,
A TREATISE ON
SPHERICAL ASTRONOMY
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE,
C. F.
CLAY, MANAGER.
FETTER LANE,
100,
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ffaltutta:
MACMILLAN AND
[All rights reserved]
A TREATISE ON
SPHERICAL ASTRONOMY
BY
SIR
ROBERT BALL,
M.A., F.R.S.,
LOWNDEAN PROFESSOR OF ASTRONOMY AND GEOMETRY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE FORMERLY ROYAL ASTRONOMER OF IRELAND
CAMBRIDGE
at the
:
University Press
1908
PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY,
M.A.
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
PREFACE
Astronomy BY Astronomy which between
Spherical
lies
I
mean
that part of Mathematical the vast domain of Dynamical
Astronomy on the one hand and the multitudinous details of Astronomy on the other. I have aimed at providing for the student a book on Spherical Astronomy which is generally within the limits thus indicated, but I have not hesitated to transgress those limits now and then when there seemed to be good reason for doing so. For example
Practical
have just crossed the border of Dynamical Astronomy in Chapter VII., and in two concluding chapters I have so far entered on Practical Astronomy as to give some account of the fundamental geometrical principles of astronomical instruments. It has been assumed that the reader of this book is already
I
acquainted with the main facts of Descriptive Astronomy. The reader is also expected to be familiar with the ordinary processes of Plane and Spherical Trigonometry and he should have at least an elementary knowledge of Analytic Geometry and Conic Sections as well as of the Differential and Integral Calculus. It need hardly be added that the student of any branch of Mathematical Astronomy should also know the principles of Statics and Dynamics.
As a guide to the student who is making his first acquaintance with Spherical Astronomy, I have affixed an asterisk to the titles of those articles which he may omit on a first reading the articles so indicated being rather more advanced than the articles which
;
precede or follow.
Such articles as relate to the more important subjects are generally illustrated by exercises. In making a selection from the large amount of available material I have endeavoured to choose
some
exercises which not only bear directly on the text, but also have It will be special astronomical or mathematical interest.
seen that the Tripos examinations at Cambridge and many College examinations at Cambridge and elsewhere have provided a large
I have also obtained exercises from proportion of the exercises. many other sources which are duly indicated.
a 3
Vi
PREFACE
The work on the subject to which I have most frequently turned while preparing this volume is Brlinnow's Spherical Astronomy, a most excellent book which is available in English
and French
translations as
well
as
in
its
original
German.
recent authors I have consulted Valentiner's extensive Handworterbuch der Astronomie which no student of astronomy
Among
can afford to overlook, and I have learned admirable writings of Professor Newcomb.
I have to acknowledge with
much from
the
many thanks
the assistance which
Mr Arthur Berry has furfriends have kindly rendered to me. nished me with many solutions of exercises, more especially of Tripos questions. Dr J. L. E. Dreyer has read over the chapter
on Aberration and made useful suggestions. Mr W. E. Hartley has helped in the correction of the proofs as well as in the revision
of parts of the manuscript. Mr A. R. Hinks has given me help in the correction of the proofs and I am also indebted to him for Dr A. A. assistance in the chapter on the Solar Parallax.
assisted in
Rambaut has devoted much time to the reading of proofs and has many other ways. Mr F. J. M. Stratton has revised
E. T.
of the pages, especially those on the rotation of the moon. Whittaker has given me useful suggestions especially in
some
Dr
and
the chapter on Refraction, and he has also helped in reading proofs, my son, Mr R. S. Ball, has drawn many of the diagrams. Lastly, I must acknowledge my obligation to the Syndics of the
University Press,
who have met
all
my
wishes in the kindest
manner.
The
list
sive lists given
of parallaxes of stars (p. 328) is based on more extenby Newcomb in The Stars and Kapteyn in the
Groningen publications No. 8. The results stated for a Centauri, Sirius and a Gruis have been obtained by Sir D. Gill those for Procyon, Altair, Aldebaran, Capella, Vega, Arcturus, by Dr Elkin that for Cordoba Zone 5 h 243, by Dr De Sitter; that for 1830 Groombridge by Professor Kapteyn that for 21185 Lalande by Mr H. N. Russell that for Polaris by Pritchard and that for
; ; ; ;
;
61 Cygni
I
far as
is
a
mean
result.
ought to add that when I use the word ephemeris I refer, so works in the English language are concerned, either to the
British Nautical
Almanac
or to the
American Ephemeris.
ROBERT
OBSERVATORY, CAMBRIDGE,
18th October, 1908.
S.
BALL.
CONTENTS
PAGE
CHAPTER
1.
I.
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
Spherical Trigonometry.
for solving
...
1
2. Delambre's and Napier's analogies 3. Accuracy attainable in Logarithmic spherical triangles. Calculation. 4. Differential formulae in a Spherical Triangle. 5. The Art of Interpolation. Exercises on Chapter I.
CHAPTER
6.
II.
THE USE OF SPHERICAL COORDINATES
Graduated great
circles
.
.
25
Coordinates of a point on the sphere. 8. Expression of the cosine of the arc between two points on the sphere in terms of their coordinates. 9. Interpretation of an
7.
on the sphere.
10. The inclination of two graduated equation in spherical coordinates. 11. On the intersecgreat circles is the arc $ 180 joining their noles.
tions of two graduated great circles. 13. Adaptation to logarithms.
12.
Transformation of coordinates.
CHAPTER
14.
III.
.
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
15.
43
Radius of curvature along the Introductory. meridian. 18. Condition that a map 17. The theory of map making. shall be conformal. 20. 19. The scale in a conformal representation.
Latitude.
16.
Mercator's
jection.
projection.
23.
21. The loxodrome. The stereographic projection of any
22.
circle
Stereographic proon the sphere is
also a circle.
24.
which each area bears a constant sphere. Exercises on Chapter III.
in
General formulae for stereographic projection. 25. Map ratio to the corresponding area on the
CHAPTER
26.
IV.
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE.
The
celestial sphere.
29.
...
28.
30.
69
diurnal motion.
27. The celestial horizon. The meridian and the prime vertical.
The
Altitude
and azimuth.
Exercises on Chapter IV.
viii
CONTENTS
PAGE
CHAPTER
V.
;
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION 'CELESTIAL LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE
...
82
32. The first point of Aries. Right ascension and declination. 34. Determination of zenith 33. The hour angle and the sidereal day. 35. Applications distance and azimuth from hour angle and declination. 36. On the time of culmination of a celestial of the differential formulae.
31.
body.
and
Rising and setting of a celestial body. longitude. Exercises on Chapter V.
37.
38.
Celestial latitude
CHAPTER
39. 41.
VI.
.
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
of optical refraction. 40. General theory of atmospheric refraction.
.
.
116
The laws
Astronomical refraction.
differential
spheric
45. 46.
42, Integration of the 43. Cassini's formula for atmoequation for the refraction. refraction. 44. Other formulae for atmospheric refraction.
of atmospheric pressure and temperature on refraction. the determination of atmospheric refractions from observation. 48. Effect of 47. Effect of refraction on hour angle and declination.
Effect
On
refraction on the apparent distance of two neighbouring celestial points. 49. Effect of refraction on the position angle of a double star. Miscellaneous questions on refraction.
CHAPTER
KEPLER'S
50.
VII.
AND NEWTON'S LAWS AND THEIR
APPLICATION
145
51.
The laws
52.
Sun.
of Kepler and Newton. Calculation of elliptic motion.
Apparent motion of the 53. Formulae of elliptic
motion expressed by quadratures.
CHAPTER
54.
VIII.
. .
PRECESSION AND NUTATION How
lunisolar precession is observed.
55. 56.
.171
precession.
Physical explanation
of
lunisolar
57.
precession
and
nutation.
Planetary
General formulae for precession and nutation in Right Ascension and Declination. 58. Movement of the first point of Aries on the Ecliptic.
$ 59. 61.
The independent day numbers.
Variations in terrestrial latitudes.
60.
Proper motions of Stars.
Exercises on Chapter VIII.
CONTENTS
ix
PAGE
CHAPTER
62.
IX.
.
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
Sidereal time.
63.
.
201
The
64. The obliquity of the ecliptic. obtainable in the determination of Right Ascensions.
setting of the astronomical clock. 65. Estimation of the accuracy
year and the tropical year. motion. 68. Mean time.
70.
66. The sidereal The geometrical principle of a mean 69. The sidereal time at mean noon. Determination of mean time from sidereal time. 71. The terrestrial 67.
date
line.
Exercises on Chapter IX.
CHAPTER
72.
X.
. .
THE SUN'S APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION
74.
226
The reduction to the The equation of time.
76.
equator.
75.
73.
The equation
of the centre.
Formulae connected with the equation
of
78.
of the equation General investigation of stationary equation of time. cause of the seasons. Exercises on Chapter X.
of
time.
Graphical
representation
time.
77.
The
CHAPTER
79.
XI.
.
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
80.
.
.248
81. Application to Relative Velocity. Introductory. Aberration. 82. Effects of Aberration on the coordinates of a celestial 84. Aberration in Right Aberration in Longitude and Latitude. 87. Effect of the Elliptic 86. The Geometry of annual Aberration. Motion of the Earth on Aberration. 88. Determination of the constant of
body.
83.
Different kinds of Aberration.
85.
Ascension and Declination.
Aberration.
91.
89.
Diurnal Aberration.
90.
Planetary Aberration.
Stars.
Formulae of reduction from mean to apparent places of Exercises on Chapter XI.
CHAPTER
92.
XII.
.
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE MOON
Introductory.
93.
277
geocentric parallax. $ 94. Development in series of the expressions for the parallax. 95. Investigation of the distance of the moon from the earth. 96. Parallax
of the
The fundamental equations
of
moon
in
azimuth.
97.
Numerical value of the lunar parallax.
Exercises on Chapter XII.
X
CONTENTS
PAGE
CHAPTER
98. Introductory. 99.
XIII.
.
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE SUN
The Sun's
horizontal Parallax.
297
100. Parallax
101. The Solar Parallax of an exterior Planet by the Diurnal Method. 102. The Solar Parallax by Jupiter's from the constant of aberration. 104. The 103. The Solar Parallax from the Mass of the Earth. satellites.
Solar Parallax from the parallactic inequality of the Moon.
CHAPTER
105.
XIV.
312
ON THE TRANSIT OF A PLANET ACROSS THE SUN
106. Tangent cones to the sun and planet both Introductory. 107. Equation for determining the times of internal regarded as spherical. 108. Approximate solution of the general equation for internal contact. 109. On the application of the transit of Venus to the determinacontact.
tion of the sun's distance.
Exercises on Chapter
XIV.
CHAPTER XV. THE ANNUAL PARALLAX OF STARS
110.
.
.
326
Introductory.
111.
Effect of annual Parallax
on the apparent
112. Effect of Parallax in Right Ascension and Declination of a fixed star. 113. Parallax a star S on the distance and position of an adjacent star $'. 114. On the determination of the in latitude and longitude of a star.
parallax of a star
by observation.
Exercises on Chapter
XV.
CHAPTER
115.
XVI.
.
ECLIPSES OF THE MOON.
.
.346
An
eclipse of the
118.
ecliptic limits.
moon. 116. The penumbra. 117. The Point on the moon when the eclipse commences.
119.
Calculation of an eclipse.
CHAPTER
120.
XVII.
ECLIPSES OF THE SUN
....
358
121. On the angle subtended at the centre of Introductory. the earth by the centres of the sun and the moon at the commencement
of a solar eclipse. 122. Elementary theory of solar eclipses. 123. Closest 124. Calculation of the Besselian approach of sun and moon near a node.
elements for a partial eclipse of the sun. 125. Application of the Besselian elements to the calculation of an eclipse for a given station. Exercises on Chapter XVII.
CONTENTS
XI
PAGE
CHAPTER
126.
XVIII.
.
OCCULTATIONS OF STARS BY THE MOON
The
investigation of an occultation.
376
CHAPTER
127.
XIX.
. .
PROBLEMS INVOLVING SUN OR MOON
Phenomena
383
of rising and setting. 128. To find the mean time of rising or setting of the sun. 129. Rising and setting of the moon. 132. Coordinates of points on 130. Twilight. 131. The sundial.
the sun's surface.
133.
Rotation of the moon.
134.
Sumner's method
of determining the position of a ship at sea.
CHAPTER XX.
PLANETARY PHENOMENA.
135.
...
of the
407
136. Approximate determination of the orbit of Introductory. a planet from observation. 137. On the method of determining geocentric coordinates from heliocentric coordinates and vice versa. 138. Geocentric
motion of a planet.
planets.
139.
The phases and brightness
moon and
the
Exercises on Chapter
XX.
CHAPTER XXL
THE GENERALIZED INSTRUMENT.
140.
.
.
431
of the generalized instrument. 141. The lines in the generalized instrument represented as points on the sphere. 142. Expression of the coordinates of a celestial body in terms of the
Fundamental principles
143. Inverse readings of the generalized instrument when directed upon it. 144. Conform of the fundamental equations of the generalized instrument.
trast
instrument.
between the direct and the inverse problems of the generalized 145. Determination of the index error of circle II in the
146. The determination of q and r by observations generalized instrument. of stars in both right and left positions of the instrument. 147. Deter148. Determination of the index error of circle I. mination of X and 6.
149. On a single equation which comprises the theory of the fundamental instruments of the observatory. 150. Differential formulae in the theory of the generalized instrument. 151. Application of the differential
formulae.
152.
The
generalized transit circle.
XII
CONTENTS
PAGE
CHAPTER
XXII.
THE FUNDAMENTAL INSTEUMENTS OF THE OBSEKVATORY
153.
458
154. The error of eccentricity of a graduated circle. The errors of division" in the graduated 155. in the graduated circle. 156. The transit instrument and the meridian circle. 157. Decircle.
The reading
termination of the error of collimation.
of level.
159.
158.
Determination of the error
Determination of the error of azimuth and the error of the clock. 160. Determination of the declination of a star by the meridian circle. 161. The altazimuth and the equatorial telescope. Concluding
exercises.
INDEX AND GLOSSARY
493
CHAPTER
I.
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE.
PAfiE
1.
Spherical Trigonometry
1
2. 3.
Delambre's and Napier's analogies for solving spherical triangles
8
11
Accuracy attainable in Logarithmic Calculation
Differential formulae in a Spherical Triangle The Art of Interpolation
$ 4.
5.
....
. .
.
12 14
1.
Spherical Trigonometry.
a, b, c,
Let
A, B,
C
spherical triangle. metry that
It is
be as usual the sides and angles of a proved in works on spherical trigono(1),
(2),
= cos a cos 6 + sin a sin b cos C sin c cos A = cos a sin b sin a cos b cos C sin c sin A = sin a sin C
cos c
(2)
(3).
Formula
follows.
may
be
conveniently
obtained
from (1)
as
Produce
AC (Fig.
1) to
H so that
8
Off =90 6,
C
FIG.
1.
90 b
CoCLr
then from the triangle
BAH, we have by (1) ^Xo^M^ cos BH = sin c cos A,
B. A.
1
2
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
[CH.
I
and from triangle
BCH cos BH = cos a sin b
sin
a cos b cos
C.
we have formula (2). Equating these values of cos various formulae of the type (2) can thus be written The as occasion may require with but little tax on the memory.
BH
down
The equations (1), (2), (3) are the simplest which can be employed when two sides a and 6 and the included angle C are given and it is required to find the parts A and c of the spherical It may at first be a matter of surprise that three triangle.
equations should be required for the determination of only two But a definite solution cannot be obtained if the quantities.
equations for finding
for
A
and
c
be fewer than three.
example, that only the pair of equations (1) and Suppose, and c had been found had been given and that values for (2) those equations. It is plain that the same equawhich satisfied
A
tions
would be equally well
180 + A, 360
satisfied
by three other
180
sets of values,
namely
c
;
360
A,c;
 A, 360  c.
however, we require that the values to be adopted shall also satisfy the equation (3) then the last two pairs of values would be
If,
and (3) are all satisfied 360  c. As to this remaining ambiguity it must be remembered that the length of the great circle joining two points A and B on
excluded.
c
We
thus see that
when
is
(1), (2)
by A,
the only other solution
180
+ A,
a sphere
is
generally ambiguous.
It
may
be either
AB
or
360 AB. In like manner if the angle between two great circles is even defined as the arc between two particular poles there will still be an ambiguity as to which of the two arcs between The circumstances of these poles is the measure of the angle.
each particular problem will generally make it quite clear as to which of the two solutions A,c or 180+ A, 360c is that required. one side and the two adjacent angles are given then we require two new formulae (4) and (5) to be associated with (3)
If
cos
sin
C=
cos
C cos a = sin C sin a =
(4)
A cos B + sin A sin B cos c cos A sin B + sin A cos B cos c sin A sin c
(5)
(4),
(5),
(3).
The formulae
and
are
obtained from (1) and (2)
1]
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
3
respectively by the general principle of the Polar triangle, viz., that any formula true for all spherical triangles remains true if,
instead of
A, B, G, we write 180 A, 180 B, 180 C, 180 a, 180 b, 180  c. If we are given two sides and the angle between or two angles and the side between the triangle may also be solved by formulae easily deduced from (2) and (3) and of the type
a,
b,
c,
cot
If a, b
a
sin b
= cot A sin G +
cos b cos
C
(6).
is
given this will determine cot .A, and thus A known for there will always be one value of A between and
and
C are
180 which will correspond to any value of cot  oc Of course 180 + A is also a solution.
.
A
from
+ oo
to
In
like
manner
a.
if
A, C, b were given,
this
formula would
connection
determine cot
It may be noted that formula (6) shows the between four consecutive parts of the triangle as written round a circle (Fig. 2). As we may commence with any one of the elements
there are six formulae of this type. The following rule has been given* for
remembering the formulae of the type " Of the angles and sides entering
is
(6).
into
any one of these formulae, one of the angles contained by the two sides and may be called the inner angle, and one of the sides two angles and may be called the inner then be stated thus
:
lies
between the
side.
The formula may
(cosine of inner side) (cosine of inner angle)
= (sine
of inner side) (cotangent of other side)
(sine of inner angle) (cotangent of other angle)."
For example, in writing down the formula involving the four parts a, b, C, B we have C as the inner angle and a as the inner
side,
whence we obtain
cos
(6)
a cos
C = sin a cot b
sin
C cot
B.
If
two sides
a, c
and the angle
If sin
A
from (3) we obtain sin G.
*
C>
opposite to a are given, then I the problem is impossible.
p. 27.
In Leathem's edition of Todhunter's Spherical Trigonometry (1903),
12
4
If sin
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
[CH.
I
1 there is still nothing to show which of two supplevalues is to be given to C, and unless some additional mentary information is obtainable, showing whether C is acute or obtuse,
C<
is ambiguous. two angles and a side opposite to one of them are given, then, from formula (3) the side opposite the other angle will be determined, subject as before to an ambiguity between the arc
the problem
If
and
its
supplement.
the ambiguity in either case is removed the problem is reduced to that in which two sides and the angles opposite to both From equations (1) and (2) the following formula is are known.
easily
When
deduced
tan b
7
= ^ tan a cos C +~tan c cos Aj
1
tan a cos
b
u tan
c cos
A
and
(2)
will
show whether
or 180
+b
is
to be used.
The
calculation
may be
tan
simplified
by taking
;
= tan
a cos
C
tan
<
= tan c cos A,
whence we find b = + By means of the polar triangle we obtain
(f>.
tan  tan B = 1
A
cos c
+
tan
tan
A
cos c tan
C cos a C cos a
'
from which
between
B
B may be determined for (5) removes the ambiguity and 180 +B. Also if we take
tan
6'
= tan A cos c
and tan
</>'
= tan C cos a,
may
be
we
find
5 =180 &$.
the three sides are given, a spherical triangle
When
solved as follows.
Let 2s= a
+ b + c,
then
tanAJ.
by which
= A//sin (s b) sin (s f V sin s sin (s a)
~
c)
(7),
A is
found, and
If the three angles
by similar formulae we obtain B and A, B, G were given, then making
6'.
we have
by which a
is
,
/ tana = A/ V
cos ^ (S
cos$ cos($ A) v ' ~ /p B) cos (8 C)
m
/0 (8)
.
;
found, and similarly for b and
c.
1]
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
In the important case when the triangle is rightangled we make 0=90, and from formulae like (1), (2), (3), we can show
that
sin c cos
A = cos a sin &
........................... (9),
sin
= cos a cos b ........................ (10), c sin A = sin a .............................. (11), cos A = tan b cot c ........................ (12), tan A = tan a cosec b cos a = cos A cosec B sec c = tan A tan B
cos c
These formulae
the quantities
may be
(90
easily written
down by the help of
Napier's rules, for the enunciation of
a, b,
which
c),
A), (90 
B), often called the "circular parts," (90 are to be arranged inside a circle as shown in Fig. 3.

Any one of the circular parts being chosen as a "middle," the two on each side are termed "adjacents," and the two
others are "opposites." Formulae (10) to (15) are written
down
:
from Napier's rules which are as follows
sine of middle sine of
= product = product middle
of tangents of adjacents, of cosines of opposites.
for
Ten formulae can thus be obtained,
each of the
five parts
may be taken as a middle.
easy to show that whenever two sides and an angle, or two angles and a side of any spherical triangle are given, the
It
is
by Napier's rules if divided into two righttriangles by a perpendicular from one angle on the opposite angled side (see Ex. 2 on p. 8).
triangle can be solved
The formulae for a quadrantal triangle (c = 90) can be written down also from the same diagram (Fig. 3). Napier's rules applied
to the circular
parts on the outside of the circumference give
the ten
formulae for the quadrantal triangle. tan find sin A = sin a sin G and cos b = we thus
As examples
A
cot
C where
A
and 90
b are respectively
the middle parts.
6
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
[CH.
I
The relation here implied between the rightangled triangle and the quadrantal triangle is shown by Fig. 4. If AB = 90, and BG is produced to C" so that EG' = 90, then Z C" = 90. Napier's rules, applied to the rightangled triangle AC'C, give the formulae
belonging to the quadrantal triangle
ABC.
B/
LOGARITHMS:
an example.
.
The usual notation employed
arithms of the trigonometrical functions
may
in writing logbe illustrated by
The natural
cosine of 25
is
0'9063078 and
log cos 25
= log 9063078  log 10 =  0'042724.
is
To obviate the inconvenience
of negative logarithms this times written 1'957276 which stands for
some
1+0957276.
We shall however generally follow the more usual practice of the tables and add 10 to the logarithm of every trigonometrical function. When this change is made we use L instead of 1 in
Thus in the preceding case the writing the word log. be written 9'957276 and more generally
Log would
Log cos
If
it is
= log cos
6
+
10.
which the logarithm
necessary to state that the trigonometrical function of is used is a negative number it is usual to
write (n) after the logarithm. For example, if cos 155 occurred as a factor in an expression we should write 9'957276(n) as its Logarithm, where the figures
denote Log cos 25.
1]
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
It frequently
happens that
after
an angle 6 has been deter
part of a computation we have to employ certain trigonometrical functions of 6 in the second part of the
first
mined in the
same computation. In this second part we have often a choice as whether we shall employ one formula depending on Log sin or another depending on Log cos 0. It is generally immaterial
to
which formula the calculator employs, but if be nearly zero nearly 90 one of the formulae will be uncertain and the other should be used. It is therefore proper to consider the
or
principles on which the choice should be exercised in so far as
any general principles can be laid down. We may assume that, proper care having been taken, the work
free from numerical error so far as the necessary limitations of But these very limitations imply that the the tables will permit. value of we have obtained is only an approximate value. The
is
may, generally, protect the latter part of the work from becoming appreciably wrong notwithstanding that it is based on a quantity which is somewhat erroneous. The practical rule to The two quantities Log sin 6 and follow is a very simple one.
calculator
cos 9 are not generally equal and the formula containing the greater should be used in the remainder of the calculation.
Log
This follows from the consideration that
small error in
cos
(sin 0). will
if
be
> (<) 45
a
have
less
effect
on
sin
(cos 0) than on
Ex.
1.
Show how
may be determined by the cot a sin b = cot A sin C+ cos b cos C
11' 6";
the side a
formula
if
we
are given
A = 117
Log cot
(7= 154
(H),
13' 54";
6
= 108
(7
30/30".
A Log sin C A
sin
97106244
96382230,
Log cos
9'9545123 9'5016652
(n),
Log cos b
(n),
(n),
Log
cot
C
93488474
(Nat.) cot
A
a
sin
Log cos C cos b C  02232789,
b
94561775;
cos
cot
C cos
+02858759,
sin b sin b sin b
+00625970;
8*7965535,
99769354,
Log cot a Log
Logcota
88196181.
a = 8613'24".
8
Ex.2.
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
Being given 6 = 57 42' 39";
c
[CH.
.4
I
= 19"18'2";
= 120
12' 36", find
a
and by the method of rightangled triangles. then Draw CP ( =p) perp. to
B
AB
;
Log sin
sin
sin
6
99270432
99366077
A p
98636509
p = 46
55' 58"
tan b 101993454
cos (180 A)
97017154
99010608
98343291
tanm
cos p cos(c+m) cos a
m = 38
31'
45"
97262684
95605975
a = 68
40'
48"
100293218
cosec(c+?) 100723887
tan B 101017105 j5=5138'55"
2.
Delambre's and Napier's analogies.
following
:
The
equations are of great
utility
in
spherical
astronomy
,
sin
^(A sin^ccos ^(A
csin
B) = cos ^C sin
(a
b) ......... (16),
5) = sin (7sin^(a + 6) ......... (17), cos ^c sin. ^ (A +B) = cos 0 cos  (a b) ......... (18), cos \c cos \ ( A + B) sin \ C cos (a + 6) ......... (19).
These equations are often described as Gauss' analogies, but their discovery is really due to Delambre*. As Delambre's analogies are more convenient for logarithmic calculation than (1), (2), (3) and (4), (5), (6), they are often
preferred for the solution of spherical triangles are given or when A, and c are given.
when
a, b
and
C
B
It
is
frequently troublesome to
is
remember these formulae
without such assistance as
given by Rambaut's rulef.
We
write the two rows of quantities
\(a
*
+
b),
%(a

b),
\c,
For
be
made
t See
this statement as well as for the proofs of these formulae, reference may to Mr Leathem's edition of Todhunter's Trigonometry (1903),
Spherical
p. 36.
Dr A. A. Bambaut, Astronomische
Nachricliten, No. 4135.
12]
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
C.
9
as follows
where C"= 180
Then Rambaut's
rule
is
:
(difference) in one row is always to be associated with cosine (sine) in the other row.
Sum
sin
For example to obtain the Delambre analogy which contains (A B) we conclude from Rambaut's rule that \c must enter with a sine because A and B enter (1)
:
as a difference
(2)
;
that a and b
;
must enter
as a difference because
( A
B)
enters with a sine
(3)
that %(a
b)
;
must enter with a
sine because
A
and
B
enter as a difference
(4) as a difference.
that \G'
must enter with a
sine because
a and
b enter
Hence the analogy may be written down
sin
^c sin
(
A
B) = sin \G' sin \ (a
b)
b).
= cos C
As an example
employ the spherical triangle in which
a = 62 48' 54",
sin
3%
(a
of the use of Delambre's analogies
we may
A = 93
46' 36",
6=57 c=25
42 39, 46
6,
5 = 71
(7=29
29 30,
11 13.
We
and c. shall suppose that a, b, C are given and find A, down are the Logs of the The numerical values here set
corresponding trigonometrical functions
(a + b) = 60
sin i (a
:
B
<7=1435'36"5
15' 46"5
;
(a
 b) = 2
33' 7"'5
b)
86486286 99857578
cos
\V
86343864
= sin \c sin \ (A  B)
sin(a
+ &)
99386752
sinC
cos%(ab) cos0
94013301
93400053 99995690
99857578 99853268
= sin
c cos
(A
 B)
= cos \c sin \(A + B)
10
cos
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
(a
[CH.
I
+ 6)
(7
96954999
94013301
sin
90968300
cos
1
= cos \c cos \ (A + B)
$(A + B)
B)
c sin _
+ B)
.
99853268
82 38'
11
3"
I/ ^ tan  (A
7}\
90968300
08884968 86343864
93400053
92943811
8 33
+ B)
B)
4=93
%(AB) 11 5 = 71
46 36
3"
sin
csin
%(A
(4.
82 38'
sin ^ c cos
tan
B)  B) (4
8 33
29 30
sn
c cos
cos
B) B}
sin Ac
93400053
99917352
93482701
fcos \c sin
sin
99853268
+ J3)
cos
c
99964012
99889256
93482701
sn
G
cos c
99889256
93593445
tan^c
\c
c
12 53'
3'
Hence
A = 93
formulae
46' 36"
;
B = 71
29' 30";
= 2546'6".
From Delambre's analogies we easily known as Napier's analogies
:
obtain the following four
tan \ (a
+
6)
= cos $(A B) tan cos (A + B) _ sin \ (A  B)
~
sin
.(20),
(A + B)
(a
(a
6)
tan^c
(21),
_ cos
cos
sin
co
+6)
6)
(22),
tan
sin
^ (a
(a
+
cot
.(23).
6)
analogies
As an example of the we may take
solution
of a triangle
by Napier's
A=
*
23
27';
than
5=7
15';
c
= 7429';
because
cos
(A
We
use
this
rather
sinjc sin %(A B),

> sin \ (A  B)
t
B)
is
We
\ (A
as already explained on p. 7. use this rather than cos \c cos
\(A +B),
because
sin%(A+B)
is
> cos
+ B).
23]
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
11
and use fourfigure logarithms which are quite accurate enough
for
many
cos
purposes.
 B} = 99956 sec \ (A + B) = 00158 tan c = 98809 tan \ (a + b) = 9'8923 i(a + &) = 37 58' a = 60 0';
\ (A
sin
\(AE) = 91489
(A
cosec
+ ) = 0'5772 tanc = 9'8S09 tan 1 (a  b) = 9'6070 $(a&) = 222
/
6
= 15
56'.
y
As ^ (a
for finding
6)
and

(a + 6)
are both
< 45
the proper formula
C
is
(22) which
may be
written
(
tan
\G = cos \ (a b) sec (a + b) cot cos(a  6) = 99671 seel (a + 6) = 01033 cot $ (A + B) = 05614
tan
A + B)
$C =0631 8 G =153 44'.
3.
Accuracy attainable in Logarithmic Calculation.
is
the logarithm of a trigonometrical function is given it generally possible to find the angle with sufficient accuracy.
cases in which this statement ceases to
When
But we often meet with
be quite true. For example, suppose we are retaining only five figures in our logarithms and that we want to find 6 from the statement that
Log sin = 999998. This tells us nothing more than that 6 must lie somewhere between 89 23' 7" and 89 31' 25" Nor will the retention of so
many
as seven places of decimals always prevent ambiguity.
We
note, for example, that every angle from 89 56' 19" to 89 57' 8" has as its Log sin the same tabular value, viz. 9'9999998.
We
the
thus see that angles near 90 are not well determined from Log sin, and in like manner angles near zero are not well
determined by the Log cos. But all angles can be accurately found from the Log tan as will now be proved. If receive a small increment h" or in circular measure h sin 1"
and the increment
decimals,
in
Log10 tan0 be x
units in the 7th place of
we have
to'
find the equation
between h and
x.
12
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
Changing the common we have
logs into Napierian logs
[CH.
I
by the modulus
04343,
a/10000000
= 04343 log, tan (6 + h sin 1")  0*4343 log, tan 6 = 04343 log (1 + h sin l"cot 6)  04343 loge (1  h sin 1" tan 0),
e
whence by expanding the logarithms x = 4343000 sin l"(tan + cot
which may be written
h
6} h very nearly,
= x sin
20/421.
greatest value of h is #/42'l, and hence the concluded value of 6 when Log tan 6 is given could never be 1" wrong unless Log tan 6 was itself wrong to the extent of 0*0000042.
The
is
Ex. 1. Show that when 5figure logarithms are used and the computation exact to within two units of the last decimal the error of an angle determined from its tangent cannot exceed 5 seconds.
Ex. 2. Investigate the change in the value of an angle produced by the alteration of one unit in the last decimal of its Log sin, and show that under
all
circumstances
its sine.
it is
more accurate
to determine the angle
by
its
tangent
than by
Ex.
3.
Prove that
if
6
is
a small angle
its
value in seconds
ia
given
if
approximately by the expression cosec 1" sin 6 (sec $)s, and show that even be as much as 10 this expression will not be erroneous by so much as 1".
Ex.
4.
6
If 6 is a small angle expressed in seconds,
show that
Log
where
sin
0=\og6+S,
<9)
8=% (20 + Log cos
Log
5 31 44251,
and as an example show that when 6 = 2074"'20
sin 0=80024182.
The quantity S
Ex.
5.
is
given in Bruhn's tables.
(Tauchnitz, Leipzig, 1870.)
is
Determine the angle 6 of which the Log sin
8'0123456.
Tables which, like those of Bagay (Paris, 1829), give the functions for each second show that the required angle differs from 35' 22" by not more than a small fraction of a second. To determine that fraction we
compute
stituting
=(20+Log cos ff) 53144251
35'
which becomes 4*6855672 by sub
22" for 6 in Log cos
log 6
6.
Then from the equation
obtain
= Log sin 6S we
= 2122"16.
4.
Differential formulae in a Spherical Triangle.
Six angles a, b, c, A, B, C will not in general be the sides and angles of a spherical triangle, for they must fulfil three conditions
34]
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
13
if they are to possess this property. This is obvious from the consideration that if these six quantities were indeed the parts of a triangle, then any three of them being given the other three
could be determined.
Let us however assume that these six quantities are indeed the parts of a spherical triangle, and let them all receive small
changes Aa, A6, Ac, AJ., A5, AC respectively. The quantities as thus altered a + Aa, &c. will in general no longer be the If they are to be such parts parts of a spherical triangle. must satisfy three conditions, which it is now proposed to they
determine.
Differentiate the fundamental formula (1)
cos a
= cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos
sin b cos
A,
and we have
sin a Aa
=
+
cA6
cos b sin
cAc
A&b f sin b sin c sin A A A.
cos b sin c cos
(2) in 1
sin b cos c cos
A Ac
But from the formula
sin sin
a cos B a cos
= cos 6 sin c
sin b cos c
sin b cos c cos
A,
C
cos 6 sin c cos
A
;
whence by substitution, and writing the similar formulae
Aa= cos CA& + cos 5 Ac + H sin b
A6 = cos^lAc + Ac = cos B&a +
where
cos
sin ck.A\
(i),
H = sin
A.4
CAa + H sine sinaA5> cos J.A6 + H sin a sin &AC J A /sin a = sin B/s'm b = sin (7/sin c.
(4), (5)
Proceeding in like manner from formulae
the equivalent equations
l
we
obtain
=  cos cA  cos 6AC + H~ sin B sin CAal AJ3 = cosaAC  cos cAvl + // sin (7 sin A Ail AC =  cos 6A^1  cos aA + H~* sin J. sin 5 Ac J
1
(ii).
We have thus proved that if a, b, c, A, B, C are the parts of a spherical triangle, either set of equations (i) or (ii) expresses the
three necessary and sufficient conditions that
a
+ Aa,
6
+ A6, c+Ac, A + &A, B + &B,
triangle.
6'
+ AC'
shall also
be the parts of a spherical
14
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
[CH.
I
If three of the differentials be zero, then the other three will
This is evident from the equations as it also in general vanish. is also from the consideration that if three of the parts of a
spherical
triangle
remain unaltered, then generally the other
parts must also remain unaltered. As an illustration of an exception to this statement let (7= 90, and Aft = 0, Ac = 0, A.5 = 0. The second equation of (i) will in
this case
not require that
Aa = 0.
spherical triangle undergo a small while both Ac and A C are not
Ex.
1.
Under what conditions can a
change such that Aa = 0, A&=0, A.4=0, AJ3 = zero?
From
Ex.
2.
(ii)
we
see that
a = 90,
6
= 90,
whence
^1
= 90,
.5=90.
If
a spherical triangle receive a small change which does not
of its three angles, show that the alterations in the lengths of satisfy the condition
)
alter the
sum
must
the sides
Aa sin (8 A] + A& sin (S B) + Ac sin (Swhere
= 0,
*5.
The Art of
Interpolation.
In the calculations of astronomy use is made not only of logarithmic tables but also of many other tables such, for example, as those which are found in every ephemeris. The art of
interpolation is concerned with the general principles on which such tables are to be utilised.
Let y be a quantity, the magnitude of which depends upon the magnitude of another quantity x. then say that y is a function of x and we express the relation thus
We
where f(x) denotes any function of
y
x.
This general form would
include as particular cases such equations as
= log x
or
y
= Log tan x.
Suppose that the value zero is assigned to x, then the corresponding value y of y is given by the relation y =/*(()). Let us next substitute successively h, 2h, 3A, ... for x in (i), and let the
corresponding values of y be respectively y lt y2 y3 &c. Then the essential feature of a table is that in one column we place the values of x, viz. 0, h, 2k, 3h, &c., and in another column beside it
, ,
the corresponding values of
y, viz.
y
,
y 1} yz y3 &c.
,
,
145]
The value
steps
h,
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
15
and each corresponding value of
is
of x, often called the argument, advances by equal y, often called the
function,
calculated with as
much
is
accuracy as
is
demanded by
the purpose to which the table
to be applied.
for
Table
X
16
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
f(x).
[CH.
I
formula y
at A!,
Then we
erect
ordinates
A P A P
l
l
,
Z
2
,
&c.,
A
z
,
&c., (Fig. 6) equal to the corresponding values y 1}
a 3 lt &c., points generally be found so placed that a
, ,
The
P
P
P
y2)
p
&c.
will
/
curve can be drawn to pass smoothly through them. If the points A lt A 2
,
&c., are sufficiently close together,
i.e.
if'h be small enough, the trend of the curve will be so clearly indicated that
little ambiguity, and the curve y=f(oo) passing through 2 lt
there will be
P P
,
A
1
P
3
will
not,
in
differ
within
general, appreciably these limits from the
FIG.
6.
curve just drawn through the same points. The true curve will of course depend upon the character of the function which y is
of x.
As however,
with only a
to
in the art of interpolation, we are concerned small part of the curve, it will be unnecessary
consider the
particular
characteristics of the
special curve
involved.
need not therefore make use, for our present purpose, of the true curve y =f(x) but of any osculating curve. employ at first the osculating circle which, so far as the needs of inter
We
We
It is generally polation are concerned, is sufficiently accurate. to draw this circle, whose arc coincides so nearly with possible that of the given curve at a given point that for a small distance
the departure of the circle from the curve is insensible. may, therefore, whatever be the true curve, regard that small part which concerns us as a circular arc. Accordingly, we describe a circle
We
through between
for the
is
P P and P P and P the
1(
1
2
3
,
and we assume that
ordinate to the circle
if
for
is
3
any point the value of
shall
P
y
corresponding x. Thus the value of the function
to
AP
be the ordinate then
AP
.
when x = OA.
We
make
2
,
use of the circle
determine an expression for
shall involve only its abscissa
and the coordinates
will
AP which of P P P
l}
3
This
may
not,
of course, be the value of y as
it
obtained from
the formula y =f(oc\ but
from.
not differ appreciably there
Let
Let
TMM'N'N
LN
be a circle and TLL' the tangent to it at T. and L'N' be two lines which are both perpendicular
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
to
17
the axis
of
X.
We
= LT\
have, by
the property of the circle
(Fig. 7),
LM .LN
whence
/
/
^^
\N'
LM__LT^
L'M'^L'T*'
Let us
L'N'
LN
'
now suppose that LN and L'N' approach indefinitely close to T, then L'N'jLN= I and we have
LM
curve
is
X'
FIG. 7.
:
L'M'
::
LT*
:
L'T\
Remembering that the
arc of the
indistinguishable from that of its osculating circle in the of the point of contact, we obtain the principle on which vicinity
interpolation
is
based and which
If a tangent TL on that be an ordinate contiguous to T, then the intercept ordinate between the tangent and the curve is proportional to
thus expressed. be drawn touching a curve at T, and
may be
LM
LM
the square of TL. In Fig. 8, is the origin, y
of T, then, as
is
the ordinate of P, and y
that
we have shown,
2
,
PB
varies as
BT
and
therefore, as
CT
if
2
,
also
CB varies as CT;
hence,
x be the abscissa of
P
yy =
where
This
I
x
and
ra are constants for
points in the
is
neighbourhood of T.
of course the equation of
a parabola. With a change in the constants to I' and ra' we may write the equation as follows
p< 10
y=y
+
I've
+ mac (x
h);
(h,
;
we
to
and m' from the consideration that be points on the curve. The first gives
find
I'
(2A,
y 2) are
r
B. A.
_ Vi ~ ~~~
3/Q
18
while x
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
[CH.
I
= 2h, y = y
2
gives
/
or
ys22/i
+ yo
'
~~2^
and the equation becomes x y = yo+^(yiyo)
,
.
+ x(xh), (ytfyi + y*) 2/l2
......... (i>
Let
is
2/0
2/i
>
2/2
be three consecutive values of the function
y,
where h
the difference of the arguments between the second and the Then for first value and also between the third and the second.
less
any argument which is greater by x than the first argument but than the third argument the above formula gives the required
function.
The constants
the table by
of this formula are very easily obtained from the method of differences
:
1st
Difif.
2nd
Diff.
yo
STiJfo
yi
y*

22/i
+ yo
The first column contains three consecutive values of y. The second column shows the differences between each value and the preceding one. The third gives the differences between conThe third and higher differences secutive terms in the second.
are to be similarly formed if required. =A If for brevity we write 2/1 2/o
and y 2
^+y =
A',
and
if
we
replace x by
t
as the time
is if
variable in astronomical work,
and
generally the independent we make the difference h
the unit of time, then the equation becomes
The
rate at
which y changes with respect
to
t
t,
obtained by
is
differentiating the last equation with respect to
from which
uniforml uniformly,
it
appears that the rate of increase will
itself increase
5]
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
In two timeunits the function increases from y to y2
,
19
hence
its
average rate of increase per timeunit
is
^ (y2
2A>)>
an d as
the rate increases uniformly it will attain its average value when half the time has elapsed, i.e. when the function has the value y l
.
Hence we deduce the following result The rate at which the function is changing per unit
:
of time
at
any epoch
Provision
t
is
half the difference between the values of the
t
and at one unit of time before t. Ephemeris for a more rapid of interpolation by giving an additional column indicating process
function at one unit of time after
is
often
made
in the
the rate of variation of the function at the corresponding moment. We shall illustrate this by finding the South Declination of the
Moon
1905.
at 15
+1
hours after Greenwich
mean noon on
Sept.
6,
h gives the South Declination of the Moon at 15 G.M.T. to be 18 38' l" 2 and the variation in 10 minutes as 23"'55,
The Ephemeris

day, the next line m of the table shows the variation in 10 to be 22" '41, and as the
the
moon moving
south.
At 16 h on the same
rate of variation
may be
variation per ten minutes at
regarded as declining uniformly, the (15+ty) hours after noon is
23"'55
 0"57.
to be the average rate of variation for h h the whole interval between 15 and 15 + 1, and since t is ex
This
may be assumed
pressed in hours the total variation in that interval is found by We thus find for the South multiplying the average rate by Qt.
Declination of the
Moon
at 15 h
+t
on Sept.
6,
1905,
18 38' l"2
Formulae of interpolation are also used for the inverse problem of finding the time at which a certain function reaches
a specified value. know the time on
Declination
is
Suppose, for example, that it is required to 6th, 1905, when the Moon's South 18 40'. We have from the equation just found
September
18 40'
This
root
is
=
18 38' l"2
+
141"3

3"'42
2
.
a quadratic for t, and by neglecting the last term the is found to be approximately 0'86. Substituting this value in t2 in the original equation it becomes
we seek
1188
=
1413*
 253,
22
20
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
[CH.
I
whence
= 0'859
and the required time
is
15 h ol m< 5.
The other
root of the quadratic is irrelevant. It is easy to generalize the fundamental formula of interpolation given above.
Let us assume
4 are undetermined coefficients, to be so 3 lt A^, that when t becomes in succession 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, then y adjusted assumes the values 2/o> 2/i> 2/*> 2/. y*. respectively.
where
A A
Q,
A A
,
Hence b
substitution
we have
y3
= A + SA + 6 4 + QA y,= A + 4>A,+ I2
1
2
S
,
Q
from which,
A
*
3
=2/o,
A =i
^4
(2/2

22/1
ty2
+
l
2/ ),
6 \t/3
,J/1
^/
= & (2/4 ~ 42/3 + 6?/ 2
By
this
means we obtain the general formula
of interpolation
+ '
where Aj, Aa,
1.2.3.4
neglected as
1
A A
3
,
4
are the successive differences.
Generally the last term
2/4
may be
If
 42/3 + 67/2 42/ +
we make
it
2/0
will usually
be very small.
equal to zero
we have
The quantities given in the tables are of course generally erroneous to an extent which may amount to almost half a digit
5]
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
21
y3 were each too large by half a and y4 were each too small by the same amount, then even under these most unfavourable circumstances the combination can give an error of barely a single digit
in the last place in
in the last place. If y l and digit in the last place, and y
We
y2 have also from the same equation
.
from which
it
could compute y4
for if
might appear that from knowing y y l} y2> y3 we But this "extrapolation" would be unsafe,
,
.
y
l
and y3 were each half a digit too
large,
and y2 and y
each half a digit too small, as might conceivably happen, the total error in y4 would amount to 7 or 8 digits of the last place.
following also be noted.
The
method
of interpolation
due
to Bessel should
Let t be the argument measured from a point midway between two tabular arguments, and set down that part of the table as far as two tabular arguments on each side of the origin.
1st Diff.
2nd
Diff.
3rd
Diff.
2/2 2/3 2/3
 2/2
2/3
2
2
2/2 2/4
 %s + 3y  y
2
l
2/4
+ 2/3
2/2
2/42/3
2/4
We
shall
make
+ 2/2)
c
;
= i (2/4 ~
2/3
2/2
+ 2/0
5
= 2/3~2/2> d =  3^/3 + 3y,  y
&
2/4
l
,
where
a, 6, c,
the origin
d are either quantities on the horizontal line through or the arithmetic means of two adjacent quantities on
write
opposite sides of the line.
We may
down
for obviously
,
obtain y 1} y 2 of t the same expression will give the corresponding values of y.
,
f, by substituting for t respectively f, we ya y, and we assume that for neighbouring values
, ,
22
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
Expanding we obtain
[CH.
I
~
a 8 y (8 12*
1

It
+ 3)
+ 3y
3
2
(8t
s
+
4
2
3y
and consequently,
3
(8t
W
2
4% = (8  2) (d + 36) + (12  3) (2c + 2a)
3
+ (54  24
or
If
t
3
)
6
+ (54  24
2
) a,
,
d
=
we have y = a
c,
by which we see that the value of
the function for an argument halfway between two consecutive arguments is equal to the mean of the two adjacent values less
oneeighth of the
mean
of the two second differences on the
same
horizontal lines as these values.
As an
problem.
illustration of this
method we may take the following The Moon's mean longitude at Greenwich mean noon
being given as under for
required to find its
mean
2nd, 3rd and 4th March, 1899, it longitude at midnight on March 2nd.
1st,
1st Diff.
is
Moon's mean
longitude at noon
2nd
Diff.
March
1st
205 38' 38"1
+ 12
2nd
3rd
58'
6"9
218 36 45
231 48
3
'0
+
13' 11"'2
+ 13
1
11 18
1
+
14 40
'6
+ 13
4th
25 58
7
245 14
result
is
1 8
The required
(218 36' 45"0
+ 231
48'
3"1)
 ^ (13'
11"'2
+
14' 40"'6)
=
225
10'
39 //> 5.
5]
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
23
*EXERCISES ON CHAP.
Ex.
1.
I.
Show
that in any formula relating to a spherical triangle
a, b, c,
A, B, 180
C may be changed respectively into a, 180 b, 180c, A, 180 B, C and hence deduce the second of Napier's analogies (21) from the
first (20).
Ex.
2.
Explain in what sense Delambre's formula (16)
sin
esin
%(A
form
B)
+cos
(7
sin
(a
 6)
may be
also written in the
sin ^c sin
%(A
B}=
cos
\C sin \ (a
b)
and show that there
formulae.
is
a similar ambiguity of sign in the remaining three
Ex.
3.
Show
that
cot ada + cot BdB = cot b db + cot
A dA,
CdA
.
sin a dB = sin Cdb
sin
B cos a do
t
,
sin b cos
Ex.
4.
,
If
,
when
t
assumes the values
ti, t 2
y
are
y
yt y2
is
respectively,
show that a formula
the corresponding values of of interpolation based on
these data
given by the equation
terms of
It is sufficient to observe that this is the simplest expression of t which obviously gives for y the values y y i} y2 when t t\,
, ,
y
tz
in
are
substituted for
t.
Ex.
last
5.
Show
will
that
if t 1
t
=t2
t1
=h
the formula of interpolation in the
example
reduce to the fundamental formula
y=
if
the time be measured from the Epoch
Ex.
6.
.
Extracting the following from the Ephemeris
:
Greenvnch mean noon.
N. Decl. of Sun
1905. April 7th
6
7 7
40'
49"'9
8th
9th
3
22
4
Show that the Sun's
is
declination at 6
47/7 p.m. Greenwich mean time on Apr.
25
7
6 46' 28"'7.
24
Ex.
7.
FUNDAMENTAL FORMULAE
The Moon's semidiameter
is
[CH.
I
as follows
:
Greenwich mean noon.
Semidiameter
of
Moon
18 61
5 97
1909. Sept. 3
16' 29"44
4
5
16 16
15
6
52 69
is 16'
Show
that the Moon's semi diameter at midnight on Sept. 4
12" '44.
Ex. 8. From the following data find the mean time on Aug. when Venus and Jupiter have the same E.A.
1909
llth, 1909,
Mean noon
Aug. 11
CHAPTER
II.
THE USE OF SPHERICAL COORDINATES.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Graduated great circles on the sphere Coordinates of a point on the sphere Expression of the cosine of the arc between two points on the sphere in terms of their coordinates Interpretation of an equation in spherical coordinates
PAGE 25
26
....
.
.
28 30 32 33 36
41
10.
The
inclination of
3>
two graduated great 180 joining their noles
11.
12.
13.
the intersections of two graduated great circles Transformation of coordinates
On
...... .......
circles
is
the
arc
.
.
Adaptation to logarithms
6.
Graduated great
circles
on the sphere.
is
The circumference
of a great circle
supposed to be divided
into 360 equal parts by dividing marks. Starting from one of these marks, which is taken as zero, the succeeding marks in regular
order will be termed 1, 2, 3 and so on up to 359, after which the next mark is zero so that this point may be indifferently termed
or
circle,
360. Thus we obtain what is known as a graduated great and it may have subordinate marks by which each interval
further divided as
of 1
is
may be
required.
In starting from zero the numbers may increase in either direction, so that there are two perfectly distinct methods of
graduating the same circle from the same zero mark. A man walking on the outside of the sphere along a graduated great circle in the direction in which the numbers increase, i.e.
359, will have on his left hand that pole of the great circle which may be distinguished by the word nole~^, and on his right that pole of the great circle which may be distinguished by the word antinole.
from
to 1
not from
to
t
The ancient word
nole being obsolete in its original sense of head or neck
seems
There being a choice of various spellings available for the purpose now proposed. that one is preferred which most immediately suggests north pole.
26
THE USE OF SPHERICAL COORDINATES
Thus when the
circle
[CH.
II
equator is considered as a graduated eastward from Greenwich or Paris, longitudes great the north pole of the earth is the nole of that circle so graduated and its antinole is the south pole of the earth. If on the other
terrestrial
for
hand the equator be graduated so as to show longitudes increasing as the observer moves westward, then the nole of the circle so graduated is the south pole of the earth, and the north pole of
the earth
is
the antinole.
a sphere is indicated as the nole of a graduated not only is the position of that great circle great determined, but also the direction of graduation round it. If the given point on the sphere had been indicated as the antinole of the graduated great circle, then the direction of
circle, then,
When a point on
graduation would be reversed, for by definition the antinole is on the right hand of a man walking along the great circle in the
direction of increasing graduation. To indicate the direction to 1
sufficient to attach
on a graduated
circle
circle it is
an arrowhead to the
10,
ni o3
[_]
I_J
as
shown
in Fig. 9
and Fig.
and
it will
be con
venient to speak of the direction of increasing graduation as the positive direction, and the
>
Fl S 9

direction of diminishing graduation as the negative direction.
7.
Coordinates of a point on a sphere.
great circle of the sphere graduated from
at an origin
Any
being chosen for reference, we can
express the position of any point on the sphere by the help of two coordinates a and 8 with respect to
that graduated great circle. When specific values are given to a and 8, the corresponding point
\
S
on the sphere
is
obtained in the
FIG. 10.
measure from following way. the great circle in the direcalong
tion of
We
At
P
so that OP = a. increasing graduation to a point a great circle is drawn perpendicular to OP, and on this
is
P
an arc
to be set off equal to
8.
If 8
is
positive,
then the
67]
THE USE OF SPHERICAL COORDINATES
27
required point S is to be taken in the hemisphere which contains the nole. But if 8 is negative, then the required point S' is in the hemisphere which contains the antinole. Thus when
8 are given, the place of a point on the sphere is definitely indicated. It is often convenient to speak of the hemisphere which contains the nole as the positive hemisphere and that
a,
which contains the antinole as the negative hemisphere. Negative values of a need not be considered, for though a point Q might be indicated as 90 if OCQ = 90, yet it would generally be more conveniently indicated by + 270, the measurement
being made in the positive direction. We hence establish the convention that all values of a are to lie between and + 360.
It
is
convenient to restrict the values of 8 between
90 and
+ 90,
point,
for this dispels
some ambiguity while
still
preserving perfect
generality.
Two
but without this limitation of
coordinates will indeed always determine one 8 it will not follow that one
For point will have only a single possible pair of coordinates. a = 30, 8 = + 20 will indicate a point not different from example Tf however we establish the convention that a = 210, 8 = 4 160.
8 shall never lie outside the limits
90 and
+ 90 we
are able to
affirm that not only does one pair of coordinates determine one point, but that one point, in general, has but one pair of coordinates. The only exceptions then remaining will be the nole
arid antinole of
the fundamental
circle.
In the former 8
is
=
t
90,
and in the
latter 8
=
90, but
in each a
indeterminate.
Ex. 1. Abandoning the restrictions that 0>a^360 and 90 }:}> 90, show that the point a = 40, 8 = 30 would have been equally represented by any of the following pairs of values for a, 8 respectively
:
220, 150; 580, 150;
320, 30;
40, 390.
140, 150;
400, 30;
680, 30;
We
Ex.
can always apply
360 to either or both of the coordinates without
thereby altering the position of the point to which these coordinates refer.
2.
Show
that the following pairs of coordinates
a;
8
360
180
180
all
8 + a; 180 8 + a; + a; 180 8
verify that for every point
indicate the
same
point, and thus
a pair of coordinates can be found such that
>a ^>360 and
on the sphere  90
^8
^90.
28
8.
THE USE OF SPHERICAL COORDINATES
[CH. II
Expression of the cosine of the arc between two
points in terms of their coordinates.
Let A A' be the great circle of reference and As AS = 8 let S and S' be the two points. = 90 we must have SP 8, and in like 8'. We have also manner S'P = 90 = a a, and as PA and PA' are
P its
nole,
and
_
AA
each 90,
Applying fundamental formula = triangle SPS' we have if SS'
cos 6
(1) to the
=
sin S sin S'
+ cos S cos
When
S'
cos (a'
a) ...... (i).
the points S, S' are close together on the sphere a more convenient formula
for the determination
of their distance is
FIG. 11.
found as follows.
We
cos
have
= sin 8 sin S' + cos S cos 8' cos (') = sin 8 sin 8' {cos (a a') + sin (a a')} + cos 8 cos 8' (cos (a a') = cos (8  8') cos (a  a')  cos (S + S ) sin
2 2
2
sin 2
2
(a
a')}
2
7
 a'). (a
Subtracting this from
1
= cos

2
(a
 a') + sin
(S
2
1
(a
 a'),
(a
we have
sin 2
$0 = cos
2
(a
2 a') sin
 S') + sin
2
 a') cos
2
(8
+ 8').
gives
This
is of course generally true, and the approximate solution
when 6
2
is
very small
it
02
= (8  8J + (a  a')
cos2  (8
+ S')11).
We
Let
can prove this formula geometrically as follows (Fig.
SN and
is
S'N' be perpendicular
a very small triangle
to
$'P and
SP respectively.
As SN'S'
whence approximately
(8
 8J + (a  a')
2
cos2
8'
= SS'*
8]
THE USE OF SPHERICAL COORDINATES
29
In like manner from triangle
SNS'
2
 8J + (a a') (8
These
approximate
values
of
cos 2 8
= S8\
only differ in that one Generally one is too large and the other too small and for an approximation we may write incontains cos 8 and the other cos
8'.
SS'2
stead of cos 8 or cos
(cos 8
8'
their
(8
mean found
as follows
:
+ cos
= cos 8')
+ 8') cos
 8') = cos (8
(8
+ 8'),
which gives by substitution the desired result. Rectangular Coordinates: We can determine from (i) the rectangular coordinates of the point a, 8 on a sphere of radius r,
with reference to axes defined as follows
:
+x
+y
is
from the centre of the sphere to the point
= 0, a' = 90,
a'
+z
= 0. = 0. 8' = 90.
8'
S'
We
arcs
thus see by substitution in (i) that the cosines of the from P to the extremities of the three positive axes are
cos a cos
8,
respectively
sin a cos
8,
sin
8,
and hence the rectangular coordinates are x = r cos a cos 8 y = r sin a cos 8
;
;
z
r sin
8.
Ex.
1.
Find the distance 6 between
8
S and
40"
;
>S"
= 12
24' 45"
;
S'
= 24
15'
a
when it is given  a=42 38' 41".
(i)
that
We calculate
the distance 6 directly from the formula
cos
8'
9959844
9'989728 9'866623 9816195
sin
8'
9613731
cos 8 cos
(a'
sin 8
9332334
8946065
1st
a)
term
0088321
2nd
cos 6
0654930
0743251
6 = 41
59' 27".
Ex.
6 = 25
2.
If
8 = 27
11' 6",
S' = 32
17'
21" and
a'
a = 29
11' 13",
show that
46' 6".
t
,
Ex. 3. The coordinates of two stars are 1? 8 and a 2 8 2 Show from (i) that the coordinates a, 8 of the poles of the great them are given by the equations
respectively.
circle joining
tan 8 = cot
81
cos (a
aj)
= cot 8 2 cos (a
a 2 ),
and obtain the same equations geometrically.
30
Ex.
4.
THE USE OF SPHERICAL COORDINATES
Explain
[CH. II
how the
solution of the last question applies to both
if
to distinguish the nole from the antinole poles, and show how direction be from the first star to the second.
the positive
Ex. 5. Show that if L be the length of the arc of a great circle on the earth (supposed a sphere of radius R) extending from lat. X l5 long. li to
lat.
X2
,
long.
12
,
then
tan
2
L=R cos"
1
(sin Xj sin
X 2 sec 2 $),
2)
;
where
$ = cot Xj cot X 2 cos (li
and that the highest
latitude reached
by the great
circle will
be
cos" 1 cos \i cos X 2 sin (^ ~ 12 ) cosec
(
^
.
)
OPiPz the
then
cos Si S2
Let SiSz be the two points (Fig. 12), the north pole equator,
N
;
sin \i sin X 2
+ cos \i cos X 2 cos (li
latitude on
12 ).
To prove the second part the highest SiS2i produced if necessary,
equals LSiOPi.
From ANOSi we have
= sin
sin Si
%
sin
NSiO
FIG. 12.
a,
cosec Si
Ex. 6. Verify that in the expression of the distance between a point and another point OQ, So there is no change if a and 8 be altered into 180 and 180 d respectively, and explain why this is necessary.
9.
8
+a
Interpretation
of an
equation
in
spherical
coor
dinates.
When
a and 8 are given, then as we have shown a point of
which these quantities are the coordinates is definitely determined on the sphere. If we know nothing with regard to a and 8, except
that they satisfy one equation into which they enter in conjunction with other quantities which are known, we have not sufficient data to determine the two unknowns.
Any
value
of a
substituted
in the
equation will give an
equation in 8 for which, in general, one or more roots can be found. Repeating the process with different values of a we can
obtain an indefinitely numerous series of pairs of coordinates a, 8, each of which corresponds to a point on the sphere. If several of these points be constructed, they will indicate a curve traced on
89]
THE USE OF SPHERICAL COORDINATES
31
The original equation may be described as the spherical surface. the equation of that curve just in the same way as an equation in x and y indicates a plane curve in analytic geometry.
We
shall first
show that
if
the coordinates of a point
a,
8
satisfy the equation
A sin 8 + B sin a cos 8 + C cos a cos 8 = 0,
where A, B,
180
C
great circle of
+
a',
which the poles 8', where
tan
a'
are constants, the locus of the point will be a will have coordinates a', 8' and
=
/(?;
sin
8'
= A/^A* + & + C\
We
can
make
A
positive,
because
the terms can be changed. sin 8', B = such that A =
Assume
H
H
if necessary the signs of all three new quantities H, a, 8' sin a cos 8', C = cos a cos 8', then
H
by squaring and adding
sign we obtain from the
"if
H=
first
V A* + B + C Taking the upper equation sin 8' = a positive quantity,
2 z
.
there is no confusion 1, hence 8' is positive and as 8' } 90 The second and third equations give 8'. between 8' and 180 cos a! and sin a', and thus a' is found without ambiguity, and we have obtained one solution a', 8'. If however we had taken the 8' negative value of H, then instead of 8' we should have had from the first equation, and the two last can only be satisfied by
a',
+ 180 instead of a'. Thus there are two solutions, 8'. And these are two antipodal points. and 180 + a', The original equation then reduces to
putting a
8'
H
whence
its
a, is
(sin 8' sin 8
+ cos
8 cos
8'
cos (a'
a)}
= 0,
and therefore
8
must be 90 from the
circle.
if
fixed point
a', 8'
locus
Ex.
1.
a great
that
Show
the following equation
is satisfied
:
A
the locus of the point
sin 8
a,
+ B sin a cos 8 + Ccos a cos8 = Z),
is
8 will be in general a small circle of which the radius
and that
Ex.
2.
if
D = A^ + R + (7
2
Z
2
the equation represents no more than a point.
If
a,
8 are the current coordinates of a point on a sphere
and
a, b
are constants,
show that the equation
tan 8 = tan b sin (a
a)
represents a great circle which has the point a = a + 270" and
8=90
b as
a
pole.
32
10.
THE USE OF SPHERICAL COORDINATES
[CH. II
arc
The inclination of two graduated great 180 joining their noles.
circles is the
inclination of two ungraduated great circles is in general unavoidably ambiguous, for it may be either of two supplemental
angles, and it is only when the that this ambiguity disappears.
The
two
circles cross at right angles
inclination of two graduated great circles need not be because we can always distinguish that one of the two ambiguous supplemental angles which is to be deemed the inclination of the
But the
two
circles.
The
inclination
is
defined to be the angle
;j>
180
FIG. 13.
between those parts of the circles in which the arrowheads are both diverging from an intersection or converging towards
an intersection.
are
If
In Fig. 13 the two segments of the circles diverging from OA l and OA 2 and consequently the angle is to be A^OA 2 =
,
e.
however we simply change the direction of the arrowhead on OA l without any other alteration in the figure, we have the condition shown in Fig. 14, where the diverging segments OA l and OA 2 now contain the angle A^OA 2 = 180 e, which is accordingly to be taken as the inclination of the two graduated circles in
this case.
If
A A NN
1
2
1
2
,
(Fig. 13) is the great circle perpendicular both
to
OA^ and OA 2 then since OA^ 90 and OA 2 = 90, we have A^A 2 = e. If N! and 2 be the noles of OA and OA 2 respectively, = 90 and A 2 2 = 90, and hence we have A
N
1
l
N
l
N
antinole
In like manner in Fig. 14 the nole JVj of of the former case. Since A Z ON2
OA is now the = 90, we have
1011]
THE USE OF SPHERICAL COORDINATES
90
33
e,
A,ON =
2

e,
and
as
A.ON, = 90 we have N,ON2 = 180 is
which as already explained
circles in this case.
Then
the inclination of the two graduated we obtain the important result that
two graduated great circles is always measured by the arc between their notes. No doubt a question may arise as to the arc N^^ (Fig. 13). Is it the lesser of the two arcs which we should naturally take, or
the inclination
between
is it
the arc reckoned the other way round the circle from by and A ? There are thus two arcs together making 360, of 2 which either may in one sense be regarded as the inclination. We can however remove any ambiguity thus arising by the convention that the inclination of two graduated great circles is never to
1
N
A
l
exceed 180.
Ex.
circles
1. If C, CA, AB be the positive directions on three graduated great which form the triangle ABC and if A', B\ C' be their respective noles,
show that
If B'C', C'A', A'B' be the positive directions on the sides of the (1) polar triangle A' B'C' the noles of those sides are A, J3, C respectively.
(2)
The
sides
and angles of A'B'C' are respectively supplementary
to
the angles and sides of
ABC.
a 2 , 8 2 be the noles of
Ex.
if f is
2.
If GI, 81
and
two graduated
a 2 ),
circles
show that
the inclination of the two circles
cos
e
= sin
__ +
j
sin 8 2
+ cos 81 cos 82 cos (G!
a i)
and that
if a,
8 are the coordinates of the intersection of the
.
two
circles

cos 81 cos 82 sin ("2
sin
e
cos 8 cos a =
cos 81 sin 82 sin aj
sin 8j cos 8 2 sin a 2
sine
cos 8 sin a =
sin cos 82 cos a 2 +  8j
sin 8 2 cos 81 cos a x
.
.
sine
where the upper and lower signs
11.
refer to the
two
intersections.
On
the intersections of two graduated great circles.
0' (Fig. 15) be two graduated great circles which
Let
C and
intersect in the
N be the nole of G and N' the nole of C'.
A
two diametrically opposite points
V and V
V
'.
Let
point moving along C' in the positive direction crosses at Thus is described into the positive hemisphere bounded by G. as the ascending node of G' with respect to C.
B. A.
V
3
34
THE USE OF SPHERICAL COORDINATES
[CH.
II
point moving along G' in the positive direction crosses at is described into the negative hemisphere bounded by C. Thus as the descending node of G' with respect to G.
A
V
V
If
and
OP =
be the origin on G from which coordinates are measured = 8, then a and 8 are the coordinates of N' the ct, PN'
nole of G' with respect to C. As the angle between two graduated great circles is the arc between their noles ( 10) we see that 90 & is the inclination
between
C and
C".
We
have
0V = OP + PV = a + 90,
OF'=OF+180 = a + 270
, :
and thus we obtain the following general statement If a, 8 be the coordinates of the nole of one graduated great circle G' with respect to another G, then the inclination of the two circles is 90 8, the ascending node of G' on C has coordinates
90 + a, 0, and the descending node of G' on 270 + a, 0.
If,
G
has coordinates
as
is
often convenient,
we take O,
as the coordinates of the
FIG. 15.
ascending node of C' on G and e as the inclination of the two circles, we have (fl + 270), (90 e) as the coordinates of the nole of G' the circle of reference C. being
,
11]
THE USE OF SPHERICAL COORDINATES
35
one great
fix the position and direction of graduation of with respect to another, we must know three parameters of the second circle with regard to the first. We may, for instance, be given the two coordinates of its nole.
In general to
circle
is the great circle dethe pole but also the direction in which the graduation advances on the second circle is known. If we had merely been given the coordinates of a pole of the
For
this fixes the nole,
and then not only
is
termined of which that nole
great circle, then no doubt the place of the great circle would be defined, but so long as it is unknown whether the given pole
is
unspecified.
the nole or the antinole the direction of graduation will remain The third parameter is required to fix the origin of
the graduation on the second circle. Or we may be given O the ascending node of the second circle
on the
first
and
also e the inclination.
we
of
set off
O
in the positive direction
node.
The second circle is the first. If we make the two
is
Starting from the origin find the ascending then entering the positive hemisphere
and thus
contain the angle e there of the circle required.
Ex.
1.
diverging arcs from the node no ambiguity as to the exact place
Show
that the ascending node of C' with regard to
C
is
the
descending node of
Ex.
2.
C
with regard to
C'.
circles which,
figure the difference between two graduated great having equal inclinations to the great circle of reference, have respectively 6 and 180 + 6 as the distances of their ascending nodes from the
Show by a
origin.
Ex.
circle
3.
If
e
Q
L
and
its inclination to
be the longitude of the ascending node of a graduated great a fundamental circle, and if Q', e' be the
corresponding quantities with regard to another great circle L', determine the coordinates of the ascending node V of L' upon L. Let N, N' (Fig. 16) be the nodes on the fundamental circle ONN', then
V
is
to find
the ascending node of L' upon L let x in terms of e, e' and O' Q.
;
x be the distance NV.
We have
From formula
(6) in
1
we obtain
cos (Q'
.
cot x sin (Q'
 Q)
Q) cos e =
sin
_.
t
sin e cot
e'
.
e',
whence
cot.r=
cos (O!
 Q) cos
cot
..,, sm (Q  Q)
To
find
which value of x
sin
is
:
to be taken observe that as
x
sin (Q'
,
Q)
: :
sin
e'
:
sin
V
D and V and e' are both ^>180 sin# must have the same sign as sin(Q'G), which shows whether x or # + 180" is the angle required.
32
36
THE USE OF SPHERICAL COORDINATES
[CH.
II
When x
is
known we determine
a,
8 the coordinates of
V with
respect to
the fundamental circle from the equations
sin 8
cos 8 cos (a cos 8 sin (a
= sin x sine, Q) = cos x, O) = sin x cos e.
V
FIG. 16.
Ex. 4. With the data of the last example find the inclination p between the two great circles specified by O, e and Q', e' respectively. have found that the coordinates of the noles are Q + 270, 90  e and 10 Ex. 2 we have Q' + 270, 90 e', and hence by
We
cos p = cos
t
cos
*
+ sin e sin e' cos (Q
common
Q').
Ex.
5.
If
x be the
by
Q,
e
length of the
perpendicular to the two great
circles defined
and
Q',
t
e'
show that
'
cos x = cos
cos
+ sin e sin e' cos (Q  Q').
12.
Transformation of coordinates.
Being given the coordinates of a point with regard to one circle it is often necessary to determine the coordinates of the same point with regard to a different graduated
graduated great
great circle.
Let
a,
B be the original coordinates of a point
'
P
and
let
a,
8'
be the coordinates of the same point P in the new system. In like manner let 8 and a ', 8 be the original and transformed
,
coordinates of
cannot affect the distance
some other point P Since the transformation PP we must have that distance the same whichever be the coordinates in which it is expressed, and
.
consequently
(
8)
1112]
sin 8' sin 8
THE USE OF SPHERICAL COORDINATES
'
37
+ cos 8' cos 8 cos (' a = sin S sin 8 + cos 8 cos 8
')
'
cos (a
or
)
(i).
All the formulae connected with the transformation are virtually
contained in this equation. If we know the coordinates of any point in both systems, S i.e. a So' an d substitute these values in (i) we obtain an
P
'
,
,
equation connecting in general a, 8 and a, 8'. In like manner if the coordinates of a second point are known in both systems we obtain another equation in a, 8 and a', 8'. Thus we have two
equations for the determination of a, 8' in terms of a, 8. But two equations are not sufficient for finding a, 8' uniquely The distances within terms of a, 8. PP\ do not fix
PP
,
P
out
ambiguity.
might occupy. however be equal unless indeed
circle
obviously two positions Their distances from a third point
There
are
which
2
P
P
will not
P
2
happens to
lie
on the great
through say that a Excluding determinate if its distance from three given points is point known. Hence we have to obtain a third equation between a, 8 and a', 8' by taking some third point of which the coordinates
Pithis case
is
P
we may
a
,
8
and
a/, 8
'
in both systems are
circle
known and which
does not
lie
on the great
passing through the two points previously
selected.
FIG. 17.
(Fig. 17) be the original great circle graduated in the and having its nole at N. direction of the arrow from the origin
Let
OA
38
THE USE OF SPHERICAL COORDINATES
[CH.
II
Let O'A' be the graduated great circle with nole at N' and origin 0' to which the coordinates are to be transformed. Let ft, ft' be and 0' respective!} of V the ascending node the distances from
7
of the second circle on the
first.
Let
e
be the inclination of the
two graduated circles. Then ft, ft', e are the three parameters which completely define in every way the second graduated great
circle
with reference to the
first ( 11).
We
circle,
have now to select three points, not on the same great and such that their coordinates in both systems can be
points
dii'ectly perceived.
The
is
we
shall choose are respectively V,
A
and N.
It
obvious from the figure that as VA = VA' = 90 of these points in the two systems are as follows
the coordinates
:
For
V A
N
we
a
= ft = 90 = Q;
;
8

ft
;
8
= 0. = 0.
and
'
=
ft'
;
8
;
'
'
= 90 + ft'
= 90 +
ft'
'
8 8
'
8
= 90.
'
;
= 0. == 90  e.
e.
Substituting these coordinates successively in the equation have the general formulae of transformation
(i)
cos 8 cos (a
cos 8 sin (a
= cos 8' cos (a' ft') = sin 8' sin e + cos 8' cos e sin (a' ft) sin 8 = sin 8' cos e + cos 8' sin e sin (a'
ft)
ft')
(ii),1
ft').
.
.(iii),
1
ft') ... (i
From
cos
these
8'
we derive
cos (a'
sin (a'
= cos 8 cos (a
ft)
(ii)/
cos
8'
= sin 8 sin e + cos 8 cos e sin (a ft')
sin 8' = sin 8 cos e
ft)
ft)
.
.
.
.(v),
cos 8 sin
e
sin (a
.
.(vi), ;
for,
we
by multiplying (iii) by cos e and adding (iv) multiplied by sin e obtain (v), and by multiplying (iv) by cos e and subtracting (iii) multiplied by sin e we obtain (vi).
The
a', 8'
first set
of equations determine the coordinates
set
a.,
8
a,
when
8 are
are
known and the second
determine
a', 8'
when
known.
Another proof of the fundamental formulae for the transformation of spherical coordinates may be obtained in the following way. Since Fis the pole of
also
Z
VND = a  ft,
whence Z
NN' (Fig. 17) we have Z VNN' = 9Q N'NP = 90 + a  ft. We also see
12]
THE USE OF SPHERICAL COORDINATES
a!
39
that
figure also
 IT = Z VN'D' whence Z NN'P = 90  of + fl'. The shows that NP = 90  8, N'P=9Q  X and NN' = e.
In the triangle NN'P we thus have expressions for the three and two angles, and hence from the fundamental formulae 1 we deduce (ii), (iii), (iv) on the last (3), (2), (1) of page.
sides
The
(ii),
necessity already pointed out for having three equations
in the formulae of transformation
may be illustrated
8'
from the group
(v)
and
(vi).
Suppose that we sought
a!
and
from equations
(ii)
and
(v)
;
we have
tan (a!
at once
fl')
=
(sin 8 sin e 4 cos 8 cos e sin (a
fl)} sec 8 sec (a
H).
As
is
the quantities on the righthand side are known, tan (' H') known. Let 6 be the angle :f> 180 which has this value for its
all
fl') must be either tangent, then (a' value is to be taken for decide which
or #
a'
1'
+ 180: we
can
For as 8 and 8' are always between the limits and cos 8' are both necessarily positive. The sign of cos (a' H') must therefore be the same as the sign of cos (a H). H' is to be or 180 + 0, for It is thus ascertained whether a! only one of these angles will have a cosine agreeing in sign
cos 8
by equation (ii). 90 and + 90,
and (v) determine (a' fl') without known. We then find cos 8' from (ii). ambiguity and therefore At this point the insufficiency of two equations becomes apparent,
(ii) of is
8' is known its sign is indeterminate. necessity for a third equation like (vi) which gives the value of sin 8' and hence the sign of 8'.
with cos (a O). Thus the two equations
for
though the magnitude of
Hence the
The problem
be solved thus.
of finding
a', 8'
from
(ii),
(v)
and
(vi)
might also
Equation (vi) determines sin 8' and thus shows that 8' must be one or other of two supplemental angles. It is however understood that 8' :}> 90 and we choose for 8' that one of the supple90
rf
mental angles which fulfils this condition. Thus 8' is known and hence cos 8'. Equation (ii) will then give cos (a' H') and  H' is determined without (v) will give sin (a' II'), hence a' ambiguity as both
its sine
and cosine are known.
Ex. 1. If a' = 90 + Q', 8'=0, show that point indicated on the sphere.
a=90+Q,
8
= e,
and
find the
40
THE USE OF SPHERICAL COORDINATES
[CH.
first
II
Ex. 2. Show that the coordinates of the nole of O'A' in the second systems respectively are
a
and
= 270 + Q, 8 = 90  e
;
a'
indeterminate,
8'
= 90
;
and
verify that these quantities satisfy the equations
3.
(ii), (iii), (iv).
Ex.
As a
verification of the equations
(ii), (iii), (iv),
show that the sum
of the squares of the righthand
members
is
unity.
(vi)
Ex.
4.
Show
is
that the equations
(iii),
(v),
might have been written
down
at once from
(iv).
For V
that a and 8
may
the descending node of OA with respect to O'A'. This implies be interchanged with a' and 8' if at the same time Q and Q'
be each increased by 180.
If the planes of two graduated great circles are coincident show Ex. 5. the connection of the coordinates a, 8 on one graduated great circle and a', 8'
on the other of the same point on the sphere.
In the general formulae (ii), (v), (vi) graduated in the same direction, and
opposite directions.
we make
e
e
=
if
the two circles are
= 180
if
they are graduated in
In the
cos
8'
first
(a'
case
Q')
whence
8'
=8
and
= cos 8 cos (a  Q) = cos 8 sin (a Q) cos 8* sin (a' Q') sin 8' = sin 8, a'=a + Q'  Q.
cos
In the second case
cos cos
8' 8'
cos (a
sin
 Q') =
cos 8 cos (a
Q)
 cos 8 sin (a  Q) Q') = (a' sin 8' =  sin 8, 8'= 8, a' = Q + G'a.
The coordinate 8 here changes sign because the reversal of the direction of graduation interchanges the positive and negative hemispheres.
Ex.
6.
Let
S
coordinates of any point
,
be a fundamental graduated great circle and let ft, X be the P with respect to S. Let S' be another graduated
great circle and let ft Xo be the coordinates of its nole with respect to S. Let Q denote the degrees, minutes and seconds marked on S' at its ascend
Let ft , X' be the coordinates of with regard to ing node on S. that for the determination of ft, X' in terms of ft, X
cos
1
1
P
S'.
Show
ft
cos
cos ft' sin
 G ) = cos ft sin (X  Xo)  GO) = si" ft cos ft  cos ft sm ftn cos (X  Xo) (X'
(X'
sin
$ = sin
)
ft
sin
ft
+ cos ft cos ft
X'
cos (X
X
),
and that
for the determination of
[
ft,
X in terms of ft',
cos
(X'
cos ft sin (X
j
= cos cos ft cos (X A = sin ft sin ft = sin
X
)
ft'
1
Q
)
1
cos ft
sin
ft
 cos ft
sin
ft
sin (X'
G
)
ft'
+ cos ft
1
cos /3
sm
(^'
 Qo).
1213]
Ex.
7.
THE USE OF SPHERICAL COORDINATES
Let
ai, 8 l
, '
41
system and
system.
and a 2 8 2 be the coordinates of two stars in the first and a 2 8 2 the corresponding coordinates in the second As the distance of the two stars must be the same in both systems
a/, 81
',
we have
sin 81 sin 8 2
+ cos 81 cos 82 cos (e^  a 2 = sin 8x' sin 8 2 4 cos S^ cos 82
)
'
'
cos (a/
 a 2 ')
;
verify this
from the equations
(ii), (iii), (iv).
Explain the changes in the coordinates on the celestial sphere according as the sphere is supposed to be viewed from the interior or the exterior and show that the formulae remain unaltered.
Ex.
8.
Fig. 17 is
supposed to be drawn as usual from the appearance of the
sphere as seen from the outside. But if we wish Fig. 17 to represent a portion of the sphere as seen from the inside then V is the descending node. Instead of iJ and 8 we should write
180 + Q and 8 and make no alteration in
similarly 180
+ Q'
and 8'
for Q',
8'.
These changes
the formulae
(ii),
(v), (vi).
Ex. 9. If a, 8 and a, 8' are the coordinates of two points show that the nodes of the great circle joining them are distant from the origin by quantities L and L + 180 where
13.
If,
Adaptation to Logarithms.
tions
(vi)
in calculating the transformed coordinates a', &', the equa(ii), (v), (vi) ( 12) be used as they stand, the two terms in
table of natural sines.
should be evaluated logarithmically and then 8' is taken from a The equation (ii) determines cos (a' fl')
(v) is
;
and
H' for this we used only to determine the sign of of need calculate only the logarithms of the two terms on the right
hand
when they are of opposite signs. however, often thought convenient to effect a transformation of the formulae (ii), (v), (vi) ( 12) by the introduction of
side even
is,
It
auxiliary quantities which will make them more immediately adapted for logarithmic calculation. This, may be best effected as
follows.
Let
m
be a positive quantity and
M an
M
or
is
angle between
and
360 such that
sin 8
= m cos M
this,
;
cos 8 sin (a If H). either
H) =
m sin M.
the
smallest
Hence
which
tanM" =cot 8 sin (a
satisfies
M
is
M
M + 180.
angle
As
m
is
42
positive
THE USE OF SPHERICAL COORDINATES
[CH.
II
which gives cos M with we must choose that value for become known. By the same sign as sin 8. Thus logm and
M
M
substitution of these auxiliary quantities in these equations become
cos
$'
(ii),
(v), (vi) (
12)
cos
(a'
ft')
cos
&' sin (a'
= cos & cos (a ft)\ = m sin (M + e) ft')
S'
I
............ (i).
sin
= ra cos (M + e)
B' is
)
From
nitude
(}>
the last of these formulae
obtained both as to mag
90) and as to
sign.
This value substituted in the two
cos (a'
a!
ft'
other formulae determines both
ft')
and
sin (a'
ft').
The
first
gives the magnitude of
and the second gives
its sign.
Ex.
defined
1.
The coordinates
(ii),
of a point are
a
= 75,
to Q'
8
= 15. Show
circle
by the
formulae
(v),
(vi),
that
by the quantities
a'
when transformed Q = 215, e=23 30',
0'.
a
of reference
= 115
the
coordinates
become
Ex.
= 327
J/and
If
13',
8'
= 29
2.
If the
problem of Ex.
1
be solved with the help of the auxiliary
38'
quantities
m show that J!f=292
(Fig.
and
Ex.
3.
VP
m = cosPK and M=NK,
triangle
show that 17) when produced meets NN' in and obtain the formulae (i) from the rightangled
K
N'PK.
CHAPTER
III.
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING.
14.
15. 16.
17.
Introductory Latitude
PAGE 43
44 47
Radius of curvature along the meridian
The theory
The
of
18. 19.
Condition that a
map making map shall
be conformal
....
is
49
51
scale in a conformal representation
53
54 57
20.
21.
Mercator's projection
The loxodrome The
22. 23.
Stereographic projection
stereographic projection of any circle on the sphere also a circle
24.
25.
General formulae for stereographic projection Map in which each area bears a constant ratio to the cor
........ ......... ...
58
61
63
65
responding area on the sphere
14.
Introductory.
is globular in form would be suggested by the forms of the sun and moon, and it is demonstrated by analogous familiar facts as set forth in books on geography.
That the earth
Accurate measurements of the figure of the earth are of fundamental importance in Astronomy and this chapter will be
devoted to the elementary parts of this subject as well as to explaining how curved surfaces, such as that of the earth, can
be depicted on
the earth
"
flat surfaces, as in
the art of
map making.
It is necessary to explain that
is
it, but a surface, part of which indicated by the ocean at rest, and which in other parts may be defined as coincident with the level to which water would rise at
tinent and ocean as
we do not mean its we actually see
by the expression "figure of irregular surface diversified by con
communicating with the sea by means of canals which we may imagine traversing the continents from ocean to
the place
ocean.
if freely
44
15.
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
Latitude.
[CH. Ill
station on the earth's surface
terrestrial
If the earth be regarded as a sphere, then the latitude of any is the inclination to the plane of the
equator of the terrestrial radius to that station.
But the
It rather approximates true figure of the earth is not spherical. the spheroid of revolution obtained by the rotation of an ellipse to
its minor axis. The lengths of the semiaxes of this ellipse as given by Colonel Clarke f are
about
a
= 20926202 feet [73206904], = (approximately) 3963'3 miles [359806], = 63782 kilometres [380470], b = 20854895 feet [7*3192080], = (approximately) 3949'8 miles [359657], = 63565 kilometres [380322].
The figures in square brackets denote the logarithms of the numbers to which they are attached. If the normal to the earth's surface (Fig. 18) meet the of the equator in and CNA be the semiaxis major, then plane is Z PNA = is the <f? geographical latitude of P and Z PGA
PN
N
(f>
its geocentric latitude.
FIG. 18.
If the equation of the ellipse be
the coordinates of a point
P
= 1, and x and if be a 6of which X is the excentric angle,

x*
\i
i
2
4
ji
then we easily see that
tan
(j)
= a tan \jb,
tan <'
=
b tan \/a,
t Geodesy, Clarendon Press, 1880, p. 319.
15]
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
<f>'
45
2
,
and
and
<ft
are connected
by the
relation tan
<j>'
= b tan <ft/a
by which the geocentric latitude
or geographical latitude
is
is
obtained
when the
:
true
known
or vice versa.
We
r2
obtain
/o 2
.
r,
the geocentric distance of P, as follows
'2
= a; + v = a
1
cos 2 v
i sm X \+b ~: *s = a? cos
.
2
2
cos
2
+ 6 sm
2
,
2
e sin
2
2
<f>
if
powers of
e
above the second
may be
neglected.
Under
tan
(<4
the same conditions
, ,x

<f>
)
=
1
tan
 tan
</>
<f>'
!
+ tan
tan
r/
= (a
a
2
2
 6 ) tan = e sm + b tan r
2
2
cos <>
and consequently we obtain the following result. If the earth be regarded as produced by the revolution of an ellipse of eccentricity e about its minor axis, and if the
equatorial radius of the earth be taken as unity, then, a point having the geographical latitude <f> on the earth's surface will
have
for its
approximate geocentric latitude and radius vector
<'
=

cosec i"
si
Using Clarke's values
2
for
a and
b
2
we
easily find
)
e == ( ft 2_52)/ a
=
i/i47
and we obtain
$'
= <}> 702" sin 20 =
=
9983
<
 [2'846] sin 2<f>,
2</>.
r
+ [72306]
cos
Thus 702"
sin
20
is
the amount to be subtracted from the
geographical latitude to obtain the geocentric latitude. If we desire a higher degree of approximation we may proceed
as follows
:
_
.
/v
_ Q 6 ) tan = a + 6 tan
2 2 2
2
<ft
_ ~
(a
2
2
2
</>
+
(a 62 )
 6 ) sin 2<f> + (a  6 ) cos 20
2
2
2
'
from which we easily obtain the approximate formula
'
a2
62
T2
/a2
cosec 1" sin 2d>
a
^ 2
<j>'
frV cosec 1" sin
2
rr
2
4d>.
For the accurate calculation of method most generally used.
and r the following
is
the
46
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
Taking a as unity we have r cos <f>' = x = cos X = cos 0/Vl
r sin <'
If therefore
[CH. Ill
2 2 e sin
</>,
=y =
b sin
X=
(1
e ) sin </>/Vl
2
e2 sin2
<f>.
we make
e sin
2
A/1
2
<f>
'
A/1
e sin 2
2
<
we
for
obtain
r sin
<f>'
= X sin <,
r cos
</>'
= F cos <.
The
quantities log
X
and log
<
F
are given in the Ephemeris
2 multiplied by e in
each degree of </>. a small error in (f> will
As sin 2 make no
is
appreciable effect
on
X and X and
F,
F.
Thus
table
log
X
and log
F may
<
be obtained by inspection of the
interpolation.
without
troublesome
<f>
Then the accurate
and log F being added to log respectively, we obtain log r sin <f>' and log r cos </>' and thence r and <'j. We may note that log Jf and log have a constant
values of log sin
and log cos
X
F
difference.
As an
illustration of the application of this
method we may
take the following case.
latitude of Cambridge being 52 12' 52", the reduction to be applied to obtain the geocentric show that 11' 22", and find the distance of Cambridge from the latitude is
earth's centre
The geographical
when the
earth's equatorial radius is taken as unity.
Log X = 99979599 Log
sin
$
<f>'
<j>'
98977972
9*8957571
Log
log cos
F = 00009247
<
9*7872534
9*7881781
Log Log r cos
r sin
Logrcos^'
97881781
tanf
Logrsinf
Log sin
^'
0*1075790
9'8957o71
98966801
$
<&'
52
52
D
12'
1'
52"
30"
22"
Logr
99990770
r
=
<j>'
<f>

11'
= 99788.
<J>',
r sin <'
but Log r could of course also have been found from r cos > r cos <', and we adhere to the rule of using the larger of
p. 7.
the two quantities, see
t E. J. Stone gives a table in Monthly Notices, R.A.S. vol. XLIII. p. 102 for aid in computing the reduction of the latitude and log r.
1516]
Ex.
1.
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
Using Clarke's elements for the figure of the earth, show that
tan
(f)'
47
= [99970352] tan $,
the figures enclosed in brackets representing a Logarithm, and show that as the geographical latitude of Greenwich is 51 28' 38" its geocentric latitude is
51
17' 11".
Ex.
2.
If
powers of
e
higher than the second are neglected, show that
Ex.
3.
Show
that the tables for
Log
X and Log Y so far as five places are
cos 20,
concerned
may be computed from
Log X= 999778  00074
log
F= 000074 00074 cos 20.
*16.
Radius of curvature along the meridian.
of the earth along a meridian at any point
is
The curvature
the curvature of the circle which osculates the ellipse at that point. If a cos 6, b sin 6 be the coordinates of a point on the ellipse
oPfa?
is
+ y /b =
2
2
1,
then the equation of the normal at that point
by cos 6
aocs'mQ
= (a
2
62 ) sin 6
cos# ............ (i),
and
for the latitude <, or
the angle which the normal makes with
the major axis
tan
(f>
= a tan 0/b.
the intersection of two consecutive
The centre
normals.
of curvature
is
Differentiating (i) with regard to B we see that the coordinates of the centre of curvature must satisfy the equation
ax cos 6
+ by sin 6 = (a  6
2
2
)
cos
20
............ (ii).
Solving for x and y from
(i)
and
(ii)
we have
2 3
for
the co
ordinates of the centre of curvature
x
and
= (a  b
2
2
)
cos 3 6/a,
y
= (b* a ) sin
find
0/b,
for the radius of
curvature
we then
p
=
2 2 (a sin 6
+b
2
cos2 6)*/ab,
or in terms of the latitude
</>,
p
=a
2
2 6 (b sin
2 2
tf>
+a
2
cos2 0)
~
*.
Hence we
see that
if s
be the distance between two points on
48
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
[CH.
Ill
the same meridian whose geographical latitudes expressed in and fa respectively, we have radians are
8
=
'
J
f
<t>
(h 2 sin 2 (6
<h 4<f>
a cos + n? r.os
2
zdfa
<K\*
It easily follows that if powers of the eccentricity above the second are neglected, we have, as an approximate value of the arc between the latitudes <f> and fa,
s
= (a^c)(fa(j)) f c sin (fa a
b.
<f>)
cos (fa
+
<f>),
where
c
=
The quantity
a
c
c/a
is
often called the ellipticity.
We
also obtain the
approximate expression
fc cos
2<
for the radius
of curvature of the meridian at the latitude 0,
is
and the approximate length of the quadrant of the meridian
TT
(a
f
6)/4.
Ex. 1. If the lengths of a degree of the meridian measured at latitudes 60 and 45 be Si and s 2 respectively, prove that the ellipticity of the earth 2/ s i)regarded as a spheroid of revolution is ^ (1 [Math. Trip. I. 1892.]
The radius of curvature of the meridian is Hence the length of 1 at lat.
at
lat.
(f)
is
akc
f c cos 20.
(a%c f c cos 20) 27T/360.
Hence
Ex.
2.
s 2 /i
= 1  3c/4a.
If the
powers of
e
up
for the radius of curvature p of the
to the fourth are to be retained, show that meridian at a point of geographical lati
tude
we have the
expression
s 40).
Ex.
3.
Adopting
Clarke's
constants
as the semiaxes of the earth
regarded as a spheroid of revolution, show that the number of metres in a quadrant of the meridian from the pole to the equator is 10000186.
(log
metre in
4.
feet =0'5 159889.)
In Clarke's Geodesy, p. 112, we read " It is customary in geodetical calculations to convert a distance measured along a meridian when that disEx.
tance does not exceed a degree or so into difference of latitude by dividing the length by the radius of curvature corresponding to the middle point or rather to the mean of the terminal latitudes."
1617]
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
49
Show that if + a and be the extreme latitudes the error of this 3 assumption will be about (a 6) sin a cos 20. For as shown above the arc s=(ac)a f c sin a cos 20, while the assumed arc is (ac)af cacos20. The difference is
f c cos 20 (a
as a
is
0a
sin a)
= jC sin 3 a cos 20
approximately
small.
The expression
for this difference in inches is
2 14000 sin 3 a cos 20,
which, Ex.
if
^ = 60 and a=l, would $ + 1'
be about half an inch.
until the
will
5.
latitude
Measuring along the meridian from the latitude is reached the number of feet to be traversed
6077  31 cos 20.
be
Ex. 6. If x be the radius of the parallel of latitude 0, and y be the height of the parallel above the equator, both expressed in miles, show that with Clarke's data x 39667 cos  3'4 cos 30,
= = 39464 sin y
p = 39566
 34 sin
30,
and that
if
p be the radius of curvature of the meridian at the latitude
 20'2
cos 20.
Ex.
7.
Show from
Clarke's data that at latitude
is
the length in feet
of a degree
on the meridian
expressed by
364609  1867 cos 20 + 4 cos 40,
where
is
the latitude of the middle of the
is
arc.
Show
also that the
length of a degree of longitude
365543 cos
0312 cos 30.
17.
The theory of map making.
the word
By
map
is
here meant a plane representation of
have first to consider the points or figures on a sphere. to each point on the sphere methods by which we are to assign
its
We
We must obtain either a corresponding point on the map. geometrical construction by which each point on the map is connected with the point on the sphere which it represents, or two formulae from which, when the spherical coordinates of a
point on the sphere are given, the rectangular coordinates of the corresponding point on the map are determined. Both of these methods are used. We shall commence with the latter.
Let /3, A, be respectively the latitude and longitude of a point on the sphere referred to a fundamental great circle. Let #, y be the coordinates of the corresponding point in a plane referred
B. A.
4
50
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
If
ft
[CH.
Ill
and X are given the problem requires that we must have some means of finding x and y. There is also the converse problem to be considered. If x and y These are given we must have some means of finding ft and X.
to a pair of rectangular axes.
considerations imply the existence of relations such as
# =/i (ft, ^)
where
5
y
=/
a (ft,
V)
is
f
and
f
2
are
known
functions.
This
perhaps the most
general conception of the art of map making. Considerable limitations must however be imposed on the forms
of the functions /j
for
and f2 when we bear in mind the practical which maps are constructed. For a useful map of, purposes let us say, Great Britain, the shapes of the counties on the map must be as far as possible the shapes of the same counties on the
also expect that the distances spherical surface of the earth. of the several towns as shown on the map shall be, at least approxi
We
earth's surface.
mately, proportional to the true distances measured in arc along the It is admitted that the conditions here indicated
can under no circumstances be exactly complied with. It is not possible that any plane map could be devised which should represent in their true proportions the distances between every pair of It is however possible in various ways to points on the sphere. a correspondence such that every spherical figure, of which arrange
small in comparison with the diameter of the sphere, shall be represented on the map by a figure essentially
each dimension
is
similar.
If a spherical triangle is to be represented in a map by a plane triangle, it is obvious that their corresponding angles cannot be
equal indeed as the sum of the three angles of a spherical triangle exceeds 180, its angles cannot be those of any plane triangle.
;
If
however the spherical triangle be small in comparison with the G 180) entire surface of the sphere, the spherical excess (A is small, and if it may be neglected we can then in various ways
+B+
obtain functions /i and
such that every small spherical triangle on the sphere shall be similar to the triangle which represents it in the plane.
f
z
A map
which possesses the property thus indicated
is
said to
be a conformal representation of the spherical surface. Let A', B', G' on the map be the representations of three points A, B, C on
1718]
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
51
If
the sphere and let us assume that these points are adjacent. the map is conformal, then
ASIA'S' = BC/B'C' = CA/C'A',
and, unless these relations are generally true for adjacent points A, B, C on the sphere, the map is not conformal.
*18.
Conditions that a
map
shall be conformal.
shall
The general conditions that a map
found.
be conformal are thus
Let A, B, coordinates of
C
be three adjacent points on the sphere, the
A
being
/3,
X,
of
B
being
ft
+ h, \ + k, and
of
C
@ + h', \ +
8,
1
k',
where
2
h, k, h', k'
are small quantities.
Then from
2
we have
=a
is
2
(A
+
2
yfc
cos 2 /3)
;
BC = a
2
2
((h
 hj + (k kj cos
)
;
where a
If
A,
B', C'
the radius of the sphere. be the correspondents of A, B,
C and
,
if
as,
y be
the coordinates of A', then
I
we have
dx
, //
for coordinates of
I
B'
dx ___
h
,
I
qj
dy ^
7 h
J
dy ^
f/
and
for
the coordinates of C'
If the triangles .45(7
factor not
and A'B'C' are similar and
h, k, h', k',
.ff
2
is
a
common
depending upon
das
,,
cos2
d/a
,
..(i).
oy
=#
These equations
if
2
a2
{(h
 hj + (k kj cos 2 0}
h',
will
be
satisfied for all values of h, k.
:
k'
the following equations are satisfied
das
'
das
d
aX
+ 9y
dy
'
_ ~
+
as ax
(ii),
....(iii).
42
52
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
[CH. Ill
These are the conditions with which x and y must comply when and X if the representation is to be expressed in terms of /3
conformal.
When
one conformal
map
has been drawn
it is
easy to obtain
various others as follows.
Let w denote the complex variable x + iy where i is as usual If we form any function of w, e.g. w2 or 1. a square root of sin w or log tan w, &c. or more generally f(w), we obtain another
complex variable which may be represented thus f(x + iy) = u + iv, and also f(x iy) = u iv.
Differentiating both these equations with regard to
/3
and X
f
/.//
(.
+ *)
.
x
.
+
.. +,_,

du
.dv
,.,,
.
.
/dx
^r~
T
\X
first
iy) '
~~ ^
.dy\_du "~ ~~ ;^T~ ^vT~
.dv
^ xr~
\d\
9V
I
d\
8\
Multiplying the
and
last
and adding the product of the second
and third, we have
ox
dx
dy
dy\
du
du
dv
dv
and as the lefthand side
is zero from (ii) because (x, y} is a conformal representation, so must also the righthand side be zero. Multiplying the second equation and the last
and from the
first
\
and the third
(x
f We
/./
/
(x
+ iy)f
// /
 iy}
\
/ fdx\*
\^gj
+
fdy\ \
i
=
/du\
2
\AJ
j
Ugj
+
/dv\*
\
j
thus see from
(iii)
that
Thus we prove the following important theorem.
1819]
If
sc,
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
y be any functions of
53
X which give a conformal /9, of the surface of a sphere on a plane, then the representation coordinates u, v defined by any equation of the form
f(x
will also
iy)
=u
iv
/3,
be in conformal correspondence with
X.
Ex.
for
x and y formulae of the type x = 7 cos X, y = 7 sin A, where U is a function of /3, show from the general conditions for conformal representation that
If a conformal representation of the points on a sphere is to
have
U= h tan
Substituting for
I
+
~
x and y we
see that
(ii)
is
identically satisfied
and
(iii)
becomes
*19.
The
scale in a conformal representation.
signification of
The geometrical
H
(
18) should be noted.
It
is
termed the scale of the projection under consideration, for it is is introduced plain from the first of the equations (i) in which that this is the factor to be applied to a small arc on the sphere to give the length of the corresponding arc on the projection.
H
we may (as the projection is To obtain the expression for conformal) compare any small arc on the sphere in the vicinity of We shall take as the simplest the point with its correspondent.
a small arc of length h between the points Then from (i) we obtain
fi,
H
X and
/3
+ A,
X.
/^\
2
/d?v\ 2
+*(!)**<*
whence we obtain the following theorem. If x, y be the plane rectangular coordinates of a point representing in any conformal map the point with coordinates /9, X on the
sphere of radius a, then the scale or factor to be applied to each short arc on the sphere to show the length of the corresponding short line in the projection is
54
20.
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
Mercator's projection.
[CH.
Ill
have now to consider that representation of the sphere " known as " Mercator's projection which is so useful in navigation.
We
The
essential features of this projection are That the abscissa of a point on the (1)
:
map
is
directly
proportional to the longitude of the corresponding point on the
sphere.
That the ordinate of a point on the map is a function of (2) the latitude (but not of the longitude) of the corresponding point on the sphere.
(3)
That the representation
is
conformal.
To express the first condition we make x = h'\. To express the second condition we make y =/(/3), and to comply with the third we have to determine the form of f so that the representation shall be conformal. The projection would not be conformal if we simply made y proportional to /3. The fundamental conditions (ii) and (iii) 18 must be satisfied.
We
have
dx
pWith these
and we have
_
'
fa_ A 0x"
(ii)
2
'
^y_ ff ( ^' dy _ ax~ 30'
(iii)
substitutions
vanishes identically and
becomes
A'
= co
to
If we desire that the positive direction of y shall correspond northwards on the sphere we take the upper sign and
= h' \og
the
e
tan
fir lr
+^ +
)
S\
constant.
The constant may be made equal
to zero, for then the ordinates on
map are zero for points on the equator. Thus we learn the fundamental theorem on which Mercator's projection depends, and
is
which
then a
thus enunciated.
If X, /3
be the longitude and latitude of a point on the sphere, map constructed with rectangular coordinates
x
will
= h'\ y = h' log
e
tan
[
\ 4?
j
+
be conformal with the sphere.
20]
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
is
55
here expressed in radians and the logarithm employed Napierian it is convenient to transform the equations so that X shall be expressed as usual in degrees of longitude, and that the
is
As X
logarithms shall be changed to common logarithms with the help With these changes of the modulus 0'4343.
*
=
2rrh'
360
X
'
y
h'
=
h'
04343
lo
^ ta
that 360A
Introducing instead of we have
a
new constant h such
=
2TrA'
............ (i),
where X
Ex.
1.
is
in degrees
and ordinary logarithms are employed.
/
Show
that the scale in the Mercator projection
x =h'\
is
y = h!
ff\
log e tan
(
+
expressed by
h'
sec
/3/a.
Ex. 2. If in a Mercator chart of the Atlantic ocean the parallel for north latitude 70 is 185 mm. from the eq viator, what must be the distance of the
parallel of
20, and the length of 50 on the equator
185 = 1 32A Iog 10 tan
?
We have
whence h
is
^ + 35 V
is
found to be 1*86 and the equation for the chart
which when
= 20 /3 As #=r86X we
3.
gives
# = 38 mm.
1 '86x50
i 2/' (/3\
for the
+
have
= 93 mm.
answer to the second
part.
Ex.
What
difference
would be produced
in a Mercator chart
if
instead
of taking
we had taken
Ex.
4.
y
h' log
tan
(7

H
H
/3
If s be a small terrestrial
arc at latitude
and
if
s'
be
its
Mercator projection, show that */*' is the ratio of the length of the terrestrial circle of latitude through /3 to the length of the equator on the projection.
Ex.
5.
In the Mercator projection show that the length of the nautical
mile
(!'
in latitude) varies as the secant of the latitude.
Ex. 6. In the practical use of Mercator's charts in coasting navigation the mariner, desiring to find by how many nautical miles (i.e. minutes of arc) two points A and B are separated, places the points of his dividers on
56
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
[CH. Ill
the two points corresponding to A and B on the chart and then by applying the dividers to the graduation for latitude on the margin of that same chart Give the justifiat about the latitude of A and B ascertains what he desires.
cation for this procedure. The chart being conformal and representing but a small part of the sphere may be used as if every distance on the chart including the scale of latitudes
were strictly proportional to the corresponding distances on the sphere. But the minutes of latitude on charts representing various parts of the earth will
generally differ in length even
though those charts are all part of the same Mercator projection. Hence the mariner should take his distance scale from the chart he is considering and from about the same latitude as the points
whose distance he
Ex.
7.
is
measuring.
Show
that on a Mercator
map
the length of a degree of latitude
about Cambridge (Lat. 52 longitude on the equator.
12' 52") is
2 '06 times the length of a degree of
From the formulae (i) we see that if h be one degree of longitude on the equator the distance between the parallels of latitude ft and /32 on the Mercator map is
132A
(log,,
tan(^
+
f ) loglo tan (j f))
4ft.
.
Substituting for ft the value 52 42 '52" and for pression becomes 2'06A.
51 42' 52" the ex
Ex.
8.
Prove that the equation of the trace on a Mercator's chart of a
\ + c = k(ea v_
]
great circle will always be of the form

(x
where 2na
Ex.
9.
is the length on the map of the equatorial circumference, and are constants defining the great circle.
c,
k
If
/3
is
small enough for tan 5
/3
to be neglected,
is ft
show that the
from the equator on Mercator's chart, and on a chart obtained by projecting from the centre of the earth on the enveloping cylinder touching the earth along the equator is
difference of the distances of a place,
3  tan ^/3
whose latitude
x the earth's diameter.
The
where
projection on the cylinder of a point on the surface of the sphere gives
x = 2rraA/360,
/3
y = a tan ft
arid
X are the latitude and longitude of the point and a the radius of
the sphere. For the Mercator projection
37
= 27raA/360,
y =a
log tan (45
+ i/3).
is
The
difference of the distances
from the equator in the two cases
= a (2 tan
/3
+ 2 tan 3
......
2 tan

tan 3
...... )
2021]
*21. If
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
57
The loxodrome.
earth to be a sphere, then the course taken
we assume the
by a ship which steers constantly on the same course, i.e. always making the same angle with the meridian, is called the loxodrome or sometimes a Rhumbline.
If X be the longitude and /3 the latitude and if Q be the angle which the curve cuts the successive meridians, then the differential equation of the loxodrome is tan 9 = cos /3 d\jdf3, whence at
(by integration)
X=
If
tan 6 loge tan
fir
\TP
T+
/3\
H2t
1
)
+ const.
Mercator projection,
we
substitute this value of
as
X
in the
= h'\,
y
= h' loge tan
(^
+^
,
J
we have x = y tan
of a loxodrome
is
+ const.,
showing that the Mercator projection
a straight line cutting the projections of the meridians at the same angle as that at which the loxodrome is
inclined to the meridians on the sphere. The property just mentioned is of the utmost importance in
navigation, for when the mariner joins two points on the Mercator chart by a straight line, the constant angle at which this line cuts
the projected meridians indicates the course that
is
to
be steered
from one place to the other.
Ex. 1. If r be the radius of a sphere, if 6 be the constant angle at which the meridians intersect a loxodrome, if + z be the axis from the centre to the north pole, and if the axes +x, +y be the radii to the points on the equator
of longitudes
and 90
respectively, then the equations of the loxodrome are
Ex. 2. If r be the radius of a sphere, if 6 be the constant angle at which the meridians intersect a loxodrome, and if s be the length of the arc of the loxodrome whose terminal points are in latitudes /3 t /3 2 then
, >
j'Oi
/3 2
)=*cos0.
be regarded as a spheroid produced by the rotation of about its minor axis, show that the equation connecting X the longitude and /3 the latitude of a point on the loxodrome intersecting meridians at the constant angle 6 is
Ex.
3.
If the earth
an
ellipse of small eccentricity e
= tan0(log
tan
(
^ + ^J
e2
sin/3j
+ const.
58
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
[CH.
Ill
If p be the radius of curvature of the point in the ellipse, and p intercept on the normal between the curve and the minor axis,
the
The
differential equation of the
rfX
loxodrome
e2
is
d$
Ex.
4.
j
p tan 6 =fr p cos ft
= tan Q
cos
tan 6 cos ft very nearly.
Show
1'
that on a Mercator chart on which the unit of length
is
taken to be
ft
of equatorial longitude the ordinate to the parallel of latitude
will
be 7916 loglo tan
(j
+ f)  34386* s n
i
ft,
where
earth.
e is
the eccentricity of the ellipse given by a meridional section of the
From
X,
ft is
Ex. 3
we
see that the point x,
y
in the projection corresponding to
given by the equations
y=A
As X
is
tan
(log.
is
+
sin0
in circular
measure x
given in minutes by making A = 3438 and
3438/04343 = 7916.
*22.
Stereographic Projection.
One of the most important methods of representing the points on a sphere by a conform al projection is that known as the stereographic, which is thus described.
on the sphere having been chosen as the origin of point the plane of projection is the plane of the great circle projection, If of which is the be any other pole, or any parallel plane.
A
P
point on the sphere and OP cuts the plane of projection in P', then P' is said to be the Stereographic projection of P.
Draw the plane OP' PC where C is the centre of the sphere. The tangent plane at P will cut the plane of projection in a line through .Af perpendicular to the plane of the paper. Let M^ be any point on that line. To show that the projection gives a conformal representation we shall consider the inclination of any arc through
P
to
the meridian
FPO
and the corresponding angle
in
the
projection.
From
1
M P = M P'.
the properties of the circle Hence the triangles 1
MP = MP'
and therefore
M^M and M^P'M are equal
2122]
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
59
of
and thus Z
M^PM = Z M^P'M.
two
circles
But /.M^PM
is
intersection of
on the sphere and
^M P'M
1
the angle
is
the
angle of intersection of their projections. Perhaps the simplest proof that stereographic projection is conformal is this. The ratio of a lineelement at P' to the corre
sponding lineelement at
:
P
is
OP'/ OP, as
is
at once seen
by
similar triangles and the fact that this ratio does not depend on the direction of the lineelement shows that the representation also see that the scale is OP' /OP. is conformal.
We
It
is
instructive to
show how the stereographic projection can
be deduced from Mercator's projection by the principle of 18, that if u + iv=f(x + iy) then the coordinates u, v give a representation conformal to that given In Mercator's projection
by
x, y.
x = h\,
therefore
= h log tan
4
+
=
i(x + iy)_
and hence
ae
= a tan
f
=
j
cos
\
I
ia tan
(
T~
sm ^9" )
60
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
The
lefthand
[CH.
Ill
member
ITT
is
a function of x
+ iy
fir
r
and consequently
/3\
TT
.
.
by
18
u = a tan
/3\
= cos
2J
A
and v
= a tan
sin
X
\4
\4
2/
are also the coordinates of a conformal representation, and it is easy to show that they correspond to a stereographic projection.
For
if
the plane of the equator be taken as the plane of projection,
then the angle
FOP in
Fig. 19
is
(
\4
J
2t
j
)
,
and
If
of,
X
is
the longitude of
P
the projections of CP' in the direction
and at right angles
to,
the zero of longitude are
GO tan
From
the point
r
(
\Qi
(j
cos
a /)
X and GO tan ( j \4<
^)
2i
)
sin
X
respectively.
the formulae of
/3,
19 we can determine the scale at
the sphere in the stereographic projection when, the apex being at the antinole of the fundamental circle, the projection is defined by the equations
X on
x
in
a cos X tan
is
fir
I
&\
& /j
>
\4
7
y
=
.
.
sin
X tan
fir
I
\4
which a
the radius of the sphere.
"dx
We
have
=
acosX
lsin/8*
dy
d/3
=
asinX
8/3
IsmjS'
and hence
Ex.
1.
Determine the value of the scale at the point
/3,
X on the sphere
in the stereographic projection, when, the apex being at the point A 180, = on the fundamental circle, the projection is defined by the equations
=
M __. a cos 8 sin X
'
n
a sin 8
l+cos3cosA'
and
Show that in the stereographic projection of the earth any point antipodes will have as their correspondents two points collinear with the centre of the map and such that their distances from the map's centre
Ex.
2.
its
have a constant product.
Ex.
3.
Let
x,
y be the point
/3
in the stereographic projection corresponding
to the point of latitude
and longitude X on the sphere.
Let
2223]
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
/3
61
be the point corresponding to
+ A/3,
X + AX.
Show
that
when
Ax, Ay, A#,
AX
are small,
# sec /3 A/3,
y sec /3 A/3.
of the world is to be constructed in three parts, two on the stereographic projection, and one equatorial, on Mercator's circumpolar, The circumpolar maps are to be such that the scale in latitude a projection. is the same as that of the other map at the equator, and the scale at the bounding latitude (f> is to be the same for all the maps. Prove that
Ex.
4.
A map
2 tan
$ (1 + sin a) = sin a (2 + sin a),
tj>
and that the
scale in latitude
is
that at the equator multiplied by
Sin2fl
1+
2(l+sina)'
From the scales already shown in 20, Ex. and stereograpbic projections respectively
h/( 1
1
and
22, for the
Mercator
+ sin a) = h'/a,
tan
hj( 1
+ sin (j))=k' sec </,
<
whence eliminating
h'/ah,
$ + Vl +tan
2
= 1 + sin a.
and solving
Solving for tan $ the result given is obtained. The ratio of the scale in lat. < to that at the equator is sec $,
sec
v sec 2 $ <f> +
1
= 1 + sin a,
we obtain
sec
$
as required.
*23.
The stereographic projection of any
is also
circle
on the
sphere
Let
C.
a
circle.
circle on the sphere and draw the the origin of projection, the centre of the sphere plane through
C
be the centre of the
and
Let
circle.
PQ
be the intersection of this plane with the plane of the
The cone whose apex
points on the circumference of the
for since for
OP
is
equal to
and which passes through all must have OC as its axis, Z COP = ^GOQ. This must be true CQ,
is
circle
OC
every plane through OC, but this could only be the case were the axis of the cone.
if
Every cone has two planes of circular section which make equal angles with the axis and whose intersection is perpendicular to the axis. The tangent planes to the sphere at C and make
equal angles with CO and their intersection is perpendicular to CO. But the tangent plane at C is parallel to one circular section
62
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
[CH. Ill
PQ
other.
and therefore the tangent plane at must be parallel to the Thus the fundamental property of stereographic prois
jection
proved.
P
o
FIG. 20.
As a cone has only two systems
of circular sections there
can be no other planes except those parallel to the tangent at which give the characteristic feature of stereographic projection. The same theorem may also be proved as follows.
of a cone touching the sphere in the given each perpendicular to the tangents to the circle drawn Small portions of the generators at the at the point of contact.
circle are
The generators
In point of contact may be considered as lying on the sphere. the projection this cone becomes a pencil of straight lines passing through a point, and as angles are preserved, the projection of the circle must be a curve cutting all these lines at right angles,
i.e.
another
Ex.
1.
circle.
Show
is
on the sphere
lines.
that in the stereographic projection the centre of a circle projected into the centre of its corresponding circle if the
diameters of the original circle are small enough to be considered as right
original circle
For by the preservation of angles a rightangled triangle inscribed in the becomes a rightangled triangle in the projection, and therefore
is
every diameter of the original circle
projected into a diameter of the corre
sponding
circle.
Ex. 2. Show that in the stereographic projection of the sphere from any point on the surface a system of meridians projects into a system of coaxial
circles.
2324]
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
63
Ex. 3. Show that by the stereographic projection a system of concentric small circles on the sphere project into a system of circles whose centres are collinear and each of which cuts orthogonally the same system of coaxial
circles.
For all the great circles through the centre C of the concentric circles invert into a set of coaxial circles, and as angles are preserved in inversion,
the inverses of the concentric circles
orthogonally, and their centres
must
intersect these coaxial circles
line
must
lie
on the
which
is
the inverse of
the great circle
OG where
is
the centre of projection.
*24.
General formulae for stereographic projection.
/3
of the stereobe the coordinates of the origin and let X, ft be the coordinates of any other graphic projection point P, both referred to the same graduated great circle 8. is the Let S' be the graduated great circle of which ijiole.
Let 270,
Let the straight line OP intersect the plane of 8' in P'. Thus is P' and we assume the cothe stereographic projection of The axis is from ordinates of P' in the plane S' to be X, Y.
P
+X
the centre of the sphere to the ascending node of S' on 8. The axis + passes through 90 on S', it being assumed that this
Y
node
is
We We
the origin of graduation on S' as well as S. and in terms of have to find expressions for
X
Y
ft,
X.
assume three rectangular axes from the centre of the
sphere as follows:
axis
+x +y
+z
to the point /3
= 0, X = 0, = ^ = 90, = 90, X is indeterminate. ft
>
With
follows
:
reference to these axes the coordinates of 0, P',
x
y
z
P are
as
acos/3
asin/5
P'
X
a cos ft cos X
P
We
a cos
ft
Fsin/3 a cos ft sin X
Fcos/3 a sin ft.
express that 0,
cos
ft
P' and
P
ft
are collinear and obtain
sin
\X_a cos
X
and
cos
cos
X Fsin /3 _ a sin ft sin ft cos ft sin X + cos ftQ
have
cos
ft
Fcos ft
sin
/3
Solving
for
X
F we
1
V
cos
X
I
..._.._.
1
I
sin ft sin ft
+
cos
ft
cos
/3
sin
X
,.
.
sin 1
ft
cos ft
sin ft sin /3
+ cos ft sin ft sin X + cos ft cos /3 sin X
"
64
If
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
be the nole of S, then
J\.
[CH.
Ill
8 = 90, and we have
JL
=
cos
ft
/3
cos
;
z
1
sin
X ~pr 8
.
_ cos /3 sin X ~ 1 sin $
==
ft
.
r
,
If
be the antinole of S,/3
=  90 and
.r=
Tr
X=ft^ + sm 8 TT, 1
! :
cos
8 cos X
a^ + sin 8 1
cos
8 sin X
.
IfO lieonS,
/3
= 0and
cos
ft
8 cos X
'
1
+ cos 8 sin X
sin
8
'
F=.ft
1
+ cos 8 sin X
in these formulae that the zero of graduation with the ascending node of S' on S. If the zero of on S coincides graduation had been elsewhere let us suppose that the longitude
We have
assumed
of the ascending node is 1. instead of we must put X
H
1
Then in the formulae X and thus obtain
(i)
and
(ii)
y_
_
1
cos 8 cos (X ft) 8 sin 8 + cos 8 cos 8 sin (X ft) sin 8 cos y8 + cos 8 sin /3 sin (X ft) sin 8 sin 8 + cos /3 cos 8 sin (X H)
sin
(i)
'***
.
.
By
and
the formulae
for
and
(ii)
or
(iii)
and
8,
(iv)
we can compute X
Y
any given values of X and
and thus construct by
rectangular coordinates the stereographic chart of any figure on the sphere.
Ex.
1.
Show
the fundamental
X=0,
/3
= 0,
when the stereographic projection is from the nole of and when the axis + X is from the centre to the point and the axis + Fis from the centre to the point X = 90, ^3=0,
that
circle,
then the relations between X,
Y and +?
1 .
X, ft
are
7
X=a cos X'tan
Ex.
2.
f 7
Y=a sin X tan
\4
the fundamental
(
2/'
\4
+?
1
.
2J
Show that when the stereographic projection is from the antinole of circle, and when the axis + X is from the centre to the point
axis
X=0, /3=0, and
+Fis
tan
from the centre to the point X = 90, /3=0, then
X,
/3
the relations between X,
Y and
[
are
X=a cos X
Ex.
3.
\4
assumed
to
7
s
 ,
Y=
a
sin X tan
f
2/'
V4
7
~s
2/
1
Greenwich and the earth be be spherical, show how the formulae (iii) and (iv) will enable a stereographic map of Australia to be drawn.
If the origin of projection be at
2425]
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
/3
65
the latitude of Greenwich and assuming that the longimake G = 90. Then if X, ft be the longitude and latitude of any point on the coast of Australia, the correspondand Y will be determined from (iii) and ing plane rectangular coordinates (iv), when a convenient value for the desired size of the map has been assigned to the constant a.
tudes X are measured from Greenwich
Substitute for
X
Ex.
relation
4.
If X,
ft
be regarded as variable coordinates but subject to the
A cosX cos ft + B sin X cos /3 + C sin /3=0,
where A,
,
indicated by
are constants, show from (iii) and (iv) that all the points will lie on the circumference of the same circle. X,
C
Y
25.
On
y
;
the construction of a
the sphere
If x,
is
map in which each area on represented by an equal area on the map.
y
;
x',
as",
y" be three points on the chart, then the
area they contain
is
%{x(y"y') + x'(yy"}
+ v"(y'y)} ............ (i).
ft,
We take
ft
+ k,
\
as the three corresponding points on the sphere and /3, X + h, where X and h are small quantities.
is
\ The
;
area formed by these points on the sphere then have for the coordinates x', y'
^a?hkcos/3.
We
X
and
for x",
+
dx
d]3
k
7
'
*+
dy
*
,
y"
Thus by substitution
in (i)
we have
7
for the area in the
(
pkne
dx ,\
dy
dx

'8/3
d/3'
Equating these two expressions for the area and noting that all surfaces can be built from such elementary areas, we have the
following theorem. If a plane projection of a sphere be such that x and y the coordinates corresponding to the point X, /3 on the sphere fulfil the condition
dx
dy
 dx
dy
,...
then any area on the sphere projects into an equal area.
B. A.
66
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
[CH. Ill
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES ON CHAP.
III.
Ex. 1. If the points on a sphere be projected from the centre of the 18 sphere on a plane (Gnomonic Projection), examine by the principles of whether this projection is conformal.
Ex.
2.
If
(<f),
I)
be the latitude and longitude of any point lying on a
tan
great circle of a sphere, then
<f)
= A cos I + B sin
we put
cos
sec
I,
I,
where
A
and
B are constants.
(1)
If then
<f)
x
cot
y = cot$sin,
or (2)
JT=tan $
I,
F=tan
I,
we
and Y). Plotting x and y get a linear relation between x and y (or and Y) as Cartesian coordinates, all great circles would be therefore (or
X
X
straight lines.
Show how both
of these charts
may
be obtained by a perspective projec
tion of the sphere on a plane.
Ex.
centre
3.
A
is
circle
on the earth's surface has an angular radius
/3
;
p,
and
its
in a stereographic projection from the north pole on the plane of the equator this circle is represented by a circle in latitude
A
show that
(radius
p'),
the distance of
its
centre from the point which represents
A
being
Ex. 4. In Gauss' projection of the sphere the meridians are represented as straight lines passing through a point 0, and the angle between any two such lines is AX, where X is the difference of longitude between the two cor
responding meridians. The parallels of latitude are circular arcs with their If the projection is to be conformal, show that the radius of centres at 0. the arc corresponding to colatitude u must be Jc (tan ^u} h where k is a
constant.
We must have x= Ucos (AX), y
latitude.
7 sin (AX)
(iii),
By
substitution in equation
18
where U is a function of the we have
Ex.
5.
If
prove that
tan
where
w=cos/3cosX/(l+cossinX), v = sm/3/(l +cos/3sinX), and hence show that u, v are coordinates giving a conformal representation.
25]
Ex.
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
67
If the point 8, X on the sphere be represented on a plane 6. by the whose coordinates are point cos 8 cos \ sin '8 _
/>
1+cos/asinX'
__
!
/\i
*
__
[
l+cos/3sinX'
,
show that a
circle on the sphere with radius p and centre /3 X will be represented by a circle on the plane having for radius sinp/(cosp+cos)3 sinX ), and for the coordinates of its centre cos /3 cos X /(cospf cos/3 sinX ) and
sin
/(cos p + cos /3 sin X ). Eliminate B and X with help of the equation
8
cos p = sin
8 sin 8
+ cos 8 cos 8
cos (X  XQ).
Ex.
7.
A map
of the northern hemisphere is constructed in such a
way
that parallels of latitude become concentric circles and meridians radii of these circles, and that equal areas on the earth become equal areas on the map. Find the equation of the curve which a loxodrome becomes on the map,
and trace
it.
From
where p
the conditions of the problem
we have
is
a function of 8.
As
areas are to be preserved
we
substitute these values in the condition
given in
25 and find
where h is some constant connected with the ratio of the areas on the sphere and in the projection. Integrating and determining the arbitrary constant by the condition that = if 8 = 90
and
p
= 2\'Asin(e
(
is
The projection of the loxodrome cutting the meridians at angle the result of eliminating 8 and X between (7T
21)
8
tan \ylx.
and the
result in polar coordinates is
r2 (l
+ e2flcote = 4A 2
)
.
Ex.
8.
Show
voyage by sailing along a great
i
that the greatest distance that could be saved in a single circle instead of a parallel of latitude is
a
2 sin" 1
2
2 h vir
4
~ TT
,
L
where a
is
J
the earth's radius.
52
68
THE FIGURE OF THE EARTH AND MAP MAKING
[CH. Ill
It is obvious that in the case supposed the ports of arrival and departure should have a difference of longitude of 180 so that the great circle joining them should pass through the pole. If <f) be the latitude the difference of the
two voyages
Ex.
9.
is
a
(TT
cos
<p
IT
+ 2$)
and
for this to
be a
maximum
sin
$ = 2/Tr.
latitude
circle
Show that in sailing from one meridian to a place in the same on another meridian, the distance saved by sailing along a great instead of sailing due E. and W. is a maximum for latitude
cos
~1
(
\/X
2
sin 2 X/X sin X),
where X
is
the difference of longitude of the two meridians.
Ex. 10. Describe the shortest course of a steamer which is to go from one point to another without going beyond a certain latitude, supposing the
great circle course to cross that latitude.
Ex. 11. Cape Clear is in latitude 51 26' N., long. 9 29' W., and Cape Race in lat. 46 40' N., long. 53 8' W. verify that the great circle course between them would require a vessel to sail in a course from Cape Clear about 17J
is
;
further north than the straight course on a Mercator's chart, and that the former course is the shorter by about 28 miles. [Math. Trip. I, 1887.]
Ex. 12. If a be the radius of the sphere, the distance of the plane of the stereographic projection from the origin, and P' a pair of corresponding points, r the distance of P' from the diameter through the origin, show that a small arc p on the sphere near will project into a small arc near P' and
m P
P
of length p (m?
+ rz )/2ma.
CHAPTER
The celestial sphere The celestial horizon The diurnal motion The meridian and the prime
.
IV.
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE.
PAGE
26.
27.
69
72 72
vertical
28.
29. 30.
75
78
Altitude and azimuth
26.
The
celestial sphere.
Let A, B,
the observer.
C
(Fig. 21) be three stars
and
the position of
FIG. 21.
With
cutting
centre
and radius any length OA' a sphere
is
described
OA, OB, OC
in A', B', G' respectively, thus giving the
spherical triangle A'B'C'.
The angle
AOB
is
the angle which the stars
is
at the observer.
This
and B subtend conveniently measured by A'B' the side
A
70
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE
In
like
[CH. IV
of the spherical triangle.
manner, B'C' and C'A' measure
the angles
they
respectively. The apparent distance of two stars is measured by the angle subtend at the eye. For example, the apparent distance of
BOG
and
CO A
A
and
C
is
measured by Z AOC,
i.e.
by A'G'.
The apparent
distance of two stars from each other, which is of course only an angle, affords no clue to the real distance between them which is,
To determine the real distance of course, a linear magnitude. know the linear distance of each of the stars from we should also
appear to be much closer together than the stars in Ursa Major, but it does not necessarily follow that the Pleiades is the lesser group of the two. Astronomical measurements of the relative positions of celestial
the observer.
The
stars in the Pleiades
bodies generally determine only apparent distances, and these, as we have seen, may be taken as arcs on the sphere described
round 0.
position
is
Thus the geometry
of astronomical
measurements of
the geometry of the sphere.
The sphere we have been considering shows the apparent
heavens.
distances of the celestial bodies just as they are seen on the This sphere is termed the celestial sphere. The length of its radius is immaterial, and in comparing different celestial
spheres
we
shall
assume
all
the radii to be equal.
centre of a celestial sphere is the station of the observer, and for each station there will be of course a different celestial
The
have to consider to what extent the celestial spheres sphere. at different stations differ from one another.
Suppose, for instance, an observer was situated at the star Arcturus, the celestial sphere that he would construct would not
We
be the same as the
observer.
celestial sphere constructed for
a terrestrial
would be generally quite different in the two cases. The nearer the two stations the more closely do the two celestial spheres resemble each other which have those stations
distances of the
pairs of stars
as their centres.
The apparent
same
concerned
So far as the faced stars, usually so called, are correct to say that the celestial spheres constructed for all points on the earth's surface are practically identical. This is because the distances of the fixed stars from the earth
it is
are so great that the diameter of the earth is quite inappreciable by comparison. As an illustration we may state that the
26]
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE
71
alteration in the apparent distance of two stars, by a shift of the observer's place from any station on the earth to its antipodes, could in no case exceed the 16,000th part of a second of arc so far
we at present know Stellar distances. An angle would have to be about a thousand times larger than this before it could be
as
appreciable by our measuring instruments. By the annual motion of the earth round the sun the station
of
is carried round a nearly circular path radius 92,900,000 miles. terrestrial observer is therefore shifted in the space of six months through a distance about
of a terrestrial observer
mean
A
double this amount.
But even under these circumstances the
great majority of apparent star places are without appreciable alteration and in no case, so far as we know, does the greatest
alteration from this cause exceed 1"'5.
(See Chap. XV.) has been said so far relates only to the fixed stars. We shall see in Chap. xn. that the apparent places on the celestial
What
sphere of the sun and the planets, to some extent, and that of the moon to a large extent, are affected by the position on the earth's surface occupied by the observer.
We are not now considering the individual motions certain of the heavenly bodies possess these of course affect their positions on the celestial sphere of every observatory. If we have marked on the celestial spheres only those celestial
;
bodies, such as
most of the
fixed stars,
which are so
far off that
the apparent distances by which they are separated from each other are sensibly the same from all parts of the solar system, we may make the following statements with regard to the celestial
spheres,
equal.
it
being supposed that the radii of
all
the spheres are
For every station in the solar system there will be a celestial sphere of which that station is the centre. Every celestial sphere is the same as every other celestial
sphere not only as to radius but also as to the stars marked
on
it.
celestial spheres are all similarly radius of one sphere to a particular star is parallel any placed, It is often to the corresponding radius of any other sphere. convenient to treat of the celestial sphere as if its centre were
i.e.
At any given moment the
coincident with the centre of the earth.
72
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE
[CH. IV
Ex. 1. Show that any point at a finite distance may be regarded as the centre of the celestial sphere of which the radius is indefinitely great. be any point at be the centre of the celestial sphere and let Let
X
a
finite distance
from
and
S be a point on the celestial sphere, = OS2 20S OX cos XOS+ OX*
.
As
zero,
OX is
finite,
we
see that as
OS
whence
in the limit
XS/OS=l.
approaches infinity OX/OS approaches But as OS is constant for all points S
on the sphere so must XS be constant, whence centre without appreciable error.
Ex.
2.
X may be
regarded as the
Show
that the directions of
XS
and OS tend
in the limit to
become
27.
identical.
The
celestial horizon.
Let P be the station of an observer on the earth's surface and let us suppose his celestial sphere to be drawn, the radius of which is incomparably greater than the radius of the earth. A tangent plane drawn to the earth at P will cut this celestial sphere in a great circle, which is known as the celestial horizon
of P.
The plane of the horizon at any place is also the plane of the This surface of a liquid at rest in an open vessel at that place. and conis normal to the direction of terrestrial plane gravitation,
on the sequently the direction of a plumbline at any place earth's surface is perpendicular to the plane of the horizon at P.
P
The points on the celestial sphere to which the plumbline points, when continued in both directions, are of the utmost importance in The point Z thus indicated overhead is spherical astronomy. called the zenith of P. The other point in which the direction
N
of the plumbline supposed continued beneath our feet cuts the celestial sphere is called the nadir.
28.
The diurnal motion.
daily rotation of the earth on its axis in the approximate period of 23 hrs. 56 m. 4 sees., which is usually called the sidereal day (see 33), causes the celestial sphere to have an apparent
rotation in the opposite direction, known as the diurnal motion.
i.e.
The
from east to west, which
is
The most
direct
method of demonstrating that the earth
2628]
rotates
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE
its
73
beautiful
upon
axis
experiment. perfect sphere with the principles of Foucault's pendulum are as follows. centre Let </> be the north latitude of the observer at and &> the
If
is afforded by Foucault's we assume the earth to be a
pendulum
angular velocity of the earth round its axis. to be resolved into components co sin </> round
P We may suppose (a OP and to cog
<
round OQ, where Q is the point with south latitude 90 and on <f> the meridian of P. So far as P and places in its neighbourhood are
concerned this latter rotation has only the effect of a translation, so that for our present purpose this component may be neglected. The
other component produces a rotation of the plane of the horizon at with an angular velocity o> sin <. If therefore a round
P
OP
vertical plane at
P
angle made with
Foucault's
it
did not partake in the rotation about OP, the by any vertical plane which did partake of
the rotation about
OP
would increase with the velocity
co
sin
<f>.
mentally. feature of the experiment
pendulum provides the means of verifying this experiWithout entering into practical details the essential
is
as follows.
suspended by a long wire from a fixed point. The weight being drawn aside is carefully released and oscillates The plane in which the pendulum oscillates slowly to and fro.
does not partake in the rotation about OP. As however the observer is unconscious of the terrestrial rotation about OP, the
plane of oscillation appears to revolve with reference to the The direction of this motion and terrestrial objects around.
A heavy weight is
measurements of
of the earth.
its
magnitude demonstrate the diurnal rotation
performed at
The experiment would be best seen if it could be one of the poles. At a station on the equator the
plane of oscillation would have no apparent motion. All points on the celestial sphere, except two, participate in these are of course the North and South the diurnal motion
;
The line joining these points sphere. the centre of the earth and is the axis about passes through which the earth rotates. It is always to be remembered that the dimensions of the earth are inappreciable in comparison with
Poles of the
celestial
the celestial sphere, so that for present purposes we regard the earth as no more than a point at the centre of the celestial
sphere.
The
special convenience of this stipulation
is
that
we may
not only consider the axis of the celestial sphere as passing through
74
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE
[CH. IV
the centre of the earth, but we may always consider also that it passes through the station of any observer wherever he may be
The pole which lies in that part of the celestial sphere within view of the dwellers in northern latitudes, is known as the North Pole. Fortunately for northern
situated on the earth's surface.
astronomers, the locality of the North Pole is conveniently indicated by the contiguous bright Pole star. The similar point in the southern skies and known as the South Pole is not so
conveniently indicated, as there is no bright star in its vicinity. The plane of the earth's equator will, of course, be unaffected the diurnal rotation. Its intersection with the celestial sphere by
forms the great circle
known
as the celestial equator,
and the
and south poles of the heavens. to the equator and at a finite Any plane parallel distance cuts the celestial sphere in the celestial equator which
poles of this great circle are the north
is
the vanishing line of all such planes. Any diameter of the earth (or indeed any straight line rigidly connected with the earth and
prolonged indefinitely both ways) will intersect the celestial sphere in two points which as the earth rotates will describe what are
called parallelcircles.
celestial
They are when the sphere which,
in general small circles of the
line
producing them
is
parallel
to the earth's axis,
spectively; and axis coalesce to form the equator. The celestial horizon divides the
visible
merge into the north and south poles rewhen the line is perpendicular to the earth's
celestial
sphere into the
hemisphere and the invisible hemisphere. In the act of passing from below the hprizon to above, the star is said to be
rising when passing from above to below it is said to be setting. If the observer were at the north pole of the earth the celestial north
;
pole would then be in his zenith and his horizon would be the celestial equator. In this case the diurnal motion would make the
stars
rising
appear to move parallel to the horizon and the phenomena of and setting would be unknown of one half of the celestial
;
sphere no part would ever come above the observer's horizon and no part of the other half would ever set. If the observer were on
the terrestrial equator the north and south poles would be on his horizon and the hemispheres into which the horizon divides the
The stars rise sphere would be continually changing. to the horizon and each star in the heavens will perpendicularly
celestial
2829]
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE
for
75
be above the observer's horizon below
it
one half the sidereal day and
the other halff. Thus a contrast between the circumstances of an observer at the pole and an observer at the equator would be that, from the former station, no part of the
for
any moment can ever become an observer at the equator every portion of the celestial sphere becomes at times invisible. At a terrestrial station which is neither one of the poles nor on the equator part of the celestial sphere is always above the horizon, part of it is always below the horizon, and the remainder is sometimes above and sometimes below the horizon. Each star in consequence of the diurnal motion revolves in a small circle of the celestial sphere of which one of the celestial poles is the centre. If this circle should lie entirely above the horizon, then the star never sets and is therefore always visible (apart from such interferences as clouds or daylight, which are not at present considered). If the circle should lie entirely below the
celestial sphere visible to
him
at
invisible
by diurnal
rotation, while to
must be permanently infrom the station in question. If however the circle cuts the horizon, then the star will sometimes be above the horizon
horizon, then the star never rises and
visible
and sometimes below.
29.
The meridian and the prime
vertical.
The great circle which passes through the two celestial poles and the zenith and the nadir of the observer is called the meridian of the place where the observer is stationed. The
celestial
meridian
is
also the intersection of the plane of the
celestial
terrestrial
meridian of the observer with the
celestial
sphere.
the great circle which, starting at to the horizon from the north point .AT (Fig. 22), meets right angles the horizon again perpendicularly at the south point 8 and then
Thus the
meridian
is
continues
its
course below the horizon back to N.
must pass twice across the meridian in the diurnal revolution of the celestial sphere, and on each occasion the
star
star is said to transit. The meridian is divided by the north and south poles into two semicircles of which one contains the zenith and the other the nadir. A star in the transit across
Each
the
first
semicircle
is
said to be at its upper culmination, while
is
t Eefraction
not here taken into account.
76
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE
[CH. IV
is
in transit across the other half of the meridian the star
said
to be at its lower culmination,
Among the great circles of the celestial sphere the meridian the most important because it passes through the two most and the remarkable points of the sphere, namely, the pole
is
P
There are also three other points to be (Fig. 22). and the south point They are the north point specially noted. S in which the meridian intersects the horizon, and E in which
zenith
Z
N
it
intersects the celestial equator. is the angle between the direction of a The latitude
<
plumb
line
and the plane of the equator.
Hence
(Fig. 22) the latitude
P (North Pole)
(Equator) E
Meridian in Northern Hemisphere at North latitude
Fro. 22.
<j>
of the observer
is
the angle
the equator.
Since
POE
to
must have
its
NOP equal
of the pole ZP = 90
i.e. that between the zenith and and ZON are both right angles we <, and the angle NOP being the eleva
ZOE,
tion of the pole above the horizon
altitude.
is, as we shall see in 30, called Thus we obtain the fundamental proposition that
the altitude
is the latitude
<f>
The
arc
of the observer. from the zenith to the elevated pole
is
generally called the colatitude. It is obvious that a star does not set unless its distance
X
PX
from the elevated pole exceeds the latitude of the observer. A star which does not set is called a circumpolar star and its distance from the equator towards the north pole, that is to say, its north
EX
declination
rise if its
( 31) must not be less than 90 south declination is more than 90
</>.
A
star does not
(/>.
29]
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE
77 meridian in the
The corresponding diagram showing the southern hemisphere is given in Fig. 23. It
may be remarked
that southern latitudes are often expressed by attaching a minus Thus this figure sign to the numerical value of the latitude.
shows the meridian of latitude
.
Equator
South
Pole
Meridian in Southern Hemisphere at South Latitude
FIG. 23.
<f>
The great circle through the zenith and at right angles to the meridian is called the prime vertical. It passes through the east and west points of the horizon.
Ex.
1.
Show
that with reference to a station in latitude
of
and
least
zenith distances
a
star
of
declination
8
$ the greatest are respectively
and
Ex.
2.
8.
If the zenith distance of a star is to
show that
Ex.
if it is
3.
either the observer's latitude
is
90 or the
remain always the same, star's declination is 90.
Show that
if
a star
is
always above the horizon, {0 ~ (<
+ 5)} > 90*,
and
sets,
never above the horizon
$~8
>
90, and that
if it rises
<90
Ex.
4.
and
8
<
90.
If the latitude of the observer be
of a star can
known, show how the declination be obtained from observations of its zenith distance at the
moment
Ex.
5.
of transit.
The
latitude of
Greenwich being 51
28' 38" 1,
show that
for the
meridian of Greenwich (Fig. 22)
SE=ZP=38
Ex.
6.
31' 21"9
and
^=^=51
28' 38"'l.
Show that
51
29' is the lowest latitude at
which
all stars
having
stars
a north declination exceeding 38 31' are circumpolar. Show that having a south declination exceeding 38 31' must be there invisible.
Ex.
in
7.
all
On Nov.
13th the sun
is
108
from the north
pole,
show that
any north latitude exceeding 72 the sun does not rise above the horizon.
78
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE
[CH. IV
Ex. 8. The observatory at Stockholm is in latitude 59 20' 33"'0 N., and that at the Cape of Good Hope in latitude 33 56' 3"5 S. The declinaFind the altitudes of Sirius when in tion of Sirius is  16 35' 22"'0. culmination in Stockholm and at the Cape of Good Hope respectively. The distance along the meridian from the north pole to the south point is the north latitude of the horizon is 180 The <, where (Fig. 22). 8 (the proper sign distance from the pole to a star of declination 8 is 90 being given to 8), whence the distance from the south point of the horizon
<
to the star
is
1800(90 S) = 90$ + S.
is
Hence
in the case of
the altitude of Sirius
Stockholm (the declination of Sirius being negative), 90 (59 20' 33"'0)(16 35' 22"'0) = 14 4' 5"0.
from the south pole to the north is 90 + 8. Hence the altitude
At a southern
latitude (Fig. 23) the arc
and to a north declination 8 <j>, point is 180 at culmination is
1800(90 + 8) = 90<8,
56' 3"'5)
and
for Sirius at the
Cape
90 (33
Ex.
9.
+ 16
35'
22"'0=72
39' 18"5.
be the zenith distances of a circumpolar star at upper and at lower culmination respectively, and both culminations are to 'the north of the zenith, show that the north latitude of the observer is 90  \ (z\+z%).
If
i, 2 2
30.
Altitude and azimuth.
Perhaps the most obvious system of celestial coordinates is that in which the horizon is used as the fundamental circle.
We shall suppose that the star is above the horizon, and that a great circle is drawn from the zenith through the star and thence to the horizon, which it cuts at right angles. Such a circle is called a vertical circle. The arc of this circle between
the horizon and the star
is
called the altitude of the star
and
is
one of the coordinates defining the place of the star. The second coordinate is the azimuth, which is reckoned along the horizon
in various ways. in this matter.
of a celestial
seems desirable to adopt a uniform practice We shall therefore always measure the azimuth object from the north point round by east and
It
south to the foot of the vertical circle through the starf. Thus to 360, and the the azimuth may have any value from
not the zenith. nole of the horizon so graduated is the nadir, When the azimuth and altitude of a star are known, its position
is
determined.
t This mode of reckoning azimuths has ancient authority. I have seen it on a compass card of date 1640 kindly shown to me by Professor Silvanus Thompson.
2930]
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE
79
For example, if the azimuth of a star be 810 and its altitude 15, then the star can be found as follows. We start from the north point of the horizon and proceed round to the east at the azimuth 90 and thence to the south and the west at azimuths of 180 and 270 respectively, and then 40 further in the same direction indicates the azimuth 310. The vertical circle thus reached might, no doubt, be described as having an azimuth of
is
50, that is, as lying 50 to the westward of the north point. But it is convenient to avoid negative values in this coordinate as can always be done by adding 360. The point in which the vertical circle meets the horizon being thus denned by its azimuth,
a point
is
then to be taken on the vertical
15
circle at
the proper
altitude, in this case
above the horizon, and we obtain the
it is
required position of the star. Instead of the altitude of a star
often convenient to use
is known when the
the complement of the altitude which Thus in the case in question, distance.
the zenith distance
is
as the zenith
altitude
is
15
75. For approximate measurements of azimuth the magnetic compass is used. The needle points to the magnetic north, which deviates from the true north by what is called the magnetic deThis varies both for different times and for different clination. For the British Islands in A.D. 1908 the needle points places. on an average 18 west of the true north. Thus the azimuth of the magnetic north, i.e. the azimuth measured from the true north round by east, south and west, is about 342 for the British Isles
in 1908f.
t The following information has been kindly communicated by the National
Physical Laboratory
:
Mean magnetic
declinations for 1906
:
Kew
Stonyhurst Valencia
16
17
28' 5
48' '3
6'3
21
W. W. W.
:
The magnetic declination
the
mean
values at
Kew
decreasing, and for the annual amount of change have been as follows for the series of years indicated
is
...
...
1870 to 1880 1880 to 1890
8'l
1890 to 1900 1900 to 1906
:
... ...
5'8 4'0
6'8
Valencia observations commenced in 1901
for the five years 1901 to 1906 the
:
mean
values of the annual changes in Declination were
Stonyhurst
...
4'3
4'l
Falmouth
Valencia
...
4'0
4'3
Kew
80
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE
[CH. IV
In the mariner's compass the indications are shown on a card
by the division of the circumference into 32 equal points of 11 \
four chief points on the card are marked N. (at the Each of these magnetic north), E., S., W. at intervals of 90. intervals is bisected by points marked NE., SE., SW.,
each.
The
NW.
Thus the circumference is divided into eight equal respectively. of four points each. Each of these parts is again bisected parts the bisection of N. and NE. is marked NNE., that of NE. and E. is ENE., and so on. In this way half the points receive their The remaining sixteen points are derived from the designations.
:
eight, viz. N., E., S., W.; NE., SE., SW., NW. by simply adding the word "by" and appending one of the letters N., E., For example, "W. by N." means one point from west S., W. towards north " W. by S." in like manner means one point from
first
;
west towards the south, and " SE. by E." means one point from SE. towards E.
30]
Ex.
1.
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE
81
Find the azimuth measured from the magnetic north of the point
four points from magnetic north, and " NE. by N." means one Hence the answer is three points or 33.
NE. by N. NE. is
Ex.
of
2.
point back again towards N.
Show
is
in like
manner that the azimuth from the magnetic north
is
WNW.
Ex.
3.
292'5.
If the
azimuth of a point as shown by the compass
declination
is
73, find the
S. if
true azimuth
when the magnetic
is
18
'5
W.
the
Ex.
4.
Find the true azimuth of the magnetic bearing SE. by
17
magnetic declination
W.
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES ON CHAP.
if
IV.
Ex. 1. If 7j, r2 be the real distances of two stars from the observer, and 6 be the apparent distance between the stars on the celestial sphere, show that the square of the true distance of the stars from each other is
Ex.
2.
Show
that the prime vertical, the
points.
horizon,
and the equator
intersect in the
same two
Ex. 3. If a, b be the equatorial and polar radii of the earth, assumed a spheroid, show that the greatest angular difference possible at any point on the earth's surface between the plumbline and the radius to the earth's
centre
is
tan" 1
Ex.
4.
a
~,
.
If the declination
of a star exceeds the latitude <,
oscillate
1
show that
the azimuth of the star
must
between
sin (cos 8 sec <) on one side of the meridian and the same angle on the other.
Ex.
sets
5.
Show
makes with the horizon
that the cosine of the angle which the path of a star as it is equal to the sine of the latitude multiplied
by the secant
Ex.
6.
of the declination.
Two
places are of the
same
is
latitude
from the great
longitude.
circle
through them
equal to the sun's declination.
is
and the distance of the pole Prove
equal to their difference of
that at these places the length of the night
B. A.
CHAPTER
V.
EIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION; CELESTIAL LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE.
PAGE
31. 32. 33. 34.
Right ascension and declination
82
The first point of Aries The hour angle and the
Determination
83
sidereal
.
.
day of zenith distance and azimuth from hour
. .
.
86
35. 36. 37. 38.
angle and declination Applications of the differential formulae
.......
.
90 93
103
106
On
the time of culmination of a celestial body
Rising and setting of a celestial body
Celestial latitude
and longitude
......98 ......
.
31. Right ascension and declination. Though the altitude and azimuth are, in one sense, the simplest coordinates of a star, certain other systems are generally more convenient. The altitude and azimuth of a star are continually changing with the time' on account of the diurnal motion, and even at the same moment the altitude and azimuth of a star are different for two
preferable to employ coordinates which remain unaltered by the diurnal motion and are the same whatever may be the latitude and longitude of the
different
observatories.
It
is
often
can obtain coordinates possessing the required qualities by referring the star to a great circle fixed on the celestial sphere.
observer's
station.
We
The celestial equator as already pointed out ( 28) remains unaltered in position notwithstanding the diurnal rotation. The equator also possesses such a natural relation to the diurnal
motion that it is specially suited to serve as the fundamental circle, and the coordinates most generally useful in spherical astronomy are accordingly referred to the celestial equator. When referred to the equator, the coordinates of a point on the celestial
sphere do not change by the diurnal motion, nor do they change
3132]
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
83
when the station of the observer is changed unless the object be near enough to the earth for what is known as parallax to be This will be discussed in appreciable. Chap, xii., and need not be further considered here.
celestial
A
To construct the coordinates of a equator we proceed as follows. great circle NP, Fig. 24, is drawn
star with
respect to the
from the north celestial pole through a star S and meets the celestial equator
at P.
circle
N
The
arc
PS
between
intercepted on this the equator and the
star is the declination of the star.
The
measured from a certain point T on the equator and in the direction for its nole is the right which has
arc
TP
N
ascension of the star.
The Right Ascension,
is
or
"
R.A." as it is often written for brevity,
to 360. generally expressed by the letter a, and measured from " The Declination or Decl." as it is often written, is generally expressed by S, and a negative sign is attached to 8 when S
is
" or 90  B is the south of the equator. North Polar " and is sometimes used instead of 8 as the second Distance
SN
coordinate of the star.
32.
The
first
we
shall consider the sun's
point of Aries or T. In a subsequent chapter apparent annual movement with respect
may, however, here anticipate so far as to say that the sun describes a complete circuit with reference to the stars once in a year in the direction of the diurnal rotation of
the earth,
circle
i.e.
to the fixed stars.
We
ment the centre
from West through South to East. In this moveof the sun appears to follow very closely a great
on the celestial sphere. This great circle is known as the ecliptic, and was so called by the ancients because when Eclipses
take place the
moon is crossing this circle. the direction in which the sun moves round the Observing ecliptic, we can distinguish between the two nodes or interecliptic
sections of the
and the equator.
These nodes are
to
be designated as follows. That at which the sun crosses from S. to N. of the equator is called the first point of Aries and is
62
84
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
[CH.
V
represented by the symbol T. The sun passes through T at the as the vernal equinox. This occurs each year about March 21. For example, in the year 1909 the vernal
moment known
equinox
is
m on March 21 at 6 h 13 Greenwich Mean Time. The other node, or that at which the sun crosses from N. to
,
S.
of the equator,
is
called the first point of Libra,
.
and
is
represented
The sun passes through ^ at the moment by the symbol m of the autumnal equinox (1909, Sept. 23, 4 h 45 G.M.T.). By universal agreement the origin on the equator from which right ascensions are to be measured is the first point of Aries,
,
T. The positive direction along the equator is such that the right ascension of the sun, constantly altering by the sun's motion, is always increasing. Thus since the path of the sun
or
among
t
the stars is from W. through S. to E., T is the ascending, the descending node of the ecliptic on the equator. As the "first point of Aries" occupies a place of such exceptional
importance in astronomy, it may be proper to observe that the word "Aries" has in this expression but little more than historical
significance.
The node through which the sun passed
at the
vernal equinox was no doubt at one time in the constellation shall see in the chapter on Aries, but it is not so at present. Precession (vui.) that while the plane of the ecliptic shifts only
We
slightly in space, the plane of the equator rotates so that while it
makes a nearly constant angle with the ecliptic, its intersection with the ecliptic moves along that circle in the negative direction at the rate of about 50" annually, so that from this cause alone, in
the greater part of the heavens, the R.A. of a celestial body
is
always increasing.
as follows.
T may be approximately indicated the great square of Pegasus is towards the south imagine the left vertical side produced downwards to a distance equal to its own length; from the point thus found draw
The present
position of
When
a line to the right, parallel to the lower horizontal side of the square and onefourth of its length. This terminates at about the
present position of "the
first
point of Aries."
the equator, and TJOT is the ecliptic, and P' are respectively the nole and antinole of the equator, and Q and Q' are the nole arid antinole of the ecliptic. The
In Fig.
25
^HH'
is
P
arrowhead on
VK
shows the direction of the apparent motion
32]
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
85
of the sun relative to stars on the celestial sphere, the arrowshows the direction in which the right ascensions head on o
VH
are measured.
The great
circle
HKH'K'
is
known
as the solstitial colure
and K, K' are the points at which the sun is found at the summer and winter solstices respectively. The great circle through PTb
is
called the equinoctial colure.
The inclination between the ecliptic and the equator is generally known as the obliquity of the ecliptic. The mean value of the
is
obliquity of the ecliptic as given in the Ephemeris for 1909 It is subject to small temporary fluctuation 23 27' 4 //> 04.
by nutation
(see Chap. VIII.), and it has also a slow continuous decline at the rate of 46"'84 per century.
Ex.
1.
If a
celestial sphere,
be the right ascension and 8 the declination of a point on the show that the values of a, 8 for certain points (Fig. 25) on
<a
the sphere are as follows,
being the obliquity of the ecliptic
:
H
H'
90
270 90 270
0)
P
P'
90
90
270 90 180
90
K
K'
Q
Q'
w
o>90
T
86
Ex.
will
2.
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
Show
[CH.
V
that the right ascension a and the declination 8 of the sun
always be connected by the equation tan 8 = tan o> sin
3.
a.
Ex.
On
the obliquity of the ecliptic
the 9th May, 1910, the sun's right ascension is 45 30', and is 23 27'. Show that the declination of the
sun
is
+17
11''5.
The hour angle and the sidereal day. It is sometimes 33. convenient to take as the origin from which coordinates are
measured on the equator that point, above the horizon, where the equator is intersected by the meridian of the observer. Owing to the diurnal motion which carries the meridian round the celestial
sphere in the course of a sidereal day, this origin is not a fixed point on the celestial sphere, but moves steadily round the equator so as to complete its revolution in a sidereal day. One of the coordinates of an object fixed on the celestial sphere measured from If this moving origin must necessarily change with the time.
a great circle, called an hour circle, be drawn from the pole to a star, the angle this hour circle makes with the meridian is termed the hour angle, and the hour angle of a star and its
declination or
its polar distance form a system of coordinates which are often convenient.
The
altering.
declination of an object
does not vary in consequence
of the diurnal rotation.
Since the star
The hour angle of a star is incessantly appears to move from upper culmination
towards the west we shall measure hour angle from the meridian to the westward. Thus the hour angle is zero when the object
upper culmination, and gradually increases to 180 as the From thence the hour angle object passes to lower culmination.
is
at
is
continually increasing until it reaches 360 at the next upper To the west of the meridian an hour angle is culmination.
therefore between
and 180.
On
the east of the meridian the
hour angle is between 180 and 360. With this understanding hour angles are always increasing, and, since 360 can always be
added to or subtracted from any angle when used in a trigonometrical function, we may say that all hour angles are between 180 and 4 180 and that hour angles west are positive, and hour angles east negative.
The hour angle
(unlike the declination in this respect also)
changes with the station of the observer.
For example when
3233]
a star
zero.
is
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
its
87
is
passing the meridian at Greenwich
hour angle
there
But at the same moment the star will have passed the meridian of easterly stations and will therefore to such stations show hour angles west. At a place where the longitude is 2 hours
east of Greenwich, the star would appear to have an hour angle two hours west at the same moment as an observer at Greenwich
has the star on his meridian.
at
More generally we may
say that
two places with east longitudes I and I' respectively, the hour angles west of the same object would be simultaneously 6 and
e
+
i'
i.
sidereal
first
A
day
is
the interval between two consecutive transits
If we point of Aries across any selected meridian. remember that the stars are practically fixed on the celestial sphere, and if we overlook for the present certain small irregularities, we
of the
may
It
is
also
transits of the
say that the time interval between two consecutive same star across the meridian is a sidereal day.
also accurate
sidereal
(see
23 h 56 m 4 8 0906.
enough for all practical purposes to define the as the period of rotation of the earth on its axis day 28). Expressed in mean solar time the sidereal day is
Like the solar day the sidereal day is divided into 24 equal A sidereal hour is periods, which are called sidereal hours.
divided into sixty minutes, and each minute
sixty seconds.
is
subdivided into
In one hour of sidereal time after the meridian passage of
its hour angle measured in degrees would be 15, this being It is usual to express the the 24th part of the circumference. hour angle in sidereal time rather than in degrees. If, for example, the star be 3 hours (sidereal) past the meridian, and the secondary
a star
from the pole to the equator which passes through the star have an intercept of 35 between the star and the equator, we could express the position of the star at that particular place and at
that particular moment by saying that it had a west hour angle of three hours and a north declination of 35.
into
point of Aries when turned per hour is the sideral time. When the first point of Aries is on the meridian at upper culm s When the first point mination the sidereal time is O h O
The hour angle west
of the
first
time at the rate of
15
.
of Aries has passed the meridian so that
its
hour
angle
is
88
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
sidereal
[CH.
V
15, then the
time
is
Ihr.,
and when
is
it
has passed the
sidereal
meridian so long that the hour angle time is 19hrs.
285, then the
let
Let a be the right ascension expressed in time of a star S, and h be the hour angle west
and
^
Let
the sidereal time.
(Fig.
NZ be the meridian 26), NV the equinoctial
then the sidereal time S,
colure,
as already defined, is
measured
by
ZVNZ.
The right ascension of S is VNS, and there can be no amis biguity about the sign, for the nole of the equator and the R.A. is measured in the positive
N
direction from
colure;
also
ZNS
the equinoctial is the hour
angle of S; and hence
h
= *  a.
FIG. 26.
Thus we obtain an important
relation connecting the hour angle body with the sidereal time.
Ex.
1.
and the right ascension of a
Show
that the sidereal time, can be determined by measuring the
is
hour angle of a star whose right ascension
Ex.
2.
,
known.
21 h 9 m 23s
If the hour angle east of a star be 98 11' 15" show that the sidereal time is 14 h 36 m 38s
.
and
its R.A.
be
The hour angle west
time at 15 per hour
as 24 h
is
= 261 is 360 (98 11' 15") 17 h 27 m 15 s whence
,
48' 45"
which turned into
3 = a+A = 38 h 36 m 38s = 14 h 36 m 38 s
,
may
always be rejected.
If 6 be an hour angle measured in degrees, show that the angle 3. expressed in circular measure is 27T0/360
Ex.
.
Ex.
circular
4.
If t be the number of hours measure of that angle is irt/12.
in
an hour angle, show that the
Ex. 5. At any place of north latitude $ the interval between one of the transits of a star across a vertical circle of azimuth A and one of its transits
the same for
across the other vertical circle, which makes the same angle with the meridian, is all stars, and equal to cot" 1 (sin $ tan A )/TT of a sidereal day.
33]
Let
circles,
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
89
N (Fig. 27) be the celestial pole, Z the zenith, ZP, ZQ the two vertical
NP,
NQ great circles perpendicular thereto, P\ P
,
2
the points at which
crosses ZQ.
any given star crosses from symmetry
L.
ZP and Q Q2 the
lt
points where
l
it
Then
and therefore and
is
P,NP= L PNP2 = L Q tfQ= L L. P^VQ = L P tfQ = i PNQ,
l
2
2
therefore independent of the 'star chosen.
FIG. 27.
Further cot
PNZ
sin
$ tan A and
cot" 1 (sin
the required interval
is
<tan A) fir
of the sidereal day.
If at a place in latitude <f>, a pair of stars whose coordinates are respectively a, 8 and a', 8' ever come on the same vertical, show that
Ex.
6.
cos
<
> cos 8 cos
8'
sin (a
a')
cosec
0,
where 6 is the arc joining the stars. Let S, S' (Fig. 28) be the two stars.
about N.
Let
fall
Then the
triangle
SNS'
rotates
perpendicular on SS'. Then no point on the But if S, S' are circle SS' can be at less distance than p from N. great to be on the same vertical, then this arc must pass through the zenith.
NT(=p)
Therefore
sin
90
NSS' sin = cos
<j>>p or cos
8'
<
> sin p.
whence
But
sin (a
a'),
sin j9
cos 8 sin NSS' = sin p and = cos 8 cos 8' sin (a  a') cosec Q.
Ex. 7. Show that 2 h 23 m 24 8 '92 of mean solar time is equivalent to 2 h 23 m 48 S '48 of sidereal time and that 15 h of sidereal time will be turned
into
mean
8.
solar time
by subtracting
2 m 27 s 44.
Ex.
Show
that 1465 sidereal days are very nearly the
same as 1461
mean
solar days.
90
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
[CH.
V
Determination of zenith distance and azimuth 34. from hour angle and declination. The required formulae may be written down from the general equations of transformation of
FIG. 28.
coordinates.
By
our convention
is
for
the measurement of azimuth
(
from the north point a
nadir
is
taken in such a direction
30) that the
the nole of the horizon
when regarded
is
as a great circle
graduated for azimuth.
The north pole
of course the nole
of the equator when graduated for right ascension. and definition of a nole ( 6) it follows that if
N
From the N' are the
noles of two graduated great circles
is
L
and
L',
then the nole of
the ascending node of L' on L and the nole of is the ascending node of L on L'. Thus the
ascending node of the horizon on the equator is at the point due west, and consequently IT, i.e. the azimuth of the ascending node, is 270 when measured from the origin at the north point. The sidereal time S is the hour angle by which T is to the west
of the
meridian.
Hence remembering the
direction
in
which
right ascensions are measured we must have fl, i.e. the right ascension of the ascending node of the horizon on the equator,
equal to 270
s
,
+
S.
The angle between the equator and horizon
is
for this is
Finally as the zenith and equal to z 90.
the angle between their two noles ( 10). the antinole of the horizon, 8' is negative
Making the
requisite substitutions in the
34]
EIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
(ii),
91
desired
formulae
equations
(iii),
(iv), (v),
(vi) of
12,
we have the
sin a sin z
= cos 8 sin (^ a) sin 8 sin cos a sin z = cos = sin sin 8 + cos cos z
<
<j>
cos 8 cos
(S
a)
</>
<
cos 8 cos (^
a)
and the equivalent group
sin (S
a) cos 8 a) cos 8
sin 8
= sin a sin z
cos
sin
<
cos (^
cos z
sin
<
cos a sin s cos a sin ^
cos z
+
cos
<
the equations (i) we can calculate the zenith distance and azimuth when the declination and the hour angle (^ a) are
By
known, and conversely by (ii) we can find the declination and the hour angle when the zenith distance and the azimuth are
known. For a determination of the zenith distance when the hour angle and the decimation are known the following process is very
The angle subtended at the star by the arc joining the zenith and the pole is called the parallactic angle. This we shall denote by 77 and for its determination we have from the fundaconvenient.
mental formulae,
(1), (2), (3)
1,
the following equations in which
h
is
written instead of (^
cos z =
sin
77
a) for the
<f>
hour angle
<
:
sin
sin 8
sin
+
cos
cos 8 cos A
] f (iii).
sin z sin z
= cos
= sin
<f>
h
cos
<
cos
77
<
cos 8
sin 8 cos h
J
h and 8 are known, the parallactic angle 77 and the zenith distance z can both be found from these equations. As sin z and cos <f> are both always positive, it follows from the second equation
that
77
When
and h have the same
sign.
They are both
east.
positive to the
west of the meridian and negative to the
It is often desirable to of subsidiary quantities.
make
these calculations by the help
We
cos n
introduce two
new angles
m
and
n by the conditions
= cos sin n cos m = sin sin n sin m = cos
If n
,
<
sin
h
"\
<
V
(iv).
<
cos h
J
be a pair of values of n and m which satisfy these n and 180 + ra equations they will be equally satisfied by 360
m
.
92
It is a
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
[CH.
V
we use M
matter of indifference whether in the subsequent work m or 360 w 180 + Taking one of these two
, >
m
.
pairs as n, m,
we have by
substitution in
(iii)
sin
i)
cos
77
= sin n sin (8 + m)\ I sin z = cos n sin z = sin n cos (8 + TO))
cos z
(v).
These
equations written thus
tan
17
may
also
be
tan z
= cot n sec (8 + TO)) = sec cot (8 + m)
77
j
From
the
first
of these
17
is
found
and then the second gives z. Of course z could also be found from
of (v), but it is always preferable to find an angle from
the
first
its
tangent rather than
'
its
cosine
(3). The formulae
For
if
(iv)
and
(v)
may
be obtained at once geometrically.
be perpendicular to in Fig. 29 we have NL = m and ZL = 90  n.
It is plain
ZL
NP
FIG. 29.
from equations (iv) that as n and TO depend only on the latitude and the hour angle they are the same for stars of
all
declinations.
It
is
therefore
convenient to calculate once
for all for a
table
by on that latitude the values of
diately obtained.
Ex.
1.
given observatory, or rather for a given latitude, a which for each particular hour angle at any station
TO
and Log cot n can be imme
Verify that the equations
tan
77
= cot % sec (8 + TO)
TO
and tan z= sec
rj
cot
(8+ TO),
undergo no change when 360  n.
and n are changed respectively into 180
+ TO
and
Ex. 2. Determine the zenith distance and parallactic angle of the star 61 Cygni when it is S1 E. of the meridian, its declination being +38 9', and the latitude of the observer being 53 23'. From equations (iv) we find TO = 27 43' and Log cot n = 9'6676 (n). Hence
i
= 65
52'
and
(vi)
77
=48
41', z
=34
10'.
3435]
35.
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
93
Applications of the differential Formulae.
It is convenient to bring together the six differential formulae obtained by applying the fundamental formulae, 4, to the triangle (Fig. 29) of which the vertices are the Pole N, the Star P, and the zenith Z. The arc is the polar distance, 90  8, the
NP
<f>
;
colatitude
is
NZ
or 90
is
PZ
is
the zenith distance
z,
and, of
z. 90 The parallactic angle, 77, is at P. This angle is positive because it is on the west side of the meridian. The hour angle h is equal to ^ a, where ^ is the sidereal time of observation and a is the right ascension of the star. The
course, the altitude
azimuth a
is
is
measured from the north round by east
formulae of
4, of
so that
PZN
360 a.
The
six differential
which only three are
independent,
may be
COST7A.2
written
sin
f
AS +
cosAA0 As + cos aA< + cos ij AS
A</>
Acos^Aa = cos sin aAh =
<
......... (1), ......... (2), ......... (3),
......... (4),
+
cos a A^ cos Z&Y]
cos
sin
sin
AAS +
cos B sin h&r)
sin h
77
=
Aa
A/A
<AA
<Aa
SA/A
cos <AS =
+ sin
cos
SAT?
AT;
Aa + sin
sin cos SAz = sin a sin zt$ =
......... (5),
......... (6).
There can be fifteen combinations of four out of the six elements which enter into a triangle. Each set of four are connected by an
In most cases where variations of the elements are 1). two of the elements remain constant, and we seek the required, We therefore select relative variations of two other elements.
equation
(
that one of the fifteen equations which contains just those two elements that are to be constant and those two whose relative
The differentiation of that equation with variations are required. to the two variables gives the required relation. respect As an example we may take a case which frequently occurs
by the observation of the zenith Suppose that we know the hour angle and the declination of a star with accuracy, but that there is an error A0 in the assumed zenith distance. We require to see what error
in the determination of latitude
distance of a star.
will arise in the calculated latitude
because the erroneous zenith
distance
is
used in association with the correct hour angle and
94
declination.
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
[OH.
h,
8,
V
<f>,
Here the
is
four quantities concerned are
z,
and the formula
therefore
cos 2
= sin
<J3
sin 8
+ cos
sin
<f>
cos 8 cos h.
Differentiating and supposing h and 8 constant,
sin
zkz
= (cos
a
A<
sin 8
<
cos 8 cos h)
A$,
and
substituting sin z cos
for the coefficient of A<
we obtain
=
sec aAz.
Of
AS = 0, A/i = 0. (2) as just given, by making and one involving the parallactic angle, As another illustration we shall determine when the parallactic angle of a given star
becomes a
course this might have been obtained directly from formula
maximum
in the course of the diurnal rotation.
The
both constant, h, z and a shall vary in such a way that there shall be no change in 77, The formula involving </>, 8, 77, h is i.e. A?; must vanish.
conditions are that while
8 are
$ and
tan
Differentiating
<j>
cos 8
= cot
77
sin
h
+ sin 8 cos h.
A^ =
we have
(cot
77
cos h
sin 8 sin h)
0,
77
and as the
vertical.
coefficient of
AA must
and the
vanish, cot
star
= sin 8 tan h,
from
which we find cos a
= 0,
must be on the prime
In this we have another illustration of those exceptional cases in which though three of the variations are zero the formulae
do not require that the other three variations
shall also
be zero
(4). The differential formulae are specially instructive in pointing out how observations should be arranged so that though a small error is made in the course of the observation, the existence of
this error shall be as little injurious as possible to the result that
is
sought.
Suppose, for instance, the mariner is seeking the hour angle of the sun in order to correct his chronometer. What he measures
is
the altitude of the sun.
skill
But from
refraction
and other causes
which no
can entirely obviate there will be a small error
and consequently in the zenith distance. The observer measures the zenith distance as z, and concludes that the
in the altitude
35]
EIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
95
hour angle
is
is h. But the true zenith distance is z + Az, i.e. &z the quantity which must be added to the observed zenith distance to give the true zenith distance. The true hour angle is
therefore not h but
some
AA
is
the correction to be applied to
A/i, where slightly different quantity, h A, so that A/i is the quantity
+
now sought. The formula containing only
cos z = sin
</>
the parts
z,
<f>,
8,
h
/;.
is
sin 8
+
cos
$ cos 8
<f>
cos
Differentiating this and regarding
sin
and
8 sin
8 as constant,
z&z =
sin
cos
$ cos
sin
and substituting
a sin z
h cos
8,
whence
A = sin a cos AA = sec cosec
<f>
:
The following is a geometrical proof of this formula If the sun moves from P to (Fig. 30) about the
PP' being
a very small
arc, its
pole zenith distance changes from
P
N,
ZP
FIG. 30.
to
ZP.
If
PT
and
^ZPT
77,
be perpendicular to ZP, kz = are both 90, ^TPP=r), and
TP. As Z NPP' AA sin AT = PP'
is perpendicular to ZP we shall have whence if which we learn that the rate of change of the by zenith distance of the sun with respect to the time is proportional
= &z cosec Az = A/i sin
NK
.ZVTf,
96
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
[CH.
V
to the sine of the perpendicular from the pole on the vertical circle have also through the sun.
We
sin
NK = sin ZN sin (a
A/i
180) =
<
cos
</>
sin a,
whence
as before
=
sec
cosec aA.2.
timed that cosec a shall be as will have the smallest small as It follows possible effect on the determination of the hour angle. Hence the practical rule that a should be near 90 or 270.
The observation should be
possible, for
so
then the error &z
so well
known
to the mariner that for the determination of the
time the altitude of the sun should be observed when the sun is on or near the prime vertical. If the sun does not come to the prime vertical, the smallest
value of A/z/As
Ex.
1.
is
sec
8.
By
solving the formulae
(1), (2), (3) for
AS, Az
and A$, show how
the formulae
(4), (5), (6)
can be deduced.
Ex. 2. Show geometrically that if the assumed declination of the sun be erroneous to the extent AS, the error thence produced on a determination of the hour angle from 'an observation of the sun's zenith distance will be
cot
rj
sec 8 AS.
.
Ex.
star
3.
Under what circumstances
is
by the diurnal motion proportional throughout the day to
the change of zenith distance of a its change of
hour angle? We have from (2) A2/AA= sin a cos <, and this must be constant, whence a must be constant and the observer must be on the equator and the star must be an equatorial star.
Ex. 4. If the hour angle is being determined from an observed zenith distance of a celestial object of known declination, show geometrically that a small error A$ in the assumed latitude <f> will produce an error  cot a sec 0A$
in the
hour angle, where a
is
the azimuth.
Show
also that this error will generally be of little consequence provided
the object be near the prime vertical.
The triangle zenith distance ZS
parallactic angle
/
PSZ is formed from the polar distance PS = 90 S), the = z) and the colatitude PZ = 90  <). Fig. 31. The
( ( (
is
negative because
is
it is
to the east of the meridian
(
r
34).
),
The
triangle
PS'Z'
formed from the polar distance
PS = PS
(
the
zenith distance
(=Z'S') and the colatitude PZ' ( = 90$ A<). Draw Z'M and S'L perpendicular to SZ, then as SZ and S'Z' are very close together S'Z' = LM, but as S'Z'=SZv?e must have SL = ZM.
ZS
LSZZ' is the azimuth a, so that SL=ZM= cosA<. L.PSZ= and S3'=SL sec (90 + 77)= +cos a cosec 7A<.
7)
35]
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
97
But &h=SS' cosec PS, whence Ah = cos a cosec PS cosec A$ =
77
cot
a
sec </>A<.
FIG. 31.
Ex.
5.
A star of
declination 8
is
observed to have zenith distances z1}
2
at instants separated
by an
sin
interval 2r;
show that the
sin
colatitude c can be
determined from the equation
^ c = sin
(z
+x
)
\6 cosec *
,
where
#,
c?,
$, e
are auxiliary angles given by tan x = cot 8 cos r, (i)
sin
(ii) (iii)
d = cos 8 sin r,
(.?!
(iv)
sin $
(v)
+ 22 COS ^ (Zj 22 SCC d, = sin ^ + 22 sin   z2 cosec z cosec tan e = sin \ (z +x) cosec 5(2 ^) tan ^. [Math.
)
) (
1
COS 2 = COS
)
(
x
)
o?,
Trip.]
Ex.
6.
If
A be the
below the pole at c may be determined from the equations tan x sin y= sin A sin A,
tan2 \ (c + x)
and z the zenith distance of Polaris observed an hour angle h from the meridian, show that the colatitude
N. P. D.
tan
A cos A,
?
What
Ex.
in
t
is
tan %(z +y} tan ^ (z y). the geometrical significance of the auxiliaries x and y
[Math. Trip.]
7.
If 8 be a star's declination
and
A
its
seconds of time from the
2 \ 15
moment when
maximum azimuth, show that the azimuth is A the azimuth
has changed by
2
sin 1" sin 2 8 tan
A
seconds of arc.
value of the azimuth, the star culminates between pole and zenith, and for the maximum azimuth, the zenith distance is tangent to the small circle described by the star in its apparent diurnal motion.
If there be a
B. A.
maximum
7
98
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
Differentiating
[CH.
V
 cot A = cos
2
(f>
tan 8 cosec h tan &
sin
</>
cot A,
<
we obtain
cosec
A
77
= cos =
(f>
cosec A cot A  sin
</>.
cosec2 A
cot
A cot A  sin = 0, we
Differentiating again
and making ^
have
cosec 2
i
J 777, =cot 4 2
aA
' ^
* *
cosec 2 A,
n.
and
Therefore
of
if
TTjj
2 = tan .4 sm a 8.
*
x be
the change of azimuth in
t
seconds from the
moment
maximum azimuth
A
*36.
sin 1"
=J
1
5 2 *2 sin 2 1" sin 2 8 tan A.
[Math. Trip.]
On
the time of culmination of a celestial body.
of upper culmination ( 29) the right ascension of the body is the sidereal time. The problem of finding the time of upper culmination reduces therefore to the discovery of the right
At the moment
ascension of the body at the
moment when
it
crosses the meridian.
THE TIME OF A
one
;
STAR'S
UPPER CULMINATION.
star, the computation is a very simple the apparent right ascension alters very slowly we can always find it by inspection from the tables, and so have at once the sidereal time of upper culmination.
In the case of a
for as
For instance, suppose we seek the time of culmination of Arcturus at Greenwich on 1906 Feb. 12, which for this particular purpose is conveniently reckoned from apparent noon on Feb. 12
h m s that the R.A. at upper culmination on Feb. 10 is 14 ll 22 '42. s '29 in 10 days; and therefore at culmination on It increases
to apparent
noon on Feb.
13.
We
find in the
ephemeris
for
1906
Feb. 12 the R.A.
at
is
m 14h ll 22 S '48.
is
On
mean noon
for
Greenwich
that
21 h 26 m 29 8 '91
that day the sidereal time
(
69).
Arcturus will reach the meridian at h m h h m 22 8 h m S s 24 +(14 ll 48)(21 26 29 '91)= 16 44 52 "57 of sidereal time after mean noon on Feb. 12. We transform this into mean
thus
see
We
time by the tables given in the nautical almanac. m 15 h 57 22"73 16 h
44 ra
52 s
57
43
52 79
51 86
57
16 42
7 95
36]
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
culmination
of
99
place
at
The
Arcturus.
therefore
takes
16 h 42 m 7 8. 95 on Feb 12
In the case of a moving body such as a planet or the moon, whose right ascension changes rapidly from hour to hour, we
proceed as follows. Let the right ascension of the body be or1( or2 3 at three consecutive epochs tlt t2 tz for which the tables give the calculated Then values, and such that culmination occurs between ^ and t3
, ,
,
,
.
taking either of the equal intervals 2 time, and supposing culmination occurs
^ or
t
ts
tz
as the unit of
ti
units after
we have
by
interpolation for the R.A. at
i
culmination
+ 1 (a, 
+ \t (t  1) (! 
2a 2
+a
s ).
#!
This will be the sidereal time of the body's culmination. Let be the value of be the sidereal time at the epoch tlt and let
H
the unit in sidereal time. the sidereal time
is
Then
el
at the
moment
of culmination
+ m.
;
But
this
must be equal
to the expression already written
whence
 aO + \t (t  1) (! e. + Ht^a. + t (a,
From
this equation
2
2
+
3 ).
The equation is a t is to be determined. but obviously the significant root for our purpose is quadratic;  1) (a x  2a 2 + a a ) is a small t (t indicated by the fact that
quantity.
To
solve
t'
the
t
equation
we
t' (a,,
therefore deduce
an ap
proximate value
for
0,
by solving
f
+ Ht =
a,
+
 aj
t
;
and then we introduce
6l
this value
t'
into the
small term
and
solve the following simple equation for
+ Ht = a + t (a  a,) + \t' (f 1
z
1)
(z  2a 2
+
3 ).
THE TIME OF A
PLANET'S UPPER CULMINATION.
To illustrate the process we shall compute the time of culmination of Jupiter at Greenwich on Sept. 25, 1900. From the nautical almanac, p. 247, we have
:
Mean noon
1906. Sept. 25
R.A. of Jupiter
1st diff.
2nd
diff.
6 h 39 m 53s '59
+ 26" 90
40
40
20 49
26
27
0
s
"68
+ 26
46
71
22
72
100
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
[CH.
is
V
Hence the
R.A. of Jupiter
8 m 6 39 53 '59
t
h
+
days after noon on Sept. 25 26 8 '90  8 '34 (t  1).
At the moment
which
is
of culmination this equals the sidereal time,
12 h 13 m 34 8 62
t is
+ t [24h 3 m 56 8> 55],
B
whence the equation for 30h 39 m 53 8 '59
+
26 s '90
'34 (t

1)
=
all
12 13 m 34 8> 62
h
+ 1 [24h 3 m 56 B> 55].
Neglecting the last term on the lefthand side, and omitting seconds in the first solution, we have
18 h 26 m
=
t
whence
it
$
= 077.
m (24 3 ),
11
Introducing this approximate value of reduces to +0 8< 06.
t
into
8>
34
(t
1),
The equation
30 39 m 53 8 65
h
therefore becomes
+ 26
t
8
'90
h
=
12 h 13 m 34 8 '62
+ 1 (24h 3 m 56
8
'55),
whence
=
18 26 m 19 a Q3
24^3^29^65
= n ^,, lft
day after noon,
Jupiter's culmination will therefore be 0766416 of a mean solar h i.e. at 18 23 m 38 s '34 G.M.T. (see N.A., 1906, p. 272).
THE TIME OF THE MOON'S UPPER CULMINATION.
In the case of the moon the motion is so rapid that the places from hour to hour, as given in the ephemeris, are required. For the sake of illustration we shall compute the time at which the
moon culminates at Greenwich on 1906 Oct. 29. The sidereal time at mean noon on that day The moon's R.A. at noon (N.A., 1906, p. 165).
O 23 m 23 s 62.
h
is
14 h 27 m 37 8 '42
p.
(N. A.,
175)
is
were no motion this would mean that the moon must culminate about ten o'clock in the evening. At 10 o'clock the R.A. of the moon is about Oh 43 m and this shows
If there
,
that the interval between noon and the moon's culmination is
about 10h 16 m of sidereal time, or about 10 h 14 m of mean solar We are therefore certain to include the time of culminatime.
tion
1906.
by taking from the ephemeris the following:
Oct. 29.
10
h.
Moon's R.A. Oh 42 m 52 s '03
1st diff.
2nd
diff.
+ lm
lib.
12 h.
56 s 40
44
48 43
0
+1
56 34
s
"06
46
44 77
36]
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
101
hours after
It follows that the R.A. of the
moon
at (10
+ 1)
1).
noon
is
O h 42 m 52 8 03
Since
t
+
116 8 40

8
'03* (t

about J, the hundredth of a second, and
is
term amounts to about one twomay be neglected. We thus have the
last
t
:
following equation for finding
= sidereal
the coefficient of
of one
t
time at 10 h mean time
+
t
h
[l
O m 9 s '86],
on the righthand side being the sidereal value The sidereal time at mean noon on the day in question is 14 h 27 m 37 8 '42, if we add to this 10h l m 388> 56 which h is the sidereal equivalent of 10 of mean time we see that the h sidereal time at 10 G.M.T. is O h 29 m 15 8 the is
mean
hour.
'98;
equation
8
therefore
O h 42 m 52 s 03
 O h 29 m 15
8
'98
= t (l h
O m 9 8 '86
 l m 56
'40),
13 m 36 8 05_ " 58 m 13 8 46 This
is
the fraction of one
mean hour
is,
after 10 P.M., at
h
which the
culmination takes place; that
p. 167).
at 10
14 m
8
'94 (N. A., 1906,
THE TIME OF CULMINATION AT LONGITUDE
Suppose
it
X.
tion of a heavenly of Greenwich.
be required to find the time of upper culminabody at a place P in longitude X to the west
The
R.A. of the
body at the moment of culmination
will of
course be equal to the sidereal time at the place. Let 6 be the local mean time then the mean time at Greenwich at the same
;
instant
is
6
+
X,
and the
R. A. of
the body can be expressed by
+ \. interpolation as a function of have therefore only to find the sidereal time at
We
P
corre
sponding to the mean time 6. The ephemeris gives the sidereal time at mean noon at Greenwich, which must be increased by
h X/24 x (the difference in sidereal time between the mean solar and To sidereal day) to give the sidereal time at mean noon at P.
we must add 6, increased in the ratio of the duration of the mean day to the duration of the sidereal day. The resulting
this
sidereal time is to be equated to the
Right Ascension, and
is
determined.
102
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
For example,
let it
[CH.
V
be proposed to find the time when the the Lick Observatory, Mount Hamilton, The longitude is here 8 h 6 m 34 8 '89 ; California, on Dec. 25, 1906. and if 6 is the local mean time of culmination, the Greenwich
moon culminates
at
mean time is 8 h 6 m 348 '89 + 0. The ephemeris shows that on Dec. 25 the sidereal time at h m and the moon's R.A. Greenwich mean noon is 18 12 21 S 13
;
m 29 8 '84 at O h to 3 h 3 m 40 8 '32 at 23 h and it is also seen that the culmination at Greenwich takes place about 8 h 22 m G.M.T. In the following 8 h the moon's R.A. increases m hence culmination will take about 15 place at Lick at about or about 16 h 43 m G.M.T. 8 h 37 m local mean The of
h varies from 2 19
;
time,
the tables to be employed in the accurate calculation
as follows
1906.
:
is
portion therefore
2nd
G.M.T.
Moon's
B.A.
1st diff.
diff.
Dec. 25.
16 h. 17 18
2 h 50 m 98 '73
+ 1>
52
55 8> 55
528
+0"08
+1
54 091
*,
5563
Let 8 h 6 m 34 s 89
Then
+ = 16 h + where t is 6 = 7 h 53 m 25 ! 1 +
6
s
t.
a fraction of an hour.
The
time 6
is
sidereal time at Lick corresponding to the local found as follows.
mean
The
sidereal time at
Greenwich
mean noon = 18 h 12 m 21 8 '13
The Longitude
h
of Lick
x (3 m 56 8 '56)/24 h
(7
= =
1
19 '93
53 m 25 8 '11
+ t)
expressed in
sidereal time
7 54 42 '88
+ (l h O m 9
8
S
'86)
Adding
these three lines
we obtain the
sidereal time of the moon's
upper culmination at Lick
= 2 h 8m
23 8 '94
+ (l h O m 9
h
8>
'86)
t.
The
R.A. of the
moon
2 h 50
m 9 8 73
+ t) is + t (11555) + 04 (t at G.M.T. (16
1).
about O h *7 the third term in this expression and to find t we have s m 2 u 8 23 94 + t (l h O m 9 S< 86)
As
t
is
is
8
'01,
3637]
or
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
103
t
=
41
m
ra
58
45 78 8 14 31
8
=
71 7 103 hours
l 57.
8
= 43 m
Hence the culmination
16 h 43
of the
moon
at Lick
m
l '57
8
Greenwich mean time, or at 8 h 36 m 26 8 '68
took place at
local
mean
37.
time.
Rising and setting of a celestial body. The time of rising or setting of a celestial body
affected
refraction.
is
much
by Postponing the consideration of the effect of refraction to a later chapter (vi.) we here give the formulae for
finding
when a
i.e.
the horizon,
celestial body, atmospheric influences apart, 90 from the zenith.
is
on
In Fig. 32 the points
zenith respectively.
setting
N
P
is
are the north pole and the a star at the moment of rising or
and
Z
when
ZP
90.
We
<j>
have therefore
= sin
whence
sin 8
+ cos
tan
</>
cos 8 cos h,
8.
cos
h=
<j>
tan
Provided the star be one which
rises
and
sets at the latitude of
the observer there are two solutions, h (<
setting,
Ex.
1.
180) corresponding
to
and 360
Unless
h corresponding to
rising.
tan$tan<l (sign not regarded) show that an object of declination 8 neither rises nor sets in a place of latitude <f>.
Ex.
2.
If the N. decl. of a star is
it will
the sidereal day during which has latitude 30 is 8136. Ex.
of
3.
40, show that the number of hours in be below the horizon of a place which
The
declination of Arcturus in 1909 is 19
Cambridge between the time at which
is
52
13', find the
it
39' N. and the latitude hour angle through which the star moves rises and that at which it culminates.
104
Ex.
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
[CH.
V
Let S be the sidereal time of rising of a star whose coordinates are 4. and S' be the time of setting. Show that S=a+a>', S' = a+a>", where <>' and o>" are the two roots of the equation
a,
8
cos
o>
=
tan
<p
tan
8.
Ex.
5.
Under what conditions would the azimuth
it
of a star remain
constant from rising to transit? If the star is to have a constant azimuth
circle passing
must move along a great
through the zenith. Hence the star must be on the celestial and the pole on the observer's horizon, i.e. the observer on the equator
terrestrial equator.
Ex.
its
6. If be the latitude, 8 the declination of a celestial body and h hour angle when rising or setting, show that when refraction is not
<
considered
2 cos2 Ex.
7.
\h= sec $ sec 8 cos
(<
+ S).
constant.
Show
that in latitude 45 the interval between the time at which
its setting is
any star passes due East and the time of
Let
E
[Math. Trip.] be the position of the star when due East,
the pole (Fig. 33). Then so that /V = 45, and
LEZP=90, ZP=45,
is
ZH = 9Q
inflected
and from
Z the zenith and P ZP is produced to J Z on EPH. Since
FIG. 33.
ZJ=Zff=90, we have LZJff=90, and
and JPff, we have ZP=PJ and are equal and EP = HP, and as
from
therefore in the triangles
ZPE
EZP=HJP = 90.
is
Hence the
it is
H
triangles
90 from the zenith
the position of
the star at setting, so that half a sidereal day elapses while the star moves
E to H.
Ex. 8. Two stars whose declinations are 8j, 82 are observed to be in the East at the same time and also to set at the same time show that the
;
37]
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
and that
if
t
105
number
of
latitude of the place of observation is 45, hours between the times at which they rise,
be the
2 cos
^
=
</(l+tan 8J
(1
+ tan 8 2 W(l  tan Sj) (1  tan 8 2
)
).
The length of the perpendicular from the pole on the great circle joining the two stars being unaffected by the diurnal motion, we see that the pole is equidistant from the prime vertical and the horizon, i.e. the latitude
is
45. Further the time during which a star is above the horizon hour angle at setting, or ~ 2 cos * (  tan tan 8).
<
is
twice the
Since the stars set together, and
risings is
<
is
45, the interval between their
~1
(
2 cos
~l
(
tan
Sj)
2 cos
tan 8 2 )>
whence the required
Ex.
rise at
9.
result.
If
the same
two stars whose coordinates are respectively moment at a station of latitude $, show that
a')
a,
8
and
a',
8'
sin 2 (a 
cot 2
<
= tan 2 8 + tan 2 8'  2 tan 8 tan 8' cos (a  a').
celestial sphere,
Ex.
10.
<
If
A
be the area of the
show that
to an observer
the stars in a portion A sin 2 $ will never be above his horizon, the stars in another portion A sin 2 i( will always be above his horizon, the
in latitude
stars in a portion A cos $ will daily rise and set, and a portion include all the stars with which he can become acquainted.
If
is
A
cos2
will
a be the radius
cos$).
27ra 2 (l
Small
of a sphere the area cut off by a small circle of radius $ circles of radius <f> about the north and south
poles respectively show the portions of the sphere always above below the horizon.
and always
Ex. 11. If at a place whose north latitude is <, two stars whose N.P.D. are respectively A and A', rise together, and the former comes to the meridian when the latter sets, prove that tan
It is plain that if h be the
A
tan 2 A'
'
[Math. Trip.]
rising, that of
hour angle of the second star at
cos 2k,
the
first
must be
2/,
whence we have
= cos A sin + sin A cos
(f)
<f>
= cos A' sin $ + sin A' cos $ cos h,
and the elimination of h gives the desired
result.
Ex. 12. If at any instant the plane of vibration of a Foucault's pendulum pass through a star near the horizon, prove that the plane will continue to pass through the star so long as it is near the horizon. [Math. Trip.]
The plane of a Foucault's pendulum appears to rotate round the vertical with an angular velocity found by multiplying the angular velocity of the
106
celestial sphere
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
by the sine of the moves over *SW = cos 8dt.
latitude.
[CH.
V S
In the small time dt the star
to
(Fig. 34)
If
S'T be perpendicular
ZS we
have
S'T=S'SsmS'ST=cos8cosr)dt=sin<}>dt.
Hence
S'ZS= sin
<j>
dt.
FIG. 34.
38.
Celestial latitude
and longitude.
For certain
classes
of investigation we have to employ yet another system of coordinates on the celestial sphere. Just as the equator has
means of defining the right ascension and the declination of a star, so the ecliptic is made the basis of a system of coordinates known as celestial longitude and latitude.
furnished the
We
employ in
this
new system the same
origin as before.
The
first
point of Aries T is the origin from which longitude is to be measured and the direction of the measurement is to be that of
the apparent annual movement of the sun along the ecliptic as indicated by the arrowhead on Fig. 35.
of the ecliptic through great circle is drawn from the nole the star S, and the intercept TS on this great circle between the star and the ecliptic is that coordinate which is called the latitude
positive or negative according as the hemisphere which contains the nole or the antinole of the ecliptic. The arc on the ecliptic from the origin T to T, the foot of the perpendicular, is called the longitude, which is of the star.
A
K
The
latitude
is
star lies in the
38]
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
This
is
107
circle
the second coordinate.
to
measured round the
from
360, so that if the right ascension of an object on the ecliptic is increased its longitude is also increased.
observe that the meanings of the words latitude and longitude as here explained in their astronomical significance are quite different from the meanings of the
will of course
The reader
same words
matters.
in their
more
It is usual to
/3
familiar use with regard to terrestrial employ the letter X to express astronoto
mical longitude and
express astronomical
latitude,
thus
VT = X
The
equator
ecliptic.
and
TS =
the
/3.
arc of the solstitial colure
LH
and
ecliptic
is
equal
to
intercepted between the the obliquity of the
N
FIG. 35.
If
a,
B be the R.A.
and
decl.
of S,
then the formulae for
transformation are obtained either from the general formulae of 12 or directly from the triangle (Fig. 35), and for the
SKN
determination of the latitude and longitude we have the equations
= cos CD sin & sin to cos B sin a cos /3 sin \ = sin &> sin 8 +cos a> cos B sin a cos /3 cos X = cos 8 cos a
sin ft
(1),
j
by which we can determine
It is generally easy to see
ft
and X when a and
8 are
known.
from the nature of the problem whether When this is known the longitude is greater or less than 180. one of the last two equations may be dispensed with. We can make these equations more convenient for logarithmic
108
EIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
[CH.
V
that tan
work by the introduction of an auxiliary quantity = cosec a tan 8 ( 13), and we have
M
M = Z SvL, so
,
8 sin (M = sin 8 cos ( M cos ft sin X cos ft cos X = cos 8 cos a.
sin ft
= sin
&>)
&>)
cosec cosec
M
Jlf,
The form
If
adopted value of
of the equations shows that a change of 180 does not affect the result.
in the
M
we represent by 90
E
the angle subtended at
S by
KN
we have from Delambre's formulae
(45 i /3) = cos (45  (8 + o>)} cos (45 + a), sin %(E + X) cos (45  /3) = cos {45   (S  &>)} sin (45 +  a), = sin {45  \ (8 + to)} cos (45 + a), sin  (#  X) sin (45/3) = sin {45  (3  &>)} sin (45 + a), cos ^(E\) sin (45)
cos
(E + X)
cos
by which X and ft as well as j& can be determined. If it be required to solve the converse problem, namely, to determine the R.A. and decl. when the latitude and longitude are
given,
we have by transformation
sin 8
ft>
of (1)
\
= cos sin ft + sin &> cos ft sin X cos & sin a = sin &> sin ft + cos &> cos ft sin X = cos ft cos X cos 8 cos a
Ex.
1.
[
(2).
j
Show that the right ascension and declination of the nole of the are respectively 270, 90  o> and that the right ascension and  90. declination of the antinole are 90,
ecliptic
Ex.
2.
If a, 8 are the R. A.
is X,
and
decl. of
the point of the ecliptic whose
longitude
show that
cos X
sin X sin
<a
= cos a cos 8, = sin 8,
= sin a cos 8.
and
decl. of
sin X cos
<a
Ex.
3.
If ai,
8!
and a 2
at )
,
8 2 be the K.A.
two stars which have
the same longitude, prove that
sin (a 2
=tan
&>
(tan
81
cos a 2
is
tan 8 2 cos ai).
5 h. 49 m., its declination is
Ex.
4.
The
right ascension of a Orionis
ecliptic is
+7
and
23',
and the obliquity of the
If a
23
10',
a>
27'.
Show
2'.
that the longitude
latitude of the star are respectively 87
5.
 16
Ex.
=6
33' 29", 8
=  16 22' 35", = 23 27' 32", = 35917'44", j8= 17 35' 37". X
show that
381
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
109
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES ON CHAP.
Ex.
1.
V.
Show
altitude of a star
that to an observer at the north pole of the earth the would be its declination and would be unaltered by the
Show that in the same case the azimuth of a star (measured from any fixed meridian) would differ from its right ascension only by an arc which would be the same at a given instant for all stars.
diurnal motion.
Ex.
2.
A star of right ascension
/3
a and declination 8 has a small latitude
its R.A.
is a, differs
/3.
Prove that the longitude of the sun when
longitude of the star by
from the
sin 8 cot a approximately.
Ex. 3. Show that for a place within the arctic or antarctic circle the points of intersection of the ecliptic with the horizon travel completely round the horizon, during a sidereal day, but that for any other place they oscillate
about the East and West points.
Ex.
4.
[Math. Trip.]
The East point
of two stars by A, B. PA declinations of A, B, A', B' are 8 l5 8 2 >
denoted by E, the pole by P, and the places meets EB in A\ and PB meets EA in B'. The
is
81' >
2'
respectively,
2
.
show that
tan
81
tan S 2
'
= tan Sj tan
Let
EA
the pole. and tan /n/tan X = tan Ex.
5.
and EB intersect the meridian at distances X, p, respectively from Then since E is the pole of the meridian, tan X/tan p. = tan Sj'/tan 81
2 '/tan
82 .
If z be the zenith distance of a star as seen
from a station P,
then at the same
moment
z'
at a station
P' which
z'
is
at a small distance s
from
P the zenith distance will be
very nearly
where
= z s cos 0+^s 2 sin 1" cot z sin 2 6,

6 being the difference between the azimuths of the star and P' as seen from P.
We
assume that
z'
z
1
and
z)
s
are both expressed in arc, their measures
in radians are therefore
(z
sin 1"
and
s sin 1".
We
have
cosz'
= coszcoss+sinz sins cos 6 = cos z (1  1 s2 sin 2 1") +s sin
1
1" sin z cos 6.
But we
also
have
cos z' = cos (z
 z) cos z  sin (/  z) sin z
(z'
= cos z {1  \ (z'  z) 2 sin 2 1"} and equating these two values of cos z' gives
z'
 z} sin
1" sin
z,
 z=  s cos +
z'
s2
sin l"cot z\(z'
 z) 2 sin
1" cot z
;
as a
last
approximation term the desired result
6.
first
z=
is
scosd, and with
this substitution in the
obtained.
Ex.
Let
a', 8',
rj'
be respectively the azimuth, the declination and the
110
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
[CH.
V
<f>
Show that for a given latitude parallactic angle of a point on the horizon. these quantities can be calculated for any hour angle by the formulae
tan 8'= cot< cos^,
sin a'
=
sin h cos
8',
cos a' =
sin
+ sec
<
sin
8',
tana'=
tsin</>tanA,
cos r{ =
+ sin
<
sec
8',
= + sin h cos <. rf
Ex. 7. If 8, h be respectively the declination and the hour angle of a star, obtain the following formulae by which its azimuth a and zenith distance z can be easily determined when for that latitude the values of a', 8', rf
(as
denned
in the last example), corresponding to
h are known.
cos 2 = sin
sin
(8'
8)
cos 17',
('
(a'
cos
= sin (8'  8) sin rf, = cos (8'  8). a) sin z
a) sin z
Ex.
8.
Show
liave for determining
that with the quantities used in the last example the star's parallactic angle rj
:
we
sin
T)
= sin (a  a') cosec (8'  8),
/
cos TJ = cot z cot (8
 8).
and
13'.
7,
Ex.
9.
As an
illustration of the formulae of Exs. 6
calculate the
zenith distance and azimuth of Arcturus at the
West hour angle
2 h 35 m being
,
given that the declination
Ex. 10.
is
+19
44'
and the latitude 52
Show
a
that the latitude
<f>
can be determined by an observation
is
of the altitude
of the pole star which at the time of observation has an hour
angle h and a polar distance
<f)
p and
that the formula
sin 1" jo 2 sin 2
approximately
a.
z
= a p cos h +
may
h tan
Ex. 11.
is
Show that the hour
angle h and the zenith distance
when a
star
due East or due West
sin
be found from the equations
8= sin $ cos z;
sinAcos
8= + smz
;
cos Acos 8 = cos$eos2
;
by using the upper sign
Ex. 12.
in the former case
and the lower sign
in the latter.
Find the
first
and second
differential coefficients of the zenith
distance z of a star with respect to the hour angle. We can investigate this either from the fundamental formulae or geometrically as follows, Fig. 36.
N
is
the north pole,
Z
the zenith,
is
P
the
star.
In the time dh the star
has moved to H, where perpendicular to ZH, then
PH
perpendicular to
NP
and NH.
sinadh.
If
PQ
be
dz=HQ = HPsinr) = cos 8 sinrjdh =
cos<f>
We have also
da = PQ cosec z = PH COST) cosec z = cos
whence
= = cos 8 cos
TJ
8 cos
TJ
cosec z dh,
cosec
z.
38]
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
111
To find the second differential coefficient we differentiate dz/dh as above found with respect to h and assuming that a and h are both expressed in
radians,
d*z 7To= ah?
 cos
<
cos a
da 77dh
,
=  cos
<f>
cos a cos 8 cos
rj
cosec z.
90
FIG. 36.
Ex. 13.
If the declination of a star exceed the latitude,
in zenith distance
most rapid rate of change
show that the by diurnal motion is equal to
is
the cosine of the declination.
cosine of the latitude.
If the declination be less than the latitude, in zenith distance
show that the most rapid rate of change
Ex. 14.
equal to the
if z
If 2 be the zenith distance of an object at the hour angle h and be the zenith distance of the same object at the hour angle h which is very near to A show from Ex. 12 that
,
z
2
=
15 (A
A
)
cos (f) sin a
225 sin 1" (h
A
2
)
cos <f> cos a cos 8 cos?; cosec 2,
where the zenith distances are expressed in arc and the hour angles in time.
Ex. 15.
star are
A
series of
measurements of zenith distances
.
z\ ... zn
of the
same
the
made at closely following hour angles hi...h n arithmetic means of the zenith distances and hour angles.
value of
z
Let
/, AQ
be the
z
,
Show
z'
that
corresponding to A
r 225 sin 1" cos
/
;
,
is
obtained by applying to
77
the correction
$ cos a cos 8 cos
cosec 22 (h r
A
2
)
.
112
Making
'
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
[CH.
cosec
2,
V
A =  cos
</>
sin a,
B=
(A!
$ 225 sin 1" cos
$ cos a cos 8 cos ^
,
we have from
the last question
2j
=2 + A
A )+
)
(A!
 Ao) 2
2
22
=2 +A
A (A 2
+ B (A 2  A
) ,
2B
= 2 + ,1 (AB  A + 5 (A,  A
)
2
)
,
adding and dividing by n
H,
which proves the theorem. This formula is useful when
series of zenith distances
it is
desired to obtain the best result from a
taken in rapid succession.
the hour angle of a star of declination 8 be h h! when it has the azimuth 180+ a the
Ex. 16.
Show
that
if
when
it
has the azimuth a and
(ft
latitude
can be found from the equation
cosi(A'+A)
COS
(A
?;,,,;.
fl)
Ex. 17.
circumpolar stars
star's
In north latitude 45 the greatest azimuth attained by one of the is 45 from the north point of the horizon. Prove that the distance is 30. polar [Math. Trip.]
Ex. 18.
Show how
A,
to find the latitude if the local sidereal time be
observed at which two
known
h'
stars
have the same azimuth.
The hour angles known and (p. 3)
at which the two stars have the azimuth
a are
cot a sin h
cot
=
cos
<j)
tan 8 tan
8'
+ sin $ cos h,
a sin h' =
cos
<
+ sin $ cos A',
jT
.
whence eliminating a
tail<f>
h' = tan 8 sin tan 8' sin h sin (A  A)
:

rr;

Ex. 19. Two altitudes of the sun, /3 and /3 + Aft are simultaneously observed at two neighbouring places on the same meridian at a time when the declination of the sun is 8. Prove that, if be the latitude of one of the
<
places, the difference of their latitudes is
A/3 cos
/3
approximately
sin
sin 0}.
[Coll.
cos 0/{sin 8
Exam.]
Ex. 20.
longitude,
Show
and w
a is the sun's altitude in the prime vertical, the obliquity of the ecliptic, the latitude of the place is
if
that
L
its
sin
~1
(sin
a)
sin Z/sin a).
Ex. 21. Show how </> the latitude may be accurately found from an observed zenith distance of a body of known declination 8 when near the meridian, assuming as an approximate value </> =
38]
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
the fundamental formula
cos
z
113
From
= sin = cos
</>)
<f>
sin 8
8)
+ cos $ cos 8 cos h
 2 sin 2 h cos $
cos 8
sin 2
h,
((f>
we obtain
sin in
(2 + 8
sin
is
 8 + $) = cos 8 cos (2
which the hour angle h
right ascension of the body.
.
known from the local sidereal time and the If we make x = z+8  <, we obtain
,
sin
**
sm
.
cos 8 cos d>  STT
<>
\
sm 2 iA.
small,
But as the
nearly
(
star is near the meridian
x
is
whence we obtain very
i
3,
Ex. 3)
x=
or
2 cos 8 cos
sin
tj.
(rf>
^^
6 ^
.
Sln
,
sin ^ ^,r^. rv mf<4 *o.ij\
. .
(<f>
8)
,
"
(sec ^X)TS,
making
^
and observing that
is
very nearly
#,
we have
whence <)=2 + 8a; becomes known.
If .S be the sun's radius vector, /3 its true longitude and the obliquity of the ecliptic, the coordinate measured along the line from the earth's centre to the true vernal equinox, the coordinate measured along the line in the plane of the equator perpendicular to and
Ex. 22.
,
latitude,
X
Y
X
h the point of Cancer, i.e. to a point whose B. A. is 6 , and coordinate perpendicular to the equator and towards the north pole, show
towards the
first
Z
that
(p.
618,
N.A. 1906),
F= R sin Z= R sin
where the sun's mean distance
is
cos
sin
w
193 ^3,
+ 445 Rft,
the unit of length and the numerical coefficients are in units of the seventh place of decimals.
From
the general formulae of transformation
sin 8
we have
,
= sin/3cosw+cosjsino>sin
,
cosS cos a = cos j9 cos
cos 8 sin
a=
sin
/3
sin
<>
+ cos ft cos a sin
,
whence
X= R cos
Y Z
B. A.
ft
cos
<u
,

R sin sin + R cos R sin ft cos a + R cos
ft
ft
cos
sin
o>
sin
,
ft
a>
sin
.
8
114
EIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
/3 is
[CH.
V
In the case of the sun
sin
<u
= '3980
and
Z
extremely small and making sin)3=j3sin 1", obtain the desired result. Tables of X, F, for each day throughout the year are given in the ephemeris.
and cos
<a
= "9174 we
Ex. 23. Assuming the Milky Way to be a great circle of stars, cutting the equator in R.A. 18 h 30 m and making an angle 65, measured northwards, with the equator, determine the R.A. and decl. of its pole.
,
Ex. 24.
ecliptic
;
A
show that
planet's heliocentric orbit is inclined at a small angle i to the if its declination is a maximum, either the motion in
latitude vanishes, or the longitude is approximately 90 is the longitude of the ascending node.
+i cot o>
sin a
where a
As
the declination
is
a
maximum
on the with the equator. The projection of on Let be the perpendicular from ecliptic will also be nearly 90.
intersection
its orbit
N of
the planet
P
must be 90 from the
NP
NT
N
TQ
the ecliptic, where
T is
the vernal equinox and
1
Q
the ascending node.
>
NT^ we have tan.#"7 =sin'T 7 tana>, triangle NT& we have tan NT= sin (a^T) tan
In the small triangle
T T
and
in the
i.
Hence
and approximately
sin
T T= tan i sin (a  T T} cot a,
T
1
T= i cot
sin a,
whence the
planet's longitude is in general
90+Vcot <> siri a.
Ex. 25.
Show
4 P.M. Greenwich
mean time on
12 m
3
that the true distance between Regulus and the moon at Jan. 6, 1909 is 41 59' 31", being given
Right Ascension
Declination
Moon
Star
7h
568 '9 316
10
N N
24
12
15'
40"
24
45
38]
Ex. 26.
RIGHT ASCENSION AND DECLINATION
Prove that for a star which
is
115
rises to the
north of east, the rate at
which the azimuth changes
the same
is
when
it
rises as
.
when
2
it is
due
east,
and
east,
is
a
minimum when
is
the azimuth
sin" 1 (tan X
sin
v cos
)
north of
east.
a/
where X
the latitude and a the altitude of the star
when due
[Math. Trip. 1902.]
Show that observations of the altitudes of two known stars known Greenwich time are sufficient to determine the latitude and Show how from these observations the position longitude of the observer.
Ex. 27.
at a
of the observer
may
be found graphically on a terrestrial globe.
If the stars chosen for observation are
show that the errors in latitude and longitude due to the small error
observed altitude of each star are respectively
esec (a!+a 2 )cos (a t
02)
on opposite sides of the meridian, t in the
and
t
sec
,
$ sec (aj+c^sin (aj a 2),
stars...
where
<
is
the estimated latitude and 2aj
2a 2 are the azimuths of the
[Oxford Second Public Examination, 1902.]
82
CHAPTER
VI.
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION.
PAGE
39.

The laws
of optical refraction
116
40.
41.
42.
Astronomical refraction
43. 44. 45. 46.
General theory of atmospheric refraction Integration of the differential equation for the refraction . Cassini's formula for atmospheric refraction
.
....
.
118
120
122
.
.125
.
Other formulae for atmospheric refraction
.
.
.
128
130
131
Effect of atmospheric pressure and temperature on refraction On the determination of atmospheric refractions from obser
vation
47. 48.
Effect of refraction on hour angle
and declination .133 Effect of refraction on the apparent distance of two neighbour.
.
ing celestial points
49.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.135
.
Effect of refraction
on the position angle of a double star
138
39.
The laws
of optical refraction.
If a ray of light
AO
homogeneous medium homogeneous medium
a different transparent the ray generally undergoes a sudden change of direction and traverses the new medium in the direcThis change is known as refraction. The ray is tion 00'.
enters at
HH
(Fig. 38)
moving through one transparent
KK
AO
and the ray 00' the refracted ray, and incident ray and the refracted ray lie in the same plane both the to the surface separating the media. through the normal at be the normal at to the surface separating the two Let media, then Z NO A = \fr is known as the angle of incidence and as the angle of refraction, and the fundamental law Z MOO' =
called the incident ray
MON
<
of refraction
is
expressed by the formula
sin "^
=
fjL
sin
</>,
where
a certain constant depending on the character of the yu, two media. If by a change in the direction of the incident ray
is
39]
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
117
the angle i/r alters, then <f> must alter correspondingly in such a way that the ratio of the sines of the two angles shall remain the same. We call p the index of refraction from the first medium into the second.
FIG. 38.
It should in strictness be
noted that while
//,
varies, as stated,
with the nature of the two media, it also varies with the character For example, /JL would be different for a ray of blue of the light. from what it is for a ray of red light, the media being the light
same in both cases. refraction and in
is called, it for is
We
have to consider however only atmospheric
dispersion, as this
this case the
phenomenon
not great enough to
make
it
purposes of practical astronomy. We value of fi which will be sufficiently accurate even though the rays of light with which we have to deal are of a composite
necessary to attend to therefore take a mean
nature.
The
refractive index
of the atmosphere at the earth's C.
surface at the temperature
to
and pressure 760 mm.
is
taken
be T000294 (Everett, Units and Physical Constants, p. 75). If the direction of the ray were reversed, i.e. if a ray went
to and thence emerged into from 0' through the medium the ray would traverse the medium precisely along the OA. This is only a particular case of the general property path that the curved or broken line which a ray follows in the course
KK
HH
HH
of a series of refractions
through any media and at any inthe direction of propagation Hence we see that if the lower surface
if
cidences would also be followed
of the light
were reversed.
118
of the
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
[CH. VI
medium
KK
on
its
will
emergence pursue a direction O'A', which
is parallel to the upper surface, the at 0' into a second layer of the medium
HH
ray
is
parallel to the incident
learn that a ray of light on passing a parallelsided homogeneous plate is not changed in through As we are direction though it will no doubt be shifted laterally.
direction
AO.
Thus we
now only concerned with the
directions of rays the lateral shift
need not be attended to. Let /xa be the refractive index from a medium
(Fig. 39).
it is
Let
^
be the refractive index from
into
H
required to find the refractive index from
2
.
H into H H into H the medium H
2
l
,
t
FIG. 39.
of H^ and 2 emerges Q through parallel plates to its original direction and if ^, <, 6 be the parallel successive angles of incidence, then from the first incidence and
in
A
H
ray from
H
H
;
the
last
emergence we have the equations and sin ir = sin ^ = yui sin
<j>
p, z
sin 6,
whence
yUj
sin
<f>
= /i
2
sin 0.
thus obtain the following result. If /ij be the index of refraction from
into
We
a standard
medium
medium H 1} 2 the index standard medium into another medium
another
/u,
of refraction from the
2
,
H
and
if
the and of incidence of a ray passing direct from HI to 2 sin <f> = /z 2 sin 6, and the index of reangle of refraction, then /^
,
H
</>
be the angle
fraction for a ray passing directly from
40.
H
to
H
2
is
PS//UI.
Astronomical refraction.
rays of light from a celestial body on passing from outer space through the earth's atmosphere undergo what is known as
The
3940]
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
119
astronomical refraction. In the upper regions of the atmosphere the density of the air is so small that but little is there contributed to the total refraction. The refraction with which
astronomers have to deal takes place mainly within a very few In consequence of refraction a ray of light from a star does not pass through the atmosphere in a straight line. It follows a curve, so that when the observer
miles of the earth's surface.
receives the rays the star appears to which is not its true direction.
him
to be in a direction
FIG. 40.
A
direction
effective
ray of light coming towards us from a distant star in the SA (Fig. 40) pursues a straight path until it enters the
atmosphere at A, and from thence the path
is
no longer
straight.
From
A
to the observer at
the ray
is is
passing through
till
atmospheric
layers
of
which
the
density
more and more To the observer the rays appear to come from
creasing, so that the ray curves
continually init reaches 0.
T,
where
OT
is
the tangent to the curve at 0.
parallel to star would appear if there
AS
a line If through this line will show the direction in
OR
be drawn
which the had been no refracting disturbance.
Thus the effect of refraction is to move the apparent place of the star through the angle TOR up towards Z, the zenith of the observer. Refraction is greatest at the horizon where objects are
apparently elevated by this cause through about 35'. The observed coordinates of a heavenly body must, in general, receive corrections which will show what the coordinates would
the effects of refraction
have been had there been no refraction. The investigation of is therefore an important part of practical
astronomy.
120
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
[CH. VI
An approximate table is here given showing the amount by which refraction diminishes the apparent zenith distances of stars. The barometer is supposed to stand at 30 in. and the thermometer
at 50 F.
See Newcomb's Spherical Astronomy,
p.
433.
Apparent
Zenith Distance
4041]
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
be the earth's centre,
121
Let
G
+=
Z 8QP,
&=
z QPC,
<f> 2
=
z
,
= r,,
(
=
r2
Then from the
principles of refraction
39) because
CQ
is
normal to the surface of separation we have
sn
But from the
triangle
sin
:
=
sin
i2
sn
\/r
whence eliminating
ty
we obtain
sn
0!
=r
2 /*2
sin
<
2
The same would of course be true for any two consecutive layers, and thus we obtain the following general theorem. Let the atmosphere be regarded as constituted of a number of
thin spherical homogeneous layers, concentric with the earth and varying in density from one layer to another. As a ray of light traverses successive layers, the product of the sine of the angle of
refraction by the radius of the layer
and by
its refractive
index
is
constant.
We may
express this theorem in the following formula
rfi sin
<
:
= a/^o sin z ........................ (i),
where z is the apparent zenith distance, a the radius of the earth and /z the index of refraction of the lowest layer.
X
FIG. 42.
If we suppose the layers to be indefinitely thin, then the path of the ray instead of being a broken line would be a curve. Let (Fig. 42) be the curve as it passes through the successive
XTO
122
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
[CH. VI
Draw the tangent TQP to layers and reaches the earth at 0. the curve at T, where the ray enters a layer whose refractive index is /*, and radius r. The tangent coincides with a small = 0, the angle of part of the ray and consequently Z CTQ
When the ray first enters the atmospheric strata the tangent to the curve must coincide with the true direction of the indicates On the other hand the tangent to the curve at star.
refraction.
the direction in which the ray enters the eye of the observer. The angle between these two tangents shows the total change in
This is the quantity which we seek to what we commonly call the refraction. determine, If p be the refraction then dp is the angle between two con= Z ACT and = Z GTP. From secutive tangents = d6d<f>if tan <f>dr/r, whence geometry we see that dQ
the direction of the ray.
for this is
<
dp =
tan
<f>dr/r
d(f>.
We
written
can now transform this equation by
log r
(i),
which
may be
+ log /* + log sin
<f>
= const.,
differentiating
we have
dr/r
whence
Eliminating tan
</>
+ du/p 4 cot <f>d<f> = dp = tan <f>duf/ji
(i)
(ii),
(iii).
by the help of
1
au, n sin
we
find
dp
=
z
Y
a (rV  a>
da.
2
sin 2 *)l
Thus we obtain the
*42.
differential equation for the refraction.
Integration
of the
differential
equation for the
would have
1 the value
refraction.
To determine the
refraction accurately this equation
to be integrated between the limits of a of a at the upper layer of atmosphere.
=a
and a
It is at this point that
the difficulty
t
in
the
theory
of refraction
makes
itself
felt
j*.
The general
for insertion here.
discussion of the integration of this equation is too difficult Reference may be made to Professor Newcomb's Compendium
of Spherical Astronomy and to Professor Campbell's Practical Astronomy. An account of Bessel's elaborate investigation will be found in Briinnow's Spherical
Astronomy. I am indebted to Prof. E. T. Whittaker for calling the elegant approximate method here given.
my
attention to
4142]
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
123
/u,
The expression to be integrated contains two variables r and which must be related. If the law of this relation were known then we could express r in terms of /z so that the problem would be the integration of a certain function of /z. But we have not
precise information as to the law according to which the index of refraction varies with the elevation above the earth's surface.
It is however most interesting to find that it is possible to obtain an approximate solution of the problem quite sufficient for most purposes without any knowledge of the law according to which the density of the atmosphere diminishes with the elevation above
the earth's surface.
assume r/a = 1 + s where s is a small quantity because the altitude of even the highest part of the atmosphere is small
We
shall
shall substitute this in comparison with the earth's radius. value for r/a in the expression of dp and disregard all powers of
s
We
above the
first.
We
thus have
/t
sin
I
J
i
a (u?
fj,
u
2
sin 2
^A
I
ZT
^
,.2
f*
air2 ~ Po sm
..
2
nl /
pi
sinzdij.
sn 2
The
i
2
(/i
 /V sin
'
2
*)*
refraction is thus expressed by two integrals of which the and most important part expresses what the refraction would be if s = 0, i.e. if the earth's surface was a plane. This is of course a wellknown elementary integral and its value is
first
sin"1
If
(/i
sin z)
z.
we denote by x the
small quantity
{(1
(yu,
1) the integral
may
be written
sin"1
+ x) sin z}
z
when developed in powers of # by Maclaurin's theorem be convenient for calculation. If we neglect all powers of 2 3 x above the second we see that (/AO 1) tan z + %(fi I) tan .?
and
this
will
is
the approximate value of the first integral. In evaluating the second integral we are to notice that
s
enters as a factor into the integrand and therefore
we
shall
make
124
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
/Lt
[CH. VI
no appreciable error by putting
order s
/n =l, for quantities of the that they may be neglected. Thus (/t the second integral assumes the simple form
=
~
1) are so
sma ll
sin z
I*
I*)
cos z
3
sdp.
J i
Let
m be
its refractive
the density of that atmospheric shell which has index, then by Gladstone and Dale's law fi and
p.
as
m are
connected by an equation of the form
yu,
1
= cm,
where
c is
a constant quantity, so
dp = c dm.
.
If
m
be the density of the
air at the surface of the earth,
then
the integral becomes
sin
c
,z
[
m
s
o
.
COS3 Zj
dm.
Integrating by parts this becomes
sin z [*
c for the
\
cos3
m.ds,
;
.?.
Jo
terms independent of the integral vanish at both limits
The and s = when m = m in this expression has a remarkable significance, for it integral is obvious that it expresses the total mass of air lying vertically over a unit area on the earth's surface and is therefore propor
we
also
make
s
= s' when
w=0
.
the pressure of the atmosphere, i.e. to the height of Thus the actual law by which the density of the the barometer. atmosphere may vary with the altitude is not now required in the
tional to
problem.
The
theoretical
expression
of
the
refraction
has therefore
assumed a remarkably simple form. It is the difference between two integrals whereof the first has been found and the second must
be proportional to tan z + tan 3 z. From this we learn that the total refraction must be of the form A tan z + B tan 3 z where z is
the apparent zenith distance and A, B are certain constants. The values of these constants are to be determined by observation
as is
shown
in
46.
can also assume various hypotheses as to the relation between r and /* and compare the results so calculated with
We
4243]
those
of
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
actual
observation.
125
different relations
tion the results
43.
It is noteworthy that several between r and each give a theory of refracof which are in fair accordance with observation.
/JL
Cassini's formula for atmospheric refraction.
By
sphere
is
the hypothesis of Cassini, who assumed that the atmohomogeneous, we can obtain an expression for the refracis
with that just found. Of course this untrue, but it should be observed that if the surface hypothesis of the earth were a plane instead of being a curved surface the successive atmospheric layers would be parallelsided, and theretion practically identical
fore the refractive index of the lowest layer alone
would determine
the total refraction
(
39).
It is therefore only the curvature of the
earth which prevents the formula derived from Cassini's theory
for believing that at an altitude of twenty miles the atmospheric density would be less than a thirtieth part of its amount at the earth's surface. may
from being strictly true. There are excellent grounds
We
therefore
conclude that almost
all
the
refraction
is
produced
within twenty miles of the earth's surface. Let (Fig. 43) be the place of the observer and in a horizontal direcreaching
tion such a ray has of course experienced more refraction than any other ray.
:
OH
a ray
Let a be the radius of the and a + 1 the radius of the shell of atmosphere which
earth, If the ray first strikes at H. 6 be the angle between the
and tangents to the shells at and if taken to be a be H,
HO
straight line
sin 2 6
we have
2
= 1  a?l(a + I} = 2l/a = 40/4000 = 1/100,
is
FIG. 43.
whence 6
about 6.
effective layers of air of various densities through which the rays have to pass are so nearly parallel that none of them would have to be altered through an angle exceeding
Hence the
126
6
to
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
[CH. VI
antici
make them
strictly parallel.
We
might therefore
pate that no wide departure from truth will arise by assuming the atmosphere to be in horizontal layers, in which case the non
homogeneity produces no effect on the total refraction. The formula connecting the refraction with the zenith distance
in the case of a
supposed homogeneous atmosphere has been thus
is
obtained by Cassini.
We
spherical
shall
the space
assume that the atmosphere between the two
of
radii
condensed
into
shells
CS
The
and
CV
respectively.
atmosphere is considered of uniform density and of refractive index p.
The ray LI impinges
at
/
'
on the atmospheric surface to which GIH is normal and
reaches the observer on the
earth's
surface at
x/r
S, so
that
of
is
Z
LIH =
is
the angle
incidence
and
Z SIC =
<
the angle of refraction. The ray reaches the
Flo
44
ob
server in the direction IS, so that
/.ISV=z
is
the apparent
If a denotes as before the radius zenith distance of the object. of the earth, and I the thickness of the atmosphere SV, we have
from the triangle
SCI
(1
+ I/a) sin
sin
<
and
also
sin ^r
is
fy
= sin z, = p, sin <.
I/a) sin z,
less
Hence
= /* (1
very nearly, since I/a
a small quantity estimated at
than
1/800. If p be the whole refraction, i.e. the angle through which the incident ray is bent from its original direction, we have ^ = (f) + p, and assuming p to be expressed in seconds of arc
p sin 1"
Substituting for sin
fi
>/r,
= (sin ty
<j>,
sin
<j>
</>)
sec
<f>.
sin
(1
cos
respectively the expressions
(1
I/a) sin z,
I/a) sin z,
Vl
(1
2 l/af sin z,
43]
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
127
we
obtain
p
=
(//, 1)
cosec 1
(1
l/a)s\uz
;
y
= =A
where
(fj.
1) cosec 1" {tan z
(tan z
+
tan 3 z) I/a]
(i),
tan
z+ B tan z A= l)(l /a) cosec 1", B= 1) Z/a cosec 1".
3
(/j,
I
(//,
For the practical application of the formula which has thus been derived by the different processes of this and the preceding This has article, we must obtain numerical values for A and B. to be done from actual observation of the refraction in at least two particular instances (see 46), and we shall assume it has
been thus found that at temperature 50 F. and pressure 30 in. the refractions at the apparent zenith distances 54 and 74 are
80"'06 and 200"'46 respectively.
The formula
(i) will
thus give for the determination of
3
A
and
B
the two equations
54) + 5 (tan 54) 3 (tan 74) + B (tan 74) Solving these equations we obtain the following general expression for the refraction at mean pressure 30 in. and tempera80"'06
(tan
,
.
=A 200"'46 = A
ture 50 F.,
p
= 58"294
tan z
 0"'06682
tan3 .2
(ii).
Thus B/A
great,
i.e.
2 only 1/873 so that unless tan ^ becomes very unless the object is near the horizon, we may neglect
is
the second term.
If the zenith distance does not exceed
70, the
refraction
may
be computed with sufficient accuracy for many purposes where no extreme temperatures are involved by the simple expression
k tan
z,
and where we are using only the first term, that is neglecting the term containing tan3 z, it is slightly more accurate to take k = 58"'2
rather than 58"'294.
refraction.
The quantity k
is
called the coefficient of
Ex. 1. What ought to be the thickness of a homogeneous atmosphere which would give an expression for refraction in accordance with observation
?
/A = l/a,
128
whence
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
/a=00668/58'3
[CH. VI
so that taking a = 3957 miles,
we
find
l=4'5 miles.
Ex.
2.
Show
1 '000283
at pressure 30 in.
that the refractive index of the atmosphere would be and temp. 50 F. according to Cassini's theory of
refraction.
Ex. 3. Show from formula (ii) that 1' 48"'3 is the refraction at the = = apparent zenith distance 61 48' (p 30in., temp. 50 F.).
Show that if quantities less than the fifth part of a second be disthe second term in the expression for the refraction may be omitted regarded whenever the zenith distance does not exceed 55.
Ex.
4.
Ex. 5. If we express the refraction as k' tan z' where z is the true zenith distance instead of in the usual form k tan z where z is the apparent zenith
distance,
show that
if
k and
k'
k'
are both expressed in seconds of arc
= k (1
k sec 2
z sin 1").
44.
Other formulae for atmospheric refraction.
density of the air constituting the diminishes as the distance from the earth increases. atmosphere The index of atmospheric refraction will in like manner diminish
It is obvious that the
from r000294
its
value at the earth's surface to the value 1
at the upper limits of the refracting atmosphere. take a as in 41 to be the radius of the lowest atmospheric and r' the radius of the layer when /JL has /i layer for which /*
We
=
,
n+1 =r', where n is Simpson assumed that r/i a quantity at present unknown. The assumed equation gives
declined to unity.
r
= r' when
/*
=
1
as
this
to
diminish, and
already arranged. will be the case
As
r
increases
/j,
is
provided
(n +
1) be
positive.
We
have seen
(
41) that
//,rsin
=
<f>
const.
pressions of this product for the upper
Equating the exand lower limits of the
atmosphere
/i
a sin z^=r sin z',
where
/
is
at the lowest.
the angle of incidence at the uppermost layer and z Substituting for r we have
/A
a sin z
sin z
= a/i n+1 sin /,
whence
or
= /* n sin
=
.
z, ',
z
,
.
sin" 1
sin z
.
44]
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
differential of
w+1
r//,
129
Taking the logarithmic
= r', we
have
^+
whence from
(ii)
(
=0,
d(
41)
72

=
cot
d> rr
>
/A
a/i
and from
(iii) (
41)
To
find the refraction
between the values of
angle of refraction
is
only to integrate this expression the atmospheric boundaries. The <f> z at the earth's surface, and
at
sin
we have
"
, 1
sin z
at
upper boundary of the atmosphere, whence we Simpson's formula for the refraction
the
have
p
Ex.
1.
=
\z
o>,
sin" 1
V
AC I
a small quantity of which powers
Show that
if /J O
H
=1+
where w
is
neglected, we can obtain from Simpson's formula the following approximate expression for the refraction
above the second
may be
p
= i
I
tan
2
V 7i
72
/
3 5 1> tan z.
'
Ex.
2.
Assuming that observation has shown the law
p = 58"294 tan z
of refraction to
be
(
42)
 0" 06682 tan 3 z,
for
p.
show that Simpson's formula would give
air at the earth's surface the value
1
the index of refraction of the
also that
'00028,
and
n = 8 and
Ex.
3.
Show
that
if
Simpson's formula were correct the height of the
atmosphere so far as it is effective for refraction would be about ten miles.
A
convenient formula due to Bradley
may be deduced from
the expression just obtained:
p
=
n V
(z
sin" 1
A*'
which
may be
written
sin (z
np)
=
= sin
np) ^
np)
n
z/fjt
,
whence
B. A.
sin z
sin z
sin (z 
+ sin (z
=
u
'1
1
,
AC +
1
130
or,
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
as the refraction is small,
[CH. VI
If
we introduce the values
of
/z
and n used
in
Ex.
2, p.
129,
we
should find as the approximate formula = 59" tan (z 4p). p
We
known
can correct this formula so as to
make
it
exact for two
if
refractions at standard temperature
and pressure,
for
example we take
and z = 75, p = 214"10 (see Greenwich Tables), we get the final form
z
= 50,
p
= 69"36
p=58"'361 tan (^409/j).
By
this
formula
all
refractions
up
to the zenith distance of 80
can
be determined approximately. Bradley's formulae is suited
because tan (z
for observations
near the horizon,
z 4>'09p) does not become indefinitely large as
approaches 90.
Ex.
1.
Show
that the formula for refraction
given by Bradley and
Cassini, viz.
and
= 58"361 tan (z  4'09p) = 58"294 tan z  0" "06682 tan p
p
3
2,
are practically equivalent until the zenith distance becomes ve^y large.
Ex.
2.
On
refraction of the
the supposition that the (w+l)th power of the index of atmosphere varies inversely as the distance from the
refraction
centre of the earth, prove Bradley's approximate formula for astronomical Oxford Senior Scholarship, 1903. p=atan(z%np).
Ex. 3. If in the atmosphere the index of refraction vary inversely as the square of the distance from the earth's centre, being /i at the earth's surface and unity at the limit of the atmosphere, show that the corresponding
correction for refraction is given
by
x//i sin
z.
Mathematical Tripos, 1906.
Effect of atmospheric pressure refraction.
45.
and temperature on
In the formula (ii) for the refraction already obtained (43) we assumed that the barometer stood at 30 inches and the external air at the temperature 50 F. We have now to find the formula to be used when pressure and temperature have any other known
values.
\
4546]
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
131
refraction is proportional to the density of the air at the earth's surface, so that if p be the refraction for
We
assume that the
the refraction at the pressure p and temperature t and p standard pressure 30 inches and temperature 50, we obtain from the properties of gases
p
fr
_ p 460 + 50 _ lip ~ ~ 30 460 + t 460 +
'
Introducing the value of p Q already found ( 42) we obtain the approximate formula for atmospheric refraction at pressure p and temperature t for the apparent zenith distance z,
p
=
r
460
+1
(58"294 tan z ^

0"'06682 tan 3 z\
In the appendix to the Greenwich Observations for 1898, Mr P. H. Cowell has arranged tables of refraction which are used in
Greenwich observatory. These tables contain the mean refractions 30 inches and temperature 50 F. for every minute The corrections which to 88 40'. of zenith distance from must be applied for changes in .temperature and pressure are given
for the pressure
in additional tables.
46.
On
the determination of atmospheric refraction from
observation.
We
A
and
B
describe three of the methods by which the coefficients tan z + in the expression for the refraction, tan 3 z
A
B
can be determined by observation of meridian zenith distances. The first and second methods can be carried out at a single
observatory provided
small.
vatories,
its
latitude
is
neither very great nor very
The
third
one in
method requires the cooperation of two obserthe northern and one in the southern hemisphere f.
First Method.
A
star
is
selected such that
it
will
be above
the horizon both at upper and at lower culmination. If z, z' be the apparent zenith distances at lower and upper culmination
respectively and positive to the north of the zenith, then the true zenith distances will be z + A tan z + tan 3 z and
B
z
+A
tan
/
f
B tan
3
z'.
The mean
of these
two zenith distances
t Of the remaining methods of observing refractions we may mention that described by Sir David Gill in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. XLVI. p. 325.
of
Loewy
9
2
132
is,
i.e.
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
of
[CH. VI
course, the distance from
the zenith to the north pole,
3 (tan z
the colatitude.
Hence we obtain the equation
L z+z
{
'
+A
(tan z
+ tan z) + B
+ tan
3
z')\
=
90
 $.
Substituting the observed values of z and z' we obtain a linear equation between the three quantities A, B and (/>.
Other stars are also observed in the same way and each star Three of such gives an equation in the same three unknowns.
equations will suffice to determine A, B, <j). ever, be much more accurate if we observe
treat the resulting equations
The
result will,
stars
many
howand then
by the method of
least squares to
be subsequently described.
latitude
is
we shall take a case in which the known and in which, as neither of the zenith distances excessive, we may assume that the refraction is expressed by
a simple illustration
is
z.
As
the single term k tan
At Dunsink
in
N. latitude 53 23' 13" the
star a
Cephei
is
ob
served to have the apparent zenith distance 8 48' 37" at upper At lower culmination 12 hours later its apparent culmination. zenith distance is 64 22' 47".
The true zenith
8
distances will be
48'
37"
+ k tan
(
8 48' 37"),
22' 47").
64
22'
47"
+ k tan (64
The sum
whence
of these
must be double the colatitude (36
36' 47"),
73 11' 24"
from which
+ k (0155 + 2'085) = k = 58"'0.
The constants
73
13' 34",
Second Method.
the sun.
of refraction
can also be
determined by observation of the Let
zl
solstitial
zenith distances of
,
zz be the apparent meridional zenith distances of the
solstices.
sun at the
Then the true zenith
the sun's centre
is
Let p 1 and p 2 be the corresponding refractions. distances are z^ + p l and 22 + p 2 Assuming
.
that the sun's latitude
may
be neglected, or in other words, that
nearly true, we arc from the zenith to the equator,
actually in the ecliptic as is always very obtain for the mean of these zenith distances the
i.e.
the latitude.
Hence
we have
4647]
If the latitude be
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
133
known and
pl
if
we assume
,
= k tan z,
k.
and p z = k tan z2
we
obtain an equation for
distances
Third Method. In this we require observations of the zenith SZ and SZ.2 of the same star S, both from a northern and a southern observatory at observatory at N. latitude
l
<f> 1
,
S. latitude
<f> 2
(Fig. 45).
celestial poles
3, 8.
If
P and
P' be the north and south
we have
SZ^SPZ.P
SZ = SPZ. P'
2
2
=</>!=(f> 2
+
2 be the observed zenith distances, and the refractions to be k tan z and
If zl
and
if
we assume
l
k tan 22 respectively, then
SZ = z + k tan z^ SZ = z + k tan z
1 l
,
2
2
2
,
whence
zl
+ k tan z + z +
l
2
k tan
za
=
<f>i
+
(f> 2
,
from which k can be found.
We shall take as an example Andromedse, which was oby8 served to culminate at Greenwich
51
apparent 20' zenith distance 16
28' 38" N.
at
an
south
3",
FIG. 45.
the
latitude
of
Greenwich being
at the
Cape
of
The culmination of the star was also observed Good Hope Observatory in 33 56' 4" south lati1'
tude, and the apparent north zenith distance was 69
50".
We
thus have the equation
16 20' 3"
+ k tan (16
20')
+
69
1'
50"
+ k tan
(69
2')
whence
47.
= 85 24' k = 58" 3.

42",
Effect of refraction
on hour angle and
declination.
determine the
35 to on the hour angle and declination of a star. The effect of refraction is to throw the star upwards towards the zenith. If the observed zenith distance be z the true
use of the differential formulae of
effect of refraction
We may
make
134
zenith, distance
is
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
z
[CH. VI
+ &z
the latitude
alter
is
known
so that A<
where ^z = ktanz. We assume that = 0, and as the azimuth does not
by
refraction
A = 0.
Ax?,
To
find the effect
necting Aa, A0,
on declination we write the formula con35 (1), AS,
cos AA<
sin h cos
0,
AS +
cos f]Lz
which with the substitution AS = k tan z cos 77, i.e. if 8
8
Aa =
is
$Aa = 0, A$ =0, A*? = k tan z
gives
the
observed declination
then
k tan z cos
77
is
the true declination.
To
find the effect
A,z
on hour angle we have
(
35
(2))
+ cos
aA<
+ cos 7?AS 4
cos
</>
sin aA/i
= 0,
from which by the same substitutions
Ah = k sin
For the
effect
77
tan z sec
S.
on parallactic angle we use
cos *?Att
AT?
(
35 (6))
AT;
+
sin SA/i
sin
a
sin
z.
A$ = 0,
and
find
=
k sin T; tan S tan
The
results just obtained
In Fig. 46 is the North Pole, Z of the star, and P' the apparent place
N
may be
otherwise proved as follows. the zenith, the true place
P
of the
star
as
raised
FIG. 46.
towards the zenith by refraction, and
PP' = k tan ZP' = k
tan
z.
P'Q
perpendicular to will be the case unless
is
PN and
P
is
provided the Z PNP' is small, as near the pole, the change in polar
i)
77.
distance
is
PQ = PP' cos = k tan z cos
The observed declination is 90 NQ, but the NP. Hence the observed declination 90
real declination is
is
too
large,
and
4748]
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
135
consequently the correction AS to be applied to the observed declination to obtain the true declination is given by
AS =
k tan z cos
77.
We
As
have also
AA = P'NQ
sin
77
k tan z
is
sin
77
cosec
P'N = k tan z sin
sin
77
sec
S.
cos S
unaltered by
cos
77
refraction
we must have
SAS,
cos SA?7
= sin
find
77
whence by substituting
A?7
for
AS we
k sin
77
=
tan S tan
z.
48.
Effect of refraction
on the apparent distance between
two neighbouring
celestial points.
show that if the refraction be taken as k tan z, then the correction to be added to the apparent distance D in seconds of arc between two neighbouring stars is in seconds of arc
shall first
We
kD (1 + cos
2
6 tan 2 z) sin
I",
where z is the zenith distance of the principal star and 6 is the angle between the arc joining the two stars and the arc from the
principal star to the zenith.
Let
Z
6.
be the zenith,
ZA
x,
ZB = y, AB = D,
Z
AZB = a,
ZAB =
fraction is to
The effect of remove the arc
where
AB
and
up
to A'B'
BB'
= k tan y.
FIG 47
"
Then
cos
'
D = cos x cos y + sin
A# =
a;
sin
y cos
a.
Differentiating with a as constant,
and making
k tan x k tan
y,
a;
we
find
sin
.
A?/
=
D AD = k sin x cos y tan x + k cos
k cos a cos x sin y tan x
sin
?y
tan y
= k sin
distance
sin
2
(x
y} sec # sec y
+
k cos a sin x cos y tan y 2 4>k sin ^ a sin # sin y.
As both these terms
of
either
are small
star,
.
we may put x = y
the
= z,
sec
the zenith
sec
in
x sin y.
Also since a
D
expressions are small we may put
sin 2 (x
x
y
and
sinD =
D
and

y}
=D
2
cos 2 6
136
also
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
4 sin 2 a
[CH. VI
= a = Z)
2
2
sin 2 # cosec 2 ^
and we thus obtain
for the decrease in
D
due
to refraction
or if k, D,
AZ) are expressed
in
seconds of arc
2
kD (1 + cos
6 tan2 z)
sin 1"
;
has been lessened by refraction this gives the seconds by which is consequently the correction to the measured distance between
D
two neighbouring stars to clear from the effect of refraction. We have next to show that 0, the angle which the line joining the two stars makes with the vertical, is increased by refraction 2 to the extent k sin 6 cos 6 tan z.
Taking the logarithmic
differential of the equation
D sin 6 = sin a sin y
we have
AZ)/D
+ cot 0A0 = cot y&y,
2
which becomes by substitution
 k (I + cos
whence
and
this is
6 tan 2 z}
+ cot 0A0 =  k,
z,
A# = k sin
cos 6 tan 2
the quantity which must be subtracted from the apparent angle B'A'Z to get the true angle BAZ. The deformation of the circular disc of the sun or moon
by refraction is obtained as follows: Let 8 (Fig. 48) be the sun's centre, a its radius, its limb, and Z the zenith, and let ZS = z. Let k be the coefficient of refraction which and let PQ and P'Q' be displaces P to perpendiculars on ZS. From what we have
P a point
on
P
'
,
just seen If we take
PQ
S
is
displaced by refraction to P'Q'.
as origin,
SZ
as axis of x,
and
x and y the coordinates of
y
Also
P', then
= P'Q' = (lk)PQ = a(l k) sin 0. x = SQ = a cos + QQ' = a cos 6 + k tan (z a cos 6} = a cos 6 + k (tan z a cos 6 sec z},
2
and by eliminating 6 we have
(x
for
the equation
of the refracted figure of the sun
k tan
,z)
2
 afc (a
sec s)2
_+ a r_
2
2
=
1.
(l,
FIG. 48.
48]
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
axis
is is
137
(1
The major
their ratio
a (1
k}
and the minor a
is
k sec2
z),
and
1
/ctan 2 ^.
Of course k
here in radians.
note that any short horizontal arc is diminished by refraction in the ratio ! &:!, and any small vertical arc at a
considerable zenith distance
1
is
We may
diminished
:
in
the ratio
&sec2 2
1.
and
If be the difference of declination between two adjacent stars, be the zenith distance and q the parallactic angle of one of these stars, then the effect of refraction is to diminish the difference of declination by
Ex.
1.
D
if z
kD (l+tan 2 zcos2
it
j)
sin 1",
being assumed that the zenith distance and that k
refraction is proportional to the tangent of the
is its coefficient.
the projection of the arc joining the two stars on the hour circle one of them, and the hour circle makes the angle 77 with the zenith through
distance.
D is then
Ex.
2.
A telescope at
is
a point on the parallel of 38
Two
stars trail
an observatory in N. lat. 53 23' 13" is directed to hrs 9' N. decl., and is fixed at an hour angle of 7 the field, and their apparent difference successively through
.
of declination
68" '02
;
show that
to correct for the effect of refraction this
difference should be increased
is one of the comparison stars (One of the stars is used at Dunsink in determining the parallax of 61 Cygni by the method of
by 0"'09. 61 Cygni and the other
differences of declination.)
Ex. 3. In their unrefracted positions a number of stars lie on a small curve of which the polar equation is p=f(6\ where p is the great circle distance from a point taken as origin to a point on the curve, and where 6 is the is the observer's zenith. Show that on angle between OP and OZ where
P
Z
taking account of refraction the polar equation of the curve will be found
by the elimination of p and Q from the equations
P
p'
=f(&\
=p 
p
(
1
+ tan 2 z cos 2 0),
which are the the radius vector joining the points 0' and refracted positions of and /' respectively, and & is the angle which O'P
in
which p
is
P
1
,
makes with
Ex.
4.
O'Z.
arithmetic
is
mean
It is proposed to determine the angular diameter of the sun. The of two measured diameters at right angles to one another
is
is
,
D
;
the coefficient of refraction
of
distance
the
sun's
centre
z.
here expressed in radians the zenith Show that the true diameter is
;
2 (\ + k\\k tan 2), whatever may have been the position angles in which the two diameters at right angles to one another were measured. (Based on a result in the introduction to the Greenwich Observations.)
D
The
distance
from
the
centre
of
the
ellipse
to
the
point
6
is
138
a (I
2a = k
& cos2 $ tan 2
i.e. 2
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
3).
[CH. VI
at right angles,
at 6
z).
Hence the arithmetic mean of the radii measured and + 90, is a (1 k J tan 2 2) =  D, whence
D (1 +k+%k tan
on the measurement of the of a double star. position angle Let A, B be respectively the principal star and the secondary star of the pair which form the double star and let P be the north pole.
*49.
Effect of refraction
Imagine a
circle
with centre
A
AB meets the graduated be the position angle of the star B with respect to A. The mode in which the position angle is measured may be further
circle is said to
graduated so that the observer is the nole cuts the circle at 0. The point in which
on the celestial sphere and and that J.P(<180)
Suppose the double star is on or near the upper culmination, and the secondary star is due east of the principal star. Then the position angle is about 90.
illustrated as follows.
meridian and at
its
however, the secondary star had been due west when the principal star was on the meridian, its position angle would be about 270, for in each case the direction of measurement from
If,
the arc drawn to the pole is the same. Astronomers generally know this as the N.F.S.P. direction, for the measurement proceeds from the north point towards the part of the sky which is following
from the diurnal movement round by the south and then back to the north by the preceding part of the sky.
If
P
be the pole,
Z
the zenith, and
A
the principal star of
the double
angle as
AB
'
(Fig. 49), then the position
we have just defined it is Z PAB. refraction changes the position angle into PA'B Thus the refraction changes
The
.
the position angle in two ways, first by altering the parallactic angle PAZ=ij
and secondly by altering BAZ. Both these angles are altered by refraction, and the correction to apply to an observed
position angle in the case represented in
the figure must be negative. the true position angle by p.
We
denote
Fm.
49.
We
(48)
have
/.BAZ = p
r),
and hence
77)
Z B'A 'Z =p 7) + k sin (p 77) cos ( p Z PA 'Z = rj + k tan z tan & sin 77.
tan 2
z,
49]
If therefore
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
139
pr
be the position angle as affected by refraction,
B sin
77
p r =p + k tan z tan
f
k sin (p
77)
cos (p
77)
tan 2
z.
If pr and p' be the corresponding quantities with respect to another star with reference to the same primary,
p r = p' + k tan z tan 8 sin Subtracting we easily find
'
77
+ k sin (p'
77)
cos (p'
77)
tan 2
z.
p
The
the
p = p/
p,.
k tan 2 z sin (p
p) cos
(2/7
p
p').
moves by true position angle p of the direction in which If therefore p r be the observed diurnal motion is 270.
'
A
position angle for the
movement
'
of
A
when
carried by the diurnal
motion,
p = p r + 2 lQ
f
p r + k tan* z cos p sin (Zrjp).
Summary. From the last article and the present we obtain the following result for the correction of the observed distance and position angle of a double star for refraction f.
Let
D
be the distance of the two stars expressed in seconds of
arc, z the zenith distance,
p
the position angle,
77
the parallactic
angle, and k the coefficient of refraction in seconds of arc, then the correction to be added to the apparent distance to obtain the
true distance
is
kD
and the correction
{1
+ tan
2
z cos 2 (p
to
is
77)}
sin 1",
to be
added
the measured position angle
to obtain the true position angle
k tan2 z cos p sin
Ex.
If the declination of a Lyrse is
is
(277
p).
an adjacent star
is
150 58' '0,
38 40' and the position angle of find the correction for refraction to be applied
angle
is
to the position angle
when the hour
7
hours west, the latitude

53
It
23' 13",
is
and the
coefficient of refraction is 58"
2.
first
necessary to
parallactic angle 38 32', to be added to the observed position angle to clear it refraction.
compute the zenith distance 67 36' and the whence the formula gives 4' 6 as the correction

from the
effect of
f For tables to facilitate the application of these corrections see Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. XLI. p. 445.
140
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
[CH. VI
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS ON REFRACTION.
Show that refraction reduces the sine of the zenith distance of an Ex. 1.  k) 1 where k is the coefficient of refraction. object in the ratio of (1
:
Ex.
2.
The north
declination of a Aquilse
is
8 37' 39".
(lat.
Show
51
that
its
apparent zenith distance at culmination at Greenwich 42 50' 5" and at Cape of Good Hope (lat. 33 56' 4" S.)
Ex.
3.
28' 38" N.) is
is
42 32' 50".
for the
is 8 is
If the horizontal refraction be 35',
show that the formula
its
hour angle h of the sun's centre at rising or setting when
cos
2
declination
A =sec< sec 8 cos (45
4.
+ 17'5$8) sin
(45
17''5
$8).
Ex.
through
59'
angle and 8
Assuming that the moon is depressed at rising by parallax and elevated by refraction through 35', show that if A be the hour the declination we have at Greenwich \h = [2056]
sec 8 cos (19 3'7
(lat.
cos 2

8) sin
(19
27''78).
Ex.
5.
At
sunrise at Greenwich
sun's declination is 14 39' S.
Find
its
51 28' 38"l) on Feb. 8th, 1894, the apparent hour angle assuming that
the horizontal refraction
is 35'.
Ex. 6. The apparent path of a star not far from the pole, projected on the plane of the horizon, is an ellipse of excentricity cos $, where < is the Show that if the zenith distance of the star is not very great, the latitude.
same
will
be the case for the apparent path as altered by refraction.
[Coll.
Exam.]
The north declination of a Cygni being 44 57' 17" (1909), show apparent zenith distances at upper and lower culmination at the latitude 53 23' 13" are respectively 8 25' 49" and 81 33' 18", assuming that the refraction may be taken as
Ex.
7.
that
its
58"294 tan z  0"O6682 tan 3
z,
where
Ex.
z
= the
8.
apparent zenith distance.
if at
Prove that
a certain instant the declination of a star
is
unaffected by refraction the star culminates between the pole and the zenith, and the azimuth of the star is a maximum at the instant considered.
[Math. Trip.
I.]
great circle drawn from the zenith to touch the small circle described by the star round the pole will give the point in which the zenith distance of the star is at right angles to its polar distance. It is obvious that the star
A
can never have an azimuth greater than when situated at the point of
contact.
49]
Ex.
9.
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
141
Prove that, within the limits of zenith distance in which the be taken as k tan (zen. dist.) the apparent place of a star describes each sidereal day, a conic section, which is an ellipse or hyperbola 2 2 the according as sin $ < cos 8, where 8 is the declination of the star and
refraction
may
<
latitude of the place.
The great circle from the star's true we have as the plane coordinates of the
x = k tan z cos
where
z
;,
place to the pole being the axis of refracted place
x
y
y = k tan
z sin
rj,
and
ij
are respectively the zenith distance
and the
parallactic angle.
From
the spherical triangle
z
sin
sin
rj
= cos
<j)
sin
t,
sin z cos
rj
= cos 8 sin sin 8 cos cos cos z = sin 8 sin + cos 8 cos $ cos
<
<
t,
(f>
t,
k cos 8 sin
sin 8 sin
<p
</>
k sin 8 cos (f> cos t
k cos
'
<p
sin
t
+ cos 8 cos <p cos
*
sin 8 sin
<
+ cos 8 cos
cos t
'
from which we have
. r, AcosS + Asm 8
.
.
,
k cos 8
x sin
8
.
8
whence eliminating
t
y
x 2 (sin 2
and
this is
2
+ (k cos 8  x sin 8) 2 = cot2
 cos2 8) + y 2 sin 2
<f>
2 (x cos 8 + k sin 8)
,
which may be written
(f)
 xk sin 28 + F (sin 2 $  sin 2 8) = 0,
cos 2 8
is
an
ellipse or
a hyperbola according as sin 2
positive
or negative.
Ex.
10.
Assuming that
refraction
is if
tangent of the zenith distance, show that
the
small and proportional to the same star is observed simulits
taneously from different stations on the same meridian on an arc of a great circle.
apparent places
[Coll.
lie
Exam.]
This follows at once from the following geometrical theorem which is. If AO be a easily proved from the rules for quadrantal triangles, p. 5.
quadrant and a variable great
through
A
in P,
Q
cut two fixed great circles through then tan OP/tan OQ is constant. respectively,
circle
Ex. 11. If 8 be the declination of a star, show that, if the horizontal refraction be r", the time of a star's rising at a place in latitude cf> is changed approximately by a number of seconds equal to
With the usual notation
cos z = sin
(j)
sin 8
+ cos
<
cos 8 cos
t.
142
Differentiating
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
A0 = cos
is
</>
[CH. VI
cos 8 sin
t
A,
but as the star
on the horizon sin 2 = 1 and
= cos z = sin
cos
(f>
(f>
sin 8
+ cos $ cos 8 cos
2
<f)
t,
cos 8 sin
t
= (cos
2
<
cos
2
8
cos
sin
cos 8 cos
sin 8)
2
2
2
1)
2
= (cos
= (cos
whence
2
<f)
cos 8
2
2
2
<f)
*
2
8sin $)i;
A2 = (cos 2 8sin 2 0)iAz.
If A2 = be expressed in seconds of arc and A be n seconds of time we put Az=r", AZ = 15n", whence we find for n the required result.
Ex. 12. Assuming that the alteration in the zenith distance z of a star owing to refraction is k tan z, where Jc is small, show that in latitude $ the change produced in the hour angle of a circumpolar.star is greatest when the the north angle PSN is a right angle, where P is the pole, S the star, and point of the horizon and that its maximum value is
N
;
k cos < sec 8 v sec z\ sec 22
,
where
z\
and
z2
are the greatest and least zenith distances of the star.
[Coll.
Exam.]
(f>
hour angle h by refraction is k sec 8 cos and if sin h sec z is a maximum the point S' found by producing P till &S" = 90 is 90 from N.
in the
The change
sin h sec
2,
SP through
Ex.
13.
Assuming that the
refraction
of
any object
S
is
equal to
k tan ZS, prove that the resolved parts of the refraction in R.A. and N.P.D. expressed respectively in seconds of time and seconds of arc are very nearly
k

tan
.
ZL
15 sin
777. A cos (A PL)
7 r and k tan (A  PL),
.
,
_
where A
is
the north polar distance of the object,
P the
pole,
and
ZL
an arc
of a great circle
drawn from
Z
perpendicular to PS.
[Math. Trip.
II.]
and h
Let be the latitude of the observer, 8 the declination of a star west hour angle, and let the coefficient of refraction be 58"'4 (its value for the photographic rays). Show that refraction diminishes the
*Ex.
14.
its
apparent rate of change of hour angle by
24 8 '5 sin
m cos m (tan 8 + cot
cos
h.
<
sec h} cosec 2 (8 + TO) per day,
where tan
TO
= cot
<
49]
'ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
also that the rate of change of refraction in declination is
143
Show
+ 15"'3 cot
(f>
sin h cosec 2 (8
+ TO)
cos 2 TO per hour.
vol. LX. p. 544.]
[Mr A. E. Hinks, Monthly Notices R.A.S.,
from its true place S Refraction raises the star towards the zenith Let the true hour angle be h and the apparent to an apparent place S'. n perpendicular to PS (Fig. 50) hour angle h'. Draw the arc ZL 90
Z
=
(A
h')
cos 8
= k tan z sin ZSL
= k cos _
sin
<f)
n
sec z
k cos
sin 8
t
<
sin
(f>
h
'
+
cos
cos 8 cos h
Differentiating with respect to
'dh J7 at
i
~
dh'\ J7 cos 8 at I
cos A (sin
<
<
= k cos
sin 8
(sin
<f>
+ cos <p cos 8 cos A) + cos sin 8 + cos cos 8 cos A) 2
<f>
<
cos 8 sin 2 k
dh
dt
cos
(f)
cos 8 + sin
sin 8 cos
A dh
eft
cos2 z
sin
<
v
cos 8 cos A (tan 8 + cot sin 2 (8 f TO) sin 2 n
c/>
sec A)
dh
dt
_
,
sin
(f>
cos
$
cos 8 cos A cos 2 TO (tan 8 + cot$ sec A) dh eft sin 2 (8 + TO) sin 2
=k cos 8 sin m cos TO
tan 8 + cot
sin 2 (8
$ sec A + TO)
dh
dt
FIG. 50.
144
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION
86400.
for a
[CH. VJ
Let 86400 +r be the
complete revolution if the apparent hour angle of the star continued to increase for the whole day at the same rate as at the moment under consideration. Hence we
The number of seconds in a sidereal day is number of seconds which would be required
have
dh di
~~
_
2ir
86400
'
dK _ ~
~dt
2ir
86400+7
'
and thus
/
2?r
~
2w
\
=
,
.
tan 8 + cot
"
(f)
sec h
2ir
'
^86400
86400+V
we have by making
s
sin 2 (8
+ TO)
2
86400
As
r is very small
r
= 58'4/206265,
(8
= 24
'5
sin TO cos
in
which
m (tan 8 + cot $ sec h] cosec tan m = cot cos h.
is
+ TO),
The
case of an equatorial star
instructive,
s
8=0 and r= 24
'5
5
cot TO cot
sec h.
2
(f>
sec
h
= 24
Thus even
s
in the neighbourhood of the meridian on either side an equatorial star is so affected by refraction that it will only keep time with a sidereal clock when that clock is losing at the rate of 24 8< 5 sees, daily.
If
x be the
refraction in declination expressed in seconds then
x = k tan z cos ZSL
Hence
differentiating
and regarding A#,
Am
and Ah as
1",
all
expressed in
seconds of arc
but
sec 2
Ax= k cosec 2 (8 + m) Am sin tan TO = cot $ cos h,
whence
If
m Am = cot sec m Ax = k cosec
<
sin k Ah,
2
2
(8
+ TO) cot
<
sin h
Ah sin
1".
N
tion is
find
the hourly rate expressed in seconds of arc at which the declinachanging then Ax/Ah = N/l5 x 60 x 60. With these substitutions we
is
on introducing the values of k and sin 1" the desired result namely
N= 15"'3 cot
graphy.
(f>
sin
h cosec 2
(8
+ m) cos 2 TO.
celestial
These results are of practical importance in the art of
photo
CHAPTER
KEPLER'S
50. 51. 52.
VII.
AND NEWTON'S LAWS AND THEIR APPLICATION.
of Kepler and Newton Apparent motion of the Sun Calculation of elliptic motion
The laws
.... .....
PAGE
145
152
154 164
53.
Formulae of
elliptic
motion expressed by quadratures
50.
The laws of Kepler and Newton.
to
The laws according
are as follows.
which the planets move round the
sun and which always bear the name of their discoverer Kepler,
of a planet round the sun is an ellipse; in one focus of which the centre of the sun is situated. Let S in Fig. 51 be the
(1)
The
orbit
centre of the sun.
orbit
Then the
of any planet is an of which 8 is ellipse a focus. The velocity of the
ABPQ
planet is not constant and the law according to which
the speed varies is given by Kepler's second law.
(2)
The
radius
vector,
FIG. 51.
drawn from
sun
to the
the centre of the
planet, sweeps over equal areas in equal times.
For example take any two points AB on the ellipse and also two other points PQ, then if the area ASB = area PSQ the time taken in describing AB will equal the time taken in
describing
PQ.
From
this it follows that, with
the points as
represented in the figure, the velocity of the planet is greater while
describing
PQ
than while describing AB.
10
R
A.
146
KEPLER'S AND NEWTON'S LAWS
[CH.
vn
In the first two laws of Kepler we are concerned with the motion of a single planet only. In Kepler's third law we obtain a remarkable relation between the movements of two different
define the mean distance of a planet to be the planets. semiaxis major of its orbit, and the periodic time to be the period in which a planet completes an entire circuit of its orbit. Kepler's
third law
(3)
is
We
then stated as follows.
The squares of the periodic times of two planets have the
same
ratio as the cubes of their
mean
distances
from
the sun.
Example: The periodic times of the earth and Venus are 365'3 and 2247 days respectively, and the ratio of the squares
of these periodic times is (365'3) 2 /(2247) 2 = 2'643. The corremean distances are 1 and 7233 and as l/(7233)3 = 2 643 sponding
we have a verification of Kepler's third law for these two planets. The three laws of Kepler given above were deduced by him entirely from observations of the movements of the planets and
without any reference to the nature of the forces which control For more than three quarters of a century these movements. they remained isolated facts without explanation until Newton
showed them
to
be consequences of the law of universal gravitation
which appears to govern the movement of every particle of matter in the universe.
The three axioms
of dynamics
La\vs"f*,
is built,
or laws of motion, on which the science and which are generally known as Newton's
:
may be
I.
stated as follows
Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform in a straight line, except in so far as it may be compelled to motion
to the impressed force and takes place in the direction of the straight line in which the force acts.
LAW
change that state by impressed forces. LAW II. Change of motion is proportional
contrary reaction
To every action there is always an equal and or the mutual actions of any two bodies are ; and oppositely directed. always equal By change of motion Newton denoted what is often called the rate of change of momentum, or the product of the mass of the
III.
t
LAW
The reader who
desires a fuller development of Newton's
Laws and
their
applications
may
refer to
Routh's Dynamics of a particle, 1898, where the laws as
here expressed are given on p. 18.
50]
AND THEIR APPLICATION
its velocity,
147
moving body by the rate of change of
which
may be
otherwise expressed as the product of the mass by the acceleration. Law II enables us to say that, in the case of a planet for example, the change of motion is proportional to the impressed force and
takes place in the direction of the straight line in which the force
acts.
Kepler's first and second laws enabled Newton to prove that each planet moves under the control of a force always directed towards the sun and varying inversely as the square of the distance from the sun. Kepler's third law enabled Newton to
compare the acceleration of one planet with that of another, and from this he was led to the doctrine of universal gravitation with which his name is identified and which states that every particle of 'matter attracts every other particle with a force varying as the product of their masses and inversely as the square of the distance
between them.
We
moving
shall first prove
that
if
the radius vector drawn to a
particle from a fixed point sweeps over equal areas in times then the force on the particle must always be directed equal towards the fixed point. If r is the radius vector, SP, (Fig. 52) and 6 the angle it
FIG. 52.
makes with any
fixed direction,
SO, then the rdd
at
j
.
velocities along
and
at right angles to
SP
are respectively,
dr
j
,
and
dt
After the short time A the velocity along to the consecutive radius vector will be
and at right angles
dr
.
.
d?r
rd6
.d
f
d6^
102
148
KEPLER'S
AND NEWTON'S LAWS
[CH.
vn
resolving these velocities along the original radius vector with which the consecutive radius vector makes the angle At.d0/dt,
we
obtain
dr
d?r
*.
f
di* *~dp~
whence
if
lfc~5'
F
be the acceleration towards
'
8 we have
dt
In like manner resolving these velocities perpendicular to the original radius vector we find for the resolved part in this
direction
dB
whence
vector
.dd6
.drdd
for
the acceleration perpendicular to the original radius
we have the expression
'
rdt\
dtJ
Twice the area swept over by the radius vector in the time dt is r2 dO, and if these two quantities are in a constant ratio, as Kepler's second law informs us is the case in the motion of a planet, we have
,d0 'Tt
=k
I I
a constant, and therefore
I _ d
2 ( /y*
I
d0\
I
rdt\
Hence there
fore,
dt)~
is no acceleration, no change of motion, and thereNewton's 2nd law, no force at right angles to the radius by vector. The whole force is, therefore, directed towards S. Thus Kepler's second law proves that the planets move under the
action of a force directed continually towards the centre of the sun.
a body moves in a conic section under a force directed to one of the foci and if the body moves in
is
The next step
to
show that
if
such a way that the radius vector drawn to it from that focus describes areas proportional to the time, then the force must vary
inversely as the square of the focal radius vector. The equation of a conic referred to the focus is
r=p/(l + ecos0),
50]
AND THEIR APPLICATION
149
where p is the semilatus rectum, e the eccentricity, and the angle which the radius vector (r) makes with the line joining the focus to the nearer apse ( 52).
We
have thus the following three equations
r=p/(l
+ ecos0)
(i),
and
r2
77/
=^
i.e.
("*)'
from which to determine F,
Differentiating
(i)
*
the acceleration towards the sun.
we
find
dr
==
pe sin 6
d0
_
e sin
6
.
n o2
dd
.
he
.
_ air*
~ H
dt
(1
+

e cos
2
0y
dt
p
dd
dt
p
.
and
d'
r
=
he
dt z
p
cos 0^dt
=
h*
, 3
hz e cos 9
pr
' 5
z
Also
j7 M(d0\* = r \dtj
and
therefore
A2
_A
Thus we see that the
2 2
fe
cos ^
r \
p
_ 1 + e cos P
.
acceleration,
and therefore the
force, at
every point of the orbit varies inversely as the square of the distance from the focus. This is of course true whatever be the
e and consequently we see that this result holds whether the orbit be an ellipse, an hyperbola or a parabola. If we denote the acceleration by /i/r2 where /i is the accelera
value of
,
tion at unit distance
due
to the sun's attraction,
we have from
(iv).
the formulas just given
h*
= fj,p
We are now in a position to prove from Kepler's third law For h is that the constant, //,, is the same for all the planets. twice the area described in the unit of time, and therefore by
Kepler's second law if the periodic time be
P
we must have
h = 2rrab/P.
But p
= b /a.
2
Hence by means
of (iv)
we
find
150
KEPLER'S AND NEWTON'S LAWS
[CH.
vn
But according to Kepler's third law o?jPz is the same for all the planets and hence we find that /* is a constant throughout the
solar system.
drawn from the centre of a planet to the then the angle through which a line from the sun's centre through T would have to be turned in the positive direction
If a perpendicular be
ecliptic,
in the plane of the ecliptic to meet this perpendicular is termed the heliocentric longitude of the planet. The geocentric longitude of the
is the heliocentric longitude of the earth. the synodic period of two planets is meant the average By interval between two successive occasions on which the planets
sun increased by 180
are in conjunction,
they move uniformly
periods P, p tudes of the planets at the time
have the same heliocentric longitude. If same plane and in and if L, I be the heliocentric longirespectively,
i.e.
in circular orbits in the
t,
then
L = 27rt/P + L' I = 2irtfp +
I',
where
L',
I'
are the longitudes at the time
t
= 0.
Let x be the synodic period and tQ the time when L l = Q, then t + x is the time when the planets have next the same longitude, and (if p> P) L I is then 2Tr. We thus have the equations
= 2TTt /P  27Tt /p + L'2?r = 27T (t + x)fP  2?r (t + x)/p + L'I'
I',
whence by subtracting
is the earth, the year the unit of time, distance the unit of length, and a the mean distance of the other planet from the sun, then from Kepler's third
If one of the planets
the earth's
mean
for
law,
we have
an outer planet
x = d"l(c$l\
and
for
an inner planet
Ex. 1. Assuming the mean distance of the earth from the sun to be 92 9 (the unit being 1,000,000 miles) and the eccentricity of the earth's orbit to be '0168, find the side of a square equal to the area swept over daily by the
radius vector.
N.B. The year otherwise stated.
may
always be taken to be 365 '25 mean solar days unless
50]
Ex.
2.
AND THEIR APPLICATION
If Vj,
v. 2
151
respectively
and
if e
be the eccentricity of
be the velocities of a planet at perihelion and aphelion its orbit, show that
Show that the velocity of a planet at any moment may be resolved 3. component h/p perpendicular to the radius vector and a component ek/p perpendicular to the major axis of the orbit.
Ex.
into a
Ex. 4. Show from Kepler's 2nd and 3rd laws that two planets in the system describe areas in a given time which are in the ratio of the square
roots of their latera recta.
Ex. 5. The mean distance of Jupiter from the sun is 5203 when the unit of length is the mean distance of the earth from the sun. The periodic time of Jupiter is 11 '862 years and of Mercury 0'2408 years: show that the
<^
W\
33
mean
distance of Mercury from the sun
is
0'387.
Ex. 6. The eccentricity of the orbit of Mars is 0'0933 and its mean distance from the sun is 15237 times that of the earth from the sun.
Assuming that the earth's distance from the sun is 92,900,000 miles and that the eccentricity of its orbit may be neglected, determine the greatest and least possible distances of Mars from the earth.
Ex. 7. If the periodic time of a planet be and the length of its semiaxis major be a, show that a small change Aa in the semiaxis major will produce a change 3PAa/2a in the periodic time. Ex. 8. Show that in the motion of a planet in an elliptical orbit about the sun according to the law of nature the angular velocity round the unoccupied focus varies as the square of the sine of the angle between
the radius vector
P
and the tangent.
Let ds be an elementary arc of the ellipse at a distance r from the sun and r' from the unoccupied focus. Let p, p' be the perpendiculars from the Let 6 be the angle which either focal radius makes foci on the tangent at ds.
with the tangent.
From Kepler's second law it follows immediately that p is inversely proportional to the linear velocity of the planet, and hence the time of The angle described about the unoccupied focus is describing ds x pds. ds sin d/r' and hence the angular velocity round the unoccupied focus
QC
ds sin 6/r'pds = sin 0/r'p = sin 2 d/p'p.
of the ellipse
But from the property
is
p'p
is
const,
and thus the theorem
proved.
Ex. 9. If in an elliptical orbit of a planet about the sun in one focus the square of the eccentricity may be neglected, show that the angular velocity of the planet is uniform about the other focus.
*Ex.
10.
Prove by means of the annexed table, extracted from the
152
KEPLER'S AND NEWTON'S LAWS
[CH.
is
vn
Nautical Almanac for 1890, that the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit
approximately.
Jan.
1
'0168
Sun's longitude 281 5' 30" "6
2
282
6 39
7
'1
.^
[Coll.
July
1
99 32 19
100 29 29
2
6
Exam.]
circle in the
*Ex.
ecliptic,
11.
If the orbit of a
minor planet be assumed to be a
prove that two observations of the difference of longitude of the planet and the sun, with a knowledge of the elapsed time are sufficient to determine
the radius.
if it
Show
also that three such observations will determine the orbit
be assumed to be parabolic.
[Math. Trip.
I.]
A
must
single observation of the difference of longitude shows that the planet lie on a known straight line, i.e. the line through the earth's centre to
such lines are known a
lines in
the point of the ecliptic at the observed distance from the sun. When two circle with centre at the sun will cut each of these
two points. If a point of intersection on one line and a point of intersection on the other subtend the angle at the sun's centre which for
that radius gives the observed time interval the problem is solved. Trial will thus determine the radius. An equation could also be found for the
radius but this again could only be solved by
trial.
*Ex. 12. Prove that in a synodic period an inferior planet crosses the meridian the same number of times as the sun, but that a superior planet
crosses
it
once oftener.
[Math. Trip.
satellite of
I.
1902.]
*Ex.
13.
The fourth
Jupiter has an orbital period of
16 d 18 h 5 m 6"9 = 16d 753552,
while the fifth satellite has a period of O d ll h 57 m 27 s '6=0d '498236. Find from Kepler's third law the ratio of the mean distances of these two satellites from the primary.
*Ex.
14.
in circular orbits
greatest
it
Assuming that Deimos and PhoboSj the satellites of Mars, revolve and that at the opposition of Sept. 23 rd 1909, the observed distance of Deimos from the centre of Mars is 1' 23"'l, show from
,
Kepler's third law that the greatest apparent distance of Phobos is 33"'2, h 8being given that the periodic time of Phobos is 7 39 13 85 and of
Deimos 30h 17 m 548 '86.
51.
Apparent motion of the Sun.
revolution of the earth about the sun causes changes both in the apparent place and the apparent size of the sun as seen
The
We have now to show that the phenomena with which we are concerned in this chapter would be exactly refrom the earth.
51]
AND THEIR APPLICATION
153
produced if the earth were indeed at rest and if the sun revolved round the the earth in an orbit governed by Kepler's laws, and identical in shape and size with the earth's orbit round
*^e sun.
"Let
earth.
S, Fig. 53,
From
E
1
the sun
{
be the sun, and is seen
at the
E
l
and
E
2
two positions of the
in the direction
E S and
to
distance
E^.
Draw
parallel like
ES
l
from
let
and equal
E in Fig. 54 E S. In
t
manner
parallel
ES
2
be equal
If this
FIG. 53.
and
to E^S.
for other pairs of S3 &c., the ellipse 3 points traced out by Si, S.2 &c. will be exactly the same shape and size
be repeated
E
,
,
,
as that traced
by
E E
lt
2
,
&c.
The
latter is the true path of
former
the earth round the sun, the is the path which the
*
FIG.
Si
54.
sun appears to describe round
the earth.
At every moment
are the same, whether
the apparent direction of the sun and the distance of the sun we regard the earth as going round the
fixed sun as in Fig. 53, or the sun going round the fixed earth as in Fig. 54. If a be the radius of the sun and r the distance of the sun's
centre from the earth, which we shall here regard as a point, then the angular value of the apparent semidiameter of the
A
sun as seen from the earth is sin~ J a/r. As we may with sufficient approximation take A
value in seconds of
as A, so that
if
this angle
is
small
= afr
sin 1" as its
arc.
Thus we
see that r varies inversely
be determined by observation at two different dates during the year, the relative distances of the sun at those
A
two dates are immediately obtained.
Ex. On Jan. 3 rd , 1909, the sun, being then at its least distance from the On July 4 th , 1909, the sun, earth, has the angular semidiameter 16' 17"'58. then at its greatest distance, has the angular semidiameter 15' 45" '37. being
Show from
these data that the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit
is
'0167.
154
KEPLER'S AND NEWTON'S LAWS
Calculation of elliptic motion.
[CH.
vn
52.
Let
F
be
the
earth's
centre
and OPO' the
ellipse,
with
F
as focus, in
which the sun
its
appears to
revolution.
make
00'
is
annual
the major
axis of the ellipse
centre.
its
and
its
G
its
The
circle
OQO'
The
to
has
centre at
C and
a.
radius
line
GO = $00' =
and and
QPH is perpendicular
FP = r.
Z
Let Z
00'
;
OFP = v,
v,
OCQ = u.
Thus
r
of
are the polar coordinates
and axis FO. The angles FIG. 55. v and u are called respectively the true anomaly and the eccentric anomaly. and 0' being the extremities of the major axis The points of the ellipse are termed the apses of the orbit. That apse which is nearest the earth is termed the perigee. The other apse 0' is called the apogee. The time is to be measured from that moment known as the epoch, at which the sun passes If we had been considering the true through the perigee 0. motion of the earth round the sun, then the points and 0' would have been termed the perihelion and the aphelion respectively.
P F
with respect to the origin
We
should also note that
CF = eCO =
ea.
have now to show how the polar coordinates of the sun are to be found when the time is given. It is not indeed possible
to obtain finite values for r
We
and
v in
terms of
t.
We
can,
how
ever, with the help of the eccentric anomaly u, obtain expressions in series which enable the values of r and v to be calculated to any
desired approximation.
From Kepler's second law we see that if t be the time in which to P, and if T be the periodic time of the the sun moves from
orbit,
t
:
T
:
:
area
OFP
:
area of ellipse.
Introducing n to signify the mean motion, i.e. the circular measure of the average value of the angle swept over by the radius vector
o
52] J
AND THEIR APPLICATION
we have n = 2rr/T, and we have
nt
155
as the area of the
in the unit of time,
ellipse
is
irob
=2
area
OFF fab.
;
The angle
and
is
much importance it is called the mean anomaly, denoted by m. usually From the properties of the ellipse PH/QH = b/a, whence
nt is of
area
OHP = b
.
OHQ/a = b (OCQ  HCQ)fa =$ab(u sin u cos u).
.
Also
FHP = b QH FH/2a = ^ab (sin u cos u e sin u), whence OFF = OHP + FHP = %ab(ue sin u}, and finally m=u esmu Thus m is expressed in terms of u, and we express v
area
.
(i).
in
terms of u as follows:
From
the ellipse
we
see at once
r cos v
= a cos u = b sin u,
e cos
ae,
r sin v
whence, squaring and adding, we obtain
r
= a (1
w)
(ii).
2r sin 2 1 v
= r (1
4
cos v)
= a (1
= a (1
e cos
u
cos
u+
(1
e)
= a (1
2r cos
2
4 e)
cos u),
e)
^v = r (1
cos v)
e cos
u
+
cos u
= a (1
and
finally
e)(I
+
cos u),
tan \v
= \/ 
 tan^w
(iii).
'it
*[APPLICATION OF LAGRANGE'S THEOREM. If we could eliminate from (i) and (iii) we should have the relation between m and v,
but owing to the transcendental nature of the equations such an elimination in finite terms is impossible. With the help of Lagrange's theorem we may, however, express v in terms of m by a series ascending in powers of e which for given values of m and e
will enable us to
compute v with any degree of accuracy required. theorem may be thus stated If we are given Lagrange's
:
(a),
156
in which
KEPLER'S
AND NEWTON'S LAWS
variables,
[CH.
if
vn
x and y are independent
z,
and
F (z)
be any
function of
then
in
which F'(x} as usual denotes
5
we see that, if we write we make $ () = sin w, equation (a) If further we write (iii) in the is identical with equation (1). form v = F(u) then we have from equation (A)
this to the case before us
To apply
u
for z,
m
for x, e for y,
and
if
v
= F (M) = F (m) + e sin
m F' (m) + ~ ^ {sin
2
mF'(m)}
But from equation
v = F (u) = u + 2
(iii)
we
2
find
by a wellknown trigonop.
metrical expansion which
{c sin
e?}/e.
is
proved on
c sin 2v,
160,
3
u+
+ ^c
sin
3w
+ etc..
.
.},
where
c
= (1
Vl
Hence
F(m) = m + 2
and therefore
F' (m)
{c
sin
m+\c
2
sin
2m +
3 c sin
3m + etc.
.
. .
},
=
1
+
2
{c
cosm +
2 c cos
2m + C3 cos 3m + etc....}.
terms on the righthand side of equation (B) may be and thus v may be obtained with any required degree evaluated, of accuracy. See formula (vii), p. 161.] KEPLER'S PROBLEM. To effect the solution of equation (i), i.e. to determine u when m is known is often called Kepler's problem. Suppose M is an approximate value of u, which has been arrived at by estimation or otherwise, and let
all
Hence
M
If the true value of
e sin u
=m
,
c.
u be u
+ Aw
then by substitution in
,. .
(i)
we have approximately
m Aw =1
m
e cos
ua
..................... (iv).
52]
AND THEIR APPLICATION
157
is
improved
Cagnoli has shown that this method of approximation if instead of the formula (iv) we use
A
_
1
m m
e cos {MO
"f",
+ (m m
'
)}
As pointed out by Adams
given by Newton.
both these methods are virtually
of
I
Many processes have been employed for the solution Kepler's problem by the assistance of graphical methods. shall here give one of these graphical solutions, for which I indebted to Dr RambautJ.
Draw
am
three concentric circles (Fig. 56) with radii respectively
FIG. 56.
CB = b, CF = ae
minor
circle,
and
CM = a.
circle,
the focal
These circles are referred to as the and the major circle respectively.
Draw
the involute
point A.
to
Let
CA
m= /.ACM
m
T
Let
at
is
the major circle starting from any be the direction from which the mean anomaly
to
ATJ
is
measured.
The values
of
r,
u,
v corresponding
can now be found.
CM cut
the focal circle in F.
The normal
:
to the involute
its
a tangent to the major circle let U be contact: then C U which crosses the minor circle at
t Collected Works, Vol.
i.
point of
parallel
Q
is
p. 291.
t Compare Monthly Notices R.A.S., Vol. LXVI. p. 519.
158
to
KEPLER'S
AND NEWTON'S LAWS
it
[CH.
vn
FT.
From
that the arc
AU
the essential property of an involute
is
follows
equal to UT, but
whence
which,
if
UT = OF sin FCU = aesm FCU, ae sin FCU=a ( Z FCU  Z ACF)
we make
zFCU=u,
ra= u
becomes simply
e sinu.
on
Drawing perpendiculars UR we have
jPFcos Z
UR
from
U
on
CF
and
QV
ae,
from
Q
MFV = CU cos u CF= acosu FVsin Z MFV = CQsinu =b sin u.
follows
Thus when the three circles and the involute ATJ have been drawn the solution of Kepler's problem may be summarized as
:
Take a point
M
on the major
of
circle
so
that
focal
Z
AGM=m.
draw
From
to
F
the intersection
CM
with
the
circle,
the tangent
FT to
FT, cutting
the involute, and through C draw the major and minor circles in
CQU parallel
U
r,
and
Q
respectively.
Then
^ACM = m, /.MFV=v\ ^MCU=u; FV =
is
and the problem
solved.
*[Tables such as those of Bauschinger'f greatly facilitate the solution of the problem of finding u when ra and e are given.
We
illustrate their use in the following question.
for the orbit of
Being given the following assumed elements Halley's Comet,
Eccentricity, e
= 0'961733,
Time
of Perihelion Passage
Period,
find the
eccentric,
= 1910, May 24, P = 76'085 years,
and true anomalies of the comet on 1900,
to
May
24.
We have
the
to perihelion is
mean motion equal 10 years we have
7o'U85
360 /P, and since the time
C
10 m =  x 360 x 60 nrnoz
x 60"  =170335
'8
= 47
18'
5o
8.
t Astronomical Tables by Bauschinger, published by Engelmann, Leipzig.
52]
AND THEIR APPLICATION
Bauschinger's
159
entry
Entering
Tables
of
double
with
the
arguments
m = 4>7'3
and e=0'96 we
u
find the
approximate value
of the eccentric
anomaly
=Wl3.
calculate
Then from formula
Log sin u
(iv)
we
Aw
as follows
= 99914984
=99830547 = 5 3144251
Loge
logcosecl"
log e sin u
e sin
u
it
= 5'2889782 = 194526"'2 = 54 2' 6"'2 = 101 18 00
47~T5~53~8 47 1855 8
182" 0
Log cos u Loge Log ecos
/.
= 9'29214 n
=
?/
9'98305
1
= 927519 n  e cos u = M884
w)=
)
log (ra  e cos u log (1
226007
m =
/.
mm
m=
= 0*07496 = 218511 log Aw
AM =
O
153"15
2'
=
..
= u = 101 Wl = 101
u.
33
"15
18 20
00
33 15
This must be very nearly the true value of proceed to a second approximation
:
To
verify it
we
Log sin Log e
= 99830547 cosec 1" = 53144251 log = 5'2889136 log e sin v e sin M! = 194497"31
l
Wj
=99914338
= 54
1'37"31
= m =
M!
l
101 20 33 '15
47 18 55 '84 47 18 55 80
111=
m
This small difference
1
is
m =
t
04
attended to we remark that
e
1
quite negligible, but if it were to be e cos MX will not differ sensibly from
arid
cos
M already calculated,
we have
A%!
=
1
m m = m
l
e cos
ui
le cos u
m^ 
=
0"'04
1*2
=  0"03,
and thus
finally
u = 101 20' 33"'12.
eccentric
Having found the
substitute this in equation (iii) convenient to write equation (iii) in the form
anomaly u = 101 20 33"'12 we to find v. For this purpose it is
/
where
sin
<>
= e.
tan \ v
= tan (TT + \ <) tan \u,
160
KEPLER'S AND NEWTON'S LAWS
[CH.
vn
Although Bauschiriger's Tables are useful as enabling us at once to obtain a good approximation to the required value they are not indispensable. Any of the graphical methods would
readily determine u to within three or four degrees of the true value. may then obtain a value as accurate as that of the
We
by the help of four place logarithms. If, for example, we have found u = 105 by a graphical process the next step may be conducted as follows
tables
:
= 9'9849 Log sin M = 5'2975 log e cosed"
log e sin
Log
cos u
u
e sin
M
= 5'2824 = 191600" = 5313'3 00 MO =105
ra=
Q
Loge Log e cos u
1

e cos
u
)
= 9'4130 n = 9'9831 = 9'3961 n = 1249
.
m =
51 47
467
189
= 06493 n Iog(mw  e cos w ) = Q'0966 (1 log
loAwo
=0'5527w
m  m = 4
278
*u =  3'6
MO
M,
= _ 446
= 105'Q = 1014
The problems which arise in the majority of cases are those in which the eccentricity is very small; for example in the motion of the earth about the sun the eccentricity is no more than l/59'7.
best to obtain an approximate expression for in the form of a series the sun's true anomaly v in terms of
For such cases
it is
m
which need not
Writing
sin
for
</>
most purposes be carried beyond e3.] instead of e we have from 52 (iii)
tan ^v
= tan ^u (1 + tan ^$)/(l
i
tan
0),
whence
if e
be the base of Napierian logarithms,
iv/2\
/gt'0/2
_g
//gtC/2
g
tt)/2\
= (1 +
or
iv
tan
<)
iu
(e
iw/2

~ iul2
tan
)/(l
=
(1

~ iu
 tan <) (e M/2 + eiu  e tan <)/(!
'
l
'2
),
</>),
and by taking logarithms of both sides
v
= u+2
tan
(tan^0 sin w
+ ^tan ^ sin
e
2
1u +...).
e,
To
express the formula in terms of the eccentricity
<
we have
= (!e ) sin
3
l)/e =
u +  e2
+
e
3
+
3
...
and by substitution
v
= u 4 (e +
sin 2 u
+ j^e
sin
3u
...... (v).
52]
It
AND THEIR APPLICATION
remains to eliminate u between this formula and
161
m=u
As a
first
e sin u.
approximation
u
If terms
= m + e sin m.
beyond
e
2
are neglected,
u
= m + e sin (m + e sin m) = m + e sin m + %e sin 2m,
z
'
and from
this
sin
we have u = (1  le 2 ) sin
m+$e sin 2m f f e
2
sin
3m.
By
we
substitution of this in
u
find
= m + e sin u,
w
= m + (e
sin
3
^e
)
sin
m+
2
e
sin
e,
2m + f e3 sin 3m
sin m).
. .
.(vi).
We
have also to the
first
power of
2u
= sin 2m. + e (sin 3m
we
2
Introducing these values into (iv)
v
obtain
sin
= m + (2e
3 ^e )sinm
+ fe
2m + {e
3
sin3m...(vii).
This is a fundamental equation in astronomy. It gives the true anomaly of a planet in terms of its mean anomaly. It has been here computed to the third power of the eccentricity, but for our present purposes the third power is generally too small to require attention and consequently
v
will
= m + 2e sin m f f e
2
sin
2m
mean
and
is
The
be here regarded as a sufficiently accurate formula. difference between the true anomaly and the
anomaly, or v
represented by
m,
is
called the
equation of
2
the centre,
2e sin
m+1e
sin
2m.
Expression of the mean anomaly in terms of the true. The elementary area swept over by the radius vector when the planet's
true anomaly increases by dv to describe this area, and if
is
^r*dv.
If dt be the time required
T
:
be the periodic time of the planet
then from Kepler's second law
%r*dv
B. A.
nab
::
dt
:
T.
11
162
If
KEPLER'S AND NEWTON'S LAWS
[CH.
vn
dm
be the increase in the mean anomaly in the time dt
then
dm
whence
This equation
:
2ir
m,
r
::
dt
i
:
T,
=
r
dv
ab
( viii).
may be
written thus
(1 (1
dm
dv
2
'
+ e cos v)
*
whence
m = (1
rv
e
2
2
)
Jo
(1
2e cos v
+ 3e
2
cos 2 v
4e3 cos 3 v) dv,
and by integration
m=v
where powers of
e
2esiny + f e2 sin 2y
3 ^e s'm3v
(ix),
*[General Expansion.
above the third are neglected. This series can be obtained as
follows.
We
have from
(viii)
dm'
y
=
cos2
d
d) yT
dv
^
(
(
sin<6
.
\
d(p \1
+ sin
where
<f>
e
= sm
<f>.
cos v)
If
we make x = e,
sin
<
it is
easy to verify that
1
+ sin
and hence
"~
cos #
= tan
<ft
(1
+ 22 (
.
tan*
</>},
^=
cos 2
<
^
[tan
(1
+ 22 (~ 1)* cos kv
.
.
tan*
i<ft}]
= 1 + 22 ( 1)* cos &v + 2 sin
<
tan*
^<ft
cos ^>2
.
(
1)* cos kv
.
^7
(tan*
</>)
= 1 + 22 ( 1)* cos kv
tan*
<
+ 2 sin
<ft
cos
</>2
(.
1)* cos kv tan*
.
<
.
k
l
i tan
0).
*^\^ &
^
= 1 + 22 ( 1)* cos kv
Integrating
tan*
0 (1 +
k cos
we
find
m = v + 22 ( 1)* tar
^
(l+k cos <) sin Aw,
52]
AND THEIR APPLICATION
constant of integration being zero since The first four terms of this series are
163
the
m
and v vanish
together.
m =v
+ cos sin v sin 2v + tan ^0 (1 + 2 cos  tan (1 + 3 cos <) sin 3v. 
2 tan
2
 cf>
(1
</>)
<j!>)
3
<
If powers of e above the third
<
may be
neglected we have
^<f>
= e + %e?,
cos
=
(f>
1
\e*
and tan
=
\e
+ Je
3
and therefore we obtain as before
m=v
Ex.
1.
*2e
sin v
+
2 f e sin 2v
^e? sin 3v.]
Being given that
where
e is
a,
small quantity of which
all
powers above the third are neglected,
2
show by
reversal of the series that v
= m + (2e  1 e3
)
sin
m + fe
its
sin
2m +^f e 3 sin 3m.
e 2 /e sin u.
Ex.
2.
Show
that the angle between the direction of a planet's motion
and the planet's radius vector has as
Ex.
3.
tangent \/l
anomaly m can be
If the eccentricity sin $ be very nearly unity, show that the mean expressed in terms of the true anomaly v by the following
formula in which ,r=tan \v,
2 cos3
(j>
/
x3
~~
1
sin
(f>
/a?
x&
"
solving for
Prove the following graphical method given by J. C. Adams t of u from the equation m= u  e sin u. Draw the curve of sines y = smx. From the origin measure draw a line inclined to the axis of x at the along the axis of x. Through 1 let P be the point in which it cuts the curve, then u is the angle cot e, and
Ex.
4.
M
OMm
abscissa of P.
Ex.
5.
of e above the third
Prove Leverrier's rule for the solution of may be neglected,
1
m ue sin u if
powers
e
cos
m

\1
 e cos
'
in)
Ex.
the
6.
If
&
empty
focus,
be the longitude of a planet measured from an apse round prove that
if
powers of
e
above the second be neglected.
t See also Eouth, Dynamics of a particle, p. 225, and Monthly Notices R.A.S.,
Vol. L. p. 301.
112
164
*Ex.
7.
KEPLER'S AND NEWTON'S LAWS
If
[CH.
vn
C (6}
'
is
an abbreviation
written
for
T,
(#
+ cos 6} show
u] if e
that the equation
m=uesmu maybe
how
m = C(<t> + u) C(<^
= sin<,
and show
a table of the values of C(6) will facilitate the solution of Kepler's
p. 633,
problem. See the paper by Mr Aldis in Monthly Notices R.A.S. Vol. LXII. where the table is given with illustrations of its use.
53.
Formulae of
elliptic
motion expressed by quadratures.
We take vr to be the longitude of the perihelion of the planet measured from a fixed direction in the plane of the orbit, 9 the longitude of the planet and v = (6 nr) the true anomaly.
The quantity From the
vector
r,
b z /a is represented
by
p.
properties of the ellipse
The periodic time is P. we have for the radius
For any body moving round the sun, we have
(
50)
r*d0/dt=\/w
Solving
(ii)
........................ (ii).
for dt, substituting for r
from
(i)
and integrating,
...
we have
2
t is the time in which the planet moves from perihelion to in an orbit of which e is the eccenthe true anomaly v = (8 ST) The equation may also be tricity and p the semilatus rectum.
where
written in the homogeneous form
P
where a c
,
_~
o
1
P
are the
mean
distance and the periodic time re
spectively of the earth.
Differentiating
(i)
with regard to
.
,
t
we obtain
2
dr
J7 dt
=
{1
pe sin (& &} dd FTT~ e cos ^2  ^T2 'j7 dt
+
(0
dd = esin (0'57 .r ^ )
iff)}
p
dt
also
r
j
=
Vyu, [1
+e
cos (0

and
for the
square of the velocity of the planet
53]
AND THEIR APPLICATION
may be
165
which
expressed more conveniently for calculation in the
homogeneous form
*
P2
o
In the case of a parabolic orbit such as that in which the = 1 and a = oo so that the great majority of comets revolve, e
,
formulae
(i)
and
r
t
(iii)
become
2
= %p sec
=
% (0

r)
^^ 47ra
2
{tan(05r)
+
tan 3
(0<5r)}["
J
The
Let
result at
,
P
a
which we have arrived may be thus be respectively the periodic time and the
stated.
mean
If the semilatus distance of any planet, for example, the earth. rectum of the parabolic orbit of a comet be p, then the time in which the comet passes from perihelion to the true anomaly v is
P p'
is
2
(tan
\v
+
tan 3 v)/47ra
2.
EULER'S THEOREM.
A remarkable property of parabolic motion
expressed in Euler's theorem, which is thus enunciated. If r and r be the radii vectores from the sun to two points C and C' in the parabolic orbit of a comet, and if k be the distance
(7(7',
the time required by the comet to move from
C to
C"
is
PO f (r To 7T
L
)
I
+ r' + k\%
J
(r
I
+ rQ/Q
I
\
Q/Q
/
\
where
P
is
the length of the sidereal year and a
the earth's
mean
distance.
For brevity we make
then
t'
 1 = q {x  x f (x  x )} = q(x'x;)(l +x*+l+x' +
3 3
2
1
+xx').
But from the properties
of the parabola
^
V V?" jj
Zi
^(v'
v}=
A/ V
IS (s s 
k)
rr
whence
=
2q (x' x) (r
+ r'+ Ms
.
s
 Jfc)/3/>
166
KEPLER'S AND NEWTON'S LAWS
also
[CH.
vn
But we have
(af
xf =
1+ x + 1 + x' 2
2 (1
+ xx)
=
whence
2 (V*
 v's 
t't=
2q
(r
= q[(r +r' + k)^
+ r'
,
and by restoring the value of q the desired result
is
obtained.
*LAMBERT'S THEOREM. An important extension of Euler's theorem for motion in a parabola to the more general case, of motion in an ellipse is given by Lambert, and may be stated
as follows.
the time occupied by the planet in moving from the indicated by the radius vector r to the position indicated position by the radius vector r', and if k is the chord between the two
If
t
is
positions,
then
2Trt/P
= (f)
a
sin
97)
(rf
sin
77'),
where
.
,
,
/r
+ r' + k
Ii
^r
}2^J
i n f?
'
]
/r
r'k +~
/y
and
P We
is
the periodic time of the planet.
havef
r
z
k
= a (1 e cos u), r'= a (1 e cos u'), = a (cos u cos w') + a (1 e ) (sin u = u u' e (sin u sin u'), 2irt/P = u u 2e sin^ (u u') cos ^ (u +u'),
2 2 2 2
sin w') 2
,
whence
(r
+ r")/2a = 1 & /4a = sin =u 27rt/P
2
2
e cos
2
\(u + u'}
cos
^(u
u'),
(u
u) (1
2e cos
2 e cos
(u + u')},
sin ^ (u
u').
u
%(u + u')
We
(r
thus see that
+
r), k,

and
u').
t
a and therefore P are known then u' and are functions of the two quantities u
if
e cos
(u
+
t
also Bouth,
The proof here given is due to Adams, Dynamics of a particle, p. 228.
Collected Papers, Vol.
i.
p. 411.
See
53]
AND THEIR APPLICATION
167
Let us now make
= 2oc and e cos \ (u + u') = cos /3, = 1 cos a cos (r + r')/2a k/2a = sin a sin /3, = 1 cos (/3 + a), therefore (r + r' + k)/2a  k)/2a = 1  cos (/3  a), (r + r = 2a 2 sin a cos /3 also %7rt/P = {/3 + a  sin (/3 + a)}  {/3  a  sin (/3  a)}, and /3 a = whence making /3 4 a = we have Lambert's
u
u'
then
;
77
77'
theorem as enunciated.
Ex. the
1.
Show
that
is
mean
distance
m the mean anomaly in an elliptic orbit a may be variously expressed as follows
mean
of which
where
are respectively the the length of the sidereal year.
,
P
distance of the earth from the sun and
*Ex.
2.
If
m
be the mean anomaly, v the true anomaly, and
e
the
eccentricity,
show that
and transform
this equation into
1
Jt
l3e
1
5e
1
e
[Edinburgh Degree Examination, 1907.]
We
have
m=u
=2
e
sin
u
For
A/
/!^

tan ^ v write X and we have
e^
Am = tan ~ J X
., 3
3
X
+
5e., 6
5
X &c
168
But we have
KEPLER'S AND NEWTON'S LAWS
[CH.
vu
a?
Hence
1
 3e
l5ele
This equation corresponds for the ellipse or hyperbola to equation (iv) of 53 for the parabola. If we put e = l in this expression we get simply
since
all
terms after the second have
(1
e)
as a factor.
Ex.
\/2
3.
Show
(lm)2 (l + 2m)/37r
that the time spent by a comet within the earth's orbit is is the perihelion distance of parts of a year where
m
the comet the unit being the earth's heliocentric distance regarded as constant. The orbit of the comet is presumed to be parabolic, and in the plane of the
ecliptic.
As p = 2m we
we have
also
find for the time
from perihelion to a true anomaly v
\/2,
m? (tan  v + J tan 3 $v)/ir
so that cos 2
v=m will
comet crosses the earth's
determine the true anomaly of the point where the Hence substituting for tan \v we have orbit.
I
TO
lm
r
as the time from the earth's orbit to perihelion, the answer to the question.
{
and double
i
this period gives
This expression has
its
greatest value 2/3n
when
= l/2.
Show that when *Ex. 4. Two planets are moving in coplanar orbits. these planets are nearest to each other their longitudes 6 and & must satisfy the two following equations
:
and
5= sin (6
or) {r
 r' cos
(6
 6'}} +
vp
^= sin vp'
(ff
 or')
{r'
rcos(d ff)}
in
which
T
and T' are the epochs at which the planets pass through
equation merely expresses that the planets have the longitudes
perihelion.
The
6 and
first
&
at the
same moment.
53]
AND THEIR APPLICATION
find the second equation
169
(d
To
a
we note that
dr'
r2
 2rr' cos
 6') + r' 2
is
to be
minimum whence
dr
,
dr
.
'
'
dr'
dt
=5
Substituting
If e
=
sin (0
, OT),
T
= ~ we
&
obtain the second equation.
and
e'
are both small, #
and
are nearly equal and the second
equation
may
be written
(a a') {e*/a' sin (6
 &}
e'
>J a s\n (0'
&')}
+ (a'*
a 5 ) sin
(0
0')=0.
that the distance of the earth from a planet, whose orbit not in general be a minimum when the planet is in opposition unless the earth is at one or other of two points in her orbit, but that if the perihelia of the two orbits have the same heliocentric longitude
*Ex.
5.
Show
is in
the
ecliptic, will
and the
latera recta are in
the duplicate ratio of the eccentricities, the
at every opposition.
distance will be a
minimum
[Math. Trip.
I.
1900.]
This
follows.
may
be deduced from the last question or obtained otherwise as be the simultaneous positions of the two planets at the
If then
Let P,
Q
t
Fig. 57
time
t
and
P',
Q' their positions
at the time
+ dt.
PQ is a
minimum
have
or
maximum we must
whence
PQ = P'Qf
PP cos PPN= QQ cos
Let
LAFP=0,
L.AFQ=0',
<t>',
LANP=<*, LFPP = 4>,FQQ' = FP=r, FQ=^,
then
PP cos =
(f>
 dr, PP' sin = $ rd0,
FIG. 57.
)
whence
PP cos P'PN= PP cos (0  e + =  dr cos (6  + rdB sin (6 CD)
<*>}
= esin(0 cos (d = {e sin (or  )/Vp + sin (6 ) If therefore PQ = PQ' we must have
{
tar)
e
sin (or
6'
Q>)/Jp+sm(d
(a
<0)/*Jp=e' sin(Tar'
in opposition,
w)/vjo'
+ sin (ff
<o)l>J~p'.
If
=
the planet
is
and we have
1
e sin (or

0)/Vp
= e' sin (w
170
Hence there
of the question.
are
KEPLER'S AND NEWTON'S LAWS
two values
if
[CH.
is
vn
part
at
for 6 differing
by 180.
This
the
first
Also
& = &'
and
el'Jp
= e'/\'p',
the condition
is satisfied
every opposition.
Ex.
6.
Show how
Euler's theorem for the time of describing the arc
of a parabola can be deduced from Lambert's theorem. In this case both /3 and a will become indefinitely small.
Ex.
7.
The sun passed through the
and through the
is
first
at 2 h 5 m ,
that the interval
earth's orbit is
first point of Aries on March 20, 1898, h m show point of Libra on Sept. 22 at 12 35 consistent with the facts that the eccentricity of the
;
about 1/60, and tha
the apse line
is
nearly at right angles
[Coll.
to the line of equinoxes. If the sun is at an Equinoctial point
Exam.]
it
and
if e 2 is
negligible
can easily
be shown that
sin (or
+
u,
u)
= e sin or,
e sin
tzr
whence we have the two values of
If
ti
namely
or
and
IT
or
e sin or.
be the times of passage through T and : respectively, time of passing through perihelion and P the length of the year,
and
t2
T the
t
2?r
t2
p =esin
TT
T
or
or
 e sin (e sin
w
nr),
%TT
T=  e sin or  e sin (ar + e sin or), or
2
tz
whence
If sr be near

ti=^P
Pesinszr.
7T
90,
e
be ^j, and P=365j, we see that
t2
ti differs from
half a year by 3 8 days.
Ex. 8. Assuming that the orbit of the earth relative to the sun is a plane curve show that for every set of three observations of the solar coordinates a", 8" the following equation is satisfied a, 8 ; a', 8'
;
tan 8 sin
(a'
 a") + tan
8'
sin (a"
 a) + tan
8" sin (a
 a') = 0.
[Coll.
Exam.]
CHAPTEE
VIII.
PRECESSION AND NUTATION.
PAGE
54.
How
55. 56.
57.
lunisolar precession is observed Physical explanation of lunisolar precession
171
and nutation
in
.
173
176
Planetary precession General formulae for
precession Ascension and Declination
and
nutation
Right
178
. .
58.
59.
Movement of the first point of Aries on The independent day numbers
Proper motions of Stars
.
the Ecliptic
185
188
.
.
60.
61.
.
.
.
.
.195
.
Variations in terrestrial latitudes
.
.
...
.
196
54.
How lunisolar precession is
observed.
The important
phenomenon which we know as the precession of the equinoxes is most easily made apparent when the observed right ascension and
declination of any fixed star at one epoch are compared with the observed right ascension arid declination of the same star at a later
epoch sufficiently distant from the earlier one. For example the coordinates of Polaris (the Pole Star) were determined as follows
:
Polaris 1st Jan.
1850
R.A.
^
l
h
5m
,
23 s
80
These are now to be compared with the coordinates same star as determined 50 years later:
A K.A.
1 h 1
of the
9*i m ZO
Us
53".
!p 8
to
88
46'
The differences between these two sets of coordinates amounting more than a quarter of an hour in right ascension and more than a quarter of a degree in declination must receive close attention.
At
first
it
position of Polaris
might appear that the change in the apparent must be attributed to actual movements of
172
that star.
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
[CH. VIII
But we can show that the phenomena cannot be thus Changes in the coordinates of a point may be caused explained. in the axes with regard to which those coordinates are by changes measured as well as by absolute changes in the position of the We have to show that the changes in the place of point itself.
Polaris are only apparent. They are to be attributed to changes not in the place of the star but in the place of the great circle with reference to which the star's place is determined. These
changes are due to the phenomena known as Precession and
Nutation.
Consider
first
the declination of Polaris which in the course of
half a century is shown by observation to have increased no less than 16' 4", or at the average rate of 19" annually. This means that the distance between the Pole and Polaris has been
diminishing 19" annually. It follows that either the Pole or Polaris, or both, must be in movement.
But no appreciable portion of the change in the polar distance of Polaris can be attributed to the proper motion ( 60) of that
Measurements of the distance of Polaris from other neighbouring stars show no variation comparable with that in the distance from Polaris to the Pole. Any true proper motion which Polaris
star.
may
possess
is far
its declination.
It is also to
too small to account for the changes observed in be noticed that while, in the course of
fifty years,
distances they do not
other stars generally exhibit large changes in their polar show considerable changes in their distances
from each other.
We
are thus led to the conclusion that the
changes in the distance between Polaris and the Pole are not to be attributed to the movement of Polaris itself, but to a move
ment
of the
Celestial
Pole,
and we have now
to
study the
character of this movement.
If the Pole shifts its position continually on the celestial sphere the celestial equator must also be in constant motion, because under all circumstances every point on the equator must be 90 from the Pole. But though the equator moves
yet
always preserves the same average inclination to the The angle only fluctuates some seconds to one side or ecliptic.
it
the other of
its
mean
value.
The
declination of the sun at mid
summer
the obliquity of the ecliptic, and this was practically the same in 1850 as in 1900 (see p. 187). Hence we see that
is
5455]
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
173
the equator must move so that it cuts the ecliptic, regarded as fixed, at a nearly constant angle, while the equinoctial points move along the ecliptic in the opposite direction to the earth's
The pole of the ecliptic may be regarded as fixed on motion. the celestial sphere, and the motion with which we are at present concerned causes the pole of the equator to describe a small This is the movement circle around the pole of the ecliptic.
which
is
known
as
the
lunisolar precession
of the equinoxes.
It manifests itself
most simply by a continuous increase in the
longitude of a star, while the star's latitude remains unaltered. In general lunisolar precession produces change both in the
declination and the right ascension of a celestial body.
55. Physical nutation.
explanation of lunisolar precession and
The
direction of the axis about which the earth performs its
diurnal rotation undergoes very slow changes, and these changes produce the phenomena of precession and nutation. The dis
turbance of the earth's axis from the constant direction
otherwise retain
is
it
would
due
to the fact that the resultant attraction of like the earth,
an external body (moon or sun) on a spheroidal body
is
not a single force through the centre of gravity of the earth. If the earth were a truly spherical rigid body, and if the
density along the surface of each internal concentric spherical shell was constant, then the attraction of any external body, such
would be equivalent to a force acting at the centre of the sphere. A force whose line of action passes through the centre of gravity of the body on which it acts would be without effect on the rotation of the body about its centre of But under the conditions existing in the solar system gravity. the attraction of neither sun nor moon passes in general through
as the or the sun,
moon
the earth's centre of gravity. Hence arise those disturbances of the earth's rotation which we are now to consider.
Although for reasons indicated later, the moon is more effective than the sun in producing precession, we consider first the effect of the sun because its motion relative to the earth is simpler than
that of the moon.
If
we assume
that
the earth
is
a solid
of revolution
its
and
axis
symmetrical about the equator, then NS, Fig. 57, being
174
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
[CH. VIII
divides C its centre, any external particle, the plane the earth symmetrically, and therefore the resultant attraction of be in the on the earth lies in the plane NSP: further if
and
P
N8P
P
P
plane of the equator, the resultant attraction will also be in that lies in the equatorial plane the resultant Hence if plane.
P
AB
attraction will be along CP. If were in the axis
(a case we need not consider) it is clear that the resultant attraction would be along CP, but for
P
NS
any other position of P, such as that indicated in Fig. 57, it can be shown that the resultant attraction does not pass through G
but along a line such as
HP in the plane
NSP.
FIG. 57.
At
first
sight
it
might seem as
if this force
would tend towards
turning NS into a
as the sun
is
direction perpendicular to HP, in other words the attracting body, the immediate effect would seem
But the to be to force the earth's equator towards the ecliptic. fact that the earth is in rapid rotation produces the apparently
at each instant moves in a paradoxical effect that the axis in the plane direction not but at right angles thereto. This is a phenomenon well illustrated by the common pegtop,
NS
NSP
though in this case we are dealing not with the rotation about the centre of gravity of a body free in space, but with rotation about a fixed point which is mathematically a very similar
problem.
While the pegtop
that axis
is itself
is
in rapid rotation about its axis of
symmetry
vertical.
slowly describing a cone round the axis of the pegtop is at each instant moving in a direction at right angles to that in which the force of gravity
Thus the
55]
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
175
would appear to urge it and which it is only prevented from following by the fact that the top has a rotation about its axis very much more rapid than the conical motion of the axis itself.
The
compared with the conical motion of the
diurnal rotation of the earth appears very rapid when earth's axis inasmuch
as the period of the latter is about 24,500 years. Applying the of the conical rotation of the axis of the pegtop to the analogy case of the rotation of the earth as disturbed by the sun we should
expect to find that the terrestrial axis
NS
would slowly describe
a right circular cone about the normal
to the plane of the ecliptic.
The processional action of the moon is more important than that of the sun, for though the total attraction of the moon on the earth is very much less than that of the sun, yet as the precessional effect depends
upon the
difference between the attractions
exercised by the disturbing body on different parts of the earth the greater proximity of the moon raises its precessional effect
to double that of the sun.
The plane
of the moon's orbit
is
very near the
ecliptic,
being
inclined thereto only at the small angle of 5, and the moon's orbit while preserving this inclination is in continuous motion, so that
each of its nodes accomplishes a complete circuit of the ecliptic in about 19 years, a very small quantity in comparison with the As the moon is always near precessional period of 26,000 years. the ecliptic and is as much below the ecliptic as above, and as the
average position of its orbit coincides with the ecliptic, it follows that the principal part of the moon's precessional action is of the same general tendency as that of the sun. The sun's action and
moon's action together constitute what is called lunisolar precession by which T moves on the ecliptic in the
this part of the
opposite direction to increasing longitudes at the rate of 501" About twothirds of this quantity is due to the action annually. of the moon and the remainder to that of the sun. The obliquity
of the ecliptic
&>
But the moon has
circumstance that
its
remains unaltered by lunisolar precession. also an important influence from the
movement, though near the
ecliptic, is
not
The precessional action of the moon tends exactly in that plane. to make the axis of the earth describe a cone round the pole
of the lunar orbit, which
describing a circle of radius 5 about the pole of the ecliptic. The influence of this on the plane of the equator is twofold. It gives to T a small periodic movement
is itself
176
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
its
[CH. VIII
of oscillation to and fro on the ecliptic about
mean
place as
determined by lunisolar precession. It also gives to w a small oscillation to and fro about its mean value. These phenomena are
known
tion,
as nutation,
and
achievements.
The sun has
their discovery was one of Bradley's great also some effect in producing nuta
but
it is
very small compared with that of the moon.
*56. Planetary precession. The lunisolar precession and nutation relate, as we have seen, to change in the relative position of the equator and the ecliptic due to the motion of the former.
have now to learn that the ecliptic is itself not quite a fixed plane, and its changes have to be taken into account, though these
We
FIG. 58 (after Brunnow).
changes are so small that they may for many purposes be regarded as nonexistent and the ecliptic be treated as absolutely fixed.
The movements
of the ecliptic are due to the attractions of
the other planets on the earth. The irregularity thus caused in the positions of the equinoctial points is accordingly known as
Planetary precession^.
We
must take some standard
circle
its position at
other dates shall be referred and
position of the ecliptic to which we use for this
purpose the great
the beginning of the year 1850,
t The reader who
desires to learn
with which the ecliptic coincided at Let EE' be Fig. 58.
EE
,
more about Planetary Precession than is contained in the slight sketch here given is referred to Newcomb's Compendium of Spherical Astronomy, from which source the numerical values here used have been
obtained.
*56]
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
177
Let be the the position of the ecliptic in the year 1850 + t. at the commencement of 1850 and let the equator have equator
AA
moved by
Let Let
lunisolar precession to A'A" at the time 1850 + SL and SL' be perpendiculars from a star S on EE and EE'. DD' be drawn perpendicular to EE' from the intersection of
.
Q
EE
and
AA
.
Then we have the
following statements.
t
BD is the Lunisolar Precession in
Z D'GA"
is is
years,
the obliquity of the true ecliptic in 1850
+ t, +
t.
Z
DBA"
the obliquity of the fixed ecliptic in 1850
BG being the distance along the equator through which the node has been shifted by the motion of the ecliptic in t years is known as the Planetary Precession and its magnitude has been
found to be 0"13.
ment
It is the displaceis the General Precession in longitude! of the intersection of the equator with the apparent ecliptic on the latter, and its annual increase at the date 1850 + 1 is
CD'
50"'2453
+ 0"'0002225.
This quantity is known as the constant of precession. It changes with extreme slowness, thus in 1900 its value is 50"'2564 and in 1950 it is 50"'2675. It will be accurate enough for our purposes
to take the present constant of precession as 50"'26.
ecliptic of the
At the date 1850 + 1 the angle between the equator and the same date (neglecting periodic terms) is
23 27' 32"0

0'H7$,
change in the obliquity. is the Observing the directions of the arrow heads we see that descending node of the true ecliptic on the fixed ecliptic and conEG is the longitude of the ascending node of the sequently 180
is
and the second term
called the secular
E
true ecliptic on the fixed ecliptic. The longitude of the star S which was
in
is
DL in
The
1850 becomes
BL
by the lunisolar precession. unaltered by the lunisolar precession.
If planetary precession
1850
+t
latitude of S, or SL,
as
well
as
lunisolar precession
be
considered then the longitude of S, which was DL at the date 1850, becomes GL' at the date 1850 + t, and in like manner the
latitude changes from
B. A.
SL
to SL'.
12
178
57.
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
[CH. VIII
General formulae for precession and nutation in right ascension and declination. We shall generally assume that the plane of the ecliptic is unchanged, and that the position of the equator with respect to the ecliptic is subjected to slow changes due to precession and nutation in the only ways in which a great circle of the sphere can change, i.e. the line of nodes changes and the obliquity of the
ecliptic also changes. respect to which the
Any alterations in the great circles with coordinates of a star are measured neces
sarily involve changes in those coordinates even though, as we shall at present suppose, there is actually no change in the place
of the star on the celestial sphere. Consider two positions of the equator: the first cutting the ecliptic at an equinoctial point T, with obliquity &>, the second
cutting the ecliptic at an equinoctial point T', which has moved along the ecliptic through an arc k, in the direction of diminishing
longitude, while the obliquity has changed from co to &/ (Fig. 59). Let a and 8 be the R.A. and declination of a star 8 referred to
the
first
equator and equinox (System
I.)
;
and
let of
and
8'
be the
coordinates of the
same
star referred to the second equator
and
equinox (System II.). Let S and a/, !,
x
81
be the corresponding coordinates of
a second star S' referred to the two systems. Then since the length of the arc SS' is the same whichever system of coordinates be used, we have the fundamental equation as used in 12,
sin 8 sin 8 l
+ cos 8 cos 8
1
cos (a
cti)
= sin 8' sin
/
+ cos 8' cos 8/ cos (a'
a/).
We
shall
8j
now introduce
a/,
>/
into this equation three cases in
which a1;
and
are at once evident and thus obtain the
three equations of transformation. If the second star S' is at T its coordinates in
System
II.
I.
are
= 0, KI
The
coordinates of the
= 0. 8,
star in
same
System
&>'
,
are given by
the equations
cos
cos
sin 81
81 81
= sin k sin sin / = sin k cos cos a/ = cos k.
',
57]
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
179
And making
we have
cos 8 cos a
these substitutions in the fundamental equation
= sin k sin co' sin 8' + cos k cos 8' cos a + sin
way by taking
sin
k cos
co'
cos
8'
sin a'
(i).
In the same
cos
8'
S' at T'
we
find
cos
a'
=
k sin
co
sin S
+ cos k cos S cos a
sin
& cos
co
cos 8 sin a
at the
(ii).
Finally,
ecliptic.
suppose the second star S'
is
pole
of the
Its coordinates in
System
!
I.
are
8,
=
=
270, 270,
=
=
90
90
 co,

and
in
System
II.
/
S/
^
FIG. 59.
Making these substitutions
sin 8 cos
co
in the sin a
fundamental equation we have
cos
sin
cos 8 sin
co
= sin 8' cos
&>'
8'
co'
sin
a'
(iii),
and we thus obtain the three general equations connecting with of, 8' and the necessary constants k, co, co'.
a, 8
We may
note
that
(iii)
unaccented letters and
been obtained from
accented letters
If the
(i)
it
is
symmetrical in accented and easily seen how (ii) might have
is
by the interchange of accented and unand by changing the sign of k.
quantities are a,
8',
known
then from
(i), (ii), (iii)
we can
express sin 8
and cos 8
sin a each in
terms of a,
8'
and we thus
122
180
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
(iv), (i),
[CH. VIII
group the three equations found without ambiguity:
sin 8
(v) from
which
a,
8 can be
= sin 8' (cos k sin
cos
8'
8'
to
sin
to'
+ cos
cos a/
to
cos
to')
cos
a'
sin
to
sin k
to
+
cos 8 cos a
cos
sin a' (cos
sin
k sin
cos
a>
sin
to')...
(iv),
= sin
8'
& sin
to'
cos
+ cos 8' cos a' cos AN + cos 8' sin a' sin & cos to' 8 sin a = sin 8' (cos k cos to sin
cos
8'
(i)
to'
sin
to
cos
to')
cos
a'
cos
tw
sin
A;
+ cos
we
find in the
sin
8'
8'
sin a' (cos
k cos
a>
cos
&>'
+ sin
to
sin
to')
( v).
If it be desired to determine
a', 8'
when a and
cos
8 are given,
same way
A;
= sin 8 (cos
4
sin
to
to'
A;
sin sin
&>'
+ cos
cos
to
to
o>')
cos 8 cos
a.
sin
k
cos
8'
cos a'
+ cos 8 sin a (cos = sin 8 sin k sin
sin
to
m
cos
to'
sin to)
. .
.(vi),
+
cos
8'
cos 8 cos a cos k cos 8 sin a sin k cos
&>
(ii)
to
sin
a'
= sin 8 (cos k cos + cos 8 cos a cos
+ cos 8 sin
to'
sin
sin
to'
cos
to)
to'
sin
k
to
a (cos & cos
cos
to'
+ sin
to
sin
to')
. .
.(vii).
For the calculation of precession we may usually regard k as
so small that powers above the first may be neglected and take to = tw', so that the formulae (vi), (ii), (vii) become
we
also
= sin 8 + k sin to cos 8 cos a, = cos 8 cos k sin to sin 8 k cos a> cos 8' cos a' cos 8' sin a' = cos 8 sin a + k cos to cos 8 cos a.
sin
8'
ct
cos 8 sin
a,
From which we
easily obtain the
approximate results
<o
a
8'
OL
= k cos
to
+ k sin
cos a
tan 8 sin
a.
(viii),
8 = k sin
to
(ix)
These are the fundamental formulas
for precession.
57]
Ex.
1.
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
Show
that, if
a,
8,
181
of a star, its annual
be the R.A. and
decl.
increase of right ascension in consequence of precession seconds of arc will be very nearly 46" + 20" tan 8 sin a
when expressed
and
in
in
declination
20" cos Ex.
a.
2.
k
is
of the ecliptic,
ecliptic,
L
the angular velocity of the pole of the equator round the pole is the longitude of the instantaneous axis of rotation of the
and
r\
its
angular velocity.
Show
that these changes in the planes
of reference produce annual rates of change
m + n sin a tan 8
in a,
8,
and n cos a
the R.A. and decl. of a star, where m = k cos a> Tj sin
L cosec
and
co
n
k sin
o>,
being the inclination of the equator to the ecliptic.
[Sheepshanks Exhibition, 1903.]
Prove that the points on the celestial sphere whose declinations undergo the greatest change in a given period, owing to the precession of the and that the points whose equinoxes, lie on two arcs of a great circle
Ex.
3.
;
declinations are, at the end of the period, unchanged
circle
lie
on another great
[Math. Trip. I. 1901.] be the poles of the equator at the beginning and end of the Then it is obvious geometrically that the greatest possible change of period. declination by precession in this period is equal to the arc PP', and that the stars which undergo this greatest change lie on the great circle through PP',
Let P,
P
PP' and its antipodal arc. The stars whose declinations are, at the end of the period, unchanged lie on the great circle bisecting the arc PP' at right angles.
outside the limits of the arc
Ex. 4. Show that if a star lie on the solstitial colure it has no precession in declination, and that all stars on the equinoctial colure have the same precession in right ascension and also in declination.
Ex. 5. Prove that if S be a star without precession in R.A., and P, the poles of the equator and the ecliptic respectively, then SP and SK will
K
be at right angles.
[Math. Trip.]
Ex.
altered
6.
Show
that
all
stars
whose
by precession lie on an equator and the ecliptic.
elliptic
moment being cone passing through the poles of the
R.A.
is
not at the
[Coll.
Exam.]
The
If
condition
is,
see
(viii),
cos
co
we make
+ sin tan 8 sin a = 0. x= r cos a cos 8, y = r sin a cos 8,
co
z
= r sin
(#
2
8,
and eliminate
r, a, 8,
we have
as the equation of the cone
co f
yz sin
+ y2
)
cos
co
= 0.
182
Ex.
7.
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
Show
that for
all
[CH. VIII
stars for which the rate of variation in the
declination due to the motion of the node of the equator along the ecliptic has its greatest value A, the rate of variation in right ascension due to the same
cause
is
A
8.
cot w,
where w
is
the angle between the ecliptic and the equator.
formulae
(i),
Ex.
Show from the
da'
(ii), (iii)
a', 8'
that
we have the
w'
following
expressions for the differential coefficients of
~~7
Oat
with respect to
and k
=
88'
tan o cos a
'
;
^
= sin a
,
:
Cot
da'
TTJ
ok
= cosw
.
+sin w tan o
88'
;
sin a
^T ok

= smw
cos a.
Differentiating (vi) with regard to w'
and regarding
8'
a, 8, k,
w as constants
we have from
(vii)
cos
8' ~

Cw
=cos
sin a
whence excluding the case of
8'
= 90
5,= sin a. Ow
Differentiating
(ii)
88'
with regard to w'
8'
cos
sin a ^,
'
w
+ sin
8'
cos
a'
Ow
,
=
whence
after substituting for 88'/8w'
da'
we have
tan 8 cos o ,
OW
i=
Differentiating (vi) with regard to k
we have
cos
8'
~T = sin
w'
(
 sin
8'
8 sin
a'
k sin w cos 8 cos a cos k  cos 8 sin a sin k cos w)
=sin w'cos whence
cos
88'
ok
(iii)
7
= sin w
cos a
.
Finally differentiating just found for d8'/dk
with regard to k and substituting the value
sin w' sin a sin w' cos
0=cos 8' cos w' sin w' cos a'+sin
8'
a'
cos
8'
sin w' cos
a'
^T
whence
srr=cos
die
w'
+ sin
w'
tan8' sina'.
Ex. 9. Show that notwithstanding the precessional movement the celestial equator always touches two fixed small circles. Ex. 10.
T>
If there be a
change in the obliquity
Aw without any change
in
prove that
cos a cos 8 = cos a cos 80,
sin a cos 8
sin 8
= sin a = sin a
cos 8 cos cos So sin
Aw  sin 8 Aw + sin 8
sin Aw,
cos Aw,
where
a,
affected
8 are the right ascension and declination of a star as 8, and a and unaffected respectively by the alteration.
,
57]
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
183
Ex. 11. Let a, 8 be the right ascensiou and declination of a star at a given epoch, k the constant of precession, and co the obliquity of the ecliptic. If A denote the expression sin co sin 8 + cos co cos 8 sin o and denote
B
cos a cos
8,
then after
t
years the values of these expressions for the
same
star will be
A
Also
if
cos kt +
B sin kt,
8'
co
and
B cos kt A sin kt.
cos kt)
the declination change to
sin 8
in this period,
sin
8'
= sin
{A
(1
 B sin kt}
[Coll.
.
Exam.
2
We
is
1901.]
note that
(sin
o>
sin 8
+ cos co cos 8 sin a) + (cos a cos 8)
2
far as precession is concerned and it is easy to see that this expression is always the square of the cosine of the latitude. The
an invariant so
expression
sin 8 cos
co
cos 8 sin a sin
co
being the sine of the latitude is of course also an invariant, and from this circumstance Formula (iii) might have been at once written down.
Ex. 12. Show that, owing to precession, the R.A. of a star at a greater distance than 23 from the pole of the ecliptic will undergo all possible changes, but that the R.A. of a star at a less distance than 23^ will always
be greater than 12 hours. If #=tan^&, then from
A2
(ii)
co
and
(vii)
we obtain
(2 sin 8 sin
o>
cos
co
 2x (cos 8 cos a cos
+ tan a
cos 8 cos a
+ cos 8 sin a cos 2co  tan a cos 8 cos a) + tan a' sin 8 sin + tan a cos 8 sin a cos a>) cos 8 sin a = 0,
a>
the condition that this quadratic shall have real roots is easily seen to be tan 2 a cos 2 ft + cos2 o>  sin 2 /3>0,
where
ft
is
the latitude of the star.
If
$<(90
to)
a real value of k can be
found for every value of a. We have also (Ex. 11)
sin
If
ft
8'
cos co
sin
cos 8 sin a sin
a'
co
= sin
ft.
> (90
)
we must have
always negative.
13. Let x, y, z be the coordinates of a star referred to rectangular the axis of x through the vernal equinox, the axis of y at right angles to axes, it in the plane of the equator, the axis of z the polar axis of the earth.
*Ex.
Assume
that the ecliptic is fixed, and that precession may be represented as a revolution of the pole cf the equator round the pole of the ecliptic at an angular rate q. After an interval of t years let the coordinates of the star,
referred to the
new
positions of the axes, be
,
T),
f.
Show
that the relations between the two sets of coordinates are
r)
= xcos qty cos co sin qt z sin co sin qt, = xcos co sin qt+y (cos 2 co cos qt+sin 2 a>) + zcos co
=#sin
co
sin
co
co
(cos qt
1),
o>),
sin
qt+y
[Prof.
cos
co
sin
co
(cos qt
2
1) \z (sin
cos qt+coa?
where
co
is
the obliquity of the ecliptic.
H. H. Turner, Monthly
Notices, R.A.S. LX. 207.]
184
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
[CH. VIII
We have
x = cos 8 cos a,
y=. cos 8 sin
a,
77
= cos 8' cos a = cos 8' sin a',
8'.
2= sin 8,
Hence putting k = qt and
(vi), (vii).
f =sin
letting w'
=
co
the results follow at once from
(ii),
Supposing the pole of an orbit progresses with uniform velocity on what great circles the motion of the nodes is (1) uniform, (2) continuous but 'variable, (3) oscillatory; and show that in the last case the progressive motion of the node takes longer than the
*Ex.
14.
in a small circle, find
regressive.
Let
u>'
be the radius ^>90 of the
circle described
by the moving pole
P about
C
of
the fixed point
P
.
Then the
great circle
a>'.
C of which P is
pole intersects
which
P
is is
pole at the constant angle
and there
Draw two
no other great circle except (7 small circles C\ and C2 parallel to
The node moves uniformly along C on which the node moves uniformly.
(7
and on opposite
sides of
it
at
the constant distance <' from
C
.
Then as no point on C can be
at a distance
N'
FIG. 60.
from
circle
(?
greater than
o>'
the zone
Z between
C\
we and
see that all the points on
C2
.
Hence
all
possible nodes of
C must be confined to C with any other
are limited to this zone Z.
circle C is intersected by its consecutive position at its points of Hence if the node in which C intersects any other contact with Ci and <72 circle be stationary that node must lie on either C\ or (72
The
.
.
is intersected by C is to advance node in which a fixed circle continuously it must not become stationary at any point, and consequently must have no real intersections with C\ and C2 it must therefore be confined within the zone Z.
If the
;
If
be not confined within
lie
Z
have seen that the nodes
within
then the nodes can only oscillate, for as we Z it follows that they can never enter
the portions of exterior to Z, and consequently each node must oscillate in one of the two arcs intercepted on by Z.
Let T7 and T% be the points of contact of C with GI bs the points in which an arc of terminates in C\ O2 from Oi to 0i make an acute angle with that direction C on CQ are moving. When T\ becomes coincident
!
and C*2 and let O and Let the arc and C*2 in which the nodes of
l
.
with 0\ then direct
5758]
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
.
185
motion of the node will be commencing on Oi0 2 But this will not be and for this C will have to completed till T2 becomes coincident with 2 be turned more than halfway round, i.e. the direct oscillation takes more than half the whole period of C. But after T2 has passed 2 then the retrograde motion commences, and it will be finished when T again reaches 0\ and
,
l
therefore requires less than half the complete revolution. We can also investigate the question thus. Let
circle Co,
HN be C and FN be
cos a sin
Xr
H'FH (Fig.
w=
60) be the
0.
Then from the
cos
triangle
FHN we have by
(i). <u
1(6)
+ sin a cos
w
sin a cot <' sin
To
o>'
find the corresponding changes of a
and k we
differentiate, treating
and
as constant,
and obtain
cos a cos k
sin a sin k sin a sin k cos
a>
u>
' *
Aa _ &k
If
cos a cos k cos
+cos a cot
sin
to
N
is
which means that
the
same condition as that N shall cos k = tan <u' cot w, and thus we see that
a stationary node then cosacos& sinasin&cosa>=0 or HN=90, is the perpendicular from on Fff, this being of course
'
N
lie
on
H moves over an
C\.
We
hence find
that
node retrogrades from the stationary node N' on C2 to N. positive in the case represented we have &<90 and 2 is less than half the circumference, so that the regression of the nodes in the oscillatory movement
takes less time than the progression.
arc 2&, while the As tan &>' cot <a is
*Ex. 15. On account of precession the interval between two passages of a given meridian through the same star differs from a mean sidereal day. If the colatitude of the star be less than that of the pole, show that this
difference will vanish
when the
(~/")Q
difference of longitudes of the pole
and star
is
** , 1
tan
(colat. of star)
'_
'
tan (colat. of pole)
*Ex.
16.
If po
star at the epoch
T
be the position angle of the smaller component of a double show that if the effect of precession only be considered,
,
the position angle p at any other epoch
T will
be given by the equation
p=p + 0''3342(T
TQ) sin a sec 8,
where a, 8 are the R.A. and decl. of the principal star of the pair and where and T are expressed in years.
58.
T
Movement
of the
first
point of Aries on the ecliptic.
In consequence of precession and nutation the intersection of the equator and ecliptic, which we call the first point of Aries Its position is (T), is in motion on the ecliptic supposed fixed.
therefore a function of the time,
and
if fl
be the distance of
T
measured from some
fixed point
fl
on the ecliptic we
may
write
= a + bt + P.
186
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
[CH. VIII
In this equation t is the time measured from some fixed epoch and a and b are constants, while P consists of periodic terms only. These terms contain t in the expressions of angles which enter P There is thus a fundamental solely by their sines and cosines. difference between the quantities bt and P the former is capable
;
of indefinite increase in proportion to the time, and 6 is in fact the constant of precession. The value of P, on the other hand, is
restricted
between limits
4
it
quantity
P
nor
less than*
can never become greater than some P where P is a finite quantity.
The quantity P is the nutation by which fl fluctuates about the uniformly moving position it would have if the nutation were
absent.
Let
N be a point
at
distance from
sometimes in
distance
moving uniformly on the ecliptic so that its any time t is represented by a + bt. T will be and sometimes behind N, but the advance of
N
TAr
can never exceed
P
.
The movement
of
T
will
be
the same on the average as that of N, and consequently may be regarded as the mean vernal equinoctial point which moves
of which the
N
uniformly along the ecliptic and in the immediate neighbourhood first point of Aries is always to be found.
As the longitude
ecliptic it is
measured from T along the clear that the longitude must be generally increasing
of a star
is
by the motion of T even though the
motion.
we
star itself be devoid of proper the numerical values f of the principal terms Introducing have the following expression for the true longitude X of a star
on the ecliptic
X=X +
where
50"'26
 1 7"'235 sin 8  1"'27 sin 2L,
\
is
the longitude of the star at the beginning of the year with reference to
N
;
t is
the fraction of the year which has elapsed at the time under consideration
;
Q
is
L
is
the geocentric longitude of the moon's ascending node; the sun's mean longitude which for our present purpose may with sufficient accuracy be regarded as the sun's
true geocentric longitude.
of
t The values of the coefficients in this expression were adopted by a conference astronomers which met in Paris in May 1896 and are those now used in the
Nautical Almanac.
58]
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
in
187
is
The second term
sion.
the expression of
\
due to preces
It corresponds
to an
longitude of the star.
is
annual increase of 50"'26 in the As this term contains t as a factor, it
capable of indefinite increase and may become by far the most important of the three variable terms.
term involves Q, the longitude of the moon's This term may make the on the ecliptic. of the first point of Aries vary from + 17"'235 to longitude 17"'235 on either side of its mean value. As the moon's nodes revolve round the ecliptic in about 18^ years, nutation causes T to be in advance of its mean place for about 9 years and then to be
third
The
ascending node
its mean place for about 9 years. The last term is the nutation in longitude due to the sun, it is expressed in terms of L the mean longitude of the sun, and has a period of about six months.
behind
Besides
effect
its effect
on longitude, nutation has also a periodic
on the obliquity of the ecliptic so that to find the true obliquity at any given time the mean obliquity for the beginning of the year must be increased by 9"'21 cos 8 + 0"'55 cos 2L. We
should here remember that there
is
another minute variation in
the obliquity of the ecliptic namely that due to the planetary The whole amount of the variation so caused is precession ( 56).
a diminution at the rate of 0"'468 per annum. The joint effect of the nutation (omitting the small terms) and the planetary precession gives for the date T the following
value for the obliquity of the ecliptic f 23 27' 3"58  0"'468 (T  1910) + 9"'21 cos
:
8 + 0"'55
cos 2L.
sufficient
The
accuracy
is
last
for
two terms represent the nutation with
almost every purpose. The complete Ex. 5.) (See
expression
given in the ephemeris.
Ex.
1.
Newcomb's value of the constant
50"'
of Precession as used in
N.A.
(see p. v) is
2453 + 0" 0002225*,
where
t is
Show
t
the interval in years from 1850O. that this gives 50"'2584 for the constant of precession in 1909.
of the
The following values
1750 1800
1850
mean
obliquity for the eight equidistant epochs
p.
from 1750
to 2100 are given by
Newcomb, Spherical Astronomy,
1950
23 23
238
:
23 28' 18"51 23 27 55 10 23 27 31 68
23 27 8 26
26' 44"84
2000
26 21
41
2050 2100
23 25 57 '99 23 25 34 56
1900
188
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
[CH. VIII
Ex. 2. If the origin of longitudes is the position of the mean equinoctial point at 19080, find the longitude of the first point of Aries and the obliquity of the ecliptic on June 29, 1908, being given that S3 =94 9, L = 91, and that
t= 0493.
are
Precession in longitude for the interval is 24"8 and the nutation terms  17"'l and +0"3 respectively, so that the answer is 8"0. In like manner
is
the obliquity
shown
to be 23 27' 2"'96.
in longitude
17"'3,
Ex. 3. Show that on 7th November, 1909, the precession from the beginning of the year is 42""7 and the nutation is = given that Z 226'l and S3 = 68'7.
being
Ex.
4.
If 23 27' 4"'04 be the
mean
value of the obliquity of the ecliptic
10th, 1909,
in 1909'0,
show that the apparent value on June
will
when
S3
=76'6
and
Z = 782,
5.
be 2327'5"48.
*Ex.
If the nutation of the obliquity of the ecliptic
p. v)
Aw
is
computed
from the more complete expression (N.A. 1910,
Aw = +9" 210 cos
which
S3
0"090cos2
8
+0"'551 eos2Z
6)
0"009 cos (Z 78
in
is
+ 0" 022 cos (3Z + 786),
the longitude of the moon's ascending node and L is the mean S3 of the sun, show that the nutation of the obliquity on 1st May, longitude 1909, is +l"97, being given S3 =787 and Z = 38'8.
*Ex.
6.
If the nutation of longitude
p. v)
S3
AZ
is
computed from the more
complete expression (N.A. 1910,
AZ=  17"'235 sin
3
+0"209 sin 2
 1"'270 sin 2Z + 0"107 sin (L + 74 3)  0"05 sin (3Z + 78
1909,
is
6),
show that its value on 27 December, and Z = 275 33.
*59.

15"'37, being given
S3
=66
'00
The independent day numbers.
if
Even
a star
shall at present
is devoid of any proper motion ( 60), as we suppose to be the case, its coordinates must be
may now continually altering by precession and nutation. assume that the ecliptic is a fixed circle and the mean equinoctial point is defined as moving uniformly on the ecliptic so that its
average distance from the first point of Aries is zero. equator at the date T intersects the ecliptic at the
noctial point
We
The mean
and as above explained
23 27' 3"58
is
equiinclined to the ecliptic at
mean
the angle
 0"'468 (T 1910).
By the mean right ascension and declination of a star we are to understand the R.A. and declination of that star as referred to
5859]
the
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
at the
189
mean equator
before us
is
commencement
a.',
of the year. .The problem
now
to determine
8'
a star on any particular day when we a and 8 for the year in which that day
the apparent coordinates of are given its mean coordinates
is
contained.
The general
formulae
(vi), (ii),
(vii) of
57 will provide us with
the required equations and for our present purpose we may regard &> as small both k and </ quantities whose squares or product
may be
neglected.
Under these circumstances the equations
reduce to
= sin S 4 sin k sin w cos 8 cos a + sin (a/ (a) cos 8 sin a, sin k sin a> sin 8 sin k cos &> cos 8 sin a, cos 8' cos of = cos 8 cos a sin (&>' cos 8' sin a' = cos 8 sin a + sin k cos to cos 8 cos a to) sin 8.
sin
8'
From which we
cos 8 sin
(a'
obtain
a)
= sin & (cos a> cos 8 + sin <w sin 8 sin a)
sin
(&>'
(&>'
<w)
sin S cos
a,
2 sin ^ (8'
= sin 8)
A;
sin
a>
cos a
+
sin
<u) sin a.
We
thus have approximately, if a' a be expressed in seconds of time and 8' 8, k, &>' &> in seconds of arc,
of
a
= ^k cos w + ^ {& sin <w sin a
A;
(V
<u)
cos a} tan 8)
)
8'
8=
sin
o>
cos a
4 (&>'
a>)
sin a
f, g,
We now
assume three new quantities
<w
G
determined by
the equations
k sin g cos and the equations (i) become
a'
f=^s kcosco',
;
g sin
Gr
=
8)
('
a)... (ii),

a
=/+
^
sin
(G + a) tan
(in}
8'8=gcos(G + a)
It will
j"
are independent of the co
be observed that
/, g,
G
ordinates of the star, they only vary with the day of the year and they are called the independent day numbers.
nutation
the computation of the effects of precession and coordinates of a star, tables are provided in the ephemeris in which the values of the independent day
facilitate
To
upon the
numbers
will
be found
for
each day of the year.
The accurate
formulas are given each year in the ephemeris (see for example N.A. 1910, p. 233) by which the computation of the day numbers f, g, G as well as other day numbers to which we have not as yet
190
referred
is
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
to be effected.
[CH. VIII
So
far as
we
are at present concerned
the following approximate equations will suffice
/= TL cos a> (50"'26  17"'2 sin &  1"'3 sin 2L)
=3
8
}
'073
 0342 sin Q 0'025 sin 2L) (t
 17"'2 sin Q  1"'3 sin 2X)
1.
.
gcosG = sin w (50"'26
g sin
.(iv).
= 20"05 (t  0342 sin S3  0'025 sin 2Z)
G =  9"'2 cos 8 0"'6 cos 2Z
In these equations L and S are (as on p. 186) the sun's mean longitude and the longitude of the moon's ascending node on the
ecliptic.
since the
The time t is the fractional part of the year which has elapsed commencement of the yearf.
can obtain the annual precession in R.A. and declination directly from formulae (iii) by writing instead of f, g, G the values of those quantities that would be derived from formulae (iv) if we omitted the terms due to nutation.
We
We
thus substitute in
(iii)
a,
3
s
073* for /, 20"'05
1,
for
g and zero
R.A.
for G,
and find
for the star
B
that as in Ex.
57
one year's precession in
changes a into
a
+3
s
07 3
+1
s
'336 sin a tan &
...(v).
Decl. changes 8 into B + 20"05 cos a
We
are
now
nutation which
able to solve the general problem of precession and may be stated as follows.
0)
Being given
B
the
mean
R.A.
and
decl.
of a star at the
beginning of the year Q it is required to find a1} S x the apparent R.A. and decl. of the same star for a certain day in the year Ti so
far as precession
T
and nutation are concerned.
the coordinates of the star referred to the
We
have
first to find
mean equator on Jan. 1st in the year T (> T ). These are obtained by adding to the given mean R.A. and Dec!, the following precessions
t It should be noted that if the strictest accuracy is required the beginning of the year is taken to be the moment when the sun's mean longitude is exactly 280. In the year 1910 this is at 5 h 40 m A.M. on Jan. 1st which may also be expressed as
Jan. O d 735.
tropical
For the Greenwich mean time of the beginning of each adopted year between the dates 1900 and 2000, see Appendix to Newcomb's Spherical Astronomy, p. 403, where other useful tables will also be found.
59]
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
Precession in R.A.
8 (3 '073
191
),
+l
s
'336 sin
t&nSj^ T
o ).
Decl. (20"05 cos
r ) (I;
Tj
Having thus obtained the mean place for Jan. 1st in the year we obtain from the ephemeris for that year the values yi, g lt G
for
1
for the particular
day and apply formulae (iii),
a,
which the coordinates an which give
s
8j
are required
=
+ (3 8 '073 +
l
'336 sin a tan 8
)
(2\
 T )\
. .
+fi + = S + 20"05 cos 8,
sin (#1 Isffi
+  T) + (7;
a o) tan So

ffl
.(vii).
cos
(Q
l
+
)
I
As an example
calculate the apparent R.A.
of the application of these formulae we shall and Decl. of (3 Geminorum at Green
wich mean midnight on 1910, Nov. 7th, so far as precession and nutation are concerned^. In the Greenwich second Ten Year Catalogue of 6892 stars we find for the mean place of ft Geminorum for 1890
a
= 7h
38 m 35 s 06,
8
=
28
17' 28"'4.
s s Substituting these values in 3 '073 + 1 '336 sin a tan 8 we see 8 that the annual precession is 3 '727 so that as T^ T^ is in this case 20 years the precession in R.A. from the mean place for 1890
m B> In like manner the place for 1910 is l 14 54. annual precession in declination is 20"'05 cos a = 8"'36 so that
to the
mean
in
20 years
it
amounts
/8
to
(2' 47"'2).
Thus we
is
see that the
mean
place of
Geminorum
7
h
for
1910
8
a
=
39 m 49 s 60,
=
28 14' 41 "'2.
have now to apply the corrections for giving the apparent From the N.A. p. 250 we obtain for place on 1910, Nov. 7th.
that day
We
/=l75,
log
0=11099,
is
G = 332
10'.
The equivalent of a whence ^g sin (G +
is
in arc
a) tan 8
114 57' 24" so that
s
G+
a.
=
87
7',
=
'46
and thus the correction to a
is
l '7o
s
+O
s
46
=
2 8 21.
The
correction to 8
g cos (G
+ a) = 0"7
so that
we have
'
finally for 7
h
the desired apparent place on 1910,
S
Nov. 7th
=
39 m 51
'81,
8'
=
28
14' 41"'9.
proper motion are also attended
t See N.A. 1910, p. 583, where the further corrections for aberration and to. See also Chap, xi, 91.
192
If at the time
to
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
t
[CH. VIII
= 0,
the
mean equinox
<z be the right ascension with reference of a star on the equator then the true
right ascension of that star at the time t (when t is expressed in years) will be so far as the motion of T is concerned
a
=a +3
8
073
1
8
'06 sin
S3

s
'08 sin 2Z.
In this formula 3 '073
cession
at
the
and the
time
t.
is the annual change in R.A. due to pretwo terms form the mean right ascension The last two terms are due to nutation. We
s
first
thus see that the variations of the right ascension of an equatorial star from its mean value are comprised between the limits
+ 1 8 14 and
1 8 '14.
So
far as concerns the principal
term of the
nutation a complete cycle of the possible changes is run through in 18 years, this being, as already mentioned, the period in which
360. and AZ be the daily changes in the longitude of the moon's node and in the sun's mean longitude respectively, then the daily change in T due to nutation is  1"06 cos a A a  8 1 6 cos 2Z A.
S3
increases through an angle of
Let
A S3
.
.
The values

of
A S3
000927 and
expressed in radians are approximately 0'0172, and consequently the diurnal change in T
s
and
AX
is
very nearly
001 cos
g3

s
003 cos 2Z.
8< 004 and + s '004 This expression must lie between the limits and consequently the difference between any sidereal day and the
mean
sidereal day cannot exceed
s
'004 (excess or defect).
have already ( 33) defined the sidereal day as the interval between two successive transits of T, and now it appears that owing to the fact that the movement of T is not absolutely uniform
all
We
sidereal days
would not be
strictly equal.
It
might therefore be
thought that we should distinguish the average sidereal day from the apparent sidereal day included between two transits of T, and are reminded of the distinction therefore slightly variable.
We
between the apparent
solar
subsequently considered, but there
The analogy. difference between two apparent solar days in the same year may be several thousand times as much as the greatest difference
between two sidereal days (see p. 215). If we had an ideally perfect clock which would keep time
day and the mean is no real
solar
day
to
be
59]
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
193
that period the hands showed Oh O m
without any correction whatever for 18^ years, so that throughout s at the completion of each
average sidereal day, then T would culminate daily for 18 \ years h s at various clock times which would lie between 23 59 58 '86
and O h O m
correction
1 '14.
s
by between one correction and the next, and attributable to the
are neglected because they are inappreciable in comparison with the other sources of error. Thus we define the sidereal day as commencing with the culmination of the true first
irregularities in
as even the best clocks require frequent comparison with observation, the errors arising
But
T
point of Aries.
To illustrate the actual extent ment of T on the measurement of On the of 1909, June 10 and 20.
for the nutation 1
8
of the influence of the
sidereal
first
move
time we take the case
1
8
date the ephemeris gives
02.
05 and on the second
Assuming
all
other sources of error absent this would be equivalent to a daily So small a quantity would be clock rate averaging '003 sees.
masked by the much larger changes in the rate of the clock Nor would arising from ordinary mechanical or climatic causes. the error arising from the irregularity of T accumulate, for on
Oct. 18 the nutation
is
again
l 05, so
s
that from June 10 to
Oct. 18 the average apparent change of rate of the clock from
this cause
would be
zero.
Thus the frequent determination
of the error of the clock will
obviate not only the small irregularities unavoidable in a piece of mechanism however carefully made, but will at the same time
allow us to assume that the sidereal time as
after the correction has
shown by the clock
all
the hour angle of the
needful accuracy point of Aries. It will be useful to investigate the effects of precession and nutation on the place of a star in another manner as follows.
is
been applied
with
first
As the longitude
of a star
is
measured from the
first
point
of Aries the precessional movement of the equator will alter the longitude of a star while its latitude remains unaltered. Thus if
\ be
Aries
the longitude of a star at any time, and if the first point of move so that the longitude of the star becomes X + AX, while at the same time the obliquity w becomes w + A&>, we have the two following systems of equations. Of these (i), (ii), (iii) give
a.
the values of
B. A.
and S at the
first
Epoch, and then
(iv), (v), (vi)
give
13
194
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
[CH. VIII
Aa and AS by which
in the interval
the coordinates are changed by precession
= sin \ cos /3 cos a> sin /3 sin o cos 8 cos a = cos X cos ft sin 8 = sin X cos /3 sin w + sin /3 cos &>
cos 8 sin a
(i),
(ii),
(iii),
and
+ AX) cos /3 cos (&> + Aw) sin /3 sin (&> + Aw). .(iv), = cos (X + AX) cos /3 cos (8 + AS) cos (a + Aa) (v), sin (S + AS) = sin (X cos /3 sin (&> f A&>) AX) + sin /3 cos (&) + A&>). .(vi). These equations determine Aa and AS when AX and Aeo are given,
cos (8
+ AS) sin (a
f
Aa)
=
sin (X
.
f
.
and the solution
is
effected without ambiguity in the
most general
case. But in the case of most general use in astronomy the four quantities AX, A&>, Aa, AS are all small quantities, and we proceed
directly as follows.
Differentiating (iii) and dividing by cos 8 (for we need not consider the case of 8 = 90) we have after a slight reduction
AS =
also differentiating (i)
cos a sin
&>
AX + sin
aA&>
;
and dividing by cosS
cos a Aa
tan 8 sin a AS
=
cos a cos &>AX
tan 8 A&>,
we thus
cession
obtain the following results by which the effects of preand nutation on right ascensions and declinations can be calculated with sufficient precision for most purposes.
If the position of the first point of Aries be displaced along the ecliptic so that all longitudes are increased by the small
quantity AX, and if the obliquity be increased by a small angle Aw, then the corresponding changes, Aa and AS, in the right ascension and declination of a star are given by
Aa = (cos &) + AS =
sin a tan 8 sin &>)
cos a sin
<w
AX tan AX +
8 cos a A&>,
sin aA&>.
Ex. 1. Show that on any given day the stars whose declination are increased by precession are divided from those whose declination is diminished by precession by a great circle the stars on which have on that day no
precession in declination.
For if cos(G+a)Q then all stars whose unchanged as to declination by precession.
R.A. is
90(?
or 270
G
are
5960]
Ex.
2.
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
Show how
195
the independent day numbers will enable the apparent
obliquity of the ecliptic to be readily computed.
= a> #sin G. 59 we have gain G= (w (ii) ) and therefore o>' For example on March 2nd, 1910, we find, N. A. p. 245, that log#=07232 and =243 49', hence g sin G = 4" 74, and consequently as the mean obliquity 19100, N.A. p. 1, is 23 27' 3"58 the obliquity when corrected for nutation is 23 27' 8" 32. As however the mean obliquity steadily diminishes by 0" 468 annually we must further apply a reduction of 0" 08 so that the apparent obliquity on March 2nd is 23 27' 8"24 as in N.A. p. 217.
From

Ex.
3.
Show how
to
compute from the independent day numbers the
the apparent equinoctial point on the ecliptic with respect to position of the mean equinoctial point at the beginning of the year. 59 (ii) is (225/ 2 +# 2 cos2 (?)4. TTf, is the quantity k which we see from
T
T
For example 1910, Dec. 25th (midnight) we have /=2274, log gr= 12018, 6' = 338 47 (N.A. p. 251), whence =37"'20.
Ex. 4. Show that  6 8 30 is the annual precession in right ascension of Ursae minoris, being given that a = 16 h 56 m 12 s 8 = 82 12' (1900).
;
f
Ex. 5. Explain how to find out, by the aid of a celestial globe, what constellations visible in the latitude of Cambridge 2000 years ago are no
longer visible there;
and indicate
in
what part
of the heavens they
lie.
[Math. Trip.
I.]
60.
Proper motions of
stars.
Besides those changes in
right ascension and declination which arise from changes in the great circles to which the coordinates of the star are referred there
are in the case of
many
stars real
changes of place arising from
the actual movements of the stars themselves.
called proper motions.
Such changes are
The
the largest
known motion
in
star in the northern hemisphere with of this kind is a small star of 6'5
magnitude
1900 are
the constellation
number 1830
in Groombridge's catalogue
Canes Venatici. It bears the and its coordinates for
a=ll h
47 m 2,
S
= + 3826'.
This star moves over an arc of 7" annually, and as its distance is also known it can be shown that its velocity must be not less than 150 miles per second. This motion is exceeded by that of a small
star
(magnitude
its
8'5) in the
covered by Kapteyn and Innes
annually:
southern hemisphere, which was disto have a proper motion of 8"'7
coordinates for 1900'0 are
a
=
5 h 7 m 7,
S
= 453'.
132
196
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
[CH. VIII
is
Among
a Centauri
the bright stars the largest proper motion
{
that of
= 14 h
32 m '8, 8
3"'7 annually and it is s '49 in R.A. and +0"'7 in Declination.
60 25' (1900)} which amounts to so directed as to produce an annual change
=

Arcturus {a=14 h ll m l,
has a proper motion of 2 //< 3 per annum, corresponding to a speed of 257 miles per second, and the annual s '08 and in decl. In giving the 2"'0. effect on the R.A. is
S= + 1942'(1900)}
apparent places of the stars throughout the year in the ephemeris the proper motion, if appreciable, is of course taken into account. The proper motions just referred to are those which affect the
If a star is moving coordinates of a star on the celestial sphere. line of .sight the spherical coordinates are not changed by in the
that motion and the existence of such a motion can be deduced
only from spectroscopic observations.
Thus Groombridge 1830,
is
found to be approaching our system at the rate of 59 miles per We have already seen that the tangential speed of this second. star is 150 miles per second so that its total velocity in space
relation to the sun appears to be about
160 miles per second.
Variations in terrestrial latitudes. The axis about 61. which the earth rotates was found by Ktistner to be affected by a small motion with respect to the earth. The effect of such a
change in the earth's axis is to alter the positions of the terrestrial poles and consequently of the terrestrial equator, and hence the latitude of any point on the earth's surface undergoes changes not due to actual motion in the point, but to changes in the base
from which the latitudes are measured.
vestigation of this subject
The
first
systematic in
1891 by Chandler, who showed that the observed changes in latitude could apparently be
was made
in
explained by the supposition that the pole of the earth described a circle with a radius of thirty feet in a period of about fourteen
months.
Later investigations by Chandler himself and others,
while substantiating the general fact that the pole is in movement, have shown that the character of that movement is not
quite so simple as had been at first supposed. reproduce here the diagram (Fig. 61) given by Professor Albrecht in Astronomische Nachrichten, Nr. 4187, as a provisional result of the work
of the International Geodetic Association.
We
Reference
may
also
be
to an account given by Mr Sidney D. Townley in the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. xix. p. 152.
made
6061]
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
197
In this diagram the origin at the centre of the figure is the position of the north pole in the earth, and the points marked on the curves indicate the actual positions of the pole
mean
at the corresponding dates.
the centre shows the
Thus for example the curve movement of the pole from 1899'9 to
its
nearest
1901'0,
from whence
it
can be traced forward in
various convolutions
to 1907*0. It will be seen that the positions of the pole are included within a square, each side of which subtends about 0"'50 The movements of the pole during the six at the earth's centre.
up
years are thus comprised within a square of which the sides are not more than 50 feet. The individual positions are no doubt
subject to considerable uncertainty.
198
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
[CH. VIII
EXERCISES ON CHAPTER
Ex.
1.
VIII.
where
must
Assuming that the constant of precession is 50"'2453 + 0" 0002225^ the interval in years from 185OO, find the number of years that makes a complete circuit of the ecliptic. elapse before
t
is
T
Integrating
we
find the
movement
of
T
in
t
years and
if
x be the number
sought we have
502453^+00001 1125a;2 = 1296000.
Of the two roots
root
is
of this quadratic one is negative and irrelevant, the other 24468 or in round numbers 24,500.
2.
*Ex.
Show
to R.A. for precession
that the points on the celestial sphere where the correction and nutation is zero on any given day lie on the cone
f(x*+y*) + fsffi (^sin
G+ycos
)=0,
where the origin is at the sun's centre and the axes +X, +Y, +Zpass re(90, 0), (0, 90) spectively through the points whose R.A. and 8 are (0, 0) and where /, g, 6 are the independent day numbers for the day in question. If the nutation be omitted deduce Ex. 6, 57.
;
Ex. 3. Neglecting nutation show that the interval between two successive returns of the star (a, 8) to the meridian will exceed by 8 00366 sin a tan
the sidereal day as defined by successive transits of T, that the star has no proper motion.
it
being supposed
right ascension of a star on the ecliptic is a, its declination 8, The precessions in right ascension, declination, and longitude are respectively a, 8', I'. Prove the relations
Ex.
4.
The
I.
its
longitude
8'
cot 8 = 1' cot I = a cot a cos 2
8.
[Coll.
Exam.]
system are
Ex.
5.
The
stars on the celestial sphere regarded as a rigid
supposed to be subjected to three rotations as follows.
(1)
Through a small angle
J5
5>
77
round
)
T
"
*
as nole,
)?
\")
V*)
S
)J
)5
5>
C
5)
J)
5?
where
a
P is the
then
north pole and
if
B the point a = 90, 8 = 0.
in the a
Show that
star,
Aa,
A8 are the changes thus produced
rj
and
8 of
Aa =
cos a tan 8 sin a
sin a tan 8 +
(,
A8=
This
is
r]
COS a.
proved most easily by infinitesimal geometry each of the three
rotations being considered separately.
*Ex.
cession
6.
Show
and nutation
that the apparent place of the equator as affected by preat any date T during the year can be obtained by
61]
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
commencement
199
of the year
applying to the position of the equator at the the three following rotations.
(1)
Through the small angle gsiuG round
T
B
as nole,
(2) (3)
5)
gcosG
JJ )>
JJ
15/
P
where
its
the point a =90, 5=0. The point where T was situated at the commencement of the year has as coordinates with respect to the equator of the date T, a' = 15f; 8'=gcos (f
is
P
the north pole and
B
where / is expressed in seconds of time. In like manner the point B at the beginning of the year has as its coordinates with respect to the equator at time T, a' = 90 + 15/, d'= gsinG. It is obvious from geometry that rotations
g
sin G,
in question
g cos G,  15/ round noles IP, B, P will convey the two points from the equator at the beginning of the year to the equator at
the date T.
geometrically that the effect of precession and nutation decl. of the stars during an interval t is equivalent to that produced by rotating the celestial sphere (i.e. the sphere containing the stars but not the circles of reference), about a diameter passing through the
Ex.
7.
Show
upon the
R.A.
and
point whose longitude
is
zero
and
.
latitude is
tanthe angle of rotation being
1
\
Aw
,
/
and its direction retrograde, where p is the constant of precession, and AJ!/, are the nutations in longitude and obliquity respectively. The effect of precession and nutation in longitude could be produced
Aw
by
the pole of the ecliptic through the rotating the celestial sphere round is, conveyed to R^ angle pt b.L = VPV^ (Fig. 62). Thus any point R on on PV. The direction of this rotation is determined by the necessity that
P
+
PV
FIG. 62.
200
PRECESSION AND NUTATION
[CH. VIII
To effect the change arising it shall increase the longitude of each point. from the increase of by the nutation Ao> the celestial sphere is to be rotated round V. The movement of the equator through the angle Aw increases the angle between the ecliptic VS and the equator while the The effect will be the same as if all points had ecliptic remains fixed. an anticlockwise rotation Aw round F. Each point on PVi will be moved to the left and there will be some point RI which will be moved back to its Thus so far as this point is concerned the two rotations original place R. The two rotations round V and P will therefore compound into neutralize. one rotation about R. If 6 be the latitude of R, then VR=6 and RRi = (pt + &L) cos 6 = Aeo
whence tan$=(jt>
sin 6,
+ AZ/)/Aa>,
is
and as the component rotations are
at right
i.e.
angles the resultant
the square root of the
sum
of their squares,
Ex.
8.
Show
position which a star can have
that on a given day the greatest displacement of apparent by precession and nutation is
that
all
stars
is
which have this displacement must
lie
on a great
circle,
whose
equation
cos a cos 8 Aa> + (sin 8 cos
w
sin a cos 8 sin
lies also
a>)
(pt
+ AZ) = 0,
circle.
and
finally that the displaced position
on the same great
CHAPTEK
IX.
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME.
PAGE
62.
63. 64.
Sidereal time
.201
202 205
The The
setting of the astronomical clock obliquity of the ecliptic
65.
Estimation of the accuracy obtainable in the determination of Right Ascensions
........
.
208
210
66.
67.
68. 69.
70.
The sidereal year and the tropical year The geometrical principle of a mean motion
.
.
.212
215
Mean time
The The
sidereal time at
Determination of
mean noon mean time from
218
sidereal time
.
.
.
220 222
71.
terrestrial date line
Exercises on Chapter ix
224
62.
Sidereal time.
198) that in the course of about 24,500 years accomplishes a complete revolution of the heavens, and in such a direction that in this period the stars have made
We
have already seen (Ex.
1, p.
T
one complete apparent revolution
less
than T.
The duration
of
the earth's rotation bears to the sidereal day ( 33) the ratio of 24,500 years + 1 day to 24,500 years. Thus the period of rotation of the earth exceeds by about one hundredth of a second the
in the observatory. It has been that the variations in the length of the sidereal 59) ( day, due to the irregularities in the motion of T, are too small to be perceptible.
sidereal
day as actually used
pointed out
The
to
sidereal
clock,
by which we mean a clock regulated
keep sidereal time, carries a dial divided into 24 equal spaces When T is on the meridian of the to 23. by figures marked observer, then if the sidereal clock has no error it will show Qh Qm Q 8j an(j jf j n addition the rate of the clock is correct it will h m s when T returns to the meridian. again show O O
202
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
[CH. IX
The
due
special convenience of sidereal time in the observatory is to the fact that, subject to certain small corrections, the same
star crosses the meridian each
Ex.
1.
day at the same sidereal time f
.
celestial
is
If the proper motion by which a star shifts its place on the sphere amounts to p seconds of arc annually, show that so far as this concerned the interval between two successive transits of this star could
never difler from a sidereal day by more than '0001 8p sec 8 seconds, where 8 is the declination of the star.
Ex.
2.
If the distance of the first point of Aries
is
measured from a
fixed
equatorial star
p+qt + A cosmt + Bsin mt,
where p, q, A, m, B are constants and where t is the time expressed in years,. show that the interval between two successive upper transits of the first point of Aries will have as its extreme limits
24 h + m J A 2 + S2 /366'24 and 24h J
Wl^f
2/36624.
Let
t'
be a
moment
of culmination of T, then the next culmination will
.
take place approximately at t'+ oDD'^4
position will have changed
.
The
distance of
T from
1
its original
by the amount
cos <**
+A
m
 ^. + B sin mt' + mB oob'24 cos mt' h
(p+qt' + A cos mt' +B sin mt).
Of
this the periodic part is
^^(Bcosmtf
Asinmt'), and there
is no
value for
t'
which can make this numerically greater than
x^ +
ffi.
63.
The
setting of the astronomical clock.
The
practical
method
is,
for
determining the correction of the
astronomical clock,
in its simplest form, as follows.
The ephemeris shows for every tenth day the apparent right ascensions of some hundreds of fundamental stars, so distributed
over the heavens that at every place and at every hour one or more of these stars is approaching the meridian. The correction of
the clock is obtained by subtracting the clock time of transit over the meridian as found by observation from the Right Ascension of the star as deduced by interpolation from the ephemeris. Thus
t In the ephemeris tables will be found for transforming intervals of sidereal time into the corresponding intervals of mean time and vice versa.
6263]
the correction
is
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
203
has then to be
made
is
positive when the clock is slow, for an addition to the clock time to obtain the true time.
fast
is negative. that an observation of the transit of the Suppose, example, star /3 Eridani is made on 1910, Feb. 10, and that when all due
When
the clock
for
the correction
corrections have been applied
we have
:
Clock time of transit of
/3
Eridani
R. A.
5 h 3 m 42" '6 of
/3
Ephemeris gives
for the
apparent
Eridani 5
3
25*6 17*0
Correction of clock
If therefore the correction
17
s
is
the clock the correct corresponding time moment when the first point of Aries
clock,
applied to any reading of is obtained. Thus at the
is
on the meridian this
which ought
to
show O h O m
s
,
does in fact show O h O m 17 8< 0.
To obtain greater accuracy the mean of the corrections derived from a number of fundamental stars should be used. The rate of the clock is found by comparing the corrections to the clock found at suitable intervals. Thus suppose
on June
14, at
20 h
s.T.
the correction
is
+
18 8t 64,
'80.
on June 15, at 21
+ 20
The
the interval
rate per day at which the clock has been losing during s s is therefore  x 2 16 = 2 '07.
is known the difference of Right determined by observing the difference of their times of transit and then applying the correction for the
When
the rate of the clock
is
Ascensions of two stars
rate of the clock in the interval.
Thus if the Right Ascension of even one celestial body is known we can determine, subject to certain qualifications, the Right Ascensions of other celestial bodies. We have therefore to show how a single fundamental R.A. is to be ascertained, and as the
position of
T
is
determined by the sun's motion,
it is
obvious that
the sun must be the body to be observed for this purpose. If w be the obliquity of the ecliptic and a, 8 the R.A. and
Declination of the sun, the centre of which ecliptic, then sin a = tan & cot w
is
supposed to be in the
(i).
We
shall
served.
( 64) and that 8 has been obThen a can be calculated from this equation. If r be the
assume that
&> is
known
204
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
[CH. IX
r,
time of transit as shown by the astronomical clock, then a error of the clock, is known.
the
of this process we may take the following. that on the meridian of Greenwich the clock time of Suppose h m s the transit of the sun on March 28, 1909, is O 26 49 '2 and the
As an example
observed declination of the sun's centre
obliquity of the ecliptic is the correction to the clock.
is
2
known
to be 23
27' 6"'l,
We
2
find the R.A.
is
N. The and we seek of the sun at transit
51' 1"'3
:
by the formula
(i),
and the calculation
51' 1"'3
as follows
Log tan
8'6971357 03627002
log cot 23
27 6
I
Log
The
h
sin
O 26 m 21 8 '7
h
is
= 9'0598359.
s
correction of the clock
therefore
2)
O 20m 21
8
7
h m (O 26 49
=
27 s 5.

By the application of this correction to any clock time and allowing for the rate of the clock (assumed constant) the true corresponding sidereal time is found.
star
In the following method of finding the right ascension of a we shall suppose the effects of precession and nutation to
star,
have been already allowed for. Let a be the unknown R.A. of a
and on a certain day
at a
certain place let ti be the interval in sidereal time by which the transit of the sun precedes the transit of the star. The R.A. of the
sun
is
therefore a
t lt
and
if 8
be
its
declination and
8 l cot
w
the obliquity
of the ecliptic
sin (a
j)
= tan
to
.................. (ii).
On
the sun with declination
another occasion in the course of the year let the transit of 8. 2 precede that of the same star by the
t2
time
and we have
sin
(a. t2 )
=
tan
&>
cot
w
.................. (iii),
subtracting these equations and
then adding them we easily
cosec 8
deduce
cot a
^
+
2
= cot
l
( 2
i^)
sin
8j
&,
+ 8.
i
v

Hence from observing 8 and S2 and the time intervals ti and L we have the means of finding a without a previous knowledge
of
&).
f&
00
6364]
J
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
If
205
time
Ex.
1.
EQ be the correction
to the astronomical clock at a clock
TO and if r be the gaining rate of the clock, expressed in seconds per day, to obtain the show that the correction to be applied to any clock time 7 true time is )r/24, where T and T are expressed in hours.
T
E (TT
a
little
Ex.
2.
On
shelf attached to the middle of the
pendulum of a
clock a number of small .equal masses are carried, each just so heavy that an addition of one to their number causes an increase in the rate It is arranged that any small number of of the clock of one second daily.
mean time
these masses
clock
is
may be placed on the shelf or removed from the shelf while the going without disturbing the clock's motion.
,
If the correction of the clock at noon yesterday was EI seconds and at noon today is E2 show that the number of the masses to be added to the shelf at noon today to make the clock right at noon tomorrow is 2E2 Ei.
On March 25, 1909, the sun crosses the meridian 5 h 34 m 47 s before and on September 17 the sun crosses the meridian 5 h 47 m 28 s after a Orionis, the corresponding declinations of the sun being +140'27" and
Ex.
3.
a Orionis,
+2
24' 37".
Show
that the R.A. of a Orionis
is
h m s approximately 5 50 14
.
[Math. Trip.
64.
I.
1901.]
The obliquity of the
ecliptic.
The obliquity of the ecliptic (see p. 187) is found by measurement of the declination of the sun about the time of a solstice. If this measurement could be made exactly at the time of the solstice
then the obliquity would be equal to this measured declination. But an observation will not generally be feasible actually at the
moment
of the solstice, so the problem
is
we have
to consider
is
how
the obliquity about the time of the solstice and at a
obtained from an observed declination of the sun
known Right
Ascension.
We
It
have as
in last section
tan
co
= tan
8 cosec a
(i).
seem that there could be no more simple this for the determination of w when 8 and a are We have however to show that a more practical formula given. for the actual calculations can be obtained, even though its form is more complicated and even though it is only an approximate
would at formula than
first
formula, while the formula (i) just written is exact. have from (i), for the summer solstice,
We
tan
<,.
(<o
6)
=
=
tan 8(1
sin a
sin a) 
+
tan 8
8
sin 8 cos 8 (1
sin a), since sin a is nearly 1,
whence
to
8
= sin
28 sin (45
^a) cosec 1"
(ii ).
206
This
is
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
[CH. IX
in (ii)
we
the proper formula to be used in this calculation, because are computing not a> but only co 8; and as &> is very
nearly equal to 8
we have
only to find the small quantity
to
8.
be illustrated by taking a particular case. On 22 June, 1909, at apparent noon at Greenwich, the sun's apparent Declination is 23 27' 4"'3. Its Right Ascension is We now calculate (a>  8) from 6 h lm 43829 (= 90 25' 49" 35).
This
will
formula
(ii),
using only three decimal places in the logarithms = 9'863 Log sin 28
:
Log
sin (45

a)
=
=
7'574n
log cosec 1" log (w
5'314
a)
<

8)
= 0325
 8 = + 2"l =23 27' 6" 4.
There would be no advantage in using more than three figures in the logarithms, for neglect of the remaining figures could by no possibility make a difference of 0"'l in to. It also appears
is
that 8 need be taken to only the nearest minute being written down.
If
when
log sin 28
in formula (i)
we attempted to find we have
&>
by using logarithms of three figures
Log tan 8 = 9"637 Log sin a = O'OOO Log tan w = 9637
it would seem that &> may be any angle between 23 24' 48" and 23 27' 42". Thus we see that while formula (ii) determines <w correctly to 0"'l, formula (i) gives a value of <a which
from which
be wrong by nearly 3', although the same number of decimal places has been used in the logarithms in each case. A few further
may
3figure logs applied to an approximate a more correct result than 4, 5 or even (ii) actually give 6figure logs applied to an exact formula (i) and this is true notwithstanding that formula (ii) has been deduced from formula (i).
trials will
show that the
formula
;
Of course (i) must give the accurate result if a sufficient number of decimal places in the logarithms be employed. For
example, using 7 figures,
Log tan 8 = 96372895 Log sin a = 99999878 Log tan <w =9637301 7
64]
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
correct result
&>
207
and we obtain the
4. This however be obtained without interpolation even if we employ cannot Bagay's tables which give the logarithms of the trigonometrical functions for each second of arc.
=
23
27' 6"
%
The point here illustrated is important not only in connection with the determination of the obliquity of the ecliptic but in other astronomical problems in which an unknown quantity is sought
and
in
which a choice of the most suitable formula
for the cal
culation has to be made.
In general we should select a formula which, as in (ii), gives an expression not exactly for the unknown itself but rather for the difference between the unknown and a known approximate
obtained, troublesome interpolation in the calculation can generally be dispensed with, and a small number of decimal places suffices in the logarithms.
value.
is
When
such a formula
that near the time of the winter solstice the obliquity of the 2 given by the formula = 8 + cosec 1" sin 28 sin (45 + a), a being the right ascension and 8 the southern declination of the sun and apply this formula to show that when 8 =23 26' 58"2 S. and a = 17 h 57 m 47 8 '98 (22 Dec.
Ex.
1.
Show
ecliptic
co
is
1907) the obliquity of the ecliptic
is
23
27' 1"'9.
Ex.
2.
1893, the
mean
Prove from the following observation and data that on Jan. obliquity of the ecliptic was 23 27' 11"'36
:
:
1,
Observed
0's apparent declination June 19 at apparent noon 23 Extracted from Nautical Almanac
:
26'
42"'90N.
0's apparent R.A, June 19 at apparent noon 5 h 52 m 52 8 '11. 's apparent latitude June 19 is 0" 45 N.

Nutation in obliquity June 19 +7"'73. Secular change in obliquity  0"'476 annually.
[Math. Trip.
II.]
In consequence of the planetary perturbations the earth swerves to a small extent now to one side of the ecliptic and now to the other, thus the centre of the sun has apparently a very small latitude /3 which though generally neglected is taken account of in this question. The value of w on
June 19
is
easily seen to be
co
= 8 /3 sin o> cosec8 + sin28sin 2 (45a)cosec 1".
o>
Introducing the given values we have
= 23
26' 42" 90
+ 35" 95 = 23
27' 18" 85.
Applying the nutation and the secular change of the obliquity for half a year we must correct this by  7" '73 and +0"'24 and we thus have for the mean
obliquity at the beginning of the year 23 27' 11" '36 as proposed.
208
Ex.
3.
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
If the observed right ascension of the find
[CH. IX
its
sun be 90  u, and
of
the following formula for the determination d, of the ecliptic from observations taken near the solstice obliquity
declination
o>
the
 8 = tan
.
2
~
1
it*
.
sin 2o>
tan 4 ^w
.
.
sin
sin 2
^
sin
4w + ...
where
(1)
8 is measured in seconds. a> is the required obliquity, and o> econds. Discuss carefully the following questions arising from the formula knowledge of the position of the first point of Aries is required in
:

A
order to determine
11.
(2)
A correction
is
required for 8 owing to the small
latitude of the sun.
side.
(3)
The sought quantity w appears on the righthand
[Coll.
Exam.]
65. Estimation of the accuracy obtainable in the determination of Right Ascensions.
It is useful to examine the degree of accuracy attainable in the determination of the origin from which Right Ascensions are
measured.
Let us
first
suppose that there was an error Ao> in the value
of the obliquity of the ecliptic assumed in calculating the R.A. of the sun from observed values of the Declination. Differentiating
the equation sin a
= tan
cos
B cot
o>
and regarding 8 as constant,
&>Ao>,
or
a Aa = Aa =
a>
tan 8 cosec 2
2 tan a cosec 2a>Aa>.
its
Substituting in this for
approximate value 23
ocAtw.
27',
we
have
Aa =
2'74 tan
We
thus see the advantage obtained by making these observa
tions as nearly as possible at the equinox. The greater is a the greater becomes Aa for a given value of A<o. As therefore we
want Aw to produce the smallest possible have a as small as possible.
the extent of one second of arc then
effect
on
a,
we should
Suppose the adopted value of the obliquity were erroneous to Aw = \", and if this produce an error of x seconds of time in a we have Aa = 'loos, whence x
If then the R.A.
is
=.
8
'183 tan
a.
s
to be correct to within
'1
we must have
either side
tan a
^ '548
or a
^
l
h
54 m
This
is
the R.A. of the sun on the
20th April.
Hence we
see that for about a
month on
6465]
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
209
of the equinox this method may be relied on to give the position T accurately to the tenth part of a second, provided the assumed value of the obliquity of the ecliptic is known to within a second
of
of arc.
It
is,
of course, in this
assumed that there
is
no error in
effect of
the observed value of the declination.
We
must next consider what would have been the
an
error in the observed Declination
R.A. of the sun.
on the concluded value of the
with respect to a and
Differentiating sin a as constant, regarding
= tan & cot
we obtain
2
ay
8,
and
Aa = sec a sec
which
S cot &>AS.
may
also
be written in the form
a (1
Aa = sec
As
+ sin
2
a tan 2
&>)
cot
co
AS.
S is the measured quantity we must take care to arrange our observations so that any error AS (and, of course, such errors are The factor cot o> is conunavoidable) shall not unduly affect a.
stant,
will
and as the declination of the sun never exceeds
o>
there
be no great variations in sec 2 S. As however sec a may have any value from 1 to oo it is plain that we must have sec a at its lowest value to keep Aa as small as possible, i.e. a should be nearly
zero or
180, and hence the sun should be near T or b, and consequently the observations must be made near either the vernal or the autumnal equinox.
Substituting its numerical value for a> we easily find that the values of Aa, corresponding to different Right Ascensions of the sun, are as follows
:
R.A. of sun.
Aa.
23 28
Oh
2
h
4h
53
AS AS AS
infinite.
and at the
solstice the coefficient of
AS would be
is
Thus we
see
how important
it
to
minimize errors by
making the observations near one of the equinoxes.
If the right ascension
a second
Aa =
8
'l
= 1"'5, and
be required within the tenth part of consequently an error of a tenth
of a second of time
may arise from an error of 0"'65 in the determination of the sun's declination even close to the equinox.
B. A.
14
210
66.
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
[CH. IX
The sidereal year and the tropical year. In consequence of the revolution of the earth the sun appears to a terrestrial observer to make a complete circuit of the heavens
It is important to distinguish the different meanings which may be assigned to the word year. The sidereal year is the time interval in which the sun's
once a year.
centre performs a complete revolution with reference to the stars, or more precisely with reference to any one star situated in the
and devoid of proper motion. The sidereal year is also the periodic time in which the earth completes one sidereal revolution round the sun, when the earth is regarded as a planet belonging At the epoch 1900 the duration of the to the solar system.
ecliptic
sidereal year is 365'2564
mean
solar days.
the average interval between two successive tropical year This point moves returns of the sun to the first point of Aries.
The
is
by precession and advances to meet the sun at the rate (1900) of 50"'2564 annually (Newcomb). The tropical
on the
ecliptic
year
is
(360
days.

therefore less than the sidereal year in the ratio of 50"'2564)/360, and is found to be 3652422 mean solar We have already mentioned (see note on p. 190) that in
astronomical reckoning the commencement of the tropical year is the moment when the sun's mean longitude is exactly 280, which in the year 1910 corresponds to Jan. O d< 735.
It is the tropical year and not the sidereal year which is adopted as the basis in determining the civil year. According to the Calendar the tropical year was assumed to be 365'25 days Julian
and
it was arranged that of every four consecutive civil years three should have 365 days each and the fourth year, i.e. that divisible by 4, should be leap year and have a 29th of February added to
of days 366. This arrangement made the about 11 minutes longer than the tropical year. year average The Gregorian correction to the Julian Calendar was introduced to bring about a closer correspondence between the average civil
civil
make the number
year and the tropical year. By this correction three of the leap years given by the Julian rule in every four centuries were
suppressed.
If the
number expressing a year terminated
in
two
cyphers, then such a year being divisible by 4 would be of course a leap year according to the Julian rule. But according to the
Calendar with the Gregorian correction such a year
is
not to be
66]
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
211
a leap year unless the
be divisible by
4.
number formed by its two first digits is to Thus 1800, 1900, 2100, 2200, 2300 though
Julian leap years are not Gregorian leap years but 2000 and 2400 are leap years in both systems. It is the Julian Calendar with the
Gregorian correction that we now employ. The present Calendar thus contains 97 leap years in every four centuries, and consequently the number of days in the four centuries
146097 so that the average length of the civil year according to our present system is 365 '2425 days. This agrees with the tropical year to within 0'0003 of a day. This approximation is so close that an error of a day in the reckoning
is
365 x 400
+ 97 =
would not be reached
Ex.
1.
for
some thousands of years.
that at any observatory the number of upper culminations point of Aries in the course of a tropical year (i.e. the number of sidereal days between two consecutive passages of the sun through T)
Show
of the
first
exceeds by unity the number of upper culminations of the sun at the same observatory and in the same year. At the first transit of T after the year has commenced the sun must culminate somewhat later than T. At the second, third, and subsequent
1
T the sun will be ever more and more behind until when the draws near its completion the sun will have fallen behind by nearly the year whole circumference. The nth culmination of the sun will then be speedily followed by the ( + l)th culmination of T. If the sun overtakes T when T is not in culmination the year is complete but the number of culminations of the sun is one short. If the sun overtakes T at the moment of its culmination then at the expiring moment of the year one more culmination is added to both sun and T, thus leaving the sun still one short.
culminations of Ex. 2. In a certain country the rule for leap year is If there are any cyphers at the end of the number for the year, strike off as many pairs of cyphers as possible then if the remaining number is divisible by 4, it is leap
:
;
In another country the rule is Divide the number of the year by 33, then if there is a remainder and if that remainder is divisible by 4, it is leap
year.
:
year.
Prove that the reckoning will never
differ
by more than a day
in the
two
countries.
[Math. Trip.] In 33 consecutive periods each of 400 years there must be one period but only one which commences with a year of which the number is divisible by 33. That year will not be a leap year, and the total number of leap years in the second country in that period of 400 years will be 96 and it thus falls
1
day
in arrear.
is 97.
Hence the
first
In the
In each of the other 32 periods the number of leap years total number in 33 x 400 = 13200 years is 33 x 97  1. country there will be generally 97 leap years per 400 years,
but in a period of 13,200 years there will be according to the condition no
142
212
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
[CH. IX
Hence leap year in the year 10,000 and the count will fall one day in arrear. the total number of leap years in each 13,200 years is 33x971 = 3200. Thus we see that each cycle of 13,200 years contains exactly 3200 leap years
in either country.
67.
The geometrical principle of a mean motion.
A
point
P is moving in
is
and in such a way
the circumference of a circle (Fig. 63), that at the time t the angle OOP = 0, measured
defined by the equation
.
from a fixed radius GO,
2rrt
JJT L
o
+ A! sin  + B *
2jrt
o
l
cos
*
2rrt
4nrt
sin
cos
Qrrt D  + B
(i)
A
where
a,
.
3
sin
3
cos

Qnt
T A lf B1} A 2 Bz 3 B3 ... are constants. The very expression of 6 in terms of t here given will include as a general particular case the formula for the longitude of the sun in terms
,
,
,
A
,
of the time.
FIG. 63.
+ T be written in the expression for 6 instead of becomes 6 + 2?r, i.e. P returns to the point from which it Thus T is the periodic time of the motion of P.
If
t
t,
then 6
started.
Differentiating 6 with respect to
!
t
we have
2rrt
2775!
m
*
4nrt
4>TrB<>
4nrt
~7fT *
6667]
SIDEREAL TIME AXD MEAN TIME
is
213
t
an expression which
not altered by changing
into
t
+T
.
Thus we
any which
see that if v be the velocity with which passes through in one circuit, then v will also be the velocity with point
P
X
P passes
through the same point
X
on every
circuit.
It thus appears that every circuit exactly reproduces every Not only is the time taken for the circuit the other circuit. same but the actual velocity at every point is the same in every
circuit.
That part of the expression of dd/dt, namely 27r/T which is obtained by omitting the trigonometrical functions, is termed the be a point moving uniformly round mean angular velocity. Let the circle with the angular velocity 27r/T and so that at every
,
P
,
moment CP makes with
then we have the
the true position
(1)
(2)
the fixed radius
CO
the angle a
+ 27rt/T
,
following properties of the
mean
position
P
and
P
:
The
periodic times of
The
distance
P and P are identical. between P and P can never
between
is zero.
exceed a
certain finite limit.
(3)
The average
difference
P and P
P
in the course
of a complete circuit
(1) is evident because each of these periodic times is to can (2) follows because the distance from
T
.
P
never
exceed the
is
sum +
A
l
A.2
A
3
B
l
+
B
2
B
is
s
&c. where each sign
positive.
so taken that the corresponding
(3)
term
For whenever n
/To
.
is
an integer we have
2mrt
*
,
sin
dt
=
we
and
I
, [T cos Zmrt at 4
,
=n 0.
Jo
JO
Jo
Hence
it
follows that if
subtract the angle representing the
from the corresponding 6 the average value of the position of difference is zero, for that difference consists of periodic terms
P
and the average value of each one is zero. follows that in moving uniformly round the circle P is sometimes in advance of P and sometimes behind P, and that on the average P will be just as much before P as it is behind.
only,
It
Thus the movement
of P.
of
P
is
regard the true motion of movement about the mean place
We may
rightly described as the mean motion as an oscillatory
P
P
.
214
Ex.
1.
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
If
,
[CH. IX
lf ...,
6 b be the values of 6 at the times
4T /6,
have
57o/6 respectively,
show that
for
7 0, T /6, 22 /6, 3T /6, a the part of 6 independent of t we
= H0o + 0i + 02 + 03 + 4 + 05)150
,
,
if
J4
BI and
all
higher terms be omitted.
(i)
By
successive substitutions in the general formula
2
= a + 120 +J lx/3/2 Sift Ay ^3/2^/2 + B2 5i
+.63
B B
3
3,
whence by addition
=i
If therefore
(00+01 + 08 + 03 + 04 + 06) 150.
values of 6 at the six epochs which divide a whole period of revolution T into .six equal parts we can determine a and thence a + Zirt/To or the mean position P at any time t is known.
we know the
Ex. 2. Show how the general formula (i) is simplified if the motion is symmetrical about the axis CO. In this case ddjdt will be the same for t and T t, if t be measured from the time of passage through 0, whence by substitution in
i
(ii)
o
'
"
i
*
/77
FJl
/77
sin Qlll
fjj
i
3
l^
fn
I
oip 11
m
~
A
V/y
as this
must be true
for all values of
2,
Bi = B2 = B3 = 0, and thus the formula
(i)
reduces to
Ex. 3. Assuming that the movement is symmetrical and that the axis symmetry is the axis from which 6 is measured and that A s and higher coefficients may be regarded as zero, show that if ^!<2J 2 there will be three real points in which the mean position of P coincides with its true position.
of
Ex.
4.
From
the Nautical
Almanac
for
1909 we obtain the following
values for the apparent longitude of the sun at
1909
mean noon
of
:
Apparent longitude
Mean noon
Jan. 1st
G
!"!
9
280
12
28'
Ap. 2nd July 2nd
Oct. 1st
6 30
99
55404
'2
187 39 27
Show that 280 499 + 360 / T is the mean longitude of the sun where t is number of mean solar days elapsed since mean noon on Jan. 1st, 1909, and where T is the length of the tropical year expressed in mean solar days.
the
6768]
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
,
215
periodic terms
7o,
In applying formula (i) we discard J 3 B3 and higher terms. In the we may, with sufficient accuracy, make t successively 0, %T
,
T
the last
and we must obviously increase each of the apparent longitudes on three dates by 360. Thus we have from (i)
,
280
372
28'
l"l
6 30
459 55 40
547 39 27
=a 9 = a + 360x Ql/T 4 = a + 360 x 182/ZJ, 2 = a + 360 x 273/7
T

+B
l
+ B2
,
+A B
A
l
l
l
B +B B
2,
2,
2,
whence by addition and making 7o=365 2422,
1660
9'
39"'6 = 4a+538
9'
48" 6,
and
finally
a = 280
499.
The daily increase of mean longitude of the sun is 98565 and the mean longitude is zero 80'656 days after the commencement of the year, i.e. March 22nd.
When
the sun's
several small terms which are here omitted have been attended to
mean
longitude
is
Ex.
5.
Show from the
is
last
example that on Nov.
7th, 1906, the
mean
longitude of the sun Ex.
6.
226'05.
April
Being given that the sun's mean longitude is 9'20768 on and that the daily increase is 0'98565, show that the sun's mean longitude on Jan. O d< 493 was 280.
1st, 1909,
68.
Mean
it is
time.
essential for the special
Though
to
work
of the observatory
employ sidereal time, yet it is obvious that the astronomical For clock would not serve the ordinary purposes of civil life. this latter object a day of which the length is regulated by the sun and not by the stars is required. We therefore use what is known as the mean solar day for our ordinary time measurement.
Since the
movement
of the sun in Right Ascension
is
not
uniform, the interval between two successive returns of the sun's centre to the meridian is not constant. As an illustration we here give the sidereal length of the solar day at dates throughout the year 1909:
1909.
four
equidistant
Apparent noon Jan.
1st to apparent
noon Jan. 2nd
April 3rd July 4th
Oct. 3rd
Sidereal interval. 24 h 4 m 24 s '9
April 2nd July 3rd
Oct. 2nd
24 3 24 4
38
37
'5
7 '5
'6
24 3
216
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
[CH. IX
The
first line
of this table states that if the time at which the
sun's centre crosses the meridian of the observer be taken
by an
1909, and the observation be reon the following day, the astronomical clock, if due peated allowance be made for its rate, will show that an interval of
astronomical clock on Jan.
1st,
24 h 4 m 24 s '9
transits.
of
sidereal
time
has
elapsed
between the two
apparent solar day, commencing at apparent noon on Jan. 1st, is 47'3 sidereal seconds longer than It thus apthat commencing at apparent noon on Oct. 2nd.
pears that the length of the apparent solar day is not constant throughout the year, and its variations certainly exceed three
We
observe that
the
On account of these irregularities the true quarters of a minute. solar day is not a suitable unit for ordinary time measurement. adopt as the unit a mean solar day, the length of which is
We
the average duration of the apparent solar days in a large of years. The average duration of the four days in the
number
list
h 8t m given for 1909 is 24 3 57 l, and this is an approximate value of the mean solar day. When the mean of an exceedingly large
just
of consecutive apparent solar days has been taken it is found that the equivalent in sidereal time to one mean solar day h m is 24 3 56 8 '555.
number
To avoid circumlocution astronomers have found
to
it
convenient
imagine a fictitious body (or point rather) which at every moment is on the apparent equator, and has an apparent right ascension equal to the mean longitude of the sun. This imaginary
body
is
called the
mean
sun.
It will be
shown
in
74 that the
apparent right ascension of the sun is equal to the sum of the mean longitude of the sun and periodic terms. Thus the apparent
R.A. of
the sun and the apparent R.A. of the
mean sun
differ
by
periodic terms only. Hence in a long interval of time the average difference in apparent R.A. between the true sun and the mean
sun
the
we could overlook the movement of equator by precession and nutation then the mean sun might be described as a body moving uniformly in the equator so that at every moment its R.A. is equal to the sun's mean
will
tend to zero.
If
longitude.
When
the
regulated to show local
mean sun is in the meridian a clock properly Thus the mean time will read O h O m
s
.
68]
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
217
time shown by the mean time clock indicates at any moment the hour angle of the mean sun from the meridian. For civil purposes the day commences at midnight, and the hours are counted from
and then again from former hours being distinguished by the
l
:
h
h to 12 (noon),
l
h
to 12
h
letters A.M.
(midnight), the and the latter
by P.M. In astronomical reckoning the day extends from noon to noon noon is called O h and the following hours are numbered h Thus 12.30 P.M. civil reckoning is consecutively, up to 23
,
.
called O
Ex.
1.
h
30 ra in astronomical reckoning.
Find the length of the mean solar day in sidereal time from the
:
following data
4th July, 1836, the apparent R.A. of the centre of the sun was found by observation at transit at Greenwich to be 6 h 54m 7 8 '03.
Similarly on 4th July, 1890, the apparent sun was found to be 6h 53 m 54"61.
R.A. of the
On
centre of the
We
sidereal
have
first
to determine the sidereal interval between 6 h 54 m 7 8> 03
time on
4th
July,
1836,
and
6 h 53m 548 '61
sidereal
time
on
4th July, 1890. This is an interval of 54 years and therefore there will be 54 more transits of the first point of Aries than of the sun ( 66, Ex. 1). Of the latter
there are 19723, so that there are 19777 of interval expressed in sidereal time is
T*,
and consequently the
total
19777 d 6h 53 m 54"61(6 h 54 m 7 8 '03).
Dividing this by 19723 we find the sidereal value of the mean solar h m 8 day to be 24 3 56 '555.
Ex. 2. The length of the mean solar day in sidereal time is determined as in the last example by comparing the right ascensions of the sun at two epochs of which one is 30 years later than the other. Show that errors
as great as 5 s in both of the right ascensions cannot affect the value found for the mean solar day by more than the thousandth of a second.
Ex.
3.
may be
add ^8
;
approximate rule for converting mean solar time into sidereal For every l h l m add 10s for every remaining l m 1 s for every remaining 4 s add O s< 01. What is the error in finding by
stated thus
:
An
;
this rule the length of a
mean
solar
day
?
[Sheepshanks Exhibition.]
If in the expression of the duration of the tropical year in days, hours, minutes and seconds of mean solar time the number of days is
4.
Ex.
increased by unity while the hours, minutes, and seconds are left unaltered, the result expresses the duration of the tropical year in days, hours, minutes and seconds of sidereal time.
218
69.
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
[CH. IX
The
sidereal time at
mean noon.
The right ascension of the mean sun or more precisely the distance at a given moment of the mean sun from T is as already
explained ( 68) the mean longitude of the sun and for this the expression (Ex. 4, 67)
we have
28049942+360/T
where
,
the length of the tropical year and where tjT^ is the fractional part of the tropical year which has elapsed since noon on Jan. 1st, 1909.
is
T
Transforming this expression into time at the rate of 15 to an hour we find that at t mean solar days, after Greenwich mean noon on 1909, January 1, the right ascension of the mean sun is 18 h 41 m 58 s 84 + 236 s 5554*.
explain as follows the nature of the observations first term of this expression has been obtained. Divide the year T into a sufficient number of equal parts. At
We may
by which a the
each point of division we shall suppose the R. A. of the sun to be observed with results a l We shall assume 2 3 ... respectively.
, ,
that the average of these right ascensions the right ascensions of the mean sun at
is
the
average of
epochs.
the same
This assumption is justified because each of the chief periodic terms runs through a complete cycle of changes in an interval which is contained an exact number of times in a year. If
of instants dividing the year into the average value of any one of these terms for equal parts those instants will be zero (provided the number of instants
therefore
we take a number
taken
will
be
sufficiently
large,
67).
ascension
of
the
true
and
the
Hence the average right mean sun at these instants
epochs
be equal. We may illustrate the process by taking 6 such for which the sun's mean longitudes are respectively
a,
(a
+ 4h
to
6)
),
(a+8
h
),
etc.
where a
is
the
unknown
...
be found.
If
we determine the
right ascensions (a lt a2
of the true sun at these epochs
we have
a
+
(a
+ 4 h ) + (a + 8 h ) + (a + 12 h ) + (a + 16 h ) + (a + 20 h ) =^+ + + + +
2 3
4
5
6
.
69]
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
of
!
219
...
6
To obtain a we take as a particular case the values shown in the following table
:
as
Equidistant dates
G.M.T.
1909.
Jan.
ld
Oh
21
B.A. Of BUD 18 h 45 m 33 s
March 2
22
2
54 38 45
41
12
May
July
Sep.
2 2
1 1
18
15
6
12
9
10
14
Nov.
25
+24h +24 h 54 +24h 40 +24h
41
47
and by substitution
in the formula
we have
.
a
=
18
h
41 m 58 s
Making the slight necessitated when due
which
it
alteration of less than
1
s
in a,
which
is
attention
is
paid to
many
small details
would not have been possible for us to consider here, we have the required value 18 h 41 m 58 S> 84.
When
ascension
the
is
mean sun
comes
to
the
meridian
its
right
of course the sidereal time at the
we
obtain the important element in practical This is an indispensable quantity the sidereal time of mean noon.
in transforming sidereal time to mean time and vice versa. The sidereal time at mean noon is given in the ephemeris for each
Thus known as astronomy
moment.
day.
1. Show that the sidereal time at Greenwich at mean noon on March 27, is O h 17 m 6 s At mean noon on March 27 the interval from Jan. 1 is 85 days. Putting
Ex.
1909,
.
this value for
t
into the expression
18 h 41 m 58 e 84 + 236 s 5554,
the required result
is
obtained.
in 1909 the
Ex.
2.
Find at what date
mean sun
passes through the
first
point of Aries.
Ex.
3.
Given that the mean times of transit at Greenwich of the
first
h m 8 h m 8 point of Aries on 1896, March 21, are O l 59 "70 and 23 58 3 '79, determine the moment at which the Greenwich mean and sidereal times
are the same.
[Math. Trip.]
Ex.
the
4.
days after
Show that the right ascension of the mean sun at t mean solar mean noon on January 1st, 1900, is 18 h 42 m 43 8 '51 + 236 8 5554< and
longitude of the sun
is
mean
280681 +098565*.
220
70.
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
[CH. IX
Determination of
of the
mean time from
mean
solar time at
sidereal time.
The determination
any station must,
of course, depend directly or indirectly on observations of the sun. The mariner usually obtains the time from observations of the
is
sun made with his sextant in the morning or the evening. This an example of the direct method. But the astronomer, who has
the use of fixed instruments of
much
greater power and precision
than the sextant, generally deduces the mean time by calculation from the sidereal time, which, as already explained ( 63), he " clock stars." The obtains from observation of certain socalled
Those places of the clock stars he finds from the ephemeris. of T, which is determined from solar places depend on the position observations. Hence in the clock star method of finding the mean
time the observations of the sun are only indirectly involved. The ephemeris gives the true sidereal time at which the clock
star culminates
sidereal clock.
and the observer notes the time shown by his The difference is the correction to his clock, and thus the sidereal time is known. The ephemeris also gives the
sidereal time at
the
mean time
clock with the sidereal clock if
Greenwich mean noon, so that a comparison of made at noon will
show the error of the former. The comparison of the mean clock and the sidereal clock cannot however generally be made at noon,
nor will the longitude of the observer generally be zero.
therefore proceed as follows Let S be the local sidereal time,
:
We
T be
/
the simultaneous local
mean
time,
be the longitude, of the observer west of Greenwich, n be the number of mean solai days in a tropical year = 3652422, be the sidereal time at preceding mean noon at
M
Greenwich. There are n + 1 sidereal days in n mean solar days, hence an interval of solar time is transformed into the equivalent sidereal
time by the factor (n
+ l)/n, and
an interval of sidereal time
into the equivalent solar time case proposed the longitude is
by the factor n/(n + 1). In the I, and we notice that this implies
:
both of the following statements The first point of Aries will move, in I hours of sidereal time, (1) from the meridian of Greenwich to the meridian of the observer.
70]
(2)
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
221
The mean sun
will
move
in
I
hours of mean time from the
the
meridian of Greenwich to the meridian of the observer.
As S and T
instant
are the local sidereal and
it
considered,
follows
that
corresponding Greenwich sidereal The interval T + I of mean time
mean times at S + l and T+ I are and mean times.
is
the
reduced to sidereal time by
the factor (n+l)/n. By subtracting this from S + l we must obtain the sidereal time at mean noon at Greenwich the same
day, hence
M=
which may be written in the equivalent forms often found convenient for use with the tables in the Ephemeris
Probably the most practical method for determining mean time from sidereal time is as follows:
If
we put
shall
T=
have
in
just written and
make
noon we
or
M M = M + ll(n + M =M+l/n.
{ l
any one of the three equivalent equations the local sidereal time of local mean
l)/n,
{
This l/n
is
is
a constant quantity for the particular meridian.
It
added to the sidereal time at mean noon at Greenwich to obtain the local sidereal time at local mean noon.
Then we have simply
T=(8M )n/(n+l),
l
which may be very simply computed by the tables for converting intervals of sidereal time into the corresponding intervals of mean
time.
Ex.
1.
If
M
be the sidereal time at
mean noon
at Greenwich,
show
that MI, the sidereal time at mean noon on the same day, at a station of which I is the longitude west from Greenwich, expressed in hours, is given by
in
Ex. 2. Show that if an interval of time is expressed by mean time and by t' when reckoned in sidereal time, then
t
when reckoned
222
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
[CH. IX
where t and t' are expressed in hours and fractional parts of an hour in the last term of each expression.
Ex.
3.
On
21 h 51 m 138 55.
at 2 h 8 m 25 s 35
1909, Feb. 18th, the sidereal time at Greenwich mean noon is Show that the transit of the first point of Aries takes place
mean
time.
Ex.
is
4.
Show
that the Greenwich
(24
h
J/) n/(n
+ l),
where
M
is
the sidereal time at
mean time of sidereal noon at Greenwich mean noon and n the
number of mean solar days in the tropical year. Show also that the local mean time of sidereal noon at west longitude I is obtained by subtracting l/(n + l) from the Greenwich mean time of sidereal
noon at Greenwich.
By sidereal noon is meant the moment of culmination of T. Ex. 5. Show that 21 h 2 m 39s is the sidereal time at Madras (longitude 5 h 21 m E.) at 1 P.M. Greenwich mean time on 1908, Nov. 1,' being given that the sidereal time at Greenwich at mean noon is 14h 41 m 29 s
N.B.
s
.
55 m 54s West College, New York, is in longitude The sidereal time at mean noon at Greenwich on 1908, Dec. 12, Show that on the same day when the sidereal time at is 17 h 23 m 8 s Columbia College is 20h 8 m 4s the local mean time is 2 h 43 m 41 s
Ex.
6.
Columbia
.
4h
of Greenwich.
.
time in which the sun's semidiameter passes the meridian on 1908, July 1, being l m 8 8 '73, show that the corresponding mean time is found by subtracting Os> 19 from the sidereal time.
Ex.
7.
The
sidereal
71.
The
terrestrial date line.
The notion of the terrestrial date line may be conveniently introduced by a particular illustration as follows Suppose the epoch to be 10 A.M. at Greenwich on Wednesday, June 14th, 1905. We have to consider for the same epoch what is the hour and more especially the name of the day on
:
every other meridian east or west. On the meridian 9 h 59 m west of Greenwich the time at the
i.e. Wednesday has commenced. m W. the time is ll h 59 m P.M., and therefore on this meridian it is still Tuesday, June 13th. If we imagine each meridian all round the globe to be labelled with the day of the week (or month) pertaining to it at the epoch 10 A.M. June 14th. 1905, at Greenwich, there will be an abrupt change in the names on the labels when we come to the meridian
stated epoch
is just
after midnight,
l
But on the meridian 10 h
10h
W. from
But
it is
Greenwich.
easily seen that another breach of continuity
present
itself at
must some other meridian. For imagine we could move
7071]
with
10 h
the
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
223
quickness of thought westward from the meridian round the globe, we should begin by crossing meridians labelled Tuesday, but when the journey was near completion and we were approaching the meridian of 10 h W. from the east, we should
W.
all
find ourselves crossing meridians labelled Wednesday. There must therefore have been some other transition from a meridian labelled
with one day to that labelled with another day. This second breach of continuity in the labels on the meridians cannot have arisen as the first did by the occurrence of midnight.
The change at a midnight point would be in the wrong direction, and indeed 10 h W. is the only meridian on the whole globe then at midnight. Every parallel of latitude must therefore possess a second point at which there is a breach of continuity in the
dates pertaining to different places along that parallel. point on the parallel might be assigned for this purpose
therefore choose
it
Any
:
we
convention
The arbitrarily to suit general convenience. followed is that the point shall be as near as is
if it
convenient to the meridian 12 h from Greenwich
cannot be
The actual "date line" as it actually taken on that meridian. In so far as the meridian is called is drawn from pole to pole.
of 12 h passes through the open ocean, as it does during the greater part of its course, the date line coincides with that places the date line may swerve a little to of the meridian of 12 h so as not to pass, for one side or the other example, across inhabited land in Alaska or to divide the
meridian.
At other
,
Aleutian Islands in a way which would be inconvenient to their
inhabitants.
In the case proposed the day is Wednesday, June 14th, at all west longitudes up to 10 h W. For two hours more of west longih h h tude, i.e. from 10 W. to 12 W., or more accurately from 10 W. up to
the point where the date line crosses, the day is Tuesday, June 13th. But as the parallel crosses the date line the date suddenly alters.
P.M. on Tuesday, June 13th, on one side of that line the date becomes about 10 P.M. on Wednesday, June 14th,
From being about 10
on the other side of the
over
all
line.
Thus Wednesday, June
.
h E. longitudes from O h to about 12
at the
moment
considered about 22
14th, prevails It thus appears that hours of longitude have the
date Wednesday, June 14th, and 2 hours have Tuesday, June 13th. As another example let the hour be 6 P.M. at Greenwich on
224
Sunday.
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
[CH. IX
Then at 5 h 59 m E. long, the time is ll h 59 m P.M. on h m h m Sunday. At 6 l E. long, the time is O l A.M. on Monday. h Thus as we move eastwards from 6 E. long, to 12 h E. long., or more accurately to the date line on this parallel the day is
Monday, but at the date
line
(where the actual time
is
about
6 A.M.) the date suddenly changes to Sunday at the same hour, and Sunday prevails at all west longitudes from the date line
to Greenwich.
EXERCISES ON CHAPTER
Ex.
1.
IX.
If X be the longitude of the sun, a its R.A.
and
to
the obliquity of
o>
the ecliptic, show that the greatest value of X
a occurs when tan X = v'sec
and
Ex.
2.
On
the 22nd of September the sun's declination at transit was
6'
observed to be 17' 2"'80 N., and on the 23rd it was observed to be also the sidereal interval of the two transits was 24 h 3 m 35 8 '50.
the sun's R.A. at the second observation
?
21"56 S.
;
What was
Where would the
point of Aries by
chief errors be likely to occur in determining the first the method of this example ?
[Coll.
Exam.]
Ex.
3.
The
R.A. of Polaris is
lh
21 m 18 s
;
the sidereal times of
mean
noon at Greenwich on April 11 and 12 are respectively l h 19 m 50s '60 and Find the mean times of the three transits of Polaris at l h 23 m 47 8 15. Greenwich on April 11.
[Coll. Exam.] Given from the Nautical Almanac Sidereal time of mean noon March 21, 1898 ...... 23h 56 m 5 8 '87 2 42, Sidereal time of mean noon March 22, 1898 ...... find approximately the mean time at which the mean sun passed the vernal
Ex.
4.
equinox.
[Coll.
Exam.]
Feb. 7 a star, the R.A. of which is 5 h 9 m 43 S '9, is in transit at Sydney (longitude 151 12' 23" E.), when the time by the observer's watch which should keep local time is 8 h O m 3 s Given that the mean sun's R.A. at
Ex.
5.
On
.
mean noon
time
is
at
Greenwich on Feb. 7
59 m 50 s 2
is
21 h 8 m 36 s 'l, and that
lh
of sidereal
much
of equivalent to the watch is fast or slow.
mean
time, find to the nearest second
how
[Math. Trip.]
that a single altitude of a known star is sufficient to determine the latitude if the local sidereal time be known, and to determine the
Ex.
6.
Show
local sidereal
time
if
the latitude be known.
If the observed altitude
have an error x minutes of
arc,
then the deduced
71]
sidereal time will
SIDEREAL TIME AND MEAN TIME
225
have an error j\ x sec X cosec a minutes of time ; where the latitude of the place and a the azimuth of the star at the instant of observation. [Math. Trip.]
X
is
Ex. 7. If a star of declination 8 has a zenith distance near the meridian at an hour angle t, show that unless $ 8
latitude
<p
z
is
when observed
very small the
may
be determined accurately by the equation
2 cos 8 cos
.
,
.
in the last
term of which an approximate value of
If the sidereal clock times
</>
may
be used.
*Ex.
8.
when the sun
arrives at equal altitudes
on each side of the meridian are u' and u, and if the change of declination 8 of the sun in the interval be d8, and the right ascension of the sun at culmination is a, show that the correction to be applied to clock time to obtain the
true sidereal time
is
r
tan
tan 8 57;
(u'
8,
r u)
tan
.
<t>
,
.
sin
/
(u
and explain why no account need be taken of the sun's ascension between the two observations.
*Ex.
9.
movement
in right
the meridian
Show that, if I when it is in
,
8 is the zenith distance of the
declination
and h
is
seconds of time, the latitude of the place
I
sun observed near hour angle measured in approximately
is its
.

cos
cos 8 sin 1" .__ .. 2 =. i 2sm 7> x (15A)
Z
 (18)
made from a ship in motion in a an angle 6 with the meridian, the greatest altitude occurs making when the sun is approximately h seconds of time from the instantaneous meridian, where \ 1 A . sin(8d>) /ycostf _ ___________ 15 2 .602 .sinl"' cos ^ cos 8 \p sin 1" /
also that, if the observation is
Show
direction
__
'
'
_
I
I
rtjy
_
m
v is the space described by the ship per hour, p the radius of the earth, the latitude of the place, 8 the declination of the sun, and the change of declination per hour measured in seconds of arc. [Math. Trip.]
<
B. A.
15
CHAPTER
THE
72.
X.
SUN'S
APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION.
PAGE
73.
$ 74.
75. 76.
The reduction to the equator The equation of the centre The equation of time
Formulae connected with the equation of time
.
226
230
232
.
234 236
241
77. 78.
Graphical representation of the equation of time General investigation of stationary equation of time
.
.
.
The cause
of the seasons
242
Exercises on Chapter
X
246
72.
The reduction
to the equator.
its
As the sun performs
annual circuit of the
ecliptic its true
measured of course from T and in the direction of longitude the sun's motion is continuously, though not uniformly, increasing.
In like manner the sun's right ascension a is continuously, though not uniformly, increasing. The difference between the
right ascension and the longitude, that is to say the quantity ) which must be added to the sun's longitude to give the (a sun's right ascension, is called the reduction to the equator.
We
to consider the variations in the reduction to the equator in the course of the year. The centre of the sun is presumed to
are
now
latitude
ecliptic, as we need not here take account of its small which is < 1". Let a, 8 be the right ascension arid declination of a point on and if &> be the the ecliptic. The longitude of the point is of the ecliptic we have obliquity
be in the
tan a
= cos a> tan
2
(1),
and we can transform
this equation into
sin(a) = tan
Thus we
see that a
<sin(a +
)
(2).
must
lie
between the
limits
sin" 1 tan 2
&>
72]
THE SUN'S APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION
227
and
viz.
+ sin~
23
varies
its mean value for 1910, we may say that the reduction to the equator between  6 and + 6 where 6 = 2 28' 8". The variations
1
tanHo> or
if
we take
for
<w
27' 4",
of the reduction as as follows
:
increases from
to
360 may be indicated
they are both zero
As a and
is
start together
from
T where
at first the greater so that the reduction is at first negative and attains a minimum is 45 + \6. 6 when Then the right ascension begins to gain on the longitude so that and a reach
Q
90 together and the reduction
is zero.
a gradually increases its lead over when is 135 ^0 and the reduction has its
of +0.
In the second quadrant until a becomes 135 + ^0
maximum
value
=
In the third quadrant there is another minimum 6 when 225f# and in the fourth quadrant there is another
= 315 maximum of +0 when #. Finally the values of and a coincide at 360 when the circuit is complete. For the calculation of the reduction we use the formula (3) which is easily derived from (1)
tan
() =  tan
is
2
w sin
2/(l + tan
a
fco>
cos
2)
.
..(3)
by which the reduction
It is also convenient to obtain
obtained at once for any given longitude. an expression for (a ) in a series
2 ascending by powers of the small quantity tan ^&>. This is most readily deduced from equation (1) by a well known expansion.
(See Todhunter's Plane Trigonometry,
a
p. 238.)
=
tan 2 ! &> sin 2
+tan &>sin 4 tan sin6+
4 6
(4).
The terms in this formula are expressed in radians but the reduction to the equator is more conveniently expressed by putting for each radian its equivalent of 86400/2Tr = 13751 seconds of
time.
If
13751 and
we multiply the expression for (a ) given in (4) by if we further reduce it by substituting for <a its mean
value already given
we have
a
The
=  592
is
8
38 sin
20 +
12 8 '76 sin 4

8
'36 sin 6
. .
.(5).
that there
terms in series (5) decrease so rapidly no need to take account of more than the three terms there written and even the last of these may be generally
coefficients of the
omitted.
152
228
If
THE SUN'S APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION
[CH.
X
we had assumed
that no more than two terms of (4) would
be required, then those terms could have been obtained otherwise from (3) for we have by Gregory's series
a

= tan (a  0)   tan (a =  sin 2 tan'ia (1 + cos
3
) +
2
...
tan 2 ^) 1
+
sin 3 2
tan 6 i&>
which gives the desired expression when quantities smaller than
tan6 ^&) are neglected.
Ex.
1.
Prove the following graphic method of obtaining the reduction
.
any given longitude Describe a circle with centre C (Fig. 64) and radius CA = tau 2 ^o>, and Find the point so that (70=1. on the circle such take a fixed point
to the equator for
P
that
to P.
L OCP = 2
and
let
P' be the point on the
its
circle diametrically opposite
Then LP'OC is the reduction with
Let
A
and
B
be the points in which
CO
sign changed. cuts the circle.
Join
AP' and
FIG. 64.
BP'.
Draw CD
Then the anharmonic
perpendicular to AP' and produce ratio of the pencil P'(OACB) is
it
to
meet OP'
in E.
OA/OB = (l tan*$)/(l + tan 2
But since AP' is perpendicular harmonic ratio also equal to
to
o>)
= cos
.
BP' and
to
CD we
have the same an
.#/>//><?= tan
EP'D/ta.nDP'C.
.
Hence
Therefore
tan
EP'D = cos o> tan DP'C= cos o> tan
EP'D=a, and since CAP' = CP'A
such that
=
we have P'OC=
Take any
line
a.
Ex.
a part
2.
Prove the following construction.
AB and cut off
AC
A C=AB cos
&>.
At A
erect
AL
line CP to meet AL in P so that LACP=. LABP=a, and L.BPC is the reduction to the equator.
Draw the
perpendicular to AB. Join BP. Then
Ex.
3.
Show from Ex.
1
that the greatest value of the reduction is
sin~ 1 (tan 2 Jw) and that in this case A Pin Ex. 2 is a tangent to the circle are complementary. circumscribing CEP and that a and
72]
Ex.
ecliptic
4.
THE SUN'S APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION
Show
that, if the
229
sun be supposed to move uniformly in the
in the equator, the difference of their right ascensions will vanish four times in the year only if the interval between their passages through the first point of Aries be less than sin" 1 (tau 2 ^o>)/27r of a year. [Coll. Exam.]
and another body to move at the same uniform rate
be the fraction of a year that has elapsed between the passage T and the passage of the body moving in the equator through T*. Then, when their right ascensions are both a,
Let
t
of the sun through
tan
(2trt
+ a) COS co = tan a.
tan a + tan 2nt cos
co
We
The
thus have for a the equation
tan 2 a tan
*2irt
(1
if
cos
co)
= 0.
roots of this will be real
2irt<sm~ 1 (tan 2
There
Ex.
across
(cos
co
co).
a.
will
5.
thus be two real values of tan a and four of
Assuming the
ratio of the sidereal times occupied
sun's apparent orbit to be circular, show that the by the passage of the sun's diameter

the meridian at an equinox and at a solstice is '0027 sin 2 co), where co is the obliquity of the ecliptic.
approximately
If
R
be the sun's radius and 8
its declination,
[Math. Trip.] then at the moment when
the preceding limb is on the meridian the hour angle of its centre is  R sec 8. If ti denote the sidereal time and a t the sun's R.A. at this moment
we have
11
0.1
=
R sec 8.
is
Similarly,
when
the following limb
t2
on the meridian, we have
And
therefore
(t 2
ti)
Differentiating the equation = cos a cos 8, we find cos
= +R sec 8. a = 2/2 sec 8. (a 2 tan a = cos tan
a2
t)
to
,
and remembering that
da
at
j
= cos
co
>* sec2 8
d
at
j.
But since t increases 360 in one day, whereas increases by the same amount in about 365 days, we have d/dt = 1/365 = 0027. Hence
da/dt = Q027 cos
co
sec 2 8.
And
therefore
(t z
a2
ai = (t
2
ti)da/dt,
 <x )
{1
 '0027 cos co sec 2 8}
= 2R sec 8,
co,
or
At the equinoxes
*i = 2/i7 {cos 8 0027 cos co sec 8}. = and at the solstices 8 = + hence 8
*2
the sidereal time
occupied by the passage of the sun's diameter across the meridian at the equinox is to that at the solstice in the ratio
(cos
co

0027 )/(!

'0027 cos
co)
= cos  '0027 sin 2
co.
230
73.
THE SUN'S APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION
[CH.
X
The equation of the
centre.
Let T4 be the equator, and T.B, Fig. 65, be the ecliptic, where the perigee of the sun's S is the position of the sun and the point occupied by the sun when nearest to apparent orbit, i.e.
P
T
FIG. 65.
the earth
TP = OT, the longitude PS = v, the sun's true
T>S
of the perigee,
anomaly,
=
= tr + v,
the sun's true longitude.
for the whole year of the apparent over by the radius vector drawn from the angle daily swept The sun's mean longitude is earth's centre to the sun's centre.
Let n be the average value
expressed by value of the
L = nt +
e,
where
i
is
the time in days and
e is
the
measured.
mean longitude at the epoch from which the time is The sun's mean anomaly is L TX and the correspond
w. ing true anomaly is In 52 we have determined the relation between the true
anomaly and the mean anomaly
in the formula there given
(
in
an
elliptic orbit,
ar)
for v
and
L
and substituting us for m, we
obtain
= L + (2e  ^e ) sin (L 3
r)
+ fe
2
sin (2
3
 2*r)
+ f e
where
e is
sin
(3Z
 3w)
(1),
The
simply
the eccentricity of the earth's orbit. terms involving e3 are too small to require attention for
most purposes.
We
shall
neglect
them
2
as
before
and write
(2).
= L + 2e sin (L 
r)
+ fe
sin
(2Z
 2w)
We
have thus obtained the expression for the true longitude of the sun in terms of its mean longitude.
73]
THE SUN'S APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION
e
231
Reversing this series we obtain by omitting powers of
the second
above
L=
longitude.

2e sin
(

r)
+ fe
2
sin (2

2*r) ...... (3),
its
which expresses the sun's mean longitude in terms of
true
It is now necessary to know the numerical values of e and OT, and we have to show how continued observations of the sun's right ascension enable us to determine these quantities. This is done
by formula
y = e sin
which we shall transform by making x = e cos or, 2 as r, e, and in the first instance neglecting e we have very small,
(3)
L = nt +
nt
+e=

2x sin
+ 2y cos
............ (4),
unknowns, n, e, x, y, and to determine them we must suppose that a series of determinations of the longitude have been calculated 15 2 3 4 ......
,
as the approximate formula. In this equation there are four
,
from observations of the right ascension made at certain times
ti,
U,
ta, ^4
.......
of
mean
solar days since a
Each of these quantities represents the number moment taken as the epoch. Each
value of
will give
and its corresponding date t when substituted in (4) a linear equation connecting n, e, x, y. Four such equa
would therefore make these quantities determinate, though accuracy the result should be based on very many Thus x and y and observations extended over many years. known approximately. At the same therefore e and TS become time n and e become known and the expression for the mean
tions
for increased
We now substitute the approximate longitude L is determined. values for e and w in the term involving e2 in equation (3), for as
term is so small there will be no appreciable error in its value even though e and OT may not be quite correct. Thus a more accurate linear equation between n, e, ac, y is obtained and each observation will supply one such equation. In this way
this
e
and
CT
may be
obtained with
all
desirable precision.
if
The length we had been
of the tropical year is 360/rc days, and of course at liberty to assume as we have so often done
is
already that the tropical year described n as an unknown.
it is
But
365'2422 days we should not have it is necessary to point out that
this value of
by such an investigation as that now given that
232
THE SUN
S
APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION
[CH.
X
the tropical year has been itself determined so that having found n from the system of equations we obtain 360/Ti. The quantity e
is
the sun's
for
mean longitude
at the epoch.
We
thus obtain the
in a
formula
L
which has been already determined
in
67, Ex.
4.
more
ele
mentary manner
It remains to give equations (2)
and
(3) their numerical forms
in
by introducing the actual values of e and These are for the year 1900
e
for the earth's orbit.
= 001675,
OT
= 281
13',
and though on account of the perturbations caused by the other
planets these quantities are not strictly constant, their changes from year to year are far too minute to be of any consequence
for our present purpose. Substituting these values and using the value 3438' for one radian we obtain
=L+
115'2 sin
(L

2812)
Z=115'2sm(281
+ l'2 sin (2Z  202'4)...(5), 2) + 0'7sin(2202 4)...(6).
:
We may thus make the approximate statements of the sun at any epoch is obtained by The true longitude to the mean longitude L of the sun at the same epoch adding
the quantity which has been defined in
centre,
and
for
52 as the equation of the which we have now found the expression
115' sin
(L
281).
The mean longitude
quantity
L
of the sun at
any epoch
adding to the true longitude
of the sun at the
sin
is obtained by same epoch the
115'
Ex.
1.
(281).
of the centre
is
Show that the equation
never zero unless the
sun
is
at one of the apsides.
2.
*Ex.
(5) is to
Show
that
if
attention
is
paid to the seconds of arc, the formula
be written
= L + 1344" sin L + 6778" cos L  67" sin 2L + 28" cos 2L.
of
The equation of time. We can now express a, the right ascension of the sun, in terms its mean be the true longitude then longitude L, for if
74.
72, 73,
a.
from
=  tan &> sin 2 + $ tan 1 to sin 4, = L + 2e sin (L  r) + \& sin (2L  2w).
2
4
.
7374]
THE SUN'S APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION
233
The expression of a in terms of L involves a number of terms with small coefficients. As the formulae need not be encumbered
we
with terms which are too small to produce an appreciable effect shall not retain any power or product of powers of e and
a)
tan 2 ^
which
2
is less
than 1/10,000.
This condition excludes
tan 4
o>
all
o
except tan
&>
=1/2321,
2
e= 1/5970,
= l/538'7,
etan 2
= 1/1385
and
e
=
1/3564.
Eliminating
a = L + 2e sin (L tan ^ to
2
we obtain
r)
+ fe
2
sin 2
(L

or)
.
(sin
2Z + 4e sin (L
2
or)
cos 2Z}
+ \ tan
&)
4
^ to sin
.
4>L,
which may be written
a
= L + 2e sin (L ix} tan ^&> + f e sin 2 (L  r)  2e tan
2
.
sin
o>
2L +
2e tan 2
sin
(L
4
+ OT)
o>
.
2
sin (3Zr
w) + 1 tan
sin 4Z.
2 2 4 quantities e etan ft> and tan ^&> are very small, the two terms of the expression (a L) are by far the most important, and the others may for our present purposes be neglected,
,
As the
first
so that
we have
a
= L + E,
ar)
where
It is to be added called the equation of time. The quantity to the mean longitude of the sun to give the sun's right ascension.
E E is
2e sin (L
tan 2 ^<w sin 2L.
We transform it into time at is here expressed in radians. the rate of 2?r radians to 24 hours, and consequently for the equation of time in hours, we have
12 (2e sin (L
or in seconds of time
E

r)
 tan
2
o>
sin 2L}/7r,
13751 {2e sin
If in this
() tan
OT
2
&) sin 2X}.
we make e=
a
'001675,
= 281'2, we
s
obtain the approxi
mate
result
=L+
90 s sin
L + 452
s
cos
L
592 s sin 2L,
which
is
equivalent to the statement that
E = 90
is
s
sin
L + 452
^
cos
L  592
8
sin
2L
(i)
the equation of time
when small terms
are omitted.
is
At any
sidereal time
the hour angle of the true sun
^
a, or
apparent solar time
=^
a.
234
THE SUN'S APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION
instant the hour angle of the
[CH.
is
X
At the same to S L, or
The
to be
mean sun
equal
mean
solar time
=^
to
L = (^
a)
+ (a
L).
equation of time
is
therefore defined to be the correction
the
added algebraically
solar time.
1.
apparent solar time
to
find the
mean
Ex.
Dec. 27, 1910, being given that the sun's
Determine approximately the equation of time at mean noon on mean longitude is then 275.
.
s If all the terms now neglected By substitution in (i) we find E= + 53 had been taken account of we should have obtained 52 s 81 as given in the The R.A. of the true sun a is thus 53 s greater than L, which is epherneris. the R.A. of the mean sun. At apparent noon the mean sun is already past the meridian by 53 s so that to obtain the mean time we have to add 53 s to
,
the apparent time. Ex.
2.
and about
.
Show that the equation 7 m at the autumnal.
of time is about 7J m at the vernal equinox
Ex. 3. Find the sun's true R.A. at apparent noon on Nov. 1st, 1902, 16 m 18 s and given that the equation of time at mean noon that day is that the sidereal time of mean noon on June 14 is 5 h 27 m 23 s (Take a
,
.
tropical year to be 365 days.)
[Oxford Second Public Examination, 1902.]
Ex. 4. Show that at the summer solstice, the equation of time has an hourly increase of about 53 seconds, it being assumed that the daily motion of the mean sun in arc is 59' 8"'32. We have (1) 90 s sin L + 452 s cos L 592 s sin 2Z for the equation of time. For a small change AZ in L this increases by

s (90 cos L 452 sin
L  1 1 84 cos 2Z) AZ.
Hence the hourly change
s
In one hour
AZ = 147"'85,
or, in radians, '000717.
in the equation of time is
A=
In the particular case
Ex.
5.
s
L  '324 sin L  849 cos 2Z. 8< supposed Z = 90, and A '=0 525.
064 cos
s
J
Show
the eccentricity
is 24e/?r
that the greatest value of the equation of time arising from hours.
75.
Formulae connected with the equation of time.
It is convenient to bring together various formulae connected with the equation of time. The observer is supposed to be in longitude I west of Greenwich, and at a certain moment he
7475]
THE SUN'S APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION
235
the notation
observes the apparent solar time.
The
following
is
employed
a
:
is
the sun's R.A. at the
moment
of observation,
A
T ^
apparent time local mean time
local sidereal
time
E E
!,
equation of time equation of time at the preceding G.M.N.,
following
M M
We
Greenwich sidereal time at preceding
following
G.M.N.,
l
have from the definition of
T=A+E
At the moment
assuming that
E (see
p.
234)
(i),
of observation the G.M.T.
is
A +E+
I,
and
E changes
E=E
uniformly,
we have
1
+ (A + E+L)(E
a
E )/24
is
h
(ii).
l
We
have also
= ^A
(iii).
When
the
Greenwich mean time
T+
1
the Greenwich
sidereal time
is S
+
1.
The
sidereal interval since the preceding
and this is conGreenwich mean noon is therefore ^ + 1 verted into mean time by applying the factor 24 h /(24 h + M^ ). We thus have the equation
,
M
M
T+ I=
24 h <>
+  J/ )/(24 h + M,  M \
I
from which we obtain
T = *M (M  M )(* M + 0/(24 h + M, J/ )...(iv).
1
From the equations
I
(i),
(ii),
(iii),
(iv)
involving
four
the
six
quantities a, A, T, *&, E, two others are given. It is understood that E E1} M^ are from the ephemeris. constants for the day obtained Ex. 1. Show that at any place and at any moment the sidereal time .9, the mean time T, the right ascension of the sun a and the equation of time
,
we can determine any
when the
,
M
E are connected by the relation
9a + ET=0.
mean time, J/" J/x, E\ the sidereal time at the preceding and the succeeding Greenwich mean noons, and if A be the observed apparent solar time, find the longitude, and show that the local sidereal time is
Ex.
2.
If
t
be the Greenwich
,
E
,
times and the equations of
J/o
+ ^o +
1
( J/i
+ Ei MQ  JEJIM* + A
.
[Coll.
Exam.]
236
THE SUN'S APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION
[CH.
X
Ex. 3. If at Greenwich a, a' are the hour angles (in degrees) of the sun at and t' hours mean time, show that the equations of time at the preceding and following mean noons expressed in fractions of an hour are respectively
t
a'taf
15 (t'ty
a'(240(240
[Math. Trip.]
that
1)
Ex.
4.
Show from
(ii)
E= 24* # /(24 h + EO  Ej) + (A +
(El  E )/(M* + E  EJ,
last
and prove from the formulae given on the mean time at Greenwich is
24" (A
page that the corresponding
Ex.
5.
Find the
+ E + Z)/(24 h + EH  EJ. sidereal time at New York, in
longitude 73 58' 24" '6
at apparent noon on October 1, given that the numerical values of the equation of time at Greenwich mean noon on October 1 and October 2
West
are 10 m 23 s '28 and 13 m 42 s '28 respectively, and that the sidereal times at Greenwich mean noon on those days are 12 h 40 m 57 s '62 and 12 h 44 m 54 s '17
respectively.
[Math. Trip.]
April 15th and 16th, 1895, at Greenwich mean noon, the s s equation of time is given as 1 '57 and 13 '09, to be subtracted from and added to mean time respectively. Find the apparent hour angle of the
Ex.
6.
On
sun at a place 4 E. of Greenwich at ll h 58 m
local
mean time on
April
16.
[Coll.
Exam.]
76.
Graphical representation of the equation of time.
74 that the equation of time, E, when exIt appears from pressed in hours of mean solar time is with sufficient approximation
E = 12
Making
tions,
[1e sin
(L

r)
 tan
2
o>
sin 2Z}/7r.
in this expression the following approximate substituco
tan 2
=
1/232,
e
=
1/597,
=
360
 79,
233)
we
obtain after reduction (or directly from
(i), p.
E = O h 128 sin (L + 79)  Oh '165 sin 2L
= 7 m 68
sin
(L
+ 79)  9 m '90 + 79)
sin 2Z,.
We
are
then plot (Fig. 66) the two curves of which the equations
2/=7 68sin(Z
and
y=
Q 90 sin 2 L
m
(i),
(ii),
where the mean longitude L is taken as abscissa, the ordinates being laid off positively and negatively as shown in the lefthand
7576]
margin.
THE SUN The carves
S
APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION
237
are plotted for every longitude from to are thus available from the vernal equinox of one year 360, and The diagram can be used without appreciable to that of the next.
alteration for a great
number
of successive years.
g
'9.
\
30
90
210
240
270
300
330
360*
FIG. 66.
of the curves depends upon the fact that the equation equal to the ordinate of curve (i) minus the ordinate of curve (ii), it being understood that in accordance with the
The use
is
of time
axis are positive
usual convention, ordinates on the upper side of the horizontal and those below are negative.
Thus on May 22nd the equation of time is Q P and is On July 22nd it is Q2 P2 and positive. On Oct. 22nd negative. it is Q3 P 3 and negative, and on Jan. 22nd it is Q 4 P 4 and positive.
i 1
of curves
In this way, taking as ordinate the difference of the ordinates (i) and (ii) with its proper sign, we obtain the continuous
curve in Fig. 66, the ordinates of which represent the equation of time for every day in the year.
238
THE SUN'S APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION
[CH.
X
There are four places at which the curves (i) and (ii) intersect and at which consequently the equation of time is zero. Thus we learn that the equation of time vanishes four times a year and the continuous curve cuts the horizontal axis at four points which
show the corresponding dates. That the equation of time must vanish at least four times in We shall suppose the year may be shown otherwise as follows. that t is the part of the equation of time due to the obliquity of the ecliptic, and t' that due to eccentricity. Let k be the greatest value of t without regard to sign, then k is greater than any value of t'. The value of k is, as we have seen, 9 m 90, while t'
never exceeds 7 m '68.
the vernal equinox to the summer solstice t must be negative, because so far as the inequality arises from obliquity, the R.A. of the mean sun exceeds that of the true sun. Hence
From
the
mean sun
crosses the meridian after the true sun,
and thus
a subtraction has to be
made from the apparent time
to find the
similar reasoning it appears that from the the autumnal equinox t is positive, from the autumnal equinox to the winter solstice t is negative, and from the winter solstice to the vernal equinox t is positive. At both
mean time. From summer solstice to
the equinoxes and both the solstices t is zero. As to the part of the equation of time which arises from the eccentricity we observe that t' is zero both at apogee and perigee, and since
from perigee to apogee the true sun is in advance of place, the value of t' must be continuously positive.
its
mean
In like
manner
S,
t'
must be negative
all
the
way from apogee
to perigee.
W
Let P,
t
(Fig. 67) be the perigee and apogee respectively, the positions of the sun at the summer and winter solstices,
A
and
HP,
t,
Let which
Then
for t
the equinoctial points. the point occupied by the sun at the moment when is zero at T and at S, has its greatest negative value. remembering that E, the equation of time, is t + t', we see
M be
P
t'
that from
to
T
the value of
E E
must be continuously
t'
positive,
and
At
have
M we have E=t'
are both positive.
k,
and as
is
E negative at M.
can never equal
k,
Since
positive at T, negative at
we must M,
and again positive at S, there must be some point between T and and 8, where E = 0. Thus the M, and also another between
M
76]
THE SUN'S APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION
239
equation of time must vanish at least twice between the vernal equinox and the summer solstice.
From S
to
A
both
t
and
t'
are positive, and therefore
E
is
continuously positive from the summer solstice to the apogee. But from A to ^ t' is negative, and as t is zero at ^ and t' is must be negative at b and positive at A. It still negative,
follows that
E E must
be zero somewhere between
A
and d, and
thus the equation of time must vanish at least once again between apogee and the autumnal equinox.
^
M
FIG. 67.
b to both t and t' are continuously negative, and the equation of time cannot vanish between these points of thus the orbit. At we find has become positive again, and there
From
W
P
E
fore it
must vanish
at least once
between
W and P.
thus learn that the equation of time vanishes at least twice between the vernal equinox and the summer solstice, at
least once least once
We
between the apogee and the autumnal equinox, and at between the winter solstice and the perigee.
Ex. 1. If we take x as the tangent of the sun's mean longitude Z, show that the days on which the equation of time vanishes can be found
graphically as the intersections of the curve y=x(\. line and if the equation of this line be
;
+ x*)~*
with a straight
y = 007^ + 038,
estimate roughly the dates in question.
[Coll.
Exam.]
In the equation tanHw sin 2Z = 2e sin (Zor) we make tan L=x and the equation in x thus obtained is obviously the result of eliminating y between
the two equations
y=excos
It has been
or cot 2 o>
e
sin or cot 2
o>,
y**x(l+atpj~l.
Ex.
2.
shown that the equation
90 sin
of time expressed in seconds
is
L + 452 cos L  592 sin 2L,
240
THE SUN'S APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION
[CH.
X
where L is the mean longitude of the sun. Prove from this expression that the equation of time vanishes at least four times annually. If we substitute successively 0, 45 for L in the expression, the sign
hence there must be some value for changes from + to 45" which is a root of the equation
,
L
between
and
90 sin L + 452 cos L  592 sin 2Z = 0.
We have further changes of sign for values of L between 45 and 90, between 90 and 180 and between 180 and 360. Hence there must be four real roots, and when some other small terms are taken account of it is found
that the roots are approximately
23, 83, 159, 272, and the corresponding dates on which the equation of time vanishes are
15th Ap.,
Ex.
3.
14th June,
31st Aug.,
24th Dec.
Show
that the
sum
on which the equation of time vanishes must be 540
the 4th power of tan \a> are neglected.
of the solar longitudes on the four occasions if the square of e and
We have
and making
x=ta,nL,
2esin (L
O7)
= tan 2
cot 2 \
&>,
o>
sin2Z,
m = e cos
x3 and x
ss
n = e sin
zzr
cot2 ^o>,
we
find
m x*
2
%mna? + (m2 + n2
1)
x2
2mnx + n 2 = 0.
and if we express corresponding to the four
The
roots,
coefficients of
in the equation are equal,
this fact in
terms of the longitudes LI, we have the condition
tan (Li +
L 2 L3 Lt
,
,
L 2 + L 3 + Z4 = 0.
)
This equation shows that Li+L^ + L 3 \L4 = k. 180, where k is an integer. But we have seen (Ex. 2) that Z3 >90 and Z4 >270, hence k> 2. Also
Zi+.Z/2 <180, X3 <180 and Z4 <360, hence value of k is 3, and accordingly
<4.
Thus the only admissible
A +2 + ^3 + ^4 = 540.
It is also easy to
sin LI
show that
+ sin Z
2
f sin
Z 3 + sin Z 4 + sin LI sin L 2 sin L3 + sin LI sin L 3 sin Z 4 + sin LI sin L 2 sin Z4 f sin LI sin L 2 sin Ls = 0.
Ex. 4. If the eccentricity of the earth's orbit be 1/60, the cosine of the obliquity 11/12, and the line of equinoxes be taken as perpendicular to the major axis of the orbit, prove that the longitudes of the sun when the equation of time due to both causes conjointly is numerically a 0'809. angles whose sines are approximately 0'617 and
maximum
are
[Math. Trip. L]
The equation
becomes a
of time being
2e sin
(Lw}
tan 2
^w sin
2Z,
maximum
for
or = 90 when e sin L tan 2 \
<a
cos
2Z = 0.
cos 2Z=0, whence sin L Introducing the given constants the equation is we obtain a quadratic for sin L whose roots are the given numbers.
^
^
7677]
77.
THE SUN'S APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION
241
General investigation of stationary equation of time.
shall
We
maximum
or a
now determine when the equation of time is a minimum independently of any assumption with
regard to the obliquity of the ecliptic or the eccentricity of the We shall however suppose that the movement of earth's orbit.
the earth about the sun takes place in a fixed ellipse and that the movement of the equator is neglected. We obtain the necessary 52, and they are as follows equations from
:
tan v
tan a
=
N/l
e
2
sin uj(cos
;
u
e);
m=u
=
v
e sin
u
;
= cos a> tan
+
or
;
m, u are the true, mean, and eccentric anomalies, sun's true longitude, e the eccentricity of the orbit, and
where
v,
the
w
t,
the
longitude of perihelion. Differentiating these equations with regard to the time
obtain
we
dv
dt
(l
Vl
1
e2
'
du
u dt
(ll) '

e cos
 eC
2
*
U
.du
^dt
) 7
= dm
ltt
(cos
2
+ cos
to
sin
2
dt
= cos <w ydt
(iii).
The equation of time is obtained by subtracting the mean longitude of the sun (m + nr) from its right ascension a, and when the equation of time is stationary its differential coefficient with
regard to the time
is
zero
whence
da
dm
or
by elimination of the
(1
e cos
2
differential coefficients
2
w) (cos
+ cos
e
2
&)
sin 2
)
= Vl
e
2
cos
to.
From
the geometrical properties of an ellipse
(1
e~)
we have
nr)},
=
(1
cos u) [1
+
e cos (
whence
(1

e )^ (cos 2
2
+ cos
2
o>
sin2
)
= cos &>
{1
+ e cos (

2
or)}
.
This formula involves no limitation in the magnitude of e and is a general equation for the determination of when the equation of time is stationary.
B. A.
16
242
Ex.
1.
THE SUN'S APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION
Show
[CH.
X
when the
equator
is
projection
(1
that the stationary values of the equation of time occur of the sun's radius vector on the plane of the

e 2 )*(cos<a)2
a>
times the
mean
distance, a,
where
e is
the ec
centricity of the orbit,
the obliquity of the ecliptic. Let p be the projection, then if 8 be the sun's declination,
p=a (1  e2
but
)
cos 8/{l
2
+ e cos
2
(
 or)},
2
cos 8 = (cos
+ cos w sin
sin 2
)*
)"
,
and from what has just been proved,
2
(cos
+ cos
2
<B
(cos
2 o>)
l+ecos(07)
whence
Ex.
2.
~(i_#ft'
w)
5
.
=a p
ellipse
1 (
 e2 )* (cos
In general, supposing the sun's path relative to the earth to be with the earth in the focus, and a second ellipse to be constructed by projecting the former on the plane of the equator, then the projections of the sun's position when the equation of time is greatest are
an exact
earth,
the intersections of the second ellipse with a circle whose centre and whose area is equal to the area of this ellipse.
is
at the
[Math. Trip. 1905.]
In the general case show that whatever be the eccentricity the of the centre is a maximum, when the radius vector is a geometric equation mean between the major and minor axes.
Ex.
3.
78.
The cause
of the seasons.
of the sun in the heavens
is
The apparent annual path
divided
The into four quadrants by the equinoctial and solstitial points. corresponding intervals of time are called the seasons, Spring,
Spring commences when the sun enters the sign of Aries, that is to say when its longitude is When the sun reaches the solstitial point (longitude = 90) zero.
Summer, Autumn, and Winter.
Summer
tude
is
begins.
Autumn commences when
Winter,
the sun enters Libra
sun's longi
(longitude = 180) and
commencing when the
is
270 continues
until the vernal equinox
regained.
The changes
atmosphere,
in the meteorological conditions of the earth's which constitute the phenomenon known as the
variation of the seasons, are determined chiefly by the changes in
the amount of heat received from the sun as the year advances. The amount of heat received from the sun at any place on
the surface of the earth depends upon the number of hours during which the sun is above the horizon and its zenith distance at noon.
At a place
situated in latitude
<
the interval from sunrise to
7778]
sunset
is
THE SUN'S APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION
is
equal to 24/i/Tr, where h radians, given by the equation
cos h
the angle, expressed in
=
tan
is
<f>
tan B
(i),
and the zenith distance at noon
of the sun.
<f>
~ 8,
B being the declination
As the sun moves along the
Aries
its
declination
maximum
first point of 68) and increases to a positive (see Fig. at the summer solstice, when the sun is at the first
ecliptic
from the
is
point of Cancer
marked by the symbol
,
the declination being
<25
FIG. 68.
then equal to the obliquity of the ecliptic, viz. 23 27'. From this point the solar declination diminishes until it vanishes at the
autumnal equinox
:,
diminishing until a minimum ( solstice in Capricornus, marked
equinox.
from which the declination becomes negative 23 27') is reached at the winter
by the symbol
XP, after
which
it
begins once more to increase and vanishes again at the following
In considering the seasonal changes it is convenient to divide the earth into five zones which are bounded by circles parallel to
the equator in latitudes + 23 27' and 66 33'. The zone included between the parallels of 23 27' north and south is called
162
244
THE SUN'S APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION
[CH.
X
the Torrid Zone, and its northern and southern bounding circles are termed the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn respectively.
The
parallels of latitude
66 33' north and south are called the
Arctic and Antarctic Circles respectively. The zone included between the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Cancer is known as the North Temperate Zone, while that bounded by the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle is the South Temperate Zone.
Lastly, the regions round the North and South Poles bounded by the Arctic and Antarctic Circles respectively, are known as the
North and South Frigid Zones.
At the time
of the
summer
solstice 8
= + 23
27'
and we have
then for any point on the Arctic Circle tan </> tan 8=1. Under these circumstances the hour angle of the sun at rising or setting
is
180.
That
is
to say the diurnal course of the
sun
is
then a
touching the horizon at the north so that at midnight onehalf of its disc would be visible (we point, are not here taking the effect of refraction into account). Within
the frigid zone the sun will remain above the horizon without setting for a continually increasing number of days, as the
observer approaches the pole. To an observer at the pole itself the sun would appear to move round the horizon at the equinox, after which it will describe a spiral round and round the sky,
circle parallel to the equator,
gradually increasing its height above the horizon until at the solstice its diurnal track will be very nearly a circle parallel to the horizon at an altitude of 23 27'. After the solstice it will
return in a similar spiral curve towards the horizon, which it reaches at the autumnal equinox. In the winter half of the year
the sun will be continuously below the horizon. The phenomena in the south temperate and south frigid zones will be similar to those in the corresponding northern
Thus zones, but they will occur at opposite epochs of the year. the spring of the southern hemisphere coincides in point of time
with autumn in the northern hemisphere, the summer of the North with the winter of the South, and vice versa. In the torrid zone the conditions are as follows. On the
equator, since (f> be the value of
= 0, we
8.
have from
(i)
cos h
=
whatever
may
day
be
is
Hence h
=
TT,
or the length of the
12 hours
all
the year round.
The meridian
zenith distance of
the sun will however
vary from day to day.
At
the vernal
78]
THE SUN'S APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION
245
equinox the sun's meridional zenith distance will be nearly equal to zero (it would be exactly zero if the sun crossed the meridian
As spring advances the meridian zenith distance will gradually increase until the solstice, when the sun culminates about 23 27' north of the zenith. At the autumnal
equinox the sun again passes nearly through the zenith at noon, and at the winter solstice it culminates 23 27' south of the
zenith.
of the place at the first point of Aries).
moment when
it
was passing through the
At places situated between the equator and either tropic the amount of heat received from the sun will, so far as it is
by the
sun's zenith distance at noon, reach a
affected
maximum
twice a year
of the place.
when the
sun's declination is equal to the latitude
four parts into which the great circle of the divided by the equinoxes and solstices are equal in ecliptic length, the times occupied by the sun in passing over them are not equal.
Though the
is
To
of
find the lengths of the seasons
73,
connecting the
mean and
(
we employ equation (3) true longitudes of the sun,
2
namely
L=

2e sin

r)
+ fe
sin 2
(0  57).
in this
For our present purpose we may neglect the third term expression, and write simply
L=
When
sent the

2e sin
(

w).
the sun
is
in
T we have 0=0, and
at that
putting
L
to repre
mean longitude
moment, we have
ST.
L = 2e sin
In like manner, putting
the
s
,
L lt L Zy L and L
summer
4
respectively to denote
mean
longitudes at the
winter
solstice,
solstice, autumnal equinox, and vernal equinox next succeeding, we find
LI
L.2
3
= =
^TT
TT
2e cos
iff,
2e sin
or,
L =
LI
TT + 2e COS IT,
2?r
1
=
2e sin
57.
The lengths
difference
of the seasons are found by multiplying the between each consecutive pair of the five mean longi
246
THE SUN'S APPARENT ANNUAL MOTION
Writing
[CH.
X
tudes by the factor 365'24/27r. for the northern hemisphere
No. of days in
K for this factor we have
+ cos BT)  cos vr)
I
= K^L,} = 91'310  2eK (sin Summer = K (L  L,) = 91310  2eK (sin Autumn = K(L  Z ) = 91310 + 2e^T (sin Winter =K(L  L ) = 91 '310 + 2eK (sin
Spring
2
r r
_
/^
3
2
4
9
+ w)  cos w)
cos
Taking the values of e and
r
as given in
73 we obtain
and
2eK sin OT = 2eK cos w = +
1*910 days,
0*379
:
from which we deduce the lengths of the four seasons as follows
Days
Hours
20'2
Spring contains
...
... ...
92 93
89
89
Summer Autumn
Winter
...
14*4
18'7
05.
...... ......
Thus we
see that the spring
and summer seasons together
last for
186 days 10'6 hrs., whereas the autumn and winter together contain only 178 days 19 '2 hrs. The reverse of this is the case
in the southern hemisphere, the summer half of the southern year lasting for 178 days 19'2 hrs., whereas the southern winter
lasts for
186 days 10'6
Assuming that
hrs.
or
Ex.
1.
time the lengths of the four seasons
91310 Ex.
2.
increases uniformly show that in the course of will have as their extreme limits
*/2
x 36524 x
e/tr.
If
P
than spring by
Q
be the number of days in the year and if summer is longer days and longer than autumn by R days, find the eccen
tricity of the orbit
and the longitude of
perigee.
EXERCISES ON CHAPTER
Ex.
ellipse
1.
X.
is
On
the assumption that the earth's orbit
solstitial lines
is
a nearly circular
and that the apsidal and
have the same longitude,
prove that the eccentricity
approximately equal to
where EI, Ez are the hourly variations in the equation of time at perigee and apogee, and o> is the obliquity of the ecliptic.
[Math. Trip.
I.
1900.]
78]
Ex.
2.
THE SUN'S APPAEENT ANNUAL MOTION
247
A
time
Jan.
it
indicated
clock at Cambridge keeps Greenwich meau time. Find what when the sun's preceding limb arrived on the meridian on
6,
1875, having given
Longitude of Cambridge of 's semidiameter passing meridian Equation of time
22 8 '75E.,
...
Time
l
m 10
'62,
6
2 88.
Ex. 3. Show that the columns in the Nautical Almanac which give the 'Variation of the sun's right ascension in one hour' and the 'Time of the semidiameter passing the meridian' increase and diminish together, the
former quantity being practically proportional to the square of the
latter.
I.]
[Math. Trip.
Ex.
4.
If the eccentricity of the earth's orbit be e
and
if
the line of
equinoxes be perpendicular to the axis major of the orbit, show that the number of days' difference in the time taken by the earth in moving from
T
to
and from
5.
to
T
is
465e very nearly.
is
Ex.
that
Show that the
greatest equation of the centre
2e + lle 3 /48
and
when
this is the case
CHAPTER XL
THE ABERKATION OF LIGHT.
PAGE
79.
80.
Introductory Relative Velocity
Application to Aberration Effects of Aberration on the coordinates of a celestial body. Different kinds of Aberration
248 249
81. 82. 83.
84.
249
251
253 254
257
85. 86. 87.
88.
Aberration in Right Ascension and Declination Aberration in Longitude and Latitude
.
.
.
The Geometry
of annual Aberration
.
.
.
.
.258
.
Effect of the Elliptic Motion of the Earth on Aberration Determination of the constant of Aberration
....
. . .
.
259
261
89. 90. 91.
Diurnal Aberration
Planetary Aberration Formulae of reduction from
Exercises on Chapter XI.
265
266
mean
.
to apparent places of Stars
. .
269 275
79.
Introductory.
have already learned that in consequence of atmospheric is generally a difference between the true place of a celestial body and the place which that body seems to occupy.
refraction there
We
have here to consider another derangement of the place of a body which is due to the fact that the velocity of light, though no doubt extremely great, is still not incomparably
celestial
We
velocity with which the observer is himself moving. Any apparent change in the place of a celestial body The true coarising from this cause is known as aberration. ordinates of a celestial body cannot therefore be ascertained
greater than
the
until certain corrections for aberration have been applied to the The apparent coordinates as indicated by direct observation f.
nature of these corrections
is
now
to
be investigated.
t That this must be the case was perceived by Koemer, when he discovered the gradual propagation of light in 1675. This appears in a letter he wrote to Huygens (Oeuvres completes de C. Huygens, T. vm. p. 53). Though a periodic change in
the place of the Pole Star, really due to aberration, was announced in 1680 by Picard, the credit of discovering the general phenomenon of aberration is due to
Bradley
"(1728),
who
also gave the correct explanation of
it.
7981]
80.
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
249
Relative velocity.
Let (Fig. 69) represent both in magnitude and direction Let GB, in like manner represent the the velocity of a body P. On account of his own movement an of a body Q. velocity
AB
A
B
FIG. 69.
O
observer on
that which
P
Q
will attribute to
Q
a
movement
different
from
actually possesses. the movement of Q relative to P.
We
have therefore to consider
Two points moving with equal velocities and in parallel directions have no relative motion, for their distance does not change,
nor does the direction of the line joining them. It follows that any equal and parallel velocities may be compounded with the
original velocities of
two
particles without affecting their relative
motion.
Observing the directions of the arrows in Fig. 71, it is plain from the triangle of velocities that the velocity CB may be But P has the resolved into the two velocities CA and AB, AB. If we take away the velocity AB from both P and velocity
Q we
leave
do not alter their relative motion, but this operation would P at rest, and show that CA is the relative velocity of Q.
is to be therefore learn that the velocity of Q relative to obtained by compounding the true velocity of Q with a velocity equal and opposite to that of P.
We
P
81.
Application to aberration.
observer
star will
From what we have just seen it follows that to an who is himself in motion, the apparent direction of a
be obtained by compounding the velocity of the rays of light from the star with a, velocity equal and opposite to that of the
observer.
250
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
[CH. XI
Thus, although the real direction of the star G is EG (Fig. 70), yet its apparent direction will be AC, if the observer moves uniformly along AB, with a velocity which bears to the velocity
AB/BC. The angle ACB is called the aberration denoted by e, while AC the apparent direction of the star makes with AB, the direction of the observer's motion, an angle CA which we shall denote by ty. The point on the celestial
of light the ratio
and
is
sphere towards which the observer's motion the apex.
is
directed
is
termed
be the velocity of the observer and = AB/BC, whence sin e = vpr 1 sin v//j, fundamental equation for aberration. Let
v
light,
/j,
the velocity of
then
fy,
which
is
the
The angle e is the inclination between the actual direction of the telescope when pointed by the moving observer to view the star, and the true direction in which the telescope would have
to be pointed if the observer small we may use its circular
have taken
star
fy
As e is always rest. measure instead of its sine. We to be the angle between the apparent place of the
had been at
and the apex. As, however, sinv/r is multiplied in the equation by v/fi, which is a small quantity, we may often without
sensible error in the
value
of
e
use, instead of ty, the angle
between the true place of the star and the apex.
Ex.
1.
Show
SS'
(Fig. 70), is K cos AS',
that the aberration of a star S, resolved in any direction where A is the apex, $' = 90, and K=v/p.
cos
K cos
A S' = sin A S cos
A S' = <
sin
ff,
AS cos 6.
90
C
But
K.
sin
AS
is
the aberration, and multiplied by cos 6
it
gives the
com
ponent in the direction SS'.
Ex.
,
2.
Let Si
,
S2
be the true places of two stars,
SiS2 and A the apex
SiSa by 2 sin
^S^
of the earth's way. cos OA.
Show
be the point bisecting that aberration diminishes
8182]
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
S^i'^SfSz' = 00' = 90.
251
On
Then
the great circle $1 S2 produced, take points Si'S^'O', so that
it
follows from Ex.
1
K (cos
ASi 3.
cos
AS2 = '2K sin O'Si
')
that the change in Si S2 owing to aberration is sin (/A cos 00' A =2c sin \S1 SZ cos OA.
Ex.
Show
that stars on the circumference of a great circle will be
apparently conveyed by aberration to the circumference of an adjacent small circle, and that the planes of the two circles are parallel. 82.
Effects of aberration
on the coordinates of a
celestial
body.
Let
p
be the velocity of light,
;
77,
the true coordinates of
the star on the celestial sphere we are to seek the apparent be coordinates of the star as affected by aberration. Let 779,
the coordinates of the apex towards which the observer is moving with a velocity v. Let t, t' be the moments at which a ray of light
coming from a star, supposed at rest, passes through first the objectglass and secondly the eyepiece of a telescope supposed to be in motion parallel to itself.
Let
x, y,
z be the rectangular coordinates of the centre of the
through eyepiece at the time t, referred to axes +X, + Y, + the earth's centre and towards the points whose spherical coAt the ordinates are (0, 0), (90, 0), (0, 90) respectively.
time
t'
Z
the coordinates of the eyepiece will therefore be
t)
I
x
+ v (t'
Let
cos
cos
770,
y
+v
(t'
t)
cos
sin
i.e.
77,,,
z
+ v (t'
t)
sin
.
be the length of the telescope,
the length of the line
from the centre of the eyepiece to the centre of the objectglass, the coordinates of the point on the celestial sphere to ') (77',
which
this line is directed or the
t
apparent direction of the
"
star.
Therefore at the time
x+
l
cos
f cos
1
77',
y
f
1
cos
sin
77',
z
+
'
I
sin
are the coordinates of the centre of the objectglass. In the time (t t) the ray of light has moved over the
distance from the objectglass at the time t to the eyepiece at the time t' this length is /u. (t' t}, and its components parallel
;
to the axes are
p(t'
cos
77
cos
,
/A (t'
t)
sin
77
cos
f,
77
(') sin
But these quantities when added to the corresponding coordinates of the centre of the eyepiece must give the coordinates
252
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
Hence
'
[CH. XI
of the centre of the objectglass.
if
we
write //
= l/(t'
i)
?/
t)
we
obtain the equations
4 /u,cos
f cos
sin
77 77
+
fj,
cos
sin
+n
sin
f
= + p! cos = + fjf cos = + sin
/u/
cos
sin
77'
v cos
"
cos
sin
...(1),
. .
"
'
77'
v cos
v sin
.(2),
...(3).
Multiply (2) by cos and we have 77',
fji
77'
and subtract
it
from (1) multiplied by
sin
it
cos
sin
sin
(77'

77)
=
v cos
(77'
r;
)
(4).
cos ^
fj,
(77 + Multiply (2) by and then divide by cos ^ (77 + 17')
V) an d a ^d
to (1) multiplied
77),
by
(77'
and we have
(77'
cos f
= /*' cos
"

y cos
cos
{770
'
(77
+ 77')}
sec
 77).
it
.
.(5).
Again, multiplying (3) by cos multiplied by sin ', we have
/z
and subtracting
from (5)
sin
(" 
)
= v sin  v cos
cos
"
sin ^' cos
(779
(77
+
77')}
sec ^(77'
 77).
.
.(6).
Equations (4) and (6) can be much simplified by taking advantage of the fact that v/fi is a very small quantity. This
shows that
77'
77
is
small,
by
77
in the righthand
member
I
and consequently we may replace 77' of (4), and thus obtain the effect
77
of aberration on the coordinate
77'
in the
form
sin(77 770)
(7).
77
=
V/JT COS f sec
77' 77, 77' with sufficient accuracy for most purposes. If a further approximation be required, as might, were nearly 90, we can introduce the for example, be the case if
We
thus find
and thence
approximate value of 77' found from this equation into the righthand side of (4), and thus obtain again sin (77' 77).
In like manner,
'
we can
find
"
from
(6).
is
The
obtained
first
approximation, quite sufficient in most cases, and 77' by and 77 in the righthand replacing
obtain
'
by
side.
We
. .
thus
= vpr
1
"
[sin
is
cos
cos
sin
cos
(770
77)]
.(8).
If further approximation
"
and
77',
obtained in (7) and
side
required, the approximate values of (8), may be introduced into the
righthand
sin sin
of
cos
(6).
If
(77,,
6 be
77),
+ cos
cos
the angle whose cosine is then v/i" 1 sin 6 is the distance
star.
that aberration has apparently
moved the
8283]
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
253
The formulae (7) and (8) are fundamental results for aberration whether the observer's motion be the annual movement of the earth round the sun or be of any other kind.
83.
The
different kinds of aberration.
The expressions we have given in 82 show in what way the the coordinates of the apex. If rj aberration depends on 77,,,
,
and
change, then in general, the effect of aberration on the apparent place of the star will also change. If rj and change periodically, then the effect of aberration on the coordinates of the
do not apparent place will also be periodic. If however TJ O and change, then the effects of such an aberration would be constant
each star. Aberration of this type would no doubt displace a star from the position in which it would be seen if there were no such aberration, but it would always displace the same star in
for
precisely the
disclose
for
same way. This being so, observation could not the amount or even the existence of the aberration,
star
what the coordinates of the aberration are unknown.
exist.
would be
if
unaffected by
Aberration of the class here referred
It
to,
does undoubtedly
whole.
must arise from the motion of the solar system as a So far as our present knowledge is concerned, the position
is
presumably constant, nor have we that the velocity is otherwise than any grounds supposing uniform, so far at least as the few centuries during which accurate
of the apex of this motion
for
observation has been possible are concerned. The amount of aberration of each star from this cause is therefore constant, and
its effect is
star's place.
not by us distinguishable in the coordinates of the Nor can we calculate the amount of this aberration,
know the velocity of the solar system, nor the of the apex with sufficient accuracy. All we can affirm position is that the right ascension and declination of each star as they
because we do not
appear to us, are different by unknown amounts from what they would be if this aberration were absent.
The aberrations which are of practical importance in Astronomy are those in which the motion of the observer is such that the
apex has a periodic motion on the
celestial
sphere.
There
is
thus a periodical alteration in the apparent position of any star, which is of the greatest significance and interest. The annual
254
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
its orbit is
is
[CH. XI
motion of the earth in
ments, and
earth
it
produces what
known
one of these periodic moveas annual aberration.
the
is
Another aberrational effect arises from on its axis, and this causes what
;
rotation
of
the
known
as
diurnal
of these the first is by far the more important, and whenever the word "aberration" is used without the prefix " diurnal," it is always the annual aberration which is to be
aberration
understood.
84.
Aberration in right ascension and declination.
82 shall now apply the general formulae (7) and (8) of to obtain the expressions for the aberration of a star in those particular coordinates which we term right ascension and declinaIf the point (0, 0) be T, if (90, 0) be that point on the celestial equator of which the R.A. is 90, and if (0, 90) be the
tion.
We
north celestial pole, then
declination
a! 8,
77
is
the right ascension
a,
and
is
the
and we have
1
8'
= VfjT 8 = Vfj,~
o
cos S sec 8 sin(a
(sin 8 cos 8
a)
a)}
(1), (2),
1
cos 8 sin 8 cos (a
from which we obtain the
declination respectively.
effect of aberration
on the
R.A.
and
We assume for the present that the orbit of the earth is a circle. In other words, we take the velocity of the earth as constant and
equal to the
v/p, is
mean velocity in the actual elliptic orbit. The ratio called the constant of aberration and is denoted by K as
Let
be the longitude of the sun; then, since the earth
before.
is moving in the direction of the tangent to the orbit and longitudes increase in the direction of the sun's apparent motion, it follows
that
zero.
90
is
the longitude of the apex, while
its
latitude
is
To illustrate this, suppose the time to be noon at the summer solstice. As the apparent annual motion carries the
sun among the stars from west to east, the true motion of the earth to which this apparent solar motion is due must be from east to west. At noon in the summer solstice T is in the westerly This is the apex, and its longitude is zero, point of the horizon.
while the longitude of the sun is 90. Let T (Fig. 71) be the first point of Aries,
sun.
Then T/Sf =
and
TA =
 90.
the apex and S the Let fall a perpendicular
A
i
8384]
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
255
.
AP
on the equator VP. Then AP rightangled triangle 1\AP, we have
sin S
= S and VP =
sin
,
From
the
cos S cos a
cos S sin
o
= = =
cos
sin
a),
cos
cos
&>.
Making these
substitutions in (1),
we
see that if a
and 8 be
the true R.A. and decl. of a star, K the constant of aberration
and the longitude of the sun, then the apparent R.A. and declination as affected by aberration are respectively
a
K sec & (sin a sin
o cos
+
cos a cos
o
cos
) ca
(3),
SK (cos 8 sin
Ex.
1.
+ sinS cosa sin
sin S sin a cos
cos
).
..(4).
of the star equals that of the sun
If the aberration of a star in R.A. is stationary, prove that the R.A. and that if a be the R.A. of the apex, ;
tan a tan a
+ cos 2 a> =0,
where
a>
is
If the
the obliquity of the ecliptic. aberration in R.A. is stationary then by equating to zero the
differential coefficient of (3)
we have
sin a cos
= cos a cos a> sin
,
whence sun no
apex,
cos w, which shows that a must be the R.A. of the less than of the star. In general the R.A. and declination of the
a
tan a = tan
i.e.
and
8
,
are respectively
cos cos ), sin" 1 (cos stationary tan a tan a becomes
o>),
tan" 1 (cot
and when the aberration
in R.A. is
tan
cos
o>
cot
cos
u>
=
cos 2 w.
We
have also in the same case
sin S
cos 8 cos ao cos 8 sin a =
= =
cos a cos
&>
sin a>fj (sin 2 a + cos 2 a cos 2 sin a />/ (sin 2 a + cos 2 a cos 2
<o), a>),
 cos a cos 2 a>/V (sin 2 a + cos 2 a cos 2 a>),
a) cos a
whence we
easily verify that
sin 8 cos 8 tan (a
tan
CD
= 1.
256
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
[CH. XI
be the longiEx. 2. If a, 8 be the R.A. and declination of a star and if tude of the sun and to the obliquity of the ecliptic, show that when the star's aberration in declination has its greatest value,
tan
(sin
cos 8
cos
o>
sin 8 sin a)
= sin 8 cos a.
81, Ex. 1, the aberration in declination of S (Fig. 71) is K cos AS', be the apex and SS' ( = 90) passes through the pole P. If AS' is a minimum it must be the perpendicular from AS" to the ecliptic at A and must therefore contain K, the pole of the ecliptic, whence the result follows
By
if
A
from the triangle S'KP.
Ex.
3.
Prove that when the aberration in declination attains
its
greatest
numerical value for the year the arcs on the celestial sphere joining the star to the sun and to the pole of the equator are at right angles.
Ex. 4. Prove that for a given position of the sun the aberration in right ascension of a star on the equator will be least when
tan a = tan
a being the right ascension of the star, obliquity of the ecliptic.
sec
<o,
the sun's longitude, and
o>
the
Ex.
5.
Prove that
all stars,
whose aberration in
R.A. is
a
maximum
at
the same time that the aberration in declination vanishes, lie either on a cone of the second order whose circular sections are parallel to the ecliptic
and equator, or on the
solstitial colure.
[Math. Trip.]
As the
whence
aberration in declination
is zero,
we have
=tan<o sinoo,
tan 8 cos (00
tan OQ = tan 8 cos a/(tan
tan S
o>
a)
= tan 8
 tan 8 sin a),
2 tan
= tan o> tan 8 cos a/(tan 2 + tan 2 8
in R.A. is a
tan 8 sin a)i
.
But as the aberration
maximum, we have
a) cos ao
(Ex. 1)
sin 8 cos 8 tan (oo
tan
o>
=1
,
and eliminating 2 (tan w
a
,
8
and reducing, we obtain
<a
2 tan
tan 8 sin o + tan 2 8) ( 1
+ tan <a tan 8 sin a) = 0.
a tan w.
It is impossible for the first factor to
vanish unless
sina= + l, and tan 8= sin
Thus there
dition.
are two points on the solstitial colure which satisfy the confactor
If
we transform the second
z
by making
we
obtain
sin a; 2 = rsinS; = 0, which may be written thus: x^+y +yzia,na> xz +y + z z(zy tan&>)=0,
#=rcos8cosa;
i
y = rcos8
i
which
is
the equation of a cone whose circular sections are parallel to
z=Q and zy
i.e.
tan
= 0,
the equator and the ecliptic.
8485]
Ex.
star
6.
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
Show
257
that the effect of annual aberration on any coordinate of a
may
be expressed in the form
a cos
where
is
(
+.4),
the longitude of the sun and a, position of the star.
A
constants depending upon the
Aberration in longitude and latitude. To apply the formula of 82 to this case we must make = = 0. Then A. and ft, the longitude and lati90 and 770 tude, replace 77 and respectively, and thus we find that aberration
85.
increases the longitude of the star
by
K sec
ft
cos
(0
by
(
X),
and increases the latitude of the
K sin
It will
ft
star
sin
X).
it is
be remembered that in these expressions
is circular.
assumed
that the earth's orbit
Ex.
latitude
1.
ft
The angular
is 6,
distance between two stars which have the
their longitudes is
<
same
incre
and the mean of
is
;
show that the
ment
where
If
stars,
of 6
due to aberration
2<c
tan
sin
(<
)
(cos
2
/3
 sin 2
6)%
,
is
the sun's longitude.
[Math. Trip. I.] be the latitude of the point bisecting the arc between the two and then the increment of 6 ( 81, Ex. 2) is 2 sin \6 cos sin (< ),
/3'
'
eliminate
/3
by help of
sinj3=sm$'cos0.
/3,
Ex.
2.
Show
that the distance between two stars at
if
X and
satisfies
,
X
respectively is not altered by aberration
the sun's longitude
(
the
equation
cossin(
Ex.
given,
3.
X)f cos/3 sin
X
)=0.
The apparent longitude and latitude, X' and $', of a star being show that, when the earth's orbit is taken as circular, the terms in
<
the aberrations in latitude and longitude depending on the square of
2 I K sin 1"
are
tan /3' cos 2
(
 X'),
stars
and
where
is
^
K2
sinl"tan 2 j3'sin2(X');
the true longitude of the sun.
?
To what
would these corI.]
rections be applied
[Math. Trip.
Ex.
4.
be the direction cosines of a star referred to rectangular axes, (I, m, n) direction cosines of the point towards which the earth is travelling, show that the direction cosines of the star's apparent place as affected by aberration are X + K (I xcosd), and two similar exIf (x, y,
z]
pressions
B. A.
when
K.
is
the quantity v[p
(p.
250) and cos6 = lx+my + nz.
17
258
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
[CH. XI
,
If on a great circle three points lt R%, 3 be set off at distances p l5 p 2 Pa on the circle, and if x 1 y\, z\; X<L, y2 z2 ^3 y%, z3 respectively from an origin be the direction cosines of RI, 2 RS respectively from the centre of the
, ,
; ,
R
,
R
R
sphere, then
xl sin
(p 2
 ps) + #2 sin (PS
+#2
Pi)
yi sin (pa p s ) z l sin (p 2  p 3 )
+ z2
sin ( P3  Pl ) sin (p 3  Pl )
+ #3 sm (PI  pz) = +y3 sin Pl  p 2 =0, + z3 sin Pl  p 2 = 0.
( )
( )
j
To apply
this to the present case,
we make
pi=
d
;
p2
p3
= Ksin$;
p3
PI
pz
=6
K
sin^.
86.
We
The geometry of annual aberration. now investigate the shape of the small closed curve which
the star appears to describe on the celestial sphere in consequence
of annual aberration.
Let
star,
be the perpendicular from S, the true place of the to the ecliptic AT, where A is the apex (Fig. 72), and
ST
FIG. 72.
= 90. produce T to T' so that Let S' be the point to which the star
tion,
ST
is
then since SS'
is
small
we may regard
displaced by aberrathe locus of S' as a
plane curve. If #, y be the rectangular coordinates of S' as indicated in the figure, we have ( 81) A.) sin /3, y = K cos AT' = K sin (
and
x
= K sin SA
a?
sin
2
AST = K cos (0
/3
X),
whence
+y
cosec 2
=
2
/c
.
8587]
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
259
thus obtain the following results with regard to the effect of annual aberration on the apparent position of a star.
star describes
We
In consequence of annual aberration the apparent place of each an ellipse, known as the ellipse of aberration, in the
course of ayearand the centre of the ellipse is the true place of the star.
The axis minor of the ellipse is perpendicular to the ecliptic. The semiaxis major of the ellipse is the constant of aberration and is therefore the same for all stars.
For a star on the ecliptic the ellipse becomes a straight line. For a star at the pole of the ecliptic the ellipse becomes a circle, and in general the semiaxis minor of the ellipse is the product of the sine of the star's latitude and the constant of aberration.
Ex. 1. Assuming that the sun's motion is uniform, show that at four consecutive epochs at intervals of three months, the apparent place of the star will occupy successively the four extremities of a pair of conjugate diameters of the ellipse of aberration.
Ex. 2. Let X be the longitude of a star and ft its latitude, show geometrically that the effect of aberration will be to displace the star by a distance which is the square root of
Ex. 3. Show that the ellipse of aberration is the orthogonal projection of a circle in the plane of the ecliptic on the tangent plane touching the celestial sphere in the true place of the star.
Ex. 4. Show that the effect of annual aberration upon the apparent places of the fixed stars would be produced if each star actually revolved in a small circular orbit parallel to the plane of the ecliptic and if the earth were at rest.
*87.
Effect of the elliptic
motion of the earth on aberration.
We
have now to consider the influence of the eccentricity of
the earth's orbit on the annual aberration.
Let be as usual the sun's geocentric longitude, then 180 + the earth's heliocentric longitude, ts the longitude of perihelion and 6 the true anomaly, so that + 180 = isr + #. The earth's
is
radius vector
is
(
r and
84),
if v,
8
,
or
have the significations already
given to
them
we must have
ct
v cos 8 cos
= =
=
v
(r cos
),
v cos S sin
ct
7 (r sin
cos
&>),
(i)
v sin 8 V
j
(r sin
sin
).
172
260
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
first
[CH. XI
The
pressions The third equation is obtained from identifying expressions for the velocity of the earth parallel to the earth's polar axis, and the second equation is obtained in like manner from the axis
of these equations is obtained by identifying two ext T. for the velocity of the earth parallel to the line
perpendicular to those already mentioned. To make use of equations (i) we must obtain from the elliptic motion the values of dr/dt and of rdQ/dt = rd0/dt. Kepler's
second law shows that rdO/dt polar equation of the ellipse,
obtain
oc
viz.
1/r ( r
50),
and hence from the
e?)/(l
a(l
+ ecosO), we
where
C
is
a constant; by substituting this in the logarithmic
differential of the polar equation of the ellipse,
we
find
dr/dt
=
Ce sin
B.
Expanding
(i)
and making these substitutions
v cos B cos a
v cos BQ sin
=
G
{
e sin
6 cos
+ sin
cos
(1
+ e cos B)},
= C cos fa
{e
{
sin 6 sin sin
v sin BO
= C sin &>
v cos S cos a
e sin
cos
(1 + e cos 6}}, (1 + e cos #)},
whence, remembering that 180
+
= 6 + or, we
e sin TV),
obtain
= C (sin
v cos S sin v sin BQ
= G cos o> (cos = C sin o> ( cos
+ e cos + e cos
making
Substituting in equations (i) and (ii) ( 84), and = re, which is called the cortstant of aberration, GJ/J,
a!
a
=
+
&>
tc
sec B
(
sin a sin
cos a cos
cos
r
to)
ice
sec B (sin a sin OT
+
cos a cos
to
cos
<o),
B'
B=
K (cos
sin a sin B cos
sin
cos 8 cos cos a sin B sin
)
+ tee (+ sin a) cos CT cos B + sin is cos a sin B
cos
w cos TO sin
a sin
8).
only about 1/60 it is plain that the eccentricity of the earth's orbit has but a very small effect on the aberration. The
e is
As
peculiar character of that effect is however worthy of notice. The terms in a! a. and B' B which contain e do not contain
.
Consequently these terms do not change during the course of the
8788]
year,
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
261
it is only after the lapse of many centuries that in such terms would be large enough to be appreciany change The effect therefore of these terms is to produce changes able.
and indeed
in
the
R.A.
and S of each
star
character from the annual effect
aberration.
which are quite different in which is the chief result of
We
might allow
for these
by means of the values
but since they are constant for many centuries it just is more convenient to include this part of the aberration in the
found,
adopted
of stars
R.A.
and declination.
therefore
to
are
The catalogued mean coordinates a very minute extent distorted in
orbit.
is in
consequence of the eccentricity of the earth's
Ex.
1.
and aphelion are
The apparent positions of a star when the earth P and Q respectively show that the true
;
perihelion position of the
e is
star is at a point
R
in
PQ, such that
Prove that is conjugate to the diameter eccentricity of the earth's orbit. of the ellipse formed by drawing a great circle through its centre and the
apses of the earth's orbit.
PR RQ PQ
:
:
:
\+e
:
1
e, where
the
[Math. Trip.
Ex.
2.
I.]
Prove that in the case of a star the result of replacing the usual assumption of the earth's orbit being a circle with the mean radius by that of the elliptic form is equivalent to (1) modifying the constant in the displacement towards the point ninety degrees behind the sun in the ecliptic,
and (2) regarding as included in the star's mean position a constant aberrational displacement to a point on the ecliptic in the direction at right angles to the apse line of the orbit.
[Math. Trip. L]
Ex.
T
3.
27ra//i7 (l
Show that the constant of aberration (?//* (see p. e 2 )*sm 1", where a, T e are the mean distance, the
7
,
260)
is
time, and the eccentricity of the earth's orbit, and
/*
periodic the velocity of light.
known theorem in elliptic motion the velocity of the By observer P relative to the sun S is compounded of a velocity C perpendicular to SP, and a velocity eC perpendicular to the axis major when C is the conEx.
4.
a well
stant on p. 260.
Deduce from
this the equations
(ii).
88.
Determination of the constant of aberration.
investigation of the constant of aberration is now most frequently based on the observation of zenith distances of stars
The
specially selected to
meet the requirements
of the problem.
These
observations are preferably made with an instrument known as a zenith telescope. We shall take a simple case in which only two
stars are employed.
Let
S and
l
S.2
be two stars which culminate as nearly as
262
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
[CH. XI
possible at the zenith, one a little north and the other a little south of the zenith. The stars are to be chosen so that their
hours. right ascensions differ by about of zenith distance of both stars are to be
12
The first observations made on a day when S
1
upper culmination at 6 A.M., and $2 will on the same day have its upper culmination at 6 P.M. These are to be combined
has
its
months later, when Si culminates at These conditions can hardly be exactly 2 realized, but they indicate the most perfect scheme for an accurate The reasons for these result when only two stars are used.
with observations
six
made
6 P.M. and
$
at 6 A.M.
requirements will presently be made clear. Let !, 8j be the mean values of the right ascension and declination of Si for the beginning of the year taken from some
standard catalogue. Even the most excellent determinations of star places must be presumed to be in some degree erroneous. No doubt the errors of the coordinates are very small, and for
most purposes they may be quite overlooked.
errors
But such minute
unavoidable in the declinations adopted for the stars would be quite large enough to vitiate a determination of
as
are
the coefficient of aberration which depended on the declination. In the present method the observations are so combined that the
declinations
disappear from
the result and consequently their
that a value of the constant of
errors are void of effect.
We
shall
is
assume
for
the
moment
approximately known. the constant to be 20"'5 + KI, where
aberration
of a second.
We
KI is
may,
for
example, take
fraction
some very small
investigation.
The determination of KI is then the object of the By this device we secure the convenience that the
is
quantity sought
very small in comparison
with the
total
amount
efficients
of aberration,
and consequently
in
by which KI is to be multiplied we approximate methods that would not be valid
one.
computing the coare permitted to use
if
these coefficients
were to be multiplied by any quantity other than a very small
first operation is to deduce the apparent places of Sl and the days of observation. We must by the known processes the precession and nutation. We must further calculate compute
The
$
2
for
the aberration, using the approximate value 20"' 5 for the coefficient. The correction thus obtained for the declination of Si
88]
THE ABERKATION OF LIGHT
first
203
on the
correction except in so far as the constant of aberration.
day of observation we denote by pi. It is a complete we have used an incorrect value of We must therefore increase p l by A I KI
,
where
A
1
Thus we
the coefficient of V/JT I as given in equation see that the apparent declination of Si on the
is is
(1),
first
84.
day
of observation
Si+p + A
1
1
tc 1
.
We
assume, however, as above
explained, that there may be an unknown error in 8^. Let Zi be the observed zenith distance, which we shall suppose cleared from refraction (Chap. vi.). Then since the latitude <j>
is
the
sum
of the zenith distance (in this case supposed to be
south) and the declination,
4>
1
we have
81
=z +
+p
1
+AiKi ..................... (1).
the same day, about 12 hours later, we observe the second and as in that time the latitude will not have changed star, appreciably, we have also,
(f>
On
= z + 8. + p + A^K
2
2
2
1
..................... (2),
v\
relates to the second star.
to
here by the changes in the suffices we indicate that this formula Six months later, the observations are
be repeated on the same
stars,
and we must then suppose the
latitude has changed to <', which generally differs from <j) on account of certain minute periodic alterations (61). The zenith
distances are different at the second epoch of observation, and so are also^, p2 A lt but 81 and S2 being the mean values of the 2
,
A
,
declinations at the beginning of the year are the
same
at both
epochs. Using accented letters to distinguish the quantities to the second epoch, we thus have relating
Ai' Ki
.................. (3),
.................. (4),
A
from
zi
/
a
K1
(1), (2), (3), (4)
'
we
easily obtain the following equation for KI
4 2
z*
Zi
+ z +Pi Pipi+p* + (Ai
2
AS + A
2')
!
= 0,
and therefore the aberration
is
20"'5
+
/e 1
,
where
The numerator and denominator
hence K
I
are both
known
quantities,
and
is
found.
264
If in the
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
'
,
[CH. XI
made
for
computation of p li p2 p^, p2 no allowance had been aberration the formula just given would have afforded
an approximate value of the aberration, and the approximate value we have used, 20" '5, may be regarded as having been thus
obtained.
are to notice that 8 X and S2 have both disappeared. If therefore these quantities had been affected by small errors as, of course, will generally be the case, those errors will not have
We
imparted any inaccuracy to /c lf except in so far as A l} p lt &c. and <' have also both depend on the adopted values of 8. As disappeared, any uncertainty as to the latitude at either the first epoch or the last will also have very little influence.
</>
It is by the observed quantities z lt zz z^, z% that errors of observation are introduced into the expression for KL. How far these errors will influence the value of KI depends upon the
,
denominator
A
1
A
z
AI
+A
2 '.
The
larger this denominator
the larger will be the quantity by which the errors will be divided, and consequently the smaller will be the influence of
the errors of observation on the result.
The observations
are
therefore to be arranged so as to make this denominator as great as circumstances will permit. To determine the most suitable
arrangement we may use approximate values though of course the true values must be used mination Of /Cj.
for
A A
ly
2
,
AI,
A
2 ',
in the actual deter
we may for our present that their decimations are equal to the latitude <, object suppose
stars culminate near the zenith
As the
and thus we have
l
(
84)
cos cos
sin
<f>
A = sin B
cos 8 sin cos 8 sin
(cos (02
<
<
cos (aj cos
(ctj
a
),
A
l
A = sin S A = cos B
z
2
<
<j>
<*o);
<
a
)
cos (KJ
<&,)
)}
= 2 cos S
In like manner
sin
sin
^
(a t
sin \
(i
+
2
22
).
AI
where a
',
A =
'
2
2 cos S
'
sin <' sin 
(^
a.2 )
sin \
(^
+a
2
2a/),
B
'
is
the position of the apex at the time of the second
'
observation.
As the apex is on the ecliptic, cos 8 and cos 8 have as extreme limits TOO and 0'92. We shall therefore take with sufficient
8889]
accuracy cos 8
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
265
= cos 8 = 0*96.
'
It is
add that we may
for this
f
purpose take
perhaps hardly necessary to = <J>', and thus we have
<f>
(A
1
A )(A 'A
2
1
(f>
2
)
4 cos B sin
sin  (ax
02) sin

(<,'
)
cos
(!
+
2
a
o')
To make
this numerically as large as possible,
we
first
put
sin^(a
1
o ) =
2
l,
whence a
l
a2
=180,
or the
two
stars should differ
by 12 hours
(a/
a
fl
between the two sets of observations have moved 180 in right ascension and therefore 180 in longitude. This requires that the interval between the two sets of observations should be six months. The factor a ') will have unity as its greatest value, + oc 2 cos^( in which case sin (: + a 2 o a/) will be zero or
1
in right ascension. Similarly to as large as possible the sun must,
make
the factor sin
)
sin
{(<*!
as)
+ (o 
o')
+ 2 (2 
)}
=
0.
Expanding
see that
this
and noting the conditions already obtained we
= 0. This condition will be satisfied if ) (<Zj which requires that the two stars shall lie on the hour o> circle through the two antipodal positions of the apex. It follows that the conditions will be most favourable when one of the stars culminates about 6 A.M. and the other about 6 P.M. respectively.
sin 2
a2
=
In the application of this as well as in other methods of determining this important constant there are many difficulties
and the
results hitherto obtained are therefore
somewhat
less
accordant than the present state of astronomical work of precision would lead us to desire, so that the exact value cannot be given within a few hundredths of a second of arc, but it must be very
close to 20"'47,
which
is
the final result of the best determinations
made up
*89.
to the present.
Diurnal aberration.
have now to consider the particular kind of aberration produced by that movement of the observer which arises from the
diurnal rotation of the earth.
We
This aberration
is
described as
diurnal, to distinguish it from the far more important phenomenon of annual aberration with which we have been hitherto
occupied.
266
THE ABEREATION OF LIGHT
[CH. XI
At the
latitude
(f>
the velocity of the observer arising from
the earth's rotation
is
463 cos
<
metres per second, and as the
velocity of light is about 300,000 kilometres per second that the coefficient of diurnal aberration is
we
see
463 cosec I" cos </>/300000000
= 0"'32
cos <.
This coefficient is so small that diurnal aberration may always be neglected except when great refinement is required. The diurnal rotation carries the observer towards the east
a = 90 + h, where h Hence 8 0, and a point of the horizon. the west hour angle of the star. Making these substitutions in 84, we find that the R.A. and declination of the star when
is
affected
by diurnal aberration become
a.
8
+ +
0"'32 cos 0"'32 cos
<f>
cos h sec
sin
8,
8.
<
h
sin
When a star is on the meridian, h = and the effect of diurnal aberration in declination vanishes, while the transit is delayed
by the amount h =180, and the
8
'021 cos<
sec
8.
For lower meridian transits
transit is accelerated
by
s
'021 cos
$
sec
8.
To
of a
find the effect of diurnal aberration
on the zenith distance
star
which
is
not on the meridian, we differentiate the
sin 8
equation
cos z
= sin
<f>
+ cos
<
cos 8 cos h,
<
and substitute for dh and d8 the values 0"'32 cos and + 0"'32 cos sin h sin 8 respectively, and obtain
</>
cos
/z,
sec 8
dz
Ex.
=
0"'32 cos
<f>
cos 8 sin h cot
z.
will,
1. Show that to an observer in latitude <f>, a star of declination 8 owing to diurnal aberration, appear to move in an ellipse whose semiaxes are m cos <f) and m cos sin 8, where ra is the ratio of the circumference
<
of the earth to the distance described
by
light in a day,
and the
angles,
are in circular measure.
[Coll.
Exam.]
Ex.
2.
Show
that the effect of diurnal aberration on the observed zenith
distance z of a star may be allowed for by subtracting t cos z seconds from the time of observation, where t is the time in seconds that light would take to travel a distance equal to the earth's radius.
[Math. Trip.
I.]
*90.
Planetary aberration.
Up to the present we have assumed that the star whose aberration was under consideration was itself at rest. But if
8990]
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
267
the star be in motion, it is obvious that the formulae already given must receive some modification. The general principle on which planetary aberration depends may be best illustrated by
be the coordinates of a planet at the time t the 2/o> of which has as its components x y ZQ Let ac, y, z be velocity the coordinates of the earth at the time t and x, y, z its com>
assuming Let #
for
the
ZQ
moment
the corpuscular theory of
light.
,
,
,
.
ponent velocities. We shall suppose that these components remain unaltered during the time the light travels from the planet to the earth, in other words we overlook for this brief period the curvatures of the orbits
Let X, Y,
at the time
Z
t
and the changes of velocity of both bodies. be the component velocities of a ray of light which left the point x yQ z regarded as a fixed point.
, ,
,
As the ray
will start
of light regarded as a projectile from the planet
Z+
z<,
it
with a velocity which has components + x Y+ y will in the time T have reached the position with co,
,
X
ordinates
and
if this fall
on the earth we must have
X
y
Za
+ (X + X ) T = X + XT, + (Y + y)r = y + yT, + (Z + Z ) T = Z + ZT.
Q
These equations may be written in the form
ac
+ XT = x +
(x
x
) T,
7/0
Z
+ FT = y + (y  y ) T, + ZT = z + (z  z ) T.
This proves that planetary aberration may be calculated by compounding with the actual velocity of the earth a velocity
equal and opposite to that of the planets, and then regarding the
planet as at rest. The formulae here arrived at by the corpuscular theory of light have been shown to be equally true when the undulatory
theory of light
is
adopted.
It will be sufficient to take the case of the earth
and a planet,
which are assumed to move uniformly in circular orbits in the
same
plane.
268 Let
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
[CH. XI
S (Fig.
73) be the sun,
T the
earth moving in the direction
TT', perpendicular to
8T, with a velocity
and with a velocity moving vVr/Vr', where r and r' denote ST and SV. The elongation of the planet from the siin, as seen from the earth, is Z STV, and that of the earth from the sun as seen from the planet is /.SVT. We shall denote these elongations by E and P.
in the direction of the tangent
W
v.
The planet
V
is
FIG. 73.
If
we
parallel to
write for brevity v Vr/'vV = v' then the components of v' TT' and TS are  v' cos (E + P) and +v'sin(E + P)
To obtain the planetary aberration we are to compound these velocities when their signs have been changed
respectively.
with
[v
the
velocity
of
+ v'coa(E+P)}
towards S.
from
the earth, which then has components and v'sm(E+P) from T towards
T
be the positive directions of axes x and = 90 E', then by making f = 0, f = 0, & = 0, rj = 90 if y v cos 770 = v + v' cos (E + P), v sin vj = v' sin (E + P) we have from
If TT',
T
TS
E
t
equations (1) and (2) in
yu,
82
fjt
sin
E=
sin
E'
"
v
v cos sin
p
small
cos
E=fi'
//,'
cos
+v
(E + P), + P), (#
whence by eliminating
fj,
and remembering that E'
E
is
very
sin (E'
E) =
v cos
E+
v'
cos P.
9091]
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
be a planet of the system at the distance r
v
,
269
then we
Let
have
v
= v Vr /vV,
v'
= v vV /vV.
for
With
this
substitution
we have
the planetary aberration
(E'E)
E'E = ^ Vr~(cos E/\/r + cos P/VP).
A1
When
we obtain the place of the planet left it. But this will not be the
the time the observation
is
the correction for planetary aberration has been applied, as it was when the ray of light
made.
actual place of the planet at It will be the place of the
s plauet at an epoch earlier by 498 '5 x A, where A is the distance of the planet from the earth expressed in terms of the sun's mean s distance, because 498 "5 is the time occupied by light in moving
through a distance equal to the mean distance of the sun.
Ex. 1. The orbits of two planets are circular and in the same plane; prove that when there is no aberration in the position of either of them as seen from the other, the distance from the sun of the line joining them is
ab(a
2
+ ab + bz )~?',
2.
where a and
b are the radii of their orbits.
[Math. Trip.]
Ex.
that
Two
when
show planets move in coplanar circular orbits of radii 21, r the difference of their longitudes is 0, the aberration is propor;
tional to
^2Rr cos 6 + r2 *Rr(Rr
)
Ex. 3. If two planets move in circles round the sun, show that the aberration of one as seen from the other will be less in conjunction than in opposition in the ratio
JRJr
R
and r being the
radii of the
two
orbits.
[Math. Trip.]
*91.
Formulae of reduction from mean
the
to apparent places
of stars.
By
of the
mean place
as
it
of a star
we
are to understand the position
if it
star
would appear
is
could be viewed by an
observer
who was
in the centre of the sun
apparent place of the star
and at rest. The the position which it seems to
270
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
[CH. XI
occupy to a terrestrial observer, and it differs from the mean in place both by refraction which we have already considered and which need not be now referred to, and by aberChap, vi.,
the mean place the equator and decl., expressed by equinox adopted are those of the beginning of the year, or more is exactly strictly, of the moment when the sun's mean longitude
ration which
to consider.
its R.A.
we are now
When
of a star
is
and
280,
as explained in
59.
have already explained in 59 the compendious methods by which we can calculate the changes in the coordinates of a star We are now to explain the caused by precession and nutation.
We
more complete process in which the effects of aberration as well as those of precession, nutation and proper motion on the coordinates of any particular star can be readily computed, so that
the apparent place can be obtained when the mean place is known. The necessary formulae are given in the ephemeris for
each year, for 1910.
see,
for
We
example, p. 233 in the Nautical Almanac shall here set down the formulae for what are
known
which,
follows
as Bessel's
day numbers A, B,
the
retaining only
:
C, D, the expressions for terms of chief importance, are as
A =  20" 47 cos cos B =20" '47 sin,
ft>
,
\
C =twhere
0342 sin
Q S3
0'025 sin 2L,
D =  9" 210 cos
o>

0"551 cos 2L,
)
is the obliquity of the ecliptic, the sun's true longithe sun's mean longitude, 8 the longitude of the moon's ascending node, each for the time t, which may be expressed
tude,
L
with sufficient accuracy for our present purpose as the fraction the year which has elapsed since noon of the preceding do not involve the star January 1st. The quantities A, B, C, are common to all stars and depend only on the coordinates, they
of
D
time. The logarithms of A, B, C, are given daily throughout the year in the ephemeris, and in forming them all the terms, including those which on account of their smallness we have
D
here omitted, are duly attended to. To apply the day numbers to finding the corrections for any particular star we have to calculate certain other quantities a, b, c, d, a', b', c', d' which depend
91]
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
star,
271
on the place of the
are as follows
:
but do not depend on the time.
a'
b'
They
a=
b
c
^ C os
8
sec
B,
B,
= tan &> cos B
cos a sin
B,
sin
a.
sin
B,
= TV sin
=3
073
a sec
\./~\
+ P336
B,
sin a tan
B,
c'
d = ^5
where
cos a tan
a,
= 20" "046 cos a, sin a, d' =
mean right ascension and declination for the of the year. beginning also take account of the proper motion of the star if it
B are the
We
be sufficiently large to be appreciable by assuming
Ac
Ac'
Then
for
annual proper motion in right ascension, annual proper motion in declination. the time represented by t, we have
R.A. in
= the = the
Apparent
time
Apparent declination
= a + Aa +Bb +Cc + Dd + 1 Ac = B + Aa' + Bb' + Cc' + Dd' + 1 Ac'.J
,]
..(iii)
The convenience
for the quantities log a, log
of these formulae will be readily perceived, a', &c., log b, log b', &c. can be calcu
cated once for all for any given star, and then for any particular day on which the reductions are required, log A, log 5, &c. can be
taken from the ephemeris.
of equations (iii) follows from formulae which have been given. The aberration in right ascension which has already been found in 84, is precisely what we have here represented by
The proof
manner the effect of precession and nutation which we have here expressed as Cc + Dd. The second formula of (iii) can be explained in like manner. For some purposes formulae (iii) may with much advantage be superseded by others. The transformation is effected by introand
in like
Aa + Bb,
in R.A. is that
ducing the independent day numbers/, logg, G, log h, H, \ogi, of which we have already discussed the use in 59 so far as/, g, G
are concerned.
For convenience we here collect all the formulae how the independent day numbers are connected with showing
Bessel's
day numbers by the equations
3 s 073(7
=/
A = h sin H,
A
tan
[
20 s 046(7 = gcosG,
(iv).
D = g sin
G,
w = i.
272
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
substitutions
R.A. in
[CH.
XI
With these
Apparent
we have
time
Apparent declination
= +/+ Ac + ^ g sin (G + a) tan 8 + j^h sin (H + a) sec 8 ...(v), = 8 + i cos 8 + 1 Ac' + g cos (G + a) + h cos (H + a) sin 8. .(vi).
.
The independent day numbers i, h, which are connected with the aberration can be directly calculated from the following
formulae
:
H
hcosH =  20'H7 sin
in
;
h sin
H =  20"'47 cos
i
<a
cos
o>
;
=
20"'47 sin
cos
;
It is easily seen that (180 to be a positive quantity. H) tan" 1 (i/h) are respectively the R A. and the decl. of the apex.
Ex.
1.
which we may without restriction of generality always take h, and
Show
pressed in seconds of arc
{i
that the displacement of a star by aberration is the square root of the quantity
when
ex
cosd+h cos (H + a) sin
mean
R.A. of Capella
2
8}
+ {h sin (H+ a)} 2
.
on 1910 Jan. 1st be 5 h 10m 2<"31 and show that for its apparent place on 1910 Nov. 27, the R.A. should be increased by 4" '68 and the declination by = 335 32', 7" '7, it being given that on Nov. 27, /= 1'95, log# = 1'145, ZT=23 16', logi=+0'539, and that the annual proper motion logA=l'305, is +0 e< 009 in R.A. and  0"'4 in declination.
Ex.
2.
If the
its
mean
declination be
+45
54' 26" "5,
*Ex.
a, 8,
JET,
3.
If
D
and an adjacent
be the apparent distance on a certain day between a star star at the apparent position angle j, and if /, g, <?, A,
i be the corresponding independent day numbers for correcting the apparent places of stars for aberration, precession and nutation, show that the distance between the mean places of the two stars on the preceding
Jan. 1st was
D + D (t'sin 8
p g sin
kcos(H+a)
h
cos 8} sinl",
and the position angle was
(G + a) sec 8
sin
(ff+ a) tan
8.
a date n years earlier than the Jan. 1st To the observation, show that a further correction of immediately preceding  20" "046 sin a sec 8 must be applied to p to allow for the precessional motion
find the position angle at
of the pole.
Let
a, 8
be the apparent right ascension and declination of the principal
star of the pair.
Let a + (f>, 8 \\fs be the corresponding mean coordinates when reduced
to the beginning of the year.
91]
Let
a', 8'
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
be the apparent
R.A.
273
when the corrections are applied to a and 8' to bring them ment of the year they become by Taylor's theorem
and declination of the adjacent star, and to the commence
.(1),
Let
D+dD
and p + dp be the corresponding distance and position of
places for the
in their mean Then we have approximately
the two stars
when
commencement
of the year.
D sin p = (a
and by
differentiating
a) cos 8,
and substituting
cospdDDsinpdp =
sin
^
!//
(a
 a) +

^
(8'
 8)
.................................... (3)
pdD + Dcospdp =
may
(a'
a) sin 8
+ (a'  a) cos 8
va
^ + (S'8)cos8 ^f...(4), do
........................ (5),
but these
be written
cospdDDsinpdp =
cospdp= Introducing for
<fr
Ds\npsec8^
+ Dcosp^~
D sin p tan 8. ijr+Dsinp
their values
+ Dcospcos8
...(6).
$ and ^
= / g sin (G + a) tan 8  h sin (H+a) sec 8, fy= icos8g cos(G + a) h cos (H+a) sin 8,
performing the differentiations indicated and then solving for result assumes the form
dD
and dp the
dD= D{ism8hcos(H+a)cos8}sinY'
............... (7),
dp = g sin (G + a) sec 8h sin (H+a) tan 8 ............... (8). The quantities g, G are absent from dD, for it is obvious that changes
in the equator cannot produce
any
effect
on the distance between two
stars.
Though these formulae are concerned with such small quantities they of importance in the investigation of the annual parallax of stars.
For the
last part of
become
shall contain the effect only of precession for
the question we have to reduce formula (8), so that it n whole years, aberration and
zero.
nutation being both
made
This
is
done by making
whence the correction
to reduce to the
mean
pole n years earlier
is
 20"046w sin a sec 8.
*Ex.
B.
4.
If
by a small change
in the equator the coordinates a, 8 of
each
A.
18
274
star
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
become u + <, S + without any change in the <> and ^ being functions of the coordinates
*//
[CH. XI
position of the star,
show
that
ir
da
<ty
da
3!
*9< + cos 8 5^ = 0. 98
From
Ex. 3
we
see that that the change
dD
in the distance
D
of
two
adjacent stars is given
by
dD=D cos p
2
do
+ D sin 2 p
* tan 8
\da
+ D sm
and as
cos
\
sec 8
.
^da
is
dD must
5.
be zero whatever be the value of
p
the required result
at once obtained.
*Ex.
radius
is
Show
that
if
a
number
of stars
lie
on a
circle of
which the arcual
to convey
very small the effect of aberration on these stars to the circumference of an adjacent circle (Briinnow).
is
them
This follows from the absence of p from equations
*Ex.
6.
(7), (8),
Ex.
3.
A and B be two stars which appear to be conveyed by aberand B' towards an apex C. Show that the aberration changes the 'angle at A into A < tan^csinjo where c is the arc AB and p is the perpendicular from C on AB. Let the two stars at B and A be at distances a, b respectively from C. Then in the spherical triangle we have
Let
ration to A' cos b cos (7= sin b cot a
differentiating
sin
C cot
A,
and making
A(7=0,
we obtain
K
sin&coseca
(sin
a sin b cos (7+ cos a cos 6
l)
= sin(7cosec2 ^lA^,
whence
AA
K
tan ^c sin
A sin b,
when multiplied by
K
=
If the stars are adjacent c
K
is
tan ^c sin p.
small, so that
the
product
*Ex.
is
very small, and A.A becomes inappreciable.
7.
From
the star defined by (a = 59 53'; 8 = 37 45') the distance
237" '3 and position angle 207 14' of an adjacent star were measured on Show that the corrections to be applied to the distance 6th Jan. 1880. and position angle to reduce them to the date 1879'0 are 0" 015 and  0''66

respectively.
91]
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
Jf.
275
From
A. 1880,
p. 303,
we have
for
1880 Jan.
6,
8',
\ogg= +08734,
= 343
40',
log h =
+ 1 '3079, #=345
Logi=
03541.
Aberration in distance, Log 1st term= 7'202, Log 2nd term = 8'116,  9*036, Log aberration in position  9 268. Log nutation in position
f
Correction for one year's precession
0''366.
*Ex.
8.
Show
that the effect of aberration on the distance
D
between
two stars must always be
< .D/10000.
EXERCISES ON CHAPTER XL
If the earth be supposed to move round the sun in a circle with and the velocity of an observer on the earth's surface due to its velocity rotation be nv, then x the aberration of any star <r is accurately given by the
Ex.
1.
v,
formula
tan x
= k (sin
2
Oo
+ 2?i sin Oa sin aEcos OoE+n? sin 2 aE)^
cos Oa + nk cos trE
a point on the is a point on the ecliptic 90 behind the sun, where equator differing in R.A. from the sun by the complement of the hour angle, and k the ratio of the velocity of the earth's centre to the velocity of light.
E
C
an arc CO of length dividing the base into two segments B0 = l and
If in a spherical triangle
2
2 2
s
[Math. Trip.] be drawn from the vertex
If
A0=m, then = sin 2 b sin 1 + 2 sin a sin b sin sin m cos C+ sin2 m sin 2 a. sin s sin (I + in) the star be at C and if B be the apex of the rotational motion and A that
I
of the orbital, and if x be the resultant aberration, then /zsin#=psin(s x), where p is the resultant velocity of the observer, and /x the velocity of light,
and we have
p cosec
(I
+ m) = v cosec I
sin s sin
.
, ,
nv cosec m,
from which
but
tan x
=
sin
l
+ k cos s
(l *.
+ m) ~
r
sin
,
(l+m)
cos s cos
m = cos b
I
sin s sin
m cos 0,
I
cos s cos
= cos a + sin s sin
I)
cos 0,
whence
cos s (cos
m + n cos = cos b + n cos a,
which with the formula above proves the theorem.
Ex. 2. Show that the locus of all stars whose zenith distance at a given place and a given instant are unaltered by aberration is an elliptic cone, one of whose circular sections is horizontal, and the other is perpendicular to the ecliptic.
[Coll.
Exam.]
182
276
THE ABERRATION OF LIGHT
[CH. XI
In this case the angle subtended by the zenith and the apex at the star
must be 90, from which the desired
Ex.
3.
result is easily obtained.
position for
refraction.
Prove that at every place there is always at a given instant one a star for which the aberration is entirely counteracted by the Show also that at midnight on the shortest day the zenith
is
distance of this position
given by an equation of the form
sin 2 z
+ A sin z =
1,
if
the correction for refraction be assumed proportional to the tangent of the zenith distance, and the earth's orbit be assumed to be circular.
[Math. Trip.
I.
1900.]
*Ex. 4. If by any small change in the equator the coordinates a, 8 of each point on the celestial sphere become a + <p, & + //, show that we must
have
4>
= C+ A sin (a + B) tan 8,
where A, B,
C are
constants independent of the coordinates, and verify that
this transformation leaves the distance
between every pair of stars unaltered.
CHAPTER
XII.
THE GEOCENTRIC PAKALLAX OF THE MOON.
PAGE
92. 93.
94.
Introductory
277
.
The fundamental equations of geocentric parallax Development in series of the expressions for the parallax
.
.
280 286 289
291
.
95. 96.
Investigation of the distance of the Parallax of the moon in azimuth
moon from the
earth
.
97.
Numerical value of the lunar parallax Exercises on Chapter xn.
.....
294
296
92.
Introductory.
the word Parallax
in
in
By
we mean the angle 080'
(Fig. 74)
between the direction O'S at 0' and the direction
seen
if
which a point S is seen by the observer which the same point S would be
the observer occupied a standard position 0. If S be the sun 'or the moon or a planet or a comet or, in fact, any body
FIG. 74.
belonging to the solar system, then the standard position always taken to be the centre of the earth, and the parallax
If
is
is is
S be a star, then taken to be the said to be geocentric. centre of the sun and the parallax is generally described as
annual.
278
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE MOON
[CH. XII
is
parallax of the sun is the angle 080' where the centre of the sun, p is the earth's radius 00', and f,
The geocentric
$
represent the angles SO''Z and SOZ respectively. Then the effect of parallax may be said to throw the apparent place of the object
which we shall away from the direction 00' by the angle the symbol TT^. Of course, if the earth were regarded represent by would be the apparent and real zenith as a sphere, then f and distances and the influence of parallax would merely depress the apparent place of the object further from the zenith. As the
'
'
is not spherical, the effect of parallax is to depress the body not exactly from the zenith but from the point in which the earth's radius when continued will meet the celestial sphere.
earth
The
arc between this point and the true zenith 15. quantity already considered in From the triangle OSO' we have
sin
TTf
is
of course the
= p sin
= p/r
TT^,
'/r
(i).
We
now introduce the angle
(i),
TT^
defined by the equation
(ii),
smir^
and hence from
sin TTf
= sin
sin
".
Thus we
attained
see that
'
TT$ is
the greatest value of
the sun
TT^
and
this will
be
is 90 when which, if would mean that the centre of
refraction were not considered,
was on the
horizon.
We
accordingly term
TT^
the horizontal parallax.
horizontal parallax depends on p as shown in (ii) and as p is not the same for all latitudes owing to the spheroidal form of the earth, it follows that the horizontal parallax must
As the
vary with the latitude of the observer. Its maximum value is attained when the observer is on the equator, and as <f> is then zero we express by TTO what is known as the equatorial horizontal
parallax, so that
if
p
is
the equatorial radius of the earth
sin
we have
=p TTo
/r.
distance so that r equals a the semiaxis major of the sun's apparent orbit, then the quantity ?ra is defined to be the mean equatorial horizontal parallax of the sun,
If the sun be at its
mean
and
is
given by the equation
sin
7r a
= p /a.
We
shall
always take
7r a = 8" 80.
92]
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE MOON
279
The symbols already given apply
the sun.
By
to the geocentric parallax of the addition of a dash to TT we denote the correfor the
sponding quantities
moon, thus
TTf is the geocentric parallax of the moon, i.e. the angle which the centre of the earth and the position of the observer subtend
at the centre of the moon.
TT/ is the angle whose sine is the ratio of the distances of the observer and the moon's centre from the centre of the earth.
This
TT O
is
'
this is
'
the horizontal parallax of the moon at latitude <f>. the value of TT/ when the observer is on the equator, the equatorial horizontal parallax of the moon.
is
7T a
is
the value of
'
7r
when
the
moon
is
at its
mean
distance.
This
is
the
mean
'
shall take 7ra
=
equatorial horizontal parallax of the moon. 3422".
We
The moon
i.e.
is
angle of the cone
14' 43",
here regarded as a sphere and the semivertical which this sphere subtends at the earth's centre,
the apparent semidiameter of the moon, varies from 16' 47" to and has a mean value of 15' 34".
From
The
the formula
(ii)
we
r
obtain
'
= p cosec TT$
.
radius of the earth
is
a known quantity, and
if TT^' is also
known, then
therefore r
is
in this equation the righthand side is
known and
result that
its
known.
Thus we obtain the important
the distance of a celestial body can
be determined when
horizontal parallax is known. It is in fact only by determining the parallax of a celestial body by observation that we can ascertain its distance,
and as the determination of these distances
is
of the utmost importance in Astronomy it is obvious that the subject of parallax merits careful attention.
The
minute to be
geocentric parallax of a star properly so called is far too sensible. In the case of even the nearest star
(aCentauri) the horizontal parallax would be only 0" '00003, and no parallax could be detected by our measurements which was
not more than a thousand times greater than this quantity. therefore impossible to determine the distance of a star
geocentric parallax.
to
It is
by
its
For such an investigation we have
is
is
to resort
annual parallax, and the consideration of this
deferred to
Chap. xv.
Our present problem
that of geocentric parallax
280
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE MOON
[CH. XII
and especially
in its application to the moon, the mean equatorial In Chapters xm. and xiv. horizontal parallax of which is 57' 2".
shall consider the geocentric parallax of
we
the sun and other
bodies in the solar system.
Ex.
1.
Show
that
tan
Ex.
2.
TT,'
= sin IT
,'
sin f/(l
sin
JT ,'
cos
).
Show
is
moon
in the ratio sin
that parallax increases the apparent semidiameter of the sin (f  TT .'), where f is the apparent zenith distance
'
:
and the earth
Ex.
3.
assumed
to be spherical.
'
that if the horizontal parallax TT O be a quantity whose square may be neglected the apparent daily path of a celestial body as seen from the earth's surface (supposed spherical), is a small circle of radius
Show
90  8 + TT O sin
'
<f>
cos 8 described about a point depressed
'
TT O
cos
$ sin 8 below
Exam.]
the pole.
[Coll.
From
35
(1)
we obtain
Tj
if z
be the zenith distance
AS + cos Az  cos h A<  sin h cos $ Aa = 0.
In the present case A0 = 7r 'sin0, Aa = 0, and
if
A<
=
'
TT O
'
cos
$ sin S, we
cos
S.
have
AS =
93.
'
TT O
(cos
T)
sin z
+ cos
<
sin S cos h)
=
TT O
sin
$
The fundamental equations of geocentric
parallax.
obtain the desired equations it is necessary to express the coordinates of the points on the celestial sphere to which the
lines 00',
It is conOS, O'S (Fig. 74) are severally directed. venient to take for this purpose the celestial equator as the
To
fundamental
circle
and
T
as the origin.
Thus the coordinates
we employ
the earth
are right ascensions and declinations. In the general investigation to which we are
is
now proceeding
to be regarded as a spheroid and p is the distance from the observer to the earth's centre. The inclination of the
00' to the equator is the geocentric latitude </>' of the observer, and therefore $' is the declination of the point on the celestial sphere to which 00' is directed. The right ascension of the same point is the right ascension of the point where the observer's meridian intersects the celestial equator, but this is the sidereal time ^ which is of course the W. hour angle of T.
line
The
directions of 0$, O'S will be defined respectively by the
coordinates
(a, 8), (', 8'). If the parallax, i.e. Z OSO', be inappreciable then
OS and
a, 8.
O'S
If
are sensibly parallel
and
a.',
8'
are indistinguishable from
9293]
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE MOON
281
the parallax be appreciable then the point a, 8 called the true place We have first is not the same as a, 8' called the apparent place. to obtain equations from which a', 8' can be obtained in terms of
a, 8 or vice versa.
Draw through
(Fig. 74) a line
OQ
(not necessarily in the
plane GO'S) to the point (X, /*) and let O'M and SN be perpendiculars on OQ, so that OM, ON are the projections of 00', OS on = ON OM, and therefore OQ: then the projection of O'S is
MN
(
8)
we have the general formula
r
{sin 8' sin
yu,
r
{sin 8
sin
/u,
p (sin <' sin
yu,
+ cos 8' cos fi cos (a + cos 8 cos /A cos (a + cos <' cos /i cos ($
X)}
=
(1).
X)}
X)}
This equation must be true whatever be the line OQ. If therefore we take in succession the three cases where X, /u, are
respectively
(0, 0);
(90,
0);
mental equations
r'
r'
for parallax in the
a'
(0, 90); we obtain the three fundaform
p cos <' cos ^ p cos p sin
<>'
cos
8'
8'
cos
= r cos 8 cos a sin a' = r cos 8 sin
cos
(
a.
sin
^
(3)
i
r'sinS'
= ?*sinS
</>'
(4). ;
also have been obtained by equating the coefficients of shift, cos /u cos X, cos /A sin X in the equation (1), for these coefficients must vanish because the equations have to be true for all values of X, /*.
These equations might
to
zero
The formulae just obtained
to express
all
will
perhaps appear to the beginner
that could be necessary for the determination of the effect of parallax on the coordinates of a celestial body. If
a, 8,
a', 8', r'
r are given we have here three equations for a, are given we have here three equations for a,
8',
r'
or if
8, r.
But
in their present form the equations are not nearly so easy to employ or so accurate in their results as are certain other
seem
we shall deduce from them. It certainly might at first sight that if two sets of equations are mathematically equivalent the calculations from one set of equations should be
equations which
But as equally accurate with those made from the other set. we had occasion to mention already in another problem ( 64) this is not necessarily the case. It must be remembered that
logarithms of the trigonometrical functions like other logarithms
282
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE MOON
[CH. XII
Thus every formula into which logarithms are only approximate. are introduced becomes, to some extent, erroneous from this
cause.
Equations which are mathematically correct in their symbolic form generally part with mathematical accuracy when
numerical logarithms are introduced and the extent of the inIt is the art of the accuracy varies according to circumstances.
astronomical computer to select from among the different possible transformations of a given set of equations that particular set which when solved shall afford results as little influenced as
possible
Thus it by the inevitable logarithmic inaccuracies. are theoretically sufficient for happens that though (2), (3), (4)
and have much
in
'
the determination of a, S', r' yet we shall obtain greater accuracy less trouble with the logarithms if we employ
in our calculations certain other equations such as (7)
and (15) which the unknowns are (' a) and (8' 8) instead of merely and 8'. It will be found that the work can be done more
accurately by using only fivefigure logarithms in (7) and (15)
than by using sevenfigure logarithms in (2), (3), (4). The rationale of the matter may be thus illustrated.
Let
A
be two points one kilometre apart, and let it be desired to set off on the line AB a point which shall be one metre from
of
and
B
A and therefore 999 metres from B. If our instruments measurement were mathematically perfect we could set off
with equal precision by measuring either from A or from B. But our instruments are not perfect, and this being so, it is no longer a matter of indifference whether the measurements be from
A
or from B.
For suppose that our measuring instruments
habitually gave a result which was one millionth part in excess of the truth. Then in setting off BO there would be an error
of almost a millimetre.
in setting off only be the thousandth part of a millimetre.
But
AO
the error would
Hence we should
make our measurements from A and not from B. Substituting a for AB, a a' for AO, and a' for BO we see how much more
satisfactory it will be to proceed
by calculating a
a'
rather than
by making the more precarious calculation of deducing a.' from We must therefore obtain from (2), (3), (4) formulae (2), (3), (4).
& and employ these formulae rather than a, and 8' giving a' the original formulae in the subsequent calculations.
The equation
for (a!
a) will be obtained
by multiplying (3)
93]
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE MOON
it
283
sin a,
by cos a and subtracting from
giving
r'cos S'sin(a'
in
(2) multiplied
by
a)
thus
a)
=
p cos <' sin(^
(5),
the moon's hour angle West. This equation might indeed have been obtained directly from If we make (1) which has to be true for all values of X, p. X = a + 90, /A = 0, then (1) becomes (5).
which
S
a
is
Multiplying (2) by cos a and adding to
sin
a,
it
(3) multiplied
by
we
find
r'
cos
8'
cos
(a'
a)
=
r cos 8
p cos <' cos
(S
a)
.
.
.(6),
and
this
/A
might have been obtained at once from (1) by making
for
X = a,
= 0.
Dividing (5) by (6) we obtain the fundamental equation
parallax in right ascension in the form
tan
(a!
a)
</>'
=
sin TT/ cos
sin
(^
)/{cos 8

sin TT/ cos <' cos (S
a)}
.
.
.(7),
where we have replaced p/r by sin ir^. All the quantities on the righthand side being known, then tan (of We shall assume that in all the cases a) is determined. to which this equation is to be applied sin TTJ,' is a small quantity. Hence the numerator of the expression for tan (' a) is a small
is
If 8 be small, i.e. if the body be near the equator, as quantity. of course the case with the sun and the moon and the principal
planets,
which are the only bodies that concern us at present,
is
then the denominator
be
itself small
if
and so
is
also (of
a) must nearly unity, so that tan(a' But it should be remarked a).
the body had a very high declination so that cosS was a) would be very very small, then the denominator of tan (' small when sin TT/ was small, so that a' a need not be a small
that
comet which passed close to the pole would be a quantity. case in point, and we would then have to distinguish between the two roots of equation (7), viz. (a! a) and 180 + (a a) by
observing that (5) had to be satisfied. We have next to find (8' 8), that
is
A
the correction to be
applied to the true declination to give the apparent declination. This is not quite so simple a matter as the parallax in right
ascension.
(a'+ a) and (3) by sin  (a'+ a) and add so that after division by cos  (a' a) we obtain
multiply (2) by cos
sec
r'
We
cos
8'
= r cos 8
p cos
<f>'
(a'
a) cos {^
\
(a'
+ a)}
.
.
.(8).
1
284
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE MOON
[CH. XII
This equation might also have been obtained directly from (1) by = (a + a'), //, = 0. introducing the values X
We
/3
shall
now employ two
<f>'
;
auxiliary quantities
/3
and 7 defined
^ (a'
by the following equations
sin
7
= sin
/3
cos
7
= cos <' sec

(a!
a) cos (^
+
a)}.
Dividing one of these equations by the other we have tan 7 and we may choose between 7 and 180 + 7 by deciding that
ft shall
be
positive.
Thus
/3
and 7 are both
a) sec
definitely
known
(9),
from the equations
tan 7 = tan
/3 = sin
<fi
<f>'
cos (a'
{S
('
+
)}
cosec
7
(10)
With
form
these substitutions equations (4) and (8) assume the
= r sin 8 r'cos 8' = r cos 8
r'
sin 8'
p/3 sin
7
(H)>
(12),
p/3
cosy
multiplying (11) by sin 8 and (12) by cos 8 and adding, we have
r'
cos ($'
 8) = r  p(3 cos (8 and subtracting from
8)
p/3 sin (8
7)
it
(13),
multiplying (11) by cos 8
tiplied
(12)
when mul(14),
by
sin 8,
we obtain
r' sin (8'
7)
for p/r
whence dividing (14) by (13) and writing sinTr^' = ft sin tan (8' sin (8 cos /9 sin 8)
TT/
7)/{l
TT/
(8
7)}
.
.
.(15).
From
which, when applied to the true decliwill give the apparent declination as affected by parallax. nation,
this
we obtain
8'
8,
S
FIG. 75.
Ex.
lax,
sin
If A' be the place of the moon as disturbed by geocentric paral1. show that the displacement by parallax along any direction A'O will be = 90, and the earth is supposed TT O cos ZO, where Z is the zenith A'
spherical.
93]
*Ex.
2.
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE MOON
Show how
285
the equations (11) and (12) by which the parallax in obtained can be deduced directly from geometrical construction and explain the geometrical meaning of the introduced quantities /3 and y. Let SU, 0' V (Fig. 75) be perpendiculars on the equatorial plane through
declination
is
0: on *7Ftake 0" so that UO" = The triangle 0" US is equal in
0"0' = pP
(70,
all
and join 0"0', 0"S. US. Therefore respects to
0"SO' = (88').
Let
the bisector of
and LUO"0'=y. Since 0"F, L OUV, we have
OF have
the same projection on
ppcosy = O"V=OVcos
Also
{(a + a')} sec $ (a' a) = p cos cp' sec \ (a  a) cos {3 % (a + a')}. = VO' = p sin 0', p/3 sin y
have from the triangle WO'S,
r'
thus determining /3, y. We take y of the same sign as 0' and numerically < 180, so that j8 is positive.
We now
cos (8'8) = r pp cos (8
 y),
y),
/ sin (8'  8) =
whence as
before,
p@
sin (8
tan (8'8)=pP sin (8y}/{rpj3 cos (8 y)}.
Show that when seen from a latitude (p the parallax in declination of a celestial body vanishes when tan (p= tan 8 cosh in which 8 and h are the The earth is supposed spherical. declination and hour angle.
Ex.
3.
Ex.
moon
and
4. Show that if A', 8' be the hour angle and the declination of the as seen from the earth's surface at a place of geocentric latitude <p', h, 8 the hour angle and the declination as seen from the centre, then
sin (h'
h) = a sec 8
h'
'
,
sin
h',
tan
8'
cosec
IT
where
a = sin
a'
= (1  b cosec 8) tan 8 cosec h, cos b = sin IT,' sin
(p',
<p'.
Writing a = 3h and
=S
[Coll.
h'
we
Exam.]
find
from
8'
(2)
and
(3)
r cos 8 sin
h = r' cos
sin
h',
and
r cos 8 cos
A  p cos <' = r' cos 8' cos A',
which equations are otherwise obvious, since each side of the first merely expresses the distance of the moon from the meridian, while the second may be obtained directly from equation (1), p. 281, by making /* = and \ = 3,
for the equation
.
has to be true for
all
values of p and
X.
These equations
combined with
(4) give
the desired result.
Ex. 5. Show that the angular radii R' and R of a planet, as seen from a place P on the earth and from the centre of the earth respectively, are connected by the relation
.
sin
R = sin(8'y) sm R. 4 sm TS y) (8
,
. .
where y
is
an auxiliary angle defined by the equation
COt y
= sec
(a'
 a)
COt
(p'
COS {B
(a
+ a' )},
286
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE MOON
[CH. XII
<' being the geocentric latitude of the place,
3 the sidereal time of the
observation, a and seen from P, and a
the right ascension and declination of the planet as and 8 the right ascension and declination as seen from
8'
the centre of the earth.
[Coll.
Exam.]
Ex.
6.
Show
7r
that the parallaxes in right ascension and declination of
the
moon
are respectively ~l '
a
'
ir
s
= tan {a sin h/(l  a cos A)}, = 8 tan~ {(tan 8  a tan <') sin Tr^'/a sin h]
1
,
where ir<t,' and a = sin 774,' cos <p' sec 8.
is
the horizontal parallax, h the hour angle, $' the geocentric latitude
[Math. Trip. 1907.]
This follows at once from the equations
94.
(4), (5), (6).
Development in
series
of the expressions for the
parallax.
Assuming that
sin ir$ is a small quantity
is
and that the object
which has this horizontal parallax
either of the celestial poles to
we may develop formula
(7)
sufficiently distant from cos 8 from being very small prevent 93 as in (4) on p. 227
a)
sin (Scos 8 sin 1"
_ sin
774,'
2
2 TT/ cos <f>' sin 2 (^ 2 cos 8 sin 2"
a)
sin 3
cos 3 <' sin 3 (^
o)
9394]
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE MOON
1,
287
The equation Ex.
tan TT/
in
92, viz.
which
cos
= sin TT/ sin f/(l sin TT/ cos = sin B sin <' + cos 8 cos <' cos
and we thus have
a)
for TT/ the
can also be expressed as a series,
paral lactic displacement
TT/
= sin TT/ sin
cosec 1"
+
sin 2 TT/ sin 2
3
cosec 2"
+ sin
tion
TT/ sin
3^ cosec 3" ......... (3).
For an approximate calculation of the moon's parallax in declinaand right ascension we may regard the earth as a sphere and consider only the two first terms of (1) and (2). If the and the moon's hour angle = ^ a = h, observer's latitude is we have /3 sin 7 = sin and /3 cos 7 = cos $ cos h very nearly, whence
<j>
<j>
'
7r a
TT/
= a' = 8'
a
8
= =
'
7r
'
cos
<f>
sin
h sec 8
..................... (4),
TT O
(cos
<f>
cos h sin &
sin
</>
cos 8) ...(5).
can obtain an approximate determination of the moon's parallax in hour angle by the use of the following short table,
We
which is easily constructed from formula (4). The table is formed on the supposition that the horizontal parallax is 60', and that
the declination of the
parallax
moon is zero. Under these conditions the when expressed in minutes of time becomes 4 cos< sin/<,
is
from which the table
is
calculated.
The parallax in hour angle for a given hour angle and latitude shown along the top line, and the use of the table may be
Minutes of parallax in hour angle
288
the
THE GEOCENTRIC, PARALLAX OF THE MOON
amount
to
[CH. XII
true R.A.
If,
as
be subtracted from the apparent R.A. to obtain the is generally the case, the moon's declination is
not zero, then a fractional addition must be made to the parallax which is thus indicated:
Declination of
moon whether +
...
or
...
10
15
20
25
Percentage to
be added to parallax
given by table
It will of course not
is 60',
246
10
parallax parallax of the table one sixtieth part for each minute that the These points as well as parallax is greater (or less) than 60'.
we must
be generally true that the horizontal therefore add to (or subtract from) the
the necessary interpolations for latitudes other than those which appear in the table are illustrated by the following example The latitude of the observer is 42, the declination of the moon
:
is
10,
its
hour angle
is
5 hrs its horizontal parallax
,
is 57'.
Find
from the table the parallax in hour angle. The table shows that for 5 hrs hour angle and 3 m parallax the m latitude is 39, while for 2^ parallax the latitude would be 50. It is therefore plain that for 42 latitude the parallax would be
about 172
i.e.
sees.
The
3
sees.,
is
while
57'
^th
correction for declination adds 2 per cent., or 9 sees, has to be taken off because the
3' less
parallax
and therefore
than the standard taken in the
Hence we conclude that the parallax in hour angle is table. m 46 Becs and this is the amount 2 by which parallax increases the hour angle if the moon is west of the meridian and decreases it if the moon is in the east, for we must remember that eastern
,
hour angles are negative.
Ex.
1.
Show
that in formula
IT ,'
(3)
for
the second term sin 2
sin 3
TT
.'
sin 2f cosec 2"
may
the moon's geocentric parallax reach 33", but the third term
sin 3f cosec 3"
must always be under
0"'5.
N.B.
Ex.
2.
The
greatest horizontal parallax of the
moon
is 61' '5.
small quantity
is
Show that when the hour angle AA the corresponding change
'
of the
moon changes by the
approximately
'
TT O
cos
<
<
of the parallax in hour angle cos h sec 8 AA, and the change in the parallax in
.
declination
is
7r
cos
sin h sin
8.
Ex.
and and
0"'2.
if
Show that if the geocentric latitude of the observer be 39 45' 55", 3. the moon's declination be + 26 23' 3" '6, its hour angle 32 39' 49" '5,
horizontal parallax 57' 7" '5 then the parallax in R.A. will be 26' 46"'5 > (1) contributes 1587" 2, the 2nd 19" '1 and the 3rd

its
whereof the 1st term of
9495]
*Ex.
4.
THE GEOCEXTRIC PARALLAX OF THE MOON
Show
that 16' 15" 8
is
289
when
the moon's parallax in declination
observed at the Western Reserve College, Ohio, in geographical latitude 41 14' 42", being given that the moon's declination is + 26 24' 31" '5, its hour angle 23 13' 12" 0, its horizontal parallax 57' 7" "7, and its parallax in

R.A. 19' 12"'6.
[From Loomis' Practical Astronomy,
p. 196.]
95.
Investigation of the distance of the
moon from
the
earth.
The general expression for the effect of geocentric parallax on the declination of the moon 94 (2) becomes much simplified in
the particular case when the moon is on the meridian. The true and the apparent R.A. of the moon are then coincident, being both equal to the sidereal time. We thus have of = a = S, and
consequently from
(9), (10),
93 we see that
/3
=1
and 7 =
<'.
With
this substitution
/9
we have
p
sin
2
sin(8
_)
2(30')
3 p sin 3
(&')
rsinl"
r sin2"
r3 sin 3"
and we have now to show how by suitable observations made at two observatories this equation will provide us with a determination of
r.
As the moon
A,
it is
is passing the meridian of a certain observatory observed with the transit circle, and as will be explained
in a later chapter, its apparent declination 8' is thereby ascerWhen this value is substituted in (1) we obtain a formula tained.
and p are known, may be regarded as an equation between two unknowns 8 and r. Let the observation be also made at some other observatory A 1} and let the quantities /> &i> PI, </>/> r have the same
which, as
</>'
significations with regard to to A. It is desirable that
A
l
as
8',
8,
l
p,
<',
r have with regard
and A be nearly on the same so that the interval between the two observations shall meridian, be as small as possible, for as the moon is in motion its true declination is generally changing and thus ^ and 8 are not the
A
same at the two stations. Even if the meridians of the two observatories did not differ by more than an hour 81 and 8 might differ by as much as 17', which would be nearly a third of the whole parallax. In like manner of course r and r will in general differ. The rate per hour at which the moon is changing its declination at each
l
B. A.
19
290
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE MOON
[CH. XII
particular date is however known, and the interval between the two transits is known, so that if we make S : = 8 + AS we may
consider that
AS
is
known.
As
to p l
from the
locality of the secoild observatory as p
first,
and fa they are known and are known
(f>
from that of the
may make p = a(l small known quantities.
Avhere
and if a be the n) and p =
1
earth's equatorial radius
1 ),
we
a(ln
where n and n are
r1
Finally,
we may make
= r(l + k)
a small quantity depending on the rate of change of the moon's distance at the particular moment. This, like AS,
is
k
may be
With
regarded as a known quantity in the present investigation. these substitutions the two equations for finding 8 and a/r
become
a

~
sn
.
r sin
_^7
1
u,
\L
!<,)
f
am
Sill
*J
\o
tp ;
,
l
in
of each equation, but the third be desired.
which we have only written two terms in the righthand side may be added if extreme accuracy
solve these equations we first reject the terms containing for S the value  (S' + S/) = S into the terms containing a/r, thus obtaining two simple equations in S and a/r
To
z
a?/r
and introduce
S'

S
=
tl
,
MI)
r(l
(
1/
r sin 1"
sin (8
r^
=
+k)sm
+ AS 77
1
.........
,
from which the first approximate values of S and afr are determined. Substituting this value of S in both terms on the righthand side
of (2) and (3) and this value of a/r in the final terms of (2) and (3) we again obtain two simple equations by solving which S and a/r are given with all desired accuracy. Thus the moon's distance is
determined.
It
is
so that r
important to consider how the stations should be chosen may be found with the highest accuracy. To study
9596]
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE MOON
291
the conditions conducive to this object we may suppose the earth to be spherical and the two observatories on the same meridian,
in which case (4)
and
(5)
become
r
sm
:
1
.(6),
, 1
.
O
 = a sn 
=
..................
.
r sin
1
Subtracting
a/r =
we have
(</
(8' S/) sin 1" cosec
</>')
sec {S
  (</>/ + <')}
(8).
Suppose that owing to errors in making the observations an error of seconds had crept into the value of ^ (S' /), then the
E
error thus arising in a/r is
E sin 1" cosec &
The
a/r as
as possible. %Esml", and this
little
(</>/
 0') sec
{S
 J (</ +
<f>')}.
observations should be so arranged that errors like which are to some extent inevitable shall vitiate the concluded value of
E
The smallest possible error in a/r would = 90, 0' = 90, would require that 8 = 0, in other words for this extreme case the observatory A should be at the south, and A' at the north, terrestrial pole, and the moon should be in the equator. These conditions are of course impossible, but we learn that one of the two observatories should be in the highest possible northern latitude and the other in the lowest possible southern latitude and that the declination
be
'
</> 1
of the
moon should be
as nearly
^ (</>/
+ <')
as possible.
Ex. 1. If s be the semivertical angle of the tangential cone to the moon from the earth's centre when the moon's horizontal parallax is p and if s', p'
be another similar pair, show that the earth being supposed spherical
sin s
:
sin
s'
:
:
sin p
it
:
sin p'.
s' = l& 20" and moon when the
Ex.
/
2.
At noon on
is
Jan. 7th, 1904
was found that
= 59'51";
determine the apparent semidiameter of the
3422".
horizontal parallax
Ex. 3. Assuming that the earth's equatorial radius is 3963 miles and that the moon's equatorial horizontal parallax is 57', show that the distance of the moon from the earth's centre is 239,000 miles.
96.
Parallax of the
moon
in azimuth.
If the earth were a perfect sphere the effect of parallax would be solely manifested in depressing the moon in a vertical circle,
192
292
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE MOON
[CH. XII
But when we so that it would have no effect on the azimuth. take into account the spheroidal shape of the earth the circumstances are
somewhat
different.
The
parallactic effect depresses
the
moon from the
point on the
celestial
sphere indicated by the
direction of the earth's radius to the place of observation, and owing to the ellipticity of the earth this point is not generally
generally a parallactic effect on the azimuth of the moon, though that effect is no doubt a small one. An approximate calculation which is sufficiently
coincident with the zenith.
is
Hence there
accurate for most purposes may be made as follows. Let Z (Fig. 76) be the true zenith and Z' be the point of the celestial
is
sphere to which the radius from the earth's centre to the observer <', the difference between the astrodirected, then ZZ' = <f>
Parallax depresses
nomical latitude and the geocentric latitude.
FIG. 76.
the
moon from
M to M'
,
and
is
if
ML
and Z'S be perpendicular
to
ZM'
Z
the effect on azimuth
MZL = sin ML cosec ZM = sin MM' sin LM'M cosec ZM = sin TT/ sin Z'M' sin LM'M cosec ZM
= sin TT/
(<
(<f>
$') sin
<f>')
Z'ZS cosec
a cosec
z,
ZM
sin Tr/
sin
where a and z are respectively the azimuth and the zenith distance of the moon and ^Z'ZS=a 180.
96]
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE MOON
293
can also investigate this problem as follows. Draw through the position of the observer 0' (Fig. 74) three rectangular axes of which the positive directions are towards the north and east
points of the horizon and the zenith. azimuth and zenith distance of the
We
Let a,
z'
moon
to the observer
be the apparent and
a, z the corresponding quantities for parallel axes through the centre of the earth, then the direction cosines with reference to
these axes will be
of
OS
sin z cos a,
sin z sin a,
cos
z,
of O'S
sin z' cos a,
sin
z'
sin
0,
a',
cos /, cos (0
and of 00'
 sin
(<j>
 <'),
 <')
equating the projection of O'S to the difference of the projections of OS and 00' on each of the three axes we obtain as in
By
equations
(2), (3), (4)
93,
a'
r sin z cos
r'
1
= r sin z cos a + p
=
r sin z sin
sin
(<
$')
(i),
sin
z'
sin a!
a
(<
(ii),
r'cosz'
= r cos z
p cos
<')
(iii).
From which we
tan
(a'
easily obtain as in (7)
93,
a)
sin TT/ sin
(<
=
<') sin a/ (sin z
+ sin TT/ cos a sin
(ii)
(<
<')},
which gives the parallax in azimuth.
Multiplying
adding,
r'
(i)
by cos(a
+ a')
</>')
and
by sin^(a + a') and
a)
we
obtain after dividing by cos J (a'
sin z
= r sin z + p sin
(<
cos  (a'
+ a) sec \ (a
1
a),
93, we now introduce two Following the procedure of defined by the equations auxiliary quantities j3', 7'
ft'
cos 7'
(<
= cos
<') cos
(<f>
</>')
;
ft'
sin
j
=
sin

(a'
+
a) sec
(a'
a),
and obtain
?'
sin
/ = r sin 2
(13),
pft' sin 7',
r'
cos
/=
?
cos z
pft' cos 7',
whence, as in
tan (z
93,
= ft' sin TT/ sin (z z)
j)/{l
ft'
sin
TT^'
cos (2
7')},
which gives the parallax in zenith distance.
294
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE MOON
The
results at
[CH. XII
panded
a'
in series
which we have arrived may of course be exand we obtain
(<
a
=
sin TT$ sin
<') cosec z sin
(<f>
</>')
a
. . .
+ ^ sin
z'
2
734,'
sin 2
cosec 2 z sin 2a
2
2
,
z
= ft sin Tr$
sin (z
7')
+
J/3' sin TT/ sin 2 (z
7').
.
..
Ex.
Prove that parallax diminishes the moon's azimuth by
2 \e sin
2cf)
sin
TT
.'
sin
a cosec z,
e is the eccentricity of the earth regarded as a spheroid, (f> the latitude, the moon's horizontal parallax at the place, z the zenith distance, a the azimuth of the moon.
'
where
rr
,
Numerical value of the lunar parallax. The movement of the moon is principally determined by the attraction of the earth. But the disturbing attractions of the sun, and to some extent of the planets, cause the actual motion of the moon to be very much more complex than is the mere The theoretical elliptic motion already considered in Chap. vn. for the parallax of the moon has however been calexpression
97.
culated by mathematicians from the dynamical theory of the moon's motion while duly taking the disturbances alluded to into account. cannot here discuss the researches by which
We
the result has been arrived
know the
theoretical value
It will however be useful to at. which has been found for this im
portant quantity so
we
shall give
the essential parts
of the
He finds for the number expression determined by Adamsf. of seconds of arc in the moon's equatorial horizontal parallax
'
7r
= 3422" + 187" cos x + 10" cos 2a? + 28" cos 2 + 34" cos (2t ac) +
t
3" cos (2
+ as)... (I).
and x are functions of the time and therefore It should be constitute the variable elements in the expression. added that in the expression as given by Adams there are a very As however large number of terms besides the six here written. these terms have but little effect on the total result, we need
In this expression
not now consider them.
is
Each coefficient in the neglected terms under two seconds and even in the terms retained we have
discarded fractions of a second in the coefficients.
t Collected Scientific Papers, vol.
i.
p. 109.
9697]
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE MOON
term in (1)
is
295
The
first
a sine or a cosine of the function of the time.
regard 3422" as the
zontal parallax
7r a ',
the only term which does not contain We therefore
mean
value of the moon's equatorial hori
because in forming the mean value of the other terms over a sufficiently extended period, the trigono
appear now with one sign and now with another, so that their effect tends to vanish from the mean. It is plain that for real values of a; and t the expression for
metrical
functions
the parallax can never become greater than 3684 (which is simply 3422 increased by the sum of the coefficients of the other terms)
nor
less
than 3160.
As
so
many
small terms in
'
TT O
have been omitted, we cannot
conclude that
its
limits are exactly those just written, but
(51''5
we
may always assume
Ex.
1.
>
'
TTO
>
53''9.
Show
that the distance of the moon's centre from the earth's
lie
centre will always
between 222,000 miles and 253,000 miles.
*Ex. 2. From the Nautical Almanac for 1896, we extract the following values of the moon's equatorial horizontal parallax,
1896
Aug. 8th, noon
12 h
59'
2"'6
'4
'6
59 21
Aug. 9th,
noon
59 37
TT O ',
show that at
hours after noon on Aug. 8th we have for horizontal parallax, the expression
t
'
the equatorial
7T
= 59'
2"6
+ l"'68t 

296
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE MOON
[CH. XII
EXERCISES ON CHAPTER
Ex.
1.
XII.
The observed
zenith distance of the moon's limb
'
when
corrected
for refraction is f , the equatorial horizontal parallax is
TT O
and the geocentric
semidiameter D.
Prove that, assuming the earth and moon spherical, the
is
geocentric zenith distance of the moon's centre z
sin
given by
 z} = sin ( f
'
TT O
sin f
+ sin D.
Ex. 2. If 8 and 8' are the true and apparent distances between a planet and the moon, a and a the true and apparent altitudes (corrected for refraction) of the planet, /3 and /3' of the moon, TT O OQ, the equatorial horizontal parallaxes of the moon and planet for the place of observation, then
',
cos 8 =
cos a cos  3 cos
ft
;
,
8
+ sin asm TT O +sm/3 sin<r
,
.
.
.
.
,
very nearly. Ex.
ft
[Coll.
Exam.]
a star,
3.
cr
If TO
and
s
are the observed altitudes of the
moon and
and
the corrections to
m
and
* for parallax
and
refraction,
and A the
correction to be applied to the observed distance
d
to get the true distance,
prove that
A sin d cos m coss=p. cos s (sin s
sin
m cos d}
a
cos TO (sin TO
sin s cos d).
[Coll.
Exam.]
Ex.
that,
4.
Taking the correction
for refraction in the
form
'),
when the
zenith distance of the
moon
is
cos~ l
(k/ir
tanz, show the horizontal
diameter
is unaltered, and that, when the zenith distance is cos~ l (Jk/ir ')& the vertical diameter is unaltered, by the combined effects of refraction and
'
diurnal parallax
;
TT O
being the horizontal parallax of the moon.
[Math. Trip.]
5. Prove that, if R be the angular geocentric radius of the moon, apparent radius when on the meridian of a place in latitude <, r its apparent radius when the geocentric hour angle of its centre is h, then
Ex.
r
its
sin 2
'
R (cosec
2
r
cosec 2 r
)
= 4 sin
'
TT O
cos
(jj
cos 8 sin 2 ^h,
where TT O is the horizontal parallax of the moon, and the earth is regarded as spherical
8 its geocentric declination,
[Coll.
Exam.]
CHAPTER
XIII.
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE SUN.
PAGE
98. 99.
Introductory The Sun's horizontal Parallax
.
.
.
.
.
297
*
.
.
.
.300
.
100.
101.
102.
103. 104.
The The The The
Parallax of an exterior Planet by the Diurnal Method Solar Parallax from the constant of aberration
303 308
Solar Parallax by Jupiter's satellites Solar Parallax from the Mass of the Earth
Solar Parallax from
.....309
. . .
309
.
the parallactic inequality of the
Moon
98.
311
Introductory.
of the distance of the sun from the earth
is
The determination
of unique importance in astronomy. When it has been found then the dimensions of the sun are easily ascertained so are also the
;
distances of the planets and of their satellites and the sizes and even the masses of these bodies are also deduced. But the
;
determination of the sun's
because
it
distance
is
not important
merely
gives us the measurements in the solar system. shall find that the distances of the stars can be determined only with reference to the sun's distance, so that the sun's distance
We
forms as
lineal
it
were the base
It
is
line
conducted.
to the
not indeed too
by which sidereal measurements are much to say that almost all
measurements relating
moon being
to celestial bodies, those with respect ^xcepted, are based on our knowledge of the
distance of the sun.
This problem, at once so fundamental and at the same time so difficult of accurate solution, must now engage
our attention.
We
earth.
must
first
clear the
problem before us from a certain
ambiguity.
We
so
are to seek the distance of the sun from the
is,
That distance
certain limits,
we have
however, constantly changing between to consider what is meant by the
298
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE SUN
distance of the sun, for this
is
[CH. XIII
mean
indeed the element which
we
50 the have to determine by observation. As explained in earth moves round the sun in an ellipse and the sun occupies one Thus the distance of the sun fluctuates in correof the foci.
spondence with the changes in the radius vector from the focus of an ellipse to a point on its circumference.
semiaxis major of the elliptic orbit of the earth is repreis the sun's true longitude, or the longitude of the sented by a,
The
sun at the time when nearest the earth or as it is often called the longitude of the Perigree, then from the wellknown polar equation
of the ellipse
r='^ 1 ^ l
e
'
i+ecos(0w)
m
As e is so small (O0168) we may for our present purpose treat its square and higher powers as negligible, so that the formula may be written
r
= a{lecos(57)}
(2),
which may be still further simplified, because as the true longitude differs from the mean longitude L only by terms involving the eccentricity ( 73), we may replace by L, because we are terms introducing e2 and may use the equation omitting
,
r
= a{l
ecos(Ls?}}
(3).
By
the mean distance of the sun
we
are to understand the
average value of r during the complete revolution. This average value is to be computed as follows: Let t ti, tz ts ... tn be a series of t = t2 t l = t3 t2 =... = t n  t n i We are epochs so chosen that t 1
,
,
,
(i
also to
suppose that tn
distance
is
t
is
the
mean
(r1
+
r2
the whole period of revolution. Then ... +rn )/n, where r l; r z r3 ... are the
,
distances at the respective epochs
indefinitely great.
(2),
t lf
t2 ,
t3
We
can compute this
and where n is quantity directly from
,
...,
because
L
increases proportionally to the time, so that the
is
/27T
mean
distance
rdL 
rZTT
dL,
Jo
Jo
which by substitution
for r reduces to a.
is
Thus we
learn that the
semiaxis major of the ellipse
also the
mean
distance of the
had already assumed this to be the planet from the sun. case in the statement of Kepler's third law 50.
We
98]
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE SUN
shall
299
We
orbit
is
assume that the eccentricity of the sun's apparent
the
0'0168, that
mean value
of the
sun's
horizontal
parallax is 8"'80, that its mean semidiameter is 961", and that 281 0< 2 is the longitude of the perigee of the sun's apparent orbit
(
73),
and hence we have the following approximate
sun's
results
when the
The
sun's
mean
distance
is
is
taken as unity
:
distance
hor. par.
{1

0'0168 cos (L
+ 78'8)},
semidiam.
longitude
R.A.
+ 0'0168 cos( + 78'8)j, 961" {1 + 0'0168 cos (L + 78'8)}, L + 1'92 sin (L + 78'8), L + 1'92 sin (L + 78'8)  2'47 sin
8"'80
{1
2Z.
Solar Parallax in Right Ascension and Declination. Assuming the earth to be a sphere and that a, 8 are the true geocentric
R.A.
and
decl. of
the sun and
of,
8'
parallax
is h,
when
the observer's latitude
the coordinates as affected by is <p and the sun's hour angle
then from (4) (5)
a'
94 we obtain
<f>
a 8
=
8"'80 cos
sec 8 cos h, cos B
8'
=
8"'80 (sin
<f>
cos
<f>
sin 8 cos h).
z,
The
total parallactic displacement is of course 8"'80 sin
where
Ex.
1.
cos z
= sin
<j)
sin 8
+ cos
(j>
cos 8 cos
h.
Show
declination 8
8
and hour angle h
if
that the parallax in right ascension of a body with is the same as for a body of declination
their horizontal parallaxes be the same.
and hour angle h
Ex. 2. Assuming the distance of a body from the earth to be so great that the sine and circular measure of the parallax may be considered equal, show that the locus of all bodies which, at a given instant and place, have
their parallaxes in right ascension equal will be a right circular cylinder touching the plane of the meridian along the axis of the earth.
[Godfray's Astronomy.']
Ex.
3.
Show
that
when
the sun's
mean
longitude
is
51
its
semidiameter
is 15' 51", its
horizontal parallax 8"
71 and
I'Ol is the ratio of its distance to
the
mean
Ex.
4.
distance.
Being given that the sun
is
at its least distance from the earth
0longitude has a daily increase of 9856, show that the sun's distance from the earth has its most rapid rate of decrease on Oct. 2nd.
on Jan.
1st
and that
its
mean
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE SUN
Ex.
5.
[CH. XIII
The semidiameter of the sun at the earth's mean distance being and the equatorial horizontal parallax of the sun at the earth's mean distance being 8" '80, find the diameter of the sun in terms of the
16' 1"'18
earth's equatorial radius.
Ex. 6. Given that a kilometre is the arc of a meridian in latitude 45 which subtends an angle of one centesimal minute at the centre of the earth, that the ellipticity of the surface of the earth is 2^5, and that the sun's
mean equatorial horizontal parallax of the sun is l'5x!0 8 kilometres.
Ex.
is 8"' 76,
prove that the mean distance
[Math. Trip.]
is is
7. that, on the assumption that the sun's horizontal parallax 8"' 80, the time during which the sun is below the horizon at either pole minutes, where o> is the oblonger on account of parallax by 7 cosec
Show
liquity of the ecliptic.
[Math. Tripos, 1903.]
Prove that the difference due to parallax in the apparent position of the sun as determined by simultaneous observations at two stations is a maximum and equal to STTQ sin a when the zenith distances are the same,
Ex.
8.
where 2a is the angle subtended at the two stations.
earth's centre
by the
ai'c
joining the
[Math. Tripos, 1902.]
Ex. 9. Assuming that the sun's semidiameter at mean distance is 961", show that the number of sidereal seconds which the semidiameter takes to
cross the meridian is
t,
where
\
rcosd
distance, the
t'
;
8 being the declination, T the length of a solar year in days,
and
r the sun's
.
mean
distance being unity.
[Coll.
Exam.]
99.
The
sun's horizontal parallax.
might at first be supposed that the methods of the last chapter, which are successful in finding the parallax of the moon would also be successful in finding the parallax of the sun, but
It
the cases are not parallel. It is an essential point of difference between them that the brightness of the sun is incomparably Stars can easily be greater than the brightness of the moon.
observed while apparently quite close to the moon, yet the light from any star is invisible, even with the most powerful telescope,
when
stars
that star
is
close to the sun.
the differences of declination between the
Thus the measurements of moon and adjoining
by which the moon's parallax is accurately determined have no counterpart in possible solar observations for finding the sun's
9899]
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE SUN
301
As already explained in the last parallax in the same manner. the horizontal parallax of the sun is the angle of which chapter
the sine
is
the
ratio
of the
earth's
equatorial
radius
to the
distance of the sun.
For
this reason
we are unable
to effect the determination of
the solar parallax satisfactorily by observations of the sun in the way in which the parallax of the moon is obtained and Of such methods therefore we have to resort to other methods.
there are several, which
I.
may be
classified as follows
:
Direct observational methods.
a.
b.
c.
Parallax of
Venus
in transit across the sun.
Parallax of an exterior planet by the diurnal method. Parallax of an exterior planet by simultaneous observations
at distant stations.
II.
Gravitational methods.
d.
e.
Parallax of the sun from the mass of the earth.
Parallax of the sun from the parallactic inequality of the
moon.
III.
f.
Physical methods.
Parallax of the sun from the constant of aberration and the
velocity of light.
g.
Parallax of Jupiter from the light equation of his satellites.
The direct observational methods are founded on Kepler's third law, which states that the squares of the periodic times of the planets are proportional to the cubes of their mean distances.
periodic times of the planets are known with the highest accuracy, because an error of any importance in the assumed value
The
of a planet's periodic time would in the course of oft repeated revolutions attain a cumulative magnitude that would inevitably
lead to
its
detection.
Since then the periodic times in the solar
system are known, the values of the major axes of all their orbits can be computed if that of the earth's orbit be taken as unity.
Repeated observations of the right ascensions and declinations of the planets will give further particulars of their orbits. deduce from such observations the longitudes of their ascending
nodes and the inclinations of the planes of their orbits, as well as the eccentricities and the longitudes of the perihelia. Thus
We
302
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE SUN
[CH. XIII
taking the sun's mean distance as unity, the other measurements That is we know the form of of the planetary system are known. the system and all that is lacking is what we may term its scale.
If therefore
we can measure
in terms of the earth's radius the
mean
distance of any one planet we obtain the scale of the whole system. Thus by measuring the parallax of Venus as the transit of Venus
enables us to do,
we
distance of the sun
learn the distance of Venus and thence the and the other dimensions in the solar system.
This method will be considered in the next chapter. It is of much historical interest, though it may now be considered to be superseded by methods b and c.
The
methods
c
parallax of a planet exterior to the earth as supposed in
b
among the
can be obtained by observing its displacement from different observing stations. In the case of the two stations are in different geographical localities as in the
c
and
stars
method employed in observing the moon ( 95). In the process marked b there is but one geographical station, and the base line is obtained by the diurnal movement which between evening and morning carries the observer some thousands of miles. This method has the great practical advantage that observations can be continued for several months about the time of the planet's
opposition when it lies as nearly as possible between the earth and the sun. There can be no doubt that the observation of a
minor planet is much the best method of determining the distance of the sun by direct measurement, for as the minor planet is a starlike point its apparent distances from the neighbouring stars admit of being measured with a high degree of accuracy. The gravitational methods II. and the physical methods III. have many points of great scientific interest. It must, however,
always be borne in mind that the problem before us is purely one of geometrical measurement and that for this purpose methods
involving only geometrical considerations, such as the methods in group I., must be deemed more reliable than the methods of
II. and III., which depend to some extent on physical assumptions that cannot pretend to geometrical rigour. It will illustrate the history of the problem of the sun's
groups
distance to examine briefly the successive values of the mean equatorial horizontal solar parallax used in the nautical almanac
during the 19th century.
99100]
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE SUN
to
303
1833 the adopted value was 9". The origin of It was perhaps chosen merely as a round number, based upon observations of the parallax of Mars on the meridian, and the preliminary results from the transits of Venus of
this is not clear.
From 1801
1761 and 1769.
From 1834 to 1869 the value in use was 8"'5776, derived by Encke from his discussion of the transits of Venus. From 1870 to 1881 the parallax 8" 95 was used, as found by Leverrier in 1858 from the parallactic inequality of the moon. From 1882 to 1900 the value was 8"'848, as found by Newcomb in 1867 from a discussion of a number of determinations by different methods (Washington Observations, 1865, Appendix II.). The conference of directors of nautical almanacs which met at

Paris in 1896 decided to adopt from 1901 the value 8"'80, derived from Sir David Gill's heliometer observations of minor planets and
supported by the results of other methods.
*100.
Parallax of
an exterior planet by the diurnal
method.
We shall describe briefly the investigation carried out by Sir David Gill at the Island of Ascension of the parallax of the planet Mars during the opposition of that planet in 1877. The opportunity thus taken advantage of was particularly favourable for the determination of the parallax by the diurnal method from a station near the equator, since the parallax of the planet had attained
nearly
its
maximum
ralue.
The programme of work was to measure each evening and morning the distance of Mars from selected comparison stars, whose places were well determined by cooperation of a number of observatories in meridian observations.
downwards from the
Since the effect of parallax is always to displace the planet zenith, the displacement with reference to the
Thus stars will be in opposite directions evening and morning. the change in the position of the observer by the rotation of the
earth in the interval between the time at which the observations
are
made
in the evening
and
in
which they are repeated
in the
following morning gives the base line required for parallax determination.
For the investigation of the parallax of Mars
it
would not
304
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE SUN
[CH. XIII
be always practicable to find suitable stars close enough to the planet to admit of the necessary measurements being made unless
an instrument possessing the exceptional range of the heliometer were employed.
principle of this instrument, so important in The heliometer astronomy, may be indicated here.
The
modern
is
an
equatorially mounted telescope constructed to measure directly the distances of neighbouring points on the celestial sphere. The essential feature of the heliometer lies in its bisected
The object glass is cut in two along a diameter, and object glass. the two halves are mounted on slides which can be separated by sliding them equal distances in opposite directions along the
line of section
and perpendicular
to the axis of the telescope.
The
separation of the segments is measured by two scales, placed almost in contact along the inner edges of the two slides. The principle of the procedure depends on the optical fact that
when the image of a star made by one part of the object glass is coincident with the image of a star made by the other part, then the angle between the two stars equals the angle subtended at the focus by the distance through which onehalf of the object glass has
A
B
been moved relative to the other.
Thus the
scale
measurement of
this distance provides the means of determining the arc between In this way angular distances up to 7000" may be the two stars.
accurately measured by the heliometer, while the ordinary micrometers for measuring the arcs between adjacent stars are hardly available for a twentieth part of such a distance.
The apparent
in a state of continuous
distance between the planet and the star will be change for various reasons. As to the
change caused by refraction, we have already considered it in We may however remark that for the present purpose 48. where the distances are much greater than those already pre
sumed the more extensive formulae
Heliometers, p. 96) will
of
Seeliger (Theorie
des
be often required in the practical conduct of the work, though it will not be necessary for us to discuss them in this place. There will remain two other causes of change
in the apparent distance which must now be attended to. The actual motion of the planet in the interval will of course be the
cause of some alteration, and the parallactic displacement experienced by the planet but not by the star and for which we
100]
are
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE SUN
will
305
now searching must calculate.
have an
effect
on the distance which we
Let a, 8 be the geocentric R.A. and decl. of a planet when T is on the meridian, and let a, 8 be the rates of change of these two Then the quantities by the motion of the planet per sidereal day.
geocentric R.A. and decl. of the planet at the sidereal time ^ will be a + ofe, & + 8^. The hour angle of the planet is Sa, and we
(p. 287) that the corrections to be applied to the coordinates of the planet to obtain the apparent cogeocentric sec 8 sin (^ ordinates are respectively o cos a) in R.A. and <j>
o
have already seen
sin
(j>
cos 8
+ <T
O
cos
<
sin 8 cos
(^
a) in decl.
where
CTO is
the
horizontal parallax of Mars. To obtain the apparent coordinates of the planet at the time Swe unite the two different corrections, and thus obtain for the
apparent right ascension and declination
a
and
8
+ 6& + 8*^
<TQ o
cos
sin
<f>
sec 8 sin
(S
a),
<f>
</>
cos 8
+ o
cos
sin 8 cos (^
a).
At the
a
sidereal time &' these coordinates will
<r
fl
become
+ a$r' 8 + &y
cos
sin
<
sec 8 sin
cos 8
(S'
a),
<f>
<T O
(f>
+ o
cos
sin 8 cos (^'
a),
and hence in the time interval S the apparent coordinates have undergone changes Aa and AS where
V
will
Aa = a O'  *)  2cr AS = B (y  ^)  2o
cos
cos
<
sec 8 sin
sin B sin
(y  *) cos
<>'
(' +
& 2a),
<}>
 ^) sin
 2a). (>' + ^
Let ^ be the angle between the geocentric position of the point with coordinates a, 8, i.e. the centre of the disc of the planet Mars
and the
star
or
,
B
.
Then
cos 6
= sin B
Q
sin 8
f
cos 8 cos 8 cos
(
a)
(1).
The small change A#
AS
in the value of 6 arising from changes Aa, in the values of a and 8 is determined by differentiation
sin
#A0 =
{sin S cos 8
cos 8 sin 8 cos
(
a)]
AS
(
+ cos 8
Substituting in this the values for
0,
cos 8 sin
a)
Aa.
.
.(2).
Aa and AS we
<
obtain an
equation involving A0,
,
,
8
,
8,
a
,
a, a, 8, ^', S,
and
<TO .
Of
these
quantities a 8 a, 8 being the coordinates of the star and planet at a certain time are known, d, 8 are known because the
B. A.
of the
20
306
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE SUN
[CH. XIII
of the planet with regard to the surrounding stars is determined by repeated independent observations made carefully with this particular object. 6 is known because it can be calculated from
a, 8,
,
movements
B
by
(1).
The
quantities
<
V,
S
are the times
of observation and therefore
observer.
.
known, and
is
the latitude of the
and 0means of measuring the distance between the planet and the
This
is
Thus equation (2) reduces to a relation between A0 The heliometer, as we have already stated, provides the
star.
repeated when the bodies have reached the suitable position some hours later. The difference between the two distances is A0
and thus
o
becomes known,
for
we have
just
shown how
it
can
be expressed in terms of A#. In the practical application of this process there are many technical matters to be attended to and for their discussion we
David Gill's work. To obtain increased accuracy observations obtained during the whole period in which the many planet is in or near opposition and thus at its smallest distance
must
refer to Sir
from the earth have to be combined.
Such
is
in outline the principle of the determination of the
solar parallax
by the diurnal method,
for
when
o
the horizontal
parallax of Mars has been ascertained, we can find the parallax of the sun in the manner explained in 99.
The
result of the
observations at Ascension Island was to
assign a horizontal parallax of 8"'778 to the sun. When a numerical value has been deduced as the outcome of an
investigation it is customary and extremely useful to supplement the numerical value by expressing also what is known as its
Thus in the present case the probable error is probable error. stated to be + 0"'012. The meaning of this is as follows. The
exact parallax of the sun is unknown, but what is known, so far as this research is concerned, is that 8"'778 must be very nearly the exact parallax. It is practically certain that this result cannot be
two seconds wrong or one second wrong, and it is highly improbable that it could be half a second wrong; on the other hand it might
it is probable that it is 0"'002 wrong and highly probable that it is at least 0"'001 wrong. There must be some fraction of a second between, shall we say, 0"'001 and 0"'5 which would possess the character that the error of the determination was as likely to be below this fraction as above it. In the
perhaps be 0"*01 wrong, and
100]
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE SUN
307
present case the discussion of the observations showed it to be as 0"'012 probable that the parallax lay between the limits 8" 778

and 8"778
+ 0"'012
as that
it
did not.
In this case 0"'012
is
the
probable error, and the smaller the probable error of a determination the narrower are the limits within which the quantity probably lies and the better the quality of the investigation by which it has
The statement of the probable error of any deterthe numerical method of indicating the degree of confidence with which the result should be accepted.
been found.
mination
is
may possibly introduce appreciable error into the determination of the solar parallax from observations of Mars. The effect of the dispersion of light in the atmosphere
is
There
one cause which
at considerable zenith distances
disc of the planet, blue
is
to give a coloured fringe to the
above and red below, which in the case of a reddish planet observed in a blue twilight sky would make the
planet appear systematically too low, and apparently increase the It is therefore preferable to employ parallactic displacement.
minor planets, whose discs are indistinguishable from stars. This was done in 1888 and 1889 by Sir David Gill at the Cape, working in conjunction with four observers in the northern hemisphere, during oppositions of the minor planets Victoria, Iris,
Annals of the Cape was not found to occupy a station near the equator, and the diurnal possible method was replaced by the method of making more or less
results are discussed in
and Sappho.
The
Observatory, Vols. vi.
and
vii.
On
this occasion it
simultaneous observations at stations separated by great disprinciples of the calculation are very similar to those developed above, but the details are more complex and more difficult to illustrate by examples of the actual procedure.
tances.
The
We
have therefore chosen the earlier work to illustrate the method
of determining the solar parallax by the heliometer, though the results of that work have been superseded by the value of the parallax derived from the three minor planets, viz.
7r
= 8"8020"005.
may perhaps be regarded as the best that can at be derived from direct observation, but it may be superpresent seded when the photographs and measures of the planet Eros made during the opposition of 19001 have been completely
This value
202
308
discussed.
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE SUN
[CH. XIII
Eros comes nearer to the earth than any other planet,
offers exceptional
and therefore
advantages in this problem.
Ex. Let <o De the geocentric latitude of the observatory, <f> its astronomical latitude, h the hour angle, 8 the declination of a planet, and A its distance from the earth in terms of the mean radius of the earth's orbit. Let the value of the solar parallax be 8" '80.
at
Show that the motion of the planet any moment at the rate of s 4 3 '69 x I/A x cos $ cos
(
in R.A.
due to change of parallax h per day,
is
sec 8 cos
is
and the corresponding rate
2" 3
in declination
<
x I/A x cos $ cos
sin 8 sin
h per hour.
Vol. LX. p. 545.]
[Mr Hinks, Mon. Not. R.A.S.
*101.
The
solar parallax
from the constant of aberration.
is
When
the constant of aberration
known, and the velocity
of light in kilometres per second, we can find the of the earth, and thence the mean radius of the
mean
velocity earth's orbit
and the sun's
parallax. It follows from p. 260
and Ex.
3, p.
261 that
if
K
fj,
is
the constant of aberration,
the observed velocity of light,
e
the eccentricity of the earth's orbit,
in seconds of arc
n mean motion
of earth during sidereal year of 365*256 days per second of mean time,
p the equatorial radius of the earth,
7r a
the equatorial horizontal parallax of the sun,
?= pn cosec 1" Kp V 1  e
2
then
7r a

.
Putting p
= 6378249
~
kilometres (Clarke),
360 x 60 x 60
24 x 60 x 60 x 365256
~
15
365256
'
fj,
= 299860
kilometres per second (Newcomb, Astro
nomical constants),
le = 0999719,
2
we have
so that
7r a
ir a
=
180
2//c,
= 8"803
if
K be 20"'47.
100103]
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE SUN
of this indirect
309
The value
is
method of finding the
solar parallax
impaired by the curious discordance in recent determinations of the constant of aberration K. All determinations of this constant
made before 1892 were necessarily entangled with the then unknown variation of latitude 61). Special precautions have been
(
taken to eliminate this in subsequent work, but the latest results
are
still
somewhat
uncertain.
*102.
The
solar parallax
by
Jupiter's satellites.
is
at which an eclipse of one of the satellites of Jupiter observed is later than the time at which it actually takes place
The time
to the fact that light does not travel instantaneously from the satellite to the earth, and the interval varies with the varying The law of this variation is distance of Jupiter from the earth.
owing
known
then
with great accuracy, and there is little uncertainty in the experimental determination of the velocity of light in space. If
it were possible to compute with accuracy which the eclipse takes place, and to observe with the instant at which it appears to take place as earth it would be possible to calculate successively
the instant at
equal accuracy seen from the
the time which
the light had taken to travel, the distance of Jupiter from the earth, and the distance of the earth from the sun. Owing to the
unsatisfactory state of the theory of the motions of Jupiter's satellites, and the difficulty of observing with sufficient accuracy the instant when the satellite is exactly half immersed in the shadow,
the determinations of the distance of the sun hitherto
made by
this
Recent measures of the places of but little weight. of the satellites made at the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good
method are
Hope, by Sir David Gill, Dr De Sitter, and Mr Bryan Cookson, have however improved the elements of the orbits of the satellites; and Prof. R. A. Sampson has discussed the photometric observations made by Professor E. C. Pickering at Harvard College
Observatory which
*103.
will, it is
hoped, reduce the second
difficulty.
The
is
solar parallax
from the mass of the
earth.
There
a well determined relation between the masses of the
earth and the sun, the equatorial radius of the earth, the length of the seconds pendulum, and the distance of the sun, which is
310
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE SUN
[CH. XIII
the basis of the lunar theory. If ira is the solar parallax, and the ratio of the mass of the sun to that of the earth,
3
M
TTa
M =[835493]
(Newcomb, Astronomical Constants, p. 100). The value of may be derived from the perturbations in the motions of the other planets, particularly Venus and Mars, As the result of an produced by the attraction of the earth.
M
exhaustive discussion of the whole subject, for which reference may be made to the above work, Professor Newcomb concludes
that the value of the solar parallax derived by this method is 8"'76, and that "unknown actions and possible defects of theory
aside,
this value
is
less
open to doubt from any known cause
than any determination that can be made." In view of the divergence of this result from the mean of all other good determinations
of the solar parallax, the reservation is important, for there are outstanding discrepancies in the motions of the inner planets
which are at present unexplained. But it may be remarked that in thirty or forty years time this method may perhaps be applicable in a new direction. It has been shown by Mr H. N. Russell of Princeton University, New
Jersey, that there of the planet Eros
in time afford
is a large periodic inequality in the motion due to the attraction of the earth, which may a new and effective method of determining the
mass of the
*104.
earth.
The
solar parallax
from the parallactic inequality
of the moon.
One
greater
depends upon the
of the principal inequalities in the motion of the moon fact that the perturbing effect of the sun is
when
the
moon
is
is in
the half of her orbit nearer to the
The result of this is an whose coefficient is proportional to the solar parallax. inequality It has been shown by Prof. E. W. Brown that the hitherto accepted theoretical value of this coefficient (Delaunay's) is somewhat erroin the other half.
sun than when she
neous.
Prof.
Brown
finds (I/on. Not. R.A.S. Vol. LXIV. p. 535)
is
that
if
the value of the solar parallax
8"'790 the expression
for the parallactic inequality is

124" 92
sin
D,
103104]
THE GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX OF THE SUN
311
where
the moon's ecliptic longitude. If the solar parallax has any other value ir a the coefficient of sin becomes
is
,
D
D
124"927ra /8"790.
This
If
is
we compare
7r a
.
the value derived from the theory of the moon's motion. it with the value of the coefficient derived from
observation of the
value of
coefficient
Moon we have a means of determining the The most recent and accurate determination of the by observation is that made by Mr Cowell from a
discussion of the Greenwich observations of the moon, 1847
1901 (Mon. Not. R.A.S. Vol. LXIV. pp. 96, 585), where he gives the value 124" '90. Equating the theoretical expression to the
observed,
we
find ira
8 //> 789.
It should, however, be noted that it is scarcely possible to separate completely the observed value of the parallactic in
equality from the uncertainty in the semidiameter of the moon, and this may affect the deduced value of ?ra by at least 0"'01.
For a discussion of
this question, reference
may be made
to a
number
of papers R.A.S. Vols. LXIV.
by Mr
Cowell and Prof. Turner in Mon. Not.
and LXV.
CHAPTER
XIV.
ON THE TRANSIT OF A PLANET ACROSS THE SUN.
PAGE
105.
106.
107.
108.
Introductory Tangent cones to the sun and planet both regarded as spherical Equation for determining the times of internal contact
.
312
314 316
318
.
Approximate solution of the general equation
contact
for internal
109.
On
the application of the transit of Venus to the determination of the sun's distance
.......
320
322
Exercises on Chapter
XIV
105.
Introductory.
If the orbit of Venus were in the plane of the ecliptic then whenever the geocentric longitude of Venus was the same as that of
the sun the planet would appear near the centre of the solar disc. About three hours previously the terrestrial observer would have seen the planet entering on the sun's disc, about three hours later
its
the planet would pass off from the disc and during the six hours of passage the planet would be said to have been in transit across
the sun's disc.
As
the orbit of Venus does not
of a transit of
lie
in the plane of
Venus are by no phenomena so simple as the hypothetical transit just indicated. means The inclination of the orbit of Venus to the ecliptic is 3 23' 35", and it may therefore happen and indeed generally does happen that when Venus and the sun have the same geocentric longitude, the planet passes above the sun or below the sun and so a transit does
the
ecliptic the
not take place. It is indeed obvious that a transit cannot occur unless the apparent distance of the planet from the sun's centre is
less
than the sun's apparent semidiameter.
But owing
to the
may happen that even at a conthe apparent distance of the planet from the sun's centre junction may be many times as much as the sun's apparent semidiameter.
inclination of the orbit of
it
Venus
The geometrical
relations of the sun, the earth
at the time of a transit can be studied
and the planet by supposing that the
diameters of the earth and the planet are evanescent in comparison
105]
ON THE TRANSIT OF A PLANET ACROSS THE SUN
is
313
with the diameter of the sun so that the earth
its
centre
E and
is
represented by
Venus by
its
centre V.
If a transit
should be a tangent to the solar globe. It is therefore easy to see that the small angle expressing the heliocentric elongation of Venus from the earth at the moment of commencement or ending
of a transit of Venus must be approximately (i b)/br when is the radius of the sun and r, b the respective distances of Venus
EV
on the point of commencing or of ending the line
R
R
and the earth from the sun.
If
we take the mean value
of the
sun's apparent angular semidiameter to be 16' and for r and b the values 1 and 0*72 respectively, we find that the required elongation
is
approximately 16' x 28/'72

= 6''2.
It thus appears that at a
transit the heliocentric elongation of
Venus from the earth must
not exceed about
6'.
The
conditions under which the transit takes
place and its variations as seen from different points on the earth's surface are so complicated as to require a general investigation of the problem to which we now proceed and in which we shall
regard the sun and the planet as exact spheres.
FIG. 77.
When
a transit of
Venus
is
about to commence the circular
disc of the planet, Fig. 77, comes into apparent contact with the This initial stage of the phenomenon is circular disc of the sun.
known
as the first external contact
and
is
denoted by
I.
The planet
then appears to enter slowly upon the disc of the sun, and in due course the next stage II known as first internal contact is
reached.
From
brilliant
this point the planet,
now seen
as a black disc
on the
background, advances across the sun's disc and
third critical
after the lapse of perhaps four hours reaches the
314
ON THE TRANSIT OF A PLANET ACROSS THE SUN
is
[CH.
XIV
stage III at what
known
as second internal contact.
Then the
planet begins to pass off the sun's disc, and finally arrives at IV or last external contact, and the phenomenon is at an end. As
the external contacts cannot be observed so satisfactorily as the
internal contacts the former are comparatively of small importance, and our attention will be devoted to the two internal contacts
II and III.
of
To understand the geometrical problem involved in the transit Venus we shall imagine a line drawn from the observer to T the
It is evident point of apparent contact of the globes in stage II. that this line, though meeting both spheres, does not cut either of
them. It must therefore be a common tangent to the two spheres. But such common tangent lines to the two spheres are generators
of that common tangent cone which has its vertex exterior to the two spheres and hence we see that at the moments of II and III the observer must be situated at some point on that tangent cone. At the moments of external contact represented in I and IV the observer must be situated at some point on the other common tangent cone, namely that one which has its vertex between the
two spheres.
The theory of the transit of Venus must therefore be based on that of the common tangent cones to two spheres which will be discussed in the next article.
Ex.
Assuming that the
inclination of the orbit of
Mercury to the plane
of the ecliptic is 7 0' 8" and the longitude of its ascending node is 46 52' 19", show that for a transit of Mercury to take place near that node, when the
sun's diameter is 16' 11", the heliocentric longitude of the planet
must be
>44
106.
40'
and <49
5'.
Tangent cones to the sun and planet both regarded
as spherical.
Let 0, C, Fig. 78, be the centres of the sun and the planet of which the radii are R, rl and let b denote 00. Then the double
tangents
PQ
and
ST
meet
OC
in
L
and
M
the vertices of the
common
tangential cones to the two spheres. Let #!, y lt 2l be the coordinates of C with respect to three Then rectangular axes through the origin 0.
with the upper signs are the coordinates of
L
and with the lower
105106] ON THE TRANSIT OF A PLANET ACROSS THE SUN
signs are the coordinates of
315
M.
If x, y, z are the coordinates of
any
point F on
the cone with
its
vertex at
L then the coordinates of any
FIG. 78.
will be obtained by assigning certain other point on the line and g in the expressions values to
PL
/
fx + gx.RKRr,}
fy + gyi R/(R  rj
fa + ggl R/(R ri )
f+ff
f+9
FL
2
f+ff
these coordinates are substituted in the equation of either of the spheres they will give a quadratic in fjg corresponding to the
When
two points in which
sphere with centre
meets that sphere. becomes
2 2
This equation for the
f
2
2
(x
+ f + z  R ) (R  r,) + 2fgR (xx + yy +
l
l
zzl
2
}
 R + RrJ (R  rj
2
+gR
2
2
2
{b
 (R  n) = 0.
Expressing the condition that this quadratic shall have equal roots because FL touches the sphere we find for the equation of the common tangent cone with vertex L
(xxl
+ yy + zz,  R + RrJ = (x + f + z R )(b
2 2
l 2 2 2 2
2
R
2
+ 2Rr r
1
2
1
)
(1).
In like manner we obtain for the cone with
2
its
vertex at
M
(2).
(xxl
+ yy^ + zz, R  Rr^ = (a* + y* + z* R>) (# _ R*  2Rr,  r?)
Seen by an observer on cone (1) between Q and L the two Seen circles appear on the same side of their common tangent. by an observer on ST produced beyond T the two circles are on
opposite sides of their
common
tangent.
316
*Ex.
ON THE TRANSIT OF A PLANET ACROSS THE SUN
1.
[CH.
XIV
If the equations of the
two spheres were given in the form
tf + (z 22 )
2
 r<? = 0,
show that the equations of the
common
tangential cones would be
l
 xi) (x2 xl } + (yy {(a?
l
}(y2 yj + ( e zl )(g2 z ) r?
^ r2} 2
and explain the geometrical meanings of the
*Ex.
2.
different factors in this equation.
(1)
Show
that the equations of cones
and
(2)
may
also be ex
pressed in the form
(xxl
*Ex.
to OC,
3.
If
from the point
.
F (Fig. 80) the line FG be drawn perpendicular
(1).
show that
OO OC PF. PQ=R (R  rO,
and hence obtain the equation
107.
Equation for determining the times of internal
transit of
contact II and III.
The
Mercury or Venus across the
sun's disc
must
take place, as we have seen, when the planet is sufficiently near one of its nodes, the limits being sin" 1 (cot i tan D] on either side
of a node, where
i is
semidiameter of the sun.
its
the the inclination of the planet's orbit and We shall suppose the planet to be near
D
to the internal contacts
ascending node on the ecliptic, and we shall confine our attention and obtain the equation by which they are
determined.
The axes
follows
is
:
of reference and the symbols to be employed are as
+X
4
the origin of coordinates at the sun's centre.
is
from
towards T.
the celestial point of long. 90 and the nole of the ecliptic.
lat. zero.
T
The
+Z
oc,
coordinates of the observer with respect to these axes are z and those of the centre of the planet are xl yl} z^. 0' is the centre of the earth. O'X', O'Y', O'Z' are the axes through 0' parallel to OX, OY, OZ, and x, y, z' are the coordinates
y,
,
with respect to O'X', O'Y', O'Z' of the point on the earth's surface occupied by the observer.
106107] ON THE TRANSIT OF A PLANET ACROSS THE SUN
317
X
r,
is
the earth's heliocentric longitude. b are the radii vectores from sun to earth
and Venus.
p
is
is
the distance from the centre of the earth to the observer. the geocentric latitude of the observer. the sidereal time on the meridian of the observer.
S is
fl is the longitude of the planet's
e is
6
is
ascending node. the inclination of the planet's orbit to the ecliptic. the angle round swept over by the planet in its orbit since its ascending node. passing through
(i),
Equation
the planet
if for x, y, z, x'', y', z' ,
106, determines the times of interior contact of x1} y1} z we substitute
:
+ x' .................................... (i), y= rsinX + z= = p cos cos S= p cos cos sin ^ + p sin o> sin ......... (ii). y' = p sin to cos sin ^ + p cos G> sin z
x
r cos \
t/'
=
'
so
<
ft>
<f>
<f>
1
<
ac=
y
ZL
'
b cos fl cos
b sin fl sin 6 cos e
......... (iii).
= 6sinH cos # + 6cos fl sin #cose = b sin 6 sin e
:
These equations are obtained as follows The coordinates of 0' are rcosX, rsinX, 0, and to find x, y, z we must add severally to the coordinates of 0' the corresponding
FIG. 79.
318
ON THE TRANSIT OF A PLANET ACROSS THE SUN
,
[CH.
XIV
coordinates x'
y', z'
of the observer with respect to the parallel
x', y', z'
F
axes through 0'. We may obtain equations (ii) for is the position of the observer,
FH
from Fig. 79 in his meridian and
which
the
X'H
terrestrial equator.
A plane
through the earth's centre parallel to
the ecliptic meets the earth's surface in X'Y'and X'Y' = 90. As O'X' is parallel to OT the arc X'H which is increasing by the
earth's rotation
must be the west hour angle of T
is,
1
for
the meridian
If
FH
of the observer, that
the local sidereal time ^.
FQ
be
perpendicular to
X'Y'
the coordinates of the observer relative to
the axes through 0' are therefore
= p cos FX y = p cos FT = p sin FX' cos (FX'H co\ z' = p sin FQ = p sin FX sin (FX'H a>),
so'
',
'
and thus since
sin
FX' cos FX'H = cos
cos
oc, y', z'
sin
'
S,
<
sin
FX' sin FX'H =
(2).
sin
<j>,
and
FX = cos
cos ^,
we
see that
have the values shown in
In Fig. 80 C is the centre of the planet and J the ascending node of its orbit on the ecliptic TF. If be perpendicular to the ecliptic and T F=90, the coordinates xl} y1} z of G are
CW
>
6 cos CT, b cos
CY,
b sin
CW, and from
(iii).
the formulae
(
1)
we
obtain
the values of cc^y^,
108.
z^ given in
Approximate solution of the general equation
are
for
internal contact.
We
xXi
now
to
make
the
substitution
indicated in
the
preceding
article,
l
and we have
fl)
+ yy + ZZL = br {cos 6 cos (X
'
+ cos e sin 6 sin (\
sin
fl)}
cos
X + 2ry
\+f
107108] ON THE TRANSIT OF A PLANET ACROSS THE SUN
319
3
,
We
R*/r*,
next avail ourselves of the fact that
2
r^/fr, p*/r
,
pR^/r
and
being respectively about
2
2
,
1/(18000)
1/(23000)
,
2 1/23000 x 215
,
and 1/21 5 4
,
are very small quantities (see Table of elements of the solar system at the end of the volume) and may be neglected as insensible.
Thus we
find
2
approximately
z
2
O
+ f + z  R^ = r .R /2r + x' cos X + y' sin X, = b  R*/2b + Rrjb. {6 (R ?Y) }2
2
2
106, becomes, after substitutions, equation (1), taking the square root of both sides and rejecting the negative sign for the radical because that relates only to the passage of the planet behind the sun,
cos 6 cos (X
Making these
=
The
1
fl) + cos e sin 6 sin (X H)  R (r  6) /2r 6 + Ri\ (r  b)/rb* + (x'b cos X + y'b sin X x'x^ y'y
2 2 2 2
l
z'z^)\rb
. .
.(i).
are seeking, does not appear explicitly in the equation as at present written. It is, however, implicitly contained in the expressions for X, 0, x, y, z',
is
time, which
the
unknown quantity we
#u y\ zu s that the equation appears to be of great complexity. But this complexity is unavoidable because the equation as it
y
stands at present has to apply to transits of the planet for all time When we restrict our view to a single transit past and future.
all
the equation admits of reduction to a manageable form giving that is necessary for that particular transit. We begin by considering the times at which the transit would
if it
commence and end
earth, in
could be viewed from the centre of the
y',
which case x,
z'
are
all
zero
and the equation may
be written
cos 6 cos (X
fl) + cos e sin 6 sin (X H) = 1  R (r  &) /2r 6 + Rr, (r  b)/rb
2 2 2 2
2
(ii).
^
side of this equation expresses the cosine of the angle subtended at the centre of the sun by the centres of Venus and
Each
the earth. If 6, X be the known rates per hour at which the true anomalies of Venus and the earth are increasing, and if t and ti be the Greenwich mean times at which the earth and Venus
respectively arrive at the node,
e
= et
$
we have approximately x  n = x*  *.
320
ON THE TRANSIT OF A PLANET ACROSS THE SUN
the occasion
6th, 1882,
6
[CH.
XIV
On
r
of the most
recent
transit
of
Venus on
December
we had
= 09850,
= 07205,
= 0004663, n = 000004026,
earth from the sun
is
when the mean distance of the With these figures unity.
R> (r 2 2 2 6) /2r 6
taken as
= Q'000001510, R ri (r  b)/rb* = 0'000000097.
ti)
.
The equation may
cos
i/r
therefore be written as follows
cos
:
= cos 6 (t
i/r
\ (t
to)
+ cos
sin
(t
^) sin
X (t
t ) (iii).
= 1Thus
it is
is
0000001413
5' 47", so
ti)
a small angle of
that as e
is
3 23' 31"
easy to see that neither 0(t
nor
X (t
1 )
can exceed
therefore express this equation with sufficient accuracy as follows
140'.
We
may
:
1
 H< ~ O & ~ i (t ~ *o) ^ + fa(t  t,) (t  Qcos e = 1  0000001413,
2
2
2
which gives a quadratic for t in which all the other quantities are known. When the substitutions for 0, X, e, t ^ are made it is found that the roots of this equation are real, which shows that a
,
transit takes place. a transit. If they
were imaginary there would not be were equal then Venus would appear just to
If they
graze the sun's limb. Suppose the real roots of the quadratic are t', t" and that t" > t'. Then t' is the time at which the planet will appear to
leave the disc (III).
enter fully on the sun's disc (II) and at t" the planet will begin to The duration of the transit is t" t'. Thus
if it
the problem has been solved for the transit of Venus be viewed from the centre of the earth.
could
On the application of the transit of Venus to the 109. determination of the sun's distance. This application depends upon observations of the second and third contacts made from different stations, and we have first to
obtain the theoretical expressions for such times of contact. see from equations (ii) and (iii) ( 107) that we may write
We
x'
= pa
and
^ = ba
lt
108109]
ON THE TRANSIT OF A PLANET ACROSS THE SUN
a 1(
e
/3j
321
where
</>,
a', ft', 7',
S, to,
O, 6 and
last
and % are functions of the several angles and are independent of the linear quantities
in
p and
b.
Thus the
becomes
term
equation
(i),
108, viz.
y'y^
:
(x'b cos
X+
y'b sin sin
X
x'x^
z'z^/rb,
(a'
cos
X+
ft'
To obtain the times
contact, as seen
x'y'z',
we
first
t' and third by the observer whose terrestrial coordinates are compute A' which is the value of
 cc'^  '&  Y^I) pA*+ A' and t" + A" of second
X
'!
+
fi'/SL
+
yj!
X,
of
cos
X
/9'
sin X,
t'
when
the values of
S,
6 and
corresponding to the time
have
manner A" expresses the value of the same function corresponding to the time t". Thus we have for
been introduced.
In
like
the second contact
cos
ir
sin ^
.
^A' =1 R>(r 6) /2r
2
2
6
2
+ R^ (r  b)/rb 2
A'p/r,
whence we obtain
and consequently the observer at
the time
t'
as',
y', z'
sees second contact at
+ A'pfr^sm^
for
........................ (i).
In like manner
it is
shown that
the same observer the time
of third contact will be
tf'A"p/r^rsin^
and accordingly
for this observer
..................... (ii),
the duration of the transit from
second to third contact will be
t"t'(A' + A")p/r^sin^ ............... (iii).
If the
if for this
same
transit be also observed from another station
and
second station B', B" be the quantities corresponding to then the duration of the transit as there seen will be A', A",
t"t'(B'+B")p/r^sm^
Hence
two
if
............... (iv).
D
be the difference between the durations of the
from the
transit of the planet from second to third contact as seen
stations,
we have
D = (B' + B"A'A")p/r^sin^ ............ (v).
In this equation A', A", B',
B. A.
B"
are calculated by the formulae
21
322
of
^r is
ON THE TRANSIT OF A PLANET ACROSS THE SUN
107.
[CH.
XIV
The angle ty is given by the equation (iii), 108, and obtained by differentiation with regard to the time.
If finally
D is
r
is
found from equation
determined by observation, then as p is known, This is the famous method of deter(v).
mining the
two
sun's distance proposed
both second and
stations.
It requires that third contacts should be observed at each of the
by Halley.
There
is
also another
method of deriving the distance
of the
sun from observations of the transit of Venus, which bears the name of its originator, De Lisle. This method has the advantage
over Halley 's that only two successful observations instead of four
are needed and consequently the risks of failure are correspondingly reduced.
by bad weather
Suppose that the times of observed second contact are obtained at two stations, then the interval will be from (i)
1
(t
+ A'pf'njr sin i/r)  (t + B'p/r^ sin
1
\Jr)
= (A'  B'} p/r^jr sin ^.
we
shall
If therefore this interval can be determined
have an
equation Of course
for r.
De Lisle's process can also be applied to a pair of of third contact made from two different stations. observations
The
chief
drawback
to the transit of
Venus
as a
method
for
the determination of the sun's distance arises from the difficulty of observing exactly the moment of contact between the disc of
the planet and the limb of the sun. The movement of the planet is so slow and the limb of the sun is so illdefined that an uncertainty of observation.
several
seconds
is
liable
to
be
found
in
each
EXEECISES ON CHAPTER XIV.
Ex.
nearly
1.
Show
^ sin z where
that A', the quantity used in equation (i), p. 32, is very z is the sun's zenith distance and where the observer is
supposed to be in the plane which contains the centres of the sun, the earth
and the planet.
Ex. 2. Explain why Halley's method of determining the Solar Parallax by the Transit of Venus would not be equally applicable to the Transit of
Mercury.
Taking the
maximum
If therefore
value A' = ^sinz
<r
we
see
that At' = a sin
z/\^
or
it
osin0=v^A^. is obvious that the smaller
is
to be obtained
from an observation of A'
the smaller will be the effect of errors in the
109]
value of
ON THE TRANSIT OF A PLANET ACROSS THE SUN
A' on the concluded value of
<r.
323
The quantity
^ is
inversely propor
which in the case of Mercury is an error of determination of the moment of contact of Mercury will produce more than five times as much error in the concluded parallax of the sun as in the case of Venus. It is supposed that the zenith distance of the sun is the same in both cases.
tional to the synodic period of the planet, 116 days and in that of Venus 584. Hence
Ex. 3. Prove that there will be a transit of Venus, provided that when the planet crosses the ecliptic, the heliocentric angular distance between the The sun's apparent angular semiearth and Venus does not exceed 41'. diameter is taken as 16', the distance of Venus from the sun as 72 times
the earth's distance, and the inclination of
its orbit to
the ecliptic, sin" 1 1/17.
I.
[Math. Trip.
Ex.
sign
4.
1902.]
had
If in taking the square root of the equation (i), 108, a negative been given to the radical instead of the upper sign as has been
actually used, show that the solution of the equation thence obtained would, as is there stated, refer to those occasions on which the planet passed behind
the sun. Ex. 5. Supposing the planes of the earth's equator and the orbit of Mercury to coincide with the ecliptic, show that to an observer in latitude (p, on the same meridian with an observer at the equator who sees Mercury projected on the centre of the sun's disc at midday, the duration of a transit
will be
2A hours nearly, when
r (r b)<*h
+ bp cos (p sin (irh/l 2) = */R 2 (rb) 2 b2 p 2 sm'<p,
b being the radii of the orbits of the earth and Mercury, R, p the radii of the sun and the earth, and CD the difference of the apparent horary motions of Mercury and the sun. [Math. Trip.]
r,
If
77
be the hour angle of the sun when the transit commences
2>;,
its
duration
will be
x = r cosXp
ooscp cos(; + X),
(>;
x l = bcosd,
#!
z1
X p cos<p sin
+ X),
= & sin #>
=0.
Expressing the condition that the line from the observer through Mercury (supposed a point) touches the sun,
(
r2 + p 2
_ 2rp cos ^ C os ^  ft?) (b 2  R2 = {br cos (6  X)  bp cos
)
cos
(17
+ X  6}  R 2} 2
(17
,
which
may
2 2
be transformed into
2
j;
R
This
{r
+ b +p 2  2rp cos (p cos  2br cos (6  X) + 2bp cos <p cos +X  6)} = b {rsm(6\)p cos (p sin (6  X  2 + b p 2 sin 2
2 2
r,)}
<p.
is
the equation
account of smallness,
b {r (6
when none of the quantities have been rejected on but if we remember that 6 X, p/r, R/r are all small,
sin
17}
the equation reduces to
 X) +p cos
<j>
We
is
also
have
a>ri
= (6\)b[(rb)
= V.ft2 (r b) 2  &V sin 2 (p. where = 71^/12, and the desired
17
result
obtained.
212
324
ON THE TRANSIT OF A PLANET ACROSS THE SUN
[CH.
XIV
Ex. 6. In five synodic periods the motion of the planet from its node is about 2 22' less than 13 complete revolutions, and a transit across the sun will take place when the planet's distance from the node at the time of its conjunction with the earth is less than 1 43'. Deduce a general explanation of the fact that the intervals between successive transits of Venus recur in the order
8,
121,
8,
105^ years nearly.
?
Will this order of recurrence be perpetual
[Smith's Prize Exam.]
Ex. 7. Supposing that objects can be observed only when their altitude that the greatest possible interval between accelerated greater than a, show and retarded ingress of Venus in transit obtainable on the earth is about
is
(ll
of
m 35 s cos a, the solar parallax being taken as 8" 93, and the periodic times ) Venus and the earth to be 224'7 and 365'25 days respectively.
[Math. Trip.
I.]
Ex. 8. If the orbits of Venus and the earth be regarded as circular and coplanar with the earth's equator, and if the periodic times of Venus and the earth be respectively 224'7 days and 365'25 days and the solar parallax be 8"'93 if also ^ and t% be the moments at which ingress (or egress) of Venus
:
on the sun's disc be observed at two stations on the parallel of (p, and if hi and A 2 be the west hour angles of the sun at the two stations at the moment of observation respectively, show that the number of minutes in the difference
of observed ingress (or egress)
is
given by the equation
tl
 1 2 = (5 m 794) cos (p
Ex.
5,
(sin
^
sin
^\
.
We have from
b
jr
(6
 X) +p
cos
<p
sin
^
1
= x/^ (r  6) 2  by sin
2
(p.
Let
br
6 = nit+e l ,
X = w 2 ^ + f2>
(j  n 2 )
tj,
+ br
( fl

f2)
+ bp cos (p sin
^=
Liu
br
(j  n 2 ) h + br ( fl  e2 ) + bp cos <p sin
^=
\.2t
whence
r
(%  n 2 ) (^ t2 ) = p cos (p (sin ^~ \
sin ^rlij
1
.
J
)
But ni and are respectively 0000019419 and 0000011947, being the Also angle in radians described by Venus and the earth respectively in l m = 893 sin 1", and substituting these values the desired formula is obpjr
.
%
tained.
109]
Ex.
9.
ON THE TRANSIT OF A PLANET ACROSS THE SUN
325
Taking the orbits of the eai'th and of Mercury to be circles of and O387 respectively, the parallax of the sun to be 8"'80 and his diameter 32' 4" find the greatest inclination of Mercury's orbit to the which would allow of a transit being visible at some place on the ecliptic
radii I'OOO

;
earth at every inferior conjunction.
[Sheepshanks Exhibition.]
Ex. 10. It is found that at two places on the earth's surface in the plane of the ecliptic and at opposite extremities of a diameter of the earth, the differences of times of ingress and egress of Venus at transit over the sun's
disc are ll m 19 s
period of Venus to two decimal places.
ll m 21 s respectively. Being given that the synodic is 584 days, calculate the sun's parallax in seconds of arc
and
[Coll.
Exam.
1900.]
11. Assuming that the diameters of the earth and Venus are negthe heliocentric elongation of Venus from the earth at show that the moment of the commencement or the end of a transit, is given accurately
Ex.
ligible,
v/,
by the equation
6V cos
2
V/
 2brW
cos
6,
^ + PP (6 2 +r  6V
2
)
2
=0,
where R is the sun's radius and from the sun's centre.
Ex. 12.
r the distances of
Venus and the earth
Let
A,
6 be the heliocentric angular velocities of the earth and
Venus, x the
heliocentric elongation of the earth from Venus when the planet is crossing the ecliptic, e the inclination of the orbit of Venus, the angle denned in Ex. 11. Show that if a transit of Venus is to take place
^
x ^> ^
(6
\}j6 sin e approximately.
Ex. 13.
latitude of
Show that if a Venus must be
transit of
^>v/^
Venus is to take place the heliocentric when the planet is in conjunction with the
earth in longitude and that neither the heliocentric elongation of the earth nor the planet from the node can exceed ^ cosec e.
CHAPTER XV.
THE ANNUAL PARALLAX OF
110.
STARS.
PAGE
111.
Introductory Effect of annual Parallax on the apparent Right Ascension and Decimation of a fixed star
Effect of Parallax in a star
326
330
333
112.
113.
114.
of an adjacent star Parallax in latitude and longitude of a star On the determination of the parallax of a star by observation Exercises on Chapter
.
'........
S on
the distance and position
336 338
.
XV
344
110. Introductory. In the investigation of the distance of the moon or a planet we have found that a base line of adequate length can be obtained if its terminals are properly chosen terrestrial stations,
By measurements from both ends
distance can be ascertained.
If the
of the base line the required
to
measurement
of the distance of a star
is
be effected
the base line to be employed must be a magnitude of a much higher order than the diameter of the earth (see p. 279). The base
line for
our sidereal measurements
is
is
the diameter of our earth's
annual orbit which
diameter.
(206265/8'80)
=
23400 times the
earth's
The
terrestrial observer is transferred in six
months
from one end of a diameter of the earth's orbit to the other.
From each end
of the diameter he
makes observations of the
is
apparent places of a star, and if there between those apparent places, the
an appreciable difference
of determining the
means
distance of that star are provided. Let p be the mean distance of the earth from the sun, and r
the distance of the star from the sun, then p/r sin 1"
is
denned
to
be the annual parallax of the star. It is the number of seconds of arc in the vertical angle of an isosceles triangle of which p is the
110]
THE ANNUAL PARALLAX OF STARS
327
denote
the
base and r each of the equal sides. the annual parallax by the symbol cr.
We may
for brevity
Let
star,
T
(Fig. 81) be the earth,
be the sun, and
S be
and draw TS' parallel to OS. Then TS' is the true direction of the star, i.e. the direction in which it would be seen from the sun's centre, and the angle S'TS=TSO is the
of parallax on the apparent As this angle is of the star. place very small we may replace its sine
effect
itself, and denoting the star's elongation STO from the sun by we have for the Parallax
by the angle
E
in seconds of arc
Z T80 = sin E
Hence we
from
its
.
p/r sin I"
= a sin E.
Fl0 81
'
'
see that the effect of parallax is to throw the star
place towards the sun through an angle which is to the sine of the angle between the star and the proportional or the product of the annual parallax a and Thus a sin sun.
mean
E
the sine of the star's elongation from the sun shows the parallactic
displacement. It should be
remarked that
ia
so far as the present
work
is
concerned
considering stellar parallax, neglect the ellipticity of the earth's orbit and regard p as a constant. The diameter of the earth's orbit amounting to 186,000,000
miles provides the longest base line available to the terrestrial for his measurement of star distances. The distances
we may,
astronomer
of the great majority of stars are, however, so vast, that the changes in their apparent positions, when viewed first from one
end of this base
line
and then from the
other, are
hardly ap
largest annual parallax known up to the present preciable. It is the first on the following list is that of a Centauri 0"'75.
The
(Annuaire
public, par le Bureau des Longitudes). It will be obvious from this list that the determination of the
is
parallaxes of stars
a work of
of
much
The annual
parallax 1/8,600,000 shows that the earth's orbit viewed from that star would appear no larger than a circle a foot in radius would appear
Arcturus
delicacy and refinement. having a circular measure
328
CO
THE ANNUAL PARALLAX OF STARS
[CH.
XV
110]
THE ANNUAL PARALLAX OF STARS
a distance of 1630 miles.
329
be
when viewed from
It will readily
admitted that the determination of the distance of an object about 1630 miles away from observations made at the ends of a base line
It is only two feet long would be a very delicate undertaking. the accumulation of a long series of careful observations only by in which the errors of observation are gradually eliminated that
success can be obtained.
Even the
are of but
little
best meridian observations of the places of the stars service for the determination of stellar parallax.
class
We
require for this purpose observations of the
If a
star
termed
and what this term signifies will now be explained. were at an infinitely great distance its parallactic displacement would be zero, and its place would therefore be the same when seen from all points of the earth's orbit. The great majority of the stars have a parallax too small to affect our measurements. In such a case we make no appreciable error by treating it as zero, and the observations now to be considered are those in which the position of a star which is affected by parallax is compared with a star which has no parallax, but is so placed that, as projected on the celestial sphere, the two stars seem closely adjacent. The two stars should appear sufficiently close to be in the same field of view of the telescope. We then make differential measurements of these two stars. In this way certain
differential,
errors, for
example, those arising from the flexure of the instru
ment and many others, are eliminated, for they affect both stars equally. The influence of refraction can also be allowed for
also be
with accuracy, because the irregularities in the refraction may presumed to affect both stars equally, and will therefore
If the second star
is
disappear from a differential measurement.
also near
to
have an appreciable parallax then the result enough determined is the difference of the parallaxes of the two stars.
The observations made
position angle ( repeated on as
are usually those of the distance and the
stars.
49) between the two
These observations,
many occasions as possible throughout the course of at least one year, afford the data by which, after due reduction,
the parallax
Ex.
in
1.
is
to be determined.
If
light
which
Ex.
2.
a be the annual parallax of a star and n be the number of years from that star would reach the earth, show that n = 13/40.
that the light from 61 Cygni of which the parallax is 0"'37 come from the star to the earth. (See Table, p. 328.)
Show
takes 88 years to
330
THE ANNUAL PARALLAX OF STARS
[CH.
XV
Effect of annual parallax on the apparent right 111. ascension and declination of a fixed star.
If r be the distance of a star from the centre of the sun,
a,
8
the true R.A. and decl. of the
of the sun,
r', a', 8'
star,
i.e.
those referred to the centre
the corresponding coordinates referred to the the longitude of the sun, p its distance centre of the earth,
from the earth, and a> the obliquity of the the fundamental equations as in 93
r' cos 8'
ecliptic,
then we have
= r cos 8 cos a + p cos = r cos 8 sin a + p sin cos &> r' cos 8' sin sin w r sin 8' = r sin 8 + p sin
cos a
a.'
.
(i),
(ii),
(iii),
whence we obtain
tan a
= r cos 8 sin a 4 p sin ~
r cos 6 cos a
4
cos
p cos
^
2
to
,
but as
(a'
a) is
a small quantity expressed in seconds of
arc,
tan
a' = tan (a + a'
= tan a + sec a)
a (a'
?
a),
whence, using <r to denote the annual parallax, the annual parallax in R.A.
'
pjr,
we obtain
a
=
a
sec 8 (cos a cos
(i)
w sin
(ii)
sin a cos
)
.
.
.(iv).
Squaring and adding
small compared with
r'
2
and
and remembering that p
is
r,
cos2
8'
=r
2
cos2 8
+
2rp (cos 8 cos a cos
+ cos
8 sin a cos
&>
sin
G
),
and taking the square root we find
r'
cos
8'
= r cos 8 + p (cos a cos
(iii)
+ sin a cos w sin
sin
=
).
Dividing this into
tan o
we have
r sin 8
4
=
p sin
&> &>
r cos o
s
+ p (cos a cos
8'
+ sin
a cos
sm
r
(z> )
Substituting for tan
the expression
tan 8
+ sec 8(8' 8),
2
we deduce the annual
8'
parallax in Decl.
<o
8
= a [cos
8 sin
sin
sin 8 cos a cos
sin 8 sin a cos
w
sin
]
(v).
is
Thus the parallactic displacement of a star in R.A. and in decl. made to depend on the sun's longitude as the single variable element and we can avail ourselves of this fact to obtain more
111]
THE ANNUAL PARALLAX OF STARS
by the introduction of by the equations
a
;
331
quantities
a, b,
concise expressions a', b', a", b" defined
six
new
a cos a
sin b
b
= sin a
;
= cos a cos
o
= sin &> a' cos b' = cos &>
sin
b'
;
a" sin b"
sin a
;
=
a' sin (b'
S)
;
a" cos b"
= cos a sin S.
As these quantities involve only the position of the star and the obliquity of the ecliptic, they are constant throughout the year. Thus the formulae
(a
a')
= era cos (b + SS' = aa" cos (&"+),
cos B
),
enable the parallactic effect at different parts of the year to be computed with all needful simplicity by the introduction of the
corresponding values of Let $ (Fig. 82) be the true place of the star, 8' the place to which the star is apparently carried by parallax, and draw ST
.
perpendicular to S'P, where
P
is
the pole.
Then
PS =
90
8,
and we have
(aa')cos8 = ST;
showing that
displaces
era cos (b
88' = S'T,
+ 0)
is
the
star
parallel
to
the distance by which the parallax the equator. It is plain from
FIG. 82.
this
formula that the apparent place of the star as disturbed
by parallax describes an ellipse in the course of the year. For taking ST and SP as the axes of x and y respectively we have x
= aa cos (6 +
)
;
y
=
<ra" cos (b"
+
)
;
and the elimination of
gives an elliptic orbit for 8'.
332
Ex.
1.
THE ANNUAL PARALLAX OF STARS
24m 35 s
[CH.
XV
In 1876 the mean place of the great spiral nebula 51M was If its annual parallax was a and if its 8 = + 47 50'. be the sun's apparent place as affected by parallax was a, 8', show that if
a
= 13h
,
longitude
(a
 a')
cos 8 = a [9'9678] cos
8
(
+ 247
8'),

b'
=
0
[99348] cos
(+143
27').
Determine the dates on which the parallax in declination possible and find the maximum parallax in R.A.
N.B.
is
as great as
The
figures enclosed in brackets are logarithms.
Ex. 2. Prove that (assuming uniform motion of the sun in longitude) the correction to the time of transit of a star of R.A. a, due to annual
parallax, has its greatest
solstice,
<B
magnitude
.
ZTT
1 365j tan"
.
(sec
a>
tan
a)
days after a
being the obliquity of the ecliptic.
[Coll.
Exam.]
If
<r
be the
star's parallax its effect
on right ascension
cos
a>
is
a
a = a sec 8 (cos a sin
sin a cos
).
For this to be a maximum,
tan
(
 90) = sec
o>
tan
a.
~ sun's longitude exceeds that of the solstice by tan 1 (sec o> tan a) radians. But the sun describes 27T/365J radians of longitude per diem, whence the desired result.
Hence the
Ex. 3. Show that the maximum effects of annual parallax on the right ascension and declination of a star are given by the expressions
a
sec 8 ( 1
cos2 a sin 2
*
o>)
and
cr
2
(sin
<
X + sin 2
cos2 a) 2,
ecliptic,
where and a,
a
is
the coefficient of annual parallax,
is
the obliquity of the
8,
X are the right ascension, declination, and latitude of the
of (iv) for
a)
star.
I.]
The maximum value
<r
[Math. Trip.
any
real value of
is
sec 8 (cos 2 a cos 2
+ sin 2 a)^ =0 sec 8(1
any
real value of
cos2 asin 2 co)i,
is
and the maximum value of
a
(v) for
{(cos 8 sin
to
sin 8 cos
u>
w
sin a) 2 +sin 2 8 cos 2 a}^ sin a) 2
.
= =
cr
{(sin 8 cos
2
cos 8 sin
+ sin 2 a> cos 2 a} *
<r
(sin
X t sin2 o> cos2 o)
Ex. 4. Show that the general effect of the annual parallax of a star is to alter its position in the small ellipse which it appears to describe annually owing io aberration, and for a given star state how this alteration varies
with the time of year. [Math. Trip. I.] Let S be the sun, S (Fig. 83) a point 90 behind the sun and on the ecliptic. Let be a star of coordinates X, /3 and parallax a. The line OX is perpendicular to SSo.
x,
Let
Y be perpendicular to X and
we seek the coordinates
y with
respect to those axes of a star at
disturbed both by parallax and
111112]
aberration.
It is
THE ANNUAL PARALLAX OF STARS
assumed that
K
is
O/K
333
the constant of aberration and that
the squares and higher powers of
may
be neglected.
Since aberration
90
O
+X.
FIG. 83.
moves the
star along
OS
to a distance K sin
cr
star towards
S
through a distance
sin
OS and OS we have
parallax
moves the
x= < sin#sm( X)+osin/3cos(  K cos( X) + osin( X), y=
which
X),
may
be written
x=
x2
K sin
8
sin
(
+ O/K  X),
X),
y=< cos
so that
(
cosec 2
+ a IK +y2 = K*.
We thus see that taking parallax into account has simply the effect of changing the apparent place of the star on the aberrational ellipse from the
point corresponding to
to the point corresponding to
+CT//C.
Effect of parallax in a star 8 112. position angle of an adjacent star S'.
on the distance and
be the sun, TO the ecliptic, P the north pole. In Fig. 84 let 8 be the R.A. and decl. of 8 and of, &' those of the sun. Let a,
Let D, p be the distance 88' and position angle PSS' of 8' with
respect
its
to 8.
The effect on $ mean position S
The apparent
of a parallax
a
is
to
convey the star from
to an apparent position along the direction
SO, so that
ST=<rsmSO.
distance of the two stars
is
TS',
and
this is
sensibly equal to
that
SH,
a perpendicular on SS'. It follows which we shall represent as D', measures the effect of
if
is
HS'
TH
parallax on the distance
D between
the stars.
As
parallax changes
334
THE ANNUAL PARALLAX OF STARS
[CH.
XV
the direction S'S into S'T, the angle SS'T is, with sufficient approximation, the change in the position angle of S' with regard
to 8.
FIG. 84.
The
effect of parallax
:
on the apparent distance
is
calculated
as follows
but
= SH= sin ST cos TSH = a sin SO cos (P80 p), sin SO sin PSO = cos 8' sin (a! a), = sin 8' cos 8 cos 8' sin 8 cos (a' a), sin SO cos PSO
D'
find for D' the parallax in distance
8'
and thus we
D'
a
sinp cos
sin
('
a)
+
To express
a
cosp
(sin 8' cos 8
cos
8'
sin 8 cos (a'
a)}.
this in
terms of the sun's longitude we have
cos
cos
sin
o> a)
sin sin
= cos 8' cos a', = cos 8' sin a', = sin 8',
sin a sin p)
&>
and hence
D'
= a cos ( + a sin
cos a sin 8 cos p
(
sin a sin 8 cos
cos p
+ cos
8 sin
a>
cos p
+ cos
a cos
at
sin p).
In like manner we can compute TS'S or p' where p' is the correction to be applied to the observed position angle of S'fromS
112]
THE ANNUAL PARALLAX OF STARS
it
335
in order to obtain the position angle as
would be seen from
the sun
p'
= TS'S = a sin SO sin (PSO p) cosec D = or cos ( cosp sin a + sin p cos a sin 8) cosec D + a sin (4 cos a cos &> cos p + sin a sin 8 cos w sin p cos 8 sin co sin p) cosec D.
these formulae have
As
into a
much more
as the only variable they can be put convenient form by the introduction of certain
auxiliary quantities m,
M, m,
M
',
denned by expressions
in
which
an approximate value
will suffice for
p
:
m cos M = m sin M=
m' cos
cos a sin 8
cosp
sin a sin p,
sin a sin 8 cos
&> cos p + cos 8 sin &>
cos p
8,
+ cos
a cos
&>
sin p,
M' =
cos p sin a
+
sin p cos a sin
m
By
sin I/'
=+
cos a cos
a>
cosp
a sin 8 cos
&>
+ sin
these substitutions
siup
cos S sin
&>
sin p.
we
obtain
D'
= o??i cos ( = <rm' cos ( p'
<r
M
),
M') cosec D,
are expressed in seconds of arc.
in
which D' and p' as well as
Ex. 1. Compute the effect of an annual parallax o on the star No. 182 15 h 45 m 8= +39 57') with respect in Schjellerup's catalogue of red stars (a to an adjacent star without parallax at the distance 392" and position angle
=
;
340
59'.
The
The
parallax in distance expressed in seconds
is
[996381]
o
cos
(
 85
52').
parallax in position angle expressed in seconds
[268936]
o
is
cos
(
+ 13
52').
that on the 9th Jan. 1877, when =289 25', the observed distance (see last example) must have the correction 0'843o, to clear from the effect of parallax, and the observed position angle must have the cor
Ex.
2.
Show
rection 268o.
Ex.
3.
cr.
Let
a,
8 be the R.A.
p,
and
decl.
of a star which has
an annual
parallax
Let
D
be the observed position angle and distance of an
If p, 6, X,
ft
adjacent star without parallax.
are auxiliary quantities defined
by the equations
= p cos 6 sin 8', p sin 6 = cos 8' cos
X cos
(a'
p.
/^
a),
X sin
= cos 8' sin (a'  a), = p cos (6 4 8),
336
THE ANNUAL PARALLAX OF STARS
[CH.
XV
to reduce
then the correction for parallax to the observed position angle and distance them to what they would be as seen from the sun are respectively
oX
cos (P + /JL)
cosecD and
<rX sin
(p + p.),
if
we assume the
Ex.
4.
earth's orbit to be a circle.
If the observations are
show that sin(0 + 8) =
made when the star is 90 from the sun, and A2 = l, so that the expressions become
Parallax in distance
position angle
xR sin (p + p), xRcos(p+[ji) cosecZ),
;
where p
is
determined by
sin
fj.
= sin 8' /cos 8
cos
/*
= cos S' sin (a'  a).
33',
Ex.
a
5.
A
star
S at
*S"
the position
(a = 16
8= +46
51')
with a parallax
(supposed without parallax) at the position angle 91 32'. The distance of the two stars was measured on 28 Feb. 1877, when the Show apparent coordinates of the sun were a =22 46' 20", 8'=  7 48' 19".
that
has another star
+ '982<r
is
of the distance to reduce
the correction which must be applied to the observed value it to what it would have been if the observer had
been at the sun instead of on the earth.
113.
If
ft,
Parallax in latitude and longitude of a star.
\, r
be the heliocentric latitude, longitude and distance of a star with annual parallax cr, and if ft', X', r' be the geocentric
latitude, longitude
and distance of the same
its distance,
ft,
star
when
co
is
the
in
longitude of the sun and p
(i), (ii), (iii) (
then by making
X' for
8, a, 8', a',
=
(i),
(ii),
(iii).
111),
and writing
cos X'
X,
ft',
= r cos ft cos X + p cos = r cos ft sin A, + p sin r' cos ft' sin X' r'smft' = r sin/3
r cos
ft'
From
whence,
these
we obtain
r cos
ft'
sin (A/
X)
= p sin
a
(
X),
if
squares and higher powers of
X'
= p/r may
X).
be neglected,
X=
cr
sec
ft
sin
(0
From
(i)
and
(ii)
we
obtain
X),
/ cos ft' = r cos ft + p cos (
whence with
(iii)
we have
ft'
 ft =  a sin ft cos (
if

X).
the heliocentric latitude and longitude of a star of parallax a are ft, X, then the corresponding geocentric
We
thus learn that
quantities are
{ft
a
sin
ft
cos
(0
X)}
and {X
+ <r sec ft sin (0
X)}.
112113]
THE ANNUAL PARALLAX OF STARS
337
We can investigate in another way the effect of annual parallax on the distance and position angle of a star /3, X with respect to another star /3 X of which the parallax is regarded as zero. Consider the spherical triangle A, B, C, of which A is /3 X B is
, , , ;
ft,
X and C
is
fixed while
B
the nole of the ecliptic. Let the points A, C remain a slight displacement, then A6 = 0, and undergoes
(i), p.
from formulae
13,
we
have,
if
H=s'm A /sin a,
Aa = cos i?Ac + H sin 6 sin cA A, Ac = cos Aa + Hsiu a sin 6A(7,
whence, by eliminating Ac and solving
for
AA, we have
AA =
as
sin
a cosec
c cos
If the displacement of the
B&C + cosec c sin star at B arise from
Aa =
A/3
parallax, then
shown above
X) and
AC = AX = a sec /3 sin (0
where
= cr sin ft cos (0
is
X)
= 90 ft
cosec c
{
a,
and we thus obtain
in position angle or
The displacement
a
AA
cos
B sin (0
B cos (
X)
+ sin B sin ft cos (0
Ac
is
X)},
and the displacement
cr
in distance or
{sin ft cos
X)
+ sin B sin (0
X)},
where B,
c are
determined from the triangle
,
BC = 90ft, A<7=90/3
zAOB = XX
.
As a verification of these results we note that the square of the total displacement in consequence of parallax divided by cr2 must be both (sin cAA)2 + (Aa) 2 and (A/3) 2 + (cos /3AX)2 and each
,
of these reduces to sin 2
Ex.
1.
(0
X)
+ sin
2
/3
cos 2
(
X).
The
is I
;
longitude
is
o.
Show
is
latitudes of two stars are ft and /3 and their difference of the parallax of the second is insensible and that of the first that the angle between the extreme positions of the arc joining
2o ,y/{sin 2 (ft
them
approximately
sin 2
 /3o) + sin (/3
_ /3 +sin 2ft sin 2ff sin 2 %Z} sin 2 $1+ cos 2 /3 cos 2 /3 2/3 sin 2
)
sin 2
'
1
As
[Math. Trip.
the displacement in position angle by parallax
a
I.]
is
cosec c
{ cos B sin
(
X)
+ sin.Z?sin/3cos(
2
/3
X)},
its
extreme values must be
2o
cosec c (cos 2
B+ sin
sin 2 .5)^,
B. A.
22
338
THE ANNUAL PARALLAX OF STARS
,
[CH.
XV
and in the triangle whose sides are 90 /3 90 /3 and included angle I the angle opposite 90 /3 is B, and c is the side opposite I, whence B, c can be eliminated and the desired result is obtained.
Ex.
star
2.
Show
that the greatest variation in the apparent distance of a
a
S with
is
parallax
from a star
2o (sin
2
>S"
which has no parallax,
is
when
the latitude of
>S'
ft B+sin*B)$, and where B is the angle which S' and either
cos 2
pole of the ecliptic subtends at S.
Ex. 3. Prove that the cosine of the angle between the directions in which a star is displaced on the celestial sphere by annual aberration and by annual parallax is
2 2 4 sin 2 2 ( X) cos [4 sin /3+cos X)]~*, where )3 is the latitude and X the longitude of the star, and the longitude of the sun. [Coll. Exam.]
sin 2
(
*114.
On
the determination of the parallax of a star by
to
observation.
We
are
now
distance and position of a star a star S' which has no parallax
If
show how by continued observation of the S which has a parallax cr from
we can determine the value
of
cr.
that the question was not complicated by any in one or both of the stars S and 8', and if we could proper motion also assume that the errors of our observations were insignificant
in comparison with the quantity sought, then the determination of the parallax from observations either of the distance or the position
we could assume
angle would be a simple matter. Suppose that the distance from
S
is
to S' as seen from the sun
was D, then the observed distance
D D
1
where
in
which
ra,
M are
known because
these are determined once for
all for
(
112).
the particular pair of stars by the formulae already given and _D2 are made l Suppose that two observations
D
when the
longitudes of the sun are
x
and
2
,
then we have
the equations
whence we have
ff
for the parallax
=
m (cos
__
D^D^ + am cos (j  if), D = D + am cos (  M\
2
2
(
2
 M) 
A
P.
cos
(!  M)}
'
113114]
THE ANNUAL PARALLAX OF STARS
339
determined.
A A
A (A
All the quantities on the righthand side being known, <r is As errors are unavoidable in making the observations
will
course unknown, but the effect of which on small as possible. If Ao be the error in
be necessarily erroneous to an extent which is of <r we desire to have as cr caused by an error
differentiation
A), then by
we have
'
A To have
possible.
m {cos
and
(
A (A A) M )  cos (,  M}\
(
2
Ao as small as possible
{cos
we must have A (A
cos
(
a
A)
we
as small as possible
M)
M)} as large as
by making our
The former
condition
we seek
to attain
observations with the utmost care.
For the
latter condition
choose certain particular dates for the observations. If 2 and i M=180, then the denominator of ACT becomes
M=
2m
Hence by choosing the dates of our observations on the two days six months apart, when = 180 + and 2 = respectively, we have the most favour!
and
it
cannot exceed this amount.
M
M
able conditions and obtain
Ao
= A(AA)/2m.
It happens that the parallaxes of all stars, so far as at present known, are so small that two observations as here supposed would not suffice for our purpose. Where the parallax is only a few tenths of a second and where the casual errors of observation may
be a few tenths of a second a single pair of observations cannot give a reliable result. Not fewer than 30 or 40 observations fairly
also
distributed over the year would be necessary, and
we now
discuss
the procedure to be adopted, adding however the remark that in the actual conduct of the investigation various minor points not
here treated of must be attended
search for the parallax to be
to.
We
shall
suppose the
made by
observations of the distance
88', though such an investigation can also be made from observations of the position angle. Suppose that at n epochs tlt t2 ... extending over a year or
,
measurements A> A. At of the apparent distances between 8 and 8' have been obtained. We shall assume that these observations have been already corrected for refraction by the principles explained in 48 for finding the effect of refraction on the apparent distance of two adjacent stars.
longer,
222
340
THE ANNUAL PARALLAX OF STARS
[CH.
XV
In the first place there will generally be a small proper motion of one or both of the two stars by which their distance is continually changing.
As the
distance of the stars
is
many times
greater than the relative proper motion during the year over which the observations extend, we shall introduce no appreciable error by regarding the change in distance due to this cause as
being simply proportional to the time. It is thus distinguished from the parallactic change which is essentially periodic. If there is any relative proper motion the apparent path of
the star
is
not of course the ellipse which parallax alone would
make make
it, it,
nor the straight arc which proper motion alone would but rather a sinuous arc which is the resultant of both.
It often
happens that the change due to proper motion greatly exceeds the displacement due to parallax. The increase of the distance between the two stars by their
relative proper
motion we shall represent by yt, where y is an which will be determined in the course of the investigaunknown tion and where t is the fraction of the year which has elapsed since
Jan. 1st preceding. The true distance between
S and
so
S' as
shall
it
the sun on Jan. 1st
is
unknown,
we
would be seen from assume it to be x, and
is
hence the true distance at the time of observation ^
Let
x
for parallax to
be the sun's longitude at the time 1} then the correction be applied to the observed distance l is as already
D
shown
crmcos
(a
is
M),
and consequently the true distance
A + am cos (!
am cos (j
omcos(
2
M).
similar equations for all the other epochs,
Equating these values of the true distance and forming the we have
M) M)
D D =
l
2
,.,.
x + ytn
o"m cos
(
M)
Dn =
Thus the observations give n linear equations among three unknowns x, y, <r, so that the same investigation which finds the
114]
parallax
of
THE ANNUAL PARALLAX OF STARS
341
S
shows us
also
beginning of the year and y the
distance increases.
x the true distance 88' at the annual rate at which that
doubt three of these n equations would suffice for finding Dlt D2 and D3 were absolutely accurate. But owing to the errors in D lt Dz D3 it is found that the values of x, y, <r from any three of these equations will not precisely satisfy the remaining equations. The only possible course is to obtain such values for the three unknowns as shall give the most reasonable rex, y,
a
No
if
,
For this we must adopt the presentation of the whole sy stem. method of least squares, of which we shall now explain the
principle.
We shall denote by (A) dA the probability that in making a measurement of some unknown quantity an error shall be committed which lies between A and A + cA. This important function
<
(A) is called the error function and its form is to be determined from the assumption that if c^, a2 ... a n are n measurements conducted under uniform conditions of such an unknown quantity as the arcual distance between two stars, then the arithmetic mean (0^ + a2 + ... + an )/n is the most probable value of that
<
quantity.
Let x be the value of the unknown, then the errors are x), (a 2 (an x) and the probabilities that each of these x) errors shall be separately committed are respectively (a^ x),
(CLL
. . .
cf>
It follows from the laws of probabilities that the probability that just these errors shall have been committed is the continued product of all the separate probabilities or
<J)
(
2
x)
. . .
<
(a n
x).
(ft
(a z
x)
.
<f>
(a2
x)
.
.
.
<
(a n
x}.
regard this function as the expression of the probathat x is the true value of the unknown. Therefore the bility value of x which makes this function a maximum is the most probable value of the unknown. Equating the logarithmic differential of this expression to zero
We may
we have
x)
$ (!  x)
.
(a 2
<f>'
(a n
x)
(a n #)</> (a n

= 0.
342
THE ANNUAL PARALLAX OF STARS
But by our fundamental assumption
this equation for
[CH.
XV
x must
not differ from
(!
whence we obtain
x)
+ (a
2
#)+...
+ (an
x)
= 0,
(aj
x)
<f>
(!
x)
(a2

_
x)
<f>
(a 2
#)
in
<
which
h? is
a constant.
We
thus see that the error function
(A) must satisfy the condition
*'**'
and consequently
where
.A is
a constant introduced by the integration.
As some error (zero of course included) must have been comoo to mitted the sum of the probabilities for every error from
+
oo
must be
unity,
whence
<A
/+oo 00
.
rfA
=A
r+oo
I
r
e**A!
00
dA = Ahr
+ oo
<
1
J
J 00
and we have to evaluate this definite integral. Let a surface be formed by the extremities of perpendiculars of length e~^ erected at every point P in a plane where r is the
distance
of
P
from a fixed point
in the plane.
is
Then the
volume between the surface and the plane
I
e r\2Trr.dr
Jo
= 7T\
=
TT.
Jo
But if rectangular axes x and y are drawn through volume of the surface can be shown to be equal to
C+co
J
00
the
r
+00
r +<*>
e x*ydxdy
J
OO
=\ J
e~^dx =
1
r+>
_
VTT.
whence
I
J
00
Hence we
see that 1
= Ahr
VTT,
and consequently we have
for
the error function
VT
114]
THE ANNUAL PARALLAX OF STARS
343
The Method of Least Squares.
and
p,
q,
Let k be an observed quantity r unknowns connected with k by the linear equation
k
= Ap + Bq +
Cr,
quantities depending on the circumstances of each particular observation. Then for a series of observations klt k2 ... kn we have a series of equations which
are
where A, B,
C
known
may be
written as follows
,..v
kn  A n p  Bn q 
Cnr=
p,
If our observations were perfect there should be values of = 2 = ... = n 0, but this is q, r which would make Aj
A
A =
probability that all these errors is the product of the probabilities that each one should singly have arisen, i.e. the probability of the occurrence of just this system of errors is
generally
AJ,
not
true.
The
A
2
,
...
shall
have arisen
/
I
h \n = e h*(* *+*f++***)
}
l
VVTT/
The most probable values
make
this quantity greatest,
be a minimum.
q, r will therefore be those which and therefore A^ + A 22 + A n2 is to Thus we have the method of least squares
of p,
. . .
which consists in determining
(kj,
p,
2
q,
r so that
2
 A^p Btf 
2
C,r)
+ (k  A p  B
2
q
 C r) +
2 2
...
+ (kn A npBn qCn r)*
shall
be as small as possible.
of the method of least squares in such a can be perceived in a very elementary manner, as follows. problem To satisfy as nearly as possible the group of equations found by making all the righthand members of (ii) zero we should have
The reasonableness
values for p,
residuals
q,
r which shall on the whole
2,
make the
actual
A
1?
A
...
An
A!
as
small
as
possible,
and symmetry
suggests that some expression like
W + A 2W +
. . .
& nm
should be
for
must be an even integer made a minimum. Plainly otherwise there would be no assurance that even if the sum
m
344
THE ANNUAL PARALLAX OF STARS
all
[CH.
XV
was small the individual quantities would simplest process would therefore be to make
be small.
The
is
m = 2,
which
the
method
of least squares. Applying this principle in the present case to the determination of the parallax <r of a star from observations of its distance,
we have
to
make
the following quantity a
minimum.
2 2
{as
+ yt^  am cos (
7/4
a
+ [x f
<rm cos
(0 2
M}  A} M) A]
+ {a + ytn  <rm cos (
 M)  A}
2

We equate to zero the differential coefficients of this expression with regard to as, y, a taken as independent variables and thus we have as the fundamental equations by which a, y, cr are to be
determined
08,
 omZ cos (!  M)  2A = 0, x^ + y^  om^i cos (!  Jf)  2*iA = 0,  M) + yZt! cos (  M)  am2 cos (,  M) cos (0!  2A COS (0 M)=0,
nx + y^t'
2
x
a
in
which the summations represented by
x, y,
a
2
extend from 1 to
not only
n.
cr
Solving these linear equations for
we determine
the annual parallax but also x the mean distance of the two stars at the beginning of the year and y the annual rate at which their proper motions affect the distance.
principle of the method of least squares is of the utmost importance in Astronomy, for there are so many problems in
The
which we have to find the most probable solution of equations whose number exceeds that of the unknowns. (See Appendix to
Vol.
II.
of Chauvenet's Practical
and Spherical Astronomy.)
EXERCISES ON CHAPTER XV.
Ex. 1. The parallax of 61 Cygni is 0"37 and its proper motion perpendicular to the line of sight is 5"2 a year compare its velocity in that direction with that of the earth in its orbit round the sun.
;
[Math. Trip.
If
I.]
n be the number of seconds in the annual proper motion of a star at the distance r miles, then in one year the star moves rn sin 1" miles. If the star's annual parallax is <r seconds, then a sin 1" = a/r, where a is the sun's mean distance. Hence the star's annual movement is an/a: The earth's annual movement is 27r and hence the ratio of the star's velocity to the earth's velocity is n/27ra: In the present case this reduces to 2'23.
114]
THE ANNUAL PARALLAX OF STARS
345
Ex. 2. Prove that, if the sun have a proper motion in space towards a point in the heavens of right ascension A and of declination D, the rates of variation of the coordinates of a star, right ascension a, declination 8,
annual parallax
.
cr,
contain terms of the form
_cr cos
~T
.
D sin (a
cos
fi
A)
:_
cr
cos
D cos (a A] sin (80)
cosc/>
'
~~T~
(8
(/>)

_~a
cos
f~
D cos (a
A} cos COS0
where tan c/> = tanZ>sec(J.a), a is the radius of the earth's orbit, T is the time of the sun's traversing the distance a, and f is the velocity of separation of the sun and star. [Math. Trip.]
The axes
(0,
sun at the time
of x, y, z are drawn through an origin at the position of the t = to the points whose E.A. and decl. are respectively
;
0)
;
(90,
0)
(0, 90).
The coordinates
at sin
of the sun at the time
at sin D/T.
t
are
at cos
If
x', y',
8,
A
cos D/T,
A
cos D/T,
d are the coordinates
r sin a cos
8,
r cos a cos
of the star with respect to the origin and r sin 8 the coordinates of the star with respect to
>
parallel axes
through the sun, rcos a cos 8=x
r
D/T ..................... (i), sin a cos 8=y' at sin A cos D/T ..................... (ii), r sin 8= z? at sin D/T. ............................. (iii).
at cos
A
cos
Squaring and adding and observing that a
to
is
very small with reference
X
1
,
y',
z',
rz =x' z +y' 2
+ z *  2a (x' cos A
>
cos
D+y' sin A
cos
D+
1
z'
sin
D)
t/T,
whence by
differentiating
rr =
or
a
(x'
cos
A
cos
D +y' sin A cos D + z
A) cos (8  c/>)
sin D)/T,
f=  a (cos D cos 8 cos (A
a cos D cos (a
a)+sinDsm8)/T
.(iv).
T
Dividing
(ii)
2
cose/)
by
(i),
and reducing
atx' sin J. cos D/ T, x' tan a = x'y' + aty' cos A cos Z)/ T x' sin A)/T r cos 8 .a=a cos D (y' cos A differentiating = ar cos 8 cos D sin (a A
2 2
) IT,
whence
Finally, differentiating
cosZ) sin (a d= ~ T cos 8
cr
.4)
.
(iii),
r sin
8+r8 cos 8=
(iv),
a smD/T,
8.
whence substituting
for f
from
we obtain
CHAPTER
XVI.
ECLIPSES OF THE MOON.
PAGE
115.
116.
An
eclipse of the
moon
346
117. 118.
The penumbra The ecliptic limits Point on the moon when the
Calculation of an eclipse
.
350 351
eclipse
commences
353
119.
354
115.
An
eclipse of the
moon.
by the entrance of the moon
An eclipse of the moon is caused into the shadow cast by the earth.
The geometrical
conditions
under which this takes place will now be investigated. Let (Fig. 85) be the moon just arriving at the point T where it is in contact with PQ, one of the generators of the
M
FIG. 85.
external
common tangent
cone to the earth whose centre
is
E
and the sun whose centre entering the earth's shadow or
is S.
The moon is then on the point of umbra as it is called to distinguish
later.
it
from the penumbra to be referred to
A lunar eclipse is
accordingly commencing.
We
have
first
to calculate
Z.TEVor
the angle subtended at
115]
ECLIPSES OF THE
MOON
347
the earth's centre by a radius of the circular section of the shadow cone made by a plane passing through T and perpendicular to E8.
If
EQ' be
parallel to
PQ
we have
where r o is the angular semidiameter of the sun subtended at the earth's centre and TTO is the horizontal parallax of the sun. ' The angle may be taken to be 7r the horizontal parallax of
PTE
moon with quite and hence we have
the
sufficient accuracy for
our present purpose
We
thus prove the following statement.
The angular semidiameter subtended
equals the excess of the
at the earth's centre
by
the section of the earth's shadow at the distance of the
sum
of the horizontal parallaxes of
moon moon
and sun over the angular semidiameter of the sun. As an example we may find the angular radius of the shadow on the occasion of the total eclipse of the moon which occurred on
Feb. 8th, 1906,
when
TTO
= 9",
'
TT O
=
58' 1", r o
=
16' 13"
and con
sequently z
TEV= 41' 57".
if
This
is
the radius of the shadow
the earth's atmosphere be
But it is found that in consequence of the atmosphere the effective shadow has a radius about onefiftieth part greater than that of the purely geometrical shadow in which the atmosphere is not considered. We must therefore add 50" and thus we find 42' 47" as the effective radius of the shadow. The horizontal parallax of the moon, which we take from the
not taken into account.
ephemeris is, of course, the equatorial horizontal parallax and as, in the calculation of lunar eclipses, we shall regard the earth as a sphere, it would be rather more correct to employ a horizontal
parallax corresponding to some mean latitude such as 45 rather ' than the parallax of an equatorial station. This reduces TTO by
about one fivehundredth part of its total amount. It is, however, quite futile to attend to such a refinement in the calculation
because this correction,
if
introduced, would be
much
less
than the
margin of uncertainty unavoidably accompanying the correction introduced to allow for the influence of the atmosphere.
be the fraction of an hour per hour at which the moon's i] ascension is gaining on that of the centre of the shadow at right the moment of opposition, i.e. when the two right ascensions
Let
348
coincide.
ECLIPSES OF THE
MOON
[CH.
XVI
Then
at
t
hours after opposition the difference of the
two right ascensions is rjt. Let 8 and 8' be the declinations of the centre of the moon and the centre of the shadow at opposition and
8,
t
the rate per hour at which 8 and the declinations are 8 + 8t, 8' + 8't.
If
&
8'
change
;
then at the time
D
be the distance in seconds of arc between the centres of
at the time
t,
moon and the shadow 8 small we have from
the
then as the distance
is
D* =
(8
+ 8t 
8'
 8't) + 54000V*
2
2
cos 2
(8
+ 8'),
term we may, without appreciable error, take for the two declinations their values at opposition, and 54000 is the number of seconds of arc in one hour of right ascension. If we
for in the last
simplify this equation
by making
A = (8  8J + 54000
we have
This
is
+ 8'), B = (8 8') (8 C=(88J, D = At*+2Bt + C
2
2
?j
cos2
\ (8
8'),
2
(1).
the fundamental equation by which the various phases of an eclipse of the moon are to be investigated.
When
centres
the eclipse
is
commencing
or ending the
moon
is
just in
outer contact with the shadow and
D
1
the distance of the two
must be found (Fig. 85) by increasing the apparent radius of the shadow by rB the angular semidiameter of the moon or
A=
When
phase we must have
(7r
+ 7r r )51/50 + r
/
J)
(3).
the eclipse has become total the moon must be entirely immersed in the shadow and for the beginning and end of this
A=
Introducing
first
(7T
l
+ 7r 'r )51/50r
D
(4).
D
as the value of
D
into equation (1)
we
obtain a quadratic for t which will show if there is to be any eclipse and if so the two roots of t will give the moments at which the partial eclipse commences and ends.
The equation
AP+ZBt+CD^O
will
have as
its
roots
 El A
and
if
(B*AC+ AD^/A,
real.
there
is
an eclipse these roots must be
Whence
(5).
(TT O
+ < r
)
51/50
+ r,>(AC &)/A
115]
ECLIPSES OF THE
B,
MOON
349
As A,
and
G are
all
known
quantities
we can thus
shall
sufficient condition that there
find the necessary be at least a partial
eclipse.
The duration
and
is
of the eclipse
is
the difference of the two roots
therefore
2 for D^ substituting to be a total eclipse
By
D
we
find in like
manner that
if
there
is
(TT O
+7r 'r
)
51/50
r> (AC  &)/A
is
......... (6),
and that the duration of totality
At
the middle of the eclipse the centres of the
moon and
the
shadow are nearest to each other so that At2 +
2Bt+C
2
is
a
it
minimum.
This distance of the centres
t
is
occurs at the time
in right ascension.
=
(ACIP)^/A~ and
B/A
as measured from the conjunction
The magnitude of a partial eclipse of the moon is usually measured by the fraction eclipsed of that diameter of the moon which points to the centre of the shadow at the moment when the The radius of the umbra distance between the centres is least.
being
= (AC  B^/A^ being the r o ) 51/50 and shortest distance of the centres the magnitude of the eclipse is
(TT O
+
'
TT O

D
easily seen to
be
{(TT O
+w r
'
)
51/50
+r
umbra from the
and
its
Ex.
1.
Show
that the distance of the vertex of the
is s
centre of the earth
cosec l"/( r o
~" 7r )'
w^ ere
s
*a
^e
earth's radius
where r Q and
Ex.
TT O
are the apparent radius of the sun
and
horizontal
parallax both expressed in seconds of arc.
2.
Show
contact with the
centre
penumbra does not
that the parallax of the point where the moon comes in differ from the parallax of the moon's
third of a second of arc.
by so much as a
3.
that the duration of a lunar eclipse does not necessarily contain the instant of opposition in longitude if the eclipse be partial but
Ex.
Show
if
must do
Ex.
of the
so
the eclipse be total.
of the angular radii of the earth's
4.
The sum
shadow
at the distance
moon, and of the moon at the moment of conjunction in right ascension near a node is r. The square of the angular distance between the centre of the earth's shadow and the centre of the moon at a time t hours after
350
conjunction
ECLIPSES OF THE
;
MOON
[CH.
XVI
2 where A, J3, C involve the elements of the is At + 2Bt+C and moon's positions at the moment of conjunction, and their hourly sun's The hourly change in the parallax of the moon is w and its changes. angular radius is p. Prove that there will be an eclipse if
[A (Cr*)B}*
Ex.
< {0 (or + p)
2
25r(sr +/>)}.
[Coll.
Exam.]
when
5. Assuming the earth, moon, and sun to be spherical, prove that the moon is partially or totally eclipsed the geocentric angular
distance of her centre from the axis of the earth's shadow
sin"1 (sin
'
must be
less
than
7r
+ sin Z>)
sin" 1 (sin
d
sin
TT O '),
where TT O TT O are the horizontal parallaxes, and D, d the semidiameters of the sun and moon respectively. [Math. Trip. I. 1900.]
,
Ex.
6.
Show
that the interval between the middle of an eclipse of the
is
moon, and the time of opposition
2
approximately
,
mA m + n* cos 8 cos S
where
7
"**
m
and n are the
differences of hourly
motion of the moon and the
centre of the earth's shadow in declination and right ascension respectively, A is the difference in declination of the moon and the centre of the earth's
shadow at the time of opposition, and fi, shadow and the moon during the eclipse.
116.
'
are the
mean
declinations of the
[Coll.
Exam.]
The penumbra. Up to the present we have been considering only the case in which the moon enters the umbra or shadow of the earth. It remains to consider the conditions under which the moon enters
the penumbra in which it is partially shaded from the sun or in which an observer on the moon would see a partial eclipse of the
As the moon enters the penumbra it must come into contact common tangent cone to the earth and the sun. Let (Fig. 86) be the moon which has just arrived at the T on the internal common tangent PQ. When the moon point
sun.
with the internal
M
FIG. 86.
115117]
passes
ECLIPSES OF THE
MOON
351
T
SE
is
enters the penumbra. The line perpendicular to of the penumbral cone at the the radius of the section
it
TV
distance of the moon.
We
PQ
require to find the angle which
TV
subtends at E.
If
EQ' be z
parallel to
we have approximately
z
TEV=
ETP +
z SEQ' =
EP/ET + QQ'/ES + SQ/ES
:
This proves the following statement The angle subtended at the earth's
centre
by the semi
diameter of the earth's penumbra equal to the horizontal parallax of the moon
at the distance of the
moon
is
+
the horizontal
parallax of the sun + the sun's angular semidiameter. 115 that the equation thus see from
We
{(7T
+
W +r
)
51/50
rE } 2
= AV+
2Bt
+C
when
solved as a quadratic for t will give the times of first and last external contact of the moon with the penumbra when the
is given to r D and the lower sign is used.
upper sign
first
and
last internal contact
when
117.
The
ecliptic limits.
of earth
Let x be the angular distance of the line joining the centres and sun from the moon's node at the time the moon is
crossing the ecliptic. Let 6, <j> be the angular velocities expressed in radians per hour of the sun and moon about the earth's centre
and
in
inclination
the planes of their respective orbits, and let of the moon's orbit to the ecliptic. Let
i
t
be the be the
time in hours from the
centre through
its
moment
of the passage of the moon's
regard the triangle formed the node and the centres of the moon and the shadow as by a plane triangle and at the time t the distances of the centre
node.
We may
shadow and the centre of the moon from the node are If then D be the distance between the respectively x + 0t and (j>t. centre of the moon and the centre of the shadow we have
of the
x+
et) cos i
We
can give this equation the form
D =^
2
sin 2 i
cos
2
 26<j> cos i +
2
J
352
ECLIPSES OF THE
MOON
[CH.
XVI
As the second term may be
the
zero but can never
become negative
minimum
value of
x<j>
D
must be
sin i/(6*
 20<j> cos i + $>),
an eclipse
is to
so that if a particular phase of
occur at a given
conjunction we must have x the distance of the centre of the shadow when the moon is passing through the node within the
limit
x<D(6
where
2
20(j> cos
i
+ <j>rf/<j> sin i
moon and the we
D
is
the distance between the centre of the
centre of the shadow corresponding to the given phase. To illustrate the numerical computation of the limit of x
shall take
7r
mean
'
values as follows
D
= 9",
7r
which gives
= 3422", r = 961", r = 934", 0/0 = 3/40,  20<j> cos i + <j>rf/<j> sin i = 10'3, (0
2
=59',
and introducing the
factor 51/50 to
make the atmospheric
correc
tion as already explained, we have for the various values of corresponding to different phases of the eclipse
(770
D
(TTO
(7T
+ + +
W + r 51/50 + r,= W + r 51/50  r = 591, <  TQ) 51/50 + r =
)
90'2,
)
B
D
576,
(TT O 4
W r
)
50/51
 r = 26'5.
D
Applying
when the moon
to these quantities the factor 10'3 we learn that if is at one node the sun is 15'5, 10'2, 9'9 or
will
4*6 respectively from the other the moon
partially enter
the penumbra, wholly enter the penumbra, partially enter the umbra or wholly enter the umbra.
Of course as these results are obtained only for mean values they must be accepted as only average results. The particular values of the several quantities given in the ephemeris should be
employed when accuracy
Ex.
1.
is
required.
duration of totality of a lunar eclipse is
Show
that the
maximum
A hours
)
approximately,
TO,
,
if
([,
s,
m
the atmospheric influence be neglected, and where 7r , are the horizontal parallaxes, semidiameters, and hourly
motions in longitude of the sun and moon, respectively, and i is the inclination of the moon's orbit to the ecliptic, [Math. Trip. I.]
117118]
Ex.
full
2.
ECLIPSES OF THE
MOON
353
Show
moon
the sun
that an eclipse of the moon will occur, provided that at is within nine days of the moon's node.
[Coll.
Exam.
1905.]
is
Ex.
3.
If the distance of the
moon from
the centre of the earth
taken
to be 60 times the earth's radius, the angular diameter of the sun to be half a degree, and the synodic period of the sun and moon to be 30 days, show
that the greatest time which can be occupied by the centre of the moon in passing through the umbra of the earth's shadow is about 3 hours.
[Coll.
Exam.]
Determine the greatest latitude that the moon can have at the instant of opposition in longitude that a total lunar eclipse may be possible, having given the moon's parallax 61' 32", the moon's semidiameter 16' 46'', the sun's parallax 9", the sun's semi diameter 15' 45", and the inclination of the moon's orbit to the ecliptic 5 52'. [Coll. Exam.]
Ex.
4.
Ex.
5.
Given that on 1894 September 21 the altitude of the moon was
greater than at any other time during the last nineteen years, show that an About what eclipse of the moon must have taken place on 1895 March 10. hour did the moon culminate at London on 1894 September 21 ?
(The length of the synodic month is 29 days, the lunar parallax may be taken as 1, the inclination of the orbits of the sun and moon as 5 and the semi diameters of each as 30'.) [Coll. Exam.]
118.
It
Point on the
moon where
the eclipse commences.
first
remains to find the point on the moon's limb which begins to be eclipsed.
Let M, V, Fig. 87, be the centres of the moon and the shadow Let respectively when the first external contact takes place at T.
P
be the pole, then
MP
crosses the moon's limb at
N, the most
northerly point on the moon's disc.
We
require to find the angle
FIG. 87.
B. A.
23
354
ECLIPSES OF THE
MOON
[CH.
XVI
NMT,
= 8 &' where &' and 8 are and ML = V and respectively, which are known because, as we have already seen, the time of the first contact is known. We have therefore
as a plane triangle the declinations of
i.e. the angle measured anticlockwise round the moon's limb from the most northerly point to the point of contact. Draw VL perpendicular to PM. We may with sufficient accuracy regard VML
M
PV PM
COB
NMT (V S)} VM,
whence Z
NMT
is
determined.
In like manner the point on the
finally
moon's limb at which the obscuration
determined.
If r be the distance
departs
is
also
between the centres of the moon and the
r%
shadow and
if
R
be the radius of the shadow and
that of the
moon, then R + r$ r is the greatest portion in shade of any lunar diameter and the ratio of this to the diameter or (R + r^ r)/2rs
is
said to be the
Ex.
magnitude of the
eclipse.
In a partial lunar eclipse the first contact with the shadow occurs at an angle a from the most northerly point of the moon's limb toward the east, and the last contact at an angle /3 towards the west. Prove that the proportion of the moon's diameter eclipsed is
where
s
and
in are the
semidiameters of the shadow and
moon
respectively,
the upper sign being taken when the moon's centre passes to the north of that of the shadow and the lower sign when it passes to the south. Let P be the pole, T\ T2 the first and last points of contact of the moon
,
with the shadow of which the centre is V. Then since and PTZ are inclined at only a small angle and Tt T2 is small we have  T^ VT^\ (a+/3) or 180  \ (a + j3), whence the shortest distance of the centres of the moon and
PT
shadow
is
is
(m+s) cos(a + /3).
The
greatest part of a diameter in
shadow
therefore
and the
ratio of this to
2m
is
the quantity required.
119.
Calculation of an eclipse.
of the
formulae we shall compute the total eclipse moon which occurred on Feb. 8th, 1906. The following are the data (see Nautical Almanac, 1906,
illustrate the
To
p.
483):
The epoch
Greenwich mean time of conjunction of moon and centre of shadow in R.A. is
or
19 h
49 m
59 s
118119]
ECLIPSES OF THE
MOON
355
9h
Right ascension of moon at epoch Moon's declination at epoch = 8
Declination
of
=a
...
28
m
22 s
16"
14 14
48'
centre
of
shadow
...
at
...
...
... epoch = 8'... Hourly motion of moon in
55
24 28 29 42 48
1
R. A.
=d
34
2
7
Hourly Hourly Hourly Moon's
motion of shadow in R.A.
motion motion
= d'... =8 of moon in decl. of shadow in decl. = 8'.
. . .
. .
equatorial horizontal parallax Sun's equatorial horizontal parallax ...
58
15
9
Moon's angular semidiameter = rD Sun's angular semidiameter = r Q
...
...
47
16
13
Substituting these values in the expressions for A, B, given (p. 348) we obtain
C already
D = 183000 + 354000* + 3610000Z
2
2
,
where
the
D
is
the distance in seconds of arc between the centre of
the centre of the shadow, where t is the time in hours since the epoch, and where not more than three significant
figures are retained. Solving this equation for
t
t
moon and
we have
.
=
'0491 + N/(D/1900)2 ('2198) 2
If
we make
cos 6
=
418/D, this becomes
'2198 tan
6,
= 0491
and we
the distance
find that the centres of the
D at
the
moon and the shadow Greenwich mean times
6.
are at
19 h 47 m l + 13 m 2 tan
The
shortest distance
D
is
418", for
i.e.
imaginary, and the corresponding time, m h eclipse, is 19 47 l.
would otherwise be the middle of the
To
find the first
and
last contacts
with the penumbra we
>
make
D = (P +Po + r o) 51 / 50 + n = 5499
cos e
= 418/5499 = '0760 and
tan d
=
18
!
1,
and accordingly the required times are ra m 19 h 47 + 2 h 53 m = 16 h 54 and 20 h 40 m
.
232
356
ECLIPSES OF THE
MOON
[CH.
XVI
For the
first
and
last contacts
with the shadow
51/50
D = (P+Po ro)
cos
+ r = 3510,
D
0=418/3514 = 119, tan0=8'35,
and accordingly the required times are h m h m h m l 50 2 = I7 56 9 and 21 37 '3. 19 h 47 m l
For the shadow
first
and
last
moments
)
of internal contact with the
D = (#> +Po  r
cos 6
51/50
258,
 r, =
tan
1620,
= 418/1620 =
= 375,
and accordingly the required times are m 19 h 47 ra l 49 m '4 = 18 h 57 m 7 and 20 h 36 '5.
To
find the point
on the moon's limb at which
first
contact
with the shadow takes place we have to find the decimations h m< This is l h 53 m before of the moon and the shadow at 17 57 0.
the epoch, but the moon is moving southwards in declination at the rate of 7' 42" per hour. Hence at the time of first contact the declination of the moon must have been 14''6 greater than at the
In this time the sun would epoch, and therefore it was 15 2'*9. move 1''5 north and the shadow therefore 1''5 south. Hence the
declination of the centre of the shadow at the time of
first
contact
must have been
= 14
cos
56''9.
Hence from
p.
354 we have
NMT =  360/3514 =  0102,
first
and the point of
the
contact
is
96
from the north point of
moon
To
towards the east.
find the terrestrial station
best seen
we determine the
latitude
from which the eclipse can be and longitude of the place on
the earth which will
lie directly between the centres of the earth and moon at the middle of the eclipse. The middle of the eclipse is at G.M.T. 19 h 47 m> l and therefore
2 m> 9 before the conjunction in R.A. with the centre of the shadow. /In 2 m '9 the moon moved l m< 7 in R.A. and 4 in decimation, and therefore the coordinates of the moon at the middle of the eclipse
were as follows
:
and
= 9 h 28 m 3  l m> 7 = 9 h decl. = 14 48'2 + OH = 14
KA.
26
m
6,
48'"6.
The
line joining the centre of the earth to the centre of the
moon
119]
ECLIPSES OF THE
MOON
357
will pierce the earth's surface at the point
with geocentric latitude
find the corresponding true latitude we must add to this the angle of the vertical ( 15), which is in this case
14 48'
4
6.
To
about
5'.
Hence we obtain 14
54' as the true latitude of the
station from
which the eclipse can be best seen.
longitude of the station we learn from the ephemeris that on Feb. 8th the sidereal time at mean noon was 21 h 10 m> 7. The mean time interval of 19 h 47 m l between Greenwich
find the
To
noon and the middle of the eclipse is 19 h 50 m '3 of sidereal time. Hence the Greenwich sidereal time of the middle of the eclipse is
21 h 10 m 7
for of course
is
+
19 h 50 m 3
.
= 17 h l m 0,
The right ascension of the moon m to be the sidereal time at the station in question, i.e. 9 h 26 '6.
of the station
we can omit 24 h
Hence the west longitude
17
or in arc
h
must be
h
jm.Q _ Qh
26m. 6
=
7
3 4 m. 4j
= 113'6.
of the eclipse
is
B
The magnitude
where
fe + Po  r Q ) 51/50 + r,  D}/2r
,
D
in this case
is
to
have
its
smallest value 418.
Sub
stituting for the other quantities as before
we obtain
1'64 as the
magnitude of the
Ex.
eclipse.
Show from
the following data that the eclipse of the
:
moon on
40"
1898,
July 3rd, was only partial Moon's latitude at opposition in longitude ... hourly motion in latitude
longitude
...
30'
...+ 3
40
2
38
2
61
Sun's
22
21 '4
87
Moon's equatorial horizontal parallax
Sun's
Moon's true semidiameter
Sun's
16
15
43 44
[Coll.
Exam.]
respect to the axis of the earth's shadow Hence the least distance is 35' 40" = 2140" in longitude and 220" in latitude. of the moon from the axis of the earth's shadow is very nearly
of
(30' 40")
The hourly motion
moon with
x
214
j== v
2! 1 1
= (30' 40") x 0'995 = 30' 31",
f 2t2t
which
lies
between
61' 21"4 61' 21"4
and
+ 8"7  16' 43"  15' 44" + 8"'7+16' 43" 15' 44".
p. 352.
Hence there was an
eclipse
but only a partial one,
CHAPTER
XVII.
ECLIPSES OF THE SUN.
PAGE
120. 121.
Introductory On the angle subtended at the centre of the earth by the centres of the sun and the moon at the commencement
of a solar eclipse
358
360
361
.
122. 123.
124.
Elementary theory of solar eclipses Closest approach of sun and moon near a node
the sun
.
.
364
367
Calculation of the Besselian elements for a partial eclipse of
125.
Application of the Besselian elements to the calculation of an eclipse for a given station
370
120.
Introductory.
moon were in the plane of the ecliptic As there would be an eclipse of the sun at every new moon. however the orbit of the moon is inclined to the ecliptic at an
If the orbit of the
angle of about five degrees, it is plain that at the time of new moon the moon will generally be too much above or below the
node of
sun to make an eclipse possible. But when the moon is near a its orbit about the time of new moon, then an eclipse of the sun may be expected. We have already mentioned in 58 that 8, the moon's
ascending node, moves backwards along the ecliptic under the In about 18^ years, or more accurately influence of nutation.
6798'3 days, S3 makes a complete circuit of the ecliptic, and on account of this movement the sun, in its apparent motion, passes through the ascending node of the moon's orbit at intervals of
346'62 days. We thus find that 19 complete revolutions of the sun with respect to & are performed in 6585'8 days. The lunation or average interval between two successive new moons is 29'5306
days, so that
223 lunations amount to 6585'3 days. The close approximation in the duration of 223 lunations and 19 revolutions
120]
ECLIPSES OF THE SUN
359
of the sun with respect to S3 is not a little remarkable. each differ from a period of 18 years and 11 days by no
They more
is
than half a day.
of
much
,
This curious period, known as the Saros, significance in connection with solar eclipses.
Suppose that at a certain epoch the moon is new when the sun is at S3 and an eclipse of the sun therefore takes place. After the lapse of a Saros the sun has performed just 19 revolutions with regard to S3 and therefore the sun is again at 83. But we also find that the moon is again new because an integral number of lunations (223) are contained in the Saros, and consequently the conditions under which an eclipse is produced will have recurred. Of course the same would be true with regard to the
moon's descending node. The Saros is related to lunar eclipses also. We have seen in Chapter xvi. that there is an eclipse of the moon when at the
time of
nodes.
full
moon
the sun
is
sufficiently near
one of the moon's
Thus we perceive that an
eclipse of the
moon
will, after
the lapse of a Saros, be generally followed by another eclipse of the moon, so that every eclipse of either kind will generally be
followed by another eclipse of the about 18 years and 11 days.
same kind
after
an interval of
For instance there were eclipses in 1890 on June 16 (sun), Nov. 25 (moon), and Dec. 11 (sun), and accordingly in 1908 there are eclipses on June 28 (sun), Dec. 7 (moon), and Dec. 22 (sun).
As another numerical moon it should be noted
fact
connected with the motion of the
that 235 lunations
while 19 years of 365*25 days amount to 6939'75 days. have the cycle of Meton consisting of 19 years, which
identical with
make 6939'69 days Thus we
is
nearly
235 lunations.
Hence we may generally affirm that 19 years after one new moon we shall have another new moon, e.g. 1890 July 17 and
on the point of commencing or ending, the circular disc of the moon as projected on the celestial sphere from the position of the observer is in external contact
is
1909 July 17. When an eclipse of the sun
with the projected disc of the sun. It is evident that at this moment a plane through the position of the observer and the
apparent point of contact, but which does not cut either of the discs, must be a common tangent plane to the spherical It is also obvious that the line surfaces of the sun and moon.
360
ECLIPSES OF THE SUN
[CH. XVII
joining the actual points of contact of this tangent plane with the two spheres must pass through the position of the observer, for if
it
contact.
did not do so the two bodies would not appear to him to be in The geometrical conditions involved in solar eclipses
are therefore analogous to those which we have already had to consider in Chapter xiv. when discussing the transit of Venus.
or about to end the observer
the partial phase of a solar eclipse is about to commence must therefore occupy a position on the surface of that common tangent cone to the sun and moon
its
When
which has
case
of the lunar
vertex between the two bodies, as in the parallel 115. This cone is known as the eclipse,
penumbra, the other common tangent cone to the sun and moon in which the vertex and the sun are on opposite sides of the
moon being termed
the umbra.
The observer who
sees
the
beginning or end of a total eclipse, or an annular eclipse, be situated on the umbra. In the former the moon will
must com
In the latter a margin of the pletely hide the disc of the sun. brilliant disc of the sun is visible round the dark circular form of
the moon.
121.
On
by the centres of the sun and the moon
the angle subtended at the centre of the earth at the commence
ment
of a solar eclipse.
Let the external common tangent TQ (Fig. 88) to the sun 8 and moon JfQbe supposed to advance till it just touches the earth
FIG. 88.
E, at P, and
respectively,
let
s,
I,
p be the radii of the sun, moon and earth
= r\ and then we have from the figure
E8 = r,
EM
^PEM=6
and
^MES =
(1),
(2).
cc,
+# +s=p
r'cos0=p
120122]
ECLIPSES OF THE SUN
r'
361
Subtracting (1) divided by r from (2) divided by
2 sin
we have
^x sin (6 + ^x) = p/r' + l/r'
p/r
+ sjr,
is
but equation (2) shows that cos 9 is very small, or that 90, and hence as x is small we have very nearly
nearly
X=
'
7T
7T
+ r + TQ.
B
The
for their values
quantities in this expression are of course variable and from day to day reference must be made to the
ephemeris.
122.
Elementary theory of solar
eclipses.
(Fig. 89) be the centres of the sun and moon as would appear if the two bodies could be seen from the centre they of the earth about the time of a solar eclipse.
Let
Slt M!
FIG. 89.
Let $2 and 2 and S3 and 3 represent the centres of the sun and moon as similarly presented at two later stages. To an observer in the position we have supposed and under the circumstances represented in the figure the moon would evidently pass quite clear of the sun and there would be no But the circumstances as witnessed from a point on the eclipse.
earth's surface will generally be different from those here represented. may suppose that the effect of the sun's parallax
M
M
We
(8"'80)
is
insensible,
i.e.
that the apparent place of the sun on the
362
celestial
ECLIPSES OF THE SUN
[CH. XVII
sphere is, so far as solar eclipses are concerned, practically the same when viewed from any point on the earth's surface as
when viewed from the
//
earth's centre.
The
parallax of the
moon
(3422 ) being nearly 389 times that of the sun causes the apparent place of the moon to be shifted to an extent which may be nearly
double the lunar diameter.
earth's centre the
Thus, although as viewed from the
pass clear of the sun, yet as viewed from a point on the earth's surface parallax may interpose the moon, wholly or partially, between the observer and the sun, and
moon may
thus produce a solar eclipse. We have already seen (Chapter xii.) that the effect of parallax is to depress the moon from the zenith of the observer towards
the horizon, and that the amount of this depression to the sine of the zenith distance.
is
proportional
We
can
now
consider whether at or about a given conjunction
in longitude of sun
and moon,
i.e.
at or about a given
new moon,
there will
be an eclipse visible from any place on the earth. If this is to be the case the parallax of the moon as seen from
such a place must project the moon towards the sun so that their limbs overlap. Suppose that S2 2 is the shortest distance between
M
the centres of sun and
moon
seen from the earth's centre.
at the conjunction in question as Then an eclipse will be visible at
if, but only if, the parallax of the moon, as viewed from that place, appears to thrust the moon towards the sun through a distance exceeding A 2 B2 It follows that 2 2 must be less than
any place
.
A B
the moon's horizontal parallax. If A 2 B2 be equal to or greater than the horizontal parallax, then there will be no eclipse.
on the earth's surface from which the moon's would just appear to graze the sun is determined as follows. The moon is depressed by parallax along the great circle but parallax at any place always depresses the 2 A 2 B.2 S2 moon from the zenith of that place. It therefore follows that under the circumstances supposed this zenith must also lie on the concritical point
The
limb
if visible
M
,
tinuation of this great circle As the lower limb of the 2 A 2 B 2 S2 moon appears to be on the horizon when its parallax is greatest (we
.
M
need not here consider any question of atmospheric refraction), it follows that the zenith of the place must be distant from S2 by
90+the apparent
celestial sphere,
semidiameter of the sun.
is
which
Thus the point on the the zenith of the place of observation, is
122]
ECLIPSES OF THE SUN
is
363
it is
determined and the time
also
known because
that at which
the true angular distance of the centres of sun and moon is a minimum. But the declination of the zenith is the latitude of the
place and the right ascension of the zenith minus the Greenwich In this way we sidereal time is the longitude of the place.
indicate
geometrically the
latitude
and
the
longitude of the
which the eclipse is just a grazing contact, while at no other station is there any eclipse whatever. If the eclipse be larger than the limiting case just considered,
terrestrial station at
then the track of the
If
moon
MMM
1
2
3
must pass nearer
to the sun.
the horizontal parallax of the moon, 1 (Fig. 89) be equal to 1 then just as before a point may be found on the continuation of
AB
the great circle SiMi which is the zenith of the terrestrial station, from which the two limbs are just brought into contact by parallax.
the point on the earth's surface at which the phase of partial eclipse is just commencing as a graze of the limbs of sun and moon, and in like manner a zenith is determined along S3 3
This
is
M
where the
It is
eclipse ends in a similar manner. easy to see how other eclipse problems can be illustrated
in this manner.
terrestrial station at
Suppose, for example, it be required to find the which the central phase of a total eclipse
greatest possible altitude.
shall take place
when the sun has the
and
We
,
plot, as before,
&, $2 $3
of the sun,
conjunction where S2 2 is the minimum geocentric distance of the two bodies. As the sun and moon are to have the greatest alti
M
a series of corresponding geocentric positions l} z 3 of the moon about the time of
M M M
,
tude possible at the phase in question it is plain that the must have the least possible parallax which will suffice to
its
moon make
centre appear to coincide with the centre of the sun. This shows that the zenith of the place required must lie on the continuation of the great circle S2 M.2 and the position of the zenith Z is defined by observing that the parallax is exactly S2 M.2> so that
,
sin
ZS2 = sin S2 M2
=
sin 7r
',
moon's horizontal parallax. Thus Z is found, and the time being known, the required station on the earth's surface becomes determined.
where
sin TTO is the sine of the
'
The
For
if
line of central eclipse
on the earth can also be constructed.
a pair of corresponding on the great circle joining S1} of sun and moon, a point Zr be chosen so that positions
sin
M
Z S = sin S M
1 1
1
1 r
sin
TTQ',
364
ECLIPSES OF THE SUN
[CH. XVII
then Z^ will be the zenith of the place from which, when the sun and moon are at $j and l respectively, the eclipse will appear
M
central.
number
By taking other pairs of corresponding positions any of points on the central line, and thus the terrestrial line
of central eclipse can be constructed.
123.
Closest approach of sun
/3
and moon near a node.
Let
of
its
be the latitude of the
is
moon which
node N.
supposed to occur Let S be the position of the sun at the same
moon at the time of a new when the moon is in the vicinity
M
moment
(Fig. 90).
ss'
FIG. 90.
Let M', S' be the positions to which the moon and sun have advanced a little later. Let MM' = x, then SS' = ma cos /, where
m is the ratio of the sun's apparent velocity in longitude to the moon's apparent velocity in longitude, and / is the inclination of the moon's orbit to the ecliptic.
It will be approximately correct to regard the triangle
MNS
as a plane triangle, and hence if
D
denote M'S'
D =
(/3
cot
/
mx cos /) + (ft
2
cosec
/
2
a?)
2 cos
/ (/8
cot
/
mx cos /) (/3 cosec /
x),
which may be written in the form
1 (1 1
2m cos / + m
2
2
cos2
m)
2
2
cos2 /
2
2m cos / + m
cos 2 /'
We
observe that the
first
part of the expression for /> can
never be negative, and therefore to obtain the smallest value of D'
we make
x
=
1
2m cos / + m? cos
2
2
/
'
122123]
for
ECLIPSES OF THE SUN
first
365
2 term of If therefore /3 represent vanishes. of sun and moon at that conjunction we have the smallest distance
then the
M
_
(1
/3(1
2
in)cosl
'
2m cos / + m
/' defined
2
cos2 7)^
and assuming an angle
by the equation
tan /'
= tan J/(l
= /3 cos /'.
1/1T1
m)
we
If
see that
/3
we
substitute 3/40 for
m and
/3
for sin
/ we have
approxi
mately
&=
it will
cos
7(1 00006),
ft cos / is thus shown to be so be quite accurate enough in the calculation of eclipses to assume that the latter, i.e. the perpendicular from 8 on NM, is the shortest distance between the geocentric positions
the difference between
/3
and
small that
of the sun
If
and moon at the given conjunction. an eclipse is to take place then ( 121) /3 must not exceed
Hence
ft
< (TT,/ TT + r + r o ) sec /  TT + rB + TQ) (1 + % sin <
O E O
'
2
1).
The mean value
value
of
TT O
TT O
+ r + ro
c
is
128''6 and this mean
multiplied by
/
may be used in the part of the expression sin 2 1 (= 1/246) which part thus becomes 4. ^
always be taken
for this
As
TT O
may
purpose to be O''l we see that when ft is the geocentric latitude of the moon at conjunction, then for a solar eclipse to be visible from some part of the earth's
surface about the time of this conjunction
it
is
necessary that
+ r + 0'a /Sf>flr,' +
r,>
greatest values of 7T ', rc and r o are respectively 61''5, The sum of these quantities increased by 0''3 is 16''8, 16''3.
1
The
/
34
9.
If therefore the
North
or
the
moon
at the time of
new moon exceeds
ecliptic
South geocentric latitude of 1 34''9 there can be
limit
no solar eclipse at that conjunction.
The expression superior
denotes the greatest
possible distance of the sun from a node at the time of If x be the distance then if an eclipse is to take place.
sin
new moon
x
=
tan
(3
cot
/ ........................ (i),
ft
and the greatest value of x
will
be found when
has
its
largest
366
value 1 34'9 and
ECLIPSES OF THE SUN
[CH. XVII
I
its least
value 4
58'8.
We
thus find 18
'5
as
the superior ecliptic limit.
inferior ecliptic limit is found by taking the lowest possible /of TTO', r% and TQ namely 53 9, 14''7, and 15''8 respectively. values
The
If the geocentric latitude of the moon at conjunction be less than 53''9 + 14'7 + 15'8 + 0''3 = 1 24'7 then an eclipse of the sun from some terrestrial stations must take place about the time of
that conjunction. The maximum value of the inclination of the moon's orbit to the ecliptic is 5 18''6. If the values 1 24''7 and and / in the formula (i) we find 5 18' 6 be substituted for

a;
=
15'3.
Thus we
see that
whenever at the time of new moon
the sun's longitude is within 15'3 of the node then an eclipse of the sun must take place at that conjunction. The inferior
ecliptic limit is therefore 15*3.
Finally
If
/3
we

see that
if {3
<
1
24' 7

then an eclipse must happen.
eclipse.
>
1
34' 9
then there cannot be an
1
24'7
If
<
'
/3
<
1
it
34'9
then an eclipse
question
may happen
calculate
TTO
or
may
less
not.
To decide
the
we must
+ r + r Q + 0''3
B
an eclipse or not according as
quantity so found.
/3
is
and there will be or greater than the
Ex. 1. If in Fig. 90, SM" is the perpendicular from S on and S'M' the shortest distance between the centres of the sun and moon, show that
MN
approximately
Ex.
M"M' = 2m/3sin/.
+ e and
if
2.
If the inferior ecliptic limits are
the satellite revolves
n times
node regredes 6 every revolution the satellite makes round its primary, prove that there cannot be fewer consecutive solar eclipses at one node than the integer next less than
as fast as the sun,
its
and
[Math. Trip.]
Let X be the diurnal movement of the sun in longitude, then n\ is that of the moon and n\6/2n that of the node. The duration of a lunation is
27r/(%l)X and the time taken by the sun to pass from the distance e on one side of the node to a distance e on the other is 2e/{\ + ri\6/27r}, and the
number
of entire lunations contained in this gives the required answer.
Ex. 3. At a certain conjunction of the sun and moon, the moon just grazes the sun, but there is no sensible partial eclipse at a.ny point of the earth's surface. Prove that  a8) 2 (dm  da ) 2 cos 8m cos d, (8 m 2
,
123124]
where
r
ECLIPSES OF THE SUN
r^
367
TT O
Q and
,
are the angular radii of the sun
and moon,
and
'
TT O
their
parallaxes, 8 a
and dg dm
,
8g
,
and 8m their declinations at the instant of conjunction in K.A., 8 m their hourly motions in E.A. and declination. [Coll. Exam. 1904.]
t
Find the minimum distance between the centres which at the time
is
approximately the square root of
{3m
 8* + 1 (8m ~ 8*)} 2 + 1 2 (dm 
2
*)
cos 8m cos S8
.
Ex.
4.
Prove that there are more solar eclipses than lunar eclipses on
the average, but that the moon's face is dimmed by the penumbra, though not necessarily eclipsed, rather more frequently than the sun is eclipsed.
[Coll.
Exam.]
Prove that at a given more frequent than solar.
Ex.
5.
terrestrial station
lunar eclipses will be
Ex.
6.
The
horizontal parallaxes
find the
and semi diameters of the sun and
inclination of the moon's orbit to
moon being known,
maximum
the ecliptic which would ensure a solar eclipse every month.
[Coll.
Exam.]
124.
Calculation of the Besselian elements for a partial
eclipse of the sun.
The
following
of the
method
of
computing the circumstances of an
is
sun at a given terrestrial station eclipse It is due to Bessel*. generally employed.
that
now
Through the centre of the earth a line is supposed to be drawn parallel to the line joining the centres of the sun and moon at any moment. We shall regard this as the axis of z and
the plane normal thereto through the earth's centre is known as the fundamental plane. The positive side of the plane of z is
that on which the sun and
moon
are situated.
The plane
the axis of
of
x
is
that which contains the axis of the earth and
The positive side of x is that which contains the z. of the equator which the earth's rotation is carrying from the point This criterion can never positive side of z to the negative side. become ambiguous because the plane of z can never coincide with
the equator.
of y is perpendicular to the planes of x and z and the positive side of y is that which contains the earth's north pole. This also cannot become ambiguous.
The plane
Let
a,
d be the right ascension and declination of the
*
celestial
See also Chauvenet's Practical and Spherical Astronomy.
368
point
of
z.
ECLIPSES OF THE SUN
[CH. XVII
D
which
is
Then the
R.A.
pointed at by the positive direction of the axis and declination of the points on the celestial
sphere pointed to by 180 + a, 90 d; a,
+ x + y, +z
y
d.
We
angles between the point a, by the formula (i), p. 28, and thus derive the expressions
respectively are 90 + a, hence obtain the cosines of the & and the three points just given
;
x=
A cos 8 sin (a a) = A {sin 8 cos d cos 8 sin d cos (a y 2 = A (sin 8 sin d + cos 8 cos d cos (a
where
x, y, z
^
a)}
I
(i),
a)}J
are the coordinates with respect to the fundamental axes of a body in the direction a, 8 and at the distance A.
Let
!,
81 and o2 82 be the R.A.
,
and
decl. of
the centres of the
sun and the moon respectively, then as the line joining these points is parallel to z we must have the a; coordinates of the sun
and moon equal and the y coordinates must
Aj cos 8 l sin (j
a)
also
be equal, whence
a)
A
d
2
cos 8 2 sin (a 2
= 0,
(
2
A! sin
Sj
cos
d
Aj cos 8 l sin d cos (a a
A
From the
of
2
sin 8 2 cos
+A
2
a) cos S2 sin
d
cos
a)
= 0.
This gives two values for a first of these tan a is found. which one exceeds the other by 180. As, however, the value of a must be very nearly the right ascension of the sun there can be no doubt as to which value of a is to be chosen. This substituted in the second equation gives tan d,
and here
also there can
be no ambiguity as to which of the two values of d differing by 180 should be chosen, for d being a decimation must lie between
+ 90
and
 90.
point D, of which a, d are the coordinates, is so near the centre of the sun and as at the time of an eclipse 2 and 8 2 are very near to ^ and ^ respectively, the following approximate solution
gives a and d with all needful accuracy. a and If in the first equation we write the small angles a 1 = cos 82 and a instead of their sines, and if we make cos ^ 2
As the
A
2 i
Aj
=
1/391 we have
a
=
ctj
+ (ttj  a )/391.
2
In the second equation we make cos (! a) each a) and cos (cr2 d and d 8' for and thus substituting the small angles 8 unity
their sines
we have
124]
ECLIPSES OF THE SUN
of
369
The west hour angle
sidereal time
S is S
D
from Greenwich at the Greenwich
the Besselian element
/i,
a, this is
which
must
first
of
all
be calculated
for
each separate half hour during
the eclipse.
At any
give x and y
particular epoch the values of a, d substituted in (i) for the values of 1} 8 1} A, and or2 &>> A 2 These
,
.
quantities are of course variable on account of the movements of the heavenly bodies in question. The eclipse, indeed, depends on
their relative changes. It is therefore necessary to compute the values of x and y for several epochs about the time of conjunction of the sun
os
and moon.
and y
for intervals of
solar eclipse,
is convenient to make a table showing 10 minutes during the progress of each the unit of length in which these coordinates are
It
We designate by expressed being the earth's equatorial radius. All these the rates at which x and y change per minute. x', y'
be the epoch quantities will be found in the ephemeris and if then at the time T + 1 that is at for which x and y are calculated
t
T
minutes after the epoch T, x and y
will
change into x
+ x't
and
respectively. Imagine the internal tangent cone or bra (Fig. 91) to be drawn to the sun 8
y
+ y't
penumand the
moon M, then we have
of the cone at its vertex
to find
of the section of this
plane.
and the radius 1 = PQ cone by the fundamental
/ the
semiangle
Let
R
be the ratio of the actual distance of
its
the sun from the earth to
mean
distance.
The
distance of the moon is about .R/391 and therefore at the time of a solar eclipse when the earth, the sun and the moon are in a line
M8=PS PM= R  .R/391 = 39012/391.
radius of the
If a be the radius of the sun then a/401 is the moon and as /"is small
tan/= sin/= a (1 +
whence
l/401)/Jlf/S,
FIG. 91.
R tan/ = a 391
x 402/(390 x 401).
it
From
B. A.
the choice of units
follows that a
is
the sine of the
its
angle subtended by the semidiameter of the sun at
mean
24
370
distance
ECLIPSES OF THE SUN
[CH. XVII
and
it
is
found that
for the
this angle should
be 15' 59"'6.
We
computation of eclipses hence obtain
Log Etan/= 76700.
The radius
have (R
l
= PQ = (PS  OS) tan/=
a+
b,
R tan/ a.
But we
MP) tan/=
l
'
where b
whence
= MPt&nf+b.
then
TT O
If
we
the radius of the moon, take as is most convenient the
is
earth's equatorial radius as the unit of distance for the measure
being the moon's horizontal parallax, and 0'2725 the ratio of the moon's radius to the earth's equatorial radius we
ment
have
of
I
I
= 0*2725 + tan/cosec 7r
'.
For example. In the annular have LogjR = 9'9966, whence
eclipse of
March
5,
1905,
we
Log tan/= 176700 9'9966 =
The moon's
the value of /just found we obtain
I
7'6739.
is
horizontal parallax on this occasion
54' 9",
and with
=
"5728.
All
these
jj,,
Log
cos d,
are
quantities, viz. x, y, oc', y', Log tan/ known as the Besselian elements, and
Log sin
it
d,
will
be
observed that they relate to the whole earth rather than to particular
stations thereon.
The next
eclipse at
part of the calculation shows
station.
how
the Besselian
elements are to be applied to determine the circumstances of an
any particular
125.
lation of
an eclipse
Application of the Besselian elements to the calcufor a given station.
phenomena of an eclipse are presented when the on the penumbra or the umbra. In the former case the contact of the limbs of the sun and moon is external and the partial
The
critical
is
observer
In the case of a total eclipse eclipse is just beginning or ending. " " the phase known as is just commencing or ending totality
when the
observer
is
on the umbra.
In the case of an annular
eclipse the first or second internal contact takes place when the observer occupies this position. shall now study the case of
We
the
or ending of an eclipse. It has been already stated that /j, is the westerly hour angle
commencement
124125]
ECLIPSES OF THE SUN
371
observer's station
from Greenwich of the point D and therefore with respect to the which has an easterly longitude X, the west
K
K
hour angle of is //. + X. The geocentric zenith of the observer has therefore a right ascension a + p + X and a declination <f>', where is the If therefore p be the distance of <f>' geocentric latitude of K.
from the earth's centre and
,
D
77,
the coordinates of
K with
respect to the
fundamental axes, we have
<j)'
rj
\ sin + X) = p {sin 0' cos d cos <' sin d cos (^ + X)} I = p (sin sin c + cos <' cos cos + X)} J
(//,
<f>'
= p cos
(i).
rf
(/u,
The values
of
and
17
for the particular locality
and and
in calculating no and y. expressed in minutes of
and 77' are to be calculated same epoch T which was used Hence at the time T+t where t is mean time and is understood to be a
also of
for the
'
small quantity (as of course it will be if T be properly chosen) the values of and 77 become + %'t and 77 + ij't respectively.
We have now to find f and 77', that is to say the rate per minute at which f and 17 are changing about the time when the
eclipse is visible at the place in question.
and
77
depend on
p, <', X, d, p.
Of
these the three
first
are
fixed for a given locality and hence the changes in and 77 at a can only arise through changes of d or /* or both. As given place to d it is very nearly the declination of the sun and this at most
only changes at the rate of a second of arc per minute. The changes of and 77 which now concern us are due to the changes very nearly the west hour angle of the sun at Greenwich and its variation in one minute of mean time is
in
/*.
This
is
about one minute of sidereal time
1/2292.
=
15', or
expressed in radians
Differentiating the expressions for
and
77
with regard to the
'
time and representing the differential coefficients by have
'
and
77',
we
77'
= p cos cos (/* + X)/229'2) = f sin d/229'2 J"
<f>
..
The
I
distance of the observer from the axis of the
penumbra
is
% tan/", that a small change in
which
for brevity is represented
f,
by
L.
It is obvious
being multiplied as
quantity tan f,
is
insensible,
it is by the small and consequently we have as the
242
372
fundamental equation
ECLIPSES OF THE SUN
for
[CH. XVII
the determination of the
commencement
2 2
. . .
or ending of the partial eclipse
{(x
2 g) + t(af % )} +
{(y
 n) + t (y  V)} = Z
(iii).
The
We make
solution of this equation is effected as follows. the substitutions
mcosM = y
in
77;
ncosN=y'
?/J
which m,
tan
M = (x
n,
)
M,
f
N
(y
180 are determined. We have the same sign as x %, then cos sin must have the same as y and m will be the positive square root of 77, sign
This gives are four auxiliary quantities. from which two values of 77) differing by choose that value which shall make
M
M
M
In like manner
square root of
N
is
determined so that n shall be the positive
Substituting in the equation (iv)
2
we have
nH + 2mnt cos (M  N) + m? = D,
where a minute of mean time
is
as already stated the unit of
fy
t.
We
As
introduce another angle
such that
L sin ty = m sin ( M
is
N).
a choice of two supplelies
^r given only by mental angles for fy. We choose that one which + 90 and 90 so that cos ty is positive then
n*t
2 2
its
sine there
is
between
whence
since cos
+ 2mnt cos (MN)+ m* cos (M  N) = I? m? + m cos ( M N) = Z nt = m cos (M N) + L cos ty
2 2
2
cos2
\jr,
(v),
and
xjr positive as well as L and n, the upper sign gives ^ the lower 2 and the Greenwich mean times of the commence
is
ment and ending of the eclipse are T + ^ and T + tz respectively. If we denote by T and T2 the local mean times of the beginning and ending we have
l
where
A, is
the longitude of the observer.
125]
ECLIPSES OF THE SUN
373
It remains to determine the points on the limb of the sun at which the eclipse commences and ends. In Fig. 92 the fundamental plane is
C is the the plane of the paper. which is the centre of the circle
in
NESW
intersection of the
penumbra with the
fundamental plane.
If
NC is parallel to
tor of the
y then the generapenumbral cone through
N
touches the sun's apparent disk in its most northerly point, because the earth's axis lies in the plane normal to x.
If
CE be parallel to x then the generator through touches the sun's apparent disk in its most easterly point, and if 8 and are points on the circle diametrically opposite to and lie on the generators which touch the disk of the they apparent
E
W
N
E
sun in
its
If the point
most southerly and westerly points respectively. 17, f lies on the generator through P then
,
L cos Q = (y + y'i)  (77 +
rj't).
We
therefore substitute in this the values of
t
corresponding
to the beginning
and the end of the
eclipse
and we have
L sin Q = x  % + t (x'  % ) = m sin M + sin N (m cos ( M N) + L cos i/r) = m cos N sin (if N) + L cos ^ sin N = L sin ^r cos N + L cos ty sin N = + L sin ( N + i/r).
In like manner
L cos Q =
If Q! be the value of
+
L cos (N +
^).
Q
at the beginning of the eclipse
we take
the upper signs
= sin (N^r+ 180), cos Q = cos (N^ + 180).
sin Qj
1
If
Q
2
be the value of
sin
Q
2
at the
end of the eclipse we use the
lower signs and
Q = sin (JV + >r), COS Q = COS (N + l/r),
2
374
ECLIPSES OF THE SUN
[CH. XVII
whence
Q^N ^
4
180,
by which we learn the points of the solar disk which the moon touches at the first and last moments of the eclipse.
of the eclipse with greater the calculation should be repeated, using the values found accuracy for 2\ arid T2 instead of T according to whether it is the beginning or end of the eclipse that is sought.
To determine the circumstances
EXERCISES ON CHAPTER XVII.
Ex.
1.
ratio of the distance of the
Prove that at the instant of conjunction in right ascension the sun from the moon to the distance of the sun
is
'
from the earth
{sin
TT O
sin
TT O
cos (8
S')}/sin
TT O ',
'
where 8' and 8 are the declinations of the sun and the moon, TT O and TT O are the horizontal parallaxes of the sun and the moon, and the square of sin TT O
is
neglected.
Also prove that at the same instant, if a and a be the hourly change of the right ascensions of the sun and the moon respectively, and A the hourly change in the right ascension of the line from the centre of the earth
parallel to the line joining the
;
.,
moon's centre to the sun's centre, then
sin
A=a.. sm
Ex.
2.
7r " TT O
cosS
r,
,.
,.
cos 8
(a
a).
[Coll.
Exam.]
and moon
geocentric angular distance between the centres of the sun at the instant of conjunction in right ascension is d, and the
The
declination of the sun
in right ascension eclipsed,
is
is 8'. The rates of separation of the sun and moon and declination are a and 8. Prove that, if the sun be the time from conjunction to the middle of the geocentric eclipse
7
2 2 2 approximately 8d/(8 + a cos S ). Prove that the approximate difference of the right ascension of the point, where the celestial sphere is intersected by the axis of the cone of shadow
during an eclipse of the sun, and the geocentric right ascension of the sun
b cos 8 sec 8' sin (a  a')
is
6 cos 8 sec
2
2
2
8'
sin 2 (a
a')
_
sin 1"
2 sin 1"
are respectively the geocentric right ascensions of the moon and their declinations, b the ratio of the moon's geocentric distance to the sun's geocentric distance. [Math. Trip.]
where
sun, 8
a, a'
and
8'
Ex.
3.
Using
fivefigure logarithms,
show that from the
earliest begin8,
ning, as seen from the earth's surface, of the solar eclipse of Aug. the latest ending is an interval of about 4 h 49 m, having given,
1896 to
125]
ECLIPSES OF THE SUN
42' 11"
375
N.
Moon's latitude at conjunction in longitude ...... Moon's hourly motion in longitude .........
Sun's
35' 55"
2' 3'
Moon's hourly motion in latitude Moon's equatorial horizontal parallax
Sun's
......... ......... ......... .........
24"
18" S.
59'
28"
9"
Moon's true semidiameter
Sun's
............ ............
16' 14" 15'
48"
[Math. Trip.]
Ex.
4.
Show
mine the place where a
cos
that, neglecting the sun's parallax, the equations to detersolar eclipse is central at a given time are
cos<cosp cos 8_
(a'
cos
sin
(a'
$>
sin
I
 a) cos 8'
 a) cos 8'
_sin<
sin
psin 8
8'
where a, 8, a', 8' are the geocentric right ascensions and declinations respectively of the moon and sun, and p the ratio of the moon's distance to the earth's radius, $ the latitude of the place, and I the hour angle of the moon.
If
[Coll.
Exam.]
a lunation be 29 5306 days, and the period of the sidereal Ex. 5. revolution of the moon's node 6798 3 days, prove that after a period of 14558 days eclipses may be expected to recur in an invariable order.

[Math. Trip. 1881.]
The moon's node having a retrograde motion, the
sun to the node in degrees
obtain 346'62 as the
is
daily approach of the
^
+
^
.
'
Dividing this into 360
we
of days in the revolution of the sun with respect Multiplying this by 42 we obtain 14558'0. We also We thus see that in about find that 493 lunations make 14558'6 days.
to the moon's node.
number
14558 days there are 493 lunations and that in the same period 42 complete made by the sun with regard to the node. Thus after the of this period from a conjunction the sun and moon are again in conlapse
revolutions are
junction,
and at the same distances from the node as they were at the
beginning.
CHAPTER
XVIII.
OCCULTATIONS OF STARS BY THE MOON.
PAGE
126.
The
investigation of an occultation
376
126.
The
investigation of an occultation.
It occasionally happens that the moon in the course of its movement passes between the observer and a star. This phenomenon is called an occultation. As the star may, for this
purpose, be regarded as a mathematical point, the extinction of the star by the moon's advancing limb is usually an instantaneous phenomenon, though occasionally, owing doubtless to the marginal
irregularities of the
simple.
The reappearance
moon's limb, the phenomenon is not quite so of the star when the moon has just
passed across it may also be observed, though in this case the observer should be forewarned as to the precise point on the moon's limb where the star will suddenly emerge.
It is easy to see the astronomical significance of the observation of an occultation. The time of its occurrence depends both on the
movement of the moon and the position of the observer. The place of the star being known with all desirable precision, an accurate observation of the moment of the star's disappearance
gives a relation between the place of the moon and the position of the observer. The observation may be available for an
accurate determination of the place of the moon or it may be used for finding the longitude of the observer if compared with
the similar observation at another station of
known
longitude.
The
to
following method of calculating the time at which the
is
disappearance or reappearance of an occulted star takes place
due
Lagrange and Bessel.
126]
OCCULTATIONS OF STARS BY THE MOON
are thus defined
:
377
The symbols used
A D
a 8
TTo'
Apparent
R. A. of
the
star.
decl.
Apparent
R. A.
of
moon from
earth's centre.
decl.
TV
Equatorial horizontal parallax of moon. Angular semidiameter of moon from earth's centre.
a
8'
Apparent
R.A. of
decl.
moon from
moon from
place of observer. place of observer.
r/
Sernidiameter of
^
</>
Sidereal time at place of observer.
Latitude of observer.
Geocentric latitude of observer.
<f>'
p
Distance of observer from the earth's centre when the
earth's equatorial radius is taken as unity.
Let
(Fig.
M, and 93)
S,
P
let
be the
star,
the
moon and
2
be the angular distance from the star
the pole respectively S to the
centre of the
P
moon as they appear to the observer at any moment. Let 9 be the spherical angle MSP subtended at S by the pole and the centre of the moon. It is assumed that 6 is measured
from
in the direction according with the usual convention for There will be no confusion between d position angles (p. 138).
SP
and 360 6 if it be remembered that when a' > A then 6 lies and 180, and when a < A then we must take for between an angle between 180 and 360. Thus we may write the following formulae ( 1)
:
sin sin
S
sin
6
= cos 8' sin ( A
=
sin sin
8'
8'
a')
"\
2 cos
cos
S=
D cos 8' sin D cos A sin D + cos 8' cos D cos (A
cos

(
of)
>.
. .
(i).
a') J
such that
is
Consider three rectangular axes through the earth's centre + x is towards the point on the equator whose R. A. 90, +y is toward T, +z is towards the north pole.
The sidereal time ^ is the hour angle of T. Hence for the coordinates of the point of observation with respect to these axes
x
= p cos
<' sin
ST
;
y = p cos
<' cos
^
;
z
= p sin
<'.
378
OCCULTATIONS OF STARS BY THE MOON
[CH. XVIII
The
coordinates of the
moon
'
referred to the
same axes are
'
;
x
= cos 8 sin
a cosec
TTO
;
y= cos 8 cos a cosec TT
O
z = sin 8 cosec TT/.
FIG. 93.
If
A
be the ratio which the distance of the moon from the
its
observer bears to
distance from the centre of the earth then
A cosec 7r
'
will
observation,
be the distance of the moon from the place of and the projections of this distance on the three
cosec
axes respectively are
A cos 8' sin
whence we
a'
7r
',
A cos 8' cos a' cosec TT
O ',
A
sin 8' cosec
TTO';
obtain
'
cos 8 sin a cosec
cos 8 cos a cosec
sin 8 cosec
TT O
'
7r
'
7r
= A cos 8' sin a' cosec TT + p cos $' sin ^, = A cos 8' cos a' cosec TT + p cos cos S, = A sin B' cosec TT + p sin <',
'
O
'
O
<f>'
'
O
which may be changed into
A cos B' sin a? = cos 8 sin a p cos <' sin 7T sin ^, A cos B' cos a' = cos B cos a p cos (' sin TT cos A sin B' = sin 8 p sin <' sin TJV Multiplying formulae (i) by A and eliminating of and
' '
O
S,
8'
by the
expressions just
given we have
cos 8 sin (a
A sin S sin 9 =
A)
\
+ p cos A sin S cos 6 = sin
'
<j>'
sin
'
TT O
sin
(S
A)
L.(ii).
8 cos
D
cos 8 sin
p sin
TT O {sin
<' cos
D
D
4
cos
<f>'
D cos (a A) sin D cos (^
J.)
A)}
A
cos
S = sin 8
p sin
sin Z)
'
+ cos 8 cos D cos (a
</>'
7r
(sin
sin
cos <' cos
D cos (S
A)}
126]
OCCULTATIONS OF STARS BY THE MOON
379
These formulae enable
for
S and
6 to be determined and are
the study of occupations because at the bespecially adapted or the end of an occultation the star is on the moon's ginning
limb and we have
2 = r%. As
.
the sine of the moon's semidiameter
varies inversely as its therefore AsinS = sinrE
distance
we must have AsinrD = sinrE and
'
,
we
Introducing this into the equations (ii) obtain the following remarkable formulae, true at the moments
of disappearance or reappearance of an occulted star
sin r$ sin
=
cos 8 sin (a
A)
\
+ p sin 7r
sin rB cos
'
cos
<f>'
sin (S)
A)
A)}
6 = sin
p sin 7T
8 cos
'
D cos (a A cos <' sin D cos (^t (sin <' cos D
D
cos & sin
}
It is plain that rB
and
'
TTO
are connected by the constant relation
of earth/radius of
sin TTo'/sin rE
= radius
moon.
is
The
k and
A;
ratio of the
moon's radius to that of the earth
termed
is
equal to 0'2725.
cos 8 sin (a
{sin 8 cos
Thus we have from
cosec
7r
(iii)
'
= k cos 9 =
sin 9
A)
cos
'+0 cos <' sin
)}
(S7r
A)
'
. .
D
<f>'
cos 8 sin
D cos (a A
cos
</>'
cosec
.(iv).
p
(sin
D
sin
D cos (^
A)}
t
Finally squaring and adding we obtain the following fundamental equation, which contains the theory of the time of commencement or ending of an occultation
2
=
(cos 8 sin (a
A)
cosec
'
TT O
p cos <' sin (^
A)}
2
f
[{sin 8 cos
p {sin
</>'
D cos (a A}} cosec 7r cos D cos <' sin D cos (SA)}]
cos 8 sin
2
D
'
...(v).
unknown
If the coordinates of the observer be given, then the only in this equation is S the time. The solution of this
equation for S will therefore show the the end of an occultation.
moment
of the beginning or
it
The equation for ^ is necessarily a transcendental equation, for has to represent all possible occupations in infinite time. To apply it to any particular occultation we must use approximate
Let T be an assumed time very near the true time T + 1 at which a certain occultation takes place, t is thus a small quantity
methods.
380
OCCULTATIONS OF STARS BY THE MOON
[CH. XVIII
and the terms of the equation can be expanded in a rapidly converging series of powers of t.
We
(sin
shall
make
cos 8 sin (a
ScosD
A ) cosec TT = p + p't cos 8 sin D cos (a A)} cosec7r = q + q't
'
O
\
'
,
\
..
r cos <' sin (^
A ) = u + u't
,
f'( V1 )
r (sin $' cos D
It is
p',
cos <' sin
D cos (^
A)}
v
+ v't
!
q,
u', v'
supposed that p, q, u, v are calculated for the time T and are terms involving t for which we may first assume the
zero.
approximate value
The equation
fc
(v)
then becomes
2
= {p  u + (p  u') t} +
{q
 v + (q'  v') t}
2
.
A solution
p,
q',
u',
v'
of this will give t, which we can then substitute in and thus by repeating the solution obtain a more
t.
accurate value of
For a convenient solution of these equations we make
p
q
u=
v
m sin M
:
p
,
u'
/
= m cos M
;
q'
v
= n sin N] r = n cos N)
2
(vn);
where
in, n,
2
N are four auxiliary quantities k = (m sin M + n sin Nt) + (m cos M + n cos Nt) = m? sin (MN) + {m cos (M N) + nt}\
M,
2
2
We
Then
or
now introduce another
(
auxiliary quantity
ty,
such that
m sin M N) = k cos ty. k sin ^ = {m cos (MN) + nt} nt = m cos (M N) + k sinty.
2
2
2
,
ty is less than 180, and then the upper sign to the disappearance of the star behind the moon, corresponds and the lower to its reappearance.
We
assume that
If
msin(MN)>k,
imaginary and there is no occultation. In drawing this conclusion it would be proper to remember that further approximation may be necessary to decide whether this condition is truly satisfied. To examine this we take for t its mean value
then
is i/r
mcos(M
N)/n,
126]
OCCULT ATI ONS OF STARS BY THE MOON
381
and
culations
insert this value in p', u, q', v', so that by repeating the calwe can find whether ty is a real quantity.
If there is an occultation of a star
and
t'
and
t"
the two
roots of the equation have been finally ascertained then the time + t" of its reappearance T+t' of the star's disappearance and
T
are determined.
How
to
find the points on the
moons limb
at which the star dis(vi) in
appears and reappears. we have
Substituting from
formulae
(iv),
k sin 6
k cos
which from
(vii)
= p p't + u + u't, 6 = q + q't v v't, =
may be
k k cos
written
sin 6
m sin M
t
nt sin
N]
= + m cos M+nt cos N\
into the first of these formulae,
(
Introducing the value for
k sin
=
But
m sin M N) cos N m sin (M  N) = k cos
k,
k sin
ir,
N sin
ty.
whence, substituting and dividing by
sin Q
=
cos
(N
i/r).
In like manner from the second of the formulae
cos 6
(viii)
=
sin
(N
ty),
and consequently
tan
Hence
where
= cot (N i/r) = tan {90  (N 6 = w 1 80 + 90  (N ^),
integer,
sin 6
$)}.
w
is
any
and from
cos
this
=
(w 180) cos
(N
^).
But we have already seen
Hence
and
finally
=  cos (N ty). 1 or w = cos (w 180) = = 270 (N ^).
sin 6
l.
Thus we obtain the
position angle of the centre of the
moon
from the star at the moment of disappearance or reappearance. This shows the points on the limb at which the phenomena take
place.
382
OCCULTATIONS OF STARS BY THE MOON
[CH. XVIII
The angle subtended at the moon's centre by the star and the pole at the moments of disappearance and reappearance is very
nearly
180

=N
TJT
 90.
Thus the necessary formulae for solving the problem of an occultation have been obtained.
ence
For convenient methods of conducting the calculations refermay be made to the ephemeris in which tables are given by
is
which the work
Ex.
1.
facilitated.
Oct.
At midnight on 27
and the
R.A.
1909 the declination of the
moon
is
4
36' 46"'7
and declination of the moon are then increasing
in
s m every 10 by 23 "0 and 164" respectively. Show that a star in conjunction in R.A. with the moon at midnight cannot be occulted at or about the time
of this conjunction if the star's declination is less than 3 10'"4, it being given that the sum of the moon's semidiameter and horizontal parallax is
78'0.
The movement of the moon in H.A. in 10m is moon's movement to the hour circle is therefore
tan 1 (344/164) = 64
344".
The
inclination of the
30'.
Hence the
sine of the difference between the moon's declination
and the
star's at the
time of conjunction must not exceed
sin 78'0
x cosec (64
30')
= 0251 = sin 86''4.
Ex.
2.
show that the moon
north or south
If the inclination of the moon's orbit to the ecliptic be 5 20' 6", will at some time or other occult any star whose latitude
is less
than 6
38' 24".
[Coll.
Exam.]
Ex. 3. Show that a star in the ecliptic will be occulted by the moon at some station on the earth between 17 and 22 times at each passage of a
node of the moon's orbit through the star. Assume semidiameter of moon between 16' 46" and 14' 44", horizontal parallax of moon between 61' 18" and 53' 58", inclination of orbit to ecliptic between 5 19' and 4 57'.
[Math. Trip.]
Ex.
4.
On
Feb. 29, 1884, the
moon
occulted Venus.
It
was stated
in
the Times that Venus would be on the meridian at 2.30 p.m., the moon being then three days old, and that the occultation would last about an hour and
a quarter.
Find roughly when
it
commenced, and show that the statement
not inconsistent with the known angular [Math. Trip.]
as to the duration of occultation
is
diameter of the moon.
CHAPTER
XIX.
PROBLEMS INVOLVING SUN OR MOON.
PAGE
127. 128. 129.
Phenomena of rising and setting To find the mean time of rising
Rising and setting of the
or setting of the sun
moon
......
....
.
383 388 390
392 394
130.
131. 132.
Twilight The sundial
133.
134.
Coordinates of points on the sun's surface Rotation of the moon
397
401
*
Sumner's method of determining the position of a ship at sea.
403
127.
Phenomena
of rising
and
setting.
h
Let
R (Fig.
As
94) be the sun at sunrise,
is
Libra, where
ERN
E
is
equator.
first point of the ecliptic, the the easterly point, the equator produced for
the
the
horizon,
R^
E^
FIG. 94.
384
90
PROBLEMS INVOLVING SUN OR MOON
[CH.
XIX
in the direction from to will reach the meribeyond and produced for a further distance equal to S, the sidereal dian, time will reach T the first point of Aries. Hence we have
E
E
The longitude
measured from
of the sun
is
\ and J?t= 180
X,
because
X
is
T
in the direction of the arrow head,
a
is
the
azimuth of the rising sun measured from N, the north point of the horizon in the usual direction by east and south. P is the pole
and
90 180 and
PN =
(f>
</>,
the altitude of the pole above the horizon.
The
angle at
between the equator and the horizon is equal to as that is the distance from the zenith to the pole,
is
E
n
(o
the inclination of the ecliptic to the horizon
(
10),
is
the obliquity of the ecliptic.
questions that can be proposed with regard to the rising
Many
and setting of the sun can be solved by the triangle ER^. If we assume that and &> are given, and that one of the other
<f>
elements of the triangle be determined.
is
known, the remaining elements can
To
find the time of sunrise or sunset
when the longitude X
co
is
given we deduce from the formula
sin
(6), p. 3,
S
cos
w + cos S^ cot X + sin
tan
<
=
(S
......... (i).
This equation
may be put
into the form sin
+ A ) = sin B
whence
&=B
to the rising If there
will
A or S 180 B A one of which corresponds and the other to the setting.
relation
=
be a small change AX in the sun's longitude X there be a corresponding change AS in the sidereal time of sunrise
or sunset.
The
between
AX and
ASco
is
obtained by
<
dif
ferentiating this equation while regarding we thus find
sin
and
as constant,
X (sin X
cos
S
cos
at
r
cos
X sin S) AS =
at once
a>
cos
SAX,
but from the triangle
sin
ERi
w e have
a = sin X cos S cos
cos
X sin S,
whence
also
AS = cos S cosec X cosec aAX, cos S cosec X = sin n sec
<f>
from the triangle
ER
and
cos
a
= sin
8 sec
</>
127]
PROBLEMS INVOLVING SUN OR MOON
385
from the triangle
hence
PRN, whence cosec a = cos </(cos
2
8
sin 2
2
<f>)
;
finally
A^ = sin n (cos
2
8
 sin <f * AX
2
(ii).
This equation gives the daily retardation in the hoar of rising of the sun and it will also explain certain phenomena connected with the rising of the moon. We may for the present purpose
suppose the orbit of the moon to be coincident with the plane of the ecliptic, the inclination being only about 5. The pole of
the ecliptic describes a small circle round with a radius of 23'5, and when it comes nearest to the zenith n has its lowest value.
If the
P
moon be
in Aries then cos B
= 1 and
the denominator of
the expression for ASy'AX is greatest. Thus for a double reason the daily retardation in the hour of rising of the moon is small.
same time the sun is in Libra the moon will then be and consequently near the autumnal equinox the full moon full, rises for several consecutive nights nearly at the same time. This is the phenomenon known as the harvest moon. If it be desired to find a, the azimuth of the point at which a celestial body rises or sets, we have the equations
If at the
sin sin
n sin a =
cos
o> &>
cos
<
+ sin a> sin ^
is
<f>
sin ^,
n
cos
a = sin
cos ^,
from which tan a can be found when
Ex.
1.
known.
circle 18 h is
Prove that at a place on the Arctic
the sidereal
;
time of sunrise for one half the year, and of sunset for the other half and that the azimuth of the point of the horizon where the sun rises, measured
from the nearest point of the meridian, or 270 ~ I, where I is the sun's longitude.
is
throughout the year either 90
[Math. Trip.]
~I
Once a day the pole of the ecliptic passes through the zenith. The sun must then be rising or setting according as it is E. or W. of the meridian,
but as
HP is at
E. point of horizon the sidereal time is 18 h
.
Ex. 2. Prove that at a place on the Arctic circle the daily displacement of the point of sunset is equal to the sun's change in longitude during the
same
interval.
3.
[Math. Trip.]
that near the vernal equinox the sidereal time of sunrise is decreasing at places within the Arctic circle and increasing at other places within the northern hemisphere. [Math. Trip.]
Ex.
Show
In the general equation
(i)
we make X small and the equation becomes
cosw + sina tan<) = 0.
cos 3 + X (sin 3
B. A.
25
386
But
where x
PROBLEMS INVOLVING SUN OR MOON
at sunrise about the time of the vernal equinox
is
[CH.
XIX
x,
we have 5 = 270
very small, whence x cos (f) =
positive
if
X sin (90
a>
<).
Hence x
is
<>90  a.
Ex. 4. Find the latitude by observing the angular distance of the extreme points of the horizon on which the sun appears at rising in the course of a year and if a, ft are the distances of those points from the point in which
:
the sun rises the ecliptic,
when
its
declination
is 8,
prove that,
co
being the obliquity of
r
,
.
sin
8= sin co sini(a + /3) smfi  ft) (a
.
1
,.
^
.
[Coll.
Exam.]
tb.e
n
If
ax and
2
point then
tanai=m, tana 2 =
be the extreme azimuths at rising measured from m, where
north
m = (cot
If
sin
(a +ft)
2
co
cos 2 <f>
 sin2 </>)
.
a be the azimuth of the sunrise at
sin
decl. 8,
then a = cos~ x (sin
8 sec $),
(a
 ft)
_
sin a
+
sin
ft
sin (a
 ft)
_
sin (a t
a) sin (a t
+
sin (a 2
 a)
~
i
 a2)
= m cos a
Ex.
5.
sina + m cosa+sina
2m
vl +
/
2
= sin 8 cosec
13',
co.
Prove that in the latitude of Cambridge, 52
the
minimum
retardation of the sidereal time of sunrise from day to day is about 96 sec., having given that the obliquity of the ecliptic is 23 27', and the daily
increase of the sun's R.A. at the vernal equinox
is
3 m 38 s
.
[Math. Trip.]
In general
A 3 = sin 7i (cos2 8
For the minimum retardation n = 90
sin 2 $)~4 AX.
<p
co,
and
8
= 0,
so that
A# = cos(co+(/>)
sec
AX. (f>
.
We are given
Ex.
6.
cos
co
.
AX = 3 m 38 s whence AS=96 secs
,
Show that
in latitude 45
the difference between the times from
is
sunrise to apparent noon and from apparent noon to sunset
^oOO
tan 8 sec 8 (sec 28)4 cot (360 77365),
the number is the length of the day, 8 the sun's declination and of days since the vernal equinox, the earth's orbit being supposed circular.
where
D
T
Ex.
horizon
7.
Show
that the time taken by the sun's disc to rise above the
is
greatest at the solstices and least at the equinoxes.
[Coll.
Exam.]
Let
z
be the zenith distance, then as usual
cos z = sin
if
h
is
the hour angle,
h.
$ sin 8 + cos
cos 8 cos
Differentiating
sin z
.
AJ= cos $ cos
8 sin
h AA,
.
and when 2=90,
sec 8 cosec h
(i).
127]
If
PROBLEMS INVOLVING SUN OR MOON
387
sun's diameter
in seconds of arc,
n be the number of seconds of time in dh and D be the we obtain by eliminating h from (1),
2

2
~*
and n
is
greatest
when
sin 8 is greatest.
is 8, it rises
Ex.
/3
8.
When
the sun's declination
rising.
: :
at a point distant a
and
from the extreme points of
tan ia
:
Show
that
:
tan J/3
tan  (a
+ 8)
tan ^
(<a
 8).
I.
[Math. Trip.
Ex.
9.
1900.]
certain place in latitude $ the sun is observed on one day to rise h hours before noon, and on the next day to rise minutes later.
At a
m
The
Prove that the distance in minutes of arc between the two points of the horizon at which it rises is
sun's declination on the first
day
is
8.
15m
Ex.
is I In
cos2 8 cosec <.
[Coll.
Exam.]
10.
An
observer in latitude 45 climbs an isolated
of a nautical mile.
Show
hill whose height that he will see a star which rises in the
N.E. point approximately 8 *J(6/nir) minutes earlier than if he had remained below. [Math. Trip. I.]
We find as in
but now
Ex. 7
(i)
A2=cos
<
cos 8 sin
cos 8 sin h = 1 /^2,
co
whence
AA = 2 A2.
point on the horizon and the centre of the earth subtend at the observer an angle 90 As where &z known as the dip of the horizon = {2 height /radius of earth} 2, and thus the required result easily follows.
Ex. 11. The setting sun slopes down to the horizon at an angle d. Prove that in latitude $, at the time of year when the declination of the sun is 8, a mountain whose height is l/n of the earth's radius will catch the sun's
A
rays in the morning 12 /2 cosec d sec 8/ir*fn hours before the sun rises on the plain at its base and estimate to the nearest minute the value of this
;
expression at the
latitude 45.
summer
solstice
for
a mountain three miles high
in
[Math. Trip.
<
I.]
Show that in a place of latitude the sunrise at the equinoxes be visible at the top of a mountain h feet high, about 4\/A sec< seconds before being seen at the foot of the mountain. [Coll. Exam.]
Ex. 12.
will
Ex. 13.
At a
certain place the
moon
rises
on two consecutive days at
the same sidereal time.
that the place of observation lies within five of the Arctic or Antarctic circles. degrees [Coll. Exam.]
Show
When
Ex. the
14.
sidereal time of rising
the plane of the moon's orbit coincides with the horizon, the on consecutive days will be the same.
Show
sets for
that once a
month
moon
two or three days with the
in places about the latitude of London least retardation in the hour
252
388
of setting,
PROBLEMS INVOLVING SUN OR MOON
[CH.
XIX
and find approximately the age of the moon and the time of when the phenomenon occurs in June. day The moon must be in Libra and in June the sun is in Cancer. The moon
will
then be nearest
its first
quarter and will set about midnight.
Ex. 15. Taking the horizontal refraction as 35' and the sun's semidiameter as 16', and defining the beginning and end of daylight as the moments when the sun's upper limb appears on the horizon, show that the
increase in the duration of daylight, taking account of the refraction m> semidiameter, varies from 6 8 secc at the equinoxes to
and
6 m 8 {sec
(<
+ w) sec ($
(i)
&>)}^
at the solstices.
[Coll.
Exam.
1902.]
By
elimination of h the equation
of Ex. 7
may
be written
AA = {sec (08)
Az=35' + 16' or
setting is 2AA.
in time 3 m< 4,
sec (0 + 8)}^ Az.
total gain of daylight at rising
and the
and
Ex. 19.
harvest
it
Show that near the equator the phenomenon known as the moon will not be so marked as in the temperate regions, but that
[Math. Trip. 1902.]
u>
will recur at each equinox.
At
the equator
n=90
is
the least value of n and
it is
the same at
each equinox, and the equation
A3=cos coAX
gives the least retardation.
Ex. 20. Two stars used to come simultaneously to the horizon of a place in geocentric latitude cot~ l (J3 sin o>) at O h sidereal time. When the precession has reached 60, the same stars will come simultaneously to the
.
where
If
horizon of a place whose latitude is w + cot" 1 a> is the obliquity of the ecliptic.
a,
(2tan)
stars,
eo
at 6 h sidereal time,
[Coll.
Exam.]
8 be the R.A.
and declination of one of the
we have
a.
a>'
tan
8=
^
cot
(lat.)
cos
a=
v/3 sin
cos
o>
In the general formulae of
57
sin
<o
we make
cos
=60, and
8 (sin a
=
so that
= cos 8' sin a' =
sin
8'
whence
but for a star
+ J3 cos &> cos a), 2  cos 8(1 + sin a>) (sin a + *J3 cos a> cos a), sin 8' /cos 8' sin a = sin co cos a>/(l + sin 2 G>),
w cos
h rising at 6 at latitude 0'
a', 8'
we have
o>
1
sin
8'
sin 0'
whence tan 0' = (1 + sin 2 &>)/sin
128.
+ cos 8' cos 0' sin a = 0, = foot" o cos a and 0'
(2 tan
<o).
To
find the
mean time of rising
<f>
or setting of the sun.
From
we
the formula
cos z
= sin
sin 8
is
+ cos
<>
cos 8 cos h
(i)
easily
{sin
show that tan \h
equal to
\ (z
+
127128]
If
<f>
PROBLEMS INVOLVING SUN OR MOON
389
any
to
celestial
its
be the latitude of the observer, and 8 the declination of body without appreciable parallax, then h is the hour
rising or setting if
angle at
we take the
horizontal refraction
be 35' and z
If the object
it
= 90
35'.
whose rising we are considering had been a star would require to reach the meridian would be h sidereal hours. In the case of the sun the actual movement the heavens is slower than the star on account of the through
then the time
apparent annual motion of the sun. Of course the amount varies according to circumstances, but on the average the motion of the
is
sun in hour angle relatively to the motion of a star in hour angle in the proportion of mean solar time to sidereal time. In the
case
now
before us
that
the actual
we may always assume with sufficient accuracy motion of the sun is the same as its mean
motion, and consequently the sun reaches the meridian h hours of mean solar time after rising.
At
time
actual noon the apparent time
is
12 hours and the mean
is + e, where e is the equation of time. The sunrise took place h mean hours previously, and accordingly the civil time of sunrise is
12 h
I& + eh.
The hour of sunrise being thus known within a minute or two, the declination of the sun at the time can be obtained accurately, and with this corrected declination the computation of h can be
repeated and a corrected time of rising is thus ascertained. It however, needless to take this trouble since the calculation affected by the horizontal refraction, the amount of which
quite
uncertain.
is,
is
is
We
have taken
it
as 35', but
it
may
differ
from this by at least 1'. To obtain the mean time of sunset we observe that at apparent noon the correct mean clock shows a time e, and the
ensuing sunset will take place h hours of whence the time of sunset is
e
mean
solar time later,
+ h.
time of sunrise and sunset
As an example we
at
shall find the
Greenwich (Lat. 51 29') on 6 June 1908. We have from the = 22 39', whence from (i) we compute h =122 49', ephemeris 8 This is the hour angle of the sun when or in time 8 h ll m '3.
apparently on the horizon.
The equation
of time
is
l
m>
6 and
390
PROBLEMS INVOLVING SUN OR MOON
[CH.
XIX
h by substitution in 12 + e h and h + e, we see that the times of m m h h sunrise and sunset are respectively 3 47 a.m. and 8 10 p.m. About the time of the solstice the declination of the sun does not vary more than about 1' from its mean value in a week. Hence for that week h will be nearly constant and any variations in the mean time of rising and setting can be attributed only to
changes in the equation of time. A small effect arising from this The equation of time is then is noticeable at the winter solstice. increasing, so that if e be the equation of time at the solstice and
1
what
it
becomes a few days
12
later
we have
+e
1
A>12 + eA,
and therefore the sun
rises later, according to mean time, a few days after the solstice than it did at the solstice. Also if e2 be the equation of time a few days before the solstice, then
e
+h>
e2
+ h,
sun
sets earlier
so that a few days before the winter solstice the than it does at the solstice.
For example on 1908 Dec. 14 the sun
,
sets at
Greenwich at
.
3 h 49 m and on 1908 Dec. 22 (solstice) it sets at 3 h 52 m On the other hand the sun rises on the solstice at 8 h 6 m and a week later
it
rises at
8h 8 m
.
129.
Rising and setting of the moon.
In considering the rising and setting of the moon we have to take the parallax of the moon into account. Parallax tends to depress the moon from the zenith distance through the average
distance of
its 57'.
Hence when the moon appears
by
to
be on the horizon
is
true zenith distance measured from the earth's centre
is,
90
57'.
It
mula
however, apparently raised 35' 128 we are to take z = 90 (i)
refraction, so that in for38'.
 57' + 35' = 89
If the place of the moon were known at the time of rising we The sidereal time at could find h by the formula already given.
the
moment
of rising
would therefore be a
h,
where a
is
the
moon's right ascension. The mean time would then have to be calculated from the sidereal time.
But
for
of course this process as here described
is
impracticable,
the place of the
rising is
known.
moon cannot be determined until the hour of The problem must therefore be solved by ap
proximation.
128129]
PROBLEMS INVOLVING SUN OR MOON
391
To
rise at
illustrate the
method we
shall
compute the time of moontake for the place
Greenwich on 10th Feb. 1894.
first
For the
of the
approximation
;
it
will suffice to
moon a = O h 55 m
at noon on the day into (i) we find h = 6 h 29 m of the
17' as given in the ephemeris in question. Introducing this value of B
.
S= + 6
At
,
rising, therefore,
its R.A. is
moon was
.
about 6 h 29 m and as
the hour angle about O h 55 m it
follows that the sidereal time at the time of rising was about 18 h 26 m The sidereal time at mean noon on Feb. 10th was 21 h m> 22 2. Hence it follows that the rising of the moon must have been about 3 hours before noon, i.e. about 9 a.m., that is, in astro
nomical language, 21 hours on Feb. 9th. We therefore repeat the calculations, taking for the R.A. and decl. of the moon their values, for Feb. 9th at 21 hours, viz. / = 0* 49 m '4; and we find that the accurate value
S=531
,
of the moon's hour angle at rising was 6 h 25 m *5. Subtracting h m< this from the R.A. O 49 4 we see that the sidereal time of rising was 18h 23 m 9. As the sidereal time at mean noon on the 10th is 21 h 22 m> 2, it follows that the interval between rising and noon
is
2 h 58 m> 3 of sidereal time.
h
Transformed into solar time this
2 and consequently the moon rises on the *8, h m morning of 10th Feb. 1894 at 9 2 a.m. To find the mean time at which the moon sets on the day in question we can dispense with part of the work when the time of The hour angle of the moon at rising on rising has been found. Feb. 10th 1894 we have seen to be 6 h 25 m and if we neglected the motion of the moon this would also be the hour angle of The setting would then be 12 h 50 m after the rising. setting. But as the moon's motion would carry it over about halfanhour this period would be 13* 20 m As the rising took place h m at 9 2 a.m. the setting would therefore be between 10 p.m. and 11 p.m. We may therefore assume for the R.A. and the 8 of
becomes
57 m
,
.
the
moon
8=8 be 6 h 43 m '2, and the R.A. of the moon being then l h 15 m '8, the h m h sidereal time at setting is 7 59 '0. Increasing this by 24 and m h at mean noon 21 22 '2, we then subtracting the sidereal time have as the sidereal interval after mean noon at which the moon m and the mean time is 10 h 35 10h 36 m
sets
'8,
h l 15 8; their tabular values for 10.30 p.m., viz.: a The hour angle at setting is then calculated by (i) to 57'.
=
m<
consequently
p.m.
392
PROBLEMS INVOLVING SUN OR MOON
[CH.
XIX
For the practical computations of the hour of moonrise at a in an almanac, it is an assistance to particular place as required form a table of single entry in which for the given latitude the hour angle of the moon, at rising or setting, is shown for each
degree of lunar declination.
130.
Twilight.
sunrise has been twilight after sunset and before
90 
The
shown
to
be an indirect sunlight which we receive by reflection of sunbeams from particles suspended in the
atmosphere. When the sun is not more than 18 below the horizon
its
beams illumine
still
floating particles
above the horizon, and each of these becomes a source
of light.
is still
which are
Thus after sunset there some light until the sun is
18 below the horizon, and in like
manner the approach of day is announced by the twilight which begins when the sun comes within
18 of the horizon.
To
find
ao,
the duration of twilight,
we
shall investigate in
general the time that elapses at a given latitude $ between the moment when the sun S (Fig. 95) is at the zenith distance z,
and the moment of its arrival on the horizon at S'. Let 6 be the hour angle of the sun when on the horizon, then d + x is its hour angle when twilight begins, and
cos z
= sin = sin
<f>
sin 8 sin 8
</>
+ cos + cos
<f>
cos 8 cos (6 cos 8 cos 6,
+ as),
<
adding and subtracting
cos 2
2 sin
<
= 2 cos cos z = 2 cos
sin 8
(f>
cos 8 cos (6 cos 8 sin (0
<f>
+ ^x) cos \x, + ^x) sin \x,
multiplying the
by sin^a? and the second by cos^#, then and adding, we eliminate 6 and obtain squaring
first
(cos 2
2 sin
<
sin S) 2 sin 2
\x 4 cos
2
,z
cos 2
\x
2
</>
= cos
cos 2 8 sin 2 x
... (i).
129130]
PROBLEMS INVOLVING SUN OR MOON
393
This equation gives x when 8 is known, and for the problem 108. Of course of the duration of twilight we are to make z S is known when the time of year is known.
To find the time of year at which the twilight we express that dx/dS = 0, and thus obtain
sin 2
is
stationary
\x =
\x =
cos z
sec2
sin
<
(2
2
</>
sin
<
cosec 8 cos
z),
cos
2
$ sec
cosec 8 (cos z
2 sin
<
sin 8),
which by substitution in
or
(i) gives after a little reduction
2 sin 8 sin </(sin 2 8
<j)
+ sin
^ z),
2
$),
sin 8/sin
= tan (45
and making
= 108
sin 8
=
tan 9 sin <.
8 can be calculated from this equation
When
the latitude
is
known
is
and the time of year
thus found.
Ex. 1. Supposing that twilight begins or ends when the sun is 18 below the horizon, show that, so long as the sun's declination is less than 18, all places have a day of more than 12 hours, including the twilights.
Ex.
light
Show that at a place 2. when expressed in hours is
in latitude
$
the shortest duration of twi
^ sin"
where sin ~ 1
Ex.
3.
1
(sin 9 sec <),
(sin 9 sec <) is expressed in degrees.
show that
night
is
in latitude
Assuming that the sun moves uniformly in the ecliptic $ the number of nights in which there is
1 f cos" (cos ($ + 18')/sin
in 365 days,
twilight all
the integer next greater than
co},
the greatest angular distance below the horizon for twilight to be possible and a> is the obliquity of the ecliptic. [Coll. Exam.]
where 18
is
Ex. the sun
4.
is
If the length of the day be defined to be the period during which within 90 + a of the zenith, show that at a station on the equator
the day is 12+ T2j a sec 8 mean solar hours, if 8 be the declination of the sun, and that if sin a sin 8fsin< = the lengths of two consecutive days will be
equal at a station in latitude
r/>.
Ex. 5. Show that no two latitudes have the same length of day except at the equinoxes but if daylight be considered to begin and terminate when the sun is 6 degrees below the horizon, there are two latitudes which have
;
the same duration of daylight so long as the sun's declination is numerically less than 6 degrees. [Math. Trip.]
3.94
PROBLEMS INVOLVING SUN OR MOON
131.
[CH.
XIX
The
sundial.
suppose that the place of the sun on the celestial does not change appreciably in 24 hours, and a plane sphere through the earth's axis and the sun will intersect the terrestrial
equator in two points which move uniformly round the equator in consequence of the sun's apparent diurnal rotation. In like manner we see that if a post were fixed perpendicularly
into the earth at the north pole so as to be coincident with the
We may
shadow would move uniformly round the horizon, and therefore the apparent time would be indicated by the point in which the shadow crossed
earth's axis its
so that the position of the sun,
a uniformly graduated circle with
its
centre in the axis of the
post, plane perpendicular to the earth's axis. have the conception of the sundial.
its
and
Thus we
As
the dimensions of the earth are so inconsiderable in com
parison to the distance of the sun, we may say that, if at any point of the earth's surface a post, or style as it is called, be fixed parallel to the earth's axis, the shadow of the style cast by the sun
in its daily motion on a plane perpendicular to the style will move round uniformly, and by suitable graduation will show the apparent time. The hour lines on the dial are to be drawn at equal intervals
of 15.
The
inclination of the style to the horizon equals the lati
tude, and the inclination of the dial to the horizon is the colatitude. Thus we have what is known as the equatorial sundial. While the style is always parallel to the earth's axis the plane of the dial
may be
arranged in
different positions, horizontal, verThe graduatical, or otherwise.
is uniform only in the equatorial sundial, and we have now to consider the graduation of the dial when otherwise
tion of the dial
placed so that the shadow of the style shall indicate the apparent
time.
Suppose that the pole of the
plane of the dial is at the point of the celestial sphere of which the north polar distance and west hour angle k.
is
p
131]
PROBLEMS INVOLVING SUN OR MOON
395
the meridian, (Fig. 96) be the north celestial pole, the hour circle containing the sun, the plane of the dial. The point 8 is called the substyle and PS = 90 p is the height the style. The hour line corresponding to the hour circle PP' of
Let
P
PZ
PP'
8H
is
given by
H
where
OH = 90.
dial
To graduate the
that
we require
to
know the
arc
SH=0
corresponding to each solar
HP' = 90.
hour angle h. Produce P' must be a right angle, because
tan 6
HP to P' so OH= 90 and
(i).
consequently
= cos p
tan (h
k)
As p and k
for
are
h.
known
this equation gives the value of 6
= SH
each value of
on any particular instrument by It is assumed that there is an ordinary graduation from to 360 on the dial, the centre of graduation being the point in which the style meets the plane of the dial and the origin from which the angles are measured being the line through this point and S the substyle. It is also assumed that p is a known angle. When the sun has a known hour h lt let the observed position of the shadow be 6lt and we angle have
lines
observation
To mark the hour we proceed
as follows.
tan
l
= cos p
tan (h 1
k)
(ii).
thus find k and consequently for each value of h we can compute from (i) the corresponding value of 6. Thus the sun
We
any moment the hour angle of the sun or the apparent time, and by application of the equation of time the
dial will
show
at
mean time is ascertained. The form of sundial most
coincide with the zenith Z\
usually seen is the socalled horimust zontal sundial in which, as the dial is to be horizontal,
we thus have k =
<f>,
0,
and
p
= PZ = 90 = sin
tan
where
<
is
the latitude.
Thus the equation
tan 6
<
(i)
becomes
h.
The
last
hour
lines that
need be drawn on the
dial are those
corresponding to the case where the sun reaches the horizon when In this case if h' be the hour angle its declination is greatest.
cos (180
 h') =
tan
<f>
tan (23
28'),
396
PROBLEMS INVOLVING SUN OR MOON
[CH.
XIX
when the value
obtain
6.
of h' thus obtained is substituted for h in (i)
we
extreme type of sundial f is that in which the parallel to the meridian, and the style is parallel to the earth's axis but not in the
plane of the
dial.
An
dial is
(Fig. 97) be the dial parallel is a thin to the plane of the meridian, rectangle standing perpendicular to the
Let
PZP'
AB
plane of the paper, and of which the upper edge AB, parallel to the terrestrial axis
P'
PP', is the style. The sun in the diurnal FIG. 97. motion may be supposed to be carried by a plane rotating uniformly round AB, and hence the shadow A'B' of the edge AB will always be parallel to AB and at, let us say,
the distance
x.
When
the sun
is
is
in the meridian
x
is infinite.
When
the sun's hour angle
6
h
then
x = 0.
In general
if
d be
the height of the style above the dial
x
= d cot h,
this equation the value of
where h is the sun's hour angle. From x for each value of h can be found.
Ex.
vertical
1.
Show how
to construct a sundial of which the dial shall be
and facing due south, and in which the
style is directed to the south pole.
This
tion
the general theory by making k=0, p = (f) in equa(i)
may be
obtained as a particular case of
or directly as follows.
Let S (Fig. 98) be the point on the horizon due south, the nadir, P' the south pole, P'H the hour circle containing the sun, then from
N
the triangle
NP'H
tan
we have
NH= cos
:
<
tan h.
Ex. 2. Prove that any sundial can be graduated by the following rule Let T be the time at which the shadow of the style was projected normally on the disc, w the N.P.D. on the celestial sphere of the normal to the disc, then the mark for time T is inclined to the mark for
time
T
at an angle
tan
1
{cos
co
tan
(
T T }}
.
[Coll.
Exam.]
t
An example
of this kind of sundial occurs at
Wimborne
Minster.
131132]
Ex.
3.
PROBLEMS INVOLVING SUN OR MOON
397
observed
of
The lengths of the shadows of a vertical rod of unit length are when the sun is on the meridian on two days separated by a quarter a year, and are found to be #, x'. Supposing the sun to move uniformly
in the ecliptic, prove that the longitude
earlier observation is given
L
of the sun at the date of the
by
sin 2
u> 2
 sin 2 ft
cos ft
'
sin
to
where
tan
is
ft
=
;
,
and
o>
the obliquity.
[Math. Trip.
I.
1900.]
In a horizontal sundial of the usual form, show that the locus traced out by the end of the shadow of the style during one day is approximately a conic section of eccentricity
Ex.
4.
cos (latitude) cosec (declination of sun).
Ex.
5.
If
x be the angle between the graduations on a
A 2 hours after noon, then
sin
horizo