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What is BitTorrent?
BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer file sharing protocol used for distributing large amounts of data. BitTorrent is one of the most common protocols for transferring large files, and it has been estimated that it accounts for roughly 27–55% of all Internet traffic (depending on geographical location) as of February 2009.
Programmer Bram Cohen designed the protocol in April 2001 and released a first implementation on July 2nd, 2001. It is now maintained by Cohen's company BitTorrent, Inc. There are numerous BitTorrent clients available for a variety of computing platforms.
their computer receives a different piece of the data from the seed. mobile phones) with low bandwidth capable of participating in large data transfers. First.Description BitTorrent protocol allows users to distribute large amounts of data without the heavy demands on their computers that would be needed for standard Internet hosting. The effect of this is to take on a small part of the task and relieve the initial user. A standard host's servers can easily be brought to a halt if high levels of simultaneous data flow are reached. called peers. This first user's file is called a seed and its availability on the network allows other users. a user playing the role of file-provider makes a file available to the network. no one computer needs to supply data in quantities which could jeopardize the task . distributing the file download task among the seed and many peers. Once multiple peers have multiple pieces of the seed. to connect and begin to download the seed file. As new peers connect to the network and request the same file. BitTorrent allows each to become a source for that portion of the file. The protocol works as an alternative data distribution method that makes even small computers (e.g. With BitTorrent.
. This distributed nature of BitTorrent leads to a flood like spreading of a file throughout peers. helping the remaining peers to receive the entire file. It also provides redundancy against system problems. Relative to standard Internet hosting. the peer is able to shift roles and become an additional seed. As more peers join the swarm. reduces dependence on the original distributor and provides a source for the file which is generally temporary and therefore harder to trace than when provided by the enduring availability of a host in standard file distribution techniques. This eventual shift from peers to seeders determines the overall 'health' of the file (as determined by the number of times a file is available in its complete form). this provides a significant reduction in the original distributor's hardware and bandwidth resource costs.After the file is successfully and completely downloaded by a given peer. the likelihood of a successful download increases.
Each client is capable of preparing. the computer that coordinates the file distribution.Operation A BitTorrent client is any program that implements the BitTorrent protocol. This file contains metadata about the files to be shared and about the tracker. To share a file or group of files. Peers that want to download the file must first obtain a torrent file for it and connect to the specified tracker. A peer is any computer running an instance of a client. and transmitting any type of computer file over a network. requesting. .torrent). using the protocol. which tells them from which other peers to download the pieces of the file. a peer first creates a small file called a "torrent" (e. MyFile.g.
Taken together. while classic downloads are sequential. theoretically. However. comes at a cost: downloads can take time to rise to full speed because it may take time for enough peer connections to be established. this protection. However. . and much greater resistance to abuse or to "flash crowds" than regular server software. for example) in several fundamental ways: • BitTorrent makes many small data requests over different TCP connections to different machines.Though both ultimately transfer files over a network. while classic downloading is typically made via a single TCP connection to a single machine. BitTorrent's non-contiguous download methods have prevented it from supporting "progressive downloads" or "streaming playback". these differences allow BitTorrent to achieve much lower cost to the content provider. In general. much higher redundancy. and it may take time for a node to receive sufficient data to become an effective uploader. a BitTorrent download differs from a classic download (as is typical with an HTTP or FTP request. comments made by Bram Cohen in January 2007 suggest that suggest that streaming torrent downloads will soon be commonplace and ad supported streaming appears to be the result of those comments. • BitTorrent downloads in a random or in a "rarest-first" approach that ensures high availability.
By convention. which specifies the URL of the tracker. the hash of the piece is compared to the recorded hash to test that the piece is error-free.Creating and publishing torrents The peer distributing a data file treats the file as a number of identically sized pieces. and a SHA-1 hash code for each piece. the piece length used. Torrent files have an "announce" section. the name of a torrent file has the suffix . The exact information contained in the torrent file depends on the version of the BitTorrent protocol. their lengths. but is claimed to reduce the efficiency of the protocol. Peers that provide a complete file are called seeders. When another peer later receives a particular piece. The peer creates a hash for each piece. using the SHA-1 hash function. . Pieces with sizes greater than 512 KB will reduce the size of a torrent file for a very large payload. all of which are used by clients to verify the integrity of the data they receive. usually with byte sizes of a power of 2. and an "info" section. containing (suggested) names for the files. and typically between 32 KB and 4 MB each. and the peer providing the initial copy is called the initial seeder. and records it in the torrent file.
µTorrent. KTorrent. An alternative and incompatible DHT system. . discouraging the practice. The flag was requested for inclusion in the official specification in August. known as Mainline DHT. Azureus was the first BitTorrent client to implement such a system through the (DHT)distributed hash table method. 2008. was later developed and adopted by the BitTorrent (Mainline). rTorrent. but has not been accepted. and registered with at least one tracker. The flag is intentionally placed in the info section of the torrent so that it cannot be disabled or removed without changing the identity of the torrent. BitComet. in a trackerless system (decentralized tracking) every peer acts as a tracker. After the DHT was adopted. and Deluge clients. telling clients to restrict the use of decentralized tracking regardless of the user's desires. Clients that have ignored the private flag were banned by many trackers.Torrent files are typically published on websites or elsewhere. Alternatively. a "private" flag analogous to the broadcast flag was unofficially introduced. Transmission. The tracker maintains lists of the clients currently participating in the torrent. The purpose of the flag is to prevent torrents from being shared with clients that do not have access to the tracker.
and open it with a BitTorrent client. To counter these effects. from which it receives a list of peers currently transferring pieces of the file(s) specified in the torrent. The client connects to those peers to obtain the various pieces. which is only possible if two peers have different pieces of the file.Downloading torrents and sharing files: Users browse the web to find a torrent of interest. for example they download pieces in a random order to increase the opportunity to exchange data. which encourages fair trading. If the swarm contains only the initial seeder. Clients may prefer to send data to peers that send data back to them (a tit for tat scheme). Clients incorporate mechanisms to optimize their download and upload rates. the client connects directly to it and begins to request pieces. the . The effectiveness of this data exchange depends largely on the policies that clients use to determine to whom to send data. But strict policies often result in suboptimal situations. download it. such as when newly joined peers are unable to receive any data because they don't have any pieces yet to trade themselves or when two peers with a good connection between them do not exchange data simply because neither of them takes the initiative. The client connects to the tracker(s) specified in the torrent file.
whereby the client reserves a portion of its available bandwidth for sending pieces to random peers (not necessarily known good partners. . so called preferred peers) in hopes of discovering even better partners and to ensure that newcomers get a chance to join the swarm. which may be days – especially when there are a lot of downloading peers and when the ratio of seeders to downloading peers is low.official BitTorrent client program uses a mechanism called “optimistic unchoking”. The community of BitTorrent users frowns upon the practice of disconnecting from the network immediately upon success of a file download. and encourages remaining as another seed for as long as practical.
so BitTorrent clients have been created for all common operating systems using a variety of programming languages. this can be used to centralize file sharing on a single dedicated server which users share access to on the network. Transmission. The official BitTorrent client.Implementations • Clients: The BitTorrent specification is free to use and many clients are open source. Vuze. µTorrent. . For example. • Servers: Some BitTorrent implementations such as MLDonkey and Torrentflux are designed to run as servers. and BitComet are some of the most popular clients.
. allowing them to download the entire file by HTTP once it is finished. • Web services: Services such as ImageShack can download files on BitTorrent for the user. a datacenter) which can provide dramatic speed benefits over using BitTorrent from a regular home broadband connection.• Hosted: Server-oriented BitTorrent implementations can also be hosted by hosting providers at co-located facilities with high bandwidth Internet connectivity (e.g. .
However. and of course. downloads on BitTorrent are available for free. This is great for both artists and users as well. movies. Instead of having to purchase a CD or DVD. There may be TV shows that you may not have in your country yet or songs that you can buy easily online. In this way.Benefits: With BitTorrent. the original file remains intact. and rare music may not be available in the market. Yes. the download speeds are amazing. who can end up buying albums if they like them. you are sure to find it on a BitTorrent. One of the main advantages of BitTorrent is that you can sample content prior to purchasing it. movies and software that live up to expectations can be tested and then bought. . these are among the myriad of reasons why it is popular today. everything is available at your fingertips for free. Many television shows.
This is because they have realized the convenience with which files can be downloaded quickly with BitTorrent. . This is of course in addition to the increasing number of dedicated sites.Conclusion Bittorrent is becoming popular. and many software publishers today include torrents in their downloads section.
Contents What is BitTorrent? History Description Operation Implementation Benefits Conclusion .
Submitted By: Ch.Sharma sir(H.C. M.Guntur.C.Seminar on Submitted To: Mr. St.O.D of M. Center.G.A).A III year (v sem) Roll NO:Y9MC92006 .Prasanna Lakshmi.Mary’s P. Chebrolu.
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