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Disaster Management Flood

Disaster Management Flood

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Published by sorathiyajay

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Published by: sorathiyajay on Sep 05, 2010
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over 40 million hectares (12 per cent of land) is prone to floods and river erosion. received increased attention both within India and abroad. rather than mere response to their occurrence has. Biological.700 km is prone to cyclones and tsunamis. Vulnerability to disasters/ emergencies of Chemical. 68 per cent of the cultivable area is vulnerable to drought. 4. Hilly areas are at risk from landslides and avalanches. back by several decades.Disasters disrupt progress and destroy the hard-earned fruits of painstaking developmental efforts. efficient management of disasters. Thus. Radiological and Nuclear origin also exists. in varying degrees. 2. close to 5.516 km long coastline. the 7. to a large number of natural as well as man-made disasters. often pushing nations. in recent times. 3.  India is vulnerable. . 1. 5.

2005 Which envisaged the creation of 1.State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) headed by the Chief Ministers 3. 2005.District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMAs) headed by the Collector or District Magistrate or Deputy Commissioner . headed by the Prime Minister 2. the Government of India took a defining step by enacting the Disaster Management Act.The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA).Paradigm shift in Disaster Management On 23 December.

The word 'Flood' comes from Old English. of an Indo-European language root. Flod.FLOODS Basically a flood is a when the water level in an area rises where there was normally little or none before. A Diagram of normal water level A Diagram of flooded area . or Pleu. Floods can be dramatic and quick or slow and creeping. Floods are natural phenomena common in many places around the world where either there is river nearby or the local weather can dump large amounts of rain.

Flood zones in India .

Reasons for floods Heavy Rain flow Huge Snow Melting Failures of Dams Landslides causing blockage of river .

Can range anywhere from bridges. Spread of water-borne diseases.Unhygienic conditions. 2. Water supplies .People and livestock die due to drowning. Diseases . It can also lead to epidemics and diseases. SECONDARY EFFECTS 1. Physical damage . Casualties . 2. sewer systems. Clean drinking water becomes scarce.cars. roadways. canals and any other type of structure.Contamination of water. . buildings.Effects of floods The damage due to flood may vary with respect to the magnitude of the flood we can classify the effects as: PRIMARY EFFECTS 1.

Structural measures 2. Non-structural measures .Flood Management Greater losses due to flood Need for control. Flood Management rather than Flood Control Classification of control measures 1. Measures to be taken No complete control of flood to zero level So.

FLOOD MANAGEMENT Structural Measures Storage Reservoir Detention Reservoir Levees Flood Ways Channel Improvement Water shade Management Non.Structural Measures Flood Planning Zones Flood Forecasting And Warning Evacuation and Relocation .

Several reservoirs to be placed in a river for complete flood control.STRUCTURAL MEASURES STORAGE RESERVOIR: Most reliable and effective flood control method Storage reservoir to absorb incoming flood Release in controlled way so that downstream channels do not get flooded. .

STRUCTURAL MEASURES DETENTION RESERVIORS Consist of an obstruction to a river with uncontrolled outlet. For small structures and temporary storage LEVEES Also called dikes or flood embankments Earthen structures parallel to the course of river .

Natural or man-made CHANNEL IMPROVEMENT Widening or deepening of channel Reduction of channel roughness (clearance of vegetation) .STRUCTURAL MEASURES FLOODWAYS Channels into which part of the flood will be diverted during high stages.

contour bonding.STRUCTURAL MEASURES WATERSHED MANAGEMENT -> Aims at cutting down and delaying the runoff before it gets into the river. -> Improve soil infiltration capacity hence reduce soil erosion . terraces etc. -> Check dams.

NON .STRUCTURAL MEASURES FLOOD PLAIN ZONING -> Identifies the flood prone areas of a river and regulates the land use to restrict the damage due to flood. -> Orbiting satellites Pictures Cloud growth rainfall prediction flood prediction . -> Development plans are prepared FLOOD FORECASTING AND WARNING -> Enables civil authority to take appropriate control measures.

FLOOD MITIGATION Protection of individual properties Protection of communities Flood risk management .

-> Preventive measures to be taken in time.CONCLUSION -> Flood is on of deadliest natural disaster. -> Stringent government steps. -> Better engineering structures to prevent flood control. -> Awareness on flood disaster is required. .



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