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Subject code: MB0031 Set 1 SUBJECT NAME: MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Q 1: Define MIS ? What are the characteristics of MIS? Answer:
MIS is an Information system which helps in providing the management of an organization with information which is used by management for decision making. A management information system (MIS) is a subset of the overall internal controls of a business covering the application of people, documents, technologies, and procedures by management accountants to solving business problems such as costing a product, service or a business-wide strategy. Management information systems are distinct from regular information systems in that they are used to analyze other information systems applied in operational activities in the organization. Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the group of information management methods tied to the automation or support of human decision making, e.g. Decision Support Systems, Expert systems, and Executive information systems. An 'MIS' is a planned system of the collecting, processing, storing and disseminating data in the form of information needed to carry out the functions of management. According to Philip Kotler "A marketing information system consists of people, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, analyze, evaluate, and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers." The terms MIS and information system are often confused. Information systems include systems that are not intended for decision making. The area of study called MIS is sometimes referred to, in a restrictive sense, as information technology management. That area of study should not be confused with computer science. IT service management is a practitioner-focused discipline. MIS has also some differences with Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) as ERP incorporates elements that are not necessarily focused on decision support. MIS has a major impact on the functions of any organization. The organization derives benefits from the systems in the following form: a) b) c) d) e) f) Speedy access to information, Interpretation of data, Quick decisions, Speedy actions, increased productivity and thereby increase in the profit Reduced transaction cost.
MIS characteristics In any organization managers will have varieties of tasks to manage. MIS is mainly designed to take care of the needs of the managers in the organization. • Organizations will have different departments like marketing, production, sales, inventory, maintenance etc. Each of these departments function individually and also in relationship with other departments. Information is available in abundance. MIS aids in integrating the information generated by various departments of the organization. MIS helps in identifying a proper mechanism of storage of data. The data is maintained in such a way that the unnecessary duplication of data is avoided. MIS also helps in establishing mechanism to eliminate redundancies in data. MIS as a system can be broken down into sub systems. Each such sub system may be programmed. This results in easy access of data, accuracy of data and information. It helps in maintaining the consistency of data.
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Function of MIS The main function of MIS is to help the managers and the executives in the organization in decision-making. • • • • • Large quantities of data like customers information, competitors information, personnel records, sales data, accounting data etc is collected from internal sources like the Company records and external sources like annual reports and publications. The collected data is organized in the form of a database. The data from the database is processed and analyzed by using different tools and techniques. The results of the analysis are properly presented to the managers to help them in decision-making.
Q 2: Explain strategic MIS categories in detail. Give illustration for each category? Answer: Strategic Information System A Strategic Information System (SIS) is a system to manage information and assist in strategic decision making. A strategic information system has been defined as, "The information system to support or change enterprise's strategy." A SIS is a type of Information System that is aligned with business strategy and structure. The alignment increases the capability to respond faster to environmental changes and thus creates a competitive advantage. An early example was the favorable position afforded American and United Airlines by their reservation systems, Sabre and Apollo. For many years these two systems ensured that the two carriers' flights appeared on the first screens observed by travel
Strategic Information System (SIS) is a support to the existing system and helps in achieving a competitive advantage over the organizations competitors in terms of its objectives. and secondarily as a service to management. It is mainly concerned with providing and organization and its members an assistance to perform the routine tasks efficiently and effectively. suppliers. The tools have been developing year by year and the application of the tool has become more and more diverse. Strategic IS enable such organization in realizing their goals. The process whereby strategic information systems are created or identified is then examined. customers. in some cases. 2) they have an external (outward looking) focus. the process whereby strategic information systems come into being is assessed. The emergence of the key ideas. IS was regarded primarily as an operational support tool. The strategic information system consists of functions that involved gathering. 4) they are innovative (and not easily copied). In management it is now a very power means to manage and control various activities and decision making process.agents. 3) they are associated with higher project risk. The flow of the unit is in such a way that it starts with the development of contemporary theory about strategic uses of corporations' internal information systems leading to systems which transcend the boundaries of particular organizations. A number of weaknesses in the existing body of theory are identified. This units indicates the theoretical concepts and the way in which the same are realized in practice. Information system is regarded as a tool to provide various services to different management functions. thus increasing their bookings relative to competitors. and directions of current and future development suggested. SISs are different from other comparable systems as: 1) they change the way the firm competes. This unit deals with the critical aspects of the strategic information system. and suggestions made as to directions in which knowledge is or may be progressing. information technology (IT) had been critical to the implementation of an organization's strategy. government and other relevant organizations. areas of weakness are identified. A major source of controversy surrounding SIS is their sustainability. The body of knowledge is of recent origin and highly dynamic. In both of these forms. Subsequent to the development. it was during the last few years that an additional potential was discovered. The original idea of automating mechanical processes got quickly succeeded by the rationalization and integration of systems. It was found that. and intelligence about competitors. . An organization’s strategy supported by information system fulfilling its business objectives came to be known as Strategic Information System. One of the major issue before any organization is the challenge of meeting its goals and objectives. and the area has an aura of excitement about it. A strategic information system is concerned with systems which contribute significantly to the achievement of an organization's overall objectives. maintenance and analysis of data concerning internal resources.
Quality. Its level is determined with reference to the context and its use. selection of tools and materials etc. Manager Constantly asking for more information.Q 3: Write a detailed note on the planning and development of Management Information Systems? Answer: Information is a corporate resource. The ability to take the risk. is not an absolute concept. The degree of faith in beliefs. then more information collection and processing. and the management of the data processing function. High ability. Tolerance ambiguity. as important as the capital. More information gathering and analysis. Risk propensity. The quality of information is the result of the quality of the input data. Its quality. Explanation The degree of perception in assessing the control which is internal to the organization or external to the organization. unlike any other product. advertising in a Competitive environment. then less information and more self analysis. Perfect quality just as perfect information is non-achievable and has cost-benefit implications. However. it is possible to measure the quality of information on certain parameters. then more information gathering and analysis. Effect information processing on Examples The production decisions. for Level of clarity required in the information. The ability to manipulate the data and information vis-à-vis the stored information and knowledge. system design. processing design. and the user. Low dogmatism. The top management decision-making in a strategic planning. system and procedures which generate such a data. The ability to read through the information. Experienced and skillful managers rely on the manipulative intelligence. Some parameters may have lesser importance in the total value on account of their relevance in the information and its use. opinions and past experience. Manipulative intelligence. All these parameters need not have a very high value. Higher. A low quality information would adversely affect the organizational performance as it affects decision-making. The pricing. and is being used for decision-making. therefore. . Personal dogmatism. if internal. labour. is required to be very high. know-how etc. The quality parameters which are generally considered are shown in the table Individual differences Locus of control internal or external to the situation. Tight tolerance then more information collection and analysis.
2. Systems are developed with a standard specification of design and development. 5. High. All the input is processed and controlled. 3. 9. designing a suitable information system and ensuring its maintenance from time to time. run to run controls. 12. The Technocrat scientists. Information system processing is controlled through programme control. The managers with a wide experience in the different fields of management call for precise and less but pertinent information. . 11. i. as input and process design. It cannot be assessed in physical units of measure. Knowledge of the task. The extent of knowledge in the application of the tools and technology. Due attention is given to the proper file selection in terms of data. 4. then less information relevant to and tools correct analysis. fields and records) are subject to validity checks. All updating and corrections are completed before the data processing begins. Ensure MIS model confirms consistency to business plan satisfying information needs to achieve business goals. The access to the data files is protected and secured through an authorization scheme. Higher. Extent of experience at particular level of decision making. Inputs (transactions.Experience in decision-making. 7. The user of the information is the best judge of the quality. tools and technology. documents. process control and access control. 10. The quality of the parameters is assured if the following steps are taken. Intermediate processing checks are introduced to ensure that the complete data is processed right through. and managers of technology have definite information.e. periods and so on. The system modifications are approved by following a set procedure which begins with authorization of a change to its implementation followed by an audit. Backup of the data and files are taken to safeguard corruption or loss of data. 6. and also subjecting it to audit checks to ensure the system integrity. 8. The assurance of quality is a continuing function and needs to be evolved over a period and requires to be monitored properly. 1. The system audit is conducted from time to time to ensure that the information system specifications are not violated. then correct filtering of data and appropriate choice of decision makingprocess. The quality of these important parameters is ensured by conducting a proper systems analysis.
The analyst will have to design source documents. disruptions and the cost of corrections are enormous. Development: When the design and its methodology is approved the system is developed using appropriate business models. In some instances. Implementation and Maintenance : Conversion – Conversion is the process of changing from the old system to the new system.Q 4: Explain in detail the necessity and importance of System Design in MIS. parts of the system may have to be redesigned. Testing : Exhaustive and thorough testing must be conducted to ascertain whether the system produces the right results. Therefore the designer has to ensure he appropriateness of the of the output format. result reviewed and corrections made in the system. system testing and acceptance testing. Dislocation. Testing is time consuming: Test data must be carefully prepared. The norms have to be strictly adhered to. the direct cutover strategy. the old system can still be used as a backup. Input design begins long before the data arrives at the device. Four main conversion strategies can be employed.: unit testing. The pilot strategy introduces the new system to only a limited area of the organization. They are – the parallel strategy. such as a single department or operating unit. and additional staff or resources may be required to run the extra system. this approach is very expensive. The major steps involved in the design are the following: Answer: Input Design: Input design is defined as the input requirement specification as per a format required. Output Design: The design of the output is based on the requirement of the usermanager. it is a very risky approach that can potentially be more costly than parallel activities if serious problems with the new systems are found. input screens and methods and procedures for getting the data into the computer. This is the safest conversion approach because. in the event of errors or processing disruption. The development has to be in accordance to a given standard. customer etc. The Business application system demands designing of systems suitable to the application in project. this strategy seems less costly than the parallel conversion strategy. But. There is no other system to fall back on. Testing an information system can be broken down into three types of activities. At first glance. But. When this version is complete and working . The direct cutover strategy replaces the old system entirely with the new system on an appointed day. the pilot strategy and the phased strategy. In a parallel strategy both the old system and its potential replacement are run together for a time until everyone is assure that the new one functions correctly. The output formats have to very friendly to the user.
Give Suitable examples? Managing an E-business & Challenges before an E-business . broad in scope and a learning organization. application packages.Due to Internet capabilities and web technology. a new payroll system might begin with hourly workers who are paid weekly. Answer: In E-business enterprise traditional people organization based on 'Command Control' principle is absent. followed six months later by adding salaried employees (who paid monthly) to the system. for example. the system is introduced by functions. It has opened new channels of business as buying and selling can be done on Internet. either by functions or by organizational units. business partners. flat in structure. The phased strategy introduces the new system in stages. They are supported by information systems. vendors. Internet capabilities have given E-business enterprise a cutting edge capability advantage to increase the business value. Technology-enabled and uses its own information and knowledge to perform. wherever necessary. decision support. directories and document repositories. reduction in inventory. The effect of these radical changes is the reduction in administrative and management overheads. It enables to reach new markets across the world anywhere due to communication capabilities. e-commerce and e-collaboration. Today most of the business organizations are using Internet technology. All this is possible due to Internet and web moving traditional paper driven organization to information driven Internet enabled E-business enterprise. Ecommerce solutions to reach faraway locations to deliver product and . E-business enterprise is open twenty-four hours. customers and vendors. and wireless technology for improving the business performance measured in terms of cost. SCM. and CRM supported by data warehouse. most of the things are electronic. use digital technologies and work on databases. network. faster delivery of goods and services to the customers. efficiency. It has no geographic boundaries as it can extend its operations where Internet works. and being independent. traditional business organization definition has undergone a change where scope of the enterprise now includes other company locations. either simultaneously or in stages. If. In E-business enterprise. The cost of business operations has come down significantly due to the elimination of paper-driven processes. and knowledge management systems. customers transact business any time from anywhere. knowledge bases. it is installed throughout the rest of the organization. and decision-support systems. It is no longer functional. and project or matrix organization of people but E-organization where people work in network environment as a team or work group in virtual mode. competitiveness and profitability. The business processes are conducted through enterprise software like ERP. Maintenance is also necessary for other failures and problems that arise during the operation of a system. E-business enterprise is more process-driven. faster communication and effective collaborative working. They are using E-business.smoothly. product. It has empowered customers and vendors / suppliers through secured access to information to act. managers. It is replaced by people organization that is empowered by information and knowledge to perform their role. It is lean in number. End-users and information systems personnel then perform a troubleshooting function to determine the causes of and solution to such problems/ Q 5: Explain in detail about e-business.
and laws of security are to be adhered strictly. computer. is a reality and is going to increase in number. MIS for E-business is different compared to conventional MIS design of an organization. Ebilling. • Enterprise Resource Management to Enterprise Network Management. This is just not a technical change in business operations but a cultural change in the mindset of managers and workers to look beyond the conventional organization. electronically transacted business process. The new channel of business is well-known as Ecommerce. Automate processes after reengineering the process to cut down process cycle time. banking. increase in profit and productivity and so on. Another challenge is to convert domestic process design to work for international process. ATM. SCM. Smart card. • Manual document driven business process to paperless. The paradigm shift to E-enterprise has brought four transformations. MIS produces more knowledge-based products. Knowledge management system is formally recognized as a part of MIS. it is necessary to redesign the organization to realize the benefits of digital firm. • Industrial manufacturing economy to knowledge-based service economy. vendors and business partners. Books. healthcare are being managed through Internet E-banking. white goods and many such goods are bought and sold on Internet. coordinate. The role of MIS in E-business organization is to deal with changes in global market and enterprises. Internet and networking technology has thrown another challenge to enlarge the scope of organization where customers and vendors become part of the organization. Buyers and sellers through Internet drive the market and Internet-based web systems. The digital firm. business is conducted electronically. On the same lines. The last but not the least important is the challenge to organize and implement information architecture and information technology platforms. . It is effectively used for strategic planning for survival and growth. The enterprise solutions like ERP. E-audit. Buying and selling is possible on Internet. insurance. automated. To achieve the said benefits of E-business organization.services. Hence today's business firm is also called E-enterprise or Digital firm. Make use of groupware technology on Internet platform for faster response processing. The organization structure should be lean and flat. In E-enterprise. CDs. which uses Internet and web technology and uses E-business and Ecommerce solutions. considering multiple locations and multiple information needs arising due to global operations of the business into a comprehensive MIS. & use of Credit cards. country-specific accounting practices. Get rid of rigid established infrastructure such as branch office or zonal office. The business processes across the organization and outside run on E-technology platform using digital technology. where integration of multinational information systems using different communication standards. Allow people to work from anywhere. namely: • Domestic business to global business. and collaborate with customers. These transformations have made conventional organization design obsolete. This technology offers a solution to communicate. It means changing the organization behaviour to take competitive advantage of the E-business technology. E-money are the examples of the Ecommerce application. and CRM run on Internet (Internet / Extranet) & Wide Area Network (WAN).
Since. E-Commerce process has two participants. With the advent of intent and web technology. E-Commerce process model can be viewed in four ways and categories: • B2C: Business Organisation to Customer • B2B: Business Organisation to Business • C2B: Customer to Business Organisation • C2C: Customer to Customer In B2C Model. the participants in E-business are two organisation with relations as buyer=seller. through multimedia clippings. marketing.E-COMMERCE is a second big application next to ERP. buyer and seller are business organizations. The entire Internet banking process work on C2B model where account holders of the bank transact a number of requirements such as seeking account balance. On the server of the selling organization. product configuration guidelines. E-Collaboration works on an internet platform and uses web technology. payment and so on. and paying for goods. website is used for personal advertising of products or services. namely Buyer and Seller. E-Commerce today covers an entire commercial scope online including design and developing. catalogues. knowledge and experience of the members. customer histories and so on. Customer Participates in the process of selling and buying through the auction website. E-Commerce application are present for the use of the customer. ENewspaper website is an Example of advertising and selling of goods to customer. work group/team need not be at one physical location. They come together to platform a task to achieve some results. customer initiates actions after logging on to seller’s website or to server. like in traditional business model. The delivery system then take over to execute the delivery to customer. . A new customer interacts with the site and uses interactive order processing system for order placements. E-Collaboration every business has a number of work scenarios where group of people work together to complete the tasks and to achieve a common objective. In C2C model. The Biggest Advantage of E-Collaboration is that it taps the collective wisdom. Some E-Commerce application add order tracking as a feature for customer to know the delivery status of the order. Then model works on similar line like B2C. In C2B Model. And unique and typical to E-commerce there is one more participant to seller by authorization and authentication of commercial transaction. delivering. selling. In B2B Model. The group could be teams or virtual teams with different member strength. distributor-dealer and so on. They exchange technical & commercial through websites and portals. It is essential deals with buying and selling of goods. More advanced B2B model uses Extranet and Conducts business transaction based on the information status displayed on the buyer’s application server. The collaboration team or group could be within the organization and between the organisation as well. On placements of order. In B2B Model. secured payment systems comes into operation to authorize and authenticate payment to seller. The entire model successfully works on web platform and uses internet technology. The process is called Collaboration. In this model. business organization uses websites or portals to offer information about product. servicing.
or other businesses. etc. intranet and extranet. business. E-Collaboration helps work effectively on applications like calendaring and scheduling tasks. intranet and extranet as follow: Extranet : An extranet is a private network that uses the Internet protocols and the public telecommunication system to securely share part of a business's information or operations with suppliers. Each member of this workgroup has a different goal. browser. Its effectiveness is increased by software ‘GroupWare’ that enables the members of the group to share information. You can access an extranet only if you have a valid username and password. The movement of information in the Internet is achieved via a system of interconnected computer networks that share data by packet switching using the standardized Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP). workflow application. invoke an application and work together to create documents and share them and so on. academic. wireless connections. Let us illustrate the model using an event in the business such as receipt of material for a job to be processed on the shop floor. limited access to certain files of your computer systems to: • • • Certain large or priviledged customers.. WAN networks for communication through GroupWare tools.. and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by copper wires. and then a workgroup will use this information of material receipt. It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of private and public. Typically. In this event there is a transaction receipt of material. online chat. partners. 6: What is an internet? Explain the differences between internet.E-collaboration uses E-Communication capabilities to perform collaborative tasks or project assignment. A new buzzword that refers to an intranet that is partially accessible to authorized outsiders. Extranet and LAN. E-collaboration system components are internet. An extranet can be viewed as part of a company's intranet that is extended to users outside the company. vendors. Suppliers and subcontractors. customers. Computer users typically manage sent and received information with web browsers. work group application. fiberoptic cables. The same connection allows that computer to send information to servers on the network. Extranets are designed specifically to give external. other software for users' interface with computer networks includes specialized programs for electronic mail.. Selected industry partners. enabling users to share information along multiple channels. A majority of widely accessible information on the Internet consists of inter-linked hypertext documents and other resources of the World Wide Web (WWW). which needs to be processed. Answer: Internet is a global network of interconnected computers. Intranet. an extranet provides various levels of accessibility to outsiders. project management. An extranet requires security and privacy. event. Difference between internet. .. file transfer and file sharing. a computer that connects to the Internet can access information from a vast array of available servers and other computers by moving information from them to the computer's local memory. that information is in turn accessed and potentially modified by a variety of other interconnected computers. and your identity determines which parts of the extranet you can view. An extranet is somewhat very similar to an intranet. . Whereas an intranet resides behind a firewall and is accessible only to people who are members of the same company or organization. and other technologies.
usually a corporation. but isn't on it. or information about new products. Intranets can be custom-designed to fit the exact needs of businesses no matter where they are situated. Internet: An electronic network of computers that includes nearly every university. both for today and the future. Inter-connected network within one organization that uses Web technologies for the sharing of information internally. The vast collection of inter-connected networks across the world that all use the TCP/IP protocols. etc. A network of computer networks which operates world-wide using a common set of communications protocols. An intranet is a restricted-access network that works like the Web. not world wide. It started with four interconnected computers in 1969 and was known as ARPAnet. Such information might include organization policies and procedures. government. • Customer service.000 computer networks that share a common addressing scheme. intranets are used to share information. help desk. Like the Internet itself. and research facility in the world. announcements. employees. Both can drastically save your company or organization a lot of money. . • Managers and directors. industries or financial institutions of any size or complexity. private network inside an organisation that uses the same kind of software which would also be found on the Internet. Intranet: An internal use.. an intranet enables a company to share its resources with its employees without confidential information being made available to everyone with Internet access. enterprises. a carefully designed extranet can bring additional business to your company.Therefore. It is an interconnection of large and small networks around the globe. medium or large businesses. Usually owned and managed by a company. • Sales people and support staff. but the firewall surrounding an intranet fends off unauthorized access. An intranet's Web sites look and act just like any other Web sites. The Internet began in 1962 as a resilient computer network for the US military and over time has grown into a global communication tool of more than 12. Users of intranets consists mainly of: • Members of the executive team. Intranets and extranets all have three things in common: • • • They both use secured Internet access to the outside world. The professional development team at My Web Services has the expertise and the right tools to design the right intranet or extranet that will meet your exact needs. A worldwide network of computer networks. An intranet is an information portal designed specifically for the internal communications of small. A network based on TCP/IP protocols (an internet) belonging to an organization. Both need a user ID & password to control access to the whole system. or others with authorization. • Accounting and order billing. A global network connecting millions of computers. Also included are many commercial sites. accessible only by the organization's members. governments.
The effectiveness of MIS gets reduced in the organization of the type where information sharing is not adopted as culture. 6. The quality of the outputs of MIS is largely governed by the quantity of inputs and processes. MIS is less useful for making non-programmed decisions. It sets clear objectives to ensure that the MIS focuses on the major issues of the business. It is merely an important tool in the hands of executive for decision-making and problem solving. MIS cannot provide tailor-made packages suitable for the purpose of every type of decisions made by managers. MIS takes into account only the quantitative factors. An appropriate information processing technology required to meet the data processing and analysis needs of the users of the MIS is selected. 4. 2. What are limitations of MIS? What are the factors which lead to the success and failure of MIS in an organization? Ans: Limitations of MIS: - 1. Factors Contributing to Success MIS is to be success then it should have all the features listed as follows: 1.ASSIGNMENT Subject code: MB0031 Set 2 SUBJECT NAME: MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 1. The MIS is integrated into the managerial functions. 8. which have an important bearing on decision-making process. especially in fast changing and complex environment. Non-quantitative factors like morale and attitude of the members of the organization. 3. MIS may not have requisite flexibility to quickly update itself with changing needs of time. . 7. MIS effectiveness decreases if there is frequent change of guards at the top management and/or frequent alterations in the organizational structure or the operational team. is conveniently ignored. 5. MIS is not a substitute for effective management. 2.
therefore. 7. so that its open system design is modified according to the changing information needs. 11. The MIS recognizes that a manager is a human being and therefore. The globalization of information in isolation from the different objectives leads to too much information and information and its non-use. MIS focuses on the resultsν and goals. therefore. and highlights the factors and reasons for non achievement. 8. the design of the MIS has such features which make up a user-friendly design. It concentrates on the mission critical applications serving the needs of the top management Factors Contributing to Failures Many a times MIS is a failures. The MIS is conceived as a data processing and not as an information processing system. 4. 2. The MIS does not provide that information which is needed by the managers but it tends to provide the information generally the function calls for. The MIS recognizes that the different information needs for different objectives must be met with. 10. Theν common factors which are responsible for this are listed as follows: 1. MIS recognizes that the information needs become obsolete and new needs emerge.3. has a basic potential capability to quickly meet new needs of information. The MIS design. 5. The MIS is oriented. The MIS is easy to operate and. Under estimating the complexity in the business systems and not recognizing it in the MIS design leads to problems in the successful implementation. the systems must consider all the human behavioral factors in the process of the management. 6. 9. The MIS then becomes an impersonal system. . The MIS concentrates on developing the information supportν to manager critical success factors. 3. the process and the outputs leading to insufficient checks and controls in the MIS. defined and designed in terms of the user’s 4. Adequate attention is not given to the quality control aspects of the inputs. The MIS is kept under continuous surveillance. MIS is not allowed to end up into an information generation mill avoiding the noise in the information and the communication system.
people. 4. BPR reached its heyday in the early 1990's when Michael Hammer and James Champy published their best-selling book. The MIS does not give perfect information to all the users in the organization. 6. Hammer and Champy felt that the design of workflow in most large corporations was based on assumptions about technology. Capture information once and at the source Focus of BPR on the current issues :. time management. Put the decision point where the work is performed. it is necessary to enhance the value of the process and also methods used in improving the process. Lack of administrative discipline in following the standardized systems and procedures.5. and cost: 1.Apart from the usual ways of managing a process in any business information system. Identify all the processes in an organization and prioritize them in order of redesign urgency. Explain in detail the focus of BPR on the current issues in Business. lack of user-friendly system and the dependence on the system personnel. 9. 3. and build control into the process. The MIS is developed without streamlining the transaction processing systems in the organization. 7. 5. an inability to get the processing done in a particular manner. and organizational goals that were no longer valid. 6. 2. not tasks. "Reengineering the Corporation". Treat geographically dispersed resources as though they were centralized.? Ans : Business process reengineering (BPR) is the analysis and redesign of workflow within and between enterprises. Lack of training and appreciation that the users of theν information and the generators of the data are different. The MIS does not meetν certain critical and key factors of its users such as a response to the query on the database. Some of the concepts of . What is Business Process Re-engineering. wrong coding and deviating from the system specifications result in incomplete and incorrect information. and they have to play an important responsible role in the MIS. Organize around outcomes. The authors promoted the idea that sometimes radical redesign and reorganization of an enterprise (wiping the slate clean) was necessary to lower costs and increase quality of service and that information technology was the key enabler for that radical change. Link parallel activities in the workflow instead of just integrating their results. 8. They suggested seven principles of reengineering to streamline the work process and thereby achieve significant levels of improvement in quality. Integrate information processing work into the real work that produces the information. A belief that the computerized MIS can solve all the managementν problems of planning and control of the business. 2. 7.
What is meant by Feasibility of systems ? What are the various types of Feasibility study? Ans : The system analyst is the person (or persons) who guides through the development of an information system. For example: a company might use a database to store information about their products.Data mining.The data warehousing market consists of tools. structured in a way to specifically address the reporting and analytic requirements. and updated. clean and integrated form of data sourced from various operational systems in use in the organization. The automated. Most companies already collect and refine massive quantities of data. the emerging concepts of data mining and data warehousing. the means to retrieve and analyze data. such as Microsoft Access. Data warehouses are designed to facilitate reporting and analysis. as well as the actual data itself. Explain the various role of a Systems Analyst. transform and load data. finding predictive information that experts may miss because it lies outside their expectations. usage. . Data warehouse is a repository of an organization's electronically stored data.information management for effective information systems are the traditional concept of database. and methodologies that allow for the construction. sorted. technologies. consistent. This definition of the data warehouse focuses on data storage. A data warehouse houses a standardized. Databases are now used in nearly all e-commerce sites to store product inventory and customer information. Database software. Concept of Database – Database is a data structure used to store organized information. management. to extract. and can be integrated with new products and systems as they are brought on-line. Data mining tools predict future trends and behaviors. their employees and financial information. and to manage the data dictionary are also considered essential components of a data warehousing system 3. Data mining tools can answer business questions that traditionally were too time consuming to resolve. allowing businesses to make proactive. is a powerful new technology with great potential to help companies focus on the most important information in their data warehouses. FileMaker Pro is designed to help companies and individuals organize large amount of information in a way where the data can be easily searched. However. Data Mining . Data mining techniques can be implemented rapidly on existing software and hardware platforms to enhance the value of existing information resources. knowledge-driven decisions. They scour databases for hidden patterns. the extraction of hidden predictive information from large databases. Data Warehousing . prospective analyses offered by data mining move beyond the analyses of past events provided by retrospective tools typical of decision support systems. and maintenance of the hardware and software used for a data warehouse. A database is typically made up of many linked tables of rows and columns. In performing these tasks the analyst must always match the information system objectives with the goals of the organization.
Analyst is also responsible for the designing of the new system/application. Here the responsibility includes only requirement determination. Most common responsibilities of System Analyst are following 1) System analysis It includes system's study in order to get facts about business activity. • • • Business knowledge: As the analyst might have to develop any kind of a business system. other wise further justification .Role of System Analyst differs from organization to organization. design. The procedure is to determine the benefit and savings that are expected from the candidate system and compare them with the coast. Interpersonal skills: Such skills are required at various stages of development process for interacting with the users and extracting the requirements out of them Problem solving skills: A system analyst should have enough problem solving skills for defining the alternate solutions to the system and also for the problems occurring at the various stages of the development process. It is about getting information and determining requirements. not the design of the system. if the benefit over weight cost then the decision is made to design and implement the system. and programming: Here Analyst is also required to perform as a programmer.The process to make changes in the current system in order to achieve new effective system. he should be familiar with the general functioning of all kind of businesses. 1: Economic Feasibility: Economic feasibility is the most frequently used method for evaluating the effectiveness of the candidate system that is proposed system. 3) Systems analysis. In addition to the technical know-how of the information system development a system analyst should also have the following knowledge. Therefore the study must be conducted in a manner that will reflect the economic as well as technical feasibility of the system proposal. he has to be multifaceted person with varied skills required at various stages of the life cycle. Types: There are two main types of feasibility study. Due to the various responsibilities that a system analyst requires to handle. Feasibility Study : . 2) System analysis and design: Here apart from the analysis work. where he actually writes the code to implement the design of the proposed application. The feasibility study includes complete initial analysis of all related system. more commonly used as cost/benefit analysis.
6. Executive Information Systems (EIS) and Spatial Decision Support Systems. Legal feasibility. There are four types of marketing feasibility study. 5. Supply cost etc. DSS or decision support systems are usually computer applications along with a human component that can sift through large amounts of data and pick between the many choices. 3. Cultural feasibility study: It is used to determine the impact of the current system on a culture. Business . budget sheets and forecasts and they update their strategy once they analyze and evaluate the current results. data warehousing and analysis systems. The first generic type of Decision Support System is a Data-Driven DSS. Legal feasibility study: It is used to determine the legal scrutiny of the current system. These systems include file drawer and management reporting systems. Explain the significance of DSS. such as Suggest input device which can enter a large amount of data in the effective time. Operation.in the proposed system will have it be made. While many people think of decision support systems as a specialized part of a business. Operational feasibility.3 Types of DSS Data-Driven DSS Data-Driven DSS take the massive amounts of data available through the company's TPS and MIS systems and cull from it useful information which executives can use to make more informed decisions. Schedule feasibility study: It is used to determine the time factor related to the current system. Hardware. Output devices which can produce output in a bulk in an effective time. For instance. which are as follows: Economic feasibility. They don't have to have a theory or model but can "free-flow" the data. Facility. Marketing feasibility study: It is used to determine the single and multi-dimensional market forces that affect the current system. Personnel. 4. but in reality. most companies have actually integrated this system into their day to day operating activities. What are the components of DSS and explain DSS model? Ans : A decision support system is a way to model data and make quality decisions based upon it. The choice of processing unit depends upon the type of processing required in the organization. Making the right decision in business is usually based on the quality of your data and your ability to sift through and analyze the data to find trends in which you can create solutions and strategies for. the data and decisions that are based on it are fluid and constantly changing. Schedule feasibility 4. many companies constantly download and analyze sales data. 2: Technical Feasibility: In the technical feasibility the system analyst look between the requirements of the organization. Decision support systems have a definite structure in businesses. 28. if it has chance to improve. Cost estimate for a system we consider several elements.
Model-Driven DSS use data and parameters provided by decision-makers to aid them in analyzing a situation. Document-Driven DSS A new type of DSS. and its customers.Driven DSS emphasize access to and manipulation of large databases of structured data and especially a time-series of internal company data and sometimes external data. corporate records. Data. a Document-Driven DSS or Knowledge Management System. including minutes of meetings. Currently. understanding of problems within that domain. Data warehouse systems that allow the manipulation of data by computerized tools tailored to a specific task and setting or by more general tools and operators provide additional functionality. Data-Driven DSS with Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) provide the highest level of functionality and decision support that is linked to analysis of large collections of historical data. Some OLAP systems that allow complex analysis of data may be classified as hybrid DSS systems providing modeling. Examples of documents that would be accessed by a Document-Based DSS are policies and procedures. and optimization models. Data mining is the process of sifting through large amounts of data to produce data content relationships. A search engine is a powerful decision aiding tool associated with a Document-Driven DSS. That is. . product specifications. Simple statistical and analytical tools provide the most elementary level of functionality. is evolving to help managers retrieve and manage unstructured documents and Web pages. It refers to a class of analytical applications that search for hidden patterns in a database. Model-Driven DSS A second category. and important correspondence. Simple file systems accessed by query and retrieval tools provide the most elementary level of functionality. The "expertise" consists of knowledge about a particular domain. representational models. and corporate historical documents. its suppliers. but they are not usually data intensive. sounds and video. images. These DSS are personal computer systems with specialized problem-solving expertise. Model-Driven DSS emphasize access to and manipulation of a model. Knowledge-Driven DSS can suggest or recommend actions to managers. and "skill" at solving some of these problems. Model-Driven DSS were isolated from the main Information Systems of the organization and were primarily used for the typical "what-if" analysis. Very large databases are usually not needed for Model-Driven DSS. A related concept is Data Mining. includes systems that use accounting and financial models. Knowledge-Driven DSS The terminology for this third generic type of DSS is still evolving. Adding the modifier “driven” to the word knowledge maintains a parallelism in the framework and focuses on the dominant knowledge base component. Model-Driven DSS. The Web provides access to large document databases including databases of hypertext documents. "What if we increase production of our products and decrease the shipment time?" These systems rely heavily on models to help executives understand the impact of their decisions on the organization. catalogs. the best term seems to be Knowledge. A DocumentDriven DSS integrates a variety of storage and processing technologies to provide complete document retrieval and analysis.Driven DSS.Intelligence Systems are also examples of Data-Driven DSS. data retrieval and data summarization functionality.
scheduling. Some of these sites allow you to download "demo" versions. We just got a project that requires us to `collaborate over the Internet'-whatever that means-and since you're the computer guru around here.extranets. Joel Orr in April and May 2000 and the August column by Digital Media Editor Lynne Brakeman on collaboration software exhibited during the A/E/C Systems show earlier this year.com and. we need to identify these systems as a specific category of DSS. it's your spouse and kids. however. If this happens. three people standing outside of your office waiting either for you to get off of the phone or finish speaking with the guy sitting in your office (whichever comes first). might be counterproductive. and other group productivity and decision support enhancing activities We have a number of technologies and capabilities in this category in the framework – Group DSS. A Group DSS is a hybrid Decision Support System that emphasizes both the use of communications and decision models. Call some of the vendors and ask if they provide training either online or at a nearby facility. six faxes in your in-basket. Your computer just beeped to inform you. Your boss strides into your office. you make a few ecomments about what he can e-do with his e-letter." As he leaves. Depending on the stock market. and Email. These three columns introduce you to collaboration software and point you to some products that are tailored to our industry. Visit the HPAC Engineering Interactive Website at www. Groupware supports electronic communication. you have to get a handle on it and teach us all what to do by next Thursday. It's too early to tell if e-collaboration will resolve the communications overload engineers are facing today or just clutter the available bandwidth even more. Bulletin Boards.cc) for a comprehensive list of sites. Welcome to e-hell. try and find the people who are leading the e-collaboration effort and ask them what method they're . two-way interactive video. If your firm is being required to e-collaborate. as the story goes above. 5. that an e-mail message has just been added to your stockpile of unread messages gathering electronic dust. .hpac.. and says. document sharing. Read the columns on extranets that were published by Dr. You make a mental note to change the notification sound to an evil laugh. under Heavy Duty Content. Oh yeah. throws a letter under your nose. Trying out the software demo will help you decide which method is right for you and possibly your whole company. Did PCs lead to a paperless office? Waiting for the e-collaboration to stabilize or shake out. again. Read the following case and answer the question You have 10 messages on voice mail. A Group Decision Support System is an interactive computer-based system intended to facilitate the solution of problems by decision-makers working together as a group.. Your reading pile is teetering. I'd also recommend visiting Orr's Website (www. some might be desperate enough to come to your office. White Boards. here are a few survival tips: read about e-collaboration to get a general impression of what it is and how it works and then visit some Websites where some of the more popular products exist and try them out. Therefore. This fifth generic type of Decision Support System includes communication. You might find yourself in a situation like the one described above where you'll have to "e-collaborate" in a pinch. Most professionals know by now that eventually they will have to deal with e-business.Communications-Driven and Group DSS Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) came first. You wonder who the strange people are in the picture on your desk. threatening to put out of misery the plant you haven't watered in three weeks. choose the Information Technology (IT) Tips area. "Read this. collaboration and decision support technologies that do not fit within those DSS types identified. but now a broader category of Communications-Driven DSS or groupware can be identified. Look around you.
List out all the advantages and disadvantages what you feel is appropriate in this case Answer: In the above Case presentation – the Question has 3 parts: Concept of MIS being spoken about in the case. It represents a pivotal time in our industry. which mentions about Collaboration over Internet. you may be able to sway them toward a decision that benefits you and your company. read the IT Tips column "Strategic Planning for Information Technology" in the December 1996 issue. and qualitatitive change and a new organization structure has emerged which is known as E business enterprise. Therefore. With the emergence of Internet. 1 pgs. 72. business organization has undergone structural. is appropriate in the case. E Business and E Collaboration. E business enterprise has a global market. The manager is supposed to go through the contents and brief everyone by Thursday. Issues related to MIS in the above case Advantages and Disadvantages. Cleveland: Sep 2000. To understand and discuss about the above terms we need to know that MIS has been evolving in different forms under different levels of management. E business systems lay foundation of other Enterprise applications. This e-business is a tough nut to crack. namely E commerce. E communication and E collaboration. Some of the developments are recent and some are still in the development stage. Further there are information on how to get more information on E-Collabration. Here he seems to be senior most and most computer literate among others in the office. Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning Engineering: HPAC. Vol. The research continues. pg. . Sep 2000] Question: Which particular concept of MIS is being dealt here in this particular case? List out all the issues related to MIS mentioned in the above case. source and global competition. Michael G. The best way to deal with it is proactively. The matter is related to E-Collaboration and E Business. Iss. 9. In this Enterprise business operations are performed through E Communication and E Collaboration initiatives. The amount of pressure he is in during his daily routines work. reach.using. 9. which we feel. in the above Case presentation. Inc. Copyright Penton Media. [Source: Proquest by Ivanovich.. 1) To begin with. Hence his boss comes to him and hands over a letter to him. There are references of various Internet sites given to gather more inputs on E-Enterprise. cultural. If they have not made a decision on which product to use. I recommend that you do further research and get others in your company involved. If you need to teach others in your company how to use e-collaboration tools or make a corporate-wide procurement/standardization decision. To learn more about introducing new information technologies gradually into a company. . the initial paragraph is on the typical work scenario faced by a Manager in most of the service sector organization.
2) MIS for E-business is different compared to conventional MIS design of an organisation. document creation and sharing. Since. GroupWare is collaboration software. workflow applications. To achieve the said benefits of E-business organisation. E-collaboration uses E-communication capabilities to perform collaborative tasks. E-collaboration system components are Internet. knowledge server. document server and so on. The role of MIS in E-business organization is to deal with changes in global market and enterprises. The collaboration now is possible with e-technologies. work group applications. which help process customer requirements. It is effectively used for strategic planning for survival and growth. They can be at different locations and form a virtual team to work on project or assignment. It has no geographic boundaries as it can extend its operations where Internet works. invoke an application and work together to create documents and share them and so on. MIS produces more knowledge-based products. which put these teams in network with Internet support for communication. About E Collaboration Every business has a number of work scenarios where group of people work together to complete the tasks and to achieve a common objective. Extranet and LAN. WAN networks for communication through GroupWare tools. Its effectiveness is increased by software 'GroupWare' that enables the members of the group to share information. The biggest advantage of E-collaboration is that it taps the collective wisdom. They come together to perform a task to achieve some results. E-collaboration helps work effectively on applications like calendaring and scheduling tasks. The process is called collaboration. Intranet. technology – enabled and uses its own information and knowledge to perform. It is supported by databases present on various servers like mail server. increase in profit and productivity and so on. Application packages are software suit. These capabilities help to create collaborative work systems and allow members to work togethercooperatively on projects and assignments. The groups could be teams or virtual teams with different member strength. it is necessary to redesign the organisation to realize the benefits of digital firm. E-collaboration works on an Internet platform and uses web technology. knowledge and experience of the members. . and knowledge management. Knowledge management system is formally recognized as a part of MIS.E business enterprise is more process driven. The organisation structure should be lean and flat. project management. browsers. or project assignment. event. 2) Get rid of rigid established infrastructure such as branch office or zonal office. access to different databases and servers. The collaboration team or group could be within the organisation and between the organisations as well. work group / team need not be at one physical location. material database.
where integration of multinational information systems using different communication standards. It enforces manager to act quickly to response displayed on the screen. MIS in E-organisation deviates from the conventional model of 'Capture Compute Process Analyse Report Think and Act' to 'Point Click Respond Act. MIS in E-organisation deviates from traditional report formats to automated intelligent knowledge driven system. Most of the decisions of middle and operational management are delegated to ITenabled information and knowledge driven systems. and being independent. Make use of groupware technology on Internet platform for faster response processing. 3) Advantages and Challenges: Internet and networking technology has thrown challenge to enlarge the scope of organisation where customers and vendors become part of the organisation. vendors and business partners. customers transact business any time from anywhere. This is just not a technical change in business operations but a cultural change in the mindset of managers and workers to look beyond the conventional organisation. All this is possible due to Internet and web moving traditional paper driven organisation to information driven Internet enabled E-business enterprise. E-business enterprise is open twenty-four hours.3) Allow people to work from anywhere. Challenges: One challenge is to convert domestic process design to work for international process. co ordinate and collaborate with customers. and laws of security are to be adhered strictly. considering multiple locations and multiple information needs arising due to global operations of the business into a comprehensive MIS. country specific accounting practices. This technology offers a solution to communicate. It means changing the organization behaviour to take competitive advantage of the E-business technology. artificial intelligence (AI) systems. managers. expert systems. decision support systems. . It has no geographic boundaries as it can extend its operations where Internet works. The last but not the least important is the challenge to organise and implement information architecture and information technology platforms. vendors. and data warehouse and mining systems. They are supported by the rule-based transaction processing system. 4) Automate processes after reengineering the process to cut down process cycle time.
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