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1. Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 2 Conditions of most efficient operation of MPPTs: ................................................................................ 2 2. Theory ................................................................................................................................................. 3 Perturbation and Observe Method: ..................................................................................................... 3 Incremental Conductance method: ...................................................................................................... 4 3. Results ................................................................................................................................................. 7 4. Discussion .......................................................................................................................................... 13 6. Conclusion ......................................................................................................................................... 14 7. References ......................................................................................................................................... 15

1

It uses this power to obtain the best voltage which will supply the maximum current to the battery. Conditions of most efficient operation of MPPTs: Winter or cloudy days: when there is a greater demand for the extra power. Most of the MPPT¶s are 92% to 97% efficient. Cold Weather: this result better operation of solar cells. A Maximum Power Point Tracker operates by comparing the output of solar panels to the battery voltage. Introduction Maximum Power point Tracking (MPPT) is an electronic system which is design to on photovoltaic (PV) model in a way that allows the module to produce the maximum power that they possibly can. thus a MPPT is used to take advantage of this fact. Low battery Charge: the lower that state of charge on the battery the more current the MPPT is able put into them. 2 .1. It then uses an algorithm to calculate the best power that can be outputted by the module.

There are many adaptations of this method.2. Figure 1: Perturbation and Observe Algorithm Flowchart[3] From the above flowchart is can be noted that the operating voltage of the PV module is perturb by a small incremental voltage ( VPV). The maximum point will be reach when the dPPV/dVPV = 0. Theory Perturbation and Observe Method: It is an iterative method used for obtaining the maximum power point (MPP). It measures the PV array characteristics. varying from simple to complex. and then it perturbs the operating point of the PV generator to observe the change direction. below. thereby enabling measure of resulting change in power 3 . an algorithm flowchart for a basic form is shown in Figure 1.

but if it¶s negative the system operating point moves away from the MPPT and therefore the operating voltage should be in the opposite direction of the increment.( PPV). Figure 2: Deviation of the Perturbation and Observe Method Algorithm under increasing Irradiance. therefore it relatively simply. 4 . no previous knowledge of the PV module is required. and is based on equation (1) below. as shown in Figure 3. Hence if the power is increased so shall the operating point. Even though it is an unsuitable method in rapidly changing atmospheric conditions its reaction can be improved by increasing the speed of execution of the algorithm or by introducing optimisation. as shown in Figure 2. where the reacts as if the increase had occurred as a result of previous perturbation. Incremental Conductance method: This method is an alternative to the perturbation and observe method. The disadvantage of this type of method is seen in the sudden increase in irradiance. [2] The advantages of this type of algorithm are. If the PPV is positive the perturbation of the operating voltage is in the same direction of the increment. where the derivative of the PV power with respect to voltage is obtained and then equated to zero.

The left hand side of Equation 2 represents the opposite of the instantaneous conductance (G = IPV/VPV). whereas the right hand side represents the incremental conductance. A flowchart implementation of this algorithm is shown in Figure 4. Figure 3: P-V Characteristic Curve of a PV Module. The incremental variations. [2] Therefore analysis of the derivative can determine whether the PV module is operating at its maximum power point or far from it. 5 . Equations (5). dVPV and dIPV. with the intent on measuring the actual value of VPV and IPV with values measured from the previous instant. can be approximated by increments of both parameters. VPV and IPV. (6) and (7) illustrates this.

Figure 4: Incremental Conductance Algorithm Flowchart. 6 . It also achieves a decrease in oscillation at the maximum power point then the Perturbation and observe method. [3] The main advantage of this algorithm is that it offers a good resulting method under rapidly changing atmospheric conditions.

as well as the simulation code.3. Results The two methods were simulated under the conditions and result obtained from Matlab computer program is shown below. Figure 5: Results obtained for Perturbation and Observe Method 7 .

75.G. scalar %////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// % Define constants k = 1.602e-19. 1. TaC) % % % % % % % % function bp_sx150s.5 /Ns. % Electron charge % Following constants are taken from the datasheet of PV module and % curve fitting of I-V character (Use data for 1000W/m^2) n = 1. G.12. 1. vector or scalar G = Irradiance (1G = 1000 W/m^2). irradiance and temperature Ia = bp_sx150s(Va.T) Out: Ia = Module operating current (A). % Band gap energy. 72 cells) TrK = 298. vector or scalar In: Va = Module operating voltage (V).62. % Boltzmann¡¦s constant q = 1.Figure 6: Graph of Output Power vs Voltage for Incremental Conductance Algorithm Matlab Function Code for the BP SX 150S PV Module: [4] function Ia = bp_sx150s(Va. 1.5 (CdTe). % 1. % # of series connected cells (BP SX150s. % Diode ideality factor (n). % Reference temperature (25C) in Kelvin Voc_TrK = 43.381e-23.75 (amorphous Si) Ns = 72. % Isc (short circuit current per cell) @ temp TrK 8 . % Voc (open circuit voltage per cell) @ temp TrK Isc_TrK = 4. scalar TaC = Module temperature in deg C.m models the BP SX 150S PV module calculates module current under given voltage.42 (GaAs). % 1 (ideal diode) < n < 2 Eg = 1.12eV (Si).

Ia . . % Define b = Eg * q/(n*k).(Iph . % Define thermal potential (Vt) at temp Ta Vt_Ta = n * k * TaK / q.TrK))).1/Xv.* ( exp((Vc + Ia . Pa_max = 0.G. deg C) % out: Pa_max (maximum power). % Take dV/dI @ Voc from I-V curve of datasheet Xv = Ir_TrK / Vt_TrK * exp(Voc_TrK / Vt_TrK). % Calculate series resistance per cell (Rs = 5. Rs = . % Cell voltage % Calculate short-circuit current for TaK Isc = Isc_TrK * (1 + (a * (TaK . TaC (temp.005. Imp.TaC). % Calculate photon generated current @ given irradiance Iph = G * Isc. Imp = Ia.0/Ns. Vmp] = find_mpp(G.Ir * ( exp((Vc + Ia * Rs) / Vt_Ta) -1) = 0 % Solve for Ia by Newton's method: Ia2 = Ia1 . % Calculate reverse saturation current for given temperature Ir_TrK = Isc_TrK / (exp(Voc_TrK / Vt_TrK) -1).f(Ia1)/f'(Ia1) Ia=zeros(size(Vc)). TaC) % in: G (irradiance.dVdI_Voc .065%/C) % Define variables TaK = 273 + TaC. TaC) % find_mpp: function to find a maximum power point of pv module % [Pa_max.. % Initialize Ia with zeros % Perform 5 iterations for j=1:5 Ia = Ia ../ Vt_Ta)). Vmp %//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// % Define variables and initialize Va = 12.1mOhm) dVdI_Voc = -1.Ir * (exp((Vc + Ia * Rs) / Vt_Ta) -1) % f(Ia) = Iph . % Module temperature in Kelvin Vc = Va / Ns. % Temperature coefficient of Isc (0./ (-1 .* Rs) . end 9 . % Ia = Iph . b = Eg * q /(n * k). end Matlab Function Code for finding the Maximum Power Point [4] function [Pa_max. Imp.Ia . if Pa_new > Pa_max Pa_max = Pa_new. Pa_new = Ia * Va. KW/m^2). % Start process while Va < 48-TaC/8 Ia = bp_sx150s(Va./ Vt_Ta) .* Rs) . Imp.Ir .a = 0. Vmp] = find_mpp(G. Ir = Ir_TrK * (TaK / TrK)^(3/n) * exp(-b * (1 / TaK -1 / TrK)). % Define thermal potential (Vt) at temp TrK Vt_TrK = n * k * TrK / q.Ir * (Rs .65e-3./ Vt_Ta) -1)).* exp((Vc + Ia . end Va = Va + . Vmp = Va.

Va. % No change elseif deltaIa > 0 Vref_new = Va_new + C. 2 0.G.4. % Do cubic interpolation % Take 43200 samples (12 hours) for Sample = 1:14 % Read irrad value G = yi(Sample). % PV output power Vref_new = Va + C. % Cell temperature (deg C) C = 0.6.002. % Decrease Vref 10 .y. 4 0. 5 0.1. % Calculate incremental voltage and current deltaVa = Va_new . % Read time data (second) y = irrad7d(:. % Read irradiance data xi = 1:200. Pa_array = []..2)'.1)'.7..3.C. 12 1. 1 0.1.'cubic').xi.045.5. % Decrease Vref end else if abs(deltaIa/deltaVa + Ia_new/Va_new) <= E Vref_new = Va_new. % Irradiance data of a cloudy day irrad7d = [0 0.TaC).0.Matlab Code for Incremental Conductance Method [4] % incCondTest1: Script file to test incCond MPPT Algorithm % Testing with rapidly changing insolation %/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// clear.. Ia_new = bp_sx150s(Vref_new. % PV voltage Ia = bp_sx150s(Va. % incCond Algorithm starts here if deltaVa == 0 if deltaIa == 0 Vref_new = Va_new. % Define constants TaC = 25.C.5. % Maximum dI/dV error % Define variables with initial conditions G = 0.TaC).3.8. % Set points for interpolation yi = interp1(x. % Irradiance (1G = 1000W/m^2) Va = 31. % No change else if deltaIa/deltaVa > -Ia_new/Va_new + E Vref_new = Va_new + C. Pmax_array =[]. % Increase Vref else Vref_new = Va_new .4.2. 11 1.9. % Load irradiance data %load irrad7d. deltaIa = Ia_new .] x = irrad7d(:.2.Ia. 13 1. % Take new measurements Va_new = Vref_new. % Increase Vref else Vref_new = Va_new . 8 0. % PV current Pa = Va * Ia. 9 1. 6 0.G. 3 0. 10 1. % Step size for ref voltage change (V) E = 0. % New reference voltage % Set up arrays storing data for plots Va_array = []. 7 0.

'r*') end title('Graph of Output Power vs Voltage for Incremental Conductance Method') xlabel('Voltage(V)') ylabel('Output Power (Watts)') axis([0 50 0 160]) hold off Matlab Code for Perturbation and Observe Method [4] clear. % PV output power Vref_new = Va + C.. % PV voltage Ia = bp_sx150s(Va.. 3 0. % Plot result figure plot (Va_array.5. 1 0. % Irradiance data of a sunny day irrad7d = [0 0.3. Vmp] = find_mpp(G. Vmp] = find_mpp(G. Pa_array = []. Imp. TaC).2:1 Ia = bp_sx150s(Va. Ia = Ia_new. Imp. Pa_array.8. 7 0. 5 0. plot(Va.6.1. % Load irradiance data %load irrad. Pact = sum(Pa_array)/3600. % PV current Pa = Va * Ia. TaC). 8 0. 6 0.2. Pa = Va_new * Ia_new.2:. % Overlay with P-V curves and MPP Va = linspace (0. 'g') %plot(Va.TaC).028.G. Ia). 11 . 200). 4 0.9. G. TaC). Pmax_array = [Pmax_array Pa_max].0. % Cell temperature (deg C) C = 0. % New reference voltage % Set up arrays storing data for plots Va_array = []. % Store data in arrays for plot Va_array = [Va_array Va]. Pa_max.5. Pa) [Pa_max.. % Irradiance (1G = 1000W/m^2) Va = 31.*Va. Pa_array = [Pa_array Pa].7.end end end % Calculate theoretical max [Pa_max. Pa = Ia.4. 2 0. % Step size for ref voltage change (V) % Define variables with initial conditions G = 0. end % Total electric energy: theoretical and actual Pth = sum(Pmax_array)/3600. hold on for G=. 45. plot(Vmp. % Define constants TaC = 25. % Update history Va = Va_new.

9 1.C. Ia_new = bp_sx150s(Vref_new.4.xi. % Decrease Vref else Vref_new = Va_new + C. Pa = Ia. G. Pa_array = [Pa_array Pa]. 12 1. % Do cubic interpolation for i = 1:14 % Read irradiance value G = yi(i). TaC). TaC).2. % Read irradiance data xi = 1: 200. Vmp] = find_mpp(G. %Increase Vref end else Vref_new = Va_new.Pa.3. 'r*') end title('Graph of Output Power vs Voltage for Perturbation and Observe Method') xlabel('Voltage (V)') ylabel('Output Power (Watts)') axis([0 50 0 160]) hold off 12 . end % Plot result figure plot (Va_array. plot(Va. % Take new measurements Va_new = Vref_new.].'cubic').1. Imp. % No change end % Update history Va = Va_new. x = irrad7d(:. % Set points for interpolation yi = interp1(x. 11 1.1)'. % Calculate new Pa Pa_new = Va_new * Ia_new. % Increase Vref else Vref_new = Va_new . 13 1. Pa_array. deltaPa = Pa_new . 10 1. % Read time data (second) y = irrad7d(:. plot(Vmp. % Store data in arrays for plot Va_array = [Va_array Va].2:1 Ia = bp_sx150s(Va.TaC).2:. 45. Pa = Pa_new.C. 200). hold on for G=.G.0. Pa) [Pa_max.*Va. % P&O Algorithm starts here if deltaPa > 0 if Va_new > Va Vref_new = Va_new + C.2)'. Pa_max. 'g') % Overlay with P-I curves and MPP Va = linspace (0. % Decrease Vref end elseif deltaPa < 0 if Va_new > Va Vref_new = Va_new .y.

It can also be note that the simulation could provide better understanding of the algorithms by simulating the procedure under different environmental conditions. The results show that the two methods operate at similar efficiencies. The data used in the simulation may not truly represent a rapidly changing condition therefore resulting in the graph being similar. Further optimization of the algorithm procedures may provide for better results. however in practise it can be noted that the Perturbation and Observe method produces more oscillations near the maximum power point as compared to the Incremental Conductance method. 13 . to isolate the system from other influences such as load resistance. the both algorithms were simulated by modelling the same PV module under the same conditions. Discussion The two maximum power point tracking methods discussed previous were simulated. From the graphs obtained it can be note that the both algorithms operate close to the maximum tracking points with little deviation in their performances. Since a comparison needed to be drawn between the two methods. The different in performance between the two algorithms would not be relatively large.4.

The two methods were simulated under the same conditions. Conclusion The perturbation and observe and increment conductance algorithms were compared to observe the advantages and disadvantages between these two. so that an accurate analysis of the results can obtained. It can be noted that the Incremental Conductance algorithm proved to operate with a greater efficiency then the Perturbation and observe method.6. 14 .

2005 15 . California Polytechnic State University. J. 1967.A. Teulings. Capel. A maximum power point tracker for a regulated power bus.M. Power 3. A. in: Proceedings of the European Space Conference.C. W. M. Marpinard. Hamdy. J. Solar cell and test circuit. 635.A. 2. 4. 350. G. Design and Simulation of Photovoltaic Water Pumping System.J. References 1. A new model for the current-voltage output characteristics of photovoltaic modules. Hans. 1993. Akihiro Oi. Patent US3.7.

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