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802.15.4 and the ZigBee Alliance Motorola 802.15.4/ZigBee™ Platform
Robot Sensor Networks
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The ZigBee Alliance and 802.15.4 Features of Protocol Stack ZigBee and Bluetooth Reliability Throughout the Stacks Robustness Throughout the Stacks 802.15.4/ZigBee vs. Bluetooth Motorola 802.15.4/ZigBee™ Platform An Application Example
Robot Sensor Networks
The ZigBee Alliance and 802.15.4
1. The ZigBee Alliance is
A consortium of end users and solution providers, primarily responsible for the development of the 802.15.4 standard Developing applications and network capability utilizing the 802.15.4 packet delivery mechanism Addresses application and interoperability needs of a substantial part of the market
Composed of many of the individuals and companies that make up the ZigBee Alliance Developed the basic PHY and MAC standard with the requirement that 15.4 be simple and manageable and that high‐level functionality (networking, security key management, applications) be considered Hanyang University
Robot Sensor Networks
1. ZigBee is designed to be a low power, low cost, low data rate, wireless solution. 2. ZigBee relies upon the robust IEEE 802.15.4 PHY/MAC to provide reliable data transfer in noisy, interference‐rich environments 3. ZigBee layers on top of 15.4 with Mesh Networking, Security, and Applications control
Robot Sensor Networks
1. ZigBee Value Propositions
Addresses the unique needs of most remote monitoring and control network applications
1) Infrequent, low rate and small packet data
Enables the broad‐based deployment of wireless networks with low cost & low power solutions
1) 2) Example: Lighting, security, HVAC, Supports peer‐to‐peer, star and mesh networks
Monitor and sensor applications that need to have a battery life of years on alkaline batteries
1) Example – security systems, smoke alarms
Robot Sensor Networks
What is the ZigBee Alliance?
1. 2. Organization defining global standards for reliable, cost‐effective, low power wireless applications A rapidly growing, worldwide, non‐profit industry consortium of
Leading semiconductor manufacturers Technology providers OEMs End‐users
Sensors are one of the reasons for ZigBee!
Robot Sensor Networks
What is ZigBee technology?
1. 2. Cost‐effective, standards‐based wireless networking solution Developed for and targets applications that need
Low to moderate data rates and low duty cycles Low average power consumption / long battery life Security and reliability Flexible and dynamic network topologies
1) Star, cluster tree and mesh networks
Interoperable application frameworks controlled by an industry alliance to ensure interoperability/compatibility
Robot Sensor Networks
The ZigBee Alliance Solution
1. Targeted at
Industrial and Commercial control/monitoring systems Wireless sensor systems Home and Building automation and controls Medical monitoring Consumer electronics PC peripherals
Industry standard through application profiles running over IEEE 802.15.4 radios Primary drivers
Simplicity Long battery life Networking capabilities Reliability Low cost
Alliance member companies provide interoperability and certification testing
Robot Sensor Networks
Why do we need ZigBee technology?
1. ONLY standards‐based technology that
Addresses the unique needs of most remote monitoring and control and sensory network applications Enables the broad‐based deployment of wireless networks with low cost, low power solutions Provides the ability to run for years on inexpensive primary batteries for a typical monitoring application
Robot Sensor Networks
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Submission Title: [What You Should Know about the ZigBee Alliance] Date Submitted: [24 September 2003 Source: [Jon Adams] Company [Motorola] Address [2100 E Elliott Rd, Tempe AZ 85254] Voice:[480‐413‐3439], FAX: [480‐413‐4433], E‐Mail:[email@example.com] Re: [Sensors Expo Workshop] Abstract: [Description of measures used to enhance reliability in IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee] Purpose: [Point of discussion for the Sensors Expo] Notice: This document has been prepared to assist the ZigBee Alliance. It is offered as a basis for discussion and is not binding on the contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this document is subject to change in form and content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein.
10. Release: The contributor acknowledges and accepts that this contribution will be posted in the member area of the ZigBee web site. Hanyang
KVP/MSG services removed Joint routing with CSKIP addresses Coordinator binding optional ZigBee cluster library Same as “ZigBee” stack.0” No compatibility with “ZigBee‐Pro” networks Spec: December 2006 (est) “ZigBee‐Pro” stack Platform test: (formerly known as January 2007 (est) Commercial. Enables cost‐effective. “r06” (sometimes referred to as Home Controls V0) Release date and status Spec: December 2004 Platform test: March 2005 Currently shipped by all platform suppliers! Feature summary 8 bit clusters. Allow future extension of ZigBee Hanyang University .Robot Sensor Networks ZigBee Stack Release Matrix Stack Version “ZigBee V1.0”.0” No compatibility with “ZigBee” networks Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Architecture Objectives ZigBee Architecture Objectives 1. and implementation of ZigBee devices 7. reliable devices for monitoring and control 2. 6. Provide a platform and implementation for wirelessly networked devices Ensure interoperability through the definition of application profiles Define the ZigBee network and stack models Provide the framework to allow a separation of concerns for the specification. ZigBee’s architecture developed to target environments and applications best suited to the technology 3. design. experience would say Institutional) this is 6 months after the specification is complete. low power. 4. 5. June 2007 Commercial Building Automation Industrial Plant Monitoring Home Automation Frame compatibility with ZigBee expected without optional new features No frame compatibility with “ZigBee V1. plus or minus: Mutlicast (+) Many to one (source) routing (+) Fragmentation (+) AODV‐jr routing only (‐) New address assignment Application Profiles Supported Home Controls Lighting (since abandoned) Compatibility No frame compatibility with “ZigBee” or “ZigBee‐ Pro” Spec: “ZigBee” stack August 2006 (est) (formerly known as Platform test: Home Controls V1) August 2006 (est) Commercial Building Automation Industrial Plant Monitoring Home Automation Frame compatibility with ZigBee‐Pro expected No frame compatibility with “ZigBee V1. Please note: Past Industrial. KVP/MSG services Joint routing CSKIP addresses Coordinator binding 16 bit clusters.
0 Ad‐hoc self forming networks 1) 1) 1) 2) 3) 4) 1) 2) 3) 1) 2) Mesh. NWK and Application levels Master Keys. Router and End Device Device and Service Discovery Messaging with optional responses Home Controls Lighting Profile General mechanism to define private Profiles Symmetric Key with AES‐128 Authentication and Encryption at MAC. Devices are pre‐programmed for their network function Coordinator scans to find an unused channel to start a network Router (mesh device within a network) scans to find an active channel to join. ZigBee V1. Devices can be bound to other devices offering complementary services Binding provides a command and control feature for specially identified sets of devices Hanyang University .Robot Sensor Networks ZigBee Feature Set 1. Network Keys and Link Keys Conformance Certification (Platform and Profile) Interoperability Events Logical Device Types Applications Security Qualification Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks How A ZigBee Network Forms 1. then permits other devices to join End Device will always try to join an existing network 2. Devices discover other devices in the network providing complementary services Service Discovery can be initiated from any device within the network 3. Cluster Tree and Star Coordinator.
PSDU length PSDU (0 to 127 bytes) ‐ Data Preamble Start of Packet Delimiter PHY Header PHY Service Data Unit (PSDU) 6 Bytes 0‐127 Bytes Hanyang University . however. if the LEAVE the network. every device receives a unique 16 bit network address Only the 16 bit network address is used to route packets within the network Devices retain their 16 bit address if they disconnect from the network. Packet Fields Preamble (32 bits) ‐ synchronization Start of Packet Delimiter (8 bits) ‐ specifies one of 3 packet types PHY Header (8 bits) ‐ Sync Burst flag. Addressing Every device has a unique 64 bit MAC address Upon association. the 16 bit address is re‐assigned NWK broadcast implemented above the MAC: 1) 2) 3) 4) NWK address 0xFFFF is the broadcast address Special algorithm in NWK to propagate the message “Best Effort” or “Guaranteed Delivery” options Radius Limited Broadcast feature Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Packet Structure 1.Robot Sensor Networks ZigBee Address Architecture 1.
Robot Sensor Networks General Data Packet Structure Preamble sequence Start of Packet Delimiter PRE SPD LEN PC ADDRESSING DSN Link Layer PDU CRC CRC‐16 Data sequence number Addresses according to specified mode Flags specify addressing mode Length for decoding simplicity Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks ZigBee Network Model ZigBee Coordinator (FFD) ZigBee Router (FFD) ZigBee End Device (RFD or FFD) Mesh Link 1. Star networks support a single ZigBee coordinator with one or more ZigBee End Devices (up to 65. 2.536 in theory) Mesh network routing permits path formation from any source device to any destination device Hanyang University .
Device Discovery Device queries the network to discover the identity of devices on active channels 4. Network Scan Device scans the 16 channels to determine the best channel to occupy. 5. 2. PAN Coordinator “owns” the network 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Starts it Allows other devices to join it Provides binding and address‐table services Saves messages until they can be delivered And more… could also have i/o capability PAN Coordinator A “full‐function device” – FFD Mains powered Hanyang University .Robot Sensor Networks Wireless Networking Basics 1. Service Discovery Device scans for supported services on devices within the network Binding Devices communicate via command/control messaging Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Network Pieces – PAN Coordinator 1. Creating/Joining a PAN Device can create a network (coordinator) on a free channel or join an existing network 3.
Routers Routes messages Does not own or start network 1) Scans to find a network to join Given a block of addresses to assign A “full‐function device” – FFD Mains powered depending on topology Could also have i/o capability Routers Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Network Pieces – End Device 1.Robot Sensor Networks Network Pieces ‐ Router 1. End Device Communicates with a single device Does not own or start network 1) Scans to find a network to join Can be an FFD or RFD (reduced function device) Usually battery powered End Device Hanyang University .
who form the Board of Directors. Participants members who generally wish to make technical contributions and/or serve on the Technical Group committees.Robot Sensor Networks Battery Life 1. mechanical. Battery life is ultimately a function of battery capacity and application usage 4. piezoelectric Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks ZigBee Membership Classes 1. ZigBee protocol was designed from the ground up to support very long life battery applications 2. and they may also chair working group subcommittees. They are in a position to help shape the ZigBee technology for industrial applications and the connected home. These members have early access to specifications. Many industrial applications are in harsh thermal environments Batteries may include alkalines or Li‐primaries Other forms of power generation might include solar. Users can expect Near‐shelf life in a typical monitoring application 3. There are currently 5 promoters + 1 chairperson 2. Promoters founding members of ZigBee. Hanyang University .
Robot Sensor Networks ZigBee Alliance Member Promoters Participants And more each month… Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks IEEE 802.15.15 Working Group Hanyang University .4 IEEE 802.
has the potential to last as long as the shelf life of most batteries Hanyang University .Robot Sensor Networks Comparison between WPAN Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks IEEE 802. Simple packet data protocol for lightweight wireless networks Released in May 2003 Channel Access is via Carrier Sense Multiple Access with collision avoidance and optional time slotting Message acknowledgement and an optional beacon structure Multi‐level security Works well for 1) Long battery life.4 Basics (1/2) 1. remote monitoring and portable electronics Configured for maximum battery life.15. sensors. selectable latency for controllers.
43 2.11 DSSS Possible 802.48 802.1 Supports multiple network topologies including Star.15.3 MHz License Required? No Geographic Region Europe Data Rate 20 kbps Channel Number (s) 0 902‐928 MHz No Americas 40 kbps 1‐10 2405‐2480 MHz No Worldwide 250 kbps 11‐26 Normal Channel Occupancy 2.44 2.4 Basics (2/2) Frequency Band 868.42 2. Cluster Tree and Mesh Hanyang University .4 Standard (1/2) Introduction to The IEEE 802.40 2.Robot Sensor Networks IEEE 802. IEEE 802.412 2. Includes layers up to and including Link Layer Control LLC is standardized in 802. an effort organized by the ZigBee Alliance 2.11 Channel (North America) 802.15.45 2.4835 (end of ISM Band) 2.4 standard released May 2003 Semiconductor manufacturers 1) Sampling Transceiver ICs and platform hardware/software to Alpha Customers now Users of the technology 1) Defining application profiles for the first products.15.41 2.15. 3.47 2.437 2.11 Spectrum Occupancy (Typical) Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks IEEE 802.46 2.462 2.4 Standard 1.
1 (Bluetooth) IEEE 802.Robot Sensor Networks IEEE 802.15.15. PHY functionalities: Activation and deactivation of the radio transceiver Energy detection within the current channel Link quality indication for received packets Clear channel assessment for CSMA‐CA Channel frequency selection Data transmission and reception Hanyang University .4 PHY overview 1.4 868/915 MHz PHY IEEE 802.15.15.4 2400 MHz PHY Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks IEEE 802.4 MAC IEEE 802.4 Standard (2/2) 1.4 LLC ZigBee Application Framework Networking App Layer (NWK) Data Link Controller (DLC) IEEE 802.15. Type I IEEE 802.2 LLC.15.15. Features of the MAC: Association/dissociation ACK frame delivery channel access mechanism frame validation guaranteed time slot management beacon management channel scan Low complexity: 1) 26 primitives versus 131 primitives for 802.
PHY packet fields Preamble (32 bits) – synchronization Start of packet delimiter (8 bits) – shall be formatted as “11100101” PHY header (8 bits) –PSDU length PSDU (0 to 127 bytes) – data field Sync Header Preamble 4 Octets PHY Header Frame Reserve Length (1 bit) (7 bit) 1 Octets PHY Payload PHY Service Data Unit (PSDU) Start of Packet Delimiter 1 Octets 0‐127 Bytes Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Operating frequency bands 868MHz/ 915MHz PHY Channel 0 Channels 1‐10 2 MHz 868.3 MHz 902 MHz 928 MHz 2.Robot Sensor Networks PHY frame structure 1.4835 GHz Hanyang University .4 GHz Channels 11‐26 5 MHz 2.4 GHz PHY 2.
The standard specifies two PHYs : 868 MHz/915 MHz direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) PHY (11 channels) 1) 2) 1 channel (20Kb/s) in European 868MHz band 10 channels (40Kb/s) in 915 (902‐928)MHz ISM band 2450 MHz direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) PHY (16 channels) 1) 16 channels (250Kb/s) in 2. Simple frame structure Hanyang University . simple networks of more than 65. Employs 64‐bit IEEE & 16‐bit short addresses Ultimate network size can be >> nodes (more than we’ll probably need…) Using local addressing.Robot Sensor Networks Frequency bands and data rates 1.15.000 (2^16) nodes can be configured. with reduced address overhead 2.4GHz band Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks IEEE 802.4 MAC 1. Three devices specified Network Coordinator Full Function Device (FFD) Reduced Function Device (RFD) 3.
4 MAC/PHY Frame Format Four frame types: 1. 2. 3. 6. 5. 4. 4.4 MAC 1. 3.15. Beacon Data MAC command Acknowledge Bytes: 2 1 0‐20 Max 127 Bytes variable Payload MAC service data unit 2 Frame check sequence Frame Sequence Address control number info MAC sub layer Bytes: MAC Header MAC footer MAC protocol data unit 1 SFD MAC frame 4 Preamble 1 Length Max 127 Bytes PHY service data unit PHY protocol data unit Hanyang University .15 . Reliable delivery of data Association/disassociation AES‐128 security CSMA‐CA channel access Optional super frame structure with beacons Optional GTS mechanism Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks MAC/PHY Frame Format IEEE 802. 2.Robot Sensor Networks IEEE 802.
In a beacon enabled network. Beacons are used for starting superframes synchronizing with associated devices announcing the existence of a PAN informing pending data in coordinators 2. Devices use the slotted CAMA/CA mechanism to contend for the usage of channels FFDs which require fixed rates of transmissions can ask for guarantee time slots (GTS) from the coordinator 3.Robot Sensor Networks Superframe (1/3) Beacon Beacon CAP CFP GTS 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 GTS 1 14 15 Inactive SD = aBaseSuperframeDuration*2 SO symbols (Active) BI = aBaseSuperframeDuration*2 BO symbols 1. A superframe is divided into two parts Inactive: all devices sleep Active: 1) 2) Active period will be divided into 16 slots 16 slots can further divided into two parts Contention access period Contention free period Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Superframe (2/3) 1. The structure of superframes is controlled by two parameters: beacon order (BO) and superframe order (SO) BO decides the length of a superframe SO decides the length of the active potion in a superframe Hanyang University .
devices’ duty cycle follow the specification BO-SO Duty cycle (%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ≧10 100 50 25 12 6.25 3.4. 4.15. the length of a superframe can range from 15.Robot Sensor Networks Superframe (3/3) 1. Each device will be active for 2‐(BO‐SO) portion of the time. In a non beacon‐enable network. the setting of BO and SO should satisfy the relationship 0≦SO≦BO≦14 For channels 11 to 26. Data transferred from device to coordinator In a beacon‐enable network. Then using slotted CSMA/CA to transmit its data. 2. device finds the beacon to synchronize to the superframe structure. and sleep for 1‐ 2‐(BO‐SO) portion of the time In IEEE 802.7 sec.195 < 0. For a beacon‐enabled network.78 0.39 0.56 0. device simply transmits its data using unslotted CSMA/CA Communication to a coordinator In a beacon‐enabled network Communication to a coordinator In a non beacon‐enabled network Hanyang University .36 msec to 215.1 Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Device to Coordinator Data Transfer Model (Device to Coordinator) 1. which means very low duty cycle 3.125 1.
Data transferred from coordinator to device In a beacon‐enable network. Otherwise.Robot Sensor Networks Coordinator to Device (1/2) Data Transfer Model (Coordinator to Device ) 1. a device transmits a MAC command request using unslotted CSMA/CA. Device periodically listens to the beacon and transmits a MAC command request using slotted CSMA/CA if necessary. Communication from a coordinator in a non beacon‐enabled network Hanyang University . Data transferred from coordinator to device In a non‐beacon‐enable network. Communication from a coordinator In a beacon‐enabled network Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Coordinator to Device (2/2) Data Transfer Model (Coordinator to Device ) 1. coordinator transmits a data frame with zero length payload. If the coordinator has its pending data. the coordinator transmits data frame using unslotted CSMA/CA. the coordinator indicates in the beacon that the data is pending.
Two type channel access mechanism: In non‐beacon‐enabled networks mechanism In beacon‐enabled networks unslotted CSMA/CA channel access slotted CSMA/CA channel access mechanism Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks CSMA/CA Algorithm 1. Each device shall maintain three variables for each transmission attempt NB: number of time the CSMA/CA algorithm was required to backoff while attempting the current transmission CW: contention window length. the number of backoff periods that needs to be clear of channel activity before transmission can commence (initial to 2 and reset to 2 if sensed channel to be busy) BE: the backoff exponent which is related to how many backoff periods a device shall wait before attempting to assess a channel Hanyang University .Robot Sensor Networks Channel Access Mechanism 1.e. the start of first backoff period of each device is aligned with the start of the beacon transmission The MAC sublayer shall ensure that the PHY layer commences all of its transmissions on the boundary of a backoff period 2. In slotted CSMA/CA The backoff period boundaries of every device in the PAN shall be aligned with the superframe slot boundaries of the PAN coordinator 1) i.
15. computing power make it ideal for a network router function Could also be used in network edge devices (where the network touches the real world) Reduced Function Device 1) 2) Carriers limited (as specified by the standard) functionality to control cost and complexity General usage will be in network edge devices 2. Three device types Network Coordinator 1) Maintains overall network knowledge.15. most sophisticated of the three types. Two channel access mechanisms Non‐beacon network 1) 2) Standard ALOHA CSMA‐CA communications Positive acknowledgement for successfully received packets Beacon‐enabled network 1) Super frame structure For dedicated bandwidth and low latency Set up by network coordinator to transmit beacons at predetermined intervals 15ms to 252sec (15.4 Device Types 1. a simple 8‐bit MCU and a pair of AAA batteries! Hanyang University . most memory and computing power Full Function Device 1) 2) 3) Carries full 802.38ms*2n where 0 ≤ n ≤ 14) 16 equal‐width time slots between beacons Channel access in each time slot is contention free Three security levels specified 1) 2) 3) None Access control lists Symmetric key employing AES‐128 Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks IEEE 802.4 functionality and all features specified by the standard Additional memory. All of these devices can be no more complicated than the transceiver.Robot Sensor Networks IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Options 1.
Robot Sensor Networks Data Frame Format 1. 2. One of two most basic and important structures in 15.4 Provides up to 104 byte data payload capacity Data sequence numbering to ensure that all packets are tracked Robust frame structure improves reception in difficult conditions Frame Check Sequence (FCS) ensures that packets received are without error Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Acknowledgement Frame Format 1.4 Provides active feedback from receiver to sender that packet was received without error Short packet that takes advantage of standards‐specified “quiet time” immediately after data packet transmission Hanyang University . 3. 4. 5. The other most important structure for 15. 2. 3.
return to sleep Beacons are important for mesh and cluster tree networks to keep all of the nodes synchronized without requiring nodes to consume precious battery energy listening for long periods of time Hanyang University . 2. and if not heard. Beacons add a new level of functionality to a network Client devices can wake up only when a beacon is to be broadcast. 3. 2. Mechanism for remote control/configuration of client nodes Allows a centralized network manager to configure individual clients no matter how large the network Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Beacon Frame Format 1.Robot Sensor Networks MAC Command Frame Format 1. listen for their address.
2.15.15. not just 2.4 Protocol is very robust Clear channel checking before transmission Backoff and retry if no acknowledgement received Duty cycle of a ZigBee‐compliant device is usually extremely low It’s the “cockroach that survives the nuclear war” 1) 2) Waits for an opening in otherwise busy RF spectrum Waits for acknowledgements to verify packet reception at other end Hanyang University . protocol‐based and geopolitical characteristics Worldwide coverage available at 2. 3. Potential for interference exists in every ISM band.4GHz IEEE 802. The two PHY bands (UHF/Microwave) have different physical.Robot Sensor Networks Frequencies and Data Rates 1.2 committees are addressing coexistence issues ZigBee/802.11 and 802.4GHz at 250kbps 900MHz for Americas and some of the Pacific 868MHz for European‐specific markets Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks ISM Band Interference and Coexistence 1.
4GHz 16 selectable channels 250Kbps Data Rate 250Kbps 0‐QPSK DSSS Multiple Power Saving Modes 1) 2) 3) Hibernate 2.5 Sensor Group IEEE 1451.15. A survey was conducted mid‐2002 on the characteristics of a wireless sensor network most important to its users In order of importance.3uA Doze 35uA Idle 500uA MC13191/2/3 Digital Transceiver Analog Receiver Frequency Generator Analog Transmitter GPIO HCS08 CPU SPI Timers Control Logic Flash Memory RAM SPI LVI COP Internal Clock Generator MC9S08GT Family BDM 8-ch 10-Bit ADC 2xSCI IIC 4-ch 16-bit Timer Up to 36 GPIO MC Series Ion and Smoke Photo Sensors Sensors MMA Series Accelerometers MPX Series Pressure Sensors RF Data Modem Up to 7 GPIO SPI Interface to Micro Buffer RAM IRQ Arbiter Power Management RAM Arbiter Voltage Regulators Hanyang University . if at all? Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Freescale 802. 2.Robot Sensor Networks IEEE 1451.15. Key Features IEEE® 802.5 Sensor Group Wireless Criteria 1.14 Radio Example 1. How would you modify these requirements.4 Compliant 1) 2) 3) 4) 2. these characteristics are Data Reliability Battery Life Cost Transmission Range Data Rate Data Latency Physical Size Data Security 3.
Star and Mesh IEEE 802.4 GHz transceiver Hanyang University .28 Point‐to‐Point and Star Simple MAC (SMAC) Packet Peer‐to‐Peer.4 GHz transceiver for proprietary applications Overview Buffered transmit and receive data packets for use with low cost MCUs Low component count reduces complexity and cost Programmable clock output available to MCU Network Topology Software Transfer Mode Throughput Tx/Rx Switch Low Power Modes Sensitivity Power Supply MCU Support MCU Interface Power Output Operating Temp Package 10K SRP $2. Doze and Idle ‐94 dBm ZigBee Stack MC13202 IEEE 802.15.15.0 to 3.35 8‐bit MCU. ColdFire.15. O‐QPSK Modulation. Hibernate.4 MC13201 Low cost 2. DSC ‐91 dBm 2.4 V Optimized for 8‐bit HCS08 Family SPI Interface to MCU ‐27 dBm to +4 dBm (software selectable) ‐40º to +85ºC Operating Temperature 5x5x1 mm 32‐pin QFN (Meets RoHS requirements) $2.6dBm to +3.4 GHz transceiver MC13203 ZigBee‐Ready 2.4 operating voltage ‐40˚C to +85˚C operating temperature Low external component count 1) Requires single 16Mhz Xtal (Auto Trim) 5mmx5mm QFN‐32 1) Lead‐Free Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks IEEE 802. DSSS Energy Spreading Scheme Integrated on‐chip Off. S12.14 Radio Example cont’d Internal Timer comparators (reduce MCU resources) ‐16.Robot Sensor Networks Freescale 802.6dBm output power 1) 2) Software selectable On‐chip regulator Up to ‐92 Rx sensitivity at 1% PER 2V to 3.75 $3.15.4 Compliant 2.4 MAC Packet and Streaming 250 Kbps.
11a Wireless Data Applications Peak Data Rate IrDA WiFi 802.11g 802.15.4 Slower Range Closer Farther Hanyang University .Robot Sensor Networks Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks The 802.4 / Zigbee Sandbox Faster Wireless Video Applications UWB 802.11b 2.5G/3G HomeRF Bluetooth ISM Link ZigBee 802.15.
4/ZigBee BUILDING AUTOMATION Security. Keyboard. Lighting Control. Joystick RESIDENTIAL/ LIGHT COMMERCIAL CONTROL Security. Access Control CONSUMER ELECTRONICS Remote Control PC & PERIPHERALS Mouse. HVAC.11b 802.11a/HL2 & 802. HVAC. Energy Mgt PERSONAL HEALTH CARE Patient monitoring Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks The Wireless Market TEXT GRAPHICS INTERNET HI‐FI AUDIO STREAMING VIDEO DIGITAL MULTI‐CHANNEL VIDEO VIDEO > LAN 802. AMR. Access Control INDUSTRIAL CONTROL Asset Mgt.15. Lighting Control. Process Control.Robot Sensor Networks The Application Space The Application Space for 802.11g < RANGE ZigBee Bluetooth 2 Bluetooth1 LOW PAN < DATA RATE > HIGH Hanyang University .
4 SILICON Hanyang University .15. Defining upper layers of protocol stack: from network to application.4 and ZigBee chipsets by 2008 Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Features of Protocol Stack Development of the Standard 1. 100 million wireless sensors will be in use On World reports that by 2010. Strong growth in areas such as wireless sensors will help fuel the growth of 802. IEEE 802. growing to 80 million units by the end of 2006 3. more then 500 million nodes will ship for wireless sensor applications 2.Robot Sensor Networks Market Size 802. ABI Research forecasts shipments of ZigBee devices in 2005 at about 1 million. IP providers. ZigBee Alliance 50+ companies: semiconductor mfrs.15. In‐Stat 2004 report has an aggressive forecast of over 150 million annual units of 802. etc.4 and ZigBee Harbor Research reports that by 2008. including application profiles First profiles published mid 2003 2.4 Working Group Defining lower layers of protocol stack: MAC and PHY scheduled for release in April APPLICATION Customer ZIGBEE STACK ZigBee Alliance IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee Market Size 1. OEMs.15.15.
PAN maintenance. discovery protocol. security management Channel access. routing. MAC management.15.2 LLC MAC (SSCS) IEEE 802. reliable data transport Transmission & reception on the physical radio channel ZA1 ZA2 API … ZAn IA1 IAn UDP IP ZigBee NWK 802.15.4 PHY Hanyang University .Robot Sensor Networks Frequencies and Data Rates BAND COVERAGE DATA RATE # OF CHANNEL(S) 2. designed using application profiles Application interface designed Using general profile Topology management.4 GHz 868 MHz 915 MHz ISM Worldwide Europe 250 kbps 16 20 kbps 1 40 kbps 10 ISM Americas Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Stack Reference Model (1/2) End developer applications.4 MAC (CPS) IEEE 802.
etc. 3.4 GHz 915MHz 868 MHz IEEE 802. Microcontroller utilized Full protocol stack <32 k APPLICATIONS Customer Simple node-only stack ~4k Coordinators require extra RAM Node device database Transaction table Pairing table APPLICATION INTERFACE SECURITY NETWORK LAYER Star/Cluster/Mesh ZigBee Alliance MAC LAYER MAC LAYER PHY LAYER 2. 4. etc.Robot Sensor Networks Stack Reference Model (2/2) 1. PDAs. remote controls. pictures. toys. Bluetooth Larger packets over small network Ad‐hoc networks File transfer Screen graphics.15.4 Application ZigBee Stack Silicon Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks ZigBee and Bluetooth Optimized for different applications ZigBee Smaller packets over large network Mostly Static networks with many. Hanyang University . headsets. 2. infrequently used devices Home automation. Mobile phones. hands‐ free audio.
4. Headsets Bluetooth expects regular charging Target is to use <10% of host power ZigBee is better for devices Where the battery is ‘rarely’ replaced Targets are : 1) 2) Tiny fraction of host power New opportunities where wireless not yet used Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Air Interface ZigBee 1. 2. FHSS 1 M Symbol / second Peak Information Rate ~720 Kbit / second Hanyang University . Bluetooth is a cable replacement for items like Phones. 2.5 K symbols/s 4 Bits/ symbol Peak Information Rate ~128 Kbit/second Bluetooth 1. DSSS‐ 11 chips/ symbol 62.Robot Sensor Networks Address Different Needs 1. Laptop Computers. 3. 2. 3. 3.
Robot Sensor Networks Protocol Stack Comparison User Interface vMessage Dial-up Networking Application Application Interface Network Layer Data Link Layer MAC Layer MAC Layer PHY Layer Silicon ZigBee Stack Application Intercom Headset Cordless Group Call vCard vCal vNote Fax Voice Telephony OBEX Control RFCOMM Protocol (Serial Port) Service Discovery Protocol L2CAP Host Control Interface Link Manager Link Controller Baseband RF Silicon Bluetooth Stack Applications Zigbee Bluetooth Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Timing Considerations ZigBee: Network join time = 30ms typically Sleeping slave changing to active = 15ms typically Active slave channel access time = 15ms typically Bluetooth: Network join time = >3s Sleeping slave changing to active = 3s typically Active slave channel access time = 2ms typically ZigBee protocol is optimized for timing critical applications Hanyang University .
sleeping nodes. 4. 3. Hanyang University . and pitfalls such as dispersion. The wireless medium is not a protected environment like the wired medium. Consistently perform a given task to the desired result despite all changes of environmental behavior 2.Robot Sensor Networks Comparison Overview Bluetooth AIR INTERFACE FHSS PROTOCOL STACK BATTERY DEVICES/NETWORK LINK RATE RANGE 250 kb ZigBee DSSS 28 kb rechargeable non‐rechargeable 8 1 Mbps ~10 meters (w/o pa) 255 250 kbps ~30 meters Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Reliability Throughout the Stacks (1/8) 1. it is fraught with degradations. interference. disruptions. multipath. hidden nodes. but rather. Without fail A necessary ingredient of trust “When the sensor measures its environment. the controller always knows that same value” 5. and security issues. frequency dependent fading.
they’re in the “sleep” mode. Each of these degradations and disruptions can be mitigated by various mechanisms within the ISO layers. The system must be optimized for the best performance in a realistic environment 3. When this happens the message needs to be buffered by another device that is able to send the message when the sleeping device wakes up. but not all mechanisms are compatible with all other mechanisms or may negatively impact critical performance attributes 2.Robot Sensor Networks Reliability Throughout the Stacks (2/8) 1.g. e. Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Reliability Throughout the Stacks (3/8) Interferer Router XX Sleeping Node Network Coordinator Multipath Hidden Node Hanyang University . In addition to the previous disruptions there is the case of sending messages to devices that are not receiving.
the higher its ability to reject multipath and interference.Robot Sensor Networks Reliability Throughout the Stacks (4/8) 1. IEEE 802.4 has built upon the successes of previous IEEE 802 standards by selecting those mechanisms proven to ensure good reliability without seriously degrading system and device performance. ISO Layers: 1. Hanyang University . 2.15. The more chips per symbol. Coordinator buffering Network: Mesh Network (redundant routing) Application Support Layer: Security Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Reliability Throughout the Stacks (5/8) PHY Layers: 1. PHY: Direct Sequence with Frequency Agility (DS/FA) MAC: ARQ. 3. Frequency Agility: ability to change frequencies to avoid interference from a known interferer or other signal source. 4. 2. Direct sequence: allows the radio to reject multipath and interference by use of a special “chip” sequence.
2. In this way if a device in the primary route is not able to pass the data. Hanyang University . transparent to the user. The APS configures the security emplaced in the MAC layer and also adds some of its own. Security: supports reliability by keeping other devices from corrupting communications.Robot Sensor Networks Reliability Throughout the Stacks (6/8) MAC: 1. a different valid route is formed. If the ACK is not received the transmission is sent again 2. ARQ (acknowledgement request) is where a successful transmission is verified by replying with an acknowledge (ACK). Coordinator buffering is where the network coordinator buffers messages for sleeping nodes until they wake again Network: 1. Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Reliability Throughout the Stacks (7/8) Application Support Sub‐layer(APS): 1. Mesh Networking: allows various paths of routing data to the destination device.
Chips/Symbol 1.4/ZigBee has more processing gain (chips/symbol) than its predecessors Hanyang University .4 (2.Robot Sensor Networks Reliability Throughout the Stacks (8/8) Reliability: Mesh Networking ZigBee Coordinator (FFD) ZigBee Router (FFD) ZigBee End Device (RFD or FFD) Mesh Link Star Link Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks IEEE 802 Direct Sequence 15.4) 32 IEEE 802.4 (900) 15 15. IEEE802.15. 11 11 11b 11 As can be seen from above.
4 GHz 2. Multipath and interference are probably the most significant degradations to the channel model.4 GHz PHY Channels 11‐26 5 MHz 2.15. Hanyang University . Let’s define robustness as the ability to tolerate significant degrading phenomena in the physical medium 2.4 and ZigBee 1.4835 GHz Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Robustness Throughout the Stacks (1/4) Robustness of IEEE 802.Robot Sensor Networks Direct Sequence and Frequency Agility Interferer Desired Signal Over the Air After DS correlation 2.
loss of the product bandwidth x time. 2. Direct Sequence with Frequency Agility (DS/FA) combines the best features of DS and FH without most of the problems caused by frequency hopping because frequency changes aren’t necessary most of the time. Of the three PHYs. rather it typically costs performance Hanyang University . So all three were standardized and left to the market to decide.11 Working Group couldn’t agree upon which of the following PHYs was the best: FH. or DS. Excess robustness does not achieve higher performance. rather they’re appropriate only on an exception basis. While this technique is very effective in some circumstances it creates other problems such as latency. The 802. DS provided sufficient robustness with higher overall performance.Robot Sensor Networks Robustness Throughout the Stacks (2/4) 1. IR. Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Robustness Throughout the Stacks (3/4) 1. network uncertainty for sleeping nodes. Frequency hopping is a method that allows the radio to periodically change channels to over time minimize the effect of a “bad” channel. etc. 2. DS was the clear market winner. 3.
4/ZigBee have addressed reliability throughout the ISO stack with proven mechanisms to minimize the uncertainty of the wireless medium Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks 802. moderate data rates in fairly static simple networks with limited active nodes 5. Bluetooth and 802.15. variety of duty cycles.15.15. Bluetooth costs and system performance are in line with 3rd and 4th generation products hitting market while 1st generation 15.4 transceiver physical characteristics are very similar 2. 3.4 designed for low to very low duty cycle static and dynamic environments with many active nodes 4.4/ZigBee vs Bluetooth 1. Protocols are substantially different and designed for different purposes 802.15. IEEE 802.4 and ZigBee 1. Bluetooth designed for high QoS.Robot Sensor Networks Robustness Throughout the Stacks (4/4) Reliability and Robustness throughout the stacks of IEEE 802.4 products will be appearing only late this year Hanyang University .15.
resistors excluding any special components for heartbeat sensor) Heartbeat Sensor Hanyang University .000MHz 32.4 OQPSK with shaping Max data rate 250kbps over the air 2Mchips/s over the air Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (62.5ksps*32 spread) ‐90 dBm sensitivity 40ppm xtal 2) Bluetooth FSK Max data rate 720kbps over the air 1Msps over the air Frequency Hop Spread Spectrum (79 channels @ 1600 hps) ‐85dBm sensitivity 20ppm xtal 2.15. Instantaneous power consumption will be similar for the raw transceivers without protocol Bluetooth’s frequency hop makes it extremely difficult to create extended networks without large synchronization cost Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks General Schematic Vcc 802. 3.4 SPI XCVR IRQ/ RESET 4 SPI MCU INT OSC1 IRQ OSC2 Vcc 3Vdc 16. Instantaneous Power Consumption 15.768kHz Plus about 10‐12 small value capacitors.4 Transceivers are “similar” to Bluetooth Transceivers 1) 802.15.Robot Sensor Networks Transceiver Comparisons 1.
car kits) Bluetooth 1) 2) 3) 4) 2.44s (closest values to 1 and 60 s) Guaranteed time slot occurs at some predetermined point in the beacon interval 2.4 1) 2) 3) Very low duty cycle.15. cellphones) or mains‐powered (printers. very long primary battery life applications Static and dynamic star and mesh network structures with potentially a very large number (>>65534) of client units.15. 15. low latency available but not necessary Ability to remain quiescent for long periods of time without communicating to the network Moderate duty cycle. 802. guaranteed latency Quasi‐static star network structure with up to 7 clients (and ability to participate in more than one network simultaneously) Generally used in applications where either power is cycled (headsets. 1ms precision) Sensor average temperature (0. secondary battery operation where battery lasts about the same as master unit Wire replacement for consumer devices that need moderate data rates with very high QoS and very low.1ms precision) Running average heartrate (1/time interval between last twenty pulses.Robot Sensor Networks 802.1C precision) Sensor average battery state (0.4/ZigBee Operation Mode 1. Sensor has two ongoing processes Heartbeat time logging Transmit heartrate and other information (8 bytes total) 1) 2) 3) 4) Instantaneous heartrate (1/timeinterval between last two pulses.1V precision) heartbeat GTS Beacon time Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Protocol Makes the Difference 1.15. Protocol differences can lead to tremendous optimizations in power consumption Hanyang University .4/ZigBee Mode Network environment using Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS) Network beacons occurring either every 1) 2) 960ms or 61.4 Protocol was developed for very different reasons than Bluetooth 802.
gas flow. H2O detector Refrigeration case or appliance Equipment management services & PM Security services Lighting control Assembly line and work flow. Device PN/SN. Industrial Control/Monitoring Space Asset Management 1) Basic identification Device ID. diagnostics. cooling. Device source/destination. fuel levels. energy management Field Service or mobile worker Temp. product updates. etc. chemical) Energy. Service Provider. Factory. Fleet management. Nearly any parameter can be monitored given an appropriate sensor Asset Tracking 1) Location tracking through two‐way communication Simplest form is communication/identification when passes a checkpoint Same as other RFID tagging systems More sophisticated “what other devices can it hear/communicate with?” Other options include ranging (time of flight) and SNR measurement Has the potential for very precise location measurement The wireless network uses protocol gateways to move command/monitor data between the end devices and the network data management center Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Product Examples Warehouses. Supermarkets. Office complexes Gas/Water/Electric meter. humidity. CO. e‐Business services Gateway or Field Service links to sensors & equipment Monitored to suggest PM. Inventory Materials processing systems (heat. status changes Nodes link to PC for database storage PC Modem calls retailer. 2) Asset “health” Temperature. HVAC Smoke. billing. or Corp headquarters Corp headquarters remotely monitors assets. Sensor Mfg Flow Database Gateway Security Sensor Telephone Cable line Back End Server Materials handling HVAC Service Provider Corp Office Retailer Hanyang University . etc.Robot Sensor Networks Applications 1. shock.
Service Provider Gateway links to security system. Customers Back End Server Server Telephone Cable line Field Service 3. interactive toys PC Modem calls retailer. entertainment.Robot Sensor Networks Home & Diagnostics Examples 1.4/ZigBee™ Platform System Simplicity and Flexibility Motorola RF Packet Radio Motorola 8‐Bit MCU Hanyang University .15. Sensor Body monitor AC or heat Pump Security Sensor White goods Data Communication Two way Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Motorola 802. SOHO. AC system. health. Gateway(s) PC & peripherals Entertainment Temp. Gateway links to field sales/service Retailer Dealer Service Provider 2. SOHO Mobile clients link to PC for database storage PC links to peripherals. temperature sensor.
4 RX sensitivity of –90 dBm at 1% PER.15.3 1) Runs off a single Li or 2 alkaline cells Complete RF transceiver data modem – antenna in.15. Features 2.4 GHz ISM band available worldwide Cost effective CMOS design Low external components. Designed for the IEEE 802. logic interface 1.0 mW) PA. no external components Full spread‐spectrum encoding and decoding compatible with 802.4 functionality can be added to existing systems simply by including the modem chip and reprogramming an existing MCU that may already be in the application HC08 RAM/FLASH configurations from 384B/4kB to 2kB/60kB depending upon application SW needs Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks RF Data Modem Transceiver (1/2) 1.15.4 and ZigBee™ standards Operates in the 2. step adjustable to –30dBm Integrated VCO.4 MAC A large number of Motorola’s substantial line of HC08 MCUs will interoperate with the data modem chip 1) Often 802.15. ‐90 dBm RX sensitivity at 1% PER 1) IEEE spec is –85 dBm Power supply 2.0‐3.Robot Sensor Networks Motorola 802.15. better than specification Engineered to support 250 kBit/s O‐QPSK data in 5.15. fully packetized data out Data and control interface via standard SPI at 4 to 8 MHz 802.7 to 3.4 specification No line‐of‐sight limitations as with infrared (IR) Hanyang University .0 MHz channels.4 / ZigBee™ Solution 1. per the IEEE 802.4 GHz Band.6 V w/ on‐chip regulator. no T/R switch required On‐chip low noise amplifier 0dBm (1.
Robot Sensor Networks RF Data Modem Transceiver (2/2) 1. 7. Designed to run DIRECTLY off two alkaline AA or AAA cells. 4. 6. Buffered transmit and receive data packets for simplified use with low‐ end microcontrollers SPI data and control interface.4 RFD MAC 32kB FLASH 8‐Bit Microcontroller SPI Digital Processing Application 15.4 PHY Compliant Transceiver RF Transceiver IC RF Receiver RF Transmitter RF Transceiver IC RF Receiver RF Transmitter RF Transceiver IC RF Receiver RF Transmitter RF Transceiver IC RF Receiver RF Transmitter Zigbee NWK SPI Digital Processing Application Application‐ specific interfaces Application SPI Digital Processing Zigbee NWK 15.4 FFD MAC >32kB FLASH 8‐Bit Microcontroller .0V per cell) 2.4 is a guest in existing microcontrollers 802. or one Lithium cell 2. operates up to 8MHz Designed to support peer to peer and star topologies On‐board timers to support optional Superframe/Guaranteed Time Slots for low latency transfer Will support optional Zigbee™ Network layer software Application‐configurable power‐saving modes that take best advantage of battery operation RX/TX > Idle > Doze > Hibernate > Off Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks Scalability to Address Specific Needs 802.4 RFD MAC 12kB FLASH 8‐Bit Microcontroller SPI Digital Processing Application Direct SPI Calls 3kB FLASH (min) 8‐Bit Microcontroller System Complexity and Cost Hanyang University 15. 3.6 V with on‐chip voltage regulator Can use the full capacity of the battery (to end of life ~1.15.15. 5.0 to 3.
other human input devices Each device has a unique ID Device set includes a USB to wireless interface dongle Dongle powered continuously from computer Keyboard does not have ON/OFF switch Power modes Keyboard normally in lowest power mode Upon first keystroke. Stack Software.6 Vdc. disposable Improved coexistence for short range applications. Total System Solution Single source for platform solution 1) Integrated Circuits. Modules. IEEE and ZigBee™ Alliance membership Technology and standards driver Early access to new technology Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks An Application Example (1/7) Wireless Keyboard 1. Key technology enhancements provide for a superior solution Adjacent channel rejection 1) 1) 1) 1) 1) Improvements in noisy environment 5 dBm beyond spec – longer range ‐40°C to +85°C for industrial and automotive applications 2.Robot Sensor Networks Advantages 1. improved battery life High Sensitivity Radio Solution Extended Temperature Operating Range Operating voltage range optimized for alkaline or lithium primary cells Adjustable TX Output power 3. then transitions back to lowest power mode Hanyang University . Scenario Parameters Battery‐operated keyboard 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Part of a device group including a mouse or trackball. wakes up and stays in a “more aware” state until 5 seconds of inactivity have passes. Development Systems 2. sketchpad. Reference Designs.0 Vdc to 3.
4 Operation Parameters Star network Non‐beacon mode (CSMA‐CA) USB Dongle is a PAN Coordinator Full Functional Device (FFD) Keyboard is a Reduced Function Device (RFD) Power Modes 1) 2) Quiescent Mode used for lowest power state First keystroke latency is approx 25ms Idle mode used for “more aware” state Keystroke latency 8‐12 ms latency Hanyang University .4 1. 802.15. Typing Rates 10. 25. 2. 50.15.Robot Sensor Networks An Application Example (2/7) Keyboard Usage 1. 75 and 100 words per minute Typing Pattern Theoretical: Type continuously until battery is depleted 1) Measures total number of hours based upon available battery energy Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks An Application Example (3/7) Wireless Keyboard Using 802.
15.15.4 Transceiver and HCS08 MCU 2) Battery operating voltage 2.6 V All required regulation internal to ICs Nearly all available energy usable with end of life voltage at 2. 802.28s 2) Sniff mode used for “more aware” state 15ms sniff interval 15ms latency Hanyang University .0 – 3.4 Chipset Parameters 1) Motorola 802.Robot Sensor Networks An Application Example (4/7) Wireless Keyboard Using 802.15.0 volts Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks An Application Example (5/7) Wireless Keyboard Using Bluetooth 1.4 1.28 second park interval First keystroke latency is 1. Bluetooth Operation Parameters Piconet network USB Dongle is piconet Master Keyboard is a piconet Slave Power Modes 1) Park mode used for lowest power state 1.
15.Robot Sensor Networks An Application Example (6/7) Wireless Keyboard Using Bluetooth 1.7 – 3.6 Vdc 1) 2) Requires external regulator for best performance Only 19 to 30 percent of available battery life usable with 2.4: Approx 38 days BT: Approximately 5 operating days By the way.4 Keyboard Comparison Bad Hunt n’ Peck 802. WirelessUSB looks much like BT Hanyang University .7V cutoff voltage Power Consumption (estimated) 1) 2) 3) Park Mode @ 1.05mA avg Sniff Mode @ 15ms interval: 8mA avg NOTE: I do not assume a deep sleep mode since wake up time of 4 to 30 seconds seems unacceptable Hanyang University Robot Sensor Networks An Application Example (7/7) Bluetooth vs.28 s interval: 0. Bluetooth Chipset Parameters CSR BlueCore 2 –External + Flash + Regulator Battery Operating Voltage 2. 15.
경청해 주셔서 감사합니다.Robot Sensor Networks Q&A 1. 2. Q & A Hanyang University .
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