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to excess GI gas, eg dyspepsia & GERD. Dosage Childn 2-12 yr 40 mg (1 mL) <2 yr 20 mg (0.5 mL). All doses are to be given 4 times daily. Administration Should be taken with food (Take after meals and at bedtime.). Special Precautions Phenylketonurics. Avoid fizzy, carbonated drinks & food that may increase GI gas. Mechanism of Action Simethicone lowers surface tension and facilitates gas dispersion by causing coalescence of gas bubbles in the GI tract, thus helping in their dispersion. Absorption: Physiologically inert. Appeared to be unabsorbed in the GI tract after oral admin. Excretion: Excreted unchanged in the faeces. Brand Name: Erceflora Classification: Antidiarrheals Suggested Dose: Adults 2-3 vials of 2 billion/5 mL susp Children 2-11 years 1-2 vials of 2 billion/5 mL susp Infants >1 month 1-2 vials of 2 billion/5 mL susp. Mode of Action: Contributes to the recovery of the intestinal microbial flora altered during the course of microbial disorders of diverse origin. It produces various vitamins, particularly group B vitamins thus contributing to correction of vitamin disorders caused by antibiotics & chemotherapeutic agents. Promotes normalization of intestinal flora. Indication: Acute diarrhea with duration of 14 days due to infection, drugs or poisons. Chronic or persistent diarrhea with duration of >14 days. Contraindication: Not for use in immunocompromised patients (cancer patients on chemotherapy, patients taking immunosuppressant meds) Drug Interaction: No known drug interactions. Side Effects/Adverse Reactions: No known side effects. Adverse Effects: No known adverse effects. Nursing Responsibility: 1.) Shake drug well before administration. ® Allows equal distribution of the drug in the fluid it is in. 2.) Monitor patient for any unusual effects from drug. ® Monitoring allows detection of possible side effects of the drug since there has been no known side effect of the drug. 3.) Administer drug within 30 minutes after opening container. ® To avoid contamination of the drug. 4.) Dilute drug with sweetened milk, orange juice or tea. ® To allow easy administration of the drug. 5.) Administer drug orally. The hypothalamus in the brain has a thermostatic mechanism which controls body temperature. During fever, a protein called pyrogen is generated. This increases the synthesis of a compound called prostaglandin in the hypothalamus, raising its temperature set point. Paracetamol acts as an antipyretic and inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandin. Paracetamol reduces fever by promoting heat loss (through sweating and cutaneous vasodilation) and thus helps reset the hypothalamic thermostat. Science News Share Print Blog Email Cite Bookmark
New Genomic Marker for Tuberculosis May Help Identify Patients Who Will Develop the Disease
of which Drs. Although TB is no longer a leading cause of death in the United States. "Each infectious agent. Mejias. and this is a real problem. "The study shows for the first time that the transcriptional signature in blood correlates with extent of disease in active TB patients. most people infected with M. which is a really powerful tool for the clinic. investigators at the Center for Vaccines and Immunity in The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital." said one of the study's authors Octavio Ramilo. be it a virus or a bacterium." said Dr." The team also found that a subset of latent TB patients had signatures similar to those in active TB patients. One third of the world's total population is infected with the microbes that cause TB. latent TB or who did not have TB. "Tools to diagnose infections like TB. Mejias. The team developed genome-wide transcriptional profiles for each of the patients and discovered a distinct characteristic. MD. "It validates the idea that this transcriptional signature is an accurate marker of TB infection. The study examined and compared blood drawn from patients in London.ScienceDaily (Aug." Drs. but we are still unable to predict how each person is going to react to the infection. to provide the first complete description of the blood transcriptional signature of TB. tuberculosis remain asymptomatic with latent TB. England and Cape Town. or "signature. "We can identify patterns among the white blood cell's activated proteins and identify a unique 'signature' for each infectious agent. "This technology allows us to see the whole picture of infection using a single blood sample. Ramilo and Mejias are part of." said Dr. but current tests can not identify which individuals will develop the disease. See Also: Health & Medicine y y y y y y Infectious Diseases Personalized Medicine Today's Healthcare Diseases and Conditions Hypertension Tuberculosis Reference y y y y Transmission (medicine) Infectious disease Pathogen Salmonella infection Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. 2010) ² It may soon be possible to identify patients who will develop tuberculosis. however. "It's difficult to predict patient outcomes. Ramilo. which usually attacks the lungs and can be fatal if not treated properly. interacts with human immune cells in unique ways by triggering proteins on white blood cells. X-rays of patients with this signature were consistent with signs of active TB. chief of Infectious Diseases at Nationwide Children's Hospital. These findings are from an international study published in the August 19 issue of Nature and conducted by doctors and researchers at Nationwide Children's Hospital using blood profiling techniques to understand infections. Ramilo and Mejias' -.research has shown that gene expression microarray technology can be used to help develop blood transcriptional signatures." To combat this problem. are using microarray technology to develop blood profiles in patients specific to infectious diseases. Ramilo and Asuncion Mejias." of the blood from patients with active TB. it remains an epidemic in much of the world. It's this gene expression microarray technology that allowed an international group of investigators. 31. bronchiolitis and pneumonia have been developed and are actively used to classify patients as being infected with specific pathogens.also faculty members at The Ohio State University College of Medicine -. . South Africa who had active TB. as scientists have identified changes in the blood specific to the disease. MD. Dr." said Dr. People with latent TB have a 10 percent lifetime risk of developing active TB.
after the shingles rash has healed. Ramilo. It can be transferred by contact with contaminated food and water. Gastroenteritis (also known as gastric flu or stomach flu. as the blood transcriptional signatures are not limited to TB. may identify those individuals who will develop disease.com/releases/2010/08/100830073801." said Dr. the pain from shingles may last for months.htm Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a condition that affects the nerve fibers in the skin." said Dr. . It is the most common complication of shingles and results from damage to nerve fibers during shingles. which was observed in 10 to 20 percent of latent TB patients. "These findings suggest that the blood transcriptional signature of active TB patients could be used to monitor how well a patient's treatment is working. similar to the recent TB study. Currently. But in people with PHN. These capabilities are desperately needed in order to improve how patients recover from infections. Mejias says that this study highlights the power that gene expression microarray technology could bring to the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. but also indicate severity and eventually predict which patients are at risk for developing advanced symptoms. but longitudinal studies are needed to assess this. http://www. Ramilo."The signature of active TB. Ramilo. The transcriptional signature was diminished in active TB patients after two months and completely extinguished by 12 months after treatment. the infectious disease investigators at Nationwide Children's Hospital are developing transcriptional signatures using blood samples obtained from children with broncholitis and pneumonia and plan to correlate findings with clinical outcomes. The rash and pain from shingles usually lasts about a month. "It seems that we are developing a tool that can not only diagnose infectious diseases. although unrelated to influenza) is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. and sometimes years. Dr." said Dr.sciencedaily. involving both the stomach and the small intestine and resulting in acute diarrhea.
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