CalRecovery Report No.

1364

Final Report

Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis, Gasification, and Liquefaction
____________

California Integrated Waste Management Board
July 1995

Submitted to: California Integrated Waste Management Board 8800 Cal Center Drive Sacramento, California 95826

By: CalRecovery, Inc. 725C Alfred Nobel Drive Hercules, California 94547

in association with: American Consulting and Commodities, Inc. ICF, Inc. Recycling by Nature

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This report is based upon work performed pursuant to a contract with the California Integrated Waste Management Board. The contract number and dollar amount are as follows: IWM-C2050; $69,627.

DISCLAIMER The statements and conclusions of this report are those of the Contractor and not necessarily those of the California Integrated Waste Management Board. . and assumes no liability for the information contained in the succeeding text. express or implied. or the State of California. The State makes no warranty. its employees.

...........................................................................3-3 References .................................................................................1-1 Technologies.............2-14 References .............................................................................................................................................................. GASIFICATION......................................................................................................1-5 References ............................................................... ...........................2-1 PGL Processes .......1-5 2....2-6 Current PGL Process .............................................................................................................................................................................................................2-1 The Tire PGL Industry.................................2-4 Historic Development ......................................................3-5 4........................................................................................................3-1 Characteristics of Feedstocks..............................................3-1 Quantities ................... INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2-13 Liquefaction.............2-7 Gasification .................. OPERATING CONDITIONS AND PRODUCTS .............. CURRENT STATUS.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2-7 General .............................................................1-1 General .....................1-4 Methods of Analysis ...............................3-1 General ......................................... PYROLYSIS....Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page Number 1.......... Inc......................................................................................................................................................................2-4 Previous Surveys of Tire PGL .................................. AND LIQUEFACTION PROCESS FEEDSTOCKS..................................................................................4-1 July 1995 i CalRecovery.....................2-7 Pyrolysis................................1-5 Organization of the Report..................................................4-1 General ............................................................................................4-1 Operating Conditions ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................2-14 3.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................4-11 Oil ............................................................................5-6 Potential Liquid Wastes........5-8 Overview of Applicable Liquid Waste Statutes..................................................................................5-10 General Background....................................5-12 Air Pollutant Control Options ...................................5-1 Tire Storage Management ............................................................4-5 Material Balances ........................................................................4-16 5.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Temperature and Pressure....................................................................................................................... Inc............4-8 Characteristics ...................................................................5-3 Overview of Applicable Solid Waste Statutes and Regulations .........................................................................5-10 Overview of Applicable Air Pollutant Statutes and Regulations ...........................................................................5-11 Characterization of Air Emissions..........................................................................................................................5-1 Introduction .........................5-3 General Background.............................................................................................................................................................4-5 Throughput ..............5-3 Characterization of Solid Wastes ..............................................................................................................4-8 PGL Products....................5-8 General Background.........4-8 Quantities..............................................................................................................4-14 Steel and Fiber..................5-9 Air Pollutant Emissions .....................................................................................................4-1 Safety .................................................................................................................................................................................4-11 Char and Carbon Black.............................................................. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF TIRE PGL .....4-5 Operating Schedules ...............................................................................................................................................................................5-5 Solid Waste Management Options.............................5-12 July 1995 ii CalRecovery...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................5-8 Liquid Waste Management Options .................................4-2 Heating Rate................................................................................................................... .....................................................4-11 Gas..................................................................................................................................................................................5-2 Potential Solid Wastes .........................................................................4-2 Energy Requirements..................................5-1 General ........................................................................................................................................4-14 References .....................................................................

..........5-17 6.....................6-8 Use as a Printing Ink ................................ PRODUCT MARKETS ...........................................................................6-1 July 1995 iii CalRecovery.......................................................................................................................................................................................................6-2 Market Assessment for Materials Generated from Tire PGL......................................................6-7 Upgrading to Carbon Black .....................................................6-7 Use as Special Carbon Blacks ..................................6-2 Potential Uses ........................6-6 Structure................................................................................................................................................6-1 Gas........................................................6-2 Variability of End Products .................................................................................................................6-5 Surface Area ......................................................................................6-9 Market Assessment...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6-1 Oil ...........................................................Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Potential Environmental Impacts from the Storage of PGL Products......................................................6-5 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................................6-10 Gas .............................................................................6-11 Steel ...............................6-6 Potential Uses .................................6-1 General .........................................................................................................................................................................................................6-11 Market Assessment......................................................................6-3 Market Assessment...........6-2 Steel .....................................................................................6-9 Use as an Activated Carbon.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Inc.............................................................................................................................6-11 Materials Derived from Tire PGL ...6-2 Oil ............................................................6-9 Use as a Fuel .......6-10 Potential Uses ..........................................................................................................................................6-5 Carbon Black ........................................................................6-1 Carbon Black.............................................................................5-13 Resource Utilization .................................... ...................................................................................................................5-13 References ..........................................6-2 Use as a Fuel ........6-2 Use as a Lubricant.....6-7 Use in the Manufacture of Plastic Products ...............................

.............................7-14 References ......................................................8-1 Feedstocks .....................................................................................................................................................8-3 Markets .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................8-1 Conclusions.................7-2 Estimates of Revenues...........................................................................................6-12 7..................................................................................................8-2 Environmental Impacts ...................................................................................................................................................................7-10 Sensitivity to Variations in Costs ........7-4 Project Economics....7-1 Capital Cost Estimates .................................................................8-5 July 1995 iv CalRecovery...........................................................8-3 Economics ............................................................................................................................ COST SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS .............................................................8-1 General .................................................... CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ....7-14 8..............................................................................................................................................................8-4 Recommendations ..................7-4 Tire Disposal Costs In California.........................8-1 Technology ........7-11 Sensitivity to Variations in Revenues .7-10 Assumptions ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7-1 Introduction ....................................................................................................Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Market Assessment.......................................................................................................................................................7-9 Sensitivity Analysis............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Inc.......................................................................................................................................................................................8-2 Operating Conditions and Products .7-11 Sensitivity to Carbon Black Sales ...............6-12 References ....7-1 Operating Cost Estimates.........................7-11 Summary .................................. ........................7-1 Reported Project Economics .....................................................................................

...................... B-1 B-2 Firms.... B-3 B-4 Throughputs Reported for Actual Facilities....................... D-1 D-2 Chemical Characteristics of Tire-Derived Pyrolytic Oil and Commercial Fuels .. C-1 D-1 Chemical Characteristics of Tire-Derived Char and Carbon Black............................. D-3 D-4 Selected Compounds in Tire-Derived Oil.......... D-4 July 1995 v CalRecovery....................................................... ........................................ B-2 B-3 Survey Summary ..Facility Descriptions and Products............................................................ A-1 B-1 Explicit or Inferred Corporate Relationships ................................................ Inc.............................................................................................. D-2 D-3 Chemical Composition of Tire-Derived Gas and Federal Air Emissions Regulations ...............................................................................................Nationwide and California............................................................... B-11 C-1 Physical Characteristics of Waste Tires and Supplemental Feedstocks............... Processes.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix A-1 Page Number Tire Production and Waste Tire Generation ... B-10 B-5 Throughputs Reported for Planned Facilities ............................... or Projects Eliminated from Analysis with Comments ..........................

.. E-1 E-2 Summary of Types and Applications of Special Carbon Blacks.................... D-6 E-1 Selected Properties of Commercial Carbon Blacks................................ ...............................................................................................................................................Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report D-5 Physical Properties of Tire-Derived Char or Carbon Black........ E-2 F-1 Summary of Potential Waters and Management Options ............................All Tire PGL Projects............................. Inc........F-1 July 1995 vi CalRecovery.......................................................... D-5 D-6 Tire-Derived Gas Composition....

................ ............Nationwide and California.............................2-11 3-1 Chemical Characteristics of Some Potential PGL Feedstocks ................2-2 Page Number 2-2 Frequency Distribution of Tire PGL Project Developers Worldwide .............All Tire PGL Facilities................................................................................. Gasification............................................. Inc............................... and Liquefaction Projects Worldwide ........................................................2-3 2-3 Designations and Capacities of Selected PGL Equipment....3-4 4-1 Operating Conditions ......4-10 4-5 Mean Values of Chemical Characteristics of Tire-Derived PGL Products..................................................All Tire PGL Facilities .................4-12 July 1995 vii CalRecovery.....................................................................All Tire PGL Reactors .......................................................3-2 3-2 Mean Bulk Densities and Particle Sizes of Waste Tires and Supplemental PGL Feedstocks .....4-6 4-3 Historic and Planned Periods of Operation and Availability ..............................................................4-4 4-2 Mean Throughput Capacities .............................4-7 4-4 Estimated Current and Projected Quantities of Tire-Derived PGL Products ....Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report LIST OF TABLES Table 2-1 Summary of the Status of Tire Pyrolysis...........................................

................All Tire PGL Projects ................................................................................7-6 7-4 Unit Prices of Tire-Derived Products Compared with Unit Prices of Virgin Products .....6-4 7-1 Mean Values of Reported Capital Costs ...........................................All Tire PGL Projects ....5-16 6-1 Comparison of Tire-Derived Oil with Fuel Oils...7-7 7-5 Reported Unit Costs and Revenues ...... Inc......................Tire Projects Compared with Estimates for Similar Projects................................................Tire Projects Compared with Estimates for Similar Projects........................5-15 5-4 Summary of the Water and External Energy Use by Tire PGL Processes..........................................Tire Projects ...................................7-3 7-2 Mean Values of Reported Operating Costs ..............7-8 July 1995 viii CalRecovery.....................5-14 5-3 Hazardous Constituents in Conrad's Tire-Derived Gas ..................4-15 5-1 Mean Values of Potential PGL Waste Quantities and Management Options ..................................Tire Projects ...........................................................................................................................Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report 4-6 Mean Concentrations of Trace Elements and Characteristics of Ash in Tire-Derived PGL Products ...............................4-13 4-7 Mean Physical Properties of Tire-Derived Char or Carbon Black .......................................................... ..............7-5 7-3 Mean Values of Reported Annual Revenues .................................5-7 5-2 Mean Values of Air Pollutant Emissions ......

.........2-10 4-1 Tire-Derived PGL Product Yields vs................ Full...............................7-12 7-2 Sensitivity of Tire Pyrolysis Economics to Product Revenues Required Tire Tip Fee to Break Even at ±20% Variations in Revenues ................. Demonstration.........................................................1-3 2-1 Worldwide Locations of Conceptual..............................................................4-3 4-2 Typical Material Balance for Tire PGL Processes .........................................4-9 7-1 Sensitivity of Tire Pyrolysis Economics to Cost Elements Required Tire Tip Fee to Break Even at ±20% Variations in Cost ... ...... Temperature ....... and Other Scale Tire PGL Projects................................Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1-1 Page Number Typical Composition of Shredded Domestic Tires........Typical Tire Pyrolysis System..................................................... Inc..........................7-15 7-4 Sensitivity of Tire Pyrolysis Project Profitability to Percent of Carbon Black Sold at Various Tire Tip Fees .7-16 July 1995 ix CalRecovery...................................................................................................7-13 7-3 Sensitivity of Tire Pyrolysis Project Profitability to Carbon Black Sales Price at Various Tire Tip Fees ..................... Laboratory..............2-5 2-2 Flow Diagram .............

.

Based on an average heating value of 15..6 x 1012 Btu in California in 1993. approximately 28. While California is home to a waste tire incinerator. harbor rodents. as other wastes consolidate and subside. July 1995 1-1 CalRecovery. approximately 285. Tire PGL would also reduce the volume of residue material remaining for disposal.000 Btu/pound1 (Btu/lb).Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report SECTION 1. The notation PGL is used throughout this report to indicate simple pyrolysis as well as the more complex processes: gasification and liquefaction. This report serves as background for assessing PGL in terms of the environmental consequences of the technologies. thus. production accounted for the remaining 17 percent [1-1]. Whole waste tires are difficult to dispose in landfills.e. 5 percent. but represent a major disposal problem. exclusive of retreads [1-1]. Using an average weight of 20 pound/tire1 (lb/tire). steel. This annual energy potential could meet the annual electricity needs of a typical community of 60. and liquefaction (PGL)2 are three related technologies that could potentially recover usable resources (i.. In California. each resident discards approximately one waste tire annually [1-1]. INTRODUCTION General In the United States.e.000 tons of waste tires were discarded in California. . gasification. One in twenty waste tires. disposed tires represented approximately 8.000 to 85. i. and move upward in the landfill over time. most tires are disposed in landfills or in tire storage piles. Nonetheless. Incineration may not "maximize the potential economic recovery of energy and chemical materials" [1-3].000 homes. California law requires that tires be shredded prior to disposal in landfills.5 million waste tires were discarded in 1993 [1-2]. thirteen other states had adopted regulations dealing with waste tires [1-1]. Discard of tires resulted in approximately 242 million waste tires nationwide in 1990. chemical feedstocks. or illegal disposal accounted for 78 percent of waste tire management nationwide in 1990. Recovery for new products or energy 1 2 This value is used for conversions throughout this report. and fiber) from waste tires. landfilling. Waste tires are a minor portion of the California solid waste stream. stockpiling. By January 1991. were exported. Inc. they tend to collect gas. energy. 23 states including California had enacted environmental legislation addressing waste tire disposal. the California Integrated Waste Management Board (CIWMB) wished to study tire PGL as a waste tire management strategy. Pyrolysis.

Approximately 81 percent of tires shipped by manufacturers are passenger tires.000 tire/year were disposed in 1992 in the United States by PGL [1-8]. and approximately 130 PGL systems are reportedly operating worldwide. Nippon. Firestone. or considered for application. U. Union Carbide. Pyrolysis. unsafe and dangerous conditions. Municipal solid wastes (MSW). medical wastes. used tire recovery for beneficial reuse is desirable.000. and Texaco. Calculated based on the ratio of California disposal to nationwide disposal. liquefaction. Inc. an industry consultant estimated that approximately 1. pyrolysis is the most common. manufacturers shipped approximately 260. petroleum. In terms of the scale of the tire PGL industry. sewage sludge. have invested an estimated $100 million in waste PGL projects. California. in Citrus Heights. and Texaco. tire manufacturing consumes more than half the rubber used nationwide.5 million tires. seven commercial-scale pyrolysis or gasification facilities are now operating in the United States. Figure 1-1 illustrates the typical composition of modern tires. Because tire disposal involves a waste substream that is generally homogeneous3 and contains resources. including Goodyear.7 or an estimated 1. in Montebello.S. Bus and truck tires (approximately 5 times the weight of passenger tires) comprise about 18 percent of the tire market. Occidental. There are two reported tire PGL demonstration5 projects in California. but new tires contain only approximately 2 percent by weight recycled rubber [1-1]. Homestead Minerals. July 1995 1-2 CalRecovery. As defined in Section 2. Entrepreneurs and major firms. Foster-Wheeler [1-7]. 3 4 5 6 7 Tires can be separately collected with relative ease. and deinking sludges. to different wastes4 with varied success. Although offering the prospect of substantial financial returns. The remainder of the market (about 1 percent) is farm equipment tires. Of these three technologies. . Uniroyal. PGL projects have failed because of a range of reasons [1-7]. lack of an adequate supply of suitable feedstock. California. tires. In the United States. Appendix Table A-1 reports tire production nationwide and in California since 1980.116 tons/year. including: • • • operating problems. and gasification are potential disposal/recovery technologies that have been applied.600 tire/year.6 These two projects may dispose approximately 111.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report In 1990. Tire PGL systems may process two million tires annually by 1995 and three million tires annually by 1998 [1-8]. Currently.

Typical Composition of Shredded Domestic Tires Source: [1-6].Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Hydrogen Sulfur 8% Fe 2% 7% Other 1% Carbon 82% Figure 1-1. July 1995 1-3 CalRecovery. . and estimates by CalRecovery based on survey information. Inc.

lack of adequate environmental controls.g. Gasification of organics occurs at operating conditions between the complete absence of oxygen and stoichiometric (i.. For example. and high costs. waste tires) are the feedstock. sufficient oxygen to complete the oxidation reaction). Gasification involves drying and pyrolyzing a feedstock. In the early 1980s. Liquefaction is the thermochemical conversion of an organic solid into a petroleum-like liquid. Technologies Pyrolysis involves heating organic materials without oxygen to break them down to simpler organic compounds. the U.. July 1995 1-4 CalRecovery. This study assesses the current state of the art of waste tire disposal using pyrolysis.g.. to those of petroleum-based fuels. oil. Gasification processes maximized the effect of carbon-hydrogen ratios. fuel oils). Furthermore. Liquefaction typically involves the production of a liquid composed of heavy molecular compounds from a pyrolytic gas stream. and gas. Essentially. but not identical. The report provides technical. and market information.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report • • • poor product quality. products of the process include char or carbon char. economic. the waste industry saw gasification as promising. the product gas was suitable for use in existing boilers [1-10]. In its 1991 report on scrap tire markets. environmental. the EPA excluded tire pyrolysis as a feasible or potentially feasible market for waste tires [1-9]. When organic wastes (e. liquefaction is manipulation of the pyrolysis process in order to produce a liquid with characteristics similar to petroleum-based liquids (e. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concluded that no PGL unit had shown sustained commercial operation [1-9]. gasification. pyrolysis can convert wood to charcoal and a low-Btu gas. As a result. and oxidizing the solid char to heat the reaction and provide carbon monoxide (CO) to the gas. The liquid has properties similar. and includes conclusions and recommendations for future activities. and liquefaction.S. . Inc.e.

Inc. and after a review of applicable federal and California statutes and regulations. Section 4 summarizes the operating data for tire PGL projects. and D. Appendix E. pp. appendices are included that contain supporting data. Where quantitative data were sparse or nonexistent." Waste: Handling. References [1-1] United States Environmental Protection Agency. In Section 7. Analyses and interpretation of the environmental and regulatory matters related to PGL processes were made based on the results of the literature review and of the surveys. We conducted a survey8 of the known domestic and many international tire PGL operations. Besler. Section 2 presents a review of the status of the technologies. Paul T. [1-2] [1-3] California Integrated Waste Management Board. pp. . "The Fuel Properties of Pyrolytic Oil Derived From The Batch Pyrolysis of Tyre Waste.. Taylor. we present qualitative results. Markets for Scrap Tires. 21-30. 15-36. Where adequate data were available to draw valid statistical conclusions. the analyses were completed. Section 8 presents our conclusions and recommendations related to tire PGL. September 1991. EPA/530-SW-90-074B. and communications with federal and California regulatory personnel. 8 Telephone interviews and written survey forms. Section 5 summarizes environmental impacts of tire PGL. Next. CalRecovery undertook a comprehensive literature review. The Institution of Mechanical Engineers. and this study presents the results. the sensitivity of project economics to project variables is discussed. 1993 Annual Report. Organization of the Report Following this brief introductory section. More than 40 telephone contacts with developers were completed successfully. S. 27 April 1993. and the use of additional feedstocks in systems. Processing and Recycling. July 1995 1-5 CalRecovery. Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OS301). Williams. Finally. Section 6 discusses the uses of products of PGL systems. Section 3 discusses the preprocessing requirements of tire PGL systems.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Methods of Analysis To obtain current information on tire PGL.T.

Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OS301).1992 Update. [1-5] California Integrated Waste Management Board. DC. Inc. A. Markets for Scrap Tires. John Wiley & Sons.. Inc. [1-7] Pilorusso Research Associates. Martin and David Eckroth. p. 1993. Scrap Tire Use/Disposal Study . 618. pp. 38-39.. 1993.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report [1-4] United States Department of Commerce. October 1992. EPA/530-SW-90-074B. ISBN 0-7729-7830-1. Inc. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology (New York.. [1-9] United States Environmental Protection Agency. [1-6] CalRecovery. Ontario Ministry of the Environment. September 1991. and T.. prepared for the Waste Management Branch. 118 p. Inc. Government Advisory Associates. New York.. [1-8] Kearney. [1-10] Grayson. Government Printing Office. Economics and Statistics Administration. Statistical Abstract of the United States 1993. July 17. 2-19. Third Edition . Inc. 1993. January 1991. pp. Washington.2-79. pp. G. 113th Edition. Scrap Tire Management in Ontario. 2-76 .. VHB Research and Consulting. Ed.T. Vol 11. Market Status Report Tires. . Bureau of the Census. Resource Recovery. pp 406-408. Handbook of Solid Waste Properties.. Scrap Tire Management Council. 8-12. Inc. A.1982). pp. July 1995 1-6 CalRecovery.

CURRENT STATUS The Tire PGL Industry The tire PGL industry consists of companies that currently offer the turnkey1 construction of systems. July 1995 2-1 CalRecovery. manufacture process equipment. laboratory. In the United States alone. the following criteria were used to differentiate among projects: Operating Facility No Yes Yes Yes Revenue Producing No No No Yes These projects were Status Conceptual Laboratory Demonstration Full The capacity of several projects cited in technical literature was unreported. or full size. Section 2 provides the descriptions of process types. . Gasification is a distant 1 A single entity designs and builds the complete facility. a project was defined as fully commercial if it was financially self sustaining. Data in Table 2-2 indicate that developers pursue the pyrolysis technology most frequently (26 projects out of 35. about 34 firms in 24 states are developing or marketing tire PGL systems [2-1]. demonstration. Tables and text throughout this report classify projects in planning or design stages as conceptual. or offer related services. Inc.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report SECTION 2. It is important to distinguish between the experimental projects designed to test theories and developmental or commercial projects. or nearly so. Review of operational status permits the differentiation of projects that have been shut down from those that are operational. Classification of waste tire PGL projects based on size and operational status is presented in Table 2-1. For the purpose of this study. several European universities are conducting research into PGL technology. classified as demonstration or full-scale based on available information. or 74 percent). Developers were asked to classify their projects as conceptual. Grouping the projects by process type resulted in the frequency distribution provided in Table 2-2. In addition to developer comments. Some facilities process waste tires exclusively while others handle a wide range of organic feedstocks. In addition.

and Liquefaction Projects Worldwide PROJECT SCALE PROJECT STATUS CONCEPTUAL 1 2 3 4 LABORATORY AEA-Beven. L = liquefaction. H = hydrogenation. Univ. (P) (tire tests only) 7 Worthing Industries (P) (tire tests only) OTHER OPERATING 1 Seco/Warwick (P) INACTIVE DISMANTLED OTHER 1 American Ecological Technologies (P) 1 Kobe Steel (P) 1 Kobe Steel (P) 1 Recycling Industries of Missouri (P) 2 Waste Distillation Technology (G)* (MSW tests. July 1995 2-2 CalRecovery. P = pyrolysis * Classified as "destructive distillation" by developer. Source: Survey information. Inc. ** Classified as "gasification" by developer. Univ. Inc (P) 2 Champion Recycling (P) 3 ECO 2 (P) 4 Garb Oil & Power (P) 5 Hamburg. of (P) 6 Heartland (G) 7 Kilborn. Summary of the Status of Tire Pyrolysis. (a) Insufficient information was reported in the survey in order to allow a designation of the project scale. not exclusively tires) 3 Leigh plc (G) 1 Kutrieb (P) 1 Thermex Energy Recovery System (G) (a) G = gasification.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Table 2-1. (L) 12 Thermoselect Inc. Inc. Gasification. Inc (H) 8 Process Fuels (G) 9 Pyrovac Int'l. of (P) DEMONSTRATION 1 American Tire Reclamation. . (G) (MSW) 1 Horton (P) 2 International Tire Collection (P) 1 Garb Oil & Power (P) 1 2 3 4 5 6 FULL Conrad Industries (P) International Recycling (G) Jentan (P) NATRL-Wind Gap (L) RMAC International (P)** Wayne Technology Corp. Inc (P) 10 RT Corporation (P) 11 Texaco. Harwell (P) Castle Capital (P) Premium Enterprises (P) Wyoming.

Inc.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Table 2-2. Source: Table 2-1 July 1995 2-3 CalRecovery. Frequency Distribution of Tire PGL Project Developers Worldwide Pyrolysis (a) Conceptual Laboratory Demonstration Full Other TOTAL 1 6 12 7 0 26 Gasification 0 0 3 3 1 7 Liquefaction 0 0 1 1 0 2 Total 1 6 16 11 1 35 (a) Includes 1 project classified as hydrogenation by developer. .

July 1995 2-4 CalRecovery. its use continues today. The production of coke from coal pyrolysis became the most common application of the technology. Hydrogenation is included as a separate entry because one developer uses it. Project representatives provided little information regarding the use of catalysts. The literature included references to several firms and processes that are not discussed further in this report because information was lacking. . or projects were not PGL-related. full-scale projects. and shared process research. others may exist. licensee/licensor. The project status data in Table 2-1 show that of the seven operational. usually unsaturated" [2-2]. Many PGL projects cluster in the middle Atlantic and east north central states. One project uses gasification and one employs liquefaction. Using wood pyrolysis to 2 For example. Also. among operating commercial projects. five (71. and no technical articles. no responses to telephone messages and/or letters. Thus. PGL Processes Historic Development In 1830. Inc. several explicit relationships appeared or were inferred.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report second (7 projects out of 35. Hydrogenation is "a catalytic reaction of hydrogen with other compounds. Appendix Table B-1 lists business relationships identified during this project. Developers attempt to commercialize liquefaction and other processes infrequently.4 percent) use pyrolysis. several projects are in the three Pacific coast states and in southern states. financial backer or operator. Thus. While the list of processes or developers in the industry was lengthy. Table 2-1 provides the process description used by the developer. developer or design engineer. projects may be located near centers of population (and waste generation) or near petroleum producing areas. Other projects classified as pyrolysis could include reactions in the presence of catalysts. These projects are listed in Appendix Table B-2. pyrolysis is the most commonly applied of the PGL technologies. or 20 percent).2 projects were unfunded. a developer successfully commercialized an early application of pyrolysis involving the production of liquid products from wood [2-3]. Business relationships included those of new/discontinued company or process names. The states and countries in which projects listed in Table 2-1 are located are shown in Figure 2-1.

Worldwide Locations of Conceptual. . Source: Survey information.2 Canada .4 China . Laboratory. July 1995 2-5 CalRecovery. Full. Inc.21 Great Britain -1 Germany .Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 United States .1 Figure 2-1.1 Bulgaria . and Other Scale Tire PGL Projects Numbers refer to number of projects.1 Italy . Demonstration.

tires only 5. etc. Previous Surveys of Tire PGL A survey of PGL. mixed paper.3 mixed feedstock 2.g. Irvine. wood. textiles.fixed bed shaft furnace. agricultural wastes (e.. (A). etc. CA . 55 to 60 plants in Kentucky. MI .. tires only 6. (A). July 1995 2-6 CalRecovery. Pyrolysis plants to produce illuminating gas became common worldwide until the invention of the electric light bulb in 1879 ended further development [2-3]. and wastewater treatment sludges. and New York). and oil shake. Hayward./Goodyear Tire and Rubber .Tumbling solids bed. . about 25 in Connecticut. rubber. Calgary.. (A)..). Pyrolysis of coals and oil shales became common to produce oils in the United States and elsewhere in the mid-1800s (e. (C). By the early 1980s. Inc. Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. A = active development program.Agitated solids bed. only the South African Coal. tires. (I). TOSCO Corp.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report manufacture creosote oil expanded after the introduction of creosote as a wood preservative in 1838.).. straw. Akron. CA . tires only 3. gasification. AL.Electrically heated. and liquefaction processes worldwide as of fall 1977 [2-5] revealed ten projects that had used tires as a feedstock: 1. Massachusetts. The coal industry has applied liquefaction during the past five decades. plastics. Ohio.g. OH . feedstocks for PGL processes include municipal solid wastes and organic materials derived therefrom (e. rice hulls.Static solids bed. Pyrotechnic Industries. I = inactive. Inc.Static solids bed.. Gas and Oil Company was condensing liquid fuels from coal [2-4]. Thermex. Canada . tires only 4. DECO Energy Co. Carbon Development Corporation.. In addition to coal.g. (C). and Pennsylvania. Coal hydroliquefaction satisfied one third of the German petroleum needs during World War II. tires only 3 C = commercial or demonstration. Walled Lake. Ltd.

Karlruhe. TN . Department of Energy (DOE) concluded the following [2-6].the cost of competing disposal was high. London. mixed feedstocks 8.high value products were produced.Moving packed bed. 2. Current PGL Process General Appendix Table B-3 tabulates additional information regarding facilities identified in Table 2-1.S. Pyrolysis PGL processes may operate as either batch feed or continuous feed systems.Molten salt bath. .tax advantages accrued to the project. 3. Inc. 1. Knoxville.Agitated solids bed. (A). The economics appeared marginal at best except under special conditions: . tires only Only one firm described in this early survey remains in business under the same name in 1993 (Thermex) [2-5]. the U. Firma O. Germany .Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report 7. There were 31 existing plants. In its 1983 study of tire PGL. (A). of which approximately one half were active. After required residence time in the batch thermal reactor. Batch feed systems process a single charge of feedstock at a time. tires only 10. Germany . . Herko Pyrolyse GmbH & Co. University of Tennessee.. Tire pyrolysis was technically feasible. (C). United Kingdom . July 1995 2-7 CalRecovery. Herbold. or . (A). Foster Wheeler.Tumbling solid bed. mixed feedstocks 9.

Section 4 discusses gas. 2-10]. 2-9. or shredded. 3. Temperature and residence time in the reactor are two key pyrolysis reactor design criteria. Most projects operate within a temperature range of 250° . Operating characteristics are discussed in Section 4. feedstock is conveyed through the thermal reactor at a uniform rate. 5. although some report operating at up to 900°C. Above 400°C. the yield of oil and solid tire-derived char may decrease relative to gas production. July 1995 2-8 CalRecovery. and solid products and residue are continuously discharged. Light and heavy oil fractions may be handled separately. The feedstock is typically dried and preheated. Inc. depending on the process employed. The characteristics of tire-derived char and carbon black are discussed in Sections 4 and 5. At temperatures above approximately 250°C. is condensed and cooled. Solid tire-derived char is cooled. Pyrolysis relies on the addition of heat to break chemical bonds.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report solid products and residue are removed. A typical commercial operation is described below [2-7. as discussed in Section 4. Washing the char and further size reducing it produces the carbon black product. in continuous feed systems. Tire-derived gas maintains operating pressure in the system and provides heat to the system. Magnetic separation is often used to remove ferrous metals from size-reduced tires. 2-8. The product is filtered. Oxygen is purged through a combination of the pyrolysis gas preheater and an inert gas system employing nitrogen. 2. using tire-derived gas. chopped. 1. The product may be sized and screened to remove fiber. typically using a water-cooled stage. Tires delivered to a site are weighed. Vented gases pass through a pollution control train. 6. which may include a gas flare. shredded tires release increasing amounts of liquid oil products and gases. A separator removes any remaining water vapor. 4. providing a mechanism by which organics decompose and vaporize. Maintaining a positive pressure in the reactor ensures that leaks do not introduce oxygen from the air. as discussed in Section 3. tire-derived oil.500°C. A magnetic separation stage captures magnetic materials remaining in the char. . The characteristics of tire-derived oil are discussed in Section 4. Tires are either introduced to systems whole or else halved. Conversely. The liquid stage.

and the tabulated data in the report. PGL system is presented in Figure 2-2. Steel shreds are baled for shipment. and then fired to provide process heat. The list of designations and capacities contained in Table 2-3 represents only typical examples. PGL processes investigated generally employed similar flow sheets. Inc. fibers are disposed as waste. The following descriptions of selected operating. variations occurred with respect to the mechanical approaches to material transport. • Conrad Industries. . of Centralia. Synpro anticipates using auto shredder fluff as an additional feedstock in planned 96 TPD plants. operates a 24 TPD continuous feed. The market for carbon black is currently weak in the northwest.. These descriptions. are baled for shipment. The process uses a "high temperature reaction tube. Separated fibers. The Kleenair process uses neither catalysts nor steam. A typical flow diagram for a tire 4 5 Kleenair Products Co. Peripheral equipment exhibited greater variety than did main process equipment. when recovery is practical. however. and fibers are discussed in Sections 4 and 5. Synpro plans to use another (unidentified) technology to upgrade5 the carbon black for sale to the printing and paint industries. temperature. and pressure control. and is not comprehensive. demisted. July 1995 2-9 CalRecovery. Excess gas can be used for power or compressed and stored. Expects to achieve 98 . Oregon. • The process uses 2 inch tire chips. • Conrad and Synpro Industries Group employ similar technology. Conrad reports operation since 1986." Some gas is condensed to yield a medium viscosity pyrolysis oil. Washington [2-17]. Portland. Also. Tire PGL projects have incorporated a variety of equipment. Remaining gases are scrubbed. provide detailed introduction to selected projects. dedicated tire pyrolysis facility that uses the Kleenair4 process.99 percent purity. Reclaimed steel is discussed in Section 4. Inc.. full-scale pyrolysis projects illustrate the range of technical approaches. the data have not been adjusted to a consistent fuel basis. Often. Conrad planned to retrofit one of its two process lines in 1993 to accept plastic wastes.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report 7.

Source: [2-8. 2-9.Typical Tire Pyrolysis System Some systems may include other equipment. Inc. . or use alternative flow paths. 2-10] July 1995 2-10 CalRecovery.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Scrap Tires NaOH Pollution Control Air Emissions Na2SO4 Gas Stack Size Reduction Magnetic Separation Pyrolysis Reactor Char Quench Condensor Preheater Cooler Light Oil Separator Heavy Oil Carbon Sludge Screen Separator Waste Water Steel Carbon Fibers Magnetic Separation Reheater Size Reduction Washing Carbon Black Figure 2-2. Flow Diagram .

2-12. 2-11.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Table 2-3. 2-21.1 N/R m3/12-hr charge TPH N/R TPH TPH TPH ton/charge 0. 2-22] July 1995 2-11 CalRecovery. Designations and Capacities of Selected PGL Equipment Reported Capacities Equipment Types PGL Equipment Energy Recovery Chamber Foster Wheeler Cross Flow Pyrolyzer Fluidized-Bed Reactor Gas-Purged Static Batch Reactor Jentan Recycler NATRL (--) Rotary Kiln Pyrolyzer Semifluidized Bed (tilting grate) Thermogenics Biomass Gasifier Model 103 Model 104 Model 106 Vacuum Tanks Worthing Entrained Gas Reactor Units TPH N/R 1. 2-9. 2-16.0 N/R N/R 60 1. 2-13. 2-17.5 1. 2-14. Source: [2-3. 2-15.0 3.0 18 N/R Post-Processing Equipment Post Pyrolysis Reactor N/R N/R = not reported. . Inc.

These plants range in size up to 20 TPD. continuous feed plastics pyrolysis plant in Macedon. The site adjoins a materials recovery facility (MRF). The addition of a co-generation element is being considered. existing infeed arrangement. Inc. The average production rate over the 25 weeks of operation through November 1993 was between 0.5 TPH. The developer claims the process would meet requirements of the Clean Air Act. . The system employs batch reactors to pyrolyze whole tires. which provides process heat. Reportedly. refractory-lined reactor with capacity to hold 12 to 14 tons of material. but most take medical wastes and plastics.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report • Jentan Resources. about 100 plants are in operation. 300 day/year.. The project is designed to operate 24 hour/day. 6 Except Japan and Korea.0 TPH. The patented Wayne system uses dual rotary drums to pyrolyze the feedstock. The developer refers to the system as a gasifier. Shredded tires are introduced at the top of a cylindrical. Oregon since September 1992. the reaction is self-fueled after startup. flows through a caustic scrubber prior to combustion. Some plants accept tires. Ltd. although there are no domestic projects. tire-derived char with carbon black content. New York since April 1992. This system removes the metals that are released by the pyrolysis of plastics. Pyrolysis gas. Utilities buy the solid product.5 and 1. The project achieved a maximum throughput of 2. owns limited worldwide rights6 to a pyrolysis technology developed in South Korea. and that it generates some wastewater. Wayne has conducted tests with "chunked" tires. one half of its design capacity. plastics and cardboard) from the MRF. July 1995 2-12 CalRecovery. Burning scrap wood heats the system to start each cycle. [2-16]. has been conducting tests at its full-scale. upgrade both the carbon black and the oil products in the future. continuous feed tire pyrolyzer in Troutdale. although it conforms to the definition of a pyrolyzer in this report. but has not operated Continuously feeding tires would require modification of the commercially on waste tires. RMAC plans to • Wayne Technology Corporation [2-19] has operated a full-scale. and accepts industrial and commercial packaging (e.g. • RMAC International [2-18].

carbon black. quench water.). fluid-bed pyrolysis unit.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report If tires were the feedstock. although economics are not currently attractive. . complete oxidation of the feedstock July 1995 2-13 CalRecovery. technology. the unit is designed to recover oil from a peat-based absorbent. An onsite wastewater treatment plant provides makeup water for use as scrubber water. but is reportedly suitable for tires. Molten salt pyrolysis. Gasification of organics occurs in an atmosphere that contains some oxygen." This material is sold for use in controlling oil spills. Reinforcing steel would be removed from the tire-derived char. • • • Intennco . Operated at 900° . although it has a slightly elevated sulfur content. Steam oxidation. some supplemental operating fuel is necessary.K. Gas is scrubbed before combustion.1000°C. The oil retains some moisture. the Encon fast pyrolysis system. 221]: • Tosco II . The oil fraction could be a replacement for No. • Worthing Industries. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation has issued an air emissions permit. "Berthinate.e. Inc. Gasification Gasification is a partial oxidation process. developed with the US DOE support by Rockwell International in Canoga Park. a drawback to marketing. two reactors in series. During the past two decades. causing chemical reactions between rubber and salt to produce a gas of primarily carbon monoxide (CO).hot (480° . will substitute for pulverized coal in utility boilers. operating at 540°C.the Ugland (U. Ltd. and nitrogen (N2). but not enough to support complete combustion (i. 4 fuel oil. The unit has operated primarily on wood and peat. tire PGL projects have also included the following process designs [2-4.. The system uses propane for startup.549°C) ceramic balls in a rotating drum pyrolyzer with a reducing atmosphere. [2-20] markets a mobile. and coolant. Inc. Mounted on a 45-foot flat bed trailer. 2 or No. the solid fraction would be sold as fuel or a medium grade carbon black. CA. and emissions contain some sulfur. hydrogen (H2). The closed-loop cooling system releases little water. The solid product. Tire-derived gas meets the process heat requirements.

Pure oxygen systems condensed tars from the gas. offers a close-coupled gasification system which is manufactured by Energeco spa and marketed as a Recoverator. Operating. In the 1980s.e. there is no supporting domestic experience. While Energeco believes that it may be possible to market baghouse ash. Liquefaction In the early 1980s. Pure oxygen systems operate at higher temperatures than airsupplied systems [2-4]. is the only operating waste tire liquefaction project. producing gaseous carbon monoxide and hydrogen. five day/week in 1992. Inc. The plant consists of two prototype pyrolysis/liquefaction process trains. The pilot systems employed steam and a catalyst to produce an oil with a higher heating value of 15. Larger systems (i. heat-consuming) reaction. Both a rotary kiln system and a stationary system have reportedly operated in Italy since 1989.8 to 1. The systems accept whole tires.03. • International Recycling. The steps in liquefaction include condensing gas into liquid. nitrogen. • NATRL-Wind Gap. Ltd. of Hammonton. The costs of commercial production were estimated to be higher than coal liquefaction. 2-23]. Beers [2-15.000 Btu/lb and a specific gravity of 1.H.. sulfur.1 TPH) employ rotary kilns as the primary combustion chamber while smaller systems use fixed bed reactor technology. The facility started operating one shift in 1986. steam reacts with the solid char in an endothermic (i.e.000 mg/l). Rather. Steam from the boiler (produced at approximately 8 lb/lb whole tire) can be sold directly. formerly J. NATRL-Wind Gap expends to complete a third process line by January 1994. 1. pilot studies evaluated liquefaction of wood wastes. waste heat boiler. In the gasification processes. July 1995 2-14 CalRecovery. and expanded to three shifts.. . BOD5 exceeding 50. NJ. No effort is made to recover solid or liquid products. or used in co-generation. and oxygen removal.2 kW/kg whole tire). full-scale gasification systems include the following project. which resulted in a strong wastewater (i. and correction of hydrogen content.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report to carbon dioxide and water). wet scrubber and stack. converted to electricity (at 0. Systems include a two-chamber combustion system. ash.e. [2-22].. while a Bulgarian system dates from 1991. steel is recovered following the first stage of processing. several developers tested pure oxygen as an alternative to air as the source of oxygen for the reaction. and baghouse. Further development of oxygen-based systems has been suspended.

. 1982. Fiber may be sold. of Colchester. Ltd.. Inc. v." Scrap Tire News. Fimotel Brussels Airport. [2-3] [2-4] Petzrick. [2-6] EG&G Idaho. p. pp 1-5. Bartley. September 23. DE93 005618.L. Jerry. Parker. October 1991. Ed. Permits include a state wastewater discharge permit for the non-contact cooling water that is discharged." Proceedings of the 1978 National Waste Processing Conference. July 1993. it seems likely that the modifications at Wind Gap may incorporate the AEA Beven technology.... New York. and F. a report to the City of New Orleans. Waste Tire Recycling by Pyrolysis. Shigeyoshi Takaoka. Oil and gas are also recovered. once a market is identified. AEA Technology and Herbert Beven. October 1992. "Hot Uses for Scrap Tires. The Plastic and Rubber Institute. [2-5] Jones. New York. United Kingdom.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report The process produces a carbon black product. "Pyrolysis. Thermal Gasification. 1989. which has operated at laboratory-scale for some time. 5. Phillips. Scrap Tires: A Resource and Technology Evaluation of Tire Pyrolysis and Other Selected Alternate Technologies. 10. "Vacuum Pyrolysis of Scrap Tires. ASME. 45-48. Martin and David Eckroth. July 1995 2-15 CalRecovery. No. References [2-1] [2-2] Powell. McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. 1978. 42. Idaho Falls." Resource Recycling. 112 p. Michael Lewis. 4th Ed. (NATRL). [2-8] Roy. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Ltd. 387-396. Leonard D. Jr. Jerry L. 54 p. Paul. pp. Third Edition. and Brobson Lutz.Worldwide Status of Processes (as of Fall 1977)." presented at Waste and Scrap in the Rubber Industry. and Liquefaction of Solid Wastes and Residues . Steel is recovered for the scrap market. Belgium. John Wiley & Sons. 14 p.. . Sybil P. v. announced the sale of a Multi-Purpose Disposer to North American Tire Recycling. Russell C. 1992. J. United States Department of Energy.. Philadelphia. Editor-in-chief. Inc. [2-7] Simons. "The Challenge of Pyrolysis. DOE/CE/27504-11. (EEG-2241). Grayson. In 1992. pp. November 1983.. While no confirmation has been obtained.5. Christian. Treatment and Legislation. Idaho.

[2-19] Arrington. company brochure. Canada. Charles. Troutdale. 205216. ECO2. 2. Jentan Resources. undated. Processing and Recycling. ICF. V. (904) 481 0187. Ltd. 2 July 1993. "Development of a Gas-Cleaning System for a Scrap-Tire Vacuum-Pyrolysis Plant. OR. ICF. "Tire Pyrolysis Rolls On Despite Economic Doubts. [2-12] Kaminsky. Besler. Vol 6." Resource Recovery and Conservation.. 27 April 1993. [2-15] Moyer. [2-11] Williams. 83-87. ICF. B. J. 1979. (503) 667 6790. pp. The Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Pyrolysis Process for Scrap Tires. Taylor. [2-17] [2-18] Conrad Industries. Worthing Industries. [2-13] Ledford. al. Vancouver. 9 July 1993. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co.." Chemical Engineering. ICF. (614) 876 6311. Ltd. and D. J. 13 p. Weege... telephone conversation. 2 July 1993. telephone conversation. Burke. AL. pp. Malden. and C. De Caumia. and 14 July 1993 (314) 624 0097. 12 July 1993. undated. 30-32. Burke... [2-14] Jarrell. 21-30. Kobe Steel. Wayne Technology Corp. "The Fuel Properties of Pyrolytic Oil Derived From The Batch Pyrolysis of Tyre Waste. Burke. Hawthorne.. Shigezo. 7 July. BC." Gas Separation & Purification 1992. 30 June. Mayer. ICF. 2 July. [2-21] Berry. J. telephone conversations. pp. Peter. [2-10] Roy." Waste: Handling. J. et. Amsterdam. unpublished report. S. NY. Calgary. ICF. Burke. telephone conversation. William. (716) 264 5900. telephone conversation. Canada. Paul T. J. (604) 875 8677. J. FL. RMAC International.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report [2-9] Kawakami. 9 July. (403) 284 5302. J. No. Don. pp. Scott.. . Roy. MO. Cheyenne Industries. Inc. Heartland Industries. telephone conversations. ICF telephone conversation. Reginald I. J. Walter. 19 July 1993. Mayer. Rochester. Burke. [2-16] Singbeil. 6 July.T. December 31. [2-20] Fransham. 5 (1980). Brent. "Pyrolysis of Plastic Waste and Scrap Tyres in a Fluid Bed Reactor. 14 July 1993. July 1995 2-16 CalRecovery.

E. company brochures.. Inc. Inc. Oxfordshire. Beven. . 12 July 1993. AEA-Beven. United Kingdom. Herbert. July 1995 2-17 CalRecovery. CalRecovery.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report [2-22] [2-23] Energeco SPA. Trento. von Stein. correspondence. Italy. undated.

.

dewatered sewage sludge. rayon. One developer indicated that a pyrolytic feedstock could be "almost any solid or semi-solid organic . . cis-o-poly-butadiene. only waste oil has a higher carbon and hydrogen content and greater heating value than waste tires. clay fillers. 1 Not all systems employ tire preprocessing. cobalt. stearic acid. tires also contain a variety of other materials. This section also presents the quantities of tires that could be available for processing nationwide and in California. as well as the supplemental feedstocks that have been used in tire PGL systems. various pigments. auto shredder fluff.000 Btu/lb. arsenic. PYROLYSIS. extending oils. potassium. EPDM. At least one developer plans to blend shredded tires with an equal amount of waste oil (lubricating oil. mercury. The combined carbon and hydrogen content of tires exceeds 80 percent by weight (dry basis). lead. or automotive coolant) to improve economics and operations [3-4]. two common feedstocks. tackifiers. Inc. vulcanization accelerators. liquid.. These elements form the principal constituents of the solid. Characteristics of Feedstocks The summary information in Table 3-1 permits a comparison of the chemical characteristics2 and heat content of whole and shredded tires.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report SECTION 3." This developer reported considering wood waste. glass fibers.. GASIFICATION. transmission fluid. butyl. some systems accept whole tires. aramid. cadmium. agricultural wastes. barium. which by itself has a minimum heating value of 5. antiozonants. steel. As a consequence of containing the above materials. including those of antimony. July 1995 3-1 CalRecovery. sulfur. oil field wastes. calcium and magnesium carbonates. boron compounds. tires contain a variety of chemical compounds. Waste tires are richer in these elements. AND LIQUEFACTION PROCESS FEEDSTOCKS General This section of the report discusses the preprocessing1 requirements of tire PGL systems. beryllium. and have a higher heat content than either waste plastics or municipal solid waste (MSW). Of the common feedstocks. and soils contaminated with hydrocarbons as suitable process feedstocks [3-6]. zinc oxide. In addition to natural and synthetic rubber. including styrene-butadiene copolymers. copper. and sodium [3-5]. nylon. and gaseous pyrolysis products. and several supplemental feedstocks. antioxidants. paint sludge. polyester. and carbon black.

708 13.08 37. (f) Mixed paper fraction for Broward County FL. Ultimate Analysis reported for San Diego County CA. Heating value reported in [3-1].1 0.50 1. Combustible Fraction.94 9.22 100.94 40.50 0.4 23.265 12.00 354.00 10.20 1.00 1.00 (g) 7.7 10.10 0.08 0.98 4.30 100.00 mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg Btu/lb kJ/kg 51. 2 Proximate and ultimate analysis. Proximate for Broward County FL [3-2].00 87.58 100.8 2.14 100.76 3. as reported in [3-2].00 45.00 77.90 4.174 (a) Proximate Analysis.76 10.00 2.00 83. but conceivably could be due to differences in the chemical composition and age of the tires.500 2.90 4.00 83.00 100.69 14.17 24.875 11.49 12.00 10.20 12.65 6.04 100. Ultimate Analysis and Trace Metals are simple averages of values reported in [3-8].00 3.50 6.51 0. (b) As reported in [3-2] for rubber fraction only. July 1995 3-2 CalRecovery.80 572.330 26.0 96.30 0.02 0.00 39.8 6.00 85.50 45. as reported in [3-2].002 87.40 0.95 0. calculated.430 45.84 5. and trace metal content.00 Ultimate Analysis (Dry Weight Basis) C % H % O % S % N % Cl % Ash % TOTAL % Trace Metals Lead Zinc Antimony Arsenic Cadmium Mercury Molybdenum Selenium Tin Heating Value 74.70 2.00 100.67 10.81 9.09 0.80 0. . and to inorganic contamination that may accumulate in waste tires prior to shredding.00 58. reported in [3-2].38 5.241 15.002 151 77.18 0.0 0.50 0. (d) Proximate Analysis derived from CalRecovery file data on waste oil. Ultimate Analysis and Heating Value from [3-3] for No.84 1.80 0.78 4. (e) Trace metals for San Diego County CA. Chemical Characteristics of Some Potential PGL Feedstocks Tires Units Proximate Analysis Volatile Matter Fixed Carbon Ash Moisture TOTAL Whole (a) Shred (b) Waste Plastics (c) Waste Oil (d) Mixed Paper (f) MSW (e) % % % % % 79.03 0.5 3.0 5.7 9.00 77.00 56.15 13. 2 fuel oil.342 15. as reported in [3-2].586 19.68 6.30 51.60 <1. The reason for the difference between the heating value of whole and of shredded tires is not known. assuming rubber is 95% of tire.756 15.0 11.50 45.50 100.55 5. Inc.000 34.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Table 3-1. (g) Fixed Carbon percentage is included in the above value for Volatile Matter.20 0.20 100.40 0.05 0.4 870.500 2. trace metals from [3-9].07 24.50 0.30 199 73 10.42 100. Trace Metals analysis derived simple averages of data from [3-9].00 2.88 1.08 7.24 100.12 0.48 100.306 35.00 13.4 0.85 8.39 1. (c) Based on the mean value for plastics.60 10.

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Relatively few developers provided data regarding preferred feedstock characteristics. Of the developers that provided information, one reported the capability of using either whole or halved tires, and all others required the size reduction of tire feedstocks. Six firms utilized coarse3 shredding, while three of those further reduced tires to a 2-in or smaller chip. One firm required crumb rubber (i.e., nominal -200 mesh4) as a feedstock. For the majority of tire PGL systems, preparation of an acceptable waste tire feedstock includes some degree of size reduction and magnetic separation. The available data regarding density and size of waste tire feedstocks are summarized in Table 3-2. The density of shredded tires is significantly higher than that of MSW (i.e., 27.5 vs. 8.9 lb/ft3). For projects that handle several feedstocks, the pyrolysis of waste tires with waste plastics is most commonly reported, while waste oil is the second more frequently reported supplementary feedstock. Mixed MSW and wastepaper were each reported once. No developer provided a justification for the preference of waste plastics over waste oil. Possible reasons for the preference for waste plastics may include one or more of the following: 1. the ease of handling dry vs. liquid feedstock, or 2. the lower potential for introducing unanticipated hazardous material, or 3. greater potential availability of waste plastics. 4. potential tipping fee revenues When other materials are blended with tires, high quality additives, including waste plastics and used oil, are preferred by the operators.

Quantities Residents of the United States disposed approximately 2.42 million tons of waste tires in 1990. Annual tire production has fluctuated between 1.01 and 1.05 tire/capita since 1985. averaged 0.92 tire/capita for 1990 and 1991. Waste tire generation

3 4

Assumed to result in a nominal 12-in tire chip. 200 mesh = 0.075 mm.

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Table 3-2. Mean Bulk Densities and Particle Sizes of Waste Tires and Supplemental PGL Feedstocks

Units

Mean 27.5 56 (b) 8.9 (c) < 3.0 <1

n 1 n/a (a) n/a 5 1

Densities
Tires, shredded Used oil MSW, unshredded lb/ft3 lb/ft3 lb/ft3 in in

Particle Sizes
Tires, shredded MSW, shredded

(a) n/a = not applicable. (b) Typical density of used oil, as reported by a re-refiner in California. (c) Mean value shown is that for Richmond, CA, as reported in [3-2]. Source: Appendix Table C-1

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Section 1 provided the estimate that approximately 285,000 tons of waste tires were discarded in California in 1993. The CIWMB reported estimates of diversion (140,000 tons) and disposal (145,000 tons) of tires and other rubber for the same period [3-7]. Appendix Table A-1 provides estimates and projections of tire generation in California for the years 1995 (i.e., 300,000 tons) and 2000 (i.e., 330,000 tons).

References [3-1] The Project Committee of the Ohio Council of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Decision Maker's Guide to Management of Scale Tires - A Neglected Resource, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, March 1993, 10 p. [3-2] CalRecovery, Inc., Handbook of Solid Waste Properties, New York, Government Advisory Associates, Inc., 1993, p. 19-20. [3-3] [3-4] [3-5] Babcock & Wilcox, Steam, Revised 38th Edition, Babcock & Wilcox, New York, 1975, p. 5-18. New York Times, "Turning a Stew of Old Tires into Energy," December 27, 1992, p. C8. Energy Task Force of the Urban Consortium for Technology Initiatives (Energy Task Force), Waste Tire Recycling by Pyrolysis, October 1992, p. 21. [3-6] Thermogenics, Inc., Brochure, Impact of the Thermogenics Biomass Gasifier on the World's Solid Waste and Energy Problems, undated. [3-7] [3-8] California Integrated Waste Management Board, 1993 Annual Report, Appendix E. California Integrated Waste Management Board, Tires as a Fuel Supplement: Feasibility Study, January 1992. [3-9] Federal Register, Volume 56, No. 184, September 23, 1981, p. 48809.

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.

based on both experience with actual facilities and planned operations. a liquid (oil. industrial grade salt. and describes the products of their operations. Wastes from the processes are discussed in Section 5. 4. Projects may be compared on the basis of reported steady-state operating temperature in the pyrolysis vessel. synthesis gas. and fibers. . including startup and shutdown dates. 3. Where data were available. One developer [4-1] of waste pyrolysis systems describes the following five products of PGL and gas cleaning: 1. gasification. Pyrolysis. solids (i. and estimated availability. The range of operating temperatures for the four facilities reporting full-scale pyrolysis projects (see July 1995 4-1 CalRecovery. and metals). metal hydroxide (sludge). we report historic periods of operation. inert material. Typically however. slag. Inc. The section presents operating pressures and temperatures for various processes and the predominant products reclaimed by the process. shutdown. schedules for planned facilities. The section summarizes operating The section includes a summary of the requirements for startup. Operating Conditions Temperature and Pressure Section 2 stated that reactor temperature is one key determinant of overall system performance. and liquefaction products are also characterized in this section. a gas. Tables present throughput capacities. the tire pyrolysis industry describes the products it produces as a solid (either tirederived char or tire-derived carbon black). OPERATING CONDITIONS AND PRODUCTS General This section of the report summarizes the operating data for tire PGL projects. gypsum. maintenance.e. often including a naphtha fraction).Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report SECTION 4.. 2. steel. and 5.

the production of gas increases from 0 . solid and oil fractions are inversely related.6 kWh/ton of feedstock.propane or natural gas . Data provided in Section 2 indicate that between 500° and 800°C.8 and 117.025 Btu/lb of feedstock.950°C.500°C. The single operating full-scale gasifier reports an operating temperature range of 450° . Thus. which is much wider than the range reported by operating systems. The use of supplemental fuel . Only two full-scale operating projects (Wayne and Worthing) reported pressures. .500°C. Over the range of 250° . Table 4-1 presents operating temperature and pressure data for various systems. gas production increases from 6 . at higher temperatures. the mass fraction of the products is relatively stable. Energy Requirements Most developers report that the pyrolysis process produces an excess of energy. July 1995 4-2 CalRecovery. reactor temperature determines the yield of solid. and reports the corresponding product yields for several systems. and indicates that between approximately 400° and 600°C. more of the organic content of the tires is converted to the gaseous or liquid phase. To a large extent. Figure 4-1 illustrates the general relationship.is limited to the startup period. while over the same range. The electrical usage of systems is estimated to fall between 12. and liquid pyrolysis products. based on two survey responses. The single laboratory-scale project failed to report temperature or pressure. Safety The potential for explosion and fire exists at PGL operations. while the quantity of oil and solid fractions are inversely related. Catastrophic fires have destroyed some facilities [4-5]. This information is considered to be proprietary by most developers. Development-scale pyrolysis projects report a range of 250° .6 percent by weight.31 percent. The heat required to sustain the pyrolysis reaction appears to be between approximately 630 and 1. based on two survey responses. gas. Inc.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Section 2) is 460° .860°C. Most developers indicate that the combustion of tire-derived gas provides sufficient heat to drive the reaction. Operating at high temperatures and in a low oxygen condition increases the risk of fire and explosion through accidental air infiltration.

July 1995 4-3 CalRecovery.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report 100 Yields. Table 4-1. as received rubber basis 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 200 Solid Oil Gas 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Temperature. Tire-Derived PGL Product Yields vs. . degrees Celsius Figure 4-1. and [4-12]. and corrected for mass of reinforcing steel. Temperature Source: Constructed from information from [4-2]. Weight %. in some cases. Inc.

. Inc.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report July 1995 4-4 CalRecovery.

as temperature is increased.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Heating Rate For a given temperature. a ratio of 1. Also. The fact that greater scale-up is anticipated for the two subordinate processes (gasification and liquefaction) may be attributable to the smaller body of experience with these processes. While data were unavailable to substantiate the validity of the estimates. Thus.8 TPH. Conversely. Operating Schedules Based on the historic period of operation for developmental and laboratory-scale units. the less tire-derived char and the more oil and gas that is produced. Appendix Tables B-4 and B-5 tabulate the reported throughput capacities for both actual and planned PGL facilities. With few exceptions. Throughput Throughput capacities vary widely. For planned systems. the ratio of planned to actual capacity is much greater for gasification (i. The surface area of the solid product increases as heating rate or temperature increases [4-1]. projects anticipate operating 24 hour/day.5 and 65 day/year. and methanol fractions. higher gas yields are achieved at lower temperatures. as illustrated by the data in Table 4-3. Under these conditions..24 tons per hour (TPH) for pyrolysis systems. At a given temperature. planned outages for maintenance varied between 36. anticipated availability ranges from 82 .6 to 1). In general. Inc. the faster the feedstock is heated to a given temperature. the heating value of the gas increases with the heating rate.e. This relatively close correlation between current operating experience and planned operations (i. pentane-2.. respectively. . 7 day/week. at each heating rate. 4. the heating rate (°C/minute) has a minor effect on the yield.e. projects report relatively little cumulative operating time. For the estimates that were provided. the mean value of anticipated throughput was typically 1.90 percent.6 to 1) and liquefaction (2. The earliest full-scale operating unit identified in this survey dates from 1987. The mean value of reported throughput capacity for both actual operating and planned systems is presented in Table 4-2. July 1995 4-5 CalRecovery.45 to 1) indicates that the industry does not expect to scale up the pyrolysis process. and the less the production of pentane-1 and ethanol fractions [4-1]. The reported throughput capacities of the operating systems averaged 1. the greater the production of benzene. an availability of 85 percent is typical for commercial-scale massburn facilities. Table 2-3 provides the design capacities for several pieces of PGL equipment.

Inc.1 49 15.950 560 3 4.568 1.024 5.407 751 18. Mean Throughput Capacities All Tire PGL Facilities Pyrolysis n (a) Actual Facilities Mass-Based pound/hour ton/hour ton/day ton/year Count-Based tire/hour tire/day 1000 tire/year Planned Facilities Mass-Based pound/hour ton/hour ton/day ton/year Count-Based tire/hour tire/day 1000 tire/year 19 2.730 Gasification n 5 3.291 5 15.100 2. July 1995 4-6 CalRecovery.478 81 1.261 2 39 12.489 1 30 9.921 1.068 163 3.8 43 14. .289 1.118 178 4.913 1.914 Liquefaction n 2 1.020 7.5 180 58.512 (a) n = number of projects reporting.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Table 4-2.595 124 2. Source: Appendix Tables B-4 and B-5.974 973 19 3.625 1 20 5.848 205 4.

July 1995 4-7 CalRecovery.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Table 4-3.maintenance days.5 NR 55 65 % 82% NR NR NR 90% NR 85% 82% (a) Availability = (operating days/total days per year).12 1 24 7 4 24 7 65 NR NR (b) NR 36.All Tire PGL Facilities Units Historic Operating Period of Record Start End Total Conrad ECO 2 ITC NATRL RTC Seco/W Waste Dist. . (b) NR = not reported Source: Survey information. Historic and Planned Periods of Operation and Availability . 14. 24 hr/day 1992 39 Planned Operating Schedule Hrs/Day Days/Week Start-up Shutdown Planned Maintenance Schedule Days/Year Planned Availability (a) Hour Hour 24 7 20 NR 8 7 24 7 8 . Inc. Wayne 1991 Hrs Days 50 1987 present 6. operating days = total days per year .

The mass of material to be heated includes the feedstock. and the reactor vessel itself. Because California has few projects at present. These material balances were calculated by using mean values where multiple data points (i. An innovation could result in more or less product being produced (i. These data could be quite different from the experience of any specific project during commercial acceptance testing. the suspension medium (in a fluid bed system). Nonetheless. the balances provide additional insight into the material flows that might be anticipated from any tire PGL project.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Estimates of the duration of the startup period vary between 4 and 12 hours. Alternatively. Nonetheless. actual results for a particular facility could be quite different from the average. Typically. as discussed in Section 5. based on available system throughput estimates and projections that were described in Section 1. could decrease the amount of revenue producing product while increasing the amount of waste produced by the operation of PGL projects.. estimates of quantities presented in Table 4-4 may be considered to reflect the order of magnitude of production through 1998. a propane or natural gas ignition system brings the initial reactor vessel charge to the operating temperature of the system. a technical innovation widely adopted by the tire PGL industry could have an impact on future projections. more or less residue for disposal). although one developer reported the use of waste wood as startup fuel. during its startup cycle. . Inc. This shortfall would result in fewer tires being processed through PGL systems than anticipated. and liquefaction of waste tires. The projected increases in the application of the PGL technologies could fail to materialize. based on a feed rate of 100 ton/day. multiple project reports or estimates) were available for each technology. PGL Products Quantities The quantities of PGL products produced nationwide and in California have not been reported in the literature. These data represent steady state conditions. or a variation in the product mix. July 1995 4-8 CalRecovery. are illustrated in Figure 4-2. reducing both input quantities and outputs. the potential need to dispose of materials produced when markets are not found. shown in Figure 4-2. and the industry is highly variable. Also. a technical innovation could have a greater relative impact in the state than in the nation as a whole. Material Balances Typical material balances for the pyrolysis.e.. gasification. CalRecovery estimated production. Because these estimates are based on average values. and product materials balance data.e. or while operating under steady state conditions.

4 0. .0 10.0 0. July 1995 4-9 CalRecovery.0 0.0 43.0 Figure 4-2.8 32.9 0.0 Notes: 1.8 27.1 15.0 47.0 1.8 7. based on survey and literature information.0 G 47.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Electricity Fuel Water Scrap Tires: 100. P = Pyrolysis G = Gasification L = Liquification P L SOLID PRODUCTS Carbon Black Char Steel RESIDUE 43.1 43.0 TPD Thermal Reactor GAS OIL WASTEWATER 16.0 G 6.8 20. Typical Material Balance for Tire PGL Processes Source: Estimate of CalRecovery. All values in tons per day (TPD) 2.9 0.1 39.9 0.0 4.0 P L 28. Inc.0 0.

11 1. .232 530 671 1.612 789 14 96 10.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Table 4-4.803 3.010 7.015 11. Inc.902 1.116 353 448 871 360 176 3 21 2.000 2 20.835 2.705 4.348 ton ton ton ton ton ton ton ton 1.306 540 264 5 32 3.000 177 224 435 180 88 2 11 1.583 2.232 0.000 3 30.000 3.165 4.22 2.000 0. and that the projects generate the output streams shown in Figure 4-2.005 3. based on data presented in Section 1 and Figure 4-2.366 42 289 30.33 3. Estimated Current and Projected Quantities of Tire PGL Products .116 0. Source: Calculated.000 4. July 1995 4-10 CalRecovery.348 Calculations assume all projects operate as pyrolysis projects.748 6.578 28 193 20.Nationwide and California Nationwide 1995 1998 California 1995 Units Tires Processed million ton Products and Wastes Char Carbon Black Oil Gas Steel Ash Wastewater TOTAL 1992 1992 1998 1 10.223 1.

the mean sulfur content (i. the oil would reportedly yield a naphtha fraction (boiling point < 210°C) [4-2]. as discussed in Section 6. Process conditions can be optimized to decrease or increase PAH production [4-12]. as discussed in Section 6. pyrolytic oil must be economically competitive with fuel oil refined from crude oil. a powerful. . The data in the table include the mean heating value for the solid product. The data shown in Table 4-5 are for all projects reporting. The principal chemical constituents of the ash fraction of one pyrolytic oil are shown in Table 4-6.e. some of which are toxic. which is within the heating value range of coal. 2. and do not differentiate among the PGL technologies. The ultimate analysis indicates an oil product well within the range of that of a No. Also.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Characteristics Oil The mean ultimate analysis of four pyrolytic oils is reported in Table 4-5. non-toxic solvent [4-2]. 6 oil. Inc. 2 to No. while the heating value is characteristic of No. Based on two reports. July 1995 4-11 CalRecovery. Char and Carbon Black A solid product termed tire-derived char or tire-derived carbon char is produced by most PGL processes that use tires or other solid organic feedstocks. and has ASTM specifications.5 percent by weight of feed (see Appendix Table D-4).1 or can be marketed directly. the major component of the ash is 1 Carbon black is a petroleum based product. Other researchers have reported that toluene. However. Laboratory analysis has indicated that in excess of 10 percent of pyrolytic oil may be polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The solid product can be further processed to enhance specific characteristics and to meet specifications for carbon black. and styrene isomers would be obtained from the oil at yields exceeding 0.. However. 6 fuel oil.36 percent) would not permit its substitution for a low sulfur coal (typically less than 1 percent sulfur). The proximate and ultimate analyses of tire-derived char and tire-derived carbon black are provided in Table 4-5. xylene. If subjected to fractional distillation. The mean concentrations of chlorine and the moisture content of the solid product are also indicated. Little information is available with respect to the constituents of the ash produced by the combustion of tire-derived char or tire-derived carbon black. The naphtha fraction would reportedly contain dipentene (dllimonene). the mean heating value of seven oils is provided. Virgin carbon black can reportedly be produced more economically and with better quality control than carbon black from tire char [4-20].

0 0.3 0. (d) scf = standard cubic foot.4 0. July 1995 4-12 CalRecovery.0 2 3 3 3 3 Heating Value Mj/Kg Btu/lb Btu/scf (d) 30.167 958 3 3 3 (a) Solid products are char and carbon black.2 2.2 18.3 <0.145 n/a 7 7 44.5 2. (e) n/a = not applicable.5 1.6 0.06 1 0.5 13.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Table 4-5.11 1 0.8 1.8 11.35 1 1 1 0.205 2 Proximate Analysis (c) Volatile Solids Fixed Carbon Ash Sulfur Other % % % % % 1.06 <1.6 10. Mean Values of Chemical Characteristics of Tire-Derived PGL Products Solid (a) Value n (b) Oil Value Gas Value units Ultimate Analysis (c) Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Sulfur n n % % % % % 91.6 19. (c) Ultimate and proximate analyses may not total 100% because of incomplete data reporting.131 n/a (e) 4 4 42.2 4 4 4 4 4 85.0 84.76 14.24 trace trace trace 1 1 1 1 1 Chlorine Chloride HF SO—d2 Moisture % mg/Nm—u3 mg/Nm—u3 mg/Nm—u3 % 0.8 1. . Inc.1 3 3 3 3 3 86. (b) n = number of data points.

Mean Concentrations of Trace Elements and Characteristics of Ash in Tire-Derived PGL Products Solid Value Oil Value Gas Value units Analysis of Ash SiO—d2 TiO—d2 MgO ZnO Na—d2˜O K—d2˜O CaO Fe—d2˜O—d3 Al—d2˜O—d3 SO—d3 Not reported (b) TOTAL Residual Elements Ca Cd Cr Hg Na Pb V Va n (a) n n % % % % % % % % % % 22.4 2.9 100 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 ppm ppm mg/Nm—u3 ppm mg/Nm—u3 ppm ppm mg/Nm—u3 ppm % 0.1 1 1 <0.01 0.1 <0.0 5.2 1.3 0.7 7.3 <0.4 37.1 <0.1 1.006 1 1 <0.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Table 4-6.001 1 <0.0 13.2 7.67 0.005 1 1 1 1 1 (a) n = number of data points (b) by difference July 1995 4-13 CalRecovery.8 1. . Inc.3 <0.

the potential for recovery exists. potassium. in one case.. The carbon content of the tire-derived gas is higher than that expected for most natural gas (i. No quantitative data are available with respect to the concentration of contamination. Because these substances are usually common minerals.24 vs. Because most systems consume some of the gas for energy and flare the excess. Since these values are mean values. Steel and Fiber Single stage magnetic separation recovered 95. the above substances account for approximately 42.6 percent by weight of the wire in tire chips. and aluminum. Insufficient data were available from which to calculate a meaningful statistical confidence interval about the mean values. Minor constituents of the ash include oxides of titanium. the heating value of the gas is provided. A two-stage separation process recovered 99. ferric oxide (Fe2O3. actual test results could be substantially different. While the recovery of these substances might be attractive. 7. The ultimate analysis values of a single pyrolytic gas product is reported in Table 4-5. Zinc oxide represents approximately 37. The composition of one tire-derived pyrolytic gas is reported in Appendix Table D-6. ZnO. The second most common component (at 22. Other compounds with relatively high concentrations are lime (CaO. their concentrations are small (combined 5. whereas the hydrogen content is lower (14.9 percent by weight). sodium.e. approximately 70 .4 percent). Taken together. 7. July 1995 4-14 CalRecovery. as data in Table 4-6 show.2 percent of the ash by weight. magnesium. Inc. SiO2. Because zinc is a significant component of the ash. and sulfate ions (S03.86 percent by weight of the wire [4-4]. 5.7 percent).76 percent vs. 85. The principal contaminant of the recovered steel is adherent rubber or carbon as a result of its having been embedded in the tire. Gas Little information is available on the composition of PGL gas. . 23 percent).0 percent). it is likely that little attention has been paid by developers to characterize the composition of the gas. Also. the potential for their recovery has generated little interest.3 percent of ash by weight) is silica oxide.8 percent of ash by weight.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report zinc oxide.75 percent). Mean values for important physical characteristics of solid PGL products are summarized in Table 4-7.

Inc.4 40-50 n 3 3 1 m—u2˜/g m—u2˜/g 40.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Table 4-7. Mean Physical Properties of Tire-Derived Char or Carbon Black units Specific Gravity Bulk Density Particle Size Surface Area BET (a) CTAB (a) Void Volume DBP (a) Pellet hardness g/pellet Toluene Discoloration 23 1 lb/ft—u3˜ micron Value 1.7 32. Source: Appendix Table D-5.0 1 (a) BET = Braunauer. July 1995 4-15 CalRecovery.5 2 - 90. Emmett and Teller procedure. .0 85 1 1 ml/100g 85. CTAB = cetyltrimethylammonium bromide adsorption procedure. DBP = dibutyl phthalate method.

WA. May 1992. 13 p." Fuel 1990. Canada. Oxfordshire OX11 0RA. [4-10] Fransham. Calgary. [4-9] Masemore. 11 p. Resource Recovery. memo to E." publication pending. Belgium. "The Pyrolysis of Scrap Automotive Tyres The Influence of Temperature and Heating Rate on Product Composition. [4-4] Saeki. Fimotel Brussels Airport. Peter. 18 p. Worthing Industries Inc. OH. Inc. [4-5] Pilorusso Research Associates Inc.. "Fluidized Thermal Cracking Process for Waste Tires. Wind Gap. and G. Waste Treatment by Vacuum Pyrolysis. brochure. 8 p. NATRL-Wind Gap.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report No data are available with respect to the quantity or composition of fibers that might be recovered from used tires. [4-6] AEA-Beven. pp. 69. Analysis of the Market for Carbon Black from Tire Pyrolysis. September 23. and T. brochure. The Tyre Recycler MPD Model TP-2000. [4-8] Conrad Industries. 8 p. Centralia. NY.L. VHB Research and Consulting. von Stein. brochure. Inc. undated. Kleenair Pyrolysis Systems . Y. Harwell Laboratory. Blaise. Akron. Paul T. AL. prepared for the Waste Management Branch.. G. Treatment and Legislation. Inc. undated. References [4-1] Williams. December 1990.. ISBN 0-7729-7830-1.. v. [4-2] Roy. undated. A. [4-7] Akron Consulting Company. 14 p. Canada. 11 p." presented at Waste and Scrap in the Rubber Industry. 9 July 1993. Scrap Tire Management in Ontario. Taylor. The Plastic and Rubber Institute. Vice President of Research. Inc. "Vacuum Pyrolysis of Scrap Tires. . few operations make any attempt to recover fiber. [4-3] Pyrovac International. prepared for American Tire Reclamation. Serpil Besler and David T." reprint provided by Nippon Zeon Co. January 1991. Ontario Ministry of the Environment. undated. As noted in Appendix Table B-3.. Sillery (Quebec). "Fast Pyrolysis of Scrap Tires. July 1995 4-16 CalRecovery. Christian. undated. pp 1474-1482..A Technology That Recovers Both Energy and Materials From Waste. 1992. CalRecovery. B404. 38-39. PA. United Kingdom. Suzuki.

[4-12] Williams. 1982) v. Theodore. pp. WY. S. Edmonton. and G. [4-14] Anderson." Waste. "Recycling of Scrap Tires to Oil and Carbon Black by Vacuum Pyrolysis. Inc. brochure. [4-17] Runyon. 1967. (New York. RMAC International. [4-20] Grayson. Energy and Raw Material Recovery Through Thermal Chemical Transformation in a Closed-Loop System. July 1995 4-17 CalRecovery. 24 p. Paul T. (1990). 1-78 . McGraw-Hill.T. Besler. Don. D. Roy. New York. 16 p. 203-213. N. RTC Scrap Tire Pyrolysis Process.J. Blaise Labrecque and Bruno De Caumia. Laramie. Conservation and Recycling./Pergamon Press plc. business overview. and D. [4-13] Resource Technology Corporation. AL. J. [4-15] [4-16] TIRE. and Dr. 11 p.. Taylor.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report [4-11] Baumeister. and Recycling. (503) 667 6790. ICF. 1004. D.1-84. "The Simultaneous Upgrading of Hydrocarbon Wastes and Heavy Oil/Bitumen to Petrochemical Feedstocks Using the PARR Process.E. V. pp." Resources. 13 p. undated. 21-30. Processing.. 27 April 1993. Berger.." presented at the Hydrocarbon Residues and Wastes Conversion and Utilization Seminar. [4-18] [4-19] 40 CFR Part 60. Weege. telephone conversation. 4.J. Dr. . The Institution of Mechanical Engineers. John Wiley & Sons.5 September 1991. pp. "The Fuel Properties of Pyrolytic Oil Derived From The Batch Pyrolysis of Tyre Waste. brochure..E. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4. p. Handling. Elsevier Science Publishers B. 19. Inc. Brochure. undated. Christian. Canada. Ed. 2 July 1993. Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers. Burke.. Martin and David Eckroth. Inc. 7th Ed. Koch. undated.. Ed.

.

The amount and characteristics of potential wastes and air pollutant emissions can be influenced by several factors. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF TIRE PGL Introduction General This section of the report presents the potential environmental impacts of tire PGL processes. rather than specific to any of the three technologies. tire PGL is the thermal degradation of whole or chipped tires to recover carbonaceous material (including ash). temperature. This section characterizes the available information on solid and liquid wastes and air pollutant emissions. with the exact composition of each company's tires being a trade secret. A factor that affects the analysis of potential environmental impacts from tire PGL processes is the variability of the composition of tires. oil. gas. Composition varies from manufacturer to manufacturer.and full-scale versions could occur in cooling requirements. Most of the environmental impacts discussed are common to pyrolysis. methods for treating these wastes and controlling the emissions. As discussed in Section 4. including the ability to market materials from the PGL process. many data are from small-scale or pilot projects. and fiber. most of the PGL operations that have shut down did so because of reasons other than difficulties in complying with environmental requirements. Generally. The results of the analysis presented in this section must be used cautiously because the available environmental data are limited and lack detail. and liquefaction. The types of potential waste streams or air pollutant emissions and/or their characteristics could change significantly when full-scale versions of the technologies are built. and the resources used by tire PGL processes. steel. and residence time of the process. differences between pilot. A full-scale process might generate wastewater that would not be generated by the pilot-scale version because of the need to use a wet-scrubber to control air pollutants in the case of the full-scale system. Subsequently. and air pollution control processes. For example. the environmental impacts of tire PGL processes are not substantial. gasification. product separation processes. Inc. one reason is the relatively low capacity of tire PGL systems. Furthermore. the amount of each component produced varies depending on the feedstock. the characteristics and potential environmental impacts of July 1995 5-1 CalRecovery. As discussed in Section 2. The remainder of this section first provides information on the potential environmental concerns of tire storage at a tire PGL facility. . Based on a survey of the tire PGL industry and a review of the literature.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report SECTION 5.

or nearby surface water [5-1]. Aisles and berms between and around piles provide emergency access for fire fighting equipment and serve as fire breaks. Inc. tires make an excellent incubator for mosquitos.30 day stockpile of raw materials as a protection against market and seasonal fluctuations.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report solid. have the potential to cause significant environmental and public health concerns. Therefore. Control of runoff through containment (e. The only raw material required for many tire PGL processes is scrap tires. In addition.. Whole tires stored outdoors may be treated with pesticides or insecticides for vector control (e. liquid. and gaseous emissions are described. In November 1991. including recycling (e.g. and numerous aromatic organic compounds [5-4]. mosquito or other insect larvae.e. settling ponds) may be acceptable BMPs. transportation problems. 1 Tires. If a typical facility uses between 1. the California Water Resources Control Board adopted general industrial stormwater permit requirements to comply with federal requirements for stormwater discharges [5-2. 10 .. may also leach substances into the soil. water snakes. including benzo(a)pyrene. Whole tires collect water and the black color causes tires to act as heat sinks. Most processors prefer to maintain a 10 . berms) and capture (e. stormwater runoff could potentially contaminate soils. Based on the available information.100 tons per day (TPD)) and a 10 . provided.g. In addition. and problems.000 tires (i. A facility must develop pollution prevention plans and implement best management practices (BMPs) to control stormwater discharges. Tires. rodents. . Storage of whole tires requires proper management to prevent potential health Rain may wash dirt. Open burning of scrap tires could emit pollutants of health concern.300. zinc. when exposed to the elements..g. rodents. Stormwater runoff from tire storage areas and other surficial areas at a tire PGL facility is regulated.30 day stockpile is maintained. and other pests may seek refuge in tire piles.1 pesticides or insecticides off the tires.000 .e. July 1995 5-2 CalRecovery. 100 ..3. tire stockpiles represent fire hazards. whole or in chips.g.. These general permit requirements apply to all industrial stormwater dischargers.000 tons). wastes are characterized and management practices analyzed. 5-3]. tire PGL) facilities.. benzene. road oil. or work stoppages. then the number of tires which must be stored is 10. Thus. water snakes). Finally.000 and 10. lead. and may be required to establish a monitoring program. groundwater.000 tires daily (i. a discussion of resource utilization is Tire Storage Management Process feedstocks are discussed in Section 3.

If classified as solid wastes. If a waste is considered a hazardous waste. and financial assurance for closure and third-party liability coverage. and rayon). Consequently. To obtain this permit.g. . fencing and security measures. In addition. or recycled to the PGL process. all of the solid tire-derived products are considered to be potential solid wastes. nylon. Any of the solid tire-derived products and wastes generated by tire PGL could be classified as solid waste if not sold. toxicity). July 1995 5-3 CalRecovery. California has implemented a greatly expanded system of health-based 2 3 "Major" refers to a facility storing more than 5.. scrap steel. no distinction is made between a RCRA hazardous waste and non-RCRA hazardous wastes (not a RCRA hazardous waste but the waste exhibits at least one of the state's more stringent corrosivity or toxicity characteristics). For the purposes of this discussion. and fiber (e. In general. In addition to the adoption of the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification criteria. Article 4 of the California Hazardous Waste Regulations [5-6]. tire PGL processors and vendors However. a facility would need to submit an operations plan that provided for fire prevention methods. a closure plan. or 2) are listed as hazardous wastes in Chapter 11. and vector control. the California Hazardous Waste Control Law establishes requirements for hazardous waste management [5-7]. for the purpose of this section.3 While some of the tire-derived PGL products and wastes may exhibit some characteristics of hazardous waste (e.2 The facility would be required to obtain a major waste tire facility permit. identified these materials as products. a tire PGL facility would probably be required to comply with the requirements for a major waste tire facility [5-5]. fiber. Inc.000 tires at any time.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Under the California Integrated Waste Management Act.. these materials were also considered by some processors as wastes or potential wastes. products or wastes might also be classified as hazardous wastes if they: 1) exhibit any of the characteristics of hazardous waste. none is specifically listed as a hazardous waste. Overview of Applicable Solid Waste Statutes and Regulations The California Porter-Cologne Water Quality Act establishes management requirements for any solid waste generated by a tire PGL facility.g. utilized. survey data identified the ash residue separated from the char as another potential waste. Potential Solid Wastes General Background The tire PGL processes reviewed in this analysis typically generate the following solid materials: char.

certain refinery wastes) [5-9]. the criteria are as follows. To aid waste generators. Inc. California developed a list of 791 chemical names and approximately 70 common names for hazardous wastes and materials. • any of the California List of Inorganic Persistent and Bioaccumulative Toxic Substances are at or above their respective soluble threshold limit concentrations (STLC) or total threshold limit concentrations (TTLC). The facility generating a waste is responsible for properly classifying its waste stream. • any of the California List of Organic Persistent and Bioaccumulative Constituents are at or above their respective STLC or TTLC. The criteria used to identify characteristic hazardous wastes in California are found in Chapter 11. This list contains none of the tire PGL materials. • Ignitability. • it has an acute dermal LD50 < 4.300 mg/kg. Is capable of being set afire. If a substance is listed. the waste is presumed hazardous [5-10].000 mg/kg. Having properties of explosivity or of chemical activity which can be a hazard to human health or the environment • Toxicity. or of bursting into flame spontaneously or by interaction with another substance or material • Corrosivity.g. . The California definition of waste states that a waste is a discarded material that is not specifically excluded (e. A solid waste exhibits the hazardous characteristic of toxicity if: • any of the 40 Federal toxicity characteristic (TC) constituents have Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) concentrations above the regulatory levels. it is necessary to determine whether it is considered a waste under California law. July 1995 5-4 CalRecovery. Has a pH of less than 2 or greater than 12. In order to determine whether a material is considered a hazardous waste in California. or causes destruction of living tissue or steel surfaces by chemical action • Reactivity. In brief. Article 3 of the California Code of Regulations.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report toxicity characteristics and has augmented the federal corrosivity characteristic to include non-liquid wastes [5-8].5. • it has an acute oral LD50 < 5..

have a measure of pH less than 2 or greater than 12. Under the federal RCRA corrosivity definitions.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report • it has an acute inhalation LC50 < 10. and management options for the potential wastes from the 17 responding PGL processes is summarized in Table 5-1.. Characterization of Solid Wastes Very few data are available on the composition of the materials generated by tire PGL processes. For this reason. when added to an equal weight of water. RMAC International. char probably would not be considered a hazardous waste as a result of the corrosivity characteristic.000 ppm as a gas or vapor. the data do not appear to have been collected. while in others the process developers were unwilling to provide them. The char from the processes of AEA-Beven. . The information available on the generation rates. California regulations expand the corrosivity characteristic to include those solids which. no information reviewed suggested that char under normal conditions could cause a fire through friction. While char has a fuel value similar to pulverized coal. Therefore. and Worthing Industries was found to exhibit the characteristic of toxicity for zinc (i.e.5 [5-11]. and burn so vigorously when ignited as to create a hazard.001 weight percent (10 ppm). California expanded the corrosivity characteristic for nonaqueous waste because of the high probability that improperly disposed waste would come into contact with water. or spontaneous chemical changes. char would not be considered corrosive because the characteristic does not apply to solid materials. July 1995 5-5 CalRecovery. No references raised the issue of char being considered corrosive. However. • it contains any of 16 organic substances at a single or combined concentration exceeding 0. or • it has been shown to pose a hazard to human health or the environment. hazardous characteristics. we were only able to evaluate the char for the hazardous characteristic of toxicity with any degree of confidence. • it has an acute aquatic 96-hour LC50 < 500 mg/l in soft water. Char is mostly carbon and would probably be closer to neutral than either being acidic or alkaline. absorption of moisture. char probably would not be considered a hazardous waste based on the ignitability characteristic. the California List of Inorganic Persistent and Bioaccumulative Substances). Inc. none of the materials produced by tire PGL is a listed hazardous waste. As discussed earlier. Because of the limited amount of available composition data. For some processes. None of the PGL processes that provided data discussed ignitability as a potential problem.

Mean Values of Potential PGL Waste Quantities and Management Options .All Tire PGL Projects Mean Generation n (a) 10 10 Scrap Steel 10 12 12 12 12 3 3 3 3 Fiber 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 Cooling Tower Blowdown 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Carbon Black 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 Units lb/ton tires lb/ton char lb/ton oil lb/ton gas lb/ton tires lb/ton char lb/ton oil lb/ton gas lb/ton tires lb/ton char lb/ton oil lb/ton gas lb/ton tires lb/ton char lb/ton oil lb/ton gas lb/ton tires lb/ton char lb/ton oil lb/ton gas lb/ton tires lb/ton char lb/ton oil lb/ton gas lb/ton tires lb/ton char lb/ton oil lb/ton gas lb/ton tires lb/ton char lb/ton oil lb/ton gas lb/ton tires lb/ton char lb/ton oil lb/ton gas NR Rate 664 1. data were reported. Inc. July 1995 5-6 CalRecovery.390 7.836 5. or insufficient.150 212 716 612 1.920 160 790 318 3. Potential Waste Char Process Wastewater Off-site treatment Ash Dispose H—d2˜S Other Hydrogen. Source: Appendix Table F-1.933 NR (b) NR NR NR 525 NR 1.975 15. filler.917 NR 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 Sell N(a) 10 10 9 11 11 11 10 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 Off-site treatment Dispose or sell Management Option Dispose or sell as carbon black. (b) NR = no.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Table 5-1. and Methanol Sulfur 1 NR NR (a) n = number of projects reporting the indicated type of waste material. or pigment. fuel. Ammonia.667 55 185 153 327 2. N = number reporting quantities.926 4.140 9.708 63 188 275 524 100 400 182 1. .

Most sources of tire PGL did not discuss the issue of the PGL materials potentially becoming a hazardous waste. it may have to be managed as a either a solid waste or a hazardous waste. a waste would have to be extremely unstable and have a tendency to react violently or explode during management. and exhibiting the hazardous characteristic of toxicity [5-13]. carbon black. If the char cannot be sold or used as fuel. • Premium Enterprises. He indicated that the only products were carbon black and electricity [5-14]. which could result in its exceeding the total threshold limit concentration of 5. and management options reported by each process developer. Only American Ecological Technologies stated that a management option for char included landfilling. • Texaco. which could result in its exceeding the total threshold limit concentration of 5. The char has been reported to contain 44. utilize. any hazardous waste characteristics. Though some PGL materials may be considered a hazardous waste because of high levels of zinc. pyrolysis oil) generated by this process. The products associated with this PGL process are speculative at this time [5-15]. Some additional information on the wastes generated by each PGL process follows. asphalt. .500 mg/kg zinc oxide. Table 5-1 summarizes survey information on the generation rate of each potential waste.g. The char has been reported to contain 310.. or roofing filler. or recycle the materials to avoid having to dispose of them as wastes (for a more detailed discussion of the marketing of products.000 mg/kg for zinc. The management options for each of the potential materials are summarized below. • AEA-Beven. Solid Waste Management Options A variety of management options are available for each of the solid PGL materials which potentially may be generated as wastes. Inc. No data suggest that char is reactive. The most economical option is to sell. There are probably intermediate materials (e. References to char found in other reports conclude that char from the PGL of tires is not a hazardous material [5-12].000 mg/kg for zinc. Inc. July 1995 5-7 CalRecovery. most of the tire PGL processors surveyed did not characterize char as a potential hazardous waste. Inc. If the char is a non-hazardous solid waste. see Section 6). but our contact at Premium Enterprises was not willing to identify or discuss them.000 mg/kg zinc oxide. • Worthing Industries.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report To be considered a hazardous waste based on the characteristic of reactivity. and exhibiting the hazardous characteristic of toxicity [5-16].

g. If the char is characterized as a hazardous waste. One process uses water to condense the pyrolysis gas. Though two facilities in the survey might have char characterized as hazardous because of high zinc concentrations. benzene and toluene). char could be used in treating municipal sewage sludge. fiber.. July 1995 5-8 CalRecovery. Due to the high cost of building a dedicated landfill. The waste would have to be manifested and could only be sent to Class I landfills that comply with specific design and operating requirements. and the water does not appear to come into contact with any of the PGL products or wastes. No process identified pyrolysis oil as a potential waste. As an example of waste stabilization. Two of these processes use the water only for cooling. thereby rendering such sludges more conducive to handling. Three of the PGL processes generate water as a by-product and this wastewater is likely to be contaminated with whatever constituents are found in the pyrolysis oil (e. no information exists on whether these facilities have ever managed char as hazardous waste. The process is likely to generate a large volume of wastewater.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report landfills permitted to accept commercial and industrial solid waste would probably accept this material. Alternatively. a tire PGL facility would probably transport the waste to a commercial facility. Scrap steel. and the water is likely to be contaminated with the pyrolysis products. Potential Liquid Wastes General Background Eight of the tire PGL processes reported generating wastewater. one PGL process uses water in its char separation process. Inc. Another PGL process uses water to lubricate the tire shredders. char could be used for waste stabilization. more stringent management requirements would be required than if it were designated as solid waste. Lastly. This management method may also be considered a beneficial use that could generate revenues. char can de-water contaminated materials and reduce the presence of free leachate. Scrap steel is reportedly contaminated with carbon in some processes but this should not prevent the scrap steel from being managed as a solid waste. Through its absorption capacity. after which the water is separated and reused. and ash can probably be disposed in a landfill permitted to accept commercial and industrial solid waste if the materials cannot be sold as products. .

Examples of specific references to process wastewaters are discussed below. California has been delegated responsibility for implementation of the federal National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program to regulate discharges to surface waters within California. water may also be used in two air pollution control scrubbers. if a facility discharges to a publicly owned treatment work (POTW). • BBC Engineering and Research. The process wastewater is discharged to a wastewater treatment plant. discussion. General permit requirements apply to stormwater discharges from tire PGL facilities. The composition of the wastewater and its possible treatment were not reported [5-21]. . Generally. The water may come into contact with tires prior to pyrolysis. Under the Porter-Cologne Act. The cooling water is used in a closed-loop system and reportedly does not come into contact with any of the pyrolysis products or wastes [5-18]. a tire PGL facility may have two types of discharges: process wastewater and stormwater runoff. 5-20]. and fiber. If a process wastewater contains a significant amount of organic PGL products. steel. the discharge of a pollutant from a point source into any waters of California. these indirect discharges would be regulated by pretreatment standards [5-22]. Monitoring and reporting requirements ensure compliance with the applicable effluent limitations and water quality standards. is illegal. a state NPDES permit would establish specific effluent limitations and conditions regarding discharges to surface waters. For further Liquid Waste Management Options For facilities that directly discharge process wastewaters.g. some onsite pretreatment would be required. Certain processes generate wastewater that may contain some of the PGL products (e. Process wastewaters might be produced from once-through cooling or cooling tower blowdown. The nature of the treatment was not reported [5-19. except as authorized by permit. or from process waters that come into contact with tires prior to PGL or with the products after PGL. • RMAC International. In addition.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Overview of Applicable Liquid Waste Statutes The basic framework for state water pollution control is the Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act [517]. The process water is used to lubricate the tire shredders. Pretreatment standards protect the July 1995 5-9 CalRecovery. see the Tire Storage Management section. Inc. benzene and toluene) because the wastewater comes into contact with the PGL gas and/or char. The process water comes into contact with the char. • Pyrovac..

This gas is often used to fuel the process after startup. such as carbon monoxide. The stack emissions are likely to parallel common natural gas stack emissions. The carbon monoxide formed in the product gas is of some concern. fluorene. Therefore. similar constituents of concern exist. Constituents of concern for stack emissions would be products of incomplete combustion.. i. Inc. July 1995 5-10 CalRecovery.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report operation of POTWs (e. ethane. a tire PGL plant as a first-order approximation will have an impact on the surrounding air quality similar to industrial processes that combust natural gas to provide heat. Alternatively. because it is a relatively stable compound and considerable energy and oxygen are needed to convert it to carbon dioxide. and similar alkenes. such as methane. including simple alkanes and alkenes.e. if tires are pyrolyzed with other materials. This product gas typically contains low molecular weight hydrocarbons.. No quantitative estimates of fugitive emissions could be found in the literature. A large percentage of the universe of chemical compounds that are considered toxic contain one or more of the halogen family (i. Emissions from a PGL facility could result either from the burning of natural or product gas to heat the reactor or from leaks from imperfect joints in the equipment. Air Pollutant Emissions General Background The tire PGL process generates a gaseous product in addition to the char and oil products mentioned earlier. because the product gas is high in small straight-chained hydrocarbons. or flared onsite. bromine. because its similarity to methane and propane allows for easy substitution. However. Another source of air pollutants is fugitive emissions from joints and valves and from the handling and processing of char. The discussion that follows is based on qualitative or quantitative information obtained via the survey or from the literature. If excess product gas is flared. the product gas may be sold to local utilities for similar heating purposes. and iodine). prohibit the introduction of pollutants that create fire or explosion hazards) and prevent the discharge of pollutants that might pass through POTWs without receiving adequate treatment.g. as well as sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulates. Information on the stormwater requirements for a tire PGL facility can be found in the discussion on Tire Storage Management. because tires do not contain halogens. carbon dioxide. a much wider range of potential pollutants could be expected. The products of tire PGL are unlikely to contain halogenated compounds.e. chlorine.. fugitive emissions. The survey revealed little data regarding air emissions. . propane.

Some of the programs and regulations that the facility will have to comply with are described below. benzene. in order to operate in California. calcium and magnesium carbonates. handling. sulfur. and processing of char. . its total emissions. Fugitive emissions of particulate matter occur during screening. styrene. Areas that have ambient air concentrations above these levels are non-attainment areas. Areas that meet or are below these levels are considered attainment areas. Based on an estimated model plant with a capacity of 100 tons per day. and the health risk posed to the surrounding area. Monitoring requirements. and xylene [5-24]. Constituents of light oil include toluene. • nitrogen dioxide (NO2). valves. hexane. ethane. zinc oxide. The primary constituents of pyrolytic gas would be hydrogen. emissions offsets. California established ambient air quality standards at which no adverse effects would be experienced. a typical PGL facility would emit about 100 pounds of VOCs per day. or pipe connections. and propylene. will vary depending on the size of the facility. • particulate matter (PM10). The emissions contain carbon black. and silicates. methane. • sulfates (SO4). The regulatory process that a PGL facility would have to go through. all of which may produce particulate matter emissions less than or equal to 10 microns in diameter. propane. July 1995 5-11 CalRecovery. clay fillers. best available control technology (BACT). • carbon monoxide (CO). Overview of Applicable Air Pollutant Statutes and Regulations The California Clean Air Act establishes the basic requirements for air pollution control [5-26]. • sulfur dioxide (SO2). Currently. California ambient air quality standards exist for the following pollutants: • ozone (O3). specific stack emissions. the air basin in which the facility is sited. Inc.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Fugitive emissions may contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and may be caused by worn or loose packing. and other requirements would be established in the permitting process. The composition of the fugitive emissions is a combination of pyrolytic gas and non-condensed light oils [5-23]. or 21 tons per year [5-25].

• hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Additional information on the PGL gas from Conrad's process can be found in Table 5-3. mercury. and butyl benzyl phthalate. the pyrolytic gas is reported to contain a variety of hazardous air pollutants: chromium. The PSD program seeks to prevent facilities from lowering the air quality in an area that has acceptable air quality. Actual emission limitations and operating requirements would be established in a two-staged permitting process [5-29]. are listed in California air regulations under the air toxics hot spots listing [5-31]. These offsets must be somewhat greater than the potential emissions of the new facility such that a net air quality benefit is produced in the non-attainment area. nickel. ethylbenzene.g. Characterization of Air Emissions The information available on product gas from the 17 responding PGL processes is summarized in Table 5-2. particulate matter or nitrogen oxides) above certain levels must prepare an emissions inventory [5-30]. and • visibility reducing particles [5-27]. The product gas is burned for fuel in the PGL process. If the area in which a facility is to be located is an attainment area. zinc. and xylenes. Specifically. a facility that either emits any toxic air pollutant (that is. toluene. The product gas is never released directly to the atmosphere and should not be confused with stack emissions. any substance listed in Section 112 of the Federal Clean Air Act or on the AB 2588 List of Substances in California's regulations) or specific criteria pollutants (e. the facility would have to obtain emission offsets [5-28]. benzene. and it is reported in such a variety of formats that comparing the different processes is difficult. phenol. the facility would have to go through Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and New Source Review. under California's Air Toxic "Hot Spots" Information and Assessment Act. bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. July 1995 5-12 CalRecovery. Inc. If the facility were to be located in a non-attainment area. In addition. . manganese. In addition.. The first permit required would be the authority to construct and the second would be the authority to operate. naphthalene. in a flare. The local air quality district also may require a facility to perform a risk assessment based on this inventory. aluminum. This inventory must be updated every two years. These uses appear to adequately destroy the hazardous organic air pollutants typically found in the product gas. or as fuel by some other process. which were also found in the gas. all of which are considered hazardous air pollutants under Section 122 of the Federal Clean Air Act.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report • particulate lead (Pb). Very little information is available.

Fugitive emissions of VOCs and spills and releases of oil from these tanks are regulated by California's Aboveground Petroleum Storage Act [5-36].000 gallons. Continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) are not available for flares. the flare is considered the pollution control equipment. stack monitoring ports would allow the use of CEMS to more closely monitor air pollutant emissions.. design and operating requirements (e. two primary methods are available for controlling the emission of air pollutants from the PGL facility: burn the PGL gas in an incinerator (e.. With the use of a fume incinerator. July 1995 5-13 CalRecovery.. Both of these options have been successfully used to reduce the potential air emissions from the PGL gas [5-33]. Finally. Fugitive VOC emissions could be reduced by the use of components (e. The storage of pyrolysis products such as oil may cause environmental impacts. It appears that no air pollution control devices or scrubbers have been required in order to comply with emission limits. One potential concern with relying on a flare to manage excess pyrolysis gas is the difficulty in accurately monitoring emissions or establishing parameters for emissions. valves. pumps.g. Inc. Another pollution control option would be to use a fume incinerator to burn the excess pyrolysis gas. operating standards. and compressors) specifically designed to minimize fugitive emissions. such as screening.. Proper operating procedures that provide for training and good maintenance practices could also reduce fugitive emissions. In most of the literature. grinding. could be controlled with dust collectors and baghouses. The typical size of a tire pyrolysis oil storage tank is 10. operations which generate fugitive emissions. however. Testing of products will probably occur. Air pollution control measures also could reduce fugitive emissions at a tire PGL facility. dikes and monitoring) can control releases and spills.g. State regulations control fugitive emissions through requirements for vapor recovery systems and design and Similarly. Conrad's facility does not have any pollution control devices except for the outside flare for the excess pyrolysis gas [5-34].Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Air Pollutant Control Options Based on a review of the literature and results from the survey. Potential Environmental Impacts from the Storage of PGL Products California does not require any beneficial use approvals for the tire PGL products [5-35]. no testing is required for products. .g. to the extent necessary to determine if a product meets industry specifications (e.g. specifications for carbon black and for oil). In addition. burn it as fuel in the PGL process) or burn it in a flare. and processing.

44 n (a) 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 NOx Particulate HCl H2SO4 (a) n = number of projects reporting quantities.9 22.0 37.2 1.3 < 3.00027 0. Source: Survey information July 1995 5-14 CalRecovery.7 34. Mean Values of Air Pollutant Emissions .8 19.5 1.6x10-7 0.6 0. Inc.All Tire PGL Projects Pollutant SOx Units lb/ton tires lb/ton char lb/ton/oil lb/ton tires lb/ton char lb/ton/oil lb/ton tires lb/ton char lb/ton/oil lb/lb tire lb/lb tire Rate 9.6 11. .Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Table 5-2.

51 0. . Inc.2 10.65 20.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Table 5-3.7 24.4 30.2 1.95 0.09 0. Hazardous Constituents in Conrad's Tire-Derived Gas Pollutant aluminum chromium mercury nickel manganese zinc benzene bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate butylbenzyl phthalate ethylbenzene naphthalene phenol toluene xylenes Source: [5-32] Concentration ug/m3 1.8 16.82 0.2 July 1995 5-15 CalRecovery.87 1.05 2.1 2.

160. undated. p. Feedstocks are discussed in Section 3. EPA). Admin. Classification of Hazardous Wastes in California. Inc. Health and Safety Code §§ 25100-25250. as illustrated by the generation rate for process wastewater in Table 5-1. Some of the processes use water for cooling and the separation of products (see Table 5-4). References [5-1] Energy Task Force of the Urban Consortium for Technology Initiatives (Energy Task Force). Cal. [5-5] [5-6] Cal. Burning Tires for Fuel and Tire Pyrolysis: Air Implications. Admin.e. October 1992. [5-4] United States Environmental Protection Agency (U. 22. Code §§ 42800-42855. Res. Chapter 11 (also referred to as the California Code of Regulations).33. p. For the purposes of this discussion. Code tit. [5-9] [5-10] Cal. Pub. but burn pyrolysis products to provide heat during normal operations.30-66261. Waste Tire Recycling by Pyrolysis. Most of the processes use natural gas or propane during startup and shutdown.S. [5-3] The United States Environmental Protection Agency's requirements for stormwater discharges associated with industrial activity can be found at 40 CFR § 122. California Environmental Protection Agency. [5-2] California Resources Control Board. . Code tit. p. no distinction is made between a RCRA hazardous waste and non-RCRA hazardous wastes (not a RCRA hazardous waste but the waste exhibits at least one of the state's more stringent corrosivity or toxicity characteristics).. Cal.25. Fact Sheet for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Permit: General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated With Industrial Activities Excluding Construction Activities.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Resource Utilization The tire PGL processes examined require relatively few resources because the current processing capacities are small (i. less than 47 TPD) and the processes are not resource intensive on a unit capacity basis. Christopher Marxen. 1-11. Health and Safety Code § 24124.26. [5-7] [5-8] Cal. December 18 1991. July 1995 5-16 CalRecovery. The information available on water and external energy use is summarized in Table 5-4. but the volumes are quite small. 23. 22. December 1991. §§ 66261.

.000 cfh at 1 psi) Electricity (200 kW) Propane for startup Company/Process AEA-Beven American Ecological Technologies American Tire Reclamation BBC Engineering and Research Champion Water Source: Survey information July 1995 5-17 CalRecovery. Univ. 2 fuel oil for startup Propane for startup Gas Scrap wood for startup Propane (5. Inc. of Pyrovac RMAC International Seco/Warwick Worthing Cooling water Used in tire shredding Cooling water and boiler make-up water (200 gpm) Cooling water (closed-loop) Natural gas for startup Natural gas or propane No.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Table 5-4. Summary of the Water and External Energy Use by Tire PGL Processes Resources Used External Energy Electricity Used in char separation Cooling water Cooling water (closed-loop) Natural gas or propane for startup Natural gas or propane for startup and shutdown Propane or nuartual gas for startup Natural gas or propane for startup Cheyenne Industries Conrad Industries Hamburg.

Texaco. V.. July 1995 5-18 CalRecovery. ICF. February 23. Admin. July 1993. "Development of a Gas-Cleaning System for a Scrap-Tire Vacuum-Pyrolysis Plant. 8-15.S. B. Admin.S. page 4. ICF. U. Emission Offset Interpretive Ruling. 6. § 66261." Gas Separation and Purification (1992. Worthing Industries.. ICF. 17. Appendix S. p. Rogers. 40 CFR Part 403. The Tire Recycler. § 70200. 8-16. July 1993. U. Fransham. [5-21] [5-22] [5-23] [5-24] [5-25] [5-26] [5-27] [5-28] [5-29] [5-30] Weege. telephone conversation." Presented at Waste and Scrap in the Rubber Industry: Treatment and Legislation. 83-87. Water Code §§ 13370-13389. Belgium. EPA. Richard. 1993. Roy. [5-20] Roy.. July 1993. Cal.S. John.22. Peter. Roy. Card. 40 CFR Part 51.. John D. EPA. 22. Code tit. July 1993. telephone conversation. Vol. Code tit. EPA. RMAC International. Inc. U. EPA. Cal. No.. Cal. Health and Safety Code §§ 44300-44384. . Cal.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report [5-11] [5-12] [5-13] [5-14] [5-15] [5-16] [5-17] [5-18] [5-19] Cal. Telephone conversation July 1993. Christian. "Vacuum Pyrolysis of Scrap Tires. BBC Engineering and Research. telephone conversations. pp. de Caumia. p. ICF. Black. 8-18. telephone conversation. MDP Model TP-2000. Cal. p. Brussels. and C. p. 2). Health and Safety Code §§ 39000-44384.S. Don. 1992. Health and Safety Code § 40506. Premium Enterprises. Inc. Inc. 8-16. AEA-Beven. U. September 23. ICF.

July 1995 5-19 CalRecovery. Section 3 . Inc. Admin..13. telephone conversation. 3. U. and West Chester.S. Willmington.. May 24.S. Integrated Waste Management Board.Phase I Due Diligence Evaluation of the Detroit Tire Reclamation. Inc. Health and Safety Code §§ 25270-25270. Draft . . [5-36] Cal.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report [5-31] [5-32] Cal. p. ICF. January 1994. 8-13. [5-33] [5-34] [5-35] U.The American Tire Reclamation Technology Including Product Markets and Environmental Impacts. MA. EPA. Project. Appendix A. Dietsch. 8-13. Cal. Code tit. p. EPA. MI. Tom and Diana Range. 17 Subchap. 1993. prepared for the City of Detroit Policemen and Firemen Retirement System. Detroit. Roy F Weston.6. PA. Inc.

.

This combustion produces small carbon black particles. No. Inc. Potential market size and required product specifications are Materials Derived from Tire PGL As presented in Section 4.. July 1995 6-1 CalRecovery. Oil Oil derived from the tire PGL process is similar to No. as noted in Section 4. Carbon Black Carbon black. intensely black powder. comprise a fluffy.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report SECTION 6. 6 fuel oil is a low-grade petroleum product with some contamination. state of subdivision. Based on the data available. Waste products from the PGL processes are discussed in Section 5. an important industrial carbon. pigment properties. and adsorption activity. the partial combustion or thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. For the purpose of this section.e. end uses for the products are explored. the products are a solid (either tire-derived char or tire-derived carbon black). The basic process for manufacturing carbon black is the combustion of fuels with insufficient air. which. often including a naphtha fraction). although the material often resembles a char. In contrast. presented. a liquid (oil. . and a gas. Their technical and economic viability as marketable products is examined. is any of various finely-divided forms of amorphous (nonstructured) carbon. when separated from the combustion gases. i. 6 fuel oil. PRODUCT MARKETS General This section of the report discusses the uses and potential uses of products from PGL systems. the material derived from tire PGL will be referred to as carbon black. Its uses depend on its chemical composition. The partial combustion of hydrocarbons produces carbon black. cokes and chars are formed by the pyrolysis of solids.

Variability of End Products The type of pyrolytic process is an important factor in the quality of the end products.50 percent of the product derived from the organic content of the tire feedstock. July 1995 6-2 CalRecovery.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Gas Gas generated in tire PGL is a product high in carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide content. removing the steel and carbon black is fairly simple. as shown in Appendix Table D-6. In December 1993. 6 fuel oils with those of tire-derived oil. The heating value of an oil determines its value as a fuel. Inc. No. 6 oil can be fired in burners with preheaters which accept high viscosity fuels. When a batch process is used. A source from the Clean Washington Center indicated that there are few tire companies. or paper mills that will reuse or reprocess oil generated from tire PGL [6-3]. Because different types of tires are pyrolyzed together. Steel Steel scrap extracted from the feedstock of the tire PGL process contains carbon and fiber contaminants but is usually considered a fairly clean scrap iron ready to be marketed. 6 fuel oil. Grinding may result in steel and fiber contamination (from the tire belting) of the end products [6-1]. Potential Uses Use as a Fuel Oil derived from tire PGL is similar to No. 4 and No. Isolation of a single oil from the mixture for reprocessing is reportedly difficult [6-2]. Continuous tire PGL systems usually grind the tires into chips before processing. the oil generated consists of a combination of oil grades and carbon black. major reclaimers. 6 fuel oil was selling for approximately $8/barrel [6-4]. Market Assessment for Materials Generated from Tire PGL Oil Tire PGL systems can be operated to generate an oil-based liquid that is approximately 30 . No. Table 6-1 compares the properties of No. .

chemical feedstocks. which requires the use of a pump and a catalyst. Pyrolytic oils contain approximately 1 . No. (ATR) has reported two uses for its tire-derived oil.2 parts hydrogen to every one part carbon.800 ton/year of oil. • American Tire Reclamation. One use is to fuel an engine-generator using a 50/50 blend of tire-derived oil with diesel fuel. Upgrading used oil to meet lubricating oil specifications entails adding hydrogen to the hydrocarbon molecule. Inc. 1 See Table 4-5 for ultimate analysis of tire-derived oils. 4 is used by industrial boilers and cement kilns [6-2]. Emissions from both uses have been reported to be within EPA guidelines [6-6]. Conrad's 1 ton/hour PGL operation would yield a calculated 2. the company is upgrading the tire-derived oil to meet a No. However. July 1995 6-3 CalRecovery.1. Thus. This upgrading. • Conrad Industries generates a pyrolytic oil with a heating value of 18. The other use is to fuel a delivery truck with a 10/90 blend of a tire-derived oil and diesel fuel. is uneconomical and chemically unfeasible for a crude chemical feedstock such as tire-derived oil. Data are not available on the price at which Conrad is selling this oil.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Pyrolytic systems presently in operation have provided some insight into possible fuel uses for tirederived oil. One processor of waste hydrocarbons in California indicated that the pyrolytic oil from PGL systems might have potential as a component of slurry fuels. . according to one source [6-8]. Use as a Lubricant Re-refineries process used oil into a variety of products.1 Lubrication oil contains at least two parts hydrogen for every one part carbon.39 pounds of oil is generated for every pound of tire input.500 Btu/lb. Data are not available on the quantity of oil that Conrad is selling. based on data presented in Table 4-3. and plastic feedstocks [6-7]. Conrad Industries calculates that 0. a charge would be imposed for accepting and processing the pyrolytic oil in this application. Inc. 4 fuel oil specification. including heating oil. gasoline. • According to the president of ECO2. jet fuel.

4 Source: Appendix Table D-2 and [6-5].50 0. Comparison of Tire-Derived Oil with Fuel Oils Tire-Derived Oil Units Flash point. .00 mm2/g = cST mm2/g = cST 3. Max Ash.099 0. max Viscosity Min Max °C °C No. 6 Oil 60 % by vol. Inc.3 5.8 26.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Table 6-1. July 1995 6-4 CalRecovery. min Pour point. max Water and sediment.1 1. % by wt 0.1 6. 4 Oil 65 6 No.

. July 1995 6-5 CalRecovery. particle and aggregate mass distributions. and Safety Kleen (formerly Preslube). 4 grade). The crystalline forms are diamond and graphite. except perhaps in limited. surface area. and chemical composition. The possibility of upgrading the oil to a higher quality product (e. Carbon Black General Carbon exists in two crystalline forms. but the economics are unknown for a commercial-scale operation. • Evergreen Industries examined Appendix Tables D-2 and D-4 and concluded from the limited data that the oil was not suitable for re-refining because of its low viscosity. special circumstances. Upgrading the oil to a lubrication oil is technically and economically unattractive. Marketing the oil as a fuel is not feasible. using distillation. Blending the oil with other fuels to produce a useable fuel is in the research stage. IL [6-9]. average aggregate mass. none of which appears economically feasible at this time. Four other re-refineries were using motor/lubrication oils and/or hydraulic oils as feedstocks. of Irvine. is being explored. and the less-ordered forms are mainly cokes and chars. . Evergreen requires an oil with a viscosity of at least 20 centistokes at a 40 degree Celsius temperature [6-10].2 less-ordered forms. A source at the National Petroleum Refiners Association (NPRA) noted that two technologicallyadvanced re-refiners in the United States are Evergreen. CA. The ultimate 2 Characterized by degenerate or imperfect graphitic structures. and reportedly lacked the technological capabilities to process the tire-derived oil.g. and numerous amorphous. a No. Carbon blacks have industry standards and they differ in particle size. • Discussions with Safety Kleen concluded that their operation does not have the distillation technology to attain the necessary boiling range to convert the tire-derived oil to a saturated oil [68]. These two companies provided the following analysis of the potential of tire-derived oil as a re-refining feedstock. Inc.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Furthermore. headquartered in Elgin. most re-refiners do not have the technology necessary to process the oil derived from tire PGL. Market Assessment Tire-derived pyrolytic oil has four potential uses. because cheaper and cleaner fuels exist. structure.

3 4 The smallest dispersible entities in elastomer. adsorption activity. Structure is determined by aggregate size and shape. Values are within the range of rubber grade carbon blacks. .000 angstroms for a low-cost thermal carbon to approximately 100 angstroms for the most expensive high-color paint carbon. Surface areas are measured by both gas and liquid phase adsorption techniques and depend on the amount of adsorbate required to produce a monolayer. Carbon black's various uses depend on chemical composition. and fluid systems. and their average mass.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report colloidal units3 of carbon black are called aggregates (i. The average particle size of a commercial carbon black ranges from approximately 5. and other colloidal properties. as shown in Appendix Table E-1.. recent improvements in virgin carbon black production have fostered markets for many specialized grades of carbon black. Inc. July 1995 6-6 CalRecovery. Furthermore. Standard carbon blacks containing sub-micron particles have a high surface area to volume ratio. the most important property of carbon black is surface area4 since surface area has a substantial impact on the performance of carbon black in its applications. Conformity with industry standards determine the marketability of the tire-derived carbon black.e. These characteristics affect aggregate packing and the volume of voids in the bulk material. Surface Area Based on discussions with two of the larger manufacturers of carbon black in the United States. pigment properties. is used to assess structure.15 m2/g. as shown in Appendix Tables E-1 and E-2. Conversely. Mean values of void volume are shown in Table 4-7. state of subdivision. a characteristic related to structure. plastic.700 m2/g. The measurement of void volume. Recovered carbon char from tire PGL units reportedly does not meet these new standards [6-11]. The industry uses the term "surface area" rather than the more precise "surface area per unit of mass" to describe the parameter measured in m2/g. Quebec) state that the main disadvantage of recycling the char from tire PGL as carbon black is its high inorganic (ash) content [6-11]. fused assemblies of particles). Structure The second most important property of carbon blacks is structure. Researchers at the University of Laval (Ste-Foy. Mean surface area for tire-derived char is reported in Table 4-7. the number of particles per aggregate. the surface area for thermal carbons is approximately 7 . while that of high color carbon is approximately 1.

A graphitic powder is also produced which can be used in modified asphalts as a compatible additive for road construction [6-6].Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Potential Uses Use in the Manufacture of Plastic Products A plastic products manufacturer reported testing tire-derived carbon black as follows. Rapco examined the data provided in Appendix Tables D-1 and D-5 and found them to meet the specifications of its manufacturing process. carbon blacks contain varying but minimal amounts of moisture. Upgrading to Carbon Black Most commercial rubber-grade carbon blacks contain over 97 percent elemental carbon. Inc. and inorganic salts. hydrogen. The company reported an interest in developing a joint venture tire PGL project.07 .0. Inc. as shown in Table 4-5.08/pound. The company estimated that it will need 20 ton/day of tire-derived carbon black [6-16]. In addition to chemically combined surface oxygen. The mean value of reported carbon content is 91. PGL operators have reported possibilities for beneficiating their carbon black material. Rapco is pursuing tire PGL operations which will sell the carbon black material to them for $0. but prefers tire-derived carbon black as it is cleaner and more abrasive in their manufacturing process [6-16]. (ATR) refines tire pyrolyzed carbon black residue to produce a carbon-rich powder with semi-reinforcing characteristics similar to virgin carbon blacks for use in rubber goods. Although none of the product data available to this study met the 97 percent elemental carbon requirements of a rubber-grade carbon black. Rapco was actively pursuing the purchase of a tire pyrolysis unit. Generally. Its manufacturing process includes grinding plastic with a chemical formulation and mixing the ground plastic with carbon black. July 1995 6-7 CalRecovery. • Rapco is a southern California business which is testing the use of carbon black generated from PGL to manufacture a plastic product. • American Tire Reclamation. Rapco is commercializing a plastic and coating technology. with bulk densities between 16 and 32 lb/ft3 [6-5]. In December 1993. sulfur.5 percent. solvent-extractable hydrocarbons. . Rapco has been using carbon black derived from plastic. the percentage of elemental carbon is a relatively less important consideration than surface area or structure.

with 1. a blue toned tinting black. to be used for inks.100 microns. the sampled material may fall under the "low color" type. Given its low surface area and high volatile content. some special carbon black grades containing particles with lower surface areas (i. Industry experts estimate that virgin carbon black production capacity worldwide exceeds demand by 10 percent [6-7]. Use as Special Carbon Blacks Tire-derived carbon char is produced in the size range of 10 . paints. Virgin carbon black sells for between $0. This particle size range limits the ability of the material to be substituted for standard carbon blacks containing sub-micron particles. • Conrad Industries indicated that their PGL operation is also upgrading the tire-derived char material to a carbon black product [6-13]. July 1995 6-8 CalRecovery. While the potential exists to upgrade tire-derived char to carbon black. ECO2 sells tire-derived carbon black to commodity companies and brokers at $0. and a volatile content of 2. the tire-derived carbon black from Laval University does not fit the properties of special carbon blacks in Appendix Table E-2.8 percent. a DBP result of 76 ml/100g. but more closely resembles carbon blacks used for inks.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report • The president of ECO2 reported that buyers of carbon black from its system include manufacturers of low-grade carbon products such as hoses and solid rubber tires [6-2].. and an unknown volatile content.65 million tons sold in the United States each year [6-5]. However.. and cements. and plastics in Appendix Table E-1. • The data from Laval University show a surface area of 85 m2/g (using the CTAB method).600/ton). as shown in Table 4-7. Given these properties and an appropriate volatile content.30/pound ($500 . Inc.e. paints. Given the appropriate volatile content. there is insufficient data in the literature to judge the cost of upgrading tire-derived char to any specific grade and specification of carbon black. Appendix Table E-2 lists the types and applications of special carbon blacks.25 and $0. larger particle sizes) may be used for applications in plastics to improve weathering resistance. . or to impart antistatic and electrically conductive properties [6-5]. or $200/ton [6-12]. the reports from Laval University and NATRL indicate that the carbon black from their PGL units may be marketed for special carbon black usage.10/pound. a DBP result of 95 ml/100g. sealants. • The material sampled from NATRL contains a surface area of 40 m2/g. plastics.

e. Appendix Table E-1 illustrates properties of carbon blacks which can be used for inks. aggregate size. "high color furnace" .131 Btu/lb). paints. vapor-adsorbent carbons are hard granules or pellets. Liquid-phase carbons are generally powdered or granular in form. economic data and analyses are lacking that would allow an accurate definition of the costs to achieve specific grades of activated carbon versus the properties of PGL carbon char feedstocks. paint. The 100 m2/g and lower surface areas of tirederived carbon char indicate that the carbon black falls outside the required 300 . this material could be marketable as an ink. porous low-aggregation grades of approximately 500 m2/g used for high color enamels and lacquers [6-14].2. Given the appropriate surface area. activated carbons are characterized by a higher surface area.. This large surface area allows the physical adsorption of contaminants from gases and the dissolved or dispersed substances from liquids. or plastic. Inc. The 87.500 m2/g. Tire PGL reduces carbon char to micron size particles.a virgin carbon black category). PGL carbon char may be upgradable to activated carbon. . Table 4-5 indicates the mean heating value of tire-derived solid (char) (i.e. ranging from 300 ..Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Use as a Printing Ink Over 40 special black grades have been developed having a broad range of properties from 20 m2/g surface area grades used for inexpensive inks and tinting to oxidized. Use as an Activated Carbon Activated carbon is a microcrystalline.500 m2/g range of an activated carbon.2. July 1995 6-9 CalRecovery. gas-phase. Activated carbons are widely used to remove impurities from liquids and gases and to recover valuable substances or control pollutants from gas streams [6-5]. Whereas standard carbon blacks are characterized by a surface area of between 20 500 m2/g. The heat content of 5 Including potable water. nongraphitic form of carbon that has been processed to develop internal porosity.5 percent fixed carbon content of ATR tire-derived carbon black suggests that it may fall under an HCF category of carbon blacks (i. A few of these special pigment grades have carbon contents below 90 percent [6-5]. Use as a Fuel The char or carbon char material generated from PGL can be used as a source of fuel. 13.5 Commercial grades of activated carbon are designated as either gas-phase or liquid-phase adsorbents. Technically. and plastics. and tinting strength of the material. However.

atmospheric release is carefully controlled [6-5]. • Conrad Industries reported the heating value of the company's tire-derived carbon black as well as the quantity generated. At this time. • Wayne Technologies indicated that they use the tire-derived carbon black material produced by its PGL unit as a fuel to operate the system [6-1]. the ability to compete in these specific markets does not appear feasible at this time. paints. Gas As shown in Appendix Table D-6. although none is presently viable. cheaper sources of fuel are available. tire PGL produces a gas that contains relatively high concentrations of methane and ethane. July 1995 6-10 CalRecovery. and other gases resulting from the combustion of fuels is regulated. Carbon black may be marketed as a fuel. The emission of particulate matter. from tire-derived gas). Using the carbon black for plastic product manufacture is also in the research stage.664 tons of tire-derived carbon black would be generated per year [6-15]. Finally. Thus usage as a fuel in this system would require other substantial energy inputs (e.000 Btu/lb.g. Most pyrolytic operations use this gas as a fuel. Based on operating data in Table 4-3.. the market is limited.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report domestic coals and cokes ranges from approximately 7. however. The company's PGL unit produces 0. Carbon char from PGL systems could potentially serve as a coal substitute in California. The material has a heating value of 12. or plastics may be possible under certain conditions. Therefore. Inc. Coal and coke fuels are usually less expensive and of a higher quality than tire-derived carbon char fuel.. Upgrading the material for use in rubber products is still in the research phase. sulfur compounds.37 pounds of carbon for every pound of tire input. marketing the tire-derived carbon black material as a special grade carbon black or for use in inks. environmental control should be considered when planning the use of tire-derived carbon black as a fuel.000 Btu/lb for petroleum coke. hydrocarbons. and thus resembles a natural gas. or one fourth of the amount of energy required to operate the pyrolysis unit. Market Assessment Four possible markets exist for the carbon black material derived from tire PGL. . Because of the concentrated nature of carbon black. Thus. nitric oxides.200 Btu/lb for lignite to approximately 15. However. 2. Some operators have indicated that they are using the char material as a source of fuel.

60 lb (2.15 percent of the gas it produces and generates 8. This variation likely represents the differing emphasis placed on steel recovery by different developers. Steel Due to the variability of the quality of steel and fiber extracted in the pre.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report The large amounts of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the gas are not conducive to blending with a natural gas. The Scrap Tire Management Council and a source from Resource Recycling reported that the 2. or internal combustion engines or compressed and stored for future use. the gas is best used solely as a fuel for process [6-2]. .5 percent) of steel obtained from a 20-pound tire is clean enough to market [6-18]. July 1995 6-11 CalRecovery. boilers.000 Btu/scf.or post-pyrolyzing process. Inc. The company estimates that once the tires are fed into the unit. scrap metal industry sources were surveyed. Conrad Industries reported generating 50 .20/ton based on the cleanliness of the material [6-17]. The system then runs on 10 . for example as a fuel in a manufacturing process. Market Assessment The gas generated by tire PGL is most efficiently used to fuel the process of PGL. Most facilities flare the excess. • Most scrap metal brokers and processors accept only clean scrap iron and steel. specific issues related to the marketability of steel generated from pyrolytic systems could not be examined. but the throughput of the PGL system would need to be large in order to make this alternative economically feasible [6-1]. Markovits and Fox. Thus. However. Potential Uses • Conrad Industries generates a gas from its PGL operation with a heating value of 1. • Wayne Technologies reported that the PGL process yields three to five times more energy than needed to fuel the process. which heats the firing chamber of the PGL unit. confirmed this concept and indicated that steel prices range from $10 . the pyrolytic gas produced takes over and sustains the machine.000 ft3/hour of gas.5 percent) of steel and fiber per ton of tires [6-15]. It would be possible to use a steam generator to capture the excess through co-generation. a scrap metal recycling firm in California. Estimates on quantities of steel extracted from tire PGL differ. The excess gas can be directly piped to burners.5 pounds (12. probably in response to local market conditions or technical considerations.

Rochester. "Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. NY. Recycling by Nature. "Carbon Black. Market Assessment The scrap steel generated from tire PGL is clean enough to be sold to scrap processors. Scott. The cost of a baler affects the feasibility of selling the scrap material. Wendy Fisher. 11.. • At the operation rate of Conrad's unit shown in Table 4-3. pp. 631-666. Conrad could collect a calculated $10. Martin and David Eckroth. . Vice President of Engineering. 1978. New York. Grayson. 5 October 1993. fiber contamination). August 1993.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report • The president of ECO2 reported that 2. telephone conversation. Clean Washington Center. May 1993. References [6-1] Errington. [6-2] Broughton. p. 1992. 5 October 1993 (206) 464-7126). Wendy Fisher.800/year selling the steel. Recycling by Nature. John Wiley and Sons.500 pound bales of scrap have been sold to scrap processors for between $30 and $60/ton [6-12]. 54. Inc. Anne Claire. December 2. 4872. July 1995 6-12 CalRecovery. August 1993. The feasibility of marketing the steel is based on a number of factors: cleanliness (e. excluding processing and transportation costs.g. [6-3] Grulich. [6-4] [6-5] Petroleum Intelligence Weekly. (716) 264 5900. Volume 4." Recycling Today. pp. Ron. Third Edition. packaging. "Thermal Plastics Processing: is it Recycling?" Resource Recycling. steel may be generated in small pieces. pp. One way to increase the economic efficiency and marketability of it would be to bale the steel. and transportation and storage costs. and given the higher selling price of $60/ton. Ed. "Scrap Tires: A Burning Issue. 180 tons of steel are generated per year [6-15].. quantity. Recovered Plastics Supplement. In cases where the tires are shredded. [6-6] [6-7] Scrap Tire News. Jerry Powell. telephone conversation. Wayne Technologies.

4 October 1993. telephone conversations. [6-18] Powell Jerry. (202) 457-0480). Recycling by Nature. E.. Jeff. ECO2. Resource Recycling. DC. WA. Harry. 18 October and 2 December 1993. CalRecovery. Recycling by Nature. 11 p. Charles. Wendy Fisher. M. Inc. [6-14] Bakales.. Recycling by Nature. Evergreen Industries. Safety Kleen Corp. 814 p. 8 October 1993. Dennis. telephone conversation.. brochure.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report [6-8] Brinkman.A Technology That Recovers Both Energy and Materials From Waste. Wiley Interscience Publishers. Centralia. 27 September 1993. Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology. (408) 453-7888. Wendy Fisher. Recycling by Nature. (310) 573-4116. Recycling by Nature. [6-11] [6-12] Jerry Powell. Wendy Fisher. September 1993. (708) 697-8460. (503) 227-1319. (206) 748 4924. 1985. Conrad Industries. July 1995 6-13 CalRecovery. Bill. Recycling by Nature. [6-13] Conrad. telephone conversation. Washington. CA. pp. Volume 2. Wendy Fisher. (904) 481 0187." Resource Recycling. Wendy Fisher. IL. George. Wendy Fisher. . telephone conversation. 7 October 1993. Ledford. July 1993. Recycling by Nature. von Stein. telephone conversation. Technical Director of the Oil Division. National Petroleum Refiners Association. telephone conversation. Rapco. 47. Ed. telephone conversation. [6-10] Underhill. [6-17] Rick.L. 6 October 1993. Markovits and Fox. Elgin. New York. 18 October 1993. (714) 253-4645). Wendy Fisher. Irvine. telephone conversation. [6-9] Higgins. [6-16] Tote. "Hot Uses for Scrap Tires. undated. Kleenair Pyrolysis Systems . [6-15] Conrad Industries.

.

Liquefaction involved primary liquefaction to a crude product. and refining to gasoline or diesel oil [7-2]. capital costs were defined to include the following: 1 2 A liquefaction process. . or demonstration-scale experience. annual operating and maintenance costs. i. Also. catalytic hydrotreating to deoxygenate the crude.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report SECTION 7. tire tip fees. pilot-. 7-2]. and also estimates of the economics of planned systems. The two pyrolysis systems included in the analysis were a pyrolysis oil hydrotreating process developed at Georgia Tech and elsewhere. Reported Project Economics Cost information was assembled from survey responses and literature. Two liquefaction systems included in the analysis were atmospheric flash pyrolysis (AFP)1 and liquefaction in pressurized solvent (LIPS). Estimates that follow include capital costs. costs presented represent both actual laboratory-. July 1995 7-1 CalRecovery. Those few operators with actual full-scale operating experience were reluctant to share information with an audience that could include competitors. four MSW PGL projects were included. Capital Cost Estimates For purposes of the study. based on survey results. Applied to pyrolysis vapors. The sensitivity analyses were performed on project alternatives considered by CalRecovery to be representative of the state of the PGL technology. presents data collected on tire tip fees in various parts of the state. and a zeolite-catalyst upgrading2 process based on research by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. product revenues. Because the PGL industry has little full-scale experience. and project economics. These systems had been developed through research into processes that produce liquid fuels from biomass. The analysis included cost estimates for typical 1000 dry metric ton/day plants. wood [7-1.e. Costs for both tire-only projects and mixed feedstock PGL systems were used. Inc. COST SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS Introduction This section reports cost and revenue information compiled during the study.. Four mixed-feedstock PGL systems that did not handle tires were included in the analysis. and then discusses the sensitivity of project economics to changes in key project variables.

. water. and landscaping).g. and liquefaction systems surveyed are presented in Table 7-1. taxes. and • general and administrative (G&A) costs (non-labor insurance. Data were unavailable for capital costs for mixed feedstock PGL projects. roads. The mean reported capital costs for the tire pyrolysis. and fuel for space heating and on-site mobile equipment). Inc. when available. • process operations (electricity. tire or wood buying) -.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report • land acquisition.occurred in only a few of the projects selected for the analysis.. gasification.g. the number of facilities reporting data varies for each cost subcategory. These developers did not report the costs of necessary buildings or other structures. • equipment maintenance (lubricants and spare and replacement parts). design. • process equipment (purchasing and installing fixed and mobile equipment to process the feedstock. permits. Operating Cost Estimates Complete reports of the operating costs included the following categories: • labor (cost of plant staff and labor overhead. • structures (buildings to enclose the process equipment and store the feedstock). Some developers provided the costs of process equipment only. air pollution control systems). • site preparation (site grading and drainage. and corporate management). July 1995 7-2 CalRecovery. and • indirect costs (engineering.. startup reactor heating systems. environmental monitoring services. legal. as well as auxiliary equipment. All capital costs in this section are presented in 1993 dollars. Cost subcategories are also presented in the table. and administrative costs of construction). e. As shown in the table. gas. excludes corporate management costs). permitting. wastewater disposal. utility interconnections. The reported costs are based on both operating and planned PGL projects. • feedstock purchases (e.

002.360.527.629 3 16. may not equal the sum of individually reported values. Values in "N" columns indicate number of data points for each reported cost category. Inc. (b) Represents the mean value of individually reported cost categories.000 N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R 1 Total Capital (d) 12 $6.043 N/R (c) N/R $3.082 Capital Cost Categories (b) Land Site Work Process Equipment Structures Indirect Cost 2 1 5 2 3 $1. July 1995 7-3 CalRecovery.500 2 $2.000 $340.631 2 17.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Table 7-1. .533.000 $3.563 $1. (d) Represents the mean value of all reported capital costs.500. (c) N/R = not reported.000 Source: Survey information.395 3 $4. Mean Values of Reported Capital Costs . Due to differences in the number of projects reporting in each category.552 $1.Tire Projects N Total Number Reporting (a) Mean Throughput (TPY) 14 12 Pyrolysis Cost N Gasification Cost 4 N Liquifaction Cost 2 17.581. (a) Total number of projects reporting data.100. including individually reported total costs.500.

and scrap steel for approximately 2 percent. when available. Project Economics The costs and revenues of the reported tire PGL projects are presented in Table 7-5 on a $/ton of throughput basis. . The product revenues presented in the table are based on the revenues presented in Table 7-3. Estimates of Revenues The mean annual revenues (in 1993 dollars) from the tire PGL projects are presented in Table 7-3. Fuel oil accounts for about 20 percent of product revenues.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Table 7-2 presents the mean reported annual operating costs for tire PGL projects and compares the costs with those for mixed feedstock projects. Cost subcategories are also presented in the table. Based on the data in Table 7-3 for tire pyrolysis projects. and are compared with those of mixed-feedstock PGL projects. the number of facilities reporting data varies for each cost subcategory. the revenues reported in the table assume that the entire product stream is sold at the reported unit sales price. Operating cost data were unavailable for tire liquefaction projects. The reported costs are based on both operational and planned PGL projects. For tire gasification projects. As shown in the table. Tire tip fees yielded a mean value of $1. Inc. As indicated by the number of projects reporting for each product. the types of products produced varied among the projects. The reported unit sales prices (mean. The table also lists the sales prices for comparable virgin commodities. solid carbon products account for the majority of the product revenues (approximately 78 percent). maximum. Consequently. All operating costs in this section are presented in 1993 dollars.271. and thus assume that the entire product stream is sold at the reported unit sales price. only estimates of the total annual costs of operation were available. The product revenues presented in Table 7-3 are calculated based on the unit sales price for the product (as reported by the facility) and the estimated quantity of product produced per ton of throughput. and minimum) for each tire-derived product stream are presented in Table 7-4. data were unavailable. July 1995 7-4 CalRecovery.300 annually. For the other gasification projects.

929 $3.592.835 Source: Survey information (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Includes projects using MSW or wood as feedstocks.571 1 $176.886 $756.629 3 16.250 2 330.416 N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R 2 2 2 2 2 $7. N/R = not reported. Total number of projects reporting data.Tire Projects Compared with Estimates for Similar Projects Pyrolysis N Cost Total Number Reporting (b) 14 Tire Projects Gasification N Cost 4 Liquifaction N Cost 2 N Pyrolysis Cost 4 Other (a) Gasification N Cost 2 N Liquifaction Cost 2 Mean Throughput (TPY) 12 17.033 $2.505 $311.408. (G&A) 4 2 4 5 3 $398.204 N/A 2 $49. .683 $27.211 $8.279.250 N/R (d) N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R 2 2 2 2 2 $2.844 $699.763 $223.394 2 121. Values in "N" columns indicate number of data points for each reported cost category.410. may not equal the sum of individually reported values. including individually reported total costs.082 4 171.568. Mean Values of Reported Operating Costs . N/A = not applicable. Represents the mean value of all reported operating costs.967.979 Total Operating Cost (e) 7 $2.795.631 2 17.049.000 Operating Cost Categories (c) Labor Feedstock Purchases Equipment Maintenance Process Operations General & Admin.784.604 $2. Inc. Represents the mean value of individually reported cost categories.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Table 7-2.453 $15. July 1995 7-5 CalRecovery.471 N/A 2 $22. Due to differences in the number of projects reporting in each category.930 $183.570 $216.035.454.

431 N/R N/R N/R $505. Mean Values of Reported Annual Revenues . and the estimated quantity of product produced per ton of throughput.423.540 N/R $3.452 $128. (d) N/R = no reported revenues. .584 2 $499.861. Thus. Inc.294 $541. (c) Represents the mean value of individually reported revenue categories.Tire Projects (a) N Total Number Reporting (b) Mean Throughput (TPY) Pyrolysis Revenue 14 12 17.567 1 1 2 5 7 2 Tip Fee 2 $1. (f) Represents the mean value of all reported revenues.187 Source: Survey information. (a) Product revenues are calculated based on the unit sales price for the product as reported by the facilities.498.176 2 2 1 2 $2.303 $1.667 N/R $3. Values in "N" columns indicate number of data points for each reported revenue category.631 N Liquefaction Revenue 2 2 17.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Table 7-3.082 Product Revenues (c. may not equal the sum of individually reported values.300 2 $469.882 N/R $35.226.629 N Gasification Revenue 4 3 16.919. Due to differences in the number of projects reporting in each category. (b) Total number of projects reporting data. (e) Represents the mean value of all reported product revenues.271.814 $2. revenues reported assume the entire product stream is sold at reported unit sales prices.544 N/R $108.072.681 N/R N/R $77. July 1995 7-6 CalRecovery.d) Fuel Oil All Solid Carbon Products Gas Energy Steel Fiber All Product Revenues (e) 6 5 $747.822.172 2 $4.659 2 $740.200 All Revenues (f) 7 $3.

680 $0. C. Unit Prices of Tire-Derived Products Compared with Unit Prices of Virgin Products Product Fuel Oil Units $/lb $/bbl $/gal $/lb $/lb $/lb $/ccf(c) $/kWhr $/ton No.100 $32-45 Source A A A C A A D D B Activated Carbon Carbon Black Filler Carbon Gas Electricity Steel Source: Tire-derived product prices from survey.000 $0. from Recycling Times. of Entries 12 12 12 2 7 1 1 1 8 Mean Price $0. Barneby-Sutcliffe. activated carbon manufacturers. D.50 and $140/ton.000 $0.418 $0.280 $0.38 Tire-Derived Products (a) Standard Maximum Deviation Price $0.110 $0.19 $0.250 $0.080 $1. typical rate for small industrial customers.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Table 7-4.060 $45. (b) N/A = Not applicable.027 $8.00 Virgin Products Minimum Price $0.310 $0.080 $0. from Section 6.430 $0. Inc.060 $74. B.054 $17. August 1993.210 $0.141 $0.56 $0.000 $0.800 $0.080 $1. A.60 $1. (c) ccf = 100 cubic feet.060 $120.232 $75.275 $0.065 $21.42 $0. (a) Prices reported by two projects for fiber were $22.121 N/A (b) N/A N/A $25.032 $10. regarding value of low-quality activated carbon.190 $0.100 $0. . and Sorb-Tech.504 $0.080 $1.50 $0. West baled steel can prices.00 Price $0. July 1995 7-7 CalRecovery. based on discussions with Calgon Carbon.176 $0.000 $0. from Pacific Gas & Electric.

Some facilities accepted only small loads of tires.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report The data in the table indicate the following for tire pyrolysis projects: • The annual unit costs for tire pyrolysis systems are high ($156/ton of throughput.25/tire ($125/ton). Assuming that a 25 percent differential tip fee would be attractive. tip fees were higher for truck tires than for car tires. In the San Francisco Bay Area. and annual costs) is discussed later in this section. Some facilities determined charges based on inspections of the loads for size and quality. . a tip fee range for tire PGL should be in the range of $30 to $1. carbon product sales. inasmuch as the cost of tip fees for whole tires must cover the cost of shredding prior to landfilling. tire tip fee. facilities need to be conveniently located and charge less than landfill or other competing disposal. At most disposal sites. or both. from $350/ton to $2. The lower tip fees for shredded tires are expected. Some facilities accepted only shredded tires.56/tire). equivalent to $1. For tire PGL projects to offer an attractive disposal alternative. • If all products are sold at the reported prices. a tire tip fee of over $61/ton ($0. or collected an additional charge for mixed loads containing tires. Tire Disposal Costs in California Tire disposal costs in the state vary widely. A landfill near San Jose charged $1. July 1995 7-8 CalRecovery. A crumb rubber-producing tire processor reported that a pickup truck load of tires would be charged approximately $1/tire ($100/ton). The Oxford Energy incinerator in central California estimated that a large load of tires would be charged approximately $1. Inc.500/ton (equivalent to $15/tire). tire pyrolysis projects will produce net revenues. tip fees varied by a factor of nearly six to one.30 to $15/tire). tire tip fee.61/tire) would be required to result in a net profit. The sensitivity of the economics of tire pyrolysis projects to key variables (i. one landfill charged approximately $38/ton at the end of 1993 to dispose of tires. In southern California. This sliding scale approach was used frequently for larger loads. A significant revenue stream is required from the sale of products.000/ton. • If all products are sold at 50 percent of the reported prices..e. even without the revenue from a tip fee on tires. A San Joaquin Valley landfill charged more than three times that amount ($125/ton).500/ton ($0. Tip fees in these cases were $65 to $175/ton.

where appropriate. Assumptions A baseline scenario was developed for purposes of analysis based on data reported by the facilities and our judgment. • O&M costs of $118. 75 percent of product sold. The survey and available information in the literature revealed too few data to permit a similar determination of the sensitivity of either tire gasification or tire liquefaction project costs. 90 percent of product sold. July 1995 7-9 CalRecovery. 75 percent of product sold. • Residue disposal costs of $20/ton.328/TPD of throughput.128/lb. The mean value of capital cost was calculated as $101. and product revenues. • Steel sales price of $0.019/lb. Inc. • Fuel oil sales price of $0. Cost and revenue data from the survey and professional judgments of CalRecovery. • Char sales price of $0. Operating costs were as presented in Tables 7-2 and 7-5. The assumptions used in constructing the baseline scenario are as follows: • Annual capital costs of $38. O&M costs. Project costs (capital and O&M) were calculated from mean data for the reporting tire pyrolysis projects (see Table 7-5). .Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Sensitivity Analysis The sensitivity of project economics to changes in key project variables was analyzed for tire pyrolysis projects.08/lb.027/lb. 100 percent of the capital costs were amortized using 8 percent interest over a 15-year period. For purposes of this analysis. • Reported tip fees were not included. 90 percent of product sold.06/ton of throughput. • Carbon black sales price of $0. were used to assess the sensitivity of tire pyrolysis project economics to variations in annual capital costs.37/ton of throughput.

00 $150. based on information from Tables 7-1. Inc. July 1995 7-10 CalRecovery. (c) Excludes tip fee. .938 $67. (a) Amortization of capital costs.92 $61.25 $17.26 $174.43 $30. and 7-3.04 $20. (b) N/R = not reported.10 N/R (b) N/A $26.33 N/R $24.298 $74.51 $93.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Table 7-5. 15 years at 8%.73 N/A N/A N/A N/A Source: Calculated.798 Annual Costs ($/ton) Capital (a) O&M Total $/ton $/ton $/ton $38.845 $48.49 $11.06 $156.78 N/R N/R N/R Net Revenues (c) $/ton $33. 7-2.21 $50.43 $67.648 $161.26 Product Revenues $/ton $189.37 $118. N/A = not applicable.94 N/A $57.Tire Projects Compared with Estimates for Similar Projects Tire Gasification 4 Other Gasification 2 Units Number of Projects Reporting 14 Pyrolysis Liquefaction 2 4 Pyrolysis Liquefaction 2 Capital Cost $/TPD throughput $101. Reported Unit Costs and Revenues .328 $84.98 $223.

a tire pyrolysis project would require on the order of $0. based on our judgment that a high-quality carbon black would not be produced in all cases. capital costs reported in the survey range from $10 to $129/ton. particularly carbon black. The sales price for carbon black was assumed to be at the mid-point between the reported sales prices for carbon black and for char. project economics are significantly more sensitive to variations in O&M costs than in capital costs. ranging from -20 percent to +20 percent of those assumed for the baseline scenario. Sensitivity to Variations in Revenues The sensitivity of tire pyrolysis economics to variations in product revenues is depicted in Figure 7-2. fuel oil. the unit sales price was assumed to be the lesser of the mean survey price and the virgin commodity price. because of the fact that recovery (i.80/tire tip fee to break even based on capital and O&M costs of approximately $159/ton of throughput and assumed product revenues of $79/ton of throughput. . The percentages for the carbon products were set at a more conservative level because of the uncertainty of the markets for those products. ranging from -20 percent to +20 percent of the baseline scenario. and our judgment. The O&M costs in the figure range from $94 to $142/ton of throughput.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Product sales prices were determined based on the responses from the project surveys for tire-derived products. project economics are most sensitive to variations in sales prices of carbon products. According to the data presented in the figure. July 1995 7-11 CalRecovery. The analysis presents the tip fee that would be required for a project to break even at various revenues. Inc..e. As shown in the figure. process yields) in commercial operations is less than 100 percent. O&M costs reported in the survey range from $32 to $296/ton. The percentage of product marketed was assumed to be 90 percent for fuel oil and steel. and 75 percent for carbon black and char. Sensitivity to Variations in Costs The sensitivity of tire pyrolysis economics to variations in capital costs and in O&M costs is presented in Figure 7-1. The capital costs represented in the figure range from $31 to $46/ton of throughput. and steel. data compiled on virgin commodity prices. Also as depicted in the figure. This finding is significant because of the uncertainty of markets for carbon products. The analysis presents the tip fee that would be required for a project to break even at various costs. especially the higher quality grades of carbon black. For char.

Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report 1. Sensitivity of Tire Pyrolysis Economics to Cost Elements -. Inc.20 1.00 Tire Tip Fee ($/tire) 0.80 0.20 0. .00 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 Variation in Cost (%) Capital O&M Capital and O&M +5 +10 +15 +20 Figure 7-1.Required Tire Tip Fee to Break Even at +20% Variations in Cost July 1995 7-12 CalRecovery.40 0.60 0.

80 0.20 0.00 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 +5 +10 +15 +20 Variation in Revenue (%) Carbon Black Char Fuel Oil Steel Carbon Black & Char Figure 7-2.40 0. .50 0.70 Tire Tip Fee ($/tire) 0.90 0.10 0.60 0.30 0. Inc.00 0. Sensitivity of Tire Pyrolysis Economics to Product Revenues -.Required Tire Tip Fee to Break Even at +20% Variations in Revenues July 1995 7-13 CalRecovery.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report 1.

Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis

Final Report

Sensitivity to Carbon Black Sales The market survey in Section 6 indicated that char from PGL processes usually is not of a quality sufficient over the long-term to command high sales prices, except under some special conditions, and that limited viable markets exist for solid carbon products. The results of the sensitivity analysis presented previously demonstrate the sensitivity of project economics to carbon product revenues. Consequently, additional sensitivity analyses were conducted on the effect of carbon black sales on the economics of tire pyrolysis projects. The effect of variations in carbon black sales price is presented in Figure 7-3, and the effect of variations in percent of carbon black sold, in Figure 7-4. In both cases, the results are presented for three tire tip fees -- $1.00, $0.80, and $0.60/tire. The analyses also assume that product revenues from the other three products (char, fuel oil, and steel) are constant at the levels assumed for the baseline scenario. As shown in Figure 7-3, at a tip fee of $0.80/tire, the profitability of the project ranges from -20 percent if the carbon black is sold for $0.026/lb to +20 percent if the product is sold for $0.23/lb. The analysis assumes that 75 percent of the carbon black is sold. At a tip fee of $1.00/tire, the likelihood of a profitable project is greater. The data in Figure 7-4 demonstrate that project economics are also very sensitive to the percentage of the carbon black that is sold. The analysis assumes a selling price of $0.128/lb. At a tip fee of $0.80/tire, the project is profitable if greater than 75 percent of the product is sold. If the tip fee is increased to $1.00/tire, the project becomes profitable when about 40 percent of the product is sold.

Summary The economics of tire pyrolysis projects are difficult to project with reasonable accuracy because of the lack of history for commercially viable operations. Nevertheless, the analyses conducted as part of this study indicate that the projects are particularly sensitive to three variables: tire tip fee, O&M costs, and product revenues. Recognizing that the tip fee cannot be set at an amount greater than what is being charged at other facilities, and also that O&M costs will likely remain high (due to the type of process and typical processing rates at tire pyrolysis facilities), it becomes evident that product revenues are critical to the viability of a tire pyrolysis project. Based on the uncertainty of markets for the products (as discussed in Section 6), it becomes clear that emphasis must be placed on the production of high quality products and the development of markets for those products.

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Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis

Final Report

40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 % Profit 0.00 -10.00 -20.00 -30.00 -40.00 0.026 0.051 0.077 0.102 0.128 0.154 0.179 0.205 0.230 Carbon Black Sales Price ($/lb) $1.00/tire tip fee $0.80/tire tip fee $0.60/tire tip fee

Figure 7-3. Sensitivity of Tire Pyrolysis Project Profitability to Carbon Black Sales Price at Various Tire Tip Fees

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Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis

Final Report

30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 % Profit -10.00 -20.00 -30.00 -40.00 -50.00 0 25 50 % of Carbon Black Sold $1.00/tire tip fee $0.80/tire tip fee $0.60/tire tip fee 75 100

Figure 7-4. Sensitivity of Tire Pyrolysis Project Profitability to Percent of Carbon Black Sold at Various Tire Tip Fees

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CalRecovery, Inc.

. July 1995 7-17 CalRecovery.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report References [7-1] Elliot. Don J. 743-767. IL. "Production Costs of Hydrocarbon Fuels from Biomass. Institute of Gas Technology. . pp. "A Technical and Economic Analysis of Direct Biomass Liquefaction." published in Energy from Biomass and Wastes XIII. IL. pp. et al. 1990. and Edward I." published in Energy from Biomass and Wastes XII. Wan. Institute of Gas Technology.. 1989. Inc. 1209-1235. [7-2] Stevens. Chicago. Douglas C. Chicago.

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100 tons of tires were processed by PGL projects at two demonstration facilities in California in 1992. Environmental feasible. common technology. or subordinate corporate relations. approximately 34 firms (nearly double the number active in 1977) in 24 states were developing or marketing tire PGL systems. . Industry members are often related through licenses. and a gas. Approximately 1. heated to operating temperature. July 1995 8-1 CalRecovery. In 1983. Because of industry volatility. In continuous operations. and held at that temperature for a specific period. the U. Technology • The PGL process consists of feedstock reception. Nearly 10 times that amount was generated nationwide.000 tons of waste tires were generated in California in 1993. and the thermal (pyrolysis) process to produce oil. • Information and data available on commercial PGL systems is predominantly that provided by the system developers. • Approximately 285. feedstock moves steadily through a reactor. and wastewater is treated. a reactor is charged.S. Protection Agency reported no sustained commercial operation of PGL facilities. In the United States in 1993. third-party evaluations of technical and financial aspects of PGL processes have been conducted. The following conclusions and recommendations can be drawn from this study. Tire PGL projects are located near centers of population (and of waste generation). • In undertaking PGL by batch processing. especially in the past five years. or near petroleum producing areas. After decomposition is complete. the U. one or more solid products. Inc. wastes and products are discharged. but that its economics were marginal at best. Air emissions are controlled.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report SECTION 8. Few. feedstock drying. only one firm active in 1977 remained in business under the same name in 1993. Conclusions General • The tire PGL industry has been subjected to critical evaluation a number of times over the past decade. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This study was based on a literature review and a survey of more than 40 firms in the tire PGL industry. Department of Energy concluded that pyrolysis was technically In 1991. if any.S.

6 oil.10. • The heating content of tire-derived oil is in the range of No. • Most systems are net energy producers. more of the organic content of the tires is converted to gas or liquid.4 .860°C. waste plastic.000 Btu/lb. Many systems operators prefer the use of a supplemental fuel to facilitate tire decomposition or to improve operating economics. and scrap steel (4. At higher July 1995 8-2 CalRecovery.47. although one system uses wood waste. gas (6. 6 oil. waste oil.9 percent). • Products are tire-derived oil (27. • For the majority of tire PGL systems.000 .. The required heat input to the system is 1.26.0 percent by weight of products). preparation of an acceptable feedstock includes magnetic separation and size reduction. Nonetheless. The throughput rates of planned and operating PGL systems correlate quite closely. However. The ultimate analysis of the oil is similar to that of No. temperatures. • Advantages of converting tires from a solid to a liquid fuel include: • compatibility with hydrocarbon fuels produced from petroleum.0 percent).0 . char or carbon black (32. Operating Conditions and Products • Full-scale PGL projects operate within the temperature range of 460° . approximately 18. . Inc.8 .e.8 percent). Most systems use propane or natural gas to achieve operating temperatures.0 .2 million Btu/ton throughput. electric use is estimated at between 12 and 120 kWh/ton. This agreement indicates that the pyrolysis industry expects to improve economies of scale by installing multiple units. • Operations are typically planned for 24 hour/day. 7 day/week. No significant quantities of fibers are recovered.2 . with an expected availability of 82 90 percent. and municipal solid waste).20. Conversely. small amounts of hazardous chemicals can be present in tire-derived pyrolytic oil. both gasification and liquefaction projects expect substantial scale-up in equipment size. • the energy density of tire-derived liquid fuels is higher than that of tires.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Feedstocks • Of the three typical supplemental feedstocks (i. only waste oil has a higher heat content per unit of mass and a higher hydrocarbon content per unit of mass than waste tires. rather than by scaling up equipment sizes.43.

However. • The heating value of tire-derived pyrolytic gas is similar to that of natural gas. but not identical. such as steel. Inc. sulfur dioxide. and water. and • liquid fuels are transported easily. the char becomes a potential solid waste management concern.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report • the bulk density of whole tires is much less than that of conventional liquid fuels. Markets • Oil: Tire-derived oil has four possible uses. use of char as a fuel may be restricted by a high sulfur content. Analysis of char indicates that it generally would not be considered a hazardous material. recoverable constituent of the ash. Upgrading the oil to a No. or ash. at some tire PGL facilities. The tire PGL processes examined for this analysis require relatively few resources on a unit capacity basis. particulate matter emissions generated during the handling and processing of char) and equipment leaks (for volatile organic compound emissions).. Upgrading the oil to a lubrication oil is technically and economically unfeasible. Mean physical characteristics of tire-derived char are similar. • The heating value of the solid products generated by tire PGL processes (whether tire-derived char or carbon black) is within the range of coals. to those of some grades of carbon blacks. July 1995 8-3 CalRecovery. The primary sources of emissions are fugitive sources (e. . Tire-derived oil must compete with cheaper and cleaner fuels. Zinc oxide is the principal Environmental Impacts • Tire PGL units produce minimal air pollution emissions because most of the PGL gas generated by the PGL process is burned as fuel. If markets for char cannot be developed. but burn PGL products to generate heat during normal operations. Most of the processes use natural gas or propane during startup and shutdown. Blending the oil with other fuels to produce a fuel is in the research stage. 4 fuel oil grade is being explored. If these by-products cannot be marketed. The principal component of the gas is methane. the decomposition products are carbon dioxide.g. Tire PGL also produces some non-flammable by-products. they also would need to be managed as solid wastes. none of which is commercially viable at this time. Process wastewater and stormwater runoff from tire PGL facilities should be minimal. fiber. except perhaps under some special circumstances. However. When complete combustion occurs. high levels of zinc in char could subject some char to the hazardous waste management requirements.

Tire-derived char may be marketed as a fuel. the marketability of tire-derived char is considered minimal at this time. although some tire-derived chars approach or meet some of the specifications for certain of grades of carbon black. although markets are limited and not presently viable overall. • The mean annual revenues from the sale of products for surveyed tire PGL projects are reported to range from approximately $62 . paints. packaging. Tire-derived char is inferior to virgin carbon black. Gas generated by tire pyrolysis is most effectively used to fuel the PGL process.21 and $118.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report • Tire-derived carbon black: Four possible uses exist for marketing the char material derived from tire pyrolysis. or plastics has not been demonstrated commercially. Marketing the tire-derived char as a special grade of carbon black or for use in inks. Only limited quantities of steel scrap have been marketed by tire PGL facilities. but cheaper sources of solid fuel exist. and transportation and storage costs. Given the slight current worldwide oversupply. Economics • The mean capital costs for surveyed tire PGL systems are between approximately $48. • Gas: Within the temperature range of operation of most commercial systems. Large pyrolysis operators may be able to justify the purchase of a baler if the quantity of the steel they are generating is high and the market prices for the steel are substantial and stable.30 percent of the material generated from tire pyrolysis is a gas. Upgrading the material for use in rubber products is still in the research phase.298 and $101. Using the tire-derived char for plastic product manufacture is also in the research stage. • The mean annual operating and maintenance costs for surveyed tire PGL systems are between $20.328/ton per day of throughput. July 1995 8-4 CalRecovery.06/ton of throughput. quantity. • Steel: The scrap steel generated from tire PGL processes may be sufficiently clean to be sold to scrap processors. Inc. . The feasibility of marketing the steel is based on a number of factors: cleanliness (fiber contamination).224/ton of throughput. excluding the annual cost of capital and the effects of offsetting revenues. Costs of baling the steel and operating a baler may be a factor in determining the feasibility of marketing the steel from tire pyrolysis. 6 .

and product revenues. July 1995 8-5 CalRecovery. . • Product revenues are affected both by the sales price of the products and by the percentage of each product sold. etc.61/tire) would be required to result in a net profit.g. Because tip fees cannot be set at an amount greater than what is being charged at other facilities. Inc. etc. Leeds..) that could support the development and growth of the tire PGL industry. However. O&M costs. Laval.. Make available low-cost development capital to firms that wish to initiate projects in California. signs of technological breakthroughs (e. • The economics of tire pyrolysis projects are particularly sensitive to three variables: tire tip fee. • Monitor and/or support federal or state financial assistance becoming available that could improve the current unattractive economics of the tire PGL industry.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report • Results of the facility survey indicate that tire pyrolysis will produce net revenues.. product revenues are critical to the economic viability of a tire pyrolysis project. emphasis must be placed on the product of high-quality products and the development of markets for those products. federal mandates regarding tire disposal. improvement in the quality of tire-derived carbon black). and because O&M costs will likely remain high for these types of processes.g. or growing commercialization of current technologies. • Support federal and state market development initiatives that will provide price supports. a tire tip fee of over $61/ton ($0. • Monitor changes in the economics of oil and coal production and use that could favor the development of markets for tire PGL products. Watch for developments in universities (e. special provisions of legislation such as the Clean Air Act. Because of the uncertainty of markets for the products.g. University of Hamburg). for tire PGL products. Recommendations • Monitor the tire PGL industry. University of Wyoming. if all products are sold at 50 percent of the reported prices. changes to the Internal Revenue Code. recovery goals. • Monitor changes in federal regulations (e.

.g. Inc. if otherwise abandoned.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report • Monitor firms that own and operate PGL projects in California and advise them of availability of discarded tires and of tire stockpiles that. July 1995 8-6 CalRecovery.. • Since the economic feasibility of PGL processes is in general very sensitive to and dependent upon the sale of char as a product (e. carbon black). Relatively little research effort is being conducted in this area at this time. research and development in the area of upgrading of char to valuable products is warranted. represent the potential of causing environmental damage and waste management problems in the host community.

1 242.201 2.5 275.917 0.017 1.917 0. value is unknown.18 24 240.9 million million 226.668 237. Tire Production and Waste Tire Generation .71 29. using number of tires generated and population nationwide for 1985 and 1990.9 31.917 0.0 200.6 46. Calculated. California rate was assumed to be equal to the calculated national rate.000 30 300. Reference [1-5].16 30.441 248.000 242.000 33 330.Nationwide and California 1980 Tire Production (a) Passenger Car Truck & Bus Total Population (a) United States California 1985 1990 1991 1993 1995 2000 million million 145.38 33 36 Unit Production (b) United States total tire/capita Waste Tire Generation United States (c) million (d) million ton California (e) million (d) ton Unit Generation (f) United States California (f) 0.000 tire/capita tire/capita (g) (g) 0. Calculated.917 0.0 213. Calculated.917 0.4 256. (g) Since calculated waste generation rate exceeds production.047 1.917 0.31 27.76 252.496 2.781 1.000 231.917 0.497 2.000 28. .917 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Reference [1-4]. using number of tires times 20 lb/tire. Inc.903 0.917 0.924 26.5 42.019 218.546 23.931 0.5 214.9 41.917 0. July 1995 A-1 CalRecovery.3 285.42 27 270.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Appendix Table A-1. Reference [1-1].1 177.9 260. dividing tire production by population.

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Synpro Deutsche Reifen und Kunstsoff . Harwell American Tire Recycling & Recovery Castle Capital Champion Recycling Conrad Hamburg.. Laval University Recycled Energy. Ltd. University of Source: Survey information July 1995 B-1 CalRecovery. Inc. . Warren Spring Laboratory Suffolk Waste Distillation ENCON Enterprises. MultiPurpose Disposer (MPD)... Kleenair Pyrolysis System. University of. Waterloo.. Inc.. North American Tire Recycling. University of Heartland Horton. PARR process Bergey's Tire Service Cheyenne Industries. Inc. Leeds. Worthing Industries Related Entities/Former Names Herbert Beven & Co. Inc. Thermogenics Korean Pyrolysis Co. Recoverator technology Oconco.. Ireton Tire Recycling Technologies H. Ltd. NATRL ABB Raymond BBC Engineering & Research. Inc. TIRE. Pace Treadmore Canadian Energy Development.. International Tire Collection Jentan Kilborn. Norman P. Ltd Waste Distillation Technology. International Recycling Ltd. Marangoni Group. Kutrieb NATRL-Wind Gap Process Fuels Pyrovac International. (NATRL) International Tirecycle Corp. Inc. Inc.H. Inc Art Wilson Co.. Inc. Ltd. Homestead Energeco. Beers. Explicit or Inferred Corporate Relationships AEA-Beven.Pyrolyse GmbH Jarrell. Thermal Recovery and Processing.. Argus Ecological. Eastern Shale Research Yamagata Canada Foster Wheeler. fast pyrolysis process. Ltd.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Appendix Table B-1. Recycling Industries of Missouri Seco/Warwick Thermex Tyrolysis. J.O.

Inc No information available Pan-American Resources No information available No information available Phoenix Recycling Pilquist PTL Tire Warehouse Reid Corporation Deutsche Reifen und Kunstsoff . Long Island Waste Mannesmann Veba Umelttechnick GmbH No information available No information available No information available Limited information Tork Landfill No information available Tosco II No information available Tyrolysis. Recycling Source: Survey information July 1995 B-2 CalRecovery. Inter. Ltd No information available Comment Firm Name Mfgr. Considering a project using Yamagata Canada gasification technology No information available Limited information Limited information No information available No information available No information available CLE Management (formerly Emery) Colinas Tire Recovery Cyclean. Limited information VBC Engineering No information available Waste Conversion Corp. Babcock-Krauss-Maffei Carbon OIl & Gas Co. Conv. Morgan Group Comment No information available No information available No information available No information available Onahama Smelting & Refining No information available Oxford Energy Tire combustion No information available No information available No data on abandoned pyrolysis project Tire shredding. thermal process. Processes. remold No information available No information available Future project only Crumb rubber production. Inc. Firms. . no operating pyrolysis project No information available Rubber shred.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Appendix Table B-2.Pyrolyse GmbH No information available Energy Conversion Ltd No information available Scientific Development Environmental Disposal Systems Ltd. & Tech. No information available Wolf Sobeit-Sodoit Ltd. or Projects Eliminated from Analysis with Comments Firm Name American Tire Recycling & Recovery. Thermogenics Tire Tech. Ltd.. TecSon Corp. Ltd. Inc.. No information available Ferrostall Foster Wheeler Hyban Recycler Intennco Kienerp Pyrolyse Kobe Steel Kutrieb Corp. Inc.

Eng. Inc. American Ecological Technologies Shreveport. Actual Operating Years Products Solid Liquid Gas Reclaimed Steel Reclaimed Fiber Laboratory Conceptual Demonstration Lab Demonstration AEA-Beven.2 tons/day - Pyrolysis Continuous 5k . CA Chuck Wages (619) 247 0755 Oklahoma Pyrolysis Batch 2. Herbert Bevan Cochester. Champion Recycling Industries Apple Valley. Can. . LA Wallace "Lyn" Stanberry (318) 221 3957 Krotz Springs. NS. MI Jack Fader (313) 895 1200 Toledo. Survey Summary .20k tires/day - Pyrolysis Toledo: '89-present Pyrolysis Continuous 0.O. MI Castle Capital Halifax. Harwell Cochester. Can. NS.Facility Descriptions and Products Status Facility Description Owner/Operator Company Name Address Contact Person Phone Number Site Location Technology Type Continuous or Batch Throughput.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Appendix Table B-3. Eng. John Black (416) 297 7584 Halifax.) Yes Yes No Carbon black Oil Yes Yes No July 1995 B-3 CalRecovery.25 TPD 1989-present Pyrolysis Continuous 100 TPD 1991-present Char Oil Gas Yes No Char/carbon black 40 gravity oil Yes Yes Yes Char Oil (like #6 crude) Yes Yes No Carbon black Oil (like #2 F. LA American Tire Reclamation Detroit.

) Full Demonstration Demonstration Demonstration Demonstration Conrad Industries Centralia.) Yes Yes Yes Carbon black Oil Yes Yes No Carbon black Oil. .O. Ger. MO Dan Tirey (314) 624 0097 Campbell. WA Philip Bridges (206) 748 4924 Centralia.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Appendix Table B-3. Brewer (801) 332 5410 WV Hamburg. Univ. of Hamburg. Ebenhausen. WA ECO 2 Hawthorne. Walter Kaminsky U. of ITMC Hamburg. FL Charles Ledford (904) 481 0187 Hawthorne. Water Yes Yes No Char Oil Non-condensible gas Yes No July 1995 B-4 CalRecovery. Japan Gasification Batch 17-19 tons/charge MO: '89-. Inc. Japan: '94+ Pyrolysis & Liquefaction Continuous 1 TPH 1986-present Pyrolysis Continuous 35-60 tires/hr 1991-present Pyrolysis 10 TPD 1987-present Carbon Oil Yes Yes No Carbon black Oil (like #4 F. FL Garb Oil & Power John C. Survey Summary .Facility Descriptions and Products (cont. Ger. Pyrolysis. Nara. MO. (fluid bed) Max: 120 kg/hr - Heartland Industries Malden.

Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis

Final Report

Appendix Table B-3. Survey Summary - Facility Descriptions and Products (cont.) Demonstration Full Demonstration Full Demonstration

Homestead Minerals John Mahan

International Recycling, Ltd. Hammonton, NJ George Arslanian (609) 561 7770

International Tire Collection (Oconoco) Oklahoma City, OK Mort Resnick (505) 296 0799 Oklahoma City, OK

Jentan Resources, Ltd. Vancouver, BC, Can. Brent Singbeil (604) 875 8677 Japan. Korea

Kilborn, Inc Toronto, ON, Can. Norman Anderson (416) 252 5311 Unk

Citrus Heights, CA

Rovereto & Feltre, Italy; Bulgaria Close-coupled Gasification Continuous 1982-present

Pyrolysis -

Pyrolysis Continuous 100 TPD 1982-1984

Pyrolysis 17 TPD -

Hydrogenation Continuous Unk 1989

Carbon black Diesel oil Yes Yes No

No No Yes Yes; and zinc powder No

Carbon black Oil Yes Yes No

None None Yes None None

Residue Light oil Yes Unk No

July 1995

B-5

CalRecovery, Inc.

Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis

Final Report

Appendix Table B-3. Survey Summary - Facility Descriptions and Products (cont.) Status Facility Description Owner/Operator Company Name Address Contact Person Phone Number Site Location Technology Type Continuous or Batch Throughput, Actual Operating Years Products Solid Liquid Gas Reclaimed Steel Reclaimed Fiber Laboratory & Demonstration Full Full Lab Demonstration

Kobe Steel Unk Unk Unk Ako City, Japan

Leigh Interests plc Staffordshire, U.K. K. Griffiths 09 02 790 011 Unk

NATRL-Wind Gap Wind Gap, PA Blaine Masemore (215) 862 7933 Wind Gap, PA

Premium Enterprises, Inc Longmont, CO John Rogers (303) 772 1253 Florida

Process Fuels Spokane, WA Joe Munger (509) 534 6939 Spokane, WA

Pyrolysis

Pyrolysis

Pyrolysis, Liquefaction 0.5 TPH 1986-present

Pyrolysis Continuous 1992-present

7,700 ton/yr 1970s

55,000 ton/yr Aug 1985 - 1991

Pyrolytic Gasification Batch 0.067 TPH 1988-present

Crabon black Oil Yes Unk Unk

Char Light and heavy oil Yes Yes Unk

Carbon Oil Yes Yes Yes

Carbon black No No No Yes

None Oil Yes Yes No

July 1995

B-6

CalRecovery, Inc.

Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis

Final Report

Appendix Table B-3. Survey Summary - Facility Descriptions and Products (cont.) Demonstration Full Full Demonstration Demonstration

Pyrovac International Inc. Sillery, PQ, Can. Christian Roy Quebec, PQ, Can.

Recycling Industries of Missouri Fulton, MO Charles Wentz (314) 642 7596 Fulton, MO

RMAC International Troutdale, OR Don Weege (503) 667 6790 Troutdale, OR

RT Corporation Laramie, WY Bob Rucinski (307) 742 5452 Laramie, WY

Seco/Warwick Meadville, PA Keith Boeckenhauer (814) 724 1400 Shelbyville, IN

Vacuum pyrolysis Continuous 500 kg/hr -

Pyrolysis Continuous 1.7 million tires/yr 1983-1985

Gasification Continuous 2.5 TPH 1992-present

Pyrolysis Continuous 50 TPD (tires) 1991-present

Pyrolysis Batch 0.004 TPH Mid-1970's

Carbon black Oil, water Yes No No

Carbon black Fuel oil Yes Yes Nylon, rayon

Char Light oil Yes Yes No

Carbon Oil Yes Steel No

Char Oil Yes No No

July 1995

B-7

CalRecovery, Inc.

Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Appendix Table B-3. NY Scott Arrington (716) 264 5900 Rochester. NJ Wayne Technology Corporation Rochester. Can. Runyon (313) 689 3060 Fondotoce. Inc.4 TPH 1992-present Destructive Distillation Continuous 50 TPD 1982-l985 Pyrolysis Continuous 3 TPH 1992-present Petroleum Products Yes No Carbon black No No Yes No Salts. metal oxides.Facility Descriptions and Products Demonstration Unk Demonstration Full Full Texaco. Tarrytown. Inc. NY Willliam Friorito (914) 591 5080 Elmwood. CA Thermex Energy Recovery System Montreal. Can. Double 1. gypsum. . PQ. slag No Yes Yes No Carbon No Yes Yes No Char Oil (lighter than #6) Yes Yes No July 1995 B-8 CalRecovery. NY Liquefaction Batch 1993-present Gasification Batch. MI David J.200 tires/day None Gasification Degasification Continuous 4. Inc. Survey Summary . Italy Waste Distillation Technology. Michael Handfield (514) 849 7391 Montreal. NY Richard Card Paul Curren (914) 253 7325 Montebello. Irvington. Thermoselect Incorporated Troy. PQ.

WY Pyrolysis Continuous 5.) Full Lab Worthing Industries Calgary.5 tons/day 1990-present Pyrolysis Batch 0.3 TPD 1991-present Carbon black Oil Yes Yes No Carbonous residue No Yes No No July 1995 B-9 CalRecovery.Facility Descriptions and Products (cont. Inc. . Survey Summary . University of Laramie. AL.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Appendix Table B-3. Can Peter Fransham (403) 284 5302 Mobile plant Wyoming. WY Henry Plancher (307) 766 2500 Laramie.

000 83 11.950 N/A 3. U of Heartland Homestead ITC Oconco Thermogenics International Recycling Jentan Kobe and Kilborn Tech Kutrieb Leigh LI Waste to Energy NATRL-Wind Gap Cheyenne Oxford Phoenix Premium Process Fuels Pyco Pyrovac Recycle Industries of MO RMAC RT Corp Scientific Development Seco/Warwick Texaco Tire Tech Recycling Thermex Thermoselect Waste Distillation Wayne Technologies Wolf Worthing Wyoming.0 no data 0.2 0.10 15 N/A 12 106 50 72 no data 6 0.550 no data 7.000 18.0 1.01 0. Throughputs Reported for Actual Facilities Process AEA-Beven AET American Tire Reclamation Castle Capital Champion CLE Conrad Cyclean Ecology Enterprises ECO 2 Garb OIl Hamburg.13 no data no data no data no data 1.2 125 39 0.732 5.07 2.3 35 no data 24 no data no data 11 not reported 3 not reported not reported no data 100 0 26 17 0.4 2.610 87 1.5 0.0 no data no data 0.366 17.7 0.1 3.760 no data 1. estimates were prepared based on 330 operating days per year.048 no data no data no data no data 6.1 reported reported no data 4.4 N/A 0.02 N/A 0.1 2.094 4.6 N/A 0.920 no data no data 3.848 16.48 reported 0.815 99 ton/day (a) 2.01 not not not not (a) Where limited data were available. 24 hours per day.240 0 N/A (b) no data not reported 531 21.0 N/A no data reported 0.500 23.6 0.004 0.3 3 no data no data no data no data 24 0 N/A no data not reported 2 64 13 52 61 0.6 2.5 no data 1.2 1.600 119 N/A 32 4. Inc.2 0.01 1.048 18 ton/charge not reported no data 33.960 34.28 5. (b) N/A = not applicable Source: Survey information July 1995 B-10 CalRecovery.3 ton/hour (a) 0.1 0.5 4. U of ton/year (a) 726 41. .250 13.0 0.7 0.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Appendix Table B-4.000 0 8.762 100 #/batch 1.

000 4.1 2. Inc.920 no data no data 3.0 no data 0.600 16.7 0.5 2.3 0.2 0.923 no data 7.000 277.815 99 ton/day (a) 39 125 50 not reported 85 no data 24 no data no data 11 not reported 3 not reported not reported 75 68 26 17 12 42 840 no data no data no data 48 85 N/A no data not reported 113 64 61 52 61 50 N/A 30 15 N/A 12 500 250 72 no data 6 0.1 0. 24 hours per day. U of ton/year (a) 13.000 14.000 17.8 10. U of Heartland Homestead ITC Thermogenics International Recycling Jentan Kobe and Kilborn Tech Kutrieb Leigh LI Waste to Energy NATRL-Wind Gap Cheyenne Oxford Phoenix Premium Process Fuels Pyco Pyrovac Recycle Industries of MO RMAC RT Corp Scientific Development Seco/Warwick Texaco Tire Tech Recycling Thermex Thermoselect Waste Distillation Wayne Technologies Wolf Worthing Wyoming.4 3.760 no data 1.01 not not not not not (a) Where limited data were available.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Appendix Table B-5.6 N/A 0.5 20.960 165.200 no data no data no data 12.200 21.534 100 #/batch 1.8 35.0 no data no data no data 2.480 27.3 ton/hour (a) 1.048 18 ton/charge not reported 24.1 N/A 1.000 18.5 no data 1.500 not reported 27.1 2.320 8. .094 20.5 1.0 3.610 4.1 reported reported 3.2 2.900 22.923 N/A (b) no data not reported 37.7 2.250 16.7 2.1 reported 3. July 1995 B-11 CalRecovery.6 5.5 2. estimates were prepared based on 330 operating days per day.4 reported 0.500 23.5 N/A no data reported 4.8 1.000 41.425 N/A 10. (b) N/A = not applicable Source: Survey information.950 N/A 3.732 5.000 77.0 no data no data 0. Throughputs Reported for Planned Facilities Process AEA-Beven AET American Tire Reclamation Castle Capital Champion CLE Conrad Cyclean Ecology Enterprises ECO 2 Garb OIl Hamburg.

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shredded Champion ITC NATRL Premium Texaco Mean lb/cf lb/cf lb/cf 25 . Mean value shown is that for Richmond. shredded Used motor oil MSW.5 56 (b) 8. 4 sieve (d) <6 < 3. as reported in [3-6].Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Appendix Table C-1. Source: Survey information July 1995 C-1 CalRecovery. as reported in [3-2]. n/a = not applicable.75 mm opening.30 X X (a) 27. Inc. unshredded Particle Sizes Tires. .04 <1 (a) (b) (c) (d) X = value expected. 4 sieve = 4. CA.9 (c) in in 6 <1 <1 <2 No. No. since feedstock applies. but not reported. Mean value shown is that of lubricating oil. shredded MSW. Physical Characteristics of Waste Tires and Supplemental Feedstocks Units Densities Tires.

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36-11.08 0.2 0.8 2.78 1.15 28.48 31.6-88.11 0.1 38.000 30.733 7.292 7.2 0.22-2.8 11.41 0.2 44.0 0.36 0 0 85.93 0 1.8 [4-8] [4-2] [4-9] [4-4] [4-10] (a) Values in some cases were converted from values presented in source using [4-11].Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Appendix Table D-1.12 0 1.9 13.41 100 % % % % % % % 94. July 1995 D-1 CalRecovery.6 4.56 2.96 5. NATRL 500 Nippon Zeon Worthing coke ATR-077 carbon black Low structure tire reclaim carbon black 2.44 2.4 100. Chemical Characteristics of Tire-Derived Char and Carbon Black American Tire Reclamation units Kiln Temperature Product deg C AEABeven Conrad Laval U.95 100 9-11 % % % % % % % % % % 15.1 0.8 85. or are totals or differences.68 2.8 Mj/Kg Btu/lb Cal/gr 31.03-0.52 1.4 0 0 100 carbon black Volatile Content Fixed Carbon Ash Sulfur Not Reported Total (a) Analysis of Ash SiO—d2 TiO—d2 MgO ZnO Na—d2˜O K—d2˜O CaO Fe—d2˜O—d3 Al—d2˜O—d3 SO—d3 Not reported Total Moisture Chlorine Loss at 105° C Ultimate Analysis Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Sulfur Moisture Ash Total Heating Value (a) % % % % % Incl.385 pH Sources: [4-6] [4-7] 7.4 13.24 74.498 27.19 0.5 10.25 81 13 2. .5 0 100.9 12. Inc.9 13.6 31.1 2.74 7.04 13.16 7.28 13 7.11 1.2 1.7 0.8 100 % % % 0. below 87.630 8.

97 9.1 n/a 11.1 18.104 45.2 0.38 6. Inc.Nippon Leads University Wind Gap Zeon Lo Hi 700 0.100 39.9 18.1 10.95 17.486 181 36.8 2.8 [4-10] 0.637 15.34 35 0.96 15.1 0.1 Petroleum Products Worthing Heavy Kerosene Fuel Oil Conrad Heartland Kilborn Laval U.920 252 24 30 - 2.67 <0.15 3.9 [4-15] [4-14] 17.038 140 315 44 18.5 6.89 100 950 2.1 18.5 0. .06 0.1 Initial Boiling Point 90% Boiling Point Viscosity 60 deg C 40 deg C 20 deg C 100 deg F Density API Gravity Source: ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm MJ/kg 43.8 [4-2] 0.5 10.1 77.2 8.42 1.500 43 18.84 47 [4-12] 0. Chemical Characteristics of Tire-Derived Pyrolytic Oil and Commercial Fuels Pyrolytic Oil NATRL.3 11.6 20.91 21.8 2.87 100 n/a <0.3 0.8 kg/m—u3˜ [4-8] 45.81 0.3 19.2 9.81 [4-12] 0.33 9.35 1.65 1.06 88.06 86.2 100 85.5 85.7 [4-9] [4-4] [4-16] 18.099 1.500 deg C 132 deg F deg C 364 deg F centipoise centistokeas centistokeas MPa ssu 45.62 1.490 112 42.3 42.58 0.69 97.79 0.39 <0. RMAC RTC Kiln Temperature Carbon Residue Hydrogen Content Sulfur Ash Ultimate Analysis H N O S Chloride Residual Metals Va Ni Na Na Cr Cd PB V Ca Heating Content deg C % % % % % % % % % % % % 400 13.447 80 340 42.6 0.15 13.1 <0.1 >779 20.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Appendix Table D-2.4 19.36 0.103 100 355 2.1 MPa 0.2 0.3 0.5 [4-12] July 1995 D-2 CalRecovery.0 Cal/g Btu/lb 18.550 46.18 1.01 <0.2 0.56 0.51 [4-12] 14.8 9500 17.49 0.94 10.4 [4-13] 18.

Chemical Composition of Tire-Derived Gas and Federal Air Emissions Regulations Thermo.700 12.3 <0.40 CFR (a) select Part 60 <0.000 Dioxins/ Furans Source: ng. July 1995 D-3 CalRecovery.Nm3 [4-8] [4-15] [4-2] [4-16] N/D [4-17] 125 [4-17] (a) 40 CFR Part 60 refers to air emissions performance standards in Reference [4-18]. RMAC 85.006 <0.005 <1. (b) Calculated. using 20 ft—u3˜/lb.000 1275 25.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Appendix Table D-3.35 0. .06 69 n/a n/a n/a 80 30 n/a units PM(dust) Cd Hg Pb SO2 HCl HF Ultimate Analysis C H N O S Heating Value % % % % % Btu/scf Btu/lb (b) mg/Nm—u3˜ mg/Nm—u3˜ mg/Nm—u3˜ mg/Nm—u3˜ mg/Nm—u3˜ mg/Nm—u3˜ mg/Nm—u3˜ Conrad Heartland Laval U.25 <0.76 14.001 <0. Inc.500 500 .24 trace trace trace 1000 20.

.13 0.m-.05 0.22 0.16 0.07 0.15 0. Selected Compounds in Tire-Derived Oil Yield % of feed Limonene-ld Toluene o-.06 Source: [4-19] July 1995 D-4 CalRecovery.19 0.26 1.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Appendix Table D-4.15 0.23 0.4-Trimethyl-1-pentene alpha-Methylstyrene Dimethylpentane Cylcopentanone Isopropylbenzene Ethylhexadiene Trimethylpentadiene Methylhexadiene 2. Inc.24 0.4.93 0.p-Xylene Styrene Benzene 4-Vinyl-1-cyclohexene Dimetylcyclopentadiene Methylpentene 2.25 0.82 0.38 0.

5 76 2 2 85.83 lb/ft—u3˜ onne/m—u3˜ 31 1. July 1995 D-5 CalRecovery.4 units Product Form Specific Gravity Bulk Density (a) Particle Size Measured Effective (b) Surface Area BET CTAB Void Volume DBP Iodine Index Pellet hardness g/pellet Toluene Discoloration Wettability Sources NATRL Worthing n Mean micron micron 40-50 0.5 153.0 ml/100g mg/g 95 156 151.1 1 1 40-50 0 m—u2˜/g m—u2˜/g 40 85 1 1 40.0 (a) Values in some cases were converted from values presented in source using [4-11].8 30 1.34 36.2 0.0 90 hydrophonic [4-7] [4-2] [4-9] [4-10] 1 90.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Appendix Table D-5.58 3 3 1.05-0.7 32. Physical Properties of Tire-Derived Char or Carbon Black American Tire Reclamation Laval U. equivalent particle size is shown. (b) Reportedly based on reinforcing properties in rubber.8 23 1 23. ATR-077 Black Pellet 1. Inc.0 85. .

61% 5. .27% 5.65% 0.24% 35.07%.66% 0.40% 0.3 Butadiene Total (a) H—d2˜ N—d2˜ O—d2˜ CO CO—d2˜ CH—d4 C—d2˜H—d4 C—d2˜H—d6 C—d3˜H—d6 C—d3˜H—d8 C—d4˜H—d8 C—d4˜H—d8 C—d4˜H—d8 C—d4˜H—d1 C—d4˜H—d1 19.29% 0.07% (a) Source reports Total as 100. Inc.71% 3.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Appendix Table D-6.26% 0.81% 4.23% 0.87% 3.34% 1.70% 9.33% 100.69% 8. Tire-Derived Gas Composition Mole % Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Methane Ethylene Ethane Propylene Propane Isobutylene Trans-butene Cis-butene Butane Isobutane 1. column Source: [4-8] July 1995 D-6 CalRecovery.

0% (a) ASTM D 1620 (b) Selected terminology: LCF = low-color furnace HCC = high-color channel MFF = medium-flow furnace MCC = mediium-color channel LFC = long-flow channel MCF = medium-colorLFF = long-flow furnace furnace LCC = low-color channel CF = conductive furnace Source: [6-5.0% 1 .5% 0. .5% Carbon Blacks for Inks.0% 1.270 250 .4% 12 . 6-14] July 1995 E-1 CalRecovery.180 28 . and Plastics (b) HHC MCC MCF LCC LCF MFF LFC LFF CF 100 .12% 1 .130 140 .2% 1.190 200 . Paints.0% 2.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Appendix Table E-1.700 270 250 .85 70 55 40 35 30 28 14 6 1.700 80 .2% 5 .6% 0.5% 0.1700 190 .220 240 270 250 .290 330 360 540 600 600 700 1500 5000 150 .16% 5 .0% 2. Selected Properties of Commercial Carbon Blacks Mean Particle Diameter angstroms Mean Particle Diameter angstroms Symbol Surface Volatile Area Matter (a) % m—u2˜/g Symbol Surface Area m—u2˜/g Volatile Matter (a) % Carbon Blacks for the Rubber Industry SAF ISAF MPC EPC HAF FF FEF HMF APF GPF SRF FT MT 180 .6% 0.0% 0.5 .0% 5.120 140 .170 115 .270 290 .2% 1.2% 6.140 120 110 75 .85 110 500 155 200 9 .260 220 190 1000 .13% 4.200 240 .5% 0.2% 1 .5 . Inc.

42 thermal balcks 7 . .9% 2. cement tinting .1% 0.95 conductive blacks 254 acetylene 65 2 . low viscosity inks and paints for general color and UV protection blue tone in inks standard and offset news inks one-time carbon paper. Inc.120 30 . long flow 138 medium color.85 low color 25 .15 lamp blacks 20 . medium flow 96 regular color 80 .4 .120 55 . lacquers.35 100 .560 medium color 200 .0% 0. Summary of Types and Applications of Special Carbon Blacks Surface Area m—u2˜/g Volatile Matter % Type DBP mL/100g 50 -120 70 .3% inks. excellent flow.220 medium color. and weather and UV protection 5% 2.140 46 45 .blue tone.5 .5% 1% 1% 1% 0.1. utility uses paints for tinting .60 70 60 .114 60 73 . tire curing Source: [6-5] July 1995 E-2 CalRecovery.5% 1 . and plastics 1 .blue tone conductivity and antistatic conductive.1.5% color.100 64 . ink.10% enamels.160 180 250 Selected Uses high color 230 . antistatic.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Appendix Table E-2.

421 Sell 474 53 Landfill 3.828 1.100 1.000 1.167 667 4.584 Sell 3. Ammonia. Summary of Potential Waters and Management Options . landfill Landfill Off-site treatment 4.084 Sell Sell for use in asphalt & roofing Sell Champion Cheyenne Conrad ECO2 Heartland Hamburg.530 Sell as fertilizer supplement.525 500 225 5. use as process fuel Landfill Treat 7. American Tire Reclamation BBC Engineering 3.500 Sell as coal substitute Sell Source: Survey information.493 Sell as coal substitute 1.390 lb/ton gas Management Option 755 75 2.333 3.067 Sell as carbon filler or carbon black 1.100 16 1.556 3. .477 Sell as pigment & rubber filler 748 Sell 200 2.850 140 864 318 271 97 Company AEA Beven lb/ton tires 800 300 30 550 550 8 610 200 90 2.311 Sell 131 Sell as fuel. Inc.836 American Ecological Tech.917 3.Environmental Factors of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Final Report Appendix Table F-1. of MO RMAC Seco/ Warwick Texaco Worthing Char 700 Scrap Steel 130 H2S Carbon Black 600 Scrap Steel 265 Ash Char 540 Scrap Steel 180 Ash 20 Char 740 Scrap Steel 56 Carbon Black 450 Other 160 Scrap Steel 140 Fiber 50 Char Scrap Steel Fiber Ash Char 700 Scrap steel 250 Process Wastewater 150 Char 500 Fiber Char 500 Scrap Steel 180 Fiber 100 Discharged Cooling Water Char 75 % by vol.975 1.160 720 80 1. Scrap Steel 100 Fiber Char Scrap steel Process Wastewater Char 800 Scrap Steel 80 Discharged Cooling Water Ash Hyroden. U of Premium Pyrovac Recycling Indus.142 769 10. July 1995 F-1 CalRecovery.000 1. landfill 600 15.437 143 1.All Tire PGL Projects Potential Waste Char Scrap Steel Process Wastewater Char Scrap Steel Fiber Process Wastewater Char Scrap Steel Ash Cooling Tower Blowdown Waste Reneration Rate lb/ton char lb/ton oil 3.167 Recycle as fill 1.417 626 2.289 249 9.256 Sell 4.000 200 1. & Methanol Sulfur Scrap Steel Char 700 Scrap Steel Discharged Cooling Water 372 883 667 74 151 790 650 230 792 459 3.584 917 Landfill 720 400 909 327 182 8.933 Off-site treatment 4.337 249 1. landfill 1.667 Cool and discharge Sell Bale & recycle Bale & recycle Sell as fuel.333 Sell.033 30 656 295 7.

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