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fuel cell

fuel cell

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Published by Rajat Swain

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Published by: Rajat Swain on Sep 05, 2010
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11/10/2010

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      INTRODUCTION WHAT IS FUEL CELL? TYPES DESCRIPTIONS ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES APPLICATIONS .

while the electrolyte remains with in it. The electricity is produced (on the anode side) and an oxidant (on the cathode side).INTRODUCTION   A fuel cell is an electrochemical conversion device. The reactants flow in to the cell. that produces electricity from fuel. . which react in the presence of an electrolyte. and the reaction products flow out of it.

Types of fuel cell      ALKALINE FUEL CELL MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PHOSPHERIC ACID FUEL CELL PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL .

Construction & parts    ANODE(CATALYST) CATHODE(CATALYS T) ELECTROLYTE .

PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL .1.

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Reaction  Anode side 2H2=>4H+4e2H2=>4H+4eCathode side O2+4H++4eO2+4H++4e-=>2H2O Net Reaction 2H2+O2=>2H2O  .

. however. Efficiency is about 70 percent. and their platinum electrode catalysts are expensive. Alkali cells were used in Apollo spacecraft to provide both electricity and drinking water. And like any container filled with liquid. Cell output ranges from 300 watts (W) to 5 kilowatts (kW). they can leak.ALKALINE FUEL CELL       Alkali fuel cells operate on compressed hydrogen and oxygen . They require pure hydrogen fuel. and operating temperature is 150 to 200 degrees C. They generally use a solution of potassium hydroxide (chemically. KOH) in water as their electrolyte.

The high temperature limits damage from carbon monoxide "poisoning" of the cell and waste heat can be recycled to make additional electricity. But the high temperature also limits the materials and safe uses of MCFC.MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL     Molten Carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) use high-temperature highcompounds of salt (like sodium or magnesium) carbonates (chemically. . and operating temperature is about 650 degrees C . Efficiency ranges from 60 to 80 percent. CO3) as the electrolyte. Their nickel electrode-catalysts are electrodeinexpensive compared to the platinum used in other cells.

and operating temperature is between 150 to 200 degrees C . Efficiency ranges from 40 to 80 percent.PHOSPHERIC ACID FUEL CELL   Phosphoric Acid fuel cells (PAFC) use phosphoric acid as the electrolyte.

. Efficiency is about 60 percent. the high temperature limits applications of SOFC units and they tend to be rather large.000 degrees C At such high temperatures a reformer is not required to extract hydrogen from the fuel. they can crack. and operating temperatures are about 1. While solid electrolytes cannot leak.SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL     Solid Oxide fuel cells (SOFC) use a hard. ceramic compound of metal (like calcium or zirconium) oxides (chemically. and waste heat can be recycled to make additional electricity. However. O2) as electrolyte.

ADVANTAGES      Highly efficient Provides Continuous power Longer life There is no problem hazards When used In vehicles. vehicle is twice efficient as traditional petrol engine cars. . like hydrogen cars.

Cost of membrane & catalysts are currently high. .DISADVANTAGES    Fuel cell must be managed carefully to control heat built up & internal water flows. The ability of a fuel cell to provide power at low ambient temp. is still problematic.

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