P. 1
Conversion of English Text to Braille Code vibration signal for Visually Impaired People

Conversion of English Text to Braille Code vibration signal for Visually Impaired People

|Views: 600|Likes:
Published by ijcsis
This paper is concerned with the translation of text to Braille code vibration signal in an electronic hand glove using an algorithm based on mathematical logic. It is built on a translation system that combines a finite state machine with left and right context matching and a set of translation rules. This allows the translation of different languages and different grades of Braille contraction, and text-to-Braille conversion. All the implementations perform translation correctly on a range of different operating systems and machines, demonstrating that they are platform-independent. English to Braille code signal vibration conversion responds to increased demands on the Braille code that is integrated education of blind children. The changes inherent in English To Braille code signal conversion are mostly minor for literary Braille and most evident for mathematics and science notations making Braille easier to learn by all stakeholders and easier to read and write for blind people. English to Braille Conversion is optimised for use by students integrated into regular schools, ideal for students using English as their primary or secondary language; and well-suited to the needs of blind students in developing countries
This paper is concerned with the translation of text to Braille code vibration signal in an electronic hand glove using an algorithm based on mathematical logic. It is built on a translation system that combines a finite state machine with left and right context matching and a set of translation rules. This allows the translation of different languages and different grades of Braille contraction, and text-to-Braille conversion. All the implementations perform translation correctly on a range of different operating systems and machines, demonstrating that they are platform-independent. English to Braille code signal vibration conversion responds to increased demands on the Braille code that is integrated education of blind children. The changes inherent in English To Braille code signal conversion are mostly minor for literary Braille and most evident for mathematics and science notations making Braille easier to learn by all stakeholders and easier to read and write for blind people. English to Braille Conversion is optimised for use by students integrated into regular schools, ideal for students using English as their primary or secondary language; and well-suited to the needs of blind students in developing countries

More info:

Published by: ijcsis on Sep 05, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/11/2012

pdf

text

original

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No.

5, 2010

Conversion of English Text to Braille Code vibration signal for Visually Impaired People
M.Rajasenathipathi
Assistant professor in Computer Science N.G.M. College of Arts and Science Pollachi- 642001, Tamilnadu, India Senathi_pathi@yahoo.co.in

Dr.M.Arthanari
Director Bharathidasan School of Computer Applications Ellispettai-638116, Tamilnadu, India arthanarimsvc@gmail.com

M.Sivakumar Doctoral Research Scholar Anna University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India sivala@gmail.com
Abstract - This paper is concerned with the translation of text to Braille code vibration signal in an electronic hand glove using an algorithm based on mathematical logic. It is built on a translation system that combines a finite state machine with left and right context matching and a set of translation rules. This allows the translation of different languages and different grades of Braille contraction, and text-to-Braille conversion. All the implementations perform translation correctly on a range of different operating systems and machines, demonstrating that they are platform-independent. English to Braille code signal vibration conversion responds to increased demands on the Braille code that is integrated education of blind children. The changes inherent in English To Braille code signal conversion are mostly minor for literary Braille and most evident for mathematics and science notations making Braille easier to learn by all stakeholders and easier to read and write for blind people. English to Braille Conversion is optimised for use by students integrated into regular schools, ideal for students using English as their primary or secondary languag; and well-suited to the needs of blind students in developing countries Keywords: Braille; cell; hand glove; viberation; characte; dot

vibration signal in a hand glove. The glove contains six vibration positions which equals to six raised dots of a Braille cell. Braille translation is not a trivial task, however, because there is a need to perform the contractions correctly. II.
BRAILLE CODE CONVERSION

A. What is Braille code As mentioned earlier Braille generally consists of cells of six raised dots arranged in a grid of two dots horizontally by three dots vertically. The dots are conventionally numbered 1, 2, and 3 from the top of the left column and 4, 5, and 6 from the top of the right column.The presence or absence of dots gives the coding for the symbol.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Figure 1 . A Braille Cell English Braille is used to code the letters punctuation symbols, some double letter signs and word signs directly but capital letters and numbers are dealt with by using a prefix symbol

Braille is a system of writing that uses patterns of raised dots to inscribe characters on paper. It therefore allows visuallyimpaired people to read and write using touch instead of vision .It is a way for blind people to participate in a literate culture. First developed in the nineteenth century, Braille has become the pre-eminent tactile alphabet. Its characters are six-dot cells, two wide by three tall. Any of the dots may be raised, giving 26 or 64 possible characters. Although Braille cells are used world-wide, the meaning of each of the 64 cells depends on the language that they are being used to depict. Different languages have their own Braille codes, mapping the alphabets, numbers and punctuation symbols to Braille cells in accordance with the varying needs. Braille characters can also be used to represent whole words or groups of letters. This text can then be translated into Braille

Figure 2. Words and Abbreviations of Braille cell

59

http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 5, 2010

Sample texts in Braille

Justification of computer Braille translation:

Be

kind

to

others

Figure 3. Example for Braille to English

Braille has come under attack in recent years, with studies showing decreasing usage due to changing patterns of education. Alternative technologies, like speech synthesis, now exist for many of its applications. It can be safely assumed that sighted people will use without complexity, but it is difficult for partially sighted or blind. There are fundamental reasons for continuing with Braille. • Reading and writing Braille code is a form of literacy: Literacy is a vital component of modern knowledge and society, and Braille code permits literacy for blind people. Using audio only technology denies literacy to Braille users. • Braille code is silent: Alternative technologies to Braille may not be useful in all circumstances. A speech synthesizer and speech interpreter forbid complete privacy and intrude on the local environment. This would not be appropriate in, for example, an office environment. • Braille code is accurate in reading: Speech synthesis is an alternative method to Braille code conversion. it may introduce different meanings. Problems will arise from words not known to the synthesizer, missspelt words, or with words pronounced differently according to context Reading straight from the text removes a potential source of error. • Braille code allows interpretation of the text by the reader, not by another: Any reader who wishes to interpret a text themselves – an actor, or a reader for pleasure – may want to form their own interpretation of a text, not be forced into that of a wrong logic in computer program or particular actor. In accuracies in interpretation may be possible. • Braille code is cheaper than computer technology: The mechanism to produce Braille vibration signal and produce Blind can understand the communication to the world very easily and it is new communication path for blind persons.
III

Figure 4. Letters, Numerals and Special symbols of Braille

B. Use of Braille with computer technology The recent development of personal computers has brought new benefits to Braille users that have access to them. Computerized Braille translation is one of these benefits, but it is not a straightforward process because of the complexities of Braille construction. • Difficulties of computer Braille translation:

BRAILLE CODE TRANSLATION MECHANISM

Construction makes Braille translation difficult. Without it, Braille translation would be a relatively text characters to Braille cells. Each language (English, French) would need its own unique mapping dictionary, but the operation would be trivial. Contraction greatly increases complexity, so computer translation is generally difficult. For example, in German, there are many words that are formed from the concatenation of other words, similar to the English.

With the profitable commercialization of several public translators the number of approaches available for study in the public realm has decreased. Approaches have inclined to be based around the use of dictionaries of specific translations and limited rule systems because of the trade-off between translation rule numbers and accuracy. The rules work with a ‘window’ of the input text that can potentially be translated, and examine the context to the right of the window to see a rule is correct to determine whether the window is in the middle or end of a word. A finite state machine determines whether the translation is performed. This may be still the basis for commercial products, but they have ceased to be published in the public domain.

60

http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 5, 2010

A finite state machine, the translation engine, works with, but is independent of a single language rules table. The former contains the translation algorithms and functions, and the latter all of the translation information for translation of one language in one direction. The translation engine can use any language rules table, so any language can be translated to or from Braille code if the language rules table is constructed. The language rules table consists of a set of translation rules and a decision table. During translation the engine works along the input text, character by character. It attempts to match a window of input text starting with the current character with one of the translation rules in the language rules table. A successful match with a translation rule must match a segment of text, the context, to the left and right of the window and the state of the engine. The engine state is controlled by a finite state machine, using the contents of the decision table, and regulates which subset of the language translation rules can be used. This allows both contracted and non-contracted translation can be supported from the same language rules table. The translation rule then provides the translation for that window of input text, which is appended to the growing output text, and the engine moves along the input text to the next unmatched character. A description of the structure of the language rules table will clarify the translation mechanism. A. The translation algorithm and process The details of the language rules table provided in the preceding sections should allow the algorithm of the translation engine to be understood. It initializes and loads language translation table and translate input text into Braille code then it send signals to operate Braille hand glove. Current character = first character of input While current character <> end of input Do Begin Start at first rule whose focus begins with current character Match = FALSE Do If focus matches And state is ok And right context matches And left context matches Begin Add output from matching rule to output buffer Set new state according to matching rule Match = TRUE Current character moved along input by length of focus End Else Go to next rule Until match End

Before translation starts, the input text is normalized, ensuring that any character in the text is appropriate for that language. This may be upper and lower case, for instance. It can simplify translation and can also allow more flexibility if required. The algorithm is high-level, but simple. The design does not make explicit what should output when no match is found for an input character. A space, or the input character, or another character, or nothing may be written, at the discretion of the implementer and produce the no vibration in Braille glove as output. The choice will reflect the final user requirements for an implementation of the system.
IV SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

A. Braille Transalation implementation Braille Trans is coded in the Matlab 7.6. It is designed to be compiled and run on one of the Microsoft Windows 32-bit operating systems (Windows '95/'98/Me or Windows NT/XP). When compiled to an executable program, in native code, it resides on a machine as a Windows Dynamic Linked Library (DLL). This is a binary executable that supplies a public interface to the Windows operating system and can thus be utilized by other Windows applications with comparative case. B. Hardware System Description The block diagram of Braille vibration hand glove system is as follows

PC

Micro Controller 89C51

Driver Relay 6

RS 232C

Relay 6

Vibrator 6

Figure 5. Block diagram for Vibration Hand Glove The vibration glove system will be comprised of the following key components 1. 89C51 Micro controller 2. Driver Relay 3. Relay 4. RS 232 C 5. Vibrator motor with hand glove

61

http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 5, 2010

Port 1 contains higher order address line (A8-A15). Port 3 contains special purpose register such as serial input receiver register SBUF, interrupt INT0,INT1 and timers T0 , T1 many of the pins have multi functions which can be used as general purpose I/O pins (or) Special purpose function can be decided by the programmer itself. The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8bit microcomputer with 4KB of Flash Programmable and Erasable Read Only Memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmel high density non-volatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard MCS-51™ instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. Here the vibration motor timing and on/off procedure is programmed in hi-tech c language and it is loaded in micro controller. Based on the signals from Braille code value it is activated with the corresponding motors in Braille hand glove. • RS-232: In telecommunications, RS-232 is a standard for serial binary data interconnection between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuit Terminating Equipment). It is commonly used in computer serial ports. In this circuit the MAX 232 IC used as level logic converter. The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA 232 voltage levels from a single 5V supply. Each receiver converts EIA-232 to 5V TTL/CMOS levels. Each driver converts TLL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. In this circuit the microcontroller transmitter pin is connected in the MAX232 T2IN pin which converts input 5V TTL/CMOS level to RS232 level. Then T2OUT pin is connected to receiver pin of 9 pin D type serial connector which is directly connected to PC. Here the Braille hand glove is connected to COM1 port of PC and it retrieves the Braille signals through RS232. • Vibrator motor: The main component in Braille glove is vibration motor. it is configured in two basic varieties ie coin (or flat) and cylinder (or bar). Cylinder type motors are simple brush motors with a traditional axial design. The centric movement of the weight attached to the rotor provides vibration during operation. In Braille glove it is best suited in finger positions. The amount of vibration is directly proportional to the voltage applied to the motor. Cylinder motors are manufactured in high volumes and are fairly inexpensive. An electrical current applied to the coil in the direction of the arrow generates upward force on the left side of the coil and downward force on the right side, causing the coil to revolve clockwise.
V. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER WORK

Figure 6. Braille Vibration Glove • Micro controller and Working principle: Microcontroller is a general purpose device, which integrates a number of the components of a microprocessor system onto single chip. It has inbuilt CPU, memory and peripherals to make it as a mini computer. A microcontroller is integrated with 1. CPU Core 2. RAM and ROM 3. Some parallel digital i/o ICs Microcontrollers will combine other devices such as: A timer module to allow the microcontroller to perform tasks for certain time periods. A serial I/O port to allow data to flow between the controller and other devices such as a PIC or another microcontroller. An ADC allows analogue input data to convert into digital data. Micro controller is a stand alone unit, which can perform functions on its own without any requirement for additional hardware like I/O ports and external memory. The heart of the microcontroller is the CPU core. In the past, this has traditionally been based on a 8-bit microprocessor unit. For example Motorola uses a basic 6800 microprocessor core in their 6805/6808 microcontroller devices. In the recent years, microcontrollers have been developed around specifically designed CPU cores, for example the microchip PIC range of microcontrollers.AT89C51 is the 40 pins, 8 bit Microcontroller manufactured by Atmel group. It is the flash type reprogrammable memory. Advantage of this flash memory is we can erase the program within few minutes. It has 4KB on chip ROM and 128 bytes internal RAM and 32 I/O pin as arranged as port 0 to port 3 each has 8 bit bin .Port 0 contains 8 data line(D0-D7) as well as low order address line(AO-A7).

The development of computer text and Braille translation is necessary for visually impaired community. A number of private translation programs exist, but their private

62

http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 5, 2010

ownership restricts open development. A translation algorithm has been developed and implemented in a Matlab 7.6 translation program and high-tech C language was used in Braille hand glove. However, a number of limitations of this implementation were identified: the platform and character-set dependency of the Matlab implementation, its standalone function, and the difficulties of using Braille Trans as part of a larger application. The project therefore proposed the development of a number of new classes to improve wherever possible on Braille Trans. The development of these classes was a success, and the time available was appropriate to the work required. REFERENCES [1] S.G. Basu ,A.lachikawa ,” Dialogue Languages and Persons with Disabilities”, IEICE transactions , Vol. E87-D, No 6,July 2004, pp 31-43. [2]Blenkhorn ,” A system for converting Braille into print”, IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering , Vol. 3 no 2, August 1995 pp 215-221 . [3]H. Choi ,W. Lee W ,” Tactile Display as Braille Display for the Visually Disabled ”, in proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Systems, July 2004, pp 1985-1990 . [4] J. P. Fritz Barner ,” Design of a Hepatic Visualization System for People with Visual Impairments ”,IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 7, No 3, July 1999, pp 372-384 . [5] Fukumoto et al ,” Body coupled Finger Ring wireless wearable keyboard ”, proceeding of the ACM conference on Human factors in computing systems ,France ,1997 pp 147154 . [6] J.M.Gill , priorities for technical research and development for visually disabled persons, world Blind Union Res. Committee in 1992. [7] P.Golding ,” Design Study on a Braille Typewriter “, Western Australia, Curtin University of Technology. in 1998. [8] W.Slaby,“Computerized Braille translation”, Microcomputer Applications ,Vol.13, June 1990, pp 107113. [9] C .Sleng ,Y Lau ,”Regular feature extraction for recognition of Braille”. In Third international conference on Computational Intelligence and Multimedia Applications,ICCIM’99 Proceedings, August 1999 , pp 302308.

M.Rajasenathipathi (senathi_pathi@yahoo.co.in) is a third year Doctoral Research Scholar in the Research and Development Centre of Bharathiar University. He received his Master degree in computer Applications and M.Phil degree in computer science from M.K. University. He is also working as an Assistant Professor of Computer Science at N.G.M.College , Pollachi , India. He has been an active developer of systems for people with disabilities for the past 10 years.

. Dr.M.Arthanari (arthanarimsvc@gmail.com) holds a Ph.D in Mathematics from Madras University as well as Masters degree in Computer Science from BITS, Pilani. He has worked as a Professor and Head , Department of CSE and IT in Tejaa Shakthi Institute of Technology for Women, Coimbatore, India and Head of the Institution in various colleges in India, He holds a patent issued by the Govt. of India for the invention in the field of Computer Science. He has directed teams of Ph.D researchers and industry experts for developing patentable products. He teaches strategy, project management, creative problem solving, innovation and integrated new product development for last 35 years.

Sivakumar M (sivala@gmail.com) has 10+ years of experience in the software industry including Oracle Corporation. He received his Bachelor degree in Physics and Masters in Computer Applications from the Bharathiar University, India. He holds a patent for the invention in embedded technology. He is technically certified by various professional bodies like ITIL, IBM Rational Clear case Administrator, OCP - Oracle Certified Professional 10g and ISTQB.

63

http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->