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**1.2. The ANSYS Elements Reference
**

The ANSYS Elements Reference is intended to give you information on individual ANSYS elements. See General Element Features for detailed information on the features included in element documentation. See Element Characteristics for lists of element characteristics. This manual is not intended to be your primary source of procedural information - look in the appropriate analysis guides for introductory and procedural guidelines.

**1.2.1. Conventions Used in this Manual
**

ANSYS manuals use the following conventions to help you identify various types of information: Type style Indicates or text BOLD Uppercase, bold text indicates command names (such as K,DDELE) or elements (LINK1). Bold>Bold Bold text in mixed case indicates a GUI menu path, which is a series of menu picks used to access a command from the GUI. One or more angle brackets (>) separate menu items in a menu path. Frequently in text, an ANSYS command is followed by its GUI equivalent in parentheses: the *GET command (Utility Menu>Parameters>Get Scalar Data) ITALICS Uppercase italic letters indicate command arguments for numeric values (such as VALUE, INC, TIME). On some commands, non-numeric convenience labels (for example, ALL and P) can also be entered for these arguments. Italics Mixed case italic letters indicate command arguments for alphanumeric values (for example, Lab or Fname). The manual also uses italic text for emphasis.

TYPEWRITER

Note--

Typewriter font indicates command input listings and ANSYS output listings. This text introduces note paragraphs. A note contains information that supplements the main topic being discussed.

Any mention of a command or element name in this volume implies a reference to the appropriate command or element description (in the ANSYS Commands Reference or ANSYS Elements Reference manuals, respectively) for more detailed information. 1.2.1.1. Product Codes Near the top of the first page of each element description, you will see a list of product codes. These codes represent the products in the ANSYS Family of Products. The element is valid only for those products whose symbols are listed. An element that is valid in the entire set of products would have the following list of products: MP ME ST DY PR EM FL PP ED The codes represent each of the products in the ANSYS suite of products:

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The ANSYS Elements Reference Code MP ME ST DY PR EM Product ANSYS/Multiphysics ANSYS/Mechanical ANSYS/Structural ANSYS/LS-DYNA ANSYS/Professional ANSYS/Emag - Low Frequency Code EH FL PP ED DP Product ANSYS/Emag - High Frequency ANSYS/FLOTRAN ANSYS/PrepPost ANSYS/ED ANSYS/LS-DYNA PrepPost

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Note

While DP (ANSYS/LS-DYNA PrepPost) does not appear as a unique product code in the product listings for commands and elements, it does appear as a separate product in other places in the manuals. For a brief description of each product, see Applicable ANSYS Products. If the symbol for a product does not appear, then that element is either not valid or not applicable in the corresponding product, and should not be used. For example, if the PR and FL symbols are not listed, the pertinent element is not valid in the ANSYS/Professional or ANSYS/FLOTRAN products, but is valid in each of the remaining ANSYS products.

**1.2.2. Applicable ANSYS Products
**

This manual applies to the following ANSYS products: ANSYS/Multiphysics (includes all structural, thermal, electromagnetics, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) capabilities, excludes explicit dynamics) ANSYS/Mechanical (includes all structural and thermal capabilities; excludes electromagnetics, CFD, and explicit dynamics capabilities) ANSYS/Structural (includes all structural linear and nonlinear capabilities) ANSYS/Professional ANSYS/Emag (Low Frequency and High Frequency) ANSYS/FLOTRAN ANSYS/LS-DYNA ANSYS/LS-DYNA PrepPost ANSYS/PrepPost ANSYS/ED Some command arguments and element KEYOPT settings have defaults in the derived products that are different from those in ANSYS/Multiphysics. These cases are clearly documented under the "Product Restrictions" section of the affected commands and elements. If you plan to use your derived product input file in ANSYS/Multiphysics, you should explicitly input these settings in the derived product, rather than letting them default; otherwise, behavior in ANSYS/Multiphysics will be different.

Note

While ANSYS Connection, Parallel Performance for ANSYS, and ANSYS LSF/Batch are included as part of the ANSYS release distribution, they are file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

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separately-licensed products. Consult your ASD if you want to install and run any of the separately-licensed products at your site. Even though an element may be available in a particular product, some of its options may not be. Most element descriptions contain a "Product Restrictions" section which details the specific restrictions the element has in each of the products.

**1.2.3. ANSYS Product Capabilities
**

Here is a complete list of engineering capabilities and the various ANSYS products in which these capabilities can be found. Capability Structural Analysis Linear Stress Substructuring Nonlinear Stress: Geometric Material Element Contact: Surface to Surface Node to Surface Node to Node Dynamic Analysis: Modal Spectrum Harmonic Random Vibration Structural Transient: Linear Nonlinear Buckling: Linear Nonlinear Thermal Analysis Steady State Transient Conduction Convection Radiation Phase Change CFD Analysis MP ME ST PR FL EM PP ED DY DP Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y -

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The ANSYS Elements Reference Steady State Transient Incompressible Compressible Laminar Turbulent Natural Convection Forced Convection Conjugate Heat Transfer Newtonian Viscosity Model Non-Newtonian Viscosity Model Multiple Species 2-D Free Surface by VOF Method Electromagnetic Analysis Magnetostatics Low Frequency Transient Low Frequency AC Harmonic Electrostatics Current Conduction Circuit-Coupled Electromagnetics High Frequency Modal High Frequency AC Harmonic Field and Coupled-Field Analysis Acoustics Acoustics-Structural Electric-Magnetic Fluid-Structural Fluid-Thermal Magnetic-Fluid Magnetic-Structural Magnetic-Thermal Piezoelectric Thermal-Electric Thermal-Structural Electric-Magnetic- Thermal-Structural Solvers Frontal Sparse Iterative Explicit Preprocessing Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

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The ANSYS Elements Reference IGES Geometry Transfer Solid Modeling Defeaturing Meshing Loads and Boundary Conditions Postprocessing Contour Displays Vector Displays Animation Results Listing Output (VRML, Postscript, TIFF) General Features Submodeling Optimization Probabilistic Design ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

Page 5 of 5 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

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General Element Features General Element Features ANSYS Element Reference

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**Chapter 2. General Element Features 2.1. Element Input
**

Many features are common to all ANSYS elements in the element library. These features are discussed in this chapter. The individual elements are described in Element Library, which includes a summary table of element input. See Input Summary for a sample input data table. This table usually contains the following items: Element Name Nodes Degrees Of Freedom Real Constants Material Properties Surface Loads Body Loads Special Features KEYOPTs Details on these items follow:

2.1.1. Element Name

The ANSYS element library consists of more than 100 different element formulations or types. (Not all element types or features are available in all ANSYS products. These restrictions are detailed in Section 4.n.4, "Product Restrictions," for each element.) An element type is identified by a name (8 characters maximum), such as BEAM3, consisting of a group label (BEAM) and a unique, identifying number (3). The element descriptions in Element Library are arranged in order of these identification numbers. The element is selected from the library for use in the analysis by inputting its name on the element type command [ET]. See Lists of Element Types for a list of all available elements.

2.1.2. Nodes

The nodes associated with the element are listed as I, J, K, etc. Elements are connected to the nodes in the sequence and orientation shown on the input figure for each element type. This connectivity can be defined by automatic meshing, or may be input directly by the user with the E command. The node numbers must correspond to the order indicated in the "Nodes" list. The I node is the first node of the element. The node order determines the element coordinate system orientation for some element types. See Coordinate Systems for a description of the element coordinate system.

2.1.3. Degrees of Freedom

Each element type has a degree of freedom set, which constitute the primary nodal unknowns to be determined by the analysis. They may be displacements, rotations, temperatures, pressures, voltages, etc. Derived results, such as stresses, heat flows, etc., are computed from these degree of freedom file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

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results. Degrees of freedom are not defined on the nodes explicitly by the user, but rather are implied by the element types attached to them. The choice of element types is therefore, an important one in any ANSYS analysis.

2.1.4. Real Constants

Data which are required for the calculation of the element matrix, but which cannot be determined from the node locations or material properties, are input as "real constants." Typical real constants include area, thickness, inner diameter, outer diameter, etc. A basic description of the real constants is given with each element type. The ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference section describing each element type shows how the real constants are used within the element. The real constants are input with the R command. The real constant values input on the command must correspond to the order indicated in the "Real Constants" list.

2.1.5. Material Properties

Various material properties are used for each element type. Typical material properties include Young's modulus (of elasticity), density, coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, etc. Each property is referenced by an ANSYS label - EX, EY, and EZ for the directional components of Young's modulus, DENS for density, and so on. All material properties can be input as functions of temperature. Some properties for non-thermal analyses are called linear properties because typical solutions with these properties require only a single iteration. Properties such as stress-strain data are called nonlinear because an analysis with these properties requires an iterative solution. A basic description of the linear material properties is given in Linear Material Properties and of the nonlinear properties in Data Tables - Implicit Analysis. Linear material properties are input with the MP family of commands while nonlinear properties are input with the TB family of commands. Some elements require other special data which need to be input in tabular form. These tabular data are also input with the TB commands and are described with the element in Element Library, or in Data Tables Implicit Analysis if they apply to a family of elements. The ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference shows how the properties and special data are actually used within the element. Material models used in explicit dynamic analyses are discussed in Material Models in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide.

2.1.6. Surface Loads

Various element types allow surface loads. Surface loads are typically pressures for structural element types, convections or heat fluxes for thermal element types, etc. See Node and Element Loads for additional details.

2.1.7. Body Loads

Various element types allow body loads. Body loads are typically temperatures for structural element types, heat generation rates for thermal element types, etc. See Node and Element Loads for details. Body loads are designated in the "Input Summary" table of each element by a label and a list of load values at various locations within the element. For example, for element type PLANE42, the body load list of "Temperatures: T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L)" indicates that temperature body loads are allowed at the I, J, K, and L node locations of the element. Body loads are input with the BF or BFE commands. The load values input on the BFE command must correspond to the order indicated in the "Body Load" list.

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2.1.8. Special Features

The keywords in the "Special Features" list indicate that certain additional capabilities are available for the element. Most often these features make the element nonlinear and require that an iterative solution be done. For a description of the special feature "Plasticity," see Nonlinear Stress-Strain Materials; for "Creep," see Creep Equations; and for "Swelling," see Swelling Equations. See Nonlinear Structural Analysis in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide and the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for information about "Large Deflection," "Large Strain," "Stress Stiffening," "Adaptive Descent," "Error Estimation," "Birth and Death," "Hyperelasticity," and "Viscoelasticity."

2.1.9. KEYOPTs

KEYOPTs (or key options) are switches, used to turn various element options on or off. KEYOPT options include stiffness formulation choices, printout controls, element coordinate system choices, etc. A basic description of the KEYOPTs is given with each element type. The ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference section for the element type shows how some of the KEYOPTs are used within the element. KEYOPTs are identified by number, such as KEYOPT(1), KEYOPT(2), etc., with each numbered KEYOPT able to be set to a specific value. Values for the first six KEYOPTs (KEYOPT (1) through KEYOPT(6)) may be input with the ET or KEYOPT commands. Values for KEYOPT (7) or greater on any element are input with the KEYOPT command.

Note

The defaults for element key options are chosen to be most convenient for the ANSYS product you are using, which means that some of the defaults may be different in some of the ANSYS products. These cases are clearly documented under the "Product Restrictions" section of the affected elements. If you plan to use your input file in more than one ANSYS product, you should explicitly input these settings, rather than letting them default; otherwise, behavior in the other ANSYS product may be different.

Prev The ANSYS Elements Reference Prev Solution Output General Element Features

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2.2. Solution Output

The output from the solution consists of the nodal solution (or the primary degree of freedom solution) and the element solution (or the derived solution). Each of these solutions is described below. Solution output is written to the output file ( Jobname.OUT, also known as the "printout"), the database, and the results file ( Jobname.RST, Jobname.RTH, Jobname.RMG, or Jobname.RFL). The output file can be viewed through the GUI, while the database and results file data (sometimes called the "postdata") can be postprocessed. The output file contains the nodal DOF solution, nodal and reaction loads, and the element solutions, depending on the OUTPR settings. The element solutions are primarily the centroidal solution values for each element. Most elements have KEYOPTs to output more information (e.g. integration points).

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The results file contains data for all requested [OUTRES ] solutions, or load steps. In POST1, you issue the SET command to identify the load step you wish to postprocess. Results items for the area and volume elements are generally retrieved from the database by commands such as PRNSOL, PLNSOL, PRESOL, PLESOL, etc. The labels on these commands correspond to the labels shown in the input and output description tables for each element (such as Input Summary and Element Output Definitions for PLANE42). For example, postprocessing the X-stress (typically labeled SX) is identified as item S and component X on the postprocessing commands. Coordinate locations XC,YC,ZC are identified as item CENT and component X,Y, or Z. Only items shown both on the individual command and in the element input/output tables are available for use with that command. An exception is EPTO, the total strain, which is available for all structural solid and shell elements even though it is not shown in the output description tables for those elements. Generic labels do not exist for some results data, such as integration point data, all derived data for structural line elements (such as spars, beams, and pipes) and contact elements, all derived data for thermal line elements, and layer data for layered elements. Instead, a sequence number is used to identify these items (described below).

2.2.1. Nodal Solution

The nodal solution from an analysis consists of:

?

the degree of freedom (DOF) solution, such as nodal displacements, temperatures, and pressures the reaction solution calculated at constrained nodes - forces at displacement constraints, heat flows at temperature DOF constraints, fluid flows at pressure DOF constraints, and so on.

?

The DOF solution is calculated for all active degrees of freedom in the model, which are determined by the union of all DOF labels associated with all the active element types. It is output at all degrees of freedom that have a nonzero stiffness or conductivity and can be controlled by OUTPR,NSOL (for printed output) and OUTRES,NSOL (for results file output). The reaction solution is calculated at all nodes that are constrained (D, DSYM, etc.). Its output can be controlled by OUTPR,RSOL and OUTRES ,RSOL. For vector degrees of freedom and corresponding reactions, the output during solution is in the nodal coordinate system. If a node was input with a rotated nodal coordinate system, the output nodal solution will also be in the rotated coordinate system. For a node with the rotation xy = 90 , the printed UX solution will be in the nodal X direction, which in this case corresponds to the global Y direction. Rotational displacements (ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ) are output in radians, and phase angles from a harmonic analysis are output in degrees.

2.2.2. Element Solution

The element output items (and their definitions) are shown along with the element type description. Not all of the items shown in the output table will appear at all times for the element. Items not appearing are either not applicable to the solution or have all zero results and are suppressed to save space. The output is, in some cases, dependent on the input. For example, for thermal elements accepting either surface convection (CONV) or nodal heat flux (HFLUX), the output will be either in terms of convection or heat flux. Most of the output items shown appear in the element solution listing. Some items do not appear in the solution listing but are written to the results file. Most elements have two tables which describe the output data and ways to access that data for the

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element. These tables are the "Element Output Definitions" table and the "Item and Sequence Numbers" tables used for accessing data through the ETABLE and ESOL commands. 2.2.2.1. The Element Output Definitions Table The first table, "Element Output Definitions," describes possible output for the element. In addition, this table outlines which data are available for solution printout ( Jobname.OUT and/or display to the terminal), and which data are available on the results file ( Jobname.RST, Jobname.RTH, Jobname.RMG, etc.). It's important to remember that only the data which you request with the solution commands OUTPR and OUTRES are included in printout and on the results file, respectively. See BEAM3 Element Output Definitions for a sample element output definitions table. As an added convenience, items in this table which are available through the Component Name method of the ETABLE command are identified by special notation (:) included in the output label. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more information. The label portion before the colon corresponds to the Item field on the ETABLE command, and the portion after the colon corresponds to the Comp field. For example, S:EQV is defined as equivalent stress, and the ETABLE command for accessing this data would be: ETABLE,ABC,S,EQV where ABC is a user-defined label for future identification on listings and displays. Other data having labels without colons can be accessed through the Sequence Number method, discussed with the "Item and Sequence Number" tables below. In some cases there is more than one label which can be used after the colon, in which case they are listed and separated by commas. The Definition column defines each label and, in some instances, also lists the label used on the printout, if different. The O column indicates those items which are written to the output window and/or the output file. The R column indicates items which are written to the results file and which can be obtained in postprocessing.

Note

If an item is not marked in the R column, it cannot be stored in the "element table." 2.2.2.2. The Item and Sequence Number Table Many elements also have a table, or set of tables, that list the Item and sequence number required for data access using the Sequence Number method of the ETABLE command. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for an example. The number of columns in each table and the number of tables per element vary depending on the type of data available and the number of locations on the element where data was calculated. For structural line elements, for example, the KEYOPT(9) setting will determine the number of locations (intermediate points) along the element where data is to be calculated. For example, assume we want to determine the sequence number required to access the member moment in the Z direction (MMOMZ) for a BEAM3 element. Assume also that the data we want to obtain is at end J, and that KEYOPT(9) = 1, that is, data has also been calculated at one intermediate location. See BEAM3 (KEYOPT(9)=3) Item and Sequence Numbers for a sample item and sequence numbers table. Locate MMOMZ under the "Name" column. Notice that the Item is listed as SMISC. SMISC refers to summable miscellaneous items, while NMISC refers to non-summable miscellaneous items (see the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more details). Follow across the row until you find the sequence number, 18, in the J column. The correct command to move MMOMZ at end J for BEAM3 (KEYOPT(9) = 1) to the element table is:

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General Element Features ETABLE,ABC,SMISC,18 ABC is a user-defined label for later identification on listings and displays. 2.2.2.3. Surface Loads

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Pressure output for structural elements shows the input pressures expanded to the element's full tapered-load capability. See the SF, SFE, and SFBEAM commands for pressure input. For example, for element type PLANE42, which has an input load list of "Pressures: Face 1 (J -I), Face 2 (K-J), Face 3 (L-K), Face 4 (I-L)," the output PRESSURE line expands the pressures to P1(J), P1(I); P2(K), P2(J); P3(L), P3(K); and P4(I), P4(L). P1(J) should be interpreted as the pressure for load key 1 (the pressure normal to face 1) at node J; P1(I) is load key 1 at node I; etc. If the pressure is input as a constant instead of tapered, both nodal values of the pressure will be the same. Beam elements which allow an offset from the node have addition output labeled OFFST. To save space, pressure output is often omitted when values are zero. Similarly, other surface load items (such as convection (CONV) and heat flux (HFLUX)), and body load input items (such as temperature (TEMP), fluence (FLUE), and heat generation (HGEN)), are often omitted when the values are zero (or, for temperatures, when the T-TREF values are zero). 2.2.2.4. Centroidal Solution [output listing only] Output such as stress, strain, temperature, etc. in the output listing is given at the centroid (or near center) of the element. The location of the centroid is updated if large deflections are used. The output quantities are calculated as the average of the integration point values (see the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference). The component output directions for vector quantities correspond to the input material directions which, in turn, are a function of the element coordinate system. For example, the SX stress is in the same direction as EX. In postprocessing, ETABLE may be used to compute the centroidal solution of each element from its nodal values. 2.2.2.5. Surface Solution Surface output is available in the output listing on certain free surfaces of solid elements. A free surface is a surface not connected to any other element and not having any DOF constraint or nodal force load on the surface. Surface output is not valid on surfaces which are not free or for elements having nonlinear material properties. Surface output is also not valid for elements deactivated [EKILL] and then reactivated [EALIVE]. Surface output does not include large strain effects. The surface output is automatically suppressed if the element has nonlinear material properties. Surface calculations are of the same accuracy as the displacement calculations. Values are not extrapolated to the surface from the integration points but are calculated from the nodal displacements, face load, and the material property relationships. Transverse surface shear stresses are assumed to be zero. The surface normal stress is set equal to the surface pressure. Surface output should not be requested on condensed faces or on the zero-radius face (center line) of an axisymmetric model. For 3-D solid elements, the face coordinate system has the x-axis in the same general direction as the first two nodes of the face, as defined with pressure loading. The exact direction of the x-axis is on the line connecting the midside nodes or midpoints of the two opposite edges. The y-axis is normal to the x-axis, in the plane of the face. Table 2.1. Output Available through ETABLE lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method (Item = SURF). See the appropriate table (4.xx.2) in the individual element descriptions for definitions of the output quantities.

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General Element Features Output Available through ETABLE Element Dimensionality snum 3-D 2-D Axisymm 1 FACE FACE FACE 2 AREA AREA AREA 3 TEMP TEMP TEMP 4 PRES PRES PRES 5 EPX EPPAR EPPAR 6 EPY EPPER EPPER 7 EPZ EPZ EPZ 8 EPXY 0 EPSH [1] 9 SX SPAR SPAR 10 SY SPER SPER 11 SZ SZ SZ 12 SXY 0 0 13 0 0 0 14 0 0 SSH [1] 15 S1 S1 S1 16 S2 S2 S2 17 S3 S3 S3 18 SINT SINT SINT 19 SEQV SEQV SEQV 1. Axiharmonic only

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If an additional face has surface output requested, then snum 1-19 are repeated as snum 20-38. Convection heat flow output may be given on convection surfaces of solid thermal elements. Output is valid on interior as well as exterior surfaces. Convection conditions should not be defined on condensed faces or on the zero-radius face (center line) of an axisymmetric model. 2.2.2.6. Integration Point Solution [output listing only] Integration point output is available in the output listing with certain elements. The location of the integration point is updated if large deflections are used. See the element descriptions in the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for details about integration point locations and output. Also the ERESX command may be used to request integration point data to be written as nodal data on the results file. 2.2.2.7. Element Nodal Solution The term element nodal means element data reported for each element at its nodes. This type of output is available for 2-D and 3-D solid elements, shell elements, and various other elements. Element nodal data consist of the element derived data (e.g. strains, stresses, fluxes, gradients, etc.) evaluated at each of the element's nodes. These data are usually calculated at the interior integration points and then extrapolated to the nodes. Exceptions occur if an element has active (non-zero) plasticity, creep, or swelling at an integration point or if ERESX,NO is input. In such cases the nodal file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

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solution is the value at the integration point nearest the node. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for details. Output is usually in the element coordinate system. Averaging of the nodal data from adjacent elements is done within POST1. 2.2.2.8. Element Nodal Loads These are an element's loads (forces) acting on each of its nodes. They are printed out at the end of each element output in the nodal coordinate system and are labeled as static loads. If the problem is dynamic, the damping loads and inertia loads are also printed. The output of element nodal loads can be controlled by OUTPR,NLOAD (for printed output) and OUTRES,NLOAD (for results file output). Element nodal loads relate to the reaction solution in the following way: the sum of the static, damping, and inertia loads at a particular degree of freedom, summed over all elements connected to that degree of freedom, plus the applied nodal load (F or FK command), is equal to the negative of the reaction solution at that same degree of freedom. 2.2.2.9. Nonlinear Solution For information about nonlinear solution due to material nonlinearities, see the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference. Nonlinear strain data (EPPL, EPCR, EPSW, etc.) is always the value from the nearest integration point. If creep is present, stresses are computed after the plasticity correction but before the creep correction. The elastic strains are printed after the creep corrections. 2.2.2.10. Plane and Axisymmetric Solutions A two -dimensional solid analysis is based upon a "per unit of depth" calculation and all appropriate output data are on a "per unit of depth" basis. Many 2-D solids, however, allow an option to specify the depth (thickness). A two -dimensional axisymmetric analysis is based on a full 360 Calculation and all appropriate output data are on a full 360 basis. In particular, the total forces for the 360 model are output for an axisymmetric structural analysis and the total convection heat flow for the 360 model is output for an axisymmetric thermal analysis. For axisymmetric analyses, the X, Y, Z, and XY stresses and strains correspond to the radial, axial, hoop, and in-plane shear stresses and strains, respectively. The global Y axis must be the axis of symmetry, and the structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. 2.2.2.11. Member Force Solution Member force output is available with most structural line elements. The listing of this output is activated with a KEYOPT described with the element and is in addition to the nodal load output. Member forces are in the element coordinate system and the components correspond to the degrees of freedom available with the element. For example, member forces printed for BEAM3 would be MFORX, MFORY, MMOMZ. For BEAM3, BEAM4, BEAM44, BEAM54, SHELL51, SHELL61, PIPE16, PIPE17, PIPE18, PIPE20, PIPE59, and PIPE60, the signs of their member forces at all locations along the length of the elements are based on force equilibrium of the member segment from end I to that location. For example, for the simple one-element cantilever beam loaded as shown, the tensile force and the bending moments are positive at all points along the element, including both ends.

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2.2.2.12. Failure Criteria Failure criteria are commonly used for orthotropic materials. They can be input using either the FC commands or the TB commands. The FC command input is used in POST1. The TB command input is used directly in the composite elements and is described below. The failure criteria table is started by using the TB command (with Lab = FAIL). The data table is input in two parts:

?

the failure criterion keys the failure stress/strain data.

?

Data not input are assumed to be zero. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for an explanation of the predefined failure criteria. The six failure criterion keys are defined with the TBDATA command following a special form of the TBTEMP command [TBTEMP,,CRIT] to indicate that the failure criterion keys are defined next. The constants (C1-C6) entered on the TBDATA command are: Orthotropic Material Failure Criteria Data Constant Meaning Maximum Strain Failure Criterion - Output as FC1 (uses strain constants 1-9) 0 - Do not include this predefined criterion. 1 - Include this predefined criterion. -1 - Include user-defined criterion with subroutine USRFC1. Maximum Stress Failure Criterion - Output as FC2 (uses stress constants 10-18) 2 Options are the same as for constant 1, except subroutine is USRFC2. Tsai-Wu Failure Criterion - Output as FC3 (uses constants 10-21) 0 - Do not include this predefined criterion 1 - Include the Tsai-Wu strength index 2 - Include the inverse of the Tsai-Wu strength ratio -1 - Include user-defined criterion with subroutine USRFC3 User-defined Failure Criteria - Output as FC4 TO FC6 0 - Do not include this criterion. -1 - Include user-defined criteria with subroutines USRFC4, USRFC5, USRFC6, respectively.

1

3

4-6

The failure data, which may be temperature-dependent, must be defined with the TBDATA command following a temperature definition on the TBTEMP command. Strains must have absolute values less than 1.0. Up to six temperatures (NTEMP = 6 maximum on the TB command) may be

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defined with the TBTEMP commands. The constants (C1-C21) entered on the TBDATA command (6 per command), after each TBTEMP command, are:

**TBDATA Constants for the TBTEMP Command
**

Constant - (Symbol) - Meaning 1-( 2-( 3-( 4-( 5-( 6-( 7-( 8-( 9-( 10 - ( ) - Failure strain in material x-direction in tension (must be positive). ) - Failure strain in material x-direction in compression (default = ) - Failure strain in material y-direction in tension (must be positive). ) - Failure strain in material y-direction in compression (default = ) - Failure strain in material z-direction in tension (must be positive). ) - Failure strain in material z-direction in compression (default = ) - Failure strain in material x-y plane (shear) (must be positive). ) - Failure strain in material y-z plane (shear) (must be positive). ) - Failure strain in material x-z plane (shear) (must be positive). ) - Failure stress in material x-direction in tension (must be positive). ) (may not be ) (may not be positive). ) (may not be positive). ) (may not be positive).

11 - ( ) - Failure stress in material x-direction in compression (default = positive). 12 - ( ) - Failure stress in material y-direction in tension (must be positive).

13 - ( ) - Failure stress in material y-direction in compression (default = positive). 14 - ( ) - Failure stress in material z-direction in tension (must be positive).

) (may not be

15 - ( ) - Failure stress in material z-direction in compression (default = positive). 16 - ( 17 - ( ) - Failure stress in material x-y plane (shear) (must be positive). ) - Failure stress in material y-z plane (shear) (must be positive).

) (may not be

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18 - ( 19 - ( 20 - ( 21 - (

) - Failure stress in material x-z plane (shear) (must be positive). ) - x-y coupling coefficient for Tsai-Wu Theory (default = -1.0). ) - y-z coupling coefficient for Tsai-Wu Theory (default = -1.0). ) - x-z coupling coefficient for Tsai-Wu Theory (default = -1.0).

Note

Tsai-Wu coupling coefficients must be between -2.0 and 2.0. Values between -1.0 and 0.0 are recommended. For 2-D analysis, set orders of magnitude larger than , , or , , , and to a value several

; and set Cxz and Cyz to zero.

See the TB command for a listing of the elements that can be used with the FAIL material option. See Specifying Failure Criteria in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option.

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2.3. Coordinate Systems

2.3.1. Element Coordinate Systems

The element coordinate system is used for orthotropic material input directions, applied pressure directions, and, under some circumstances, stress output directions. (See Rotating Results to a Different Coordinate System in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for a discussion of the circumstances in which the program uses the element coordinate system for stress output directions.) A default element coordinate system orientation is associated with each element type. In general, these systems are described below. Elements departing from this description have their default element coordinate system orientation described in Element Library. Element coordinate systems are right-handed, orthogonal systems. For line elements (such as LINK1), the default orientation is generally with the x-axis along the element I-J line. For solid elements (such as PLANE42 or SOLID45), the default orientation is generally parallel to the global Cartesian coordinate system. For area shell elements (such as SHELL63), the default orientation generally has the x-axis aligned with element I-J side, the z-axis normal to the shell surface (with the outward direction determined by the right-hand rule around the element from node I to J to K), and the y-axis perpendicular to the x and z-axes. Unless otherwise changed, the element coordinate system orientation is the default orientation for that element type as described above. The orientation may be changed for area and volume elements

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by making it parallel to a previously defined local system (see the ESYS command) or, for some elements, by a KEYOPT selection (see KEYOPT(1) for PLANE42). If both are specified, the ESYS definition overrides. A further rotation, relative to the previous orientation, is allowed for some elements by a real constant angle specification (see, for example, the real constant THETA for SHELL63). Note that if no ESYS or KEYOPT orientation is specified, the real constant angle rotation (if any) is relative to the default orientation. The coordinate systems of axisymmetric elements may only be rotated about the global Z-axis. For shell elements, the ESYS orientation uses the projection of the local system on the shell surface. The element x-axis is determined from the projection of the local x-axis on the shell surface. If the projection is a point (or the angle between the local x-axis and the normal to the shell is 0 (plus a tolerance of 45 )), the local y-axis projection is used for the element x-axis direction. The z and yaxes are determined as described for the default orientation. For non-midside node elements, the projection is evaluated at the element centroid and is assumed constant in direction throughout the element. For midside noded elements, the projection is evaluated at each integration point and may vary in direction throughout the element. For axisymmetric elements, only rotations in the X-Y plane are valid. Some elements also allow element coordinate system orientations to be defined by user written subroutines (see the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features). All element coordinate systems shown in the element figures assume that no ESYS orientation is specified. Element coordinate systems may be displayed as a triad with the /PSYMB command or as an ESYS number (if specified) with the /PNUM command. Triad displays do not include the effects of any real constant angle, except for BEAM4 elements. For large deflection analyses, the element coordinate system rotates from the initial orientation described above by the amount of rigid body rotation of the element.

**2.3.2. Elements that Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System
**

A few special elements operate totally in the nodal coordinate system: COMBIN14 Spring-Damper with KEYOPT(2) = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 MASS21 Structural Mass with KEYOPT(2) = 1 MATRIX27 Stiffness, Damping, or Mass Matrix COMBIN37 Control Element FLUID38 Dynamic Fluid Coupling COMBIN39 Nonlinear Spring with KEYOPT(4) = 0 COMBIN40 Combination Element These elements are defined in the nodal coordinate systems. This allows for easy directional control, especially for the case of two node elements with coincident nodes. If UX, UY, or UZ degrees of freedom are being used, the nodes are not coincident, and the load is not acting parallel to the line connecting the two nodes, there is no mechanism for the element to transfer the resulting moment load, resulting in loss of moment equilibrium. The one exception is MATRIX27, which can include moment coupling when appropriate additional terms are added to the matrix. There are some things to consider if any of the nodes have been rotated, for example with the NROTAT command:

?

If the nodes of elements containing more than one node are not rotated in the exact same way, force equilibrium may not be maintained. Accelerations operate normally in the global Cartesian system. But since there is no

?

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transformation done between the nodal and global systems, the accelerations will effectively act on any element mass in the nodal system, giving unexpected results. Therefore, it is recommended not to apply accelerations when these elements use rotated nodes.

?

Mass and inertia relief calculations will not be correct.

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**2.4. Linear Material Properties
**

The linear material properties used by the element type are listed under "Material Properties" in the input table for each element type. A brief description of all material properties not described with the elements is given in Table 2.3. Material Property Labels at the end of this section. These properties (which may be functions of temperature) are called linear properties because typical non-thermal analyses with these properties require only a single iteration. Conversely, if properties needed for a thermal analysis (e.g. KXX) are temperature-dependent, the problem is non-linear. Properties such as stress-strain data (described in Nonlinear Stress-Strain Materials) are called nonlinear properties because an analysis with these properties requires an iterative solution. Linear material properties that are required for an element, but which are not defined, use the default values as described below (except that EX and KXX must be input with a non-zero value where applicable). Any additional material properties are ignored. The X, Y, and Z refer to the element coordinate system. In general, if a material is isotropic, only the “X” and possibly the “XY” term is input. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for material property details. Structural material properties must be input as an isotropic, orthotropic, or anisotropic material. If the material is isotropic: Young's modulus (EX) must be input. Poisson's ratio (PRXY or NUXY) defaults to 0.3. If a zero value is desired, input PRXY or NUXY with a zero or blank value. The shear modulus (GXY) defaults to EX/(2(1+NUXY)). If GXY is input, it must match EX/(2 (1+NUXY)). Hence, the only reason for inputting GXY is to ensure consistency with the other two properties. Also, Poisson's ratio should not be equal to or greater than 0.5. If the material is orthotropic: EX, EY, EZ, (PRXY, PRYZ, PRXZ, or NUXY, NUYZ, NUXZ), GXY, GYZ, and GXZ must all be input if the element type uses the material property. There are no defaults. Note that, for example, if only EX and EY are input (with different values) to a plane stress element, an error will result indicating that the material is orthotropic and that GXY and NUXY are also needed. Poisson's ratio may be input in either major (PRXY, PRYZ, PRXZ) or minor (NUXY, NUYZ, NUXZ) form, but not both for a particular material. The major form is converted to the minor form during the solve operation [SOLVE]. Solution output is in terms of the minor form, regardless of how the data was input. If zero values are desired, input the labels with a zero (or blank) value. For axisymmetric analyses, the X, Y, and Z labels refer to the radial (R), axial (Z), and hoop ( ) directions, respectively. Orthotropic properties given in the R,Z, system should be input as follows: EX = ER, EY = EZ, and EZ = E . An additional transformation is required for Poisson's ratios. If the given R,Z, properties are column-normalized (see the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference), file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

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NUXY = NURZ, NUYZ = NUZ = (ET/EZ) *NU Z, and NUXZ = NUR . If the given R,Z, properties are row-normalized, NUXY = (EZ/ER)*NURZ, NUYZ = (E /EZ)*NUZ = NU Z, and NUXZ = (E /ER)*NUR . If the material is anisotropic: The input for this is described in Anisotropic Elastic Materials. For all other orthotropic materials (including ALPX, ALPY, and ALPZ), the X,Y, and Z part of the label (e.g. KXX, KYY, and KZZ) refers to the direction (in the element coordinate system) in which that particular property acts. The Y and Z directions of the properties default to the X direction (e.g., KYY and KZZ default to KXX) to reduce the amount of input required. Material dependent damping (DAMP) is an additional method of including structural damping for dynamic analyses and is useful when different parts of the model have different damping values. If DAMP is included, the DAMP value is added to the BETAD value as appropriate (see the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference). Special purpose elements, such as COMBIN7, LINK11, CONTAC12, MATRIX27, FLUID29, and VISCO88, generally do not require damping. However, if material property DAMP is specified for these elements, the value will be used to create the damping matrix at solution time. EMIS defaults to 1.0 if not defined; however, if defined with a 0.0 (or blank) value, EMIS is taken to be 0.0. The uniform temperature does not default to REFT (but does default to TREF on the TREF command). When you use the MP command to enter values for the thermal coefficient of expansion ( ), the program interprets those values as mean values, taken with respect to some common datum or definition temperature. For instance, suppose you measured thermal strains in a test laboratory, starting at 23 C, and took readings at 200 , 400 , 600 , 800 , and 1000 . When you plot this strain-temperature data, the slopes of the secants to the strain-temperature curve would be the mean values of the coefficient of thermal expansion, defined with respect to the common temperature of 23 (To ). (The discussion which follows also uses another term, the instantaneous value of the coefficient of thermal expansion. The slopes of the tangents to this curve represent the instantaneous values.)

The program calculates structural thermal strain as follows:

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th

where: T = element evaluation temperature TREF = temperature at which zero thermal strains exist (TREF or MP,REFT commands) (T) = mean coefficient of thermal expansion, with respect to a definition temperature (in this case, same as TREF) If the material property data is in terms of instantaneous values of instantaneous values into mean values as follows: , then you need to convert those

where: Tn = temperature at which a mean value is being evaluated values are defined (in this case, same as

To = definition temperature at which the mean TREF)

If the values are based upon a definition temperature other than TREF, then you need to convert those values to TREF. This can be done using the MPAMOD command. Also see the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference. Specific heat effects may be input with either the C (specific heat) property or the ENTH (enthalpy) property. Enthalpy has units of heat/volume and is the integral of C x DENS over temperature. If both C and ENTH are specified, ENTH will be used. ENTH should be used only in a transient thermal analysis. For phase change problems, the user must input ENTH as a function of temperature using the MP family of commands [MP, MPTEMP, MPTGEN, and MPDATA]. Temperature-dependent properties may be input in tabular form (value vs. temperature) or as a fourth order polynomial (value = f(temperature)). If input as a polynomial, however, evaluation is done by PREP7 at discrete temperature points and converted to tabular form. The tabular properties are then available to the elements. Material properties are evaluated at or near the centroid of the element or at each of the integration points, as follows:

?

For heat transfer elements, all properties are evaluated at the centroid (except for the specific heat or enthalpy, which is evaluated at the integration points). For structural elements PLANE2, PLANE42, SOLID45, PLANE82, SOLID92, SOLID95, VISCO106, VISCO107, VISCO108, BEAM161, PLANE162, SHELL163, SOLID164, SHELL181, PLANE182, PLANE183, SOLID185, SOLID186, SOLID187, BEAM188, and

?

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**General Element Features BEAM189, all properties are evaulated at the integration points.
**

?

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For layered elements SOLID46, SHELL91, SHELL99, and SOLID191, all properties are evaluated at the centroid of each element. For all other elements, all properties are evaluated at the centroid.

?

If the temperature of the centroid or integration point falls below or rises above the defined temperature range of tabular data, ANSYS assumes the defined extreme minimum or maximum value, respectively, for the material property outside the defined range. Film coefficients are evaluated as described with the SF command. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for additional details. Property evaluation at element temperatures beyond the supplied tabular range assumes a constant property at the extreme range value. An exception occurs for the ENTH property, which continues along the last supplied slope. Material Property Labels Label EX EY EZ PRXY PRYZ PRXZ NUXY NUYZ NUXZ GXY GYZ GXZ ALPX ALPY ALPZ REFT MU DAMP DENS KXX KYY KZZ C ENTH HF Units Force/Area Description Elastic modulus, element x direction Elastic modulus, element y direction Elastic modulus, element z direction Major Poisson's ratio, x-y plane Major Poisson's ratio, y-z plane Major Poisson's ratio, x-z plane Minor Poisson's ratio, x-y plane Minor Poisson's ratio, y-z plane Minor Poisson's ratio, x-z plane Shear modulus, x-y plane Shear modulus, y-z plane Shear modulus, x-z plane Coefficient of thermal expansion, element x direction Coefficient of thermal expansion, element y direction Coefficient of thermal expansion, element z direction Reference temperature (as a property) [TREF] Coefficient of friction (or, for FLUID29 and FLUID30 elements, boundary admittance) K matrix multiplier for damping [BETAD] Mass density Thermal conductivity, element x direction Thermal conductivity, element y direction Thermal conductivity, element z direction Specific heat Enthalpy ( DENS*C d(Temp)) Convection (or film) coefficient

None

Force/Area

Strain/Temp Temp None Time Mass/Vol Heat*Length/ (Time*Area*Temp) Heat/Mass*Temp Heat/Vol Heat / (Time*Area*Temp)

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FLUID129. it is described below and referenced in the element description.Implicit Analysis A data table is a series of constants that are interpreted when they are used. element x direction Magnetic relative permeability. The form of the data table (referred to as the TB table) depends upon the data being defined. element z direction Electric relative permittivity. element x direction Magnetic coercive force. element x direction Electric relative permittivity... element z direction Magnetic coercive force. element z direction Dielectric loss tangent (Valid for high-frequency elctromagnetic analyses only. Data Tables . the data table is used for special element input data other than material properties. element z direction Electrical resistivity. swelling constants. FLUID30. Data tables are always associated with a material number and are most often used to define nonlinear material data (stressstrain curves. For some element types. element y direction Magnetic relative permeability. . the table is described with the element in Element Library.2004 ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Implicit Analysis Prev Coordinate Systems Prev Data Tables . element y direction Magnetic coercive force. and FLUID130elements only) Magnetic relative permeability. and magnetization curves). The following topics are described in this section: ? Nonlinear Stress-Strain Materials Hyperelastic Materials Viscoelastic Materials Magnetic Materials Anisotropic Elastic Materials 20. If the form applies to more than one element.5. creep constants.) Next Data Tables . element x direction Electrical resistivity.General Element Features EMIS None QRATE Heat/Time VISC SONC MURX MURY MURZ MGXX MGYY MGZZ RSVX RSVY RSVZ PERX PERY PERZ LSST Force*Time/ Length 2 Length/Time Emissivity Heat generation rate (MASS71 element only) Viscosity Page 17 of 67 None Charge/ (Length*Time) Resistance*Area/Length Charge 2/ (Force*Length 2) None Sonic velocity (FLUID29.Implicit Analysis General Element Features Next 2. Where the form is peculiar to only one element type. element y direction Electric relative permittivity. Other material properties are described in Linear Material Properties. element y direction Electrical resistivity.05.

Ten rate-independent plasticity options.1. 2. ANISO. Bilinear Kinematic Hardening This option (BKIN) assumes the total stress range is equal to twice the yield stress. Select the material behavior option via menu path Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props> Material Models [TB.2004 .5. the curve continues along the second slope defined by the tangent modulus. ANAND. DP. Inc. See the ANSYS. At the specified yield stress (C1).1. and USER must have elastically isotropic (EX = EY = EZ) materials." then several options are available to describe the material behavior of that element. Lab Material Behavior Option BKIN Bilinear Kinematic Hardening (Rate-independent plasticity) MKIN Multilinear Kinematic Hardening (Rate-independent plasticity) KINH Multilinear Kinematic Hardening (Rate-independent plasticity) CHABOCHE Chaboche Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening (Rate-independent plasticity) MISO Multilinear Isotropic Hardening (Rate-independent plasticity) BISO Bilinear Isotropic Hardening (Rate-independent plasticity) NLISO Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening (Rate-independent plasticity) ANISO Anisotropic (Rate-independent plasticity) HILL Hill Anisotropic Potential DP Drucker-Prager (Rate-independent plasticity) ANAND Anand's Model (Rate-dependent plasticity) MELAS Multilinear Elastic USER User-defined Nonlinear Stress-Strain Material Option All options except CHABOCHE.Lab]. The material behavior is described by a bilinear total stress-total strain curve starting at the origin and with positive stress and strain values.. BKIN may be used for materials that obey von Mises yield criteria (which includes most metals). All options except HILL. HILL. If the data table is not defined (or contains all zero values). 2.1. the material is assumed to be linear. and a user option are shown below. Theory Reference for more detail.General Element Features ? Page 18 of 67 Piezoelectric Materials Rate-Dependent Viscoplastic Materials Creep Equations Swelling Equations ? ? ? Explicit dynamics materials are discussed in Material Models in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide. so that the Bauschinger effect is included. The initial slope of the curve is taken as the elastic modulus of the material.. an elasticity option. NLISO. Required values that aren't included in the data table are assumed to be zero. two rate-dependent plasticity options.n-1 lists "plasticity" as a "Special Feature. C2 (having the same units as the elastic file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05. Nonlinear Stress-Strain Materials If Table 4. See Nonlinear Structural Analysis in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for additional details. 20. The material behavior options are briefly described below.5. and USER require a uniaxial stressstrain curve to be input.

KINH.General Element Features Page 19 of 67 modulus)...05.1.BKIN. Multilinear Kinematic Hardening There are two options.0.1. For each stress-strain curve. also called the sublayer or overlay model. with positive stress and strain values. This is the default. The slope of the first segment of the curve must correspond to the elastic modulus of the material and no segment slope should be larger. The uniaxial behavior is described by a piece-wise linear "total stress-total strain curve". namely.BKIN.KINH is described first. define the temperature [TBTEMP].. 2. there is no stress relaxation with an increase in temperature. You can combine this option with other material options to simulate more complex material behaviors. TB. TBOPT takes two arguments. Input the remaining temperatures and stress-strain values using the same sequence (TBTEMP followed by TBPT). Theory Reference). This option is not recommended for nonisothermal problems. The KINH option allows you to define up to 40 temperature-dependent stress-strain curves.MKIN. The material response is represented by multiple layers of perfectly plastic material.. providing better representations.MKIN.2004 . the option TB.5. See Plastic Material Options in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option. Inc. then input stress and strain values using the TBPT. 20. See Plastic Material Options in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option. You can combine this option with other material options to simulate more complex material file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2. Input the temperature of the first curve with the TBTEMP. See Material Model Combinations for further information. starting at the origin. See the TB command for a listing of the elements that can be used with this material option. In the following. the total response is obtained by weighted average behavior of all the layers. and TB. In this case. For TB. The assumption is that the corresponding points on the different stress-strain curves represent the temperature dependent yield behavior of a particular sublayer. The constants C1 and C2 are: Constant Meaning C1 Yield stress (Force/Area) C2 Tangent modulus (Force/Area) BKIN can be used with the TBOPT option. available to model metal plasticity behavior under cyclic loading. Individual weights are derived from the uniaxial stressstrain curve. You can define up to six temperature-dependent stress-strain curves ( NTEMP = 6 maximum on the TB command) in this manner. Rice's hardening rule is applied (which does take stress relaxation with temperature increase into account). followed by that of TB.. Initialize the stress-strain table with TB. The tangent modulus cannot be less than zero nor greater than the elastic modulus.BKIN. For TB. If you define more than one stress-strain curve for temperature-dependent properties. See the TB command for a listing of the elements that can be used with this material option. then define C1 and C2 [TBDATA]. These two options use the Besseling model (see the ANSYS... The KINH option is recommended because layers are scaled (Rice's model). then each curve should contain the same number of points (up to a maximum of 20 points in each curve)..KINH. Initialize the stress-strain table with TB.

MKIN. See the TB command for a listing of the elements that can be used with this material option. The constants (C1-C5). See Material Model Combinations for further information. You can combine this option with other material options to simulate more complex material behaviors. Produces stable stress-strain cycles. ? ? This option is used as follows: Initialize the stress-strain table with TB.STRAIN) to indicate that strains are defined next.2004 .Scale layer plastic strains to keep total plastic strain constant. 2 . The MKIN option has the following restrictions: ? You may define up to five temperature dependent stress-strain curves. 1 . you can superpose up to five kinematic hardening models and an isotropic hardening model to simulate the complicated file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. You may use only five points for each stress-strain curve..TBOPT). The temperature of the first curve is then input with TBTEMP. followed by the TBDATA command with the constants C1-C5 representing the five stresses corresponding to the strains at that temperature.MKIN with TBOPT = 2. agrees with Rice's model (TB.KINH option is the same as TB.05. BKIN with TBOPT = 1).. Note The mechanical behavior of the TB. Theory Reference ) for simulating the cyclic behavior of materials. You can define up to five temperature-dependent stress-strain curves (NTEMP = 5 max on the TB command) with the TBTEMP command. See Plastic Material Options in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option. 2.1. entered on the next TBDATA command. See Material Model Combinations for further information.No stress relaxation with temperature increase (this is not recommended for nonisothermal problems). followed by a special form of the TBTEMP command (TBTEMP.MKIN.. 20.Recalculate total plastic strain using new weight factors of the subvolume. also produces thermal ratcheting.. Like the BKIN and MKIN options. MKIN can also be used in conjunction with the TBOPT option (TB. TBOPT has the following three valid arguments: 0 . Inc. Each stress-strain curve must have the same set of strain values.. Page 20 of 67 The curve defined with the MKIN option is continuous from the origin with a maximum of five total stress-total strain points..5. In addition. The slope of the first segment of the curve must correspond to the elastic modulus of the material and no segment slope should be larger.General Element Features behaviors. are the five corresponding strain values (the origin strain is not input).3. Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening This option (CHABOCHE) uses the Chaboche model (see the ANSYS. you can use this model to simulate monotonic hardening and the Bauschinger effect.

You can also define k using BISO. 20.. The constants C1 through C(1 + 2 NPTS) are: Constant C1 C2 C3 C4 Meaning k = Yield stress C1 = Material constant for first kinematic model 1 = Material constant for first kinematic model C2 = Material constant for second kinematic model file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. which corresponds to 5 kinematic models [ NPTS = 5 on the TB command].2004 . through the TB command.CHABOCHE. The Chaboche model implemented in ANSYS is: where: X = back stress tensor pl = plastic strain tensor p = accumulated equivalent plastic strain = temperature [A dot located above any of these quantities indicates the first derivative of the quantity with respect to time. and ratcheting or shakedown. define the temperature [TBTEMP]. m is 11. MISO. which corresponds to one kinematic model [ NPTS = 1]..05. You can define up to 1000 temperature-dependent constants ([ NTEMP x m 1000] maximum on the TB command) in this manner. where m = 1 + 2NPTS. such as cyclic hardening or softening.] Ci and i = material constants that you enter as inputs n = number of nonlinear kinematic models that you specify as NPTS in the TB command The yield function is: where: = effective equivalent stress k = yield stress of materials that you enter as an input. Initialize the data table with TB. The default value for m is 3.General Element Features Page 21 of 67 cyclic plastic behavior of materials. The maximum number of constants. then define C1 through Cm [TBDATA]. For each set of data. or NLISO.

. This option may be preferred for large strain cycling where kinematic hardening could exaggerate the Bauchinger effect..05. The constants C1 and C2 are: Constant Meaning C1 Yield stress (Force/Area) C2 Tangent modulus (Force/Area) See the TB command for a listing of the elements that can be used with this material option. See Plastic Material Options in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option. As mentioned above.5. The initial slope of the curve is taken as the elastic modulus of the material.. Define up to six temperature-dependent stressstrain curves ( NTEMP = 6 max on the TB command) in this manner.1. you can combine this option with other material options to simulate more complex material behaviors. The uniaxial behavior is described by a piece-wise linear total stress-total strain curve.5. 20. At the specified yield stress (C1). The tangent modulus cannot be less than zero nor greater than the elastic modulus. 2.. Inc. See Material Model Combinations for further information. You can combine this option with other material options to simulate more complex material behaviors.General Element Features Page 22 of 67 C5 2 = Material constant for second kinematic model . define the temperature [TBTEMP]. with positive stress and strain values.1. Bilinear Isotropic Hardening This option (BISO) uses the von Mises yield criteria coupled with an isotropic work hardening assumption. Initialize the stress-strain table with TB. . The slope of the first segment of the curve must correspond to the elastic modulus of the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. starting at the origin. Theory Reference for details). Multilinear Isotropic Hardening This option (MISO) is similar to BISO except that a multilinear curve is used instead of a bilinear curve. See Material Model Combinations for further information.. 2. See Plastic Material Options in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option. then define C1 and C2 [TBDATA]. See the TB command for a listing of the elements that can be used with this material option. and all C and values in the right column are material constants in the Chaboche model (see the ANSYS.4. It can be used for non-cyclic load histories or for those elements that do not support the multilinear kinematic hardening option (MKIN).2004 . The material behavior is described by a bilinear stress-strain curve starting at the origin with positive stress and strain values. C(2NPTS) CNPTS = Material constant for last kinematic model C(1 + 2NPTS) NPTS = Material constant for last kinematic model k. The curve is continuous from the origin through 100 (max) stress-strain points.5. For each stress-strain curve..BISO. the curve continues along the second slope defined by the tangent modulus C2 (having the same units as the elastic modulus).

1.5. In particular. and differs from the MISO option in that the material behavior is described by a specific equation with four constants (see the ANSYS.1. No segment can have a slope less than zero. maximum on the TB command) in this manner.05. The theory is an extension of Hill's file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Y) entered on the TBPT command (2 per command) are: Constant Meaning X Strain value (Dimensionless) Y Corresponding stress value (Force/Area) See the TB command for a listing of the elements that can be used with this material option. The constants C1 through C4 are: Constant Meaning C1 k = Yield stress Ro = Material constant in Voce hardening law C2 C3 C4 = Material constant in Voce hardening law b = Material constant in Voce hardening law See the TB command for a listing of the elements that can be used with this material option. The constants (X. Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening This option (NLISO) uses the Voce hardening law for describing the isotropic hardening behavior of materials.2004 .NLISO. maximum on the TB command) in this manner. You can specify up to 20 temperature-dependent stress-strain curves. followed by up to 100 stress-strain points (the origin stress-strain point is not input) [TBPT].. Initialize the data table with TB. Initialize the curves with TB. y. Input the temperature for the first curve [TBTEMP]. A modified von Mises yield criterion is used to determine yielding. In addition. You can combine this option with other material options to simulate more complex material behaviors. and z directions as well as different behavior in tension and compression (see Anisotropic Elastic Materials).General Element Features Page 23 of 67 material and no segment slope should be larger. define the temperature [TBTEMP].6. 20. Inc. Anisotropic This option (ANISO) allows for different stress-strain behavior in the material x. 2. See Material Model Combinations for further information. combining NLISO with the CHABOCHE nonlinear kinematic hardening option simulates cyclic hardening or softening behavior of materials.. then define C1 through C4 [TBDATA].5.MISO. you can combine this option with other material options to simulate more complex material behaviors. See Plastic Material Options in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option. 2. Theory Reference for details). Define up to 20 temperature-dependent stress-strain curves ( NTEMP = 20. For each set of data. See Plastic Material Options in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option.7. It is recommended for large deformation analyses. Define up to twenty temperature-dependent stress-strain curves ( NTEMP = 20. See Material Model Combinations for further information.

MKIN or TB. y. Rate-dependent anisotropic plasticity (anisotropic viscoplasticity) with isotropic hardening TB.BISO or TB.CHAB. See Plastic Material Options in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option. The principal axes of anisotropy coincide with the material (or element) coordinate system and are assumed not to change over the load history. Hill's Anisotropy This option (HILL). The material behavior is described by the uniaxial tensile and compressive stress-strain curves in three orthogonal directions and the shear stress-engineering shear strain curves in the corresponding directions.5. Inc.BKIN or TB. and xz directions Corresponding tangent moduli See the TB command for a listing of the elements that can be used with this material option. Rate-independent anisotropic plasticity with combined hardening . The initial slope of the curve is taken as the elastic moduli of the material.HILL combined with TB. Input the magnitude of the yield stresses (without signs).HILL combined ? ? ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.CHAB and TB. This option is not recommended for cyclic or highly nonproportional load histories since work hardening is assumed.HILL combined with TB. 20. Anisotropic creep and anisotropic plasticity with isotropic hardening .TB. as noted: ? Rate-independent anisotropic plasticity with isotropic hardening .TB.KINH or TB.HILL combined with TB. The tensile x-direction is used as the reference curve for output quantities SEPL and EPEQ. Initialize the stress-strain table with TB. At the specified yield stress.HILL combined with TB.2004 . is used to define stress ratios for anisotropic yield and creep. 2.NLISO.MISO or TB. Anisotropic creep .NLISO. You can define up to 18 constants with TBDATA commands.8.TB.TB. and z directions Corresponding tangent moduli Shear yield stresses in the material xy.RATE. Rate-independent anisotropic plasticity with kinematic hardening . Temperature dependent curves cannot be input. the following simulations are available by combining the HILL option with other material options. Theory Reference .General Element Features Page 24 of 67 formulation as noted in the ANSYS..TB. The constants (C1 -C18) entered on TBDATA commands (6 per command) are: Constant C1-C3 C4-C6 C7-C9 C10-C12 C13-C15 C16-C18 Meaning (all units are Force/Area) Tensile yield stresses in the material x. y.BISO or TB. A bilinear response in each direction is assumed.ANISO. the curve continues along the second slope defined by the tangent modulus (having the same units as the elastic modulus). The tangent modulus cannot be less than zero or greater than the elastic modulus. No yield stress can have a zero value.CREEP (implicit).MISO or TB..NLISO and TB.1.BISO or TB. yz.MISO or TB. Specifically.HILL combined with TB. and z directions Corresponding tangent moduli Compressive yield stresses in the material x.05. All values must be input as no defaults are defined.

The HILL option's material behavior is described by six constants that define the stress ratios in different directions (see the ANSYS. The input must then be followed by the TB command again. and concrete and uses the outer cone approximation to the Mohr-Coulomb law (see the ANSYS. Initialize the data table with TB. you then define the temperatures using the TBTEMP command. PLANE183. SOLID185. SOLID45. PLANE182.. Theory Reference for details). ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . For each set of data.TB. then define C1 through C6 using the TBDATA command.MISO or TB. but with one of the plasticity and / or creep options. rock. ? Page 25 of 67 Anisotropic creep and anisotropic plasticity with kinematic hardening . Inc.9. Theory Reference). The input consists of only three constants: ? the cohesion value (must be > 0) the angle of internal friction the dilatancy angle. SOLID186. LINK180.CREEP and TB. For each set of data.. r ij is the ratio of the creep strain in the ij direction to the reference value calculated by the implicit creep equation.General Element Features with TB. SOLID187. SHELL181.HILL combined with TB.1. BEAM188. SOLID92. and then define the constants using the TBDATA command. The constants C1 through C6 for the HILL option are: Constant Meaning rxx C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 ryy rzz rxy ryz rxz Shear ij Tension / Compression ii For plasticity. 20. Inc. All cases can be used with the following elements: PLANE42. to the yield stress specified for the plasticity input as part of the TB command.BISO or TB. 2.5.NLISO (implicit).HILL. r ij is the ratio of the yield stress in the ij direction. Drucker-Prager This option (DP) is applicable to granular (frictional) material such as soils. SOLID95.05. PLANE82.BKIN (implicit) See Material Model Combinations for more information on combining the HILL option with the plasticity and creep options. For creep. you then define the temperature using the TBTEMP command.CREEP and TB. and BEAM189.

VISCO107. and VISCO108.5. The constants (C1 -C3) entered on TBDATA are: Constant Meaning C1 Cohesion value (Force/Area) C2 Angle (in degrees) of internal friction C3 dilatancy angle (in degrees) See the TB command for a listing of the elements that can be used with this material option.05.. Multilinear Elastic This option (MELAS) is such that unloading occurs along the same path as loading. The Anand model is applicable to viscoplastic elements VISCO106. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. See Plastic Material Options in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option. Theory Reference for details. 2.10. You can define up to nine constants (C1-C9) with TBDATA commands (6 per command): Constant Meaning Material Property so C1 initial value of deformation resistance Q = activation energy C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 n a Q/R R = universal gas constant A xi m ho pre-exponential factor multiplier of stress strain rate sensitivity of stress hardening / softening constant coefficient for deformation resistance saturation value strain rate sensitivity of saturation (deformation resistance) value strain rate sensitivity of hardening or softening Units stress energy /volume energy /(volume temp) 1 / time dimensionless dimensionless stress stress dimensionless dimensionless See Viscoplasticity in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option. Anand's Model This option (ANAND) has input consisting of 9 constants.General Element Features Page 26 of 67 The amount of dilatancy (the increase in material volume due to yielding) can be controlled with the dilatancy angle.1.2004 . Initialize the constant table with TB.1. the flow rule is associative. If the dilatancy angle is zero (or less than the friction angle). there is no (or less of an) increase in material volume when yielding and the flow rule is nonassociated. Inc. If the dilatancy angle is equal to the friction angle. Initialize the constant table with TB.ANAND. This behavior.5.. See the ANSYS. You can define up to three constants with TBDATA commands.DP. Temperature-dependent curves are not allowed. 20. 2.11.

State variables can also be used in the USERMAT subroutine. and BEAM189. SOLID65. Hyperelastic Material Constants file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. SHELL181. The number of constants can be any combination of the number of temperatures ( NTEMP) and the number of data points per temperature ( NPTS).1. Inc. starting at the origin.2. PLANE82. Theory Reference for details. 2.USER. Successive slopes can be greater than the preceding slope. SOLID185. 2. to a maximum limit of NTEMP x NPTS = 1000. See Multilinear Elasticity in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option. The constants (X. PLANE42.Y) entered on TBPT (2 per command) are: Constant Meaning X Strain value (Dimensionless) Y Corresponding stress value (Force/Area) See the TB command for a listing of the elements that can be used with this material option.STATE then define the constants with the TBDATA command. BEAM23. SOLID45. The curve is continuous from the origin through 100 (max) stress-strain points. when you use any of the following elements: LINK1.05. The USER option works with the USERPL subroutine in defining plasticity or viscoplasticity material models. PLANE183. LINK8. Initialize the curves with TB. Initialize the constant table with TB. SOLID187. BEAM188. PLANE182. PLANE2.5.. SOLID62. The material behavior is described by a piece-wise linear stress-strain curve. SHELL43. SOLID186. no slope can be greater than the elastic modulus of the material. The temperature for the first curve is input with TBTEMP. followed by TBPT commands for up to 100 stress-strain points (the origin stress-strain point is not input). You can define up to 20 temperature. although the elastic modulus can be input as greater than the first slope to ensure that all slopes are less than or equal to the elastic modulus. SHELL91. User The User Defined (USER) material option describes input parameters for defining a material model based on either of two subroutines. The constants are defined with TBDATA commands (6 per command). initialize the constant table with TB.MELAS. You can define a maximum of 1000 state variables ( NPTS = 1000). Specify up to 20 temperature-dependent stress-strain curves. SOLID92. The USER option's input is determined by user-defined constants. PIPE20. with positive stress and strain values. The plastic strain ( pl ) for this option should be interpreted as a "pseudo plastic strain" since it returns to zero when the material is unloaded (no hysteresis). 20. See User Defined Material in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option. The choice of which subroutine to use is based on which element you are using.5. however. PIPE60. BEAM24. is conservative (path-independent).12. SOLID95. SHELL93. See the ANSYS. SHELL51. when you use any of the following elements: LINK180. which are ANSYS user-programmable features (see the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features).. The slope of the first curve segment usually corresponds to the elastic modulus of the material.General Element Features Page 27 of 67 unlike the other options. The USER option works with the USERMAT subroutine in defining any material model (except incompressible materials).dependent stress-strain curves ( NTEMP = 20 max on the TB command) in this manner. To use state variables.2004 .

HYPER158. See the TB command for a listing of the elements that can be used with this material option. TB. PLANE182. SOLID185. 3. and SOLID187. PLANE183.HYPER) Note that this section applies to the Mooney-Rivlin model with elements SHELL181. 2. SOLID186. Several forms of strain energy potentials are used to describe the hyperelasticity of materials.NEO uses the Neo-Hookean form of strain energy potential.HYPER. and SOLID187. or 9 parameter Mooney-Rivlin file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.MOONEY). SOLID185.2..General Element Features Page 28 of 67 Hyperelasticity is listed in the Special Features section of the Input Summary for elements SHELL181. Neo-Hookean Hyperelastic Material Constants The option. 20.2. is the first deviatoric strain invariant. which is given by: where W is the strain energy per unit reference volume. J is the determinant of the elastic deformation gradient F.. Material Behavior Option NEO Neo-Hookean model MOONEY Mooney-Rivlin model POLY Polynomial form model OGDEN Ogden model BOYCE Arruda-Boyce model USER User-defined Hyperelastic Material Option TBOPT 2.. These are based on either strain invariants or principal stretches.1. HYPER86. HYPER74..05. see Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Material Constants (TB.5..5. PLANE182.2004 . SOLID186. As described in the following sections. PLANE183.. The initial bulk modulus is defined by: The constants and d are defined using the TBDATA command. 5. See Neo-Hookean Hyperelastic Option in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option. This option.MOONEY allows you to define 2. TB. If you want to use the Mooney-Rivlin model with elements HYPER56.. Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Material Constants (TB. The options listed below are available to describe the material behavior for these elements. HYPER84. and is the initial shear modulus of the material.HYPER. HYPER58. you choose the option using TBOPT with TB.2. d is the material incompressibility parameter. The behavior of materials is assumed to be incompressible or nearly incompressible..HYPER.

The constants c 10 . 3. For NPTS = 3 (3 parameter Mooney-Rivlin option. c01 . c02 . d is the material incompressibility parameter. respectively. which is also the default). c 10 . the form of the strain energy potential is: W is the strain energy potential. and d are defined by C1. is the first deviatoric strain invariant. C2. For NPTS = 9 (9 parameter Mooney-Rivlin option). and C6 using the TBDATA command. or 9. and C4 using the TBDATA command. C4. and C3 using the TBDATA command. c11 . c11 . and d are defined by C1. 5.. C2. the form of the strain energy potential is: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. is the second deviatoric strain invariant. and d are material constants defined by C1. and c01 are material constants characterizing the deviatoric deformation of the material. c20 . which is also the default).05. the form of the strain energy potential is: The constants c 10 . C3. C3.General Element Features models using NPTS = 2. For NPTS = 5 (5 parameter Mooney-Rivlin option).. C5. the form of the strain energy potential is: The constants c 10 . c01 .2004 . Page 29 of 67 For NPTS = 2 (2 parameter Mooney-Rivlin option. c01 . 20. C2. The initial shear modulus is defined as: = 2 (c10 + c01 ) and the initial bulk modulus is defined as: .

Polynomial Form Hyperelastic Material Constants The option. the polynomial form option is equivalent to the Neo-Hookean option. d1 For N ( NPTS) = 2: c10 . and for N = 3.. 20. C5.. c11 . C2. it is equivalent to the 5 parameter Mooney-Rivlin option. C4.POLY allows you to define a polynomial form of strain energy potential. The constants c ij and d are defined using the TBDATA command in the following order: For N ( NPTS) = 1: c10 . C8. For N = 2.05. a very high value of N is not recommended.. it is equivalent to the 9 parameter Mooney-Rivlin option. c02 . A higher value of N can provide a better fit to the exact solution. c03 . For N = 1.HYPER. C9. is the second deviatoric strain invariant. 2. c01 . and d are material constants defined by C1. and C10 using the TBDATA command. For N = 1 and c 01 = 0.5.. The initial shear modulus = 2 (c10 + c01 ) and the initial bulk modulus is defined as: is defined by: .. The form of the strain energy potential for the Polynomial option is given by: W is the strain energy potential.2. c 01 . C3. it is equivalent to the 2 parameter Mooney-Rivlin option. C6. For these reasons. and d are material constants. d1 . c ij. c 01 . and J is the determinant of the elastic deformation gradient F. TB. In general there is no limitation on the value of N in ANSYS (see the TB command).2004 . and it also requests enough data to cover the whole range of deformation for which you may be interested. c12 . C7. c20 .3. d2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. c02 .General Element Features Page 30 of 67 The constants c 10 . c11 . c30 . The parameters N. c20 . is the first deviatoric strain invariant.HYPER) in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option. c21 . It may however cause a numerical difficulty in fitting the material constants. See Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB.

p. c03 . A higher value of N can provide a better fit to the exact solution.. For N = 2. c 01 . defined as p are the principal stretches of the left Cauchy-Green tensor. For this reason.. c30 .. The initial bulk modulus K is defined by: . The Ogden form is based on the principal stretches of the left Cauchy-Green tensor. Parameters N. dk Page 31 of 67 See the TB command for a listing of the elements that can be used with this material option. 2... c20 . J is the determinant of the elastic deformation gradient. and 2 1 = 2.05. In general there is no limitation on the value of N in ANSYS (see the TB command). c21 . Ogden Hyperelastic Material Constants This option. c02 .. c11 . The strain energy potential is: W is the strain energy potential..HYPER...OGDEN uses the Ogden form of strain energy potential.4. ck0 . c0k .. c20 . 1= = -2. d1 . c21 . 20.General Element Features For N ( NPTS) = 3: c10 . c12 . p. For N = 1 and 2. . are deviatoric principal stretches. c 01 . TB. c11 . p The constants and dp are defined using the TBDATA command in the following order: For N ( NPTS) = 1: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. very high values of N are not recommended. d1 . the Ogden option is equivalent to the 2 parameter Mooney-Rivlin option. c30 . d2. .5. c12 .. . See Polynomial Form Hyperelastic Option in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option.2004 .. c(k-1)1. the Ogden option is equivalent to the Neo-Hookean option. .2. The initial shear modulus is defined by: . c03 . It may however cause numerical difficulties in fitting the material constants. c02 . d3 For N ( NPTS) = k: c10 . p and dp are the material constants.. d2..

Arruda-Boyce Hyperelastic Material Constants This option. and d is the material incompressibility parameter. d1 Page 32 of 67 For N ( NPTS) = 2: 1. 20. 1. k .. d2 For N ( NPTS) = 3: 1. 2. d1. As L approaches infinity. The initial bulk modulus is defined as: .. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. See Ogden Hyperelastic Option in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option.. 1. L The constants and d are defined by C1. k...2.. See the TB command for a listing of the elements that can be used with this material option. 2. . is the first deviatoric strain invariant. d1 .. . is the initial shear modulus of materials. 2. C2..BOYCE uses the Arruda-Boyce form of strain energy potential.General Element Features 1. 2. 3 . . 1.05. 1. TB.. d1 . d3 For N ( NPTS) = k: 1. See Arruda-Boyce Hyperelastic Option in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option. the option becomes equivalent to the Neo-Hookean option. 3.2004 . 2. d2.. L is the limiting network stretch. 2.5. J is the determinant of the elastic deformation gradient F. given by: where W is the strain energy per unit reference volume.5.. 2 .HYPER. and C3 using the TBDATA command. dk See the TB command for a listing of the elements that can be used with this material option. d2.

You can define up to six temperature-dependent sets of constants (NTEMP = 6 max on the TB command) with TBTEMP commands (six per command). SOLID185. You can use the *MOONEY command to automatically determine two -term. Refer to the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features for a detailed description on writing a user hyperelasticity subroutine.General Element Features 2. Initialize the constant table with TB. SOLID186.6.5.. only constants C1 and C2 are applicable. HYPER86. PLANE183.MOONEY) in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option.7. These two elements are generally less desirable for modeling incompressible hyperelastic materials.5. 2. Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Material Constants (TB.USER. HYPER84.5. Viscoelastic Material Constants Elements VISCO88 and VISCO89 use a viscoelastic material model that is defined by entering the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.3.2004 . see Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Material (TB. See the TB command for a listing of the elements that can be used with this material option..2.. This allows you to provide a subroutine USERHYPER to define the derivatives of the strain energy potential with respect to the strain invariants.. Note that for elements HYPER84 and HYPER86.HYPER). User-Defined Hyperelastic Material Page 33 of 67 You can define a strain energy potential by using the option TB. HYPER158. HYPER74. Constant Meaning 1st strain energy constant (a 10 ) C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 2nd strain energy constant (a 01 ) 3rd strain energy constant (a20 ) 4th strain energy constant (a11 ) 5th strain energy constant (a02 ) 6th strain energy constant (a30 ) 7th strain energy constant (a21 ) 8th strain energy constant (a12 ) 9th strain energy constant (a03 ) These constants have the units of strain energy per unit volume (Force/Area). or nine-term constants from physical test data.2. If you want to use the Mooney-Rivlin model with elements SHELL181.05. See User-Defined Hyperelastic Option in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option.HYPER. 20. HYPER58. and then define up to nine constants on subsequent TBDATA or *MOONEY commands. Define the temperature with TBTEMP. PLANE182. See Mooney-Rivlin Hyperelastic Option (TB.. 2.MOONEY) Note that this section applies to the Mooney-Rivlin model with elements HYPER56. five-term.MOONEY. and SOLID187.

Inc. where T = actual temperature) Up to ten values of T fi (fictive temperature). No. C5 = 0 Value of Constant x (0 x 1). Each is also known as a relaxation time. Tool-Narayanaswamy Shift Function (applicable to glass). 26-30 Up to five values of Cli (coefficients of thermal expansion for the liquid state).05. GXY( ) (shear modulus at time = infinity (the residual shear modulus after the full decay)). User Subroutine for Viscoelasticity (UsrViscEl.. User Subroutine for Fictive Temperature/Shift Function (UsrFictive. C5 = 0. of Maxwell elements (10 max) used to approximate the shear modulus (GXY(0) GXY( )) relaxation. See the ANSYS. If no relaxation of the bulk modulus. T f = Cfi Tfi GXY(0) (shear modulus at time = zero (the full shear modulus)). ( l = Cl1 + Cl2 Tf + Cl3 Tf 2 + Cl4 Tf 3 + Cl5 Tf 4. Up to ten values of fi 2 3 4 5 6-15 16-25 Cfi = 1. C5 = 20. Shift Function Constant 2 depending on C5.General Element Features Page 34 of 67 following data in the data table with TB commands. Theory Reference for an explanation of terms.F). C5 = 1 WLF constant C2. C5 = 11. use K( ) = K(0). Used to define the fictive temperature. A generalized Maxwell model is used to represent the material characteristics. Data not input are assumed to be zero.0 if shear modulus relaxes). 20. use GXY( ) = GXY(0). If no relaxation of the shear modulus.. Initialize the constant table with TB.0) (constants associated with a discrete relaxation spectrum). C5 = 1 WLF reference temperature. K( ) (bulk modulus at time = infinity). Used fi to define the fictive temperature. C5 = 1 WLF constant C1. Williams-Landau-Ferry Shift Function (applicable to polymers). You can define up to 95 constants (C1-C95) with TBDATA commands (6 per command): Constant 1 Meaning Shift Function Constant 1 Value of C5. of Maxwell elements (10 max) in volume decay function M V . C5 = 1.EVISC. You must enter the data table to perform the viscoelastic computation. No. Csmi = 1. where Tf = fictive temperature) Up to five values of Cgi (coefficients of thermal expansion for the glass state).2004 . Shift Function Key. Up to ten values of C fi (coefficients of the Maxwell element representing the volume decay function M V ). ( g = Cg1 + Cg2 T + C g3 T2 + Cg4 T3 + Cg5 T4. (relaxation times for shear modulus relaxation using Maxwell file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.F). C5 = 0 H/R (activation energy divided by ideal constant R). Up to ten values of C smi (coefficients for shear modulus relaxation using Maxwell elements. K(0) (bulk modulus at time = zero). smi 31-35 36-45 46 47 48 49 50 51-60 61-70 Up to ten values of elements). Shift Function Constant 3 depending on C5.

5. etc. PLANE13.4. (relaxation times for bulk modulus relaxation using Maxwell 2. PLANE182. Cbmi = 1. and INFIN111. and SOLID98. of Maxwell elements (10 max) used to approximate the bulk modulus (K(0) . and SOLID98 coupledfield elements (see Anisotropic).) with MP commands. Magnetic Materials Elements with magnetic capability use the TB table to input points characterizing B-H curves. Use TBPT commands to define up to 100 points (H.General Element Features Page 35 of 67 71 76-85 86-95 No. SOLID98. Anisotropic Elastic Materials Anisotropic elastic capability is available with the SOLID64. The defaults (also obtained for Lab = MKS) are MKS units and freespace permeability of 4 E-7 Henries/meter. Input the elastic coefficient matrix [D] either by specifying the stiffness constants (EX. PLANE13. then input free-space permeability. Inc.z. SOLID97. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.xy. bmi Up to ten values of elements). Up to ten values of C bmi (coefficients for bulk modulus relaxation using Maxwell elements.. 20. Initialize the curves with TB.B). which also determines the value of the permeability of free space. SOLID186. Free-space permeability is available in elements SOLID5. EY. Theory Reference for details.Y) entered on TBPT (2 per command) are: Constant Meaning X Magnetic field intensity (H) (Magneto-motive force/length) Y Corresponding magnetic flux density (B) (Flux/Area) Specify the system of units (MKS or user defined) with EMUNIT. SOLID185.05. Temperature-dependent curves cannot be input.xz via 21 constants as shown below. SOLID62.y. and SOLID187 structural elements and the SOLID5. INFIN110.yz. See Additional Guidelines for Defining Regional Material Properties and Real Constants in the ANSYS Electromagnetic Field Analysis Guide for more information on this material option. SOLID96. INFIN9.2004 . These curves are available in elements SOLID5. PLANE13.5.0 if bulk modulus relaxes). PLANE53. or by specifying the terms of the matrix with data table commands as described below. This value is used with the relative permeability property values [MP] to establish absolute permeability values. PLANE53. SOLID62. The constants (X.5.K( )) relaxation. The full 6 x 6 elastic coefficient matrix [D] relates terms ordered x. You can specify Lab = MUZRO to define any system of units. See the ANSYS.BH. PLANE183. 2.. SOLID96. The matrix should be symmetric and positive definite (requiring all determinants to be positive). INFIN47.

D51 . based on the TBOPT value.yz. You can define up to six temperature-dependent sets of constants (NTEMP = 6 max on the TB command) in this manner. PERZ). the elastic coefficient matrix. Select the appropriate matrix form for your analysis using the TB. The constants (C1-C21) entered on TBDATA (6 per command) are: Constant C1-C6 Meaning Terms D 11 .xy via 10 constants (D 11 . PLANE13.6. Input the permittivity at a constant strain on the MP command as the usual linear material properties (PERX. D44 . This difference requires the "D" matrix terms to be converted to the expected format. Initialize the constant table with TB.. or by specifying the terms of the matrix with TB commands as described in Anisotropic. D33 .y.xz}. 20. PERY.z via 18 constants as shown: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. etc. The matrix may be input in either stiffness or flexibility form.05.yz. D32 . The full 6 x 3 piezoelectric matrix relates terms x. D54 . D64 C19-C21 Terms D 55 . D21 .) with MP commands.PIEZ command.y. D66 See the TB command for a listing of the elements that can be used with this material option. Matrix terms are linearly interpolated between temperature points.z. D33 C13-C18 Terms D 43 . For the coupled-field elements. The [e] matrix is associated with the input of the anisotropic elasticity in the form of the stiffness matrix [c]. D65 . D52 . D63 . D21 . D42 . The [d] matrix is associated with the compliance matrix [s]. Input the elastic coefficient matrix [c] either by specifying the stiffness constants (EX. D53 . whichever is more convenient. You can define the piezoelectric matrix in [e] form (piezoelectric stress matrix) or in [d] form (piezoelectric strain matrix). and the piezoelectric matrix. and SOLID98 coupled-field elements. 2. Both forms use the same data table input as described below. D31 . D44 ).2004 . a 4 x 4 matrix relates terms ordered x. D31 . Piezoelectric Materials Piezoelectric capability (not allowed in the ANSYS/Emag product) allows coupling between the structural and electric fields for the SOLID5.dependent matrix terms are not allowed. whereas for some published materials the order is given as {x. D43 . temperature. D41 . The "D" matrix can be defined in either "stiffness" form (with units of Force/Area operating on the strain vector) or in "compliance" form (with units of the inverse of Force/Area operating on the stress vector). D61 C7-C12 Terms D 22 . D41 . the order of the vector is expected as {x. Select a form using TBOPT on the TB command. Enter the constants of the elastic coefficient matrix in the data table with the TB commands.y. D22 . D42 .ANEL.xz to x. D62 . Material properties required for the piezoelectric effects include the dielectric (relative permittivity) constants. Note. D32 . EY.z.y. Define the temperature with TBTEMP.y.General Element Features Page 36 of 67 For 2-D problems.z.xy..xy}.5.yz.z.xy.xz. followed by up to 21 constants input with TBDATA commands.

7. Rate-Dependent Plastic (Viscoplastic) Materials The RATE option. SOLID92. 20. This difference requires the piezoelectric matrix terms to be converted to the expected format. e53 .xy via 8 constants (e11 .PEIRCE.. The RATE option is applicable to elements: PLANE42.xy.z. See Material Model Combinations for further information. e 21 . e62 . e42 .General Element Features Page 37 of 67 For 2-D problems. To simulate viscoplasticity.z. or NLISO options. you combine the RATE option and the HILL option with the BISO. e13 . e22 .05. PLANE183. e42 ). whereas for some published materials the order is given as {x.RATE..PIEZ. e41 .. e22 . Use the TB commands to enter the constants of the piezoelectric matrix in the data table. Initialize the constant table with TB. SHELL181. e 41 . the Perzyna model or the Peirce model.xy}. PLANE182.z. e52 . e43 C13-C18 Terms e 51 . e63 See Piezoelectric Analysis in the ANSYS Coupled-Field Analysis Guide for more information on this material model. SOLID45.. You can define up to 18 constants (C1-C18) with TBDATA commands (6 per command): Constant C1-C6 Meaning Terms e 11 . To simulate anisotropic viscoplasticity.2004 . The Perzyna model has the following form: and the Peirce model has the following form: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. e 32 .xz.y. e 61 . BEAM188. a 4 x 2 matrix relates terms ordered x. e33 .y. 2. you combine the RATE option with the BISO. SOLID186. The order of the vector is expected as {x. There are two models available for use with the RATE option. e23 C7-C12 Terms e 31 .y.yz. defines the strain rate dependency of isotropic plasticity. MISO. e21 . e12 . or NLISO options.PERZYNA or TB. e12 . e31 ... SOLID95.xz}. You specify the model using TBOPT in the form TB. when combined with other material options. LINK180.. and BEAM189.yz..5. e32 . MISO. PLANE82.RATE. SOLID187. SOLID185. Each of these models is described below.

or m approaches zero.n-1 lists "creep" as a "Special Feature. is the material viscosity parameter. These equations (expressed in incremental form) are characteristic of materials being used in creep design applications (see the ANSYS. and specify the model option using TBOPT. or a user-defined creep equation. The creep strain rate. can be a function of stress. Theory Reference for details. See the ANSYS. Theory Reference for details).CREEP and TBDATA as described below. and o is the static yield stress of material.material viscosity parameter Initialize the data table with TB. Inc. Three different types of creep equations are available: ? Primary creep Secondary creep Irradiation induced creep ? ? You can define the combined effects of more than one type of creep using the implicit equations specified by TBOPT = 11 or 12. cr.. compared to the Perzyna model. or solution approaches the static (rate-independent) solution. the When m is very small.5. The data table command for the combination option must also be defined for the same material number to specify the static hardening behavior of the materials (rate-independent and isotropic). 20. the explicit equations.. For each set of data. is the equivalent plastic strain rate.2004 ." then the element can model creep behavior. TB. approaches zero. and neutron flux level. strain. o is a function of some hardening parameter and can be defined by isotropic plasticity (for example.RATE. Libraries of creep strain rate equations are included under the Implicit Creep Equations and Explicit Creep Equations sections. then define material constants C1 and C2 [TBDATA]. Inc.05. define the temperature [TBTEMP].8. The two constants for either model that are defined by TBDATA are: Constant Meaning C1 m . ANSYS analyzes creep using the implicit and the explicit time integration method. m is the strain rate hardening parameter. See Viscoplasticity in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option. 2. the Peirce model has less difficulty converging.General Element Features Page 38 of 67 In both cases is the material yield stress. The implicit file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. temperature. As approaches .material strain rate hardening parameter C2 . Creep Equations If Table 4. Enter the constants shown in these equations using TB.BISO).

” 2. using both von Mises and Hill potentials. ANSYS can model pure creep. Inc. However. Implicit Creep Equations Creep Model ( TBOPT) Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Strain Hardening Time Hardening Generalized Exponential Generalized Graham Generalized Blackburn Modified Time Hardening Modified Strain Hardening Generalized Garofalo Exponential form Norton Time Hardening Equation Type Primary Primary Primary Primary Primary Primary Primary Secondary Secondary Secondary Primary + Secondary file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. such as in transient analyses. There are no provisions for temperature-dependent constants. Implicit Creep Equations Enter an implicit creep equation using TBOPT within the TB command. there is temperature dependency using the Arrhenius function.8. the implicit method is more accurate and efficient than the explicit method. especially with problems involving large creep strain and large deformation.1. Note The terms “implicit” and “explicit” as applied to creep. creep with isotropic hardening plasticity. Since the creep and plasticity are modeled simultaneously (no superposition). Enter the value of TBOPT corresponding to the equation. 20. and creep with kinematic hardening plasticity.” or any elements referred to as “explicit elements.General Element Features Page 39 of 67 method is robust. fast. Temperature dependency can also be incorporated by the Arrhenius function (see the ANSYS. In these cases. nor simultaneous modeling of creep with any other material models such as plasticity.. then the creep calculation.. Theory Reference for details).05.2004 . See Material Model Combinations for further information. have no relationship to “explicit dynamics. accurate. as shown in Implicit Creep Equations. It has provisions for including temperaturedependent constants. and you can combine explicit creep with other plasticity options using nonsimultaneous modeling (superposition). and recommended for general use.5. The explicit method is useful for cases involving very small time steps. ANSYS first performs the plastic analysis.

1. define the temperature using TBTEMP for each set of data. c14 at first temp.c22..General Element Features Page 40 of 67 12 Rational polynomial Primary + Secondary 13 Generalized Time Hardening User Creep Primary 100 where: cr = equivalent creep strain = change in equivalent creep strain with respect to time cr = equivalent stress T = temperature (absolute). The offset temperature (from TOFFST).. and depends on the creep model you choose). The following example shows how you would define the implicit creep model represented by TBOPT = 1 at two temperature points.CREEP.c23.c11. c22. The RATE command has no effect for explicit creep. define constants C1 through C m using TBDATA (where m is the number of constants.05. 20. C1 through C 12 = constants defined by the TBDATA command t = time at end of substep e = natural logarithm base You can define the user creep option by setting TBOPT = 100. !Define second temperature !Creep constants c21. c13. See the TB command for a listing of the elements that can be used with this material option. and using TB..c13. The RATE command is necessary to activate implicit creep for specific elements (see the RATE command description for details).200 TBDATA.c14 TBTEMP. c23.1 TBTEMP.c21.. See Creep in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option.1. See the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features for more information.c12. For temperature dependent constants. c24 at second temp. Then. TB.STATE to specify the number of state variables for the user creep routine. specify creep model 1 !Define first temperature !Creep constants c11.2004 . file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. c12. is internally added to all temperatures for convenience.1.100 TBDATA.c24 !Activate creep data table.

20. Explicit Creep Equations Page 41 of 67 Enter an explicit creep equation by setting TBOPT = 0 (or leaving it blank) within the TB command. select it with C 66 = 5.. Secondary Explicit Creep Equation for C12 Equals 0 and Secondary Explicit Creep Equation for C12 Equals 1 show the available equations. no secondary creep is computed. This function is available only for creep equations C6 = 0.General Element Features 2.8. no primary creep is computed. use a small time step if you are using the explicit creep algorithm. You select an equation with the appropriate value of C 6 (0 to 15). time curves. Primary Explicit Creep Equation for C6 Equals 0. for the usual case of a constant flux ( ). See the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features for more information. c4 for equation C6=1 The explicit creep constants that you enter with the TBDATA are: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. A creep time step optimization procedure is available for automatically increasing the time step whenever possible. A nonlinear stepping function (based on an exponential decay) is also available (C 11 = 1) but should be used with caution since it can underestimate the total creep strain where primary stresses dominate. You select an equation with the appropriate value of C 12 (0 or 1). 14. If the time step is less than 1.05. 13. through Primary Explicit Creep Equation for C6 Equals 100. TB. Temperature dependent creep constants are not permitted for explicit creep. Specify primary creep with constant C 6..c2. then no creep strain increment is computed. the fluence should be linearly ramp changed.1 and 2. Specify irradiation induced creep with constant C66 . or if T + T offset 0.1 !Activate creep data table !Creep constants c1. primary creep equations C6 = 9. or if T + T offset 0. This equation can be used in conjunction with equations C6 = 0 to 11.c1.5.. The following example shows how you would use the explicit creep equation defined by C6 = 1. Also. For highly nonlinear creep strain vs. The creep strain rate is evaluated at the condition corresponding to the beginning of the time interval and is assumed to remain constant over the time interval. Irradiation Induced Explicit Creep Equation for C66 Equals 5 shows the single equation currently available. c2. The input fluence ( t) includes the integrated effect of time and time explicitly input is not used in the fluence calculation. If C55 induced creep is computed. Temperatures used in the creep equations should be based on an absolute scale [TOFFST]. 0 and C61 0. Primary equivalent stresses and strains are used to evaluate the creep strain rate. and 15 bypass any secondary creep equations since secondary effects are included in the primary part. Also.2. no irradiation A linear stepping function is used to calculate the change in the creep strain within a time step ( cr = ( cr )( t)). Use the BF or BFE commands to enter temperature and fluence values. then specifying the constants associated with the creep equations using the TBDATA command.1.2004 . The constants should be entered into the data table as indicated by their subscripts. show the available equations.c3. or if T + T offset 0.CREEP.c4. You can incorporate other creep options by setting C6 = 100. If C7 0. 10. Specify secondary creep with constant C12 . c3.0e-6. If C 1 0.1 TBDATA. 11.

General Element Features Constant C1-CN Page 42 of 67 Meaning Constants C1 . t = time at end of substep e = natural logarithm base Primary Explicit Creep Equation for C6 Equals 1 Primary Explicit Creep Equation for C6 Equals 2 where: Primary Explicit Creep Equation for C6 Equals 9 Annealed 304 Stainless Steel: = C1 cr Double Exponential Creep Equation (C4 = 0.. Exceptions are defined below. (as defined in Primary Explicit Creep Equation for C6 Equals 0 to Irradiation Induced Explicit Creep Equation for C66 Equals 5) These are obtained by curve fitting test results for your material to the equation you choose..2004 .0) To use the following Double Exponential creep equation to calculate = (1-e-st) + (1-e -rt ) + m t c. C2 . 20.05. etc.0: c x t file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. enter C 4 = 0. C3. The offset temperature (from TOFFST) is internally added to all temperatures for convenience. Primary Explicit Creep Equation for C6 Equals 0 where: = change in equivalent strain with respect to time = equivalent stress T = temperature (absolute).

The equation is described completely in the Ref 1: Nuclear Systems Material Handbook. 1 (High Allow Steels).. This double exponential equation is valid for Annealed 304 Stainless Steel over a temperature range from 800 to 1100 F. C6 = 9. Vol. time must be in hours and stress in Megapascals (MPa).0.0.000 psi. Conversion to K for the built -in property tables is done internally. C6 = 9.2004 . is described completely in the Ref 1: Nuclear Systems Material Handbook. The first term describes the primary creep strain. r. and C7 = 0. Temperatures should be in R (or F with Toffset = 460. Also. The last term describes the secondary creep strain. 20. enter C 4 = 1. The average "lot constant" is used to calculate m. input C1 = 1. no creep is computed.0. C 3 = 25000 psi (default) s. Temperature must be in C and Toffset must be 273 (because of the built-in property tables).0. Rational Polynomial Creep Equation with Metric Units (C4 = 1. 1 (High Allow Steels). Time should be in hours and stress in psi..0.0). input a nonzero value for C1 . file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. If the temperature is below the valid range. m. no creep is computed.25. C4 = 1.0: where: c = limiting value of primary creep strain p = primary creep time factor m= secondary (minimum) creep strain rate This standard rational polynomial creep equation is valid for Annealed 304 SS over a temperature range from 427 C to 704 C. and H are the functions of temperature and stress as described in the reference. and C7 = 0. The valid stress range is 6. If the temperature is below the valid range. To use this equation.General Element Features where: x = 0 for x Page 43 of 67 C2 for C2 < C3 =G+H C2 = 6000 psi (default).05.0) To use the following standard Rational Polynomial creep equation (with metric units) to calculate c. G. The equation.0. The first two terms describe the primary creep strain and the last term describes the secondary creep strain.000 . Vol. known as the Blackburn creep equation when C1 = 1. To use this equation.

1 (High Allow Steels). These options are available only with the standard rational polynomial creep equation. Toffset must be 460.0 standard Rational Polynomial creep equation are also available. Vol.0 . Rational Polynomial Creep Equation with Metric Units (C4 = 1. enter C 4 = 0. also described in Ref 1: Nuclear Systems Material Handbook.704 C.0) To use the same form of the standard Rational Polynomial creep equation with metric units as described for Annealed 304 SS (C 6 = 9. 1 (High Allow Steels) is used in the calculation of m.primary creep strain hardening.0 .time hardening.05.000 psi.total creep strain hardening.0. and the equation is called with C 6 = 10.0 . also described in Ref 1: Nuclear Systems Material Handbook. enter C4 = 2. enter C4 = 1.1300 F..0.2004 .0) To use the same form of the Double Exponential creep equation as described for Annealed 304 SS (C 6 = 9. C3 defaults to 30. The equivalent valid temperature range is 800 . differs from the Annealed 304 SS equation in that the built-in property tables are for Annealed 316 SS. Vol. This standard rational polynomial equation.0 instead of C 6 = 9.0. and the equation is called with C6 = 10.0. C2 defaults to 4000 psi.0.0) in Primary Explicit Creep Equation for C6 Equals 9 to calculate c. differs from the Annealed 304 SS equation in that the built-in property tables are for Annealed 316 SS. Rational Polynomial Creep Equation with English Units (C4 = 2. the valid temperature range is 482 . This standard rational polynomial equation is the same as described above except that temperature must be in F. 1 (High Allow Steels). 2. 20. C4 = 1.0 instead of C6 = 9. This equation. and stress must be in psi.General Element Features Page 44 of 67 Various hardening rules governing the rate of change of creep strain during load reversal may be selected with the C5 value: 0. Rational Polynomial Creep Equation with English Units (C4 = 2. 1. Primary Explicit Creep Equation for C6 Equals 10 Annealed 316 Stainless Steel: = C1 cr Double Exponential Creep Equation (C4 = 0.30. Vol.0) To use the above standard Rational Polynomial creep equation (with English units). The average "lot constant" from Ref 1: Nuclear Systems Material Handbook.0) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.000 psi.. the valid stress range is 4000 .0) in Primary Explicit Creep Equation for C6 Equals 9.0.0. C4 = 0. The hardening rules for load reversal described for the C6 = 9.

Conversion to K for the built-in property tables is done internally. To use this equation. The equation is described completely in the Ref 2: Nuclear Systems Material Handbook. T offset must be 460. No modification is made for plastic strains.General Element Features Page 45 of 67 To use the previous standard Rational Polynomial creep equation with English units. This standard rational polynomial equation is the same as described above except that the temperatures must be in F. enter C 4 = 0. enter C 4 = 1. Vol. no creep is computed.. B. and C7 = 0. The equivalent valid temperature range is 900 .0: A. enter C4 = 2. Temperatures must be in R (or F with Toffset = 460. input C1 = 1.1100 F.1300 F.0. C6 = 11. Valid stress range is 1000 . 20. Rational Polynomial Creep Equation with Metric Units (C4 = 1.65. and m are functions of temperature and stress as described in the reference. If the temperature is below the valid range.000 psi.05.0) To use the following Modified Rational Polynomial creep equation to calculate c.1 Mo Low Alloy Steel: = C1 cr Modified Rational Polynomial Creep Equation (C 4 = 0.0 to 24220 psi). Primary Explicit Creep Equation for C6 Equals 11 Annealed 2 1/4 Cr .0: where: c = limiting value of primary creep strain p = primary creep time factor m= secondary (minimum) creep strain rate file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.0. and the stress must be in psi (with a valid range from 0. This modified rational polynomial equation is valid for Annealed 2 1/4 Cr -1 Mo Low Alloy steel over a temperature range of 700 .0) To use the following standard Rational Polynomial creep equation (with metric units) to calculate c. Time should be in hours and stress in psi.0).2004 .0.0. 1 (Low Alloy Steels).. The first term describes the primary creep strain and the last term describes the secondary creep strain.

. 1 (Low Alloy Steels). C48 +C5 Second absolute temperature value C5th absolute temperature value C48 +C5 +1 First M value ... The first term describes the primary creep strain and the last term describes the secondary creep strain.. time must be in hours and stress in Megapascals (MPa). Only Type I (and not Type II) creep is supported.. C4 = 1..1100 F.0) To use the above standard Rational Polynomial creep equation with English units. and stress must be in psi. No modification is made for plastic strains. 20. Vol.General Element Features Page 46 of 67 This standard rational polynomial creep equation is valid for Annealed 2 1/4 Cr .. Toffset must be 460. C48 +2C5 ..0. This standard rational polynomial equation is the same as described above except that temperatures must be in F.N. The equation is described completely in the Ref 2: Nuclear Systems Material Handbook.1 Mo Low Alloy Steel over a temperature range from 371 C to 593 C. Primary Explicit Creep Equation for C6 Equals 12 cr = MK(C1 )N t(M -1) where: C1 = Scaling constant M.K Function of temperature (determined by linear interpolation within table) as follows: = Number of temperature values to describe M. C48 +2C5 C5th M value C48 +2C5 .0. enter C4 = 2.05.0. C6 = 11.. Temperatures must be in C and Toffset must be 273 (because of the built-in property tables). no creep is computed. C5th M value C5th M value C48 +2C5 +1 First N value file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.0. Rational Polynomial Creep Equation with English Units (C4 = 2. 6 C5 maximum) C49 First absolute temperature value C50 . The equivalent valid temperature range is 700 . N. The hardening rules for load reversal described for the C6 = 9. Also. If the temperature is below the valid range. To use this equation. and C7 = 0. No tertiary creep strain is calculated. input C1 = 1..0 standard Rational Polynomial creep equation are also available. or K function (2 minimum.2004 .0.

2004 .6 x 10-6 ln m = 43.106400/T + 294. Constant C7 should be 0.General Element Features C48 +3C5 .0.. Temperatures must not be input in decreasing order.0 x 10-12 2 ln c = -1.67310/T + 330. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..0 except with C1 = f1 (T).50.918 ln ( /1000) . 1 (High Allow Steels).69 .. 20.. The equation is similar to that given for C 6 = 10.05.1885. A = C1 /T B = C2 /T + C3 C = C4 /T + C5 This equation is often referred to as the Sterling Power Function creep equation. Primary Explicit Creep Equation for C6 Equals 14 cr = C1 where: c= cpt/(1+pt) + m + 1. C3 = f 3(T). C2 = f 2(T).5620/T .596 ln ( /1000) This creep law is valid for Annealed 316 SS over a temperature range from 800 F to 1300 F.0.0 and is also described in Ref 1: Nuclear Systems Material Handbook.0 x 10 -6 + 2.350 . Internally set to 1 x 10 at the first substep with nonzero time to prevent division by zero. Vol. and C4 = 0. unless no creep is to be calculated.0 .6 x 10-6 ln p = 31. Primary Explicit Creep Equation for C6 Equals 13 where: acc = -5 creep strain accumulated to this time (calculated by the program). C5th N value Page 47 of 67 C48 +3C5 +1 First K value This power function creep law having temperature dependent coefficients is similar to Equation C6 = 1. Constant C1 should not be 0.

0).0 and 2.. Primary Explicit Creep Equation for C6 Equals 100 A user-defined creep equation is used. and 11.. This equation reduces to the standard equations for isothermal cases.0 and C6 = 14. Constants are only valid for English units (pounds and inches). Time should be in hours. minimum stress: 0. Primary Explicit Creep Equation for C6 Equals 15 General Material Rational Polynomial: = C1 cr where: (C 2 must not be negative) This rational polynomial creep equation is a generalized form of the standard rational polynomial equations given as C6 = 9.0.0.2004 . See the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features for more information.000 psi. The hardening rules for load reversal described for the C6 = 9.0 psi.05. If T + Toffset < 1160. 10. no creep is computed. Temperatures should be in R (or F with Toffset = 460). input C1 = 1. Secondary Explicit Creep Equation for C12 Equals 0 where: = equivalent stress T = temperature (absolute).1300 F. Maximum stress allowed for ec calculation: 45.0 standard Rational Polynomial creep equation are also available. is internally added to all temperatures for convenience. Valid temperature range: 800 . t = time e = natural logarithm base Secondary Explicit Creep Equation for C12 Equals 1 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.0 (C 4 = 1.0. The offset temperature (from TOFFST). 20.General Element Features Page 48 of 67 To use equation.

. The fluence (which is the flux x time) is input on the BF or BFE command. 57. time.5. and stress. the programming of the actual swelling file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The offset temperature (from TOFFST) is internally added to all temperatures for convenience.9. 20. See the TB command for a listing of the elements that can be used with this material option.2004 ." then the element can model swelling behavior. See Creep in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option.General Element Features Page 49 of 67 Irradiation Induced Explicit Creep Equation for C66 Equals 5 where: B = FG + C63 = equivalent stress T = temperature (absolute).5 = neutron fluence (input on BF or BFE command) t = time e = natural logarithm base This irradiation induced creep equation is valid for 20% Cold Worked 316 SS over a temperature range from 700 to 1300 F. 2.05. Because of the many empirical swelling equations available. Swelling Equations If Table 4. A linear stepping function is used to calculate the change in the swelling strain within a load step: where t is the fluence and the swelling strain rate equation is as defined in subroutine USERSW. 58 and 62 must be positive if the B term is included. neutron flux level. Constants 56. Swelling is a material enlargement due to neutron bombardment and other effects (see the ANSYS. t0.. Inc. The swelling strain rate may be a function of temperature.n-1 lists "swelling" as a "Special Feature. Theory Reference).

Material Model Combinations You can combine several of the material model options discussed in this chapter to simulate various material behaviors. fluence curves a small fluence step should be used. See the TB command for a listing of the elements that can be used with this material option.MISO + TB. Label TB. Combination Type Bilinear Plasticity Combined Hardening Multilinear Nonlinear Bilinear Viscoplasticity Isotropic Hardening Multilinear Command. C3. and not flux ( ). Initialize the swelling table with TB. Material Model Combination Possibilities Model With .6.SWELL.RATE Link to Example BISO and CHAB Example MISO and CHAB Example NLISO and CHAB Example BISO and RATE Example MISO and RATE Example file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. etc. In fact.CHAB TB.. is input. See Swelling in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on this material option. 20. C 72 must equal 10.MISO + TB..General Element Features Page 50 of 67 equation is left to the user.NLISO + TB. For highly nonlinear swelling strain vs. (as required by the user swelling equations). a constant flux requires that a linearly changing fluence be input if time is changing. Note that since fluence ( t).BISO + TB. Temperatures used in the swelling equations should be based on an absolute scale [TOFFST].05. the equation and the "fluence" input may be totally unrelated to nuclear swelling. Temperature and fluence values are entered with the BF or BFE command. See the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features for user programmable features. The constants entered on the TBDATA commands (6 per command) are: Constant C1-CN Meaning Constants C1 . Material Model Combination Possibilities presents the model options you can combine along with the associated TB command labels. C2 ..CHAB TB.CHAB TB.2004 .BISO + TB. and links to sample input listings located under Material Model Combinations in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide..RATE TB. Swelling calculations for the current substep are based upon the previous substep results. Prev Linear Material Properties Prev Material Model Combinations General Element Features Next Material Model Combinations Next 2.

MISO + CHAB Example Chaboche TB.HILL + TB. .NLISO + TB.CREEP Example TB.RATE + NLISO Example TB.HILL + HILL and CREEP Bilinear TB.MKIN/ KINH KINH Example TB.HILL + HILL and RATE and Bilinear TB.NLISO + and Chaboche and CHAB Example TB.HILL + HILL and CREEP TB.MISO TB.HILL + HILL and RATE and Nonlinear TB.CHAB Example TB.CREEP TB..BKIN Page 51 of 67 NLISO and RATE Example BISO and CREEP Bilinear Example MISO and CREEP Multilinear Example NLISO and CREEP Nonlinear Example BKIN and CREEP Bilinear Example HILL and BISO Bilinear Example HILL and MISO Multilinear Example HILL and NLISO Nonlinear Example HILL and BKIN Bilinear Example HILL and MKIN TB. HILL and TB.RATE + BISO Example TB.HILL + HILL and CHAB Chaboche TB.BKIN + TB.NLSIO TB.General Element Features TB.BISO + TB.CREEP + and BISO Example TB.HILL + TB.NLISO TB.MISO + TB..BISO TB.HILL + TB.CHAB Multilinear TB.05.NLISO + TB.HILL + Nonlinear Isotropic HILL and NLISO TB.HILL + TB.HILL + TB.CREEP TB.CHAB TB.MISO TB.CREEP TB.BISO + and Chaboche CHAB Example TB.CHAB TB.HILL + HILL and RATE and Multilinear TB.RATE TB.HILL + HILL and MISO and Isotropic and TB.BISO Nonlinear Multilinear TB.2004 Plasticity and Creep (Implicit) Isotropic Hardening Kinematic Hardening Isotropic Hardening Kinematic Hardening Anisotropic Plasticity Combined Hardening Anisotropic Viscoplasticity Isotropic Hardening Anisotropic Creep (Implicit) Isotropic file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.CREEP + HILL and CREEP 20.CREEP TB.BISO TB.RATE + MISO Example TB.HILL + Multilinear Example.HILL + Bilinear Isotropic HILL and BISO and TB.

Hill Anisotropy [TB.Hill's Anisotropy [1]. Viscoplasticity in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide.BISO] . Multilinear Kinematic Hardening [TB. Multilinear Isotropic Hardening [TB.HILL + TB. ? Bilinear Isotropic Hardening [TB.7.Creep Equations.CHAB] .Rate-Dependent Plastic (Viscoplastic) Materials .NLISO] . The form of the data table (referred to as the TB file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. A data table is a series of constants that are interpreted when they are used.Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening [1]. (Those used in ANSYS implicit analyses are discussed in Linear Material Properties and Data Tables . Further information on this option is available under Plastic Material Options in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide.Multilinear Isotropic Hardening [1].g.CREEP + TB. Nonlinear Isotropic Hardening [TB.. and to other locations in the documentation that provide descriptions of the individual material model options represented in the table above.MISO] .NLISO TB.05. Prev Data Tables .MKIN or KINH] ..CREEP + TB. Creep in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide.HILL] .Bilinear Isotropic Hardening [1].Implicit Analysis.Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening [1].RATE] .) Most explicit dynamics material models require data table input.Multilinear Kinematic Hardening [1]. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1. Chaboche Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening [TB.CREEP] . Explicit Dynamics Materials Material properties used in explicit dynamic analyses (ANSYS/LS-DYNA program) differ somewhat from those used in ANSYS implicit analyses. stress-strain curves).Implicit Analysis Prev Explicit Dynamics Materials General Element Features Next Explicit Dynamics Materials Next 2..HILL + TB.Bilinear Kinematic Hardening [1].MISO TB. 20.2004 . Data tables are always associated with a material number and are most often used to define nonlinear material data (e. Creep (Implicit) [TB.General Element Features Hardening Anisotropic Creep and Plasticity (Implicit) Kinematic Hardening Nonlinear TB. Rate-Dependent Plasticity [TB.BKIN] .BKIN Page 52 of 67 and MISO Example HILL and CREEP and NLISO Example HILL and CREEP and BKIN Example Bilinear Presented below are cross-reference links to other sections in this chapter. Bilinear Kinematic Hardening [TB.

. etc. along with the label. L-K (key = 3). see Material Models in the ANSYS/LS-DYNA User's Guide. face 4 (I -L)" indicates that pressure loads are available on four faces: the line from node J to node I defines the elements face 1 (identified on surface load commands with key=1). For the MVDI flag. in certain magnetics elements. Surface loads are designated by a label and a key. Surface loads (pressures for structural elements. For example. Load numbers are shown on the element figures (within circles) and point in the direction of positive load to the the face upon which the load acts. Element loads are always associated with a particular element (even if the input is at the nodes). convections for thermal element. Page 53 of 67 For a complete description of all explicit dynamics material models. For example. Element loads are surface loads. but are used to indicate that a certain type of calculation is to be performed. These nodal loads are associated with the degrees of freedom at the node and are typically entered with the D and F commands (such as nodal displacement constraints and nodal force loads). Also.these flags are simply turned on by specifying their label on the appropriate command. including detailed data table input. values have no meaning . For example..e. the surface load list shows that convections and heat fluxes can be applied to the four faces of the element by using surface load commands. Likewise. respectively. and inertia loads. for thermal element type PLANE55. The label indicates the type of surface load and the key indicates where on the element the load acts.e. For the FSI and MXWF flags. surface loading may be applied to an element face or. when the FSI (fluid-structure interaction) flag is turned on. for convenience. Node and Element Loads Loadings are defined to be of two types: nodal and element. and IL (key = 4). the surface load list of "Pressure: face 1 (J-I). face 2 (K -J).8.) may be input in a nodal format or an element format. the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. for element type PLANE42. on the appropriate command. its value (which can range from zero to one) is specified. Details of these flags are discussed under the applicable elements in Element Library. Certain elements may also have "flags. LKEY). MXWF and MVDI are flags used to trigger magnetic force (Maxwell surface) and Jacobian force (virtual displacement) calculations.. 20. Similarly. Some elements allow multiple types of surface loads (as shown with the load labels listed under "Surface Loads" in the input table for each element type)." Flags are not actually loads. face 3 (L-K). Surface loads are typically input with the SF and SFE commands.2004 .. Nodal input of surface loads also allows a more general entry of tapered values.General Element Features table) depends on the material model being defined. to the face nodes of an element (which are then processed like face input). Nodal loads are defined at the nodes and are not directly related to the elements. or with an element (MVDI) and are applied as body loads (below). and K-J (key = 2). the KBC command does not affect them). Flags are always step-applied (i. Flags are associated either with a surface (FSI and MXWF) and are applied as surface loads (below). some elements allow multiple loads on a single element face (as indicated with the load numbers after the load labels). Prev Material Model Combinations Prev Node and Element Loads General Element Features Next Node and Element Loads Next 2. body loads. a specified face of an acoustic element is treated as an interface between a fluid portion and a structural portion of the model.05. The surface load can be defined on element faces with the SFE command by using key (i.

which has a surface load list of "Pressures: face 1 (J-I-L-K). Table 2. Not to be confused with the PRES degree of freedom Body loads (temperatures for structural elements.General Element Features Page 54 of 67 load label (Lab). and BFUNIF commands. a spatially varying heat generation rate is averaged over the element.. Heat generation rates are input per unit volume unless otherwise noted with the element. Body loads are typically entered with the BF. the pressures are input in the node J to I order. The CONV load label requires two values. Surface Loads Available in Each Discipline shows surface loads available in each discipline and their corresponding ANSYS labels. Either the nodal or the element loading format may be used for an element. Nodal body loads are internally converted to element body loads. etc. The element format is usually in terms of the element nodes but may be in terms of fictitious corner points as described for each element. Tapered loads are input in the same order that the face nodes are listed. For thermal elements using the diagonalized specified heat matrix option in a transient analyses. BFE.05. See also Body Loads for additional details.) may be input in a nodal format or an element format.2004 . The SF command can be used to define surface loads by using nodes to identify element faces. etc. for element type PLANE42 with load label PRES and key = 1.20. heat generation rates for thermal elements. which allows different values to be defined at the nodes of an element. Table 2. I. A tapered surface load.21." the corresponding pressures are input in the node J. K order.. L. the temperature does not contribute to the element load vector but is only used for material property evaluation. and the load value. Body Loads Available in Each Discipline Discipline Body Load Structural Temperature Fluence Thermal Heat Generation Rate Temperature Current Density Virtual Displacement Voltage Magnetic Drop Electric Temperature Charge Density Fluid[1] Heat Generation Rate Force Density ANSYS Label TEMP[1] FLUE HGEN TEMP [1] JS MVDI VLTG TEMP[1] CHRGD HGEN FORC ANSYS Label PRES[1] CONV HFLUX INF MXWF INF MXWF CHRGS INF TEMP FSI IMPD SELV file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For example. Corner point numbers are shown on the element figures where applicable.. the first value being the film coefficient and the second being the bulk temperature. 20. with the element format taking precedence. Body Loads Available in Each Discipline shows all body loads available in each discipline and their corresponding ANSYS labels. Surface Loads Available in Each Discipline Discipline Surface Load Structural Pressure Thermal Convection Heat Flux Infinite Surface Magnetic Maxwell Surface Infinite Surface Maxwell Surface Surface Charge Density Infinite Surface Electric Temperature Fluid Fluid-Structure Interface Impedance All Superelement Load Vector 1. For some structural elements. For element type SOLID45. may be entered with the SFE command.

Warping occurs when the four nodes of a quadrilateral shell element (or solid element face) are not in the same plane. PLANE42 triangles. The ISFILE command allows you to read in a file specifying the initial stresses.. Degenerated elements are often used for modeling transition regions between fine and coarse meshes.05. Warping is measured by the relative angle between the normals to the face at the nodes. ISFILE also allows you to list or delete initial stresses for any elements. Prism and Tetrahedral Explicit Dynamics Materials Elements Triangle.e. Initial stresses can be set as constant or read in from a file for the following element types: PLANE2.2004 . When using triangular elements in a rectangular array of nodes. If used elsewhere. The stresses can also optionally be applied only to specified materials. Not to be confused with the TEMP degree of freedom Page 55 of 67 Inertial loads (gravity. but is modeled with at least one triangular face. PLANE182. spinning. are applicable to all elements with structural DOFs and having mass (i. for modeling irregular and warped surfaces. Inertia loads are typically entered with the ACEL and OMEGA commands. Prev Next Triangle. SOLID45 wedges. since the element coordinate system is relative to the I-J line. Also. but tolerable value. elements having mass as an input real constant or having a density (DENS) material property). See Initial Stress Loading in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more information on initial stress features. Inc.. Theory Reference for element warping details and other element checking details. An exception where triangular shell elements are preferred is for severely skewed or warped elements.9. SOLID185. the problem will abort. etc.). Triangular (or prism) elements should be used in place of a quadrilateral (or brick) element with large warping. and BEAM189. only for specified materials. Quadrilateral shaped elements should not be skewed such that the included angle between two adjacent faces is outside the range of 90 ± 45 for non-midside-node elements or 90 ± 60 For midside-node elements. SOLID186. See the ANSYS. either at input or during large deflection. LINK180. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements Degenerated elements are elements whose characteristic face shape is quadrilateral. A flat face (no warping) has all normals parallel (zero relative angle). Triangle. Degenerated elements formed from quadrilateral and brick elements without midside nodes are much less accurate than those formed from elements with midside nodes and should not be used in high stress gradient regions. The ISTRESS command allows you to set constant initial stress for selected elements and. PLANE183. PLANE42.General Element Features 1. for shell elements. SOLID95. 20. best results are obtained from an element pattern having alternating diagonal directions. etc. The ISWRITE command allows you to write the resulting initial stresses to a file. For example. they should be used with caution. SOLID92. The stresses specified in the input file can be applied to the element centroids or element integration points. and can be applied to the same points for all selected elements or can be applied differently for each element. SOLID45. A warning message is output if warping is beyond a small. optionally. PLANE82. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements Prev General Element Features Next 2. and SOLID45 tetrahedra are all degenerated shapes. BEAM188. SHELL181.. SOLID187. the stress results are most easily interpreted if the I-J file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. If warping is excessive.

however. Face 3..K. Elements should be oriented with alternating diagonals.M. When forming a degenerated triangular element by repeating node numbers.O. For example. and PLANE83) . Page 56 of 67 Degenerated triangular 2-D solid and shell elements may be formed from four-node quadrilateral elements by defining duplicate node numbers for the third and fourth (K and L) node locations.2004 . For these elements (PLANE25. If extra shape functions are included in the element. Warning: Surface stress (or convection heat flow) printout (see Surface Solution Index) should not be requested on a condensed face. a load F is given by: F( ) = A0 + A1 cos + B1 sin + A2 cos 2 + B2 sin 2 + A3 cos 3 + B3 sin 3 + .J. The use of an axisymmetric model greatly reduces the modeling and analysis time compared to that of an equivalent three-dimensional model.M. Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads An axisymmetric structure (defined with the axial direction along the global Y axis and the radial direction parallel to the global X axis) may be represented by a plane (X.General Element Features lines of the elements are all parallel. J.K.K. K.M. If extra shape functions are included in the element. if possible. When forming a degenerated prism element by repeating node numbers.. the face numbering remains the same. if possible. 20. Each term of the above series must be defined as a separate load step. PLANE78.J. they are automatically suppressed (degenerating the element to a lower order). however. pressures (or convection conditions) should not be defined on a condensed face.K. The centroid location printed for a degenerated triangular element is usually at the geometric centroid of the element. The centroid location printed for a degenerated element is not at the geometric centroid but is at an average nodal location. it defaults to node K. Element nodal loads should have the same loads specified at the duplicate node locations. they are automatically suppressed. The node pattern then becomes I. The integration points are proportionately rearranged within the element.N. A special class of ANSYS axisymmetric elements (called harmonic elements) allows a nonaxisymmetric load. Face 4.O. condenses to a point. Element loads should have the same loads specified at the duplicate node locations. Degenerated triangular prism elements may be formed from eight-noded 3-D solid elements by defining duplicate node numbers for the third and fourth (K and L) and the seventh and eighth (O and P) node locations. Prev Next Axisymmetric Elements with Node and Element Loads Nonaxisymmetric Loads Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads Prev General Element Features Next 2. The node pattern then becomes I.10. If the L node is not input. Also.Y) finite-element model.. If extra shape functions are included in the element. FLUID81. SHELL61. K.M. the face numbering remains the same. PLANE75.M. A degenerated tetrahedral element may be formed from a triangular prism element by a further condensation of face 6 to a point.05. they are partially suppressed. condenses to a line. The input node pattern should be I. A term is defined by the load file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. Elements should be oriented with alternating diagonals. Element loads specified on a nodal basis should have the same loads specified at the duplicate node locations. the load is defined as a series of harmonic functions (Fourier series).

FZ and MZ are all ignored for thermal elements. A load case may be defined with LCWRITE. then combine or scale the load cases as desired with LCOPER. etc. such as large deflection and/or contact analyses. This may be done by storing results data at the desired location using the ANGLE argument of the SET command. etc. The description of the element given in Element Library and in the appropriate sections of the ANSYS..General Element Features Page 57 of 67 coefficient (A or B ). displacements. and FY to HEAT. Acceleration. The load coefficient is determined from the standard ANSYS boundary condition input (i. 20. angular velocity. UZ.. if any. Results of the analysis are written to the results file. is input with the MODE command. it is assumed that the nodal coordinate system is parallel to the global Cartesian coordinate system.2004 . ROTZ. The symmetry condition is determined from the ISYM value also input on the MODE command. In all cases illustrated. displacement. The loading description may be extended to any number of modes.. respectively. or the mode number. Caution should be used if the harmonic elements are mixed with other. Stress (and temperature) contour displays and distorted shape displays of the combined results can also be made.05.) except that torsional effects are included. The harmonic elements should not be used in nonlinear analyses. Repeat for each set of results. forces. nonharmonic elements. FY. The element matrices for harmonic elements are dependent upon the number of harmonic waves (MODE ) and the symmetry condition (ISYM). The input value for force and heat flow should be a number equal to the peak value per unit length times the circumference. For stress stiffened (prestressed) structures. Input values for temperature. Inc. Note that = 0 represents the axisymmetric term (A0 ). the ANSYS program uses only the stress state of the most recent previous MODE = 0 load case. The deflections and stresses are output at the peak value of the sinusoidal function. Similarly. The harmonic thermal elements (PLANE75 and PLANE78) are treated the same as PLANE25 and PLANE83. FX.). Loading Cases . Axisymmetric Radial. The results may be scaled and summed at various circumferential ( ) locations with POST1. Theory Reference should be reviewed to see which deformation shape corresponds to the symmetry conditions. Case A: (MODE = 0. In addition. The loading cases are described in terms of the structural elements.e. a superelement generated with particular MODE and ISYM values must have the same values in the "use" pass.) for the structural elements are input and output in the nodal coordinate system. Torsion and Moment Loadings file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. etc. the number of harmonic waves ( ). Axisymmetric option shows the various axisymmetric loadings. is the circumferential coordinate implied in the model.) and displacements (UX. and pressure should be the peak value.This is the case of axisymmetric loading (similar to the axisymmetric option of PLANE42. Pressures and temperatures may be applied directly. The effects of UX. pressures. neither the element matrices nor the triangularized matrix is reused in succeeding substeps if the MODE and ISYM parameters are changed. regardless of the current value of MODE. ISYM not used) . with the following substitutions: UY to TEMP. Axial. is usually input only in the axial (Y) direction. etc. The forces (FX. The number of harmonic waves. is usually input only about the Y axis. if any.The following cases are provided to aid the user in obtaining a physical understanding of the MODE parameter and the symmetric (ISYM=1) and anti-symmetric (ISYM=-1) loading conditions. UY. and the symmetry condition (cos or sin ). For this reason.

Pressures and temperatures are applied directly as their peak values at = 0 . Bending and shear loading shows the corresponding forces or displacements on a nodal circle.0) should have UX and UZ (and ROTZ.General Element Features Page 58 of 67 The total force (F) acting in the axial direction due to an axial input force (FY) is: F= F= (force per unit length) * (increment length) (FY /2 R) * (Rd ) = FY where FY is on a full 360 basis. ISYM=1) . When Case A defines the stress state used in stress stiffened analyses. positive X coordinate must have a specified or constrained value of UZ. At least one value of UY should be specified or constrained to prevent rigid body motions..An example of this case is the bending of a pipe. where Tpeak is the input element or nodal temperature.05. All functions are based on sin or cos . UY. unless a pinhole effect is desired. Bending and Shear Loading (ISYM = 1) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. etc. for SHELL61) specified as zero. z and xy occur at =0 .2004 . ACELY = 0. 20.. The input and output values of UX. The thermal load vector is computed from Tpeak. The total applied moment (M) due to a tangential input force (FZ) acting about the global axis is: M= M= (force per unit length) * (lever arm) * (increment length) (-FZ /2 R) * (R) * (Rd ) = -R * FZ where FZ is on a full 360 basis. The peak values of UX. whereas the peak values of yz and xz occur at 90 . Nodes at the centerline (X = 0. FX and FY (and ROTZ and MZ for SHELL61) occur at = 0 . represent the peak values of the displacements or forces. torsional stress is not allowed. Gravity (g) acting in the global X direction should be input [ACEL] as ACELX = g. and ACELZ = -g. FX. one node with a nonzero. Case B: (MODE = 1. Calculated reaction forces are also on a full 360 basis and the above expressions may be used to find the total force.. y. The reference temperature for thermal strain calculations [TREF] is internally set to zero in the thermal strain calculation for the harmonic elements if MODE > 0. The peak values of x . whereas the peak values of UZ and FZ occur at = 90 .0. Also.

05. Calculated reaction forces are also the peak values on a full 360 basis and the above expression may be used to find the total force. An applied moment (M) due to an axial input force (FY) for this case can be computed as follows: M= M= (force per unit length) * (lever arm) * (increment length) (FY (cos ) /2 R) * (R cos ) * (Rd ) = (FY)R/2 An additional applied moment (M) is generated based on the input moment (MZ): M= M= (moment per unit length) * (directional cosine) * (increment length) (MZ(cos ) /2 R) * (cos ) (Rd ) = (MZ)/2 If it is desired to impose a uniform lateral displacement (or force) on the cross section of a cylindrical structure in the global X direction.0) for the same net effect...General Element Features Page 59 of 67 The total applied force in the global X direction (F) due to both an input radial force (FX) and a tangential force (FZ) is: F= F= (force per unit length) * (directional cosine) * (increment length) ((FX (cos ) /2 R) * (cos ) + (FZ(sin /2 R) * (-sin )) * (Rd ) F = (FX . These net forces are independent of radius so that they may be applied at any radius (including X = 0.2004 . equal magnitudes of UX and UZ (or FX and FZ) may be combined as shown in Uniform lateral loadings. Uniform Lateral Loadings file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20.FZ)/2 where FX and FZ are the peak forces on a full 360 basis.

ISYM = -1) . if plane sections (Y = constant) are to remain plane. at least one value of UX or UZ. Displacement and Force Loading Associated with MODE = 2 and ISYM = 1) Additional Cases: There is no programmed limit to the value of MODE. Case D: (MODE = 2. be the same magnitude. If it is desired to have the nodal circle moving in a rigid manner. FZ. ISYM = 1) . it seems necessary to do this only for the harmonic fluid element. but the resulting UX and UZ will not. or ROTZ.0) should have UY specified as zero. however.General Element Features Page 60 of 67 When UX and UZ are input in this manner.. and the direction cosine are changed to positive signs. since this element has no static shear stiffness. In practice. except that the negative signs on UZ. Bending and Shear Loading (ISYM = -1) The same description applying to Case B applies also to Case C. When FX and FZ are input in this manner. as well as one value of UY (not at the centerline). ROTZ should be related to UY by means of constraint equations at the loaded nodes. For SHELL61.2004 . Node points on the centerline (X = 0.This case (shown in Bending and shear loading) represents a pipe bending in a direction 90 to that described in Case B.05. Case C: (MODE = 1. the location of the peak values of various quantities are switched between the 0 and 90 locations. 20. Prev Triangle. should be specified or constrained in some manner. To prevent rigid body motions. All functions are based on sin 2 and cos 2 . in general. which may be enforced with constraint equations. Further. a uniform load is applied about the circumference. the nodal circle moves in an uniform manner.The displacement and force loadings associated with this case are shown in Displacement and force loading. FLUID81. Additional cases may be defined by the user. UX must equal UZ at all points along the centerline. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements Shear Deflection Next Shear Deflection file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. it can be done by using constraint equations [CE] so that UX = -UZ. Also.

A first order approximation to the rotations is used to capture some nonlinear rotation effects.2004 . etc. Spin softening also assumes that both strains and rotations are small. this can affect the convergence rate. Hence it is a type of large deflection but small rotation approximation. The program can account for five types of geometric nonlinearities: 1.) are also taken into account. The elements of this class refer to the original configuration. 5. area. thickness.. The shear deflection constant is defined as the ratio of the actual beam cross-sectional area to the effective area resisting shear deformation. This option accounts for the radial motion of a body's structural mass as it is subjected to an angular velocity. Large strain assumes that the strains are no longer infinitesmal (they are finite).General Element Features Prev General Element Features Page 61 of 67 Next 2.. That is. Pressure load stiffness accounts for the change of stiffness caused by the follower load effect of a rotating pressure load. A zero shear deflection constant may be used to neglect shear deflection. 4. hollow (thin-walled) square (12/5). Deflections and rotations may be arbitrarily large. Shear deflection constants for several common sections are as follows: rectangle (6/5).. 3.12. Stress stiffening assumes that both strains and rotations are small. Shape changes (e. Geometric Nonlinearities Geometric nonlinearities refer to the nonlinearities in the structure or component due to the changing geometry as it deflects. The structure is assumed not to change shape except for rigid body motions. Shear deflection constants for other cross-sections can be found in structural handbooks. Prev Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads Prev Geometric Nonlinearities General Element Features Next Geometric Nonlinearities Next 2.g. hollow (thin-walled) circle (2). 20. Shear Deflection Shear deflection effects are often significant in the lateral deflection of short beams. In a large deflection run. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The element shear stiffness decreases with increasing values of the shear deflection constant. The stiffness changes because the shape changes and/or the material rotates. 2. The shear constant should be equal to or greater than zero. the stiffness [K] is a function of the displacements {u}.05. Large rotation assumes that the rotations are large but the mechanical strains (those that cause stresses) are evaluated using linearized expressions. Shear deflection effects are activated in the stiffness matrices of ANSYS beam elements by including a nonzero shear deflection constant (SHEAR_) in the real constant list for that element type. The significance decreases as the ratio of the radius of gyration of the beam cross-section to the beam length becomes small compared to unity. solid circle (10/9).11.

2-D Elastic Beam BEAM4 .Superelement NLGEOM=ON LR LS LR LR LR [1] LR LR LR LR LS LR LR LR LR LR LR LR LR SC LR LR LS LS LR LS LR SC SC LR Stress Stiffening AN AN AN AN AN[2] x AN x x AN[2] x x x x AN AN x AN x AN AN AN AN AN AN Pressure Load Stiffness x x x x - file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2-D Structural Solid SHELL43 .2-D Spar PLANE2 .Structural Mass BEAM23 . 20. and/or pressure load stiffness.3-D Tapered Unsymmetric Beam SOLID45 ..Plastic Large Strain Shell BEAM44 .05.2-D Coupled-Field Solid COMBIN14 .Elastic Curved Pipe (Elbow) PIPE20 .2-D 6-Node Triangular Structural Solid BEAM3 .Spring-Damper PIPE16 .3-D Thin-walled Beam PLANE25 .Membrane Shell PLANE42 .4-Node Axisymmetric.Plastic Straight Pipe MASS21 .Tension-only or Compression-only Spar LINK11 .Description LINK1 . while only some of the elements support the other options.3-D Point -to-Surface Contact MATRIX50 .Nonlinear Spring SHELL41 .3-D Elastic Beam SOLID5 . large deflection.General Element Features Page 62 of 67 All elements support the spin softening capability.3-D Spar LINK10 .2-D Point -to-Ground Contact SHELL28 . Elements Having Nonlinear Geometric Capability lists the elements that have large strain.3-D Coupled-Field Solid COMBIN7 .Elastic Straight Pipe PIPE17 .Linear Actuator PLANE13 .Harmonic Structural Solid CONTAC26 .2-D Plastic Beam BEAM24 .Revolute Joint LINK8 ..3-D Structural Solid SOLID46 . Explicit Dynamics elements (160 to 167) are not included in this table.3-D Layered Structural Solid CONTAC48 .2-D Point -to-Surface Contact CONTAC49 .Elastic Pipe Tee PIPE18 .Shear/Twist Panel COMBIN39 . Elements Having Nonlinear Geometric Capability Element Name . stress stiffening capability.2004 .

Axisymmetric-Harmonic Structural Shell SOLID62 .Tetrahedral Coupled-Field Solid SHELL99 .3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Mixed U-P Hyperelastic Solid TARGE169 .3-D Target Segment CONTA171 .2-D 4-Node Mixed U-P Hyperelastic Solid HYPER58 .3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid SHELL93 .8-Node Structural Shell SOLID95 .3-D 20-Node Structural Solid SOLID98 .3-D Magneto-Structural Solid SHELL63 .2-D 8-Node Large Strain Solid SHELL143 .Plastic Shell SURF153 .Axisymmetric Structural Shell BEAM54 .2-D 8-Node Hyperelastic Solid HYPER86 .3-D Anisotropic Solid SOLID65 .05.2-D 8-Node Mixed U-P Hyperelastic Solid PLANE82 .3-D Hyperelastic Solid VISCO88 .2-D Surface-to-Surface Contact LR LR LS LS LR LR LS LR LR LS LS LS LS LS LS LS LS LS LS LS LR [1] LR LS LS LS LR SC SC LS SC SC SC AN AN AN AN x x x AN AN AN AN AN x AN AN AN AN AN AN AN AN AN[2] AN AN AN AN AN x x AN - Page 63 of 67 x x x x x x x x x - file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Nonlinear Layered Structural Shell SOLID92 .Elastic Shell SOLID64 .3-D Reinforced Concrete Solid HYPER74 .General Element Features SHELL51 .3-D 20-Node Viscoelastic Solid SHELL91 .3-D 8-Node Mixed U-P Hyperelastic Solid PIPE59 ...2-D 8-Node Structural Solid PLANE83 .Linear Layered Structural Shell VISCO106 .Plastic Curved Pipe (Elbow) SHELL61 . 20.2-D 8-Node Viscoelastic Solid VISCO89 .3-D Large Strain Solid VISCO108 .2-D Elastic Tapered Unsymmetric Beam HYPER56 .2-D Structural Surface Effect SURF154 .2-D Large Strain Solid VISCO107 .3-D Structural Surface Effect HYPER158 .2-D Target Segment TARGE170 .8-Node Axisymmetric-Harmonic Structural Solid HYPER84 .2004 .Immersed Pipe or Cable PIPE60 .

if any.3-D Finite Strain Beam SOLID191 .. stress stiffening is automatically included. 20. and the element is also capable of linear buckling using ANTYPE.. The NLGEOM = 1 provides only a rigid body rotation. AB = if NLGEOM = 1.INCP. stress stiffening is automatically included.BUCKLE. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Code associated with pressure load stiffness: x = has option of computing symmetric or unsymmetric pressure load stiffness matrix using SOLCONTROL. Codes associated with stress stiffening: x = has option of computing stress stiffness matrix AN = if NLGEOM = 1.2004 .3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid BEAM188 .General Element Features CONTA172 . For structural and piezoelectric analyses.3-D 8-Node Surface-to -Surface Contact LINK180 . The element follows the underlying element. are linear.Finite Strain Shell PLANE182 .3-D 20-Node Layered Structural Solid ? Page 64 of 67 SC SC SC LS LS LS LS LS LS LS LS LS - AB AB AB AB AB AB AB AB AB x x x x x x x x x x Codes associated with NLGEOM = 1: LS = large strain element LR = Element that can do a rigid body rotation.2-D 8-Node Structural Solid SOLID185 . SC = surface or contact element.2-D Structural Solid PLANE183 .3-D Surface-to-Surface Contact CONTA174 .2-D 3-Node Surface-to -Surface Contact CONTA173 .3-D Finite Strain Spar SHELL181 .05.BUCKLE.3-D Finite Strain Beam BEAM189 . For structural analyses. 2..3-D 20-Node Structural Solid SOLID187 .. the element is not capable of linear buckling using ANTYPE.3-D 8-Node Structural Solid SOLID186 . However. Strains. 1.

For more details.13. See the ANSYS. PLANE183. HYPER86.13. SOLID187 with KEYOPT(6)>0. They use Lagrange multipliers to extend the internal virtual work so that the volume constraint equation is included explicitly. or. Ogden. the 18x solid elements with KEYOPT(6) > 0 are Lagrange mulitplier based U-P elements. mixed formulation is associated with hyperelastic models Mooney-Rivlin.2004 KEYOPT Number of (6) Pressure DOFs Interpolation Function . element technology and the value of KEYOPT(6).05. You can combine mixed formulation with other element technologies such as the method (also known as the selective reduced integration method). the uniform reduced integration method. These elements include the hyperelastic elements HYPER56. and the 18x elements PLANE182. This introduces hydrostatic pressure as a new independent variable. They are designed for fully incompressible hyperelastic materials and nearly incompressible elastoplastic materials.13. and the enhanced strain formulation method. Theory Reference for further details. 2. such as volumetric locking. occasionally. Mixed formulation of the 18x solid elements offers you more choices in handling incompressible material behavior. Element Technologies Incompressible material behavior may lead to some difficulties in numerical simulation. 2. Unlike the hyperelastic elements.. 20. see the ANSYS. Neo-Hookean. HYPER84. Mixed U-P Formulation Elements Mixed U-P elements use both displacement and hydrostatic pressure as primary unknown variables. Mixed U-P elements are intended to overcome these problems. Arruda-Boyce. HYPER74. They were especially developed for simulating hyperelastic material and use a penalty-based extension of the elastic potential function to explicitly constrain two pressure variables: the pressure obtained from displacements and a separately interpolated pressure. Inc. Furthermore.2.. Inc. as shown in Number of Independent Pressure DOFs in One Element. HYPER158. the hydrostatic pressure variables are not condensed on the element level. SOLID185. On the other hand. HYPER58. checkerboard pattern of stress distributions. Number of Independent Pressure DOFs in One Element Element Basic Element Technology method (selective reduced file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. inaccuracy of solution. 18x Mixed U -P Elements The number of independent hydrostatic pressure DOFs depends on the element type. The hyperelastic elements (HYPERx) are penalty-based U-P elements.General Element Features Prev Shear Deflection Prev Page 65 of 67 Next Mixed U-P Formulation Elements Mixed U-P Formulation Elements General Element Features Next 2. but are solved at the global level. SOLID186. Theory Reference. and user-defined.1. polynomial form. divergence.

Applications of Mixed U-P Formulations Incompressible material behavior can be divided into two categories: fully incompressible materials and nearly incompressible materials. The volume constraint equation is checked for each element of a nonlinear analysis. the hyperelastic elements (HYPER56. Mixed formulation is not recommended for nearly incompressible hyperelastic materials.3. For such materials.0 x 10 -5 . Use of the 18x elements makes more material models available. and try mixed formulation with the 18x elements. 20. Mixed U-P formulation is not needed in plane stress as the incompressibility condition can be easily satisfied by the change of thickness. HYPER84. Most fully incompressible materials are hyperelastic materials. elastic strain only agrees with stress in an element on the average instead of pointwise. You should try pure displacement formulation [KEYOPT(6) = 0] first since the extra pressure DOFs are involved in mixed formulation. and for these kinds of materials.General Element Features integration) or uniform reduced integration Enhanced strain formulation Uniform reduced integration method (selective reduced integration) or uniform reduced integration Enhanced strain formulation Uniform reduced integration 4-point integration 4-point integration Page 66 of 67 PLANE182 PLANE182 PLANE183 SOLID185 SOLID185 SOLID186 SOLID187 SOLID187 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 3 1 4 4 1 4 Constant Linear Linear Constant Linear Linear Constant Linear The hydrostatic pressure has an interpolation function one order lower lower than the one for volumetric strain in elements PLANE182. SOLID186. HYPER74. it is recommended that you use KEYOPT(6) = 2 for nearly file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. HYPER86. should you try to use mixed formulation with either of the plane stress options [KEYOPT(3) = 0 or 3]. If you are using mixed formulation with element SOLID187.5. The number of elements in which the constraint equation is not satisfied is reported in the output file. and has better performance. see the ANSYS. PLANE183. Nearly incompressible elastoplastic materials are materials with Poisson's ratio close to 0. SOLID185 with enhanced strain formulation method. You can change this value using the SOLCONTROL command. and HYPER158) should be used. Inc. If you use element SOLID187. or materials in which plastic deformation is dominant.. and SOLID187 with constant pressure. the 18x solid elements with mixed formulation is the only choice. For nearly incompressible hyperelastic materials. Theory Reference. ANSYS will automatically set KEYOPT(6) to 0 for pure displacement formulation. you can assume that the hyperelastic material is fully incompressible.. 2.2004 . especially when the deformation is close to being fully incompressible. mixed formulation of the 18x elements is more robust. For 2-D elements PLANE182 and PLANE183. The default tolerance for the volumetric compatibility or volume constraint check is 1.13. If a hyperelastic element fails to provide a solution. HYPER58.05. Therefore. Nearly incompressible materials include hyperelastic materials and elastoplastic materials. For more details. it is recommended that you set KEYOPT(6) = 1 for this type of material.

That means the solution is the particular one with zero force at the node in that direction where no displacement is prescribed.2004 . the number of displacement DOFs without any prescribed values. If no force/pressure boundary condition is applied. If different type elements are included. the hydrostatic pressure cannot be determined. 20.4. Np can be calculated by the number of elements times the number of pressure DOFs within each element (see Number of Independent Pressure DOFs in One Element for the specific numbers used with the 18x elements).. This direction cannot be the tangential direction of the boundary at this node. Over-constrained Models and No Unique Solution You should avoid over-constrained models when you are using elements with mixed U-P formulation.General Element Features incompressible elastoplastic materials. another situation that you must avoid is no unique solution. The optimal values for Np and Nd are Nd/Np = 2 for 2-D problems and Nd/Np = 3 for 3-D problems.05.. it should be determined by the force/pressure boundary condition. Since hydrostatic pressure is independent from deformation. any stress field in equilibrium would be still in equilibrium and not cause any further deformation by adding an arbitrary value of hydrostatic pressure. Nd. In addition to over-constrained models. when mixed formulation of the 18x plane and solid elements is applied to fully incompressible hyperelastic materials. Inc. Theory Reference for more details. The over-constrained problem can be overcome by increasing the number of nodes without any displacement boundary conditions. Prev Geometric Nonlinearities Next Element Characteristics file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. In this case. Page 67 of 67 2. Np. An over-constrained model means that globally or locally.13. This problem can be solved simply by having at least one node on the boundary in at least one direction without a prescribed displacement boundary condition. or the solution is not unique. See the ANSYS. Np is the summation of the products over each type of mixed formulation element. or by refining the mesh. is less than the number of hydrostatic pressure DOFs. No unique solution occurs if all boundary nodes have prescribed displacements in each direction and the material is fully incompressible.

etc.or three-dimensional. 20. 3. magnetic.1.4. The detailed element type descriptions are given in Element Library. consisting of a group label (BEAM) and a unique identifying number (3).) 3. The element descriptions in Element Library are arranged in order of these identification numbers. An element type is identified by a name (8 characters maximum). geometry. spars. They are easier to set up. Lists of Element Types The ANSYS program has a large library of element types.1. thermal. are described in this chapter to make element type selection easier. pipes. Degrees of Freedom and Discipline The degrees of freedom of the element determine the discipline for which the element is applicable: structural.g. 3.05..n. A volume element has a tetrahedral or brick shape and is usually a 3-D solid element. and axisymmetric shells.3. ANSYS/FLOTRAN. and their groupings. The element is selected from the library for use in the analysis by inputting its name on the element type command [ET ]." for each element.1. Pictorial Summary is a graphical summary of the elements grouped by discipline. Examples are beams. If any three-dimensional element type (such as BEAM4 ) is included in the element type [ET ] set. Two-dimensional models must be defined in an X-Y plane. Including file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The element type should be chosen such that the degrees of freedom are sufficient to characterize the model's response. Element Characteristic Shape In general. ANSYS/Professional. or coupled-field. A point element is typically defined by one node. Some of the characteristics of the element types. such as BEAM3 . A line element is typically represented by a line or arc connecting two or three nodes. or volume. line. Elements and Product Availability (Sorted by Group Name) is the same list sorted by the element name. area. The ANSYS element library consists of more than 100 different element formulations or types. Two -dimensional element types may be used (with caution) in three-dimensional models. Some element types (such as COMBIN14 ) may be two . four shapes are possible: point.. showing the ANSYS products in which they are available (ANSYS/Multiphysics. An area element has a triangular or quadrilateral shape and may be a 2-D solid element or a shell element. fluid.1.1.2004 . Elements and Product Availability (Sorted by Element Number) is a list of the elements sorted by element number. e. a mass element. "Product Restrictions. electric. Two-Dimensional versus Three-Dimensional Models ANSYS models may be either two -dimensional or three-dimensional depending upon the element types used.Element Characteristics Element Characteristics ANSYS Element Reference Page 1 of 17 Prev Next Chapter 3.. the model becomes three-dimensional. (Not all element options are available in all ANSYS products. depending upon the KEYOPT value selected. and run faster than equivalent three-dimensional models. and in numerical order within the group. These restrictions are detailed in Section 4. Element Characteristics 3.. etc. Axisymmetric models are also considered to be two-dimensional. Other element types (such as COMBIN40 ) have no influence in determining the model dimensions.).2.

ANSYS/LS-Dyna FL . 3.3-D Coupled-Field Solid COMBIN7 .2004 .3-D Spar (or Truss) INFIN9 .2-D Spar (or Truss) PLANE2 .Elastic Pipe Tee PIPE18 .ANSYS/Emag-High Frequency Product Availability MP ME ST DY PR EM FL PP ED Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Element Name . User Elements You may also create your own element type and use it in an analysis as a user element.2-D Elastic Beam BEAM4 .Linear Actuator CONTAC12 .ANSYS/ED EH .Description 1-10 LINK1 .Elastic Curved Pipe (Elbow) PIPE20 .2-D Plastic Beam Y Y Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ANSYS/Multiphysics DY . 20. Similarly.ANSYS/Emag ST .Structural Mass BEAM23 .Element Characteristics Page 2 of 17 unnecessary degrees of freedom increases the solution memory requirements and running time.1.1.Plastic Straight Pipe 21-30 MASS21 .Revolute Joint LINK8 .4.05.ANSYS/Flotran ME . 3. Sorted Elements Elements and Product Availability (Sorted by Element Number) MP .5.ANSYS/Professional PP .2-D Point -to-Point Contact PLANE13 .ANSYS/Mechanical PR . such as using an element type with plastic capability in an elastic solution. selecting element types with unnecessary features..2-D 6-Node Triangular Structural Solid BEAM3 . User elements and other user programmable features (UPFs) are described in the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features.2-D Coupled-Field Solid COMBIN14 .ANSYS/Structural ED .3-D Elastic Beam SOLID5 .ANSYS/PrepPost EM . also unnecessarily increases the analysis run time.2-D Infinite Boundary LINK10 ..Tension-only or Compression-only Spar 11-20 LINK11 .Elastic Straight Pipe PIPE17 .Spring-Damper PIPE16 .

Stiffness. 20.Convection Link PLANE35 .2-D Elastic Tapered Unsymmetric Beam PLANE55 .3-D 8-Node Layered Structural Solid INFIN47 .Radiation Link LINK32 .2-D Acoustic Fluid FLUID30 .Plastic Curved Pipe (Elbow) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y - Page 3 of 17 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.3-D Elastic Tapered Unsymmetric Beam SOLID45 .Axisymmetric Structural Shell CONTAC52 . or Mass Matrix SHELL28 .4-Node Plastic Large Strain Shell BEAM44 .05.3-D Thin-walled Beam PLANE25 .3-D Point -to-Point Contact PLANE53 .2-D Thermal Solid HYPER56 . Damping.Thermal Shell HYPER58 .Control FLUID38 .Immersed Pipe or Cable PIPE60 .2-D Conduction Bar LINK33 .3-D 8-Node Mixed U-P Hyperelastic Solid PIPE59 .2-D 8-Node Magnetic Solid BEAM54 ..Combination 41-50 SHELL41 .3-D Conduction Bar LINK34 .2-D 4-Node Mixed U-P Hyperelastic Solid SHELL57 .3-D Point -to-Surface Contact MATRIX50 .Membrane Shell PLANE42 .2-D Structural Solid SHELL43 .3-D Acoustic Fluid 31-40 LINK31 ..2004 .Current Source COMBIN37 .3-D Structural Solid SOLID46 .Superelement (or Substructure) 51-60 SHELL51 .Element Characteristics BEAM24 .2-D Point -to-Surface Contact CONTAC49 .Axisymmetric.Shear/Twist Panel FLUID29 .2-D Point -to-Ground Contact MATRIX27 .2-D 6-Node Triangular Thermal Solid SOURC36 .Dynamic Fluid Coupling COMBIN39 .3-D Infinite Boundary CONTAC48 .Harmonic 4-Node Structural Solid CONTAC26 .Nonlinear Spring COMBIN40 .

2004 .3-D Magneto-Structural Solid SHELL63 .3-D Contained Fluid 81-90 FLUID81 .2-D 8-Node Mixed U-P Hyperelastic Solid PLANE75 .2-D Hyperelastic Solid HYPER86 .05.2-D Contained Fluid FLUID80 .8-Node Structural Shell SOLID95 .3-D 20-Node Thermal Solid 91-100 SHELL91 ..3-D Thermal Solid 71-80 MASS71 .Thermal-Electric Line SOLID69 .3-D Thermal-Electric Solid SOLID70 .Element Characteristics 61-70 SHELL61 .Axisymmetric-Harmonic 8-Node Thermal Solid FLUID79 .Linear Layered Structural Shell 101-110 Page 4 of 17 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y - Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y - - Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y - file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Axisymmetric-Harmonic 8-Node Structural Solid HYPER84 .3-D Magnetic Scalar Solid SOLID97 . 20.3-D Magnetic Solid SOLID98 .3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Thermal Solid VISCO88 .2-D Thermal-Electric Solid LINK68 .3-D Anisotropic Structural Solid SOLID65 .2-D 8-Node Thermal Solid PLANE78 .Axisymmetric-Harmonic 4-Node Thermal Solid PLANE77 .3-D 20-Node Viscoelastic Solid SOLID90 .Tetrahedral Coupled-Field Solid SHELL99 .2-D 8-Node Structural Solid PLANE83 .3-D Hyperelastic Solid SOLID87 .Nonlinear Layered Structural Shell SOLID92 .Axisymmetric-Harmonic Structural Shell SOLID62 .Elastic Shell SOLID64 .3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid SHELL93 .2-D 8-Node Viscoelastic Solid VISCO89 .Thermal Mass HYPER74 .3-D Reinforced Concrete Solid PLANE67 ..Axisymmetric-Harmonic Contained Fluid PLANE82 .3-D 20-Node Structural Solid SOLID96 .

2-D Quadrilateral Structural Solid p-Element PLANE146 .3-D Magnetic Interface FLUID116 .Y .3-D Infinite Solid INTER115 .2-D Fluid-Thermal FLUID142 .8-Node Structural Shell p-Element 151-160 SURF151 .4-Node Plastic Small Strain Shell PLANE145 .3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Electrostatic Solid CIRCU124 .2-D High-Frequency Quadrilateral Solid HF119 .3-D 20-Node Magnetic Solid HF118 .3-D 8-Node Large Strain Solid VISCO108 .EH .2-D Infinite Solid 111-120 INFIN111 .3-D 20-Node Electrostatic Solid SOLID123 .Y .2-D 8-Node Large Strain Solid INFIN110 .3-D Tetrahedral High-Frequency HF120 .Y .05.2-D 4-Node Large Strain Solid VISCO107 .3-D Fluid-Thermal SHELL143 .Common or Zener Diode TRANS126 .3-D Brick Structural Solid p-Element SOLID148 .Explicit 3-D Spar (or Truss) Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Page 5 of 17 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y .3-D Thermal Surface Effect SURF153 .Element Characteristics VISCO106 .3-D Brick/Wedge High-Frequency 121-130 PLANE121 .2-D Structural Surface Effect SURF154 .EH .2-D Triangular Structural Solid p-Element SOLID147 .3-D Structural Surface Effect SHELL157 -Thermal-Electric Shell HYPER158 .3-D Infinite Acoustic 141-150 FLUID141 .2-D 8-Node Electrostatic Solid SOLID122 .EH Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y - Y Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 .Thermal -Fluid Pipe SOLID117 . 20.3-D Tetrahedral Structural Solid p-Element SHELL150 ..General Circuit CIRCU125 .3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Mixed U-P Hyperelastic Solid LINK160 .Electro-structural Transducer SOLID127 .3-D Tetrahedral Electrostatic Solid p-Element SOLID128 .3-D Brick Electrostatic Solid p-Element FLUID129 ..2-D Thermal Surface Effect SURF152 .2-D Infinite Acoustic FLUID130 ..

3-D 8-Node Surface-to -Surface Contact CONTA178 .05.ANSYS/Professional PP .ANSYS/Emag ST ..3-D Point-to-Point Contact PRETS179 .ANSYS/PrepPost EM ..2-D 3-Node Surface-to -Surface Contact CONTA173 .Meshing Facet Page 6 of 17 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y - Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y - Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y .Explicit Tension-Only Spar TARGE169 .ANSYS/Multiphysics DY .2-D 4-Node Structural Solid PLANE183 .Explicit 3-D Structural Mass LINK167 .Explicit Spring-Damper MASS166 . 20.2-D 8-Node Structural Solid SOLID185 .2-D Target Segment TARGE170 .3-D 20-Node Structural Solid SOLID187 .ANSYS/Mechanical PR .3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid BEAM188 .Element Characteristics 161-170 BEAM161 .Finite Strain Shell PLANE182 .2-D/3-D Pre-tension Element 181-190 LINK180 .ANSYS/Emag-High Frequency Product Availability MP ME ST DY PR EM FL PP ED Element Name .Y Y Y Y Elements and Product Availability (Sorted by Group Name) MP .3-D Finite Strain Beam BEAM189 .2-D 2-Node Surface-to-Surface Contact CONTA172 .3-D Finite Strain Spar (or Truss) SHELL181 .ANSYS/Structural ED .3-D 4-Node Surface-to-Surface Contact CONTA174 .3-D 20-Node Layered Structural Solid MESH200 .ANSYS/LS-Dyna FL .Explicit Thin Structural Shell SOLID164 .3-D Finite Strain Beam 190-200 SOLID191 .ANSYS/ED EH .Explicit 2-D Structural Solid SHELL163 .ANSYS/Flotran ME .2004 .Explicit 3-D Beam PLANE162 .Explicit 3-D Structural Solid COMBI165 .3-D 8-Node Structural Solid SOLID186 .3-D Target Segment 171-180 CONTA171 .Description BEAM Elements file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

3-D 8-Node Surface-to-Surface Contact CONTA178 .Nonlinear Spring COMBIN40 .2-D Point -to-Ground Contact CONTAC48 .Revolute Joint COMBIN14 .2-D Point -to-Point Contact CONTAC26 .2-D Acoustic Fluid FLUID30 .3-D Acoustic Fluid FLUID38 .2-D Plastic Beam BEAM24 .2-D 3-Node Surface-to-Surface Contact CONTA173 .Thermal -Fluid Pipe FLUID129 .3-D Elastic Beam BEAM23 .Explicit 3-D Beam BEAM188 .2-D Infinite Acoustic FLUID130 .Element Characteristics BEAM3 .General Circuit CIRCU125 . 20.3-D Infinite Acoustic FLUID141 .3-D Finite Strain Beam BEAM189 .2004 .Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y - file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Explicit Spring-Damper CONTAC Elements CONTAC12 .3-D Point -to-Point Contact CONTA171 .3-D Point -to-Surface Contact CONTAC52 .Common or Zener Diode COMBIN Elements COMBIN7 .2-D Elastic Tapered Unsymmetric Beam BEAM161 ..2-D Fluid-Thermal Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y .Spring-Damper COMBIN37 ..Dynamic Fluid Coupling FLUID79 .3-D Finite Strain Beam CIRCU Elements CIRCU124 .Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y - Page 7 of 17 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y .Combination COMBI165 .3-D Contained Fluid FLUID81 .3-D Elastic Tapered Unsymmetric Beam BEAM54 .Control COMBIN39 .3-D 4-Node Surface-to-Surface Contact CONTA174 .2-D Point -to-Surface Contact CONTAC49 .2-D Elastic Beam BEAM4 .Axisymmetric-Harmonic Contained Fluid FLUID116 .3-D Node-to-Node Contact FLUID Elements FLUID29 .05.3-D Thin-walled Beam BEAM44 .2-D Contained Fluid FLUID80 .2-D 2-Node Surface-to-Surface Contact CONTA172 .

2-D Spar (or Truss) LINK8 .Y Y Y Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Explicit 3-D Structural Mass MATRIX Elements MATRIX27 . 20.3-D Brick/Wedge High-Frequency Solid HYPER Elements HYPER56 ..Y Y Y - Y Y Y Y .Thermal-Electric Line LINK160 .3-D Spar (or Truss) LINK10 .Convection Link LINK68 .3-D 8-Node Mixed U-P Hyperelastic Solid HYPER74 .Structural Mass MASS71 .05.Linear Actuator LINK31 .2-D Infinite Boundary INFIN47 .2-D Infinite Solid INFIN111 .EH .Y Y Y Y ..3-D Infinite Solid INTER Elements INTER115 .Explicit Tension-Only Spar LINK180 .Element Characteristics FLUID142 .EH .3-D Finite Strain Spar (or Truss) MASS Elements MASS21 .3-D Fluid-Thermal HF Elements HF118 .3-D Infinite Boundary INFIN110 .Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y - - Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y - - Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y .Superelement (or Substructure) MESH Elements Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y - Page 8 of 17 Y Y Y EH .2-D 4-Node Mixed U-P Hyperelastic Solid HYPER58 .3-D Hyperelastic Solid HYPER158 .3-D Magnetic Interface LINK Elements LINK1 .Y Y ..Tension-only or Compression-only Spar LINK11 .Y .2-D Hyperelastic Solid HYPER86 .Thermal Mass MASS166 . Damping.2-D Conduction Bar LINK33 .3-D Conduction Bar LINK34 .2004 .2-D 8-Node Mixed U-P Hyperelastic Solid HYPER84 . or Mass Matrix MATRIX50 .3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Mixed U-P Hyperelastic Solid INFIN Elements INFIN9 .Stiffness.3-D Tetrahedral High-Frequency Solid HF120 ..Explicit 3-D Spar (or Truss) LINK167 .Radiation Link LINK32 .2-D High-Frequency Quadrilateral Solid HF119 .

Elastic Shell Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y - Page 9 of 17 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y .Axisymmetric-Harmonic 4-Node Thermal Solid PLANE77 .Elastic Pipe Tee PIPE18 .Elastic Curved Pipe (Elbow) PIPE20 .Axisymmetric Structural Shell SHELL57 .Thermal Shell SHELL61 .Plastic Curved Pipe (Elbow) PLANE Elements PLANE2 .Axisymmetric-Harmonic Structural Shell SHELL63 .2-D/3-D Pre-tension SHELL Elements SHELL28 .2-D 8-Node Electrostatic Solid PLANE145 .Element Characteristics MESH200 .4-Node Plastic Large Strain Shell SHELL51 .05.2-D 4-Node Structural Solid PLANE183 .Plastic Straight Pipe PIPE59 .2-D Thermal-Electric Solid PLANE75 .2-D Quadrilateral Structural Solid p-Element PLANE146 .Axisymmetric-Harmonic 8-Node Structural Solid PLANE121 .2-D 8-Node Structural Solid PLANE83 ..2004 .2-D Coupled-Field Solid PLANE25 .2-D 8-Node Thermal Solid PLANE78 . 20.2-D 6-Node Triangular Thermal Solid PLANE42 .Membrane Shell SHELL43 .Axisymmetric-Harmonic 8-Node Thermal Solid PLANE82 .2-D 6-Node Triangular Structural Solid PLANE13 .Axisymmetric-Harmonic 4-Node Structural Solid PLANE35 .Elastic Straight Pipe PIPE17 .Shear/Twist Panel SHELL41 .Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y - Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Meshing Facet PIPE Elements PIPE16 .Immersed Pipe or Cable PIPE60 .2-D 8-Node Magnetic Solid PLANE55 .2-D Thermal Solid PLANE67 .Explicit 2-D Structural Solid PLANE182 ..2-D 8-Node Structural Solid PRETS Elements PRETS179 .2-D Triangular Structural Solid p-Element PLANE162 .2-D Structural Solid PLANE53 .

Y Y ..3-D Thermal Solid SOLID87 .3-D 20-Node Magnetic Solid SOLID122 .3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Thermal Solid SOLID90 .Tetrahedral Coupled-Field Solid SOLID117 .Y Y .3-D 8-Node Layered Structural Solid SOLID62 . 20.3-D Tetrahedral Structural Solid p-Element SOLID164 .2004 .4-Node Plastic Small Strain Shell SHELL150 .3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid SOLID95 .Explicit Thin Structural Shell SHELL181 .Nonlinear Layered Structural Shell SHELL93 .3-D Anisotropic Structural Solid SOLID65 .3-D Magnetic Scalar Solid SOLID97 ..Finite Strain Shell SOLID Elements SOLID5 .3-D Thermal Surface Effect Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y .3-D 20-Node Electrostatic Solid SOLID123 .Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y - Page 10 of 17 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y - Y Y Y Y Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.8-Node Structural Shell SHELL99 .3-D 8-Node Structural Solid SOLID186 .2-D Thermal Surface Effect SURF152 .3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid SOLID191 ..3-D 20-Node Structural Solid SOLID96 .3-D Thermal-Electric Solid SOLID70 .3-D Magnetic Solid SOLID98 .3-D 20-Node Thermal Solid SOLID92 .3-D Structural Solid SOLID46 .3-D 20-Node Structural Solid SOLID187 .3-D Reinforced Concrete Solid SOLID69 .3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Electrostatic Solid SOLID127 .3-D Brick Structural Solid p-Element SOLID148 .3-D Coupled-Field Solid SOLID45 .Explicit 3-D Structural Solid SOLID185 .Thermal-Electric Shell SHELL163 ..05.3-D Magneto-Structural Solid SOLID64 .3-D Tetrahedral Electrostatic Solid p-Element SOLID128 .Element Characteristics SHELL91 .3-D Brick Electrostatic Solid p-Element SOLID147 .3-D 20-Node Layered Structural Solid SOURC Elements SOURC36 .Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y .Current Source SURF Elements SURF151 .Y Y Y Y Y .8-Node Structural Shell p-Element SHELL157 .Linear Layered Structural Shell SHELL143 .

2-D 4-Node Large Strain Solid VISCO107 .Element Characteristics SURF153 .2. Pictorial Summary of Element Types The figures on the next pages graphically summarize the element library for quick reference.3-D 20-Node Viscoelastic Solid VISCO106 .3-D Target Segment TRANS Elements TRANS126 .2-D Target Segment TARGE170 . 20.3-D Structural Surface Effect TARGE Elements TARGE169 .2-D Structural Surface Effect SURF154 .05.Electro-structural Transducer VISCO Elements VISCO88 .2-D 8-Node Viscoelastic Solid VISCO89 ..2-D 8-Node Large Strain Solid Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y - Page 11 of 17 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Prev Mixed U-P Formulation Elements Prev Pictorial Summary Element Characteristics Next Pictorial Summary Next 3.1. Pictorial Summary 3.3-D 8-Node Large Strain Solid VISCO108 . Element Pictorial Summary file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..2.2004 .

05.Element Characteristics Page 12 of 17 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..2004 . 20..

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Element Library Element Library ANSYS Element Reference Page 1 of 993 Prev Next Element Library Table of Contents 4 Element Library LINK1 PLANE2 BEAM3 BEAM4 SOLID5 COMBIN7 LINK8 INFIN9 LINK10 LINK11 CONTAC12 PLANE13 COMBIN14 PIPE16 PIPE17 PIPE18 PIPE20 MASS21 BEAM23 BEAM24 PLANE25 CONTAC26 MATRIX27 SHELL28 FLUID29 FLUID30 LINK31 LINK32 LINK33 LINK34 PLANE35 SOURC36 COMBIN37 FLUID38 COMBIN39 COMBIN40 SHELL41 PLANE42 SHELL43 BEAM44 SOLID45 SOLID46 INFIN47 CONTAC48 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20.2004 ...05.

Element Library CONTAC49 MATRIX50 SHELL51 CONTAC52 PLANE53 BEAM54 PLANE55 HYPER56 SHELL57 HYPER58 PIPE59 PIPE60 SHELL61 SOLID62 SHELL63 SOLID64 SOLID65 PLANE67 LINK68 SOLID69 SOLID70 MASS71 HYPER74 PLANE75 PLANE77 PLANE78 FLUID79 FLUID80 FLUID81 PLANE82 PLANE83 HYPER84 HYPER86 SOLID87 VISCO88 VISCO89 SOLID90 SHELL91 SOLID92 SHELL93 SOLID95 SOLID96 SOLID97 SOLID98 SHELL99 VISCO106 VISCO107 VISCO108 INFIN110 INFIN111 INTER115 FLUID116 SOLID117 HF118 HF119 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Page 2 of 993 20.2004 .05...

2004 .Element Library HF120 PLANE121 SOLID122 SOLID123 CIRCU124 CIRCU125 TRANS126 SOLID127 SOLID128 FLUID129 FLUID130 FLUID141 FLUID142 SHELL143 PLANE145 PLANE146 SOLID147 SOLID148 SHELL150 SURF151 SURF152 SURF153 SURF154 SHELL157 HYPER158 LINK160 BEAM161 PLANE162 SHELL163 SOLID164 COMBI165 MASS166 LINK167 TARGE169 TARGE170 CONTA171 CONTA172 CONTA173 CONTA174 CONTA178 PRETS179 LINK180 SHELL181 PLANE182 PLANE183 SOLID185 SOLID186 SOLID187 BEAM188 BEAM189 SOLID191 MESH200 Page 3 of 993 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...05. 20.

in numerical order (as listed in Elements and Product Availability (Sorted by Element Number)). Inc.. The two -dimensional spar element is a uniaxial tension-compression element with two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. a spring. Prev Element Library Prev LINK1 Element Library Next LINK1 Next LINK1 Name LINK1 — 2-D Spar (or Truss) product: MP ME ST PR PP ED Element Description LINK1 can be used in a variety of engineering applications. Theory Reference . The details of the element should also be reviewed in the ANSYS.Element Library Prev Pictorial Summary Prev Element Library Element Library Page 4 of 993 Next Element Library Next Chapter 4. See the ANSYS.05. As in a pin-jointed structure. See LINK8 for a description of a three-dimensional spar element. KEYOPT switches.. Inc. etc. Theory Reference for more details about this element. etc. Read About This Manual and General Element Features before reading the element descriptions in Element Library. Element Library This chapter describes each element. LINK1 2-D Spar file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. a link.2004 . Depending upon the application. Descriptions common to several elements appear in separate sections of General Element Features and are referenced where applicable. 20.) are used to produce the element output. you can think of the element as a truss. which explains how the element input items (such as the real constants. material properties. no bending of the element is considered.

ALPX. an initial strain.. L. with the LUMPM command. the cross-sectional area. J Degrees of Freedom UX. UY Real Constants AREA.Element Library Page 5 of 993 Input Data LINK1 shows the geometry. You can input temperatures and fluences as element body loads at the nodes. (as defined by the I and J node locations) and the zero-strain length. and the material properties.2004 . The element is defined by two nodes. node locations. Similar defaults occur for fluence except that zero is used instead of TUNIF.. where is the difference between the element length. which may be useful for certain analyses such as wave propagation. You can request a lumped mass matrix formulation. The node J temperature defaults to T(I). Input Summary summarizes the element input. 20.05. DAMP Surface Loads None Body Loads Temperatures -T (I). T (J) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Node and Element Loads describes element loads. The initial strain in the element (ISTRN) is given by /L. LINK1 Input Summary Element Name LINK1 Nodes I. DENS. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. and the coordinate system for this element. Element Input gives a general description of element input. The element x-axis is oriented along the length of the element from node I toward node J. ISTRN Material Properties EX.

Element Library Fluences -FL (I). YC Definition Element Number Element node numbers (I and J) Material number for the element Element volume Location where results are reported O Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ? Stress output illustrates several items. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.. Creep. ESOL]. FL (J) Special Features Plasticity.2004 . and a . LINK1 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC..05. LINK1 Stress Output The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. Stress stiffening. Y indicates that the item is always available. Large deflection. Birth and death Page 6 of 993 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in LINK1 Element Output Definitions.OUT. In either the O or R columns. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. 20.indicates that the item is not available. Swelling. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.

2004 . The table uses the following notation: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions table. 20.. Only if the element has a nonlinear material 2. The Item and Sequence Number..J sequence number for data at nodes I and J LINK1 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name SAXL EPELAXL EPTHAXL EPSWAXL Item LS LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH E 1 1 1 2 I J - file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Element Library TEMP FLUEN MFORX SAXL EPELAXL EPTHAXL EPINAXL SEPL SRAT EPEQ HPRES EPPLAXL EPCRAXL EPSWAXL Temperature at nodes I and J Fluence at nodes I and J Member force in the element coordinate system X direction Axial stress in the element Axial elastic strain in the element Axial thermal strain in the element Axial initial strain in the element Equivalent stress from the stress-strain curve Ratio of trial stress to the stress on yield surface Equivalent plastic strain Hydrostatic pressure Axial plastic strain Axial creep strain Axial swelling strain Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Page 7 of 993 1. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.05. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table for further information. Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I. table lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method...

The only special features allowed are stress stiffening and large deflections. for the first cumulative iteration.. ANSYS/Professional ? The DAMP material property is not allowed. axially loaded at its ends. The displacement function implies a uniform stress in the spar. ? ? Prev Element Library Prev PLANE2 Element Library Next PLANE2 Next PLANE2 Name PLANE2 — 2-D 6-Node Triangular Structural Solid file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The length of the spar must be greater than zero. The initial strain is also used in calculating the stress stiffness matrix.Element Library EPINAXL EPPLAXL EPCRAXL SEPL SRAT HPRES EPEQ MFORX FLUEN TEMP LEPTH LEPPL LEPCR NLIN NLIN NLIN NLIN SMISC NMISC LBFE 3 1 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 1 2 2 Page 8 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions The spar element assumes a straight bar. Fluence body loads cannot be applied. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. if any. The spar must lie in an X-Y plane and must have an area greater than zero. 20. of uniform properties from end to end. The temperature is assumed to vary linearly along the length of the spar.2004 . so nodes I and J must not be coincident..05.

they default to T(I). You can use the element as a plane element (plane stress or plane strain) or as an axisymmetric element. KEYOPT(9) = 1 is used to read initial stress data from a user subroutine. Node and Element Loads describes element loads. shown by the circled numbers in PLANE2. Positive pressures act into the element. swelling. creep. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. Similar defaults occur for fluence except that zero is used instead of TUNIF. Besides the nodes. and large strain capabilities.. the element input data includes a thickness (only if KEYOPT(3) = 3) and the orthotropic material properties. each midside node temperature defaults to the average temperature of its adjacent corner nodes. You can specify temperatures and fluences as element body loads at the nodes. The element is defined by six nodes having two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. large deflection. If all corner node temperatures are specified. The element also has plasticity. Inc. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF.2004 . 20.. if any. stress stiffening.05. For details about these user file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. PLANE2 2-D 6-Node Triangular Structural Solid Input Data PLANE2 shows the geometry and node locations for this element. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. Theory Reference for more details about this element. Specify the nodal forces. The element has a quadratic displacement behavior and is well suited to model irregular meshes (such as produced from various CAD/CAM systems). See the ANSYS. If all other temperatures are unspecified.Element Library product: MP ME ST PR PP ED Page 9 of 993 Element Description PLANE2 element is a 6-node triangular element compatible with the 8-node PLANE82 element. per unit of depth for a plane analysis (except for KEYOPT(3) = 3) and on a full 360 basis for an axisymmetric analysis. For any other input temperature pattern.

. if KEYOPT (3) = 0. Pressure load stiffness effects are included in linear eigenvalue buckling automatically. J. EZ. FL (M). Large deflection. T (N) Fluences -FL (I). DENS. DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (J-I). PLANE2 Input Summary Element Name PLANE2 Nodes I. ALPX. PRYZ.. use NROPT. Large strain. FL (K). UY Real Constants None. Birth and death. KEYOPT(3) 0 -Plane stress 1 -Axisymmetric 2 -Plane strain (Z strain = 0. 1. If an unsymmetric matrix is needed for pressure load stiffness effects. K. FL (J). ALPY. ALPZ. N Degrees of Freedom UX. if KEYOPT (3) = 3 Material Properties EX.Element Library subroutines. L. Swelling. Adaptive descent.. face 3 (I-K) Body Loads Temperatures -T (I). Creep. T (L). EY. 20. Stress stiffening. face 2 (K-J). T (J).0) 3 -Plane stress with thickness input KEYOPT(5) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. NUXZ).2004 . T (M). GXY. M. T (K).05. PRXZ or NUXY. (PRXY. Page 10 of 993 You can include the effects of pressure load stiffness in a geometric nonlinear analysis using SOLCONTROL. NUYZ. Element Input contains a general description of element input. see the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features.INCP. 2 Thickness. FL (L). FL (N) Special Features Plasticity. Input Summary gives a summary of the element input.UNSYM..

20. Surface stresses are defined parallel and perpendicular to a face line (for example. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output.Element Library 0 -Basic element printout 1 -Integration point stress printout 2 -Nodal stress printout KEYOPT(6) 0 -Basic element printout 3 -Nonlinear solution at each integration point also 4 -Surface printout for faces with nonzero pressure KEYOPT(9) 0 -No user subroutine to provide initial stress (default) 1 -- Page 11 of 993 Read initial stress data from user subroutine USTRESS (see the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features for user written subroutines) Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in PLANE2 Element Output Definitions ? Stress output illustrates several items..2004 .. PLANE2 Stress output file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. line I-J) and along the Z axis for a plane analysis or in the hoop direction for an axisymmetric analysis. Surface stresses are available on any face having a nonzero pressure specification.05. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system.

Z. In either the O or R columns.2004 . J and K) Material number for the element Average thickness of the element Element volume Location where results are reported Pressures P1 at nodes J. L Temperatures .0 for plane stress elements) Principal stresses Stress intensity Equivalent stress Elastic strain Principal elastic strains Equivalent elastic strain [4] Average thermal strain Equivalent thermal strain [4] O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y Y 3 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 2. P3 at I. Z.T(I). T(N) Fluences . FL(J). J. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.indicates that the item is not available. 2.Element Library Page 12 of 993 The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. XY S: 1. 20. and a .. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.FL(I). Z.OUT. P2 at K. ESOL].05. FL(N) Stresses (SZ = 0. YC PRES TEMP FLUEN S: X. 3 EPEL: EQV EPTH: X. FL(L). 3 S: INT S: EQV EPEL: X. XY EPEL: 1. FL(M). T(L). The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. Y. T(J). FL(K). T(M). Y. T(K). Y indicates that the item is always available. Y. XY EPTH: EQV Definition Element number Element corner nodes (I. I. PLANE2 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT THICK VOLU: XC..

S. PLANE2 Item and Sequence Numbers uses the following notation: Name output quantity as defined in the PLANE2 Element Output Definitions file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Y. EPEQ.. PER. XY EPPL: EQV EPCR: X. perpendicular. EPCR.. Z or hoop) Surface stress intensity Surface equivalent stress Integration point locations 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 Y Page 13 of 993 1. if the element has a nonlinear material and KEYOPT(6) = 3 2. EPSW Integration Point Stress Solution LOCATION. 20. TEMP. only if the element has a nonlinear material. SRAT. SINT. Z) SINT SEQV LOCI: X.5. Nonlinear solution. Z) TEMP S(PAR. Z or hoop) Surface average temperature Surface stress (parallel. 3. Output at each vertex node. SEQV. XY EPCR: EQV EPSW: NL: EPEQ NL: SRAT NL: SEPL NL: HPRES FACE EPEL(PAR. perpendicular.Element Library EPPL: X. Output at each integration point. SEQV O 1 2 3 R - 1. S Nodal Stress Solution LOCATION.2004 . PER. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) of the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. Z.05. Z Plastic strain Equivalent plastic strain [4] Creep strains Creep strains [4] Swelling strain Equivalent plastic strain Ratio of trial stress to stress on yield surface Equivalent stress on stress-strain curve Hydrostatic pressure Face label Surface elastic strains (parallel. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. Z. EPEL. Output at each integration point. Y. 4. Solution EPPL. TEMP. 2. Surface output if KEYOPT(6) = 4 and a nonzero pressure face. SINT. HPRES. Y. for plastic and creep this value is set at 0.PRXY). if KEYOPT(5) = 2 PLANE2 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. if KEYOPT(5) = 1 3. SEPL. PLANE2 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Names of Items Output Nonlinear Integration Pt.

A face with a removed midside node implies that the displacement varies linearly. rather than parabolically. The element must lie in a global X-Y plane as shown in PLANE2 and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses.. The only special feature allowed is stress stiffening. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below.Element Library Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I...2004 .J. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section... KEYOPT(6) = 3 does not apply. along that face. Surface stress printout is valid only if the conditions described in Element Solution are met.. 20.J.N sequence number for data at nodes I... An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants.05. Assumptions and Restrictions The area of the element must be positive. ? ? ? Prev LINK1 Next BEAM3 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.N PLANE2 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name P1 P2 P3 Item SMISC SMISC SMISC E I 2 5 J 1 4 K 3 6 L M N - Page 14 of 993 See Surface Solution Index of this manual for the item and sequence numbers for surface output for the ETABLE command. ANSYS/Professional ? The DAMP material property is not allowed.. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for information on the use of elements with midside nodes. Fluence body loads cannot be applied...

the cross-sectional area. compression. You can use the element in an axisymmetric analysis if hoop effects are negligible. Theory Reference for more details about this element. and bending capabilities. The element is defined by two nodes. and the material properties. Other 2D beam elements are the plastic beam (BEAM23) and the tapered unsymmetric beam (BEAM54). if any. such as for bolts. L (as defined by the I and J node locations).2004 . BEAM3 2-D Elastic Beam Input Data BEAM3 shows the geometry. The element has three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions and rotation about the nodal z-axis. The initial strain is also used in calculating the stress stiffness matrix. and the coordinate system for this element. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the area moment of inertia.Element Library BEAM3 Element Library Page 15 of 993 Prev Next BEAM3 Name BEAM3 — 2-D Elastic Beam product: MP ME ST PR PP ED Element Description BEAM3 is a uniaxial element with tension.. node locations. The initial strain in the element (ISTRN) is given by /L. the height.. See the ANSYS.05. Inc. and the zero strain length. 20. where is the difference between the element length. for the first cumulative iteration.

The first corner temperature T1 defaults to TUNIF. KEYOPT(10) allows tapered lateral pressures to be offset from the nodes. HEIGHT. UY. IZZ. ISTRN. SHEARZ.ON] more than one component of angular velocity is applied [OMEGA] any angular velocities or accelerations are applied with the CGOMGA. or DCGOMG commands.. KEYOPT(9). End "pressures" are input as a force. You can specify pressures as surface loads on the element faces. You specify lateral pressures as a force per unit length. Element Input contains a general description of element input. BEAM3 Input Summary Element Name BEAM3 Nodes I. J Degrees of Freedom UX. ALPX. You can specify an added-mass-per-unit-length with the ADDMAS value. is not valid if ? stress stiffening is turned on [SSTIF.Element Library Page 16 of 993 slotted cylinders. T2. The area and moment of inertia must be input on a full 360 basis for an axisymmetric analysis. You can use a zero value of SHEARZ to neglect shear deflection. T4 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. DAMP Surface Loads Pressure -face 1 (I-J) (-Y normal direction). unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. T3 defaults to T2 and T4 defaults to T1. face 4 (J) (-X axial direction) (use a negative value for loading in the opposite direction) Body Loads Temperatures -T1. GXY. ADDMAS Material Properties EX.. If only T1 and T2 are input. etc. The shear modulus (GXY) is used only with shear deflection. DOMEGA. If all other temperatures are unspecified. used to request output at intermediate locations. 20. ROTZ Real Constants AREA. The shear deflection constant (SHEARZ) is optional.05.2004 . face 3 (I) (+X axial direction). You can specify temperatures as element body loads at the four "corner" locations shown in BEAM3. For any other input pattern. See Shear Deflection for details. ? ? Input Summary summarizes the element input. Node and Element Loads describes element loads. Positive normal pressures act into the element. face 2 (I-J) (+X tangential direction). T3. DENS. they default to T1. shown by the circled numbers in BEAM3.

20. ? Stress Output illustrates several items.0 to 1.05.Element Library Special Features Stress stiffening. 7. there is no shear deflection in the element Y direction. 3.. Birth and death KEYOPT(6) 0 -No printout of member forces and moments 1 -Print out member forces and moments in the element coordinate system KEYOPT(9) Used to control additional output between ends I and J N -Output at N intermediate locations (N = 0. Solution Output gives a general description of solution output. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.0) Page 17 of 993 Note SHEARZ goes with the IZZ. Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in BEAM3 Element Output Definitions.2004 . Large deflection. 1. If SHEARZ = 0.. 0 -Offset for load placement is in terms of length units 1 -Offset is in terms of a length ratio (0. 9) KEYOPT(10) Used only for tapered surface loads with the SFBEAM command. BEAM3 Stress Output file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 5.

T2.. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.J.J. T3. J Element material number Element volume Location where results are reported Temperatures T1. BEAM3 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. OFFST2 at I. J. In either the O or R columns.bending stress) 1 1 Axial elastic strain at the end 1 1 Bending elastic strain on the element +Y side of the beam 1 1 Bending elastic strain on the element -Y side of the beam 1 1 Axial thermal strain at the end 1 1 Bending thermal strain on the element +Y side of the beam 1 1 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. 20.Element Library Page 18 of 993 The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE.P2 at I.I. P3 at I. P4 at Y Y J Axial direct stress 1 1 Bending stress on the element +Y side of the beam 1 1 Bending stress on the element -Y side of the beam 1 1 Maximum stress (direct stress + bending stress) 1 1 Minimum stress (direct stress . and a .2004 .J.05. ESOL].indicates that the item is not available. OFFST1 at I. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. T4 Pressure P1 at nodes I. YC TEMP PRES SDIR SBYT SBYB SMAX SMIN EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPTHDIR EPTHBYT Definition O Y Y Y N Y Y R Y Y Y Y 3 Y Element Number Element nodes . a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. Y indicates that the item is always available.OUT.

See The General Postprocessor (POST1) of the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. The following tables list output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. 3.Element Library EPTHBYB EPINAXL MFOR(X.05. The item repeats for end I. and end J.2004 . Available only at centroid as a *GET item.. If KEYOPT(6) = 1. intermediate locations (see KEYOPT(9)). BEAM3 (KEYOPT(9) =0) Item and Sequence Numbers through BEAM3 (KEYOPT(9)=9) Item and Sequence Numbers all use the following notation: Name output quantity as defined in the BEAM3 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I. 2. 20. Y) MMOMZ Bending thermal strain on the element -Y side of the beam Initial axial strain in the element Member forces in the element coordinate system X and Y direction Member moment in the element coordinate system Z direction Page 19 of 993 1 1 1 1 2 Y 2 Y 1.J sequence number for data at nodes I and J ILN sequence number for data at Intermediate Location N BEAM3 (KEYOPT(9) = 0) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(9) = 0 Name Item E SDIR LS SBYT LS SBYB LS EPELDIR LEPEL EPELBYT LEPEL EPELBYB LEPEL - I 1 2 3 1 2 3 J 4 5 6 4 5 6 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..

2004 .2 SBYB LS .6 P1 SMISC .05.2 EPELBYB LEPEL .2 EPTHBYB LEPTH .1 EPTHBYT LEPTH .1 MFORY SMISC .3 EPTHDIR LEPTH ..Element Library EPTHDIR EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPINAXL SMAX SMIN MFORX MFORY MMOMZ P1 OFFST1 P2 OFFST2 P3 P4 LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH NMISC NMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 7 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 6 13 15 17 19 21 4 5 6 3 4 7 8 12 14 16 18 20 22 Page 20 of 993 Pseudo Node 1 2 3 4 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 BEAM3 (KEYOPT(9) = 1) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(9) = 1 Name Item E I SDIR LS .2 MFORX SMISC .1 EPELBYT LEPEL .1 SBYT LS . 20.2 MMOMZ SMISC .19 ILI 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 3 4 7 8 12 - J 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 5 6 13 14 18 20 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..3 EPELDIR LEPEL .3 EPINAXL LEPTH 10 SMAX NMISC .1 SMIN NMISC .

20.Element Library OFFST1 P2 OFFST2 P3 P4 SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 21 23 25 27 22 24 26 28 Page 21 of 993 Pseudo Node 1 2 3 4 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 BEAM3 (KEYOPT(9) = 3) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(9) = 3 Item E I IL1 LS .31 SMISC .2 5 LEPTH .2 5 LEPEL .3 6 LEPTH .2 4 SMISC .1 4 LEPTH ..2 5 LS ..6 12 SMISC .1 3 NMISC .39 SMISC .3 6 LEPEL .35 SMISC ..1 4 LEPEL .1 7 SMISC .33 SMISC .1 4 LS .- Name SDIR SBYT SBYB EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPTHDIR EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPINAXL SMAX SMIN MFORX MFORY MMOMZ P1 OFFST1 P2 OFFST2 P3 P4 IL2 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 5 6 13 14 18 - IL3 10 11 12 10 11 12 10 11 12 7 8 19 20 24 - J 13 14 15 13 14 15 13 14 15 9 10 25 26 30 32 34 36 38 40 Pseudo Node 1 2 3 4 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 BEAM3 (KEYOPT(9) = 5) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05.37 SMISC .3 6 LEPTH 16 .2 8 SMISC .NMISC .2004 .

2 5 8 11 .2 5 8 11 .1 4 7 LEPEL .3 6 9 12 .6 12 18 SMISC .3 6 9 LEPTH .1 4 7 LS .05.47 SMISC ..2 5 8 LEPEL .45 SMISC .NMISC .3 6 9 LEPEL .43 SMISC .2 8 14 SMISC .1 7 13 SMISC .2004 .2 4 6 SMISC .Element Library Commands KEYOPT(9) = 5 Item E I IL1 IL2 LS .3 6 9 LEPTH 22 .1 4 7 10 .- Page 22 of 993 Name SDIR SBYT SBYB EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPTHDIR EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPINAXL SMAX SMIN MFORX MFORY MMOMZ P1 OFFST1 P2 OFFST2 P3 P4 IL3 10 11 12 10 11 12 10 11 12 7 8 19 20 24 - IL4 13 14 15 13 14 15 13 14 15 9 10 25 26 30 - IL5 16 17 18 16 17 18 16 17 18 11 12 31 32 36 - J 19 20 21 19 20 21 19 20 21 13 14 37 38 42 44 46 48 50 52 Pseudo Node 1 2 3 4 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 BEAM3 (KEYOPT(9) = 7) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(9) = 7 E I IL1 IL2 IL3 .51 SMISC .1 4 7 LEPTH .1 4 7 10 .1 4 7 10 Name SDIR SBYT SBYB EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPTHDIR Item LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH IL4 13 14 15 13 14 15 13 IL5 16 17 18 16 17 18 16 IL6 19 20 21 19 20 21 19 IL7 22 23 24 22 23 24 22 J 25 26 27 25 26 27 25 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2 5 8 LEPTH .1 3 5 NMISC .3 6 9 12 .2 5 8 LS .49 SMISC .. 20..

05. 20.2004 ...Element Library EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPINAXL SMAX SMIN MFORX MFORY MMOMZ P1 OFFST1 P2 OFFST2 P3 P4 LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH NMISC NMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 28 2 3 1 2 1 2 6 55 57 59 61 63 5 8 11 14 6 9 12 15 3 5 7 9 4 6 8 10 7 13 19 25 8 14 20 26 12 18 24 30 17 18 11 12 31 32 36 20 21 13 14 37 38 42 23 24 15 16 43 44 48 26 27 17 18 49 50 54 56 58 60 62 64 Page 23 of 993 Pseudo Node 1 2 3 4 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 BEAM3 (KEYOPT(9) = 9) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(9) = 9 IL1 IL2 IL3 IL4 4 7 10 13 5 8 11 14 6 9 12 15 4 7 10 13 5 8 11 14 6 9 12 15 4 7 10 13 5 8 11 14 6 9 12 15 3 5 7 9 4 6 8 10 7 13 19 25 8 14 20 26 12 18 24 30 - Name SDIR SBYT SBYB EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPTHDIR EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPINAXL SMAX SMIN MFORX MFORY MMOMZ P1 OFFST1 Item LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH NMISC NMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 34 - I 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 6 67 69 IL5 16 17 18 16 17 18 16 17 18 11 12 31 32 36 - IL6 19 20 21 19 20 21 19 20 21 13 14 37 38 42 - IL7 22 23 24 22 23 24 22 23 24 15 16 43 44 48 - IL8 25 26 27 25 26 27 25 26 27 17 18 49 50 54 - IL9 28 29 30 28 29 30 28 29 30 19 20 55 56 60 - J 31 32 33 31 32 33 31 32 33 21 22 61 62 66 68 70 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

.75 .. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. the stresses are determined as if the distance from the neutral axis to the extreme fiber is one-half of the height. However.2004 .73 . The file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. compression. The applied thermal gradient is assumed linear across the height and along the length.71 .76 Page 24 of 993 Pseudo Node 1 2 3 4 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 Assumptions and Restrictions The beam element can have any cross-sectional shape for which the moment of inertia can be computed.Element Library P2 OFFST2 P3 P4 SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC . ? Prev PLANE2 Prev BEAM4 Element Library Next BEAM4 Next BEAM4 Name BEAM4 — 3-D Elastic Beam product: MP ME ST PR PP ED Element Description BEAM4 is a uniaxial element with tension.. and bending capabilities. The only special features allowed are stress stiffening and large deflections. ANSYS/Professional ? The DAMP material property is not allowed.72 .. The element height is used only in the bending and thermal stress calculations..74 . torsion. The beam element must lie in an X-Y plane and must not have a zero length or area. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below.05. The moment of inertia may be zero if large deflections are not used. 20.

A tapered unsymmetrical elastic beam is described in BEAM44 and a three-dimensional plastic beam in BEAM24. y. and z axes. and z directions and rotations about the nodal x.05. y. Stress stiffening and large deflection capabilities are included. 20. An added mass per unit length may be input with the ADDMAS value..Element Library Page 25 of 993 element has six degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. it is assumed equal to the polar moment of inertia (IYY+IZZ). A consistent tangent stiffness matrix option is available for use in large deflection (finite rotation) analyses. The element is defined by two or three nodes. and the material properties. IXX should be positive and is usually less than the polar moment of inertia. If IXX is not specified or is equal to 0. BEAM4 3-D Elastic Beam Input Data The geometry. two area moments of inertia (IZZ and IYY). See the ANSYS. the cross-sectional area. Theory Reference for more details about this element.2004 . and coordinate systems for this element are shown in BEAM4.0.. node locations. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The element torsional stiffness decreases with decreasing values of IXX. Inc. the torsional moment of inertia (IXX). an angle of orientation ( ) about the element x-axis. two thicknesses (TKY and TKZ).

You can often obtain more rapid convergence in a geometrically nonlinear analysis. they default to T1. The shear deflection constants (SHEARZ and SHEARY) are used only if shear deflection is to be included. If only T1 and T4 are input. For any other input pattern. A zero value of SHEAR_ may be used to neglect shear deflection in a particular direction. defines a plane (with I and J) containing the element x and z axes (as shown). see Meshing Your Solid Model of the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. (For information about orientation nodes and beam meshing. The first corner temperature T1 defaults to TUNIF. In both cases. use the angle (THETA) or the third node option. ? ? A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. KEYOPT(7) is used to compute an unsymmetric gyroscopic damping matrix (often used for rotordynamic analyses). is not valid if ? stress stiffening is turned on [SSTIF. a matrix composed of the main tangent stiffness matrix plus the consistent stress stiffness matrix) in large deflection analyses [NLGEOM. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF.2004 . The rotational frequency is input with the SPIN real constant (radians/time. where is the difference between the element length. the element y axis is oriented parallel to the global Y axis (as shown). T2 defaults to T1 and T3 defaults to T4. Positive normal pressures act into the element. by activating this option. the default ( = 0 ) orientation of the element y-axis is automatically calculated to be parallel to the global X-Y plane.. However. T3 defaults to T2 and T4 defaults to T1.Element Library Page 26 of 993 The element x-axis is oriented from node I toward node J. If this element is used in a large deflection analysis. KEYOPT(10) allows tapered lateral pressures to be offset from the nodes. is used only to initially orient the element. Lateral pressures are input as a force per unit length. the third node option takes precedence. IYY = IZZ and SHEARY = SHEARZ). See Shear Deflection for details. 20. if used. If all other temperatures are unspecified. DOMEGA.. The third node (K). or the angle (THETA). Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the eight "corner" locations shown in BEAM4. or DCGOMG commands. positive in the positive element x direction). (as defined by the I and J node locations) and the zero strain length. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The element must be symmetric with this option (e. For user control of the element orientation about the element x-axis. L. The resulting abrupt changes in stiffness within the structure make the consistent tangent stiffness matrix unsuitable for such applications. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on BEAM4. KEYOPT(2) is used to activate the consistent tangent stiffness matrix (i. KEYOPT(9). you should not use this option if you are using the element to simulate a rigid link or a group of coupled nodes.ON]. such as a nonlinear buckling or postbuckling analysis. For the two-node option. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . End "pressures" are input as a force. If both are defined.) The initial strain in the element (ISTRN) is given by /L. it should be noted that the location of the third node (K). Several orientations are shown in BEAM4. For the case where the element is parallel to the global Z axis (or within a 0.. T5 through T8 default to T1 through T4. If only T1 and T2 are input.01 percent slope of it). used to request output at intermediate locations.g. A general description of element input is given in Element Input.05.e.ON] more than one component of angular velocity is applied [OMEGA] any angular velocities or accelerations are applied with the CGOMGA..

T4.) 1 -Use the consistent tangent stiffness matrix (i. T5.. KEYOPT(2) is automatically set to 1. 20. face 2 (I-J) (-Y normal direction). T2.05.e. ROTZ Real Constants AREA. ROTY. DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (I-J) (-Z normal direction).ON will be ignored for this element when KEYOPT(2) = 1 is activated. J. SPIN. T6. TKZ. face 4 (I) (+X axial direction).) Note that if SOLCONTROL is ON and NLGEOM is ON. Sometimes it is necessary to turn off the consistent tangent stiffness matrix if the element is used to simulate rigid bodies by using a very large real constant number .e. GXY. (SSTIF. TKY. Large deflection. T7. while KEYOPT(2) = 2 is independent of SOLCONTROL. KEYOPT(2) = 2 is the same as KEYOPT(2) = 0. DENS. SHEARY. KEYOPT (2) = 0 is controlled by SOLCONTROL. KEYOPT(6) 0 -- file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Element Library Page 27 of 993 BEAM4 Input Summary Element Name BEAM4 Nodes I.. ON or OFF. Birth and death KEYOPT(2) 0 -Use only the main tangent stiffness matrix when NLGEOM is ON. (Stress stiffening effects used in linear buckling or other linear prestressed analyses must be activated separately with PSTRES. the consistent tangent will be used. ISTRN. T3. IZZ. UY. K (K orientation node is optional) Degrees of Freedom UX. T8 Special Features Stress stiffening. 2 -Use to turn off consistent tangent stiffness matrix (i. UZ. ADDMAS Material Properties EX.. face 3 (I-J) (+X tangential direction). ROTX. face 5 (J) (-X axial direction) (use negative value for opposite loading) Body Loads Temperatures -T1. however. SHEARZ.e. IXX..2004 . a matrix composed of the main tangent stiffness matrix plus the consistent stress stiffness matrix) when SOLCONTROL is ON. i. ALPX.ON. IYY. THETA. a matrix composed of the main tangent stiffness matrix plus the consistent stress stiffness matrix) when NLGEOM is ON.

Element Library No printout of member forces or moments 1 -Print out member forces and moments in the element coordinate system KEYOPT(7) 0 -No gyroscopic damping matrix 1 --

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Compute gyroscopic damping matrix. Real constant SPIN must be greater than zero. IYY must equal IZZ. KEYOPT(9) Used to control additional output between ends I and J N -Output at N intermediate locations (N = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9) KEYOPT(10) Used only for tapered surface loads with the SFBEAM command. 0 -Offset for load placement is in terms of length units 1 -Offset is in terms of a length ratio (0.0 to 1.0)

Note

SHEARZ goes with IZZ, if SHEARZ = 0, there is no shear deflection in the element Y directionSHEARY goes with IYY, if SHEARY = 0, there is no shear deflection in the element Z direction

Output Data

The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:

?

nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in 3-D BEAM4 Element Output Definitions.

?

Several items are illustrated in Stress Output. The maximum stress is computed as the direct stress plus the absolute values of both bending stresses. The minimum stress is the direct stress minus the absolute value of both bending stresses. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. 3-D BEAM4 Stress Output

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The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE, ESOL]. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. In either the O or R columns, Y indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and a - indicates that the item is not available. 3-D BEAM4 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC, YC, ZC TEMP PRES SDI R SBYT SBYB SBZT SBZB SMAX SMIN EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPELBZT EPELBZB EPTHDIR Definition Element number Element node number (I and J) Material number for the element Element volume Location where results are reported Temperatures at integration points T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8 Pressure P1 at nodes I,J; OFFST1 at I,J; P2 at I,J; OFFST2 at I,J; P3 at I,J; OFFST3 at I,J; P4 at I; P5 at J Axial direct stress Bending stress on the element +Y side of the beam Bending stress on the element -Y side of the beam Bending stress on the element +Z side of the beam Bending stress on the element -Z side of the beam Maximum stress (direct stress + bending stress) Minimum stress (direct stress - bending stress) Axial elastic strain at the end Bending elastic strain on the element +Y side of the beam Bending elastic strain on the element -Y side of the beam Bending elastic strain on the element +Z side of the beam Bending elastic strain on the element -Z side of the beam Axial thermal strain at the end O Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 3 Y

Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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Element Library EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPTHBZT EPTHBZB EPINAXL MFOR(X, Y, Z) MMOM(X, Y, Z) Bending thermal strain on the element +Y side of the beam Bending thermal strain on the element -Y side of the beam Bending thermal strain on the element +Z side of the beam Bending thermal strain on the element -Z side of the beam Initial axial strain in the element Member forces in the element coordinate system X, Y, Z directions

Page 30 of 993 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 Y 2 Y

Member moments in the element coordinate system X, Y, Z directions

1. The item repeats for end I, intermediate locations (see KEYOPT(9)), and end J. 2. If KEYOPT(6) = 1. 3. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. The following tables list output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) of the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. The following notation is used in BEAM4 (KEYOPT(9)=0) Item and Sequence Numbers through BEAM4 (KEYOPT(9)=9) Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the 3-D BEAM4 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I,J sequence number for data at nodes I and J ILN sequence number for data at Intermediate Location N BEAM4 (KEYOPT(9) = 0) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(9) = 0 Name Item E I J SDIR LS - 1 6 SBYT LS - 2 7

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Element Library SBYB SBZT SBZB EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPELBZT EPELBZB SMAX SMIN EPTHDIR EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPTHBZT EPTHBZB EPINAXL MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ P1 OFFST1 P2 OFFST2 P3 OFFST3 P4 P5 LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL NMISC NMISC LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 11 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 8 9 10 6 7 8 9 10 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26

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Pseudo Node 12345678 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 BEAM4 (KEYOPT(9) = 1) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(9) = 1 Name Item E I IL1 J SDIR LS - 1 6 11

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Element Library SBYT SBYB SBZT SBZB EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPELBZT EPELBZB SMAX SMIN EPTHDIR EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPTHBZT EPTHBZB EPINAXL MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ P1 OFFST1 P2 OFFST2 P3 OFFST3 P4 P5 LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL NMISC NMISC LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 16 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 7 8 9 10 6 7 8 9 10 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 7 8 9 10 11 12 12 13 14 15 11 12 13 14 15 5 6 11 12 13 14 15 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

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Pseudo Node 12345678 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 BEAM4 (KEYOPT(9) = 3) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(9) = 3 Item E I IL1 IL2 IL3 J

Name

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Element Library SDIR SBYT SBYB SBZT SBZB EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPELBZT EPELBZB SMAX SMIN EPTHDIR EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPTHBZT EPTHBZB EPINAXL MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ P1 OFFST1 P2 OFFST2 P3 OFFST3 P4 P5 LS LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL NMISC NMISC LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 26 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 6 7 8 9 10 6 7 8 9 10 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 7 8 9 10 11 12 11 12 13 14 15 11 12 13 14 15 5 6 11 12 13 14 15 13 14 15 16 17 18 16 17 18 19 20 16 17 18 19 20 7 8 16 17 18 19 20 19 20 21 22 23 24 21 22 23 24 25 21 22 23 24 25 9 10 21 22 23 24 25 25 26 27 28 29 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

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Pseudo Node 12345678 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 BEAM4 (KEYOPT(9) = 5) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(9) = 5

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Element Library Name SDIR SBYT SBYB SBZT SBZB EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPELBZT EPELBZB SMAX SMIN EPTHDIR EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPTHBZT EPTHBZB EPINAXL MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ P1 OFFST1 P2 OFFST2 P3 OFFST3 P4 P5 Item LS LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL NMISC NMISC LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 36 I 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 IL1 6 7 8 9 10 6 7 8 9 10 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 7 8 9 10 11 12 IL2 11 12 13 14 15 11 12 13 14 15 5 6 11 12 13 14 15 13 14 15 16 17 18 IL3 16 17 18 19 20 16 17 18 19 20 7 8 16 17 18 19 20 19 20 21 22 23 24 IL4 21 22 23 24 25 21 22 23 24 25 9 10 21 22 23 24 25 25 26 27 28 29 30 IL5 26 27 28 29 30 26 27 28 29 30 11 12 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 J 31 32 33 34 35 31 32 33 34 35 13 14 31 32 33 34 35 37 38 39 40 41 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

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Pseudo Node 12345678 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 BEAM4 (KEYOPT(9) = 7) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands

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Element Library KEYOPT(9) = 7 E I IL1 IL2 IL3 - 1 6 11 16 - 2 7 12 17 - 3 8 13 18 - 4 9 14 19 - 5 10 15 20 - 1 6 11 16 - 2 7 12 17 - 3 8 13 18 - 4 9 14 19 - 5 10 15 20 - 1 3 5 7 - 2 4 6 8 - 1 6 11 16 - 2 7 12 17 - 3 8 13 18 - 4 9 14 19 - 5 10 15 20 46 - - 1 7 13 19 - 2 8 14 20 - 3 9 15 21 - 4 10 16 22 - 5 11 17 23 - 6 12 18 24 - 55 - 57 - 59 - 61 - 63 - 65 - 67 - - -

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Name SDIR SBYT SBYB SBZT SBZB EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPELBZT EPELBZB SMAX SMIN EPTHDIR EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPTHBZT EPTHBZB EPINAXL MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ P1 OFFST1 P2 OFFST2 P3 OFFST3 P4 P5

Item LS LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL NMISC NMISC LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC

IL4 21 22 23 24 25 21 22 23 24 25 9 10 21 22 23 24 25 25 26 27 28 29 30 -

IL5 26 27 28 29 30 26 27 28 29 30 11 12 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 -

IL6 31 32 33 34 35 31 32 33 34 35 13 14 31 32 33 34 35 37 38 39 40 41 42 -

IL7 36 37 38 39 40 36 37 38 39 40 15 16 36 37 38 39 40 43 44 45 46 47 48 -

J 41 42 43 44 45 41 42 43 44 45 17 18 41 42 43 44 45 49 50 51 52 53 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68

Pseudo Node 12345678 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 BEAM4 (KEYOPT(9) = 9) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands

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Element Library KEYOPT(9) = 9 IL1 IL2 IL3 IL4 6 11 16 21 7 12 17 22 8 13 18 23 9 14 19 24 10 15 20 25 6 11 16 21 7 12 17 22 8 13 18 23 9 14 19 24 10 15 20 25 3 5 7 9 4 6 8 10 6 11 16 21 7 12 17 22 8 13 18 23 9 14 19 24 10 15 20 25 7 13 19 25 8 14 20 26 9 15 21 27 10 16 22 28 11 17 23 29 12 18 24 30 -

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Name SDIR SBYT SBYB SBZT SBZB EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPELBZT EPELBZB SMAX SMIN EPTHDIR EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPTHBZT EPTHBZB EPINAXL MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ P1 OFFST1 P2 OFFST2 P3 OFFST3 P4 P5

Item LS LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL NMISC NMISC LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC

E 56 -

I 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 -

IL5 26 27 28 29 30 26 27 28 29 30 11 12 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 -

IL6 31 32 33 34 35 31 32 33 34 35 13 14 31 32 33 34 35 37 38 39 40 41 42 -

IL7 36 37 38 39 40 36 37 38 39 40 15 16 36 37 38 39 40 43 44 45 46 47 48 -

IL8 41 42 43 44 45 41 42 43 44 45 17 18 41 42 43 44 45 49 50 51 52 53 54 -

IL9 46 47 48 49 50 46 47 48 49 50 19 20 46 47 48 49 50 55 56 57 58 59 60 -

J 51 52 53 54 55 51 52 53 54 55 21 22 51 52 53 54 55 61 62 63 64 65 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80

Pseudo Node 12345678 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Assumptions and Restrictions

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The beam must not have a zero length or area. The moments of inertia, however, may be zero if large deflections are not used. The beam can have any cross-sectional shape for which the moments of inertia can be computed. The stresses, however, will be determined as if the distance between the neutral axis and the extreme fiber is one-half of the corresponding thickness. The element thicknesses are used only in the bending and thermal stress calculations. The applied thermal gradients are assumed to be linear across the thickness in both directions and along the length of the element. If you use the consistent tangent stiffness matrix (KEYOPT(2) = 1), take care to use realistic (i.e., "to scale") element real constants. This precaution is necessary because the consistent stress-stiffening matrix is based on the calculated stresses in the element - if you use artificially large or small crosssectional properties, the calculated stresses will become inaccurate, and the stress-stiffening matrix will suffer corresponding inaccuracies. (Certain components of the stress-stiffening matrix could even overshoot to infinity.) Similar difficulties could arise if unrealistic real constants are used in a linear prestressed or linear buckling analysis [PSTRES,ON]. Eigenvalues calculated in a gyroscopic modal analysis can be very sensitive to changes in the initial shift value, leading to potential error in either the real or imaginary (or both) parts of the eigenvalues.

Product Restrictions

When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. ANSYS/Professional

?

The SPIN real constant (R11) is not available. Input R11 as a blank. The DAMP material property is not allowed. KEYOPT(2) can only be set to 0 (default). KEYOPT(7) can only be set to 0 (default). The only special features allowed are stress stiffening and large deflections.

?

?

?

?

Prev BEAM3 Prev SOLID5 Element Library

Next SOLID5 Next

SOLID5

Name

SOLID5 — 3-D Coupled-Field Solid product: MP ME EM PP ED

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Element Description

SOLID5 has a three-dimensional magnetic, thermal, electric, piezoelectric, and structural field capability with limited coupling between the fields. The element has eight nodes with up to six degrees of freedom at each node. Scalar potential formulations (reduced RSP, difference DSP, or general GSP) are available for modeling magnetostatic fields in a static analysis. When used in structural and piezoelectric analyses, SOLID5 has large deflection and stress stiffening capabilities. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for more details about this element. Coupled field elements with similar field capabilities are PLANE13, SOLID62, and SOLID98. SOLID5 3-D Coupled-Field Solid

Input Data

The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in SOLID5. The element is defined by eight nodes and the material properties. The type of units (MKS or user defined) is specified through the EMUNIT command.EMUNIT also determines the value of MUZERO. The EMUNIT defaults are MKS units and MUZERO = 4 x 10-7 Henries/meter. In addition to MUZERO, orthotropic relative permeability is specified through the MURX, MURY, and MURZ material property labels. MGXX, MGYY, and MGZZ represent vector components of the coercive force for permanent magnet materials. The magnitude of the coercive force is the square root of the sum of the squares of the components. The direction of polarization is determined by the components MGXX, MGYY, and MGZZ. Permanent magnet polarization directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems. Nonlinear magnetic, piezoelectric, and anisotropic elastic properties are entered with the TB command as described in Data Tables - Implicit Analysis. Nonlinear orthotropic magnetic properties may be specified with a combination of a B-H curve and linear relative permeability. The B-H curve will be used in each element coordinate direction where a zero value of relative permeability is specified. Only one B-H curve may be specified per material.

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Various combinations of nodal loading are available for this element (depending upon the KEYOPT (1) value). Nodal loads are defined with the D and the F commands. With the D command, the Lab variable corresponds to the degree of freedom (UX, UY, UZ, TEMP, VOLT, MAG) and VALUE corresponds to the value (displacements, temperature, voltage, scalar magnetic potential). With the F command, the Lab variable corresponds to the force (F_, HEAT, AMPS, FLUX) and VALUE corresponds to the value (force, heat flow, current or charge, magnetic flux). Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . The surface loads; pressure, convection, heat flux, and maxwell force flags may be input on the element faces indicated by the circled numbers in SOLID5 using the SF and SFE commands. Positive pressures act into the element. Surfaces at which magnetic forces are to be calculated may be identified by using the MXWF label on the surface load commands (no value is required.) A maxwell stress tensor calculation is performed at these surfaces to obtain the magnetic forces. These forces are applied in solution as structural loads. The surface flag should be applied to "air" elements adjacent to the body for which forces are required. Deleting the MXWF specification removes the flag. The body loads, temperature, heat generation rate and magnetic virtual displacement may be input based on their value at the element's nodes or as a single element value [BF and BFE]. When the temperature degree of freedom is active (KEYOPT(1) = 0,1 or 8), applied body force temperatures [BF, BFE] are ignored. In general, unspecified nodal values of temperature and heat generation rate default to the uniform value specified with the BFUNIF or TUNIF commands. Calculated Joule heating (JHEAT) is applied in subsequent iterations as heat generation rate. If the temperature degree of freedom is present, the calculated temperatures override any input nodal temperatures. Air elements in which Local Jacobian forces are to be calculated may be identified by using nodal values of 1 and 0 for the MVDI label [BF]. See the ANSYS Electromagnetic Field Analysis Guide for details. These forces are not applied in solution as structural loads. Current for the scalar magnetic potential options is defined with the SOURC36 element the command macro RACE, or through electro-magnetic coupling. The various types of scalar magnetic potential solution options are defined with the MAGOPT command. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. A general description of element input is given in Element Input.

**SOLID5 Input Summary
**

Element Name SOLID5 Nodes I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P Degrees of Freedom UX, UY, UZ, TEMP, VOLT, MAG if KEYOPT (1) = 0 TEMP, VOLT, MAG if KEYOPT (1) = 1 UX, UY, UZ if KEYOPT (1) = 2 UX, UY, UZ, VOLT if KEYOPT(1) = 3 TEMP if KEYOPT (1) = 8 VOLT if KEYOPT (1) = 9 MAG if KEYOPT (1) = 10 Real Constants file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

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None Material Properties EX, EY, EZ, (PRXY, PRYZ, PRXZ or NUXY, NUYZ, NUXZ), ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ, DENS, GXY, GYZ, GXZ, DAMP, KXX, KYY, KZZ, C, ENTH, MUZERO, MURX, MURY, MURZ, RSVX, RSVY, RSVZ, MGXX, MGYY, MGZZ, PERX, PERY, PERZ, plus BH, ANEL, and PIEZ data tables (see Data Tables - Implicit Analysis) Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (J-I-L-K), face 2 (I-J-N-M), face 3 (J-K-O-N), face 4 (K -L-P-O), face 5 (L -I-M-P), face 6 (M-N-O-P) Convections -face 1 (J-I-L-K), face 2 (I-J-N-M), face 3 (J-K-O-N), face 4 (K -L-P-O), face 5 (L -I-M-P), face 6 (M-N-O-P) Heat Fluxes -face 1 (J-I-L-K), face 2 (I-J-N-M), face 3 (J-K-O-N), face 4 (K -L-P-O), face 5 (L -I-M-P), face 6 (M-N-O-P) Maxwell Force Flags -face 1 (J-I-L-K), face 2 (I-J-N-M), face 3 (J-K-O-N), face 4 (K -L-P-O), face 5 (L -I-M-P), face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Temperatures -T (I), T (J), T (K), T (L), T (M), T (N), T (O), T (P) Heat Generations -HG (I), HG (J), HG (K), HG (L), HG (M), HG (N), HG (O), HG (P) Magnetic Virtual Displacements -VD (I), VD (J), VD (K), VD (L), VD (M), VD (N), VD (O), VD (P) Special Features Requires an iterative solution for field coupling (displacement, temperature, electric, magnetic, but not piezoelectric), Large deflection, Stress stiffening, Birth and death, Adaptive descent KEYOPT(1) Used for degree of freedom selection 0 -UX, UY, UZ, TEMP, VOLT, MAG 1 --

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Element Library TEMP, VOLT, MAG 2 -UX, UY, UZ 3 -UX, UY, UZ, VOLT 8 -TEMP 9 -VOLT 10 -MAG KEYOPT(3) 0 -Include extra shapes 1 -Do not include extra shapes KEYOPT(5) 0 -Basic element printout 2 -Nodal stress or magnetic field printout

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Output Data

The solution output associated with the element is in two forms

?

nodal degree of freedom results included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in SOLID5 Element Output Definitions.

?

Several items are illustrated in Element Output. The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. The reaction forces, heat flow, current, and magnetic flux at the nodes can be printed with the OUTPR command. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. SOLID5 Element Output

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The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE, ESOL]. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. In either the O or R columns, Y indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and a - indicates that the item is not available. SOLID5 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC, YC, ZC PRES TEMP HGEN S: X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, XZ S: 1, 2, 3 S: INT S: EQV EPEL: X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, XZ Definition O Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 3

Element Number Element nodes - I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P Element material number Element volume Location where results are reported P1 at nodes J, I, L, K; P2 at I, J, N, M; P3 at J, K, O, N; P4 at K, L, P, Y Y O;P5 at L, I, M, P; P6 at M, N, O, P Input Temperatures: T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L), T(M), T(N), T(O), T(P) Y Y Input Heat Generations: HG(I), HG(J), HG(K), HG(L), HG(M), HG Y Y (N), HG(O), HG(P) Component stresses Principal stresses Stress intensity Equivalent stress Elastic strains 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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Element Library EPEL: 1, 2, 3 EPEL: EQV EPTH: X, Y, Z, XY, YZ, XZ EPTH: EQV LOC MUX, MUY, MUZ H: X, Y, Z H:SUM B: X, Y, Z B:SUM FJB FMX FVW FMAG: X, Y, Z EF: X, Y, Z EF:SUM JS: X, Y, Z JSSUM JHEAT: D: X, Y, Z D:SUM UE, UD, UM TG: X, Y, Z TG:SUM TF: X, Y, Z TF:SUM FACE AREA NODES HFILM TBULK TAVG HEAT RATE HEAT RATE/AREA HFLUX HFAVG TBAVG HFLXAVG Principal elastic strains Equivalent elastic strains [4] Thermal strains

Page 43 of 993 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Equivalent thermal strains [4] Output location (X, Y, Z) Magnetic permeability Magnetic field intensity components Vector magnitude of H Magnetic flux density components Vector magnitude of B Lorentz magnetic force components (X, Y, Z) Maxwell magnetic force components (X, Y, Z) Virtual work force components (X, Y, Z) Combined (FJB or FMX) force components Electric field components (X, Y, Z) Vector magnitude of EF Source current density components Vector magnitude of JS Joule heat generation per unit volume Electric flux density components Vector magnitude of D Elastic (UE), dielectric (UD), and electro-mechanical coupled (UM) energies Thermal gradient components Vector magnitude of TG Thermal flux components Vector magnitude of TF (heat flow rate/unit cross-sect. area) Face label Face area Face nodes Film coefficient at each node of face Bulk temperature at each node of face Average face temperature Heat flow rate across face by convection Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Heat flux at each node of face Average film coefficient of the face Average face bulk temperature Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux

1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

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2. Nodal stress or magnetic field solution (only if KEYOPT(5) = 2). The solution results are repeated at each node and only if a surface load is input. 3. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. 4. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP,PRXY). SOLID5 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. The following notation is used in SOLID5 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the SOLID5 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I,J,...,P sequence number for data at nodes I,J,...,P FCn sequence number for solution items for element Face n SOLID5 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 MUX MUY MUZ FVWX FVWY FVWZ FVWSUM Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I 2 5 18 J 1 6 9 K 4 10 13 L 3 14 17 M 8 19 21 N 7 12 22 O 11 16 23 P 15 20 24 -

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Element Library UE UD UM NMISC 16 - - NMISC 17 - - NMISC 18 - - FC1 19 20 21 22 23 24 FC2 25 26 27 28 29 30 FC5 43 44 45 46 47 48 FC6 49 50 51 52 53 54

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AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG

NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC

FC3 31 32 33 34 35 36

FC4 37 38 39 40 41 42

**Assumptions and Restrictions
**

The element must not have a zero volume or a zero length side. This occurs most frequently when the element is not numbered properly. Elements may be numbered either as shown in SOLID5 or may have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged. A prism shaped element may be formed by defining duplicate node numbers as described in Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads. The difference scalar magnetic potential option is restricted to singly-connected permeable regions, so that as µ? in these regions, the resulting field H? 0. The reduced scalar and general scalar potential options do not have this restriction. At a free surface of the element (i.e., not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint), the normal component of magnetic flux density (B) is assumed to be zero. Temperatures and heat generation rates, if internally calculated, include any user defined heat generation rates. The thermal, electrical, magnetic, and structural terms are coupled through an iterative procedure. Large deflection capabilities available for KEYOPT(1)=2 and 3 are not available for KEYOPT(1)=0. Stress stiffening is available for KEYOPT(1)=0, 2, and 3. This element may not be compatible with other elements with the VOLT degree of freedom. To be compatible, the elements must have the same reaction force (see Element Compatibility in the ANSYS Electromagnetic Field Analysis Guide).

Product Restrictions

When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. ANSYS/Mechanical Unless the Emag option is enabled, the following restrictions apply:

?

This element does not have magnetic capability. The MAG degree of freedom is not active. KEYOPT(1) cannot be set to 10. If KEYOPT(1) = 0 (default) or 1, the MAG degree of freedom is inactive.

?

?

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The magnetic material properties (MUZERO, MUR_, MG__, and the BH data table) are not allowed. The Maxwell force flags and magnetic virtual displacements body loads are not applicable.

?

ANSYS/Emag

?

This element has only magnetic and electric field capability, and does not have structural, thermal, or piezoelectric capability. The only active degrees of freedom are MAG and VOLT. KEYOPT(1) settings of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 8 are invalid. The only allowable material properties are the magnetic and electric properties (MUZERO through PERZ, plus the BH data table). The only applicable surface loads are Maxwell force flags. The only applicable body loads are temperatures (for material property evaluation only) and magnetic virtual displacements. The element does not have stress stiffening or birth and death features. KEYOPT(3) is not applicable.

?

?

?

?

?

?

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COMBIN7

Name

COMBIN7 — Revolute Joint product: MP ME ST PP ED

Element Description

COMBIN7 is a three-dimensional pin (or revolute) joint which may be used to connect two or more parts of a model at a common point. Capabilities of this element include joint flexibility (or stiffness), friction, damping, and certain control features. An important feature of this element is a large deflection capability in which a local coordinate system is fixed to and moves with the joint. This element is intended for use in kinetostatic and kinetodynamic analyses. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for more details about this element. A unidirectional control element having less capability is described in COMBIN37. Similar elements (without remote control capability) are COMBIN14, MASS21, COMBIN39, and COMBIN40. COMBIN7 Revolute Joint Element file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

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Input Data

The geometry, node locations, and coordinate systems for this element are shown in COMBIN7. This element is defined in three-dimensional space by five nodes, these being active nodes (I, J), a node to define the initial revolute axis (K), and control nodes (L, M). The active nodes should be coincident and represent the actual pin joint which connects links A and B. A link can be an individual element or an assemblage of elements. If node K is not defined, then the initial revolute axis is taken to be the Z-direction of the global Cartesian system. The local element coordinate system, when used with large deflection [NLGEOM], follows the average translation and rotation of nodes I and J. The element coordinate system x-y-z translates and rotates with the joint, and the orientation of node K is inconsequential after the first iteration. The control nodes' primary aim is to introduce feedback behavior to the element (discussed below). The active nodes (I, J) are defined to have six degrees of freedom; however, five of these (UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY) in the local joint system are intended to be constrained with a certain level of flexibility. This level of flexibility is defined by three input stiffnesses: K1 for translational stiffness in the x-y plane, K2 for stiffness in the z direction, and K3 for rotational stiffness about the x and y axes. Joint mass (MASS) and mass moment of inertia (IMASS) input values are evenly distributed between nodes I and J. The dynamics of the revolute rotation or primary degree of freedom (COMBIN7 Real Constants and Dynamic Behavior of Rotation about the Z (Revolute) Axis) include friction torque (TF), rotational viscous friction (CT), torsional stiffness (K4), preload torque (TLOAD), interference rotation (ROT), and two differential rotation limits (STOPL and STOPU). A null value for TF corresponds to zero friction (or free rotation), while a negative value will remove friction capability from the element. Once removed (TF < 0), the joint is locked with stiffness K4. The joint will also become locked with stiffness K4 when a stop is engaged. The upper stop (STOPU) represents the allowed amount of forward rotation (node J rotates away from node I), and the lower stop (STOPL) represents the allowed amount of reverse rotation (node J rotates towards node I). Null values for both stops will remove locking action from the element; i.e., rotation damped only by viscous (CT) and friction (TF) damping torques. COMBIN7 Real Constants and Dynamic Behavior of Rotation about the Z (Revolute) Axis

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The rotational interference (ROT) is intended to correspond to a locally imposed joint rotation if the revolute axis is locked (TF < 0) and stiffness is specified (K4 > 0). A starting status real constant (START) will set the initial behavior of the revolute rotation: START = 0 implies no rotation (locked), START = 1 or -1 implies forward or reverse rotation, respectively. Initial rotation status (START = 1,-1) will be overruled if either START = 1, STOPU = 0, and STOPL 0, or START = 1, STOPL = 0, and STOPU 0. Consistent units should be used. Units are force/length for K1 and K2 and length*force/radian for K3 and K4. CT uses length*force*time/radian, while TF and TLOAD uses length*force. Force*time 2 /length is used with MASS and length*force*time2 /radian is for IMASS. ROT, STOPL, and STOPU use radians. Feedback control behavior is associated with the control nodes (L,M). The KEYOPT values are used to define the control value (CVAL). KEYOPT(3) selects the degree of freedom for the control nodes, KEYOPT(4) assigns the coordinate system for the selected degree of freedom, and KEYOPT(7) specifies which real constant is to be modified for the subsequent nonlinear analysis. The KEYOPT (1) option assigns to the control value either the value of the degree of freedom, the first or second derivative of the value, the integral of the value, or time. KEYOPT(2) defines the behavior of the revolute degree of freedom after a stop has been engaged. If KEYOPT(2 ) = 0, the the pin may disengage (or bounce off) the stop. If KEYOPT(2) = 1, the pin axis is locked. The element can exhibit nonlinear behavior according to the function RVMOD = RVAL + C1|CVAL| C2 + C3|CVAL| C4 where RVMOD is the modified value of the input real constant value RVAL (identified by KEYOPT (7)), C1 through C4 are other real constants and give the form of the real constant modification, and CVAL is the control value (see KEYOPT(1)). RVMOD may also be defined by user subroutine USERRC and is accessed by KEYOPT(9) = 1. Examples of CVAL are: CVAL = UXL - UXM CVAL = d(UZL - UZM)/dt CVAL = d 2(ROTZL - ROTZM)/dt 2

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. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. M are optional) Degrees of Freedom UX. ROT. L. COMBIN7 Input Summary Element Name COMBIN7 Nodes I. 1 -Control on value (UL-UM) (or UL if M not defined) 2 -Control on first derivative of value with respect to time 3 -Control on second derivative of value with respect to time 4 -Control on integral of value with respect to time 5 -Control on time value (KEYOPT(3) ignored) KEYOPT(2) Fixed . K3. TLOAD. C4 Material Properties None Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features Large deflection. K. UZ. TF. K4. ROTY. the control value is based only upon node L. C1. M (K. C3.Element Library Page 49 of 993 CVAL = t Control values calculated in the current substep are not used until the next substep.stop control behavior 0 -Reverse pin-axis rotation is not prevented when a rotational stop is engaged.2004 . A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. L. J. Control nodes need not be connected to any other element. STOPU. 20. IMASS.. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05. ROTZ Real Constants K1. ROTX. Adaptive descent KEYOPT(1) Control Value 0. If node M is not defined. CT. Nonlinear (if either stops or friction are specified). STOPL. MASS. UY. C2. K2. START.

.. 1 -UX (Displacement along X axes) 2 -UY (Displacement along Y axes) 3 -UZ (Displacement along Z axes) 4 -ROTX (rotation about X axes) 5 -ROTY (rotation about Y axes) 6 -ROTZ (rotation about Z axes KEYOPT(4) Control node coordinates 0 -Control node degree of freedom is in nodal coordinates 1 -Control node degree of freedom is in element (moving) coordinates KEYOPT(7) Used if C1 or C3 is not equal to zero (see Input Data) 0. 1 -Use K1 real constant for nonlinear function. 3 ..2004 . ? It is important to note that element forces and displacements are in the element (moving) coordinate system. The amount of rotational sliding (ROTATE) differs from the total differential rotation (DRZ) about the local revolute axis due to the flexible nature of the joint..Element Library 1 -Pin-axis is locked when a rotational stop is engaged (only after the first substep) Page 50 of 993 KEYOPT(3) Degree of freedom for control nodes (L and M) 0. . STAT and OLDST refer to file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...05.. 13 .use ROT KEYOPT(9) 0 -Use RVMOD expression for real constant modifications 1 -Real constants modified by user subroutine USERRC (see the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features for information about user written subroutines) Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in COMBIN7 Element Output Definitions. 2 -Use K2. 20.use K3.

ZC ROTATE CVAL STAT OLDST DUX.Element Library Page 51 of 993 present and previous statuses. DUX = UXJ-UXI. 20.Z) MOMENT(X.Y. In either the O or R columns. of the revolute axis. Y indicates that the item is always available.. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output.Reverse stop engaged 2.Forward stop engaged -2 .No rotation (but no stop engaged) 1 . YC.indicates that the item is not available. COMBIN7 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.Z} RVOLD 1. DUY. Element status values: 0 .OUT. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. For example. DRY.I. COMBIN7 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES XC. J Location where results are reported Amount of pin rotational sliding Value (see KEYOPT(1)) of the control nodes Element status Stat values of the previous time step Differential pin displacements and rotations in element coordinates. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) of the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information.Reverse rotation 2 .Forward rotation -1 . DRX. DUZ.. ESOL]. Modified real constant (see Input Data) Spring forces (in element coordinates) Spring moments (in element coordinates) Modified real constant of previous time step O Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 R Y Y 2 Y Y 1 1 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Y. and a . See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. DRZ RVMOD FORCE(X. The following notation is used in COMBIN7 Item and Sequence Numbers: Definition Element Number Active nodes .2004 .05. respectively. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.

2004 .J) must be coincident. and the use of joint control features. The active joint nodes (I. If used in other analysis types. the selection of a large deflection analysis. a positive torsional stiffness (K4) should be file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Node K. J.. 20. An iterative solution is required when using the nonlinear option. STOPU) must be greater than or equal to zero. must not be coincident with the active nodes. These items include the presence of stops or friction. if defined. whether nonlinearities are present or not. For stops to be engaged. and K. The control nodes (L. depends on several input items.Element Library Name output quantity as defined in the COMBIN7 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Page 52 of 993 COMBIN7 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name FORCEX FORCEY FORCEZ MOMENTX MOMENTY MOMENTZ STAT OLDST DUX DUY DUZ DRX DRY DRZ ROTATE RVMOD CVAL Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Assumptions and Restrictions The joint element is valid only in a structural analysis. The nonlinear capabilities of the element operate only in the static and nonlinear transient dynamic analyses. The precise nature of the element behavior.M) may be any active node in the model..05. the element maintains its initial status throughout the analysis. including nodes I. Stop input values (STOPL.

A negative friction value removes friction from the element and locks the revolute axis with torsional stiffness K4. Theory Reference for more details about this element. and large deflection capabilities are included.. Stop values represent forward and reverse clearances about the revolute axis. y. Only the lumped mass matrix is available. See the ANSYS. creep. Revolute friction (TF). Inc. Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. Prev SOLID5 Prev LINK8 Element Library Next LINK8 Next LINK8 Name LINK8 — 3-D Spar (or Truss) product: MP ME ST PR PP ED Element Description LINK8 is a spar which may be used in a variety of engineering applications. links. The element may not be deactivated with the EKILL command. As in a pin-jointed structure.. Also. etc. no bending of the element is considered. the real constants for this element are not allowed to be changed from their initial values. stress stiffening. Plasticity. The three-dimensional spar element is a uniaxial tension-compression element with three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. This element can be used to model trusses. A null friction value implies frictionless rotation (unless CT is specified or a stop is engaged). sagging cables.05. Negative values are ignored. when specified. springs. swelling.2004 . LINK8 3-D Spar file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. See LINK10 for a tensiononly/compression-only element. 20. and z directions.Element Library Page 53 of 993 specified. must be positive.

A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. Similar defaults occurs for fluence except that zero is used instead of TUNIF.Element Library Page 54 of 993 Input Data The geometry. DENS. ALPX. The element x-axis is oriented along the length of the element from node I toward node J. UY. and the material properties.. The initial strain in the element (ISTRN) is given by /L.2004 . the cross-sectional area. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. LINK8 Input Summary Element Name LINK8 Nodes I. DAMP Surface Loads None Body Loads Temperatures -T (I). Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . node locations.. T (J) Fluences -FL (I).05. UZ Real Constants AREA. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in LINK8. an initial strain. J Degrees of Freedom UX. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. The element is defined by two nodes. (as defined by the I and J node locations) and the zero strain length. 20. The node J temperature T(J) defaults to T(I). where is the difference between the element length. Temperatures and fluences may be input as element body loads at the nodes. FL (J) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ISTRN Material Properties EX. L.

. LINK8 3-D Spar Output The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE.Element Library Special Features Plasticity. Birth and death Page 55 of 993 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in LINK8 Element Output Definitions. In either the O or R columns. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.2004 . J Material number Definition O Y Y Y R Y Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and a . A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. LINK8 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT Element Number Nodes . Creep. Swelling. ESOL].indicates that the item is not available. Y indicates that the item is always available. ? Several items are illustrated in 3-D Spar Output. Large deflection. Stress stiffening. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.. 20.05.OUT.I. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.

only if element has a nonlinear material.- file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. YC.EPELAXL LEPEL 1 . LINK8 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. Nonlinear solution.J sequence number for data at nodes I and J LINK8 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name Item E I J SAXL LS 1 .. 2. T(J) Fluences FL(I). ZC TEMP FLUEN MFORX SAXL EPELAXL EPTHAXL EPINAXL SEPL SRAT EPEQ HPRES EPPLAXL EPCRAXL EPSWAXL Volume Location where results are reported Temperatures T(I). The following notation is used in LINK8 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the LINK8 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. 20. FL(J) Member force in the element coordinate system Axial stress Axial elastic strain Axial thermal strain Axial initial strain Equivalent stress from stress-strain curve Ratio of trial stress to stress on yield surface Equivalent plastic strain Hydrostatic pressure Axial plastic strain Axial creep strain Axial swelling strain Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Y 2 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Page 56 of 993 1.Element Library VOLU: XC.2004 .05.

. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below.Element Library EPTHAXL EPSWAXL EPINAXL EPPLAXL EPCRAXL SEPL SRAT HPRES EPEQ MFORX FLUEN TEMP LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPPL LEPCR NLIN NLIN NLIN NLIN SMISC NMISC LBFE 1 2 3 1 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 1 2 2 Page 57 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions The spar element assumes a straight bar. if any. The only special features allowed are stress stiffening and large deflections. and of uniform properties from end to end. 20.05. for the first cumulative iteration.2004 . The initial strain is also used in calculating the stress stiffness matrix. This displacement function implies a uniform stress in the spar. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. axially loaded at its ends. The length of the spar must be greater than zero so nodes I and J must not be coincident. The area must be greater than zero. ANSYS/Professional ? The DAMP material property is not allowed. The temperature is assumed to vary linearly along the length of the spar. Fluence body loads are not applicable.. ? ? Prev COMBIN7 Prev INFIN9 Element Library Next INFIN9 Next INFIN9 Name file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

and a typical application is shown in 2-D Infinite boundary usages. KEYOPT(2) can be used to prevent an unsymmetric matrix from being made symmetric. With the thermal degree of freedom only linear steady-state analyses may be done. in general.2004 .Element Library INFIN9 — 2-D Infinite Boundary product: MP ME EM PP ED Page 58 of 993 Element Description INFIN9 is used to model an open boundary of a two-dimensional planar unbounded field problem. The enclosed element type can be the PLANE13 or PLANE53 magnetic elements.. INFIN9 2-D Boundary Element Input Data The geometry. INFIN9 Input Summary Element Name INFIN9 Nodes file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05. unsymmetric. The element is defined by two nodes and the material properties. With the magnetic degree of freedom (AZ) the analysis may be linear or nonlinear. node locations. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. The element has two nodes with a magnetic vector potential or temperature degree of freedom at each node. The coefficient matrix of this boundary element is. static or dynamic. Inc. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. Theory Reference for more details about this element. 20. The element x-axis is oriented along the length of the element from node I toward node J. Nonzero material properties must be defined. or the PLANE55 PLANE77 and PLANE35 thermal elements. See the ANSYS. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in INFIN9 . The matrix is made symmetric by averaging the off-diagonal terms to take advantage of a symmetric solution with a slight decrease in accuracy..

depending on the problem) Output Data The boundary element has no output of its own since it is used only to provide a semi-infinite boundary condition to a model consisting of other elements.05.2004 . 20.Element Library Page 59 of 993 I.. J Degrees of Freedom AZ if KEYOPT (1) = 0 TEMP if KEYOPT (1) = 1 Real Constants None Material Properties MUZERO if KEYOPT (1) = 0 (has default value for MKS units or can be set with the EMUNIT command) KXX if KEYOPT (1) = 1 Surface Loads None Element Printout -None KEYOPT(1) 0 -Magnetic option 1 -Thermal option KEYOPT(2) 0 -Make the coefficient matrix symmetric 1 -Coefficient matrix is used as generated (symmetric or unsymmetric. INFIN9 2-D Infinite boundary element usages file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..

. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. the element cannot be deactivated with the EKILL command. The boundary element must lie "against" an enclosed element (i. The line of boundary elements need not totally surround the model.. share the same nodes). by a semiinfinite radial line from the global coordinate system origin through node I.e.05. PLANE77.2004 . ANSYS/Mechanical Unless the Emag option is enabled. Also. the length of which must be nonzero. The origin of the global coordinate system must be inside the model and as centrally located as possible. When used in a model with the higher-order elements PLANE53.0). file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. D. The boundary element should be as normal as possible to the radial lines. An axisymmetric option is not available. the midside nodes of these elements must be removed at the interface with INFIN9 [EMID]. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. and by a semi-infinite radial line from the global coordinate system origin through node J. The element assumes that the degree of freedom (DOF) value at infinity is always zero (0. or other load commands. isotropic. The exterior semi-infinite domain is assumed to be homogeneous.Element Library Page 60 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions The boundary element assumes a straight line segment. The line of boundary elements should be located away from the region of interest of the enclosed elements for better accuracy. and linear without containing any sources or sinks. the following restrictions apply: ? This element does not have magnetic field capability. or PLANE35. That is. If KEYOPT(2) = 1. The semi-infinite sector is assumed to be bound on three sides by the boundary element. the matrices are presumed to be unsymmetric. Acute or wide intersection angles should be avoided by "filling-in" the model with the other elements so that the line of boundary elements around the model is smooth and concave when viewed from the global coordinate system origin. the DOF value at infinity is not affected by TUNIF. 20.

The only active degree of freedom is AZ.2004 . This feature is useful for static guy-wire applications where the entire guy wire is modeled with one element. the “cloth” option. KEYOPT(1) can only be set to 0 (default).05. It may also be used in dynamic analyses (with inertia or damping effects) where slack element capability is desired but the motion of the slack elements is not of primary interest. LINK10 should also not be used for static convergence applications where the final solution is known to be a taut structure but a slack condition is possible while iterating to a final converged solution. For this case either a different element should be used or the "slow dynamic" technique should be used if LINK10 is desired. This element is a line version of SHELL41 with KEYOPT(1) = 2. No bending stiffness is included in either the tension-only (cable) option or the compression-only (gap) option but may be added by superimposing a beam element with very small area on each file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. KEYOPT(1) defaults to 1 (TEMP) instead of 0 and cannot be changed. a similar element which cannot go slack. With the tension-only option. ? ? ANSYS/Emag ? This element has only magnetic field capability.. If the purpose of the analysis is to study the motion of the elements (with no slack elements). 20. y. should be used instead. LINK10 has three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. and does not have thermal capability. the stiffness is removed if the element goes into compression (simulating a slack cable or slack chain condition). ? ? ? Prev LINK8 Prev LINK10 Element Library Next LINK10 Next LINK10 Name LINK10 — Tension-only or Compression-only Spar product: MP ME ST PR PP ED Element Description LINK10 is a three-dimensional spar element having the unique feature of a bilinear stiffness matrix resulting in a uniaxial tension-only (or compression-only) element. The material property MUZERO is not allowed. such as LINK8 or PIPE59.Element Library ? Page 61 of 993 The AZ degree of freedom is not active. The only allowable material property is MUZERO. and z directions..

The initial strain in the element (ISTRN) is given by /L. a positive strain indicates a gap condition (as shown in Tension-Compression spar). For the cable option. the cross-sectional area. Theory Reference for more details about this element. (as defined by the I and J node locations) and the zero strain length. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in TensionCompression spar. an initial strain or gap. A general description of element input file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Lo . a negative strain indicates a slack condition. Inc. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF.05. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. where is the difference between the element length. KEYOPT(2) is used to apply a small stiffness (AE x 10 -6 /L) across an open gap or to a slack cable to prevent unconstrained portions of the structure from "floating free" if the gap opens or the cable goes slack. and the isotropic material properties. node locations. LINK10 Tension-only or Compression-only Spar Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . The node J temperature T(J) defaults to T(I). Stress stiffening and large deflection capabilities are available.. The gap must be input as a "per unit length" value. See the ANSYS. Input Data The geometry.2004 . A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. 20. The element x-axis is oriented along the length of the element from node I toward node J. L.Element Library Page 62 of 993 LINK10 element. For the gap option. The element is defined by two nodes..

T(J) Special Features Nonlinear.. Stress stiffening.. compression or gap) at the end of this substep is indicated by the value of STAT. If ISTRN is less than zero and KEYOPT(3) = 0. the gap is initially open. ISTRN (or gap per unit length if negative). The element condition (tension or slack. Page 63 of 993 LINK10 Input Summary Element Name LINK10 Nodes I. If ISTRN is greater than zero and KEYOPT(3) = 1.Element Library is given in Element Input. Birth and death KEYOPT(2) 0 -No stiffness associated with slack cable 1 -Small stiffness assigned to slack cable for longitudinal motion 2 -Small stiffness assigned to slack cable for both longitudinal and perpendicular motions (applicable only with stress stiffening) KEYOPT(3) 0 -Tension-only (cable) option 1 -Compression-only (gap) option Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in LINK10 Element Output Definitions. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. the cable is initially slack. DENS. Large deflection. UY. Only positive values are obtained with the cable option and negative values with the gap option. Material Properties EX. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05. UZ Real Constants AREA. 20. ? The axial force. stress. and strain in the element are printed. DAMP Surface Loads None Body Loads Temperatures -T(I).2004 . J Degrees of Freedom UX. ALPX.

cable in tension or gap in compression 2 . See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information. 20. and a . Available only at centroid as a *GET item. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. LINK10 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.cable slack or gap open 2. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.Element Library ways to view results. ZC Location where results are reported Y STAT Element status 1 TEMP Temperatures T(I). Element status values: 1 . J Y MAT Material number Y VOLU: Volume XC.05. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: Page 64 of 993 A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. The following notation is used in LINK10 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the LINK10 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command Name Definition R Y Y Y Y 2 1 Y Y Y Y Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . In either the O or R columns. LINK10 Element Output Definitions O EL Element number Y NODES Nodes .I.. Y indicates that the item is always available.indicates that the item is not available. ESOL].OUT. T(J) Y MFORX Member force in the element coordinate system Y SAXL Axial stress Y EPELAXL Axial elastic strain Y EPTHAXL Axial thermal strain Y EPINAXL Axial initial strain Y 1. YC.. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.

The solution procedure is as follows: The element condition at the beginning of the first substep is determined from the initial strain or gap input. the effect of the changed status is included in the next substep. the element stiffness is included in the next substep. Stress stiffening should always be used for sagging cable problems to provide numerical stability. The temperature is assumed to vary linearly along the length of the element.0. If ISTRN is 0. the element stiffness is taken as zero for this substep. Stress stiffening and large deflection effects may be used together for some cable problems (see the ANSYS. If the element status changes within a substep. If at the end of the substep STAT = 2. Product Restrictions file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. With the gap (compressiononly) option. Nonconverged substeps are not in equilibrium. Inc. The element is nonlinear and requires an iterative solution. 20. if any. If this value is less than zero for the cable option or greater than zero for the gap option. The initial strain is also used in calculating the stress stiffness matrix..05. No significant stiffness is associated with the cable option having a negative relative displacement or with the gap option having a positive relative displacement. The area must be greater than zero.. Theory Reference).J sequence number for data at nodes I and J LINK10 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name SAXL EPELAXL EPTHAXL EPINAXL MFORX STAT OLDST TEMP Item LS LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH SMISC NMISC NMISC LBFE E 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 I 1 J 2 Page 65 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions The element length must be greater than zero. a positive axial displacement (in the element coordinate system) of node J relative to node I tends to open the gap. an element stiffness of zero is used for the next substep. If STAT = 1. the element stiffness is included in the first substep.Element Library E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I. therefore nodes I and J must not be coincident.2004 . for the first cumulative iteration.

Element Library Page 66 of 993 When used in the product(s) listed below. Inc.. The stroke (length) is defined through the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. No bending or twist loads are considered.05.2004 . See the ANSYS. 20. The birth and death special feature is not allowed. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . Theory Reference for more details about this element. and z directions. ANSYS/Professional ? The DAMP material property is not allowed. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. and mass M (force*time 2/length). y. The element initial length L o and orientation are determined from the node locations. LINK11 Linear Actuator Input Data The geometry and node locations for the element are shown in LINK11. The element is defined by two nodes. viscous damping C (force*time/length). The element is a uniaxial tension-compression element with three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x.. a stiffness K (force/length). ? Prev INFIN9 Prev LINK11 Element Library Next LINK11 Next LINK11 Name LINK11 — Linear Actuator product: MP ME ST PP ED Element Description LINK11 may be used to model hydraulic cylinders and other applications undergoing large rotations.

UZ Real Constants K.Element Library Page 67 of 993 surface load input using the PRES label.Stroke..05. and a . See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. M Material Properties None Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 . face 2 . Y indicates that the item is always available. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. ESOL]. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. Large deflection. LINK11 Element Output Definitions Name Definition OR file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Birth and death Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal displacement solution additional element output as shown in LINK11 Element Output Definitions. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.2004 .Axial Force Body Loads None Special Features Stress stiffening..indicates that the item is not available. A force may be defined in the same manner as an alternate to the stroke. UY. In either the O or R columns. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. A summary of the element input is given below. LINK11 Input Summary Element Name LINK11 Nodes I.OUT. 20. ? A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. The stroke is relative to the zero force position of the element. J Degrees of Freedom UX. C.

20.I. axially loaded at the ends.2004 . The element assumes a straight line. A twist (torsion) about the element x-axis (defined from node I to node J) has no effect.05. No bending of the element is considered. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. The mass is equally divided between the nodes. as in a pin-jointed structure. The following notation is used in LINK11 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in LINK11 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data LINK11 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name FORCE ILEN CLEN STROKE MSTROKE DFORCE Item SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 1 2 3 4 5 Assumptions and Restrictions The element must not have a zero length. Only the lumped mass matrix is available.. J Initial element length Current element length (this time step) Axial force (spring force) Damping force Applied stroke (element load) Measured stroke Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Page 68 of 993 LINK11 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.Element Library EL NODES ILEN CLEN FORCE DFORCE STROKE MSTROKE Element Number Nodes .

Theory Reference for more details about this element. COMBIN40. node locations. CONTAC49. See the ANSYS. CONTAC48.05. such as CONTAC26.. The element may be initially preloaded in the normal direction or it may be given a gap specification. A specified stiffness acts in the normal and tangential directions when the gap is closed and not sliding. Inc. CONTAC12 2-D Point-to-Point Contact Element Input Data The geometry. are also available. The element is capable of supporting only compression in the direction normal to the surfaces and shear (Coulomb friction) in the tangential direction.2004 . file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20. CONTAC52. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in CONTAC12.. The element has two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. Other contact elements.Element Library Prev LINK10 Prev CONTAC12 Element Library Page 69 of 993 Next CONTAC12 Next CONTAC12 Name CONTAC12 — 2-D Point-to-Point Contact product: MP ME ST PR PP ED Element Description CONTAC12 represents two surfaces which may maintain or break physical contact and may slide relative to each other.

. As the normal force becomes positive. two stiffnesses (KN and KS). The initial element status (START) is used to define the "previous" condition of the interface to be used at the start of the first substep. See Contact of the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for guidelines on choosing a value for KN.0 and KEYOPT(1) = 0). The orientation of the interface may be defined (KEYOPT(2)) by THETA or by the node locations. In some cases (such as initial interference analyses. which is useful for preventing rigid body motion that could occur in a static analysis. an initial displacement interference or gap (INTF). no stiffness is associated with this element for this substep. A zero value should be used for frictionless surfaces. KEYOPT(3) can be used to specify a "weak spring" across an open interface. Stiffnesses should be on a full 360 basis for an axisymmetric analysis. KN is used in the gap resistance and KS is used in the sliding resistance. sliding occurs. KS defaults to KN. An element coordinate system (s-n) is defined on the interface. KN.. converged solution. This option is useful for displacement controlled problems or for certain dynamic problems where sliding dominates. In the tangential direction. The weak spring stiffness is computed by multiplying the normal stiffness KN by a reduction factor. no tangential resistance is assumed for the first substep. The force deflection relationships for the interface element can be separated into the normal and tangential (sliding) directions as shown in Force-deflection relationship. If the interface is open. If KEYOPT(1) = 1. The default reduction factor of 1E-6 can be overridden with real constant REDFACT. 20. for FN < 0 and the absolute value of the tangential force (FS) less than ( µ|FN|). In the normal direction. KN is used in the gap resistance and the limit friction force µFN is used for the sliding resistance. If the interface is closed and sticking. should be based upon the stiffness of the surfaces in contact. The normal stiffness. This input is used to override the condition implied by the interference specification and is useful in anticipating the final interface configuration and in reducing the number of iterations required for convergence. defines the displacement interference (if positive) or the gap size (if negative). or over penetration). an angle to define the interface. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. The only material property used is the interface coefficient of friction µ. The value may be input as a real constant (INTF) or automatically calculated from the input node locations if KEYOPT(4) = 1. For FN < 0 and FS = µ|FN|. when the normal force (FN) is negative. With this option. The element condition at the beginning of the first substep is determined from the START parameter. rigid Coulomb friction is selected. and an initial element status (START).05. it may be useful to change the KN value between load steps or in a restart in order to obtain an accurate. Stiffness is associated with a zero or positive interference. and the elastic sticking capability is removed. the interface remains in contact and responds as a linear spring.Element Library Page 70 of 993 The element is defined by two nodes. The initial displacement interference. The angle (THETA) is input (or calculated) in degrees and is measured from the global X axis to the element s-axis. the interface sticks and responds as a linear spring in the tangential direction. represents the stiffness in the tangential direction when elastic Coulomb friction is selected ( µ > 0. Stiffnesses may also be computed from the maximum expected force divided by the maximum allowable surface displacement. contact is broken and no force is transmitted. The node J temperature defaults to file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Temperatures may be input at the element nodes (for material property evaluation only).. The coefficient of friction µ is input as material property MU and is evaluated at the average of the two node temperatures. KS. nonconvergence. If the interface is closed but sliding. KS is not used. The sticking stiffness.2004 .

The user specified THETA (if any) is ignored. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. in fact.0.Element Library Page 71 of 993 T(I). J Degrees of Freedom UX.. KN. gap initially closed and node J sliding to the left of node I If START = 3.0 and then internally calculated from the relative displacements of the nodes at the end of the substep for use in the next substep.. KS. UY Real Constants THETA. 20. such as with concentric cylinders. REDFACT A negative INTF (interference) assumes an initially open gap If START = 0. T (J) Special Features Nonlinear. gap is initially open Material Properties MU Surface Loads None Body Loads Temperatures -T (I). INTF. gap initially closed and not sliding (if MU 0.2004 . KEYOPT(1) Used only with MU > 0. START. using NROPT. sometimes required) for problems where the normal and tangential (sliding) motions are strongly coupled.0) If START = 2. Adaptive descent.0.0 or blank.05.0. With this option the angular orientation THETA is initially set to 0.0. CONTAC12 Input Summary Element Name CONTAC12 Nodes I.0 0 -Elastic coulomb friction (KS used for sticking stiffness) 1 -Rigid coulomb friction (resisting force only) KEYOPT(2) 0 -- file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. initial condition of gap status is determined from real constant INTF If START = 1. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. The circular gap option (KEYOPT(2)) is useful where the final contact point (and thus the orientation angle) is not known. gap initially closed and node J sliding to the right of node I If START = -2. For analyses involving friction. such as in a wedge insertion problem.UNSYM is useful (and. A negative interference (gap) and a zero coefficient of friction is used with this option.0) or sliding node J is positive (if MU = 0.

STAT describes the status of the element at the end of this substep. the gap is closed and no sliding occurs. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. If SOLCONTROL. this keyoption is not activated.OFF. The value of THETA is either the input orientation angle (if KEYOPT(2) = 0). Note that this option should be activated first at the procedure level if SOLCONTROL is ON. FS. the element status is either STAT = ±2 or 3. If STAT = 1. The maximum value printed for the sliding force. ON is the most frequent usage with this element. 20. For a frictionless surface ( µ = 0. For an axisymmetric analysis.05. This value is used in determining the normal force. STAT = -2 indicates a negative slide.Element Library Orientation determined by Theta real constant 1 -- Page 72 of 993 Circular gap option (THETA orientation determined from direction of motion) (ignore THETA real constant) KEYOPT(3) 0 -No weak spring across an open gap 1 -Use a weak spring across an open gap KEYOPT(4) 0 -Interference (or gap) based on INTF real constant 1 -Interference (or gap) based on initial node locations (ignore INTF real constant) KEYOPT(7) Element level time incrementation control. the element forces are expressed on a full 360 basis.0). ? Several items are illustrated in Force-deflection relationship. If STAT = 3. FN. A value of STAT = +2 indicates the node J slides positive relative to node I as shown in Figure 4..ON.ON. SOLCONTROL.. 0 -Predictions are made to achieve the minimum time (or load) increment whenever a change in contact status occurs 1 -Predictions are made to maintain a reasonable time (or load) increment (recommended) Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in CONTAC12 Element Output Definitions. is µ|FN|. The value represented by UT is the total translational displacement. The value of USEP is determined from the normal displacement (un ) (in the element x-direction) between the interface nodes at the end of this substep.12-1. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. or the calculated angle (if KEYOPT(2) = 1).. the gap is open. That is: USEP = (u n) J .2004 . CONTAC12 Force-deflection relationship file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.(un ) I .

Contact. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.J Location where results are reported Temperatures T(I).indicates that the item is not available. no sliding file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Y indicates that the item is always available.OUT. In either the O or R columns.Element Library Page 73 of 993 The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE.I. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. 20. Element status values: 1 . and a . The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. CONTAC12 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES XC. T(J) Gap size or interference Normal force Element status Stat value of the previous time step Orientation angle Coefficient of friction Relative displacement in tangential direction (positive for node J moving to right of node I) Tangential force O Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 Y 2 R Y Y 3 Y Y Y 1 1 Y 2 2 2 2 2 1. ESOL]...2004 .05. YC TEMP USEP FN STAT OLDST THETA MU UT FS Definition Element Number Nodes .

See The General Postprocessor (POST1) of the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information.Sliding contact with node J moving to left of node I 3 . The element is nonlinear and requires an iterative solution.Element Library 2 .Sliding contact with node J moving to right of node I -2 . An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. Nodes I and J may be coincident since the orientation of the interface is defined only by the angle THETA. Page 74 of 993 Contac12 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.Gap open 2..0 and KEYOPT(2) = 0. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. If used in other analysis types. the element maintains its initial status throughout the analysis. 3.2004 . The orientation of the interface does not change (with KEYOPT(2) = 0) during a large file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The following notation is used in Contac12 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the CONTAC12 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data Contac12 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name FN FS STAT OLDST USEP UT MU THETA Item SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 Assumptions and Restrictions The two -dimensional interface element must be defined in an X-Y plane and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses. Convergence is also based on forces when friction or the circular gap option is present. Only if MU > 0. 20.05.. The element operates bilinearly only in a static or a nonlinear transient dynamic analysis.

Specifically. The rate of convergence decreases as the stiffness increases. KEYOPT(1) is not applicable. to maintain a consistent value throughout all load steps. The element is defined such that a positive normal displacement (in the element coordinate system) of node J relative to node I tends to open the gap. the element is nonconservative as well as nonlinear. MU is not allowed as a material property and KS is not allowed as a real constant. If. ANSYS/Professional ? This element is frictionless. if the nodes are offset from a line perpendicular to the interface. the gap closes as the nodes separate. for a given set of conditions. if you plan to change KN. If µ is nonzero. Unreasonably high stiffness values also should be avoided. Use CONTAC48 if this effect is desired. you cannot allow the value of KS to be defined by default. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. You must explicitly define KS whenever KN changes. 20. the gap element acts as a hook element. as shown in CONTAC12. ? ? Prev LINK11 Prev PLANE13 Element Library Next PLANE13 Next PLANE13 Name PLANE13 — 2-D Coupled-Field Solid product: MP ME EM PP ED Element Description file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. although it is permissible to change KN. the element may not be deactivated with the EKILL command. Also. along the actual load history path.. or if the interface is rotated by 180 .05. The element may have rotated nodal coordinates since a displacement transformation into the element coordinate system is included.. and in the proper sequence (if multiple loadings exist). The element stiffness KN cannot be exactly zero.Element Library Page 75 of 993 deflection analysis. node I and J are interchanged. Therefore.2004 . moment equilibrium may not be satisfied. Note that. because the program would then attempt to redefine KS as KN changed. Nonconservative elements require that the load be applied very gradually. No moment effects due to noncoincident nodes are included.e. it is not permissible to change any other real constants between load steps. Temperature body loads are not applicable. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. i.. That is.

and the coordinate system for this element are shown in PLANE13. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems. thermal.EMUNIT also determines the value of MUZERO.05. electrical. and Maxwell force flags may be input on the element faces indicated by the circled numbers in PLANE13 using the SF and SFE commands. PLANE13 has large deflection and stress stiffening capabilities. PLANE13 2-D Coupled-Field Solid Input Data The geometry. and structural field capability with limited coupling between the fields. The B-H curve will be used in each element coordinate direction where a zero value of relative permeability is specified. The element input data includes four nodes and magnetic.Element Library Page 76 of 993 PLANE13 has a 2-D magnetic. Pressures. Nonlinear orthotropic magnetic properties may be specified with a combination of a B-H curve and linear relative permeability. 20. piezoelectric. if any. See the ANSYS. piezoelectric. SOLID98.2004 . Other coupled-field elements are SOLID5.. MGXX and MGYY represent vector components of the coercive force for permanent magnet materials. The type of units (MKS or user defined) is specified through the EMUNIT command. heat fluxes. Theory Reference for more details about this element. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . When used in purely structural analyses. Positive pressures act into the element. and anisotropic elastic properties are entered with the TB command as described in Data Tables . Only one B-H curve may be specified per material. node locations. Nodal forces. The direction of polarization is determined by the components MGXX and MGYY. Inc. convections.. The EMUNIT defaults are MKS units and MUZERO = 4 x 10-7 henries/meter. Various combinations of nodal loading are available for this element (depending upon the KEYOPT (1) value). Nonlinear magnetic B-H.Implicit Analysis. The element has nonlinear magnetic capability for modeling B-H curves or permanent magnet demagnetization curves. PLANE13 is defined by four nodes with up to four degrees of freedom per node. should be input per unit of depth for a plane analysis and on a full 360 basis for an axisymmetric analysis. The magnitude of the coercive force is the square root of the sum of the squares of the components. A maxwell stress tensor calculation is performed at these file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. In addition to MUZERO. Surfaces at which magnetic forces are to be calculated are identified by using the MXWF label on the surface load commands (no value is required). and structural material properties. Nodal loads are defined with the D and the F commands. Permanent magnet polarization and orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. PLANE13 also has large strain capabilities. electrical. orthotropic relative permeability is specified through the MURX and MURY material property labels. thermal. and SOLID62.

MGXX. face 2 (K-J). EY.Implicit Analysis) Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (J-I). ALPY. PERX. PRXZ or NUXY. plus BH. EZ. In general. UY. heat generation rate. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. face 3 (L-K). DAMP.may be input at the element's nodes or as a single element value [BF.2004 . If the temperature degree of freedom is present. face 4 (I-L) Heat Fluxes -- file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. These forces are applied in solution as structural loads. and Piezoelectric data tables (see Data Tables . PERY. ANEL. AZ if KEYOPT (1) = 4 VOLT. Heat generation from Joule heating is applied in Solution as thermal loading for static and transient analyses.. Body loads . NUXZ). A general description of element input is given in Element Input. J. ALPZ. 20. PRYZ. ALPX. MURX. face 3 (L-K). KYY. K. VOLT if KEYOPT (1) = 7 Real Constants None Material Properties EX.Element Library Page 77 of 993 surfaces to obtain the magnetic forces. MURY. applied body force temperatures [BF. BFE]. PLANE13 Input Summary Element Name PLANE13 Nodes I. These forces are not applied in solution as structural loads. TEMP. When the temperature degree of freedom is active (KEYOPT(1) = 2 or 4). Source current density loads may be applied to an area [BFA] or input as an element value [BFE]. AZ if KEYOPT (1) = 6 UX. ENTH. See the ANSYS Electromagnetic Field Analysis Guide for details. (PRXY. C. Air elements in which Local Jacobian forces are to be calculated may be identified by using nodal values of 1 and 0 for the MVDI label [BF]. NUYZ. KXX. unspecified nodal temperatures and heat generation rates default to the uniform value specified with the BFUNIF or TUNIF command. the calculated temperatures override any input nodal temperatures. UY. face 4 (I-L) Convections -face 1 (J-I). Deleting the MXWF specification removes the flag. MUZERO.. MGYY. RSVZ. GXY. The surface flag should be applied to "air" elements adjacent to the body for which forces are required.UY if KEYOPT (1) = 3 UX. face 2 (K-J). BFE] are ignored.05.temperature. L Degrees of Freedom AZ if KEYOPT (1) = 0 TEMP if KEYOPT (1 ) = 2 UX. and magnetic virtual displacement . DENS.

JSZ (K). spare. face 2 (K-J). magnetic. face 2 (K-J). but not piezoelectric). face 3 (L-K). face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Temperatures -T (I). Large strain. HG (L) Magnetic Virtual Displacements -VD (I). JSZ (I). VD (L) Source Current Density -spare. spare. Adaptive descent KEYOPT(1) Used for degree of freedom selection 0 -AZ degree of freedom 2 -TEMP degree of freedom 3 -UX. VD (J). spare. spare.Element Library Page 78 of 993 face 1 (J-I).. T (J). JSZ (J). spare.. VD (K). PHASE (J).2004 . spare. UY degrees of freedom 4 -UX. Large deflection. HG (J). AZ degrees of freedom 6 -VOLT. AZ degrees of freedom 7 -UX. T (K). face 4 (I-L) Maxwell Force Flags -face 1 (J-I). spare. PHASE (I). Birth and death. face 3 (L-K). VOLT degrees of freedom KEYOPT(2) 0 -Include extra shapes 1 -Do not include extra shapes KEYOPT(3) 0 -Plane strain (with structural degrees of freedom) 1 -Axisymmetric 2 -Plane stress (with structural degrees of freedom) KEYOPT(4) 0 -Element coordinate system is parallel to the global coordinate system file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. temperature. 20. TEMP. PHASE (K). T (L) Heat Generations -HG (I). Stress stiffening. UY. PHASE (L) Special Features Requires an iterative solution for field coupling (displacement. electric. UY. HG (K).05. JSZ (L).

.OUT. PLANE13 Element Output Because of different sign conventions for Cartesian and polar coordinate systems.indicates that the item is not available. In either the O or R columns. PLANE13 Element Output Definitions file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Y indicates that the item is always available. The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. ? Several items are illustrated in Element Output.2004 . ESOL].Element Library 1 -Element coordinate system is based on the element I-J side KEYOPT(5) 0 -Basic element printout 1 -Repeat basic solution for all integration points 2 -Nodal stress printout Page 79 of 993 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal degrees of freedom included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in PLANE13 Element Output Definitions. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. and a . A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. 20.05. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. magnetic flux density vectors point in opposite directions for planar (KEYOPT(3) = 0) and axisymmetric (KEYOPT(3) =1) analyses.

MUY H: X. YC PRES TEMP HGEN S: X.Y) Magnetic permeability Magnetic field intensity components Vector magnitude of H Magnetic flux density components Vector magnitude of B Source current density. I. Z. SUM TF: X. HG(K). UM LOC MUX. Y. HG(J). 2. Z. HG(L) Stresses (SZ = 0. XY EPEL: 1.. Y) FVW(X.Y) Vector magnitude of D Elastic (UE). T(L) Input heat generations HG(I). Y. and electro-mechanical coupled (UM) energies Output location (X. T(K). UD. Y EF: SUM D: X.0 for plane stress elements) Principal stresses Stress intensity Equivalent stress Elastic strains Principal elastic strains Equivalent elastic strain [4] Average thermal strains Equivalent thermal strain [4] Thermal gradient components and vector sum Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) components and vector sum Electric field components (X. Y. Y) FMAG: X. L Input temperatures T(I). SUM EF: X. Y. Y B: SUM JSZ JTZ JHEAT: FJB(X. 2. 3 EPEL: EQV EPTH: X. 3 S: INT S: EQV EPEL: X.2004 . P3 at L. Y) FMX(X.05. P4 at I. Y. J. Y FACE Definition Page 80 of 993 O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 3 Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Element Number Nodes -. K.Y) Vector magnitude of EF Electric flux density components (X. T(J).Element Library Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. valid for static analysis only Total current density Joule heat generation per unit volume Lorentz force components Maxwell force components Virtual work force components Combined (FJB and FMX) force components Face label 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. dielectric (UD). J. L Material number Volume Location where results are reported P1 at nodes J.I. Y H: SUM B: X.. XY EPTH: EQV TG: X. XY S: 1. P2 at K. Z. 20. K. Y D: SUM UE.

Solution values are output only if calculated (based on input data). joule losses (JHEAT). and torque (TJB(Z). Note JT represents the total measurable current density in a conductor. TMX(Z).Z. Solution SINT.05. Y). FMAGSUM. 20. 2. These values are stored in the "Real" data set. and in-plane shear stresses. HSUM. B. B.Y. 4. 2. The macros POWERH. H.PRXY). including eddy current effects. S.Element Library AREA NODES HFILM TBULK TAVG HEAT RATE HEAT RATE/AREA HFLUX HFAVG TBAVG HFLXAVG TJB(Z) TMX(Z) TVW(Z) Face area Face nodes Film coefficient at each node of face Bulk temperature at each node of face Average face temperature Heat flow rate across face by convection Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Page 81 of 993 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 Heat flux at each node of face Average film coefficient of the face Average face bulk temperature Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux Lorentz torque about global Cartesian +Z axis Maxwell torque about global Cartesian +Z axis Virtual work torque about global Cartesian +Z axis 1. MUX. hoop. For harmonic analysis. SEQV. The X. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. FMX(X. Y). 3. respectively. Y)). S.2004 . if KEYOPT(5) = 1. H. SEQV. TVW(Z)) represent time-average values. HSUM. Available only if a surface load is input. MUY. EPEL. BSUM 1 Nodal Solution SINT. and XY stress output correspond to the radial. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP. FVW (X. Output at each node. PLANE13 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Names of Items Output OR Integration Pt. For axisymmetric solutions with KEYOPT(4) = 0. and velocity effects if calculated. Output at each integration point. axial. respectively. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the X and Y directions correspond to the radial and axial directions... if KEYOPT(5) = 2. forces (FJB(X. BSUM 2 1.

Page 82 of 993 PLANE13 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. 20.K.J.L FCN sequence number for solution items for element Face N PLANE13 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name JSZ P1 P2 P3 P4 MUX MUY FVWX FVWY FVWSUM JTZ UE UD UM TJB(Z) TMX(Z) TVW(Z) Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 35 36 37 I 4 9 J 3 6 K 5 8 L 7 10 - file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05.Element Library and TORQSUM can be used to retrieve this data..K. The following notation is used in PLANE13 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the PLANE13 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I.. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) of the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information.L sequence number for data at nodes I.2004 .J.

AMPS. This element may not be compatible with other elements with the VOLT degree of freedom. the degree of freedom is VOLT*radius. Inc. and they must all have the piezoelectric degrees of freedom activated. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.. the extra displacement and VOLT shapes are automatically deleted for triangular elements so that a constant strain element results. Current density loading (BFE. Theory Reference for details. thermal. the elements must have the same reaction force (see Element Compatibility in the ANSYS Electromagnetic Field Analysis Guide). and coupling all VOLT degrees of freedom for elements in each of such regions. If the piezoelectric effect is not desired in these elements. See the ANSYS. 20.JS) is only valid for the AZ option (KEYOPT(1) = 0). AZ option (KEYOPT(1) = 6) use F. then all elements where a VOLT degree of freedom is needed must be one of the piezoelectric types. If a model has at least one element with piezoelectric degrees of freedom (displacements and VOLT) activated... This is valid for both planar and axisymmetric models. To be compatible. simply define very small piezoelectric material properties for them. The element must lie in a global X-Y plane as shown in PLANE13 and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. ANSYS/Mechanical Unless the Emag option is enabled.Element Library FC1 11 12 13 14 15 16 FC2 17 18 19 20 21 22 FC3 23 24 25 26 27 28 FC4 29 30 31 32 33 34 Page 83 of 993 AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC Assumptions and Restrictions The area of the element must be positive. For the VOLT. specifying a resistivity. Transient magnetic analyses should be performed in a nonlinear transient dynamic analysis. and does not have magnetic capability. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. Note For the axisymmetric option. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. A skineffect analysis (where eddy current formation is permitted in conducting regions with impressed current loading) is performed by using KEYOPT(1) = 6. the following restrictions apply: ? This element has only structural.2004 .05.. or piezoelectric capability. For structural and piezoelectric problems.

If set to 4 or 6. and cannot be set to 0.. and z directions.2004 . The only applicable surface loads are Maxwell force flags. the AZ degree of freedom is not active. The longitudinal spring-damper option is a uniaxial tension-compression element with up to three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. KEYOPT(1) defaults to 4 (UX. The Maxwell force flags surface loads are not applicable. two. KEYOPT(1) can only be set to 0 (default) or 6.Element Library ? Page 84 of 993 The AZ degree of freedom is not active. and the BH data table) are not allowed.05. TEMP) instead of 0. The magnetic and electric material properties (MUZERO. y. ? ? ? ? ? Prev CONTAC12 Prev COMBIN14 Element Library Next COMBIN14 Next COMBIN14 Name COMBIN14 — Spring-Damper product: MP ME ST PR PP ED Element Description COMBIN14 has longitudinal or torsional capability in one. MUR_. thermal. and does not have structural. KEYOPT(3) = 2 is not applicable. No bending or torsion is considered. 20. plus the BH data table). or piezoelectric capability. MG__. y. and z axes. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The element does not allow any special features. The temperature body load is only used for material property evaluation. ? ? ? ANSYS/Emag ? This element has only magnetic and electric field capability. The only active degrees of freedom are AZ and VOLT. The only allowable material properties are the magnetic and electric properties (MUZERO through PERY. UY.. The torsional spring-damper option is a purely rotational element with three degrees of freedom at each node: rotations about the nodal x. No bending or axial loads are considered. The heat generation body loads are not applicable. or three dimensional applications.

With these options. node locations.cv d /dt where cv is the damping coefficient given by cv = (cv )1 + (c v) 2v. Masses can be added by using the appropriate mass element (see MASS21). v is the velocity calculated in the previous substep. The damping force (F) or torque (T) is computed as: Fx = .cv dux/dt or T = . these values should be on a full 360 basis. the element operates in the nodal coordinate system (see Elements that Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System). For a two -dimensional axisymmetric analysis. KEYOPT(2) = 1 through 6 is used for defining the element as a one-dimensional element. A general spring or damper is also available in the stiffness matrix element (MATRIX27). The torsional spring constant and damping coefficient have units of Force*Length/Radian and Force*Length*Time/Radian. Inc. COMBIN14 Spring-Damper Two-dimensional elements must lie in a z = constant plane Input Data The geometry. 20. a spring constant (k) and damping coefficients (c v )1 and (cv )2 . The KEYOPT(2) = 7 and 8 options allow the element to be used in a thermal or file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. KEYOPT(1) must be set to 1. The spring or the damping capability may be removed from the element.05. the damping coefficient units are Force*Time/Length.. The element is defined by two nodes. The second damping coefficient (c v )2 is available to produce a nonlinear damping effect characteristic of some fluid environments. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in COMBIN14.Element Library Page 85 of 993 The spring-damper element has no mass. See the ANSYS. If (c v) 2 is input (as real constant CV2). respectively. The damping capability is not used for static or undamped modal analyses.2004 .. Another spring-damper element (having its direction of action determined by the nodal coordinate directions) is COMBIN40. The damping portion of the element contributes only damping coefficients to the structural damping matrix. The longitudinal spring constant should have units of Force/Length. Theory Reference for more details about this element.

CV1. UY if KEYOPT (3) = 2 see list below if KEYOPT(2) > 0 Real Constants K.05. Stress stiffening. ROTZ if KEYOPT (3) = 1 UX.. UZ if KEYOPT (3) = 0 ROTX. Birth and death KEYOPT(1) 0 -Linear Solution (default) 1 -Nonlinear solution (required if CV2 is non-zero) KEYOPT(2) 0 -Use KEYOPT(3) options 1 -1-D longitudinal spring-damper (UX degree of freedom) 2 -1-D longitudinal spring-damper (UY degree of freedom) 3 -1-D longitudinal spring-damper (UZ degree of freedom) 4 -1-D Torsional spring-damper (ROTX degree of freedom) 5 -1-D Torsional spring-damper (ROTY degree of freedom) 6 -1-D Torsional spring-damper (ROTZ degree of freedom) 7 -Pressure degree of freedom element file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. UY.2004 . CV2 Material Properties None Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features Nonlinear (if CV2 is not zero). COMBIN14 Input Summary Element Name COMBIN14 Nodes I. Page 86 of 993 A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary.Element Library pressure analysis. J Degrees of Freedom UX. 20. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. Large deflection.. ROTY.

05. ESOL]. Y indicates that the item is always available.OUT. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.2004 .. COMBIN14 Stress Output The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. ? Several items are illustrated in Stress output. 20. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. In either the O or R columns..Element Library 8 -Temperature degree of freedom element Page 87 of 993 Note KEYOPT(2) overrides KEYOPT(3) KEYOPT(3) 0 -3-D longitudinal spring-damper 1 -3-D torsional spring-damper 2 -2-D longitudinal spring-damper (2-D elements must lie in an X-Y plane) Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in COMBIN14 Element Output Definitions. a number refers to a table file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.

COMBIN14 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.. The torsion spring element stiffness acts only file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and a . See The General Postprocessor (POST1) of the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information.Element Library Page 88 of 993 footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. since the node locations determine the spring orientation. ZC FORC or TORQ STRETCH or TWIST RATE VELOCITY DAMPING FORCE or TORQUE Definition Element Number Nodes . i.2004 . 20.indicates that the item is not available. nodes I and J should not be coincident.I.. YC. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. The longitudinal spring element stiffness acts only along its length. the length of the spring-damper element must not be zero. The following notation is used in COMBIN14 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the COMBIN14 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data COMBIN14 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Item FORC SMISC STRETCH NMISC VELOCITY NMISC DAMPING FORCE NMISC Name E 1 1 2 3 Assumptions and Restrictions If KEYOPT(2) is zero. COMBIN14 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES XC.. J Location where results are reported Spring force or moment Stretch of spring or twist of spring (radians) Spring constant Velocity Damping force or moment (zero unless ANTYPE.e.05.TRANS and damping present) O Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y 1 Y Y Y Y Y Y 1.

the element has only one degree of freedom. The element allows only a uniform stress in the spring. ANSYS/Professional Structural Analysis: ? No damping capability. the restrictions described in this paragraph do not apply. for a given set of conditions. nodes I and J are interchanged. If. if KEYOPT(3) = 1 (torsion) is used with large deflection. as in a torsion bar. may be anywhere in space (preferably coincident).2004 . however. If (c v )2 is not zero.05. respectively. the coordinates will not be updated. KEYOPT(2) must be zero if the element is used with stress stiffening or large deflection. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. ? ? Thermal Analysis: ? KEYOPT(2) defaults to 8. if the nodes are offset from the line of action. ? Prev PLANE13 Prev PIPE16 Element Library Next PIPE16 Next PIPE16 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the temperature or pressure degree of freedom acts in a manner analogous to the displacement. 20. Also. Only stress stiffening and large deflections are allowed. or 3. Nodes I and J. 2. the same degree of freedom may be in different directions (thereby giving possibly unexpected results). KEYOPT(3) is not applicable. assumes only a one-dimensional action. the element is nonlinear and requires an iterative solution (KEYOPT(1) = 1). The element. If KEYOPT(2) is greater than zero. CV1 and CV2 are not allowed.Element Library Page 89 of 993 about its length. That is.. moment equilibrium may not be satisfied. The element is defined such that a positive displacement of node J relative to node I tends to stretch the spring. then. no moment effects are included. If KEYOPT(2) is zero. In a thermal analysis. The spring or the damping capability may be deleted from the element by setting k or cv equal to zero. This degree of freedom is specified in the nodal coordinate system and is the same for both nodes (see Elements that Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System). a positive displacement of node J relative to node I tends to compress the spring. For noncoincident nodes and KEYOPT(2) = 1. KEYOPT(2) = 7 or 8 is not allowed. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. If the nodal coordinate systems are rotated relative to each other..

pipe wall mass (MWALL). See PIPE17 for a pipe tee element. torsion. the element Y-axis is oriented parallel to the global Y-axis (as shown). Input and output file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. The element input data include two or three nodes. Several orientations are shown in PIPE16. Theory Reference for more details about this element. rotordynamic spin (SPIN). The element X-axis is oriented from node I toward node J. the pipe outer diameter (OD) and wall thickness (TKWALL). the element Yaxis is automatically calculated to be parallel to the global X-Y plane. This element is based on the three-dimensional beam element (BEAM4). and z axes.05. defines a plane (with I and J) containing the element X and Z axes (as shown). y. For user control of the element orientation about the element X-axis. internal fluid density (DENSFL).01 percent slope of it). and includes simplifications due to its symmetry and standard pipe geometry. if used. The third node (K). axial pipe stiffness (STIFF). use the third node option. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in PIPE16. See the ANSYS.2004 . For the case where the element is parallel to the global Z-axis (or within a 0. PIPE16 Elastic Straight Pipe Input Data The geometry. exterior insulation density (DENSIN) and thickness (TKIN). stress intensification (SIF) and flexibility (FLEX) factors. See PIPE20 for a plastic straight pipe element. For the two-node option. insulation surface area (AREAIN). corrosion thickness allowance (TKCORR)..Element Library Page 90 of 993 Name PIPE16 — Elastic Straight Pipe product: MP ME ST PR PP ED Element Description PIPE16 is a uniaxial element with tension-compression. The element has six degrees of freedom at two nodes: translations in the nodal x. and bending capabilities. Inc. 20. y. See PIPE18 for a curved pipe element. node locations. and z directions and rotations about the nodal x.and the isotropic material properties.

. Temperatures may have wall gradients or diametral gradients (KEYOPT(1)). A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. For piping analyses. SIF values less than 1. The insulation and the fluid contribute only to the element mass matrix. and PZ) may represent wind or drag loads (per unit length of the pipe) and are defined in the global Cartesian directions. they default to the first. For any other input pattern. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on PIPE16. Only constant pressures are supported for this element. and all temperatures at node J are unspecified. ROTZ Real Constants file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The flexibility factor (FLEX) is divided into the cross-sectional moment of inertia to produce a modified moment of inertia for the bending stiffness calculation.0. PIPE16 Input Summary Element Name PIPE16 Nodes I. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . Tapered pressures are not recognized. The rotational frequency is input with the SPIN real constant (radians/time.Element Library Page 91 of 993 locations around the pipe circumference identified as being at 0 are located along the element Yaxis. A nonzero insulation area real constant overrides the insulation surface area calculation (from the pipe outer diameter and length). UY. ROTY. and similarly 90 is along the element Z-axis. The normal component or the projected full pressure may be used (KEYOPT(5)). positive in the positive element x direction). The corrosion thickness allowance contributes only to the stress calculations. ROTX. KEYOPT(7) is used to compute an unsymmetric gyroscopic damping matrix (often used for rotordynamic analyses).2004 . unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. If all temperatures after the first are unspecified. A nonzero stiffness real constant overrides the calculated axial pipe stiffness. See the ANSYS.05. If all temperatures at node I are input. The transverse pressures (PX. or 3. KEYOPT(4) is used to identify the element type for output labeling and for postprocessing operations.. A positive wall mass real constant overrides the pipe wall mass calculation. 20. the node J temperatures default to the corresponding node I temperatures. Inc. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. Internal pressure (PINT) and external pressure (POUT) are input as positive values.2. the PIPE module of PREP7 may be used to generate the input for this element. The element mass is calculated from the pipe wall material. Theory Reference for more information. K (K orientation node is optional) Degrees of Freedom UX. The stress intensification factor (SIF) modifies the bending stress. the external insulation.0 but may be input as any positive value. J. PY.0 are set equal to 1. Stress intensification factors may be input at end I (SIFI) and end J (SIFJ). A general description of element input is given in Element Input. The first temperature at node I (TOUT(I) or TAVG (I)) defaults to TUNIF. and the internal fluid. FLEX defaults to 1. or determined by the program using a tee-joint calculation if KEYOPT(2) = 1. UZ. Positive transverse pressures act in the positive coordinate directions. if KEYOPT(2) = 0.

or TAVG ( I ). 4-PZ. T90 ( J ).2004 . PY. T180 ( I ).Element Library Page 92 of 993 OD. 2-PX. PRXY or NUXY. Large deflection. 5-POUT Body Loads Temperatures -TOUT ( I ). DENS. ALPX. T90 ( I ). DENSFL. FLEX. DENSIN.. KEYOPT(1) 0 -Temperatures represent the through-wall gradient 1 -Temperatures represent the diametral gradient KEYOPT(2) 0 -Stress intensity factors from SIFI and SIFJ 1 -Stress intensity factors at node I from tee joint calculation 2 -Stress intensity factors at node J from tee joint calculation 3 -Stress intensity factors at both nodes from tee joint calculation KEYOPT(4) Element identification for output and postprocessing 0 -Straight pipe 1 -Valve 2 -Reducer 3 -Flange 4 -Expansion joint 5 -Mitered bend 6 -Tee branch KEYOPT(5) Used only with the PX. 3-PY.05. SIFJ. TIN ( I ). AREAIN. SPIN Material Properties EX. TIN ( J ) if KEYOPT (1) = 0. and PZ transverse pressures 0 -Use only the normal component of pressure file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. TKIN. Birth and death. MWALL. SIFI. GXY. TKCORR. TOUT ( J ). DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -1-PINT. TAVG ( J ). T180 ( J ) if KEYOPT (1) = 1 Special Features Stress stiffening.. 20. STIFF. TKWALL.

. Angles listed in the output are measured as shown ( ) in Stress output. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.2004 . Y indicates that the item is always available. a number refers to a table file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in PIPE16 Element Output Definitions ? Several items are illustrated in Stress output. In either the O or R columns. The direct stress (SAXL) includes the internal pressure (closed end) effect. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. The principal stresses and the stress intensity include the shear force stress component. and are based on the stresses at the two extreme points on opposite sides of the neutral axis.. PIPE16 Stress Output The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. The direct stress does not include the axial component of the transverse thermal stress (STH).OUT. DENSFL and DENSIN must be zero. 20. ESOL]. These quantities are computed at the outer surface and might not occur at the same location around the pipe circumference.Element Library 1 -Use the full pressure (normal and shear components) KEYOPT(6) 0 -No printout of member forces or moments 2 -Print member forces and moments in the element coordinate system KEYOPT(7) 0 -No gyroscopic damping matrix 1 -- Page 93 of 993 Compute gyroscopic damping matrix.05. Real constant SPIN must be greater than zero.

Element Library Page 94 of 993 footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. J Material number Volume Location where results are reported Corrosion thickness allowance TOUT(I). then at node J. equivalent stress Axial.. hoop. The item repeats at 0. SMJ SDIR SBEND ST SSF S(1MX. T90(I). T180(I).180. Y. TIN(I). radial.315 at node I. ZC CORAL TEMP TEMP PRES SFACTI. If the value is greater than 0. RAD.indicates that the item is not available. If KEYOPT(1) = 0 3. If KEYOPT(1) = 1 4. and shear stresses Maximum principal stress. 2. XH) S(1. T180(J) PINT. stress intensity. minimum principal stress. all at the outer surface. H.225. TIN(J) TAVG(I). hoop. H. Z) MMOM(X. minimum principal stress. and shear strains Axial. TOUT(J). PZ. RAD. H) MFOR(X. INT. 20. and hoop thermal strain 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Member forces for nodes I and J (in the element coordinate system) 5 Y Member moments for nodes I and J (in the element coordinate system) 5 Y 1.90. Z) Definition O Y Y Y Y 1 2 3 Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 6 1 2 3 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Element Number Nodes . TAVG(J). maximum equivalent stress (all at the outer surface) Axial. 3MN.45. XH) EPTH(AXL. T90(J). radial.135.270. 3.05.2004 . RAD. SFACTJ STH SPR2 SMI.. radial. PX. PY. Y.I. EQVMX) S(AXL. maximum stress Y Y intensity. and a . PIPE16 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. EQV) EPEL(AXL. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. YC. POUT Stress intensification factors at nodes I and J Stress due to maximum thermal gradient through the wall thickness Hoop pressure stress for code calculations Moment stress at nodes I and J for code calculations Direct (axial) stress Maximum bending stress at outer surface Shear stress at outer surface due to torsion Shear stress due to shear force Maximum principal stress. INTMX.

3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 .05. Page 95 of 993 The following tables list output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.6 ..2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 . If KEYOPT(6) = 2 6. The following notation is used in PIPE16 Item and Sequence Numbers through PIPE16 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the PIPE16 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I. 20.2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 .1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 .1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 .2004 .- file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information.5 .4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 . Available only at centroid as a *GET item.1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 .3 .2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 ..Element Library 5.3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 .4 .2 .4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 .3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 1 .J sequence number for data at nodes I and J PIPE16 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Node I Circumferential Location Name SAXL SRAD SH SXH EPELAXL EPELRAD EPELH EPELXH EPTHAXL EPTHRAD EPTHH MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ Item LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 .

33 .36 .35 . 20.43 .33 .36 .34 .35 7 8 9 10 11 12 15 16 .2004 .Element Library SDIR ST S1 S3 SINT SEQV SBEND SSF TOUT TIN SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC LBFE LBFE 13 14 90 91 1 3 4 5 4 8 6 8 9 10 11 13 14 15 1 5 16 18 19 20 21 23 24 25 2 6 26 28 29 30 31 33 34 35 3 7 36 38 39 40 - Page 96 of 993 PIPE16 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Node J Circumferential Location Name SAXL SRAD SH SXH EPELAXL EPELRAD EPELH EPELXH EPTHAXL EPTHRAD EPTHH MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SDIR ST S1 S3 SINT SEQV SBEND SSF Item LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 0 .35 .44 .45 92 93 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 48 53 58 63 68 73 78 49 54 59 64 69 74 79 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 - file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.34 .33 .34 ..41 .05..

and the corrosion thickness allowance must be less than the wall thickness. must not be less than zero. the I..T(90). In addition. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. Shear deflection capability is also included in the element formulation.Element Library TOUT TIN LBFE LBFE .D. must not be less than or equal to zero.12 .16 9 13 10 14 11 15 - Page 97 of 993 PIPE16 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name STH PINT PX PY PZ POUT SFACTI SFACTJ SPR2 SMI SMJ S1MX S3MN SINTMX SEQVMX Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 17 18 19 20 21 22 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 Assumptions and Restrictions The pipe must not have a zero length or wall thickness.D. Eigenvalues calculated in a gyroscopic modal analysis can be very sensitive to changes in the initial shift value. The pipe element is assumed to have "closed ends" so that the axial pressure effect is included. leading to potential error in either the real or imaginary (or both) parts of the eigenvalues. however. ANSYS/Professional ? The SPIN real constant (R13) is not available.T(180) and the average wall temperature at = -90 is computed as 2 * TAVG . Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below.. some of the stress calculations are based on thin-wall theory. the O. The element temperatures are assumed to be linear along the length.05. The element may be used for both thin and thick-walled situations. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the average wall temperature at = 0 is computed as 2 * TAVG .2004 . For the diametral gradient option. 20.

The element has six degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. with tension-compression. i. and a corrosion allowance. Options are available to include tee-joint flexibility and stress intensification factors and to print member forces.. Inc.Element Library ? Page 98 of 993 The DAMP material property is not allowed. J-K for branch 2. 20. y. The element can account for insulation.05. PIPE17 Elastic Pipe Tee file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Theory Reference for more details about this element. y. and z directions and rotations about the nodal x. ? ? Prev COMBIN14 Prev PIPE17 Element Library Next PIPE17 Next PIPE17 Name PIPE17 — Elastic Pipe Tee product: MP ME ST PR PP ED Element Description PIPE17 is a combination of three uniaxial elastic straight pipe elements (PIPE16) arranged in a "tee" configuration. The I and J nomenclature used in the description of this element refers to the first and second end of each branch of the element.. and bending capabilities. I-J for branch 1. The only special features allowed are stress stiffening and large deflections.e. See the ANSYS. torsion.. contained fluid. KEYOPT(7) (gyroscopic damping) is not allowed. and J-L for branch 3.2004 . and z axes.

The real constants (except DFL. Inc.. The element degenerates to two branches if three nodes are input. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . The flexibility factor (FLEX) is divided into the cross-sectional moment of inertia to produce a modified moment of inertia for the stiffness calculation. and similarly 90 is along the branch Z-axis. and the isotropic material properties. Only constant pressures are supported for this element.Element Library Page 99 of 993 Input Data The geometry.. internal fluid densities (DFL). The first temperature for branch 1 (TOUT1) defaults to TUNIF.7 of the ANSYS. node locations. and PZ) may represent wind or drag loads (per unit length of the pipe) and are defined in the global Cartesian directions. and TKIN) for the other branches default to those of the first branch if not input. DIN. The real constant material number (MAT). The internal fluid and external insulation constants are used only to determine the added mass effects for these components. Each branch has its own element coordinate system. Positive transverse pressures act in the positive coordinate directions. wall thicknesses. material numbers. and to one pipe element if only two nodes are input. Input and output locations around the pipe circumference identified as being at 0 are located along the branch Y-axis.16. The element input data include four nodes.05. Tapered pressures are not recognized.0 but may be input as any positive value. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in PIPE17. PY. The transverse pressures (PX. The bending stiffness of this element is similar to that of BEAM4 except that it is modified by the flexibility factor. with its origin at the first node of the branch and the element X-axis along the branch axis. For the case where the branch is parallel to the global Z axis (or within a 0. If all temperatures after the first are file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The orientation of the branch Y-axis is automatically calculated to be parallel to the global X-Y plane (see PIPE17). and defaults to the element material property number. the branch Y-axis is oriented parallel to the global Y axis. Internal pressure (PINT) and external pressure (POUT) are input as positive values. exterior insulation densities (DIN) and thicknesses (TKIN). 20.01 percent slope of it). if supplied.2004 . corrosion thickness allowance (TKCORR). Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on PIPE17. Theory Reference for details. See Section 14. FLEX defaults to 1. flexibility factors. Outer and inner wall temperatures may be specified for each branch. the branch outer diameters. stress intensification factors. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. overrides the element material property number applied with the MAT command. Temperatures are assumed to be uniform along each branch.

DIN1.2004 . TKIN3. UZ. TOUT3. FLEX2. 5-POUT Body Loads Temperatures -TOUT1. K for two branches (I-J. SIF3J.05. MAT3. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. 3-PY. DENS. J. and all temperatures at branches 2 and 3 are unspecified.REFT) or damping (MP. TKCORR Material Properties EX. OD3. SIF2K. 2-PX. SIF1I. TIN2.. PRXY or NUXY. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. Birth and death. Use TREF and BETAD to supply global values for reference temperature and damping.. they default to the corresponding branch 1 temperatures. For any other input pattern. TK1. or I. FLEX1. SIF3L. J. J-L). K. they default to the first. L for three branches (I-J.DAMP). TOUT2. DIN3. TIN1. TK2. KEYOPT(2) 0 -Stress intensity factors from SIF real constants file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. MAT2. TKIN1. J for one branch (I-J) Degrees of Freedom UX. or I. Surface Loads Pressures -1-PINT. OD2. DFL1. The KEYOPT(2) options for stress intensification factors are discussed in Input Data. J-K). DFL2. DIN2. J-K. branch material numbers are ignored for this purpose. ROTY. DFL3. Alternatively. respectively. TK3. If both temperatures at branch 1 are input. FLEX3. 20. MAT1. TIN3 (outer and inner for each branch) Special Features Stress stiffening. use the MAT command to specify element-dependent values for reference temperature (MP. ROTZ Real Constants OD1. 4-PZ. Large deflection.Element Library Page 100 of 993 unspecified. ROTX. SIF2J. SIF1J. ALPX. DAMP REFT Supply DAMP and REFT only once for the element (use MAT command to assign material property set). A general description of element input is given in Element Input. GXY. See the discussion in Input Data for more details. TKIN2. UY. PIPE17 Input Summary Element Name PIPE17 Nodes I.

ESOL]. The effect of the corrosion allowance thickness is also included as described in Input Data..2004 . In either the O or R columns. The principal stresses and the stress intensity include the shear force stress component. 20. a number refers to a table file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Angles listed in the output are measured as shown ( ) in Stress output. PIPE17 Stress Output The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. Also printed for each end of each branch are the maximum and minimum principal stresses and the stress intensity. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output.05. The direct stress does not include the axial component of the transverse thermal stress.. The direct stress includes the internal pressure (closed end) effect. These quantities are computed at the outer surface and may not occur at the same location around the pipe circumference. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.Element Library 1 -- Page 101 of 993 Tee stress intensity factors at first node of each branch from tee joint calculation 2 -Tee stress intensity factors at second node of each branch from tee joint calculation 3 -Tee stress intensity factors at both nodes of each branch from tee joint calculation KEYOPT(6) 0 -No printout of member forces or moments 2 -Print member forces and moments in the element coordinate system Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in PIPE17 Element Output Definitions ? Several items are illustrated in Stress output. The output stresses and the stress intensification factors are calculated as shown in Input Data. Y indicates that the item is always available. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.OUT.

. The following tables list output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.135. L Volume Location where results are reported TOUT1. equivalent stress Axial. RAD. K. and shear stresses Axial. RAD. J. and hoop thermal strain O Y Y Y R Y Y Y 4 Y Y Y Y 1 Y 1 Y 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1. and shear strains Axial. radial. Z) SFACTI. TOUT2. stress intensity.270. H.45.180.. minimum principal stress. YC. XH) EPEL(AXL.I. EQV) S(AXL. hoop. 20. RAD.TIN1. Z) MMOM(X. Only if KEYOPT(6) = 2 2. Y. 3.90.2004 . The item repeats at 0. SFACTJ STH SPR2 SMI.indicates that the item is not available. INTMX. PX. H. XH) EPTH(AXL. radial. PY. PIPE17 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES VOLU: XC. EQVMX) S(1. The item repeats for each branch 3. POUT Member forces at the ends of each branch (in the branch coordinate system) Member moments at the ends of each branch (in the branch coordinate system) Stress intensification factors Stress due to maximum thermal gradient through the wall thickness Hoop pressure stress for code calculations Moment stress at nodes I and J for code calculations Direct (axial) stress Maximum bending stress at outer surface Shear stress at outer surface due to torsion Shear stress due to shear force Maximum principal stress. radial. TIN3 (outer and inner for each branch) PINT. PZ.225.05. 3MN. minimum principal stress. ZC TEMP PRES MFOR(X. INT. TIN2. and a . TOUT3. Y. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.315 at the ends of each branch (all at the outer surface) 4. hoop.Element Library Page 102 of 993 footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. maximum stress intensity. H) Definition Element Number Nodes . SMJ SDIR SBEND ST SSF S(1MX. maximum equivalent stress (all at the outer surface) Maximum principal stress.

1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 .2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 .3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 .- file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 . and K PIPE17 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands BRANCH 1 Node I Circumferential Location Name SAXL SRAD SH SXH EPELAXL EPELRAD EPELH EPELXH EPTHAXL EPTHRAD EPTHH S1 S3 SINT SEQV SBEND SSF MFORX MFORY Item LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC SMISC SMISC E 0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 . The following notation is used in PIPE17 Item and Sequence Numbers through PIPE17 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the PIPE17 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I.1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 .4 9 14 19 24 29 34 39 .1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 .4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 .2 .269 . See The General Postprocessor (POST1) of the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information.J.Element Library Page 103 of 993 Number method.1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 .2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 .4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 . 20.3 8 13 18 23 28 33 38 ..2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 .3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 .5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 268 .J.05.2004 .1 .K sequence number for data at nodes I.

34 .45 270 271 7 8 9 10 11 12 39 40 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 48 53 58 63 68 73 78 49 54 59 64 69 74 79 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 - PIPE17 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.33 .35 .2004 .33 .35 .44 .Element Library MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SDIR ST SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 3 4 5 6 37 38 - Page 104 of 993 PIPE17 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands BRANCH 1 Node J Circumferential Location Name SAXL SRAD SH SXH EPELAXL EPELRAD EPELH EPELXH EPTHAXL EPTHRAD EPTHH S1 S3 SINT SEQV SBEND SSF MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SDIR ST Item LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 0 .43 . 20.36 .41 .05.33 .36 .35 .34 ..34 ..

66 .2004 .65 .85 272 273 13 14 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 69 73 77 81 85 89 93 70 74 78 82 86 90 94 71 75 79 83 87 91 95 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 69 73 77 81 85 89 93 70 74 78 82 86 90 94 71 75 79 83 87 91 95 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 69 73 77 81 85 89 93 70 74 78 82 86 90 94 71 75 79 83 87 91 95 86 91 96 101 106 111 116 88 93 98 103 108 113 118 89 94 99 104 109 114 119 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 - file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.65 .67 ..66 .65 .67 .66 .68 .84 . 20.81 ..83 .68 .Element Library BRANCH 1 Circumferential Location Name SFACTI SFACTJ SPR2 SMI SMJ S1MX S3MN SINTMX SEQVMX STH TOUT TIN Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC SMISC LBFE LBFE E 241 242 243 244 245 256 257 258 259 41 0 4 8 90 1 5 180 2 6 270 3 7 Page 105 of 993 PIPE17 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands BRANCH 2 Node J Circumferential Location Name SAXL SRAD SH SXH EPELAXL EPELRAD EPELH EPELXH EPTHAXL EPTHRAD EPTHH S1 S3 SINT SEQV SBEND SSF MFORX MFORY Item LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC SMISC SMISC E 0 .05.67 .

20.05.Element Library MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SDIR ST SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 15 16 17 18 42 43 - Page 106 of 993 PIPE17 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands BRANCH 2 Node K Circumferential Location Name SAXL SRAD SH SXH EPELAXL EPELRAD EPELH EPELXH EPTHAXL EPTHRAD EPTHH S1 S3 SINT SEQV SBEND SSF MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SDIR ST Item LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 274 275 19 20 21 22 23 24 44 45 0 97 98 99 100 97 98 99 100 97 98 99 121 123 124 125 45 101 102 103 104 101 102 103 104 101 102 103 126 128 129 130 90 105 106 107 108 105 106 107 108 105 106 107 131 133 134 135 135 180 225 270 315 109 113 117 121 125 110 114 118 122 126 111 115 119 123 127 112 116 120 124 128 109 113 117 121 125 110 114 118 122 126 111 115 119 123 127 112 116 120 124 128 109 113 117 121 125 110 114 118 122 126 111 115 119 123 127 136 141 146 151 156 138 143 148 153 158 139 144 149 154 159 140 145 150 155 160 - PIPE17 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 ...

Element Library BRANCH 2 Circumferential Location Name SFACTI SFACTJ SPR2 SMI SMJ S1MX S3MN SINTMX SEQVMX STH TOUT TIN Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC SMISC LBFE LBFE E 246 247 248 249 250 260 261 262 263 46 0 12 16 90 9 13 180 10 14 270 11 15 Page 107 of 993 PIPE17 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands BRANCH 3 Node J Circumferential Location Name SAXL SRAD SH SXH EPELAXL EPELRAD EPELH EPELXH EPTHAXL EPTHRAD EPTHH S1 S3 SINT SEQV SBEND SSF MFORX MFORY Item LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC SMISC SMISC E 276 277 25 26 0 129 130 131 132 129 130 131 132 129 130 131 161 163 164 165 45 133 134 135 136 133 134 135 136 133 134 135 166 168 169 170 90 137 138 139 140 137 138 139 140 137 138 139 171 173 174 175 135 180 225 270 315 141 145 149 153 157 142 146 150 154 158 143 147 151 155 159 144 148 152 156 160 141 145 149 153 157 142 146 150 154 158 143 147 151 155 159 144 148 152 156 160 141 145 149 153 157 142 146 150 154 158 143 147 151 155 159 176 181 186 191 196 178 183 188 193 198 179 184 189 194 199 180 185 190 195 200 - file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. 20.05..2004 .

20.Element Library MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SDIR ST SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 27 28 29 30 47 48 - Page 108 of 993 PIPE17 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands BRANCH 3 Node L Circumferential Location Name SAXL SRAD SH SXH EPELAXL EPELRAD EPELH EPELXH EPTHAXL EPTHRAD EPTHH S1 S3 SINT SEQV SBEND SSF MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SDIR ST Item LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 278 279 31 32 33 34 35 36 49 50 0 161 162 163 164 161 162 163 164 161 162 163 201 203 204 205 45 165 166 167 168 165 166 167 168 165 166 167 206 208 209 210 90 169 170 171 172 169 170 171 172 169 170 171 211 213 214 215 135 180 225 270 315 173 177 181 185 189 174 178 182 186 190 175 179 183 187 191 176 180 184 188 192 173 177 181 185 189 174 178 182 186 190 175 179 183 187 191 176 180 184 188 192 173 177 181 185 189 174 178 182 186 190 175 179 183 187 191 216 221 226 231 236 218 223 228 233 238 219 224 229 234 239 220 225 230 235 240 - PIPE17 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh...05.2004 .

In addition.D.2004 . The element may be used for both thin and thick-walled situations. There is no restriction on the angles of intersection of the branches.05. ANSYS/Professional ? The DAMP material property is not allowed. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. must not be less than or equal to zero.D. The only special features allowed are stress stiffening and large deflections. must not be less than zero.. The branches are assumed to have "closed ends" so that the axial pressure effect is included. ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. some of the stress calculations are based on thin-wall theory. and the corrosion thickness allowance must be less than the wall thickness. 20. Shear deflection capability is also included in the element formulation. the I. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. the O..Element Library BRANCH 3 Circumferential Location Name SFACTI SFACTJ SPR2 SMI SMJ S1MX S3MN SINTMX SEQVMX STH TOUT TIN Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC SMISC LBFE LBFE E 251 252 253 254 255 264 265 266 267 51 0 20 24 90 17 21 180 18 22 270 19 23 Page 109 of 993 PIPE17 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name PINT PX PY PZ POUT Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 52 53 54 55 56 Assumptions and Restrictions No branch can have a zero length or wall thickness (although branches may be deleted). however.

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PIPE18

Name

PIPE18 — Elastic Curved Pipe (Elbow) product: MP ME ST PR PP ED

Element Description

PIPE18 is a circularly uniaxial element with tension, compression, torsion, and bending capabilities. The element has six degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions and rotations about the nodal x, y, and z axes. Options are available to include various flexibility and stress intensification factors in the formulation. The element can account for insulation, contained fluid, and a corrosion allowance. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for more details about this element. See PIPE16 for a straight pipe element. See PIPE17 for a pipe tee element. See PIPE60 for a plastic curved pipe. PIPE18 Elastic Curved Pipe (Elbow)

Input Data

The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in PIPE18. The element input data include three nodes, the pipe outer diameter (OD), wall thickness (TKWALL), radius of curvature (RADCUR), optional stress intensification (SIFI and SIFJ) and flexibility (FLXI and FLXO) factors, internal fluid density (DENSFL), exterior insulation density (DENSIN) and

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thickness (TKIN), corrosion thickness allowance (TKCORR), and the isotropic material properties. The internal fluid and external insulation constants are used only to determine the added mass effects for these components. Although the curved pipe element has only two endpoints (nodes I and J), the third node (K) is required to define the plane in which the element lies. This node must lie in the plane of the curved pipe and on the center-of-curvature side of line I-J. A node point belonging to another element (such as the other node of a connecting straight pipe element) may be used. Input and output locations around the pipe circumference identified as being at 0 are located along the element y-axis, and similarly 90 is along the element z-axis. Only the lumped mass matrix is available. The flexibility and stress intensification factors included in the element are calculated as follows: ANSYS Flexibility Factor = 1.65/(h(1 + PrX k /tE)) or 1.0 (whichever is greater)(used if KEYOPT(3) = 0 or 1 and FLXI not input) Karman Flexibility Factor = (10 + 12h 2)/(1 + 12h2 ) (used if KEYOPT(3) = 2 and FLXI not input) User Defined Flexibilty Factors = FLXI (in-plane) and FLXO (out-of-plane) (may be input as any positive value) FLXO defaults to FLXI for all cases. Stress Intensification Factor = 0.9/h2/3 or 1.0 (whichever is grreater) (used for SIFI or SIFJ if factor not input or if input less than 1.0 (must be positive)) where: h = tR/r 2 t = thickness R = radius of curvature r = average radius E = modulus of elasticity Xk = 6 (r/t) 4/3 (R/r) 1/3 if KEYOPT(3) = 1 and R/r 1.7, otherwise Xk = 0 P = P i - Po if P i - Po > 0, otherwise P = 0, Pi = internal presure, Po = external presure KEYOPT(3) = 1 should not be used if the included angle of the complete elbow is less than 360/( (R/r)) degrees. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on PIPE18. Internal pressure (PINT) and external pressure (POUT) are input as positive values. The transverse pressures (PX, PY, and PZ) may represent wind or drag loads (per unit length of the pipe) and are defined in the global Cartesian directions. Positive transverse pressures act in the positive coordinate directions. Tapered pressures are not recognized. Only constant pressures are supported for this element. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for details. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. Temperatures may have wall gradients or diametral gradients (KEYOPT(1)). The first temperature at node I (TOUT(I) or TAVG

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(I)) defaults to TUNIF. If all temperatures after the first are unspecified, they default to the first. If all temperatures at node I are input, and all temperatures at node J are unspecified, the node J temperatures default to the corresponding node I temperatures. For any other pattern of input temperatures, unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. For piping analyses, the PIPE module of PREP7 may be used to generate the input for this element. A summary of the element input is given below. A general description of element input is given in Element Input.

**PIPE18 Input Summary
**

Element Name PIPE18 Nodes I, J, K - where node K is in the plane of the elbow, on the center of curvature side of line I-J Degrees of Freedom UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ Real Constants OD, TKWALL, RADCUR, SIFI, SIFJ, FLXI, DENSFL, DENSIN, TKIN, TKCORR, (Blank), FLXO Material Properties EX, ALPX, PRXY or NUXY, DENS, GXY, DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -1-PINT, 2-PX, 3-PY, 4-PZ, 5-POUT Body Loads Temperatures -TOUT ( I ), TIN ( I ), TOUT ( J ), TIN ( J ) if KEYOPT (1) = 0, or TAVG ( I ), T90 ( I ), T180 ( I ), TAVG ( J ), T90 ( J ), T180 ( J ) if KEYOPT ( 1 ) = 1 Special Features Large deflection, Birth and death. KEYOPT(1) 0 -Temperatures represent the through-wall gradient 1 -Temperatures represent the diametral gradient KEYOPT(3) Used only if FLXI real constant is not specified 0 -Use ANSYS flexibility factor (without pressure term) 1 -Use ANSYS flexibility factor (with pressure term) 2 -Use KARMAN flexibility factor KEYOPT(6) 0 -No printout of member forces or moments 2 -file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

Element Library Print member forces and moments in the element coordinate system

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Output Data

The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:

?

nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in PIPE18 Element Output Definitions

?

Several items are illustrated in Stress output. The stresses are computed with the outer diameter of the pipe reduced by twice the corrosion thickness allowance. The direct stress includes the internal pressure (closed end) effect. Also printed for each end are the maximum and minimum principal stresses and the stress intensity. These quantities are computed at the outer surface and may not occur at the same location around the pipe circumference. Some of these stresses are shown in Stress output. The direct stress does not include the axial component of the transverse thermal stress. The principal stresses and the stress intensity include the shear force stress component. Angles listed in the output are measured ( ) as shown in Stress output. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. PIPE18 Stress Output

The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE, ESOL]. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. In either the O or R columns, Y indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and a - indicates that the item is not available. PIPE18 Element Output Definitions

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Element Library Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC, YC, ZC CORAL TEMP TEMP PRES FFACT MFOR(X, Y, Z) MMOM(X, Y, Z) SFACTI, SFACTJ STH SPR2 SMI,SMJ SDIR SBEND ST SSF S(1MX, 3MN, INTMX, EQVMX) S(1, 3, INT, EQV) S(AXL, RAD, H, XH) EPEL(AXL, RAD, H, XH) EPTH(AXL, RAD, H) Definition

Page 114 of 993 O Element Number Y Nodes - I, J Y Material number Y Volume Location where results are reported Y Corrosion thickness allowance 1 TOUT(I), TIN(I), TOUT(J), TIN(J) 2 TAVG(I),T90(I), T180(I), TAVG(J), T90(J), T180(J) 3 PINT, PX, PY, PZ, POUT Y Element flexibility factor Member forces for nodes I and J (in the element coordinate system) 4 Member moments for nodes I and J (in the element coordinate system) 4 Stress intensification factors at nodes I and J Y Stress due to maximum thermal gradient through the wall thickness Y Hoop pressure stress for code calculations Moment stress at nodes I and J for code calculations Direct (axial) stress Maximum bending stress at outer surface Shear stress at outer surface due to torsion Shear stress due to shear force Maximum principal stress, minimum principal stress, maximum stress Y intensity, maximum equivalent stress (all at the outer surface) Maximum principal stress, minimum principal stress, stress intensity, 5 equivalent stress Axial, radial, hoop, and shear stresses Axial, radial, hoop, and shear strains Axial, radial, and hoop thermal strain R Y Y Y Y 6 1 2 3 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 5

5 5 5 5 5 5

1. If the value is greater than 0. 2. If KEYOPT(1) = 0 3. If KEYOPT(1) = 1 4. If KEYOPT(6) = 2 5. The item repeats at 0,45,90,135,180,225,270,315 at node I, then at node J (all at the outer surface) 6. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.

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The following tables list output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. The following notation is used in PIPE18 Item and Sequence Numbers through PIPE18 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the PIPE18 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I,J sequence number for data at nodes I and J PIPE18 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Node I Circumferential Location Name SAXL SRAD SH SXH EPELAXL EPELRAD EPELH EPELXH EPTHAXL EPTHRAD EPTHH S1 S3 SINT SEQV SBEND SSF MFORX MFORY MFORZ Item LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 - 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 - 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 - 3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 - 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 - 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 - 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 - 3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 - 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 - 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 - 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 - 3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 - 1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 - 3 8 13 18 23 28 33 38 - 4 9 14 19 24 29 34 39 - 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 91 - 92 - 1 - 2 - 3 - -

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Element Library MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SDIR ST TOUT TIN SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC LBFE LBFE 4 5 6 13 14 4 8 1 5 2 6 3 7 -

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PIPE18 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Node J Circumferential Location Name SAXL SRAD SH SXH EPELAXL EPELRAD EPELH EPELXH EPTHAXL EPTHRAD EPTHH S1 S3 SINT SEQV SBEND SSF MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SDIR ST TOUT TIN Item LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC LBFE LBFE E 0 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 41 - 43 - 44 - 45 93 94 7 8 9 10 11 12 15 16 - 12 - 16 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 48 53 58 63 68 73 78 49 54 59 64 69 74 79 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 9 10 11 - 13 14 15 -

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Element Library PIPE18 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name SFACTI SFACTJ SPR2 SMI SMJ S1MX S3MN SINTMX SEQVMX FFACT STH PINT PX PY PZ POUT Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 17 18 19 20 21 22

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**Assumptions and Restrictions
**

The curved pipe must not have a zero length or wall thickness. In addition, the O.D. must not be less than or equal to zero and the I.D. must not be less than zero. The corrosion allowance must be less than the wall thickness. The element is limited to having an axis with a single curvature and a subtended angle of 0 < 90 . Shear deflection capability is also included in the element formulation. The elbow is assumed to have "closed ends" so that the axial pressure effect is included. When used in a large deflection analysis, the location of the third node (K) is used only to initially orient the element.

Product Restrictions

When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. ANSYS/Professional

?

The DAMP material property is not allowed. The only special feature allowed is large deflection.

?

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PIPE20

Name

PIPE20 — Plastic Straight Pipe product: MP ME ST PP ED

Element Description

PIPE20 is a uniaxial element with tension-compression, bending, and torsion capabilities. The element has six degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal, x, y, and z directions, and rotations about the nodal x, y, and z axes. The element has plastic, creep and swelling capabilities. If these effects are not needed, the elastic pipe element, PIPE16, may be used. An option is available for printing the forces and moments acting on the element in the element coordinate system. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for more details about this element. See PIPE60 for a plastic curved pipe element. PIPE20 Plastic Straight Pipe

Input Data

The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in PIPE20. The element input data include two nodes, the pipe outer diameter and wall thickness, optional stress factors, and the isotropic material properties. The element X-axis is oriented from node I toward node J. The element y-axis is automatically calculated to be parallel to the global X-Y plane. Several orientations are shown in PIPE20. For the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

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case where the element is parallel to the global Z-axis (or within a 0.01 percent slope of it), the element Y-axis is oriented parallel to the global Y-axis (as shown). Input and output locations around the pipe circumference identified as being at 0 are located along the element Y-axis, and similarly 90 is along the element Z-axis. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on PIPE20. Internal pressure (PINT) and external pressure (POUT) are input as positive values. The transverse pressures (PX, PY, and PZ) may represent wind or drag loads (per unit length of the pipe) and are defined in the global Cartesian directions. Positive transverse pressures act in the positive coordinate directions. Tapered pressures are not recognized. Only constant pressures are supported for this element. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for details. Temperatures and fluences may be input as element body loads at the nodes. The first temperature (TAVG at node I) defaults to TUNIF. If all temperatures after the first are unspecified, they default to the first. If all temperatures at node I are input, and all temperatures at node J are unspecified, the node J temperatures default to the corresponding node I temperatures. For any other pattern of input temperatures, unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. Similar defaults occurs for fluence except that zero is used instead of TUNIF. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. Element Input gives a general description of element input.

**PIPE20 Input Summary
**

Element Name PIPE20 Nodes I, J (node I defines end 1) Degrees of Freedom UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ Real Constants OD, TKWALL, SIFI, SIFJ (SIFI, SIFJ used only if KEYOPT (2) = 4) Material Properties EX, ALPX, PRXY or NUXY, DENS, GXY, DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -1-PINT, 2-PX, 3-PY, 4-PZ, 5-POUT Body Loads Temperatures -TAVG ( I ), T90 ( I ), T180 ( I ), TAVG ( J ), T90 ( J ), T180 ( J ) Fluences -FLAVG ( I ), FL90 ( I ), FL180 ( I ), FLAVG ( J ), FL90 ( J ), FL180 ( J ) Special Features Plasticity, Creep, Swelling, Stress stiffening, Large deflection, Birth and death. KEYOPT(2) 0 -No stress intensification factors 4 -Include stress intensification factors at nodes I and J as input with real constants

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Output Data

The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:

?

nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in PIPE20 Element Output Definitions

?

The meaning of THETA is illustrated in Stress output. The nonlinear solution is given at eight circumferential locations at both ends of the pipe. The linear solution, similar to that for PIPE16, is also printed as long as the element remains elastic. The initial elastic bending stresses (SBEND) are multiplied by the input stress intensification factors (SIFI and SIFJ) for KEYOPT(2) = 4, provided they are greater than 1.0. No multiplication is done for any other stresses, or for plasticity. Solution Output gives a general description of solution output. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. PIPE20 Stress Output

The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE, ESOL]. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. In either the O or R columns, Y indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and a - indicates that the item is not available. PIPE20 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT Element Number Nodes - I, J Material number Definition O Y Y Y R Y Y Y

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Element Library VOLU: XC, YC, ZC TEMP FLUEN PRES MFOR(X, Y, Z) MMOM(X, Y, Z) SDIR SBEND ST SSF S1MX, S3MN, SINTMX, SEQVMX S(AXL, RAD, H, XH) S(1, 3, INT, EQV) EPEL(AXL, RAD, H, XH) EPTH(AXL, RAD, H) EPPL(AXL, RAD, H, XH) EPCR(AXL, RAD, H, XH) SRAT EPEQ HPRES SEPL EPSWAXL

Page 121 of 993 Volume Location where results are reported Temperatures TAVG(I), T90(I), T180(I), TAVG(J), T90(J), T180(J) Fluences FLAVG(I), FL90(I), FL180(I), FLAVG(J), FL90(J), FL180(J) Pressures PINT, PX, PY, PZ, POUT Member forces for nodes I and J (in the element coordinate system) Member moments for nodes I and J (in the element coordinate system) Direct (axial) stress Maximum bending stress at outer surface Shear stress at outer surface due to torsion Shear stress due to shear force Maximum principal stress, minimum principal stress, maximum Maximum stress intensity, maximum equivalent stress all at the outer surface (based on SDIR, SBEND, ST, SSF but also accounting for the values of S1, S3, SINT, SEQV given below) Axial, radial, hoop, and shear stresses Maximum principal stress, minimum principal stress, stress intensity, equivalent stress Axial, radial, hoop, and shear strains Axial, radial, and hoop thermal strain Axial, radial, hoop, and shear plastic strains Axial, radial, hoop, and shear creep strains Ratio of trial stress to stress on yield surface Equivalent plastic strain Hydrostatic pressure Equivalent stress from stress-strain curve Axial swelling strain Y Y Y Y 1 Y 4 Y Y Y 1

1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

1. If KEYOPT(6) = 1 2. Initial elastic solution only before yield 3. The item repeats for THETA = 0,45,90,135,180,225,270,315 at node I, then at node J, all at the mid-thickness of the wall 4. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. The following tables list output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) of the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. The following notation file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

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is used in PIPE20 Item and Sequence Numbers, Node I through PIPE20 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the PIPE20 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I,J sequence number for data at nodes I and J PIPE20 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Node I Circumferential Location Name SAXL SRAD SH SXH EPELAXL EPELRAD EPELH EPELXH EPTHAXL EPTHRAD EPTHH EPSWAXL EPPLAXL EPPLRAD EPPLH EPPLXH EPCRAXL EPCRRAD EPCRH EPCRXH SEPL Item LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPPL LEPPL LEPPL LEPPL LEPCR LEPCR LEPCR LEPCR NLIN E 0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 - 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 - 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 - 3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 - 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 - 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 - 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 - 3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 - 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 - 1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 - 2 7 12 17 22 27 32 37 - 3 8 13 18 23 28 33 38 - 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 - 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 - 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 - 3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 - 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 - 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 - 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 - 3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 - 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 - 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29

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Element Library SRAT HPRES EPEQ S1 S3 SINT SEQV SBEND SSF FOUT FIN TOUT TIN MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SDIR ST NLIN NLIN NLIN NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC LBFE LBFE SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 81 82 1 2 3 4 5 6 13 14 2 6 3 7 4 8 1 6 3 8 4 9 5 10 - - 88 92 4 8 - - - - - - - - 10 11 12 11 13 14 15 85 89 1 5 14 15 16 16 18 19 20 18 19 20 21 23 24 25 86 90 2 6 22 23 24 26 28 29 30 26 27 28 31 33 34 35 87 91 3 7 30 31 32 36 38 39 40 -

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PIPE20 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Node J Circumferential Location Name SAXL SRAD SH SXH EPELAXL EPELRAD EPELH EPELXH EPTHAXL EPTHRAD EPTHH EPSWAXL EPPLAXL EPPLRAD Item LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPPL LEPPL E 0 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 41 - 42 - 43 - 45 - 33 - 34 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 47 52 57 62 67 72 77 48 53 58 63 68 73 78 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 38 42 46 50 54 58 62

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Element Library EPPLH EPPLXH EPCRAXL EPCRRAD EPCRH EPCRXH SEPL SRAT HPRES EPEQ S1 S3 SINT SEQV SBEND SSF FOUT FIN TOUT TIN MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SDIR ST LEPPL LEPPL LEPCR LEPCR LEPCR LEPCR NLIN NLIN NLIN NLIN NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC LBFE LBFE SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 83 84 7 8 9 10 11 12 15 16 35 36 33 34 35 36 33 34 35 36 41 43 44 45 96 100 12 16 39 40 37 38 39 40 37 38 39 40 46 48 49 50 43 44 41 42 43 44 41 42 43 44 51 53 54 55 93 97 9 13 47 48 45 46 47 48 45 46 47 48 56 58 59 60 51 52 49 50 51 52 49 50 51 52 61 63 64 65 94 98 10 14 55 56 53 54 55 56 53 54 55 56 66 68 69 70 59 60 57 58 59 60 57 58 59 60 71 73 74 75 95 99 11 15 63 64 61 62 63 64 61 62 63 64 76 78 79 80 -

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PIPE20 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name PINT PX PY PZ POUT Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 17 18 19 20 21

**Assumptions and Restrictions
**

The pipe element is assumed to have "closed ends" so that the axial pressure effect is included. The equations used in the development of this element are the standard equations for small deflection of

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beams, including shear deflections. All calculations are based on thin-wall theory. The average wall temperature at = 0 is computed as 2 * TAVG - T(180) and the average wall temperature at = -90 is computed as 2 * TAVG - T(90). The element temperatures are assumed to be linear along the length. Stress intensification factors input with values less than 1.0 are set to 1.0.

Product Restrictions

There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.

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MASS21

Name

MASS21 — Structural Mass product: MP ME ST PR PP ED

Element Description

MASS21 is a point element having up to six degrees of freedom: translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions and rotations about the nodal x, y, and z axes. A different mass and rotary inertia may be assigned to each coordinate direction. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for more details about this element. Another element with a full mass matrix capability (off-diagonal terms) is MATRIX27. MASS21 Structural Mass

Input Data

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in the element coordinate directions, and rotary inertias (Force*Length*Time 2) about the element coordinate axes. The element coordinate system may be initially parallel to the global Cartesian coordinate system or to the nodal coordinate system (KEYOPT(2)). See Elements that Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System for a discussion of elements that operate in the nodal coordinate system. The element coordinate system rotates with the nodal coordinate rotations during a large deflection analysis. Options are available to exclude the rotary inertia effects and to reduce the element to a two-dimensional capability (KEYOPT(3)). If the element requires only one mass input, it is assumed to act in all appropriate coordinate directions. The coordinate system for this element is shown in MASS21 - Structural Mass. KEYOPT(1) = 1 defines the mass in volume*density form, which allows plotting of the mass using /ESHAPE, as well as the use of a temperature-dependent density. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. Element Input gives a general description of element input.

**MASS21 Input Summary
**

Element Name MASS21 Nodes I Degrees of Freedom UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ if KEYOPT (3) = 0 UX, UY, UZ if KEYOPT (3) = 2 UX, UY, ROTZ if KEYOPT (3) = 3 UX, UY if KEYOPT (3) = 4 (degrees of freedom are in the nodal coordinate system) Real Constants MASSX, MASSY, MASSZ, IXX, IYY, IZZ if KEYOPT (3) = 0 MASS if KEYOPT (3) = 2 MASS, IZZ if KEYOPT (3) = 3 MASS if KEYOPT (3) = 4 (Mass and rotary inertia directions are in the element coordinate system; see also KEYOPT (2) ). Material Properties DENS (if KEYOPT(1) = 1) Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features Large deflection, Birth and death. KEYOPT(1) 0 -Interpret real constants as masses and rotary inertias 1 -Interpret real constants as volumes and rotary inertias/density (Density must be input as a material property)

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Element Library KEYOPT(2) 0 --

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Element coordinate system is initially parallel to the global Cartesian coordinate system 1 -Element coordinate system is initially parallel to the nodal coordinate system (see Elements that Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System) KEYOPT(3) 0 -3-D mass with rotary inertia 2 -3-D mass without rotary inertia 3 -2-D mass with rotary inertia 4 -2-D mass without rotary inertia

Output Data

Nodal displacements are included in the overall displacement solution. There is no printed or post element data output for the mass element.

**Assumptions and Restrictions
**

2-D elements are assumed to be in a global Cartesian Z = constant plane. If you specify KEYOPT(2) = 1, the element operates in the nodal coordinate system (see Elements that Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System). The mass element has no effect on the static analysis solution unless acceleration or rotation is present, or inertial relief is selected [IRLF]. The standard mass summary printout is based on the average of MASSX, MASSY, and MASSZ if (KEYOPT(3) = 0). In an inertial relief analysis, the full matrix is used. All terms are used during the analysis.

Product Restrictions

When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. ANSYS/Professional The only special feature allowed is large deflection.

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BEAM23

Name

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Element Library BEAM23 — 2-D Plastic Beam product: MP ME ST PP ED

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Element Description

BEAM23 is a uniaxial element with tension-compression and bending capabilities. The element has three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y direction and rotation about the nodal z-axis. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for more details about this element. The element has plastic, creep, and swelling capabilities. If these effects are not needed, BEAM3, the two-dimensional elastic beam, may be used. See BEAM54 for a two -dimensional tapered elastic beam. BEAM23 2-D Plastic Beam

Input Data

The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in BEAM23. Any one of four cross-sections may be selected with the appropriate value of KEYOPT(6). The element is defined by two nodes, the cross-sectional area, moment of inertia, the height for rectangular beams, the outer diameter (OD), and the wall thickness (TKWALL), for thin-walled pipes, the outer diameter for solid circular bars, and the isotropic material properties. The general cross-section option (KEYOPT(6) = 4) allows inputting a section height and a fivelocation area distribution. If the section is symmetric, only the first three of the five areas need be input since the fourth area defaults to the second and the fifth area defaults to the first. The areas input should be a weighted distribution at the -50% integration point A(-50), the -30% integration point A(-30), the 0% integration point A(0), the 30% integration point A(30), and the 50% integration point A(50). Each area A(i) is as shown in Characteristics. The height is defined as the distance between the ± 50% integration points, and is not necessarily the distance between the outermost fibers of the section. Determination of the input areas is accomplished as follows. Estimate one of the input areas by the formula A(i) = L(i) x HEIGHT, where L(i) is the width of the section at integration point i (see Characteristics b). Substitute this area along with the section moment of

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inertia, I zz , and total area, A, into the above equations and solve them simultaneously for the remaining two input areas. A(0) is usually the easiest to estimate; for instance, as a first guess A(0) for an I-beam would be the web thickness times the height. A trial and error procedure (by modifying the estimated input area) may be needed if the calculated input areas are inconsistent, such as a negative area. The input areas, A(i), are related to the true areas, A t(i), corresponding to each integration point, by: At (-50) = 0.0625 A(-50), A t (50) = 0.0625 A(50), At(-30) = 0.28935 A(-30), At (30) = 0.28935 A(30), A t (0) = 0.29630 A(0) Shear deflection may be controlled with the KEYOPT(2) value. The shear deflection constant (SHEARZ) is input only for the general cross-section. See Shear Deflection for details. The shear modulus (GXY) is used only with shear deflection. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on BEAM23. Positive normal pressures act into the element. Lateral pressures are input as a force per unit length. End "pressures" are input as a force. KEYOPT(10) allows tapered lateral pressures to be offset from the nodes. Temperatures and fluences may be input as element body loads at the four "corner" locations shown in BEAM23. The first corner temperature T1 defaults to TUNIF. If all other temperatures are unspecified, they default to T1. If only T1 and T2 are input, T3 defaults to T2 and T4 defaults to T1. For any other input pattern, unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. Similar defaults occurs for fluence except that zero is used instead of TUNIF. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. Element Input gives a general description of element input.

**BEAM23 Input Summary
**

Element Name BEAM23 Nodes I, J Degrees of Freedom UX, UY, ROTZ Real Constants AREA, IZZ, HEIGHT if KEYOPT (6) = 0, or OUTER DIAMETER, WALL THICKNESS if KEYOPT (6) = 1, or OUTER DIAMETER if KEYOPT (6) = 2, or HEIGHT, A (-50), A (-30), A (0), A (30), A (50), and SHEARZ if KEYOPT (6) = 4 Material Properties EX, ALPX, DENS, GXY, DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (I-J) (-Y normal direction), face 2 (I-J) (+X tangential direction), face 3 (I) (+X axial direction), face 4 (J) (-X axial direction) (use negative value for loading in opposite direction) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

Element Library Body Loads Temperatures -T1, T2, T3, T4 Fluences -FL1, FL2, FL3, FL4 Special Features Plasticity, Creep, Swelling, Stress stiffening, Large deflection, Large strain, Birth and death. KEYOPT(2) 0 -No shear deflection 1 -Include shear deflection (also input SHEARZ if KEYOPT(6) = 4) KEYOPT(4) 0 -No printout of member forces and moments 1 -Print out member forces and moments in the element coordinate system KEYOPT(6) 0 -Rectangular section 1 -Thin walled pipe 2 -Round solid bar 4 -General section KEYOPT(10) Used only for tapered surface loads with the SFBEAM command. 0 -Offset for load placement is in terms of length units 1 -Offset is in terms of a length ratio (0.0 to 1.0)

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Output Data

The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:

?

nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in BEAM23 Element Output Explanations.

?

Several items are illustrated in Characteristics. The printout contains the stresses and strains at nine locations in the beam. The locations are at three points through the height of the element (bottom, middle, and top) at each of three axial stations (end I, mid-length, and end J). The postdata items [ETABLE] contain the stresses and strains at the five weighted-area locations (regardless of the KEYOPT(6) setting) at each of the three axial stations. Solution Output gives a general description of solution output. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

OUT.indicates that the item is not available.05. ESOL]. P2 at I. MIN) SAXL EPELAXL EPTHAXL Definition Element Number Nodes . J. 20. T3. J.Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. OFFST2 at I. In either the O or R columns. FL2. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. FL4 Pressures P1 at nodes I. YC TEMP FLUEN PRES S(MAX... T2. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.I. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. J. and a . J Material number Volume Location where results are reported Temperatures T1. J. minimum axial stress Axial stress Axial elastic strain Axial thermal strain O Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 3 Y Y Y Y . P3 at I. BEAM23 Characteristics Page 131 of 993 The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. T4 Fluences FL1. Y indicates that the item is always available.Element Library for ways to view results. P4 at J Maximum axial stress. BEAM23 Element Output Explanations Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC.2004 . OFFST1 at I. FL3.

1 2 3 4 5 EPELAXL LEPEL . Y) MMOMZ Axial swelling strain Axial creep strain Axial plastic strain Equivalent stress from stress-strain curve Ratio of trial stress to stress on yield surface Equivalent plastic strain Hydrostatic pressure Member forces for each node in the element coordinate system Member moments for each node in the element coordinate system Page 132 of 993 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Y Y 1. If KEYOPT(4) = 1 3. middle. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.05. Node I through BEAM23 Item and Sequence Numbers. 20. Node J: Name output quantity as defined in the BEAM23 Element Output Explanations Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I. The item repeats at the top.2004 .2 4 6 8 10 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. mid-length.1 3 5 7 9 EPSWAXL LEPTH .. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) of the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information.J sequence number for data at nodes I and J BEAM23 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Node I % Integration Point Name Item E -50 -30 0 30 50 SAXL LS .. The following notation is used in BEAM23 Item and Sequence Numbers. and bottom for end I.Element Library EPSWAXL EPCRAXL EPPLAXL SEPL SRAT EPEQ HPRES MFOR(X.1 2 3 4 5 EPTHAXL LEPTH .and end J 2. The following tables list output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.

2004 .05.22 26 30 34 38 NLIN .Element Library EPPLAXL EPCRAXL SEPL SRAT HPRES EPEQ MFORX MFORY MMOMZ P1 P2 P3 SMAX SMIN LEPPL LEPCR NLIN NLIN NLIN NLIN SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC 1 2 6 13 17 21 1 2 1 1 1 2 3 4 2 2 5 6 7 8 3 3 9 10 11 12 4 4 13 14 15 16 5 5 17 18 19 20 - Page 133 of 993 Corner Location 1 2 FLUEN NMISC 7 8 TEMP LBFE 1 2 BEAM23 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Mid-length % Integration Point Item E -50 -30 0 30 50 LS .6 7 8 9 10 NLIN .24 28 32 36 40 NMISC 3 ..11 13 15 17 19 LEPTH .21 25 29 33 37 NLIN .6 7 8 9 10 LEPCR .12 14 16 18 20 LEPPL .. 20.6 7 8 9 10 LEPTH ..- Name SAXL EPELAXL EPTHAXL EPSWAXL EPPLAXL EPCRAXL SEPL SRAT HPRES EPEQ SMAX SMIN BEAM23 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Node J % Integration Point file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.23 27 31 35 39 NLIN .6 7 8 9 10 LEPEL .NMISC 4 ..

Element Library Name SAXL EPELAXL EPTHAXL EPSWAXL EPPLAXL EPCRAXL SEPL SRAT HPRES EPEQ MFORX MFORY MMOMZ P1 P2 P4 SMAX SMIN Item LS LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPPL LEPCR NLIN NLIN NLIN NLIN SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC E 7 8 12 14 18 22 5 6 -50 11 11 21 22 11 11 41 42 43 44 -30 12 12 23 24 12 12 45 46 47 48 0 13 13 25 26 13 13 49 50 51 52 30 14 14 27 28 14 14 53 54 55 56 50 15 15 29 30 15 15 57 58 59 60 - Page 134 of 993 Corner Location 3 4 FLUEN NMISC .2004 .. the input area. The height is used in calculating the bending and thermal stresses and for locating the integration points. For the rectangular section (KEYOPT(6) = 0). Prev MASS21 Prev BEAM24 Element Library Next BEAM24 Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The effect of implied offsets on the mass matrix (possible with KEYOPT (6) = 4) is ignored if the lumped mass matrix formulation is specified [LUMPM.05.. The beam element must lie in an X-Y plane and must not have a zero length or area. and height should be consistent with each other.9 10 TEMP LBFE . Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.3 4 Assumptions and Restrictions The applied thermal gradient is assumed linear across the height of the element and along its length. moment of inertia.ON]. 20.

creep. Any open cross section or single-celled closed section can be used. Theory Reference for more details about this element.05. the location of node K is used only to initially orient the element. Other beam elements also having plastic. bending and St.. The element is defined by nodes I and J in the global coordinate system. If these capabilities are not needed. Venant torsional capabilities. The element has six degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. Node K is always required to define the element axis system and it must not be colinear with nodes I and J. and z directions and rotations about the x. see Meshing Your Solid Model of the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The element also has stress stiffening. creep. The element has plastic. y. large deflection and shear deflection capabilities. the elastic beams BEAM4 or BEAM44 may be used. The orientation of the beam about its longitudinal axis is specified by a third node. See the ANSYS. The element x axis runs parallel to the centroidal line of the element and through nodes I and J. The cross section is defined by a series of rectangular segments. and z axes. y. If this element is used in large deflection analysis. (For information about orientation nodes and beam meshing. Inc. Node K defines a plane (with I and J) containing the element z axis. and swelling capabilities in the axial direction as well as a userdefined cross section. 20. BEAM24 3-D Thin -walled Beam Input Data The geometry. and swelling capabilities are PIPE20 and BEAM23.Element Library Page 135 of 993 BEAM24 Name BEAM24 — 3-D Thin-walled Beam product: MP ME ST PP ED Element Description BEAM24 is a uniaxial element of arbitrary cross section (open or closed) with tension-compression..2004 . node locations. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in BEAM24.

6. Otherwise.1] and [EPLOT]). z) of 20 segment points in the element y-z plane and the thickness of the corresponding segment (TK) in a (y.05. The thickness in (y.0E-8 units apart in either the y or z direction. at end I and end J respectively. Segments may be given a zero thickness in order to backtrack over previously defined segments to continue the outline. Multiple-celled closed sections (such as a double box beam) are not allowed. z. The remaining real constants. SHEARZ and SHEARY. they cannot enclose an area (see Valid and invalid uses. Zero thickness (backtrack) segments must follow the original geometry. are the shear deflection constants and are computed in the principal coordinate system. 2. A zero thickness segment cannot be used anywhere in the outline of a closed loop (Valid and invalid uses. where the dashed lines represent zero thickness segments). the points are considered coincident. Forces are applied at the nodes (which also define the element x-axis). TK) format. measured positive from the node in the element x direction. Consecutive segment points must be a distance of at least 1. sections a and b. The centroid and shear center locations of the beam.Element Library Page 136 of 993 The cross section is input as a continuous series of straight segments in the element y-z plane. TK) is the thickness of the segment that is defined by this point and the previous point. If the centroidal axis is not file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. The input consists of the coordinates (y. e). The thickness of the first point is therefore not used and should be zero... 5.2004 . sections d. Valid and invalid uses of BEAM24 The user is urged to verify the cross section input by the calculated cross-section parameters in the element output and the geometry shape display ([/ESHAPE. A zero value of SHEAR_ may be used to neglect shear deflection in a particular direction. with respect to the origin. i. The segments are input such that they make a continuous outline of the cross section the end point of one segment is the beginning point of the next segment. Real constants DXI and DXJ define the rigid nodal offsets. section c). The element real constants are used to describe the cross section of the beam. 4. 20. Input Restrictions 1. z. Not all 20 points need to be used in defining the cross section.e. define the implied nodal offsets (unless KEYOPT(3) is used). 3. A straight zero thickness line need not have the same number of segments as the original straight line (Valid and invalid uses. A single straight line cross-section is not permitted. See Shear Deflection for details. They are only used if shear deflection is to be included.

Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on BEAM24. BEAM24 Input Summary Element Name BEAM24 Nodes I. KEYOPT(3) allows the nodes to be located at the centroid or shear center. ROTZ Real Constants Y1.Y20. TK20. Temperatures and fluences may be input as element body loads at three locations at each end of the beam.05. K (node K defines orientation) Degrees of Freedom UX. KEYOPT(2) allows a reduced mass matrix formulation (lumping procedure deleting off-diagonal terms having rotational degrees of freedom terms). they default to the first. TK1. applied axial forces will cause a bending of the element. End "pressures" are input as a force.. and all temperatures at node J are unspecified. TK2. The nodes should therefore be located at the desired point of application of the forces. DENS.0)).Element Library Page 137 of 993 colinear with the element x-axis. at one unit from the x-axis in the element y direction (T(1.0)). Y2. DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (I-J) (-Z normal direction). DXJ. UY.2004 .. face 3 (I-J) (+X tangential direction). face 5 (J) (-X axial direction) (use negative value for opposite loading) Body Loads file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. SHEARY (up to 20 coordinate locations and thicknesses can be defined. Y3. GXY. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . If all temperatures at node I are input. . Similar defaults occurs for fluence except that zero is used instead of TUNIF. If all temperatures after the first are unspecified. applied shear forces will cause torsional rotation of the element. TK3.. ALPX. DXI. Z20. Z3. 20. The fluences are input in the same manner at both ends of the beam. face 4 (I) (+X axial direction). ROTX. A similar temperature occurs at end J. the node J temperatures default to the corresponding node I temperatures. Z2. use blanks for undefined sets) Material Properties EX. ROTY. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. This option is normally used only for very long. thin members. and at one unit from the x-axis in the element z direction (T(0. Element Input gives a general description of element input.1)). A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. For any other input pattern. UZ. Positive normal pressures act into the element. face 2 (I-J) (-Y normal direction). regardless of the location of the y-z origin (the default node location).0) defaults to TUNIF. SHEARZ. Lateral pressures are input as a force per unit length. The first coordinate temperature T(0. If the axis through the shear center is not colinear with the element x-axis.. At end I. Z1. the element temperatures are input (see BEAM24) at the element x-axis (T (0. J.

T (1. there is no shear deflection in the principal Y direction. same at node J Special Features Stress stiffening. Large deflection.0. same at node J Fluences -FL (0..1) at node I. Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in BEAM24 Element Output Definitions. FL (0.. T (0.1) at node I.Element Library Page 138 of 993 Temperatures -T (0.05.0).0). Birth and death. 20. KEYOPT(1) 0 -No printout of additional cross-section check data 1 -Print additional cross-section check data KEYOPT(2) 0 -Consistent mass matrix 1 -Reduced mass matrix KEYOPT(3) 0 -Origin of element Y-Z axes at nodes 1 -Centroid of element at nodes 2 -Shear center of element at nodes KEYOPT(6) 0 -No member force printout 1 -Print member forces and moments in the principal coordinate system KEYOPT(10) Used only for tapered surface loads with the SFBEAM command 0 -Offset for load placement is in terms of length units 1 -Offset is in terms of a length ratio (0.0) Note SHEARZ and SHEARY correspond to the principal coordinate system.0 to 1. Creep.0).2004 . If SHEARZ = 0. ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.0). SHEARZ goes with IZP and SHEARY goes with IYP. Plasticity. FL (1. Swelling.

The solution header (printed only once per element per run) consists of the calculated cross-sectional parameters: centroid and shear center location.Element Library Page 139 of 993 In addition.05. and a . In either the O or R columns. minimum axial stress Centroid location (Y. ZC PRES TEMP FLUEN S(MAX. MIN) CENTROID SHEAR CENTER AREA J IW IYP IZP THETAP END PT TEMP SAXL EPELAXL Definition Element Number Nodes . T(0.2004 . P2 at I. Solution Output gives a general description of solution output. K Material number Volume Location where results are reported Pressures P1 at nodes I..I. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. and the principal moments of inertia along with the angle ( p ) between the element y-axis and one of the principal axes. area. YC. The computed output consists of the axial stresses and strains at each segment point.Z) Cross-sectional area Torsional constant Warping moment of inertia Moment of inertia about principal Y axis Moment of inertia about principal Z axis Rotation angle (radians) from elem. P4 at I. same at node J Maximum axial stress.0). 20.0). printout of the segment point locations and other cross section data can be obtained with KEYOPT(1) = 1.0). the 12-member forces and moments (6 at each end) are also printed in the principal coordinate system. BEAM24 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. J. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. torsional constant. Y-axis to princ. warping moment of inertia. A coincident segment point is not printed but is output for postprocessing. T(1. Y-axis End I or end J Segment point number (1-20) Temperature Axial stress Axial elastic strain O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 3 Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. If KEYOPT(6) = 1. P5 at J Temperatures T(0. same at node J Fluences FL(0.J.indicates that the item is not available.OUT. Y indicates that the item is always available. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.1) at node I. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.Z) Shear center location (Y. P3 at I.. FL(0.1) at node I. ESOL]. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE.J.0). FL(1. J.

See The General Postprocessor (POST1) of the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. BEAM24 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. Z) Page 140 of 993 Axial thermal strain Axial swelling strain Axial creep strain Axial plastic strain Equivalent stress from stress-strain curve Ratio of trial stress to stress on yield surface Equivalent plastic strain Hydrostatic pressure Member forces for each node in the principal coordinate system Member moments for each node in the principal coordinate system 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Y Y 1.. 20. If KEYOPT(6) = 1 3. Y.J sequence number for data at nodes I and J BEAM24 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name SAXL EPELAXL EPTHAXL EPSWAXL EPPLAXL EPCRAXL SEPL SRAT HPRES Item LS LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPPL LEPCR NLIN NLIN NLIN I i i 2*i-1 2*i i i 4*i-3 4*i-2 4*i-1 J 20+i 20+i 40+(2*i-1) 40+(2*i) 20+i 20+i 80+(4*i-3) 80+(4*i-2) 80+(4*i-1) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Element Library EPTHAXL EPSWAXL EPCRAXL EPPLAXL SEPL SRAT EPEQ HPRES MFOR(X.2004 . Z) MMOM(X. The following notation is used in BEAM24 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the BEAM24 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command I. Y.. The segment point solution value for the specified END and PT 2.05.

Element Library EPEQ MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 SMAX SMIN FL(0. Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.05. Prev Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1) NLIN SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC LBFE LBFE LBFE 4*i 1 2 3 4 5 6 13 17 21 25 1 2 5 6 7 1 2 3 80+(4*i) 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 18 22 26 3 4 8 9 10 4 5 6 Page 141 of 993 Note The i in BEAM24 Item and Sequence Numbers refers to a segment point of the beam where 1 i 20. the torsional rotation of the cross section is assumed to vary linearly along the length. 20. Nonlinear material effects are only included in the axial direction (shear and torsional nonlinear material effects are neglected).2004 .0) FL(0. The beam can have any open or single-cell closed crosssectional shape for which the area and moments of inertia are nonzero.0) T(0. Warping of the cross section is unconstrained and is the same for all cross sections.ON]. The beam is assumed to be thin-walled (small strain) with a non-deforming cross section..1) T(0. Assumptions and Restrictions The beam must not have a zero length. The effect of implied offsets on the mass matrix is ignored if the lumped mass matrix formulation is specified [LUMPM.0) T(1.0) FL(1. therefore. Warping torsion is assumed negligible and the warping moment of inertia is not used in the stiffness computation..

See PLANE83 for a multi-node version of this element. and z direction. axial. y. Theory Reference for more details about this element. these directions correspond to the radial. Examples of such loading are bending. respectively. in that the loading need not be axisymmetric. The element is defined by four nodes having three degrees of freedom per node: translations in the nodal x.Element Library BEAM23 Prev PLANE25 Element Library Page 142 of 993 PLANE25 Next PLANE25 Name PLANE25 — Axisymmetric-Harmonic 4-Node Structural Solid product: MP ME ST PP ED Element Description PLANE25 is used for two-dimensional modeling of axisymmetric structures with nonaxisymmetric loading. and tangential directions. See the ANSYS. shear. 20. Inc. For unrotated nodal coordinates... or torsion.2004 . See Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads for a description of various loading cases.05. the 2-D structural solid element. PLANE25 Axisymmetric-Harmonic 4-Node Structural Solid Input Data file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The element is a generalization of the axisymmetric version of PLANE42.

the element behaves similar to the axisymmetric case of PLANE42. Harmonically varying temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. Harmonically varying pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on PLANE25. J. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary.2004 . DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (J-I). Harmonically varying nodal forces. PRYZ. should be input on a full 360 basis. L Degrees of Freedom UX. The material may be orthotropic. NUYZ. ALPZ. face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Temperatures -T ( I ). KEYOPT(2) is used to include or suppress the extra displacement shapes. material properties are always evaluated at the average element temperature. If MODE equals zero. and (6) provide various element printout options (see Element Solution). (5). K. 20. node locations. KEYOPT(4). GXY. GXZ.Element Library Page 143 of 993 The geometry. face 2 (K-J). the symmetry condition (ISYM on the MODE command) and the orthotropic material properties. For any other input pattern. Element Input gives a general description of element input. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. the number of harmonic waves (MODE on the MODE command). If MODE = 0. If all other temperatures are unspecified. NUXZ). PRXZ (or NUXY. GYZ. T ( L ) Mode Number -Input mode number on MODE command file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. if any. EY. Material properties may only be evaluated at a constant (nonharmonically varying) temperature. KEYOPT(3) is used for temperature loading with MODE greater than zero and temperature dependent material properties. The element input data includes four nodes. with directions corresponding to the element coordinate directions.. face 3 (L-K). ALPY. Positive pressures act into the element. UZ Real Constants None Material Properties EX. they default to T(I). DENS. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems. ALPX.05. The MODE and ISYM parameters are discussed in detail in Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in PLANE25. T ( K ).. PRXY. T ( J ). EZ. PLANE25 Input Summary Element Name PLANE25 Nodes I. UY.

Element Library Page 144 of 993 Loading Condition -Input this value for ISYM on MODE command 1 -Symmetric loading -1 -Anti-symmetric loading Special Features Stress stiffening. and ALPZ must all be zero) KEYOPT(4) Controls solution printout: 0 -Basic element solution 1 -Repeat basic solution for all integration points 2 -Nodal Stress Solution KEYOPT(5) Controls combined stress output: 0 -No combined stress solution 1 -Combined stress solution at centroid and nodes KEYOPT(6) Controls surface printout.ALPX.. KEYOPT(2) 0 -Include extra displacement shapes 1 -Suppress extra displacement shapes KEYOPT(3) Used only for mode greater than zero 0 -Use temperatures for thermal bending (evaluate material properties at TREF) 1 -Use temperatures for material property evaluation (Thermal bending not permitted . ALPY.2004 . 20. Surface solution is valid only for isotropic materials. Birth and death KEYOPT(1) 0 -Element coordinate system is parallel to the global coordinate system 1 -Element coordinate system is based on the element I-J side.05.. 0 -Basic element solution 1 -Surface solution for face I-J also 2 -- file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

the shear stresses on surfaces I-J and K-L are analogous to the centroidal SYZ in both definition and sign.). PLANE25 Stress Output The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. Solution Output gives a general description of solution output. For more information about harmonic elements.Element Library Surface solution for both faces I-J and K-L also Page 145 of 993 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in PLANE25 Element Output Definitions. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. in the MODE = 1.2004 . In either the O or R columns. The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system.. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. ISYM = 1 loading case. ? Several items are illustrated in Stress output. UX and UY are the peak values at =0 and UZ is the peak value at = 90 . see Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads The sign convention on the surface shears is such that for a rectangular element that is lined up parallel to the axes with node J in the positive Y direction from node I.OUT. We recommend that you always use the angle field on the SET command when postprocessing the results. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.. For example. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. Stress components which are inherently zero for a load case are printed for clarity. ESOL]. FY.05. 20.indicates that the item is not file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Y indicates that the item is always available. In the displacement printout. etc. The same occurs for the reaction forces (FX. and a . the UZ component is out-of-phase with the UX and UY components.

XZ S: 1. K. axial -hoop. 2. SH) S(PAR. Z. radial-hoop) at PK ANG locations Principal stresses at both PK ANG locations as well as where extreme occurs (EXTR). if MODE = 0. L Material number Loading key: 1 = symmetric. PER. Stress intensity at both PK ANG locations as well as where extreme occurs (EXTR). T(J). XY EPEL: EQV EPTH: X. only one location is given. Y. only one location is given. P4 at I. Blank if MODE = 0. 3.Y 1 1 . The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP. YZ. perpendicular.PRXY).K. PLANE25 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT ISYM MODE VOLU: PRES TEMP PK ANG XC. Location where results are reported Direct stresses (radial. Elastic strain Equivalent elastic strain [4] Average thermal strains Equivalent thermal strain [4] Face label Surface average temperature Surface strains (parallel. axial. 20. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Y.05. SH) Definition Page 146 of 993 Element Number Nodes . 3 S:INT S: EQV EPEL: X. 4. P2 at K. Available only at centroid as a *GET item..Element Library available. -1 = anti-symmetric Number of waves in loading Volume Pressure P1 at nodes J.. Y. if MODE = 0. J.2004 . XY EPTH: EQV FACE TEMP EPEL(PAR. Equivalent stress at both PK ANG locations as well as where extreme occurs (EXTR). PER. Z. shear) at PK ANG locations and where extreme occurs (EXTR) Surface stresses (parallel. Z. only one location is given.1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1. if MODE = 0. 2. perpendicular.I. These items are printed only if KEYOPT(6) is greater than zero. T(L) Angle where component stresses have peak values: 0 and 90/MODE degrees.J. These items are output only if KEYOPT(5) = 1. Z S: XY. T(K). hoop. Z. YC S: X. shear) at PK ANG locations and where extreme occurs (EXTR) O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 3 Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 Y Y .L Temperatures T(I).I. P3 at L. hoop) at PK ANG locations Shear stresses (radial-axial. hoop.

The following notation is used in PLANE25 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the PLANE25 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I..J.J.05.Element Library Page 147 of 993 PLANE25 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.L PLANE25 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name P1 P2 P3 P4 Item I J K SMISC 2 1 SMISC ..4 3 SMISC . See The General Postprocessor (POST1) of the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information.2004 .L sequence number for data at nodes I.THETA = 0 S1 NMISC 1 16 31 S2 NMISC 2 17 32 S3 NMISC 3 18 33 SINT NMISC 4 19 34 SEQV NMISC 5 20 35 THETA = 90/MODE S1 NMISC 6 21 36 S2 NMISC 7 22 37 S3 NMISC 8 23 38 SINT NMISC 9 24 39 SEQV NMISC 10 25 40 EXTR Values S1 NMISC 11 26 41 S2 NMISC 12 27 42 S3 NMISC 13 28 43 SINT NMISC 14 29 44 SEQV NMISC 15 30 45 L 5 8 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.K. 20..6 SMISC 7 .K.

If MODE = 0. 20. Surface stress printout is valid only if the conditions described in Element Solution are met. KEYOPT(5) = 1. Prev BEAM24 Prev CONTAC26 Element Library Next CONTAC26 Next CONTAC26 Name CONTAC26 — 2-D Point-to-Ground Contact product: MP ME ST PP ED Element Description CONTAC26 is a gap element representing a surface which will resist penetration by a node..Element Library Page 148 of 993 Note The NMISC items (1 thru 60) in the above table represent the combined stress solution.0) loads to generate the stress state used for stress stiffened modal analyses using this element. The file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The element should not be used with the large deflection option.. Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.2004 . See Surface Solution Index of this manual for the item and sequence numbers for surface output for the ETABLE command. The extra shapes are automatically deleted for triangular elements so that a constant strain element results. The element assumes a linear elastic material. The element must be defined in the global X-Y plane as shown in PLANE25 and the global X-axis must be the radial direction. Assumptions and Restrictions The area of the element must be positive. Post-analysis superposition of results is valid only with other linear elastic solutions. their values are zero at THETA = 90/MODE and at EXTR. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements). Modeling hints: If shear effects are important in a shell-like structure. at least two elements through the thickness should be used. You can use only axisymmetric (MODE. Negative X coordinates should not be used. A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L node numbers (see Triangle.05.

and a stiffness for elastic Coulomb sliding (STIFS). Node I is the active node associated with the flexible model. Multiple elements may be defined to form a complex surface. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in CONTAC26. CONTAC26 2-D Point-to-Ground Contact Element Input Data The geometry. See Contact of the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20. surface constants. which may be defined as moving by imposed displacements. CONTAC48. Other contact elements. COMBIN40. If R is positive. node locations. For KARC = 1. The arc is formed counter-clockwise from J to K such that the angle swept by R is 180 or less. the surface extends over the counterclockwise arc from J to K. are also available.. the region greater than R is assumed to be semiinfinite and to resist penetration.Element Library Page 149 of 993 element is capable of supporting compression in the direction normal to the surface and shear (Coulomb friction) in the tangential direction. Theory Reference for more details about this element. A straight surface (R = 0) is assumed to be a rectangle having its width between nodes J and K in the x-y plane and a semi-infinite length to the right of the surface line (when viewed from node J to node K).05.2004 . The surface may also be defined to move. a normal stiffness (STIFN). such as CONTAC12. A curved surface is assumed to be an arc defined by nodes J and K and a radius |R|. If KARC = 0. The element may be initially preloaded in the normal direction or it may be given a gap specification. The surface may be straight or a circular arc. See the ANSYS. A specified stiffness acts in the normal direction when a node penetrates the surface. The element is defined by three nodes. The element has two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions.. Nodes J and K are used to define the ends of the contact surface. etc. Inc. The element may only be used to represent model-to-ground behavior. The stiffnesses should be based upon the stiffness of the surfaces in contact. model-to-model behavior cannot be represented. it extends over the counterclockwise arc from K to J. CONTAC49. the pie-shaped region toward the center is assumed to resist penetration. CONTAC52. If R is negative.

The stiffness should be on a full 360 basis for an axisymmetric analysis. contact surface is assumed to be on inside. The coefficient of friction µ is input as material property MU and is evaluated at the average of the two node temperatures.Element Library Page 150 of 993 ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for guidelines on choosing a value for STIFN. if KARC = 1.ON..05. contact surface is along arc. of arc) Material Properties MU if KEYOPT(1) = 1 Surface Loads None Body Loads Temperatures -T( I ) if KEYOPT(1) = 1 Special Features Nonlinear. A summary of the element input is given in CONTAC26. 0 -Predictions are made to achieve the minimum time (or load) increment whenever a change in contact status occurs 1 -Predictions are made to maintain a reasonable time (or load) increment (recommended) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. J.OFF.ON. R. Large deflection. and the default for STIFS is STIFN/100. STIFS (R and KARC are used only with a circular arc surface) (if KARC = 0. If SOLCONTROL. converged solution. SOLCONTROL. Adaptive descent KEYOPT(1) 0 -No friction 1 -Use coulomb friction (MU) during contact KEYOPT(7) Element level time incrementation control. 20. K Degrees of Freedom UX. In some cases (such as initial interference analyses. A default value of 1.2004 .0E9 is used for the STIFN. contact surface excludes arc) (if R is negative. KARC. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. CONTAC26 Input Summary Element Name CONTAC26 Nodes I. instead of outside. this keyoption is not activated. ON is the most frequent usage with this element. Note that this option should be activated first at the procedure level if SOLCONTROL is ON. nonconvergence. or over penetration). UY Real Constants STIFN.. it may be useful to change the STIFN value between load steps or in a restart in order to obtain an accurate.

a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.indicates that the item is not available. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. and a .05. ESOL]. CONTAC26 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES IG USEP FN Definition Element Number Nodes . ? Several items are illustrated in Stress output. In either the O or R columns.I.OUT. J. Y indicates that the item is always available.. CONTAC26 Stress Output The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. For an axisymmetric analysis.. the element forces are expressed on a full 360 basis.2004 . Solution Output gives a general description of solution output. K Initial gap (or interference) Current gap (or interference) Normal force on node I O Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.Element Library Page 151 of 993 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output (for closed or changed status) as shown in CONTAC26 Element Output Definitions.

20.Contact 2 . See The General Postprocessor (POST1) of the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information.05. Element status value descriptions: 1 . The following notation is used in CONTAC26 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the CONTAC26 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data CONTAC26 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... Friction solution if KEYOPT(1) = 1 3. Circular arc geometry at end of time step if R 0 Note Displacements and nodal forces are printed before the status correction CONTAC26 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.Element Library STAT OLDST TEMP MU IT UTAN FS SLIDE XC YC TJ TK Element status at end of time step Value of STAT in the previous time step Temperature at node I Friction coefficient evaluated at TEMP Initial sliding location on contact surface Total displacement along the contact surface Sliding/sticking force Amount of sliding Global X coordinate of the center of the arc Global Y coordinate of the center of the arc Angular location (degrees) of arc node J Angular location (degrees) of arc node K 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 - Page 152 of 993 1.Sliding right (+) or left (-) relative to the contact surface 3 .Gap open 2.2004 .

no stiffness is associated with this element for this substep. if friction is present. The element operates bilinearly only in the static and the nonlinear transient dynamic analyses and is intended for use in a large-deflection analysis. the gap remains in contact and responds as a linear spring. Nodes J and K should not be attached to other element types. if you plan to change STIFN. If the gap is open. the element maintains its initial status throughout the analysis. The rate of convergence decreases as the stiffness increases.. nodes J and K do not contribute to any reaction forces. The amount of the initial interference (or gap) is specified by the node and surface locations. to maintain a consistent value throughout all load steps. Node I may enter or leave the contact region at any angle.. The initial gap (or interference) at the beginning of the first substep is determined from the node location normal to the surface. otherwise. When operating near the "corner" of a region. Also. Nonconverged substeps are not in equilibrium. 20. it is not permissible to change any other real constants between load steps.2004 . If the gap is closed and stuck. For a curved surface. If used in other analysis types. The resisting forces are normal to the surface and.0 or KEYOPT(1) = 0) or sliding. As the normal force becomes positive. If the gap is closed with either no friction ( µ = 0. you cannot allow the value of STIFS to be defined by default. Therefore. the normal stiffness STIFN is used for gap resistance. the stiffness STIFS is also used for gap sticking resistance parallel to the surface. although it is permissible to change STIFN. the element may not be deactivated with the EKILL command. the normal is along the line through the node and the center point. The two -dimensional contact surface element must be defined in an X-Y plane and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses. equilibrium will not be satisfied. when the normal force FN is negative. A gap condition capability is also included in the reduced linear transient dynamic analysis (see GAP module in PREP7). Therefore. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. Node I may be initially oriented anywhere inside or outside of the contact region (see CONTAC26). because the program would then attempt to redefine STIFS as STIFN changed. the loading should be small enough such that the node does not pass through the region (in the surface and out the side) in one substep. contact is broken and no force is file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Unreasonably high stiffness values should be avoided. You must explicitly define STIFS whenever STIFN changes. Note that. The orientation of the gap changes for a curved surface option or if the contact surface rotates.Element Library Name FN FS STAT OLDST USEP UTAN MU TEMP SLIDE Item SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Page 153 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions The element is grounded so that only node I has any stiffness associated with it. The element is nonlinear and requires an iterative solution. parallel to it.05. In the normal direction.

Frictionless contact is identified by STAT = +2. Theory Reference for more details about this element. or mass coefficients. Prev PLANE25 Prev MATRIX27 Element Library Next MATRIX27 Next MATRIX27 Name MATRIX27 — Stiffness. and z directions and rotations about the nodal x. Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.2004 . y.Element Library Page 154 of 993 transmitted. STAT = +2). Elastic Coulomb friction is used if friction is defined.µ*FN (if sliding.µ*FN (if stuck. such that: |FS| < . 20.. but less general.05. damping. The matrix is assumed to relate two nodes. STAT = 1) or |FS| = . y. MATRIX27 Stiffness. Damping. elements are the spring-damper element (COMBIN14). Inc. Other similar. or Mass Matrix product: MP ME ST PR PP ED Element Description MATRIX27 represents an arbitrary element whose geometry is undefined but whose elastic kinematic response can be specified by stiffness.. and the mass element (MASS21). each with six degrees of freedom per node: translations in the nodal x. and z axes. See the ANSYS. Damping or Mass Matrix Input Data file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

For example.. The stiffness. UZ. 20.05. ROTY. ROTZ for node I followed by the same for node J. All matrices generated by this element are 12 by 12. UZ. MATRIX27 Input Summary Element Name MATRIX27 Nodes I. if a simple spring of stiffness K in the nodal x direction is desired. ROTX. which are required only if KEYOPT(2) = 1. simply let all rows and columns relating to that node default to zero.2004 . Element Input gives a general description of element input. The mass constants should have units of Force*Time2 /Length or Force*Time2 *Length/Radian. UY. damping. The element is defined by two nodes and the matrix coefficients. the input constants would be C1 = C58 = K and C7 = -K for KEYOPT(2) = 0 and KEYOPT(3) = 4. Force*Time/Length and Force*Length*Time/Radian.Element Library Page 155 of 993 The node locations and the coordinate system for this element are shown in MATRIX27. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. Material Properties None Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features Birth and death KEYOPT(2) 0 -Symmetric matrices 1 -Unsymmetric matrices KEYOPT(3) 2 -Input data defines a 12 x 12 mass matrix 4 -Input data defines a 12 x 12 stiffness matrix 5 -- file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The matrix constants should be input according to the matrix diagrams shown on the next page.. The degrees of freedom are ordered as UX. UY. ROTY. The units of the stiffness constants are Force/Length or Force*Length/Radian and the damping constants. or mass matrix constants are input as real constants. J Degrees of Freedom UX. ROTX. define the lower triangular portion of an unsymmetric matrix. Constants C79 through C144. If one node is not used. ROTZ Real Constants Constants C1 through C78 define the upper triangular portion of the matrix.

For KEYOPT(2) = 0. KEYOPT(4) = 1 causes the element matrix to be printed (for the first substep of the first load step only).. There is no element solution output associated with the element..2004 . 20.05.Element Library Input data defines a 12 x 12 damping matrix KEYOPT(4) 0 -Do not print element matrix 1 -Print element matrix at beginning of solution phase Page 156 of 993 Output Data The solution output associated with the element consists of node displacements included in the overall nodal solution. Solution Output gives a general description of solution output. the symmetric matrix has the form: For KEYOPT(2) = 1. the unsymmetric matrix has the form: Assumptions and Restrictions file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

are not applicable.. a note is printed for those cases where this can be easily detected. The birth and death special feature is not allowed.. Since element matrices should normally not be negative definite. for unsymmetric matrices. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. KEYOPT(3) = 5 is not allowed.05. Theory Reference for more details about this element. With a lumped mass matrix [LUMPM. 20. or rotations about the nodal x. y. Inc. KEYOPT(2) can only be set to 0 (default). Real constants C79 through C144.Element Library Page 157 of 993 Nodes may be coincident or noncoincident. y. SHELL28 Shear/Twist Panel file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. See the ANSYS. ? ? ? Prev CONTAC26 Prev SHELL28 Element Library Next SHELL28 Next SHELL28 Name SHELL28 — Shear/Twist Panel product: MP ME ST PR PP ED Element Description SHELL28 is used to carry shear load in a frame structure.ON] all off-diagonal terms must be zero. and z axes. The matrix terms are associated with the nodal degrees of freedom and are assumed to act in the nodal coordinate directions (see Elements that Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System).2004 . and z directions. The element has three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. ANSYS/Professional ? Damping and unsymmetric matrices are not allowed.

Also. UZ if KEYOPT(1) = 0 ROTX. Real constant SULT is the ultimate shear stress used for the margin of safety calculation. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in SHELL28. PRXY or NUXY. For any other input pattern. SULT.. and material properties. a thickness. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . If all other temperatures are unspecified.Element Library Page 158 of 993 Input Data The geometry. Element Input gives a general description of element input. SHELL28 Input Summary Element Name SHELL28 Nodes I. they default to T(I). A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems.. The only material properties actually used are GXY and DENS. The element is defined by four nodes. 20. ROTY. node locations.2004 . J. K. ADMSUA is the added mass per unit area. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. GXY. Temperatures are used only for material property evaluation. DAMP Surface Loads None Body Loads Temperatures -- file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. ROTZ if KEYOPT(1) = 1 Real Constants THCK. L Degrees of Freedom UX. KEYOPT(1) is used to select whether the element should be used as a shear panel or as a twist panel. DENS. UY. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. EX must be input. ADMSUA Material Properties EX. GXY may be entered directly or calculated from EX and either NUXY or PRXY. Only the lumped mass matrix is available. whether or not GXY is entered.05.

indicates that the item is not available.I. T (J).. J. K. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.2004 .Element Library T (I). T (L) Special Features Stress stiffening KEYOPT(1) 0 -Shear panel 1 -Twist panel Page 159 of 993 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in SHELL28 Element Output Definitions ? Several items are illustrated in Stress output. SHELL28 Stress Output The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE.. ESOL]. T (K). Y indicates that the item is always available.05. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. In either the O or R columns. SHELL28 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT Definition Element Number Nodes . 20. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. L Material number O Y Y Y R Y Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and a . The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. Solution Output gives a general description of solution output.

2004 .Element Library VOLU: SXY XC.J. The following notation is used in SHELL28 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the SHELL28 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data SHELL28 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. T(K).J Shear flow on edge J .I Z ..Force at node K Z .Force at node J Z .. FKJ FJK.Force at node I Z . Available only at centroid as a *GET item. T(L) Shear stresses at corner nodes Maximum of four corner shear stresses Margin of safety on shear Forces along diagonals I-K and J-L Forces at node I from node L and node J Forces at node J from node I and node K Forces at node K from node J and node L Forces at node L from node K and node I Shear flow on edge I .K.L Shear flow on edge L . MDJL Volume Average of four corner shear stresses Location where results are reported Temperatures T(I).05. FDJL FLI. YC. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. FJI FIJ.Force at node L Moments about diagonals I-K and J-L Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Y Y 3 Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Page 160 of 993 1. SHELL28 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. FLK FKL. T(J). ZC TEMP SXY(I.K Shear flow on edge K . 20. FIL SFLIJ SFLJK SFLKL SFLLI FZI FZJ FZK FZL MDIK. The values are output only if KEYOPT(1) = 0 2. The values are output in place of FDIK and FDJL only if KEYOPT(1) = 1 3.L) SXY(MAX) SMARGN FDIK.

SHELL63 and SHELL181. This element is not recommended for general use. SHELL43.Element Library Name FDIK (MDIK) FDJL (MDJL) FLI FJI FIJ FKJ FJK FLK FKL FIL FZI FZJ FZK FZL SXY SXYI SXYJ SXYK SXYL SXYMAX SMARGN SFLIJ SFLJK SFLKL SFLLI Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Page 161 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions Zero area elements are not allowed. This occurs most often whenever the elements are not numbered properly.2004 .05. and twisting effects. shear. 20. but no normal stress along the edges. This element is most often used with a latticework of beam or spar elements. Since this is possible only for rectangles. which automatically combine tension. Product Restrictions file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. this element is based on the premise of having only shear. the user is referred to shell elements such as SHELL41. the accuracy of the element can be expected to degrade if nonrectangular shapes are used. For all other applications. bending.. Further. If this element is used alone it is almost always unstable.. Its use should be restricted to applications which have historically used such an element. compression. because it carries only shear (and not tension or compression) loading.

The element has four corner nodes with three degrees of freedom per node: translations in the nodal x and y directions and pressure. the element is also applicable to static. See the ANSYS.2004 . however.05. has been discretized taking into account the coupling of acoustic pressure and structural motion at the interface.. FLUID29 2-D Acoustic Fluid file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The element can be used with other 2-D structural elements to perform unsymmetric or damped modal. Theory Reference for more details about this element. The governing equation for acoustics. ANSYS/Professional ? The DAMP material property is not allowed. The translations.. Inc. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.Element Library Page 162 of 993 When used in the product(s) listed below. full harmonic response and full transient method analyses (see the description of the TRNOPT command). Prev MATRIX27 Prev FLUID29 Element Library Next FLUID29 Next FLUID29 Name FLUID29 — 2-D Acoustic Fluid product: MP ME PP ED Element Description FLUID29 is used for modeling the fluid medium and the interface in fluid/structure interaction problems. namely the 2-D wave equation. are applicable only at nodes that are on the interface. The element has the capability to include damping of sound absorbing material at the interface. When there is no structural motion. 20. Typical applications include sound wave propagation and submerged structure dynamics. modal and reduced harmonic response analyses.

SFADELE. may be specified using the F command where both the real and imaginary components may be applied. Since the absence of coupling produces symmetric element matrices. KEYOPT(2) is used to specify the absence of a structure at the interface and.0 represents no sound absorption and MU = 1. The reference pressure (PREF) is used to calculate the element sound pressure level (defaults to 20x10-6 N/m2 ). DENS. SONC and MU are evaluated at the average of the nodal temperatures. therefore. node locations. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . SFA.2004 .. the absence of coupling between the fluid and structure. See Acoustics in the ANSYS Coupled-Field Analysis Guide for more information on the use of the fluidstructure interaction flag. SFEDELE] removes the flag. 20. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. However. A zero value of IMPD removes the damping calculation. The surface load label IMPD with a value of unity should be used to include damping that may be present at a structural boundary with a sound absorption lining. but absorption of sound at the interface is accounted for by generating a damping matrix using the surface area and boundary admittance at the interface.. a reference pressure. The element is defined by four nodes. For any other input pattern. Specifying the FSI label (without a value) [SF. they default to T(I). The flag specification should be on the fluid elements at the interface. MU = 0. if any. Experimentally measured values of the boundary admittance for the sound absorbing material may be input as material property MU (with values from 0.0 represents full sound absorption.Element Library Page 163 of 993 Input Data The geometry. Fluid-structure interfaces (FSI) may be flagged by surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on FLUID29. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF.05. Nodal flow rates. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. for the coupled (unsymmetric) problem. Deleting the FSI specification [SFDELE. The displacement degrees of freedom (UX and UY) at the element nodes not on the interface should be set to zero to avoid zero-pivot warning messages. a corresponding unsymmetric eigensolver file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in FLUID29. a symmetric eigensolver [MODOPT] may be used within the modal analysis.0 to 1. and the isotropic material properties.0). The speed of sound ( ) in the fluid is input by SONC where k is the bulk modulus of the fluid (Force/Area) and o is the mean fluid density (Mass/Volume) (input as DENS). If all other temperatures are unspecified. The dissipative effect due to fluid viscosity is neglected. SFE] will couple the structural motion and fluid pressure at the interface. Nodal flow rates should be input per unit of depth for a plane analysis and on a 360 basis for an axisymmetric analysis.

MU Surface Loads Fluid-structure Interface Flag: face 1 (J-I).05. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. T (J).. T (L) KEYOPT(2) 0 -Structure present at interface (unsymmetric element matrix) 1 -No structure at interface (symmetric element matrix) KEYOPT(3) 0 -Planar 1 -Axisymmetric Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements and pressures included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in FLUID29 Element Output Definitions.Element Library [MODOPT] must be used. T (K). face 3 (L-K). face 3 (L-K). A general description of element input is given in Element Input. face 4 (I-L) Impedance: face 1 (J-I). K. ? Solution Output gives a general description of solution output. face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Temperatures -T (I). Page 164 of 993 A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. face 2 (K-J). L Degrees of Freedom UX.2004 . The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. UY. face 2 (K-J). SONC. 20. PRES if KEYOPT (2) = 0 PRES if KEYOPT (2) = 1 Real Constants PREF Material Properties DENS.. FLUID29 Input Summary Element Name FLUID29 Nodes I. J.

SUM) Fluid velocity components and vector sum 1 SOUND PR.2004 . The following notation is used in FLUID29 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the FLUID29 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data FLUID29 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name PGX PGY Item E SMISC 1 SMISC 2 Name Definition R Y Y Y Y 2 Y Y Y 1 1 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. K. ESOL].. and a .05. In either the O or R columns. YC Location where results are reported Y TEMP Temperatures T(I).HARMIC 2. Y. SUM) Pressure gradient components and vector sum Y VL( X.. Y. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. T(J).indicates that the item is not available. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.I. T(K). Output only if ANTYPE.Element Library Page 165 of 993 A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. L Y MAT Material number Y VOLU: Volume Y XC. 20.OUT. FLUID29 Element Output Definitions O EL Element Number Y NODES Nodes . T(L) Y PRESSURE Average pressure Y PG( X. J.LEVEL Sound pressure level (in decibels) 1 1. FLUID29 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. Y indicates that the item is always available.

4.ON] is not allowed for this element.2004 . 3. The fluid is compressible (density changes due to pressure variations). A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L nodes (see Triangle. 2.. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements). Inviscid fluid (no dissipative effect due to viscosity). The acoustic pressure in the fluid medium is determined by the wave equation with the following assumptions: 1. Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.Element Library VLX VLY PRESSURE PGSUM VLSUM SOUND PR. The element must lie in a global X-Y plane as shown in FLUID29. LEVEL SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC 3 4 1 2 3 4 Page 166 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions The area of the element must be positive. Prev SHELL28 Prev FLUID30 Element Library Next FLUID30 Next FLUID30 Name FLUID30 — 3-D Acoustic Fluid product: MP ME PP ED file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The mean density and pressure are uniform throughout the fluid. All elements must have 4 nodes. Note that the acoustic pressure is the excess pressure from the mean pressure.. There is no mean flow of the fluid. 20.05. Analyses are limited to relatively small acoustic pressures so that the changes in density are small compared with the mean density. The lumped mass matrix formulation [LUMPM. 5.

The element has the capability to include damping of sound absorbing material at the interface. Theory Reference for more details about this element. 20.2004 . SONC file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. FLUID30 3-D Acoustic Fluid Input Data The geometry. has been discretized taking into account the coupling of acoustic pressure and structural motion at the interface. full harmonic response and full transient method analyses (see the description of the TRNOPT command). The element can be used with other 3-D structural elements to perform unsymmetric or damped modal. The dissipative effect due to fluid viscosity is neglected.0 represents no sound absorption and MU = 1. MU = 0.0 represents full sound absorption. however. modal and reduced harmonic response analyses. The element has eight corner nodes with four degrees of freedom per node: translations in the nodal x. The element is defined by eight nodes. y and z directions and pressure. The translations. a reference pressure. Inc.0). The governing equation for acoustics.Element Library Page 167 of 993 Element Description FLUID30 is used for modeling the fluid medium and the interface in fluid/structure interaction problems. The reference pressure (PREF) is used to calculate the element sound pressure level (defaults to 20x10-6 N/m2). are applicable only at nodes that are on the interface. Experimentally measured values of the boundary admittance for the sound absorbing material may be input as material property MU (with values from 0. but absorption of sound at the interface is accounted for by generating a damping matrix using the surface area and boundary admittance at the interface. node locations. and the isotropic material properties..05.0 to 1. The speed of sound ( ) in the fluid is input by SONC where k is the bulk modulus of the fluid (Force/Area) and o is the mean fluid density (Mass/Volume) (input as DENS). Typical applications include sound wave propagation and submerged structure dynamics. the element is also applicable to static. namely the 3-D wave equation. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in FLUID30. When there is no structural motion. See the ANSYS.. DENS.

A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary.05. A zero value of IMPD removes the damping calculation. M. UZ. Since the absence of coupling produces symmetric element matrices. O.. MU Surface Loads Fluid-structure interface flag: face 1 (J-I-L-K). a symmetric eigensolver [MODOPT] may be used within the modal analysis. K. face 2 (I-J-N-M). SONC. N. Deleting the FSI specification [SFDELE. J. face 4 (K -L-P-O).Element Library and MU are evaluated at the average of the nodal temperatures. The displacement degrees of freedom (UX. a corresponding unsymmetric eigensolver [MODOPT] must be used. If all other temperatures are unspecified. SFE] will couple the structural motion and fluid pressure at the interface. The flag specification should be on the fluid elements at the interface. Fluid-structure interfaces (FSI) may be flagged by surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on FLUID30. P Degrees of Freedom UX. Specifying the FSI label (without a value) [SF. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. SFADELE. 20. L. they default to T(I). A general description of element input is given in Element Input. KEYOPT(2) is used to specify the absence of a structure at the interface and.. SFA. PRES if KEYOPT (2) = 0 PRES if KEYOPT (2) = 1 Real Constants PREF Material Properties DENS. For any other input pattern. the absence of coupling between the fluid and structure. Page 168 of 993 Nodal flow rates may be specified using the F command where both the real and imaginary components may be applied. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. See Acoustics in the ANSYS Coupled-Field Analysis Guide for more information on the use of the fluidstructure interaction flag. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. FLUID30 Input Summary Element Name FLUID30 Nodes I. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. face 3 (J-K-O-N). SFEDELE] removes the flag. UY.2004 . The surface load label IMPD with a value of unity should be used to include damping that may be present at a structural boundary with a sound absorption lining. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . UY and UZ) at the element nodes not on the interface should be set to zero to avoid zero-pivot warning messages. for the coupled (unsymmetric) problem. However. therefore.

The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. face 5 (L -I-M-P). O. K. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. face 4 (K -L-P-O). a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. T (L). face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Temperatures -T (I). J. face 2 (I-J-N-M). face 3 (J-K-O-N). FLUID30 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: Definition Element Number Nodes .Element Library face 5 (L -I-M-P).OUT. and a .indicates that the item is not available. T (J). P Material number Volume O Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. N. ESOL]..05. 20. In either the O or R columns. L. ? A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. M. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. T (K). face 6 (M-N-O-P) Impedance: face 1 (J-I-L-K). T(O).2004 . T (N).I. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. Y indicates that the item is always available.. T (M). T(P) KEYOPT(2) 0 -Structure present at interface (unsymmetric element matrix) 1 -No structure at the interface (symmetric element matrix) Page 169 of 993 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements and pressures included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in FLUID30 Element Output Definitions.

Also.SUM) VL(X. T(M). The following notation is used in FLUID30 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the FLUID30 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data FLUID30 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Item PGX SMISC PGY SMISC PGZ SMISC VLX SMISC VLY SMISC VLZ SMISC PRESSURE NMISC PGSUM NMISC VLSUM NMISC SOUND PR. LEVEL NMISC Name E 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 Assumptions and Restrictions The element must not have a zero volume. ZC TEMP PRESSURE PG(X.Z. LEVEL Location where results are reported T(I). Element nodes may be numbered either as shown in FLUID30 or may have planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged. Output only if ANTYPE.Z. YC.2004 . T(K). See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. T(J). T(O). Available only at centroid as a *GET item. the element may not be twisted such that it has two separate volumes. FLUID30 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. T(N). T(P) Average pressure Pressure gradient components and vector sum Fluid velocity components and vector sum Sound pressure level (in decibels) Y Y Y Y 1 1 2 Y Y Y 1 1 Page 170 of 993 1.05. This occurs usually when the element nodes are not in the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20.Y..HARMIC 2.Element Library XC. T(L).Y..SUM) SOUND PR.

? ? ? ? The lumped mass matrix formulation [LUMPM.2004 .Element Library correct sequence. There is no mean flow of the fluid. 20. The acoustic pressure in the fluid medium is determined by the wave equation with the following assumptions: ? The fluid is compressible (density changes due to pressure variations). temperature.. Analyses are limited to relatively small acoustic pressures so that the changes in density are small compared with the mean density. Page 171 of 993 All elements must have 8 nodes. A tetrahedron shape is also available. Prev FLUID29 Prev LINK31 Element Library Next LINK31 Next LINK31 Name LINK31 — Radiation Link product: MP ME PR PP ED Element Description LINK31 is a uniaxial element which models the radiation heat flow rate between two points in space. An empirical relationship allowing the form factor and area to multiply the temperatures file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.ON] is not allowed for this element. Note that the acoustic pressure is the excess pressure from the mean pressure.05. The mean density and pressure are uniform throughout the fluid. Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. Inviscid fluid (no dissipative effect due to viscosity). A prism-shaped element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L and duplicate O and P nodes (see Triangle. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements). steady-state or transient thermal analysis.. The link has a single degree of freedom. The radiation element is applicable to a two-dimensional (plane or axisymmetric) or three-dimensional. at each node.

EMIS defaults to 1. the radiation area should be input on a full 360 basis.Element Library Page 172 of 993 independently is also available.. The emissivity may be constant or temperature (absolute) dependent.0. The standard radiation function is defined as follows: q= where: = Stefan-Boltzmann Constant (SBC) (defaults to 0. and the coordinate system for this radiation element are shown in LINK31. the values are input for the material property EMIS and the real constant value is used only to identify the material property number. If it is constant.05.T(J)) FA(T(I)4 . 20. LINK31 Radiation Link Input Data The geometry. The element is defined by two nodes. a radiating surface area.. the emissivity.T(J)4 ) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. If the model containing the radiation element is also to be analyzed structurally. The emissivity may be temperature dependent. See the ANSYS. If it is temperature dependent. node locations. and the Stefan-Boltzmann constant (SBC). In this case the MAT value associated with element is not used. Inc. the radiation element should be replaced by an equivalent (or null) structural element. For axisymmetric problems.119 x 10-10 (BTU/Hr*in2 * R4) = emissivity F = geometric form factor A = area (Length) 2 q = heat flow rate (Heat/Time) The nonlinear temperature equation is solved by a Newton-Raphson iterative solution based on the form: [(T(I)2 + T(J) 2)(T(I) + T(J))] p (T(I) .2004 . a geometric form factor. the value is input as a real constant. Theory Reference for more details about this element.

FORM FACTOR.05. EMISSIVITY.. Birth and death KEYOPT(3) 0 -Use standard radiation equation 1 -Use empirical radiation equation Note The Stefan-Boltzmann constant (SBC) defaults to 0. in. hr.1190E-10 with units of btu. 20. use material N for emissivity vs. SBC (If EMISSIVITY = -N. An empirical radiation function of the following form may also be selected with KEYOPT(3): q= (FT(I) 4 . J Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants AREA.2004 . A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary...e. degrees R (or degrees F if TOFFST is used) Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Element Library Page 173 of 993 where the [ ] p term is evaluated at the temperature of the previous substep. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. LINK31 Input Summary Element Name LINK31 Nodes I.AT(J) 4 ) where F and A are arbitrary input constants. both TUNIF and TOFFST should not be zero). temperature definition) Material Properties EMIS (required only if EMISSIVITY = -N) Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features Nonlinear. The initial temperature should be near the anticipated solution and should not be zero (i.

The following notation is used in LINK31 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the LINK31 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data LINK31 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name Item E Name O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 1 Y Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.J) Temperatures .I.05.2004 .indicates that the item is not available..I. ZC Location where results are reported EMIS(I. Y indicates that the item is always available. ESOL]. and a .. J TEMP(I. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. J MAT Material number AREA AREA XC.Element Library ? Page 174 of 993 additional element output as shown in LINK31 Element Output Definitions The heat flow rate is positive from node I to node J.I. 20. LINK31 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.J) Emissivity . The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. J HEAT RATE Heat flow rate from node I to node J 1.OUT. LINK31 Element Output Definitions Definition EL Element Number NODES Nodes . The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. YC. In either the O or R columns.

Nodes may or may not be coincident. An iterative solution is required with this element. Inc. 20. LINK32 2-D Conduction Bar file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the units associated with this element are BTUs. Prev FLUID30 Prev LINK32 Element Library Next LINK32 Next LINK32 Name LINK32 — 2-D Conduction Bar product: MP ME PR PP ED Element Description LINK32 is a uniaxial element with the ability to conduct heat between its nodes. at each node point.. temperature. the bar element should be replaced by an equivalent structural element.2004 . The element has a single degree of freedom. hours and R (or F + TOFFST). inches. steady-state or transient thermal analysis. If the model containing the conducting bar element is also to be analyzed structurally. Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. See the ANSYS. Theory Reference for more details about this element. The conducting bar is applicable to a twodimensional (plane or axisymmetric).Element Library HEAT RATE TEMPI TEMPJ EMISI EMISJ AREA FORM FACTOR SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 Page 175 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions If the default Stefan-Boltzmann constant is used.05. Other data input for this analysis must be consistent with this set of units or an appropriate conversion factor should be included in the radiation element's real constants..

A general description of element input is given in Element Input. The element x-axis extends from node I to node J. 20. and the coordinate system for this conducting bar element are shown in LINK32.05.2004 . The node J heat generation rate HG(J) defaults to the node I heat generation rate HG(I). The element is defined by two nodes. For an axisymmetric analysis the area must be defined on a full 360 basis. C. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. Heat generation rates may be input as element body loads at the nodes. Specific heat and density are ignored for steady-state solutions. a cross-sectional area. node locations.Element Library Page 176 of 993 Input Data The geometry. HG (J) Special Features Birth and death Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and the material properties.. J Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants AREA Material Properties KXX.. DENS. LINK32 Input Summary Element Name LINK32 Nodes I. ENTH Surface Loads None Body Loads Heat Generation -HG (I). The thermal conductivity is in the element longitudinal direction. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads .

ESOL].indicates that the item is not available. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.I. The following notation is used in LINK32 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the LINK32 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data LINK32 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. J Y MAT Material Y VOLU: Volume Y XC. J Y HEAT RATE Heat flow rate from node I to node J Y THERMAL FLUX Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) Y 1.2004 Name Definition R Y Y Y Y 1 Y Y Y Y Y .J) Temperatures . LINK32 Element Output Definitions O EL Element Number Y NODES Nodes .. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information.OUT. LINK32 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. YC Location where results are reported Y LENGTH Length Y AREA Input area Y TEMP(I.Element Library ? Page 177 of 993 additional element output as shown in LINK32 Element Output Definitions The heat flow rate is in units of Heat/Time and is positive from node I to node J. 20..I. and a . Y indicates that the item is always available. In either the O or R columns.05. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output.

Prev LINK31 Prev LINK33 Element Library Next LINK33 Next LINK33 Name LINK33 — 3-D Conduction Bar product: MP ME PR PP ED Element Description LINK33 is a uniaxial element with the ability to conduct heat between its nodes.05. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint) is assumed to be adiabatic. 20. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. The conducting bar is applicable to a steady-state or transient thermal analysis. The element must not have a zero length. the bar file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The element must be in an X-Y plane and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses.. ANSYS/Professional ? The birth and death special feature is not allowed. temperature. If the model containing the conducting bar element is also to be analyzed structurally.. at each node point. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below.e. The element has a single degree of freedom..Element Library Name HEAT RATE TEMPI TEMPJ THERMAL FLUX LENGTH AREA Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 4 1 2 Page 178 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions Heat is assumed to flow only in the longitudinal element direction.2004 . so nodes I and J must not be coincident. A free end of the element (i. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.

node locations. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. C.2004 . ENTH Surface Loads None Body Loads Heat Generation -HG ( I ). 20..Element Library Page 179 of 993 element should be replaced by an equivalent structural element. The element is defined by two nodes. See the ANSYS. DENS. Heat generation rates may be input as element body loads at the nodes. Inc. HG ( J ) Special Features Birth and death file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The node J heat generation rate HG(J) defaults to the node I heat generation rate HG(I). Specific heat and density are ignored for steady-state solutions. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. LINK33 Input Summary Element Name LINK33 Nodes I. The thermal conductivity is in the element longitudinal direction. Theory Reference for more details about this element. J Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants AREA Material Properties KXX. a cross-sectional area. and the material properties.05. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . LINK33 3-D Conduction Bar Input Data The geometry.. and the coordinate system for this conducting bar are shown in LINK33.

J Y MAT Material number Y VOLU: Volume Y XC. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.OUT.J) Temperatures . LINK33 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. Y indicates that the item is always available. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. In either the O or R columns. YC. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE.. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.05.Element Library Page 180 of 993 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in LINK33 Element Output Definitions ? The heat flow rate is in units of Heat/Time and is positive from node I to node J.. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. J Y HEAT RATE Heat flow rate from node I to node J Y THERMAL FLUX Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) Y 1. ZC Location where results are reported Y LENGTH Length Y AREA Input area Y TEMP(I.I. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.I. ESOL].indicates that the item is not available. LINK33 Element Output Definitions O EL Element Number Y NODES Nodes .2004 . and a . The following notation is used in LINK33 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the LINK33 Element Output Definitions Item Name Definition R Y Y Y Y 1 Y Y Y Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20.

The element must not have a zero length..e. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint) is assumed to be adiabatic. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below.05. Prev LINK32 Prev LINK34 Element Library Next LINK34 Next LINK34 Name LINK34 — Convection Link product: MP ME PR PP ED Element Description file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. so nodes I and J must not be coincident.. A free end of the element (i.2004 .Element Library predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data LINK33 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name HEAT RATE TEMPI TEMPJ THERMAL FLUX LENGTH AREA Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 4 1 2 Page 181 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions Heat is assumed to flow only in the longitudinal element direction. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. ANSYS/Professional ? The birth and death special feature is not allowed. 20..

See the ANSYS. a convection surface area. The element is defined by two nodes.2004 . file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the convection element should be replaced by an equivalent (or null) structural element.0 unless KEYOPT(3) = 2.0.. LINK34 Convection Link Input Data The geometry and node locations for this convection element are shown in LINK34. In an axisymmetric analysis the convection area must be expressed on a full 360 basis. temperature. at each node point.Element Library Page 182 of 993 LINK34 is a uniaxial element with the ability to convect heat between its nodes. 20. If KEYOPT(3) = 3. F = 1. The convection element is applicable to a two-dimensional (plane or axisymmetric) or three-dimensional.Tp(J)I n + CC/h f Note E = F if n and CC = 0. two empirical terms. steady-state or transient thermal analysis.Tp (J)I n or CC/hf. The convection function is defined as follows: q = hf*A*E*(T(I) .05. E equals the larger of IT p (I) . Theory Reference for more details about this element. The empirical terms n (input as EN) and CC determine the form of the convection equation in conjunction with KEYOPT(3). Inc. The element has a single degree of freedom.. The element may have a nonlinear film coefficient which may also be a function of temperature or time. and a film coefficient. If the model containing the convection element is also to be analyzed structurally.T(J)) where: q = heat flow rate (Heat/Time) hf = film coefficient (Heat/Length2 *Time*Deg) A = area (Length 2 ) T = temperature (this substep) (Deg) E = empirical convection term = F*ITp(I) .

0 is assumed for F. a value of 1. J Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants AREA.2004 . If the F value is zero (or blank) or negative. LINK34 Input Summary Element Name LINK34 Nodes I. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. An SFE command must be included (even if the values are left blank) for all LINK34 elements having KEYOPT(3) = 2.05.Element Library Tp = temperature (previous substep (Deg) n = empirical coefficient (EN) CC = input constant Page 183 of 993 A special option obtained with KEYOPT(3) = 2 allows an alternate input for h f and an input scale factor (F). the HF material property is used for h f. A general description of element input is given in Element Input.. If the hf value is zero (or blank). the F value input in this field will ramp within a load step if KBC = 0. 20. CC Material Properties HF Surface Loads Convections -1 . This option uses the VAL1 field of the SFE command with KVAL = 0 for the hf value and KVAL = 2 for the F value. EN.Alternate input of HF and F if KEYOPT (3) = 2 (see text above) Body Loads None Special Features Nonlinear if real constant EN is not equal to zero or if KEYOPT (3) = 3.T ( J ) | to evaluate HF KEYOPT(3) 0 -Standard element input and empirical term 2 -- file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. Note. Birth and death KEYOPT(2) 0 -Use average of T ( I ) and T ( J ) to evaluate HF 1 -Use greater of T ( I ) or T ( J ) to evaluate HF 2 -Use lesser of T ( I ) or T ( J ) to evaluate HF 3 -Use differential | T ( I ) .

Available only at centroid as a *GET item. In an axisymmetric analysis. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. J XC. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. In either the O or R columns. LINK34 Element Output Definitions Definition EL Element Number NODES Nodes . a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. Y indicates that the item is always available.OUT.. LINK34 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information.indicates that the item is not available.I. 20. YC Location where results are reported H Film coefficient (includes empirical term) AREA Input area TEMP Temperature at node I and node J HEAT RATE Heat flow rate from node I to node J 1. the heat flow is on a full 360 basis. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. ESOL]. and a .2004 . A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.Element Library Use alternate input for HF and F (input with SFE command) 3 -Use discontinuous empirical term Page 184 of 993 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in LINK34 Element Output Definitions ? The heat flow rate is in units of Heat/Time and is positive from node I to node J. The following notation is used in LINK34 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the LINK34 Element Output Definitions Item Name O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y 1 Y Y Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05..

a nonzero value of n may result in no heat flowing through the element in the first substep of a thermal solution..2004 . (Only 2 iterations are performed if the element is linear.. the solver always assumes the element is nonlinear and. Prev LINK33 Prev PLANE35 Element Library Next PLANE35 Next PLANE35 Name file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20. therefore.) Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below.J sequence number for data at nodes I and J LINK34 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name HEAT RATE TEMP H AREA Item SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 1 2 I 2 J 3 - Page 185 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions If Tp (I) = Tp (J) and n are nonzero. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. However. ANSYS/Professional ? The birth and death special feature is not allowed. Since all unspecified nodal temperatures are initially set to the uniform temperature. The element is nonlinear if n is nonzero or KEYOPT(3) = 3.05.Element Library predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I. always performs an iterative solution. Nodes may or may not be coincident. the first term of E is defined to be zero.

they default to HG(I). 20. temperature. Properties not input default as described in Linear Material Properties. PLANE35 2-D 6-Node Triangular Thermal Solid Input Data The geometry. the element should be replaced by an equivalent structural element (such as PLANE2). Specific heat and density are ignored for steady-state solutions. at each node. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems. The 6-node thermal element is applicable to a two -dimensional... An edge with a removed midside node implies that the temperature varies linearly. along that edge. If all corner node heat generation rates are specified. node locations. rather than parabolically. steady-state or transient thermal analysis. If the node I heat generation rate HG(I) is input. The element has one degree of freedom. Heat generation rates may be input as element body loads at the nodes.05. The element may be used as a plane element or as an axisymmetric ring element. See the ANSYS. Inc. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in PLANE35. each midside node heat generation rate defaults to the average heat generation rate of its adjacent corner nodes. Convections or heat fluxes (but not both) may be input as surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on PLANE35. Theory Reference for more details about this element. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions.Element Library PLANE35 — 2-D 6-Node Triangular Thermal Solid product: MP ME PR PP ED Page 186 of 993 Element Description PLANE35 is a 6-node triangular element compatible with the 8-node PLANE77 element. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information about the use of midside nodes. The triangular shape makes it well suited to model irregular meshes (such as produced from various CAD/CAM systems). and all others are unspecified.2004 . If the model containing this element is also to be analyzed structurally.

The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. DENS. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. HG ( K ).2004 . KYY. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. M. face 3 (I-K) Heat Fluxes -face 1 (J-I). HG ( M ).. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. applied heat flux is positive into the element. K. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. HG ( J ).05. HG ( L ). HG ( N ) Special Features Birth and death KEYOPT(1) 0 -Consistent specific heat matrix 1 -Diagonalized specific heat matrix KEYOPT(3) 0 -Plane 1 -Axisymmetric Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in PLANE35 Element Output Definitions ? For an axisymmetric analysis the face area and the heat flow rate are on a full 360 basis.Element Library Page 187 of 993 A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. Convection heat flux is positive out of the element. face 2 (K-J).. J. ENTH Surface Loads Convections -face 1 (J-I). N Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants None Material Properties KXX. PLANE35 Input Summary Element Name PLANE35 Nodes I. 20. L. face 3 (I-K) Body Loads Heat Generations -HG ( I ). face 2 (K-J). C.

Y.I. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. HG(N) Thermal gradient components and vector sum at centroid Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) components and vector sum at centroid Face label Face area Face nodes Film coefficient Average face temperature Fluid bulk temperature Heat flow rate across face by convection Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Heat flux at each node of face Average film coefficient of the face Average face bulk temperature Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 2 Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.indicates that the item is not available. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.05. SUM TF: X. HG(K). ESOL]..OUT. PLANE35 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. If a surface load has been input 2.2004 .. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. The following notation is used in PLANE35 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. PLANE35 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. HG(M). N Material number Volume Location where results are reported Heat generations HG(I). Y indicates that the item is always available. K. HG(J).Element Library The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: Page 188 of 993 A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. Y. HG(L). L. SUM FACE AREA NODES HFILM TAVG TBULK HEAT RATE HEAT RATE/AREA HFLUX HFAVG TBAVG HFLXAVG Definition Element Number Nodes . YC HGEN TG: X. 20. J. M. and a . In either the O or R columns. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.

05. The element must lie in an X-Y plane as shown in PLANE35 and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.. rather than parabolically.. The specific heat and enthalpy are evaluated at each integration point to allow for abrupt changes (such as melting) within a coarse grid of elements. along that face.2004 . Thermal transients having a fine integration time step and a severe thermal gradient at the surface will require a fine mesh at the surface. Prev LINK34 Prev SOURC36 Element Library Next SOURC36 Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..Element Library output quantity as defined in the PLANE35 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command FC N sequence number for solution items for element Face N Page 189 of 993 PLANE35 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG Item FC1 FC2 NMISC 1 7 NMISC 2 8 NMISC 3 9 NMISC 4 10 NMISC 5 11 NMISC 6 12 FC3 13 14 15 16 17 18 Assumptions and Restrictions The area of the element must be positive. A face with a removed midside node implies that the temperature varies linearly. A free surface of the element (i. 20. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. ANSYS/Professional ? The birth and death special feature is not allowed.e. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint) is assumed to be adiabatic. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants.

The element represents a distribution of current in a model employing a scalar potential formulation (degree of freedom MAG). 20..05. The Hs term is used in the formulation as a magnetic load on the model.. See the ANSYS. The currents are used to calculate a source magnetic field intensity (H s) using a numerical integration technique involving the Biot-Savart law.Element Library Page 190 of 993 SOURC36 Name SOURC36 — Current Source product: MP EM PP ED Element Description SOURC36 is a primitive (consisting of predefined geometries) used to supply current source data to magnetic field problems. Inc. Theory Reference for more details about this element.2004 . SOURC36 Current Source Element file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

a magnetic command macro. For bar sources. The element input data includes three nodes and the following real constants (see Input Summary): TYPE Source type . 3 for Arc.001. CUR Total current flowing through source (i. In the case of circular sources (coils. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in SOURC36.. (Blank). EPS Material Properties file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. is available within the ANSYS command set.Element Library Page 191 of 993 Input Data The geometry. CUR. 2 for Bar. Characteristic dimensions described above are in the element coordinate system. J. Defaults to 0.2004 .. and orient the source) Degrees of Freedom None Real Constants TYPE. DY Characteristic y dimension for source type. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. The macro is discussed in further detail in the ANSYS Commands Reference and in the ANSYS Electromagnetic Field Analysis Guide. EPS represents the relative maximum difference in the field Hs calculated at any node during the iterative calculation of the source field.use 1 for Coil.. SOURC36 Input Summary Element Name SOURC36 Nodes I. arcs) the radius is determined from the first and third nodes (I. EPS does not apply for bar sources.05. J and K define the characteristic length. K (nodes I.e.J). node locations. This macro enables the user to build a racetrack conductor from SOURC36 primitives. (Blank). (Blank). number of turns times current per turn). the length is determined from the first two nodes (I. DZ. DY. RACE. (Blank). 20. DZ Characteristic z dimension for source type. EPS Convergence criterion for source field (Hs) calculations for arc and coils.K). current flow direction. As a modeling aid.

2004 .00005). Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.Element Library None Surface Loads None Body Loads None Page 192 of 993 As a modeling aid.. For the arc (type 3) the subtended angle must not exceed 90 .. 20. All source element nodes should be located a least 1E-6 units apart. This macro enables the user to build a racetrack conductor from SOURCE36 primitives. For the coil and the arc (types 1 and 3). The macro is discussed in further detail in the ANSYS Commands Reference and in the ANSYS Electromagnetic Field Analysis Guide. The default value (. is available within the ANSYS command set. a factor of 20 increase would be represented by EPS = . The third node must not be colinear with the first two nodes. a magnetic command macro. the criteria may have to be tightened (i. Whereas symmetry conditions on the finite element model may be employed. Source element cannot have a zero inside radius (Radius DY/2 for types 1 and 3). Assumptions and Restrictions The source element must have characteristic DY or DZ values that are greater than zero. Prev PLANE35 Prev COMBIN37 Element Library Next COMBIN37 Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. The EPS convergence criterion is a measure of the relative difference in the calculated Hs field used during an iterative numerical integration procedure for coil and arc source primitives. Output Data The source element has no output of its own since it is used only to supply current source data to magnetic field problems.05. The nodes for this element need not be attached to any other elements.001) provides for good accuracy in regions outside of the source primitive location.e. the K-I line determines the radius (and the x axis) and the J node orients the x-y plane. Users concerned with accurate calculations within the coil and arc source primitive domain should experiment with the criteria until satisfied with the degree of accuracy obtained. RACE. Tightening the convergence criteria will significantly increase the solution run time. For highly accurate calculations within the source primitive domain. no symmetry may be employed on the current source elements. All currents for a magnetostatic model employing the scalar potential formulation must be specified.

20. 0 if determined from starting value of control parameter. A control element with more capabilities (six degrees of freedom and large deflection) is described in COMBIN7.05. thus. The element has one degree of freedom at each node. element load (AFORCE: positive pulls the nodes together (or pulls into the element)). Theory Reference for more details about this element. either a translation in a nodal coordinate direction.. several nonlinear constants (C1. controlling friction as a function of displacement (friction clutch). these being active nodes (I.2004 . controlling flow resistance as a function of pressure (relief valve). etc. The element has many applications. Certain parameters associated with the control nodes are used to determine whether the control element is part of the structure (on) or not (off) and. The FSLIDE value represents the absolute value of the spring force that must be exceeded before file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. initial on/off element status (START: -1 if explicitly off. Other input values are stiffness (STIF).Element Library Page 193 of 993 COMBIN37 Name COMBIN37 — Control product: MP ME ST PP ED Element Description COMBIN37 is a unidirectional element with the capability of turning on and off during an analysis. L). rotation about a nodal coordinate axis. C3. The active nodes define the position of the element. damping coefficient (DAMP). can be used to disconnect regions of the model during time dependent or iterative analyses. OFFVAL). and a limiting sliding force (FSLIDE). Inc. The element is defined by two pairs of nodes. or temperature. on/off control values (ONVAL. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in COMBIN37. C4). COMBIN37 Control Element Input Data The geometry. C2. controlling damping as a function of velocity (mechanical snubber). such as controlling heat flow as a function of temperature (thermostat). COMBIN39.. MASJ). node locations. Similar unidirectional elements (without remote control capability) are COMBIN14. and COMBIN40. See the ANSYS. J) and optional control nodes (K. 1 if explicitly on). concentrated nodal masses (MASI. pressure.

the element acts like any other spring/damper/mass element (such as COMBIN14. the integral of the value. As illustrated in COMBIN37 behavior. If ONVAL = OFFVAL = 0.ROTZL)/dt 2 CPAR = t Control nodes need not be connected to any other element. Note. stiffness represents flow conductance with units of length2 /time. degree of freedom as specified with KEYOPT(2). FSLIDE modified to a negative value is set to zero. If time is the control parameter (KEYOPT(1)). force*time2/length or moment*time 2 /rotation for mass. For structural analyses. mass represents thermal capacitance with units of heat/degrees.. a rigid connection is assumed. set the control behavior of the element. For thermal analyses with temperature degrees of freedom. damping. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and CPAR is the control parameter (see KEYOPT(1)). If FSLIDE is 0. units are force/length or moment/rotation for stiffness. and force or moment for element load. 20.Element Library Page 194 of 993 sliding occurs. mass. force*time/length or moment*time/rotation for damping. or a different. for example: CPAR = UXK . The KEYOPT(1) option assigns to the parameters of the control nodes either the value of the degree of freedom. J) have only one degree of freedom each.05. In a field analysis. When the element is active and used in structural analyses. the sliding capability of the element is removed. the KEYOPT(4) and KEYOPT(5) options. the first or second derivative of the value. the on/off capability is ignored and the element is always active. and COMBIN40). If node L is not defined. Stiffness.0. the element's status depends on the direction of the CPAR (i.. that is.UXL CPAR = d(TK . selected with the KEYOPT(3) option. stiffness represents conductance and has units of heat/time*degrees. in analyses with pressure degrees of freedom. note that when KEYOPT(4) = 0 and the control parameter (CPAR) is within the ONVAL/OFFVAL interval. and element load should be defined on a full 360 basis for axisymmetric analyses. and element load represents heat flow with units of heat/time. Also. the element can exhibit nonlinear behavior according to the function RVMOD = RVAL + C1|CPAR| C2 + C3|CPAR| C4 where RVMOD is the modified value of an input real constant value RVAL (identified by KEYOPT (6)).e.2004 . Also.. control nodes K and L need not be defined. The element is either on or off depending on the position of the control parameter with respect to the values of ONVAL and OFFVAL. the control parameter is based only upon node K. or time. C1 through C4 are other real constants. The control nodes (K. RVMOD may also be defined by user subroutine USERRC and is accessed by KEYOPT(9) = 1. and vice-versa). MASS21. the temperature or pressure degree of freedom acts in a manner analogous to the displacement. The active nodes (I.0 (or blank). In addition. when used in combination with ONVAL and OFFVAL. L) can have the same. on going from on to off.TL)/dt CPAR = d 2 (ROTZK .

AFORCE. 1 -Control on value (UK-UL) (or UK if L not defined) 2 -Control on first derivative of value with respect to time 3 -Control on second derivative of value with respect to time 4 -Control on integral of value with respect to time (zero initial condition assumed) 5 -Control on time value (KEYOPT(2) and nodes K and L ignored) KEYOPT(2) Degree of freedom for control nodes (K and L) N -Use degree of freedom N as listed for KEYOPT(3)(defaults to KEYOPT(3)) KEYOPT(3) Degree of freedom for active nodes (I and J) 0. START.Element Library Page 195 of 993 A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. J) Degrees of Freedom UX. C2. L (or I. C3. 1 -UX (Displacement along nodal X axes) 2 -UY (along nodal Y) 3 -UZ (along nodal Z) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. ROTX. C1. UY. DAMP.05. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. K. J. ONVAL. C4.2004 . 20. ROTY. PRESS. UZ.. Adaptive descent KEYOPT(1) Control parameter 0. or TEMP (depending on KEYOPT(2) and KEYOPT (3) below) Real Constants STIF. ROTZ. K. or I. MASI. MASJ. OFFVAL. FSLIDE Material Properties None Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features Nonlinear. COMBIN37 Input Summary Element Name COMBIN37 Nodes I. J.

. 20. 1 -Use STIF for nonlinear function 2 -Use DAMP 3 -Use MASJ 4 -Use ONVAL 5 -Use OFFVAL 6 -Use AFORCE 7 -Use MASI 8 -Use FLSIDE KEYOPT(9) 0 -Use RVMOD expression for real constant modifications 1 -Real constants modified by user subroutine USERRC Page 196 of 993 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..2004 .05.Element Library 4 -ROTX (rotation about nodal X axes) 5 -ROTY (about nodal Y) 6 -ROTZ (about nodal Z) 7 -Pressure degree of freedom element 8 -Temperature degree of freedom element KEYOPT(4) ON -OFF range control behavior (see COMBIN37 behavior) 0 -Overlapping ranges 1 -Unique ranges KEYOPT(5) ON -OFF position control behavior (see COMBIN37 behavior) 0 -OFF-either-ON (or OFF-ON-OFF if unique) 1 -ON-either-OFF (or ON-OFF-ON if unique) KEYOPT(6) Used if C1 or C3 is not equal to zero (see Assumptions and Restrictions) 0.

respectively. For axisymmetric analysis. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. UJ-UI-SLIDE)..05. The element value STRETCH is the relative deflection at the end of the substep less the amount of sliding (e.g. ? The active nodal displacements and forces correspond to the degree of freedom selected with the KEYOPT(3) option. 20.. the element forces are expressed on a full 360 basis.2004 . STATUS and OLDST indicate if the element is on or off at the end of the current and previous substeps.Element Library Page 197 of 993 Note See the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features information about user written subroutines Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal degree of freedom results included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in COMBIN37 Element Output Definitions. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.. COMBIN37 Behavior as a function of control parameter file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

ESOL].. 20.indicates that the item is not available. and a . The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.05.2004 .K. YC. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. Y indicates that the item is always available. J Y CONTROL NODES Nodes .. In either the O or R columns.I. ZC Location where results are reported Y CONTROL PARAM CPAR value (see KEYOPT(1)) of the control nodes Y STAT Element status 1 OLDST STAT value of the previous time step 1 Name Definition R Y Y Y 5 Y 1 1 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.OUT. L Y XC. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. COMBIN37 Element Output Definitions O EL Element Number Y ACTIVE NODES Nodes .Element Library Page 198 of 993 The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE.

DELTEMP. UJ.2004 . Thermal option output items TEMPI.ON 2. COMBIN37 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.Sliding right (node J moving to right of node I) -1. SHEAT. If FSLIDE is greater than zero 5. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. TEMPL.Sliding left (node J moving to left of node I) 4. SFORCE. If the value of the element status is: 0 . DELPRES. STRETCH. If the value of the sliding status is: 0 . analogous items are output. TEMPJ. The following notation is used in COMBIN37 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the COMBIN37 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and AFORCE.OFF 1 .Element Library UI UJ UK UL STRETCH SFORCE AFORCE SLSTAT OLDSLS SLIDE Displacement of node I Displacement of node J Displacement of node K Displacement of node L Relative displacement Spring force in element Applied force in the element Sliding status Sliding status value of the previous time step Amount of sliding 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 Page 199 of 993 1. UL. and AHEAT and fluid option output items PRESI. UK. 3. TEMPK. PRESJ. PRESK.05. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. Output only if FSLIDE is greater than zero.No sliding 1 .. and AFLOW are respectively analogous to output items UI. For the thermal and fluid options. SFLOW.. 20. PRESL.

Element Library Page 200 of 993 COMBIN37 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name SFORCE AFORCE STAT OLDST SLSTAT OLDSLS STRETCH UI UJ UK UL CPAR SLIDE Item SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Analogous thermal and fluid option output items use the same item and sequence numbers.. the element may not be deactivated with the EKILL command. Nodes I and J may be anywhere in space (preferably coincident). 20. throughout the analysis. Assumptions and Restrictions The element may have only one degree of freedom per node which is specified in the nodal coordinate system (see Elements that Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System). See footnote 2 of COMBIN37 Element Output Definitions. if the nodes are offset from the line of action. The real constants for this element are not allowed to be changed from their initial values. Only the lumped mass matrix is available. No moment effects are included due to noncoincident nodes. the element maintains its initial status (on or off). The element assumes only a one-dimensional action. The nonlinear capabilities of the element operate only in the static and nonlinear transient dynamic analyses.05. moment equilibrium may not be satisfied. If used in other analysis types. Also.. That is.2004 . Product Restrictions ANSYS/Structural ? KEYOPT(2) KEYOPT(3) 8 8 ? Prev SOURC36 Prev FLUID38 Element Library Next FLUID38 Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

Theory Reference for more details about this element. Node I refers to inner boundary.Element Library Page 201 of 993 FLUID38 Name FLUID38 — Dynamic Fluid Coupling product: MP ME ST PP ED Element Description FLUID38 is used to represent a dynamic coupling between two points of a structure. The coupling is based on the dynamic response of two points connected by a constrained mass of fluid. The element may be used in any structural dynamic analysis. 20. FLUID38 Dynamic Fluid Coupling Input Data The node locations and the coordinate system for this element are shown in FLUID38. R2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The fluid is contained in the annular space between the cylinders.. can also be used. The real constants are defined as follows: R1 Radius of inner cylinder (Length).05.. FLUID81 (with MODE = 1). The element is defined by two nodes and several real constants. For certain cases the axisymmetric harmonic fluid element. The cylinders may be circular or have an arbitrary cross-section. See the ANSYS. The element has two degrees of freedom per node: for example. translations in the nodal x and z directions. The axes of the cylinders are then assumed to be in the nodal y directions. The points represent the centerlines of concentric cylinders.2004 . Inc.

Element Library Radius of outer cylinder (Length). Node J refers to outer boundary. L Length of cylinders (Length). F Darcy friction factor for turbulent flow. DX,DZ

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Estimate of peak relative amplitudes between inner and outer boundaries for the x and z motions, respectively (Length). WX,WZ Estimate of resonant frequencies in the x and z response directions (Rad/Time). CX,CZ Flow and geometry constants for the x and z motions, respectively (Mass/Length). M1 Mass of fluid displaced by the inner boundary (Boundary 1) (Mass). M2 Mass of fluid that could be contained within the outer boundary (Boundary 2) in absence of the inner boundary (Mass). MHX, MHZ Hydrodynamic mass for motion in the x and z directions, respectively (Mass). KEYOPT(3) is used to select the form of the fluid coupling element. The form of the element determines the real constants required, the material properties (if any), and the matrices calculated. The density is input as material property DENS and is evaluated at the average of the two node temperatures. The damping matrix is calculated only if F is nonzero. KEYOPT(6) is used to select the direction of operation for the element. If KEYOPT(6) = 1, the X and Y labels used in this description should be interchanged. Similarly, if KEYOPT(6) = 3, interchange the Z and Y labels. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. A general description of element input is given in Element Input.

**FLUID38 Input Summary
**

Element Name FLUID38 Nodes I, J

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Element Library Degrees of Freedom UX, UZ if KEYOPT ( 6 ) = 0 or 2, or UY, UZ if KEYOPT( 6 ) = 1, or UX, UY if KEYOPT( 6 ) = 3 Real Constants R2, R1, L, F, DX, DZ, WX, WZ if KEYOPT(3) = 0 M2, M1, MHX, MHZ, DX, DZ,WX, WZ, CX, CZ if KEYOPT (3) = 2 Material Properties DENS if KEYOPT (3) = 0 None if KEYOPT (3) = 2 Surface Loads None Body Loads Temperature -T ( I ),T ( J ) KEYOPT(3) 0 -Concentric circular cylinders 2 -Concentric arbitrary cylinders KEYOPT(6) 0, 2 -Flow axis parallel to nodal Y axis (UX, UZ degrees of freedom) 1 -Flow axis parallel to nodal X axis (UX, UZ degrees of freedom) 3 -Flow axis parallel to nodal Z axis (UX, UY degrees of freedom)

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Output Data

There is no element solution output associated with the element.

**Assumptions and Restrictions
**

The element operates in the nodal coordinate system (see Elements that Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System). No fluid coupling exists in the flow axis direction. The element has no nodal coordinate system transformation to account for nonparallel nodal coordinate systems. Nodes I and J may be located anywhere in space (preferably coincident). The lumped mass option [LUMPM] is not available with this element.

Product Restrictions

There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.

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COMBIN39

Name

COMBIN39 — Nonlinear Spring product: MP ME ST PP ED

Element Description

COMBIN39 is a unidirectional element with nonlinear generalized force-deflection capability that can be used in any analysis. The element has longitudinal or torsional capability in one, two, or three dimensional applications. The longitudinal option is a uniaxial tension-compression element with up to three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions. No bending or torsion is considered. The torsional option is a purely rotational element with three degrees of freedom at each node: rotations about the nodal x, y, and z axes. No bending or axial loads are considered. The element has large displacement capability for which there can be two or three degrees of freedom at each node. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for more details about this element. The element has no mass or thermal capacitance. These may be added by using the appropriate elements (see MASS21 and MASS71). A bilinear force-deflection element with damping and gaps is also available (COMBIN40). COMBIN39 Nonlinear Spring

Input Data

The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in COMBIN39. The element is defined by two node points and a generalized force-deflection curve. The points on this curve (D1, F1, etc.) represent force (or moment) versus relative translation (or rotation) for structural analyses, and heat (or flow) rate versus temperature (or pressure) difference for a thermal

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analyses. The loads should be defined on a full 360 basis for an axisymmetric analysis. The force-deflection curve should be input such that deflections are increasing from the third (compression) to the first (tension) quadrants. Adjacent deflections should not be nearer than 1E-7 times total input deflection range. The last input deflection must be positive. Segments tending towards vertical should be avoided. If the force-deflection curve is exceeded, the last defined slope is maintained, and the status remains equal to the last segment number. If the compressive region of the force-deflection curve is explicitly defined (and not reflected), then at least one point should also be at the origin (0,0) and one point in the first (tension) quadrant. If KEYOPT(2) = 1 (no compressive resistance), the force-deflection curve should not extend into the third quadrant. Note that this tension-only behavior can cause convergence difficulties similar to those that can be experienced by contact elements. See Contact in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide, as well as various contact element descriptions, for guidelines on overcoming convergence difficulties. Note that the number of points defining the loading curve (20 points) can be effectively doubled by using the reflective option. Slopes of segments may be either positive or negative, except that the slopes at the origin must be positive and, if KEYOPT(1) = 1, slopes at the ends may not be negative. Also, if KEYOPT(1) = 1, force-deflection points may not be defined in the second or fourth quadrants and the slope of any segment may not be greater than the slope of the segment at the origin in that quadrant. The KEYOPT(1) option allows either unloading along the same loading curve or unloading along the line parallel to the slope at the origin of the curve. This second option allows modeling of hysteretic effects. As illustrated in Force-deflection curves, the KEYOPT(2) option provides several loading curve capabilities. The KEYOPT(3) option selects one degree of freedom. This may be a translation, a rotation, a pressure or a temperature. Alternately, the element may have more than one type of degree of freedom (KEYOPT(4) > 0). The two nodes defining the element should not be coincident, since the load direction is collinear with the line joining the nodes. The longitudinal option (KEYOPT(4) = 1 or 3) creates a uniaxial tensioncompression element with two or three translational degrees of freedom at each node. No bending or torsion is considered. The torsional option (KEYOPT(4 ) = 2) creates a purely rotational element with three rotational degrees of freedom at each node. No bending or axial loads are considered. The stress stiffening capability is applicable when forces are applied, but not when torsional loads are applied. The element has large displacement capability with two or three degrees of freedom for each node when you use KEYOPT(4) = 1 or 3 in combination with NLGEOM,ON. The element has only one degree of freedom selected with the KEYOPT(3) option. The KEYOPT(1) option allows either unloading along the same loading curve or unloading along the line parallel to the slope at the origin of the curve. As illustrated in Force-deflection curves, the KEYOPT(2) option provides several loading curve capabilities. Convergence difficulties caused by moving through rapid changes of the slope (tangent) of the forcedeflection diagram are sometimes helped by use of line search (LNSRCH,ON). A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. A general description of element input is given in Element Input.

COMBIN39 Input Summary

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Element Name COMBIN39 Nodes I, J Degrees of Freedom UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ, PRES, or TEMP. Make 1-D choices with KEYOPT(3). Make limited 2- or 3-D choices with KEYOPT(4). Real Constants D1, F1, D2, F2, D3, F3, D4, F4, ...D20, F20 Material Properties None Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features Nonlinear, Stress stiffening, Large displacement KEYOPT(1) 0 -Unload along same loading curve 1 -Unload along line parallel to slope at origin of loading curve KEYOPT(2) 0 -Compressive loading follows defined compressive curve (or reflected tensile curve if not defined) 1 -Element offers no resistance to compressive loading 2 -Loading initially follows tensile curve then follows compressive curve after buckling (zero or negative stiffness) KEYOPT(3) (KEYOPT(4) overrides KEYOPT(3)) 0, 1 -UX (Displacement along nodal X axes) 2 -UY (Displacement along nodal Y axes) 3 -UZ (Displacement along nodal Z axes) 4 -ROTX (Rotation about nodal X axes) 5 -ROTY (Rotation about nodal Y axes) 6 -ROTZ (Rotation about nodal Z axes) 7 --

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Element Library PRES 8 -TEMP KEYOPT(4) 0 -Use any KEYOPT(3) option 1 -3-D longitudinal element (UX, UY and UZ) 2 -3-D torsional element (ROTX, ROTY and ROTZ) 3 --

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2-D longitudinal element. (UX and UY) Element must lie in an X-Y plane KEYOPT(6) 0 -Basic element printout 1 -Also print force-deflection table for each element (only at first iteration of problem)

Output Data

The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:

?

nodal degree of freedom results included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in COMBIN39 Element Output Definitions

?

The nodal displacements and forces correspond to the degrees of freedom selected with KEYOPT(3). For an axisymmetric analysis, the element forces are expressed on a full 360 basis. The element value STRETCH is the relative deflection at the end of the substep (e.g., UX(J) - UX(I) - UORIG, etc.). STAT and OLDST describe the curve segment number at the end of the current and previous substeps, respectively. STAT or OLDST = 0 indicates nonconservative unloading (KEYOPT(1) = 1). A status of 99 or -99 (as shown in COMBIN39) indicates that the active load point on the curve is outside of the supplied data. The slope of the last segment that is provided is simply continued beyond the last data point. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. COMBIN39 Force-deflection curves for KEYOPT(1) and KEYOPT(2)

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The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE, ESOL]. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. In either the O or R columns, Y indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and a - indicates that the item is not available. COMBIN39 Element Output Definitions O EL Element Number Y NODES Nodes - I, J Y XC, YC, ZC Location where results are reported Y UORIG Origin shift upon reversed loading 1 FORCE Force in element Y STRETCH Relative displacement (includes origin shift) Y STAT Status at end of this time step 2 OLDST Same as STAT except status assumed at beginning of this time step 2 UI Displacement of node I Y Name Definition R Y Y 4 1 Y Y 2 2 Y

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Element Library UJ CRUSH SLOPE Displacement of node J Status of the force deflection curve after buckling Current slope

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1. If KEYOPT(1) = 1 2. If the value of STAT is: 0 - Indicates nonconservative unloading 1-20 - Curve segment number at end of time step 99 - Beyond last segment (last segment is extrapolated) (negative STAT values indicate compressive segments) 3. If KEYOPT(2) = 2 and if the value of CRUSH is: 0 - Use defined tensile curve 1 - Use reflected compressive curve in tension (element has been compressed) 4. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. COMBIN39 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. The following notation is used in COMBIN39 Item and Sequence Numbers: Name output quantity as defined in the COMBIN39 Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data COMBIN39 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name FORCE STRETCH UI UJ UORIG STAT Item SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 1 2 3 4 5

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**Assumptions and Restrictions
**

If you specify KEYOPT(4) = 0, the element has only one degree of freedom per node. This degree of freedom is defined by KEYOPT(3), is specified in the nodal coordinate system and is the same for both nodes (see Elements that Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System). KEYOPT(3) also defines the direction of the force. The element assumes only a one-dimensional action. Nodes I and J may be anywhere in space (preferably coincident). The element is defined such that a positive displacement of node J relative to node I tends to put the element in tension. If you specify KEYOPT(4) 0, the element has two or three displacement degrees of freedom per node. Nodes I and J should not be coincident, since the line joining the nodes defines the direction of the force. The element is nonlinear and requires an iterative solution. The nonlinear behavior of the element operates only in the static and nonlinear transient dynamic analyses. As with most nonlinear elements, loading and unloading should occur gradually. When the element is also nonconservative, loads should be applied along the actual load history path and in the proper sequence. The element may not be deactivated with the EKILL command. Also, the real constants for this element are not allowed to be changed from their initial values. Whenever the force that the element carries changes sign, UORIG is reset, and the origin of the force-deflection curve effectively shifts over to the point where the force changed sign. If KEYOPT (2) = 1 and the force tends to become negative, the element "breaks" and no force is transmitted until the force tends to become positive again. When KEYOPT(1) = 1, the element is both nonlinear and nonconservative. In a thermal analysis, the temperature or pressure degree of freedom acts in a manner analogous to the displacement.

Product Restrictions

ANSYS/Structural

?

KEYOPT(3)

8

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COMBIN40

Name

COMBIN40 — Combination product: MP ME ST PR PP ED

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Element Description

COMBIN40 is a combination of a spring-slider and damper in parallel, coupled to a gap in series. A mass can be associated with one or both nodal points. The element has one degree of freedom at each node, either a nodal translation, rotation, pressure, or temperature. The mass, springs, slider, damper, and/or the gap may be removed from the element. The element may be used in any analysis. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for more details about this element. Other elements having damper, slider, or gap capabilities are COMBIN7, LINK10, CONTAC12, COMBIN14, CONTAC26, MATRIX27, COMBIN37, COMBIN39, CONTAC48, CONTAC49 and CONTAC52. COMBIN40 Combination Element

Input Data

The combination element is shown in COMBIN40. The element is defined by two nodes, two spring constants K1 and K2 (Force/Length), a damping coefficient C (Force*Time/Length), a mass M (Force*Time2/Length), a gap size GAP (Length) or (Radians), and a limiting sliding force FSLIDE (Force). If the element is used in an axisymmetric analysis, these values (except GAP) should be on a full 360 basis. A spring constant of 0.0 (for either K1 or K2, but not both) or a damping coefficient of 0.0 will remove these capabilities from the element. The mass, if any, may be applied at node I or node J or it may be equally distributed between the nodes. The gap size is defined by the fourth element real constant. If positive, a gap of this size exists. If negative, an initial interference of this amount exists. If GAP = 0.0, the gap capability is removed from the element. The FSLIDE value represents the absolute value of the spring force that must be exceeded before sliding occurs. If FSLIDE is 0.0, the sliding capability of the element is removed, that is, a rigid connection is assumed. A "break-away" feature is available to allow the element stiffness (K1) to drop to zero once a limiting force |FSLIDE| has been reached. The limit is input as -|FSLIDE| and is applicable to both tensile breaking and compressive crushing. A "lock-up" feature may be selected with KEYOPT(1). This feature removes the gap opening capability once the gap has closed. The force-deflection relationship for the combination element is as shown in COMBIN40 Behavior (for no damping). If the initial gap is identically zero, the element responds as a spring-damper-slider element having both tension and compression capability. If the gap is not initially zero, the element

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responds as follows: when the spring force (F1+F2) is negative (compression), the gap remains closed and the element responds as a spring-damper parallel combination. As the spring force (F1) increases beyond the FSLIDE value, the element slides and the F1 component of the spring force remains constant. If FSLIDE is input with a negative sign, the stiffness drops to zero and the element moves with no resisting F1 spring force. If the spring force becomes positive (tension), the gap opens and no force is transmitted. In a thermal analysis, the temperature or pressure degree of freedom acts in a manner analogous to the displacement. The element has only the degrees of freedom selected with KEYOPT(3). The KEYOPT(3) = 7 and 8 options allow the element to be used in the thermal analysis (with thermal equivalent real constants). A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. A general description of element input is given in Element Input.

**COMBIN40 Input Summary
**

Element Name COMBIN40 Nodes I, J Degrees of Freedom UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ, PRES, or TEMP (depending on KEYOPT(3) below) Real Constants K1, C, M, GAP, FSLIDE, K2

Note

If GAP is exactly zero, the interface cannot open. If GAP is negative, there is an initial interference. If FSLIDE is exactly zero, the sliding capability is removed. If FSLIDE is negative, the break-away feature is used. Material Properties None Surface Loads None Body Loads None Special Features Nonlinear (unless both GAP and FSLIDE equal zero), Adaptive descent KEYOPT(1) 0 -Standard gap capability 1 -Gap remains closed after initial contact (lock-up) KEYOPT(3) 0, 1 -UX (Displacement along nodal X axes) 2 -UY (Displacement along nodal Y axes) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

Element Library 3 -UZ (Displacement along nodal Z axes) 4 -ROTX (Rotation about nodal X axes) 5 -ROTY (Rotation about nodal Y axes) 6 -ROTZ (Rotation about nodal Z axes) 7 -PRES 8 -TEMP KEYOPT(4) 0 -Produce element printout for all status conditions 1 -Suppress element printout if gap is open (STAT = 3) KEYOPT(6) 0 -Mass at node I 1 -Mass equally distributed between nodes I and J 2 -Mass at node J

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Output Data

The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:

?

nodal degree of freedom results included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in COMBIN40 Behavior

?

Several items are illustrated in COMBIN40 Behavior. The displacement direction corresponds to the nodal coordinate direction selected with KEYOPT(3). The value STR is the spring displacement at the end of this substep, STR = U(J)-U(I)+GAP -SLIDE. This value is used in determining the spring force. For an axisymmetric analysis, the element forces are expressed on a full 360 basis. The value SLIDE is the accumulated amount of sliding at the end of this substep relative to the starting location. STAT describes the status of the element at the end of this substep for use in the next substep. If STAT = 1, the gap is closed and no sliding occurs. If STAT = 3, the gap is open. If STAT = 3 at the end of a substep, an element stiffness of zero is being used. A value of STAT = +2 indicates that node J moves to the right of node I. STAT = -2 indicates a negative slide. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. COMBIN40 Behavior

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The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE, ESOL]. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. In either the O or R columns, Y indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and a - indicates that the item is not available. COMBIN40 Element Output Definitions Definition EL Element Number NODES Nodes - I, J XC, YC, ZC Location where results are reported SLIDE Amount of sliding F1 Force in spring 1 STR1 Relative displacement of spring 1 STAT Element status OLDST STAT value of the previous time step UI Displacement of node I UJ Displacement of node J F2 Force in spring 2 STR2 Relative displacement of spring 2 1. If the value of STAT is: 1 - Gap closed (no sliding) 2 - Sliding right (node J moving to right of node I) Name O Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 Y Y Y Y R Y Y 2 Y Y Y 1 1 Y Y Y Y

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Element Library -2 - Sliding left (node J moving to left of node I) 3 - Gap open 2. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.

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Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data COMBIN40 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name F1 F2 STAT OLDST STR1 STR2 UI UJ SLIDE Item SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

**Assumptions and Restrictions
**

The element has only one degree of freedom per node which is specified in the nodal coordinate system (see Elements that Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System). The element assumes only a one-dimensional action. Nodes I and J may be anywhere in space (preferably coincident). The element is defined such that a positive displacement of node J relative to node I tends to open the gap. If, for a given set of conditions, nodes I and J are interchanged, the gap element acts as a hook element, i.e., the gap closes as the nodes separate. The real constants for this element are not allowed to be changed from their initial values. Also, the element may not be deactivated with the EKILL command. The nonlinear options of the element operate only in the static and the nonlinear transient dynamic analyses. If used in other analysis types, the element maintains its initial status throughout the analysis. A gap condition capability is also included in the reduced linear transient dynamic analysis (see the GAP module of PREP7). A file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

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0.0 value for GAP or FSLIDE removes the gap or sliding capability, respectively, from the element. The mass, if any, is one-dimensional. The element requires an iterative solution if GAP and/or FSLIDE are nonzero. A stiffness (K1 or K2) must be defined if the gap capability is used. Unreasonably high stiffness values should be avoided. The rate of convergence may decrease as the stiffness increases. If FSLIDE is not equal to zero, the element is nonconservative as well as nonlinear. Nonconservative elements require that the load be applied very gradually, along the actual load history path, and in the proper sequence (if multiple loadings exist). Only the lumped mass matrix is available.

Product Restrictions

When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. ANSYS/Professional Structural Analysis:

?

No damping capability; CV1 and CV2 are not allowed. Only stress stiffening and large deflections are allowed. KEYOPT(2) = 7 or 8 is not allowed.

?

?

ANSYS/Structural

?

KEYOPT(3)

8

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SHELL41

Name

SHELL41 — Membrane Shell product: MP ME ST PP ED

Element Description

SHELL41 is a 3-D element having membrane (in-plane) stiffness but no bending (out-of-plane) stiffness. It is intended for shell structures where bending of the elements is of secondary importance. The element has three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions. The element has variable thickness, stress stiffening, large deflection, and a cloth option. See the

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ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for more details about this element. Another element having "membrane only" capability as an option is SHELL63. SHELL41 Membrane Shell

Input Data

The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in SHELL41. The element is defined by four nodes, four thicknesses, a material direction angle and the orthotropic material properties. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems. The element x-axis may be rotated by an angle THETA (in degrees). The element may have variable thickness. The thickness is assumed to vary smoothly over the area of the element, with the thickness input at the four nodes. If the element has a constant thickness, only TK(I) need be input. If the thickness is not constant, all four thicknesses must be input. The elastic foundation stiffness (EFS) is defined as the pressure required to produce a unit normal deflection of the foundation. The elastic foundation capability is bypassed if EFS is less than, or equal to, zero. ADMSUA is the added mass per unit area. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on SHELL41. Positive pressures act into the element. Edge pressures are input as force per unit length. The pressure loading is converted to equivalent element loads applied at the nodes. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. If all other temperatures are unspecified, they default to T(I). For any other input pattern, unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. Use KEYOPT(1) for a tension-only option. This nonlinear option acts like a cloth in that tension loads will be supported but compression loads will cause the element to wrinkle. This capability is a shell version of LINK10, the tension-only spar. You should not use this “cloth” option to model cloth materials, since real cloth materials do contain file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh... 20.05.2004

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some bending stiffness. You can use the cloth option to efficiently model regions where wrinkling is to be approximated, such as for shear panels in aircraft structures. Wrinkling for this type of application may be in one (or both) orthogonal directions. If you do need to model a real cloth material, you can use the cloth option to simulate the tension part of the loading, but you will need to superimpose a very thin regular shell element to include a bending stiffness for the material. Superimposing a thin shell may also aid solution stability. Any out-of-planeness within the element or roundoff error in nodal location may cause an instability in the displacement solution. To counteract this, a slight normal stiffness may be added to the element with the EFS real constant. KEYOPT(2) is used to include or suppress the extra displacement shapes. KEYOPT(4) provides various element printout options (see Element Solution). A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. A general description of element input is given in Element Input.

**SHELL41 Input Summary
**

Element Name SHELL41 Nodes I, J, K, L Degrees of Freedom UX, UY, UZ Real Constants TK(I), TK(J), TK(K), TK(L), THETA, EFS, ADMSUA (where TK(J), TK(K), TK(L) default to TK(I)) Material Properties EX, EY, PRXY or NUXY, ALPX, ALPY, DENS, GXY, DAMP (X-direction defined by THETA real constant) Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (I-J-K-L) (bottom, in +Z direction), face 2 (I-J-K-L) (top, in -Z direction), face 3 (J-I), face 4 (K-J), face 5 (L-K), face 6 (I-L) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L) Special Features Stress Stiffening, Large Deflection, Nonlinear (if KEYOPT(1) = 2), Birth and death, Adaptive descent KEYOPT(1) 0 -Stiffness acts in both tension and compression 2 -Stiffness acts in tension, collapses in compression ("cloth" option) KEYOPT(2) 0 -Include extra displacement shapes 1 --

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Element Library Suppress extra displacement shape KEYOPT(4) 0 -Basic element printout 1 -Repeat basic printout at integration points 2 -Nodal stress printout KEYOPT(5) 0 -No member force printout 1 -Print member forces in the element coordinate system KEYOPT(6) 0 -No edge printout 1 -Edge printout for mid-point of side I-J 2 -Edge printout for mid-points of both sides I -J and K-L

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Note

Edge printout valid only for isotropic materials

Output Data

The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:

?

nodal degree of freedom results included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions

?

Several items are illustrated in Stress output. The element stress directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. Edge stresses are defined parallel and perpendicular to the IJ edge (and the KL edge). A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. SHELL41 Stress Output

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The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE, ESOL]. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. In either the O or R columns, Y indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and a - indicates that the item is not available. SHELL41 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT AREA XC, YC, ZC PRES TEMP S: X, Y, Z, XY S: 1, 2, 3 S: INT S: EQV EPEL: X, Y, Z, XY EPEL: EQV EPTH: X, Y, Z, XY Definition Element Number Nodes - I, J, K, L Material number Surface area Location where results are reported Pressures P1 at nodes I, J, K, L; P2 at I, J, K, L; P3 at J, I; P4 at K, J; P5 at L, K; P6 at I, L Temperatures T(I), T(J), T(K), T(L) Stresses Principal stress Stress intensity Equivalent stress Average elastic strain Equivalent elastic strain Average thermal strain O Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 4

Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

Y Y Y Y Y Y

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Element Library EPTH: EQV ANGLES CURRENT STATS. OLD STATUSES TEMP EPEL (PAR,PER,Z) S(PAR,PER,Z) SINT SEQV FX, FY, FZ

Page 221 of 993 Equivalent thermal strain Diagonal tension angles (degrees) between element x-axis and tensile stress directions Element statuses at end of this time step Element statuses at end of previous time step Edge average temperature Edge elastic strains (parallel, perpendicular, Z) Edge stresses (parallel, perpendicular, Z) Edge stress intensity Edge equivalent stress Nodal forces Y Y 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Y

1. Output at the integration points only if KEYOPT(1) = 2 (meaningful only if STAT = 1) 2. Output at the integration points only if KEYOPT(1) = 2. The element status is given by the following values: 0 - Tension in both (orthogonal) directions 1 - Tension in one direction, collapse in other direction 2 - Collapse in both directions 3. Edge I-J output, if KEYOPT(6) is greater than zero. 4. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. SHELL41 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Integration Point Stress Solution Nodal Stress Solution Edge K-L Member Forces Names of Items Output TEMP, S(X, Y, Z, XY), SINT, SEQV TEMP, S(X, Y, Z, XY), SINT, SEQV TEMP, EPEL(PAR, PER, Z), S(PAR, PER, Z), SINT, SEQV FX, FY, FZ OR 1 2 3 4 -

1. Output at each integration point, if KEYOPT(4) = 1 2. Output at each node, if KEYOPT(4) = 2 3. Output if KEYOPT(6) = 2 4. Output at each node (in the element coordinate system) if KEYOPT(5) = 1 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE

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command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command I,J,K,L sequence number for data at nodes I,J,K,L SHELL41 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name FX FY FZ P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 S:1 S:2 S:3 S:INT S:EQV Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC I 1 2 3 13 17 22 27 1 2 3 4 5 J 4 5 6 14 18 21 24 6 7 8 9 10 K 7 8 9 15 19 23 26 11 12 13 14 15 L 10 11 12 16 20 25 28 16 17 18 19 20

Corner Location 1 2 3 4 ANGLE NMISC 21 23 25 27 STAT NMISC 22 24 26 28

**Assumptions and Restrictions
**

The four nodes defining the element should lie in an exact flat plane; however, a small out-of-plane tolerance is permitted so that the element may have a slightly warped shape. A slightly warped element will produce a warning message. If the warping is too severe, a fatal message results and a triangular element should be used (see Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads). Zero area elements are not allowed. TK(I) must not be zero. Also, the element must not taper down to a

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See PLANE25 for an axisymmetric version that accepts nonaxisymmetric loading. stress stiffening will help stabilize the solution after the first substep if the membrane element is in a tension field.Element Library zero thickness at any corner. Also. stress stiffening. The element can be used either as a plane element (plane stress or plane strain) or as an axisymmetric element. Very weak spar elements (LINK8) tied to the nodes in the plane and to a common ground point may be added to provide a small normal stiffness.. and large strain capabilities. Modeling hints: An assembly of SHELL41 elements describing a flat plane should be exactly flat. swelling. Page 223 of 993 A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L node numbers (see Triangle.2004 . The triangular shape is required for large deflection analyses since a four-node element may warp during deflection. large deflection. Theory Reference for more details about this element. 20. Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. Edge stress printout is valid only if the conditions described in Element Solution are met. Prev COMBIN40 Prev PLANE42 Element Library Next PLANE42 Next PLANE42 Name PLANE42 — 2-D Structural Solid product: MP ME ST PR PP ED Element Description PLANE42 is used for 2-D modeling of solid structures. creep. The element is defined by four nodes having two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. but each flat element should not extend over more than a 15 arc. or the EFS real constant may be used to counteract the singularity problem. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements). The extra shapes are automatically deleted for triangular elements so that a constant strain element results. PLANE42 2-D Structural Solid file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. See the ANSYS. Inc. otherwise singularities may develop in the direction perpendicular to the plane. An assemblage of flat elements can produce an approximation to a curved surface.. An option is available to suppress the extra displacement shapes. The element has plasticity. See PLANE82 for a multi-node version of this element.05.

. 20. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . You can include the effects of pressure load stiffness in a geometric nonlinear analysis using SOLCONTROL. Pressure load stiffness effects are included in linear eigenvalue buckling automatically.. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. Positive pressures act into the element. The nodal forces. KEYOPT(9) = 1 is used to read initial stress data from a user subroutine. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on PLANE42..Element Library Page 224 of 993 Input Data The geometry.INCP. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in PLANE42. For any other input pattern.05. If an unsymmetric matrix is needed for pressure load stiffness effects. K. Temperatures and fluences may be input as element body loads at the nodes. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. If all other temperatures are unspecified. L Degrees of Freedom file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For details about these user subroutines. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary.. KEYOPT(2) is used to include or suppress the extra displacement shapes. a thickness (for the plane stress option only) and the orthotropic material properties. KEYOPT(5) and KEYOPT(6) provide various element printout options (see Element Solution). PLANE42 Input Summary Element Name PLANE42 Nodes I. if any. The element input data includes four nodes. see the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features.UNSYM. use NROPT. node locations. should be input per unit of depth for a plane analysis (except for KEYOPT (3) = 3) and on a full 360 basis for an axisymmetric analysis. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems.2004 . J. they default to T(I). Similar defaults occurs for fluence except that zero is used instead of TUNIF. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions.

NUYZ. DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (J-I). EY. Swelling.. if KEYOPT (3) = 3 Material Properties EX. 1. Large strain. ALPY. Stress stiffening. DENS. EZ. 2 Thickness. FL(K). T(L) Fluences -FL(I). face 2 (K-J). GXY.0) 3 -Plane stress with thickness input KEYOPT(5) 0 -Basic element solution 1 -Repeat basic solution for all integration points 2 -Nodal Stress Solution KEYOPT(6) 0 -Basic element solution 1 -file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. PRYZ.ALPZ. PRXZ or NUXY. face 3 (L-K). Birth and death. if KEYOPT (3) = 0. ALPX. NUXZ). FL(L) Special Features Plasticity. face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). Adaptive descent KEYOPT(1) 0 -Element coordinate system is parallel to the global coordinate system 1 -Element coordinate system is based on the element I-J side KEYOPT(2) 0 -Include extra displacement shapes 1 -Suppress extra displacement shapes KEYOPT(3) 0 -Plane stress 1 -Axisymmetric 2 -Plane strain (Z strain = 0.05. UY Real Constants None. FL(J). Large deflection. (PRXY. T(J)..2004 .Element Library Page 225 of 993 UX. T(K). Creep. 20.

Surface stresses are available on any face.. 4 -Surface solution for faces with nonzero pressure KEYOPT(9) 0 -No user subroutine to provide initial stress (default) 1 -Read initial stress data from user subroutine USTRESS Note See the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features for user written subroutines Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? Several items are illustrated in Stress output. 2 -- Page 226 of 993 Surface solution for both faces I-J and K-L also. 20.. (Surface solution available for linear materials only) 3 -Nonlinear solution at each integration point also.05. The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. for example.2004 . Surface stresses on face IJ. are defined parallel and perpendicular to the IJ line and along the Z axis for a plane analysis or in the hoop direction for an axisymmetric analysis.Element Library Surface solution for face I-J also. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. PLANE42 Stress Output Stress directions shown are for KEYOPT(1) = 0 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output.

05.K.indicates that the item is not available. P3 at L. 2. J. Y. 3 S: INT S: EQV EPEL: X.OUT. Y. Z. FL(J). XY S: 1. XY EPCR: EQV EPSW: NL: EPEQ NL: SRAT NL: SEPL NL: HPRES FACE EPEL(PAR. XY EPPL: EQV EPCR: X.L Y Temperatures T(I). 3 EPEL: EQV EPTH: X. T(L) Y Fluences FL(I).PER. XY EPEL: 1. 20. T(K). K. In either the O or R columns. Y indicates that the item is always available. FL(L) Y Stresses (SZ = 0. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. perpendicular. P2 at K.0 for plane stress elements) Y Principal stresses Y Stress intensity Y Equivalent stress Y Elastic strains Y Principal elastic strain Y Equivalent elastic strain [4] Average thermal strain Y Equivalent thermal strain [4] Plastic strain 1 Equivalent plastic strain [4] Creep strains 1 Equivalent creep strains [4] Swelling strain 1 Equivalent plastic strain 1 Ratio of trial stress to stress on yield surface 1 Equivalent stress on stress-strain curve 1 Hydrostatic pressure Face label 2 Surface elastic strains (parallel. PLANE42 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT THICK VOLU: XC.. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. FL(K). Y. Z or hoop) 2 Surface average temperature 2 Definition R Y Y Y Y Y 3 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ESOL]. YC PRES TEMP FLUEN S: X.2004 .I. L Y Material number Y Average thickness Y Volume Y Location where results are reported Y Pressures P1 at nodes J.Element Library The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: Page 227 of 993 A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. Y. P4 at I. Z. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.. XY EPTH: EQV EPPL: X.J. Z) TEMP O Element Number Y Nodes . 2. Z. Z. and a . Y.I. T(J). Z.

See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. SEPL. output only if the element has a nonlinear material.. or 4) 3. if KEYOPT(5) = 1 3. EPEQ.5.05.PRXY). Surface output (if KEYOPT(6) is 1. Nonlinear solution. SINT. 20. the X. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP. EPSW Integration Point Solution TEMP. Z or hoop) Surface stress intensity Surface equivalent stress Integration point locations 2 2 2 - Page 228 of 993 2 2 2 Y 1. SEQV O 1 2 3 R - 1. and XY stress and strain outputs correspond to the radial. S Nodal Stress Solution TEMP. 2.Element Library S(PAR. Y. perpendicular. Output at each integration point. respectively. EPEL. SINT. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.Z) SINT SEQV LOCI: X. for plastic and creep this value is set at 0.Z. Output at each integration point. PLANE42 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Names of Items Output Nonlinear Integration Pt. HPRES. EPCR.2. 4.. SEQV. Solution EPPL. S.PER. Output at each node.Y.2004 . Z Surface stresses (parallel. axial. and in-plane shear stresses and strains. Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. SRAT. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 Note For axisymmetric solutions with KEYOPT(1) = 0. if the element has a nonlinear material and KEYOPT(6) = 3 2. hoop.

J. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.. The extra shapes are automatically deleted for triangular elements so that a constant strain element results. ? ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.K.2004 . 20. Assumptions and Restrictions The area of the element must be non-zero.Element Library I. The only special feature allowed is stress stiffening. A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L node numbers (see Triangle. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements).L sequence number for data at nodes I.05. Surface stress printout is valid only if the conditions described in Element Solution are met.K. KEYOPT(6) = 3 is not applicable. ANSYS/Professional ? The DAMP material property is not allowed. Fluence body loads are not applicable.. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants.L Page 229 of 993 PLANE42 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name P1 P2 P3 P4 S:1 S:2 S:3 S:INT S:EQV FLUEN THICK Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 25 I 2 7 1 2 3 4 5 21 J 1 4 6 7 8 9 10 22 K 3 6 11 12 13 14 15 23 L 5 8 16 17 18 19 20 24 - See Surface Solution Index of this manual for the item and sequence numbers for surface output for the ETABLE command. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below.J. The element must lie in a global X-Y plane as shown in PLANE42 and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses.

Inc. For a thin shell capability or if plasticity or creep is not needed. use SHELL181. it uses a mixed interpolation of tensorial components. and large strain capabilities.Element Library Page 230 of 993 Prev SHELL41 Prev SHELL43 Element Library Next SHELL43 Next SHELL43 Name SHELL43 — 4-Node Plastic Large Strain Shell product: MP ME ST PP ED Element Description SHELL43 is well suited to model linear. Theory Reference for more details about this element. moderately-thick shell structures. If convergence difficulties are encountered and large strain capability is needed. stress stiffening. warped. node locations. creep... SHELL43 4-Node Plastic Large Strain Shell Input Data The geometry. Also. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For the out-of-plane motion. the elastic quadrilateral shell (SHELL63) may be used. 20. and z axes. large deflection. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in SHELL43. The element has six degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. The element has plasticity. and z directions and rotations about the nodal x. y.2004 . The deformation shapes are linear in both in-plane directions. See the ANSYS.05. y. we recommend using SHELL181 for nonlinear structures.

only TK(I) need be input. all four thicknesses must be input. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. L Degrees of Freedom UX. (PRXY. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. UY. PRXZ or NUXY. EZ. The element may have variable thickness. T6. in +Z direction). K.. NUXZ).0E-6 and 1. ZSTIF2. ROTZ Real Constants TK(I).05. ALPZ. respectively. face 5 (L-K). and T4. face 3 (J-I). EY. ALPX. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements. TK(K). TK(L). Default values of 1. they default to T1.. T3. in -Z direction). Positive pressures act into the element. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the "corner" locations (1-8) shown in SHELL43. Edge pressures are input as force per unit length. TK(J). ADMSUA is the added mass per unit area. ZSTIF1. If the thickness is not constant. PRYZ. ADMSUA Material Properties EX.2004 . Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on SHELL43. If all other temperatures are unspecified. The thickness is assumed to vary smoothly over the area of the element. In this case. and the orthotropic material properties. T7. GXY. 20. UZ. If the element has a constant thickness. with the thickness input at the corner nodes. ROTX. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. while T2 (as input) is used for T5. ALPY. GYZ. face 2 (I-J-K-L) (top. T2. A triangular-shaped element may be formed by defining the same node number for nodes K and L as described in Triangle. J. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems. GXZ. A nominal in-plane rotational stiffness about the element z axis is used for KEYOPT(3) = 0 or 1.Element Library Page 231 of 993 The element is defined by four nodes. face 4 (K-J). DENS. T1 is used for T1. ROTY. If only T1 and T2 are input. The first corner temperature T1 defaults to TUNIF.0E-3 are provided for ZSTIF1 and ZSTIF2. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (I-J-K-L) (bottom. face 6 (I-L) Body Loads Temperatures -- file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. THETA. The element x axis may be rotated an angle THETA (in degrees) from the element x axis toward the element y axis. A more realistic rotational stiffness (Allman rotation) may alternately be defined (KEYOPT(3) = 2). NUYZ. SHELL43 Input Summary Element Name SHELL43 Nodes I. four thicknesses. For any other input pattern. and T8. real constants ZSTIF1 and ZSTIF2 are used to control the two spurious zero energy modes usually introduced by the Allman rotation.

Stress stiffening. Large strain. FL2. The basic element printout is given at the center of the top of surface IJKL. T3.. T6. FL5. T5. FL6. Large deflection. MX. 20. Adaptive descent KEYOPT(3) 0 -Include in-plane extra displacement shapes 1 -Suppress extra displacement shapes 2 -Include Allman rotational stiffness (use real constants ZSTIF1 and ZSTIF2) KEYOPT(4) 0 -No user subroutine to define element coordinate system 4 -Element x-axis located by user subroutine USERAN Note See the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features for user written subroutines KEYOPT(5) 0 -Basic element solution 1 -Repeat basic solution for all integration points and top. T4. the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. middle and bottom surfaces 2 -Nodal Stress Solution KEYOPT(6) 0 -Basic element solution 1 -Nonlinear integration point solution Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? Several items are illustrated in Stress output. Creep.Element Library Page 232 of 993 T1. TX. FL3. T8 Fluences -FL1. FL7. T2. The element stress directions and force resultants (NX.05. T7.2004 . etc. FL4. Birth and death. FL8 Special Features Plasticity..) are parallel to the element coordinate system.

T4. SHELL43 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT THICK VOLU: XC.. Y indicates that the item is always available.indicates that the item is not available. J. L Temperatures T1.OUT. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. T6.Element Library Page 233 of 993 element centroid. T3. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. ESOL]. P4 at K. T2. YC. I. T5. K.2004 . For triangular element configurations. Z. In either the O or R columns. ZC PRES TEMP LOC S: X. or integration point location 1 1 Stresses 1 1 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. SHELL43 Stress Output The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. J. Y. BOT. T8 Y Y TOP.05. MID. P6 at I. J. Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y Y 3 Element number and name Nodes . K. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. J. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. YZ. K. 20. T7. L. L. K. P3 at J. L Material number Average thickness Volume Location where results are reported Pressures P1 at nodes I. the face centers and the element centroid are averaged values. XY. P2 at I.I. Y Y P5 at L. and at the center of the bottom of surface IJKL. and a .

Element Library XZ S: 1.5. YZ.05. Y. if KEYOPT(5) = 2. XZ) Equivalent creep strain [4] Average equivalent plastic strain Ratio of trial stress to stress on yield surface Average equivalent stress from stress-strain curve In-plane element X.Y. repeats each location Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. SRAT. 3 EPEL: EQV EPTH: X. XY. EPCR 1 Nodal Stress Solution TEMP. Z. YZ. XY. 20. XY. XY. Y.. SEQV 2 1. SHELL43 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Names of Items Output O R Nonlinear Integration Pt. XZ EPPL: EQV EPCR: X. YZ. Nonlinear solution output for top. Y. Z.XY) M(X. Solution EPPL. if the element has a nonlinear material 3.XY) N(X.Y 2 2 . and XY moments Out-of-plane element X and Y shear forces 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Y Y . SEPL. and XY forces Element X. XY. Output at each integration point. 2. if the element has a nonlinear material and KEYOPT(6) = 1 2. for plastic and creep this value is set at 0. YZ.. Z. Y. XZ EPCR: EQV NL: EPEQ NL: SRAT NL: SEPL T(X. XY. Z.2 2 2 2 2 2 Y Y Y 2 2 2 2 Y Y Y 1. and bottom surfaces (and also for all integration points if KEYOPT(5) = 1) 2. Z. Y. SINT. The following stress solution repeats for top. 2. middle.2004 . Available only at centroid as a *GET item. Y. 4. Z. and bottom surfaces. Y. YZ. EPEQ. Output at each node. XZ). XZ EPEL: 1. YZ. middle.PRXY). XZ EPTH: EQV EPPL: X. 3 S: INT S: EQV EPEL: X. S(X.Y.Y) Page 234 of 993 Principal stress Stress intensity Equivalent stress Elastic strains Principal elastic strain Equivalent elastic strain [4] Average thermal strain Equivalent thermal strain [4] Average plastic strains Equivalent plastic strain [4] Average creep strains (X. Y. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP.

L SHELL43 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name TX TY TXY MX MY MXY NX NY P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 THICK Item E I SMISC 1 SMISC 2 SMISC 3 SMISC 4 SMISC 5 SMISC 6 SMISC 7 SMISC 8 SMISC .21 J 10 14 17 20 6 7 8 9 10 K 11 15 19 22 11 12 13 14 15 L 12 16 21 24 16 17 18 19 20 26 31 36 20.J.23 NMISC 49 Top S:1 NMISC .SMISC .J.13 SMISC ..K.3 S:INT NMISC .05. . See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information.L sequence number for data at nodes I.18 SMISC .5 Bottom S:1 NMISC .9 SMISC .1 S:2 NMISC .2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.K.4 S:EQV NMISC . The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I..Element Library Page 235 of 993 command using the Sequence Number method.SMISC .2 S:3 NMISC .

The applied transverse thermal gradient is assumed to vary linearly through the thickness.05.2004 . For linearly varying results use SHELL63 (no shear deflection) or SHELL93 (with midside nodes). i. Under bending loads. under thermal loads.e.Element Library S:2 S:3 S:INT S:EQV NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC 22 23 24 25 27 28 29 30 32 33 34 35 37 38 39 40 Page 236 of 993 Corner Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 FLUEN NMISC 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Assumptions and Restrictions Zero area elements are not allowed. The out-of-plane (normal) stress for this element varies linearly through the thickness. Zero thickness elements or elements tapering down to a zero thickness at any corner are not allowed. nodal stresses are the same as the centroidal stresses.. 20. Use of this element in triangular form produces results of inferior quality compared to the quadrilateral form. This occurs most often whenever the elements are not numbered properly. Quadrilateral SHELL43 elements may produce inaccurate stresses under thermal loads for doubly curved or warped domains.. Shear deflections are included. Prev PLANE42 Prev BEAM44 Element Library Next BEAM44 Next BEAM44 Name BEAM44 — 3-D Elastic Tapered Unsymmetric Beam product: MP ME ST PR PP ED file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. when the element is doubly curved (warped). Only the lumped mass matrix is available. Elastic rectangular elements without membrane loads give constant curvature results. The transverse shear stresses (SYZ and SXZ) are assumed to be constant through the thickness. Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. tapered elements produce inferior stress results and refined meshes may be required. triangular SHELL43 elements produce more accurate stress results than do quadrilateral shaped elements. Triangular elements are not geometrically invariant and the element produces a constant curvature solution. However..

The element x-axis is oriented from node I (end 1) toward node J (end 2). y. torsion.y. Theory Reference for more details about this element. Several orientations are shown in BEAM44.2004 . If these features are not desired. For the case where the element is file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the default ( = 0 ) orientation of the element y-axis is automatically calculated to be parallel to the global X-Y plane.y'. compression..Element Library Page 237 of 993 Element Description BEAM44 is a uniaxial element with tension. and z directions and rotations about the nodal x. BEAM44 can be used with any cross section that was defined using SECTYPE. SECOFFSET. SECDATA . J. The reference system is defined by nodes I. A 2-D version of this element (BEAM54) is also available. node locations. and coordinate system for this element are shown in BEAM44.z) with x along the cross-section centroid (C. The element has six degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. Another option is available for printing the forces acting on the element in the element coordinate directions.z') and offsets. and K.G. Stress stiffening and large deflection capabilities are also included. and bending capabilities. 20. However. Inc. or an orientation angle. The principal axes of the beam are in the element coordinate system (x. a section defined with these commands will be used only if there is no real constant set defined.05. SECWRITE. y. The element is located by a reference coordinate system (x'.). as shown in BEAM44. the uniform symmetrical beam BEAM4 may be used. This element allows a different unsymmetrical geometry at each end and permits the end nodes to be offset from the centroidal axis of the beam. For the two-node option.. and z-axes. and SECREAD. See the ANSYS. The effect of shear deformation is available as an option. BEAM44 3-D Elastic Tapered Unsymmetric Beam Input Data The geometry.

slender members under mass loading. or the angle (THETA). If no real constants are defined. and IZ2). The element real constants describe the beam in terms of the cross-sectional area. The torsional moment of inertia at end 1 (IX1). The offset constants (DX. use the angle (THETA) or the third node option. defines a plane (with I and J) containing the element x and z-axes (as shown). note that the element stiffness release follows the element orientation. if zero. If this element is used in a large deflection analysis. KEYOPT(2) allows a reduced mass matrix formulation (rotational degrees of freedom terms deleted). Loads applied in the direction of released stiffness will be ignored. The shear areas are used for shear stress computation only and are generally less than the actual cross-sectional area. A zero value of SHEAR_ may be used to neglect shear deflection in a particular direction. and DZ) for end 2 of the beam. if used. default to the "top" thicknesses at end 1. A section is associated with the beam elements by specifying the section ID number (SECNUM). usually indicated by pivot warning or error messages. See the LMESH and LATT command descriptions for details on generating the K node automatically. respectively. KEYOPT(7) and KEYOPT(8) allow element stiffness releases at the nodes in the element coordinate system. the centroid offset. The shear deflection constants (SHEARZ and SHEARY) are used only if shear deflection is to be included. The thicknesses are measured from the centroid of the section. and BEAM189 elements in the same model. the cross-section details are provided separately using the SECTYPE and SECDATA commands (see Beam Analysis and Cross Sections in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for details). A section number is an independent element attribute. whereas release by nodal coupling does not. BEAM188. TKZT2 and TKYT2. Note that a beam section defined using SECTYPE and SECDATA may be referenced by any combination of BEAM44. Offset distances are measured positive from the node in the positive element coordinate directions. See Shear Deflection for details. The moment of inertia values at end 2 (IX2. TKZT1 and TKYT1. is assumed equal to the polar moment of inertia at end 1 (IZ1 + IY1). Solution stability may be enhanced by superimposing weak (low value of EX) beam elements with no stiffness releases on the model.2004 . Also the "top" thicknesses at end 2. For information about orientation nodes and beam meshing. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20. translational degrees of freedom of stress stiffness matrices should not be released. is used only to initially orient the element.01 percent slope of it). The element torsional stiffness decreases with decreasing values of IX. The moments of inertia (IZ and IY) are about the lateral principal axes of the beam. All real constants (except the centroidal offset constants DX. the extreme fiber distances from the centroid. see Meshing Your Solid Model in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide. This option is useful for improved bending stresses in long. The shear areas (ARES_ _) and the torsional stress factors (TSF_) are also used if they are nonzero.05. it should be noted that the location of the third node (K). DY. For large deflection. TKZT1 and TKYT1. IY2. if blank. the element y-axis is oriented parallel to the global Y-axis (as shown).. TSF = diameter/(2*IX). if not specified. For circular sections. The torsional moment is multiplied by the torsional stress factor to calculate the torsional shear stress. TKZB1 and TKYB1. the third node option takes precedence. The "top" thicknesses at end 1. DY.Element Library Page 238 of 993 parallel to the global Z-axis (or within a 0. Also.. Stiffnesses should not be released such that free-body motion could occur. default to the corresponding end 1 values. the area moments of inertia. If both are defined. default to the corresponding end 1 values. default to the "bottom" thicknesses at end 1. and the shear constants. DZ) define the centroid location of the section relative to the node location. The third node (K). For user control of the element orientation about the element x-axis. respectively. Torsional stress factors may be found in structural handbooks.

SHEARZ. where is the difference between the element length. DY2. is not valid if ? stress stiffening is turned on [SSTIF. TKYB2. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the eight "corner" locations shown in BEAM44. K (K orientation node is optional) Degrees of Freedom UX.2004 . KEYOPT(10) allows tapered lateral pressures to be offset from the nodes. The circled number represents the load key for the indicated face. Offset distances are measured positive from the centroid in the positive element axes directions. the shear center may be offset from the centroid location. or more than one component of angular velocity is applied [OMEGA]. If all other temperatures are unspecified. In both cases. SHEARY. TKYT2 Constants 25-30 (for shear and torsional stresses): file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. DZ2. 20. DZ1. T3 defaults to T2 and T4 defaults to T1. J. An added mass per unit length may be input with the ADDMAS value. Nonzero shear center offsets (DSC_ _) may be input as shown in BEAM44. AREA2. DX2.ON]. If only T1 and T4 are input. T5 through T8 default to T1 through T4. or DCGOMG commands. additional stress printout is given at up to four user specified output points at each end of the beam as shown in Stress output. End "pressures" are input as a force. End 2 offsets default to end 1 values. TKYB1. ? ? A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. DY1. IX1. IZ2. Lateral pressures are input as a force per unit length. TKZT2. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. UZ. IY2. TKZB1. Temperatures 1-4 are at node I and 5-8 are at node J. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. ROTZ Real Constants Constants 1-24 (basic set): AREA1. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . KEYOPT(9). DOMEGA. used to request output at intermediate locations. L. ROTY. IZ1.. This capability is bypassed if the EFS_ values are zero. IY1. IX2. DX1. they default to T1. BEAM44 Input Summary Element Name BEAM44 Nodes I. TKZB2. The elastic foundation stiffnesses (EFS_) are defined as the pressure required to produce unit normal deflections of the foundation. If constants Y1 through Z4 are provided. (as defined by the I and J node locations) and the zero strain length. TKYT1. If only T1 and T2 are input. ROTX.. if zero. T2 defaults to T1 and T3 defaults to T4. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on BEAM44. UY. TKZT1. The first corner temperature T1 defaults to TUNIF. For any other input pattern. Positive pressures act into the element. or any angular velocities or accelerations are applied with the CGOMGA.05. The initial strain in the element (ISTRN) is given by /L. Note that the temperature input points are different from the stress output points shown in Stress output.Element Library Page 239 of 993 For some beam cross sections.

DSCY2. T5. ISTRN. face 3 (I-J) (+X tangential direction).Element Library Page 240 of 993 ARESZ1. Z4 at end I Y1. ARESZ2.2004 .. Large deflection. ARESY1. Y2. GXY. EFSZ. ARESY2. Y4. Y2. Z4 at end J Constants 53-55 (for other options): THETA. EFSY Constants 37-52 (for additional stress output): Y1. Y3. Z1. T2. Z3. face 4 (I) (+X axial direction). T7. ALPX. 1 -Release element rotational Z-stiffness 10 -Release element rotational Y-stiffness 100 -Release element rotational X-stiffness 1000 -Release element translational Z-stiffness 10000 -Release element translational Y stiffness 100000 -- file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. T6. T8 Special Features Stress stiffening. T4.05. T3. DSCZ2. Z3. TSF2 Constants 31-36 (for shear offset and elastic foundation): DSCZ1. For combined releases. 20. face 2 (I-J) (-Y normal direction). Z1. Z2. DSCY1. ADDMAS Material Properties EX. Birth and death KEYOPT(2) 0 -Consistent mass matrix 1 -Reduced mass matrix KEYOPT(6) 0 -No member force printout 1 -Print out member forces and moments in the element coordinate system KEYOPT(7) Used to release stiffnesses in the element translational and rotational directions. face 5 (J) (-X axial direction) (use negative value for opposite loading) Body Loads Temperatures -T1. DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (I-J) (-Z normal direction). DENS. Y3. Y4. TSF1. input the sum of the number keys (such as 11 for rotational Z and Y). Z3.

20. assuming a rectangular cross section.0 to 1. If real constants 25 through 30 (ARES_ _. the computed output consists of the direct (axial) stress and four bending components. The element x-axis is defined through the center of gravity of the cross section. At each cross-section. 5. 0 -Offset for load placement is in terms of length units 1 -Offset is in terms of a length ratio (0.0. Then these five values are combined to evaluate maximum and minimum stresses. the combined stresses at the specified locations shown in Stress output will also be computed. SHEARY goes with IY.05. If KEYOPT(6) = 1 for this element. If SHEARZ = 0. Additional results at intermediate locations between the ends may be output with KEYOPT(9). there is no shear deflection in the element Y direction. the average shear stresses and the torsional stresses are printed.1 has been specified. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. there is no shear deflection in the element Z-direction Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? Several items are illustrated in Stress output.0.2004 .0) Page 241 of 993 Note SHEARZ goes with IZ. 3. BEAM44 Stress Output file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. If constants Y1 through Z4 are provided. 1.. 7. If SHEARY = 0. 3-D plotting of BEAM44 elements is supported in the ANSYS preprocessor only. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. Note If /ESHAPE. 9) KEYOPT(10) Used only for tapered surface loads with the SFBEAM command.Element Library Release element translational X-stiffness KEYOPT(8) Same as KEYOPT(7) except for end J KEYOPT(9) Used to control additional output between ends I and J N -Output at N intermediate locations (N = 0. If they are all zero. TSF_) are provided. 3-D plotting of BEAM44 elements is not supported in the ANSYS postprocessor.. the 12 member forces and moments (6 at each end) are also printed (in the element coordinate directions). the shear printout is suppressed.

J. BEAM44 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. T5. OFFST2 at I.05. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. OFFST3 at I..J. YC. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.I. ZC TEMP PRES SDIR SBYT SBYB SBZT SBZB SMAX SMIN EPELDIR Definition Element Number Nodes . P3 at I.. OFFST1 at I.J. ESOL].2004 . T4.indicates that the item is not available. T3. In either the O or R columns. T8 Pressures P1 at nodes I. T7.J. Y indicates that the item is always available.bending stress) Axial elastic strain at the end O Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 5 Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20.J. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.J. P4 at I. J Material number Volume Location where results are reported Temperatures T1. T2. T6. and a .OUT. P2 at I.Element Library Page 242 of 993 The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. P5 at J Axial direct stress Bending stress on the element +Y side of the beam Bending stress on the element -Y side of the beam Bending stress on the element +Z side of the beam Bending stress on the element -Z side of the beam Maximum stress (direct stress + bending stress) Minimum stress (direct stress .

AXL4) MFOR(X. Y. Z directions 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 Y 4 Y 1. average shear (Z-direction). 2. If KEYOPT(6 ) = 1 5. The item repeats for end I. Y.05. AXL3.Element Library EPELBYT EPELBYB EPELBZT EPELBZB EPTHDIR EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPTHBZT EPTHBZB EPINAXL S(XY. Z) MMOM(X. YZ) S(AXL1.. Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL (KEYOPT(9)=0) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. Z) Page 243 of 993 Bending elastic strain on the element +Y side of the beam Bending elastic strain on the element -Y side of the beam Bending elastic strain on the element +Z side of the beam Bending elastic strain on the element -Z side of the beam Axial thermal strain at the end Bending thermal strain on the element +Y side of the beam Bending thermal strain on the element -Y side of the beam Bending thermal strain on the element +Z side of the beam Bending thermal strain on the element -Z side of the beam Initial axial strain in the element Average shear (Y-direction). Output only if real constants 25-30 are provided 3. XZ.. torsion stresses Combined stresses at user points 1.2004 .J sequence number for data at nodes I and J file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. intermediate locations (see KEYOPT(9)). Z directions Member moments in the element coordinate system X. Y. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information.AXL2. Output only if real constants 37-52 are provided 4. 3 and 4 Member forces in the element coordinate system X. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL (KEYOPT(9)=0): Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I. Y. and end J 2.

20.2004 ...05.Element Library ILn sequence number for data at Intermediate Location n SPn solution items for Stress Point n Page 244 of 993 BEAM44 (KEYOPT(9) = 0) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(9) = 0 Name Item E SDIR LS SBYT LS SBYB LS SBZT LS SBZB LS EPELDIR LEPEL EPELBYT LEPEL EPELBYB LEPEL EPELBZT LEPEL EPELBZB LEPEL EPTHDIR LEPTH EPTHBYT LEPTH EPTHBYB LEPTH EPTHBZT LEPTH EPTHBZB LEPTH EPINAXL LEPTH 11 SMAX NMISC SMIN NMISC MFORX SMISC MFORY SMISC MFORZ SMISC MMOMX SMISC MMOMY SMISC MMOMZ SMISC SXY SMISC SXZ SMISC SYZ SMISC P1 SMISC OFFST1 SMISC P2 SMISC - I 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 13 14 15 27 29 31 J 6 7 8 9 10 6 7 8 9 10 6 7 8 9 10 3 4 7 8 9 10 11 12 16 17 18 28 30 32 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

1 EPELBYT LEPEL .Element Library OFFST2 P3 OFFST3 P4 P5 SAXL (SP1) SAXL (SP2) SAXL (SP3) SAXL (SP4) SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 19 23 20 24 21 25 22 26 Page 245 of 993 Corner Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 BEAM44 (KEYOPT(9) = 1) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(9) = 1 SDIR LS ..4 EPTHBZB LEPTH .2 MFORX SMISC .3 EPELBZT LEPEL .5 EPTHDIR LEPTH .4 MMOMY SMISC .. 20.1 MFORY SMISC .3 MMOMX SMISC .05.2 MFORZ SMISC .1 SBYT LS .5 6 7 8 9 10 6 7 8 9 10 6 7 8 9 10 3 4 7 8 9 10 11 11 12 13 14 15 11 12 13 14 15 11 12 13 14 15 5 6 13 14 15 16 17 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2 EPTHBYB LEPTH .1 EPTHBYT LEPTH .2 EPELBYB LEPEL .5 EPELDIR LEPEL .3 EPTHBZT LEPTH .4 SBZB LS .1 SMIN NMISC .2 SBYB LS .4 EPELBZB LEPEL .5 EPINAXL LEPTH 16 SMAX NMISC .2004 .3 SBZT LS .

3 8 EPELBZT LEPEL .5 10 IL2 11 12 13 14 15 11 12 13 14 15 11 12 13 14 15 IL3 16 17 18 19 20 16 17 18 19 20 16 17 18 19 20 J 21 22 23 24 25 21 22 23 24 25 21 22 23 24 25 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Element Library MMOMZ SXY SXZ SYZ P1 OFFST1 P2 OFFST2 P3 OFFST3 P4 P5 SAXL (SP1) SAXL (SP2) SAXL (SP3) SAXL (SP4) SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 6 19 20 21 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 28 29 30 31 12 22 23 24 32 33 34 35 18 25 26 27 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 36 37 38 39 Page 246 of 993 Corner Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 BEAM44 (KEYOPT(9) = 3) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(9) = 3 Name Item E I IL1 SDIR LS .4 9 EPTHBZB LEPTH .1 6 EPELBYT LEPEL .3 8 SBZT LS .2 7 EPTHBYB LEPTH .2004 .3 8 EPTHBZT LEPTH .2 7 EPELBYB LEPEL .5 10 EPELDIR LEPEL .2 7 SBYB LS .05.1 6 EPTHBYT LEPTH ..4 9 EPELBZB LEPEL . 20..5 10 EPTHDIR LEPTH .4 9 SBZB LS .1 6 SBYT LS .

05..2 7 12 LS ..2 7 12 Name SDIR SBYT SBYB SBZT SBZB EPELDIR EPELBYT IL3 16 17 18 19 20 16 17 IL4 21 22 23 24 25 21 22 IL5 26 27 28 29 30 26 27 J 31 32 33 34 35 31 32 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.1 6 11 LEPEL .1 6 11 LS .4 9 14 LS .Element Library EPINAXL SMAX SMIN MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SXY SXZ SYZ P1 OFFST1 P2 OFFST2 P3 OFFST3 P4 P5 SAXL (SP1) SAXL (SP2) SAXL (SP3) SAXL (SP4) LEPTH NMISC NMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 26 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 31 32 33 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 46 47 48 49 3 4 7 8 9 10 11 12 34 35 36 50 51 52 53 5 6 13 14 15 16 17 18 37 38 39 54 55 56 57 7 8 19 20 21 22 23 24 40 41 42 58 59 60 61 9 10 25 26 27 28 29 30 43 44 45 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 62 63 64 65 Page 247 of 993 Corner Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 BEAM44 (KEYOPT(9) = 5) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(9) = 5 Item E I IL1 IL2 LS .3 8 13 LS .5 10 15 LEPEL . 20.2004 .

.Element Library EPELBYB EPELBZT EPELBZB EPTHDIR EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPTHBZT EPTHBZB EPINAXL SMAX SMIN MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SXY SXZ SYZ P1 OFFST1 P2 OFFST2 P3 OFFST3 P4 P5 SAXL (SP1) SAXL (SP2) SAXL (SP3) SAXL (SP4) LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH NMISC NMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 36 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 43 44 45 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 64 65 66 67 8 9 10 6 7 8 9 10 3 4 7 8 9 10 11 12 46 47 48 68 69 70 71 13 14 15 11 12 13 14 15 5 6 13 14 15 16 17 18 49 50 51 72 73 74 75 18 19 20 16 17 18 19 20 7 8 19 20 21 22 23 24 52 53 54 76 77 78 79 23 24 25 21 22 23 24 25 9 10 25 26 27 28 29 30 55 56 57 80 81 82 83 28 29 30 26 27 28 29 30 11 12 31 32 33 34 35 36 58 59 60 84 85 86 87 33 34 35 31 32 33 34 35 13 14 37 38 39 40 41 42 61 62 63 93 95 97 99 101 103 105 88 89 90 91 Page 248 of 993 Corner Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 BEAM44 (KEYOPT(9) = 7) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(9) = 7 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..2004 .05. 20.

Element Library Name SDIR SBYT SBYB SBZT SBZB EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPELBZT EPELBZB EPTHDIR EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPTHBZT EPTHBZB EPINAXL SMAX SMIN MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SXY SXZ SYZ P1 OFFST1 P2 OFFST2 P3 OFFST3 P4 P5 SAXL (SP1) SAXL (SP2) SAXL (SP3) SAXL (SP4) Item LS LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH NMISC NMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 46 I 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 55 56 57 118 120 122 124 126 128 130 82 83 84 85 IL1 6 7 8 9 10 6 7 8 9 10 6 7 8 9 10 3 4 7 8 9 10 11 12 58 59 60 86 87 88 89 IL2 11 12 13 14 15 11 12 13 14 15 11 12 13 14 15 5 6 13 14 15 16 17 18 61 62 63 90 91 92 93 IL3 16 17 18 19 20 16 17 18 19 20 16 17 18 19 20 7 8 19 20 21 22 23 24 64 65 66 94 95 96 97 IL4 21 22 23 24 25 21 22 23 24 25 21 22 23 24 25 9 10 25 26 27 28 29 30 67 68 69 98 99 100 101 IL5 26 27 28 29 30 26 27 28 29 30 26 27 28 29 30 11 12 31 32 33 34 35 36 70 71 72 102 103 104 105 IL6 31 32 33 34 35 31 32 33 34 35 31 32 33 34 35 13 14 37 38 39 40 41 42 73 74 75 106 107 108 109 IL7 36 37 38 39 40 36 37 38 39 40 36 37 38 39 40 15 16 43 44 45 46 47 48 76 77 78 110 111 112 113 J 41 42 43 44 45 41 42 43 44 45 41 42 43 44 45 17 18 49 50 51 52 53 54 79 80 81 119 121 123 125 127 129 131 114 115 116 117 Page 249 of 993 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..2004 .05. 20..

05.2004 .. 20..Element Library Corner Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Page 250 of 993 BEAM44 (KEYOPT(9) = 9) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(9) = 9 I IL1 IL2 IL3 IL4 1 6 11 16 21 2 7 12 17 22 3 8 13 18 23 4 9 14 19 24 5 10 15 20 25 1 6 11 16 21 2 7 12 17 22 3 8 13 18 23 4 9 14 19 24 5 10 15 20 25 1 6 11 16 21 2 7 12 17 22 3 8 13 18 23 4 9 14 19 24 5 10 15 20 25 1 3 5 7 9 2 4 6 8 10 1 7 13 19 25 2 8 14 20 26 3 9 15 21 27 4 10 16 22 28 5 11 17 23 29 6 12 18 24 30 67 70 73 76 79 68 71 74 77 80 69 72 75 78 81 144 146 148 150 152 - Name SDIR SBYT SBYB SBZT SBZB EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPELBZT EPELBZB EPTHDIR EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPTHBZT EPTHBZB EPINAXL SMAX SMIN MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SXY SXZ SYZ P1 OFFST1 P2 OFFST2 P3 Item LS LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH NMISC NMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 56 - IL5 26 27 28 29 30 26 27 28 29 30 26 27 28 29 30 11 12 31 32 33 34 35 36 82 83 84 - IL6 31 32 33 34 35 31 32 33 34 35 31 32 33 34 35 13 14 37 38 39 40 41 42 85 86 87 - IL7 36 37 38 39 40 36 37 38 39 40 36 37 38 39 40 15 16 43 44 45 46 47 48 88 89 90 - IL8 41 42 43 44 45 41 42 43 44 45 41 42 43 44 45 17 18 49 50 51 52 53 54 91 92 93 - IL9 46 47 48 49 50 46 47 48 49 50 46 47 48 49 50 19 20 55 56 57 58 59 60 94 95 96 - J 51 52 53 54 55 51 52 53 54 55 51 52 53 54 55 21 22 61 62 63 64 65 66 97 98 99 145 147 149 151 153 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

and so on). if any. The flexible length of the beam is adjusted to account for the effect of the offsets. The difference between the lateral offsets should not exceed the length of the element.05.. 3-D plotting of BEAM44 elements is not supported in the ANSYS postprocessor. The element should not taper to a point (zero thickness). Iyy. Unlike BEAM188 and BEAM189.2004 . file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. numerical integration is not performed through the cross section when BEAM44 elements are used.Element Library OFFST3 P4 P5 SAXL (SP1) SAXL (SP2) SAXL (SP3) SAXL (SP4) SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 154 156 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 155 157 140 141 142 143 Page 251 of 993 Corner Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Assumptions and Restrictions The beam must not have a zero length or area. The beam can have any cross-sectional shape for which the moments of inertia can be computed. The element thicknesses are used for locating the extreme fibers for the stress calculations and for computing the thermal gradient. However. 20. SECDATA . also cause a corresponding shortening of the flexible length.1 to 10. Tapers within an element. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. A lumped mass matrix formulation [LUMPM. which rotate the beam. Unequal lateral offsets.ON] is not allowed for this element when using member releases in the element translational Y or Z directions. The applied thermal gradients are assumed to be linear across the thickness in both directions and along the length of the element. If AREA2/AREA1 or I 2 /I 1 is not between 0.0. Izz. Rotational body forces resulting from an angular velocity are based upon the node locations (as if zero offsets).. The shear stresses are calculated independently of the shear deflection. For nonlinear materials. If /ESHAPE. The offset lengths may be regarded as rigid portions of the beam. BEAM44 uses only the cross-section properties (Area. a section defined with these commands will be used only if there is no real constant set defined. a warning message is output.1 has been specified. SECOFFSET. If the ratio is outside of the range of 0. and SECREAD.5 and 2. the effect of offsets on the mass matrix is ignored if the lumped mass formulation is on. SECWRITE. In addition. 3-D plotting of BEAM44 elements is supported in the ANSYS preprocessor only.0. BEAM44 can be used with any cross section that was defined using SECTYPE. an error message is output. use BEAM188 or BEAM189 instead of BEAM44. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. should be gradual.

SOLID45 3-D Structural Solid file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. ? Prev SHELL43 Prev SOLID45 Element Library Next SOLID45 Next SOLID45 Name SOLID45 — 3-D Structural Solid product: MP ME ST PR PP ED Element Description SOLID45 is used for the three-dimensional modeling of solid structures. A similar element with anisotropic properties is SOLID64. 20. A reduced integration option with hourglass control is available.2004 . See the ANSYS. stress stiffening. y.Element Library ANSYS/Professional ? Page 252 of 993 The DAMP material property is not allowed. and large strain capabilities. swelling. and z directions. The element has plasticity. The only special features allowed are stress stiffening and large deflection.05. Inc.. Theory Reference for more details about this element. creep. A higher-order version of the SOLID45 element is SOLID95. large deflection. The element is defined by eight nodes having three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x.

20. that is.ESAV and .OSAV) is about 1/7th as much as when the full integration (2 X 2 X 2) is used for the same number of elements.. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . Nonlinear convergence characteristic of the option is generally far superior to the default full integration with extra displacement shape. KEYOPT(2) = 0. node locations. The analysis will not suffer from volumetric locking which can be caused by plasticity or other incompressible material properties. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. This element also supports uniform reduced (1 point) integration with hourglass control when KEYOPT(2) = 1. The element is defined by eight nodes and the orthotropic material properties. Using uniform reduced integration provides the following advantages when running a nonlinear analysis: ? Less CPU time is required for element stiffness formation and stress/strain calculations to achieve a comparable accuracy to the FULL integration option. they default to T(I). KEYOPT(1) = 0. The length of the element history saved record (. ? ? ? An analysis using uniform reduced integration can have the following disadvantages: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in SOLID45. Positive pressures act into the element. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on SOLID45. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems. KEYOPT(1) is used to include or suppress the extra displacement shapes. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. For any other input temperature pattern.05.2004 . Similar defaults occurs for fluence except that zero is used instead of TUNIF. Temperatures and fluences may be input as element body loads at the nodes.Element Library Page 253 of 993 Input Data The geometry.. KEYOPT(5) and KEYOPT(6) provide various element printout options (see Element Solution). If all other temperatures are unspecified.

UY.0. Theory Reference. You can include the effects of pressure load stiffness in a geometric nonlinear analysis using SOLCONTROL. P Degrees of Freedom UX. default = 1. If the ratio exceeds 5%. UZ Real Constants Hourglass control factor needed only when KEYOPT(2) = 1. Note The valid value for this real constant is any positive number. DENS.. J. (PRXY. modeled by one layer of elements laterally.this option is the same as SOLID185 with KEYOPT(2) = 1). NUYZ. N.. For details about these user subroutines. The total energy and artificial energy can also be monitored by using the OUTPR. EY.UNSYM.INCP. M.. GXY. in the case of a fixed-end cantilever with a lateral point load. NUXZ). GXZ. four elements are usually recommended. ? When the uniform reduced integration option is used (KEYOPT(2) = 1 . SOLID45 Input Summary Element Name SOLID45 Nodes I. which is apparent in the linear analysis for the same mesh. L.Element Library ? Page 254 of 993 The analysis is not as accurate as the full integration method. If the ratio of: the solution is generally acceptable. ALPY. KEYOPT(9)=1 is used to read initial stress data from a user subroutine. 20. PRXZ or NUXY. refine the mesh. Material Properties EX. ALPX. VENG command in the solution phase. K.05. see the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. you can check the accuracy of the solution by comparing the total energy (SENE label in ETABLE) and the artificial energy (AENE label in ETABLE) introduced by hourglass control. see the ANSYS.. ALPZ. DAMP Surface Loads file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Instead. Inc. GYZ. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. Pressure load stiffness effects are included in linear eigenvalue buckling automatically. for example. use NROPT. We recommend that you use a value between 1 and 10. EZ.2004 . PRYZ. O. The analysis cannot capture the bending behavior with a single layer of elements. For more details. If an unsymmetric matrix is needed for pressure load stiffness effects.

Large deflection. Adaptive descent KEYOPT(1) 0 -Include extra displacement shapes 1 -Suppress extra displacement shapes KEYOPT(2) 0 -Full integration with or without extra displacement shapes. Swelling.. T(J). T(M). FL(J). FL(M). depending on the setting of KEYOPT(1) 1 -Uniform reduced integration with hourglass control. Birth and death.05.. face 5 (L -I-M-P). FL(N).2004 . face 4 (K -L-P-O). T(L). Creep. face 3 (J-K-O-N). Stress stiffening. face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). FL(P) Special Features Plasticity. suppress extra displacement shapes (KEYOPT(1) is automatically set to 1).Element Library Page 255 of 993 Pressures -face 1 (J-I-L-K). T(K). T(N). T(O). 20. Large strain. KEYOPT(4) 0 -Element coordinate system is parallel to the global coordinate system 1 -Element coordinate system is based on the element I-J side KEYOPT(5) 0 -Basic element solution 1 -Repeat basic solution for all integration points 2 -Nodal Stress Solution KEYOPT(6) 0 -Basic element solution 1 -Surface solution for face I-J-N-M also 2 -Surface solution for face I-J-N-M and face K-L-P-O (Surface solution available for linear materials only) 3 -Nonlinear solution at each integration point also 4 -Surface solution for faces with nonzero pressure KEYOPT(9) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. FL(L). T(P) Fluences -FL(I). face 2 (I-J-N-M). FL(O). FL(K).

The coordinate systems for faces IJNM and KLPO are shown in SOLID45.. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. The surface stress outputs are in the surface coordinate systems and are available for any face (KEYOPT(6)). 20. SOLID45 Stress Output Stress directions shown are for KEYOPT(4) = 0 When KEYOPT(2) = 1 (the element is using uniform reduced integration).. The number of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Element Library 0 -No user subroutine to provide initial stress (default) 1 -Read initial stress data from user subroutine USTRESS Page 256 of 993 Note See the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features for user written subroutines Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? Several items are illustrated in Stress output. The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. The other surface coordinate systems follow similar orientations as indicated by the pressure face node description. Surface stress printout is valid only if the conditions described in Element Solution are met.05. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. all the outputs for the element integration points are output in the same style as the full integration outputs.2004 .

L.. P5 at L. P3 at J.05. In either the O or R columns. XY. YZ. M. XZ EPPL: EQV EPCR: X. J. P6 at M. Y. 2. T(N). P2 at I. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. L. 2. T(O).. YZ. 3 EPEL: EQV EPTH: X. Y. XY. N. FL(M). I. SOLID45 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. FL(J). 3 S: INT S: EQV EPEL: X. and a . K. P. Z. O. FL(L). Y. P Temperatures T(I). L. T(L). 20.OUT. XZ EPEL: 1. Y. K. ESOL]. P. FL(O). YC. Z. FL(P) Y Y Stresses Principal stresses Stress intensity Equivalent stress Elastic strains Principal elastic strains Equivalent elastic strain [4] Average thermal strains Equivalent thermal strain [4] Average plastic strains Equivalent plastic strain [4] Average creep strains Equivalent creep strain [4] Average swelling strain Average equivalent plastic strain Ratio of trial stress to stress on yield surface Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. N.Element Library Page 257 of 993 points for full integration is used for consistency of output within the same element type. J. FL(K). N. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. K. T(K). Y. Z. O. Y indicates that the item is always available.2004 . FL(N). The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. N.indicates that the item is not available. ZC PRES TEMP FLUEN S: X. XZ EPCR: EQV EPSW: NL:EPEQ NL:SRAT Definition O Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 3 Element Number Nodes . O. P4 at Y Y K. XY. P Material number Volume Location where results are reported Pressures P1 at nodes J. XY. Z. T(M). XZ EPTH: EQV EPPL: X. Z. I. YZ. T(P) Y Y Fluences FL(I). YZ. YZ. XY. O. M. T(J). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. M. XZ S: 1.I.

EPCR. 20. Output at each of eight integration points. if KEYOPT(5) = 1 3. Y.. Y. Y. Available only at centroid as a *Get item 4. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP. XZ). Z. S(X. Y.XY) Surface pressure Surface stresses (X-axis parallel to line defined by first two nodes which define the face) Surface principal stresses Surface stress intensity Surface equivalent stress Integration point locations 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Y 1. SINT.PRXY). for plastic and creep this value is set at 0. S(X. Z. or 4) 3. SOLID45 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Names of Items Output Nonlinear Integration Pt. EPEQ. XY.05. SRAT. YZ. SEPL. Output at each integration point. XZ). SeeThe General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. SINT.2004 . EPEL O 1 2 3 R - 1. 2. Solution EPPL. YZ. 2. HPRES. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. XY. EPSW Integration Point Stress Solution TEMP. Z Page 258 of 993 Average equivalent stress from stress-strain curve Hydrostatic pressure Face label Face area Surface average temperature Surface elastic strains (X. SEQV. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. output only if the element has a nonlinear material 2. SEQV. EPEL Nodal Stress Solution TEMP.. XY) S(1. Output at each node.5. 3) SINT SEQV LOCI: X. if the element has a nonlinear material and KEYOPT(6) = 3 2. Nonlinear solution.Y. Surface output (if KEYOPT(6) is 1.Element Library NL:SEPL NL:HPRES FACE AREA TEMP EPEL PRESS S(X.

All elements must have eight nodes.P sequence number for data at nodes I. A prism-shaped element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L and duplicate O and P node numbers (see Triangle.2004 . the element may not be twisted such that the element has two separate volumes.....J. A tetrahedron shape is also available. 20.P SOLID45 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 S:1 S:2 S:3 S:INT S:EQV FLUEN Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC I 2 5 18 1 2 3 4 5 41 J 1 6 9 6 7 8 9 10 42 K 4 10 13 11 12 13 14 15 43 L 3 14 17 16 17 18 19 20 44 M 8 19 21 21 22 23 24 25 45 N 7 12 22 26 27 28 29 30 46 O 11 16 23 31 32 33 34 35 47 P 15 20 24 36 37 38 39 40 48 Page 259 of 993 See Surface Solution Index in this manual for the item and sequence numbers for surface output for the ETABLE command. Assumptions and Restrictions Zero volume elements are not allowed.. Also.. The extra shapes are automatically deleted for tetrahedron elements. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. Elements may be numbered either as shown in SOLID45 or may have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.J. ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ANSYS/Professional ? The DAMP material property is not allowed.... This occurs most frequently when the elements are not numbered properly.05. Fluence body loads are not applicable.Element Library predetermined Item label for ETABLE command I.. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements).

The element has three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. A similar element for shells is SHELL99 . Inc.Element Library ? Page 260 of 993 The only special feature allowed is stress stiffening. SOLID46 3-D 8-Node Layered Structural Solid file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ? Prev BEAM44 Prev SOLID46 Element Library Next SOLID46 Next SOLID46 Name SOLID46 — 3-D 8-Node Layered Structural Solid product: MP ME ST PR PP Element Description SOLID46 is a layered version of the 8-node structural solid (SOLID45) designed to model layered thick shells or solids.. y. and z directions. See the ANSYS. Theory Reference for more details about this element.05. The element allows up to 250 different material layers. If more than 250 layers are required. KEYOPT(6) = 3 is not applicable.2004 . 20. The element may also be stacked as an alternative approach.. a user-input constitutive matrix option is available.

and orthotropic material properties. To reorient the elements (after automatic meshing) you should use EORIENT. or 2 (top).000 of each other. The element is defined by eight nodes. The node locations may imply that the layers are tilted or warped. In this local right-handed system. 20. layer material direction angles. the matrices must be computed outside of ANSYS. references to mid-side nodes should be ignored for this element. The input may be either in matrix form or layer form. With EORIENT. Thermal strains. the x'-axis is rotated an angle THETA(LN) (in degrees) from the element x-axis toward the element y-axis.05. you can make SOLID46 elements match an element whose orientation is as desired. or set the orientation to be as parallel as possible to a defined axis. or their average (depending on KREF) onto the reference plane. If the nodes imply a warped surface. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The element z-axis is defined to be normal to a flat reference plane. For matrix form. depending upon KEYOPT(2)..2004 . using real constant KREF as shown in Stress output. an averaged flat plane is used.. node locations.Element Library Page 261 of 993 Input Data The geometry. side M-N. and failure criteria are not available with matrix input. the layer thicknesses used are computed by scaling the input real constant thicknesses to be consistent with the thicknesses between the nodes. most stresses. the local coordinate system for each layer is effectively reoriented parallel to the reference plane. However. For layer (non-matrix) input. The force-strain and moment-curvature relationships defining the matrices for a quadratic variation of strain through the thickness (KEYOPT (2) = 3) may be defined as described in Input Data for the 8-node linear layered shell (SHELL99 ). and the coordinate system for this element are shown in SOLID46. The default element x-axis is the projection of side I-J. layer thicknesses. as shown in Stress output. 1 (bottom). Shear moduli GXZ and GYZ must be within a factor of 10. KREF may have values of 0 (midplane). The layer number (LN) can range from 1 to 250. Also. The orientation within the plane of the layers may be changed using ESYS in the same way it is used for shell elements as described in Coordinate Systems.

THETA. For any other input pattern. See ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features for an explanation of user subroutines. O.. LP1.INCP.UNSYM. See the ANSYS. The real constants. use NROPT. material properties. see Composites in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide. they default to T(I). supply the following 12+(3*NL) constants: NL. SOLID46 Input Summary Element Name SOLID46 Nodes I. (Blank). KREF. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. MAT. Positive pressures act into the element. TK for layer 1. UY. TK for layer 2. If an unsymmetric matrix is needed for pressure load stiffness effects. If only T(I) and T (J) are input. layer material numbers are ignored for this purpose. THETA. use MAT to specify element -dependent values for reference temperature (MP. LSYM. Alternatively. and failure criteria are also described in Input Data for SHELL99. T(I) is used for T(I). Theory Reference for an explanation of the three predefined failure criteria. Use TREF and BETAD to supply global values for reference temperature and damping. L. For more information on Failure Criteria. M. UZ Real Constants If KEYOPT(2) = 0. (Blank).2004 . LP2. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . respectively. (Blank).. The failure criteria selection is input in the data table [TB]. 20. while T(J) (as input) is used for T(M). T(J).(Blank). T(N). The material X direction corresponds to the local layer x' direction. (Blank). up to layer NL file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Pressure load stiffness effects are included in linear eigenvalue buckling automatically. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on SOLID46. layer thicknesses. (Blank). You can include the effects of pressure load stiffness in a geometric nonlinear analysis using SOLCONTROL. The total number of layers must be specified with the NL real constant as described in Input Data for SHELL99. If all other temperatures are unspecified. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. T(O). The real constant MAT is used to define the layer material number instead of the element material number applied with MAT. Failure criteria may also be computed in POST1 (using the FC commands). (Blank). and T(L).05. K. Three predefined criteria are available and up to six user-defined criteria may be entered with user subroutines. P Degrees of Freedom UX.REFT) or damping (MP. J.Element Library Page 262 of 993 The material properties of each layer may be orthotropic in the plane of the element. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. MAT defaults to 1 if not input. Inc.. MAT. etc.. T(K). as described in Orthotropic Material Failure Criteria. All references to failure criteria as part of element ouput data are based only on the TB commands. and T(P).DAMP). N. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary.

ALPX. Supply DAMP and REFT only once for the element (use MAT to assign material property set). AVDENS. TK(I). PRXZ. T(P) if KEYOPT(2) = 0 or 1.05. E(21). face 3 (J-K-O-N). Large deflection KEYOPT(1) 0 -Include extra displacement shapes 1 -Suppress extra displacement shapes KEYOPT(2) 0 -Constant thickness layer input (250 layers maximum) 1 -Tapered layer input (125 layers maximum) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. GXZ. ALPY. TK(J). (Blank). (Blank). (Blank). NUXZ). or NUXY. LP1. (Blank). LP2. supply the following 128 constants: A(21). F(21). GXY. (Blank).. T(K). T(L). (Blank). 20. up to layer NL If KEYOPT(2) = 3. MT(6). T(N). or none if KEYOPT(2) = 3 Special Features Stress stiffening. TK(K). face 4 (K -L-P-O). face 2 (I-J-N-M). face 5 (L -I-M-P). GYZ.Element Library If KEYOPT(2) = 1. B(21).. supply the following 12+(6*NL) constants: NL. TK(L) for layer 1. THETA. PRYZ. QT(6). NUYZ. (PRXY. etc.2004 . KREF Material Properties Page 263 of 993 If KEYOPT(2) = 0 or 1. (Blank). Surface Loads Pressure -face 1 (J-I-L-K). KREF. See the discussion in Input Data for more details. EZ. D(21). ALPZ. LSYM. MAT. DENS. face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Temperature -T(I). for each of the NM materials If KEYOPT(2) = 3. supply the following 13*NM properties where NM is the number of materials (maximum is NL): EX. T(M). (Blank). (Blank). T(O). supply none of the above. BT(6). EY. T(J). (Blank).

and the summary of the maximum interlaminar shear stress 2 -Same as 1. most stresses.2004 .Element Library 3 -Matrix input using quadratic logic (see Input Data) KEYOPT(3) 0 -Basic element printout 1 -Integration point strain printout at bottom and top surfaces of element 2 -Nodal force printout in element coordinates 4 -Combination of both options KEYOPT(4) 0 -No user subroutines to define element coordinate system 4 -Element x-axis located by user subroutine USERAN 5 -- Page 264 of 993 Element x-axis located by user subroutine USERAN and layer x-axes located by user subroutine USANLY Note See the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features for user written subroutines KEYOPT(5) Determines whether strains or stresses will be used with KEYOPT(6) 0 -Use strain results 1 -Use stress results 2 -Use both strain and stress results KEYOPT(6) Used for printout control. and failure criteria are not available with matrix input. average transverse shear stresses. Note Thermal strains.05. and also print the layer solution at the integration points in the bottom layer file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 0 -Basic element printout.. and also print the summary of all the failure criteria. 20. as well as the summary of the maximum of all the failure criteria 1 -Same as 0..

and failure criteria are evaluated.05. 2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. and also print the layer solution at the corners for all layers 5 -Same as 1. Available only if KEYOPT(2) = 0 or 1 with NL > 1 0 -Evaluate strains and stresses at top and bottom of each layer 1 -Evaluate at mid-thickness of each layer KEYOPT(10) Determines whether material property matrices are printed 0 -No material property matrices printed 1 -Print material property matrices integrated through thickness for first element. Various layer printout options are available. please refer to Failure Criteria. The element stress directions correspond to the layer local coordinate directions. 20. and also print the layer solution with the failure criterion values at the integration points for all layers KEYOPT(8) 0 -Store data for bottom of bottom layer (or LP1). and data for maximum failure criteria layer. if it is a SOLID46 element For more information on real constants and other input data. For more information on failure criteria. integration point 1 is nearest Node I.. stresses. For integration point output.2004 . 1 -Store data for all layers. and also print the layer solution at the element centroid for all layers 4 -Same as 1. KEYOPT(9) Determines where strains. see SHELL91.Element Library (or LP1) and the top layer (or LP2) 3 -- Page 265 of 993 Same as 1. for top of top layer (or LP2). Caution Volume of data stored may be excessive. Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? Several items are illustrated in Stress output.

and 4 nearest L. KEYOPT(8) controls the amount of data output on the postdata file for processing with LAYER or LAYERP26. J. N. (See the ANSYS. 20. O.05.indicates that the item is not available. In either the O or R columns. and a . 3 nearest K. L. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. K. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. SOLID46 Stress Output The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. SOLID46 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES VOLU: TTOP. TBOT Definition Element Number Nodes . ESOL]. Theory Reference . Y indicates that the item is always available. M.I. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.Element Library Page 266 of 993 nearest J.) If KEYOPT(3) = 2 or 4 for this element. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. the three member forces and moments are also printed for each node (in the element coordinate system).OUT. Failure criterion output is evaluated only at the in-plane integration points.2004 ... P Volume Average temperatures at top and bottom faces O Y Y Y 1 R Y Y Y - file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Inc.

Z. Y. 9 1 1. O. YZ. 9 1 9 1 1. Total thermal strain if KEYOPT(2) = 2 or 3 Equivalent thermal strains (in layer local coordinates) [ 12] Failure criterion values and maximum at each integration point Failure criterion number (FC1 to FC6. YZ. Stresses (in layer local coordinates) causing the maximum value for XZ) this criterion in the element. Z. P3 at J.. 5 1. 3 S: INT S: EQV EPEL: X. Y. Z location of integration point Layer number Material number of this layer Material direction angle for layer (THETA) Average thickness of layer Accumulative average thickness (Thickness of element from layer 1 to this layer) Average temperature of layer Top (TOP). P Temperatures T(I).. J. T(N). ZI NUMBER MAT THETA AVE THICK ACC AVE THICK AVE TEMP POS LOC NODE INT S: X.2004 . T(J). O. T(O). T(L). P. FCMAX FC Page 267 of 993 Element centroid Pressures P1 at nodes J. 8 1.. 20. YZ. Total elastic strain if KEYOPT(2) = 2 or 3 Equivalent elastic strains (in layer local coordinates) [ 12] Thermal strains (in layer local coordinates).. 7 1 1. XY. 9 1 1 1 1 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 7 1 7 7 7 Y Y Y Principal stresses Stress intensity Equivalent stresses (in layer local coordinates) Elastic strains (in layer local coordinates). P4 at K. Z. Z. I. 3 3 3 - 1. FCMAX) Maximum value for this criterion (if value exceeds 9999. YC. XZ EPEL: EQV EPTH: X. XY. L.999 will be printed) LN Layer number where maximum occurs EPELF (X. XY. T(K). 9 1 1. mid-thickness (MID) of layer (See KEYOPT(9) for control options) Center location (AVG) Corner node number Integration point number Stresses (in layer local coordinates) Y 11 Y Y Y 2 2 2 1. 2. T(M). K. XZ EPTH: EQV FC1. N.. P5 at L. 3 3 Y - 1. ILSXZ Interlaminar SXZ shear stress ILSYZ Interlaminar SYZ shear stress Angle of shear stress vector (measured from the element x-axis ILANG toward the element y-axis in degrees) 7 Y 1. Z. YI. mid-thickness (MID) of element Global X. M. XY. L.. YZ.Element Library XC.FC6. I. Y. 7 1 1. ZC PRES TEMP INT POS XI. O. K. T(P) In-plane integration point number Top (TOP). 7 1 1. P6 at M. bottom (BOT). P2 at I. M. Y. 6 1.05. XZ) value for this criterion in the element. P. VALUE 9999. N. Y. SF (X. 4 1. XY. XZ S: 1. Y. Elastic strains (in layer local coordinates) causing the maximum YZ. 3 3 1. N.999. bottom (BOT).

10.. FY.. 13. LN2 ILMAX Page 268 of 993 Shear stress vector sum Layer numbers which define location of maximum interlaminar shear stress (ILMAX) .Element Library ILSUM LN1. and significant shear stress 1. Summary of failure criteria calculation (only if KEYOPT(2) = 0 or 1). 10 1 1.05. 12. (calculated from nodal forces). If KEYOPT(6) = 0.1 1. KEYOPT(6) 11. Output if KEYOPT(6) 0 (calculated from nodal forces) 3. 20. Output only if KEYOPT(6) = 5 9. If KEYOPT(6) = 2 or 5 7. If KEYOPT(6) = 3 5. Integration point strain solution (printed only if KEYOPT(3) = 1 or 4) 3. Output of the elastic strains and/or stresses (depending on KEYOPT(5)) for each failure criterion and the maximum of all criteria (FCMAX). Output at edges I-M. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP. Output only if KEYOPT(2) = 3 and KEYOPT(6) 0 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Layer solution (printed only if KEYOPT(2) = 0 or 1 and KEYOPT(6) > 1) 4.2004 .PRXY). J-N. Printed only if KEYOPT(2) = 0 or 1. Maximum interlaminar shear stress (occurs between LN1 and LN2) 1 10 1. only the maximum of all failure criteria (FCMAX) in the element is output. If KEYOPT(6) = 4 6. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. If KEYOPT(2) = 0 or 1 2. etc. If KEYOPT(2) = 2 or 3 SOLID46 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Names of Items Output Member Forces FX. FZ Average Transverse Shear Stress Components and sum Normal stress along edges O 1 2 3 R 0. Output at each node in the element coordinate system if KEYOPT(3) = 2 or 4 2. The strain and stress output is controlled with KEYOPT(5) 8.

The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL : Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I. 20..P SOLID46 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name ILSXZ ILSYZ ILSUM ILANG Name P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 Name P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 Name Item Bottom of Layer i Top of Layer NL SMISC (2*i)-1 (2*NL)+1 SMISC (2*i) (2*NL)+2 NMISC (2*i)+5 (2*NL)+7 NMISC (2*i)+6 (2*NL)+8 Item I J K L SMISC (2*NL)+4 (2*NL)+3 (2*NL)+6 (2*NL)+5 SMISC (2*NL)+7 (2*NL)+8 SMISC (2*NL)+11 (2*NL)+12 SMISC (2*NL)+15 (2*NL)+16 SMISC (2*NL)+20 (2*NL)+19 SMISC Item M N O P SMISC SMISC (2*NL)+10 (2*NL)+9 SMISC (2*NL)+14 (2*NL)+13 SMISC (2*NL)+18 (2*NL)+17 SMISC (2*NL)+21 (2*NL)+22 SMISC (2*NL)+23 (2*NL)+24 (2*NL)+25 (2*NL)+26 Item E file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.P sequence number for data at nodes I...2004 .05..J..... See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information.J.Element Library Page 269 of 993 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists the output available through ETABLE using the Sequence Number method...

NL is the maximum layer number as input for real constant NL (1 NL 250). The extra shapes are automatically deleted for tetrahedron elements.05. All material orientations are file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. A prism-shaped element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L and duplicate O and P node numbers (see Triangle. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements). this occurs if the elements are not numbered properly. 3 .. NL) refers to the layer number of the element. No slippage is assumed between the element layers. For example. 20.g.. only those failure criteria requested will be written to the results file. the maximum value over all criteria is stored last (N = 3 for this example)... if more than one criteria is requested. Usually. N is the failure number as stored on the results file in compressed form. Tapering down to zero is not allowed. All elements must have eight nodes. the maximum strain criteria will be stored first (N = 1) and the Tsai-Wu failure criteria will be stored second (N = 2). if only the maximum strain and the Tsai-Wu failure criteria are requested. A tetrahedron shape is also available.2004 . Assumptions and Restrictions Zero volume elements are not allowed.. e.. 2. In addition.Element Library FCMAX (over all layers) VALUE LN ILMAX LN1 LN2 FCMAX (at layer i) VALUE (at layer i) FC VALUE LN EPELFX EPELFY EPELFZ EPELFXY EPELFYZ EPELFXZ SFX SFY SFZ SFXY SFYZ SFXZ NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC 1 2 3 4 5 6 (2*(NL+i))+7 (2*(NL+i))+8 (4*NL)+8+15(N-1)+1 (4*NL)+8+15(N-1)+2 (4*NL)+8+15(N-1)+3 (4*NL)+8+15(N-1)+4 (4*NL)+8+15(N-1)+5 (4*NL)+8+15(N-1)+6 (4*NL)+8+15(N-1)+7 (4*NL)+8+15(N-1)+8 (4*NL)+8+15(N-1)+9 (4*NL)+8+15(N-1)+10 (4*NL)+8+15(N-1)+11 (4*NL)+8+15(N-1)+12 (4*NL)+8+15(N-1)+13 (4*NL)+8+15(N-1)+14 (4*NL)+8+15(N-1)+15 Page 270 of 993 Note The i in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL (where i = 1. Zero thickness layers are allowed only if a zero thickness is defined at all corners.

differences up to a factor of two have been seen. therefore. The ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide contains additional information on composite elements. and does not allow the user-input constitutive matrix option (that is. Hence. ? ? ? Prev SOLID45 Prev INFIN47 Element Library Next INFIN47 Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. This thickness is computed based on the nodal locations and on KREF. This assumption cannot be used for a solid element. one should consider using solid-to-solid submodeling to get accurate shear stress values at a free edge. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. SOLID191 has two forms of shear stress calculations: ? Those based on nodal forces (labeled "average transverse shear stress components"). and can even cause "NEGATIVE PIVOT. The DAMP material property is not allowed.05. the given values are averages. Those based on the strain-displacement relationships. The matrix input option (KEYOPT(2) = 3) assumes a uniform thickness of the element. KEYOPT(4) can only be set to 0 (default).. In all cases." messages to appear. Additional elements in the thickness direction will improve the interlaminar shear stress calculation. Inc. you should consider whether the material properties are realistic. averaged across layers when applicable (labeled "maximum interlaminar shear stress"). These shear stresses are discussed further in the ANSYS. The differences between the average and the peak will be small in most cases. 20. or 10 tapered layers.. Enhanced solution stability for such cases also occurs by suppressing the extra displacement shapes (KEYOPT(1) = 1). which will be less than the peak value. the values are constant in the plane of the layer and may. ANSYS/Professional ? This element is limited to 20 constant thickness layers. Interlaminar shear stresses for SHELL91 and SHELL99 shell elements are based on the premise that there are no interlaminar (transverse) shear stresses at the outer surface of the shell. both calculations result in constant stresses over the volume of the element. When brick (rectangular prism) elements are used. be thought of as centroidal values. In both situations. The element matrices are reformed every iteration unless option 1 of KUSE is active.2004 . If this occurs. any warped layers act as if they are flat and parallel to the reference plane. however. The six user-defined failure criteria (subroutines USRFC1 through USRFC6) are not allowed..Element Library Page 271 of 993 parallel to the reference plane. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. Thus. KEYOPT(2) = 3 is not valid). but ideally they will agree with each other. It has been observed that large differences (factors greater than 1000) between different moduli of the same material can cause large differences between the equation solver maximum and minimum pivots. Further. Theory Reference. ? Neither one of these is exact.

or SOLID98 magnetic elements or the SOLID70. The element may be a four-noded quadrilateral or a three-noded triangle with a magnetic potential or temperature degree of freedom at each node. Inc. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in INFIN47. 20. Nonzero material properties must be defined. unsymmetric. With the thermal degree of freedom only steady-state analyses (linear or nonlinear) may be done. SOLID96. Theory Reference for more details about this element. KEYOPT(2) can be used to keep an unsymmetric matrix from being file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements. The element is defined by four nodes. A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L node numbers as described in Triangle.Element Library Page 272 of 993 INFIN47 Name INFIN47 — 3-D Infinite Boundary product: MP ME EM PP ED Element Description INFIN47 is used to model an open boundary of a three-dimensional unbounded field problem. See the ANSYS. INFIN47 3-D Infinite Boundary Element Input Data The geometry. and the material properties.2004 . The matrix is made symmetric by averaging the off-diagonal terms to take advantage of a symmetric solution with a slight decrease in accuracy. With the magnetic degree of freedom the analysis may be linear or nonlinear static. The enveloped (or enclosed) element types may be the SOLID5. in general. The element x-axis is parallel to the I-J side of the element.. node locations.. SOLID90 or SOLID87 thermal solid elements. The coefficient matrix of this boundary element is.

KXX if KEYOPT(1) = 1 Surface Loads None Element Printout -None KEYOPT(1) 0 -Magnetic option 1 -Thermal option KEYOPT(2) 0 -Make the coefficient matrix symmetric 1 -Coefficient matrix is used as generated (symmetric or unsymmetric. Zero area elements are not allowed. a small out-of-plane tolerance is permitted so that the element may have a slightly warped shape. however. Page 273 of 993 A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. depending on the problem) Output Data The boundary element has no output of its own since it is used only to provide a semi-infinite boundary condition to a model consisting of other elements. if triangular) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. a fatal message results and a triangular element should be used (see Triangle.. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. The semi-infinite volume is assumed to be bound on five sides (four..2004 . INFIN47 Input Summary Element Name INFIN47 Nodes I.05. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements). K. (has default value for MKS units or can be set with the EMUNIT command). 20. if triangular) by the boundary element and by four semi-infinite radial surfaces (three. L Degrees of Freedom MAG if KEYOPT(1) = 0 TEMP if KEYOPT(1) = 1 Real Constants None Material Properties MUZERO if KEYOPT(1) = 0. If the warping is too severe. A slightly warped element will produce a warning message. Assumptions and Restrictions The four nodes defining the element should lie in an exact flat plane. J.Element Library made symmetric.

2004 . The exterior semi-infinite domain is assumed to be homogeneous. D.. The only active degree of freedom is MAG. The element assumes that the degree of freedom (DOF) value at infinity is always zero (0. ? ? ? Prev SOLID46 Prev CONTAC48 Element Library Next CONTAC48 Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The boundary element must lie "against" an enclosed element (that is. ANSYS/Mechanical Unless the Emag option is enabled. isotropic.. That is. J and K. The only allowable material property is MUZERO. J and K. KEYOPT(1) defaults to 1 (TEMP) instead of 0 and cannot be changed.Element Library Page 274 of 993 defined from the global coordinate system origin through nodes I and J. the mid-side nodes of these elements must be removed at the interface with INFIN47 [EMID]. the matrices are presumed to be unsymmetric. share the same nodes). ? ? ? ANSYS/Emag ? This element has only magnetic field capability. SOLID87. and does not have thermal capability.0). The boundary element should be as normal as possible to the radial surfaces. The surface of boundary elements should be located away from the region of interest of the enclosed elements for better accuracy. 20. K and L. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. and K and I if triangular). Acute or wide intersection angles should be avoided by "filling-in" the model with the other elements so that the line of boundary elements around the model is smooth and concave when viewed from the global coordinate system origin. the following restrictions apply: ? This element does not have magnetic field capability. The material property MUZERO is not allowed. and SOLID98. and L and I (nodes I and J. When used in a model with higher order elements SOLID90.05. The MAG degree of freedom is not active. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. and linear without containing any sources or sinks. If KEYOPT(2) = 1. KEYOPT(1) can only be set to 0 (default). The surface of boundary elements need not totally surround the model. or other load commands. the DOF value at infinity is not affected by TUNIF. The origin of the global coordinate system must be inside the model and as centrally located as possible. The element may not be deactivated with the EKILL command.

are also available. and node K is the contact node. or may have file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The element geometry is a triangle with the base being a line between two nodes on one of the surfaces (called the target surface) and the opposing vertex being a node on the other surface (called the contact surface). Elastic Coulomb friction and rigid Coulomb friction are allowed. CONTAC48 2-D Point-to-Surface Contact Element Input Data The geometry and node locations are shown in CONTAC48. A geometry display of this element shows the target line and the contact node (as a star). The surface tangent vector is taken to be the unit vector that is tangent to the target line and pointing from I to J. may be colinear with nodes I and J. Theory Reference for more details about this element. etc. Initially.05. CONTAC52. using the GCGEN command.. The node on the contact surface that completes the triangle is called a contact node. CONTAC26. The element has two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. CONTAC49. See the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for a discussion of how to generate CONTAC48 elements automatically. See the ANSYS. Nodes I and J should be specified so that the target surface is on your right (as shown in CONTAC48) as you advance from node I to node J. Nodes I and J define the target line. Inc. where sliding is along the target line.2004 . Thermal conductance due to contact can also be modeled. 20. such as CONTAC12. Contact occurs when the contact node penetrates the target line. The surface normal vector is defined to be the unit vector that is perpendicular to the target line and pointing to the left of the target line looking from I to J.Element Library Page 275 of 993 CONTAC48 Name CONTAC48 — 2-D Point-to-Surface Contact product: MP ME ST PP ED Element Description CONTAC48 may be used to represent contact and sliding between two surfaces (or between a node and a surface) in two dimensions. COMBIN40. Other contact elements. node K may be far removed from nodes I and J.. and the nodes at the ends of the target line are called target nodes. The line on the target surface is called a target line..

For an axisymmetric analysis.0. 20.. The normal contact stiffness. KT. nonconvergence. it may be useful to change the KN value between load steps or in a restart in order to obtain an accurate. the resulting temperature discontinuity tends to vanish and perfect contact is approached. It enforces the sticking component of contact friction and corresponds to a stiffness in a direction tangential to the target line. KN. This is the only use of temperatures in the element. is used to determine if penetration compatibility is satisfied when the penalty function plus Lagrange multiplier method (KEYOPT(2) = 1) is used. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Units for TOLS are percent (1. The value of TOLN must be positive and has units of length. converged solution. In these situations..05. however. has units of force/length.Element Library Page 276 of 993 penetrated the target line. Contact occurs only when the normal projection (to the target line) of node K lies on the target line. If KEYOPT(3) = 0. Real constant TOLS is used to add a small tolerance that will internally increase the length of the target (nodes I and J). Real constant PINB specifies the pinball radius to be used in determining whether the contact node is in or near contact. It may be specified as a function of temperature. Contact compatibility is considered to be satisfied if the contact node is within TOLN clearance on either side of the target line. The sticking contact stiffness. A small value of TOLS will usually prevent this situation from occurring. KT is only used if elastic Coulomb friction behavior is sought (KEYOPT(3) = 1). When not in contact.2004 . Its use enforces displacement compatibility by limiting the penetration of the target line by the contact node.0 implies a 1. the contact node may repeatedly "slip" off one target and on to another target or completely out of contact. You may also need to specify it if the contact node passes through the target surface with a displacement greater than the target length. For large values of COND. If contact occurs. The dynamic coefficient of friction uses MU directly while the static coefficient of friction is FACT*MU. this initial interference would go undetected since it is outside the pinball). or over penetration). KN has units of force/length.0% increase in the target length). It is used when KEYOPT(3) = 1. Note that using too large of a radius will increase the contact search time. The absolute tolerance applied in the direction of the surface normal. no friction is considered between the surfaces and the KT and FACT real constant are not needed. is needed when KEYOPT(3) = 1 or 2. the element forces and stiffnesses are input on a full 360 basis. TOLS is useful for problems where contact nodes (K) are likely to lie on the edge of targets (as at symmetry planes or for models generated in a node-to-node contact pattern). resulting in convergence difficulties from oscillations. KN corresponds to a penalty stiffness that acts in the direction of the target surface normal. Combined structural/thermal contact is represented if KEYOPT(1) = 1 (structural and thermal DOF are active) and contact conductance (COND) is defined. a small positive value of COND yields a measured amount of imperfect contact and a temperature discontinuity across the interface formed by the contact node and its target surface. A lower KN value can be used with the penalty function plus Lagrange multiplier method (KEYOPT(2) = 1). In some cases (such as initial interference analyses. FACT. MU. is used in the penalty function method to determine contact forces. has default and minimum values of 1. You may want to specify your own pinball radius if the initial interference in your model is larger than the target length (otherwise. The default is for the program to calculate the pinball radius based on the dimensions of the target. The ratio of static to dynamic coefficients of friction. it is assumed that no heat is transferred across the interface. KT defaults to KN/100. A large value of KN is usually needed to enforce compatibility if the penalty function method (KEYOPT(2) = 0) is selected. TOLN. The coefficient of friction. Real constant COND has units of heat/timedegree.

loss of contact. CONTAC48 Input Summary Element Name CONTAC48 Nodes I. UY. Note that this option should be activated first at the procedure level if SOLCONTROL is ON.OFF. J. T(K) Special Features Nonlinear. UY (if KEYOPT(1) = 0) UX.Element Library Page 277 of 993 A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. KT. FACT. COND. Large deflection. TOLN. ON is the most frequent usage with this element.05.ON.. this keyoption is not activated. PINB Material Properties MU Surface Loads None Body Loads Temperature -T(I).ON. TEMP (if KEYOPT(1) = 1) Real Constants KN.2004 . SOLCONTROL. TOLS. T(J). A general description of element input is given in Element Input. K Degrees of Freedom UX. If SOLCONTROL. 20. or stick/slide time predictions are performed 1 -Change in contact predictions are made to maintain a reasonable time/load increment (recommended) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Adaptive descent KEYOPT(1) Used for degree of freedom selection (see above) KEYOPT(2) 0 -Penalty function 1 -Penalty function + Lagrange multiplier KEYOPT(3) 0 -No friction 1 -Elastic coulomb 2 -Rigid coulomb KEYOPT(7) Element level time incrementation control. 0 -No contact..

the element forces are expressed on a full 360 basis. In either the O or R columns. NY Surface normal vector components Y FNTOT Total normal force Y FNPF Penalty function component of normal force Y GAP Gap size or penetration Y LEN Length of target line Y LOC Dimensionless location of contactor node K on the target line (-1 to +1) Y FS Tangential force (elastic or sliding) 2 FSLIM Friction limit force 2 MU Coefficient of friction 2 ANGLE Principal angle of friction force 2 Q Contact heat flow (heat/time) Name Definition R Y Y 4 Y 1 Y Y Y Y Y 2 2 2 2 3 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.Element Library 2 -- Page 278 of 993 Change in contact predictions are made to achieve the minimum time/load increment whenever a change in contact status occurs Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output (only if STAT = 1 or 2.. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. T(J). The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. and K Y XC. and a .OUT. that is. ESOL].05. CONTAC48 Element Output Definitions O EL Element Number Y NODES Nodes I. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. ? For an axisymmetric analysis. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. T(K) Y STAT.2004 . Y indicates that the item is always available. 20.indicates that the item is not available.OLDST New and old contact statuses 1 NX. YC Location where results are reported Y TEMP Temperatures T(I). if the gap is closed) as shown in Element Output Definitions. J.

.K sequence number for data at nodes I.K CONTAC48 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name FNTOT FS FNPF Q STAT OLDST GAP LEN MU Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 I J K - file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..Open but near contact 4 . Page 279 of 993 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. 20. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I. If the value of STAT. If KEYOPT(1) = 1 and STAT = 1 or 2 4.2004 .Element Library 1. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.Open and not near contact 2.J.Closed and sliding 3 .OLDST is: 1 . See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information.05.J.Closed and sticking 2 . If KEYOPT(3) = 1 or 2 and STAT = 1 or 2 3.

if you plan to change KN. 20.. either the penalty function method (KEYOPT(2) = 0) or the penalty function plus Lagrange multiplier method (KEYOPT(2) = 1) may be used to represent contact. Note that. Product Restrictions ANSYS/Structural ? Temp is not active.Element Library FSLIM ANGLE LOC TEMP NMISC NMISC NMISC LBFE 6 7 8 1 2 3 Page 280 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions The contact surface coordinates and forces are fully updated. but it must not be so large as to cause numerical instability. and many contact nodes may be associated with one target line. for which TOLN must be specified. In dynamic analyses. Therefore. you cannot allow the value of KT to be defined by default. the penalty function method (KEYOPT (2) = 0) should be used to represent contact. KN.. One contact node may be associated with many target lines. regardless of whether large or small deflections are specified [NLGEOM].05. The normal contact stiffness. to maintain a consistent value throughout all load steps. An element should be specified for each possible combination of a contact node coming in contact with a target line. because the program would then attempt to redefine KT as KN changed. must be specified and positive. The element may not be deactivated with the EKILL command. You must explicitly define KT whenever KN changes. Prev INFIN47 Prev CONTAC49 Element Library Next CONTAC49 Next CONTAC49 Name CONTAC49 — 3-D Point-to-Surface Contact product: MP ME ST PP ED Element Description file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . In static analyses. although it is permissible to change KN. it is not permissible to change any other real constants between load steps. KEYOPT(1) 1. The value of KN can be much smaller when combined with the Lagrangian multiplier method.

Initially. and node M is the contact node. J. node M may be far removed from the target base. Contact occurs when the contact node penetrates the target base. See the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for a discussion of how to generate CONTAC49 elements automatically. CONTAC49 3-D Note-to-Surface Contact Element Input Data The geometry and node locations are shown in CONTAC49. A geometry display of this element shows the target base and the contact node (as a star). The first surface tangent vector is taken to be the unit vector that is tangent to the target base and pointing from I to J. The node on the contact surface that completes the pyramid is called a contact node.05.. and the opposing vertex being a node on the other surface (called the contact surface). Contact occurs only when the normal projection (to the target line) of node M lies on the target base. vertices being nodes on one of the surfaces (called the target surface). file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Inc. such as CONTAC12. COMBIN40. Elastic Coulomb friction and rigid Coulomb friction are allowed. CONTAC52.. surface normal vector are a right-handed element coordinate system. or may have penetrated the target base. 20. The base on the target surface is called a target base. etc. are also available. y. second surface tangent vector. J. CONTAC26. A degenerate form of the element is allowed which takes the shape of a tetrahedron when the base is a triangle. and z directions. The element has five nodes with three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. K and L define the target base. See the ANSYS. The second surface tangent vector is taken as the cross product of the surface normal vector and the first surface tangent vector. Thermal conductance due to contact can also be modeled. Thus the first surface tangent vector. Theory Reference for more details about this element. The surface normal vector is defined to be the unit vector that is perpendicular to the target base and pointing out from the target surface. and the nodes defining the target base are called target nodes.Element Library Page 281 of 993 CONTAC49 may be used to represent contact and sliding between two surfaces (or between a node and a surface) in three dimensions. Other contact elements.2004 . K and L should be specified so that the cross product of vectors IJ and JK points outward from the free surface at node J (as shown in CONTAC49). may be coplanar with the target base. Nodes I. using the GCGEN command. The element geometry is a pyramid with the base being a quadrilateral. CONTAC48. where sliding is along the target base. Nodes I.

KN corresponds to a penalty stiffness that acts in the direction of the target surface normal. A lower KN value can be used with the penalty function plus Lagrange multiplier method (KEYOPT(2) = 1).05. For large values of COND. KT defaults to KN/100. no friction is considered between the surfaces and none of the remaining real constant input parameters are needed. Contact compatibility is considered to be satisfied if the contact node is within TOLN clearance on either side of the target base. the contact node may repeatedly "slip" off one target and on to another target or completely out of contact. The coefficient of friction.. A small value of TOLS will usually prevent this situation from occurring. the resulting temperature discontinuity tends to vanish and perfect contact is approached. is needed when KEYOPT(3) = 1 or 2. You may also need to specify it if the contact node passes through the target surface with a displacement greater than the target length. If contact occurs. Real constant COND has units of heat/timedegree. The sticking contact stiffness. or over penetration). Combined structural/thermal contact is represented if KEYOPT(1) = 1 (structural and thermal DOF are active) and contact conductance (COND) is defined. KN. it may be useful to change the KN value between load steps or in a restart in order to obtain an accurate. however. A large value of KN is usually needed to enforce compatibility if the penalty function method (KEYOPT(2) = 0) is selected. has default and minimum values of 1.0% increase in the target area). If KEYOPT(3) = 0. CONTAC49 Input Summary file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. TOLN. Its use enforces displacement compatibility by limiting the penetration of the target base by the contact node. The value of TOLN must be positive and has units of L. The default is for the program to calculate the pinball radius based on the dimensions of the target. this initial interference would go undetected since it is outside the pinball). 20. converged solution. Units for TOLS are percent (1. FACT. In some cases (such as initial interference analyses. MU.Element Library Page 282 of 993 The normal contact stiffness. When not in contact. KN has units of force/length. You may want to specify your own pinball radius if the initial interference in your model is larger than the target length (otherwise. TOLS is useful for problems where contact nodes (M) are likely to lie on the edge of targets (as at symmetry planes or for models generated in a node-to-node contact pattern). nonconvergence. Real constant PINB specifies the pinball radius to be used in determining whether the contact node is in or near contact. a small positive value of COND yields a measured amount of imperfect contact and a temperature discontinuity across the interface formed by the contact node and its target surface. has units of force/length.0 implies a 1. it is assumed that no heat is transferred across the interface. The dynamic coefficient of friction uses MU directly while the static coefficient of friction is FACT*MU.2004 . It enforces the sticking component of contact friction and corresponds to a stiffness in a direction tangential to the target base. It is used when KEYOPT(3) = 1.. This is the only use of temperatures in the element.0. KT is only used if elastic Coulomb friction behavior is sought (KEYOPT(3) = 1). Note that using too large of a radius will increase the contact search time. resulting in convergence difficulties from oscillations. Real constant TOLS is used to add a small tolerance that will internally increase the area of the target (nodes I to L). A general description of element input is given in Element Input. KT. In these situations. The absolute tolerance applied in the direction of the surface normal. The ratio of static to dynamic coefficients of friction. is used to determine if penetration compatibility is satisfied when the penalty function plus Lagrange multiplier method (KEYOPT(2) = 1) is used. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. It may be specified as a function of temperature. is used in the penalty function method to determine contact forces.

PINB Material Properties MU Surface Loads None Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). SOLCONTROL. Large deflection.ON. Adaptive descent KEYOPT(1) Used for degree of freedom selection (see above) KEYOPT(2) 0 -Penalty function 1 -Penalty function + Lagrange multiplier KEYOPT(3) 0 -No friction 1 -Elastic coulomb 2 -Rigid coulomb KEYOPT(7) Element level time incrementation control.05. UZ (if KEYOPT(1) = 0) UX.2004 . ON is the most frequent usage with this element.. FACT. or stick/slide time predictions are performed. TOLS. M Degrees of Freedom UX. UY. TEMP (if KEYOPT(1) = 1) Real Constants KN.Element Library Page 283 of 993 Element Name CONTAC49 Nodes I. loss of contact. T(J). T(M) Special Features Nonlinear. TOLN. 20. 0 -No contact. Note that this option should be activated first at the procedure level if SOLCONTROL is ON. J. this keyoption is not activated.. 2 -Change in contact predictions are made to achieve the minimum time/load increment whenever a change in contact status occurs. UY.OFF. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. KT. K. T(L). T(K). 1 -Change in contact predictions are made to maintain a reasonable time/load increment (recommended).ON. L.COND. UZ. If SOLCONTROL.

and a . L and M Location where results are reported Temperatures T(I).2004 .OUT.LOC2 FS1 FS2 FSLIM MU ANGLE Q Definition Element Number Nodes I. Y. CONTAC49 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES XC. (0 to +1) if on tri surface Tangential force in element direction 1 (elastic or sliding) Tangential force in element direction 2 (elastic or sliding) Friction limit force Coefficient of friction Principal angle of friction forces Contact heat flow (heat/time) O Y Y Y Y 1 Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y 4 Y 1 Y Y Y Y Y Y 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 1.05. J. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.Closed and sticking file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. In either the O or R columns.OLDST is: 1 . T(J). if gap is closed) as shown in Element Output Definitions ? A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. YC.indicates that the item is not available. K. T(K). The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.. If the value of STAT. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. 20. Z) Total normal force Penalty function component of normal force Gap size or penetration Area of target base Dimensionless location of contactor node M on the target base: (-1 to +1) if on quad surface.. ESOL]. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.OLDST NORM FNTOT FNPF GAP AREA LOC1. that is. T(M) New and old contact statuses Surface normal vector components (X. ZC TEMP STAT.Element Library Page 284 of 993 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output (only if STAT = 1 or 2. Y indicates that the item is always available. T(L).

2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Page 285 of 993 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.Open but near contact 4 . If KEYOPT(1) = 1 and STAT = 1 or 2 4.J.. If KEYOPT(3) = 1 or 2 and STAT = 1 or 2 3.J.K. . The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I.05.L.Element Library 2 .Closed and sliding 3 .K..L. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information.Open and not near contact 2.M sequence number for data at nodes I.M CONTAC49 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name FNTOT FS1 FS2 FNPF Q STAT OLDST GAP AREA MU FSLIM ANGLE LOC1 Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 I J K L M 20. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.

An element should be specified for each possible combination of a contact node coming in contact with a target base.1 2 3 4 5 Page 286 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions The contact surface coordinates and forces are fully updated.Element Library LOC2 TEMP NMISC 9 . The superelement. KN.. to maintain a consistent value throughout all load steps. may be included in any ANSYS model and used in any analysis type for which it is applicable. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. it is not permissible to change any other real constants between load steps. Prev CONTAC48 Prev MATRIX50 Element Library Next MATRIX50 Next MATRIX50 Name MATRIX50 — Superelement (or Substructure) product: MP ME ST PR EM PP ED Element Description MATRIX50 is a group of previously assembled ANSYS elements that is treated as a single element. One contact node may be associated with many target bases. The normal contact stiffness.05. either the penalty function method (KEYOPT(2) = 0) or the penalty function plus Lagrange multiplier method (KEYOPT(2) = 1) may be used to represent contact.. KEYOPT(1) 1. must be specified and positive. the penalty function method (KEYOPT (2) = 0) should be used to represent contact. You must explicitly define KT whenever KN changes. for which TOLN must be specified. Therefore. and many contact nodes may be associated with one target base.. The value of KN can be much smaller when combined with the Lagrangian multiplier method. once generated. 20. The superelement can greatly decrease the cost of many analyses.LBFE . Product Restrictions ANSYS/Structural ? Temp DOF is not active. but it must not be so large as to cause numerical instability. regardless of whether large or small deflections are specified [NLGEOM]. although it is permissible to change KN. because the program would then attempt to redefine KT as KN changed. The element may not be deactivated with the EKILL command.2004 . In static analyses. if you plan to change KN. you cannot allow the value of KT to be defined by default. In dynamic analyses.. Note that..

The File.05.. the load key is the load vector number. The KEYOPT(1) option is for the special case where the superelement is to be used with a T4 nonlinearity. See the ANSYS. Inc.PERX] is an input. the radiation matrix generator. An element load vector is generated along with the element at each load step of the superelement generation pass. 20. this load vector is not included in the analysis. The real constant table number [REAL ] is not used.2004 .SUB) in the working directory. Multiple load vectors may also be stored with the superelement matrices. The SE command is used to define a superelement. thereby allowing various loading options. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. Theory Reference for more details about this element.DAMP] or electrical permittivity [MP. However. they are stored in a file and can be used in other analyses the same way any other ANSYS elements are used. The load label is input as SELV. Any analysis using a superelement as one of its element types is called a superelement use pass (or run). The material number [MAT] is only used when material dependent damping [MP. has no fixed geometrical identity and is conceptually shown in MATRIX50.SE reads the superelement from Jobname. The scale factor is input on the element surface load command [SFE]. Any number of load vector-scale factor combinations may be used in the use pass. Up to 31 load vectors may be generated. and the load value is the scale factor. Load vectors may be proportionately scaled in the use pass. The element name is MATRIX50 (the number 50 or the name MATRIX50 should be input for the variable ENAME on the ET command). If a superelement load vector has a zero scale factor (or is not scaled at all). the appropriate element type number [TYPE] must be entered. such as for radiation. The load vector number is determined from the load step number associated with the superelement generation. which is a mathematical matrix representation of an arbitrary structure.Element Library Page 287 of 993 Once the superelement matrices have been formed. MATRIX50 Superelement Input Data The superelement.SUB for this case may be constructed directly by the user or may be generated by AUX12. MATRIX50 Input Summary Element Name file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. A general description of element input is given in Element Input.SUB (defaults to File. The degrees of freedom are the master degrees of freedom specified during the generation pass..

Element Library MATRIX50 Nodes Page 288 of 993 None input (supplied by element) Degrees of Freedom As determined from the included element types (a mixture of multi-field degrees of freedom is not allowed) Real Constants None Material Properties DAMP. Special Features Radiation (if KEYOPT(1) = 1). and VAL1 = scale factor. LKEY = load vector number (31 maximum). PERX Surface Loads Surface load effects may be applied through a generated load vector and scale factors. The PCG solver does not support MATRIX50 elements. The nodal forces may be output if KEYOPT(6) = 1. The relative locations of the superelement attachment points in the nonsuperelement portion of the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..DSUB must be saved from the superelement "use" pass and input to the expansion pass (if an expansion pass is desired). Assumptions and Restrictions A superelement may contain elements of any type.. The stress distribution within the superelement and the expanded nodal displacements can be obtained from a subsequent stress pass. The nonlinear portion of any element included in a superelement will be ignored and any bilinear element will maintain its initial status throughout the analysis. 20. File.05. See the D command for degree of freedom field groups. In addition to the database and substructure files from the generation run. Superelements may contain other superelements.2004 . A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. Use the SFE command to supply scale factors with LAB = SELV. Large rotation KEYOPT(1) 0 -Normal substructure 1 -Special radiation substructure KEYOPT(6) 0 -Do not print nodal forces 1 -Print nodal forces Output Data Displacements and forces may be printed for each (master) degree of freedom in a structural superelement in the "use" pass. Superelements of different field types may be mixed within the use run. Body Loads Body loads may be applied through a generated load vector and scale factors as described for surface loads.

Pressure and thermal effects may be included in a superelement only through its load vectors. ? ? ANSYS/Emag ? This element may be used as a Trefftz substructure only.2004 . The DAMP material property is not applicable. The DAMP material property. PERX material property. Two -dimensional superelements should only be used in two -dimensional analyses. The large rotation special feature is not applicable.. ? ANSYS/Professional ? This element may be used as a radiation substructure only. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. ? ? Prev CONTAC49 SHELL51 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. KEYOPT(1) defaults to 1 instead of 0 and cannot be changed. Similarly. and three-dimensional superelements in three-dimensional analyses. Next SHELL51 20. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. You should be careful to avoid duplicatiing acceleration and damping effects. additional damping effects will be applied to the superelement. Page 289 of 993 If the superelement contains a mass matrix. if the superelement contains a damping matrix (as specified in the generation run) and and damping multipliers [ALPHA and BETA] are defined in the use run. The dimensionality of the superelement corresponds to the maximum dimensionality of any element used in its generation.. ANSYS/Structural ? KEYOPT(1) = 0 The PERX material property is not applicable. The large rotation special feature is not applicable. surface loads. acceleration [ACEL ] defined in the use run will be applied to the superelement. Inc.Element Library model (if any) should match the initial superelement geometry. If a load vector containing acceleration effects is also applied in the use run. and body loads are not applicable. Theory Reference for a discussion of the substructure matrix assembly procedure. both accelerations (the ACEL command and the load vector) will be applied to the superelement. See the ANSYS.05.

and the coordinate system for this element are shown in SHELL51.Element Library Prev Element Library Page 290 of 993 Next SHELL51 Name SHELL51 — Axisymmetric Structural Shell product: MP ME ST PR PP ED Element Description SHELL51 has four degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. creep. Extreme orientations of the conical shell element result in a cylindrical shell element or an annular disc element. Real constant ADMSUA is file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. only TK(I) is required. node locations. and torsion capability. See SHELL61 for an axisymmetric conical shell element without nonlinear properties. large deflection.. The shell element may have a linearly varying thickness. 20.. The element may have variable thickness. See the ANSYS. The element is defined by two nodes. The element has plasticity. and the orthotropic material properties. Theory Reference for more details about this element. swelling.2004 . Inc. The z-direction corresponds to the (or circumferential) direction. y. and z directions and a rotation about the nodal z-axis. stress stiffening. two end thicknesses. The thickness is assumed to vary linearly between the nodes.05. For material property labels. The y-direction is through-the-thickness. SHELL51 Axisymmetric Structural Shell Input Data The geometry. the x-direction corresponds to the meridional direction of the shell element. If the element has a constant thickness.

FL3. NUYZ. NUXZ). Large deflection KEYOPT(3) 0 -Include extra displacement shapes file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. EZ. FL4 Special Features Plasticity. Nodal forces. Positive normal pressures act into the element. If only T1 and T2 are input. Temperatures and fluences may be input as element body loads at the four corner locations shown in SHELL51. Material properties EY. and NUYZ) are required for this effect.05. ADMSUA Material Properties EX. For any other input pattern. should be input on a full 360 basis. ALPX. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. If all other temperatures are unspecified. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. The first corner temperature T1 defaults to TUNIF. Z is circumferential) Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (I-J) (top.Element Library used to define an added mass per unit area. KEYOPT(3) is used to include or suppress the extra displacement shapes. T4 Fluences -FL1. DAMP (X is meridional. PRXY. 20. ALPZ. SHELL51 Input Summary Element Name SHELL51 Nodes I. and PRYZ (or EY. (PRXY. DENS. ROTZ Real Constants TK(I). TK(J). A general description of element input is given in Element Input. Y is through-thickness. UY. Page 291 of 993 Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . they default to T1. Creep. face 2 (I-J) (bottom. UZ.. if any. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on SHELL51. Stress stiffening. These include the increase or decrease in size of surface area the load is acting on and (in the case of a nonzero Poisson's ratio) an interaction effect causing the element to grow longer or shorter under equal pressures on both surfaces. in -Y direction). PRYZ. PRXZ or NUXY. NUXY. T3.2004 . T3 defaults to T2 and T4 defaults to T1. J Degrees of Freedom UX. (TK(J) defaults to TK(I) for constant thickness). T2. in +Y direction) Body Loads Temperatures -T1. Similar defaults occurs for fluence except that zero is used instead of TUNIF. The pressures are applied at the surfaces of the element rather than at the centroidal plane so that some thickness effects can be considered. Swelling.. EY. FL2. GXZ.

20. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. and bottom locations (through-the-thickness) at element mid-length. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.OUT. The printout is displayed at the top. SHELL51 Element Output Definitions file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. In either the O or R columns. and a . a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. SHELL51 Stress Output The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE.2004 . The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. ? Several items are illustrated in Stress output. Y indicates that the item is always available. ESOL].05.. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file..indicates that the item is not available.Element Library 1 -Suppress extra displacement shapes KEYOPT(4) 0 -No printout of member forces and moments 1 -Print member forces and moments in the element coordinate system Page 292 of 993 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions. middle.

H. Z. through-thickness. meridional-hoop) Elastic strains (meridional. H.2004 . meridionalhoop) Plastic strains (meridional.. FL4 In-plane element X.05. FL2. H. H. THK. hoop. meridionalhoop) Creep strains (meridional. XZ) MFOR(X. Z) MMOMZ S(M. MH) EPPL(M.J. MID. The item repeats at TOP. J Material number Distance between node I and node J Location where results are reported Temperatures T1. Z.I. through-thickness. meridionalhoop) Swelling strain Equivalent stress from stress-strain curve Ratio of trial stress to stress on yield surface Hydrostatic pressure Equivalent plastic strain Principal stresses Stress intensity Equivalent stress 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. through-thickness.. XZ) M(X. hoop. hoop. THK. If KEYOPT(4) = 1 2. THK. 20. Y. YC TEMP PRES FLUEN T(X. hoop. hoop. THK. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. through-thickness. and BOT locations 3. Z.Element Library Name EL NODES MAT LEN XC. THK. and XZ forces Element X. through-thickness. MH) EPCR(M. MH) EPSW SEPL SRAT HPRES EPEQ S(1. meridionalhoop) Thermal strains(meridional. T3. 3) SINT SEQV 1. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. T4 Pressures P1 (top) at nodes I. H. MH) EPTH(M. T2. FL3. P2 (bottom) at nodes I. Z. Definition Page 293 of 993 O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 2 R Y Y Y Y 3 Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 2 Element Number Nodes . 2. MH) EPEL(M.J Fluences FL1. and XZ moments Member forces for each node in the element coordinate system Member moment for each node in the element coordinate system Stresses (meridional.

05..Element Library Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command Page 294 of 993 SHELL51 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH EPSW EPPLM EPPLTHK EPPLH EPPLMH EPCRM EPCRTHK EPCRH EPCRMH SEPL SRAT HPRES EPEQ S1 S2 S3 SINT SEQV MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMZ Item LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPPL LEPPL LEPPL LEPPL LEPCR LEPCR LEPCR LEPCR NLIN NLIN NLIN NLIN NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC Top 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 E Mid 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 6 7 8 9 10 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 6 7 8 9 10 I 1 2 3 6 Bot 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12 11 12 13 14 15 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12 11 12 13 14 15 J 7 8 9 12 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. 20.2004 .

Element Library TX TZ TXZ MX MZ MXZ P1 P2 SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 23 20 24 Page 295 of 993 Corner Location 1 2 3 4 FLUEN NMISC 16 17 18 19 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 Assumptions and Restrictions The axisymmetric shell element must be defined in the global X-Y plane with the Y-axis the axis of symmetry. The element thickness varies linearly from node I to node J. The element may not be deactivated with the EKILL command. The element must not have a zero length. Both ends must have non-negative X coordinate values and the element must not lie along the global Y-axis. since plastic effects are considered only midway between the two nodes. 20. ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. it should be thought of as a constant-curvature element. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. Fluence body loads are not applicable.. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.2004 . If these effects are important. it is recommended to use PLANE42. but each flat element should not extend over more than a 5 arc. An assemblage of flat shell elements can produce an approximation to a curved shell surface. only TK(I) need be defined. Even though the element has a displacement shape which permits a cubic displacement function. Some thick shell effects have been included in the formulation of SHELL51 but it cannot be properly considered to be a thick shell element. If the element has a constant thickness. Stress stiffening effects are based on the average section stress midway between nodes I and J. Nonlinear material properties must be isotropic. The only special features allowed are stress stiffening and large deflection. TK(I) must not be zero..05. ANSYS/Professional ? The DAMP material property is not allowed.

file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. are also available. Other contact elements. The element is capable of supporting only compression in the direction normal to the surfaces and shear (Coulomb friction) in the tangential direction.2004 . 20.. y. The element has three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. such as CONTAC12. CONTAC52 3-D Point-to-Point Contact Element Input Data The geometry. CONTAC48 and CONTAC49. and z directions.. A specified stiffness acts in the normal and tangential directions when the gap is closed and not sliding. Theory Reference for more details about this element. Inc. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in CONTAC52. COMBIN40. node locations. CONTAC26. See the ANSYS.05. The element may be initially preloaded in the normal direction or it may be given a gap specification.Element Library Prev MATRIX50 Prev CONTAC52 Element Library Page 296 of 993 Next CONTAC52 Next CONTAC52 Name CONTAC52 — 3-D Point-to-Point Contact product: MP ME ST PR PP ED Element Description CONTAC52 represents two surfaces which may maintain or break physical contact and may slide relative to each other.

The interface is parallel to the element y-z plane. As the normal force becomes positive. and NZ (the global Cartesian X. See Nonlinear Structural Analysis in the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for guidelines on choosing a value for KN. when the normal force (FN) is negative.. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. and Z components of the gap direction vector). The sticking stiffness. should be based upon the stiffness of the surfaces in contact. The interface is assumed to be perpendicular to the I-J line or to the specified gap direction. Temperatures may be specified at the element nodes (for material property evaluation only). two stiffnesses (KN and KS). If the interface is closed but sliding. converged solution. which is useful for file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The element condition at the beginning of the first substep is determined from the START parameter.0 and KEYOPT(1) = 0). In some cases (such as initial interference analyses. NY. If you do not specify the gap direction. The initial element status (START) is used to define the "previous" condition of the interface to be used at the start of the first substep. The force deflection relationships for the interface element can be separated into the normal and tangential (sliding) directions as shown in Force-Deflection Relationship. an initial gap or interference (GAP). KS defaults to KN. the interface remains in contact and responds as a linear spring. nonconvergence. contact is broken and no force is transmitted. This input is used to override the condition implied by the interference specification and is useful in anticipating the final interface configuration and in reducing the number of iterations required for convergence. The element coordinate system has its origin at node I and the x-axis is directed toward node J or in the user-specified gap direction. The node J temperature defaults to T(I). The normal stiffness. NZ) usually points from node I toward node J. and an initial element status (START). or if the initial open gap distance is very small.05. the program will calculate the direction based on the initial positions of the I and J nodes. NY. The only material property used is the interface coefficient of friction µ. KEYOPT(3) can be used to specify a "weak spring" across an open interface. Stiffnesses may also be computed from the maximum expected force divided by the maximum allowable surface displacement. The orientation of the interface is defined by the node locations. A zero value should be used for frictionless surfaces. You can specify the gap direction by means of real constants NX. the correct normal (NX. The gap size may be input as a real constant (GAP) or automatically calculated from the input node locations (as the distance between node I and node J) if KEYOPT(4) = 1. Stiffness is associated with a zero or negative gap. NY. and NZ). KS. it may be useful to change the KN value between load steps or in a restart in order to obtain an accurate. or over penetration). KN is used in the gap resistance and KS is used for sticking resistance. Interference must be input as a real constant. an interference causes the nodes to separate. 20. KN. In the normal direction. The coefficient of friction µ is input as material property MU and is evaluated at the average of the two node temperatures. KN is used in the gap resistance and the constant friction force µFN is used for the sliding resistance. You should always specify the gap direction if nodes I and J have the same initial coordinates.2004 .. such that a positive normal displacement (in the element coordinate system) of node J relative to node I tends to open the gap. or by a user-specified gap direction. If the interface is closed and sticking. if the model has an initial interference condition in which the underlying elements' geometry overlaps. The initial gap defines the gap size (if positive) or the displacement interference (if negative).Element Library Page 297 of 993 The element is defined by two nodes. represents the stiffness in the tangential direction when elastic Coulomb friction is selected (µ > 0. If you do not specify the gap direction (by means of real constants NX. If the gap is initially geometrically open. Y. This input is the opposite of that used for CONTAC12.

0 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. T(J) Special Features Nonlinear. UY. The weak spring stiffness is computed by multiplying the normal stiffness KN by a reduction factor. in fact.. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. KS is not used. for FN < 0 and the absolute value of the tangential force (FS) less than µ|FN|.. CONTAC52 Input Summary Element Name CONTAC52 Nodes I. 20. the interface sticks and responds as a linear spring. KS.2004 . such as in a wedge insertion problem.0. For FN < 0 and FS = µ|FN|.0 or blank. For analyses involving friction. START. rigid Coulomb friction is selected. This option is useful for displacement controlled problems or for certain dynamic problems where sliding dominates. gap is initially closed and not sliding (if MU 0. sliding occurs. NX. NY. or sliding (if MU = 0. If START = 1. If START = 0.05.0). GAP. gap is initially closed and sliding. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. J Degrees of Freedom UX.UNSYM is useful (and.0). gap initially open. sometimes required) for problems where the normal and tangential (sliding) motions are strongly coupled. and the elastic sticking capability is removed.Element Library Page 298 of 993 preventing rigid body motion that could occur in a static analysis.0. Material Properties MU Surface Loads None Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). In the tangential direction. If contact is broken. The REDFACT capability will not limit gap separation when a tensile force is applied. using NROPT.0. REDFACT. If START = 3. The default reduction factor of 1E-6 can be overridden with real constant REDFACT. If KEYOPT(1) = 1. initial status of element is determined from gap input. KEYOPT(1) Used only with MU > 0. This "weak spring" capability is not analogous to overlaying an actual spring element (such as COMBIN14) with a low stiffness value. NZ A negative value of GAP assumes an initial interference condition. Adaptive descent. UZ Real Constants KN. FS = 0. If START = 2.

Element Library 0 -Elastic Coulomb friction (KS used for sticking stiffness) 1 -Rigid Coulomb friction (resisting force only) KEYOPT(3) 0 -No weak spring across an open gap 1 -Use a weak spring across an open gap KEYOPT(4) 0 -Gap size based on gap real constant 1 -- Page 299 of 993 Gap size determined from initial node locations (ignore gap real constant) KEYOPT(7) Element level time incrementation control. Elements lying along the Z-axis are assigned values of =0 . this keyoption is not activated.Z) are the total translational displacements in the element y and z directions.. A value of STAT = 2 indicates the node J slides relative to node I. FS. The element coordinate system orientation angles and (shown in CONTAC52) are computed by the program from the node locations.(un )I + GAP. = ± 90 .05. the converged element status is either STAT = 2 or 3.0).. the gap is open. Sliding may occur in both the element y and z directions. ranges from 0 to 360 and from -90 to +90 . The value of USEP is determined from the normal displacement (un ) (in the element x-direction) between the interface nodes at the end of a substep. for = 90 . STAT describes the status of the element at the end of a substep. This value is used in determining the normal force. If SOLCONTROL. Note. is µ|FN|. Elements lying off the Z-axis have their coordinate system oriented as shown for the general .ON. The maximum value printed for the sliding force. respectively. SOLCONTROL. If STAT = 3. The values represented by UT(Y. If STAT = 1. For a frictionless surface (µ = 0. Note that this option should be activated first at the procedure level if SOLCONTROL is ON.2004 . These values are printed as ALPHA and BETA respectively. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. FN.OFF.ON. position. ? Force-deflection curves are illustrated in Force-Deflection Relationship. the gap is closed and no sliding occurs. 20.ON is the most frequent usage with this element. 0 -Predictions are made to achieve the minimum time (or load) increment whenever a change in contact status occurs 1 -Predictions are made to maintain a reasonable time (or load) increment (recommended) Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions. ? 90 . that is: USEP = (un )J .

. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.Z) Displacement (node J . CONTAC52 Element Output Definitions O EL Element Number Y NODES Nodes .node I) in element y and z directions 2 FS Tangential (friction) force (vector sum) 2 Name Definition R Y Y 3 Y Y Y 1 Y 2 2 2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Element Library Page 300 of 993 the element coordinate system flips 90 about the Z-axis. T(J) Y USEP Gap size Y FN Normal force (along I-J line) Y STAT Element status 1 ALPHA. In either the O or R columns.I. ESOL].. and a . 20. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. Y indicates that the item is always available. The value of ANGLE represents the principal angle of the friction force in the element y-z plane. CONTAC52 Force-Deflection Relationship The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE.2004 .05. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output.OUT. YC. ZC Location where results are reported Y TEMP T(I). J Y XC. BETA Element orientation angles Y MU Coefficient of friction 2 UT(Y.indicates that the item is not available. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.

2004 . Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.Sliding contact 3 . The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data CONTAC52 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name FN FS STAT OLDST USEP ALPHA BETA UTY UTZ MU ANGLE Item SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Assumptions and Restrictions file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Contact.0 3.Element Library ANGLE Principal angle of friction force in element y-z plane 2 2 Page 301 of 993 1. If MU > 0. If the value of STAT is: 1 . See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information...Gap open 2. no sliding 2 . 20.05. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.

because the program would then attempt to redefine KS as KN changed. Therefore. The element coordinate system is defined by the initial I and J node locations or by the specified gap direction. 20.2004 . Unreasonably high stiffness values also should be avoided. Note that. You must explicitly define KS whenever KN changes.05. If µ is not equal to zero. it is not permissible to change any other real constants between load steps. The element maintains is original orientation in either a small or a large deflection analysis. and in the proper sequence (if multiple loadings exist). Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. Temperature body loads are not applicable in a structural analysis. Nonconverged substeps are not in equilibrium. ANSYS/Professional ? This element is frictionless. along the actual load history path. The rate of convergence decreases as the stiffness increases.Element Library Page 302 of 993 The element operates bilinearly only in the static and the nonlinear transient dynamic analyses. The element stiffness KN should not be exactly zero. NZ). the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.. KEYOPT(1) is not applicable. although it is permissible to change KN. The element may have rotated nodal coordinates since a displacement transformation into the element coordinate system is included. you cannot allow the value of KS to be defined by default. the element is nonconservative as well as nonlinear. to maintain a consistent value throughout all load steps. NY. Nonconservative elements require that the load be applied very gradually. ? ? Prev SHELL51 Prev PLANE53 Element Library Next PLANE53 Next PLANE53 Name PLANE53 — 2-D 8-Node Magnetic Solid product: MP EM PP ED file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The gap value may be specified independent of the node locations. If used in other analysis types. nodes I and J may not be coincident since the nodal locations define the interface orientation. if you plan to change KN. the element maintains its initial status throughout the analysis. Also.. The element is nonlinear and requires an iterative solution. Unless the gap direction is specified (NX. the element may not be deactivated with the EKILL command. MU is not allowed as a material property and KS is not allowed as a real constant.

node locations. The type of units (MKS or user defined) is specified through the EMUNIT command.05. In addition to MUZERO. MGXX and MGYY represent vector components of the coercive force for permanent magnet materials. See the ANSYS. time-integrated electric scalar potential (VOLT). Permanent magnet polarization and orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. The element is defined by eight nodes and has up to four degrees of freedom per node: z component of the magnetic vector potential (AZ). and electromotive force (EMF). and the coordinate system for this element are shown in PLANE53.. orthotropic relative permeability is specified through the MURX and MURY material property labels. electric current (CURR). The B-H curve will be used in each element coordinate direction where a zero value of relative permeability is specified. A similar 4-noded element (without voltage forced and magnetic-circuit coupled capability) is PLANE13.2004 . the following real constants apply for coils or massive conductors: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Properties not input default as described in Linear Material Properties. The EMUNIT defaults are MKS units and MUZERO = 4 x 10-7 henries/meter. PLANE53 is based on the magnetic vector potential formulation and is applicable to the following low-frequency magnetic field analyses: magnetostatics. The direction of polarization is determined by the components MGXX and MGYY. voltage forced magnetic fields (static. AC time harmonic and transient analyses). AC time harmonic and transient analyses). Nonlinear orthotropic magnetic properties may be specified with a combination of a B-H curve and linear relative permeability. eddy currents (AC time harmonic and transient analyses). When PLANE53 is used for voltage forced or electromagnetic-circuit coupled analyses. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems.Implicit Analysis. 20. Inc. The element input data includes eight nodes and the magnetic material properties. and electromagnetic-circuit coupled fields (static. Theory Reference for more details about this element. Only one B-H curve may be specified per material. The magnitude of the coercive force is the square root of the sum of the squares of the components.Element Library Page 303 of 993 Element Description PLANE53 models two-dimensional (planar and axisymmetric) magnetic fields.. The element has nonlinear magnetic capability for modeling B-H curves or permanent magnet demagnetization curves. PLANE53 2-D 8-Node Magnetic Solid Input Data The geometry. Nonlinear magnetic B-H properties are entered with the TB command as described in Data Tables . EMUNIT also determines the value of MUZERO.

DIRZ Current direction. The nodal forces. Various combinations of nodal loading are available for this element (depending upon the KEYOPT (1) value). Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . 20.05.) A Maxwell stress tensor calculation is performed at these surfaces to obtain the magnetic forces.2004 . With the F command. Must be input. LENG Page 304 of 993 Coil length in the Z-direction. cycles/sec) about the Global Cartesian system Z-axis. should be input per unit of depth for a plane analysis and on a full 360 basis for an axisymmetric analysis. if any. located at the pivot point location (XLOC. OMEGAZ Angular (rotational) velocity (Hz. The surface flag should be applied to "air" file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. required for planar models only. VELOY Velocity components in the Global Cartesian Coordinate system X and Y direction respectively. YLOC Global Cartesian coordinate point locations of the rotating body in the X and Y directions respectively. XLOC. Defaults to 1. YLOC). -1 indicates -Z (planar) or THETA (axisymmetric) direction. the Lab variable corresponds to the degree of freedom (VOLT or AZ) and VALUE corresponds to the value (time-integrated electric scalar potential or vector magnetic potential). Defaults to 1.. With the D command. Defaults to +1 for planar models and -1 for axisymmetric models. TURN Total number of coil turns. FILL Coil fill factor. Nodal loads are defined with the D and the F commands. Surfaces at which magnetic forces are to be calculated may be identified by using the MXWF label on the surface load commands (no value is required. Defaults to 1 meter.Element Library CARE Coil cross-sectional area.. the following real constants apply: VELOX. When velocity effects of a conducting body (KEYOPT(2) = 1) are considered. the Lab variable corresponds to the force (AMPS or CSGZ) and VALUE corresponds to the value (current or magnetic current segment). Maxwell force flags may be input on the element faces indicated by the circled numbers in PLANE53 using the SF and SFE commands. required for stranded coil only. +1 indicates +Z (planar) or +THETA (axisymmetric) direction. required for stranded coil only.

A general description of element input is given in Element Input. spare. spare. spare.Element Library Page 305 of 993 elements adjacent to the body for which forces are required. Lorentz and Maxwell forces may be made available for a subsequent structural analysis with companion elements [LDREAD]. PHASE(O). face 3 (L-K). VD(N). The temperature (for material property evaluation only) and magnetic virtual displacement body loads may be input based on their value at the element's nodes or as a single element value [BF. T(J). XLOC. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. P Degrees of Freedom AZ if KEYOPT(1) = 0 VOLT. N. Calculated Joule heating (JHEAT) may be made available for a subsequent thermal analysis with companion elements [LDREAD]. if KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 1: spare.2004 . L. spare. See the ANSYS Electromagnetic Field Analysis Guide for details. AZ if KEYOPT(1) = 1AZ CURR if KEYOPT(1) = 2 AZ. K. In general. RSVX. JSZ(N). LENG. VELOY. PHASE(M). JSZ(M). VD(K). unspecified nodal values of temperatures default to the uniform value specified with the BFUNIF or TUNIF commands. spare. VD(O). PLANE53 Input Summary Element Name PLANE53 Nodes I. PHASE(I). VD(L). J. OMEGAZ. Deleting the MXWF specification removes the flag. 20. T(L).. spare. O. PHASE(N). plus BH data table (see Data Tables Implicit Analysis) Surface Loads Maxwell Force flag -face 1 (J-I). T(O). VELOX. JSZ(K). TURN. Source current density and voltage body loads may be applied to an area [BFA] or input as an element value [BFE]. JSZ(O). T(K). M. spare. face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Temperature -T(I). PHASE(J). CURR. FILL. VD(J). EMF if KEYOPT(1) = 3 or 4 Real Constants CARE. spare. JSZ(J). spare. MURY. T(N). PHASE(K). DIRZ. MGXX. spare. spare. Air elements in which local Jacobian forces are to be calculated may be identified by using nodal values of 1 and 0 for the MVDI label [BF]. T(P) Magnetic Virtual Displacement -VD(I).05. face 2 (K-J). A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. T(M). BFE]. spare. MGYY. JSZ(L). VD(M). VD(P) Source Current Density. MURX. YLOC Material Properties MUZERO. PHASE(L) spare.. JSZ(I). spare. spare.

VLTG(J). 20. AZ degrees of freedom: current-fed massive conductor 2 -AZ. CURR degrees of freedom: voltage-fed stranded coil 3 -AZ. VLTG(P). or 4) KEYOPT(3) 0 -Plane 1 -Axisymmetric KEYOPT(4) 0 -Element coordinate system is parallel to the global coordinate system 1 -Element coordinate system is based on the element I-J side KEYOPT(5) 0 -Basic element printout 1 -Integration point printout 2 -Nodal magnetic field printout KEYOPT(7) Used to store magnetic forces for coupling with elements 0 -Midside node (higher-order) structural elements 1 -Non-midside node structural elements file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. EMF degrees of freedom: circuit-coupled massive conductor KEYOPT(2) 0 -Velocity effects ignored 1 -Conventional velocity formulation (not available if KEYOPT(1) = 2.Element Library JSZ(P). PHASE(O). PHASE(N). PHASE(L). CURR. induced eddy current domain 1 -VOLT. 3.. VLTG(O). VLTG(K). EMF degrees of freedom: circuit-coupled stranded coil 4 -AZ.2004 . CURR. PHASE(K). VLTG(M).. PHASE(J). PHASE(I).05. VLTG(N). VLTG(L). PHASE(P) Special Features Birth and death. PHASE(M). PHASE(P) Page 306 of 993 Voltage Loading. Adaptive descent KEYOPT(1) Used for degree of freedom selection 0 -AZ degree of freedom: static domain. if KEYOPT(1) = 2: VLTG(I).

. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. Y indicates that the item is always available..05. P Material number Volume Location where results are reported Global location XC. M. The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. K. PLANE53 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC.indicates that the item is not available. Y Definition Element Number Nodes . O. YC O Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 2 Y 20. ESOL]. N. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.Element Library Page 307 of 993 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal degrees of freedom included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? Several items are illustrated in Magnetic element output. In either the O or R columns. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. . magnetic flux density vectors point in opposite directions for planar (KEYOPT(3) = 0) and axisymmetric (KEYOPT(3) = 1) analyses.OUT. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. YC CENT: X. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE.I. L.2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. J. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. and a . PLANE53 Magnetic Element Output Because of different sign conventions for Cartesian and polar coordinate systems.

.Element Library TEMP LOC MUX. and TORQSUM can be used to retrieve this data. Y B:SUM JSZ JTZ JHEAT: FJB(X. T(O).Y)). Y. For harmonic analysis.Y) Magnetic secant permeability Magnetic field intensity components Vector magnitude of H Magnetic flux density components (X. T(M). For velocity regions (KEYOPT(2) = 1). Y. TMX(Z). FMX(X. and torque (TJB(Z). TVW(Z)) represent time-average values. joule losses (JHEAT). The macros POWERH. and only a single coil exists in the model. The solution value is output only if calculated (based upon input data).Y). valid for static analysis only Total current density Joule heat generation per unit volume Lorentz force components Maxwell force components Virtual work force components Combined (FJB or FMX) force components Element resistance value (for stranded coils only) Element inductance value (for stranded coils only) Differential permeability Velocity components Magnetic Reynolds number Lorentz torque about global Cartesian +Z-axis Maxwell torque about global Cartesian +Z-axis Virtual work torque about global Cartesian +Z-axis Page 308 of 993 Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.. the X and Y directions correspond to the radial and axial directions. respectively. These values are stored in the "Real" data set. Y H:SUM B: X. SUM) FMAG: X. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and velocity effects if calculated.2004 . The element solution is at the centroid. time average values of joule losses (JHEAT) and Lorentz torque (TJB(X. For axisymmetric solutions with KEYOPT(4) = 0. including eddy current effects. Y) FVW(X. T(K). 20. Y) FMX(X. SUM MRE TJB(Z) TMX(Z) TVW(Z) Temperatures T(I). T(N). T(L). Y). Inductance values (EIND) are only valid under the following conditions: the problem is linear (constant permeability). there are no permanent magnets in the model. Y ERES EIND DMUXX.Y) Vector magnitude of B Source current density. Note JT represents the total measurable current density in a conductor. DMUYY V:X. T(P) Output location (X. FVW(X.05. T(J). forces (FJB(X. Y)) require summation of the "Real" and "Imaginary" data set values. FMAGSUM. MUY H: X.

if KEYOPT(5) = 2 Page 309 of 993 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. PLANE53 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Names of Items Output OR Nodal Solution H. B. Y) Item SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05.. Y) TVW(X. FMX. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. V. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data PLANE53 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name JSZ MUX MUY FVWX FVWY FVWSUM JTZ ERES EIND DMUXX DMUYY VX VY MRE TJB(X Y) TMX(X. Output at each node. VSUM 1 1.. 20.2004 .Element Library 2. BSUM. FJB. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. HSUM.

See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information about the use of midside nodes.. For the axisymmetric option. All CURR degrees of freedom in a coil region must be coupled (CP command). see the ANSYS. Reduced transient methods cannot be used. (See the discussion of magnetic field analysis in the ANSYS Electromagnetic Field Analysis Guide. For harmonic and transient (time-varying) analyses. refer to the ANSYS. ? ? ? For circuit coupled transient analyses. unsymmetric matrices are produced. use THETA = 1.JS) is only valid for the AZ option (KEYOPT(1) = 0).Element Library Page 310 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions The area of the element must be positive. For the VOLT. specifying a resistivity. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. All EMF degrees of freedom in a coil region must be coupled (CP command). Theory Reference. the default value. note the following restrictions: ? Velocity effects are valid only for AZ or AZ-VOLT DOF options.4). note the following additional restrictions: ? Only MKS units are allowed. For velocity effects (KEYOPT(2) = 1). A 2-D planar or axisymmetric skin-effect analysis (where eddy current formation is permitted in conducting regions with impressed current loading) is performed by setting KEYOPT(1) = 1. Inc.2004 . rather than parabolically. 20. For magnetostatic analyses. as well as the description of the TINTP command in the ANSYS Commands Reference.0.. Theory Reference. and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses. AZ option (KEYOPT(1) = 1) use F. along that face.05. Isotropic resistivity. For details. the ANSYS product does not support the analysis of coupled velocity and circuit effects. AZ option is not allowed. Inc. The element must lie in a global X-Y plane as shown in PLANE53. A face with a removed midside node implies that the potential varies linearly.. the VOLT.AMPS. and coupling all VOLT degrees of freedom for elements in each of such regions. the degree of freedom is VOLT*radius.. The permeability and conductivity are isotropic and constant. Current density loading (BFE.) 2 or KEYOPT(2) 1. Solution accuracy may degrade if the element magnetic Reynolds number is much greater than 1. For more information. For voltage forced magnetic field (KEYOPT(1) = 2) and circuit coupled problems (KEYOPT(1) = 3. on the TINTP command to specify the backward Euler method.0. ? ? If KEYOPT(1) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

creep. compression. the elements must have the same reaction force (see Element Compatibility in the ANSYS Electromagnetic Field Analysis Guide). To be compatible. Inc. and bending capabilities. Another option is available for printing the forces acting on the element in the element coordinate directions. untapered.05.. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below.2004 . use the uniform symmetrical beam element. This element allows a different unsymmetrical geometry at each end and permits the end nodes to be offset from the centroidal axis of the beam. These effects are included in BEAM23. See BEAM44 for a 3-D tapered unsymmetrical beam. plastic beam element. Stress stiffening capability is also included. If these features are not desired. ANSYS/Emag ? The birth and death special feature is not allowed. 20. The element has three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions and rotation about the nodal z-axis. Theory Reference for more details about this element. the two -dimensional. This element does not have plastic. BEAM3. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. BEAM54 2-D Elastic Tapered Unsymmetric Beam file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. or swelling capabilities. See the ANSYS.. Prev CONTAC52 Prev BEAM54 Element Library Next BEAM54 Next BEAM54 Name BEAM54 — 2-D Elastic Tapered Unsymmetric Beam product: MP EM PP ED Element Description BEAM54 is a uniaxial element with tension.Element Library Page 311 of 993 This element may not be compatible with other elements with the VOLT degree of freedom. Shear deformation and elastic foundation effects are available as options.

See Shear Deflection for details. node locations. they default to T1.Element Library Page 312 of 993 Input Data The geometry. the extreme fiber distances from the centroid. The element may be used in axisymmetric analyses if hoop effects are negligible. the area moments of inertia. The initial strain in the element (ISTRN) is given by /L. for the first cumulative iteration. L. If only T1 and T2 are input.. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on BEAM54. 20. The heights are measured from the centroid of the section. DY_) define the centroid location of the section relative to the node location. HYT1.. The offset constants (DX_. The shear areas (AREAS_) are used only for the shear stress computation. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the four "corner" locations shown in BEAM54. and the "top" height at end 2. The areas and moments of inertia must be input on a full 360 basis for an axisymmetric analysis. The first corner temperature T1 defaults to TUNIF. where is the difference between the element length.05. The element x-axis is oriented in the global X-Y plane (or a parallel plane) from node I (end 1) toward node J (end 2). Lateral pressures are input as a force per unit length. The shear deflection constant (SHEARZ) is optional. slotted cylinders. defaults to the "top" height at end 1. etc. An added mass per unit length may be input with the ADDMAS value. T3 defaults to T2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and AREAS_ real constants for end 2 of the beam default to the corresponding end 1 values if zero. Offset distances are measured positive from the node in the positive element coordinate directions. defaults to the "bottom" height at end 1. This capability is bypassed if EFS equals zero. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . The moments of inertia (IZ_) are about the principal axis of the beam. The shear areas are generally less than the actual cross-sectional area. the "top" height at end 1. IZ_. if any. HYT2. such as for bolts. HY__. and the shear deflection constant. End "pressures" are input as a force. Furthermore. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in BEAM54. The elastic foundation stiffness (EFS) is defined as the pressure required to produce a unit normal deflection of the foundation. (as defined by the I and J node locations) and the zero strain length. A zero value of SHEARZ may be used to neglect shear deflection. HYT1. The circled number represents the load key for the indicated face.2004 . The initial strain is also used in calculating the stress stiffness matrix. KEYOPT(10) allows tapered lateral pressures to be offset from the nodes. the offset distances. The element real constants describe the beam in terms of the cross-sectional areas. If all other temperatures are unspecified. The AREA_. HYB1. The shear modulus (GXY) is used only with shear deflection. Positive pressures act into the element.

ROTZ Real Constants AREA1. ? ? A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. or more than one component of angular velocity is applied [OMEGA]. DX2. DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (I-J) (-Y normal direction).2004 .Element Library Page 313 of 993 and T4 defaults to T1. 3. UY. 5. DY2. T4 Special Features Stress stiffening. 1. or DCGOMG commands.. HYB2. GXY. Large deflection. DX1. SHEARZ. For any other input pattern. Birth and death KEYOPT(6) 0 -No member force printout 1 -Print member forces and moments in the element coordinate system KEYOPT(9) Used to control additional output between ends I and J N -Output at N intermediate locations (N = 0. is not valid if ? stress stiffening is turned on [SSTIF. BEAM54 Input Summary Element Name BEAM54 Nodes I.05. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. HYB1. EFS. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF.. face 2 (I-J) (+X tangential direction). ALPX. HYT1. HYT2. J Degrees of Freedom UX. IZ2. AREAS2. face 3 (I) (+X axial direction). DENS. ADDMAS Material Properties EX. T3. T2. KEYOPT(9). DY1. face 4 (J) (-X axial direction) (use negative value for loading in opposite direction) Body Loads Temperatures -T1.ON]. DOMEGA. AREA2. or any angular velocities or accelerations are applied with the CGOMGA. AREAS1. 9) KEYOPT(10) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ISTRN. IZ1. 7. used to request output at intermediate locations. 20.

05.0 to 1.Element Library Used only for tapered surface loads with the SFBEAM command. At each cross-section. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output.0. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. If KEYOPT(6) = 1 for this element..OUT.2004 .. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.0) Page 314 of 993 Note If SHEARZ = 0. 20. AREAS1 and AREAS2 are used only for the shear stress calculation. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. The element x-axis is defined through the center of gravity of the cross-section. there is no shear deflection in the element y direction. ESOL]. 0 -Offset for load placement is in terms of length units 1 -Offset is in terms of a length ratio (0. Additional results at intermediate locations between the ends may be output with KEYOPT(9). Then these three values are combined to evaluate the maximum and minimum stresses. the computed output consists of the direct (axial) stress and two bending components. the 6 member forces and moments (3 at each end) are also printed (in the element coordinate system). Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? Several items are illustrated in Stress output. BEAM54 Stress Output The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE.

J. P4 at J Axial direct stress Bending stress on the element +Y side of the beam Bending stress on the element -Y side of the beam Maximum stress (direct stress + bending stress) Minimum stress (direct stress . J Material number Volume Location where results are reported Temperatures T1. YC. Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL (KEYOPT(9) = 0) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.J. 20.. If KEYOPT(6) = 1 4. Y) MMOMZ Definition Element Number Nodes .bending stress) Axial elastic strain at the end Bending elastic strain on the element +Y side of the beam Bending elastic strain on the element -Y side of the beam Axial thermal strain at the end Bending thermal strain on the element +Y side of the beam Bending thermal strain on the element -Y side of the beam Initial axial strain in the element Average shear (Y-direction) Member forces in the element coordinate system Member moment in the element coordinate system O Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 4 Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 Y 3 Y 1.J.I. The item repeats for end I.J. Y indicates that the item is always available. and a . OFFST1 at I. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. Output only if real constants AREAS1 and AREAS2 are input 3. BEAM54 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. OFFST2 at I.. intermediate locations (see KEYOPT(9)). T4 Pressures P1 at nodes I.2004 .indicates that the item is not available. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.05.Element Library Page 315 of 993 In either the O or R columns. T2. T3. P3 at I. P2 at I. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL (KEYOPT(9) = 0): file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. ZC TEMP PRES SDIR SBYT SBYB SMAX SMIN EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPTHDIR EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPINAXL SXY MFOR(X. and end J 2.

1 EPTHBYT LEPTH .15 OFFST1 SMISC .Element Library Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I.19 OFFST2 SMISC .3 EPELDIR LEPEL .17 P2 SMISC .SMAX NMISC .. 20.3 EPINAXL LEPTH 7 MFORX SMISC .3 EPTHDIR LEPTH .23 P4 SMISC .2 MMOMZ SMISC .13 P1 SMISC .05.2 SBYB LS .1 EPELBYT LEPEL .1 J 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 7 8 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 3 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.21 P3 SMISC .1 MFORY SMISC .2 EPTHBYB LEPTH ..6 SXY SMISC .J sequence number for data at nodes I and J ILn sequence number for data at Intermediate Location n Page 316 of 993 BEAM54 (KEYOPT(9) = 0) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(9) = 0 Name Item E I SDIR LS .2 EPELBYB LEPEL .1 SBYT LS .2004 .

3 EPINAXL LEPTH 10 MFORX SMISC . 20.22 OFFST1 SMISC .1 MFORY SMISC .2 IL1 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 7 8 12 20 3 4 J 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 13 14 18 21 23 25 27 29 31 5 6 Corner Location 1 2 3 4 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 BEAM54 (KEYOPT(9) = 3) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(9) = 3 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2 4 Page 317 of 993 Corner Location 1 2 3 4 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 BEAM54 (KEYOPT(9) = 1) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(9) = 1 Name Item E I SDIR LS .SMAX NMISC .2 SBYB LS .2 EPTHBYB LEPTH .1 EPELBYT LEPEL .30 P4 SMISC .24 P2 SMISC .2004 .26 OFFST2 SMISC .05.2 MMOMZ SMISC .1 SMIN NMISC .3 EPTHDIR LEPTH .2 EPELBYB LEPEL .19 P1 SMISC .1 SBYT LS ..1 EPTHBYT LEPTH .28 P3 SMISC .6 SXY SMISC ..3 EPELDIR LEPEL .Element Library SMIN NMISC .

1 4 7 LS .05.3 6 9 LEPTH .2004 . 20.1 4 7 LEPTH .2 5 8 Name SDIR SBYT SBYB EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPTHDIR EPTHBYT IL3 10 11 12 10 11 12 10 11 IL4 13 14 15 13 14 15 13 14 IL5 16 17 18 16 17 18 16 17 J 19 20 21 19 20 21 19 20 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.3 6 9 LEPEL ..1 4 7 LEPEL .2 5 8 LEPEL .2 5 8 LS .Element Library Name SDIR SBYT SBYB EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPTHDIR EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPINAXL MFORX MFORY MMOMZ SXY P1 OFFST1 P2 OFFST2 P3 P4 SMAX SMIN Item LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC E 16 I 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 6 31 36 38 40 42 44 1 2 IL1 4 5 6 4 5 6 4 5 6 7 8 12 32 3 4 IL2 7 8 9 7 8 9 7 8 9 13 14 18 33 5 6 IL3 10 11 12 10 11 12 10 11 12 19 20 24 34 7 8 J 13 14 15 13 14 15 13 14 15 25 26 30 35 37 39 41 43 45 9 10 Page 318 of 993 Corner Location 1 2 3 4 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 BEAM54 (KEYOPT(9) = 5) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(9) = 5 Item E I IL1 IL2 LS ..

66 .1 4 7 10 .2 8 14 20 .68 - Name SDIR SBYT SBYB EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPTHDIR EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPINAXL MFORX MFORY MMOMZ SXY P1 OFFST1 P2 Item LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC IL4 13 14 15 13 14 15 13 14 15 25 26 30 59 - IL5 16 17 18 16 17 18 16 17 18 31 32 36 60 - IL6 19 20 21 19 20 21 19 20 21 37 38 42 61 - IL7 22 23 24 22 23 24 22 23 24 43 44 48 62 - J 25 26 27 25 26 27 25 26 27 49 50 54 63 65 67 69 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..3 6 9 12 28 .2 5 8 11 .6 12 18 24 .3 6 9 12 .3 6 9 12 ..2 5 8 11 .05.64 ..1 7 13 19 .2004 . 20.1 4 7 10 .Element Library EPTHBYB EPINAXL MFORX MFORY MMOMZ SXY P1 OFFST1 P2 OFFST2 P3 P4 SMAX SMIN LEPTH LEPTH SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC 22 3 1 2 6 43 50 52 54 56 58 1 2 6 7 8 12 44 3 4 9 13 14 18 45 5 6 12 19 20 24 46 7 8 15 25 26 30 47 9 10 18 31 32 36 48 11 12 21 37 38 42 49 51 53 55 57 59 13 14 Page 319 of 993 Corner Location 1 2 3 4 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 BEAM54 (KEYOPT(9) = 7) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(9) = 7 E I IL1 IL2 IL3 .2 5 8 11 .55 56 57 58 .1 4 7 10 .

.71 .Element Library OFFST2 P3 P4 SMAX SMIN SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC 70 72 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ..73 9 11 13 15 17 10 12 14 16 18 Page 320 of 993 Corner Location 1 2 3 4 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 BEAM54 (KEYOPT(9) = 9) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(9) = 9 IL1 IL2 IL3 IL4 4 7 10 13 5 8 11 14 6 9 12 15 4 7 10 13 5 8 11 14 6 9 12 15 4 7 10 13 5 8 11 14 6 9 12 15 7 13 19 25 8 14 20 26 12 18 24 30 68 69 70 71 3 5 7 9 4 6 8 10 Name SDIR SBYT SBYB EPELDIR EPELBYT EPELBYB EPTHDIR EPTHBYT EPTHBYB EPINAXL MFORX MFORY MMOMZ SXY P1 OFFST1 P2 OFFST2 P3 P4 SMAX SMIN Item LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC E 34 - I 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 6 67 78 80 82 84 86 1 2 IL5 16 17 18 16 17 18 16 17 18 31 32 36 72 11 12 IL6 19 20 21 19 20 21 19 20 21 37 38 42 73 13 14 IL7 22 23 24 22 23 24 22 23 24 43 44 48 74 15 16 IL8 25 26 27 25 26 27 25 26 27 49 50 54 75 17 18 IL9 28 29 30 28 29 30 28 29 30 55 56 60 76 19 20 J 31 32 33 31 32 33 31 32 33 61 62 66 77 79 81 83 85 87 21 22 Corner Location 1 2 3 4 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20.05..2004 .

The element heights are used in locating the extreme fibers for the stress calculations and in computing the thermal gradient.Element Library Page 321 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions The beam must not have a zero length or area and must lie in an X-Y plane. The effect of offsets on the mass matrix is ignored if the lumped mass matrix formulation is specified [LUMPM.1 to 10. The flexible length of the beam is adjusted to account for the effect of the offsets. The shear stress is calculated independently of the shear deflection. which rotate the beam. The only special features allowed are stress stiffening and large deflection. ? Prev PLANE53 Prev PLANE55 Element Library Next PLANE55 Next PLANE55 Name PLANE55 — 2-D Thermal Solid product: MP ME PR PP ED Element Description PLANE55 can be used as a plane element or as an axisymmetric ring element with a twodimensional thermal conduction capability. Tapers within an element.0. The difference between the lateral offsets should not exceed the length of the element. The element should not taper to a point (zero thickness). The element has four nodes with a single degree of file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.5 and 2. a warning message is output.ON].0. if any. Rotational body forces resulting from an angular velocity are based upon the node locations (as if zero offsets). Unequal lateral offsets. also cause a corresponding shortening of the beam's flexible length. 20. The beam may have any cross-sectional shape for which the moments of inertia can be computed. should be gradual. Incorrect bending or thermal stresses may result if zero heights are input.05. If the ratio is outside of the range of 0. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.2004 . The offset lengths may be regarded as rigid portions of the beam. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. If AREA2/AREA1 or I 2/I 1 is not between 0. an error message is output. The applied thermal gradient is assumed to be linear across the thickness and along the length of the element.. ANSYS/Professional ? The DAMP material property is not allowed..

With this option the thermal parameters are interpreted as analogous fluid flow parameters.05.Element Library freedom. See the ANSYS. node locations. An option exists that allows the element to model nonlinear steady-state fluid flow through a porous medium. they default to HG(I). The nonlinear porous flow option is selected with KEYOPT(9) = 1. Temperature file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Properties not input default as described in Linear Material Properties. Theory Reference for more details about this element. Heat generation rates may be input as element body loads at the nodes. Theory Reference for a description of the properties C and MU. Properties DENS and VISC are used for the mass density and viscosity of the fluid. Specific heat and density are ignored for steadystate solutions. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in PLANE55. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems. See the ANSYS. the element should be replaced by an equivalent structural element (such as PLANE42). temperatures should be specified along the entire inlet boundary to assure a stable solution. Inc. A similar axisymmetric element which accepts nonaxisymmetric loading is PLANE75. The element is defined by four nodes and the orthotropic material properties. The element can also compensate for mass transport heat flow from a constant velocity field.2004 . With mass transport. Page 322 of 993 The element is applicable to a two-dimensional. which are used in calculating the coefficients of permeability. you should use specific heat (C) and density (DENS) material properties instead of enthalpy (ENTH). If the node I heat generation rate HG(I) is input. Convections or heat fluxes (but not both) may be input as surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on PLANE55. at each node. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . A mass transport option is available with KEYOPT(8). steady-state or transient thermal analysis. With this option the velocities VX and VY must be input as real constants (in the element coordinate system).. A similar element with mid-side node capability is PLANE77. with reference to the Z terms ignored. temperature is interpreted as pressure and the absolute permeabilities of the medium are input as material properties KXX and KYY. For this option. 20. Also. If the model containing the temperature element is also to be analyzed structurally.. PLANE55 2-D Thermal Solid Input Data The geometry. and all others are unspecified. Inc. temperature.

face 2 (K-J). A general description of element input is given in Element Input. (TS + TB)/2 1 -Evaluate at element surface temperature. face 2 (K-J).. HG(K). TS 2 -Evaluate at fluid bulk temperature. face 3 (L-K). VY if KEYOPT (8) > 0 Material Properties KXX. Surface Loads Convections -face 1 (J-I). HG(J).. face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Heat Generations -HG(I). MU (VISC and MU used only if KEYOPT (9) = 1. 20. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. L Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants VX. face 3 (L-K). TB 3 -Evaluate at differential temperature.TB| KEYOPT(3) 0 -Plane 1 -Axisymmetric KEYOPT(4) 0 -Element coordinate system is parallel to the global coordinate system 1 -Element coordinate system is based on the element I-J side.Element Library Page 323 of 993 boundary conditions input with the D command are interpreted as pressure boundary conditions. ENTH.2004 . Do not use ENTH with KEYOPT(8) = 1 or 2). face 4 (I-L) Heat Fluxes -face 1 (J-I). PLANE55 Input Summary Element Name PLANE55 Nodes I. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. VISC. |TS . KYY. HG(L) Special Features Birth and death KEYOPT(1) 0 -Evaluate film coefficient (if any) at average film temperature. J.05. K. and heat flow boundary conditions input with the F command are interpreted as mass flow rate (mass/time). C. DENS.

ESOL]. HG(K). L Material number Volume Location where results are reported Heat generations HG(I). applied heat flux is positive into the element. the standard thermal output should be interpreted as the analogous fluid flow output. Y indicates that the item is always available. K. In either the O or R columns. Convection heat flux is positive out of the element. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE.I. HG(L) Thermal gradient components and vector sum at centroid O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 4 Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. If KEYOPT(9) = 1. 20. J. Y. HG(J).. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. YC HGEN TG: X. PLANE55 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC.2004 .OUT. and a . A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output and of postprocessing data in Triangle.. SUM Definition Element Number Nodes .Element Library KEYOPT(8) 0 -No mass transport effects 1 -Mass transport with VX and VY 2 -Same as 1 but also print mass transport heat flow KEYOPT(9) 0 -Standard heat transfer element 1 -- Page 324 of 993 Nonlinear steady-state fluid flow analogy element (temperature degree of freedom interpreted as pressure) Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? For an axisymmetric analysis the face area and the heat flow rate are on a full 360 basis. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.05. The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system.indicates that the item is not available.

. If KEYOPT(9) = 1 4.2004 . Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.Element Library Page 325 of 993 Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) Y Y components and vector sum at centroid Face label 1 Face area 1 1 Face nodes 1 1 Film coefficient at each node of face 1 Bulk temperature at each node of face 1 Average face temperature 1 1 Heat flow rate across face by convection 1 1 Average film coefficient of the face . The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command FCn sequence number for solution items for element Face n PLANE55 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. SUM FACE AREA NODES HFILM TBULK TAVG HEAT RATE HFAVG TBAVG HFLXAVG HEAT RATE/AREA HFLUX HEAT FLOW BY MASS TRANSPORT PRESSURE GRAD MASS FLUX FLUID VELOCITY 1.1 Average face bulk temperature . See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. If KEYOPT(8) = 2 3.05. If a surface load is input 2. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. Y.1 flux Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection 1 Heat flux at each node of face 1 Heat flow rate across face by mass transport Total pressure gradient and its X and Y components Mass flow rate per unit cross-sectional area Total fluid velocity and its X and Y components 2 3 3 3 - TF: X. 20.1 Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat ..

ANSYS/Thermal ? This element does not have the mass transport or fluid flow options. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. ? ? ? Prev BEAM54 Prev HYPER56 Element Library Next HYPER56 Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 .. If the thermal element is to be replaced by a PLANE42 structural element with surface stresses requested.05. 20. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. If KEYOPT(8) > 0. KEYOPT(8) and KEYOPT(9) can only be set to 0 (default). the thermal element should be oriented with face IJ or face KL as a free surface. unsymmetric matrices are produced. The element does not have the birth and death feature. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. Thermal transients having a fine integration time step and a severe thermal gradient at the surface will also require a fine mesh at the surface. The VX and VY real constants are not applicable. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint) is assumed to be adiabatic.. The specific heat and enthalpy are evaluated at each integration point to allow for abrupt changes (such as melting) within a coarse grid of elements. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements. The element must lie in an X-Y plane as shown in PLANE55 and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses. A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L node numbers as described in Triangle. The VISC and MU material properties are not applicable. A free surface of the element (that is.Element Library Name AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG Item FC1 FC2 NMISC 1 7 NMISC 2 8 NMISC 3 9 NMISC 4 10 NMISC 5 11 NMISC 6 12 FC3 13 14 15 16 17 18 FC4 19 20 21 22 23 24 Page 326 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions The element must not have a negative or a zero area.

The element input data include four nodes. The Mooney-Rivlin function is valid for a wide range of nearly incompressible rubber and rubber-like materials. See the ANSYS. It is characterized by Poisson's ratio and constants a ij (entered with TBDATA or *MOONEY commands). Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . The axisymmetric option has an additional degree of freedom at each node: translation in the z direction allowing torsion in the model.. HYPER56 2-D 4-Node Mixed u-P Hyperelastic Solid Input Data The geometry.Element Library Page 327 of 993 HYPER56 Name HYPER56 — 2-D 4-Node Mixed u-P Hyperelastic Solid product: MP ME ST PP ED Element Description HYPER56 is used for 2-D modeling of solid hyperelastic structures. The element can be used either as a biaxial plane element (plane strain) or as an axisymmetric ring element. the isotropic material properties. The node I temperature T(I) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. node locations. which may be a function of temperature. Positive pressures act into the element. Large deflections [NLGEOM] must be active in order to update the geometry each substep. The strain energy function may also be defined by user subroutine USRMOONEY and is accessed by KEYOPT(7) = 1. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. and the constants defining the Mooney-Rivlin strain energy function. 20. The mixed u-P (DisplacementPressure) formulation allows the element matrices to be formed using mixed variational principles with the pressure introduced to enforce the incompressibility constraint. Inc.Implicit Analysis for the TBDATA command input. The hyperelastic formulation is non-linear and requires an iterative solution.. The element is defined by four nodes. See Data Tables .05. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in HYPER56. Theory Reference for more details about this element. It is applicable to nearly incompressible rubber-like materials with arbitrarily large displacements and strains.2004 . The plane strain option has two degrees of freedom at each node: translation in the nodal x and y directions. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on HYPER56.

A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. The nodal forces. UY if KEYOPT(3) = 0 UX. UZ if KEYOPT(3) = 1 Real Constants None Material Properties Mooney-Rivlin function.2004 . T(L) Special Features Large deflection. DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (J-I). K. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. L Degrees of Freedom UX. ALPX. PRXY or NUXY. 20.05. For any other input pattern. they default to T(I). HYPER56 Input Summary Element Name HYPER56 Nodes I. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems.. T(J). UY. Large strain KEYOPT(3) 0. J. if any. KEYOPT(5) 0 -Basic element solution 1 -Repeat basic solution for all integration points 2 -Nodal Stress Solution KEYOPT(7) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. If all other temperatures are unspecified. should be input per unit of depth for a plane strain analysis and on a full 360 basis for an axisymmetric analysis.Element Library Page 328 of 993 defaults to TUNIF. face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). T(K). DENS.. face 2 (K-J). unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. face 3 (L-K).2 -Plane strain 1 -Axisymmetric KEYOPT(4) 0 -Element coordinate system is parallel to the global coordinate system 1 -Element coordinate system is based on the undeformed element I-J side.

The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.Element Library 0 -Mooney-Rivlin strain energy function 1 -Define strain energy function by user subroutine USRHYP Page 329 of 993 Note See the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features for more information on the USRMOONEY subroutine..05. ESOL]. 20.. The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output.2004 . The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. KEYOPT(8) 0 -No stability check 1 -Check for material instability Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? Several items are illustrated in Stress output. KEYOPT(5) provides various element printout options (see Element Solution). HYPER56 Stress Output Stress directions shown are for KEYOPT(4) = 0 The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.OUT.

Z.PRXY). 2. K. P2 at K. Z.I. XZ Stresses Y S: 1. SEQV 2 1. Y. K. Output at each node. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP. SINT. hoop. P3 at L. See The General file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and in-plane shear stresses and strains. S. 2. SINT. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 Name Definition R Y Y Y Y 1 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Note For axisymmetric solutions with KEYOPT(1) = 0. EPEL 1 Nodal Stress Solution TEMP. YZ. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. S. Z. TEMP. XY. axial. HYPER56 Element Output Definitions O EL Element Number Y NODES Nodes . respectively. YZ. J. the X. if KEYOPT(5) = 1 2. HYPER56 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Names of Items Output O R Integration Point Stress Solution LOCATION. YC Location where results are reported Y PRES Pressures P1 at nodes J.Element Library Page 330 of 993 In either the O or R columns. XY. and a . SEQV. P4 at I.05. XZ Elastic strains Y EPEL: EQV Equivalent elastic strain [2] EPTH: X. Output at each integration point. T(K). I. Y indicates that the item is always available.. Z. J. T(J). YZ.2004 . Y. T(L) Y S: X.Y. 20. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.. L Y MAT Material number Y VOLU: Volume Y XC. XY. Y. XZ Average thermal strain Y EPTH: EQV Equivalent thermal strain [2] NL: HPRES Hydrostatic pressure 1. L Y TEMP Temperatures T(I).indicates that the item is not available. and XY stress and strain outputs correspond to the radial. 3 Principal stresses Y S: INT Stress intensity Y S: EQV Equivalent stress Y EPEL: X. HYPER56 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Commands lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.

Material properties are evaluated at the average of the nodal temperatures.J. 20.4 3 .K.2004 . Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.K. Prev PLANE55 Prev SHELL57 Element Library Next SHELL57 Next file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.8 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Assumptions and Restrictions The area of the element must be positive. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants.J. The following notation is used in HYPER56 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Commands: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command I. The element must lie in a global X-Y plane as shown in HYPER56 and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses..L sequence number for data at nodes I..6 5 .05.LI HYPER56 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name P1 P2 P3 P4 STFLAG S:1 S:2 S:3 S:INT S:EQV Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC I 2 7 9 1 2 3 4 5 J K L 1 ..Element Library Page 331 of 993 Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information.

If both in-plane and transverse conduction are needed. a thermal solid element (such as SOLID70 or SOLID90) should be used. If the element has a constant thickness. steady-state or transient thermal analysis. node locations.2004 . See the ANSYS.. The element is defined by four nodes. with the thickness input at the four nodes. The element has four nodes with a single degree of freedom. The conducting shell element is applicable to a three-dimensional. If the model containing the conducting shell element is to be analyzed structurally. 20. Inc. temperature. and the material properties.Element Library Page 332 of 993 SHELL57 Name SHELL57 — Thermal Shell product: MP ME PR PP ED Element Description SHELL57 is a three-dimensional element having in-plane thermal conduction capability. the element should be replaced by an equivalent structural element (such as SHELL63). at each node. The thickness is assumed to vary smoothly over the area of the element. Theory Reference for more details about this element.05. The element may have variable thickness. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. SHELL57 Thermal Shell Input Data The geometry. a material direction angle.. four thicknesses. and coordinate systems for this element are shown in SHELL57.

-Z side). 20. KYY. Edge heat flux and convection loads are input as heat flow per unit edge length. face 3 (J-I). face 6 (I -L) Body Loads Heat Generations -HG (I). A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. TK(L) default to TK(I)) Material Properties KXX. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. THETA. J.05. TK(K). (TS + TB)/2 1 -Evaluate at element surface temperature. face 2 (I-J-K-L) (top. HG (L) Special Features Birth and death KEYOPT(2) 0 -Evaluate film coefficient (if any) at average film temperature.Element Library Page 333 of 993 only TK(I) need be input. The element x-axis may be rotated by an angle THETA (in degrees). Convections may be input as surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on SHELL57. If the node I heat generation rate HG(I) is input. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . and all others are unspecified. TB file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. L Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants TK(I). +Z side). Properties not input default as described in Linear Material Properties. TK(K).. face 4 (K -J). K. face 2 (I-J-K-L) (top. TK(J). TK(L). A general description of element input is given in Element Input. TS 2 -Evaluate at fluid bulk temperature. face 4 (K -J). face 5 (L-K). ENTH Surface Loads Convections -face 1 (I-J-K-L) (bottom. SHELL57 Input Summary Element Name SHELL57 Nodes I. +Z side). DENS. face 6 (I -L) Heat Fluxes -face 1 (I-J-K-L) (bottom. face 3 (J-I). C. HG (J). all four thicknesses must be input. face 5 (L-K).2004 . (TK(J). HG (K).. -Z side). Heat generation rates may be input as element body loads at the nodes. If the thickness is not constant. they default to HG(I). The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems.

and a . SUM TF: X. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. In either the O or R columns. Y. SUM FACE AREA NODES HFILM TAVG TBULK HEAT RATE HFAVG TBAVG Definition Element Number Nodes . HG(L) Thermal gradient components and vector sum at centroid Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) components and vector sum at centroid Face label Face area Face nodes Film coefficient Average face temperature Fluid bulk temperature Heat flow rate across face by convection Average film coefficient of the face Average face bulk temperature O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 2 Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 .I..05.OUT.TB| Page 334 of 993 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? Heat flowing out of the element is considered to be positive. ESOL]. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. 20. HG(K). The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system.. |TS . L Material number Convection face area Location where results are reported Heat generations HG(I).Element Library 3 -Evaluate at differential temperature. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. ZC HGEN TG: X. Y indicates that the item is always available. SHELL57 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT AREA XC. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. HG(J).indicates that the item is not available. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. K. YC. J. Y.

2004 . The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command SHELL57 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC FACE 1 (BOT) 1 2 3 4 5 6 FACE 2 (TOP) 7 8 9 10 11 12 FACE 3 (J-I) 13 14 15 16 17 18 FACE 4 (K-J) 19 20 21 22 23 24 FACE 5 (L-K) 25 26 27 28 29 30 FACE 6 (I-L) 31 32 33 34 35 36 Assumptions and Restrictions Zero area elements are not allowed. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.. If a surface load is input 2. however. A warning message will be produced if an element is more than slightly warped (that is.05. a small out-of-plane tolerance is permitted so that the element may have a slightly warped shape. 20. The element must not taper down to a zero thickness at any corner.. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements.1 1 1 - 1. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L node numbers as described in Triangle. The four nodes defining the element should lie in an exact flat plane. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. if any of the three global Cartesian components of any corner normal differs from the corresponding component of the element normal by more than .00001).Element Library HFLXAVG HEAT RATE/AREA HEAT FLUX Page 335 of 993 Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Heat flux at each node of face . This occurs most frequently when the elements are not numbered properly. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.

. It is applicable to nearly incompressible rubber-like materials with arbitrarily large displacements and strains. HYPER58 3-D 8-Node Mixed U-P Hyperelastic Solid file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The hyperelastic formulation is nonlinear and requires an iterative solution. The mixed U-P (DisplacementPressure) formulation allows the element matrices to be formed using mixed variational principles with the pressure introduced to enforce the incompressibility constraint. See the ANSYS. Large deflections [NLGEOM] must be active in order to update the geometry each substep. and z directions.Element Library ANSYS/Professional ? Page 336 of 993 The birth and death special feature is not allowed. 20. y.2004 . The element is defined by eight nodes having three degrees of freedom at each node: translation in the nodal x. Inc. Theory Reference for more details about this element.05. Prev HYPER56 Prev HYPER58 Element Library Next HYPER58 Next HYPER58 Name HYPER58 — 3-D 8-Node Mixed U-P Hyperelastic Solid product: MP ME ST PP ED Element Description HYPER58 is used for 3-D modeling of solid hyperelastic structures..

and the constants defining the Mooney-Rivlin strain energy function. UZ Real Constants file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. O. M. Element body loads may be input as temperatures at the nodes. The Mooney-Rivlin function is valid for a wide range of nearly incompressible rubber and rubber-like materials.Implicit Analysis for the TBDATA command input. K. If all other temperatures are unspecified. node locations. The strain energy function may also be defined by user subroutine USRMOONEY and is accessed by KEYOPT(7) = 1. J. N.2004 . The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. For any other input pattern. 20.05. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems. L. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in HYPER58.Element Library Page 337 of 993 Input Data The geometry. HYPER58 Input Summary Element Name HYPER58 Nodes I. The element input data include eight nodes. they default to T(I). A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. UY. It is characterized by Poisson's ratio and constants a ij (entered with TBDATA or *MOONEY commands). P Degrees of Freedom UX. Positive pressures act into the element. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . the isotropic material properties. which may be a function of temperature.. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on HYPER58. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF.. See Data Tables . A general description of element input is given in Element Input.

T(L).Element Library None Material Properties Mooney-Rivlin function. Large strain KEYOPT(4) 0 -Element coordinate system is parallel to the global coordinate system 1 -Element coordinate system is based on the undeformed element I-J side KEYOPT(5) 0 -Basic element solution 1 -Repeat basic solution for all integration points 2 -Nodal Stress Solution KEYOPT(7) 0 -Mooney-Rivlin strain energy function 1 -Define strain energy function by user subroutine USRMOONEY Page 338 of 993 Note See the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features for user written subroutines KEYOPT(8) 0 -No stability check 1 -Check for material instability Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. T(P) Special Features Large deflection.. face 4 (K -L-P-O). face 5 (L -I-M-P). PRXY or NUXY. T(M). DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (J-I-L-K). face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I).05. ALPX. face 2 (I-J-N-M). T(O). T(K). 20. DENS. T(J).. T(N).2004 . face 3 (J-K-O-N).

YC. P4 at O Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 1 Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. J. ? Several items are illustrated in Stress output.I. KEYOPT(5) provides various element printout options (see Element Solution). HYPER58 Stress Output The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. ESOL]. I. In either the O or R columns. HYPER58 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC.2004 . L. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. M. M. Y indicates that the item is always available. L. ZC PRES Definition Element Number Nodes . O. P Material number Volume Location where results are reported Pressures P1 at nodes J. The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. J. P2 at I. and a . K. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output.05. K.OUT. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. O. K. P3 at J.. N. N.indicates that the item is not available. 20. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. N.Element Library ? Page 339 of 993 nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions.

XY.. SINT. M. S 1 Nodal Stress Solution TEMP. Z. T(O).. P Temperatures T(I). O. L. TEMP. YZ. Z. SEQV.Y 1.Element Library K.. N. HYPER58 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Names of Items Output OR Integration Point Stress Solution LOCATION.P sequence number for data at nodes I.P file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. T(N). XZ).PRXY). See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. Y. Z. SEQV 2 1. EPEL. XZ EPTH: EQV NL: HPRES Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y . S(X. XY. T(P) Stresses Principal stresses Stress intensity Equivalent stress Elastic strains Equivalent elastic strain [2] Average thermal strain Equivalent thermal strain [2] Hydrostatic pressure Page 340 of 993 TEMP S: X. 3 S: INT S: EQV EPEL: X.J. Y. T(K). P5 at L.2004 . I. Z. P.. XY. The following notation is used in HYPER58 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Commands: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command I. Y. 20. T(J). YZ... T(L). O. Output at each integration point. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.J. SINT. P.Y . 2. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP. YZ. Output at each node. if KEYOPT(5) = 1 2.Y Y Y . XY. YZ. XZ EPEL: EQV EPTH: X.. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 HYPER58 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Commands lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.. T(M). 2. P6 at M.. Y. XZ S: 1.05..

Also.Element Library Page 341 of 993 HYPER58 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 STFLAG S:1 S:2 S:3 S:INT S:EQV Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC I 2 5 18 25 1 2 3 4 5 J 1 6 9 6 7 8 9 10 K 4 10 13 11 12 13 14 15 L 3 14 17 16 17 18 19 20 M 8 19 21 21 22 23 24 25 N 7 12 22 26 27 28 29 30 O 11 16 23 31 32 33 34 35 P 15 20 24 36 37 38 39 40 Assumptions and Restrictions Zero volume elements are not allowed.2004 . Prev SHELL57 Prev PIPE59 Element Library Next PIPE59 Next PIPE59 Name PIPE59 — Immersed Pipe or Cable file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20. Material properties are evaluated at the average of the nodal temperatures..05. Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. Elements may be numbered either as shown in HYPER58 or may have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged. This occurs most frequently when the elements are not numbered properly. All elements must have eight nodes. the element may not be twisted such that the element has two separate volumes. A tetrahedron shape is also available.. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements). A prism-shaped element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L and duplicate O and P node numbers (see Triangle.

The element input data (see Input Summary) includes two nodes.01 percent slope of it). and bending capabilities. See the ANSYS. node locations. Input and output locations around the pipe circumference identified as being at 0 are located along the element y-axis. y. and z-axes.. The element has stress stiffening and large deflection capabilities. Inc.2004 . y. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in PIPE59 Immersed Pipe or Cable. the pipe outer diameter and wall thickness. PIPE59 Immersed Pipe or Cable Input Data The geometry. Several orientations are shown in PIPE59 Immersed Pipe or Cable.Element Library product: MP ME ST PP ED Page 342 of 993 Element Description PIPE59 is a uniaxial element with tension-compression. and similarly 90 is along the element z-axis. The element x-axis is oriented from node I toward node J.. The element has six degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. and the isotropic material properties. A cable representation option (similar to LINK8) is also available with the element. The material GXZ is used only with the twist-tension option. the element y-axis is oriented parallel to the global Y-axis (as shown). Theory Reference for more details about this element. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The element is similar to PIPE16 except that the element loads include the hydrodynamic and buoyant effects of the water and the element mass includes the added mass of the water and the pipe internals. The material VISC is used only to determine Reynolds number of the fluid outside the pipe. 20. torsion. For the case where the element is parallel to the global Z-axis (or within a 0. and with member forces simulating ocean waves and current. The element y-axis is automatically calculated to be parallel to the global X-Y plane.59-4a and Immersed Pipe). An external "insulation" may be defined to represent ice loads or biofouling.05. and z directions and rotations about the nodal x. certain loading and inertial information (described in Element Real Constants 4.

This formulation is useful for suppressing large deflections and improving bending stresses in long. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. The nonlinear "slack" cable effect available in LINK10 is not included in this option.. The KEYOPT(2) key allows a reduced mass matrix and load vector formulation (with rotational degrees of freedom terms deleted as described in the ANSYS. The description of the waves. ROTX. ROTZ if KEYOPT(1) UX. It is also often used with the twist-tension pipe option for cable structures. Theory Reference).. and the water density are input through the water motion table. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. Note that even though the word "water" is used to describe various input quantities. Inc. 20. UZ. Alternate drag coefficient and temperature data may also be input through this table. no water is assumed to surround the pipe. J Degrees of Freedom UX. The water motion table is associated with a material number and is explained in detail in Water Motion. If the water motion table is not input. If the element is not "torque balanced. PIPE59 Input Summary Element Name PIPE59 Nodes I.05. This option accounts for the twisting induced when a helically wound or armored structure is stretched. UY. or file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. UZ if KEYOPT(1) = 1 Real Constants See Element Real Constants Material Properties EX. the quantities may actually be characteristic of any fluid. UY. the current. PRXY or 1. ALPX." the twist-tension option may be used (KEYOPT(1) = 2). slender members.Element Library Immersed Pipe Page 343 of 993 KEYOPT(1) may be used to convert the element to the cable option by deleting the bending stiffnesses.2004 . ROTY.

TIN(J) if KEYOPT(3) = 0.. or TAVG(I). TOUT(J). TIN(I). 3-PY. 5-POUT Body Loads Temperatures -TOUT(I). TAVG(J). 20. Birth and death KEYOPT(1) 0 -Pipe option 1 -Cable option 2 -Pipe with twist-tension option KEYOPT(2) 0 -Consistent mass matrix and load vector 1 -Reduced mass matrix and load vector KEYOPT(3) 0 -Temperatures represent the through-wall gradient 1 -Temperatures represent the diametral gradient KEYOPT(5) Wave force modifications 0 -Waves act on elements at their actual location 1 -Elements are assumed to be at wave peak 2 -Upward vertical wave velocity acts on element 3 -Downward vertical wave velocity acts on element 4 -Elements are assumed to be at wave trough KEYOPT(6) 0 -No printout of member forces or moments 2 -Print member forces and moments in the element coordinate system KEYOPT(7) 0 -Basic element printout 1 -file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Element Library Page 344 of 993 NUXY. T180(J) if KEYOPT(3) = 1 Special Features Stress stiffening. T90(J). 4-PZ.. T180(I).2004 . 2-PX. Large deflection.05. VISC Surface Loads Pressures -1-PINT. GXZ. T90(I). GXY. DENS. DAMP.

May be overridden by Constants 43 through 54 of water motion table (See Water Motion). (Buoyancy-force-used)/(Buoyancy-force based on outside diameter and water 9 CB density). Coefficient of inertia (C M).0 (suppression of buoyancy effects).) Mass per unit length of the internal fluid and additional hardware (used for mass 7 CENMPL matrix computation).0 if input 8 CI as zero. (See Immersed Pipe.2004 . The constant table is started by using the TB command (with Lab = WATER). 3 CD 4 CM 5 DENSO Coefficient of normal drag (C D).0 if input as zero. PY. 12 DENSIN Density of external insulation[ 1].0 (suppression of added mass effects). Z coordinate location of the free surface of the fluid on the inside of the pipe (used 6 FSO for pressure effect only). Density of external insulation ( i).0). Water Motion Information The data listed in Water Motion is entered in the data table with the TB commands.Element Library Additional hydrodynamic integration point printout KEYOPT(9) Used only with the PX. If CB is desired as 0. no water is assumed to surround the pipe. ACELZ must also have a positive value and remain constant for all load steps.05. Name Meaning Outside diameter (Do ) of the pipe (Length). If CI is desired as 0. CI defaults to 1. Constants not input are assumed to be zero. 13 TKIN 1. Page 345 of 993 1 DO 2 TWALL Wall thickness of the pipe (Length) (defaults to D o/2. Added-mass-used/added-mass for circular cross section.. Up to 196 constants may be defined with the TBDATA commands.. CB defaults to 1. Coefficient of tangential drag (CT). CI must be input as any negative number. The constants (C1 -C196) entered on the TBDATA commands (6 per command) are: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 11 ISTR Initial strain in axial direction. CB must be input as any negative number. and PZ transverse pressures 0 -Use only the normal component of pressure 1 -Use the full pressure (normal and shear components) (Given in the order required for input in the real constant table) Element Real Constants No. Internal fluid density (used for pressure effect only)(Mass/Length 3 ). If the table is not input. Thickness of external insulation (ti). 20. If the table is input. May be overridden by Constants 55 through 66 10 CT of water motion table (See Water Motion).

only W(1) needs to be defined. 20..0*DEPTH) (Length) (default Use 0.0).2004 . w.) W(j) = Drift velocity of current at this location (Length/Time) (j) = Direction of current at this location (Degrees) (see Immersed Pipe) Re(k) = Twelve Reynolds number values (if used. Page 346 of 993 (DENSW > 0. A(1) is entire wave height and A(2) through A(5) are not used) (i) = Wave period ( (i) > 0.0 WL(i) < 1000.0) (Time/Cycle) (i) = Adjustment for phase shift (Degrees) WL(i) = Wave length (0. all 12 must be input) T(j) = Temperature at Z(j) water depth (Degrees) A(i) = Wave peak-to-trough height (0. all 12 must be input in ascending order) CD(k) = Twelve corresponding normal drag coefficients (if used.0 A(i) < DEPTH) (Length) (if KWAVE = 2. If the current does not change with height..0 with Stokes theory (KWAVE = 2).Element Library where: KWAVE = Wave selection key (see next section) KCRC = Wave/current interaction key (see next section) DEPTH = Depth of water to mud line (DEPTH > 0. all 12 must be input) CT(k) = Twelve corresponding tangential drag coefficients (if used.05.0) (Length) DENSW = Water density. Water Motion Table Constant 1-5 7-12 13-18 19-24 25-30 31-36 37-42 43-48 49-54 55-60 61-66 67-72 73-74 79-82 KWAVE Z(1) Z(3) Z(5) Z(7) Re(1) Re(7) CD(1) CD(7) CT(1) CT(7) T(1) T(7) A(1) KCRC W(1) W(3) W(5) W(7) Re(2) Re(8) CD(2) CD(8) CT(2) CT(8) T(2) T(8) (1) Z(2) Z(4) Z(6) Z(8) Re(4) Re(10) CD(4) CD(10) CT(4) CT(10) T(4) WL(1) Meaning DEPTH DENSW (1) (3) (5) (7) Re(3) Re(9) CD(3) CD(9) CT(3) CT(9) T(3) W(2) W(4) W(6) W(8) Re(5) Re(11) CD(5) CD(11) CT(5) CT(11) T(5) (2) (4) (6) (8) Re(6) Re(12) CD(6) CD(12) CT(6) CT(12) T(6) ) (1) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.0) (Mass/Length3 ) = Wave direction (see Immersed Pipe) Z(j) = Z coordinate location of current measurement (see Immersed Pipe) (location must be input starting at the ocean floor (Z(1) = -DEPTH) and ending at the water surface (Z(MAX) = 0.

the pipe geometry. both of which are a functions of Reynolds numbers (Re).Element Library Page 347 of 993 85-88 etc. (1). If this capability is to be used. Re. use only A(1). 20. (1) 193-196 A(20) 79-81 85-86 91-92 97-98 103-104 109 etc. 193 X(1)/ (H*T*G) X(2)/ (H*T*G) X(3)/ (H*T*G) X(4)/ (H*T*G) X(5)/ (H*T*G) X(6)/ (H*T*G) etc.1 or 2For KWAVE = 2. This equation includes the coefficient of normal drag (CD) (perpendicular to the element axis) and the coefficient of tangential drag (CT). (2) (20) Not Used DPT/LO L/LO H/DPT / (G*H*T) (2) WL(2) For KWAVE = 0. If both Re(1) and CD(1) are positive. X(20)/ (H*T*G) (20) WL(20) (1) For KWAVE = 3 (See Ref 7: Evaluation and Development of Water Wave Theories for Engineering Application for definitions other than ) The distributed load applied to the pipe by the hydrodynamic effects is computed from a generalized Morrison's equation. the viscosity. the value of CD from the real constant table (Element Real Constants) is ignored and a log-log table based on Constants 31 through 54 of the water motion table (Water Motion) is used to determine CD . A(2) etc. The Reynolds numbers are determined from the normal and tangential relative particle velocities. and the viscosity µ (input as VISC). The relative particle velocities include the effects of water motion due to waves and current.2004 . and CD constants must be input and none may be less than or equal to zero. if both Re(1) and CT(1) are positive. and CT constants must be input and none may be less than or equal to zero. These values are input as shown in Element Real Constants and Water Motion.. Various wave theories may be selected with the KWAVE constant of the water motion table (Water Motion). Similarly. These are: ? Small Amplitude Wave Theory with empirical modification of depth decay function (KWAVE = 0) Small Amplitude Airy Wave Theory without modifications (KWAVE = 1) Stokes Fifth Order Wave Theory (KWAVE = 2) ? ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. as well as motion of the pipe itself. the value of CT from the real constant table (Element Real Constants) is ignored. and a log-log table based on Constants 31 through 42 and 55 through 66 of the water motion table (Water Motion) is used to determine C T. If this capability is to be used. the water density..05. the viscosity. Re.

such that there is significant wave/current interaction. Note that this wave theory uses the current value defined for time [TIME] (which defaults to 1. The wave height. Options include 1.Element Library ? Page 348 of 993 Stream Function Wave Theory (KWAVE = 3). PIPE59 Velocity Profiles for Wave-current Interactions file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. use the current profile (as input) for wave locations below the mean water level and the top current profile value for wave locations above the mean water level (KCRC = 0) 2. and it may not change between substeps or load steps.2004 . same as (2) but also adjust the current profile horizontally such that total flow continuity is maintained with the input profile (KCRC = 2) (all current directions ( (j)) must be the same for this option). Wave loading depends on the acceleration due to gravity (ACELZ).1] and not ramped. The other wave-related constants that the user inputs directly are the water density (DENSW). Several adjustments to the current profile are available with the KCRC constant of the water motion table as shown in Velocity Profiles for Wave-current Interactions.. Therefore.. 20. The definitions of the constants correspond exactly to those given in the tables in Ref 7: Evaluation and Development of Water Wave Theories for Engineering Application for the forty cases of ratio of wave height and water depth to the deep water wave length. length. water depth (DEPTH). and acceleration due to gravity (ACELZ). when performing an analysis using load steps with multiple substeps.0 for the first load step). The adjustments are usually used only when the wave amplitude is large relative to the water depth. With the stream function wave theory (KWAVE = 3).05. "stretch" (or compress) the current profile to the top of the wave (KCRC = 1) 3. the gravity may only be "stepped on" [KBC. the wave is described by alternate Constants 79 through 193 as shown in Water Motion. The wave loadings can be altered (KEYOPT(5)) so that horizontal position has no effect on the wave-induced forces. and period are inferred from the tables. The user should verify the input by comparing the interpreted results (the columns headed DIMENSIONLESS under the STREAM FUNCTION INPUT VALUES printout) with the data presented in the Ref 7: Evaluation and Development of Water Wave Theories for Engineering Application tables. wave direction ( ).

For any other input pattern. The mass per unit length used for motion normal to the pipe is all of the above plus the added mass of the external fluid (DENSW). CI should be 1. The user should remember. Values for other cross sections may be found in Ref 8: Ocean Engineering Wave Mechanices. In handling the pressures. 20. If all temperatures after the first are unspecified.05. Constants 31 through 66 may have zero values if desired. The temperatures input as Constants 67-74 are used to compute a temperature-dependent viscosity based on linear interpolation (if previous constants are not all zero). Positive transverse pressures act in the positive coordinate directions.Element Library Page 349 of 993 Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . have closed ends).0). The first temperature at node I (TOUT(I) or TAVG (I)) defaults to TUNIF. The average temperature is used in calculating the axial thermal growth. PY. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. If all temperatures at node I are input. These temperatures override any other temperature input (except TREF) unless the element is entirely out of the water or if all eight temperatures are input as zero. The normal component or the projected full pressure may be used (KEYOPT (9)). See the ANSYS. Theory Reference for more details. the mass per unit length used for axial motion is the mass of the pipe wall (DENS). however.0 for a circular cross section. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on PIPE59 Immersed Pipe or Cable. that other properties of PIPE59 are based on a circular cross section. and the internal fluid together with the added mass of any additional hardware (CENMPL).. The transverse pressures (PX. Eight temperatures (T(j)) are read as Constants 67-74 corresponding to the eight water depths (Z(j)) input as Constants 7-30. In the case of a solid cross section (inside diameter = 0. they default to the first. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. they are also used to compute the material properties of the element. Internal pressure (PINT) and external pressure (POUT) are input as positive values. the node J temperatures default to the corresponding node I temperatures. and all temperatures at node J are unspecified.. and PZ) may represent wind or drag loads (per unit length of the pipe) and are defined in the global Cartesian directions. The thermal load vector from these temperatures may not be scaled in a superelement use pass if an expansion pass is to follow. Temperatures may have wall gradients or diametral gradients (KEYOPT(3)). each element is assumed to be capped (that is. These pressures are in addition to the linearly varying pressure of the fluids on the inside and outside of the pipe. Inc. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. For the mass matrix. the external insulation (DENSIN).2004 .

OUT. detailed hydrodynamic information is printed at the immersed integration points. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. KEYOPT(1) = 1. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. as does the MFORX member force (printed if KEYOPT(6) = 2). the 12-member forces and moments (6 at each end) are also printed (in the element coordinate system). If KEYOPT(6) = 2. is used.2004 . See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. If KWAVE = 2 or 3 (Stokes or Stream Function theory). PIPE59 Stress Output The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. Angles listed in the output are measured ( ) as shown in PIPE59 Stress output.Element Library Page 350 of 993 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? Several items are illustrated in PIPE59 Stress output. and a . Note that the output is simplified and reduced if the cable option. 20. The principal stresses and the stress intensity include the shear force stress component. The principal stresses and the stress intensity are based on the stresses at two extreme points on opposite sides of the neutral axis.indicates that the item is not available. The principal stresses are computed at the two points around the circumference where the bending stresses are at a maximum. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. Y indicates that the item is always available.. In either the O or R columns. PIPE59 Element Output Definitions Name EL Element number Definition O R Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. additional wave information is also printed. If KEYOPT(7) = 1. ESOL]. The axial force (FX) excludes the hydrostatic force component.05..

radial. radial. PX. and hoop thermal strain H) MFOR(X. 3. maximum stress INTMX. Y. EQVMX) intensity. EQV) equivalent stress S(AXL. Axial. radial.Element Library NODES MAT VOLU: XC. T90(J).SMJ Moment stress at nodes I and J for code calculations SDIR Direct (axial) stress SBEND Maximum bending stress at outer surface ST Shear stress at outer surface due to torsion SSF Shear stress due to shear force S(1MX. Y. T90(I). TIN(I). XH) EPTH(AXL. maximum equivalent stress (all at the outer surface) TEMP Temperatures TOUT(I). 20. TOUT(J) EPTHAXL Axial thermal strains at nodes I and J NODE Node I or J F(AXL) Axial force (excludes the hydrostatic force) SAXL Axial stress (includes the hydrostatic stress) SEQV Equivalent stress (S:AXL minus the hydrostatic stress) EPELAXL Axial elastic strain (excludes the thermal strain) NODE Node I or J F(AXL) Axial force (excludes the hydrostatic force) SAXL Axial stress (includes the hydrostatic stress) SH Hoop stress VR.. INT. hoop. S(1. Maximum principal stress.2004 . H. RAD. VZ Radial and vertical fluid particle velocities (VR is always > 0) AR. minimum principal stress. J Material number Volume Location where results are reported Length Pressures PINTE (average effective internal pressure). minimum principal stress. YC. T180(I). TAVG(J). ZC LEN Page 351 of 993 Y Y Y 1 Y Y Y 11 1 Nodes . TOUT(J). Axial. PZ. and shear strains H. hoop. RAD. and shear stresses XH) EPEL(AXL.. PRES POUTE (average effective external pressure) STH Stress due to maximum thermal gradient through the wall thickness SPR2 Hoop pressure stress for code calculations SMI. Z) Member forces for nodes I and J (in the element coordinate system) MMOM(X. RAD. T180(J) Maximum principal stress. PY. Z) Member moments for nodes I and J (in the element coordinate system) TEMP TOUT(I). TIN(J) TEMP Temperatures TAVG(I). Axial. 3MN.I.05. stress intensity. AZ Radial and vertical fluid particle accelerations PHDYN Dynamic fluid pressure head 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 9 5 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 9 5 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

Hydrodynamic solution (if KEYOPT(7) = 1 for immersed elements at integration points) 11.90. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. Output only for the pipe option (KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 2) and if KEYOPT(6) = 2 6.0 9. then at node J (all at the outer surface) 5. Output only for the pipe option (KEYOPT(1) = 0 or 2) 2. If KEYOPT(3) = 1 4.. CD. FY.05. Output only for the cable option (KEYOPT(1) = 1) and the inside diameter > 0.Element Library ETA TFLUID VISC REN. If KEYOPT(3) = 0 3. Output only for the cable option (KEYOPT(1) = 1) and the inside diameter = 0. FZ ARGU Page 352 of 993 Wave amplitude over integration point Fluid temperature (printed if VISC is nonzero) Viscosity Normal and tangential Reynold's numbers (if VISC is nonzero) Input coefficients evaluated at Reynold's numbers CT*DENSW*DO/2. CDW CMW URT.315 at node I. CD*DENSW*DO/2 CM*DENSW*PI*DO**2/4 Tangential (parallel to element axis) and normal relative velocity Vector sum of normal (URN) velocities Accelerations normal to the element Hydrodynamic forces tangential and normal to element axis Effective position of integration point (radians) 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 1.0 8. URN ABURN AN FX. CM CTW.135.225.270. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL (Node I): Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL (Node I) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. Output only for the pipe option and the item repeats at 0. RET CT.45. Output only if KEYOPT(6) = 2 10. Output only for the cable option (KEYOPT(1) = 1) 7..180. 20.

3 8 13 18 23 28 33 38 .3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 1 .1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 .2 . 20.6 .4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 ..2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 .1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 .2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 .4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 .5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 88 .8 5 6 7 - Page 353 of 993 PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 .5 .1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 .4 9 14 19 24 29 34 39 .4 .14 .1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 .89 .13 ..J sequence number for data at nodes I and J PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Node I Circumferential Location Name SAXL SRAD SH SXH EPELAXL EPELRAD EPELH EPELXH EPTHAXL EPTHRAD EPTHH MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SDIR ST S1 S3 SINT SEQV SBEND SSF TOUT TIN Item LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC LBFE LBFE E 0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 .2004 ..05..4 1 2 3 .3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 .3 .Element Library E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I.3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 .

16 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 48 53 58 63 68 73 78 49 54 59 64 69 74 79 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 9 10 11 .35 .34 .12 .35 7 8 9 10 11 12 15 16 .Element Library Node J Circumferential Location Name SAXL SRAD SH SXH EPELAXL EPELRAD EPELH EPELXH EPTHAXL EPTHRAD EPTHH MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SDIR ST S1 S3 SINT SEQV SBEND SSF TOUT TIN Item LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC LBFE LBFE E 0 .34 .44 .05. 20..36 .36 .34 .13 14 15 - Page 354 of 993 PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name STH PINTE PX PY PZ POUTE SPR2 Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC E 17 18 19 20 21 22 81 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.33 .45 90 91 .43 .41 .33 .2004 ..33 .35 .

Element Library SMI SMJ S1MX S3MN SINTMX SEQVMX NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC 82 83 84 85 86 87 Page 355 of 993 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists additional print and post data file output available through the ETABLE command if KEYOPT7 = 1. the O. 126 155.D. 156 NMISC 127 157 NMISC 128 158 Assumptions and Restrictions The pipe must not have a zero length.First Integration Point E. Elements input at or near the water surface should be small in length relative to the wave length.Second Integration Point NMISC 103 133 NMISC 104 134 NMISC 105 135 NMISC 106 136 NMISC 107 137 NMISC 108 138 NMISC 109 139 NMISC 110 140 NMISC 111 141 NMISC 112 142 NMISC 113 143 NMISC 114 144 NMISC 115 145 NMISC 116 146 NMISC 117 147 NMISC 118 148 NMISC 119.. PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name VR VZ AR AZ PHDY ETA TFLUID VISC REN RET CT CTW URT FX CD CDW URN ABURN FY CM CMW AN FZ ARGU Item E. Neither end of the element may be input below the mud line file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. In addition. 150 NMISC 121 151 NMISC 122 152 NMISC 123 153 NMISC 124 154 NMISC 125.D. must not be less than zero. must not be less than or equal to zero and the I.2004 .05. 20.. 120 149.

See the ANSYS.ON] is not allowed for PIPE59 when using "added mass" on the outside of the pipe (CI 0. Options are available for including a flexibility factor and for printing the forces and moments acting on the element in the element coordinate system. See PIPE20 for a plastic straight pipe element.2004 . The element should also be used with caution in the reduced transient dynamic analysis since this analysis type ignores the element load vector. Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. Prev HYPER58 Prev PIPE60 Element Library Next PIPE60 Next PIPE60 Name PIPE60 — Plastic Curved Pipe (Elbow) product: MP ME ST PP ED Element Description PIPE60 is a uniaxial element with tension-compression. The element has plastic.0). If these effects are not needed.. the water motion table (Water Motion) need not be included. The applied thermal gradient is assumed to be linear along the length of the element.. y. The cable option does not consider "slack" cable effects. Inc. bending. creep and swelling capabilities. The lumped mass matrix formulation [LUMPM. the elastic curved pipe element. 20. y.05. Theory Reference for more details about this element. PIPE18. if any. Integration points that move below the mud line are presumed to have no hydrodynamic forces acting on them. and torsion capabilities. x. and z-axes. and z directions and rotations about the nodal x. should be handled via the hydrodynamic load vector rather than (mass matrix) damping.Element Library Page 356 of 993 (ocean floor). The element has six degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal. may be used. The same water motion table (Water Motion) should not be used for different wave theories in the same problem. PIPE60 Plastic Curved Pipe (Elbow) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. If the element is used out of water. Fluid damping.

See the ANSYS. Internal pressure (PINT) and external pressure (POUT) are input as positive values.65/(h(1 + PrX k /tE)) or 1.2004 . the third node (K) is required to define the plane in which the element lies. Positive transverse pressures act in the positive coordinate directions. node locations. The transverse pressures (PX.05. radius of curvature (RADCUR). A node belonging to another element (such as the other node of a connecting straight pipe element) may be used. Only constant pressures are supported for this element. Inc.. they default to the first.Element Library Page 357 of 993 Input Data The geometry. Although the curved pipe element has only two end points (nodes I and J). whichever is greater (used if KEYOPT(3) = 0 or 1) Karman Flexibility Factor = (10 + 12h 2)/(1 + 12h2 ). The element input data include three nodes. 20. Similar defaults occurs for fluence except that zero is used instead of TUNIF. used if KEYOPT(2) = 2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. and the isotropic material properties. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . optional stress intensification (SIFI and SIFJ) and flexibility (FLXI and FLXO) factors. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF.. If all temperatures after the first are unspecified. the node J temperatures default to the corresponding node I temperatures. Temperatures and fluences may be input as element body loads at the nodes. Theory Reference for more details. PY. This node must lie in the plane of the curved pipe and on the center of curvature side of line I-J. If all temperatures at node I are input.0. The KEYOPT(2) and KEYOPT(3) options control the flexibility and stress intensification factors as follows: ANSYS Flexibility Factor = 1. and all temperatures at node J are unspecified. and PZ) may represent wind or drag loads (per unit length of the pipe) and are defined in the global Cartesian directions. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on PIPE60. For any other pattern of input temperatures. Tapered pressures are not recognized. the pipe outer diameter (OD) and wall thickness (TKWALL). The first temperature (TAVG at node I) defaults to TUNIF. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in PIPE60.

Element Library

Page 358 of 993

User Defined Flexibility Factors = FLXI (in-plane) and FLXO (out-of-plane), both must be positive (used if KEYOPT(3) = 3) FLXO defaults to FLXI for all cases. Reference Stress Intensification Factor (SIF) = 0.9/h 2/3 or 1.0, whichever is greater. Used for SIFI or SIFJ if KEYOPT(2) = 0 or if user supplied SIF's are less than 2.0 (user supplied values must be positive). User Defined Stress Intensification Factors = SIFI, SIFJ, must be positive (used if KEYOPT(2) = 4) where: h = tR/r 2 R = radius of curvature t = thickness r = average radius E = modulus of elasticity Xk = 6 (r/t) 4/3(R/r)1/3 if KEYOPT(3) = 1 and R/r P = P i - Po Pi = internal presure Po = external pressure KEYOPT(3) = 1 should not be used if the included angle of the complete elbow is less than 360/( (R/r)) degrees. A summary of the element input is given below. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. 1.7, otherwise Xk = 0

**PIPE60 Input Summary
**

Element Name PIPE60 Nodes I, J, K (K is a node in the plane of the elbow, on the center of curvature side of line I-J) Degrees of Freedom UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ Real Constants OD, TKWALL, RADCUR, SIFI, SIFJ, FLXI, (Blank), (Blank), (Blank), (Blank), (Blank), FLXO Material Properties EX, ALPX, PRXY or NUXY, DENS, GXY, DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -1-PINT, 2-PX, 3-PY, 4-PZ, 5-POUT Body Loads Temperatures -TAVG(I), T90(I), T180(I), TAVG(J), T90(J), T180(J)

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Fluences -FLAVG(I), FL90(I), FL180(I), FLAVG(J), FL90(J), FL180(J) Special Features Plasticity, Creep, Swelling, Large deflection, Birth and death KEYOPT(2) 0 -Include reference stress intensification factors (SIF) 4 -Include stress intensification factors at nodes I and J as input with SIFI and SIFJ real constants KEYOPT(3) 0 -Do not include pressure term in ANSYS flexibility factor 1 -Include pressure term in ANSYS flexibility factor 2 -Use Karman flexibility factor 3 -Use input flexibility factors (FLXI, FLXO) KEYOPT(6) 0 -No printout of member forces or moments 1 -Print member forces and moments in the element coordinate system

Output Data

The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:

?

nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions

?

The meaning of THETA is illustrated in Printout locations. The nonlinear solution is given at eight circumferential locations at both ends of the elbow. The linear solution, similar to that for PIPE18, is printed as long as the element remains elastic. Only the bending stress (SBEND) is multiplied by the stress intensification factor (selected by KEYOPT(2)), provided the factor is greater than 1.0. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. PIPE60 Printout locations

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The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE, ESOL]. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. In either the O or R columns, Y indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and a - indicates that the item is not available. PIPE60 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC, YC, ZC TEMP FLUE PRES FFACT SFACTI, SFACTJ MFOR(X, Y, Z) MMOM(X, Y, Z) SDIR SBEND ST SSF S1MX, S3MN, SINTMX, SEQVMX Definition Element Number Nodes - I, J Material number Volume Location where results are reported Temperatures TAVG(I), T90(I), T180(I), TAVG(J), T90(J), T180(J) Fluences FLAVG(I), FL90(I), FL180(I), FLAVG(J), FL90(J), FL180(J) Pressures PINT, PX, PY, PZ, POUT Element flexibility factor Stress intensification factors at nodes I and J Member forces for nodes I and J (in the element coordinate system) Member moments for nodes I and J (in the element coordinate system) Direct (axial) stress Maximum bending stress at outer surface Shear stress at outer surface due to torsion Shear stress due to shear force Maximum principal stress, minimum principal stress, maximum stress intensity, maximum equivalent stress all at the outer surface (based on SDIR, SBEND, ST, SSF but also accounting for the values of S1, S3, SINT, SEQV given below) O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 R Y Y Y Y 4 Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 2 2 2 2

2 2

S(AXL, RAD, H, Axial, radial, hoop, and shear stresses XH)

3 3

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Page 361 of 993 Maximum principal stress, minimum principal stress, stress intensity, equivalent stress Axial, radial, hoop, and shear strains Axial, radial, and hoop thermal strain Axial, radial, hoop, and shear plastic strains Axial, radial, hoop, and shear creep strains Ratio of trial stress to stress on yield surface Equivalent plastic strain Hydrostatic pressure (postdata only) Equivalent stress from stress-strain curve Axial swelling strain

S(1, 3, INT, EQV) EPEL(AXL, RAD, H, XH) EPTH(AXL, RAD, H) EPPL(AXL, RAD, H, XH) EPCR(AXL, RAD, H, XH) SRAT EPEQ HPRES SEPL EPSWAXL

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

1. If KEYOPT(6) = 1 2. Initial elastic solution output before yield 3. The item repeats for THETA = 0,45,90,135,180,225,270,315 at node I, then at node J, all at the mid-thickness of the wall 4. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL (Node I) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table of this manual for more information. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL (Node I): Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I,J sequence number for data at nodes I and J PIPE60 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands

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Element Library Node I Circumferential Location Name SAXL SRAD SH SXH EPELAXL EPELRAD EPELH EPELXH EPTHAXL EPTHRAD EPTHH EPPLAXL EPPLRAD EPPLH EPPLXH EPCRAXL EPCRRAD EPCRH EPCRXH SEPL SRAT HPRES EPEQ S1 S3 SINT SEQV SBEND SSF FOUT FIN MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ Item LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPPL LEPPL LEPPL LEPPL LEPCR LEPCR LEPCR LEPCR NLIN NLIN NLIN NLIN NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 - 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 - 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 - 3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 - 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 - 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 - 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 - 3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 - 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 - 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 - 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 - 3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 - 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 - 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 - 3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 - 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 - 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 - 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 - 3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 - 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 - 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 - 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 - 3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 - 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 - 1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 - 3 8 13 18 23 28 33 38 - 4 9 14 19 24 29 34 39 - 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 84 - 85 - - 91 - 88 89 90 - 95 - 92 93 94 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - -

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PIPE60 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Node J Circumferential Location Name SAXL SRAD SH SXH EPELAXL EPELRAD EPELH EPELXH EPTHAXL EPTHRAD EPTHH EPPLAXL EPPLRAD EPPLH EPPLXH EPCRAXL EPCRRAD EPCRH EPCRXH SEPL SRAT HPRES EPEQ S1 S3 SINT SEQV SBEND SSF FOUT FIN Item LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPPL LEPPL LEPPL LEPPL LEPCR LEPCR LEPCR LEPCR NLIN NLIN NLIN NLIN NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 0 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 41 - 43 - 44 - 45 86 87 - 99 - 103 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 48 53 58 63 68 73 78 49 54 59 64 69 74 79 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 - 96 97 98 - 100 101 102 -

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Element Library MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMX MMOMY MMOMZ SDIR ST TOUT TIN SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC LBFE LBFE 7 8 9 10 11 12 15 16 12 16 9 13 10 14 11 15 -

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PIPE60 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name SFACTI SFACTJ FFACT PINT PX PY PZ POUT Item NMISC NMISC NMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 81 82 83 17 18 19 20 21

**Assumptions and Restrictions
**

The curved pipe must not have a zero length or wall thickness. In addition, the O.D. must not be less than or equal to zero and the I.D. must not be less than zero. The three nodes must not be colinear. The element is limited to having an axis with a single curvature and a subtended angle of 0 < 90 since there are integration points only at each end of the element. When loaded with an in-plane strain gradient (thermal, plastic, creep, or swelling) a very fine mesh of elements is recommended. If there are effects other than internal pressure and in-plane bending, the elements should have a subtended angle no larger than 45 . The elbow should have a large radius -to-thickness ratio since the integration points are assumed to be located at the mid-thickness of the wall. The pipe element is assumed to have "closed ends" so that the axial pressure effect is included. Shear deflection capability is also included in the element formulation. The element temperatures are assumed to be linear along the length. The average wall temperature at = 0 is computed as 2 * TAVG - T(180) and the average wall temperature at = -90 is computed as 2 * TAVG - T(90). If this element is used in a large deflection analysis, it should be noted that the location of the third node (K) is used only to initially orient the element. Stress intensification factors input with values less than 1.0 are set to 1.0. The element formulation is based upon thin-walled theory. The elastic stiffness matrix is used in plasticity analyses (no tangent matrix is formed) and plasticity convergence may be slow. Only the lumped mass matrix is available.

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Product Restrictions

There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.

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SHELL61

Name

SHELL61 — Axisymmetric-Harmonic Structural Shell product: MP ME ST PP ED

Element Description

SHELL61 has four degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions and a rotation about the nodal z-axis. The loading may be axisymmetric or nonaxisymmetric. Various loading cases are described in Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads. See SHELL51 for an axisymmetric conical shell element with nonlinear material properties. Extreme orientations of the conical shell element result in a cylindrical shell element or an annular disc element. The shell element may have a linearly varying thickness. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for more details about this element. SHELL61 Axisymmetric-Harmonic Structural Shell

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Input Data

The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in SHELL61. The element is defined by two nodes, two end thicknesses, the number of harmonic waves ( MODE on the MODE command), a symmetry condition ( ISYM on the MODE command), and the orthotropic material properties. The element coordinate system is shown in Stress output. is in the tangential (hoop) direction. The MODE or ISYM parameters are discussed in detail in Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads. The material may be orthotropic, with nine elastic constants required for its description. The element loading may be input as any combination of harmonically varying temperatures and pressures. Harmonically varying nodal forces, if any, should be input on a full 360 basis. The element may have variable thickness. The thickness is assumed to vary linearly between the nodes. If the element has a constant thickness, only TK(I) is required. Real constant ADMSUA is used to define an added mass per unit area. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . Harmonically varying pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on SHELL61. Positive pressures act into the element. The pressures are applied at the surface of the element rather than at the centroidal plane so that some thickness effects can be considered. These include the increase or decrease in size of surface area the load is acting on and (in the case of a non-zero Poisson's ratio) an interaction effect causing the element to grow longer or shorter under equal pressures on both surfaces. Material properties EY, PRXY, and PRYZ (or EY, NUXY, and NUYZ) are required for this effect. Harmonically varying temperatures may be input as element body loads at the four corner locations shown in SHELL61. The first corner temperature T1 defaults to TUNIF. If all other temperatures are unspecified, they default to T1. If only T1 and T2 are input, T3 defaults to T2 and T4 defaults to T1. For any other input pattern, unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. KEYOPT(1) is used for temperature loading with MODE greater than zero and temperature dependent material properties. Material properties may only be evaluated at a constant (nonharmonically varying) temperature. If MODE equals zero, the material properties are always evaluated at the average element temperature. KEYOPT(3) is used to include or suppress the extra displacement shapes. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. A general description of element input is given in Element Input.

**SHELL61 Input Summary
**

Element Name SHELL61 Nodes I, J Degrees of Freedom UX, UY, UZ, ROTZ Real Constants TK(I), TK(J), (TK(J) defaults to TK(I)), ADMSUA Material Properties EX, EY, EZ, PRXY, PRYZ, PRXZ (or NUXY, NUYZ, NUXZ),

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ALPX, ALPZ, DENS, GXZ, DAMP. (X is meridional, Y is through-the-thickness, and Z is circumferential.) Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (I-J) (top, in -Y direction) face 2 (I-J) (bottom, in +Y direction) Body Loads Temperatures -T1, T2, T3, T4 Mode Number -Input mode number on MODE command Special Features Stress stiffening Loading Condition -Input for ISYM on MODE command 1 -Symmetric loading -1 -Anti-symmetric loading KEYOPT(1) Used only for MODE greater than zero 0 -Use temperatures for thermal bending (evaluate material properties at TREF) 1 -Use temperatures for material property evaluation (thermal bending not permitted ALPX and ALPZ must be zero) KEYOPT(3) 0 -Include extra displacement shapes 1 -Suppress extra displacement shapes KEYOPT(4) 0 -No printout of member forces and moments 1 -Print out member forces and moments in the element coordinate system KEYOPT(6) Controls location of element solution output: 0 -Output solution at mid-length only N -Output solution at N equally spaced interior points and at end points (where N = 1, 3, 5, 7 or 9)

Output Data

The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:

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?

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nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions

?

Several items are illustrated in Stress output. The printout may be displayed at the centroid, at the end points and at N equally spaced interior points, where N is the KEYOPT(6) value. For example, if N = 3, printout will be produced at end I, 1/4 length, mid-length (centroid), 3/4 length, and at end J. Printout location number 1 is always at end I. Stress components which are inherently zero are printed for clarity. In the displacement printout, the UZ components are out-of-phase with the UX and UY components. For example, in the MODE = 1, ISYM = 1 loading case, UX and UY are the peak values at = 0 and UZ is the peak value at = 90 . We recommend that you always use the angle field on the SET command when postprocessing the results. For more information about harmonic elements, see Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. SHELL61 Stress Output

The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE, ESOL]. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. In either the O or R columns, Y indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and a - indicates that the item is not available. SHELL61 Element Output Definitions Name Definition OR

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Element Library EL NODES MAT LENGTH XC, YC TEMP PRES MODE ISYM T(X, Z, XZ) M(X, Z, XZ) MFOR(X, Y, Z), MMOMZ PK ANG S(M, THK, H, MH) EPEL(M, THK, H, MH) EPTH(M, THK, H, MH)

Page 369 of 993 Element Number Nodes - I, J Material number Distance between node I and node J Location where results are reported Temperatures T1, T2, T3, T4 Pressures P1 (top) at nodes I,J; P2 (bottom) at nodes I,J Number of waves in loading Loading key: 1 = symmetric, -1 = anti-symmetric In-plane element X, Z, and XZ forces at KEYOPT(6) location(s) Out-of-plane element X, Z, and XZ moments at KEYOPT(6) location(s) Member forces and member moment for each node in the element coordinate system Angle where stresses have peak values: 0 and 90/MODE degrees. Blank if MODE = 0. Stresses (meridional, through-thickness, hoop, meridional-hoop) at PK ANG locations, repeated for top, middle, and bottom of shell Elastic strains (meridional, through-thickness, hoop, meridional-hoop) at PK ANG locations, repeated for top, middle, and bottom of shell Thermal strains (meridional, through-thickness, hoop, merid.-hoop) at PK ANG locations, repeated for top, middle, and bottom of shell Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 2 Y Y Y Y Y Y

1 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

1. These items are printed only if KEYOPT(4) = 1. 2. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL (KEYOPT(6) = 0 or 1) lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL (KEYOPT(6) = 0 or 1): Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command I,J sequence number for data at nodes I and J ILn sequence number for data at Intermediate Location n

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SHELL61 (KEYOPT(6) = 0 or 1) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(6) = 0 or 1 Name Item I IL1 Top SM LS 1 13 STHK LS 2 14 SH LS 3 15 SMH LS 4 16 EPELM LEPEL 1 13 EPELTHK LEPEL 2 14 EPELH LEPEL 3 15 EPELMH LEPEL 4 16 EPTHM LEPTH 1 13 EPTHTHK LEPTH 2 14 EPTHH LEPTH 3 15 EPTHMH LEPTH 4 16 Mid SM LS 5 17 STHK LS 6 18 SH LS 7 19 SMH LS 8 20 EPELM LEPEL 5 17 EPELTHK LEPEL 6 18 EPELH LEPEL 7 19 EPELMH LEPEL 8 20 EPTHM LEPTH 5 17 EPTHTHK LEPTH 6 18 EPTHH LEPTH 7 19 EPTHMH LEPTH 8 20 Bot SM LS 9 21 STHK LS 10 22 SH LS 11 23 SMH LS 12 24 EPELM LEPEL 9 21 EPELTHK LEPEL 10 22 EPELH LEPEL 11 23 EPELMH LEPEL 12 24 EPTHM LEPTH 9 21

J 25 26 27 28 25 26 27 28 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 29 30 31 32 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 33 34 35 36 33

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Element Library EPTHTHK LEPTH 10 22 EPTHH LEPTH 11 23 EPTHMH LEPTH 12 24 Element MFORX SMISC 1 MFORY SMISC 2 MFORZ SMISC 3 MMOMZ SMISC 6 TX SMISC 13 19 TZ SMISC 14 20 TXZ SMISC 15 21 MX SMISC 16 22 MZ SMISC 17 23 MXZ SMISC 18 24 P1 SMISC 31 P2 SMISC 35 34 35 36 7 8 9 12 25 26 27 28 29 30 32 36

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Corner Location 1 2 3 4 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 SHELL61 (KEYOPT(6) = 3) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(6) = 3 Name Item I IL1 IL2 Top SM LS 1 13 25 STHK LS 2 14 26 SH LS 3 15 27 SMH LS 4 16 28 EPELM LEPEL 1 13 25 EPELTHK LEPEL 2 14 26 EPELH LEPEL 3 15 27 EPELMH LEPEL 4 16 28 EPTHM LEPTH 1 13 25 EPTHTHK LEPTH 2 14 26 EPTHH LEPTH 3 15 27 EPTHMH LEPTH 4 16 28 Mid SM LS 5 17 29

IL3 J 37 38 39 40 37 38 39 40 37 38 39 40 49 50 51 52 49 50 51 52 49 50 51 52

41 53

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Element Library STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMZ TX TZ TXZ MX MZ MXZ P1 P2 LS 6 18 LS 7 19 LS 8 20 LEPEL 5 17 LEPEL 6 18 LEPEL 7 19 LEPEL 8 20 LEPTH 5 17 LEPTH 6 18 LEPTH 7 19 LEPTH 8 20 Bot LS 9 21 LS 10 22 LS 11 23 LS 12 24 LEPEL 9 21 LEPEL 10 22 LEPEL 11 23 LEPEL 12 24 LEPTH 9 21 LEPTH 10 22 LEPTH 11 23 LEPTH 12 24 Element SMISC 1 SMISC 2 SMISC 3 SMISC 6 SMISC 13 19 SMISC 14 20 SMISC 15 21 SMISC 16 22 SMISC 17 23 SMISC 18 24 SMISC 43 SMISC 47 30 31 32 29 30 31 32 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 33 34 35 36 33 34 35 36 25 26 27 28 29 30 42 43 44 41 42 43 44 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 45 46 47 48 45 46 47 48 31 32 33 34 35 36 54 55 56 53 54 55 56 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 57 58 59 60 57 58 59 60 7 8 9 12 37 38 39 40 41 42 44 48

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Corner Location 1 2 3 4 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4

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SHELL61 (KEYOPT(6) = 5) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(6) = 5 Item I IL1 IL2 IL3 Top LS 1 13 25 37 LS 2 14 26 38 LS 3 15 27 39 LS 4 16 28 40 LEPEL 1 13 25 37 LEPEL 2 14 26 38 LEPEL 3 15 27 39 LEPEL 4 16 28 40 LEPTH 1 13 25 37 LEPTH 2 14 26 38 LEPTH 3 15 27 39 LEPTH 4 16 28 40 Mid LS 5 17 29 41 LS 6 18 30 42 LS 7 19 31 43 LS 8 20 32 44 LEPEL 5 17 29 41 LEPEL 6 18 30 42 LEPEL 7 19 31 43 LEPEL 8 20 32 44 LEPTH 5 17 29 41 LEPTH 6 18 30 42 LEPTH 7 19 31 43 LEPTH 8 20 32 44 Bot LS 9 21 33 45 LS 10 22 34 46 LS 11 23 35 47 LS 12 24 36 48 LEPEL 9 21 33 45 LEPEL 10 22 34 46 LEPEL 11 23 35 47 LEPEL 12 24 36 48 LEPTH 9 21 33 45

Name SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM

IL4 IL5 J 49 50 51 52 49 50 51 52 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 53 54 55 56 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 57 58 59 60 57 61 62 63 64 61 62 63 64 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 65 66 67 68 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 69 70 71 72 69 73 74 75 76 73 74 75 76 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 77 78 79 80 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 81 82 83 84 81

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Element Library EPTHTHK LEPTH 10 22 34 EPTHH LEPTH 11 23 35 EPTHMH LEPTH 12 24 36 Element MFORX SMISC 1 MFORY SMISC 2 MFORZ SMISC 3 MMOMZ SMISC 6 TX SMISC 13 19 25 TZ SMISC 14 20 26 TXZ SMISC 15 21 27 MX SMISC 16 22 28 MZ SMISC 17 23 29 MXZ SMISC 18 24 30 P1 SMISC 55 P2 SMISC 59 Corner Location 1 2 3 4 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 46 58 70 82 47 59 71 83 48 60 72 84 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 7 8 9 12 49 50 51 52 53 54 56 60

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SHELL61 (KEYOPT(6) = 7) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(6) = 7 I IL1 IL2 IL3 IL4 Top 1 13 25 37 49 2 14 26 38 50 3 15 27 39 51 4 16 28 40 52 1 13 25 37 49 2 14 26 38 50 3 15 27 39 51 4 16 28 40 52 1 13 25 37 49 2 14 26 38 50 3 15 27 39 51 4 16 28 40 52 Mid 5 17 29 41 53

Name SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH SM

Item LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LS

IL5 IL6 IL7 J 61 62 63 64 61 62 63 64 61 62 63 64 73 74 75 76 73 74 75 76 73 74 75 76 85 86 87 88 85 86 87 88 85 86 87 88 97 98 99 100 97 98 99 100 97 98 99 100

65 77 89 101

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Element Library STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH MFORX MFORY MFORZ MMOMZ TX TZ TXZ MX MZ MXZ P1 P2 LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 6 13 14 15 16 17 18 67 71 18 19 20 17 18 19 20 17 18 19 20 30 42 31 43 32 44 29 41 30 42 31 43 32 44 29 41 30 42 31 43 32 44 Bot 21 33 45 22 34 46 23 35 47 24 36 48 21 33 45 22 34 46 23 35 47 24 36 48 21 33 45 22 34 46 23 35 47 24 36 48 Element 19 25 31 20 26 32 21 27 33 22 28 34 23 29 35 24 30 36 54 55 56 53 54 55 56 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 57 58 59 60 57 58 59 60 37 38 39 40 41 42 66 67 68 65 66 67 68 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 69 70 71 72 69 70 71 72 43 44 45 46 47 48 78 79 80 77 78 79 80 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 81 82 83 84 81 82 83 84 49 50 51 52 53 54 90 91 92 89 90 91 92 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 93 94 95 96 93 94 95 96 55 56 57 58 59 60 102 103 104 101 102 103 104 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 105 106 107 108 105 106 107 108 7 8 9 12 61 62 63 64 65 66 68 72

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Corner Location 1 2 3 4 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4

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SHELL61 (KEYOPT(6) = 9) Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands KEYOPT(6) = 9 IL1 IL2 IL3 IL4 IL5 Top 13 25 37 49 61 14 26 38 50 62 15 27 39 51 63 16 28 40 52 64 13 25 37 49 61 14 26 38 50 62 15 27 39 51 63 16 28 40 52 64 13 25 37 49 61 14 26 38 50 62 15 27 39 51 63 16 28 40 52 64 Mid 17 29 41 53 65 18 30 42 54 66 19 31 43 55 67 20 32 44 56 68 17 29 41 53 65 18 30 42 54 66 19 31 43 55 67 20 32 44 56 68 17 29 41 53 65 18 30 42 54 66 19 31 43 55 67 20 32 44 56 68 Bot 21 33 45 57 69 22 34 46 58 70 23 35 47 59 71 24 36 48 60 72 21 33 45 57 69 22 34 46 58 70 23 35 47 59 71 24 36 48 60 72 21 33 45 57 69

Label SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM EPTHTHK EPTHH EPTHMH SM STHK SH SMH EPELM EPELTHK EPELH EPELMH EPTHM

Item LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LEPTH LS LS LS LS LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPEL LEPTH

I 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12 9

IL6 IL7 IL8 IL9 J 73 74 75 76 73 74 75 76 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 77 78 79 80 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 81 82 83 84 81 85 86 87 88 85 86 87 88 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 89 90 91 92 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 93 94 95 96 93 97 98 99 100 97 98 99 100 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 101 102 103 104 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 105 106 107 108 105 109 110 111 112 109 110 111 112 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 113 114 115 116 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 117 118 119 120 117 121 122 123 124 121 122 123 124 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 125 126 127 128 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 129 130 131 132 129

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Element Library EPTHTHK LEPTH 10 22 34 46 58 EPTHH LEPTH 11 23 35 47 59 EPTHMH LEPTH 12 24 36 48 60 Element MFORX SMISC 1 MFORY SMISC 2 MFORZ SMISC 3 MMOMZ SMISC 6 TX SMISC 13 19 25 31 37 TZ SMISC 14 20 26 32 38 TXZ SMISC 15 21 27 33 39 MX SMISC 16 22 28 34 40 MZ SMISC 17 23 29 35 41 MXZ SMISC 18 24 30 36 42 P1 SMISC 79 P2 SMISC 83 Corner Location 1 2 3 4 TEMP LBFE 1 2 3 4 70 82 94 106 118 130 71 83 95 107 119 131 72 84 96 108 120 132 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 7 8 9 12 73 74 75 76 77 78 80 84

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**Assumptions and Restrictions
**

The axisymmetric shell element must be defined in the global X-Y plane and must not have a zero length. Both ends must have non-negative X coordinate values and the element must not lie along the global Y-axis. If the element has a constant thickness, only TK(I) need be defined. TK(I) must not be zero. The element thickness is assumed to vary linearly from node I to node J. Some thick shell effects have been included in the formulation of SHELL61 but it cannot be properly considered to be a thick shell element. If these effects are important, it is recommended to use PLANE25. The element assumes a linear elastic material. Post analysis superposition of results is valid only with other linear elastic solutions. Strain energy does not consider thermal effects. The element should not be used with the large deflection option. Also, the element may not be deactivated with the EKILL command. You can use only axisymmetric (MODE,0) loads to generate the stress state used for stress stiffened modal analyses using this element.

Product Restrictions

There are no product restrictions for this element.

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SOLID62

Name

SOLID62 — 3-D Magneto-Structural Solid product: MP PP ED

Element Description

SOLID62 has the capability of modeling three-dimensional coupled magneto-structural fields. The magnetic formulation uses a vector potential (AX, AY, AZ) in static analysis and a vector potential combined with a time-integrated scalar potential (VOLT) for harmonic and transient analysis. The structural formulation is similar to that in the SOLID45 element. The element has plasticity, creep, swelling, stress stiffening, large deflection, and large strain capabilities. Other elements with magneto-structural capability are PLANE13, SOLID5 and SOLID98. Magneto-structural coupling is not available for harmonic analysis. The element has nonlinear magnetic harmonic capability for modeling B-H curves or permanent magnet demagnetization curves. SOLID62 3-D Magneto-Structural Solid

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The type of units (MKS or user defined) for magnetic field analysis is specified through the EMUNIT command. Calculated Joule heating (JHEAT) may be made available for a subsequent thermal analysis with companion elements (LDREAD command). and the coordinate system for this element are shown in SOLID62. unspecified nodal values of temperatures and fluence default to the uniform value specified with the BFUNIF or TUNIF commands. and time-integrated electric scalar potential).Element Library Page 379 of 993 Input Data The geometry. Permanent magnet polarization directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. MURY. Orthotropic resistivity is specified through the RSVX. CSG_. The EMUNIT defaults are MKS units and MUZERO = 4 x 10-7 henries/meter. Nonlinear magnetic properties are entered with the TB command as described in Data Tables . A tetrahedral-shaped element may be formed by defining the same node numbers for nodes M. A wedge-shaped element and a pyramid-shaped element may also be formed as shown in SOLID62. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. AX. orthotropic relative permeability is available and is specified through the MURX.05. AY. magnetic vector potential. magnetic virtual displacement. MGYY. The surface loads. A Maxwell stress tensor calculation is performed at these surfaces to obtain the magnetic forces. and MGZZ represent vector components of the coercive force for permanent magnet materials. These forces are applied in solution as structural loads. With the D command. UZ. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. and RSVZ material labels. and nodes K and L. 20. Deleting the MXWF specification removes the flag.Implicit Analysis. magnetic current segments. node locations. and source current density may be input based on their value at the element's nodes or as a single element value (BF and BFE commands. In addition to MUZERO.. The vector components of the current density are with respect to the element coordinate system. MGYY. the Lab variable corresponds to the degree of freedom (UX. AZ. The B-H curve will be used in each element coordinate direction where a zero value of relative permeability is specified. With the F command. VOLT) and VALUE corresponds to the value (displacement. Surfaces at which magnetic forces are to be calculated may be identified by using the MXWF label on the surface load commands (no value is required). The direction of polarization is determined by the components MGXX. See the ANSYS Electromagnetic Field Analysis Guide for details.2004 . pressure and Maxwell force flags may be input on the element faces indicated by the circled numbers in SOLID62 using the SF and SFE commands. The magnitude of the coercive force is the square root of the sum of the squares of the components. UY. Nonlinear orthotropic magnetic properties may be specified with a combination of a B-H curve and linear relative permeability. the Lab variable corresponds to the force (F_. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems. temperature (structural).. and current). N. and MGZZ. O. Only one B-H curve may be specified per material. AMPS) and VALUE corresponds to the value (force. The surface flag should be applied to "air" elements adjacent to the body for which forces are required. SOLID62 Input Summary file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The element is defined by eight nodes and the material properties. fluence. EMUNIT also determines the value of MUZERO. The body loads. Air elements in which Local Jacobian forces are to be calculated may be identified by using nodal values of 1 and 0 for the MVDI (Magnetic Virtual Displacements) label (BF command). Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . Nodal loads are defined with the D and the F commands.) In general. RSVY. and MURZ material property labels. and P. MGXX.

JSZ(K). FL(L). T(J). AZ. face 3 (J-K-O-N). face 6 (M-N-O-P) Pressures -face 1 (J-I-L-K). JSY(L). O. ALPX. MURY. JSY(M). GYZ. JSY(I). Creep. AY. PHASE(O). T(O). PHASE(P) Special Features Plasticity. FL(N). JSZ(M). VD(J). RSVY. L. PHASE(N). PHASE(J). EZ. face 4 (K -L-P-O). JSZ(L). PRXZ or NUXY. JSY(O). VOLT Real Constants None Material Properties MUZERO. JSX(M). NUXZ). Stress stiffening. JSX(N). JSX(L). PHASE(I). VD(L).Implicit Analysis). FL(O). MGXX. JSY(P). PHASE(L). JSZ(N). VD(M). ALPY. DENS. JSY(K). JSZ(O). FL(P) Source Current Density -JSX(I). Magnetostructural coupling (requires an iterative solution for field coupling). FL(J). T(L). GXZ. Adaptive descent KEYOPT(1) 0 -Include extra displacement shapes 1 -Suppress extra displacement shapes KEYOPT(5) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Birth and death.05. ALPZ. Large strain. T(M). JSX(P). MGYY. PHASE(M). VD (P) Fluences -FL(I). face 3 (J-K-O-N). DAMP Surface Loads Maxwell Force Flags -face 1 (J-I-L-K). MGZZ plus BH data table (see Data Tables . PRYZ. T(N). VD(K). EX. Large deflection. face 5 (L -I-M-P).. JSX(K). (PRXY. P Degrees of Freedom UX. JSZ(J). face 4 (K -L-P-O). PHASE(K). T(P) MVDI -VD(I).Element Library Page 380 of 993 Element Name SOLID62 Nodes I. N. face 5 (L -I-M-P).VD(N). JSX(O). J. FL(K). NUYZ. Swelling. GXY.. UZ. JSX(J). AX. K. UY. 20. RSVZ. face 2 (I-J-N-M). JSZ(I).2004 . M. JSY(J). face 2 (I-J-N-M). face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). JSY (N). EY. MURZ. FL(M). VD(O). JSZ(P). T(K). MURX. RSVX.

indicates that the item is not available. ESOL]. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. In either the O or R columns.Element Library 0 -Basic element printout 1 -Integration point printout 2 -Nodal magnetic field and stress printout KEYOPT(6) 0 -Basic element solution 1 -Structural surface solution for face I-J-N-M also 2 -Structural surface solution for face I-J-N-M and face K-L-P-O (Surface solution available for linear materials only) 3 -Structural nonlinear solution at each integration point also 4 -Structural surface solution for faces with nonzero pressure Page 381 of 993 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements and potentials included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Structural Element Output Definitions ? The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. Y indicates that the item is always available. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname..05.2004 . SOLID62 Structural Element Output Definitions Name Definition OR file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.OUT. 20.. Surface stress printout is valid only if the conditions described in Element Solution are met. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. The surface stress outputs are in the surface coordinate systems and are available for any face (KEYOPT(6)). and a . The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. The coordinate systems for faces IJNM and KLPO are shown in SOLID62. The other surface coordinate systems follow similar orientations as indicated by the pressure face node description.

FL (P) Stresses (X. FL(M). Y. Z. Y. N. XY. Y. Y. Y. Z. Z. N.. N. FL(L). I. K. XY. P Material number Volume Location where results are reported Pressures P1 at nodes J. L. YC. P. ZC PRES TEMP FLUEN S: X. T(P) Input fluences FL(I). N. Y. T(N). P6 at M. YZ. O. 2. K. O. XY. XY) S(1. 3) SINT SEQV Page 382 of 993 Element Number Nodes . XZ) Principal stresses Stress intensity Equivalent stress Elastic strains Principal elastic strains Equivalent elastic strain [4] Average thermal strains Equivalent thermal strain [4] Average plastic strain Equivalent plastic strain [4] Average creep strain Equivalent creep strain [4] Average swelling strain Average equivalent plastic strain Ratio of trial stress to stress on yield surface Average equivalent stress from stress-strain curve Hydrostatic pressure Face label Face area Surface average temperature Surface elastic strains Surface pressure Surface stresses (X-axis parallel to line defined by first two nodes which define the face) Surface principal stresses Surface stress intensity Surface equivalent stress Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 3 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 20. FL(N). XZ EPCR: EQV EPSW: NL:EPEQ NL:SRAT NL:SEPL NL:HPRES FACE AREA TEMP EPEL(X. 3 EPEL: EQV EPTH: X. XY. 2. P Input temperatures T(I). M. XZ EPPL: EQV EPCR: X. Y. L. YZ. 2. Z. Y. FL(K). I. M.2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. XZ EPTH: EQV EPPL: X. XY.P4 at K. O.. Z.Element Library EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. Z. YZ. P5 at L. XZ EPEL: 1. T(L). K. . XZ S: 1.05.I. YZ. YZ. J. J. P. M. T(K). XY) PRESS S(X. XY. O. YZ. FL(O). FL(J). T(J). T(O). P2 at I. P3 at J. T(M). L. 3 S: INT S: EQV EPEL: X.

Z JT(X.Element Library 1. YC. EPEL Nodal Stress Solution TEMP. SEQV. XY. Z TEMP LOC MU(X. T(M).. P Material number Volume Global location XC. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 SOLID62 Magnetic Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: CENT: X. Face printout (if KEYOPT(6) is 1. Y. 2. Y. Z. Z) JHEAT: FJB(X. T(L). Y. Z) FVW(X. K. EPEQ. Y. if the element has a nonlinear material and KEYOPT(6) = 3 2.2004 . Output at each of eight integration points. M. Solution EPPL. Z H:SUM B: X. YZ. T(P) Output location (X. Y. or 4) 3. Output at each node.. EPSW Integration Point Stress Solution TEMP. Z) Definition Element Number Nodes . The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP. N. Output at each integration point. valid for static analysis only Total current density components Joule heat generation per unit volume Lorentz magnetic force components Maxwell magnetic force components Virtual work force components O Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. XY.PRXY). SRAT. YZ. Z) FMX(X. T(N).I. SINT.5. L. SOLID62 Miscellaneous Structural Element Output Description Names of Items Output Nonlinear Integration Pt. 20. S(X. EPCR. EPEL O 1 2 3 R - 1. for plastic and creep this value is set at 0. Nonlinear solution (if the element has a nonlinear material) 2. T(O). Page 383 of 993 4. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. Z. XZ). Y.05. Z) H: X. if KEYOPT(5) = 1 3. Z B:SUM JS: X. Y. Y. Y. HPRES. Y. O. Y. SEQV. Z) Magnetic permeability Magnetic field intensity components Vector magnitude of H Magnetic flux density components Vector magnitude of B Source current density. T(J). T(K). J. SEPL. SINT. ZC Input temperatures T(I). XZ). S(X. Y.

B. 20. The element solution is at the centroid. MUZ. H. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Structural Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data SOLID62 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name JSX JSY JSZ JS(SUM) MUX MUY MUZ Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. if KEYOPT(5) = 1 2. Output at each corner node.Element Library Combined (FJB or FMX) force components Page 384 of 993 Combined (FJB or FMX) force components .. HSUM. BSUM 1 Nodal Magnetic Field Solution H. HSUM.2004 . BSUM 2 1. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 Note JT represents the total measurable current density in a conductor.1 1. and velocity effects if calculated. B. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information. The solution value is output only if calculated (based on input data).05. Output at each integration point. SOLID62 Miscellaneous Magnetic Element Output Description Names of Items Output OR Integration Point Solution LOC. Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. MUX. including eddy current effects. MUY..

Degeneration to the form of pyramid should be used with caution. Ramp load slowly and converge at intermediate time substeps. Structural coupling is introduced automatically in current carrying conductors (either those with an applied current density.A or PRVECT. Structural coupling is also introduced by specifying a Maxwell surface on the "air" elements adjacent to the structure. No reduced transient analysis capability is available. Pyramid elements are best used as filler elements or in meshing transition zones. the three dimensional nodal-based vector potential formulation (either static or time-dependent) is not recommended. The PCG solver does not support SOLID62 elements. The solution has been found to be incorrect when the normal component of the vector potential is significant at the interface between elements of different permeability. Elements may be numbered either as shown in SOLID62 or may have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged. To obtain the normal component of the vector potential in postprocessing. current loading should be applied as nodal loads (AMPS). For models containing materials with different permeabilities. To be compatible.Element Library FVWX FVWY FVWZ FVW(SUM) JTX JTY JTZ JT(SUM) NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC 4 5 6 7 12 13 14 15 Page 385 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions The element must not have a zero volume or a zero length side. For static analysis. the VOLT degree of freedom is not used.. This occurs most frequently when the element is not numbered properly. JT). the elements must have the same reaction force (see Element Compatibility in the ANSYS Electromagnetic Field Analysis Guide).A in a rotated coordinate system [RSYS] that orients one of the vector potential components normal to the material interface.. This element may not be compatible with other elements with the VOLT degree of freedom. current density loading (JS) is not allowed. The coupling is highly nonlinear if large deflection is involved. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. For conducting regions (RSVX 0). For transient analyses.05. The element sizes. The VOLT degree of freedom should be set to zero in non-conducting regions where it is not required. JS. Note Applying MVDI does not introduce magneto-structural coupling.2004 . the following restrictions apply: The VOLT degree of freedom is required in all regions with a specified non-zero resistivity. when degenerated. The magneto-structural coupling is invoked only for static and transient analyses. No coupling is introduced for harmonic analysis. issue PLVECT. should be small in order to minimize the stress gradients and field gradients. or induced current density. 20.

Element Library Page 386 of 993 Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. The element has six degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x... A consistent tangent stiffness matrix option is available for use in large deflection (finite rotation) analyses.05. Stress stiffening and large deflection capabilities are included.2004 . y. See the ANSYS. The ETCHG command converts SHELL57 and SHELL157 elements to SHELL63. Prev SHELL61 Prev SHELL63 Element Library Next SHELL63 Next SHELL63 Name SHELL63 — Elastic Shell product: MP ME ST PR PP ED Element Description SHELL63 has both bending and membrane capabilities. 20. and z directions and rotations about the nodal x. and z-axes. Similar elements are SHELL43 and SHELL181 (plastic capability). SHELL63 Elastic Shell Input Data file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. y. and SHELL93 (mid-side node capability). Theory Reference for more details about this element. Inc. Both in-plane and normal loads are permitted.

The resulting abrupt changes in stiffness within the structure make the consistent tangent stiffness matrix unsuitable for such applications. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems. The elastic foundation capability is bypassed if EFS is less than. The element is defined by four nodes. a matrix composed of the main tangent stiffness matrix plus the consistent stress stiffness matrix) in large deflection analyses [NLGEOM. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. However.0E-3).05. If not input. with the thickness input at the four nodes. The thickness is assumed to vary smoothly over the area of the element. assuming that the middle surface is between the fibers used for stress evaluation.the program uses default penalty parameter values of d1 = 1. only TK(I) need be input. an elastic foundation stiffness. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the "corner" locations (1-8) shown in SHELL63. if desired.Element Library Page 387 of 993 The geometry. If the thickness is not constant. you should not use this option if you are using the element to simulate a rigid link or a group of coupled nodes. .ON]. If only T1 and T2 are input. RMI defaults to 1. such as a nonlinear buckling or postbuckling analysis. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on SHELL63. T7.0E-6 and d2 = 1. all four thicknesses must be input.2004 ? file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . For any other input pattern. they default to T1. T3. KEYOPT(2) is used to activate the consistent tangent stiffness matrix (that is. while T2 (as input) is used for T5. Positive pressures act into the element. four thicknesses. ADMSUA is the added mass per unit area..0. The equivalent element load produces more accurate stress results with flat elements representing a curved surface or elements supported on an elastic foundation since certain fictitious bending stresses are eliminated. by activating this option. The element x-axis may be rotated by an angle THETA (in degrees). or equal to. the following real constants are provided: RMI is the ratio of the bending moment of inertia to be used to that calculated from the input thicknesses. T1 is used for T1. zero. The elastic foundation stiffness (EFS) is defined as the pressure required to produce a unit normal deflection of the foundation. CTOP and CBOT are the distances from the middle surface to the extreme fibers to be used for stress evaluations. It also allows you to choose the type of in-plane rotational stiffness used: ? KEYOPT(3) = 0 or 1 activates a spring-type in-plane rotational stiffness about the element zaxis KEYOPT(3) = 2 activates a more realistic in-plane rotational stiffness (Allman rotational stiffness . A reduced out-of-plane mass matrix is also used when the bending stiffness is neglected. T6. Edge pressures are input as force per unit length. Both CTOP and CBOT are positive. and T8. If the element has a constant thickness. and the orthotropic material properties. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in SHELL63. KEYOPT(3) allows you to include (KEYOPT(3) = 0 or 2) or suppress (KEYOPT(3) = 1) extra displacement shapes. The lateral pressure loading may be an equivalent (lumped) element load applied at the nodes (KEYOPT(6) = 0) or distributed over the face of the element (KEYOPT(6) = 2). For certain nonhomogeneous or sandwich shell applications.. stresses are based on the input thicknesses. 20. KEYOPT(1) is available for neglecting the membrane stiffness or the bending stiffness. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. T2. You can often obtain more rapid convergence in a geometrically nonlinear analysis. If all other temperatures are unspecified. and T4. The first corner temperature T1 defaults to TUNIF. node locations.

. ROTZ Real Constants TK(I). T4. EFS. (Blank).05. NUXZ). T8 Special Features Stress stiffening. ADMSUA Material Properties EX. (Blank). UY. T5. face 2 (I-J-K-L) (top. in +Z direction). flat shells or flat regions of shells). A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. EY. CBOT. (PRXY. This option is useful for improved bending stresses in thin members under mass loading. (Blank). (Blank). in -Z direction). J.2004 . T2. L Degrees of Freedom UX. face 6 (I-L) Body Loads Temperatures -T1. (Blank). (Blank).Element Library Page 388 of 993 Using the Allman stiffness will often enhance convergence behavior in large deflection (finite rotation) analyses of planar shell structures (that is. Birth and death KEYOPT(1) 0 -Bending and membrane stiffness 1 -Membrane stiffness only 2 -Bending stiffness only KEYOPT(2) 0 -Use only the main tangent stiffness matrix when NLGEOM is ON. This option can be useful for calculating improved mode shapes and a more accurate load factor in linear buckling analyses of certain curved shell structures. GXY. T3. CTOP. T6. (Blank). EZ. TK(J). TK(L). ALPX. KEYOPT(8) allows a reduced stress stiffness matrix (rotational degrees of freedom deleted). 20. (Blank). K. PRYZ. Large deflection. (Blank). ROTX. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. (Stress stiffening file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. TK(K). ALPZ. DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (I-J-K-L) (bottom. UZ. THETA. DENS. ALPY.. KEYOPT(7) allows a reduced mass matrix formulation (rotational degrees of freedom terms deleted). face 4 (K-J). ROTY. face 3 (J-I). NUYZ. PRXZ or NUXY. RMI. T7. face 5 (L-K). SHELL63 Input Summary Element Name SHELL63 Nodes I.

and use spring-type in-plane rotational stiffness about the element z-axis (the program automatically adds a small stiffness to prevent numerical instability for non-warped elements if KEYOPT(1) = 0). Inc.2004 .05. that is. however. KEYOPT(3) 0 -Include extra displacement shapes. KEYOPT(5) 0 -Basic element printout 2 -Nodal stress printout KEYOPT(6) 0 -Reduced pressure loading (must be used if KEYOPT(1) = 1) 2 -Consistent pressure loading KEYOPT(7) 0 -Consistent mass matrix 1 -Reduced mass matrix KEYOPT(8) 0 -"Nearly" consistent stress stiffness matrix (default) 1 -Reduced stress stiffness matrix KEYOPT(9) 0 -- file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. (SSTIF. Sometimes it is necessary to turn off the consistent tangent stiffness matrix if the element is used to simulate rigid bodies by using a very large real constant number . a matrix composed of the main tangent stiffness matrix plus the consistent stress stiffness matrix) when SOLCONTROL is ON.ON. 20.. 2 -Include extra displacement shapes. while KEYOPT(2) = 2 is independent of SOLCONTROL. KEYOPT(2) = 2 is the same as KEYOPT(2) = 0. a matrix composed of the main tangent stiffness matrix plus the consistent stress stiffness matrix) when NLGEOM is ON and when KEYOPT(1) = 0..Element Library Page 389 of 993 effects used in linear buckling or other linear prestressed analyses must be activated separately with PSTRES. and use spring-type in-plane rotational stiffness about the element z-axis (the program automatically adds a small stiffness to prevent numerical instability for non-warped elements if KEYOPT(1) = 0). and use the Allman in-plane rotational stiffness about the element z-axis).ON will be ignored for this element when KEYOPT(2) = 1 is activated.. KEYOPT(2) is automatically set to 1.e. Theory Reference. 2 -Use to turn off consistent tangent stiffness matrix (i.) 1 -Use the consistent tangent stiffness matrix (that is.) Note that if SOLCONTROL is ON and NLGEOM is ON. 1 -Suppress extra displacement shapes. the consistent tangent will be used. KEYOPT (2) = 0 is controlled by SOLCONTROL. ON or OFF. See the ANSYS.

Element Library No user subroutine to define element coordinate system 4 -Element x-axis located by user subroutine USERAN Page 390 of 993 Note See the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features for user written subroutines Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? Several items are illustrated in Stress output. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.OUT. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. Y indicates that the item is always available.indicates that the item is not available. and the twisting moment (MXY). and a .2004 . SHELL63 Stress Output The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE.. In either the O or R columns.05. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. ESOL]. The moments are calculated per unit length in the element coordinate system. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. 20. Printout includes the moments about the x face (MX). the moments about the y face (MY).. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP. Z. T8 In-plane element X. P5 at L.05. and XY forces Element X.2004 . XY) FOUND.. Y. J.PRESS LOC S: X. Y. L Material number AREA Location where results are reported Pressures P1 at nodes I. XY). SINT.. YC. and XY moments Foundation pressure (if nonzero) Top. Y. T5.Y 1. XY S: 1. or bottom Combined membrane and bending stresses Principal stress Stress intensity Equivalent stress Average elastic strain Equivalent elastic strain [2] Average thermal strain Equivalent thermal strain [2] O Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 1 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y . Y. 2. Y. 20. J. middle.Element Library SHELL63 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT AREA XC. SHELL63 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Names of Items Output O R Nodal Stress Solution TEMP. J.Y Y Y . Available only at centroid as a *GET item. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. T2. 2.I. K. Z. XY EPEL: EQV EPTH: X. Y. Z. L. L Temperatures T1. Output at each node. P4 at K. Z. P2 at I. S(X. L. repeats each location Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. ZC PRES TEMP T(X. K. T6. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information. P6 at I. T4. if KEYOPT(5) = 2.PRXY). T7. I. XY) M(X. P3 at J. K. T3. Y. J. Y. K. XY EPTH: EQV Definition Page 391 of 993 Element Number Nodes . SEQV 1 1. 3 S: INT S: EQV EPEL: X.

The applied transverse thermal gradient is assumed to vary linearly through the thickness file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.K.2004 .05.K.Element Library Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I. This occurs most often whenever the elements are not numbered properly.J.J. Zero thickness elements or elements tapering down to a zero thickness at any corner are not allowed.. 20..L sequence number for data at nodes I.L Page 392 of 993 SHELL63 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name TX TY TXY MX MY MXY P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 S:1 S:2 S:3 S:INT S:EQV S:1 S:2 S:3 S:INT S:EQV Item E SMISC 1 SMISC 2 SMISC 3 SMISC 4 SMISC 5 SMISC 6 SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC Top NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC Bot NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC I 9 13 18 23 1 2 3 4 5 21 22 23 24 25 J 10 14 17 20 6 7 8 9 10 26 27 28 29 30 K 11 15 19 22 11 12 13 14 15 31 32 33 34 35 L 12 16 21 24 16 17 18 19 20 36 37 38 39 40 Assumptions and Restrictions Zero area elements are not allowed.

KEYOPT(9) can only be set to 0 (default). the effect of the implied offsets on the mass matrix is ignored for warped SHELL63 elements. The extra shapes are automatically deleted for triangular elements so that the membrane stiffness reduces to a constant strain formulation. a small out-of-plane tolerance is permitted so that the element may have a slightly warped shape. Shear deflection is not included in this thin-shell element. If the lumped mass matrix formulation is specified [LUMPM. Page 393 of 993 An assemblage of flat shell elements can produce a good approximation of a curved shell surface provided that each flat element does not extend over more than a 15 arc. one-fourth of the total is applied at each node. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements.2004 . if KEYOPT(1) = 1 (membrane stiffness only). The only special features allowed are stress stiffening and large deflection.. ? ? ? Prev SOLID62 Prev SOLID64 Element Library Next SOLID64 Next SOLID64 Name SOLID64 — 3-D Anisotropic Structural Solid product: MP ME ST PP ED Element Description file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ANSYS/Professional ? The DAMP material property is not allowed. A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L node numbers as described in Triangle. see Triangle. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.05.ON]. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements. a fatal message results and a triangular element should be used. however. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below.. If the warpage is too severe. If an elastic foundation stiffness is input. A moderately warped element will produce a warning message in the printout. For large deflection analyses. 20. the element must be triangular. The four nodes defining the element should lie in an exact flat plane. KEYOPT(2) can only be set to 0 (default).Element Library and vary bilinearly over the shell surface.

. y. they default to T(I). such as for crystals and composites. The element has various applications. standard orthotropic materials are used.05. The element is defined by eight nodes and the anisotropic or orthotropic material properties. KEYOPT(1) is used to include or suppress the extra displacement shapes. The element is defined by eight nodes having three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. Pressure load stiffness effects are included in linear eigenvalue buckling automatically. See the ANSYS. Orthotropic stress-strain relationships should be input in the same manner as SOLID45 material properties. The 6x6 [D] matrix has its terms defined by the TB commands as described in Anisotropic Elastic Materials. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. For any other input pattern. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads .. Material input and stress output directions correspond to the element coordinate directions which are described in Coordinate Systems. KEYOPT(5) provides integration point printout (see Element Solution).. If the matrix is not input. node locations. If all other temperatures are unspecified. use file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The matrix is symmetric with only the lower triangular portion defined.INCP. Other options are available to suppress the extra displacement shapes and to define the printout locations.. and z directions. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. 20. Positive pressures act into the element.2004 . Inc. SOLID64 3-D Anisotropic Solid Input Data The geometry. Theory Reference for more details about this element. Anisotropic stress-strain relationships are defined by the [D] matrix input in the data tables.Element Library Page 394 of 993 SOLID64 is used for the three-dimensional modeling of anisotropic solid structures. TBOPT on the TB command is used to determine if the matrix is being input in inverted or uninverted form. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on SOLID64. The element has stress stiffening and large deflection capabilities. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in SOLID64. You can include the effects of pressure load stiffness in a geometric nonliner analysis using SOLCONTROL. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. If an unsymmetric matrix is needed for pressure load stiffness effects.

UZ Real Constants None Material Properties ALPX. UY. face 4 (K -L-P-O). and Z normal) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. O. face 3 (J-K-O-N). Large deflection. T(P) Special Features Stress stiffening. J. Adaptive descent KEYOPT(1) 0 -Include extra displacement shapes 1 -Suppress extra displacement shapes KEYOPT(5) 0 -Basic element solution 1 -Repeat basic solution for all integration points 2 -Nodal Stress Solution KEYOPT(6) 0 -Element coordinate system reference is parallel to global coordinate system 1 -Element coordinate system reference is parallel to element (X parallel to edge I-J. ALPZ. T(J). GXZ. K. N.. ALPZ. face 2 (I-J-N-M).2004 . A general description of element input is given in Element Input. Y in I. face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I).. otherwise EX. DENS. J. ALPY. T(L). ALPY. L. Page 395 of 993 A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. SOLID64 Input Summary Element Name SOLID64 Nodes I. P Degrees of Freedom UX. EZ. (PRXY. DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (J-I-L-K). 20. PRYZ.Element Library NROPT. T(M).UNSYM. DENS. T(O). GXY. T(N). DAMP (if TB commands are included for anisotropic description). NUXZ). PRXZ or NUXY. ALPX. M. face 5 (L -I-M-P). GYZ. K plane. T(K). Birth and death.05. NUYZ. EY.

. Y indicates that the item is always available.. and a . 20. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. SOLID64 Stress Output The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. ESOL]. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. In either the O or R columns.OUT. The material property matrix can be viewed using the TBLIST command.2004 .Element Library 4 -Element X-axis located by user subroutine USERAN Page 396 of 993 Note See the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features for user written subroutines Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? Several items are illustrated in Stress output.05.indicates that the item is not available. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate directions.

K. SEQV 1 1. Z. XY. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information. P4 at K. M.. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. T(N). S(X. 3 EPEL: EQV EPTH: X. XZ S: 1. P6 at M. K. T(M).M. N.N. T(K).2004 . L. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. Z.05. P3 at J. O.O.J. 20. M. 2. P5 at L. XY. O. XZ EPEL: 1. Z.I. I. 3 S: INT S: EQV EPEL: X. SINT. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. N. Y. K. YC. T(O). I. P2 at I. ZC PRES TEMP S: X. YZ. N.P Material number Volume Location where results are reported Pressures P1 at nodes J. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP.PRXY).. XY. SOLID64 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Names of Items Output OR Nodal Stress Solution TEMP. XY. O. L. YZ. P Temperatures T(I). XZ). 2. T(P) Stresses Principal stresses Stress intensity Equivalent stress Elastic strains Principal elastic strains Equivalent elastic strains [2] Thermal strains Equivalent thermal strains [2] O Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 1 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1. Y.L. XZ EPTH: EQV Definition Page 397 of 993 Element Number Nodes . YZ. 2.Element Library SOLID64 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. P. Y. J. P. YZ. Output at each node. Z. T(J). T(L). Y.

. 20.J. Prev SHELL63 Prev SOLID65 Element Library Next SOLID65 Next SOLID65 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. A prism-shaped element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L and duplicate O and P node numbers (see Triangle.P SOLID64 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 S:1 S:2 S:3 S:INT S:EQV Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC I 2 5 18 1 2 3 4 5 J 1 6 9 6 7 8 9 10 K 4 10 13 11 12 13 14 15 L 3 14 17 16 17 18 19 20 M 8 19 21 21 22 23 24 25 N 7 12 22 26 27 28 29 30 O 11 16 23 31 32 33 34 35 P 15 20 24 36 37 38 39 40 Page 398 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions Zero volume elements are not allowed.2004 .Element Library predetermined Item label for ETABLE command I. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements). A tetrahedron shape is also available.J.... Also.. All elements must have eight nodes.... Elements may be numbered either as shown in SOLID64 or may have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged. The extra shapes are automatically deleted for tetrahedron elements..P sequence number for data at nodes I.. Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. This occurs most frequently when the elements are not numbered properly.05. the element may not be twisted such that the element has two separate volumes.

and z directions. Other cases for which the element is also applicable would be reinforced composites (such as fiberglass). but not shear. and geological materials (such as rock). and creep. 20.Element Library Page 399 of 993 Name SOLID65 — 3-D Reinforced Concrete Solid product: MP ME ST PP ED Element Description SOLID65 is used for the three-dimensional modeling of solids with or without reinforcing bars (rebars). In concrete applications. Up to three different rebar specifications may be defined. The element has one solid material and up to three rebar materials. The solid is capable of cracking in tension and crushing in compression. The element is defined by eight nodes having three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. Use the MAT command to input the concrete material file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The element is defined by eight nodes and the isotropic material properties. See the ANSYS... for example. They are also capable of plastic deformation and creep. SOLID65 3-D Reinforced Concrete Solid Input Data The geometry. node locations. crushing. The concrete element is similar to the SOLID45 (3-D Structural Solid) element with the addition of with special cracking and crushing capabilities.05. Theory Reference for more details about this element. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in SOLID65. plastic deformation. The most important aspect of this element is the treatment of nonlinear material properties. y. the solid capability of the element may be used to model the concrete while the rebar capability is available for modeling reinforcement behavior.2004 . The rebars are capable of tension and compression. Inc. The concrete is capable of cracking (in three orthogonal directions).

P Degrees of Freedom UX.0 to 1.. M. You can include the effects of pressure load stiffness in a geometric nonlinear analysis using SOLCONTROL. and compressive stresses are input in the data table. SOLID65 Input Summary Element Name SOLID65 Nodes I. If an unsymmetric matrix is needed for pressure load stiffness effects. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . This specification may be made for both the closed and open crack. use NROPT. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. Similar defaults occurs for fluence except that zero is used instead of TUNIF. The rebar orientations can be graphically verified with the /ESHAPE command. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems. Temperatures and fluences may be input as element body loads at the nodes. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on SOLID65. PHI). See the ANSYS. The volume ratio is defined as the rebar volume divided by the total element volume. If all other temperatures are unspecified. for convenience. Rebar specifications include the material number (MAT). Theory Reference for details. Alternatively. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. Typical shear transfer coefficients range from 0.UNSYM. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. KEYOPT(5) and KEYOPT(6) provide various element printout options (see Element Solution). UY. and the orientation angles (THETA. 20. the volume ratio (VR). Use TREF and BETAD to supply global values for reference temperature and damping.0 representing a rough crack (no loss of shear transfer). KEYOPT(1) is used to include or suppress the extra displacement shapes. see Concrete Material Data) The relaxation does not represent a revised stress-strain relationship for post-cracking behavior. For any other input pattern. Positive pressures act into the element. The stress relaxation associated with KEYOPT(7) = 1 is used only to help accelerate convergence of the calculations when cracking is imminent.0.INCP. L. UZ file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. J. respectively.05. After the solution converges to the cracked state. with 0. The orientation is defined by two angles (in degrees) from the element coordinate system. as described in Concrete Material Data. Additional concrete material data. tensile stresses. use the MAT command to specify element-dependent values for reference temperature (MP.REFT) or damping (MP. Pressure load stiffness effects are included in linear eigenvalue buckling automatically. (A multiplier for the amount of tensile stress relaxation can be input as constant C9 in the data table. Inc. they default to T(I).. the stiffness is zero normal to the crack face..2004 . N. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. the modulus normal to the crack face is set to zero. A rebar material number of zero or equal to the element material number removes that rebar capability.Element Library Page 400 of 993 properties.0 representing a smooth crack (complete loss of shear transfer) and 1.. K.DAMP). rebar material numbers are ignored for this purpose. Thus. such as the shear transfer coefficients. O.

T(L). Creep. (for concrete) EX. Large strain. VR1. FL(O). Birth and death. PHI3 (for 3 rebars) Material Properties EX. Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (J-I-L-K). T(P) Fluences -FL(I). face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). FL(J). FL(K)..2004 . MAT3. ALPX. PHI2. THETA1. T(M). VR2. Crushing. Stress stiffening. Cracking. Data not input are assumed to be zero.. THETA2. FL(N). T(N). T(O). VR3. Up to eight constants may be defined with the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Concrete Information The data listed in Concrete Material Data is entered in the data table with the TB commands. ALPX. T(J). The constant table is started by using the TBcommand (with Lab = CONCR). face 2 (I-J-N-M). Large deflection. face 4 (K -L-P-O).Element Library Page 401 of 993 Real Constants MAT1. FL(P) Special Features Plasticity. MAT2. DENS. T(K). Adaptive descent KEYOPT(1) 0 -Include extra displacement shapes 1 -Suppress extra displacement shapes KEYOPT(5) 0 -Print concrete linear solution only at centroid 1 -Repeat solution at each integration point 2 -Nodal stress printout KEYOPT(6) 0 -Print concrete nonlinear solution only at centroid 3 -Print solution also at each integration point KEYOPT(7) 0 -No tensile stress relaxation after cracking 1 -Include tensile stress relaxation after cracking to help convergence. FL(L). THETA3. face 5 (L -I-M-P). See the discussion in Input Data for more details. PHI1. except for defaults described below. face 3 (J-K-O-N). PRXY or NUXY. DENS (for each rebar) Supply DAMP and REFT only once for the element (use MAT command to assign material preperty set).05. FL(M). 20.

20. The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. are: SOLID65 Concrete Material Data Constant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Meaning Shear transfer coefficients for an open crack. Ambient hydrostatic stress state for use with constants 7 and 8. printout for the concrete is also at the integration points. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. Inc. Absence of the data table removes the cracking and crushing capability.. Uniaxial crushing stress (positive) under the ambient hydrostatic stress state (constant 6). Uniaxial crushing stress (positive). If constants 1-4 are input and constants 5-8 are omitted. Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? Several items are illustrated in Stress output.. Theory Reference. Biaxial crushing stress (positive) under the ambient hydrostatic stress state (constant 6). If any one of Constants 5-8 are input. Uniaxial tensile cracking stress. Nonlinear material printout appears only if nonlinear properties are specified.2004 . The PLCRACK command can be used in POST1 to display the status of the integration points. the latter constants default as discussed in the ANSYS.Element Library Page 402 of 993 TBDATA commands following a temperature definition on the TBTEMP command. If cracking or crushing is possible. The constants (C1 -C9) entered on the TBDATA commands (6 per command). there are no defaults and all 8 constants must be input. A value of -1 for constant 3 or 4 also removes the cracking or crushing capability. Biaxial crushing stress (positive).6). Up to six temperatures (NTEMP = 6 maximum on the TB command) may be defined with the TBTEMP commands. respectively. after each TBTEMP command. used if KEYOPT(7) = 1 (defaults to 0. since cracking or crushing may occur at any integration point. Rebar printout appears only for the rebars defined. Shear transfer coefficients for a closed crack. Stiffness multiplier for cracked tensile condition. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. SOLID65 Stress Output file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05.

FL(N). FL(O). P Material number Number of rebars Volume Pressures P1 at nodes J. N. SOLID65 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT NREINF VOLU: PRES Definition Element number Nodes . FL(P) Location where results are reported O Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 TEMP FLUEN XC. and a . YC. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. O. T(M). N. I. FL(M). a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. T(N). FL(L). In either the O or R columns. M. T(L). M. P. T(J). P3 at J. Y indicates that the item is always available.I. O.. Z. FL(K).05. ESOL]. Y.2004 . O. T(O). L. 2. J. L. J. 3 Principal stresses S: INT Stress intensity file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. L. N. P Temperatures T(I). YZ. N.indicates that the item is not available. K. O. P4 at K.OUT. ZC S: X. XY. T(K). P2 at I. 20. Stresses XZ S: 1. I. T(P) Fluences FL(I).. M. K. P. K. P6 at M. P5 at L. FL(J).Element Library Page 403 of 993 The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE.

YZ. 3 EPEL: EQV EPTH: X.. Y.solid is cracked and the crack is open. Closed . Z. XY. Neither . ? Open . XZ EPTH: EQV EPPL: X. XZ EPPL: EQV EPCR: X. Z.Element Library S: EQV EPEL: X. Y. YZ.2004 . XY. Z.solid is cracked but the crack is closed. Concrete solution item (output for each integration point (if KEYOPT(5) = 1) and the centroid) 2. 2. The element status table (Element Status Table) uses the following terms: ? Crushed . XZ EPEL: 1. PHICR STATUS IRF MAT VR THETA PHI EPEL S EPEL EPPL SEPL EPCR Equivalent stress Elastic strains Principal elastic strains Equivalent elastic strains [ 7] Average thermal strains Equivalent thermal strains [ 7] Average plastic strains Equivalent plastic strains [ 7] Average creep strains Equivalent creep strains [7] Average equivalent plastic strain Ratio of trial stress to stress on yield surface Average equivalent stress from stress-strain curve Hydrostatic pressure THETA and PHI angle orientations of the crack Element status Rebar number Material number Volume ratio Angle of orientation in X-Y plane Angle of orientation out of X-Y plane Uniaxial elastic strain Uniaxial stress Average uniaxial elastic strain Average uniaxial plastic strain Average equivalent stress from stress-strain curve Average uniaxial creep strain Page 404 of 993 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 1 2 5 5 5 5 1. Rebar solution item repeats for each rebar file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.solid is neither crushed nor cracked.. ? ? 3. Y. Z.solid is crushed. YZ. XZ EPCR: EQV NL:EPEQ NL:SRAT NL:SEPL NL:HPRES THETCR. Y. XY. 20.05. XY. YZ.

SINT. 20. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..2004 . XY. SEQV 1 1. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 Element Status Table Status 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Status in Direction 1 Crushed Open Closed Open Open Closed Closed Open Closed Open Open Closed Closed Open Closed Neither Status in Direction 2 Crushed Neither Neither Open Open Open Open Closed Closed Closed Open Open Closed Closed Closed Neither Status in Direction 3 Crushed Neither Neither Neither Open Open Neither Open Open Neither Closed Closed Neither Closed Closed Neither Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. 7. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information. SOLID65 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Names of Items Output OR Nodal Stress Solution TEMP. XZ). S(X.5.. YZ. for plastic and creep this value is set at 0.05. Output at each node.PRXY). Z. Concrete nonlinear integration point solution (if KEYOPT(6) = 3 and the element has a nonlinear material) 5.Element Library Page 405 of 993 4. Rebar nonlinear integration point solution (if KEYOPT(6) = 3 and the rebar has a nonlinear material) 6. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP. Y.

....Element Library Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command I...05..J..2004 .J.P sequence number for data at nodes I..P IP sequence number for Integration Point solution items SOLID65 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name EPEL SIG EPPL EPCR SEPL SRAT Item Rebar 1 Rebar 2 Rebar 3 SMISC 1 3 5 SMISC 2 4 6 NMISC 41 45 49 NMISC 42 46 50 NMISC 43 47 51 NMISC 44 48 52 Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC I 8 11 24 1 2 3 4 5 109 J 7 12 15 6 7 8 9 10 110 K 10 16 19 11 12 13 14 15 111 L 9 20 23 16 17 18 19 20 112 M 14 25 27 21 22 23 24 25 113 N 13 18 28 26 27 28 29 30 114 O 17 22 29 31 32 33 34 35 115 P 21 26 30 36 37 38 39 40 116 Page 406 of 993 Name P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 S:1 S:2 S:3 S:INT S:EQV FLUEN Name STATUS THETCR Dir 1 PHICR THETCR Dir 2 PHICR THETCR Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC 1 53 54 55 56 57 58 Integration Point 2 3 4 5 6 7 60 67 74 81 88 95 61 68 75 82 89 96 62 69 76 83 90 97 63 70 77 84 91 98 64 71 78 85 92 99 65 72 79 86 93 100 8 102 103 104 105 106 107 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. 20.

The extra shapes are automatically deleted for tetrahedron elements. care must be taken to apply the load slowly to prevent possible fictitious crushing of the concrete before proper load transfer can occur through a closed crack. the elastic strain output includes the cracking strain. The following two options are not recommended if cracking or crushing nonlinearities are present: ? Stress-stiffening effects. which have no shear stiffness.2004 . The element is nonlinear and requires an iterative solution. when cracking has occurred. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements). A prism-shaped element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L and duplicate O and P node numbers (see Triangle.. Prev SOLID64 Prev PLANE67 Element Library Next PLANE67 Next PLANE67 Name PLANE67 — 2-D Thermal-Electric Solid file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. at those integration points where crushing has occurred. Large strain and large deflection. Also. This occurs most frequently when the elements are not numbered properly. A tetrahedron shape is also available. The lost shear resistance of cracked and/or crushed elements cannot be transferred to the rebars. the rebars are assumed to be "smeared" throughout the element. Elements may be numbered either as shown in SOLID65 or may have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged. the element may not be twisted such that the element has two separate volumes.05. 20.. especially if significantly large rotation is involved. Also. Results may not converge or may be incorrect. All elements must have eight nodes.Element Library Dir 3 PHICR NMISC 59 66 73 80 87 94 101 108 Page 407 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions Zero volume elements are not allowed. the output plastic and creep strains are from the previous converged substep. Furthermore. This usually happens when excessive cracking strains are coupled to the orthogonal uncracked directions through Poisson's effect. ? Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.0. The sum of the volume ratios for all rebars must not be greater than 1. When both cracking and crushing are used together. Whenever the rebar capability of the element is used.

The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems. This rate is in addition to the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. they default to HG(I). Theory Reference for more details about this element. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in PLANE67. The specific heat and density may be assigned any values for steady-state solutions.05. The element is applicable to a two-dimensional (plane or axisymmetric). The element is defined by four nodes and the orthotropic material properties. is the resistivity of the material. the 2-D thermal solid (PLANE55) may be used. Heat generation rates may be input as element body loads at the nodes. the element should be replaced by an equivalent structural element (such as PLANE42). PLANE67 2-D Thermal-Electric Solid Input Data The geometry. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. in conjunction with PLANE67. You also can use the thermal-electric shell element. 20. may be input as a function of temperature. The element has four nodes with two degrees of freedom. node locations. RSV_. Inc. The element requires an iterative solution to include the Joule heating effect in the thermal solution. The word AMPS should be input for the Lab variable on the F command and the current into the node input for the value. Convections or heat fluxes (but not both) may be input as surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on PLANE67.2004 . See the ANSYS..Element Library product: MP ME PR EM PP ED Page 408 of 993 Element Description PLANE67 has thermal and electrical conduction capability. The resistivity. like any other material property. The word VOLT should be input for the Lab variable on the D command and the voltage input for the value. and all others are unspecified. steady-state or transient thermal analysis. If the model containing the thermal-electrical element is also to be analyzed structurally. If no electrical effects are present. If the node I heat generation rate HG(I) is input. at each node.. Properties not input default as described in Linear Material Properties. SHELL157. Joule heat generated by the current flow is also included in the heat balance. although no transient electrical capacitance or inductance effects are included in the element. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . The electrical material property. temperature and voltage.

face 2 (K-J). HG(L) Special Features Requires an iterative solution for electrical-thermal coupling. face 2 (K-J).. |TS . TS 2 -Evaluate at fluid bulk temperature. (TS + TB)/2 1 -Evaluate at element surface temperature. Page 409 of 993 A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. face 4 (I-L) Heat Fluxes -face 1 (J-I). RSVX.. TB 3 -Evaluate at differential temperature. KEYOPT(3) 0 -Plane 1 -Axisymmetric KEYOPT(4) 0 -Evaluate film coefficient (if any) at average film temperature.TB| Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal temperatures and voltages included in the overall nodal solution file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. HG(J). L Degrees of Freedom TEMP. face 3 (L-K). 20. face 3 (L-K).Element Library Joule heat generated by the current flow. VOLT Real Constants None Material Properties KXX. RSVY Surface Loads Convections -face 1 (J-I). J. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Heat Generations -HG(I). PLANE67 Input Summary Element Name PLANE67 Nodes I. Birth and death. DENS.05. ENTH. C.2004 . KYY. K. HG(K).

Y.05. The Joule heat generated this substep is used in the temperature distribution calculated for the next substep. K. Y JSSUM JHEAT: FACE AREA NODES HFILM TBULK TAVG HEAT RATE HEAT RATE/AREA HFAVG TBAVG Definition Element Number Nodes . Y.I.. The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. HG(J). Solution Output gives a general description of solution output. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. HG(K). and a . The volume printout. Y indicates that the item is always available. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE.indicates that the item is not available. The heat flow and the current flow into the nodes may be printed with the OUTPR command..2004 .Element Library ? Page 410 of 993 additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions Heat flow out of the element is considered to be positive. SUM EF: X.OUT. SUM TF: X. YC HGEN TG: X. SUM JS: X. ESOL]. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. J. HG(L) Thermal gradient components and vector sum at centroid Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) components and vector sum at centroid Component electric fields and vector sum Component current densities Component current vector sum Joule heat generation per unit volume Face label Face area Face nodes Film coefficient at each node of face Bulk temperature at each node of face Average face temperature Heat flow rate across face by convection Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Average film coefficient of the face Average face bulk temperature O Y Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 2 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. like other quantities. 20. In either the O or R columns. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. L Material number Volume Location where results are reported Heat generations HG(I). a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. PLANE67 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. Y. is on a full 360 basis for axisymmetric elements.

If a current is specified at the same node that a voltage is specified.2004 . The specific heat and enthalpy are evaluated at each integration point to allow for abrupt changes (such as for melting) within a coarse grid. the thermal-electric element should be oriented so that face IJ and/or face KL is a free surface.Element Library HFLXAVG HFLUX Page 411 of 993 Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux Heat flux at each node of face 1 1 1. The electrical and the thermal solutions are coupled through an iterative procedure. The element must lie in an X-Y plane as shown in PLANE67 and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses.05. Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. If this thermal-electric element is to be replaced by a PLANE42 structural element with surface stresses requested. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information.. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command FCn sequence number for solution items for element Face n PLANE67 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Command Name AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG Item FC1 FC2 NMISC 1 7 NMISC 2 8 NMISC 3 9 NMISC 4 10 NMISC 5 11 NMISC 6 12 FC3 13 14 15 16 17 18 FC4 19 20 21 22 23 24 Assumptions and Restrictions The element must not have a negative or zero area. A free surface of the element (that is.. A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L node numbers as described in Triangle. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. the current is ignored. 20. Current flow and heat flow must be in the same plane. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint) is assumed to be adiabatic. If a surface load is input 2.

to get Joule heat in mechanical units. This element may not be compatible with other elements with the VOLT degree of freedom. ? ? ? ? ? Prev SOLID65 Prev LINK68 Element Library Next LINK68 Next LINK68 Name LINK68 — Thermal-Electric Line product: MP ME PR EM PP ED Element Description LINK68 is a uniaxial element in three-dimensional space with the ability to conduct heat and file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.. 20. The element may only be used in a steady-state electric analysis.415 BTU/Hr per Watt. Current (input and output) should also be converted for consistent units.Element Library Page 412 of 993 No conversion is included between electrical heat units and mechanical heat units. The only active degree of freedom is VOLT. ANSYS/Emag ? This element has only electric field capability. such as 3. The only allowable material properties are RSVX and RSVY. The resistivity may be divided by a conversion factor. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. The birth and death special feature is not allowed. the elements must have the same reaction force (see Element Compatibility in the ANSYS Electromagnetic Field Analysis Guide). ANSYS/Professional ? The birth and death special feature is not allowed. and does not have thermal capability.2004 .. No surface loads or body loads are applicable. To be compatible.05. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. There is no conversion required when consistent units are used.

The word AMPS should be input for the Lab variable on the F command and the current into the node input for the value. and the coordinate system for this thermal-electrical line element are shown in LINK68. If the model containing the thermal-electrical element is also to be analyzed structurally. Inc. In an axisymmetric analysis the area should be input on a full 360 basis. node locations. RSVX. may be input as a function of temperature. This rate is in addition to the Joule heat generated by the current flow. The element is linear but requires an iterative solution to include the Joule heating effect in the thermal solution. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. Joule heat generated by the current flow is also included in the heat balance. The thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity are in the element longitudinal direction. Theory Reference for more details about this element. the cross-sectional area. at each node. like any other material property. The resistance of the element is calculated from RSVX*length/AREA. The specific heat and density may be assigned any values for steady-state solutions.2004 . LINK68 Thermal-Electric Line Input Data The geometry. If no electrical effects are present. LINK68 Input Summary file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. temperature and voltage. is the resistivity of the material. 20.05. The thermal-electrical line element may be used in a steady-state or transient thermal analysis. the conducting bar element (LINK33) may be used. Properties not input default as described in Linear Material Properties.. The resistivity. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. Element body loads may be input as heat generation rates at the nodes. The node J heat generation rate HG(J) defaults to the node I heat generation rate HG(I). the element should be replaced by an equivalent structural element. The element has two degrees of freedom.Element Library Page 413 of 993 electrical current between its nodes. although no transient electrical capacitance or inductance effects are included in the element. The electrical material property. and the material properties. See the ANSYS. The current being calculated via this element can be directly coupled into a 3-D magnetostatic analysis [BIOT].. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . The element is defined by two nodes. The word VOLT should be input for the Lab variable on the D command and the voltage input for the value.

and a . 20. ENTH.2004 .Element Library Element Name LINK68 Nodes I. J Degrees of Freedom TEMP. VOLT Real Constants AREA Material Properties KXX.. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. DENS. The Joule heat generated this substep is used to determine the temperature distribution calculated for the next substep.indicates that the item is not available.05..OUT. In either the O or R columns. LINK68 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: Element Number Nodes .I. C. Y indicates that the item is always available. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. Birth and death Page 414 of 993 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal temperatures and voltages included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? The heat flow and the current flow into the nodes may be printed with the OUTPR command. RSVX Surface Loads None Body Loads Heat Generations -HG (I). J Material number Volume Definition O Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. HG (J) Special Features Requires an iterative solution for electrical-thermal coupling. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. ESOL].

See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information. No conversion is included between electrical heat units and mechanical heat units. nodes I and J may not be coincident. The resistivity may be divided by a conversion factor.415 BTU/Hr per Watt. The element must not have a zero length. ZC HGEN TG TF EF JS CUR JHEAT: Location where results are reported Heat generations HG(I). YC. There is no conversion required file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05. Current (input and output) should also be converted for consistent units. that is. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data LINK68 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name TG TF EF JS CUR Item NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC E 1 2 3 4 5 Assumptions and Restrictions Heat and current are assumed to flow only in the element longitudinal direction. A free end of the element (that is. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint) is assumed to adiabatic. such as 3. HG(J) Thermal gradient at centroid Thermal flux at centroid (heat flow/cross-sectional area) Electric field (voltage gradient) Current density (voltage flux) Current Joule heat generation per unit volume Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 Y Y Y Y Y Y Page 415 of 993 1. Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.2004 .. The electrical and the thermal solutions are coupled through an iterative procedure.. the current is ignored.Element Library XC. to get Joule heat in mechanical units. If a current is specified at the same node that a voltage is specified. 20. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.

steady-state or transient thermal analysis. temperature and voltage. The only active degree of freedom is VOLT.2004 . The element has eight nodes with two degrees of freedom. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. at each node. The only allowable material property is RSVX. and does not have thermal capability. To be compatible. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. The birth and death special feature is not allowed. Joule heat generated by the current flow is also included in the heat balance.05. although no transient file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ANSYS/Professional ? The birth and death special feature is not allowed. The thermal-electric solid element is applicable to a three-dimensional.. The element may only be used in a steady-state electric analysis. the elements must have the same reaction force (see Element Compatibility in the ANSYS Electromagnetic Field Analysis Guide).Element Library when consistent units are used. No body loads are applicable.. 20. Page 416 of 993 This element may not be compatible with other elements with the VOLT degree of freedom. ANSYS/Emag 3-D ? This element has only electric field capability. ? ? ? ? ? Prev PLANE67 Prev SOLID69 Element Library Next SOLID69 Next SOLID69 Name SOLID69 — 3-D Thermal-Electric Solid product: MP ME PR PP ED Element Description SOLID69 has a three-dimensional thermal and electrical conduction capability.

20. Inc. If the node I heat generation rate HG(I) is input. SOLID69 3-D Thermal-Electric Solid Input Data The geometry. A general description of element input is given in Element Input.RSVY..RSVZ) of the material.2004 . Another element related to SOLID69 is SHELL157. they default to HG(I). Theory Reference for more details about this element. Convections or heat fluxes (but not both) may be input as surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on SOLID69..Element Library Page 417 of 993 electrical capacitance or inductance effects are included in the element. This rate is in addition to the Joule heat generated by the current flow. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. If no electrical effects are present. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The specific heat and density may be assigned any values for steady-state solution. the 3-D thermal solid (SOLID70) may be used. node locations. The electrical material property is the resistivity (RSVX. The element is defined by eight nodes and the orthotropic material properties. the element should be replaced by an equivalent structural element (such as SOLID45). and all others are unspecified.05. Heat generation rates may be input as element body loads at the nodes. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in SOLID69. The element requires an iterative solution to include the Joule heating effect in the thermal solution. If the model containing the thermal-electrical solid element is also to be analyzed structurally. The word VOLT should be input for the Lab variable on the D command and the voltage input for the value. See the ANSYS. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . The resistivity. The word AMPS should be input for the Lab variable on the F command and the current into the node input for the value. Properties not input default as described in Linear Material Properties. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems. like any other material property. may be input as a function of temperature.

J. The heat flow and the current flow into the nodes may be printed with the OUTPR command. face 4 (K -L-P-O). TS 2 -Evaluate at fluid bulk temperature. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. face 5 (L -I-M-P). HG(J). P Degrees of Freedom TEMP. L. DENS. RSVZ Surface Loads Convections -face 1 (J-I-L-K). HG(K). file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. ENTH.2004 . HG(O). HG(P) Special Features Requires an iterative solution for electrical-thermal coupling. RSVX. The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system..05. Birth and death KEYOPT(2) 0 -Evaluate film coefficient (if any) at average film temperature. N.. O. K. VOLT Real Constants None Material Properties KXX. KYY. RSVY. face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Heat Generations -HG(I). C.TB| Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal temperatures and voltages included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? Heat flow out of the element is considered to be positive. TB 3 -Evaluate at differential temperature. HG(N). (TS + TB)/2 1 -Evaluate at element surface temperature. face 3 (J-K-O-N). face 4 (K -L-P-O). face 2 (I-J-N-M). HG(L). A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. HG(M). face 5 (L -I-M-P). |TS . The Joule heat generated this substep is used in the temperature distribution calculated for the next substep. KZZ. face 2 (I-J-N-M). M. face 3 (J-K-O-N). 20.Element Library Page 418 of 993 SOLID69 Input Summary Element Name SOLID69 Nodes I. face 6 (M-N-O-P) Heat Fluxes -face 1 (J-I-L-K).

HG(M). Z Component current densities JSSUM Component current vector sum JHEAT: Joule heat generation per unit volume FACE Face label AREA Face area NODES Face nodes HFILM Film coefficient at each node of face TBULK Bulk temperature at each node of face TAVG Average face temperature HEAT RATE Heat flow rate across face by convection HEAT Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection RATE/AREA HFAVG Average film coefficient of the face TBAVG Average face bulk temperature HFLXAVG Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux HFLUX Heat flux at each node of face 1. Y. J. SUM Thermal gradient components and vector sum at centroid Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) components and vector TF: X. ZC Definition O Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 2 Element Number Nodes . Z. and a . HG(L). HG(K). K. HG(N). Y.. HG(J). 20. ESOL]. Y. HGEN HG(P) TG: X. L. SUM sum at centroid EF: X. Y. HG(O). If a surface load is input 2. M. In either the O or R columns. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.I. SUM Component electric fields and vector sum JS: X. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. Z. YC. N. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..indicates that the item is not available. P Material number Volume Location where results are reported Heat generations HG(I). Y indicates that the item is always available.OUT. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.2004 . SOLID69 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. Z.Element Library The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: Page 419 of 993 A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE.05. O.

415 BTU/Hr per watt. Current (input and output) should also be converted for consistent units.05. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements. or may have the upper and lower planes interchanged (for example. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint) is assumed to be adiabatic. the elements must have the same reaction force (see Element Compatibility in the file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . If the thermal-electric element is to be replaced by a SOLID45 structural element with surface stresses requested... to get Joule heat in mechanical units. 20. The electrical and the thermal solutions are coupled through an iterative procedure. There is no conversion required when consistent units are used. This occurs most frequently when the element is not numbered properly. A prism or tetrahedron-shaped element may be formed by defining duplicate node numbers as described in Triangle. To be compatible. plane IJKL may be interchanged with plane MNOP). such as 3. The specific heat and enthalpy are evaluated at each integration point to allow for abrupt changes (such as melting) within a coarse grid of elements. Elements may be numbered either as shown in SOLID69. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command FCn sequence number for solution items for element Face n SOLID69 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG Item FC1 FC2 NMISC 1 7 NMISC 2 8 NMISC 3 9 NMISC 4 10 NMISC 5 11 NMISC 6 12 FC3 13 14 15 16 17 18 FC4 19 20 21 22 23 24 FC5 25 26 27 28 29 30 FC6 31 32 33 34 35 36 Assumptions and Restrictions The element must not have a zero volume. If a current is specified at the same node that a voltage is specified. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information. the current is ignored. No conversion is included between electrical heat units and mechanical heat units. A free surface of the element (that is.Element Library Page 420 of 993 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. the thermal element should be oriented so that face IJNM and/or face KLPO is a free surface. The resistivity may be divided by a conversion factor. This element may not be compatible with other elements with the VOLT degree of freedom.

Prev LINK68 Prev SOLID70 Element Library Next SOLID70 Next SOLID70 Name SOLID70 — 3-D Thermal Solid product: MP ME PR PP ED Element Description SOLID70 has a three-dimensional thermal conduction capability. The element is applicable to a threedimensional. SOLID70 3-D Thermal Solid file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Inc. temperature. with mid-edge node capability. See the ANSYS. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. the thermal parameters are interpreted as analogous fluid flow parameters. at each node. See SOLID90 for a similar thermal element. If the model containing the conducting solid element is also to be analyzed structurally.. the temperature degree of freedom becomes equivalent to a pressure degree of freedom. An option exists that allows the element to model nonlinear steady-state fluid flow through a porous medium.05. steady-state or transient thermal analysis. the element should be replaced by an equivalent structural element (such as SOLID45). ANSYS/Professional ? The birth and death special feature is not allowed. The element has eight nodes with a single degree of freedom. 20. The element also can compensate for mass transport heat flow from a constant velocity field. With this option.Element Library ANSYS Electromagnetic Field Analysis Guide). Page 421 of 993 Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. Theory Reference for more details about this element.2004 .. For example.

Properties DENS and VISC are used for the mass density and viscosity of the fluid. 20. temperature is interpreted as pressure and the absolute permeabilities of the medium are input as material properties KXX.05. The nonlinear porous flow option is selected with KEYOPT(7) = 1.. Properties not input default as described in Linear Material Properties.Element Library Page 422 of 993 Input Data The geometry. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. Temperature boundary conditions input with the D command are interpreted as pressure boundary conditions. SOLID70 Input Summary Element Name file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. temperatures should be specified along the entire inlet boundary to assure a stable solution. Theory Reference. and KZZ. The element is defined by eight nodes and the orthotropic material properties. they default to HG(I). A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems. and heat flow boundary conditions input with the F command are interpreted as mass flow rate (mass/time). Inc. Properties C and MU are used in calculating the coefficients of permeability as described in the ANSYS. For this option. Convections or heat fluxes (but not both) may be input as surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on SOLID70. A mass transport option is available with KEYOPT(8). you should use specific heat (C) and density (DENS) material properties instead of enthalpy (ENTH). KYY. Specific heat and density are ignored for steadystate solutions. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in SOLID70. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. and all others are unspecified. node locations. With this option the velocities VX.2004 . Also. With mass transport. Heat generation rates may be input as element body loads at the nodes. and VZ must be input as real constants (in the element coordinate system).. If the node I heat generation rate HG(I) is input. VY.

Surface Loads Convections -face 1 (J-I-L-K). TB 3 -Evaluate at differential temperature |TS-TB| KEYOPT(4) 0 -Element coordinate system is parallel to the global coordinate system 1 -Element coordinate system is based on the element I-J side KEYOPT(7) 0 -Standard heat transfer element 1 -Nonlinear steady-state fluid flow analogy element Note Temperature degree of freedom interpreted as pressure.2004 .Element Library SOLID70 Nodes Page 423 of 993 I. C. face 4 (K -L-P-O). KEYOPT(2) 0 -Evaluate film coefficient (if any) at average film temperature. TS 2 -Evaluate at fluid bulk temperature. face 3 (J-K-O-N). ENTH. face 3 (J-K-O-N). DENS. (TS + TB)/2 1 -Evaluate at element surface temperature. P Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants VX..05. 20. VZ IF KEYOPT (8) > 0 Material Properties KXX. KZZ. face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Heat Generations -HG(I). K. Do not use ENTH with KEYOPT(8) = 1). J. MU (VISC and MU used only if KEYOPT(7) = 1. HG(N). VISC. HG(O). O. face 2 (I-J-N-M). face 5 (L -I-M-P). face 4 (K -L-P-O). L. VY. HG(J). face 5 (L -I-M-P). HG(L). face 2 (I-J-N-M). face 6 (M-N-O-P) Heat Fluxes -face 1 (J-I-L-K). KEYOPT(8) file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. M. HG(M). KYY. N. HG(P) Special Features Birth and death. HG(K)..

The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. YC. SUM Thermal gradient components and vector sum at centroid Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) components and vector TF: X. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. HG(N).I.2004 . In either the O or R columns. ZC Definition O Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 3 Element Number Nodes . the standard thermal output should be interpreted as the analogous fluid flow output..indicates that the item is not available. J. HG(J). HG(K). Z. L. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. HG(M). N. SOLID70 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. and a . The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. M. applied heat flux is positive into the element. VZ Page 424 of 993 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? Convection heat flux is positive out of the element.. Z. Y.Element Library 0 -No mass transport effects 1 -Mass transport with VX. HG(L). ESOL]. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.OUT. Y. HGEN HG(P) TG: X. VY.05. HG(O). Y indicates that the item is always available. P Material number Volume Location where results are reported Heat generations HG(I). 20. If KEYOPT(7) = 1. SUM sum at centroid FACE Face label AREA Face area NODES Face nodes HFILM Film coefficient at each node of face TBULK Bulk temperature at each node of face Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 - file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. K. O.

05. Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. Y. Y. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command FCn sequence number for solution items for element Face n SOLID70 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG Item FC1 FC2 NMISC 1 7 NMISC 2 8 NMISC 3 9 NMISC 4 10 NMISC 5 11 NMISC 6 12 FC3 13 14 15 16 17 18 FC4 19 20 21 22 23 24 FC5 25 26 27 28 29 30 FC6 31 32 33 34 35 36 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Element Library TAVG HEAT RATE HEAT RATE/AREA HFAVG TBAVG HFLXAVG HFLUX PRESSURE GRAD MASS FLUX FLUID VELOCITY Average face temperature Heat flow rate across face by convection Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Page 425 of 993 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - Average film coefficient of the face Average face bulk temperature Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux Heat flux at each node of face Total pressure gradient and its X. and Z components Mass flow rate per unit cross-sectional area Total fluid velocity and its X.2004 . Output if a surface load is input 2. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information.. and Z components 2 2 2 - 1. Output if KEYOPT(7) = 1 3. 20. Available only at centroid as a *GET item..

. The VX. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint) is assumed to be adiabatic. If the thermal element is to be replaced by a SOLID45 structural element with surface stresses requested. Thermal transients having a fine integration time step and a severe thermal gradient at the surface will also require a fine mesh at the surface.05. If KEYOPT(8) > 0. 20. The specific heat and enthalpy are evaluated at each integration point to allow for abrupt changes (such as for melting) within a coarse grid. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. ? ? ? Prev SOLID69 Prev MASS71 Element Library Next MASS71 Next MASS71 Name MASS71 — Thermal Mass product: MP ME PR PP ED Element Description file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. unsymmetric matrices are produced. A free surface of the element (that is. ANSYS/Professional ? This element does not have the mass transport or fluid flow options. the thermal element should be oriented such that face IJNM and/or face KLPO is a free surface.2004 .. Elements may be numbered either as shown in SOLID70 or may have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged. KEYOPT(7) and KEYOPT(8) can only be set to 0 (default). The element does not have the birth and death feature. Prism and Tetrahedral Elements. VY. The VISC and MU material properties are not applicable. A prism or tetrahedron shaped element may be formed by defining duplicate node numbers as described in Triangle. and VZ real constants are not applicable. This occurs most frequently when the element is not numbered properly.Element Library Page 426 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions The element must not have a zero volume.

KEYOPT(4) must be set to 1. two. The thermal capacitance (CON1) may be input as a real constant or calculated (KEYOPT(3)) from the real constant volume (CON1) and either the DENS and C or ENTH material properties. See the ANSYS. may be used for thermally analogous situations. 20. or three-dimensional steady-state or transient thermal analysis. KEYOPT(3) determines whether CON1 is interpreted as volume or thermal capacitance.Element Library Page 427 of 993 MASS71 is a point element having one degree of freedom. The lumped thermal mass element is applicable to a one. temperature. The heat generation is applied directly as a nodal load and is not first multiplied by the volume.. the thermal element should be replaced by an equivalent structural element (such as MASS21) MASS71 Thermal Mass Input Data The lumped thermal mass element is defined by one node (as shown in MASS71) and a thermal capacitance (Heat/Degree). the heat generation rate must be adjusted to account for the volume. that is. Also. For an axisymmetric analysis the heat generation rate should be input on a full 360 basis.2004 . A1 through A 6. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Alternately. When used with axisymmetric elements. which are normally used in structural models. should be entered as real constants. These elements. the heat generation expression may be defined as a temperature dependent material property (QRATE) with the MP commands. when using the specific heat matrix). Inc.. the thermal capacitance should be input on a full 360 basis. If the model containing the thermal mass element is also to be analyzed structurally. Other elements having special thermal applications are the COMBIN14 and COMBIN40 elements. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. Theory Reference for more details about this element. Thus. The constants. The element may be used in a transient thermal analysis to represent a body having thermal capacitance capability but negligible internal thermal resistance. A temperature dependent heat generation rate of the following polynomial form may be input: where T is the absolute temperature from the previous substep. if KEYOPT(3) = 0 (that is. if temperatures are not absolute. If any of the constants A2 through A6 are non-zero. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. The element also has a temperature dependent heat generation rate capability. no significant temperature gradients within the body. In a steady-state solution the element acts only as a temperature dependent heat source or sink. the offset conversion [TOFFST] must be specified.05. at the node.

A5.Element Library Page 428 of 993 MASS71 Input Summary Element Name MASS71 Nodes I Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants CON1 see KEYOPT(3)..) Special Features Nonlinear if heat generation is defined as a function of temperature.. or QRATE if KEYOPT(3) = 1 Surface Loads None Body Loads None (heat generation rates may be defined as a function of temperature by using real constants A1. Birth and death KEYOPT(3) 0 -Interpret CON1 as volume (with either DENS and C or ENTH supplied as material properties) 1 -Interpret CON1 as thermal capacitance (DENS*C*volume) KEYOPT(4) 0 -No temperature dependent heat generation (required if all real constants A2-A6 are zero) 1 -Include temperature dependent heat generation (required if any real constants A2-A6 are non-zero) Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? The heat generation rate is in units of Heat/Time and is positive into the node.. ENTH if KEYOPT(3) = 0.05. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. A1..2004 . DENS. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. A6 (constants for temperature function) Material Properties QRATE. 20. A2..A2. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. or by the QRATE material property definition. C. A3. A4.

OUT.2004 . YC. 20. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data MASS71 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name Item E HEAT RATE SMISC 1 TEMP SMISC 2 Name O Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y 1 Y Y Assumptions and Restrictions When using the element with a temperature dependent heat generation rate in a steady-state solution.Element Library Page 429 of 993 A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. MASS71 Element Output Definitions Definition EL Element Number NODE Node I XC. In either the O or R columns. and a .indicates that the item is not available.. ZC Location where results are reported TEMP Element (node) temperature HEAT RATE Heat generation rate into node 1. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.05. The heat generation is calculated at the uniform temperature for the first substep. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. Y indicates that the item is always available. Product Restrictions file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. an iterative solution is required. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. ESOL].. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.

20.05. Prev SOLID70 Prev HYPER74 Element Library Next HYPER74 Next HYPER74 Name HYPER74 — 2-D 8-Node Mixed u-P Hyperelastic Solid product: MP ME ST PP ED Element Description HYPER74 is used for 2-D modeling of solid hyperelastic structures. The hyperelastic formulation is nonlinear and requires an iterative solution.Element Library Page 430 of 993 When used in the product(s) listed below. Large deflections [NLGEOM] must be active in order to update the geometry each substep. HYPER74 2-D 8-Node Mixed u-P Hyperelastic Solid file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The plane strain option has two degrees of freedom at each node: translation in the nodal x and y directions. The element can be used either as a biaxial plane element (plane strain) or as an axisymmetric ring element. Inc. The element is defined by eight nodes. It is applicable to nearly incompressible rubber-like materials with arbitrarily large displacements and strains. The axisymmetric option has an additional degree of freedom at each node: translation in the z direction allowing torsion in the model. Theory Reference for more details about this element.. The mixed u-P (DisplacementPressure) formulation allows the element matrices to be formed using mixed variational principles with the pressure introduced to enforce the incompressibility constraint.. See the ANSYS. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section. ANSYS/Professional ? The birth and death special feature is not allowed.2004 .

If all other temperatures are unspecified.2004 .Implicit Analysis for the TBDATA command input. Positive pressures act into the element. For any other input pattern.. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. HYPER74 Input Summary Element Name HYPER74 Nodes I. J. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes.05. See Data Tables . The Mooney-Rivlin function is valid for a wide range of nearly incompressible rubber and rubber-like materials. 20. N. K. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. rather than parabolically. and the constants defining the Mooney-Rivlin strain energy function. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on HYPER74. node locations. which may be a function of temperature. should be input per unit of depth for a plane strain analysis and on a full 360 basis for an axisymmetric analysis. An edge with a removed midside node implies that the displacement varies linearly. The nodal forces. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information about the use of midside nodes. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems. The strain energy function may also be defined by user subroutine USRMOONEY and is accessed by KEYOPT(7) = 1. It is characterized by Poisson's ratio and constants a ij (entered with TBDATA or *MOONEY commands). UZ if KEYOPT (3) = 1 Real Constants None file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. along that edge. the isotropic material properties. if any.. M.Element Library Page 431 of 993 Input Data The geometry. they default to T(I). UY if KEYOPT (3) = 0 UX. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in HYPER74. O. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . L. UY. P Degrees of Freedom UX. The element input data include eight nodes. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF.

face 3 (I-K). T(O). . T(K). DENS. T(L)...05. DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (J-I).Element Library Page 432 of 993 Material Properties Mooney-Rivlin function. T(J). 2 -Plane strain 1 -Axisymmetric KEYOPT(4) 0 -Element coordinate system is parallel to the global coordinate system 1 -Element coordinate system is based on the undeformed element I-J side. T(P) Special Features Large deflection. face 2 (K-J). ALPX. Large strain KEYOPT(3) 0. T(N). T (M). face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). KEYOPT(8) 0 -No stability check 1 -Check for material instability Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution 20. KEYOPT(5) 0 -Basic element solution 1 -Repeat basic solution for all integration points 2 -Nodal Stress Solution KEYOPT(7) 0 -Mooney-Rivlin strain energy function 1 -Define strain energy function by user subroutine USRMOONEY Note See the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features for information about user written subroutines. PRXY or NUXY.2004 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

L Y TEMP Temperatures T(I). K. YC Location where results are reported Y PRES Pressures P1 at nodes J.Element Library ? Page 433 of 993 additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions Several items are illustrated in Stress output KEYOPT(5) provides various element printout options (see Element Solution). See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. P3 at L. P4 at I.2004 . YZ. Y. and a .OUT. J. L. M. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. I. T(M).. T(N). 3 Principal stresses Y S: INT Stress intensity Y S: EQV Equivalent stress Y EPEL: X. 20. P2 at K. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. XZ Stresses Y S: 1.indicates that the item is not available. The element stress directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. Z.05.. 2. N. XY. XY. K. ESOL]. Y indicates that the item is always available. T(O). YZ. XZ Elastic strains Y Name Definition R Y Y Y Y 1 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. T(K).I. HYPER74 Element Output Definitions O EL Element Number Y NODES Nodes . P Y MAT Material number Y VOLU: Volume Y XC. Z. Y. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. J. T(J). T(L). T(P) Y S: X. HYPER74 Stress Output The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. O. In either the O or R columns.

SINT.J.L sequence number for data at nodes I. hoop. respectively.4 3 - file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.05. SEQV. The following notation is used in HYPER74 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Commands: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command I. axial. 2. Output at each node. if KEYOPT(5) = 2 Note For axisymmetric solutions with KEYOPT(1) = 0.K.2004 . HYPER74 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL Commands lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. Output at each integration point. S 1 Nodal Stress Solution TEMP. TEMP. and in-plane shear stresses and strains. S. SINT. YZ. the X. and XY stress and strain outputs correspond to the radial. XZ EPTH: EQV NL: HPRES Equivalent elastic strain [2] Average thermal strain Equivalent thermal strain [2] Hydrostatic pressure Page 434 of 993 Y Y Y Y Y 1. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. EPEL.Z.SMISC . SEQV 2 1. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information..K. XY. Y. The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP.Element Library EPEL: EQV EPTH: X. HYPER74 Miscellaneous Element Output Description Names of Items Output O R Integration Point Stress Solution LOCATION..PRXY). Z. 20.L HYPER74 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name P1 P2 Item I J K L SMISC 2 1 .J.Y. if KEYOPT(5) = 1 2.

Prev MASS71 Prev PLANE75 Element Library Next PLANE75 Next PLANE75 Name PLANE75 — Axisymmetric-Harmonic 4-Node Thermal Solid product: MP ME PP ED Element Description PLANE75 is used as an axisymmetric ring element with a three-dimensional thermal conduction capability. The element must lie in a global X-Y plane as shown in HYPER74 and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses.6 5 . Theory Reference for more details about this element. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. See the ANSYS. A similar thermal element. Inc.05. Various loading cases are described in Shear Deflection.. the element should be replaced by the equivalent structural element (such as PLANE25).2004 . Material properties are evaluated at the average of the nodal temperatures. temperature. The element is applicable to a two-dimensional. Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. The element has four nodes with a single degree of freedom. with mid-side node capability is PLANE78.. steady-state or transient thermal analysis. If the model containing the element is also to be analyzed structurally.Element Library P3 P4 STFLAG S:1 S:2 S:3 S:INT S:EQV SMISC SMISC SMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC 7 9 1 2 3 4 5 . at each node.8 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Page 435 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions The area of the element must be positive. axisymmetric. 20. The element is a generalization of the axisymmetric version of PLANE55 in that it allows nonaxisymmetric loading. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..

ENTH file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.Element Library PLANE75 Axisymmetric-Harmonic Thermal Solid Page 436 of 993 Input Data The geometry. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . Harmonically varying heat generation rates may be input as element body loads at the nodes. DENS. L Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants None Material Properties KXX. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. J. If MODE = 0 and ISYM = 1. they default to HG(I).. PLANE75 Input Summary Element Name PLANE75 Nodes I. the element behaves similar to the axisymmetric case of PLANE55. If the node I heat generation rate HG(I) is input and all others are unspecified. 20. K.. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. The data input is essentially the same as for PLANE55 and is described in Input Data. and the coordinate system for this axisymmetric thermal solid element are shown in PLANE75. KYY. Harmonically varying convections or heat fluxes (but not both) may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on PLANE75.05. KZZ. The MODE and ISYM parameters describe the type of temperature distribution and are discussed in Shear Deflection. node locations.2004 . The element input data also includes the number of harmonic waves (MODE) and the symmetry condition (ISYM) on the MODE command. C.

face 4 (I-L) Heat Fluxes -face 1 (J-I). The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. In either the O or R columns. face 2 (K-J).indicates that the item is not available. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. HG(K). PLANE75 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT Element Number Nodes . face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Heat Generations -HG(I).. For more information about harmonic elements. ESOL]. and a . See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. HG(J). A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output..I. HG(L) Mode Number Input mode number on MODE command Loading Condition Input for ISYM in MODE command 1 -Symmetric loading -1 -Antisymmetric loading Special Features Birth and death Page 437 of 993 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? Convection heat flux is positive out of the element. face 2 (K-J). J. face 3 (L-K). The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system.OUT.2004 . face 3 (L-K).05. The face area and the heat flow rate are on a full 360 basis.Element Library Surface Loads Convections -face 1 (J-I). applied heat flux is positive into the element. see Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads. 20. K. L Material number Definition O Y Y Y R Y Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Y indicates that the item is always available. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available.

TBULK HEAT RATE HEAT RATE/AREA HFAVG TBAVG HFLXAVG HFLUX Volume Location where results are reported Heat generations HG(I). Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. HG(J). HG(L) Number of waves in loading Page 438 of 993 Y Y Y Y Y 3 - Thermal gradient components and vector sum (X and Y) at centroid Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) components and vector sum (X and Y) at centroid Face label Face nodes Face area Average of the two end nodal temperatures evaluated at peak value.Element Library VOLU: XC. Y. Gradient and flux peak at THETA = 0 and THETA = 90 ÷ MODE degrees 2. SUM. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. Y. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command FCn sequence number for solution items for element Face n PLANE75 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name Item FC1 FC2 FC3 FC4 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. YC HGEN MODE TG: X. fluid bulk temperature evaluated at peak value Heat flow rate across face by convection Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Average film coefficient of the face Average face bulk temperature Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux Heat flux at each node of face 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 - 1. HG(K). See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information. Z TF: X. Output if a surface load is input 3.05. SUM.2004 .. Z FACE NODES AREA TAVG. 20..

2004 . properties are evaluated at temperatures calculated from the previous MODE = 0 substep. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint) is assumed to be adiabatic. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. If MODE > 0. 20.05. Temperature dependent material properties (including the film coefficient) are assumed to be axisymmetric even if the temperature varies harmonically. Prev HYPER74 Prev PLANE77 Element Library Next PLANE77 Next PLANE77 Name PLANE77 — 2-D 8-Node Thermal Solid product: MP ME PR PP ED Element Description file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. if no MODE = 0 substep exists.. If the thermal element is to be replaced by the analogous structural element (PLANE25) with surface stresses requested. Thermal transients having a fine integration time step and a severe thermal gradient at the surface will also require a fine mesh at the surface. The element must lie in the global X-Y plane as shown in PLANE75 and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses. if applicable) is a free surface. the thermal element should be oriented so that face I-J (and also face K-L. then evaluation is done at 0. properties are evaluated at the temperatures calculated in the previous substep (or at TUNIF if for the first substep). Prism and Tetrahedral Elements. A free surface of the element (that is. Product Restrictions There are no product restrictions for this element. A triangular element may be formed by defining duplicate K and L node numbers as described in Triangle..Element Library AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC NMISC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Page 439 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions The element must not have a negative or a zero area.0 degrees. If MODE = 0.

Properties not input default as described in Linear Material Properties. four-node thermal element (PLANE55). If the node I heat generation rate HG(I) is input.. the element should be replaced by an equivalent structural element (such as PLANE82). A similar axisymmetric thermal element which accepts nonaxisymmetric loading is PLANE78. PLANE77 Input Summary Element Name PLANE77 Nodes file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. at each node. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in PLANE77. The 8-node thermal element is applicable to a two -dimensional. The element has one degree of freedom.. 20. The element coordinate system orientation is as described in Coordinate Systems. node locations. Convections or heat fluxes (but not both) may be input as surface loads at the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on PLANE77. See the ANSYS. they default to HG(I). A general description of element input is given in Element Input. Inc. steady-state or transient thermal analysis.05. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. PLANE77 2-D 8-Node Thermal Solid Input Data The geometry. temperature. If all corner node heat generation rates are specified.2004 .Element Library Page 440 of 993 PLANE77 is a higher order version of the two-dimensional. Heat generation rates may be input as element body loads at the nodes. The element is defined by eight nodes and orthotropic material properties. each midside node heat generation rate defaults to the average heat generation rate of its adjacent corner nodes. and all others are unspecified. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. If the model containing this element is also to be analyzed structurally. Specific heat and density are ignored for steady-state solutions. L and O. A triangular-shaped element may be formed by defining the same node number for nodes K. Theory Reference for more details about this element. The 8-node elements have compatible temperature shapes and are well suited to model curved boundaries. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads .

05. face 3 (L-K).. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. HG(L). In either the O or R columns. HG(M). face 4 (I-L) Heat Fluxes -face 1 (J-I). O. HG(K). See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. Y indicates that the item is always available. For an axisymmetric analysis the face area and the heat flow rate are on a full 360 basis. Convection heat flux is positive out of the element.OUT. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. face 2 (K-J). face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Heat Generations -HG(I). The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.2004 . L. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. ESOL]. ENTH Surface Loads Convections -face 1 (J-I). face 3 (L-K). DENS. KYY. and a . HG(J). N. 20. HG(N). applied heat flux is positive into the element. K.Element Library I.HG(P) Special Features Birth and death KEYOPT(1) 0 -Consistent specific heat matrix 1 -Diagonalized specific heat matrix KEYOPT(3) 0 -Plane 1 -Axisymmetric Page 441 of 993 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. J. face 2 (K-J). HG(O). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.indicates that the item is not file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. M.. P Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants None Material Properties KXX. C.

See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information. M.. Output only if a surface load is input 2. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.. L. HG(N). 20.05.2004 . The following notation is used in Item and Component Labels for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command FCn file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Item and Component Labels for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. P Material number Volume Location where results are reported Heat generations HG(I). O. K. YC HGEN TG: X. HG(P) Thermal gradient components and vector sum at centroid Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) components and vector sum at centroid Face label Face nodes Face area Film coefficient Average face temperature Fluid bulk temperature Heat flow rate across face by convection Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Average film coefficient of the face Average face bulk temperature Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux Heat flux at each node of face O Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y 2 Y Y Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 1. HG(M).I. HG(J). HG(K). SUM FACE NODES AREA HFILM TAVG TBULK HEAT RATE HEAT RATE/AREA HFAVG TBAVG HFLXAVG HFLUX Definition Page 442 of 993 Element Number Nodes . N.Element Library available. Y. HG(O). SUM TF: X. HG(L). J. Y. PLANE77 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC.

The two -dimensional element must lie in an X-Y plane as shown in PLANE77 and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses.2004 . Prev PLANE75 Prev PLANE78 Element Library Next PLANE78 Next PLANE78 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. along that face. If the thermal element is to be replaced by a PLANE82 structural element with surface stresses requested. the thermal element may be oriented such that face IJ and/or face KL is a free surface. Product Restrictions When used in the product(s) listed below. 20.. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information about the use of midside nodes. The specific heat and enthalpy are evaluated at each integration point to allow for abrupt changes (such as melting) within a coarse grid. the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.05. A face with a removed midside node implies that the temperature varies linearly. Thermal transients having a fine integration time step and a severe thermal gradient at the surface will require a fine mesh at the surface. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint) is assumed to be adiabatic. ANSYS/Professional ? The birth and death special feature is not allowed..Element Library sequence number for solution items for element Face n Page 443 of 993 PLANE77 Item and Component Labels for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG Item FC1 FC2 NMISC 1 7 NMISC 2 8 NMISC 3 9 NMISC 4 10 NMISC 5 11 NMISC 6 12 FC3 13 14 15 16 17 18 FC4 19 20 21 22 23 24 Assumptions and Restrictions The area of the element must be positive. A free surface of the element (that is. rather than parabolically.

the element behaves similar to the axisymmetric case of PLANE77. axisymmetric. temperature. at each node. Various loading cases are described in Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads. the element should be replaced by the equivalent structural element (such as PLANE83). The data input is essentially the same as for PLANE77 and is described in Input Data. the temperature is assumed to be 0 along an entire diameter. See the ANSYS.PLANE78 is a generalization of PLANE77 in that it allows a nonaxisymmetric loading. The MODE and ISYM parameters describe the type of temperature distribution and are discussed in detail in Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads.2004 . The 8-node elements have compatible temperature shapes and are well suited to model curved boundaries.05. steady-state or transient thermal analysis. The element has one degree of freedom. Inc. PLANE78 8-Node Axisymmetric-Harmonic Thermal Solid Input Data The geometry. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . Harmonically varying convections or heat file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. If MODE = 0 and ISYM = 1. If the model containing the element is also to be analyzed structurally. The element is applicable to a two-dimensional. Theory Reference for more details about this element. The element input data also includes the number of harmonic waves ( MODE on the MODE command) and the symmetry condition ( ISYM on the MODE command). and the coordinate system for this axisymmetric thermal solid element are shown in PLANE78.Element Library Page 444 of 993 Name PLANE78 — Axisymmetric-Harmonic 8-Node Thermal Solid product: MP ME PP ED Element Description PLANE78 is used as an axisymmetric ring element with a three-dimensional thermal conduction capability. node locations. If MODE equals 1. 20...

. face 3 (L-K). J. face 3 (L-K). HG(O). L. face 4 (I-L) Heat Fluxes -face 1 (J-I). 20. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. HG(M). face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Heat Generations -HG(I). If the node I heat generation rate HG(I) is input and all others are unspecified. they default to HG(I). HG(N). each midside node heat generation rate defaults to the average heat generation rate of its adjacent corner nodes. Harmonically varying heat generation rates may be input as element body loads at the nodes. KZZ. face 2 (K-J). M. C.05. HG(L). HG(K).. K. ENTH Surface Loads Convections -face 1 (J-I).Element Library Page 445 of 993 fluxes (but not both) may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on PLANE78. O. DENS. If all corner node heat generation rates are specified. HG(J). PLANE78 Input Summary Element Name PLANE78 Nodes I. HG(P) Mode Number -Input mode number on MODE command Special Features Birth and death Loading Conditions Input for ISYM on MODE command 1 -Symmetric loading -1 -Antisymmetric loading KEYOPT(1) 0 -Consistent specific heat matrix 1 -Diagonalized specific heat matrix Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.2004 . A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. N. face 2 (K-J). P Degrees of Freedom TEMP Real Constants None Material Properties KXX. KYY.

The face area and the heat flow rate are on a full 360 basis. L. K. HG(M). N.I. Z FACE NODES AREA HFILM TAVG. Y. For more information about harmonic elements..2 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. ESOL].2004 . Y HG(P) Thermal gradient components and vector sum (X and Y) at centroid Thermal flux (heat flow rate/cross-sectional area) components and vector sum (X and Y) at centroid Face label Face nodes Face area Film coefficient Average of the two end nodal temperatures evaluated at peak value. The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. HG(J). In either the O or R columns.OUT. HG(O).. applied heat flux is positive into the element. YC HGEN TG: X. see Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads. Z TF: X. PLANE78 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT MODE VOLU: XC. TBULK HEAT RATE HEAT RATE/AREA HFAVG TBAVG HFLXAVG Definition O Y Y Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y Y 3 Element Number Nodes . HG(K).05.2 . SUM. The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE.Element Library ? Page 446 of 993 nodal temperatures included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? Convection heat flux is positive out of the element. M. HG(N). a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. SUM. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. HG(L). Y indicates that the item is always available. Y. 20. J. P Material number Number of waves in loading Volume Location where results are reported Heat generations HG(I).indicates that the item is not available. and a . O. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. fluid bulk temperature at peak value Heat flow rate across face by convection Heat flow rate per unit area across face by convection Average film coefficient of the face Average face bulk temperature Heat flow rate per unit area across face caused by input heat flux 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 .2 .

The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command FCn sequence number for solution items for element Face n PLANE78 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name AREA HFAVG TAVG TBAVG HEAT RATE HFLXAVG Item FC1 FC2 NMISC 1 7 NMISC 2 8 NMISC 3 9 NMISC 4 10 NMISC 5 11 NMISC 6 12 FC3 13 14 15 16 17 18 FC4 19 20 21 22 23 24 Assumptions and Restrictions The element must not have a negative or a zero area.2004 . Available only at centroid as a *GET item. not adjacent to another element and not subjected to a boundary constraint) is assumed to be adiabatic. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information about the use of midside nodes. Gradient and flux peak at THETA = 0 and THETA = 90 ÷ Mode degrees 2. rather than parabolically.. A free surface of the element (that is. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information. If the thermal element is to be replaced by the analogous structural element (PLANE83) with surface stresses requested. Thermal transients having a fine integration time step and a severe thermal gradient at the surface will also require a fine mesh at the surface. A face with a removed midside node implies that the temperature varies linearly.05. along that face.Element Library HFLUX Heat flux at each node of face Page 447 of 993 2 2 1. 20. Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants. Output only if a surface load is input 3. if applicable) is a free surface. The element must lie in the global X-Y plane as shown in PLANE78 and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses. the thermal element should be oriented so that face IJ (and also face KL.

then evaluation is done at 0. The fluid element is used to model fluids contained within vessels having no net flow rate. Theory Reference for more details about this element. See FLUID80 for a three-dimensional version of this element. The fluid element is defined by four nodes having two degrees of freedom at each node: translation in the nodal x and y directions.Element Library Page 448 of 993 Temperature dependent material properties (including the film coefficient) are assumed to be axisymmetric even if the temperature varies harmonically. FLUID79 2-D Contained Fluid Element file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The element may be used in a structural analysis as a plane element or as an axisymmetric ring element.0 degrees.. See the ANSYS.. if no MODE = 0 substep exists. Acceleration effects. Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. The fluid element is particularly well suited for calculating hydrostatic pressures and fluid/solid interactions. Another fluid element (FLUID116) is available to model fluids flowing in pipes and channels. If MODE = 0.05. 20. Inc. properties are evaluated at the temperatures calculated in the previous substep (or at TUNIF if for the first substep). may be included. properties are evaluated at temperatures calculated from the previous MODE = 0 substep. If MODE > 0. as well as temperature effects.2004 . Note The reduced method is the only acceptable method for modal analyses using the ANSYS fluid elements. such as in sloshing problems. Prev PLANE77 Prev FLUID79 Element Library Next FLUID79 Next FLUID79 Name FLUID79 — 2-D Contained Fluid product: MP ME ST PP ED Element Description FLUID79 is a modification of the 2-D structural solid element (PLANE42).

20.05. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. FLUID79 Input Summary Element Name FLUID79 Nodes I. they default to T(I). unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. EX. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. The use of KEYOPT (2) for gravity springs is discussed in Input Data. L Degrees of Freedom UX.639 x 10 -7 lb-sec/in2) . which is interpreted as the "fluid elastic modulus". J. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on FLUID79.. For any other input pattern. should be the bulk modulus of the fluid (approximately 300.2004 . The element input data includes four nodes and the isotropic material properties.000 psi for water). Positive pressures act into the element. The viscosity property (VISC) is used to compute a damping matrix for dynamic analyses (typical viscosity value for water is 1.Element Library Page 449 of 993 Input Data The geometry. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes.. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in FLUID79. K. UY Real Constants None file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. If all other temperatures are unspecified. node locations. Vertical acceleration ( ACELY on the ACEL command) is needed for the gravity springs.

a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). face 3 (L-K). T(L) KEYOPT(2) 0 -Place gravity springs on all sides of all elements 1 -Place gravity springs only on face of elements located on Y = 0. DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (J-I). and a .indicates that the item is not available. Nodal forces and reaction forces are on a full 360 basis for axisymmetric models.05. ALPX. DENS. ESOL]. J. In either the O or R columns.0 plane (elements must not have positive Y coordinates) KEYOPT(3) 0 -Plane 1 -Axisymmetric Page 450 of 993 Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? degree of freedom results included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? The pressure and temperature are evaluated at the element centroid.OUT..I. face 2 (K-J).2004 . The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. L Material number Volume O Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. 20. T(J). The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.Element Library Material Properties EX.. K. Y indicates that the item is always available. VISC. FLUID79 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: Definition Element Number Nodes . T(K).

K. The element temperature is taken to be the average of the nodal temperatures.. L Temperatures T(I).J. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information. P3 at L.. Available only at centroid as a *GET item.L FLUID79 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name PRES P1 P2 P3 P4 Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 1 I 3 8 J 2 5 K 4 7 L 6 9 Assumptions and Restrictions The area of the element must be positive. Radial motion should be constrained at the centerline.I. Elements should be rectangular whenever possible..0. 20. P2 at K. The fluid element must lie in an X-Y plane as shown in FLUID79 and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses.... Usually the Y-axis is oriented in the vertical direction with the top surface at Y = 0. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I..L sequence number for data at nodes I. P4 at I..J. Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants..05.Element Library XC. J. T(L) Average temperature Average pressure Y Y Y Y Y 1 Y Y Y Page 451 of 993 1. Axisymmetric elements should always be rectangular.2004 . The nonlinear transient dynamic analysis should be used instead of the linear transient dynamic analysis file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. T(K). as results are known to be of lower quality for some cases using non-rectangular shapes. YC PRES TEMP TAVG PAVG Location where results are reported Pressures P1 at nodes J. T(J).

Prev PLANE78 Prev FLUID80 Element Library Next FLUID80 Next FLUID80 Name FLUID80 — 3-D Contained Fluid product: MP ME ST PP ED Element Description FLUID80 is a modification of the 3-D structural solid element (SOLID45).2004 . The fluid element is defined by eight nodes having three degrees of freedom at each node: translation in the nodal x. such as in sloshing problems. A very small stiffness (EX x 1. Theory Reference for more details about this element. as well as temperature effects. may be included. y. Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. See the ANSYS..05. The fluid element is used to model fluids contained within vessels having no net flow rate. FLUID80 3-D Contained Fluid Element file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh..Element Library Page 452 of 993 for this element.0E-9) is associated with the shear and rotational strains to insure static stability. Only the lumped mass matrix is available. and z directions. Inc. Acceleration effects. 20. See FLUID80 for more assumptions and restrictions. Note The reduced method is the only acceptable method for modal analyses using the ANSYS fluid elements. See FLUID79 for a two -dimensional version of this element. The fluid element is particularly well suited for calculating hydrostatic pressures and fluid/solid interactions. Another fluid element (FLUID116) is available to model fluids flowing in pipes and channels.

Hydrodynamic results are not affected by this overstiffness. In this case. Gravity effects [ACEL] must be included if a free surface exists. these negative springs may cause erroneous results and "negative pivot" messages.. If all other temperatures are unspecified. A general description of element input file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. while necessary to keep the free surface in place. where the fluid must be contained to keep the fluid from leaking out. expressed as a ratio of the computed answer over the correct answer is 1. If the bottom consists of a flexible container. which is interpreted as the "fluid elastic modulus". Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. and at the bottom. 20. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. which may be thought of as gravity springs used to hold the surface in place. the positive and negative effects cancel out.0.000 psi for water).2004 . The element input data includes eight nodes and the isotropic material properties.Element Library Page 453 of 993 Input Data The geometry. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. which is normally very close to 1. These surface springs. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in FLUID80. use of KEYOPT(2) = 1 is recommended. they default to T(I). Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . The viscosity property (VISC) is used to compute a damping matrix for dynamic analyses. artificially reduce the hydrostatic motion of the free surface.05. or if the degrees of freedom tangential to a curved surface are released.0 + (bottom pressure/bulk modulus)).639 x 10 -7 lb-sec/in2 . For any other input pattern. A typical viscosity value for water is 1.0/(1. This is performed by adding springs to each node. Positive pressures act into the element. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. The element also includes special surface effects. and negative on the bottom. EX. Pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on FLUID80. should be the bulk modulus of the fluid (approximately 300. the negative spring has no effect (as long as all degrees of freedom on the bottom are fixed). node locations. For an interior node.. The error for a tank with vertical walls. with the spring constants being positive on the top of the element.

indicates that the item is not available. a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. Y indicates that the item is always available. face 5 (L -I-M-P). The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. T(J).. O. N. ESOL]. FLUID80 Element Output Definitions file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. face 2 (I-J-N-M). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. UZ Real Constants None Material Properties EX. face 3 (J-K-O-N). The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE.. DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (J-I-L-K). T(N). T(P) KEYOPT(2) 0 -Place gravity springs on all sides of all elements 1 -Place gravity springs only on face of elements located on Z = 0.0 plane (elements must not have positive Z coordinates) Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: ? degree of freedom results included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? The pressure and temperature are evaluated at the element centroid. K. face 4 (K -L-P-O). T(O). T(L). M.05. P Degrees of Freedom UX. J.OUT. L. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results. UY. T(K). 20. and a . ALPX. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. In either the O or R columns.2004 . DENS. VISC. face 6 (M-N-O-P) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). Page 454 of 993 FLUID80 Input Summary Element Name FLUID80 Nodes I. T(M).Element Library is given in Element Input.

. J.. K.. M. L. O. T(M). T(K). K.. N. T(P) Average temperature Average pressure 1.. K. L. P5 at L. P2 at I... The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I. N.05. Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.P FLUID80 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Command Name PRES P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 1 I 3 6 19 J 2 7 10 K 5 11 14 L 4 15 18 M 9 20 22 N 8 13 23 O 12 17 24 P 16 21 25 file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.P sequence number for data at nodes I. O. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. P Material number Volume Location where results are reported Page 455 of 993 O Y Y Y Y R Y Y Y Y Y 1 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Pressures P1 at nodes J. O. 20.2004 . T(N). YC. P.. I. ZC PRES TEMP TAVG PAVG Definition Element Number Nodes .J. T(L). See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information. P Temperatures T(I). M. P3 at J.Element Library Name EL NODES MAT VOLU: XC. P6 at M. L..J. P4 at K. P.I. J. I. T(O). N.. O. T(J). N. M.

master degrees of freedom should be selected at all nodes on the free fluid surface in the direction normal to the free surface. Other nodal displacements. Elements may be numbered either as shown in FLUID80 or may have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged. For the case of a modal analysis with irregular meshes.0.. 20. The amount of flow permitted is limited to that which will not cause gross distortions in the element. When used for a static application. In a reduced analysis.Element Library Page 456 of 993 Assumptions and Restrictions Zero volume elements are not allowed. as results are known to be of lower quality for some cases using non-rectangular shapes. without significantly affecting the vertical motion of the free surface. with all nodes on these planes being included. Gravity must be input if there is a free surface. The element temperature is taken to be the average of the nodal temperatures.. coincident nodes that are coupled only in the direction normal to the interface.2004 . one can expect one or more low frequency eigenvectors.05. Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. This occurs most frequently when the elements are not numbered properly. The element gives valid nodal forces representing hydrostatic pressure and also valid vertical displacements at the free surface. Fluid element at a boundary should not be attached directly to structural elements but should have separate. the element may not be twisted such that the element has two separate volumes. The large deflection option should not be used with this element. Other master degrees of freedom. Arbitrarily small numbers are included to give the element some shear and rotational stability. representing internal fluid motions. Only the lumped mass matrix is available. the free surface must be input flat. if any. Elements should be rectangular (brick shaped) whenever possible. represent energy-free internal motions of the fluid. Structures are usually modeled with the Z-axis oriented in the vertical direction and the top surface at Z = 0. should only be selected normal to one or more flat planes within the fluid. Other selections may produce large internal rotations. The nonlinear transient dynamic analysis should be used instead of the linear transient dynamic analysis for this element. Also. which may be large. Prev FLUID79 Prev FLUID81 Element Library Next FLUID81 Next FLUID81 Name FLUID81 — Axisymmetric-Harmonic Contained Fluid file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.

and the isotropic material properties. Acceleration effects." should be the bulk modulus of the fluid (approximately 300.05. The MODE and ISYM parameters are discussed in detail in Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads. the element behaves similar to the axisymmetric case of FLUID79..000 psi for water). The viscosity property (VISC) is used to compute a damping matrix for dynamic analyses. The element is used to model fluids contained within vessels having no net flow rate. EX. It is defined by four nodes having three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. in that the loading need not be axisymmetric. Vertical acceleration (ACELY on the ACEL command) is needed for the gravity springs regardless of the value of MODE.2004 . A typical viscosity value for water is 1.Element Library product: MP ME ST PP ED Page 457 of 993 Element Description FLUID81 is a modification of the axisymmetric structural solid element (PLANE25). The use of KEYOPT(2) for gravity springs is discussed in Input Data. See the ANSYS. the number of harmonic waves ( MODE on the MODE command). and the coordinate system for this element are shown in FLUID81. as well as temperature effects. The element input data includes four nodes. may be included. Theory Reference for more details about this element.dimensional fluid element. the two. The fluid element is particularly well suited for calculating hydrostatic pressures and fluid/solid interactions. The element is used in a structural analysis as an axisymmetric ring element.. the symmetry condition ( ISYM on the MODE command). y. Various loading cases are described in Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads. If MODE = 0 and ISYM = 1. 20. such as in sloshing problems. which is interpreted as the "fluid elastic modulus. Note The reduced method is the only acceptable method for modal analyses using the ANSYS fluid elements. and z directions. node locations. Inc. FLUID81 Axisymmetric-Harmonic Contained Fluid Element Input Data The geometry. Density (DENS) must be input as a positive number. Another fluid element (FLUID116) is available to model fluids flowing in pipes and channels. even for a file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. The element is a generalization of the axisymmetric version of FLUID79.639 x 10 -7 lb-sec/in2 .

For any other input pattern. VISC.05. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. if any.2004 . DENS. Positive pressures act into the element. A summary of the element input is given in Input Summary. T(L) Mode Number Input mode number on MODE command Loading Condition Input for ISYM on MODE command 1 -Symmetric loading -1 -Anti-symmetric loading KEYOPT(2) 0 -Place gravity springs on all sides of all elements 1 -Place gravity springs only on face of elements located on Y = 0. Element loads are described in Node and Element Loads . Harmonically varying pressures may be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers on FLUID81. UY. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. 20. If all other temperatures are unspecified. DAMP Surface Loads Pressures -face 1 (J-I). Harmonically varying nodal forces. K. Harmonically varying temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. ALPX. T(K).. J.. face 3 (L-K).0 plane (element must not have positive Y coordinates) Output Data The solution output associated with the element is in two forms: file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. FLUID81 Input Summary Element Name FLUID81 Nodes I. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. should be input on a full 360 basis.Element Library Page 458 of 993 modal analysis. L Degrees of Freedom UX. UZ Real Constants None Material Properties EX. face 2 (K-J). T(J). face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Temperatures -T(I). they default to T(I).

For more information about harmonic elements. T(K).I. T(L) Y Average temperature Y Average pressure Y Definition R Y Y Y 1 Y Y 2 Y Y Y 1.Element Library ? Page 459 of 993 degree of freedom results included in the overall nodal solution additional element output as shown in Element Output Definitions ? The pressure and temperature are evaluated at the element centroid. FLUID81 Element Output Definitions Name EL NODES MAT ISYM MODE VOLU: XC. Y indicates that the item is always available. P2 at K. In the displacement printout. P4 at I. We recommend that you always use the angle field on the SET command when postprocessing the results. YC PRES TEMP TAVG PAVG O Element Number Y Nodes . and a . K.J. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. P3 at L.Symmetric loading -1 .indicates that the item is not available.05. 20.. T(J). ISYM = 1 loading case.Anti-symmetric loading file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh.I. L Y Material number Y Loading Key 1 Number of waves in loading Y Volume Y Location where results are reported Y Pressures P1 at nodes J. J. in the MODE = 1. see Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads. UX and UY are the peak values at = 0 and UZ is the peak value at = 90 . a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available. ESOL]. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.L Y Temperatures T(I). Printout for combined loading cases may be obtained from the POST1 routine. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file. The following notation is used in Element Output Definitions: The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation: A colon (:) in the Name column indicates the item can be accessed by the Component Name method [ETABLE. The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname. In either the O or R columns.. Nodal forces and reaction forces are on a full 360 basis. If ISYM is: 1 . For example.2004 . the UZ component is out-of-phase with the UX and UY components.OUT.K.

See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this manual for more information. The Y-axis should be oriented in the vertical direction and the top surface is usually at Y = 0.....0. An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants..J. 20.. are evaluated at the reference temperature [TREF].L sequence number for data at nodes I. The following notation is used in Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL: Name output quantity as defined in the Element Output Definitions Item predetermined Item label for ETABLE command E sequence number for single-valued or constant element data I. Elements should be rectangular since results are known to be of lower quality for non-rectangular shapes. Temperature dependent material properties. Page 460 of 993 Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method.J. if any..L FLUID81 Item and Sequence Numbers for the ETABLE and ESOL Commands Name PRES P1 P2 P3 P4 Item SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC SMISC E 1 I 3 8 J 2 5 K 4 7 L 6 9 Assumptions and Restrictions The area of the element must be positive.Element Library 2.05. See FLUID80 for more assumptions and restrictions.2004 .. The fluid element must lie in an X-Y plane as shown in FLUID81 and the Y-axis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses.. Available only at centroid as a *GET item. file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Product Restrictions There are no product-specific restrictions for this element. A lumped mass matrix may be obtained for this element with the LUMPM command.. The element temperature is taken to be the average of the nodal temperatures. The nonlinear transient dynamic analysis should be used instead of the linear transient dynamic analysis for this element.

05. swelling. PLANE82 2-D 8-Node Structural Solid Input Data The geometry.Element Library Page 461 of 993 Prev FLUID80 Prev PLANE82 Element Library Next PLANE82 Next PLANE82 Name PLANE82 — 2-D 8-Node Structural Solid product: MP ME ST PR PP ED Element Description PLANE82 is a higher order version of the two-dimensional. and the coordinate system for this element are shown in PLANE82. large deflection.2004 . file://D:\Documents%20and%20Settings\Administrator\Local%20Settings\Temp\~hh. Theory Reference for more details about this element. Inc. stress stiffening. 20. It provides more accurate results for mixed (quadrilateral-triangular) automatic meshes and can tolerate irregular shapes without as much loss of accuracy. Various printout options are also available. four-node element (PLANE42). The element has plasticity.. The element may be used as a plane element or as an axisymmetric element. See the ANSYS. and large strain capabilities.. See PLANE83 for a description of an axisymmetric element which accepts nonaxisymmetric loading. creep. The 8-node element is defined by eight nodes having two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. node locations. The 8-node elements have compatible displacement shapes and are well suited to model curved boundaries.

. A general description of element input is given in Element Input. T(L). they default to T(I).UNSYM. The nodal forces. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. face 3 (I-K). Besides the nodes. the element input data includes a thickness (TK) (for the plane stress option only) and the orthotropic material properties. if KEYOPT (3) = 3 Material Properties EX. DENS. O. KEYOPT(9) = 1 is used to read initial stress data from a user subroutine. ALPZ. but 6-node. You can include the effects of pressure load stiffness in a geometric nonlinear analysis using SOLCONTROL. 20. P Degrees of Freedom UX.. (PRXY. each midside node temperature defaults to the average temperature of its adjacent corner nodes. face 4 (I-L) Body Loads Temperatures -T (I). KEYOPT(5) and KEYOPT(6) parameters provide various element printout options (see Element Solution). If all corner node temperatures are specified. should be input per unit of depth for a plane analysis (except for KEYOPT (3) = 3) and on a full 360 basis for an axisymmetric analysis. Orthotropic material directions correspond to the element coordinate directions. 2 Thickness. EY. see the ANSYS Guide to User Programmable Features. unspecified temperatures default to TUNIF. PRYZ. K.