non-supply options the utilities adopt to overcome these shortages. We found that the low reliability of the electrical system is an indicator of the existence of severe shortages of power and energy. we felt. alternatives included and modifications suggested. success of non-supply options in both reducing the demand levels and greatly disturbing the electricity usage patterns. is out of the scope of this present research work and a separate study may be required to do this. the development of an integrated mixed integerprogramming model. 1994-95. savings potential. the approach addresses the effective management of existing capacity. Subsequently. it has been attempted to verify the possibility of . This information is not available and a separate detailed survey may be required to generate these load curves. the review of literature has been restricted to the methods of generation expansion planning and scheduling. DSM alternatives are end-use focused. which we felt is appropriate for planning in the case of resource constrained electricity systems. which cause non-supply of electricity to the consumers. time-of-use. In doing so. It also brought out the significant influence of rationing measures in explaining the variations in demand during the constrained years. however.represent the demand for electricity. 1995-96 and 1996-97. etc.

the impacts of privatization on the public utility and consumers are analyzed. The scenario analyses also showed that it is more economical to have some level of planned rationing compared to having a more reliable system. are highly ad hoc and sub-optimal. The base case scenario analyses are carried out for both the unconstrained and constrained years to compare the optimal allocations with actual allocations that were observed. we discussed in detail about the data required for the model implementation. guarantees and reliable supply of electricity. The unit cost comparisons among different scenarios show that the least cost choice of options by the utility does not necessarily lead to good choices from the consumers¶ perspective.integration of captive generation capacity with the grid. Further. the recommended range for plant utilization factor is 72.57%. The analyses have been useful in providing insights into fixing the availability and plant load factors for the private sector capacity. reflected by the actual RLCs. The estimates of unit cost of supply and effective cost of supply facilitated the relative comparison among various scenarios as well as finding out the merits and demerits of guarantees to private sector and non-supply of electricity. Overall. a number of scenarios are developed to study the optimal allocations of predicted hourly demand to private capacity under different situations. Using the results of scenario analyses. Both short term and long term scenarios are developed for this purpose. The quantum of new capacity additions required and the level of investments associated with it clearly indicated the urgent need of private sector participation in capacity additions. the major impact could be in terms of significant increase in expected tariffs. optimal matching of supply and demand could be achieved. For this purpose both the short horizon annual scenarios (1997-98 to 2000-01) and long horizon terminal year scenarios (2005-06 and 2010-11) are developed assuming capacity additions from only public sector. Other impacts of privatization that studied are in terms of increased number of alternatives for the utility to buy electricity for distribution and the associated increase in its cost of purchase. The unit cost estimates are also found to be useful in studying the relative increase in electricity prices for consumers on account of privatization. and to find out how sensitive are the results for any change in the values of various parameters. The major contributions of this thesis are summarized as follows: i.88 . The model is validated through the development of a number of scenarios for the state of Karnataka. likely generation expansion plans till the year 2010-11 are generated. we made an attempt to verify the applicability of the integrated model to analyze the implications of private sector participation in capacity additions. Secondly. Finally. For the constrained years. An . The results also showed the negative impacts of high guarantees offered to the private sector in terms of the opportunity costs of reduced utilization of both the existing and new public capacity. a few more scenarios are used to compare the optimal practice of managing shortages with to what has been actually followed by the utility. Further. The results showed the advantage of marginal non-supply of electricity both in terms of achieving overall effective supply-demand matching and economic benefits that could be generated through cost savings.80. The estimated generation losses and the associated economic impacts of backing down of existing and new public capacity on account of guarantees offered to private sector are found to be significantly high. Based on the analysis. a number of future scenarios are developed to verify the ability of the model to achieve the overall objective of supply-demand matching both in the short and long term. the results indicated that with marginal contributions from non-supply options and if the public sector generates enough resources to add the required capacity. First. The optimal allocations of the predicted demand to various existing supply and nonsupply options clearly showed that the actual practice. Regarding the consumers. The analyses also showed that the backing down might take place mainly during nights and low demand periods of monsoon and winter seasons.

The concept of Representative Load Curves (RLCs). iii. Based on the analysis.80. The impacts of privatization of capacity additions are studied from the point of view of the utility and consumers in terms of expected increase in cost of purchase of electricity and tariffs.integrated approach to electricity planning that is reported here. and on the consumers ‡ Optimally verifying the feasibility of integrating the captive generation with the total system vi. daily and seasonal variations in demand. ii.‡ Optimal hourly and seasonal scheduling of various existing supply. namely. the recommended range for plant utilization factor is 72. Two groups of year-wise generation expansion plans are generated. which is introduced here. vii. impacts of constraints on preferred pattern of electricity consumption. This approach is most suited for severely constrained systems having to manage with both energy and capital resource shortages. This approach will overcome the limitations of current method of representation in the form of static and aggregate annual load duration curves. existing supply. type of non-supply. RLCs are also useful in identifying the factors influencing variations in demand. v. showed the negative impacts of these in terms of reduced utilization of both the existing and new public capacity. The demand analysis using RLCs helped to bring out the differences in demand patterns with and without constraints.57%. "non-supply of electricity" has been introduced in this thesis. which analyzed the impacts of high guarantees offered to the private sector. seasonal scheduling of hydro plants and maintenance scheduling). supplydemand matching. A brief overview of non-supply presented here includes reasons for non-supply. x. one with only public sector capacity additions and the other with private sector participation. These RLCs are useful for planning in resource constrained electricity systems and in situations where it is required to know the time variations in demand (e. all the RLCs developed for a given year are expected to model the hourly demand patterns of that year. xi. is unique in the sense that it considers options available under various alternatives. The scenarios. A new term. The analyses are also made for developing some insights into fixing the availability and plant load factors for the private capacity. Generation expansion plans till the year 2010-11 are developed using the results of various kinds of scenario analyses. ix. Together. The integration of operational and strategic planning with coherent target plans for the former and requirement plans for the latter bridges the prevailing gap in electricity planning approaches. which does not allow non-supply of electricity. iv. xii. A comparison of optimal (represented by optimal predicted RLCs) and actual (reflected by actual RLCs) practices facilitated by the model showed that the actual practice during constrained years is highly ad hoc and sub-optimal. methods to estimate cost of non-supply and factors influencing these estimates. captures the hourly. The results of the scenario analyses showed that it is more economical to have some amount of planned rationing compared to having a more reliable system.g. success of non-supply options in both reducing the demand levels and greatly disturbing the electricity usage patterns. The integrated mixed integer programming model developed in the study has been demonstrated as a planning tool for. We believe that the integrated .88 . viii. nonsupply and new supply options ‡ Estimation of supply shortages on a representative hourly basis using the information on resource constraints ‡ Effectively planning non-supply of electricity through appropriate power/energy rationing methods ‡ Estimation of the need for the new capacity additions both to bridge the existing gap and to take care of increase in future demand levels ‡ Optimal filling of gaps between demand and supply on a representative hourly basis through new supply of electricity ‡ Optimally arriving at the judicious mix of public and private capacity additions ‡ Studying the impacts of private capacity on the existing and new public sector capacity. non-supply and new supply. Multifactor ANOVA analyses results showed that the logically obtained factors accounted for maximum variations in demand at very high significance levels.

planning new generation capacity additions and effective rationing of electricity. The results reported here may also be used towards rationalization of Government policies vis-a-vis tariff structures in the supply of electricity. . It is also hoped that the fresh approach adopted in this thesis would attract further investigations in future research on resource constrained systems.approach presented and the results obtained in this thesis would help utilities (both suppliers and distributors of electricity) and governments in making rational choices in the context of resource constrained systems.

Mr. electric generator sets. net assets in excess of Rs. Bhatia International Ltd. Telecom. Anjuman Generators Providing industrial services like sale and purchase of old generators. battery charger. to generation. UPS.000 crores (US$ 81 billion). is the Founder and Chairman of the BCC Group. G. sound proof generator sets. silent generator sets.55. He is also the Managing Director of Bhatia International Limited.COMPANIES PROVIDING DIFFERENT TYPES OF POWER Reliance . kirloskar air cooled silent gensets. and net worth to the tune of Rs. Asian Diesel Corporation Manufacturers and exporters of electronic enclosures.30 MW . S. generator enclosures. AC-DC convector.000 crores (US$ 14 billion). diesel generator sets. drivers for Power LED.325. DC to AC convector and VHF battery chargers. Bhatia. transmission and distribution of power (Reliance Energy). sound proof enclosures. acoustic enclosures. and Airfield Lighting for a number of years. adapters.000 crores (US$ 29 billion).the largest base of Hydro Power in India with a high plant load factor. with a market capitalisation of Rs. our patriarch. kirloskar green engines generator. The interests of the Group range from communications (Reliance Communications) and financial services (Reliance Capital Ltd). SMPS. . Manufacturer and supplier of electronic equipments like switch mode power supplies. Bhakra Beas Management Board BBMB has an installed capacity of 2866. kirloskar diesel power generator. generator rent services.ADA Group The Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group is among India¶s top three private sector business houses on all major financial parameters. infrastructure and entertainment. Advanced Power Tech. generator repair services and sale purchase of engines and generator sets. Accurate Power Systems. Anand group The Anand Group have been catering to the needs of Power Sector in the filed of Power Control and Distribution. generator sets. Pune Suppliers and dealers of kirloskar genset. kirloskar silent gensets and kirloskar green silent canopy.115.

belt pulley. air cooled single cylinder generator and welding set cylinder generator. pin bush coupling. Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation Limited (KPTCL) Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation Limited is mainly vested with the functions of Transmission and Distribution of power in the entire State of Karnataka. Jindal Steel & Power Limited JSPL. close coupled double cylinder generator. Jubilee Plastics Manufacturer and supplier of transmission products. hermetic sealed relays. rope pulley.Enercon Systems India Enercon Systems India designs and builds in-house. flat pulley. Konarka . timing pulley. the challenge is to make and process steel without adversely impacting the environment. smf batteries and switchgear products. bolt on hub and weld on hub etc. GSPC has grown from operatorship of small fields in Gujarat into an expansive oil and gas exploration and production company across India in 6 quick years. automotive relays. The machines are being procured from the leading manufacturers in the world with total system integration to ensure world class rails. v belt pulley. shipping. telecom relays. powerful instrumentation. india energy management networks. power relays. electrical instruments. poly v pulley. radiator cylinder generator. oil & gas and telecom Excel Power Industries Manufacturers and exporters of water cooled single cylinder generator. jaw coupling. Gujarat State Petroleum Copporation Ltd. Its rise in the Hydrocarbon sector was helped in no small measure by the Central Government's opening of the sector to private participation in the early 1990s. constructions. taper bush. power. Essar Group The Essar Group is one of India's largest corporate houses with interests spanning the manufacturing and service sectors in both old and new economies: steel. electronic meters & energy conservation bangalore. taper bush adapter. GMR Group One of the big houses in Karnataka that has started a power project in Mangalore Guardian Controls Limited.Manufacturers of electromechanical relays like industrial relays. Guardian Controls Limited .

generator transformers and hermetically sealed transformer. distribution. The company develops and manufactures light-activated power plastic that is inexpensive. Ltd. Power Integration . with the goal of bringing the world's best battery technology to the country. Nippo Batteries Indo National Ltd..sound proof enclousre. PCI Limited The Prime Group with its penchant for excellence. top of the line capabilities and access to the state-of-the-art technology is touching wider horizons through a broad spectrum of experience and all-round activities. APFC Panel. weather proof acoustic enclosure.Konarka builds power plastic that converts light to energy anywhere. furnace transformers. Pondicherry Power Corporation Limited The Pondicherry Power Corporation was incorporated on 30.03. North Eastern Electric Power Corporation Limited The North Eastern Region of India possesses a high potential of hydel power together with other sources of power from natural gas and coal. auto transformers.. flexible and versatile. Japan. acoustic enclosure. round type safety valve silencer. Acoustical & Engineering Works Private Limited Manufacturer and supplier of safety valve silencer. lightweight. incinerator etc.1993 under the Chairmanship of the Chief Secretary to Government of Pondicherry to expedite the erection of Combined Cycle Gas Power Plant at Karaikal. bypass stack silencer. R. Nathpa Jhakri Power Corporation Ltd. keen commitment. noise control acoustic enclosures. the second largest dry cell battery manufacturer in India was incorporated in 1972 as a joint venture with Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. National Genset Power Corporation Manufacturer of escorts silent genset. start up vent valve. silencer and axial flow fan etc. dry type transformers. Melcon Manufacturer and exporter of all types of power transformers. Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam (formerly Nathpa Jhakri Power Corporation Ltd) has run up all six 250MW units of the Nathpa Jhakri Hydroelectric Power project. P.

AC power supply. Servotech Power Systems Private Limited Manufacturers of solar power inverters. water cooled generator. electric generators.welding generators. plain & printed polyester pouches & laminates. power converter. Pune Manufacturer and supplier of process calibration. digital transmitter and power analyzer. pfc modules. . Enterprises. power inverter. portable generators. The strength of the organization lies in its purpose oriented professional manpower. printing rollers. Ltd. end-to-end power protection. Powerware India Powerware Corporation offers a range of innovative. transformers and amf panels etc. power stablizers. telecom turnkey solutions and management solutions for information technology and other electronic devices. invertors. Rai & Sons Pvt. DC power supply. automatic inverters. bridge rectifiers. Shiv Power Corporation Exporter of all types of power generators. Reliance Energy Ltd. All drives are manufactured in-house in a carefully controlled. S. Goa and Andhra Pradesh. temperature transmitter. P.Manufacturers and exporters electrical engineering products. electric converter. temperature calibration. industrial servo stabilizers. water pumps. It has a significant presence in generation. Ltd. plain & printed pharma foils. solar power inverter. DC power supply. Reliance Energy Ltd is India's leading integrated power utility company in the private sector. Rai & Sons is a Family Owned Business. air cooled generators. transmission and distribution of power in Maharashtra. voltage stabilizers. Roto Polymers India Manufacturing and exporting flexible food packaging material like plain & printed aluminium blister foils. sine wave inverters. power energy saver and UPS mix load. high frequency inverters. Powermag has been the leader in manufacture and developement of eddy current variable speed drives. multistep process. power inverters. ups. power vopltage stablizers. Powermag Control Systems Pvt. servo stabilizer. energy saver. glassine paper with foil based laminates.

Shri Shakti Shri Shakti Alternative Energy Ltd. communication system and power applications including data switches. printer refills etc. Visu Casments Pvt. which is leading exporter and manufacturer of Diesel Oil Engines beside 'Anand Enterprise'. . The Durgapur Projects Limited Durgapur today assumes a significant position in the industrial map of West Bengal. The Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam Ltd. Systems Creator. stabilizer. electronic generator. Ltd. Vetril Systems Pvt. of HP. United Power United Power is an sister concern of Power Engineering Corporation.from steel to power and from cement to mining machinery. It has a whole gamut of manufacturing units . The 1500 MW Nathpa Jhakri Hydroelectric Power Project (NJHPP) is the first project commissioned by the company. of India and Govt. Ltd Bangalore based dealer for batteries. mosquito magnet. 1988 as a joint venture of Govt. Systems Creator . Exporter of all kinds of pneumatic tools. alternative energy products like heating without electricity. was incorporated on May 24. suppressor.Provide computer peripherals. The Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam Ltd. offers various Energy Efficient Products and Services under a common theme called Friendly Energy Solutions.CVT and UPS. an Rubber exporting unit.

construct and operate power projects in the domestic and international markets. and four hydroelectric projects (3. creating India's IPO record.000 MW). 650-700.. Anil Ambani would go past L. the company attracted $27.RELIANCE POWER Reliance Power Limited. it is presently developing 13 medium and large-sized power projects with a combined planned installed capacity of 33. a part of the Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group. Mittal to become the richest Indian.. "It is a reflection of world community in the future of India. They include six coal-fired projects (14. equivalent to 10. was established to develop. northern India (9. and to Reliance Power Limited in July 2007 The company website identifies project sites broadly to be located in western India (12.220 MW) and southern India (4.5 times the stock on offer. if the company¶s stock price were to cross Rs. Initial public offering and controversies On January 15. an Indian private sector power utility company along with the Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group promotes Reliance Power. P.300 MW). Chidambaram told the media about the IPO. Investors seem to be confident in the future of Indian economy. two gas-fired projects (10. A media report suggested that. About the company The company was incorporated in January 1995 as Bawana Power Private Limited and changed its name to Reliance Delhi Power Private Limited in February 1995. .280 MW) to be fueled primarily by reserves from the Krishna Godavari basin (the "KG Basin") off the east coast of India.220 MW). The upper cut off price for the bid was Rs." Indian Finance Minister. The proposed IPO was to fund the development of its six power projects across the country whose completion dates are scheduled from December 2009 to March 2014. three of them in Arunachal Pradesh and one in Uttarakhand. 2008. thereby. N. to Reliance Energy Generation Limited in March 2004. Reliance Energy Limited. 450.5 billion of bids on the first day of its initial public offering (IPO). it changed its name to Reliance EGen Private Limited in January 2004.620 MW) to be fueled by reserves from captive mines and supplies from India and abroad. Along with its subsidiaries. Later.480 MW.080 MW) and northeastern India (4.

2008. the markets were still reeling after the January 2008 stock market volatility.5 or even twice its issue price lost a fortune in the process. . the Supreme Court of India passed a ruling that the IPO would go ahead even if any order is passed by any Indian court against the venture. However. which is an organization that regulates the activity in the Indian stock market. in an effort to mitigate investor losses. Reliance Power decided to issue 3 bonus shares for every 5 shares held. placed some restrictions based on a complaint about the formulation of the IPO. the stock traded at a value that was 17 per cent lower than its issue price of Rs. However. Reliance Power debuted on the stock markets on February 11. The complaint also resulted in a public interest litigation being filed against the company. Investors who were betting on the stock reaching 1. 450. and concerns over speculation that the issue was overpriced sent the stock plummeting soon after its listing.The Securities and Exchange Board of India. On February 25. At the end of the day.

Tata Power has served Mumbai¶s consumers for over nine decades. Jojobera in Jharkhand and Belgaum in Karnataka. hydro. Of particular interest are the Jebel Ali µG¶ station (4 x 100 MW + desalination plant) . This joint venture serves over 800.000 consumers (in a population of 4. NDPL has achieved some success in cutting down the losses from 51% to 28% in span of five years. The Distribution joint venture with the Government of Delhi called the North Delhi Power Limited´ (NDPL).5 million) spread over in an area of 510 km and has a peak load of 1050 MW. . Africa and South East Asia. Karjat. Tata Power has a presence in thermal. the company now has generation capacities in the States of Jharkhand and Karnataka and a Distribution Company in Delhi. the first 150 MW pumped storage unit at Bhira. The Company is a pioneer in the Indian power sector.TATA POWER History Started as the Tata Hydroelectric Power Supply Company in 1911. Tata installed India¶s first 500 MW unit at Trombay. and a flue gas desulphurization plant for pollution control at Trombay. International Operations The Company has also executed several overseas projects in the Middle East. The Company has been a front-runner in introducing state-of-the-art power technologies. The hydro stations are located in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra and the wind farm in Ahmednagar. The founders of Tata Power pioneered the generation of electricity in India with the commissioning of India¶s first large hydro-electric project in 1915 in Bhivpuri and Khopoli. it is an amalgamation of two entities: Tata Hydroelectric Power Supply Company and Andhra Valley Power Supply Company (1916). Operations The thermal power stations of the company are located at Trombay in Mumbai. Outside Mumbai. has met with considerable success.Today Tata Power Company Limited is India¶s largest private sector electricity generating company with an installed generation capacity of over 2670 MW. transmission and retail. At 2. solar and wind areas of power generation.4% the Company's transmission & distribution losses are among the lowest in the country.

.in Dubai. Shuwaikh (5 x 50 MW) in Kuwait. EHV substations in UAE and Algeria. A unique aspect of this project is that for the first time in India a 4000MW power plant is being built utilizing one large construction project. and power plant operation and maintenance contracts in Iran and Saudi Arabia. The joint venture is India¶s first transmission project to be executed with public-private partnership. Future projects Tata Power has entered into a 51:49 joint venture with PowerGrid Corporation of India for the 1200 km Tala transmission project. Al-Khobar II (5 x 150 MW + desalination plant) and Jeddah III (4 x 64 MW + desalination plant) in Saudi Arabia. all other large projects have always involved stage construction. Tata Power has also won a contract for building 4000 MW power plant at Mundra.

Unlike the transport company. Bombay in November 1905 to generate electricity for its trams. The electricity department has 6. It provides power to over a million residential and commercial establishments and over 33. 220/110 kV. among the lowest in India. That positioned it to also supply electricity to the city of Bombay.T.Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (B. Established in 1873. BEST has a distribution loss of around 10% (2001). Originally setup as a tramway company: Bombay Electric Supply & Tramways Company. .000 street lights within the city limits. which means "Greater Mumbai".) The BEST (Brihanmumbai Electricity Supply and Transport) is Mumbai's public transport service and electricity provider. It now operates as an autonomous body. The power cables are laid underground. Thane and Mira-Bhayandar. it also operates a ferry service in the northern reaches of the city. the BEST set up a captive thermal power station at Wadi bunder. a week prior to India gaining independence. Until 1995. From 1926 the BEST started operating motor buses. the BEST has been sourcing its power from Tata Power. the BEST became an Undertaking of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. the electricity department services only the Mumbai City area. 50 Hz. The electricity division of the organization is also one of the few electricity departments in India to garner an annual net profit. and not the suburbs. BEST stood for Bombay Electricity Supply and Transport. The nominal rating of power supplied by BEST is 3-phase. the BEST operates one of India's largest fleets of buses.E. Electric department Since 1926. In addition to buses.000 employees. After the name of the city was formally changed from Bombay to Mumbai. part of the Tata Group conglomerate. which reduces pilferage and other losses that plague most other parts of India. In 1947. The bus transport service covers the entire city and also extends its operations outside city limits into neighbouring Navi Mumbai. this was also reflected with the adjustment to Brihanmumbai.S.

They also plan to use solar power in gardens and street lighting where the demand is low. To comply with this act. which has made it mandatory for electricity providers to generate or purchase fixed percentage (6% for FY 2009±10) of their power through renewable sources. . which can be potentially used to generate 350 megawatts (469.358 hp) of electricity. Another option being considered is the possibility of using the 7.716 ST) of garbage disposed by the city on a daily basis. the RPS (Renewable purchase specification) framework came into force.000 tones (6. BEST plans to install photovoltaic cells in each of its 25 depots. 7.889 LT.In 2006.

Punjab and Uttarakhand. ..025 crore in 1997. The plant is designed to enable enhancement of operational efficiencies and minimizing environmental impact. the 216 MWJegurupadu combined cycle power plant (CCPP) with an investment of Rs 1. While Jegurupadu Combined Cycle Power Plant is operational. gas and hydel resources. GVK Power and Infrastructure Limited (GVKPIL) has initiated power projects that will cross over 2000 MW capacity once operational.) is an Indian diversified enterprise. The projects are being developed across several States in the country including Andhra Pradesh. Services and Manufacturing sector.I GVK has been the pioneer in power sector setting up India's first Independent Power Project (IPP). GVK is developing power projects that are based on coal. roads. airports. Health and Safety. IFC Washington has noted the plant as a 'Model Power Plant' taking into consideration its performance in Environment. The project is one of its kind and has been lauded as the 'horticulture project that also produces power'. GVK'scommitment to the environment is evident from the extensive green belt area created in and around the project that has also won international appreciation. The Energy Resources Institute (TERI) awarded Eco-Rating 'A' Gold Star. a group of companies with a predominant focus on Infrastructure projects (power. Projects in Operation: Jegurupadu Combined Cycle Power Plant .GVK INDUSTRIES Introduction The GVK Group (GVK Industries Ltd. and also some activities in Hospitality. . several ambitious power projects are under development..). its highest ranking followed by a thorough audit.

the provisions of the Act will ensure that the existing monopolies are dismantled. 2003. Punjab. A Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) between GVK and the Punjab Electricity Board was executed in the year 2000 and a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed in early 2006.5 MW. Goriganga Power Project The Government of Uttarakhand has granted the Goriganga Power Project to GVK in November 2005. The Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) for the project was signed with the Uttar Pradesh Power Corporation Limited (UPPCL) in 2006. efficiency is improved and the quality and quantity of supply are enhanced. The project was allocated by theGovernment of Punjab to GVK subsequent to an international competitive bidding process. to radically transform India's Power Sector over the medium to long term. The project comprises of two steam turbines of 300 MW each. The Electro-mechanical works have been awarded to Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL). The coal for the project is sourced from GVK's captive mines at Tokisud North sub-block in Jharkhand. New Opportunities: Merchant Power GVK expects the Electricity Act.Projects Under Development: Coal Based Goindwal Sahib Power Project GVK is developing a 600 MW Coal Based thermal Power Plant at Goindwal Sahib. The project comprises four units of 92. When fully implemented.Sirkari Hydro Electric Power Plant on the river Goriganga in Pittoragarh District of Uttarakhand. The project has achieved financial closure in August 2007. Hydel Based Shrinagar Hydro Power Project GVK is implementing 330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Power Project located 110 km from Rishikesh. comprising four units of 82. The project involves setting up of a 370 MW Mapang .5 MW each. .

provide for licences for transmission. distribution and trading.This landmark Act will eventually supercede all existing legislations in the sector. allowing setting up of power generation plants without licences. GVK is geared up to tap the Enormous Potential and Opportunities this scenario will offer and to establish pioneering projects in the sector. allow immediate general access to transmission infrastructure and a phased open access for the distribution systems. .

Every fourth home in India is lit by NTPC. 170. 1956. 2005. NTPC¶s share at 31 Mar 2001 of the total installed capacity of the country was 24. The Net Profit after Tax on March 31. 2006 was INR 58.National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) NTPC Limited (Formerly National Thermal Power Corporation) is the largest power generation company in India.65% more than for the same quarter in the previous financial year. NTPC signed a joint venture with Indian Railways to set up a 1. The primary reason for this is the company's foray into hydro and nuclear based power generation along with backward integration by coal mining.88BU of electricity was produced by its stations in the financial year 2005-2006. The JV would be called Bharatiya Rail Bijlee Company. 1975. which is 18. It is an Indian public sector company listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange although at present the Government of India holds 89.5% of its equity. the name of the Company "National Thermal Power Corporation Limited" has been changed to "NTPC Limited" with effect from October 28. .202 million. 2005 and the approval of the Central Government under section 21 of the Companies Act. NTPC's core business is engineering. National Thermal Power (NTPC) the 138 position in 2009 Upcoming/future projects In November 2007. It was founded on November 7.000 megawatt (MW) power plant in Nabinagar in Bihar. Net Profit after Tax for the quarter ended June 30.51% and it generated 29.68% of the power of the country in 2008-09. Pursuant to a special resolution passed by the Shareholders at the Company¶s Annual General Meeting on September 23. 2005). Forbes Global 2000 for 2009 ranked it 317th in the world. 2006 was INR 15528 million. construction and operation of power generating plants and providing consultancy to power utilities in India and abroad.

the National Hydroelectric Power Corporation has also grown to enfold dimensions such as geothermal energy. while it has a paid up capital of Rs. and promoting hydroelectric power in India. and adhering to best practices within the industry. 150. 9. The NHPC has grown to such a large extent now that it can independently handle each and every stage of complicated hydroelectric projects in India. Asian Development Bank. The company has power stations located at strategic regions such as Madhya Pradesh. organizing. 9740 lakh. In 2006-07. Consultancy Development Center. S.000 million. Recently. As of now. . Objectives of NHPC: The National Hydroelectric Power Corporation was set up with the objective of attaining worldclass standards in every stage of hydroelectric project management and allied activities. NHPC received consultancy projects worth Rs. the company attained a sales figure of Rs. 254. In 2003-04 alone.National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC) National Hydroelectric Power Corporation. Himachal Pradesh. Sikkim. 111. 250. wind energy. NHPC has earned quite a reputation for itself in the domain of consultancy projects and it is a registered consultant with the likes of the World Bank. and tidal energy within its perimeters to such as extent that the company now has an authorized capital of Rs.630 million and earned a net profit worth Rs.K. The National Hydroelectric Power Corporation is headed by Mr. The NHPC was set up as a fully integrated unit for hydroelectric power in India that would take care of all aspects pertaining to planning.000 million worth of authorized capital. 2. It is an enterprise under the Indian government and started off with Rs. The company also deals in consultancy services and is certified with ISO 9001 and ISO 14001. also known as NHPC came into existence in 1975.248 million.000 million. During the same financial year. Manipur. The net value of all assets owned by NHPC is Rs. the company received consultancy payments to the tune of Rs. the National Hydroelectric Power Corporation is in the process of implementing as many as 13 projects with a total capacity of more than 5500 MW. The National Hydroelectric Power Corporation lays a lot of emphasis on continually upgrading its technology. and Central Water Commission. This has led to NHPC becoming one among the top ten companies in the country from the point of view of investment and in 2006-07 the power stations belonging to NHPC achieved a record power generation of more than 13. Garg who is the Chairman and Managing Director. Jammu & Kashmir.000 million and an investment base of approximately Rs. 19. 2663 lakh.982 million. enhancing its research and development facilities. and Uttarakhand.000 MU.

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