This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

for

December 2003 FHWA NHI-04-042

Steel Girder Superstructure Bridge

Prepared for

FHWA / National Highway Institute Washington, DC

SI Units

Prepared by

Michael Baker Jr Inc Moon Township, Pennsylvania

Detailed Outline

Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge

Development of a Comprehensive Design Example for a Steel Girder Bridge with Commentary Detailed Outline of Steel Girder Design Example

1. 1.1 General Obtain design criteria 1.1.1 Governing specifications, codes, and standards 1.1.2 Design methodology 1.1.3 Live load requirements 1.1.4 Bridge width requirement 1.1.4.1 Number of design lanes (in each direction) 1.1.4.2 Shoulder, sidewalk, and parapet requirements 1.1.4.3 Bridge width 1.1.5 Clearance requirements 1.1.5.1 Horizontal clearance 1.1.5.2 Vertical clearance 1.1.6 Bridge length requirements 1.1.7 Material properties 1.1.7.1 Deck concrete 1.1.7.2 Deck reinforcing steel 1.1.7.3 Structural steel 1.1.7.4 Fasteners 1.1.7.5 Substructure concrete 1.1.7.6 Substructure reinforcing steel 1.1.8 Future wearing surface requirements 1.1.9 Load modifiers 1.1.9.1 Ductility 1.1.9.2 Redundancy 1.1.9.3 Operational importance Obtain geometry requirements 1.2.1 Horizontal geometry 1.2.1.1 Horizontal curve data 1.2.1.2 Horizontal alignment 1.2.2 Vertical geometry 1.2.2.1 Vertical curve data 1.2.2.2 Vertical grades Span arrangement study 1.3.1 Select bridge type 1.3.2 Determine span arrangement 1.3.3 Determine substructure locations 1.3.3.1 Abutments 1.3.3.2 Piers

1.2

1.3

FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example

1

Detailed Outline

Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.3.4 Compute span lengths 1.3.5 Check horizontal clearance requirements Obtain geotechnical recommendations 1.4.1 Develop proposed boring plan 1.4.2 Obtain boring logs 1.4.3 Obtain foundation type recommendations for all substructures 1.4.3.1 Abutments 1.4.3.2 Piers 1.4.4 Obtain foundation design parameters 1.4.4.1 Allowable bearing pressure 1.4.4.2 Allowable settlement 1.4.4.3 Allowable stability safety factors • Overturning • Sliding 1.4.4.4 Allowable pile resistance • Axial • Lateral Type, Size and Location (TS&L) study 1.5.1 Select steel girder types 1.5.1.1 Composite or noncomposite superstructure 1.5.1.2 Plate girder or roll section 1.5.1.3 Homogeneous or hybrid 1.5.2 Determine girder spacing 1.5.3 Determine approximate girder depth 1.5.4 Check vertical clearance requirements Plan for bridge aesthetics 1.6.1 Function 1.6.2 Proportion 1.6.3 Harmony 1.6.4 Order and rhythm 1.6.5 Contrast and texture 1.6.6 Light and shadow Concrete Deck Design Obtain design criteria 2.1.1 Girder spacing 2.1.2 Number of girders 2.1.3 Reinforcing steel cover 2.1.3.1 Top 2.1.3.2 Bottom 2.1.4 Concrete strength 2.1.5 Reinforcing steel strength 2.1.6 Concrete density 2.1.7 Future wearing surface 2.1.8 Concrete parapet properties

2. 2.1

FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example

2

Detailed Outline

Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge

2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12

2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 3.

2.1.8.1 Weight per unit length 2.1.8.2 Width 2.1.8.3 Center of gravity 2.1.9 Design method (assume Strip Method) 2.1.10 Applicable load combinations 2.1.11 Resistance factors Determine minimum slab thickness 2.2.1 Assume top flange width 2.2.2 Compute effective span length Determine minimum overhang thickness Select thicknesses 2.4.1 Slab 2.4.2 Overhang Compute dead load effects 2.5.1 Component dead load, DC 2.5.2 Wearing surface dead load, DW Compute live load effects 2.6.1 Dynamic load allowance 2.6.2 Multiple presence factor Compute factored positive and negative design moments for each limit state 2.7.1 Service limit states (stress, deformation, and cracking) 2.7.2 Fatigue and fracture limit states (limit cracking) 2.7.3 Strength limit states (strength and stability) 2.7.4 Extreme event limit states (e.g., earthquake, vehicular or vessel collision) Design for positive flexure in deck Check for positive flexure cracking under service limit state Design for negative flexure in deck Check for negative flexure cracking under service limit state Design for flexure in deck overhang 2.12.1 Design overhang for horizontal vehicular collision force 2.12.1.1 Check at inside face of parapet 2.12.1.2 Check at design section in overhang 2.12.1.3 Check at design section in first span 2.12.2 Design overhang for vertical collision force 2.12.3 Design overhang for dead load and live load 2.12.3.1 Check at design section in overhang 2.12.3.2 Check at design section in first span Check for cracking in overhang under service limit state Compute overhang cut-off length requirement Compute overhang development length Design bottom longitudinal distribution reinforcement Design top longitudinal distribution reinforcement Design longitudinal reinforcement over piers Draw schematic of final concrete deck design Steel Girder Design

FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example

3

Detailed Outline

Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge

3.1

3.2 3.3

3.4 3.5

3.6

3.7

3.8 3.9

3.10

3.11

Obtain design criteria 3.1.1 Span configuration 3.1.2 Girder configuration 3.1.3 Initial spacing of cross frames 3.1.4 Material properties 3.1.5 Deck slab design 3.1.6 Load factors 3.1.7 Resistance factors 3.1.8 Multiple presence factors Select trial girder section Compute section properties 3.3.1 Sequence of loading 3.3.2 Effective flange width 3.3.3 Composite or noncomposite Compute dead load effects 3.4.1 Component dead load, DC 3.4.2 Wearing surface dead load, DW Compute live load effects 3.5.1 Determine live load distribution for moment and shear 3.5.1.1 Interior girders 3.5.1.2 Exterior girders 3.5.1.3 Skewed bridges 3.5.2 Dynamic load allowance Combine load effects for each limit state 3.6.1 Service limit states (stress, deformation, and cracking) 3.6.2 Fatigue and fracture limit states (limit cracking) 3.6.3 Strength limit states (strength and stability) 3.6.4 Extreme event limit states (e.g., earthquake, vehicular or vessel collision) Check section proportions 3.7.1 General proportions 3.7.2 Web slenderness 3.7.3 Flange proportions Compute plastic moment capacity (for composite section) Determine if section is compact or noncompact 3.9.1 Check web slenderness 3.9.2 Check compression flange slenderness (negative flexure only) 3.9.3 Check compression flange bracing (negative flexure only) 3.9.4 Check ductility (positive flexure only) 3.9.5 Check plastic forces and neutral axis (positive flexure only) Design for flexure - strength limit state 3.10.1 Compute design moment 3.10.2 Compute nominal flexural resistance 3.10.3 Flexural stress limits for lateral-torsional buckling Design for shear (at end panels and at interior panels) 3.11.1 Compute shear resistance

FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example

4

Detailed Outline

Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge

3.12

3.13

3.14

3.15

3.16

3.17 3.18

3.11.2 Check Dc/tw for shear 3.11.3 Check web fatigue stress 3.11.4 Check handling requirements 3.11.5 Constructability Design transverse intermediate stiffeners 3.12.1 Determine required locations 3.12.2 Compute design loads 3.12.3 Select single-plate or double-plate and stiffener sizes 3.12.4 Compute stiffener section properties 3.12.4.1 Projecting width 3.12.4.2 Moment of inertia 3.12.4.3 Area 3.12.5 Check slenderness requirements 3.12.6 Check stiffness requirements 3.12.7 Check strength requirements Design longitudinal stiffeners 3.13.1 Determine required locations 3.13.2 Compute design loads 3.13.3 Select stiffener sizes 3.13.4 Compute stiffener section properties 3.13.4.1 Projecting width 3.13.4.2 Moment of inertia 3.13.5 Check slenderness requirements 3.13.6 Check stiffness requirements Design for flexure - fatigue and fracture limit state 3.14.1 Fatigue load 3.14.2 Load-induced fatigue 3.14.2.1 Top flange weld 3.14.2.2 Bottom flange weld 3.14.3 Fatigue requirements for webs 3.14.3.1 Flexure 3.14.3.2 Shear 3.14.4 Distortion induced fatigue 3.14.5 Fracture Design for flexure - service limit state 3.15.1 Optional live load deflection check 3.15.2 Permanent deflection check 3.15.2.1 Compression flange 3.15.2.2 Tension flange Design for flexure - constructibility check 3.16.1 Check web slenderness 3.16.2 Check compression flange slenderness 3.16.3 Check compression flange bracing Check wind effects on girder flanges Draw schematic of final steel girder design

FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example

5

Detailed Outline

Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge

4. 4.1

Bolted Field Splice Design Obtain design criteria 4.1.1 Splice location 4.1.2 Girder section properties 4.1.3 Material and bolt properties Select girder section as basis for field splice design Compute flange splice design loads 4.3.1 Girder moments 4.3.2 Strength stresses and forces 4.3.3 Service stresses and forces 4.3.4 Fatigue stresses and forces 4.3.5 Controlling and non-controlling flange 4.3.6 Construction moments and shears Design bottom flange splice 4.4.1 Yielding / fracture of splice plates 4.4.2 Block shear rupture resistance 4.4.3 Shear of flange bolts 4.4.4 Slip resistance 4.4.5 Minimum spacing 4.4.6 Maximum spacing for sealing 4.4.7 Maximum pitch for stitch bolts 4.4.8 Edge distance 4.4.9 Bearing at bolt holes 4.4.10 Fatigue of splice plates 4.4.11 Control of permanent deflection Design top flange splice 4.5.1 Yielding / fracture of splice plates 4.5.2 Block shear rupture resistance 4.5.3 Shear of flange bolts 4.5.4 Slip resistance 4.5.5 Minimum spacing 4.5.6 Maximum spacing for sealing 4.5.7 Maximum pitch for stitch bolts 4.5.8 Edge distance 4.5.9 Bearing at bolt holes 4.5.10 Fatigue of splice plates 4.5.11 Control of permanent deflection Compute web splice design loads 4.6.1 Girder shear forces 4.6.2 Shear resistance for strength 4.6.3 Web moments and horizontal force resultants for strength, service and fatigue Design web splice 4.7.1 Bolt shear strength 4.7.2 Shear yielding of splice plate

4.2 4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example

6

Detailed Outline

Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge

4.8 5. 5.1

4.7.3 Fracture on the net section 4.7.4 Block shear rupture resistance 4.7.5 Flexural yielding of splice plates 4.7.6 Bearing resistance 4.7.7 Fatigue of splice plates Draw schematic of final bolted field splice design Miscellaneous Steel Design Design shear connectors 5.1.1 Select studs 5.1.1.1 Stud length 5.1.1.2 Stud diameter 5.1.1.3 Transverse spacing 5.1.1.4 Cover 5.1.1.5 Penetration 5.1.1.6 Pitch 5.1.2 Design for fatigue resistance 5.1.3 Check for strength limit state 5.1.3.1 Positive flexure region 5.1.3.2 Negative flexure region Design bearing stiffeners 5.2.1 Determine required locations 5.2.2 Compute design loads 5.2.3 Select stiffener sizes and arrangement 5.2.4 Compute stiffener section properties 5.2.4.1 Projecting width 5.2.4.2 Effective section 5.2.5 Check bearing resistance 5.2.6 Check axial resistance 5.2.7 Check slenderness requirements 5.2.8 Check nominal compressive resistance Design welded connections 5.3.1 Determine required locations 5.3.2 Determine weld type 5.3.3 Compute design loads 5.3.4 Compute factored resistance 5.3.4.1 Tension and compression 5.3.4.2 Shear 5.3.5 Check effective area 5.3.5.1 Required 5.3.5.2 Minimum 5.3.6 Check minimum effective length requirements Design cross-frames 5.4.1 Obtain required locations and spacing (determined during girder design) 5.4.1.1 Over supports

5.2

5.3

5.4

FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example

7

Detailed Outline

Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge

5.5

5.6

5.4.1.2 Intermediate cross frames 5.4.2 Check transfer of lateral wind loads 5.4.3 Check stability of girder compression flanges during erection 5.4.4 Check distribution of vertical loads applied to structure 5.4.5 Design cross frame members 5.4.6 Design connections Design lateral bracing 5.5.1 Check transfer of lateral wind loads 5.5.2 Check control of deformation during erection and placement of deck 5.5.3 Design bracing members 5.5.4 Design connections Compute girder camber 5.6.1 Compute camber due to dead load 5.6.1.1 Dead load of structural steel 5.6.1.2 Dead load of concrete deck 5.6.1.3 Superimposed dead load 5.6.2 Compute camber due to vertical profile of bridge 5.6.3 Compute residual camber (if any) 5.6.4 Compute total camber Bearing Design Obtain design criteria 6.1.1 Movement 6.1.1.1 Longitudinal 6.1.1.2 Transverse 6.1.2 Rotation 6.1.2.1 Longitudinal 6.1.2.2 Transverse 6.1.2.3 Vertical 6.1.3 Loads 6.1.3.1 Longitudinal 6.1.3.2 Transverse 6.1.3.3 Vertical Select optimum bearing type (assume steel-reinforced elastomeric bearing) Select preliminary bearing properties 6.3.1 Pad length 6.3.2 Pad width 6.3.3 Thickness of elastomeric layers 6.3.4 Number of steel reinforcement layers 6.3.5 Thickness of steel reinforcement layers 6.3.6 Edge distance 6.3.7 Material properties Select design method 6.4.1 Design Method A 6.4.2 Design Method B

6. 6.1

6.2 6.3

6.4

FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example

8

Detailed Outline

Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge

6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 7. 7.1

Compute shape factor Check compressive stress Check compressive deflection Check shear deformation Check rotation or combined compression and rotation 6.9.1 Check rotation for Design Method A 6.9.2 Check combined compression and rotation for Design Method B Check stability Check reinforcement Check for anchorage or seismic provisions 6.12.1 Check for anchorage for Design Method A 6.12.2 Check for seismic provisions for Design Method B Design anchorage for fixed bearings Draw schematic of final bearing design Abutment and Wingwall Design Obtain design criteria 7.1.1 Concrete strength 7.1.2 Concrete density 7.1.3 Reinforcing steel strength 7.1.4 Superstructure information 7.1.5 Span information 7.1.6 Required abutment height 7.1.7 Load information Select optimum abutment type (assume reinforced concrete cantilever abutment) 7.2.1 Cantilever 7.2.2 Gravity 7.2.3 Counterfort 7.2.4 Mechanically-stabilized earth 7.2.5 Stub, semi-stub, or shelf 7.2.6 Open or spill-through 7.2.7 Integral 7.2.8 Semi-integral Select preliminary abutment dimensions Compute dead load effects 7.4.1 Dead load reactions from superstructure 7.4.1.1 Component dead load, DC 7.4.1.2 Wearing surface dead load, DW 7.4.2 Abutment stem dead load 7.4.3 Abutment footing dead load Compute live load effects 7.5.1 Placement of live load in longitudinal direction 7.5.2 Placement of live load in transverse direction Compute other load effects 7.6.1 Vehicular braking force

7.2

7.3 7.4

7.5 7.6

FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example

9

Detailed Outline

Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge

7.7

7.8

7.9

7.10

7.11

Wind loads 7.6.2.1 Wind on live load 7.6.2.2 Wind on superstructure 7.6.3 Earthquake loads 7.6.4 Earth pressure 7.6.5 Live load surcharge 7.6.6 Temperature loads Analyze and combine force effects for each limit state 7.7.1 Service limit states (stress, deformation, and cracking) 7.7.2 Fatigue and fracture limit states (limit cracking) 7.7.3 Strength limit states (strength and stability) 7.7.4 Extreme event limit states (e.g., earthquake, vehicular or vessel collision) Check stability and safety requirements 7.8.1 Check pile group stability and safety criteria (if applicable) 7.8.1.1 Overall stability 7.8.1.2 Axial pile resistance 7.8.1.3 Lateral pile resistance 7.8.1.4 Overturning 7.8.1.5 Uplift 7.8.2 Check spread footing stability and safety criteria (if applicable) 7.8.2.1 Maximum bearing pressure 7.8.2.2 Minimum bearing pressure (uplift) 7.8.2.3 Overturning 7.8.2.4 Sliding 7.8.2.5 Settlement Design abutment backwall 7.9.1 Design for flexure 7.9.1.1 Design moments 7.9.1.2 Flexural resistance 7.9.1.3 Required reinforcing steel 7.9.2 Check for shear 7.9.3 Check crack control Design abutment stem 7.10.1 Design for flexure 7.10.1.1 Design moments 7.10.1.2 Flexural resistance 7.10.1.3 Required reinforcing steel 7.10.2 Check for shear 7.10.3 Check crack control Design abutment footing 7.11.1 Design for flexure 7.11.1.1 Minimum steel 7.11.1.2 Required steel 7.11.2 Design for shear 7.11.2.1 Concrete shear resistance 7.11.2.2 Required shear reinforcement

7.6.2

FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example

10

Detailed Outline

Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge

7.12 8. 8.1

7.11.3 Check crack control Draw schematic of final abutment design Pier Design Obtain design criteria 8.1.1 Concrete strength 8.1.2 Concrete density 8.1.3 Reinforcing steel strength 8.1.4 Superstructure information 8.1.5 Span information 8.1.6 Required pier height Select optimum pier type (assume reinforced concrete hammerhead pier) 8.2.1 Hammerhead 8.2.2 Multi-column 8.2.3 Wall type 8.2.4 Pile bent 8.2.5 Single column Select preliminary pier dimensions Compute dead load effects 8.4.1 Dead load reactions from superstructure 8.4.1.1 Component dead load, DC 8.4.1.2 Wearing surface dead load, DW 8.4.2 Pier cap dead load 8.4.3 Pier column dead load 8.4.4 Pier footing dead load Compute live load effects 8.5.1 Placement of live load in longitudinal direction 8.5.2 Placement of live load in transverse direction Compute other load effects 8.6.1 Centrifugal force 8.6.2 Vehicular braking force 8.6.3 Vehicular collision force 8.6.4 Water loads 8.6.5 Wind loads 8.6.5.1 Wind on live load 8.6.5.2 Wind on superstructure 8.6.5.3 Wind on pier 8.6.6 Ice loads 8.6.7 Earthquake loads 8.6.8 Earth pressure 8.6.9 Temperature loads 8.6.10 Vessel collision Analyze and combine force effects for each limit state 8.7.1 Service limit states (stress, deformation, and cracking) 8.7.2 Fatigue and fracture limit states (limit cracking)

8.2

8.3 8.4

8.5 8.6

8.7

FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example

11

Detailed Outline

Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge

8.8

8.9

8.10 8.11

8.12 9. 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 10. 10.1

8.7.3 Strength limit states (strength and stability) 8.7.4 Extreme event limit states (e.g., earthquake, vehicular or vessel collision) Design pier cap 8.8.1 Design for flexure 8.8.1.1 Maximum design moment 8.8.1.2 Cap beam section properties 8.8.1.3 Flexural resistance 8.8.2 Design for shear and torsion 8.8.2.1 Maximum design values • Shear • Torsion 8.8.2.2 Cap beam section properties 8.8.2.3 Required area of stirrups • For torsion • For shear • Combined requirements 8.8.2.4 Longitudinal torsion reinforcement 8.8.3 Check crack control Design pier column 8.9.1 Slenderness considerations 8.9.2 Interaction of axial and moment resistance 8.9.3 Design for shear Design pier piles Design pier footing 8.11.1 Design for flexure 8.11.1.1 Minimum steel 8.11.1.2 Required steel 8.11.2 Design for shear 8.11.2.1 Concrete shear resistance 8.11.2.2 Required reinforcing steel for shear 8.11.2.3 One-way shear 8.11.2.4 Two-way shear 8.11.3 Check crack control Draw schematic of final pier design Miscellaneous Design Design approach slabs Design bridge deck drainage Design bridge lighting Check for bridge constructability Complete additional design considerations Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Develop special provisions

FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example

12

5 P.2 P. P.3 Compute estimated quantities 10.3 P.12 P.2 Obtain standard special provisions from client 10.2 Develop list of project items 10.14 P.2.4 Determine estimated unit prices 10.18 P.15 P.6 P.2.1.7 P.2.5 Determine contingency percentage 10.9 P.1.1 P.2 10.8 P.1 Develop list of required special provisions 10.4 P.2.19 FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 13 .11 P.17 P.Detailed Outline Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge 10.6 Compute estimated total construction cost Pile Foundation Design Define subsurface conditions and any geometric constraints Determine applicable loads and load combinations Factor loads for each combination Verify need for a pile foundation Select suitable pile type and size based on factored loads and subsurface conditions Determine nominal axial structural resistance for selected pile type and size Determine nominal axial geotechnical resistance for selected pile type and size Determine factored axial structural resistance for single pile Determine factored axial geotechnical resistance for single pile Check driveability of pile Do preliminary pile layout based on factored loads and overturning moments Evaluate pile head fixity Perform pile soil interaction analysis Check geotechnical axial capacity Check structural axial capacity Check structural capacity in combined bending and axial Check structural shear capacity Check maximum horizontal and vertical deflection of pile group Additional miscellaneous design issues P.16 P.2.3 Develop remaining special provisions Compute estimated construction cost 10.13 P.1 Obtain list of item numbers and item descriptions from client 10.2.1.10 P.

Inc.. November 2003 .Development of a Comprehensive Design Example for a Steel Girder Bridge with Commentary Design Process Flowcharts for Superstructure and Substructure Designs Prepared by Michael Baker Jr.

Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart P .Miscellaneous Design Chart 10 .Steel Girder Design Chart 4 .Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 8 . Flowcharts Main Flowchart Chart 1 .Pier Design Chart 9 .Bearing Design Chart 7 . Flowcharting Conventions 2.General Information Chart 2 .Concrete Deck Design Chart 3 .Pile Foundation Design .Table of Contents 1.Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 5 .Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 6 .

Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Flowcharting Conventions Start A process may have an entry point from more than one path. An arrowhead going into a process signifies an entry point. A line going out of a process signifies an exit point. Unique sequence identifier Process description Reference Process A Design Step # Chart # or AASHTO Reference Unless the process is a decision. Flowchart reference or article in AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications Supplemental Information No Decision Yes Process Design Step # Chart # or AASHTO Reference Go to Other Flowchart FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 1 . there is only one exit point. Commentary to provide additional information about the decision or process.

Yes No Are girder splices required? Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Design Step 5 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Go to: A FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 1 .Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Main Flowchart Start Design Step 1 General Information Chart 1 Design Step 2 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Design Step 3 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Splices are generally required for girders that are too long to be transported to the bridge site in one piece.

Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Main Flowchart (Continued) A Design Step 6 Bearing Design Chart 6 Design Step 7 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Design Step 8 Pier Design Chart 8 Design Step 9 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Design Step 10 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Note: Design Step P is used for pile foundation design for the abutments. FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 2 . wingwalls. or piers.

2 Obtain Geometry Requirements Design Step 7 Includes: Horizontal curve data and alignment Vertical curve data and grades Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Yes Design Step 10 Does client require a Span Arrangement Study? No Includes: Select bridge type Determine span arrangement Determine substructure locations Compute span lengths Check horizontal clearance Design Step 1.1 Obtain Design Criteria Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Includes: Governing specifications.3 Perform Span Arrangement Study Design Step 1. and standards Design methodology Live load requirements Bridge width requirements Clearance requirements Bridge length requirements Material properties Future wearing surface Load modifiers Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 1. codes.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge General Information Flowchart Chart 1 Start Start Design Step 1 General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 2 Design Step 1.3 Select Bridge Type and Develop Span Arrangement Go to: A FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 1 .

4 Yes Obtain Geotechnical Recommendations Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 5 Includes: Boring logs Foundation type recommendations for all substructures Allowable bearing pressure Allowable settlement Overturning Sliding Allowable pile resistance (axial and lateral) Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Yes Does client require a Type.5 Determine Optimum Girder Configuration Design Step 1.5 Considerations include: Function Proportion Harmony Order and rhythm Contrast and texture Light and shadow Return to Main Flowchart FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 2 .5 Perform Type.6 Plan for Bridge Aesthetics S2.5. Size and Location Study Design Step 1.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge General Information Flowchart (Continued) Chart 1 Start Design Step 1 General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 A Design Step 2 Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? Design Step 1. Size and Location Study? No Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Includes: Select steel girder types Girder spacing Approximate girder depth Check vertical clearance Design Step 1.

2.1 Obtain Design Criteria Design Step 2 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 3 Includes: Girder spacing Number of girders Top and bottom cover Concrete strength Reinforcing steel strength Concrete density Future wearing surface Concrete parapet properties Applicable load combinations Resistance factors To compute the effective span length.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Concrete Deck Design Flowchart Chart 2 Start Start General Information Chart 1 Design Step 1 Design Step 2.1.4 and based on client standards.2) No Other deck design methods are presented in S9. No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 2.4 Select Slab and Overhang Thickness Design Step 10 Yes Equivalent Strip Method? (S4.7.3 Determine Minimum Overhang Thickness S13.5.1 Includes moments for component dead load (DC) and wearing surface dead load (DW).7. Go to: A FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 1 . Design Step 2. assume a girder top flange width that is conservatively smaller than anticipated.1 Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 2.1 & S3.6. S.3.6.2 Determine Minimum Slab Thickness S2.3 & S9.3 and 2.5 Compute Dead Load Effects S3.7.5.4. The deck overhang region is required to be designed to have a resistance larger than the actual resistance of the concrete parapet.2 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step 2. Based on Design Steps 2.1.

2.2.8 Design for Positive Flexure in Deck S5.1-1) No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 2.10 Design for Negative Flexure in Deck S4.3.2.2.7.3.1 & SA13.6 Compute Live Load Effects S3.12 Design for Flexure in Deck Overhang S5. The live load negative moment is calculated at the design section to the right and to the left of each interior girder. Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 2.6.2) AASHTO moment table for equivalent strip method (STable A4.6.6.1).3 & S3.7.4.6. the top transverse reinforcement in the deck is checked for crack control. S5.1.7 Compute Factored Positive and Negative Design Moments S4.1.11 Check for Negative Flexure Cracking under Service Limit State S5. See also S5.1 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step 2.3 Resistance factor for flexure is found in S5.1 Design Step 2.7.5.1.7.7.6.1.1 Considerations include: Dynamic load allowance (S3.4.7.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Concrete Deck Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 2 A Start General Information Chart 1 Design Step 2.4 Go to: B FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 2 .7.7.7.3.3.1 Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 3 Design Step 2.3.1 & S5.7.3 Design Step 10 Design Step 2.4 & S5.4.4 & S5. Generally.9 Design Step 7 Check for Positive Flexure Cracking under Service Limit State S5.2 and S5. the bottom transverse reinforcement in the deck is checked for crack control. and the extreme value is applicable to all design sections (S4.1.2.6.2.1. Generally.1) Multiple presence factor (S3.

1 The overhang reinforcing steel must satisfy both the overhang requirements and the deck requirements.1 Check at Case Inside Face 1A of Parapet Check at Case Design 1B Section in Overhang Check at Case Design 1C Section in First Span Check at Case Design 3A Section in Overhang Check at Case Design 3B Section in First Span As(Overhang) = maximum of the above five reinforcing steel areas Start General Information Chart 1 Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Yes Design Step 3 As(Overhang) > As(Deck)? No No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Use As(Overhang) in overhang. Design Step 5 Design Step 2. Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 2.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Concrete Deck Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 2 For concrete parapets.13 Design Step 6 Does not control the design in most cases.4.4.7.3.11. the case of vertical collision never controls.1 Design Case 3 Design Overhang for Dead Load and Live Load SA13. B Design Case 1 Design Overhang for Horizontal Vehicular Collision Force SA13.4 & S5.14 Compute Overhang Cut-off Length Requirement S5.4.1 Design Case 2 Design Overhang for Vertical Collision Force SA13.2 Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Go to: C FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 3 .7.1. Check for Cracking in Overhang under Service Limit State S5. Use As(Deck) in overhang.

design top longitudinal reinforcement over piers according to S6.2. Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 2.7.7. in accordance with S9.10.15 Compute Overhang Development Length S5.3.2 Design Step 3 Compute Effective Span Length.14.7. Design Step 2.3.1.2 Appropriate correction factors must be included. Based on temperature and shrinkage reinforcement requirements.11.16 Design Bottom Longitudinal Distribution Reinforcement S9.18 Design Longitudinal Reinforcement over Piers Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Yes Continuous steel girders? No Design Step 10 For simple span precast girders made continuous for live load.2. For continuous steel girders.10.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Concrete Deck Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 2 C Start General Information Chart 1 Design Step 2.17 Design Top Longitudinal Distribution Reinforcement S5.7. design top longitudinal reinforcement over piers according to S5.3.2 Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 2.19 Draw Schematic of Final Concrete Deck Design Return to Main Flowchart FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 4 .8. S. No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 2.

1.3 Compute Section Properties for Noncomposite Girder S6. material properties.3.10.2 Select Trial Girder Section Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Yes Composite section? No Considerations include: Sequence of loading (S6. girder configuration.1 Design Step 3. Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Design Step 1 Design Step 3.3.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Steel Girder Design Flowchart Chart 3 Start Includes project specific design criteria (such as span configuration. and deck slab design) and design criteria from AASHTO (such as load factors.10. resistance factors.2.3 Compute Section Properties for Composite Girder S6.3 Go to: B FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 1 . and multiple presence factors).1 Obtain Design Criteria Design Step 2 Design Step 3 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed A Design Step 3.6) Design Step 10 Design Step 3.6. initial spacing of cross frames.3.1a) Effective flange width (S4.10.

10.5. and fatigue limit states.2.5 Compute Live Load Effects S3. Considerations include: General proportions (6.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Steel Girder Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 3 B Includes component dead load (DC) and wearing surface dead load (DW).6 Combine Load Effects S3.6. Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Design Step 3.7 Check Section Proportion Limits S6. service.10.6.10.1 Considerations include: LL distribution factors (S4.3) Go to: A No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 3.1 Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Design Step 3 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 3.4 Compute Dead Load Effects S3.2) Flange proportions (6.10.1 Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Design Step 3.1) Includes load factors and load combinations for strength.6.2.4.2.2) Dynamic load allowance (S3.1) Web slenderness (6.2 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Are section proportions adequate? Yes Go to: C No FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 2 .2.2.

6.10.3.10.1 Design Step 10 Yes Design for Flexure Strength Limit State S6.1 Considerations include: Web slenderness Compression flange slenderness (N only) Compression flange bracing (N only) Ductility (P only) Plastic forces and neutral axis (P only) Design for Flexure Strength Limit State S6.1.4 (Flexural resistance in terms of moment) Compact section? No Design Step 3.3) Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 D Design Step 3. N denotes Negative Flexure.4 (Flexural resistance in terms of stress) Considerations include: Computations at end panels and interior panels for stiffened or partially stiffened girders Computation of shear resistance Check D/tw for shear Check web fatigue stress (S6.3.10.10.10.4) Check handling requirements Check nominal shear resistance for constructability (S6.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 3 Design Step 1 Design Step 2 C Design Step 3 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes No Composite section? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 5 Design Step 3.10.7 Note: P denotes Positive Flexure.4.9 Determine if Section is Compact or Noncompact S6.11 Design for Shear S6.10.10 Design Step 3.3 & Appendix A6.2.8 Compute Plastic Moment Capacity S6.10 Design Step 3. Go to: E FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 3 .

8. Design includes: Select single-plate or double-plate Compute projecting width.1.2) Check stiffness requirements (S6.1.3 Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Go to: F FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 4 .3) Check strength requirements (S6.10.1.4) If no longitudinal stiffeners are used. moment of inertia. and area Check slenderness requirements (S6. as applicable.1 Design Step 2 Design Step 3 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed No Longitudinal stiffeners? Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Yes Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 3.8.13 Design Longitudinal Stiffeners S6. then the girder must be designed for shear based on the use of either an unstiffened or a transversely stiffened web.8.8.10.10.10. Design includes: Determine required locations Select stiffener sizes Compute projecting width and moment of inertia Check slenderness requirements Check stiffness requirements Yes Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Design Step 1 Design Step 3. then the girder must be designed for shear based on the use of an unstiffened web.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Steel Girder Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 3 E No Transverse intermediate stiffeners? If no stiffeners are used.10.12 Design Transverse Intermediate Stiffeners S6.8.

1.2) Fatigue requirements for webs (S6. Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Design Step 3.15 Design for Flexure Service Limit State S2.5) Check: Web slenderness Compression flange slenderness Compression flange bracing Shear Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 5 Design Step 3.5 Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 3.6.2.2 & S6.10.6) Distortion induced fatigue Fracture Compute: Live load deflection (optional) (S2.14 Design Step 3 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design for Flexure Fatigue and Fracture Limit State S6.4) Load-induced fatigue (S6.2) Permanent deflection (S6.1.2.6.2 Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Go to: G FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 5 .10.10.10.10.3.6.1.5.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Steel Girder Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 3 F No Is stiffened web most cost effective? Yes Use unstiffened web in steel girder design.16 Design for Flexure Constructibility Check S6.6 No Are girder splices required? Yes Check: Fatigue load (S3. Use stiffened web in steel girder design.6.5.2 & S6.6.

and is the girder optimized? No Go to: A Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Yes Design Step 3.10.17 Check Wind Effects on Girder Flanges S6.3.9 for determination of compact or noncompact section.18 Draw Schematic of Final Steel Girder Design Return to Main Flowchart FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 6 . Design Step 2 Design Step 3 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Have all positive and negative flexure design sections been checked? No Go to: D (and repeat flexural checks) Design Step 5 Yes Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Were all specification checks satisfied.5 Design Step 1 Refer to Design Step 3.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Steel Girder Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 3 G Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Design Step 3.

2 Select Girder Section as Basis for Field Splice Design S6.1.6.13. Design bolted field splice based on right adjacent girder section properties. No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Left Design Step 5 Which adjacent girder section is smaller? Right Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design bolted field splice based on left adjacent girder section properties.13.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Bolted Field Splice Design Flowchart Chart 4 Start Includes: Splice location Girder section properties Material and bolt properties Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 4. Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Design Step 4.6.1.1).1 Obtain Design Criteria Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Design Step 3 Design Step 4.4c Includes: Girder moments Strength stresses and forces Service stresses and forces Fatigue stresses and forces Controlling and noncontrolling flange Construction moments and shears Go to: A FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 1 .1.1 Design bolted field splice based on the smaller adjacent girder section (S6.13.6.3 Compute Flange Splice Design Loads 6.

2.13.5.6.4 Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 4.13.6.1) Control of permanent deflection (6.2) Maximum pitch for stitch bolts (6.6.1.6. service and fatigue Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Go to: B FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 2 .13.6) Bearing at bolt holes (6.10.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Bolted Field Splice Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 4 Check: Yielding / fracture of splice plates Block shear rupture resistance (S6.6.13.13.2.6.2.4c Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? Design Step 4.3) Edge distance (6.4) Shear of flange bolts Slip resistance Minimum spacing (6.1.1) Maximum spacing for sealing (6.9) Fatigue of splice plates (6.2) A Design Step 4.6.5 Yes Design Top Flange Splice S6.6 Design Step 7 Compute Web Splice Design Loads S6.13.2.2.13.1.13.6.4c Check: Refer to Design Step 4.4b Design Step 8 Check: Girder shear forces Shear resistance for strength Web moments and horizontal force resultants for strength.13.4 Design Bottom Flange Splice 6.

5.4b Design Step 2 Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Yes Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Do all bolt patterns satisfy all specifications? No Go to: A Yes Design Step 4.1.2) Both the top and bottom flange splices must be designed.6. Are both the top and bottom flange splice designs completed? No Go to: A Design Step 4.9) Fatigue of splice plates (6.7 Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 1 Design Web Splice S6.2.4) Block shear rupture resistance (6.13.1.6.8 Draw Schematic of Final Bolted Field Splice Design Return to Main Flowchart FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 3 .4) Flexural yielding of splice plates Bearing resistance (6.13.13. and they are designed using the same procedures.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Bolted Field Splice Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 4 B Check: Bolt shear strength Shear yielding of splice plate (6.3) Fracture on the net section (6.13.2.13.

2.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Miscellaneous Steel Design Flowchart Chart 5 Start No Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Composite section? For a composite section.1 Yes Design Shear Connectors S6.4.9. Design includes: Shear connector details (type.1 and S6.10.4.1) Design Step 1 Yes Design Step 2 Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? Design Step 5.7.4) Design includes: Determine required locations (abutments and interior supports) Select stiffener sizes and arrangement Compute projecting width and effective section Check bearing resistance Check axial resistance Check slenderness requirements (S6.7. penetration.9.3) Check nominal compressive resistance (S6.2 Design Bearing Stiffeners S6.10. length.10. transverse spacing. and pitch) Design for fatigue resistance (S6. diameter.9.4.7.4 Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Design Step 5 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step 5.2 Design Step 10 Go to: A FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 1 . shear connectors are required to develop composite action between the steel girder and the concrete deck.2) Check for strength limit state (positive and negative flexure regions) (S6.8.10. cover.

7. No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 No Are diaphragms or cross frames required? Design Step 5 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 6 Yes Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Design Step 5. refer to S6.3 S6.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Miscellaneous Steel Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 5 A Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 1 Design Design Welded Connections Step 5.13.7. and shear) Check effective area (required and minimum) Check minimum effective length requirements To determine the need for diaphragms or cross frames.3 Design Step 2 Design Step 3 Design includes: Determine required locations Determine weld type Compute factored resistance (tension.4.1. compression.4 Go to: B Design includes: Obtain required locations and spacing (determined during girder design) Design cross frames over supports and intermediate cross frames Check transfer of lateral wind loads Check stability of girder compression flanges during erection Check distribution of vertical loads applied to structure Design cross frame members Design connections FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 2 .4 Design Cross-frames S6.

7.5 Design Step 5 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design includes: Check transfer of lateral wind loads Check control of deformation during erection and placement of deck Design bracing members Design connections Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step 5.7.6 Compute Girder Camber S6. refer to S6.5. Design Step 2 Design Step 3 Yes No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Design Step 5.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Miscellaneous Steel Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 5 B Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 1 No Is lateral bracing required? To determine the need for lateral bracing.7.5 Design Lateral Bracing S6.1.2 Design Step 10 Return to Main Flowchart Compute the following camber components: Camber due to dead load of structural steel Camber due to dead load of concrete deck Camber due to superimposed dead load Camber due to vertical profile Residual camber (if any) Total camber FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 3 .

7.4 Select Design Method (A or B) S14.6 Go to: B FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 1 . and vertical) Loads (longitudinal.7.7. Design Step 7 Yes Design Step 8 Design Step 9 A Design Step 6.2 See list of bearing types and selection criteria in AASHTO Table 14.6. Includes: Pad length Pad width Thickness of elastomeric layers Number of steel reinforcement layers Thickness of steel reinforcement layers Edge distance Material properties Method A usually results in a bearing with a lower capacity than Method B.5. However.7. transverse. Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Steelreinforced elastomeric bearing? No Design selected bearing type in accordance with S14. transverse.3 Select Preliminary Bearing Properties Design Step 10 Design Step 6.6. Method B requires additional testing and quality control (SC14.5. and vertical) Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 6.1).2 Select Optimum Bearing Type S14. Method B is described in S14.2-1.7.5 or S14.6.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Bearing Design Flowchart Chart 6 Start Includes: Movement (longitudinal and transverse) Rotation (longitudinal.7. Note: Method A is described in S14.1 Obtain Design Criteria Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 6.

Method B is described in S14.6 Check Compressive Stress S14.3.5 Compute Shape Factor S14.7 Design Step 10 Does the bearing satisfy the compressive deflection requirements? No Go to: A Yes Go to: C Note: Method A is described in S14.5.5.7.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Bearing Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 6 B Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 6.5.6.3.7.1 Design Step 1 The shape factor is the plan area divided by the area of perimeter free to bulge.3 or S14.3.3 Includes both instantaneous deflections and long-term deflections.6. No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Does the bearing satisfy the compressive stress requirements? No Go to: A Design Step 7 Yes Check Compressive Deflection S14.6. Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step 6.6.2 Limits the shear stress and strain in the elastomer. Design Step 2 Design Step 3 Design Step 6.7.1 or S14.7.7.7.5.7.3.2 or S14. FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 2 .7.

6.5 Ensures that no point in the bearing undergoes net uplift and prevents excessive compressive stress on an edge.4 Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Does the bearing satisfy the shear deformation requirements? No Go to: A Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Design Step 5 Yes Check Rotation or Combined Compression and Rotation S14.7.3.5.3.5.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Bearing Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 6 C Checks the ability of the bearing to facilitate the anticipated horizontal bridge movement.9 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Does the bearing satisfy the compression and rotation requirements? No Go to: A Yes Check Stability S14.6.6 Design Step 6.3. Design Step 6 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 6.3.5.4 or S14. FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 3 .8 Check Shear Deformation S14.7.7.5 or S14.7.7.6.10 Go to: D Note: Method A is described in S14.3.7.7. Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 6. Method B is described in S14. Shear deformation is limited in order to avoid rollover at the edges and delamination due to fatigue.6 or S14.5.7.6.3.

11 Check Reinforcement S14.7.7.7.7.3.7 Checks that the reinforcement can sustain the tensile stresses induced by compression in the bearing.8 Go to: E Note: Method A is described in S14. Method B is described in S14.6.5.6.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Bearing Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 6 D Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Does the bearing satisfy the stability requirements? No Go to: A Design Step 3 Yes Yes No Are girder splices required? Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Design Step 6.12 Design for Seismic Provisions S14.3.6.3.12 Design for Anchorage S14.5. Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 7 Does the bearing satisfy the reinforcement requirements? No Go to: A Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Yes Design Step 10 Method A Method A or Method B? Method B Design Step 6.7.4 Design Step 6.7. FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 4 .7 or S14.5.

14 Draw Schematic of Final Bearing Design Design Step 6 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Return to Main Flowchart Design Step 9 Design Step 10 FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 5 .Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Bearing Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 6 E Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 1 Is the bearing fixed? No Design Step 2 Yes Design Anchorage for Fixed Bearings S14.3 Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 6.8.13 Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Design Step 5 Design Step 6.

4 Compute Dead Load Effects S3. semi-stub. it also applies to wingwall design. Design Step 7.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Abutment and Wingwall Design Flowchart Chart 7 Note: Although this flowchart is written for abutment design.5.3 Select Preliminary Abutment Dimensions Design Step 7. Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Yes Includes: Backwall Stem Footing Includes: Dead load reactions from superstructure (DC and DW) Abutment stem dead load Abutment footing dead load Design Step 10 Design Step 7.2 Select Optimum Abutment Type Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Reinforced concrete cantilever abutment? No Design selected abutment type.1 Start Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Obtain Design Criteria Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Includes: Concrete strength Concrete density Reinforcing steel strength Superstructure information Span information Required abutment height Load information Abutment types include: Cantilever Gravity Counterfort Mechanically-stabilized earth Stub.1 Go to: A FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 1 . or shelf Open or spill-through Integral or semi-integral Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Design Step 7.

5 Compute Live Load Effects S3.1 Longitudinally.11) Live load surcharge (S3.8 Go to: B FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 2 . place maximum number of design trucks and lanes across roadway width to produce maximum live load effect on abutment.S3.11.7 Analyze and Combine Force Effects S3.6 Considerations include: Overall stability Pile requirements (axial resistance and lateral resistance) Overturning Uplift Design Step 7.6. Design Step 2 Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? Design Step 7. place live load such that reaction at abutment is maximized.6 .6.10) Earth pressure (S3.4.4) Wind loads (on live load and on superstructure) (S3.6 Yes Compute Other Load Effects S3. Pile foundation Check Stability and Safety Requirements S11.8) Earthquake loads (S3. Transversely. Includes: Braking force (S3.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Abutment and Wingwall Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 7 A Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 1 Design Step 7.12) Abutment foundation type is determined based on the geotechnical investigation (see Chart 1).2) Temperature loads (S3.1 Design Step 7 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Pile foundation or spread footing? Spread footing Design spread footing.6.12 Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 7.

10 Design Abutment Stem Section 5 No Are girder splices required? Design includes: Design for flexure Design for shear Check crack control Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Design Step 5 Is a pile foundation being used? Yes No Go to: Design Step P Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Design Step 7.12 Draw Schematic of Final Abutment Design Return to Main Flowchart FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 3 .9 Design Abutment Backwall Section 5 Design Step 1 Design includes: Design for flexure Design for shear Check crack control Design Step 2 Design Step 3 Design Step 7.11 Design Abutment Footing Section 5 Design includes: Design for flexure Design for shear Check crack control Design Step 7.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Abutment and Wingwall Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 7 B Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 7.

3 Select Preliminary Pier Dimensions Includes: Pier cap Pier column Pier footing Includes: Dead load reactions from superstructure (DC and DW) Pier cap dead load Pier column dead load Pier footing dead load Design Step 8.1 Obtain Design Criteria Design Step 2 Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 8.1 Go to: A FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 1 .2 Select Optimum Pier Type Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Reinforced concrete hammerhead pier? Yes No Design selected pier type.4 Compute Dead Load Effects S3. Design Step 8 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Design Step 8.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Pier Design Flowchart Chart 8 Start Includes: Concrete strength Concrete density Reinforcing steel strength Superstructure information Span information Required pier height Pier types include: Hammerhead Multi-column Wall type Pile bent Single column Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 1 Design Step 8.5.

7 Analyze and Combine Force Effects S3.8) Ice loads (S3.6.3) Braking force (S3.9) Earthquake loads (S3.5 Compute Live Load Effects S3.1 Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Design Step 8.6 .6. place live load such that reaction at pier is maximized.8 Design Pier Cap Section 5 Design Step 8.1 Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Design Step 8.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Pier Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 8 Longitudinally.14 Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 8.9 Design Pier Column Section 5 Go to: B FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 2 . Pier design must satisfy all live load cases.7) Wind loads (on live load. Includes: Centrifugal forces (S3. place design trucks and lanes across roadway width at various locations to provide various different loading conditions.10) Earth pressure (S3.S3.5) Water loads (S3. Transversely. and on pier) (S3.4.11) Temperature loads (S3. on superstructure.6.6 Compute Other Load Effects S3.14) Design includes: Design for flexure (negative) Design for shear and torsion (stirrups and longitudinal torsion reinforcement) Check crack control Design includes: Slenderness considerations Interaction of axial and moment resistance Design for shear A Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 8.4) Vehicular collision force (S3.12) Vessel collision (S3.6.

11 Design Pier Footing Section 5 Design Step 9 Design includes: Design for flexure Design for shear (oneway and two-way) Crack control Design Step 10 Design Step 8.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Pier Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 8 B Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 1 Is a pile foundation being used? Yes Design Step 2 Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 8.7 Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Design Step 5 Go to: Design Step P Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 8.10 No Design Pier Piles S10.12 Draw Schematic of Final Pier Design Return to Main Flowchart FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 3 .

1 Design Approach Slabs Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Design Step 3 Design Step 9. and location of drains. Design Step 10 Design Step 9. C Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 9.3 Design Bridge Lighting Consult with client or with roadway or electrical department for guidelines and requirements. Publication No. Wp Longitudinal grade of the deck. n Runoff coefficient. HEC 21”.6 No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Design Step 5 Are deck drains required? No Design Step 6 Yes Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design type. Go to: A FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 1 . i Width of area being drained. FHWA-SA92-010. include: Design rainfall intensity.2 Design Bridge Deck Drainage S2. S Cross-slope of the deck. Sx Design spread.6.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Miscellaneous Design Flowchart Chart 9 Start Considerations presented in “Design of Bridge Deck Drainage. number. size. T Manning's roughness coefficient.

5 Complete Additional Design Considerations Return to Main Flowchart FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 2 .4 Check for Bridge Constructibility S2.3 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 10 Are there any additional design considerations? No Yes Design Step 9. The bridge should be designed such that fabrication and erection can be completed without undue difficulty and such that locked-in construction force effects are within tolerable limits. size. Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 9.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Miscellaneous Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 9 A Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 1 Is bridge lighting required? No Design Step 2 Yes Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Design type.5. and location of bridge lights. number.

Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Flowchart Chart 10 Start Includes: Develop list of required special provisions Obtain standard special provisions from client Develop remaining special provisions Design Develop Special Provisions Step 10.2 Compute Estimated Construction Cost Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Return to Main Flowchart Includes: Obtain list of item numbers and item descriptions from client Develop list of project items Compute estimated quantities Determine estimated unit prices Determine contingency percentage Compute estimated total construction cost Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 1 .1 Yes Use and adapt the client’s standard special provisions as applicable. Design Step 2 Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Design Step 10. Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 1 Does the client have any standard special provisions? No Develop new special provisions as needed.

Section 7. Go to: B FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 1 .1 Design Step 1 Define Subsurface Conditions and Any Geometric Constraints S10. Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 5 Design Step P.4 Verify Need for a Pile Foundation S10.3 Factor Loads for Each Combination S3 Design Step 6 Loads and load combinations are determined in previous design steps. Design Step 2 Design Step 3 Design Step P.2 Refer to FHWA-HI-96-033.6.3.2. Design Step 10 A Design Step P.2 Yes Determine Applicable Loads and Load Combinations S3 No Are girder splices required? Loads and load combinations are determined in previous design steps.4 Subsurface exploration and geotechnical recommendations are usually separate tasks.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Pile Foundation Design Flowchart Chart P Start Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step P. Chapter 8.5 Select Suitable Pile Type and Size Based on Factored Loads and Subsurface Conditions Guidance on pile type selection is provided in FHWA-HI-96-033. Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step P.

10 Check Driveability of Pile S10.14 Go to: C FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 2 .5-2 Design Step 10 Design Step P.8 Determine Factored Axial Structural Resistance for Single Pile S6.1.5.4.7.7.3.7 Selected Pile Type and Size S10.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Pile Foundation Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart P B Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 1 Determine Nominal Axial Design Structural Resistance for Step P.5 Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step P.4 Design Step 2 Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Determine Nominal Axial Design Geotechnical Resistance for Step P.9.9 Determine Factored Axial Geotechnical Resistance for Single Pile STable 10.6 Selected Pile Type and Size S6.2 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step P.5.

1.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Pile Foundation Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart P C Go to: A No Is pile driveable to minimum of ultimate geotechnical or structural resistance without pile damage? Refer to S6.7.4 and S10.15.11 Do Preliminary Pile Layout Based on Factored Loads and Overturning Moments Use simple rigid pile cap approach. Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Yes Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? D Yes Design Step P.16. Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Is pile layout workable and within geometric constraints? No Go to: A Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Yes Go to: E FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 3 .

15.14 Check Geotechnical Axial Capacity S10.15.15.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Pile Foundation Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart P E Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 1 Design Step P.4. S6.7.15 Check Structural Axial Capacity S6.3.15.2. C6.3 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step P.2 Check in upper portion of pile. Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step P.7.6.2. Go to: F FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 4 .2 & S6.4.16 Check Structural Capacity in Combined Bending & Axial S6.5.5.12 Evaluate Pile Head Fixity S10.15.2 & S6.11 Pile soil interaction analysis is performed using FB-Pier.1 & S10.1 Check in lower portion of pile. C6.3.3. Design Step 10 Design Step P.8 Design Step 2 Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step P.3.13 Perform Pile Soil Interaction Analysis S6.2.2.5.

Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step P.2 Check using service limit state. Design Step 2 Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step P.5.2 & S10.19 Additional Miscellaneous Design Issues Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Does pile foundation meet all applicable design criteria? No Go to: D Yes Go to: G FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 5 .2.18 Check Maximum Horizontal and Vertical Deflection of Pile Group S10.Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Pile Foundation Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart P F Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 1 Design Step P.7.17 Check Structural Shear Capacity Usually not critical for restrained groups.

Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Pile Foundation Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart P G Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 1 Is pile system optimized? No Go to: D Design Step 2 Design Step 3 Yes No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Return to Abutment or Pier Flowchart Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step 10 FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 6 .

2 .Obtain Design Criteria Design Step 1. 1998.Obtain Geometry Requirements Design Step 1. The following abbreviations are used in the AASHTO references: 1-1 . Size and Location Study Design Step 1. Purpose The purpose of this project is to provide a basic design example for a steel girder bridge as an informational tool for the practicing bridge engineer.Plan for Bridge Aesthetics 1 6 9 10 10 11 12 Introduction Design Step 1 is the first of several steps that illustrate the design procedures used for a steel girder bridge.5 . AASHTO references are presented in a dedicated column in the right margin of each page. including interims for 1999 through 2002).Perform Span Arrangement Study Design Step 1.Obtain Geotechnical Recommendations Design Step 1.Perform Type.6 .4 . AASHTO References For uniformity and simplicity. this design example is based on the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (Second Edition.1 .3 . This design step serves as an introduction to this design example and it provides general information about the bridge design. The example is also aimed at assisting the bridge engineer with the transition from Load Factor Design (LFD) to Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD).General Information / Introduction Design Step 1 Table of Contents Page Introduction Design Step 1. References to the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications are included throughout the design example. immediately adjacent to the corresponding design procedure.

S1. different multipliers are used for each load type. Therefore. and a factored resistance (Rr = φRn). such as dead load. in which the measure of safety is a function of the variability of the loads and the resistance. are more highly variable than other loads. force effects (Q). LRFD provides a more uniform level of safety throughout the entire bridge. such as live load. The following is a general comparison between the primary design methodologies: Service Load Design (SLD) or Allowable Stress Design (ASD) generally treats each load on the structure as equal from the viewpoint of statistical variability. load factors (γ).S designates specifications STable designates a table within the specifications SFigure designates a figure within the specifications SEquation designates an equation within the specifications SAppendix designates an appendix within the specifications C designates commentary CTable designates a table within the commentary CFigure designates a figure within the commentary CEquation designates an equation within the commentary State-specific specifications are generally not used in this design example. The resistance. Detailed Outline and Flowcharts Each step in this design example is based on a detailed outline and a series of flowcharts that were developed for this project. The fundamental LRFD equation includes a load modifier (η). Design Methodology This design example is based on Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) takes into account both the statistical mean resistance and the statistical mean loads. a resistance factor (φ). must exceed the combined load.3 1-2 . Load Factor Design (LFD) recognizes that certain design loads. as presented in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Any exceptions are clearly noted. The safety margin is primarily built into the capacity or resistance of a member rather than the loads. a nominal resistance (Rn). based primarily on the estimated peak resistance of a member.

but their computation is not shown in the design example. longitudinal stiffener design. and development of special provisions are included in the detailed outline and the flowcharts. The design moments. Tips do not explain what must be done based on the design specifications. This design example includes the major steps shown in the detailed outline and flowcharts. the flowcharts. and the design example. girder camber computations. A figure is generally provided at the end of each design step. Tip boxes are shaded and include a tip icon. They include the primary design steps that would be required for the design of various steel girder bridges. they present suggested alternatives for the designer to consider. rather. However. and reactions used in the design example are taken from the Opis output. summarizing the design results for that particular bridge element. In addition to design computations. but it does not include all design steps. and rules of thumb for the bridge designer. common practices. Software An analysis of the superstructure was performed using AASHTO Opis® software. the design example also includes many tables and figures to illustrate the various design procedures and many AASHTO references.The detailed outline and the flowcharts are intended to be comprehensive. Tip Boxes Tip boxes are used throughout the design example computations to present useful information. Organization of Design Example To make this reference user-friendly. their inclusion in the design example is beyond the scope of this project. For example. the numbers and titles of the design steps are consistent between the detailed outline. It also includes commentary to explain the design logic in a user-friendly way. 1-3 . shears. just like this.

13. 15. continuous structure configuration Bridge width 13412 millimeters curb to curb (two 3658-millimeter lanes and two 3048-millimeter shoulders) Reinforced concrete deck with overhangs F-shape barriers (standard design) Grade 345 steel throughout Opis superstructure design software to be used to generate superstructure loads Nominally stiffened web with no web tapers Maximum of two flange transitions top and bottom. including pile computations) One cantilever type wingwall will be designed (all four wingwalls are similar in height and configuration) Reinforced concrete hammerhead pier configuration with pile foundation 1-4 . 9. Two span. 8. 7. 11. 5. 12. 4. 2. 17. 10. 16. 3. with one shear connector design/check Constructibility checks based on a single deck pour Girder to be designed with appropriate fatigue categories (to be identified on sketches) No detailed cross-frame design (general process description provided) One bearing stiffener design Transverse stiffeners designed as required One field splice design (commentary provided on economical locations) One elastomeric bearing design Reinforced concrete cantilever abutments on piles (only one will be designed. 14. 19. 6.Design Parameters The following is a list of parameters upon which this design example is based: 1. square. 18. symmetric about pier centerline Composite deck throughout.

bearing stiffeners. The following units are defined for use in this design example: kN = 1000N MPa = 1000Pa 1-5 . but Design Steps 9 and 10 are not.Concrete Deck Design Design Step 3 .Miscellaneous Design (i.e. and bridge lighting) Design Step 10 .Abutment and Wingwall Design Design Step 8 .. Design Steps 1 through 8 are included in the design example. and cross frames) Design Step 6 . approach slabs.Miscellaneous Steel Design (i.Pier Design Design Step 9 . all of the above design steps are included in the detailed outline and in the flowcharts..Summary of Design Steps The following is a summary of the major design steps included in this project: Design Step 1 .Steel Girder Design Design Step 4 . Therefore.Bolted Field Splice Design Design Step 5 .Pile Foundation Design (part of Design Steps 7 & 8) To provide a comprehensive summary for general steel bridge design. However.e. this design example includes only those steps that are within the scope of this project.Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Design Step P . shear connectors.Bearing Design Design Step 7 .General Information Design Step 2 . deck drainage.

5. including interims for 1999 through 2002) Design methodology: Live load requirements: Deck width: Roadway width: Bridge length: Skew angle: Structural steel yield strength: Structural steel tensile strength: Concrete 28-day compressive strength: Reinforcement strength: Steel density: Concrete density: Parapet weight (each): Future wearing surface: Future wearing surface thickness: Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) HL-93 wdeck = 14288mm wroadway = 13412mm Ltotal = 73152⋅ mm Skew = 0deg Fy = 345MPa Fu = 450MPa STable 6.1-1 kg 3 kg m kg m 3 Wfws = 2250 STable 3. For this design example.10.1-1 STable 6.1-1 STable 3.3 & S6.5mm (assumed) 1-6 .1 S3.4. the following is a summary of the primary design criteria: Design Criteria Governing specifications: AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (Second Edition.1 .7 STable 3.4.1-1 S5.2.3.1-1 tfws = 63.Design Step 1.5.Obtain Design Criteria The first step for any bridge design is to establish the design criteria.4.5.4.6 f' c = 28MPa fy = 420MPa Ws = 7850 Wc = 2400 Wpar = 789 kg m m 3 S5. 1998.

In this design example.0 S1.3.1-2 For loads for which the minimum value of γi is appropriate: η = 1 η D⋅η R⋅η I and η ≤ 1.4.1-2 is used.1-1. A single.4.00 The following is a summary of other design factors from the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.1 For loads for which the maximum value of γi is appropriate: η = η D⋅η R⋅η I and η ≥ 0.1-3 Therefore for this design example. and specific section references are provided in the right margin of the design example.00 SEquation 1. and when a minimum load factor is used. redundancy.2.2.3. All other loads.Design Factors from AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications The first set of design factors applies to all force effects and is represented by the Greek letter η (eta) in the Specifications. it is assumed that all eta factors are equal to 1. the factored load is multiplied by eta.0. 1-7 . factored in accordance with STable 3. When a maximum load factor from STable 3. These factors are related to the ductility.2.3. use: η = 1. are multiplied by eta if a maximum force effect is desired and are divided by eta if a minimum force effect is desired. the factored load is divided by eta. Additional information is provided in the Specifications.0 η I = 1. and operational importance of the structure. η D = 1.0 η R = 1. combined eta is required for every structure.95 SEquation 1.

00 1.90 φ a = 0.00 For shear For axial compression For bearing For flexure and tension φ v = 1.1-2 WS 1.50 0.5.75 Strength III 1.4.5.2 & S6.2. Min.00 Service II 1.40 0.40 0.25 0.90 φ b = 1.00 1.00 1.35 1.3.Load factors: Load Combinations and Load Factors Load Factors Limit State DC DW LL IM Max.00 φ c = 0.75 φ = 0.4.75 STable 3.90 1.00 1.75 1.35 Service I 1.50 0.90 (linear interpolation) For shear and torsion Reinforced For axial compression concrete For compression with flexure Table 1-2 Resistance Factors 1-8 .30 - WL 1.1-1 & STable 3.65 1.30 1.90 φ v = 0.25 0.25 0.75 0. Min.00 1.30 Fatigue 0.00 1. φ For flexure φ f = 1.00 1. Strength I 1.65 1.00 φ f = 0.75 to 0.90 1. Resistance factors: S5.00 - Table 1-1 Load Combinations and Load Factors The abbreviations used in Table 1-1 are as defined in S3.4.2 Material Structural steel Resistance Factors Type of Resistance Resistance Factor.00 1.90 1.50 0. The extreme event limit state (including earthquake load) is not considered in this design example.00 1.4.00 1.65 Strength V 1. Max.

curved. or a combination of these three geometries.65 STable 3.6.2-1 Table 1-3 Multiple Presence Factors Dynamic load allowance: STable 3. 1-9 . IM Fatigue and Fracture 15% Limit State All Other Limit States 33% Table 1-4 Dynamic Load Allowance Design Step 1. it is assumed that the horizontal alignment geometry is tangent and the vertical alignment geometry is straight sloped. or a combination of these three geometries.2. Horizontal alignment can be tangent.1-1 Dynamic Load Allowance Dynamic Load Limit State Allowance. spiral.1.2 . Highway geometry constraints include horizontal alignment and vertical alignment.85 0. m 1 2 3 >3 1.00 0.6.1. For this design example.Obtain Geometry Requirements Geometry requirements for the bridge components are defined by the bridge site and by the highway geometry. Vertical alignment can be straight sloped. crest. sag.20 1.Multiple presence factors: Multiple Presence Factors Number of Lanes Loaded Multiple Presence Factor.

Although a Span Arrangement Study may not be required by the client. and it allows the engineer to compensate for significant variations in the subsurface profile. determining the span arrangement. The borings provide a wealth of information about the subsurface conditions. Subsurface conditions are commonly determined by taking core borings at the bridge site. 1-10 .Obtain Geotechnical Recommendations The subsurface conditions must be determined to develop geotechnical recommendations. several borings are usually taken at each proposed substructure location. computing span lengths.Design Step 1. Therefore. these determinations must still be made by the engineer before proceeding to the next design step. The Span Arrangement Study includes selecting the bridge type. the span arrangement is presented in Figure 1-1.Perform Span Arrangement Study Some clients require a Span Arrangement Study. all of which is recorded in the boring logs. This span arrangement was selected to illustrate various design criteria and the established geometry constraints identified for this example. E C Bearings L Abutment 1 36576 mm 73152 mm Legend: E = Expansion Bearings F = Fixed Bearings F C Pier L 36576 mm E C Bearings L Abutment 2 Figure 1-1 Span Arrangement Design Step 1. determining substructure locations. and checking horizontal clearance for the purpose of approval. For this design example. This improves their reliability as a reflection of subsurface conditions at the bridge site.3 .4 . It is important to note that the boring log reveals the subsurface conditions for a finite location and not necessarily for the entire bridge site.

Size and Location study may not be required by the client. Although a Type. the superstructure cross section is presented in Figure 1-2.5 . as well as required safety factors for overturning and sliding. The Type. Foundations can be spread footings.Perform Type. Size and Location study includes preliminary configurations for the superstructure and substructure components relative to highway geometry constraints and site conditions. Design Step 1. This superstructure cross section was selected to illustrate selected design criteria and the established geometry constraints. For this design example. computing the approximate required girder span and depth. Details of this study for the superstructure include selecting the girder types. and allowable pile resistances (axial and lateral). Geotechnical recommendations typically include allowable bearing pressure.) 1200 mm 4 Spaces @ 2972 mm = 11888 mm 1200 mm Figure 1-2 Superstructure Cross Section 1-11 . determining the girder spacing. pile foundations are used for all substructure units. consideration was given to half-width deck replacement. Size and Location study for the purpose of approval. these determinations must still be made by the engineer before proceeding to the next design step. and checking vertical clearance. allowable settlement. or drilled shafts.After the subsurface conditions have been explored and documented. a geotechnical engineer must develop foundation type recommendations for all substructures. pile foundations. For this design example. Size and Location Study Some clients require a Type. 14288 mm 3048 mm Shoulder 3658 mm Lane 3658 mm Lane 3048 mm Shoulder 438 mm 1067 mm (Typ. When selecting the girder spacing.

Order and rhythm: All members must be tied together in an orderly manner. To plan an aesthetic bridge design. before the bridge layout and appearance has been fully determined. the bridge engineer must consider bridge aesthetics throughout the design process.Plan for Bridge Aesthetics Finally.Design Step 1. Proportion: Provide balanced proportions for members and span lengths. and the bridge must usually complement its surroundings. Contrast and texture: Use textured surfaces to reduce visual mass.6 . 1-12 . Harmony: The parts of the bridge must usually complement each other. Special attention to aesthetics should be made during the preliminary stages of the bridge design. Light and shadow: Careful use of shadow can give the bridge a more slender appearance. the engineer must consider the following parameters: • • • • • • Function: Aesthetics is generally enhanced when form follows function.

13 .12 .Design for Positive Flexure in Deck Design Step 2.19 .14 .17 .Design for Negative Flexure in Deck Design Step 2.4 Design Step 2.Check for Negative Flexure Cracking under Service Limit State Design Step 2.11 .8 .Design Top Longitudinal Distribution Reinforcement Design Step 2.Design for Flexure in Deck Overhang Design Step 2.Check for Positive Flexure Cracking under Service Limit State Design Step 2.10 .Design Longitudinal Reinforcement over Piers Design Step 2.Draw Schematic of Final Concrete Deck Design 2 5 5 5 5 7 9 15 17 21 22 25 42 43 44 46 47 49 51 2-1 .3 Design Step 2.Concrete Deck Design Example Design Step 2 Table of Contents Page Design Step 2.18 .6 Design Step 2.Compute Overhang Cut-off Length Requirement Design Step 2.15 .1 Design Step 2.Check for Cracking in Overhang under Service Limit State Design Step 2.7 Obtain Design Criteria Determine Minimum Slab Thickness Determine Minimum Overhang Thickness Select Slab and Overhang Thickness Compute Dead Load Effects Compute Live Load Effects Compute Factored Positive and Negative Design Moments Design Step 2.5 Design Step 2.9 .Compute Overhang Development Length Design Step 2.16 .2 Design Step 2.Design Bottom Longitudinal Distribution Reinforcement Design Step 2.

2.5 times the girder spacing.7. Overhang Width The overhang width is generally determined such that the moments and shears in the exterior girder are similar to those in the interior girder.2 2-2 .4.2. For the equivalent strip method analysis. and criteria for the entire bridge.7. In addition. Additional information is presented about the design assumptions.2. and the deck acts as a simple or continuous beam spanning from support to support. the empirical method could not be used to design the overhang as stated in S9. However. Refer to Design Step 1 for introductory information about this design example. the equivalent strip method will be used. the overhang is set such that the positive and negative moments in the deck slab are balanced. methodology.35 to 0. The next step is to decide which deck design method will be used. the girders act as supports.Design Step 2. In this example. A common rule of thumb is to make the overhang approximately 0. S4.Obtain Design Criteria The first design step for a concrete bridge deck is to choose the correct design criteria. The empirical method could be used for the positive and negative moment interior regions since the cross section meets all the requirements given in S9.6.1 . The following concrete deck design criteria are obtained from the typical superstructure cross section shown in Figure 2-1 and from the referenced articles and tables in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (through 2002 interims). including the concrete deck.

4.3-1 STable 5.1 S5.12.3.10.1-1 S5.3-1 STable 3.) 1200 mm 4 Spaces @ 2972 mm = 11888 mm 1200 mm Figure 2-1 Superstructure Cross Section The following units are defined for use in this design example: N kN = 1000 ⋅ N MPa = 2 mm Deck properties: Girder spacing: Number of girders: Deck top cover: Deck bottom cover: Concrete density: Concrete 28-day compressive strength: Reinforcement strength: Future wearing surface: S = 2972mm ng = 5 Covert = 60mm Coverb = 25mm Wc = 2400 kg m 3 STable 5.5.7 f' c = 28MPa fy = 420MPa Wfws = 2250 kg m 3 STable 3.2.12.3 & S6.5.4.14288 mm 3048 mm Shoulder 3658 mm Lane 3658 mm Lane 3048 mm Shoulder 438 mm 1067 mm (Typ.1-1 2-3 .

2.5 millimeter thickness will be assumed.22kN (calculated in Design Step 2.01).12. This includes the 13 millimeter integral wearing surface that is required. type "AE" concrete should be specified when the deck will be exposed to deicing salts or the freeze-thaw cycle. STable 5. Future wearing surface density . "AE" concrete has a compressive strength of 28 MPa.3. Deck top cover . A 63.Parapet properties: Weight per meter: Width at base: Moment capacity at base*: Parapet height: Critical length of yield line failure pattern*: Total transverse resistance of the parapet*: Wpar = 789 kg m wbase = 438mm Mco = 125478N ⋅ Hpar = 1067mm Lc = 3600mm (calculated in Design Step 2.3.3-1 STable 5. Also.12) Rw = 522.1-1 2-4 .12) SA13.The concrete top cover is set at 60 millimeters since the bridge deck may be exposed to deicing salts and/or tire stud or chain wear.4. See Publication Number FHWA HI-95-017. Participant Notebook.The concrete bottom cover is set at 25 millimeters since the bridge deck will use reinforcement that is smaller than a #36 bar.1 STable C5.1-1 STable 3.The future wearing surface density is 2250 kg/m3.1 mm mm SA13. Load and Resistance Factor Design for Highway Bridges.12.1 * Based on parapet properties not included in this design example. Deck bottom cover .The compressive strength for decks shall not be less than 28 MPa.3-1 S5. Concrete 28-day compressive strength . for the method used to compute the parapet properties.5. Volume II (Version 3.2.4.

and future wearing surface are tabulated in Table 2-1.4.90 For future wearing surface: Maximum γ pDWmax = 1. Design Step 2.1-2 . they can be increased as needed based on client standards and design computations. The dead load moments for the deck slab. and future wearing surface. The load factors for dead loads are: For slab and parapet: Maximum γ pDCmax = 1. The tenth points are based on the equivalent span and not the center-to-center beam spacing.50 Minimum γ pDWmin = 0.5.25 Minimum γ pDCmin = 0.4 .2 .3. grooving.Compute Dead Load Effects The next step is to compute the dead load moments.1.7.Select Slab and Overhang Thickness Once the minimum slab and overhang thicknesses are computed.5 . the correct load factors must be identified. The following slab and overhang thicknesses will be assumed for this design example: ts = 215mm and to = 230mm S13. excluding any provision for grinding.7.1 Design Step 2. and sacrificial surface. the minimum deck overhang thickness is: to = 200mm Design Step 2.Design Step 2.1.Determine Minimum Slab Thickness The concrete deck depth cannot be less than 175 millimeters.2 S9. parapets. parapets. The tabulated moments are presented for tenth points for Bays 1 through 4 for a 305-millimeter strip. After the dead load moments are computed for the slab.3 .1-1 STable 3.Determine Minimum Overhang Thickness For concrete deck overhangs supporting concrete parapets or barriers.65 2-5 STable 3.

0 0.0 SLAB DEAD LOAD BAY 3 BAY 4 BAY 1 BAY 2 BAY 3 BAY 4 BAY 1 BAY 2 BAY 3 BAY 4 BAY 2 PARAPET DEAD LOAD 2-6 FWS DEAD LOAD Table 2-1 Unfactored Dead Load Moments (N-mm/mm) .8 0.9 1.4 0.1 0.7 0.3 0.DISTANCE BAY 1 -3292 -3158 -3203 -3158 -7384 2091 -1023 1913 -267 -1068 -801 -1068 -489 0 356 -311 44 311 -534 -89 222 400 445 623 178 489 667 756 756 489 489 756 979 89 -845 -1779 -2713 -712 -400 -89 222 534 845 -3647 623 445 400 756 1779 1468 1156 845 534 222 -89 1156 -4581 356 311 222 667 -6450 -5516 -4581 -3647 -2713 -1779 -845 -1334 44 1068 1646 1824 1601 979 -44 89 -400 1468 -5516 0 44 -89 489 -1379 44 1068 1690 1868 1690 1068 89 -1334 -1468 979 -712 1779 -6450 -489 -311 -534 178 -1334 89 1068 1690 1868 1690 1068 44 -1379 -1468 -44 979 1601 1824 1646 1068 44 -1334 -3158 -3203 -3158 -3292 1913 -1023 2091 -7384 -1068 -801 -1068 -267 0.2 0.6 0.5 0.

85 Fatigue does not need to be investigated for concrete deck design.1.5.1. but dynamic load allowance is excluded. m = 1. Resistance factors for flexure: Strength limit state Service limit state Extreme event limit state φ str = 0.90 φ serv = 1.4.6.1-1 STable 3.2.6. 2-7 .2.2.Design Step 2.5.75 S3.3.6.00 φ ext = 1.1.1 S3.5.1 S1. The live load effects are given for tenth points for Bays 1 through 4.1.2. the following basic parameters must be defined: The minimum distance from the center of design vehicle wheel to the inside face of parapet = 300 mm The minimum distance between the wheels of two adjacent design vehicles = 1200 mm Dynamic load allowance.3.3 & S5.6 . Multiple presence factors are included.3.Strength I Multiple presence factor.3.2-1 Based on the above information and based on S4.1.4.00 With three lanes loaded.1 STable 3.Compute Live Load Effects Before the live load effects can be computed.33 γ LL = 1. m = 0.00 S5. m: With one lane loaded. the live load effects for one and two trucks are tabulated in Table 2-2.6.3.1 IM = 0.1 S9. IM Load factor for live load .1-1 STable 3.2 S1.6. m = 1.20 With two lanes loaded.

0 MAX.5 0. MOMENT BAY 3 BAY 4 -38660 -20489 -18279 -16055 -13858 -11648 5912 2766 -3960 3458 -29113 -16394 -39812 -22944 -11567 -37860 -23567 -10875 -39866 -24855 -11092 -1749 -8692 -9750 -3675 -4393 3119 6224 14211 24354 -5736 -3254 -7011 -8407 9926 10482 22659 26320 10821 23188 26117 28734 29452 29344 28381 -7065 -4760 -5316 -7065 23649 30320 35731 35161 28490 -9438 28761 26550 28883 35039 -8407 -6265 -3634 -5722 BAY 2 SINGLE TRUCK (MULTIPLE PRESENCE FACTOR OF 1. MOMENT BAY 3 BAY 4 BAY 1 MIN. MOMENT BAY 3 BAY 4 BAY 2 BAY 2 2-8 TWO TRUCKS (MULTIPLE PRESENCE FACTOR OF 1.00 INCLUDED) Table 2-2 Unfactored Live Load Moments (Excluding Dynamic Load Allowance) (N-mm x 1000) .3 0. MOMENT BAY 3 BAY 4 BAY 1 MIN.8 0.0 0.9 1.1 0.2 0.4 0.7 0.20 INCLUDED) BAY 2 -11648 -13858 -16055 -18279 -20489 -38660 -38483 -26862 -23052 -19228 -15431 -11621 -12475 -15472 -18482 -21479 -36775 -36788 -21493 -18482 -15486 -12475 -11214 -14875 -18550 -22225 -25900 -38470 -7227 18984 27771 25967 35880 -9750 -7783 -1953 -4393 -5017 6102 20530 23025 30266 -2820 2793 9750 10902 16936 -597 3092 -3892 3092 3607 -11092 -24842 -39853 -10862 -23554 -37887 -2848 -3051 -19581 -39093 -1709 -366 BAY 1 MAX.DISTANCE BAY 1 7621 5519 8190 6170 -34917 -19594 -5017 -7227 -9438 7539 15811 21954 35446 42172 49657 49684 41263 8434 24706 37114 38158 38158 39704 34429 28042 10631 23093 10482 28313 34659 39446 38321 37968 36883 24883 8150 31107 41399 49413 49847 42307 44043 36788 24544 7702 6170 7892 5519 4909 0.6 0.

the design moments will be computed two different ways.1-1 be computed using STable A4. Table 2-2 represents a continuous beam analysis of the example deck using a finite element analysis program.25S STable 4.6. Refer to Design Step 1 for a discussion of eta. The values in STable A4. the live load portion of the factored design moments will STable A4.3. For Method B.0 and will not be shown throughout the design example.2. and overhang moment equivalent strip equations are presented in Figure 2-2 below.1.3-1 Figure 2-2 Equivalent Strip Equations for Various Parts of the Deck 2-9 .0 + 0.Design Step 2.55S S1. For Method A.2. For girder spacings between the values listed in the table. interpolation can be used to get the moment. Factored Positive Design Moment Using Table 2-2 . The maximum live load moment is obtained from the table based on the girder spacing. In STable A4.0 + 0. Based on Design Step 1.1-1.1 Overhang Moment = 1140. negative.1-1. the live load portion of the factored design moments will be computed based on the values presented in Table 2-2. Positive Moment = 660.Compute Factored Positive and Negative Design Moments For this example. The values are tabulated using the equivalent strip method for various bridge cross sections.Method A Factored positive live load moment: The positive.0 + 0. the load modifier eta (η) is 1.7 .1-1 may be slightly higher than the values from a deck analysis based on the actual number of beams and the actual overhang length. moments per unit width include dynamic load allowance and multiple presence factors.833X Negative Moment = 1220.

..4S in Bay 1 for a single truck. and future wearing surface positive dead load moment occurs in Bay 2 at a distance of 0..1. located at 0.2.3-1 wposstripa = 660.0 + 0. the maximum unfactored slab. The maximum factored positive dead load moment is as follows: N ⋅ mm ⎞ ⎤ .6.55S wposstripa = 2295 mm Use wposstripa = 2295mm Based on Table 2-2.. parapet. ⎥ ⎢ + γ pDCmax ⋅ ⎜ 845 ⋅ mm ⎠ ⎝ ⎢ ⎥ ⎛ 400 ⋅ N ⋅ mm ⎞ ⎥ ⎢ + γ pDWmax⋅ ⎜ mm ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ ⎝ Muposdead = 3769 N ⋅ mm mm The total factored positive design moment for Method A is: MupostotalA = MuposliveA + Muposdead MupostotalA = 54322 N ⋅ mm mm 2-10 .4S. The maximum factored positive live load moment is: MuposliveA = γ LL ⋅ ( 1 + IM) ⋅ MuposliveA = 50553 N ⋅ mm mm 49847000N ⋅ mm wposstripa Factored positive dead load moment: Based on Table 2-1. ⎥ Muposdead = ⎡ γ pDCmax ⋅ ⎛ 1690 ⋅ ⎜ ⎢ mm ⎠ ⎝ ⎢ N ⋅ mm ⎞ ⎥ ⎛ . the maximum unfactored positive live load moment is 49847000 N-mm.The width of the equivalent strip for positive moment is: For S = 2972 mm STable 4.

However.It should be noted that the total maximum factored positive moment is comprised of the maximum factored positive live load moment in Bay 1 at 0.4S and the maximum factored positive dead load moment in Bay 2 at 0.4S. Summing the factored moments in different bays gives a conservative result. the method presented here is a simpler and slightly conservative method of finding the maximum total factored moment.1 % 2-11 .1-1 . The maximum factored positive live load moment is: MuposliveB = γ LL ⋅ 30551 MuposliveB = 53464 N ⋅ mm mm STable A4. the difference between the total factored design moment for the two methods is: MupostotalB − MupostotalA MupostotalB = 5.Method B Factored positive live load moment: For a girder spacing of 2972mm. the maximum unfactored positive live load moment is 30551 N-mm/mm. The exact way to compute the maximum total factored design moment is by summing the dead and live load moments at each tenth point per bay. Factored Positive Design Moment Using STable A4.1-1 N ⋅ mm mm Factored positive dead load moment: The factored positive dead load moment for Method B is the same as that for Method A: Muposdead = 3769 N ⋅ mm mm The total factored positive design moment for Method B is: MupostotalB = MuposliveB + Muposdead MupostotalB = 57233 N ⋅ mm mm Comparing Methods A and B. This moment is on a per millimeter basis and includes dynamic load allowance.

6. Method B would be preferred over Method A due to the amount of time that would be saved by not having to develop a finite element model.6 Figure 2-3 Location of Design Section 2-12 . bf ¼ bf Design section C web L S4.6 S4.1.2.1-1 (Method B) are slightly greater than the computed live load values using a finite element analysis program (Method A).2. Factored Negative Design Moment Using Table 2-2 . Since the time was spent to develop the finite element model for this deck design.6.Method A Factored negative live load moment: The deck design section for a steel beam for negative moments and shear forces is taken as one-quarter of the top flange width from the centerline of the web.1.Method A or Method B It can be seen that the tabulated values based on STable A4. For real world deck design. the Method A values will be used.

.0S in Bay 4 for two trucks.. the maximum unfactored negative dead load moment occurs in Bay 4 at a distance of 1.0S. The maximum factored negative live load moment is: MunegliveA = γ LL ⋅ ( 1 + IM) ⋅ −39866000N ⋅ mm wnegstripa MunegliveA = −47269 N ⋅ mm mm Factored negative dead load moment: From Table 2-1. located at 0. mm ⎠ ⎝ N ⋅ mm ⎞ + γ pDCmax ⋅ ⎛ −7384 ⋅ .. the maximum unfactored negative live load moment is -39866000 N-mm.6.3-1 wnegstripa = 1220 + 0.Assume bf = 300mm 1 bf = 75 mm 4 The width of the equivalent strip for negative moment is: For S = 2972 mm STable 4.2.25S wnegstripa = 1963 or wnegstripa = 1963mm Based on Table 2-2. The maximum factored negative dead load moment is as follows: Munegdead = γ pDCmax ⋅ ⎛ −3292 ⋅ ⎜ N ⋅ mm ⎞ . ⎜ mm ⎠ ⎝ N ⋅ mm ⎞ + γ pDWmax⋅ ⎛ −267 ⋅ ⎜ mm ⎠ ⎝ N ⋅ mm mm Munegdead = −13746 The total factored negative design moment for Method A is: MunegtotalA = MunegliveA + Munegdead MunegtotalA = −61014 N ⋅ mm mm 2-13 ..1.

1-1 N ⋅ mm mm Factored negative dead load moment: The factored negative dead load moment for Method B is the same as that for Method A: Munegdead = −13746 N ⋅ mm mm The total factored negative design moment for Method B is: MunegtotalB = MunegliveB + Munegdead MunegtotalB = −66615 N ⋅ mm mm Comparing Methods A and B. the design moment can be obtained by interpolation. The maximum factored negative live load moment is: MunegliveB = γ LL ⋅ −30211 MunegliveB = −52869 N ⋅ mm mm STable A4. these moments are on a per millimeter basis and include dynamic load allowance.Method B Factored negative live load moment: For a girder spacing of 2972mm and a 75mm distance from the centerline of girder to the design section. the difference between the total factored design moment for the two methods is: MunegtotalB − MunegtotalA MunegtotalB = 8. the maximum unfactored negative live load moment is 30211N-mm/mm.4 % 2-14 . If the distance from the centerline of the girder to the design section does not match one of the distances given in the table.Factored Negative Design Moment Using STable A4.1-1 . As stated earlier.

9mm bar_area = 199mm 2 Effective depth.Method A or Method B It can be seen that the tabulated values based on STable A4.bottom cover .Design for Positive Flexure in Deck The first step in designing the positive flexure steel is to assume a bar size.1-1 (Method B) are slightly greater than the computed live load values using a finite element analysis program (Method A). the Method A values will be used. the required bar spacing can be calculated. Method B would be preferred over Method A due to the amount of time that would be saved by not having to develop a finite element model.1/2 bar diameter . From this bar size. Design Step 2. de = total slab thickness . Once the required area of steel is known.top integral wearing surface 2-15 . the required area of steel (As) can be calculated. Since the time was spent to develop the finite element model for this deck design. Reinforcing Steel for Positive Flexure in Deck Figure 2-4 Reinforcing Steel for Positive Flexure in Deck Assume #16 bars: bar_diam = 15.8 . For real world deck design.

3. A s = ρ ⋅ de mm As = 0.1 β 1 = 0.4.0 − ( 0.85 S5.2.85 ⋅ f' c ⋅ bar_space T = 83580N a = 18 mm S5. as follows: φ f = 0.2 2-16 .de = ts − Coverb − de = 169 mm bar_diam − 13mm 2 Solve for the required amount of reinforcing steel.90 b = 1mm Rn = MupostotalA ⋅ 1mm MupostotalA = 54322N S5.7. T = bar_area ⋅ fy a = T 0.0 − 1.85 ⋅ f'c) ⎥ ⎝ fy ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ ρ = 0.112 N mm 2 ρ = 0.85⎜ ⎛ f'c ⎞ ⎡ ( 2 ⋅ Rn) ⎤ ⋅ ⎢ 1.5.3.2.00527 Note: The above two equations are derived formulas that can be found in most reinforced concrete textbooks.892 mm 2 Required bar spacing = bar_area = 223 mm As Use #16 bars @ bar_space = 200mm Once the bar size and spacing are known. the maximum reinforcement limit must be checked.7.1 ( φ f ⋅ b ⋅ de 2 ) Rn = 2.

1 c = 0.7.6 ⋅ fy ( dc ⋅ Ac) 3 fsa = 304 MPa Use fsa = 252MPa 0.9 .3.12 ≤ 0.6fy = 252 MPa 2-17 .c = a β1 where OK c = 20.42 de S5.3.3.7 mm c ≤ 0.Check for Positive Flexure Cracking under Service Limit State The control of cracking by distribution of reinforcement must be checked. For members in severe exposure conditions: Z = 23000 N mm bar_diam 2 S5.12 de 0.7.7.2 S5.4 Thickness of clear cover used to compute dc should not be greater than 50 mm: dc = 25mm + dc = 33 mm Concrete area with centroid the same as transverse bar and bounded by the cross section and line parallel to neutral axis: Ac = 2 ⋅ ( dc) ⋅ bar_space Ac = 13180mm 2 The equation that gives the allowable reinforcement service load stress for crack control is: fsa = Z 1 where fsa ≤ 0.42 Design Step 2.2.

215mm. located at 0.4.0 MuposliveA = γ LL ⋅ ( 1 + IM) ⋅ MuposliveA = 28887 N ⋅ mm mm 49847000N ⋅ mm wposstripa 2-18 . the maximum unfactored positive live load moment is 49847000 N-mm.4 Service positive live load moment: Based on Table 2-2. 200mm.4. Figure 2-5 Bottom Transverse Reinforcement Es = 200000MPa Ec = 25399MPa n = Use Es Ec n = 8 n=8 S5.2 S5.2.3. 200mm.4S in Bay 1 for a single truck. #16 bars diameter = 15. 200mm. The maximum service positive live load moment is computed as follows: γ LL = 1.9 mm cross-sectional area = 199 mm 2 33mm.

the transformed moment of inertia and the distance from the neutral axis to the centroid of the reinforcement must be computed: de = 169mm ρ = As b ⋅ de mm mm As = 0.4S.4.263 k ⋅ de = 45 mm 2-19 .4.1-1 Muposdead = 2935 The total service positive design moment is: MupostotalA = MuposliveA + Muposdead MupostotalA = 31822 N ⋅ mm mm To solve for the actual stress in the reinforcement. The maximum service positive dead load moment is computed as follows: γ pDCserv = 1.00589 2 n=8 k = ( ρ ⋅ n) 2 + ( 2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ n ) − ρ ⋅ n k = 0..1-1 STable 3..0 Muposdead = γ pDCserv ⋅ ⎛ 1690 ⋅ ⎜ N ⋅ mm ⎞ . parapet. ⎜ mm ⎠ ⎝ N ⋅ mm ⎞ + γ pDWserv⋅ ⎛ 400 ⋅ ⎜ mm ⎠ ⎝ N ⋅ mm mm STable 3.. and future wearing surface positive dead load moment occurs in Bay 2 at a distance of 0. the maximum unfactored slab.0 γ pDWserv = 1..Service positive dead load moment: From Table 2-1.995 mm ρ = 0. mm ⎠ ⎝ N ⋅ mm ⎞ + γ pDCserv ⋅ ⎛ 845 ⋅ .

the actual stress in the reinforcement can be computed: MupostotalA = 31822 N ⋅ mm mm y = de − k ⋅ de y = 124 mm fs = n ⋅ ( MupostotalA ⋅ y) It fsa > fs OK fs = 207 MPa 2-20 . the transformed moment of inertia can be computed: de = 169 mm As = 0.995 It = mm mm 2 33 mm 1 3 2 ⋅ ( k ⋅ d e ) + n ⋅ A s ⋅ ( de − k ⋅ de ) 3 4 mm It = 152756 mm Now.45 mm 13 mm Integral wearing surface 215 mm 124 mm Neutral axis #16 bars @ 200 mm spacing Figure 2-6 Crack Control for Positive Reinforcement under Live Loads Once kde is known.

as follows: φ f = 0.90 b = 1mm Rn = −MunegtotalA ⋅ 1mm S5.1/2 bar diameter de = ts − Covert − bar_diam 2 de = 147 mm Solve for the required amount of reinforcing steel.10 .85⎜ ⎛ f'c ⎞ ⎡ ( 2 ⋅ Rn) ⎤ ⋅ ⎢ 1.2.2. S4.6.1 ( φ f ⋅ b ⋅ de 2 ) Rn = 3.4.1 Reinforcing Steel for Negative Flexure in Deck Figure 2-7 Reinforcing Steel for Negative Flexure in Deck Assume #16 bars: bar_diam = 15.135 N mm 2 ρ = 0.9mm bar_area = 199mm 2 Effective depth.0 − 1.top cover .Design for Negative Flexure in Deck The negative flexure reinforcing steel design is similar to the positive flexure reinforcing steel design.0 − ( 0.Design Step 2.85 ⋅ f'c) ⎥ ⎝ fy ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ ρ = 0.00803 2-21 .5. de = total slab thickness .

A s = ρ ⋅ de

As = 1.181

mm mm

2

Required bar spacing =

bar_area = 168 mm As

Use #16 bars @ bar_space = 150mm Once the bar size and spacing are known, the maximum reinforcement limit must be checked. T = bar_area ⋅ fy a = T 0.85 ⋅ f' c ⋅ bar_space T = 83580N a = 23 mm S5.7.3.3.1

β 1 = 0.85 c = a β1 c = 28 mm

S5.7.2.2 S5.7.2.2

c = 0.19 de 0.19 ≤ 0.42

where

c ≤ 0.42 de

S5.7.3.3.1

OK

Design Step 2.11 - Check for Negative Flexure Cracking under Service Limit State Similar to the positive flexure reinforcement, the control of cracking by distribution of reinforcement must be checked. Z = 23000 N mm S5.7.3.4 S5.7.3.4

Note: clear cover is greater than 50 millimeters; therefore, use clear cover equals 50 millimeters.

2-22

dc = 50mm +

bar_diam 2

dc = 58 mm Ac = 17385mm

2

Ac = 2 ⋅ ( dc) ⋅ bar_space

fsa =

Z

1

where

fsa ≤ 0.6 ⋅ fy

( dc ⋅ Ac) 3

fsa = 229 MPa Use fsa = 229MPa 0.6fy = 252 MPa

Service negative live load moment: From Table 2-2, the maximum unfactored negative live load moment is -39866000 N-mm, located at 0.0S in Bay 4 for two trucks. The maximum service negative live load moment is: γ LL = 1.0 MunegliveA = γ LL ⋅ ( 1 + IM) ⋅ MunegliveA = −27011 −39866000N ⋅ mm wnegstripa STable 3.4.1-1

N ⋅ mm mm

Service negative dead load moment: From Table 2-1, the maximum unfactored negative dead load moment occurs in Bay 4 at a distance of 1.0S. The maximum service negative dead load moment is computed as follows: γ pDCservice = 1.0 γ pDWservice = 1.0 STable 3.4.1-1

Munegdead = γ pDCservice ⋅ ⎛ −3292 ⋅ ⎜

**N ⋅ mm N ⋅ mm ⎞ − 7384 ... mm mm ⎠ ⎝ N ⋅ mm ⎞ + γ pDWservice ⋅ ⎛ −267 ⋅ ⎜ mm ⎠ ⎝
**

2-23

Munegdead = −10943

N ⋅ mm mm

**The total service negative design moment is: MunegtotalA = MunegliveA + Munegdead MunegtotalA = −37954 N ⋅ mm mm
**

2

de = 147mm ρ = As b ⋅ de mm

mm As = 1.327 mm ρ = 0.00903

n=8

k =

( ρ ⋅ n) 2 + ( 2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ n ) − ρ ⋅ n

k = 0.315 k ⋅ de = 46 mm

#16 bars @ 150 mm spacing

215mm

101mm

68mm

Neutral axis

Figure 2-8 Crack Control for Negative Reinforcement under Live Loads

46mm

2-24

**Once kde is known, the transformed moment of inertia can be computed: de = 147mm As = 1.327 It = mm mm
**

2

1 3 2 ⋅ ( k ⋅ d e ) + n ⋅ A s ⋅ ( de − k ⋅ de ) 3 mm mm

4

It = 140736

Now, the actual stress in the reinforcement can be computed: MunegtotalA = −37954 N ⋅ mm mm y = de − k ⋅ de y = 101 mm

fs =

n ⋅ ( −MunegtotalA ⋅ y) It fsa > fs OK

fs = 217 MPa

Design Step 2.12 - Design for Flexure in Deck Overhang Bridge deck overhangs must be designed to satisfy three different design cases. In the first design case, the overhang must be designed for horizontal (transverse and longitudinal) vehicular collision forces. For the second design case, the overhang must be designed to resist the vertical collision force. Finally, for the third design case, the overhang must be designed for dead and live loads. For Design Cases 1 and 2, the design forces are for the extreme event limit state. For Design Case 3, the design forces are for the strength limit state. Also, the deck overhang region must be designed to have a resistance larger than the actual resistance of the concrete parapet. SA13.4.1

CA13.3.1

2-25

1200mm 438mm Parapet C.G. 300mm 156.5mm 457mm Wheel load 75mm 230mm Overhang design section 75mm 215mm Bay 1 design section

Figure 2-9 Deck Overhang Dimensions and Live Loading

Reinforcing Steel for Flexure in Deck Overhang

Figure 2-10 Reinforcing Steel for Flexure in Deck Overhang

2-26

Design Case 1 - Design Overhang for Horizontal Vehicular Collision Force The horizontal vehicular collision force must be checked at the inside face of the parapet, at the design section in the overhang, and at the design section in the first bay. Case 1A - Check at Inside Face of Parapet The overhang must be designed for the vehicular collision plus dead load moment acting concurrently with the axial tension force from vehicular collision. For the extreme event limit state: φ ext = 1.0 γ pDC = 1.25 N ⋅ mm (see parapet properties) mm

SA13.4.1

S1.3.2.1 STable 3.4.1-2

Mco = 125478

MDCdeck = γ pDC

**⎡ g( 230mm) ⋅ ⎛ 2400 kg ⎞ ⋅ ( 438mm) 2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎜ ⎥ 3 m ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ ⎦ ⋅
**

2

MDCdeck = 649

N ⋅ mm mm

MDCpar = γ pDC ⋅ Wpar ⋅ ( 438mm − 156.5mm) ⋅ g

MDCpar = 2723

N ⋅ mm mm

Mutotal = Mco + MDCdeck + MDCpar Mutotal = 128850 N ⋅ mm mm

2-27

The axial tensile force is: T = Rw Lc + 2Hpar

SA13.4.2

Before the axial tensile force can be calculated, the terms Lc and Rw need to be defined. Lc is the critical wall length over which the yield line mechanism occurs: SA13.3.1

2 ⎛ Lt ⎞ 8 ⋅ H ⋅ ( Mb + Mw ⋅ H) Lc = + ⎜ + 2 Mc ⎝2⎠

Lt

Since the parapet is not designed in this design example, the variables involved in this calculation are given below: Lt = 1220 Mb = 0 ft longitudinal length of distribution of impact force Ft additional flexural resistance of beam in addition to Mw, if any, at top of wall flexural resistance of the wall about an axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the bridge SATable 13.2-1

N ⋅ mm * N ⋅ mm * mm

Mc = 26688

Mw = 25109 kN ⋅ mm * flexural resistance of the wall about its vertical axis H = 1067 mm height of parapet

* Based on parapet properties not included in this design example. See Publication Number FHWA HI-95-017, Load and Resistance Factor Design for Highway Bridges, Participant Notebook, Volume II (Version 3.01), for the method used to compute the parapet properties. Lc is then:

2 ⎛ Lt ⎞ 8 ⋅ H ⋅ ( Mb + Mw ⋅ H) Lc = + ⎜ + 2 Mc ⎝2⎠

Lt

Lc = 3600

mm

2-28

Rw is the total transverse resistance of the railing and is calculated using SA13.3.1 the following equation for impacts within a wall segment:

2⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⋅ ⎜ 8 ⋅ M + 8M ⋅ H + Mc ⋅ Lc ⎛ Rw = ⎜ b w H ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⋅ Lc − L t ⎠ ⎝

Rw = 180096 N use Rw = 180096N SA13.4.2

Now, the axial tensile force is: T = 91 N mm to = 230 mm

The overhang slab thickness is: For #16 bars:

bar_diam = 15.9mm bar_diam 2 de = 162 mm

de = to − Covert −

The required area of reinforcing steel is computed as follows: b = 1mm Rn = Mutotal ⋅ 1mm

( φext ⋅b ⋅ de2)

Rn = 4.91

N mm

2

ρ = 0.85⎜

⎛ f'c ⎞ ⎡ ( 2 ⋅ Rn) ⎤ ⋅ ⎢ 1.0 − 1.0 − ( 0.85 ⋅ f'c) ⎥ ⎝ fy ⎠ ⎣ ⎦

ρ = 0.0132 A s = ρ ⋅ de As = 2.143

2

mm mm

2

mm Use As = 2.653 mm

**(2 - #16 bars bundled at 150 mm)
**

2-29

Once the required area of steel is known, the depth of the compression block must be checked: Ta = As ⋅ fy Ta = 1114 N mm Use C = 1023N

C = Ta − T

C = 1023

N mm

a =

C 0.85 ⋅ f' c ⋅ b

a = 43 mm a⎞ ⎛ de a ⎞ − T⋅⎜ − 2⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ Mr = 151197 N ⋅ mm mm

Mn = Ta ⋅ ⎛ de − ⎜

⎝

Mn = 151197 N ⋅ mm mm

Mr = φ ext ⋅ Mn

Mr ≥ Mutotal a β1

OK

c =

c = 51 mm c ≤ 0.42 de

S5.7.2.2

c = 0.31 de 0.31 ≤ 0.42

where

S5.7.3.3.1

OK

Case 1B - Check at Design Section in Overhang The collision forces are distributed over a distance Lc for moment and Lc + 2H for axial force. When the design section is moved to 1/4bf away from the girder centerline in the overhang, the distribution length will increase. This example assumes a distribution length increase based on a 30 degree angle from the face of the parapet.

2-30

1200mm 438mm 682mm

75mm 230mm 215mm

30° 396mm

Lc = 3600mm

396mm 30°

Figure 2-11 Assumed Distribution of Collision Moment Load in the Overhang

2-31

For the extreme event limit state: φ ext = 1.0 γ pDC = 1.25 γ pDW = 1.50 Lc = 3600mm Mco = 125478 N ⋅ mm mm (see parapet properties) (see parapet properties) N ⋅ mm mm S1.3.2.1 STable 3.4.1-2 STable 3.4.1-2

McB =

Mco ⋅ Lc Lc + 2 ⋅ 396mm

McB = 102851

Factored dead load moment:

MDCdeck = γ pDC

⎡ g ⋅ ( 230mm) ⋅ ( Wc) ⋅ ( 1125mm) 2 ⎤ ⎦ ⋅⎣

2 N ⋅ mm mm

MDCdeck = 4282

MDCpar = γ pDC ⋅ Wpar ⋅ ( 1125mm − 156.5mm) ⋅ g

MDCpar = 9367

N ⋅ mm mm

MDWfws = γ pDW

**⎡ ( 63.5mm) ⋅ ( Wfws) ⋅ ( 1125mm − 438mm) 2 ⎤ ⎦ ⋅g⋅ ⎣
**

2

MDWfws = 496

N ⋅ mm mm

2-32

Mutotal = McB + MDCdeck + MDCpar + MDWfws Mutotal = 116996 N ⋅ mm mm SA13.4.2

The axial tensile force is: T = Rw Lc + 2Hpar + 2 ⋅ ( 396mm) N mm to = 230 mm

T = 27.60

The overhang slab thickness is: For #16 bars:

bar_diam = 15.9mm

de = to − Covert −

bar_diam 2

de = 162 mm

The required area of reinforcing steel is computed as follows: b = 1mm Rn = Mutotal ⋅ 1mm

( φext ⋅b ⋅ de2)

Rn = 4.46

N mm

2

ρ = 0.85⎜

⎛ f'c ⎞ ⎡ ( 2 ⋅ Rn) ⎤ ⋅ ⎢ 1.0 − 1.0 − ( 0.85 ⋅ f'c) ⎥ ⎝ fy ⎠ ⎣ ⎦

ρ = 0.0118 A s = ρ ⋅ de mm As = 1.920 mm

2

**The above required reinforcing steel is less than the reinforcing steel required for Case 1A.
**

2-33

Case 1C - Check at Design Section in First Span The total collision moment can be treated as shown in Figure 2-12. The moment ratio, M2/M1, can be calculated for the design strip. One way to approximate this moment is to set it equal to the ratio of the moments produced by the parapet self-weight at the 0.0S points of the first and second bay. The collision moment per unit width can then be determined by using the increased distribution length based on the 30 degree angle distribution (see Figure 2-11). The dead load moments at this section can be obtained directly from Table 2-1.

M2

M1

Figure 2-12 Assumed Distribution of the Collision Moment Across the Width of the Deck Collision moment at exterior girder: Mco = −125478 N ⋅ mm mm M1 = Mco

Parapet self-weight moment at Girder 1 (0.0S in Bay 1): Par1 = −7384 N ⋅ mm mm

Parapet self-weight moment at Girder 2 (0.0S in Bay 2): Par2 = 2091 N ⋅ mm mm

Collision moment at 1/4bf in Bay 1: M2 = M1 ⋅ ⎜

⎛ Par2 ⎞ ⎝ Par1 ⎠

M2 = 35533

N ⋅ mm mm

2-34

4.1-2 STable 3.2.1-2 McC = McM2M1 ⋅ Lc Lc + 2 ⋅ ( 485mm) Factored dead load moment (from Table 2-1): MDCdeck = γ pDC ⋅ ⎛ −3292 ⎜ N ⋅ mm ⎞ mm ⎠ ⎝ MDCdeck = −4115 N ⋅ mm mm N ⋅ mm ⎞ mm ⎠ MDCpar = γ pDC ⋅ ⎛ −7384 ⎜ ⎝ MDCpar = −9230 N ⋅ mm mm MDWfws = γ pDW ⋅ ⎛ −267 ⎜ ⎝ N ⋅ mm ⎞ mm ⎠ MDWfws = −401 N ⋅ mm mm 2-35 .4.25 γ pDW = 1.50 McM2M1 = −121415 N ⋅ mm mm McC = −95644 N ⋅ mm mm S1. the total collision moment is: McM2M1 = Mco + 75mm ⋅ ( −Mco + M2) 2972mm McM2M1 = −121415 N ⋅ mm mm As in Case 1B. the 30 degree angle distribution will be used: φ ext = 1.3.1 STable 3.By interpolation for a design section at 1/4bf in Bay 1.0 γ pDC = 1.

0137 A s = ρ ⋅ de As = 2.0 − ( 0.4.0 − 1.86 Use a slab thickness equal to: For #16 bars: bar_diam = 15.06 N mm 2 ρ = 0.Mutotal = McC + MDCdeck + MDCpar + MDWfws Mutotal = −109390 N ⋅ mm mm SA13.85⎜ ⎛ f'c ⎞ ⎡ ( 2 ⋅ Rn) ⎤ ⋅ ⎢ 1.85 ⋅ f'c) ⎥ ⎝ fy ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ ρ = 0. 2-36 .015 mm mm 2 The above required reinforcing steel is less than the reinforcing steel required for Case 1A.2 The axial tensile force is: T = Rw Lc + 2Hpar + 2 ⋅ ( 485mm) N mm ts = 215 mm T = 26.9mm bar_diam 2 de = ts − Covert − de = 147 mm The required area of reinforcing steel is computed as follows: b = 1mm Rn = −Mutotal ⋅ 1mm ( φext ⋅b ⋅ de2) Rn = 5.

Design Overhang for Dead Load and Live Load Case 3A . this procedure does not need to be considered in this design example.4.20 for one lane loaded.33.Check at Design Section in Overhang The resistance factor for the strength limit state for flexure and tension in concrete is: φ str = 0.1 STable 4.1 S5.3-1 woverstrip = 1140 + 0. Design Case 3 .1-1 STable 3.2. Use a dynamic load allowance of 0.Design Case 2 .90 The equivalent strip for live load on an overhang is: woverstrip = 1140 + 0.5. Design factored overhang moment: γ LL = 1.1 SA13.50 STable 3.1-2 MDCdeck = γ pDC ⎡ ( 230mm) ⋅ ( Wc) ⋅ ( 1125mm) 2 ⎤ ⎦ ⋅g⋅ ⎣ 2 2-37 .833X woverstrip = 1521 mm use woverstrip = 1521mm STable 3.4.25 γ pDW = 1.2.1.75 γ pDC = 1.1-1 Use a multiple presence factor of 1. Therefore.4.1.1-2 STable 3.2.833 ⋅ X For X = 457 mm SA13.6.Design Overhang for Vertical Collision Force For concrete parapets.2-1 STable 3.4.4. the case of vertical collision force never controls.6.4.6.1.

20) ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ MLL = 59723 N ⋅ mm mm 71168N ⎞ ⋅ 457mm woverstrip ⎠ ⎝ Mutotal = MDCdeck + MDCpar + MDWfws + MLL N ⋅ mm mm Mutotal = 73868 Calculate the required area of steel: For #16 bars: bar_diam = 15.9mm bar_diam 2 de = to − Covert − de = 162 mm b = 1mm Rn = Mutotal ⋅ 1mm ( φstr ⋅b ⋅ de2) Rn = 3.MDCdeck = 4282 N ⋅ mm mm MDCpar = γ pDC ⋅ Wpar ⋅ ( 1125mm − 156.13 N mm 2-38 2 .5 ⋅ mm) ⋅ ( 1125 ⋅ mm − 438 ⋅ mm) 2 2 MDCpar = 9367 MDWfws = γ pDW ⋅ Wfws ⋅ g ⋅ N ⋅ mm mm MDWfws = 496 MLL = γ LL ⋅ ( 1 + IM) ⋅ ( 1.5mm) ⋅ g N ⋅ mm mm ( 63.

85⎜ ⎛ f'c ⎞ ⎡ ( 2 ⋅ Rn) ⎤ ⋅ ⎢ 1.75 γ pDC = 1. and 1C.00801 A s = ρ ⋅ de As = 1.1-2 woverstrip = 1140 + 0. compute the equivalent strip based on a moment arm to the centerline of girder. Case 3B . The maximum negative live load moment occurs in Bay 4.833X woverstrip = 1521 mm use woverstrip = 1521mm 2-39 . Since the negative live load moment is produced by a load on the overhang.Check at Design Section in First Span Use a slab thickness equal to: ts = 215 mm The dead and live load moments are taken from Tables 2-1 and 2-2.1-2 STable 3.0 − 1.4.298 mm mm 2 The above required reinforcing steel is less than the reinforcing steel required for Cases 1A. 1B.0 − ( 0.50 woverstrip = 1140 + 0. Design factored moment: γ LL = 1.1-1 STable 3.25 γ pDW = 1.4.4.ρ = 0.833 ⋅ X For X = 457 mm STable 3.85 ⋅ f'c) ⎥ ⎝ fy ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ ρ = 0.

MDCdeck = γ pDC ⋅ ⎛ −3292 ⎜ ⎝ N ⋅ mm ⎞ mm ⎠ MDCdeck = −4115 N ⋅ mm mm N ⋅ mm ⎞ mm ⎠ MDCpar = γ pDC ⋅ ⎛ −7384 ⎜ ⎝ MDCpar = −9230 N ⋅ mm mm N ⋅ mm ⎞ mm ⎠ MDWfws = γ pDW ⋅ ⎛ −267 ⎜ ⎝ MDWfws = −401 N ⋅ mm mm ( −39866000N ⋅ mm) woverstrip MLL = γ LL ⋅ ( 1 + IM) ⋅ MLL = −61005 N ⋅ mm mm Mutotal = MDCdeck + MDCpar + MDWfws + MLL Mutotal = −74750 N ⋅ mm mm Calculate the required area of steel: For #16 bars: bar_diam = 15.9mm bar_diam 2 de = ts − Covert − de = 147 mm b = 1mm 2-40 .

653 mm mm 2 Since the area of reinforcing steel required in the overhang is greater than the area of reinforcing steel required in the negative moment regions.9mm bar_area = 199mm Asneg = bar_area ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ mm Asneg = 1.84 N mm 2 ρ = 0.653 mm 2 The negative flexure reinforcement provided from the design in Steps 2. 1B. 2-41 .85⎜ ⎛ f'c ⎞ ⎡ ( 2 ⋅ Rn) ⎤ ⋅ ⎢ 1. reinforcement must be added in the overhang area to satisfy the design requirements. The required area of reinforcing steel in the overhang is the largest of that required for Cases 1A. Case 1A controls with: mm As = 2.327 < 2.11 is: #16 bars at 150 mm: bar_diam = 15.85 ⋅ f'c) ⎥ ⎝ fy ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ ρ = 0.0 − ( 0. 1B.0 − 1.0100 A s = ρ ⋅ de As = 1. 3A.10 and 2. and 1C.Rn = −Mutotal ⋅ 1mm ( φstr ⋅ b ⋅de2) Rn = 3.327 mm 2 2 2 1 ⎞ ⎝ 150mm ⎠ mm mm 1.475 mm mm 2 The above required reinforcing steel is less than the reinforcing steel required for Cases 1A. and 3B. 1C.

so c/de will be checked in Bay 1 where the deck thickness is 215 millimeters.11). demin = ts − Covert − demin = 147 mm T = As ⋅ fy T 0.1 0.653 mm Once the required area of reinforcing steel is known.13 . The new area of reinforcing steel is: As = 2 ⋅ 199 ⋅ mm 2 ( 2 ) ⋅⎛ ⎜ 1 ⎞ ⎝ 150mm ⎠ mm As = 2.9 and 2.Check for Cracking in Overhang under Service Limit State Cracking in the overhang must be checked for the controlling service load (similar to Design Steps 2. the depth of the compression block must be checked.37 T = 1114 N Use mm T = 1114N bar_diam 2 a = a = 47 mm c = c c = 55 mm c ≤ 0.42 OK Design Step 2.2 demin where S5. cracking does not control.Bundle one #16 bar to each negative flexure reinforcing bar in the overhang area. the computations for the cracking check are not shown in this deck overhang design example.7.37 ≤ 0.7. Therefore. The ratio of c/de is more critical at the minimum deck thickness.85 ⋅ f' c ⋅ b a β1 = 0. 2-42 . In most deck overhang design cases.3.42 de S5.2.3.

This is done by determining the location where both the dead and live load moments. Compute the nominal negative moment resistance based on #16 bars at 150 mm spacing: bar_diam = 15. are less than or equal to the resistance provided by #16 bars at 150 mm spacing (negative flexure steel design reinforcement).85 ⋅ f' c ⋅ b bar_diam 2 T = 557 N mm Use T = 557N a = 23 mm a⎞ 2⎠ Mn = As ⋅ fy ⋅ ⎛ de − ⎜ ⎝ Mn = 75416 N ⋅ mm mm Compute the nominal flexural resistance for negative flexure.9mm bar_area = 199mm As = bar_area ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ mm As = 1. as well as the dead and collision load moments.14 .Compute Overhang Cut-off Length Requirement The next step is to compute the cut-off location of the additional #16 bars in the first bay. as follows: Mr = φ f ⋅ Mn Mr = 67874 N ⋅ mm mm 2-43 .Design Step 2.327 mm 2 2 1 ⎞ ⎝ 150mm ⎠ de = ts − Covert − de = 147 mm T = As ⋅ fy a = T 0.

the theoretical cut-off point for the additional #16 bar is 1143millimeters from the centerline of the fascia girder.2 S5.11.2.1.3 The following modification factors must be applied: Epoxy coated bars: Bundled bars: 1.9 in Ab = 199 mm f' c = 28 MPa fy = 420 MPa The basic development length is the larger of the following: 0.1 2 ld = 401mm S5.15 .1.2 2-44 .1.06 ⋅ db ⋅ fy = 401 mm or 300mm S5.11.02 ⋅ Ab ⋅ fy f' c Use = 316 mm or 0.Based on the nominal flexural resistance and on interpolation of the factored design moments.9mm = 239 mm 1/20 of the clear span: Use 1 ⋅ ( 2972mm) = 149 mm 20 S5.11.2.11.Compute Overhang Development Length db = 15. The additional cut-off length (or the distance the reinforcement must extend beyond the theoretical cut-off point) is the maximum of: The effective depth of the member: de = 147 mm 15 times the nominal bar diameter: 15 ⋅ 15.2 S5.2 cut_off = 239mm The total required length past the centerline of the fascia girder into the first bay is: cut_offtotal = 1143mm + cut_off cut_offtotal = 1382 mm Design Step 2.2.2 1.11.

8) ld = 462 mm Use ld = 465mm S5.11.1.3 The required length past the centerline of the fascia girder is: 75mm + ld = 540 mm 540mm < 1382mm provided Bay 1 design section 75mm 540mm 465mm Development length #16 bars @ 150mm (bundled bars) 1143mm 1382mm 239mm Cut-off length Figure 2-13 Length of Overhang Negative Moment Reinforcement 2-45 .2.8 clear cover in direction of spacing: ld = 401mm ⋅ ( 1.Spacing > 150mm with more than 75 mm of 0.2) ⋅ ( 1.2) ⋅ ( 0.

S9.3.Design Step 2.2 Bottom Longitudinal Distribution Reinforcement Figure 2-14 Bottom Longitudinal Distribution Reinforcement For this design example.16 .7. bar_diam = 15.Design Bottom Longitudinal Distribution Reinforcement The bottom longitudinal distribution reinforcement is calculated based on whether the primary reinforcement is parallel or perpendicular to traffic.9mm bar_area = 199mm 2 As_mm = bar_area ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ 1 ⎞ 200mm ⎠ ⎝ 2-46 .3 % Use Asbotpercent = 67% For this design example. Se = 2822 mm Asbotpercent = 3840 Se where Asbotlong ≤ 67% Asbotpercent = 72. the primary reinforcement is perpendicular to traffic. #16 bars at 200 mm were used to resist the primary positive moment.

Design Step 2.mm As_mm = 0.Design Top Longitudinal Distribution Reinforcement Top Longitudinal Distribution Reinforcement Figure 2-15 Top Longitudinal Distribution Reinforcement 2-47 .995 mm 2 Asbotlong = Asbotpercent ⋅ As_mm mm Asbotlong = 0.17 .667 mm 2 Calculate the required spacing using #16 bars: spacing = bar_area Asbotlong spacing = 299 mm Use spacing = 250mm Use #16 bars at 250 millimeter spacing for the bottom longitudinal reinforcement.

The amount of steel required for the top longitudinal reinforcement is: mm 0. 2-48 .10.The top longitudinal temperature and shrinkage reinforcement must satisfy: As ≥ 0.0 times the deck thickness or 450 millimeters.19 mm mm OK Use #13 bars at 250 mm spacing for the top longitudinal temperature and shrinkage reinforcement.38 ⋅ mm Asreq = 2 2 2 Asreq = 0 mm mm Check #13 bars at 250 mm spacing: 2 Asact = 129 ⋅ mm ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ 2 1 ⎞ ⎝ 250mm ⎠ 2 Asact = 1 mm mm 2 mm mm 0. In addition. the calculated area of reinforcing steel must be equally distributed on both concrete faces.52 > 0.75 = 0.8.75 Ag fy mm Ag = 215 mm 2 S5. the maximum spacing of the temperature and shrinkage reinforcement must be the smaller of 3.38 fy mm Ag 2 When using the above equation.2 mm ⎞ Ag = 215mm ⋅ ⎛ 1 ⎜ ⎝ mm ⎠ mm 0.

7.10.3.7 Adeck = 215 As_1_percent = 0.1. design the top longitudinal reinforcement according to S6.10. the bar size cannot be larger than a #19 bar.Design Longitudinal Reinforcement over Piers If the superstructure is comprised of simple span precast girders made continuous for live load.14. These bars must have a specified minimum yield strength of at least 420 MPa.Design Step 2.3. Deck cross section: Adeck = 215mm ⋅ 1mm mm mm mm 2 S6. Also.01 ⋅ Adeck mm As_1_percent = 2 mm 2 2-49 . For continuous steel girder superstructures.7.2. For this design example. Longitudinal Reinforcement over Piers Figure 2-16 Longitudinal Reinforcement over Piers The total longitudinal reinforcement should not be less than 1 percent of the total slab cross-sectional area. the top longitudinal reinforcement should be designed according to S5. continuous steel girders are used.18 .

and the remaining portion should be placed uniformly in the bottom layer.Two-thirds of the required longitudinal reinforcement should be placed uniformly in the top layer of the deck. Asprovided = 199mm ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ 2 1 ⎞ 125mm ⎠ ⎝ > mm 0. the spacing should not exceed 150 millimeters.10. Asprovided = 199mm ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ 2 1 ⎞ 125mm ⎠ ⎝ > mm 1.7 mm ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⋅A ⎜ s_1_percent = 1 mm ⎝ 3⎠ 2 Use #16 bars at 125 mm spacing in the top layer. mm ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⋅A ⎜ s_1_percent = 1 mm ⎝ 3⎠ 2 S6.43 mm 2 mm Asprovided = 2 mm 2 OK Use #16 bars at 125 mm spacing in the bottom layer to satisfy the maximum spacing requirement of 150 mm.3.72 mm 2 mm Asprovided = 2 mm 2 OK 2-50 . For both rows.

Draw Schematic of Final Concrete Deck Design #16 @ 150mm (bundled bar) 63.Design Step 2.5mm Cl. #16 @ 125mm (bundled bar) #16 @ 125mm 1382mm 230mm #16 @ 125mm #16 @ 125mm 25mm Cl.19 . #16 @ 200mm 215mm Figure 2-18 Superstructure Negative Moment Deck Reinforcement 2-51 . #16 @ 200mm 215mm Figure 2-17 Superstructure Positive Moment Deck Reinforcement 63.5mm Cl. #16 @ 150mm 1382mm 230mm #16 @ 250mm #13 @ 250mm 25mm Cl.

Select Trial Girder Section Design Step 3.Design for Flexure .3 .Design for Shear Design Step 3.17 .11 .Design for Flexure .Service Limit State Design Step 3.14 .4 .17 .8 .5 .15 .Fatigue and Fracture Design Step 3.7 .10 .Compute Live Load Effects Design Step 3.1 .Strength Limit State Design Step 3.Design Transverse Intermediate Stiffeners Design Step 3.Constructibility Check Design Step 3.Check Section Proportion Limits Design Step 3.11 .Steel Girder Design Example Design Step 3 Table of Contents Page Design Step 3.Fatigue and Fracture Design Step 3.Compute Plastic Moment Capacity Design Step 3.8 .Constructibility Check Design Step 3.Determine if Section is Compact or Noncompact Design Step 3.Design for Shear Design Step 3.6 .Design for Flexure .10 .Check Wind Effects on Girder Flanges Design Step 3.Design for Flexure .9 .9 .Compute Plastic Moment Capacity Design Step 3.18 .Design for Flexure .Combine Load Effects Positive Moment Region: Design Step 3.Design for Flexure .Design for Flexure .Strength Limit State Design Step 3.7 .Determine if Section is Compact or Noncompact Design Step 3.12 .Design for Flexure .12 .Obtain Design Criteria Design Step 3.16 .Check Section Proportion Limits Design Step 3.Compute Dead Load Effects Design Step 3.15 .14 .16 .Compute Section Properties Design Step 3.Service Limit State Design Step 3.Design Transverse Intermediate Stiffeners Design Step 3.2 .Check Wind Effects on Girder Flanges Negative Moment Region: Design Step 3.Draw Schematic of Final Steel Girder Design 3-1 2 8 10 14 20 27 35 37 39 40 44 44 44 47 48 56 57 60 61 63 67 72 76 78 81 83 87 .

1 . The girder is assumed to be composite throughout. and from the referenced articles and tables in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (through 2002 interims). a plate girder will be designed for an HL-93 live load. E C Bearings L Abutment 1 36576mm 73152mm Legend: E = Expansion Bearings F = Fixed Bearings F C Pier L 36576mm E C Bearings L Abutment 2 Figure 3-1 Span Configuration 14287. including the steel girder.) 1200 mm 4 Spaces @ 2972 mm = 11888 mm 1200 mm Figure 3-2 Superstructure Cross Section 3-2 .Obtain Design Criteria The first design step for a steel girder is to choose the correct design criteria. and criteria for the entire bridge. The steel girder design criteria are obtained from Figures 3-1 through 3-3 (shown below). For this steel girder design example.Design Step 3. from the concrete deck design example. methodology.5 mm 3048 mm Shoulder 3658 mm Lane 3658 mm Lane 3048 mm Shoulder 438 mm 1067 mm (Typ. Additional information is presented about the design assumptions. Refer to Design Step 1 for introductory information about this design example.

the girder spacing shown in Figure 3-2 was developed as a reasonable value for all limit states.35 to 0. Further optimization of the superstructure could be achieved by revising the girder spacing. it is generally more cost-effective to use a wider girder spacing. A common rule of thumb is to make the overhang approximately 0. Four girders are generally considered to be the minimum. In addition.) 4 Spaces at 2972mm = 11888mm C Girder (Typ.Girder Spacing Where depth or deflection limitations do not control the design. For this design example.5 times the girder spacing. Symmetrical about C Pier L Cross Frame (Typ.) L 6 Spaces at 6096mm = 36576mm 36576mm C Bearing Abutment L C Pier L Figure 3-3 Framing Plan 3-3 . and five girders are desirable to facilitate future redecking. Overhang Width The overhang width is generally determined such that the moments and shears in the exterior girder are similar to those in the interior girder. the overhang is set such that the positive and negative moments in the deck slab are balanced.

Currently.4. is to use a maximum cross-frame spacing of 7600 millimeters.Cross-frame Spacing A common rule of thumb. a cross-frame spacing of 6100 millimeters is used because it facilitates a reduction in the required flange thicknesses in the girder section at the pier.7. based on previous editions of the AASHTO Specifications.10. stay-in-place forms should not be considered to provide adequate bracing to the top flange. The following units are defined for use in this design example: kN = 1000 ⋅ N Design criteria: Number of spans: Span length: Skew angle: Number of girders: Girder spacing: Deck overhang: Cross-frame spacing: Web yield strength: Flange yield strength: Concrete 28-day compressive strength: Reinforcement strength: Nspans = 2 Lspan = 36576mm Skew = 0deg Ngirders = 5 S = 2972mm Soverhang = 1200mm Lb = 6100mm Fyw = 345MPa Fyf = 345MPa f' c = 28MPa fy = 420MPa S6.1-1 S5.1-1 S5.4.4.2.7 MPa = N mm 2 3-4 .2. This spacing also affects constructibility checks for stability before the deck is cured.4.3. For this design example.4.3 & S6.1 & STable C5.4 STable 6.1-1 STable 6.

Longitudinal stiffeners will not be used.5mm wroadway = 13411.5. a bolted field splice will be designed in Step 4.2. In addition.0223 dead load (per girder): mm Stay-in-place deck form weight: Parapet weight (each): Future wearing surface: Future wearing surface thickness: Deck width: Roadway width: Haunch depth (from top of web): Average Daily Truck Traffic (Single-Lane): Wdeckforms = 73.1-1 kg m 2 Wfws = 2250 STable 3.1-1 Concrete density: m Additional miscellaneous kg Wmisc = 0. 3-5 .1. welded connections will be designed in Step 5. and a deck pouring sequence will not be considered in this design example.5.3.1-1 tfws = 63.5mm wdeck = 14287. and an elastomeric bearing will be designed in Step 6.12.Design criteria (continued): Total deck thickness: tdeck = 215mm Effective deck thickness: teffdeck = 212mm Total overhang thickness: toverhang = 230mm Effective overhang thickness: Steel density: teffoverhang = 217mm Ws = 7850 kg m 3 STable 3.5.4.5mm dhaunch = 89mm ADTTSL = 3000 For this design example. shear connectors will be designed in Step 5. transverse stiffeners will be designed in Step 3. bearing stiffeners will be designed in Step 5.24 Wpar = 789 kg m kg m 3 Wc = 2400 kg 3 STable 3. cross-frames are described in Step 5.

φ For flexure φ f = 1.4.00 1.4.Design factors from AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications: Load factors: Limit State Strength I Service II Fatigue Load Combinations and Load Factors Load Factors DC DW LL IM WS WL 1.75 1.2.5.00 1.3.75 1.30 0.4.50 1.75 0. The extreme event limit state (including earthquake load) is generally not considered for a steel girder design.90 S6.30 1.25 1. Resistance factors: Resistance Factors Type of Resistance Resistance Factor.1-1 & STable 3.00 For shear For axial compression φ v = 1.2 Table 3-2 Resistance Factors 3-6 .00 φ c = 0.75 STable 3.1-2 EQ - Table 3-1 Load Combinations and Load Factors The abbreviations used in Table 3-1 are as defined in S3.

2. 3-7 . however. the multiple presence factor for one lane loaded).2. It should also be noted that the multiple presence factor still applies to the distribution factors for one-lane loaded for strength limit states. as presented in S4.1. However. They are already included in the computation of live load distribution factors.2.2.1-1 Dynamic Load Allowance Dynamic Load Limit State Allowance.2d. Since S3. The term "impact" was used in previous editions of the AASHTO Specifications. IM Fatigue and Fracture 15% Limit State All Other Limit States 33% Table 3-3 Dynamic Load Allowance Dynamic load allowance is the same as impact.2.6.20 factor should not be included when computing the distribution factor for one-lane loaded for the fatigue limit state.20 (that is. the 1.1. the term "dynamic load allowance" is used in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.2.6. is that they must be included when the live load distribution factor for an exterior girder is computed assuming that the cross section deflects and rotates as a rigid cross section. Dynamic load allowance: STable 3. In addition. as presented in S4.1.Multiple Presence Factors Multiple presence factors are described in S3.2d.6. for distribution factors computed using the lever rule or based on S4.1.2.6.6.2 states that the effects of the multiple presence factor are not to be applied to the fatigue limit state.2. all emperically determined distribution factors for one-lane loaded that are applied to the single fatigue truck must be divided by 1. An exception.6.

If the trial girder section does not pass all specification checks or if the girder optimization is not acceptable. the trial girder section presented in Figure 3-4 will be used.2 .5mm Top Flange 1372mm x 13mm Web 205mm 356mm x 22mm Bottom Flange 356mm x 35mm Bottom Flange C Bolted Field Splice L 7315mm 356mm x 70mm Bottom Flange 25603mm 36576mm C Bearing Abutment L 3658mm C Pier L Figure 3-4 Plate Girder Elevation For this design example. the AASHTO/NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration Document "Guidelines for Design for Constructibility" recommends a 19 mm minimum flange thickness. section properties and dead load effects will be computed. Girder Depth The minimum girder depth is specified in STable 2.Design Step 3.6. Then specification checks will be performed to determine if the trial girder section successfully resists the applied loads. For this design example. It also satisfies the requirements of S6. the 16 mm top flange thickness in the positive moment region was used to optimize the plate girder.3. In addition.5. it should be noted that some state requirements and some fabricator concerns may call for a 19 mm minimum flange thickness.Select Trial Girder Section Before the dead load effects can be computed.3-1 . 3-8 . However.2. This trial girder section is selected based on previous experience and based on preliminary design. The web depth may be varied by several millimeters more or less than the optimum without significant cost penalty.7. Symmetrical about C Pier L 356mm x 16mm Top Flange 356mm x 32mm Top Flange 356mm x 63. An estimate of the optimum girder depth can be obtained from trial runs using readily available design software. Based on this trial girder section. then a new trial girder section must be selected and the design process must be repeated. a trial girder section must be selected.

The above tips are presented to help bridge designers in developing an economical steel girder for most steel girder designs.5 mm thinner than "unstiffened") will generally provide the least cost alternative or very close to it. Plate Transitions A common rule of thumb is to use no more than three plates (two shop splices) in the top or bottom flange of field sections up to 39600 millimeters long. unstiffened webs may be more economical. Flange Widths Flange widths should remain constant within field sections.Web Thickness A "nominally stiffened" web (approximately 1. for web depths of approximately 1270 millimeters or less. This reduces the build-up of stress at the transition. 3-9 . However. Flange Plate Transitions It is good design practice to reduce the flange cross-sectional area by no more than approximately one-half of the area of the heavier flange plate. Other design tips are available in various publications from the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) and from steel fabricators. In some cases. The use of constant flange widths simplifies construction of the deck. The unsupported length in compression of the shipping piece divided by the minimum width of the compression flange in that piece should be less than approximately 85. a single flange plate size can be carried through the full length of the field section.

10.1 S6. For girders with shear connectors provided throughout their entire length and with slab reinforcement satisfying the provisions of S6. Modular Ratio S6.1. The initial dead loads (or the noncomposite dead loads) are applied to the girder-only section. several sets of section properties must be computed. only the interior girder design is presented. the interior girder controls.Compute Section Properties Since the superstructure is composite. both the exterior and interior girders must be considered.1. whichever gives the higher stresses.3. the concrete slab will be assumed to be fully effective for both positive and negative flexure for service and fatigue limit states. for the exterior girder. the computation of the live load distribution factors and the moment and shear envelopes are also presented.2. both interior and exterior. the slab area shall be transformed by using a modular ratio of 3n or n. The live loads are applied to the composite section based on a modular ratio of n.10.1.7.3.Design Step 3.3. 3-10 S6.5.3. n can become an issue in determining the maximum stress in the deck.1 & S6.10. Therefore.1b As specified in S6.3 .10. for this design example. except in the moment reversal regions where the selection of 3n vs. Using a modular ratio of 3n for the superimposed dead loads always gives higher stresses in the steel section. Using a modular ratio of n typically gives higher stresses in the concrete deck. and the controlling design is used for all girders.10. For this design example. In general. However.6.1b. whichever gives the higher stresses. for permanent loads assumed to be applied to the long-term composite section. stresses due to loads applied to the composite section for service and fatigue limit states may be computed using the composite section assuming the concrete slab to be fully effective for both positive and negative flexure.1 . For this design example. The superimposed dead loads are applied to the composite section based on a modular ratio of 3n or n.

1.10. the composite section properties must be computed in accordance with S4. the effective flange width is taken as the least of: 1. 12. The above computations are presented simply to illustrate the process.4.4.1-1 ( 1.1b.5. plus the greater of web thickness or one-half the width of the top flange of the girder: Weff2 = 12 ⋅ teffdeck + Weff2 = 2722 mm 356mm 2 3-11 .2.043 ⋅ Wc Es = 200000 n = Es Ec STable 3.2. In lieu of the above computations.2. the modular ratio can also be obtained from S6.1-1 S5.10.3.2.2.3.For the design of an exterior girder.1 & STable C5.1.10. The effective flange width is computed as follows: For interior beams.6 2. Both the above computations and S6.1b S4. use n = 8.1b result in a modular ratio of 8.5 )⋅ f' c Ec = 26752 MPa S5. controlling effective span length equals approximately 3048 mm (over the pier).4 S6. One-quarter of the effective span length: Assume that the minimum.4. Spaneff = 18288mm Weff1 = Spaneff 4 Weff1 = 4572 mm S6.4.1.6.1 MPa n = 7.3. The modular ratio is computed as follows: kg Wc = 2400 3 m f' c = 28 MPa Ec = 0.0 times the average thickness of the slab.6.5 Therefore.6.

the noncomposite and composite section properties for the positive moment region are computed as shown in the following table. 3-12 . the bottom of the slab is located 90 millimeters above the top of the web. the area of the haunch is not considered in the section properties. Weff2 . it is conservative to assume that the haunch is zero. If the haunch varies. Some states and agencies assume that the slab haunch is zero when computing the section properties. this distance is used in computing the location of the centroid of the slab. For this design example. However.3. the slab haunch is 90 millimeterss throughout the length of the bridge. The distance to the centroid is measured from the bottom of the girder. The average spacing of adjacent beams: Weff3 = S Weff3 = 2972 mm Therefore. If the haunch depth is not known. the effective flange width is: Weffflange = min ( Weff1 . That is. Based on the trial plate sizes shown in Figure 3-4. Weff3) Weffflange = 2722 mm or Weffflange = 2722 mm Based on the concrete deck design example. the total area of longitudinal deck reinforcing steel in the negative moment region is computed as follows: 2 Weffflange Adeckreinf = 2 ⋅ 199 ⋅ mm ⋅ 125 ⋅ mm Adeckreinf = 8667 mm 2 Slab Haunch For this design example. it is reasonable to use either the minimum value or an average value.

the deck reinforcing steel contributes to the composite section properties and the deck concrete does not.10.1 & S6.1 3-13 . for this design example. The distance to the centroid is measured from the bottom of the girder. S6. For the strength limit state. since the deck concrete is in tension in the negative moment region. As previously explained.2.Section Girder only: Top flange Web Bottom flange Total Composite (3n): Girder Slab Total Composite (n): Girder Slab Total Section Girder only Composite (3n) Composite (n) Positive Moment Region Section Properties Area.1.5. the noncomposite and composite section properties for the negative moment region are computed as shown in the following table. 4 4 A*d (mm3) Io (mm ) A*y 2 (mm4) Itotal (mm ) d (mm) (mm2) 5696 17836 7832 31364 31364 24044 55408 31364 72133 103497 1402 708 11 660 660 1516 1031 660 1516 1257 7985792 12627888 86152 20699832 20699832 36451209 57151041 20699832 109353628 121515 2797850085 315891 3136122504 41116421 3298713989 3136244019 2838966506 3299029880 9274240405 2798287491 6475952915 9274240405 4327802970 13602043376 90054043 5645289078 5735343122 9364294448 9973092049 19337386497 9274240405 11163609618 20437850023 270162129 4854025925 5124188055 130053460 9544402535 16017635543 25562038078 y botgdr (mm) 660 1031 1257 y topgdr (mm) 750 379 153 y topslab (mm) --665 439 Sbotgdr (mm ) 14052156 18747731 20342360 3 Stopgdr (mm ) 12365439 51083063 166627360 3 Stopslab (mm3) --29098559 58173757 Table 3-4 Positive Moment Region Section Properties Similarly. the concrete slab will be assumed to be fully effective for both positive and negative flexure for service and fatigue limit states.6. A Centroid.

as well as other dead loads that are resisted by the composite section. (mm2) d (mm) A*d (mm3) Io (mm4) 4 A*y 2 (mm4) Itotal (mm ) Girder only: 22606 1474 33315593 Top flange 17836 756 13484016 Web 24920 35 872200 Bottom flange 65362 729 47671809 Total Composite (deck concrete using 3n): 65362 729 47671809 Girder 24044 1638 39384618 Slab 89406 974 87056427 Total Composite (deck concrete using n): 65362 729 47671809 Girder 72133 1638 118153854 Slab 137495 1206 165825663 Total Composite (deck reinforcement only): 65362 729 47671809 Girder 8667 1622 14057874 Deck reinf. In addition. The following table summarizes the various dead load components that must be included in the design of a steel girder. some dead loads are factored with the DC load factor and other dead loads are factored with the DW load factor. 74029 834 61729683 Total Section Girder only Composite (3n) Composite (n) Composite (rebar) y botgdr (mm) 729 974 1206 834 7596087 2797850085 10175667 12526676120 12534272207 12667037 2810517122 12014496204 12024671871 2815621839 24553839361 27369461200 27369461200 3903076035 31272537235 90054043 10610103107 10700157150 27459515243 14513179142 41972694385 27369461200 14852934951 42222396152 270162129 13458715626 13728877756 27639623330 28311650578 55951273907 27369461200 0 713873196 5383659838 28083334396 5383659838 27369461200 6097533033 33466994234 y topgdr (mm) 776 532 299 672 y deck (mm) --770 538 788 Sbotgdr (mm ) 37525799 43105660 46392219 40135118 3 Stopgdr (mm ) 35263131 78928170 186845972 49828629 3 Sdeck (mm3) --54489934 104008060 42463159 Table 3-5 Negative Moment Region Section Properties Design Step 3.Negative Moment Region Section Properties Section Area.4 . as well as the other load effects. The dead load components consist of some dead loads that are resisted by the noncomposite section. A Centroid.Compute Dead Load Effects The girder must be designed to resist the dead load effects. 3-14 .

The moments and shears due to the weight of the concrete haunch can be computed using readily available analysis software. varying haunch thickness. Since the actual plate sizes are entered as input. varying plate sizes. the dead load per unit length for an interior girder is computed as follows: Wc = 2400 kg m 3 S = 2972 mm tdeck = 215 mm N mm DLdeck = g ⋅ Wc ⋅ S ⋅ tdeck DLdeck = 15. the dead load per unit length varies due to the change in top flange plate sizes. For the concrete deck.0 For the concrete haunch. etc.Resisted by • • • • • Noncomposite section Composite section • Dead Load Components Type of Load Factor DC DW Steel girder Concrete deck Concrete haunch Stay-in-place deck forms Miscellaneous dead load (including crossframes. the dead load per unit length varies due to the change in plate sizes. The moments and shears due to the weight of the steel girder can be computed using readily available analysis software. the moments and shears due to the concrete haunch are computed based on the actual. Since the top flange plate sizes are entered as input.) • Future wearing Concrete parapets '''''''surface Table 3-6 Dead Load Components For the steel girder. stiffeners. 3-15 . the moments and shears are computed based on the actual.

2.2.2.2.2. some states assign a larger percentage of the barrier loads to the exterior girders.6. the dead load per unit length is computed as follows: kg Wdeckforms = 73 S = 2972 mm Wtopflange = 356mm 2 m DLdeckforms = g ⋅ Wdeckforms ⋅ ( S − Wtopflange) DLdeckforms = 1. and other miscellaneous structural steel).79 kg mm 2 Ngirders Ngirders = 5 DLpar = 3.5 mm g ⋅ Wfws ⋅ DLfws = ⋅ wroadway mm 1⋅ mm Ngirders tfws DLfws = 3.1 For the concrete parapets.For the stay-in-place forms. stiffeners.6.0223 kg mm S4.8 N mm 3-16 . the dead load per unit length is computed as follows. assuming that the superimposed dead load of the two parapets is distributed uniformly among all of the girders: Wpar = 0.6.1 tfws = 63. For the future wearing surface. the dead load per unit length is assumed to be as follows: DLmisc = 0.1 specifies that permanent loads of and on the deck may be distributed uniformly among the beams.88 N mm For the miscellaneous dead load (including cross-frames. assuming that the superimposed dead load of the future wearing surface is distributed uniformly among all of the girders: Wfws = 2250 kg m 3 S4.2.5 mm Ngirders = 5 wroadway = 13411.1 N mm DLpar = g ⋅ Wpar ⋅ Although S4. the dead load per unit length is computed as follows.

if significant adjustments are made. Need for Revised Analysis It should be noted that during the optimization process. then a revised analysis is required.Since the plate girder and its section properties are not uniform over the entire length of the bridge. as computed by an analysis computer program (AASHTO Opis software). an analysis must be performed to compute the dead load moments and shears. minor adjustments can be made to the plate sizes and transition locations without needing to recompute the analysis results. Such an analysis can be performed using one of various computer programs. However. such that the moments and shears would change significantly. The following two tables present the unfactored dead load moments and shears. Since the bridge is symmetrical. 3-17 . the moments and shears in Span 2 are symmetrical to those in Span 1.

4L 0.9L -330803 1.0L 0 102224 170147 203769 203363 168655 99783 -3389 -145336 Dead Load Component 0.8L 0.7L 0.5L 0.6L 0.Dead Load Moments (N-mm x 1000) Location in Span 1 0.1L 0.0L -571449 Steel girder Concrete deck & haunches 0 633678 1053282 1258950 1250544 1028201 591921 -58433 0 93276 154962 185331 184111 151437 87310 -8406 -921504 -1995665 -3278611 Other dead loads acting on girder alone 0 127305 213124 257457 260575 222072 142218 -135439 -294062 -484138 3-18 0 154149 258135 311958 315483 268981 Concrete parapets 21014 -141676 -345716 -591243 Future wearing surface 172316 25488 -171638 -418791 -716107 Table 3-7 Dead Load Moments .3L 0.2L 0.

2L 0.9L -56668 1.Dead Load Shears (N) Location in Span 1 0.7L 0.0L 32604 23263 13878 4537 -4804 -14145 -23530 -32871 -44747 Dead Load Component 0.4L 0.3L 0.1L 0.5L 0.8L 0.6L 0.0L -74904 Steel girder Concrete deck & haunches 202517 143982 85491 26955 -31536 29802 21172 12588 3959 -4626 -13255 -21840 -30469 -90028 -148563 -207054 -264834 -322569 -378881 Other dead loads acting on girder alone 40477 29134 17792 6494 -4848 -16146 -27489 -39053 -47683 -56267 3-19 49017 35273 21573 7873 -5871 -19571 Concrete parapets -38831 -50129 -61471 -72769 Future wearing surface -33316 -47015 -60715 -74460 -88159 Table 3-8 Dead Load Shears .

6 and C3. Some of the more significant differences are: • • In ASD and LFD. the load consists of a design truck or tandem. dynamic load allowance is applied only to the design truck and design tandem. In LRFD. 90% of the effect of two design trucks at a specified distance is combined with 90% of the lane load to compute the maximum negative live load moment. IM.2 S3. In LRFD. In LRFD. the basic live load designation is HS20 or HS25. impact is applied to the entire live load." In ASD and LFD. the live load moments and shears for an HL-93 loading can be obtained from an analysis computer program.5 . the basic live load designation is HL-93.2. the dynamic load allowance.Design Step 3. In ASD and LFD. combined with a lane load. the live load consists of either a truck load or a lane load and concentrated loads.1. The live load consists of an HL-93 loading. In ASD and LFD. In ASD and LFD. In LRFD. refer to S3. the term "dynamic load allowance" is used instead of "impact. for all limit states other than fatigue and fracture. • • • For additional information about the live load used in LRFD. In LRFD. the term "impact" is used for the dynamic interaction between the bridge and the moving vehicles. Similar to the dead load. Based on Table 3-3. The girder must also be designed to resist the live load effects.33 S3.Compute Live Load Effects LRFD Live Load There are several differences between the live load used in Allowable Stress Design (ASD) or Load Factor Design (LFD) and the live load used in Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD).1 3-20 .6.6.6. the two concentrated loads are combined with lane load to compute the maximum negative live load moment. is as follows: IM = 0.

must be computed: S4.The live load distribution factors for moment for an interior girder are computed as follows: S4.2. the longitudinal stiffness parameter. Kg.) (Intermediate) (At Pier) 25603 Length (mm) 8 n 4 9274240405 I (mm ) 2 31364 A (mm ) 930 eg (mm) 7315 8 14418173337 41130 900 3658 8 27369461200 65362 909 Kg (mm ) 4 291207712040 381867786696 651014719376 345323866867 Table 3-9 Longitudinal Stiffness Parameter After the longitudinal stiffness parameter is computed.6.2 First.2.1-1 is used to find the letter corresponding with the superstructure cross section.2. Mom.2.6.2.2.2. STable 4.2b-1 S4.1 K g = n ⋅ I + A ⋅ eg ( 2 ) Weighted Average * Longitudinal Stiffness Parameter.2.6.2. respectively.1 6000 ≤ L ≤ 73000 L = 36576 mm OK 3-21 . then the bridge should be analyzed as presented in S4.3a-1 are used to compute the distribution factors for moment and shear.6.1-1.2.2.6.6.6.3. Kg Region A Region B Region C (Pos." STables 4.2b-1 and 4. Based on cross section "a. Check the range of applicability as follows: 1100 ≤ S ≤ 4900 S = 2972 110 ≤ ts ≤ 300 ts = 212 mm OK mm OK STable 4.2.2.2." If the superstructure cross section does not correspond with any of the cross sections illustrated in STable 4. The letter corresponding with the superstructure cross section in this design example is "a.6.2.2.6.2.

2b-1 ⎛ S⎞ ⎜ ⎝ L⎠ 0.3a-1 STable 4.948 S S ⎞ −⎛ ⎜ 3600 ⎝ 10700 ⎠ lanes 3-22 STable 4. the distribution of live load per lane for moment in interior beams is as follows: gint_moment_1 S ⎞ = 0.2.2.6.2 + gint_shear_2 = 0. The range of applicability is similar to that for moment.466 For two or more design lanes loaded.2.36 + gint_shear_1 = 0. For one design lane loaded.689 The live load distribution factors for shear for an interior girder are computed in a similar manner.2.0 .751 S 7600 lanes STable 4.2b-1 For one design lane loaded.2.1 gint_moment_2 = 0.075 + ⎛ ⎜ ⎝ 2900 ⎠ lanes 0.06 + ⎛ ⎜ ⎝ 4300 ⎠ lanes 0.4 ⎛ S⎞ ⎜ ⎝L⎠ 0.Nb ≥ 4 Nb = 5 4x10 ≤ Kg ≤ 3x10 9 12 OK Kg = 345323866867 mm 4 OK STable 4.1 gint_moment_1 = 0. the distribution of live load per lane for shear in interior beams is as follows: gint_shear_1 = 0.6.3a-1 2.2.3a-1 For two or more design lanes loaded. the distribution of live load per lane for shear in interior beams is as follows: gint_shear_2 = 0.6. the distribution of live load per lane for moment in interior beams is as follows: gint_moment_2 S ⎞ = 0.2 ⎡ Kg ⎤ ⎢ 3⎥ ⎣ L ⋅ ( ts) ⎦ 0.2.6.6.2.3 ⎡ Kg ⎤ ⎢ 3⎥ ⎣ L ⋅ ( ts) ⎦ 0.6 STable 4.2.2.

2 STable 4. This design example is based on an interior girder.5) ⋅ ( 3134 ⋅ mm) 2972 ⋅ mm lanes gext_moment_1 = 0.6. Assumed Hinge Figure 3-5 Lever Rule gext_moment_1 = ( 0. However.2. the skew correction factor does not need to be considered for this design example.902 lanes (for strength limit state) 3-23 .5P 0.6. is defined as the distance between the web centerline of the exterior girder and the interior edge of the curb.2.6.6. S4.Since this bridge has no skew.2d-1 438mm 1200mm 2972mm.5) ⋅ ( 1334 ⋅ mm) + ( 0.2. the live load distribution factors for an exterior girder are computed below. for illustrative purposes.3c S4.2. For this design example. the distribution of live load per lane for moment in exterior beams is computed using the lever rule.2e.752 Multiple_presence_factor = 1.2.2. based on Figure 3-2: de = 762mm Check the range of applicability as follows: −300 ≤ de ≤ 1700 de = 762 mm OK S4.2.2.6.2d-1 For one design lane loaded.20 gext_moment_1 = gext_moment_1⋅ Multiple_presence_factor gext_moment_1 = 0.2. as follows: 600mm 1800 1334 mm mm 0.2.5P STable 4. de. as follows: The distance.

S4.6. The multiple presence factor provisions of S3.1.2.6.2.5) ⋅ ( 3134 ⋅ mm) 2972 ⋅ mm lanes gext_shear_1 = 0.2.2. the distribution of live load per lane for shear in exterior beams is as follows: e = 0.2.2.6.2. as illustrated in Figure 3-5 and as follows: gext_shear_1 = ( 0.6.2.042 STable 4.20 gext_shear_1 = gext_shear_1 ⋅ Multiple_presence_factor gext_shear_1 = 0. For one design lane loaded.2.3b-1 For two or more design lanes loaded.2.2.854 gext_shear_2 = e ⋅ gint_shear_2 gext_shear_2 = 0. the distribution of live load per lane for moment in exterior beams is as follows: e = 0. CEquation 4. 3-24 .752 Multiple_presence_factor = 1.6. The range of applicability is similar to that for moment.718 lanes STable 4.6 + de 3000 e = 0.6. the distribution of live load per lane for shear in exterior beams is computed using the lever rule.5) ⋅ ( 1334 ⋅ mm) + ( 0.77 + de 2800 e = 1.For two or more design lanes loaded.6.2d-1 gext_moment_2 = e ⋅ gint_moment_2 gext_moment_2 = 0.2d-1 provides one approximate approach to satisfy this requirement.2 must be applied when this equation is used.902 lanes (for strength limit state) STable 4.3b-1 STable 4.2d the distribution factor for the exterior beam can not be taken to be less than that which would be obtained by assuming that the cross-section deflects and rotates as a rigid cross-section.3b-1 The live load distribution factors for shear for an exterior girder are computed in a similar manner.2.1.810 lanes In beam-slab bridge cross-sections with diaphragms or cross-frames.

S4.2. S4.6. the skew correction factor does not need to be considered for this design example.6. The following table presents the unfactored maximum positive and negative live load moments and shears for HL-93 live loading for interior beams. These values include the live load distribution factor.2e. Since the bridge is symmetrical. and they also include dynamic load allowance.2.2.Since this bridge has no skew.3c 3-25 . as computed using an analysis computer program.2. the moments and shears in Span 2 are symmetrical to those in Span 1.

4L 0.0L 0 Live Load Effect 0.7L 0.1L 0.6L 0.Live Load Effects (for Interior Beams) Location in Span 1 0.2L 0.5L 0.8L 0.3L 0.0L Maximum positive moment (N-mmx1000) 0 -439263 1133407 1927877 2394255 2586772 2517628 2207162 1786879 1363885 1172724 1332703 Maximum negative moment (N-mmx1000) 491504 416778 340717 271328 220621 189040 165021 149008 -790402 -1053418 -1226954 -1312366 -1309655 -1309655 -1487258 -2159710 -3321588 Maximum positive shear (N) -150342 -127658 -129437 -161907 -212614 -276666 -341162 142781 146784 159238 3-26 Maximum negative shear (N) -405213 -467485 -527088 -584467 Table 3-10 Live Load Effects .9L 1.

3 S3.3). the section properties have been computed (see Design Step 3.4.50 MDW = 315483000N ⋅ mm LFLL = 1.6. it is important to note that the dynamic load allowance is applied only to the design truck or tandem.2.5).) Based on the previous design steps. as presented in the previous table. These values also include the effects of dynamic load allowance.1.25 MDC = 203363000N ⋅ mm + 1250544000N ⋅ mm .The design live load values for HL-93 loading.6.75 MLL = 2586772000N ⋅ mm Mtotal = LFDC ⋅ MDC + LFDW ⋅ MDW + LFLL ⋅ MLL Mtotal = 7373317 kN ⋅ mm S1. However.1).1 3-27 .4L) for the Strength I Limit State is computed as follows: LFDC = 1. S4.00. the maximum positive moment (located at 0.. S3.. Design Step 3.4 and 3. and all of the load effects have been computed (see Design Steps 3. For this design example.Combine Load Effects S3.6. η equals 1. refer to Design Step 1. + 184111000N ⋅ mm + 260575000N ⋅ mm MDC = 1898593 kN ⋅ mm LFDW = 1. The dynamic load allowance is not applied to pedestrian loads or to the design lane load.6 .2 After the load factors and load combinations have been established (see Design Step 3. (For more detailed information about η. the force effects must be combined for each of the applicable limit states.2. are computed based on the product of the live load effect per lane and live load distribution factor.

5 N mm 2 3-28 .5 Parapet dead load (composite): Mparapet = 260575000N ⋅ mm −Mparapet Stopgdr Stopgdr = 51083063mm N mm 2 3 fparapet = fparapet = −5. the maximum stress in the top of the girder due to positive moment (located at 0.1 Future wearing surface dead load (composite): Mfws = 315483000N ⋅ mm −Mfws Stopgdr Stopgdr = 51083063mm 3 ffws = ffws = −6.Similarly.4L) for the Strength I Limit State is computed as follows: Noncomposite dead load: MnoncompDL = 203363000N ⋅ mm + 1250544000N ⋅ mm .. + 184111000N ⋅ mm MnoncompDL = 1638018000 N ⋅ mm Stopgdr = 12365439 ⋅ mm 3 fnoncompDL = −MnoncompDL Stopgdr N mm 2 fnoncompDL = −132.2 N mm 2 Live load (HL-93) and dynamic load allowance: MLL = 2586772000 N ⋅ mm Stopgdr = 166627360mm −MLL Stopgdr 3 fLL = fLL = −15..

9 16.6 ftopgdr (N/mm ) -208.HL-93 763287475 LL . all of the combined moments.9 -8.4 -163. Combined Effects at Location of Maximum Positive Moment Summary of Unfactored Values: Loading Moment (N-mm) fbotgdr (N/mm ) 116.5 -5..2 1638018000 Noncomposite DL 260575000 Parapet DL 315483000 FWS DL 2586772000 LL . 3-29 . + ( LFDW ⋅ ffws) + ( LFLL ⋅ fLL) fStr = −208.0 -0..1 2 2 ftopgdr (N/mm ) -132.4 -0.Multiplying the above stresses by their respective load factors and adding the products results in the following combined stress for the Strength I Limit State: fStr = ( LFDC ⋅ fnoncompDL) + ( LFDC ⋅ fparapet) .1 -6.5 -4. the Strength I Limit State elastic stress in the bottom of the girder exceeds the girder yield stress.6 ftopslab (N/mm2) -10.2 37.6 13. summarizing the results obtained using the procedures demonstrated in the above computations.5 -5.8 127.4 N 2 S3.Fatigue Summary of Factored Values: Moment Limit State (N-mm) Strength I Service II Fatigue 7373316750 5576879600 572465606 Table 3-11 Combined Effects at Location of Maximum Positive Moment As shown in the above table.9 312. However. A summary of those combined load effects for an interior beam is presented in the following three tables.4.9 -3.1 mm Similarly.6 -1. and flexural stresses can be computed at the controlling locations. this value is not used because of the local yielding that occurs at this section. for this design example.4 2 2 ftopslab (N/mm2) 0.6 28. shears.2 -15.1 -1.5 fbotgdr (N/mm ) 410.

9 306.2 LL .5 9.8 2.9 FWS DL -3321588000 -82.7 78.Fatigue Summary of Factored Values: Limit State Strength I * Service II ** Fatigue ** Moment (N-mm) -4334198000 -591243000 -716107000 -3321588000 -550434662 Moment (N-mm) fbotgdr (N/mm ) 2 ftopgdr (N/mm ) 2 fdeck (N/mm 2) -115. Table 3-12 Combined Effects at Location of Maximum Negative Moment 3-30 .5 0. and fdeck is the stress in the deck concrete.HL-93 Summary of Unfactored Values (Assuming Concrete Effective): Loading Noncomposite DL Parapet DL FWS DL LL .7 162.5 -13.0 0.6 -71.7 11.7 fdeck (N/mm 2) -13043740750 -9959612400 -412825997 -334.9 -8.6 6.6 -11.2 0.1 17.9 0.5 Legend: * Strength I Limit State stresses are based on section properties assuming the deck concrete is not effective.2 179.4 16.4 -238.5 122.7 -16.8 66.9 13.0 Noncomposite DL -591243000 -14.9 7.0 0.9 Parapet DL -716107000 -17.8 14.9 fbotgdr (N/mm 2) 122.9 ftopgdr (N/mm 2) 0.Combined Effects at Location of Maximum Negative Moment Summary of Unfactored Values (Assuming Concrete Not Effective): Loading Moment (N-mm) fbotgdr (N/mm ) 2 ftopgdr (N/mm ) 2 fdeck (N/mm 2) -4334198000 -115. and fdeck is the stress in the deck reinforcing steel.HL-93 LL .6 2.5 4. ** Service II and Fatigue Limit State stresses are based on section properties assuming the deck concrete is effective.

Based on these envelopes. 3-31 . and all remaining design computations are based on the interior girder.Fatigue 206654 Summary of Factored Values: Shear Limit State (N) Strength I 1883582 Service II 1430787 Fatigue 154991 Table 3-13 Combined Effects at Location of Maximum Shear Envelopes of the factored Strength I moments and shears are presented in the following two figures. and values for both interior and exterior girders are presented.HL-93 584467 LL .Combined Effects at Location of Maximum Shear Summary of Unfactored Values: Shear Loading (N) Noncomposite DL 510052 Parapet DL 72769 FWS DL 88159 LL . Maximum and minimum values are presented. it can be seen that the interior girder controls the design.

3-32 Figure 3-6 Envelope of Strength I Moments .

3-33 Figure 3-7 Envelope of Strength I Shears .

two design sections will be checked for illustrative purposes. The following specification checks are for the location of maximum positive moment.7 through 3. as shown in Figure 3-8.17 will be performed for the location of maximum positive moment. specification checks are generally performed using a computer program at the following locations: • • • Span tenth points Locations of plate transitions Locations of stiffener spacing transitions However. all specification checks for these same design steps will be performed for the location of maximum negative moment and maximum shear. it should be noted that the maximum moment within a span may not necessarily occur at any of the above locations. Symmetrical about C Pier L 0.Design Steps 3. First.4L in Span 1.17 consist of verifying the structural adequacy of critical beam locations using appropriate sections of the Specifications. For this design example.7 through 3. Specification Check Locations For steel girder designs. which is at 0. which is at 0. which is at the pier.4L = 14630mm Location of Maximum Positive Moment L = 36576mm C Bearing Abutment L C Pier L Figure 3-8 Location of Maximum Positive Moment 3-34 . all specification checks for Design Steps 3. Second.4L in Span 1.

1 ≤ ≤ 0.9 Iy Iyc = 16 ⋅ mm ⋅ ( 356 ⋅ mm) 12 3 3 S6.Check Section Proportion Limits .2. The first section proportion check relates to the general proportions of the section. Iy = 143124908 mm Iyc Iy = 0.9 ⋅ 2 and explanation mm below table) N (see Table 3-11) ftopgdr = −208.2 The second section proportion check relates to the web slenderness.420 OK S6.10.7 . For a section without longitudinal stiffeners.77 ⋅ E ≤ 200 fc For the Strength I limit state at 0. The flexural components must be proportioned such that: Iyc 0.Design Step 3.4 ⋅ 2 mm ttopfl = 16mm Dweb = 1372mm tbotfl = 22mm 3-35 S6.10.2. the web must be proportioned such that: 2 ⋅ Dc tw ≤ 6.Positive Moment Region Several checks are required to ensure that the proportions of the trial girder section are within specified limits.3..1.10.4a (see Figure 3-4) (see Figure 3-4) (see Figure 3-4) .10..1 Iyc = 60157355 mm 3 4 Iy = 16 ⋅ mm ⋅ ( 356mm) 1372 ⋅ mm ⋅ ( 13 ⋅ mm) + 12 12 + 22 ⋅ mm ⋅ ( 356 ⋅ mm) 12 4 3 .2 S6.4L in Span 1 (the location of maximum positive moment): N (see Table 3-11 fbotgdr = 410.

3 ⋅ Dc OK (see Figure 3-4) 3-36 .3.3 ⋅ Dc bf = 356mm Dc = 458 mm 0.4a Depthcomp = 474 mm Dc = Depthcomp − ttopfl Dc = 458 mm tw = 13mm E = 200000MPa fc = −ftopgdr fc = 208 MPa 2 ⋅ Dc tw 6. The compression flanges on fabricated I-sections must be proportioned such that: bf ≥ 0.5 E = 210 fc ≤ 6.10.77 ⋅ E fc and 2 ⋅ Dc tw ≤ 200 OK S6.10.77 ⋅ 2 ⋅ Dc tw = 70.3 ⋅ Dc = 138 mm bf ≥ 0.2.3 (see Figure 3-4) S6.1 The third section proportion check relates to the flange proportions.Depthgdr = ttopfl + Dweb + tbotfl Depthgdr = 1410 mm Depthcomp = −ftopgdr fbotgdr − ftopgdr ⋅ Depthgdr C6.1.4.

3Dc and 0.3.3 S6.4Dc. the plastic moment.According to C6.8 .2. bs S6. In this case.10.0 (see Figure 3-4) (see Figure 3-4) OK C6.10.Positive Moment Region For composite sections.2.3.10.4Dc.1.Compute Plastic Moment Capacity .2. Mp. it is preferable for the flange width to be greater than or equal to 0.3 Y Plastic Neutral Axis ts tc bc Ps Pc tw Dw Pw tt bt Pt Figure 3-9 Computation of Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Sections 3-37 . so this requirement is clearly satisfied. is calculated as the first moment of plastic forces about the plastic neutral axis. In addition to the compression flange check.10.3 bt = 356mm tt = 22mm bt 2 ⋅ tt = 8. the tension flanges on fabricated I-sections must be proportioned such that: bt 2 ⋅ tt ≤ 12. the flange width is greater than both 0.1 Design Step 3.

1-1 Y = 167 mm Check that the position of the plastic neutral axis.3 SAppendix A6.1 Therefore.85 ⋅ f' c ⋅ bs ⋅ Y Compression = 10821kN Tension = Pt + Pw + Pc Tension = 10821kN 3-38 OK . the plastic neutral axis is located within the slab. Y = ( ts) ⋅ ⎜ ⎛ Pc + Pw + Pt ⎞ Ps ⎝ ⎠ STable A6.85 ⋅ f' c ⋅ bs ⋅ ts Ps = 13734123 N bc = 356mm tc = 16mm Dw = 1372mm tw = 13 mm bt = 356 mm tt = 22mm SAppendix A6. Compression = 0.1.1 Pt = 2702040 N Pw = 6153420 N Pc = 1965120 N The forces in the longitudinal reinforcement may be conservatively neglected. Check the location of the plastic neutral axis.10.3. results in an equilibrium condition in which there is no net axial force.For the tension flange: Fyt = 345MPa Pt = Fyt ⋅ bt ⋅ tt For the web: Fyw = 345 MPa Pw = Fyw ⋅ Dw ⋅ tw For the compression flange: Fyc = 345MPa Pc = Fyc ⋅ bc ⋅ tc For the slab: f' c = 28MPa bs = 2722mm ts = 212mm Ps = 0. as computed above. as follows: Pt + Pw = 8855 kN Pt + Pw + Pc = 10821kN Pc + Ps = 15699kN Ps = 13734kN C6.

1.Determine if Section is Compact or Noncompact .4. For composite sections in positive flexure in their final condition.1.3.1 S6.1. and S6.6a.2. The section is therefore considered to be compact. Mp.76 ⋅ E Fyc S6.10.2 CFigure 6. as follows: 2 ⋅ Dcp tw ≤ 3. is computed as follows.10. where d is the distance from an element force (or element neutral axis) to the plastic neutral axis: dc = dw = dt = −tc 2 Dw 2 tt 2 + 90mm + ts − Y + 90mm + ts − Y dc = 127 mm dw = 821 mm dt = 1518 mm STable A6. in turn.10.4. S6.10.10.10.1-1 + Dw + 90mm + ts − Y 2 Y ⋅ Ps Mp = + ( P c ⋅ d c + P w ⋅ d w + P t ⋅ dt ) 2 ⋅ ts Mp = 10306600 kN ⋅ mm Design Step 3.1. Dcp = 0mm Therefore the web is deemed compact.10. will determine which formulae should be used to compute the flexural capacity of the girder. S6.4. 3-39 S6.10.4.4.2.The plastic moment.2 Since the plastic neutral axis is located within the slab.10.9 are considered to be automatically satisfied. the provisions of S6.9 .4.4. and the girder does not have longitudinal stiffeners or holes in the tension flange.10. Where the specified minimum yield strength does not exceed 485 MPa.7.1. Since this is a composite section in positive flexure.4.1.1. and the girder has a constant depth. then the first step is to check the compact-section web slenderness provisions.1.4.4. the flexural resistance is computed as defined by the composite compact-section positive flexural resistance provisions of S6. This. S6.4-1 .Positive Moment Region The next step in the design process is to determine if the section is compact or noncompact.

My.Strength Limit State Positive Moment Region Since the section was determined to be compact.2.10 .4.10. That is.3 ⋅ Rh ⋅ My All design sections of this girder are homogenous.4. the hybrid factor.4.1 SAppendix A6. the web. based on the approximate method: Mn = 1.10.50 ⋅ 315483kN ⋅ mm) MD2 = 798943 kN ⋅ mm For the bottom flange: SNC = 14052156 ⋅ mm SLT = 18747731 ⋅ mm 3 3 3 SST = 20342360 ⋅ mm 3-40 . (This will be proven in the negative flexure region computations of this design example. is as follows: Rh = 1.2 My = MD1 + MD2 + MAD Fy = 345MPa MD1 = ( 1. and since it is a composite section in the positive moment region.3.10.2a S6. Rh.0 The yield moment. Therefore. the nominal flexural resistance is determined using the following equation.Design Step 3. the flexural resistance is computed in accordance with the provisions of S6. This is neither a simple span nor a continuous span with compact sections in the negative flexural region over the interior supports.) Therefore.2. is computed as follows: Fy = MD1 SNC + MD2 SLT + MAD SST SFigure C6.Design for Flexure . the same structural steel is used for the top flange.4-1 S6.25 ⋅ 260575kN ⋅ mm) + ( 1.10.25 ⋅ 1638018kN ⋅ mm) MD1 = 2047523 kN ⋅ mm MD2 = ( 1.2. and the bottom flange.

4.2a SAppendix A6. Mytop) My = 6033620 kN ⋅ mm Therefore.2. My.2 3-41 .MAD = ⎢SST ⋅ ⎜ Fy − ⎡ ⎣ ⎛ ⎝ MD1 SNC − MD2 ⎞⎤ SLT ⎠⎦ ⎥ MAD = 3187155 kN ⋅ mm Mybot = MD1 + MD2 + MAD Mybot = 6033620 kN ⋅ mm For the top flange: SNC = 12365439 ⋅ mm SLT = 51083063 ⋅ mm 3 3 3 SST = 166627360 ⋅ mm MAD = SST ⋅ ⎜ Fy − ⎛ ⎝ MD1 SNC − MD2 ⎞ SLT ⎠ MAD = 27289500 kN ⋅ mm Mytop = MD1 + MD2 + MAD Mytop = 30135966 kN ⋅ mm The yield moment. for the positive moment region of this design example.3 ⋅ Rh ⋅ My Mn = 7843707 kN ⋅ mm S6.10. M y is determined as follows: My = min ( Mybot . the nominal flexural resistance is computed as follows: Mn = 1. Therefore. is the lesser value computed for both flanges.

2a Mn = 10235181 kN ⋅ mm Therefore.2b β = 0.2.In addition.00 Mr = φ f ⋅ Mn Mr = 7843707 kN ⋅ mm S6.85 ⋅ My 4 + 0. the nominal flexural resistance can not be taken to be greater than the applicable value of Mn computed from either SEquation 6.4.4.4. use Mn = 7843707 ⋅ kN ⋅ mm S6.5 for Fy = 345MPa d = 1410 mm S6.2a-2.2b The ductility requirement in S6. Mr.10.10.2.10. is computed as follows: φ f = 1.2b is checked as follows: Dp D' = 1.4.4.4.4.2 3-42 .2.7 d = Depthgdr ts = 212 mm th = 90 ⋅ mm − 16 ⋅ mm D' = β ⋅ th = 74 mm ( d + ts + th) 7.1 Dp D' ≤5 OK The factored flexural resistance.2.4.10. Dp = Y D' = β ⋅ Dp = 167 mm S6.10.2.5 D' = 158 mm 5 ⋅ D' = 791 mm Therefore Mn = D' ≤ Dp ≤ 5 ⋅ D' 5 ⋅ Mp − 0.10.85 ⋅ My − Mp ⎛ Dp ⎞ ⋅⎜ 4 ⎝ D' ⎠ S6.10.2.4 S6.2a-1 or 6.2a ( d + ts + th) 7.5.2.10.

the web dimensions and the flange width were set based on the girder design requirements at the pier. the flange thicknesses could not be reduced any further due to limitations in plate thicknesses or because such a reduction would result in a specification check failure.8mm to 19.6mm 19. η i = 1. yielding a slightly conservative design. Available plate thicknesses can be obtained from steel fabricators.3.2.1mm to 101. Σγ i ⋅ Mi = 7373317kN ⋅ mm Therefore Ση i ⋅ γ i ⋅ Mi = 7373317 ⋅ kN ⋅ mm Mr = 7843707 kN ⋅ mm OK S1. the flexural resistance is approximately 10% greater than the factored design moment.increments of 6.The positive flexural resistance at this design section is checked as follows: Ση i ⋅ γ i ⋅ Qi ≤ Rr or in this case: Ση i ⋅ γ i ⋅ Mi ≤ Mr For this design example. for this design example.2mm 38.1mm . In addition.6mm .00 As computed in Design Step 3.4mm 3-43 .1mm to 38.increments of 3.1mm .increments of 1. As a rule of thumb. This degree of conservatism can generally be adjusted by changing the plate dimensions as needed.1 Available Plate Thicknesses Based on the above computations. However. the following plate thicknesses are generally available from steel fabricators: 4.6.

7. Welds connecting the transverse intermediate stiffeners to the girder. the shear is limited to either the shear yield or shear buckling in order to provide an anchor for the tension field in adjacent interior panels.3-1 and in SFigure 6. Design Step 3.3-1.6.7.2. the required shear design computations will be presented later for the girder design section at the pier.6.1. The specific fatigue considerations depend on the unique characteristics of the girder design.10. 2.14 .1. Fatigue considerations for plate girders may include: 1.8.10.6.Design Step 3.2.Positive Moment Region Shear must be checked at each section of the girder. Welds connecting the flanges and the web. Therefore.3. It should be noted that in end panels. shear is minimal at the location of maximum positive moment.10.Design for Flexure .1 STable 6. Design Step 3. shear is minimal at the location of maximum positive moment but is maximum at the pier. for this design example.6. Specific fatigue details and detail categories are explained and illustrated in STable 6.3c. S6.2.10. Therefore.7 S6. Tension field is not allowed in end panels.1.Positive Moment Region S6.Design for Shear . Welds connecting the shear studs to the girder.Design Transverse Intermediate Stiffeners Positive Moment Region S6. The design procedure for shear in the end panel is presented in S6.12 .1. However.3c The girder in this design example has transverse intermediate stiffeners.3-1 SFigure 6. and it is maximum at the pier.11 . As stated above.1 Load-induced fatigue must be considered in a plate girder design. Transverse intermediate stiffeners are used to increase the shear resistance of the girder.3-1 3-44 .6. 3.Fatigue and Fracture Limit State . the required design computations for transverse intermediate stiffeners will be presented later for the girder design section at the pier.3.2.

6. where the transverse intermediate stiffener is welded to the flange.1.For this design example.4 ⋅ 10 11 ( MPa) 3 STable 6.0 ADTTSL = 3000 3-45 .6.6.) Fillet Weld (Typ.1. and it is classified as Detail Category C' in STable 6.) Figure 3-10 Load-Induced Fatigue Detail The nominal fatigue resistance is computed as follows: S6.5-2 N1 = ( 365) ⋅ ( 75) ⋅ n ⋅ ( ADTT) SL n = 1.1.6.1. However.3-1.6.1. for simplicity.5 ( ∆F) n A ⎞ = ⎛ ⎜N ⎝ 1⎠ 1 3 ≥ 1 ( ∆F) TH 2 for which: A = 14.5-1 S6.5 STable 6. The fatigue detail being investigated in this design example is illustrated in the following figure: Transverse Intermediate Stiffener (Typ.3-1.2.1.2. the computations will conservatively compute the fatigue stress at the outer fiber of the tension flange. The fatigue detail is located at the inner fiber of the tension flange.2.6. the fillet-welded connection of the transverse intermediate stiffeners will be checked at the location of maximum positive moment.2.2.2. fatigue will be checked for the fillet-welded connection of the transverse intermediate stiffeners to the girder. For this design example. This detail corresponds to Illustrative Example 6 in SFigure 6.

1.5-1 can be used to eliminate the need for some of the above fatigue resistance computations.6 In addition to the above fatigue detail check.10.1.N1 = ( 365) ⋅ ( 75) ⋅ n ⋅ ADTTSL N1 = 82125000 ∆FTH = 82.6.5 ∆Fn = 41. The above computations are presented simply for illustrative purposes.1.4 MPa Fatigue Resistance CTable 6. These calculations will be presented later for the girder design section at the pier.2.6. as follows: fbotgdr = 28. The factored fatigue stress in the outer fiber of the tension flange at the location of maximum positive moment was previously computed in Table 3-11. ⋅ ∆F ⎥ ∆Fn = max ⎢⎛ TH ⎜ ⎣⎝ N1 ⎠ 2 ⎦ 1 3 S6. 3-46 .2.0 MPa ⎜N ⎝ 1⎠ 1 ⋅ ∆FTH = 41.2.1MPa fbotgdr ≤ ∆Fn OK S6.5-3 ⎛ A ⎞ = 26. fatigue requirements for webs must also be checked.4 MPa 2 1 ⎤ ⎡ ⎢ A 3 1 ⎥ ⎞ .6.7 ⋅ MPa STable 6.

5 S6.6.2. 5.95 ⋅ Fyf = 328 MPa OK ftopgdr = −163.6 ⋅ MPa Fyf = 345 MPa 0. The live load portion of Service I Limit State is used.95Fyf The factored Service II flexural stress was previously computed in Table 3-11 as follows: fbotgdr = 312. For composite design. the girder can also be checked for live load deflection.10.15 .5.2 3-47 . 3.2 S2. 7.Design Step 3. the design cross section includes the entire width of the roadway. The number and position of loaded lanes is selected to provide the worst effect.3. All supporting components are assumed to deflect equally.2 In addition to the check for service limit state control of permanent deflection. Dynamic load allowance is included. 4.10. it is included in this design example. Using an analysis computer program. 6.9 ⋅ MPa S6.1. 2. The flange stresses for both steel flanges of composite sections must satisfy the following requirement: ff ≤ 0. the maximum live load deflection is computed to be the following: ∆ max = 36 ⋅ mm This maximum live load deflection is computed based on the following: 1.Design for Flexure . This check is intended to prevent objectionable permanent deflections due to expected severe traffic loadings that would impair rideability. The live load is taken from S3.2. All design lanes are loaded.6.Service Limit State Positive Moment Region The girder must be checked for service limit state control of permanent deflection. Although this check is optional for a concrete deck on steel girders. Service II Limit State is used for this check. S2.5.2.5.6.

1 Therefore. The girder has already been checked in its final condition when it behaves as a composite section. as follows: bf 2 ⋅ tf ≤ 12.4.2 S6.9 3-48 .In the absence of other criteria.6.10. However.1.1. the deflection limit is as follows: Span = 36576 ⋅ mm ∆ allowable = ⎛ ⎜ Span ⎞ ⎝ 800 ⎠ OK S2. The constructibility must also be checked for the girder prior to the hardening of the concrete deck when the girder behaves as a noncomposite section. a deck pouring sequence will not be considered in this design example.4.10.0 (see Figure 3-4) (see Figure 3-4) S6.4. Lb ≤ Lp = 1. the investigation proceeds with the noncompact section compression-flange bracing provisions of S6. As previously stated.76 ⋅ rt ⋅ E Fyc S6.16 .2 ∆ allowable = 46 mm Design Step 3.4 bf = 356mm tf = 16mm bf 2 ⋅ tf = 11.3. it is generally important to consider the effects of the deck pouring sequence in an actual design because it will often control the design of the top flange in the positive moment regions of composite girders.Design for Flexure . The investigation of the constructibility of the girder begins with the the noncompact section compression-flange slenderness check.10.5.Constructibility Check Positive Moment Region The girder must also be checked for flexure during construction.10.1.9.2.

4.76 ⋅ rt ⋅ Lb = 6100 mm E Fyc Fyc = 345 MPa Lp = 3490 mm Therefore.2. is defined as the radius of gyration of a notional section comprised of the compression flange of the steel section plus one-third of the depth of the web in compression taken about the vertical axis.6. For the noncomposite loads during construction: Depthcomp = 1410 ⋅ mm − 660 ⋅ mm (see Figure 3-4 and Table 3-4) Depthcomp = 750 mm Dc = Depthcomp − ttopfl Dc = 734 mm bc = 356 mm tc ⋅ bc 12 3 Dc 3 = 245 mm tc = 16 mm Dc ⋅ tw 3 It = + 3 12 It = 60202149 mm 2 4 At = ( tc ⋅ bc) + ⎜ rt = It At ⎛ Dc ⎞ ⋅ tw ⎝ 3 ⎠ At = 8877 mm rt = 82 mm E = 200000 MPa Lp = 1. rt.10. the investigation proceeds with the noncomposite section lateral torsional buckling provisions of S6. 3-49 .The term.

Rb. Lateral torsional buckling is illustrated in the figure below. can not be reached. Lateral torsional buckling is generally most critical for the moments induced during the deck pouring sequence. the girder section twists when it moves laterally.2 . the plastic moment resistance. is computed as follows: 3-50 S6. Because the tension flange is kept in line. This behavior is commonly referred to as lateral torsional buckling.4.4.4. Figure 3-11 Lateral Torsional Buckling The nominal flexural resistance of the compression flange is determined from the following equation: Fn = Rb ⋅ Rh ⋅ Fcr S6. The laterally unsupported compression flange tends to buckle out-of-plane between the points of lateral support. If lateral torsional buckling occurs.10.10.10.4a The load-shedding factor.6a S6. Mp.2.3.Lateral Torsional Buckling Lateral torsional buckling can occur when the compression flange is not laterally supported.2.

4.25 ⋅ ( 132.0.10.64 for sections where Dc is greater than D/2 Dc = 734 mm D = 1372 ⋅ mm Therefore Check if λ b = 4.3. Fcr.1 For homogeneous section. is computed as follows: Fcr = 1.64 2 ⋅ Dc tw ≤ λb⋅ E fc tw = 13 mm D = 686 mm 2 Dc = 734 mm 2 ⋅ Dc tw = 112. Rh = 1.904 ⋅ E 2 ⋅ Dc ⎛ bf ⎞ ⋅ ⎜ tw ⎝ 2 ⋅ tf ⎠ 2 S6.0 S6.10.9 E = 200000 MPa fc = 1.0 The critical compression-flange local buckling stress.λ b = 4.2.4. Rh is taken as 1.4a ≤ Fyc without longitudinal web stiffeners 1.904 ⋅ E 2 ⋅ Dc ⎛ bf ⎞ ⋅ ⎜ tw ⎝ 2 ⋅ tf ⎠ 2 = 290 MPa Fyc = 345 MPa 3-51 .5 ⋅ MPa) fc = 166 MPa λb⋅ Therefore: E = 161 fc Rb = 1.

10.6a Dc = 734 mm 2 ⋅ Dc tw λ b = 4.904 ⋅ E 2 2 ⋅ Dc ⎢ ⎛ bf ⎞ ⋅ ⎜ ⎢ 2 ⋅ tf tw ⎣⎝ ⎠ ⎤ . Fyc⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Fcr = 290 MPa Therefore the nominal flexural resistance of the compression flange is determined from the following equation: Fn = Rb ⋅ Rh ⋅ Fcr Fn = 290 MPa In addition.4a S6.10.44 ⋅ Iyc ⋅ d 3 (see Table 3-4) E Sxc Fyc ⋅ 3-52 Lr = 8854 mm .44 ⋅ Iyc = 60157355 mm d = 1410 mm Sxc = 12365439mm E = 200000 MPa Fyc = 345 MPa Lr = 4.2.Fcr = min ⎡ ⎢ 1.4.2.64 λb⋅ = 113 E = 200000 MPa Fyc = 345 MPa E = 112 Fyc Iyc ⋅ d E Sxc Fyc ⋅ 4 Check if Lb ≤ Lr = 4. the nominal flexural resistance of the compression flange should not exceed the nominal flexural resistance based upon lateral-torsional buckling determined as follows: Check if 2 ⋅ Dc tw ≤ λb⋅ E Fyc tw = 13 mm S6.4.

75 Therefore Cb = 1.5 ⋅ ⎜ E Fyc ⎡ ⎣ ⎛ Lb − Lp ⎞ ⎤ ⎥ = 4470322280 N ⋅ mm ⎝ Lr − L p ⎠ ⎦ Rb ⋅ Rh ⋅ My = 4266076455 N ⋅ mm 3-53 .2.5) + 0.Lb = 6100 mm Therefore: Mn = Cb ⋅ Rb ⋅ Rh ⋅ My ⋅ ⎢ 1 − 0.10.6a At = tc ⋅ bc rt = It At E = 200000 MPa Lp = 1.30 3 My = ( 345 ⋅ MPa) ⋅ 12365439 ⋅ mm It = tc ⋅ bc 12 3 My = 4266076455 N ⋅ mm S6.3. is computed as follows: ⎛ Pl ⎞ ⎛ Pl ⎞ Cb = 1.5) = 1.10.4.3 ⋅ ⎜ ≤ Kb ⎝ Ph ⎠ ⎝ Ph ⎠ Use: Pl Ph = 0.4.5 (based on analysis) 2 1.05 ⋅ ( 0.5⎜ ⎡ ⎣ ⎛ Lb − Lp ⎞ ⎤ ⎥ ≤ Rb ⋅ Rh ⋅ My ⎝ L r − Lp ⎠ ⎦ 2 S6.75 − 1.4.1 4 It = 60157355 mm At = 5696 mm rt = 103 mm Fyc = 345 MPa Lp = 4355 mm Lr = 8854 mm 2 S6.3. Cb.30 Kb = 1.5a The moment gradient correction factor.10.10.3 ⋅ ( 0.2.75 − 1.2.05 ⋅ ⎜ + 0.76 ⋅ rt ⋅ Lb = 6 m Cb ⋅ Rb ⋅ Rh ⋅ My ⋅ ⎢ 1 − 0.6a S6.

10. the provisions of SEquation 6. the nominal flexural resistance.4 S6.6a Fn = 345 MPa Therefore.2.25 ⋅ ( 116. Fr.10.4. Fn = Rb ⋅ Rh ⋅ Fcr Fn = 290 MPa S6.4a-2 control.2. Fr.4.00 Fr = φ f ⋅ Fn Fr = 345 MPa The factored construction stress in the tension flange is as follows: ft = 1.6b Therefore. 3-54 .10. the girder design section at the location of maximum positive moment satisfies the noncomposite section flexural resistance requirements for construction loads based upon lateral torsional buckling for both the compression flange and the tension flange.10.10.4. is computed as follows: φ f = 1.2b S6. is computed as follows: φ f = 1.Therefore Fn = Mn = Rb ⋅ Rh ⋅ My Mn Sxc Mn = 4266076455 N ⋅ mm S6. in terms of stress.0 Rh = 1 Fyt = 345 MPa Fn = 345 MPa The factored flexural resistance.5.10.00 Fr = φ f ⋅ Fn Fr = 290 MPa The factored construction stress in the compression flange is as follows: (previously computed) OK fc = 166 MPa For the tension flange.4. is determined as follows: Fn = Rb ⋅ Rh ⋅ Fyt where: Rb = 1.5.3.4.2 The factored flexural resistance.4.6 ⋅ MPa) ft = 146 MPa OK S6.4 S6.2 S6.2.

composite girders.9 ⋅ E ⋅ α ⋅ k ≤ Fyw S6.0 ⋅ ⎜ .25 for webs without longitudinal stiffeners D = 1372mm Dc = 734 mm D k = 9. when they are not yet composite.2. F ⎤ = 345 MPa yw⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎛D⎞ ⎥ ⎢ ⎜ tw ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ 3-55 .In addition. 7.0 ⋅ ⎛ ⎞ ≥ 7.2 ⎛D⎞ ⎜t ⎝ w⎠ 2 for which: E = 200000 MPa α = 1. must satisfy the following requirement during construction: fcw ≤ 0.2 ⎜D ⎝ c⎠ D 9.2⎥ ⎣ ⎝ Dc ⎠ ⎦ tw = 13mm 0.9 ⋅ E ⋅ α ⋅ k k = 31.4 (see Figure 3-4) ⎛D⎞ ⎜t ⎝ w⎠ 2 = 635 MPa Fyw = 345 MPa min ⎢ ⎡ 0.0 ⋅ ⎛ ⎞ = 31.9 ⋅ E ⋅ α ⋅ k .3.10.4 ⎜D ⎝ c⎠ 2 2 for webs without longitudinal stiffeners ⎡ ⎛ D ⎞2 ⎤ k = max ⎢9.

3 fcw = −160 MPa In addition to checking the nominal flexural resistance during construction.fcw = ftopgdr ⋅ ⎜ ⎛ Dc ⎞ ⎝ Dc + tf ⎠ OK S6.5. and they are generally considered for the exterior girders only. Specification checks have been completed for the location of maximum positive moment. However. However. for this design example. as shown in Figure 3-12.10.7.2.3. which is at 0.5 C6.1 3-56 . and it is maximum at the pier. the nominal shear resistance must also be checked. shear is minimal at the location of maximum positive moment. the interior girder controls and is being designed.4L in Span 1. Design Step 3.3.2 & C4. wind effects will be presented later for the girder design section at the pier. Therefore.2.3.10.10. This is also the location of maximum shear. Now the specification checks are repeated for the location of maximum negative moment. for this design example. for this design example.3.17 .Check Wind Effects on Girder Flanges Positive Moment Region As stated in Design Step 3. S6. which is at the pier. the nominal shear resistance for constructibility will be presented later for the girder design section at the pier.6. Wind effects generally do not control a steel girder design.

The first section proportion check relates to the general proportions of the section.7 .9 3 4 S6.10.10.Symmetrical about C Pier L Location of Maximum Negative Moment L = 36576mm C Bearing Abutment L C Pier L Figure 3-12 Location of Maximum Negative Moment Design Step 3..2.5 ⋅ mm ⋅ ( 356 ⋅ mm) 12 4 3 3 3 .1 ≤ Iyc Iy ≤ 0.Negative Moment Region Several checks are required to ensure that the proportions of the trial girder section are within specified limits..Check Section Proportion Limits .524 OK 3-57 .1 70 ⋅ mm ⋅ ( 356 ⋅ mm) Iyc = 12 Iyc = 263188427 mm Iy = 70 ⋅ mm ⋅ ( 356 ⋅ mm) 1372 ⋅ mm ⋅ ( 13 ⋅ mm) + 12 12 + 63. The flexural components must be proportioned such that: 0.2 S6. Iy = 502189118 mm Iyc Iy = 0.

4a At sections in negative flexure.77 ⋅ 2 ⋅ Dc tw = 118 E = 252 fc ≤ 6.10. Dc = 834 ⋅ mm − 70 ⋅ mm (see Figure 3-4 and Table 3-5) Dc = 764 mm tw = 13mm E = 200000 MPa fc = 144.77 ⋅ E ≤ 200 fc S6.The second section proportion check relates to the web slenderness. using Dc of the composite section consisting of the steel section plus the longitudinal reinforcement is conservative.10.1 3-58 .56 ⋅ MPa 2 ⋅ Dc tw 6.2 At sections in negative flexure. the web must be proportioned such that: 2 ⋅ Dc tw ≤ 6.3.1. as described in C6.1.10. using Dc of the composite section consisting of the steel section plus the longitudinal reinforcement.4a. For a section without longitudinal stiffeners. Dc for Negative Flexure C6. which greatly simplifies subsequent load rating calculations.4.77 ⋅ E fc and 2 ⋅ Dc tw ≤ 200 OK (see Figure 3-4) S6. removes the dependency of Dc on the applied loading.2.3.

5mm bt 2 ⋅ tt = 2. it is preferable for the flange width to be greater than or equal to 0. the flange width is greater than both 0.3 S6. In this case. The compression flanges on fabricated I-sections must be proportioned such that: bf ≥ 0.3Dc and 0.2.The third section proportion check relates to the flange proportions.3.3 bt = 356mm tt = 63.2. so this requirement is clearly satisfied.10.3 According to C6.8 3-59 .3 ⋅ Dc = 229 mm bf ≥ 0. the tension flanges on fabricated I-sections must be proportioned such that: bt 2 ⋅ tt ≤ 12.10.2.3 ⋅ Dc OK (see Figure 3-4) S6.2.10.4Dc. In addition to the compression flange check.4Dc.3 ⋅ Dc bf = 356mm Dc = 764 mm 0.10.0 (see Figure 3-4) (see Figure 3-4) OK C6.

is calculated as the first moment of plastic forces about the plastic neutral axis. Mp.1.Design Step 3. the plastic moment.Compute Plastic Moment Capacity .1 Pt = 7799070 N Pw = 6153420 N Pc = 8597400 N For the longitudinal reinforcing steel in the top layer of the slab at the pier: Fyrt = 420MPa 3-60 .8 .3 tw Plastic Neutral Axis Dw Pw tc bc Pc Figure 3-13 Computation of Plastic Moment Capacity for Negative Bending Sections For the tension flange: Fyt = 345MPa Pt = Fyt ⋅ bt ⋅ tt For the web: Fyw = 345 MPa Pw = Fyw ⋅ Dw ⋅ tw For the compression flange: Fyc = 345MPa Pc = Fyc ⋅ bc ⋅ tc bc = 356mm tc = 70mm Dw = 1372mm tw = 13 mm bt = 356 mm tt = 64 mm SAppendix A6.3.10.Negative Moment Region For composite sections. Art Arb Prt Prb tt Y bt Pt S6.

Negative Moment Region STable A6.Determine if Section is Compact or Noncompact . as follows: Pc + Pw = 14750820 N Pc + Pw + Pt = 22549890 N Pt + Prb + Prt = 11439146 N Prb + Prt = 3640076 N Therefore the plastic neutral axis is located within the web.10.1 3-61 . and the girder has a constant depth. will determine which formulae should be used to compute the flexural capacity of the girder.9 . ⎞ D ⎛ Pc − Pt − Prt − Prb Y = ⎛ ⎞ ⋅⎜ +1 ⎜ Pw ⎝2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Y = 369 mm Since it will be shown in the next design step that this section is noncompact.1-2 The next step in the design process is to determine if the section is compact or noncompact. Where the specified minimum yield strength does not exceed 485 MPa. then the first step is to check the compact-section web slenderness provisions. the plastic moment is not used to compute the flexural resistance and therefore does not need to be computed. Design Step 3. and the girder does not have longitudinal stiffeners or holes in the tension flange. This.4.1 Check the location of the plastic neutral axis. in turn.1. as follows: S6.2 2722 ⋅ mm ⎞ Art = 199 ⋅ mm ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ ⎝ 125mm ⎠ Art = 4333 mm 2 Prt = Fyrt ⋅ Art Prt = 1820038 N For the longitudinal reinforcing steel in the bottom layer of the slab at the pier: Fyrb = 420MPa 2 2722mm ⎞ Arb = 199 ⋅ mm ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ ⎝ 125mm ⎠ Arb = 4333 mm 2 Prb = Fyrb ⋅ Arb Prb = 1820038 N SAppendix A6.

the web does not qualify as compact.4.5 Therefore.4.1.1. Based on previous computations.9 The term.76 ⋅ E = 90.4 bf = 356 mm bf 2 ⋅ tf = 2. bf 2 ⋅ tf ≤ 12.10.76 ⋅ E Fyc S6.10.4.10.2 Since the plastic neutral axis is located within the web. Dc = 764 mm bc = 356 mm tc ⋅ bc 12 3 Dc 3 = 255 mm tc = 70 mm Dc ⋅ tw 3 It = + 3 12 It = 263235052 mm 4 3-62 .1. the investigation proceeds with the noncompact section compression-flange slenderness provisions of S6.10.0 tf = 70mm S6. rt.2 ⋅ Dcp tw ≤ 3. Since this is not a composite section in positive flexure. Dcp = Dw − Y 2 ⋅ Dcp tw = 154.1. Lb ≤ Lp = 1.1. is defined as the radius of gyration of a notional section comprised of the compression flange of the steel section plus one-third of the depth of the web in compression taken about the vertical axis.9.4.10.76 ⋅ rt ⋅ E Fyc S6.3 Dcp = 1003 mm 3. the investigation proceeds with the noncompact section compression-flange bracing provisions of S6.4.5 Fyc Therefore.4.

is computed as follows: λ b = 4. The nominal flexural resistance of the compression flange.10 .64 for sections where Dc is greater than D/2 fc = 145 MPa D = 686 mm 2 3-63 S6.10.10.4.10.2.10.4a S6. Rb.4.5a S6.5 S6. Several steps could be taken to make this a compact section.2.10.76 ⋅ rt ⋅ Lb = 6100 mm E Fyc Lp = 4092 mm Therefore.3. Noncompact Sections Based on the previous computations.4. the investigation proceeds with the composite section lateral torsional buckling provisions of S6.Strength Limit State Negative Moment Region Since the section was determined to be noncompact and based on the computations in the previous design step. is determined from the following equation: Fn = Rb ⋅ Rh ⋅ Fcr The load-shedding factor.2.4.Design for Flexure . such as increasing the web thickness or possibly modifying the flange thicknesses to decrease the value Dcp.2. Design Step 3. in terms of stress.At = ( tc ⋅ bc) + ⎜ rt = It At ⎛ Dc ⎞ ⋅ tw ⎝ 3 ⎠ At = 28231mm rt = 97 mm 2 Lp = 1. such revisions may not be economical.2 Dc = 764 mm D = 1372 mm . it was determined that the girder section at the pier is noncompact.4. However. the nominal flexural resistance is computed based upon lateral torsional buckling.5.

Therefore Check if

λ b = 4.64 2 ⋅ Dc tw ≤ λb⋅ E fc tw = 13 mm

Dc = 764 mm 2 ⋅ Dc tw λb⋅ Therefore: = 117.5 E = 173 fc Rb = 1.0

For homogeneous section, Rh is taken as 1.0. Rh = 1.0 The critical compression-flange local buckling stress, Fcr, is computed as follows: Fcr = 1.904 ⋅ E 2 ⋅ Dc ⎛ bf ⎞ ⋅ ⎜ tw ⎝ 2 ⋅ tf ⎠ 1.904 ⋅ E 2 ⋅ Dc ⎛ bf ⎞ ⋅ ⎜ tw ⎝ 2 ⋅ tf ⎠ Fcr = min ⎡ ⎢ 1.904 ⋅ E

2 2 2

S6.10.4.3.1

S6.10.4.2.4a

≤ Fyc

without longitudinal web stiffeners

= 5432 MPa

Fyc = 345 MPa

2 ⋅ Dc ⎢ ⎛ bf ⎞ ⋅ ⎜ ⎢ 2 ⋅ tf tw ⎣⎝ ⎠

⎤ , Fyc⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦

Fcr = 345 MPa

Therefore the nominal flexural resistance of the compression flange is determined from the following equation: Fn = Rb ⋅ Rh ⋅ Fcr Fn = 345 MPa

3-64

S6.10.4.2.4a

In addition, the nominal flexural resistance of the compression flange should not exceed the nominal flexural resistance based upon lateral-torsional buckling determined as follows: Check if Lb ≤ Lr = 4.44 ⋅ rt ⋅ E Fyc E = 200000 MPa Fyc = 345 MPa E Fyc

S6.10.4.2.5a

Lr = 4.44 ⋅ rt ⋅ rt = 97 mm

Lr = 10323mm Therefore:

Lb = 6100 ⋅ mm

Fn = Cb ⋅ Rb ⋅ Rh ⋅ Fyc ⋅ ⎢ 1.33 − 0.187⎜

⎡ ⎣

⎛ Lb ⎞ Fyc ⎤ ⋅ ⎥ ≤ Rb ⋅ Rh ⋅ Fyc ⎝ rt ⎠ E ⎦

SC6.10.4.2.5a

2

The moment gradient correction factor, Cb, is computed as follows:

⎛ Pl ⎞ ⎛ Pl ⎞ Cb = 1.75 − 1.05 ⋅ ⎜ + 0.3 ⋅ ⎜ ≤ Kb ⎝ Ph ⎠ ⎝ Ph ⎠

Use: Pl Ph = 0.5 (based on analysis)

2

1.75 − 1.05 ⋅ ( 0.5) + 0.3 ⋅ ( 0.5) = 1.30 Kb = 1.75 Therefore Cb = 1.30

**⎡ ⎡ L ⋅ ⎛ 12in ⎞ ⎤ ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ b ⎜ ft ⎠ ⎥ Fyc ⎥ ⎝ Cb ⋅ Rb ⋅ Rh ⋅ Fyc ⋅ ⎢ 1.33 − 0.187⎢ ⎥⋅ ⎥ = 376 MPa rt ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ E ⎦
**

Rb ⋅ Rh ⋅ Fyc = 345 MPa Therefore Fn = Rb ⋅ Rh ⋅ Fyc

**Fn = 345 MPa
**

3-65

The factored flexural resistance, Fr, is computed as follows: φ f = 1.00 Fr = φ f ⋅ Fn Fr = 345 MPa The negative flexural resistance at this design section is checked as follows: Ση i ⋅ γ i ⋅ Qi ≤ Rr or in this case: Ση i ⋅ γ i ⋅ Fi ≤ Fr For this design example, η i = 1.00 As computed in Design Step 3.6, the factored Strength I Limit State stress for the compression flange is as follows: Σγ i ⋅ Fi = 144.56MPa Therefore Ση i ⋅ γ i ⋅ Fi = 144.56 ⋅ MPa Fr = 345 MPa OK

S6.10.4 S6.5.4.2

S1.3.2.1

For the tension flange, the nominal flexural resistance, in terms of stress, is determined as follows: Fn = Rb ⋅ Rh ⋅ Fyt where: Rb = 1.0 Rh = 1 Fyt = 345 MPa Fn = 345 MPa The factored flexural resistance, Fr, is computed as follows: φ f = 1.00 Fr = φ f ⋅ Fn Fr = 345 MPa

3-66

S6.10.4.2.5b

S6.10.4.3.2b

S6.10.4 S6.5.4.2

The negative flexural resistance at this design section is checked as follows: Ση i ⋅ γ i ⋅ Qi ≤ Rr or in this case: Ση i ⋅ γ i ⋅ Fi ≤ Fr For this design example, η i = 1.00 As computed in Design Step 3.6, the factored Strength I Limit State stress for the tension flange is as follows: Σγ i ⋅ Fi = 153.79MPa Therefore Ση i ⋅ γ i ⋅ Fi = 153.79 ⋅ MPa Fr = 345 MPa OK

S1.3.2.1

Therefore, the girder design section at the pier satisfies the flexural resistance requirements for both the compression flange and the tension flange.

Design Step 3.11 - Design for Shear - Negative Moment Region

Shear must be checked at each section of the girder. For this design example, shear is maximum at the pier. The first step in the design for shear is to check if the web must be stiffened. The nominal shear resistance of unstiffened webs of hybrid and homogeneous girders is: Vn = C ⋅ Vp k = 5.0 D = 106 tw 1.10 ⋅ E⋅k = 59 Fyw

S6.10.7 S6.10.7.2

S6.10.7.3.3a S6.10.7.3.3a

3-67

1.38 ⋅

E⋅k = 74 Fyw D E ⋅k ≥ 1.38 ⋅ tw Fyw C = 1.52 ⎛ E ⋅ k ⎞ ⋅ 2 ⎜ Fyw ⎠ ⎛D⎞ ⎝ ⎜t ⎝ w⎠

Therefore,

C = 0.396 Fyw = 345 MPa Vp = 0.58 ⋅ Fyw ⋅ D ⋅ tw Vp = 3568984 N Vn = C ⋅ Vp Vn = 1411717 N The factored shear resistance, Vr, is computed as follows: φ v = 1.00 Vr = φ v ⋅ Vn Vr = 1411717 N The shear resistance at this design section is checked as follows: Ση i ⋅ γ i ⋅ Qi ≤ Rr or in this case: Ση i ⋅ γ i ⋅ Vi ≤ Vr For this design example, η i = 1.00 As computed in Design Step 3.6, the factored Strength I Limit State shear is as follows: Σγ i ⋅ Vi = 1883582 ⋅ N

3-68

D = 1372 mm

tw = 13 mm

S6.10.7.3.3a&c

S6.10.7.1 S6.5.4.2

S1.3.2.1

Therefore

Ση i ⋅ γ i ⋅ Vi = 1883582 ⋅ N Vr = 1411717 N

Since the shear resistance of an unstiffened web is less than the actual design shear, the web must be stiffened.

Nominally Stiffened Webs

As previously explained, a "nominally stiffened" web (approximately 1.5mm thinner than "unstiffened") will generally provide the least cost alternative or very close to it. However, for web depths of approximately 1270 mm or less, unstiffened webs may be more economical. For this design example, transverse intermediate stiffeners are used and longitudinal stiffeners are not used. The transverse intermediate stiffener spacing in this design example is 2032 mm. Therefore, the spacing of the transverse intermediate stiffeners does not exceed 3D. Therefore, the design section can be considered stiffened and the provisions of S6.10.7.3 apply.

Stiffener Spacing S6.10.7.1

The spacing of the transverse intermediate stiffeners is determined such that it satisfies all spacing requirement in S6.10.7 and such that the shear resistance of the stiffened web is sufficient to resist the applied factored shear. First, handling requirements of the web are checked. For web panels without longitudinal stiffeners, transverse stiffeners must be used if: D ≥ 150 tw D = 1372 mm D = 106 tw tw = 13mm

S6.10.7.3.2

3-69

**Another handling requirement is that the spacing of transverse stiffeners, do, must satisfy the following: 260 ⎤ do ≤ D ⋅ ⎡ ⎢⎛ D ⎞⎥ ⎢⎜ ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ tw ⎠ ⎦
**

2 2

S6.10.7.3.2

260 ⎤ D ⋅⎡ ⎢ ⎛ D ⎞ ⎥ = 8327 mm ⎢⎜ ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ tw ⎠ ⎦ Use do = 2032 ⋅ mm OK

This handling requirement for transverse stiffeners need only be enforced in regions where transverse stiffeners are no longer required for shear and where the web slenderness ratio exceeds 150. Therefore, this requirement must typically be applied only in the central regions of the spans of relatively deep girders, where the shear is low. The nominal shear resistance of interior web panels of noncompact sections which are considered stiffened, as per S6.10.7.1, is as follows: Check if fu ≤ 0.75 ⋅ φ f ⋅ Fy

S6.10.7.3.3b

The term, f u, is the flexural stress in the compression or tension flange due to the factored loading, whichever flange has the maximum ratio of fu to Fr in the panel under consideration. fu = 144.56 ⋅ MPa 0.75 ⋅ φ f ⋅ Fy = 259 MPa Therefore, fu ≥ 0.75 ⋅ φ f ⋅ Fy Vn = R ⋅ Vp ⋅ ⎡ C + ⎢ 0.87 ⋅ ( 1 − C) ⎤

2

(see Table 3-12)

⎢ ⎢ ⎣

⎥ ≥ C ⋅ Vp ⎛ do ⎞ ⎥ 1+⎜ ⎥ ⎝D⎠ ⎦

k=7

S6.10.7.3.3a

k = 5+

5

⎛ do ⎞ ⎜ ⎝D⎠

2

3-70

D = 106 tw 1.10 ⋅ E⋅k = 71 Fyw E⋅k = 90 Fyw D E ⋅k ≥ 1.38 ⋅ tw Fyw C = 1.52 ⎛ E ⋅ k ⎞ ⋅ 2 ⎜ Fyw ⎠ ⎛D⎞ ⎝ ⎜t ⎝ w⎠

S6.10.7.3.3a

1.38 ⋅

Therefore,

**C = 0.576 The reduction factor applied to the factored shear, R, is computed as follows: R = ⎢ 0.6 + 0.4 ⋅ ⎜
**

S6.10.7.3.3b

⎡ ⎣

⎞⎤ ⎥ ⎝ Fr − 0.75φ f ⋅ Fy ⎠ ⎦ ⎛

Fr − fu

**R = 1.530 Vp = 0.58 ⋅ Fyw ⋅ D ⋅ tw Vp = 3568984 N R ⋅ Vp ⋅ ⎡ C + ⎢ 0.87 ⋅ ( 1 − C) ⎤
**

2

S6.10.7.3.3a&c

⎢ ⎢ ⎣

⎥ = 4270919 N ⎛ do ⎞ ⎥ 1+⎜ ⎥ ⎝D⎠ ⎦

C ⋅ Vp = 2055305 N Vn = max ⎡R ⋅ Vp ⋅ ⎡ C + ⎢ ⎢ 0.87 ⋅ ( 1 − C) ⎤

⎢ ⎢ ⎣

⎢ ⎢ ⎣

⎤ ⎥ , C ⋅ Vp⎥ 2 ⎥ ⎛ do ⎞ ⎥ 1+⎜ ⎥ ⎥ ⎝D⎠ ⎦ ⎦

Vn = 4270919 N

3-71

The factored shear resistance, Vr, is computed as follows: φ v = 1.00 Vr = φ v ⋅ Vn Vr = 4270919 N As previously computed, for this design example: Ση i ⋅ γ i ⋅ Vi = 1883582 ⋅ N Vr = 4270919 N OK

S6.10.7.1 S6.5.4.2

Therefore, the girder design section at the pier satisfies the shear resistance requirements for the web.

Design Step 3.12 - Design Transverse Intermediate Stiffeners Negative Moment Region

The girder in this design example has transverse intermediate stiffeners. Transverse intermediate stiffeners are used to increase the shear resistance of the girder. The shear resistance computations shown in the previous design step were based on a stiffener spacing of 2032 millimeters. In this design example, it is assumed that the transverse intermediate stiffeners consist of plates welded to one side of the web. The required interface between the transverse intermediate stiffeners and the top and bottom flanges is described in S6.10.8.1.1. The transverse intermediate stiffener configuration is assumed to be as presented in the following figure.

S6.10.8.1

S6.10.8.1.1

3-72

Symmetrical about C Pier L

Bearing Stiffener A A do = 2032 mm (Typ.) C Pier L Partial Girder Elevation at Pier Transverse Intermediate Stiffener (Typ. Unless Noted Otherwise)

Web

bt = 140mm

tp = 13mm Section A-A

Figure 3-14 Transverse Intermediate Stiffener

tw = 13mm Transverse Intermediate Stiffener

3-73

The first specification check is for the projecting width of the transverse intermediate stiffener. The width, bt, of each projecting stiffener element must satisfy the following: bt ≥ 2.0 + d 30.0 and 16.0 ⋅ tp ≥ bt ≥ 0.25bf

S6.10.8.1.2

**bt = 140mm d = 1505.5 mm tp = 13 ⋅ mm bf = 356 mm bt = 140 mm Therefore, 16.0 ⋅ tp = 208 mm 0.25 ⋅ bf = 89 mm Therefore, 16.0 ⋅ tp ≥ bt ≥ 0.25 ⋅ bf OK
**

S6.10.8.1.3

2.0 +

d = 52 mm 30.0 d 30.0 OK

bt ≥ 2.0 +

The second specification check is for the moment of inertia of the transverse intermediate stiffener. This requirement is intended to ensure sufficient rigidity. The moment of inertia of any transverse stiffener must satisfy the following: It ≥ do ⋅ tw ⋅ J1 do = 2032 mm

2 3

tw = 13 mm

D = 1372 mm

D J1 = 2.5 ⋅ ⎛ ⎞ − 2.0 ≥ 0.5 ⎜d ⎝ o⎠ 2.5 ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ D⎞ − 2.0 = −1 do ⎠ ⎝ J1 = 0.5 do ⋅ tw ⋅ J1 = 2232152 mm It = 11890667 mm It ≥ do ⋅ tw ⋅ J1

3 4 3 4 2

Therefore, Therefore, It = tp ⋅ bt 3

3

Therefore,

OK

3-74

The third specification check is for the area of the transverse intermediate stiffener. This requirement is intended to ensure sufficient area to resist the vertical component of the tension field. The area of any transverse stiffener must satisfy the following: As ≥ ⎢0.15 ⋅ B ⋅

S6.10.8.1.4

⎡ ⎣

**⎤ Fyw 2 ⎛ Vu ⎞ D ⋅ ( 1 − C) ⋅ ⎜ − 18⎥ ⋅ ⋅ tw Vr ⎠ Fcr tw ⎝ ⎦
**

for single plate stiffeners

B = 2.4 D = 1372 mm tw = 13 mm C = 0.576

Vu = 1883582N Vr = 4270919N Fyw = 345 MPa E = 200000 MPa bt = 140 mm tp = 13 mm Fcr = 0.311 ⋅ E ≤ Fys

⎛ bt ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ tp ⎠ ⎛ bt ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ tp ⎠

2

0.311 ⋅ E

2

= 536 MPa

Fys = 345 ⋅ MPa

Therefore,

Fcr = 345 ⋅ MPa

**⎤ Fyw 2 ⎡ ⎛ Vu ⎞ D 2 − 18⎥ ⋅ ⋅ tw = −1841 mm ⎢0.15 ⋅ B ⋅ ⋅ ( 1 − C) ⋅ ⎜ tw ⎣ ⎝ Vr ⎠ ⎦ Fcr
**

Therefore, the specification check for area is automatically satisfied. Therefore, the transverse intermediate stiffeners as shown in Figure 3-13 satisfy all of the required specification checks.

3-75

Design Step 3.14 - Design for Flexure - Fatigue and Fracture Limit State - Negative Moment Region

For this design example, the nominal fatigue resistance computations were presented previously for the girder section at the location of maximum positive moment. Detail categories are explained and illustrated in STable 6.6.1.2.3-1 and SFigure 6.6.1.2.3-1 . In addition to the nominal fatigue resistance computations, fatigue requirements for webs must also be checked. These checks are required to control out-of-plane flexing of the web due to flexure or shear under repeated live loading. For this check, the live load flexural stress and shear stress resulting from the fatigue load must be taken as twice that calculated using the fatigue load combination in Table 3-1. As previously explained, for this design example, the concrete slab is assumed to be fully effective for both positive and negative flexure for fatigue limit states. This is permissible because the provisions of S6.10.3.7 were satisfied in Design Step 2. For flexure, the fatigue requirement for the web is as follows: If D k⋅E ≤ 0.95 ⋅ tw Fyw Otherwise D = 1372 mm then Fcf ≤ Fyw

2

S6.6.1

S6.10.6 S6.10.6.1

S6.10.6.2

S6.6.1.2.1

S6.10.6.3

⎛ tw ⎞ fcf ≤ 0.9 ⋅ k ⋅ E ⋅ ⎜ ⎝D⎠

Dc = 764 mm

For the fatigue limit state at the pier (the location of maximum negative moment): fbotgdr = ( −115.50 ⋅ MPa) + ( −13.7 ⋅ MPa) + ( −16.6MPa) ... + ( 2 ⋅ 0.75 ⋅ −11.9 ⋅ MPa) fbotgdr = −164 MPa ftopgdr = ( 122.9 ⋅ MPa) + ( 7.5 ⋅ MPa) + ( 9.1MPa) ... + ( 2 ⋅ 0.75 ⋅ 2.9 ⋅ MPa) ftopgdr = 144 MPa

S6.10.3.1.4a

3-76

2⎥ ⎝ Dc ⎠ ⎦ 2 D = 106 tw Therefore. 0.75 ⋅ −11.4a Depthcomp = 801 mm Dc = Depthcomp − tbotfl Dc = 731 mm D k = 9.10..5 ⋅ MPa + ( −13.0 ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ D⎞ = 32 ⎝ Dc ⎠ k = 32 2 ⎡ ⎣ ⎤ D⎞ .6MPa) . + ( 2 ⋅ 0.0 ⋅ ⎛ ⎞ ≥ 7. 7.9 ⋅ MPa) fcf = −164 MPa Therefore. fcf ≤ Fyw Fyw = 345 MPa OK 3-77 .3.1.7 ⋅ MPa) + ( −16.0 ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ 2 9.95 ⋅ tw Fyw k⋅E = 129 Fyw Based on the unfactored stress values in Table 3-12: fcf = −115.2 ⎜D ⎝ c⎠ k = max ⎢9.ttopfl = 63..95 ⋅ D k⋅E ≤ 0.5mm Dweb = 1372mm tbotfl = 70mm Depthgdr = ttopfl + Dweb + tbotfl Depthgdr = 1506 mm Depthcomp = −fbotgdr ftopgdr − fbotgdr (see Figure 3-4) (see Figure 3-4) (see Figure 3-4) ⋅ Depthgdr C6.

58 ⋅ C ⋅ Fyw OK Therefore.Service Limit State Negative Moment Region The girder must be checked for service limit state control of permanent deflection.4 C = 0. Service II Limit State is used for this check.3.10.6.576 Fyw = 345 MPa 0. This check will not control for composite noncompact sections under the load combinations given in STable 3. vcf ≤ 0.5 C6.5. the fatigue requirement for the web is as follows: vcf ≤ 0.For shear. Dc. it is unlikely that such a check would control in these regions for composite girders without longitudinal stiffeners since Dc is relatively small for such girders in these regions.4.2-1.5. This check is intended to prevent objectionable permanent deflections due to expected severe traffic loadings that would impair rideability.58 ⋅ C ⋅ Fyw = 115 MPa Therefore. Although a web bend buckling check is also required in regions of positive flexure at the service limit state according to the current specification language.10.75 ⋅ 206654 ⋅ N) Vcf = 980961N D = 1372 mm vcf = Vcf D ⋅ tw tw = 13 mm vcf = 55 N mm 2 S6.1 3-78 . S6. the fatigue requirements for webs for both flexure and shear are satisfied.10.10.15 . using the appropriate value of the depth of the web in compression in the elastic range.Design for Flexure .10. Design Step 3.1-1.2.58 ⋅ C ⋅ Fyw Based on the unfactored shear values in Table 3-13: Vcf = 510052 ⋅ N + 72769 ⋅ N + 88159⋅ N + ( 2 ⋅ 0.1 S6. The web must satisfy SEquation 6.

25 for webs without longitudinal stiffeners D = 1372 mm The factored Service II flexural stress was previously computed in Table 3-12 as follows: fbotgdr = −238.8 ⎜D ⎝ c⎠ 2 2 for webs without longitudinal stiffeners ⎡ ⎛ D ⎞2 ⎤ k = max ⎢9.9MPa ftopgdr = 162. 7.2 ⎜D ⎝ c⎠ D 9.0 ⋅ ⎛ ⎞ = 24.0 ⋅ ⎛ ⎞ ≥ 7.0 ⋅ ⎜ .6 ⋅ MPa Depthgdr = 1506 mm Depthcomp = −fbotgdr ftopgdr − fbotgdr (see Figure 3-4) ⋅ Depthgdr Depthcomp = 896 mm Dc = Depthcomp − tbotfl Dc = 826 mm D k = 9.8 (see Figure 3-4) 3-79 .2⎥ ⎣ ⎝ Dc ⎠ ⎦ tw = 13 mm k = 24.fcw ≤ 0.9 ⋅ E ⋅ α ⋅ k ⎛D⎞ ⎜t ⎝ w⎠ 2 ≤ Fyw for which: E = 200000 MPa α = 1.

0. Although this check is optional for a concrete deck on steel girders. it is included in this design example at the location of maximum positive moment. The factored Service II flexural stress was previously computed in Table 3-12 as follows: fbotgdr = −239 MPa Fyf = 345 MPa 0.9 ⋅ E ⋅ α ⋅ k ⎛D⎞ ⎜t ⎝ w⎠ 2 = 502 MPa Fyw = 345 MPa min ⎢ ⎡ 0.5.95Fyf As previously explained. the girder can also be checked for live load deflection. for this design example.1 ftopgdr = 163 MPa In addition to the check for service limit state control of permanent deflection.5.9 ⋅ E ⋅ α ⋅ k .6.2 S6.2. the flange stresses for both steel flanges of composite sections must satisfy the following requirement: ff ≤ 0. 3-80 .95 ⋅ Fyf = 328 MPa OK S2.10. F ⎤ = 345 MPa yw⎥ ⎢ ⎛ D ⎞2 ⎥ ⎜t ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ w⎠ ⎦ ⎛ Dc ⎞ ⎝ Dc + tf ⎠ OK fcw = fbotgdr ⋅ ⎜ fcw = −220 MPa In addition. the concrete slab is assumed to be fully effective for both positive and negative flexure for service limit states.

Design Step 3.10. as follows: bf 2 ⋅ tf ≤ 12.1. must satisfy the following requirement during construction: fcw ≤ 0.2 ⎛D⎞ ⎜t ⎝ w⎠ 2 for which: E = 200000 MPa α = 1.16 .2 S6.3.Constructibility Check Negative Moment Region The girder must also be checked for flexure during construction.5MPa) fbotgdr = −144 MPa ftopgdr = 1.4 bf = 356mm tf = 70mm bf 2 ⋅ tf = 2.10.25 for webs without longitudinal stiffeners D = 1372 mm For the noncomposite loads during construction: fbotgdr = 1. composite girders.2.9 ⋅ E ⋅ α ⋅ k ≤ Fyw S6.5 In addition.4.0 (see Figure 3-4) (see Figure 3-4) S6.10.25 ⋅ ( 122.3. The investigation of the constructibility of the girder begins with the the noncompact section compression-flange slenderness check. The constructibility must also be checked for the girder prior to the hardening of the concrete deck when the girder behaves as a noncomposite section.9 ⋅ MPa) ftopgdr = 154 MPa 3-81 .Design for Flexure .25 ⋅ ( −115.2. when they are not yet composite. The girder has already been checked in its final condition when it behaves as a composite section.

1.2 ⎜D ⎝ c⎠ 9.4a ftopgdr − fbotgdr Depthcomp = 729 mm Dc = Depthcomp − tbotfl Dc = 659 mm D k = 9.0 (see Figure 3-4) tw = 13 mm 0.10.Depthgdr = 1506 mm Depthcomp = −fbotgdr (see Figure 3-4) ⋅ Depthgdr C6.0 Dc ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 for webs without longitudinal stiffeners k = max ⎢9.3. F ⎤ = 345 MPa yw⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎛D⎞ ⎥ ⎜t ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ w⎠ ⎦ ⎛ Dc ⎞ ⎝ Dc + tf ⎠ OK fcw = fbotgdr ⋅ ⎜ fcw = −131 MPa 3-82 .0 ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ D⎞ = 39.9 ⋅ E ⋅ α ⋅ k .0 ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ ⎡ ⎣ ⎤ D⎞ . 7.0 ⋅ ⎛ ⎞ ≥ 7.9 ⋅ E ⋅ α ⋅ k = 787 MPa ⎛D⎞ ⎜t ⎝ w⎠ 2 Fyw = 345 MPa min ⎢ ⎡ 0.2⎥ ⎝ Dc ⎠ ⎦ 2 k = 39.

5.3.10. Wind effects generally do not control a steel girder design.25 ⋅ 510052 ⋅ N) + ( 1. the interior girder controls and is being designed. A bridge height of greater than 10000 mm is used in this design step to illustrate the required computations.3.8.10. For noncompact sections.5.7. Design Step 3.2 & C4. for illustrative purposes. for this design example.3.3.1 S6.Check Wind Effects on Girder Flanges Negative Moment Region As stated in Design Step 3.6. the nominal shear resistance in the web must also be checked as follows: Vn = C ⋅ Vp C = 0.3.3 S6.1 S3.50 ⋅ 88159⋅ N) Vu = 860765 N OK S6. and they are generally considered for the exterior girders only. wind effects are presented below for the girder design section at the pier.2 ( Fu + Fw) Fw = ≤ Fr 6 ⋅ Mw tfb ⋅ bfb 2 3-83 .1.5.2.25 ⋅ 72769⋅ N) + ( 1.576 Vp = 3568984 N Vn = 2055305 N φv = 1 Vr = φ v ⋅ Vn Vr = 2055305 N Vu = ( 1. the stresses in the bottom flange are combined as follows: S6. the design section at the pier satisfies the constructibility specification checks. However.2.10.In addition to checking the nominal flexural resistance in the web during construction.10.2 Therefore.4.5 C6.17 .

6. the maximum wind moment on the loaded flange is determined as follows: Mw = W ⋅ Lb 10 Lb = 6100 mm W = η ⋅ γ ⋅ PD ⋅ d 2 η = 1.0024 ⋅ MPa VB = 160 km hr STable 3. The design horizontal wind pressure is computed as follows: ⎛ VDZ ⎞ PD = PB ⋅ ⎜ ⎝ VB ⎠ 2 PB = 0. Strength III will clearly not control for this design example (and for most designs). wind on the structure is considered for the Strength III and Strength V Limit States.0 2 C4.Since the deck provides horizontal diaphragm action and since there is wind bracing in the superstructure.7.1-1 3-84 .2.1-1 S3. γ = 0. For Strength III.40 but live load is not considered.4.2.40 for Strength V Limit State STable 3.1. for this design example. Due to the magnitude of the live load stresses.8.2 Assume that the bridge is to be constructed in Pittsburgh. Therefore.3 Strength Limit States for Wind on Structure For the strength limit state.1. the Strength V Limit State will be investigated. the load factor for wind on structure is 1.8. Pennsylvania.1 S1.

3 for Strength V Limit State STable 3.4. the factored wind force per unit length applied to the flange is computed as follows: W = η ⋅ γ ⋅ PD ⋅ d 2 η =1 γ = 0.8.8.1-1 .1 Z = 10668 ⋅ mm Zo = 2500 ⋅ mm VDZ = 2.8.VDZ = 2.1.7.2.1.1.5 ⋅ Vo ⋅ ⎜ Vo = 19.8.8.1 ⎛ V30 ⎞ ⎛ Z ⎞ ⋅ ln ⎜ ⎝ V B ⎠ ⎝ Zo ⎠ km hr 2 VDZ = 42 ⎛ VDZ ⎞ PD = PB ⋅ ⎜ ⎝ VB ⎠ S3.5 VB = 160 km hr assumed height of structure at which wind loads are being calculated as measured from low ground or from water level for a bridge located in a city S3.40 PD = 167 Pa d = 2813 ⋅ mm from bottom of girder to top of parapet 3-85 C4.1-1 V30 = 96.5 ⋅ Vo ⋅ ⎜ STable 3.6.1 S1.1-1 S3.8.1.1.2.1 PD = 167 Pa After the design horizontal wind pressure has been computed.3 ⎛ V30 ⎞ ⎛ Z ⎞ ⋅ ln ⎜ ⎝ V B ⎠ ⎝ Zo ⎠ km hr km hr for a bridge located in a city assumed wind velocity at 10000 mm above low ground or above design water level at bridge site S3.1 STable 3.1.

10.1 W = 94 kg ⋅ S6. the following computations are presented simply to demonstrate that wind effects do not control this design: 3-86 .2. the maximum lateral moment in the flange due to the factored wind loading is computed as follows: Mw = W ⋅ Lb 10 mm mm ⋅ s Lb = 6100 mm Mw = 349905 N ⋅ mm Finally.2 Mw = 349905 N ⋅ mm tfb = 70 ⋅ mm bfb = 356 ⋅ mm Fw = 6 ⋅ Mw tfb ⋅ bfb 2 Fw = 236648Pa The load factor for live load is 1. Nevertheless. it is clear that wind effects will not control the design of this steel girder.W = η ⋅ γ ⋅ PD ⋅ d 2 W = 94 kg ⋅ mm 2 mm ⋅ s Next.35 for the Strength V Limit State.75 for the Strength I Limit State.7. However.3.6. it is 1. the flexural stress at the edges of the bottom flange due to factored wind loading is computed as follows: Fw = 6 ⋅ Mw tfb ⋅ bfb 2 2 2 C4. which we have already investigated.5. Therefore.

then the trial girder section would need to be revised appropriately.. Unless Noted Otherwise) Symmetrical about C Pier L 2032 mm (Typ. + ( 1.25 ⋅ −14.8 ⋅ MPa) + ( 1. the trial girder section presented in Design Step 3.18 .8 ⋅ MPa) Fu = −301 MPa Fw = −0.) 356mm x 32mm Top Flange 356mm x 16mm Top Flange 356mm x 63. If any of the specification checks were not satisfied or if the design were found to be overly conservative.50 ⋅ −17.Fu = ( 1.7MPa) .25 ⋅ −115. The following is a schematic of the final steel girder configuration: 140mm x 13mm Transverse Intermediate Stiffener (One Side of Web Only Interior Side of Fascia Girders) (Typ.35 ⋅ −82.5mm Top Flange 1372mm x 13mm Web 205mm 356 x 22mm Bottom Flange 356 x 35mm Bottom Flange C Bolted Field Splice L 25603mm 36576mm C Bearing Abutment L Bearing Stiffener (Both Sides of Web) C Pier L Bearing Stiffener (Both Sides of Web) 7315mm 356 x 70mm Bottom Flange 3658mm Figure 3-15 Final Plate Girder Elevation 3-87 . Design Step 3. and the specification checks would need to be repeated for the new trial girder section.5MPa) + ( 1.2 is acceptable.193 ⋅ MPa Fu + Fw = −301 MPa Fr = 345 MPa Therefore: ( Fu + Fw) ≤ Fr OK Therefore.Draw Schematic of Final Steel Girder Design Since all of the specification checks were satisfied. wind effects do not control the design of this steel girder..

3-88 . Design computations for an elastomeric bearing pad are presented in Design Step 6. only the location of maximum positive moment. bearing stiffeners. and cross-frames are presented in Design Step 5. welded connections. the above schematic shows the plate sizes and stiffener spacing throughout the entire length of the girder. and the location of maximum shear were investigated. However. the location of maximum negative moment. Some of the design principles for this design example are presented in "tip boxes. Design computations and principles for shear connectors.For this design example." Design computations for a bolted field splice are presented in Design Step 4.

Obtain Design Criteria This splice design example is based on AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (through 2002 interims).Design Top Flange Splice Design Step 4.1 . methodology. and criteria for the entire bridge.4 .6 .5 . defining material properties.Select Girder Section as Basis for Field Splice Design Design Step 4. Refer to Design Step 1 for introductory information about this design example. identifying relevant superstructure information.1 . Additional information is presented about the design assumptions. This includes.Design Bottom Flange Splice Design Step 4.3 .Compute Web Splice Design Loads Design Step 4.7 .Compute Flange Splice Design Loads Design Step 4. The first design step is to identify the appropriate design criteria.Obtain Design Criteria Design Step 4.2 . but is not limited to. and determining the splice location. 4-1 .Draw Schematic of Final Bolted Field Splice Design 1 6 6 31 60 61 77 103 Design Step 4.8 .Design Web Splice Design Step 4. including the splice.Bolted Field Splice Design Example Design Step 4 Table of Contents Page Design Step 4. The design methods presented throughout the example are meant to be the most widely used in general bridge engineering practice.

Field splices are generally located to provide girder segment lengths that do not exceed the allowable girder shipping length. Symmetrical about C Pier L 356mm x 16mm Top Flange 356mm x 32mm Top Flange 356mm x 63.1. The allowable girder shipping length is often a function of the shipping route from the fabrication site to the construction site. 3.6. This location was determined using the criteria presented in the narrative below. Included in Figure 4-1 is the bolted field splice location.4a 4-2 . The Specifications recommends locating splices near points of dead load contraflexure. The location of the field splice is generally based on economy and includes the following considerations: 1. S6.5mm Top Flange 1372mm x 13mm Web 205mm 356mm x 22mm Bottom Flange 356mm x 35mm Bottom Flange C Bolted Field Splice L 7315mm 356mm x 70mm Bottom Flange 25603mm 36576mm C Bearing Abutment L 3658mm C Pier L Figure 4-1 Plate Girder Elevation The following units are defined for use in this design example: kN = 1000 ⋅ N MPa = N mm 2 For relatively long girders. Field splices are generally located where total moment in the girder is relatively small. 2.Presented in Figure 4-1 is the final steel girder configuration as designed in Design Step 3. This minimizes the required splice plate thicknesses and the required number of bolts.13. field splices are generally required to reduce the girder shipping length.

the steel properties of the girder were defined.1-1 For Specifications equations requiring the flange yield strength: Flange Yield Strength: Fyf = 345 ⋅ MPa Plate Dimensions of the Left Girder (reference Design Step 3.1.In Design Step 1. Yield Strength: Tensile Strength: Fy = 345 ⋅ MPa Fu = 450 ⋅ MPa STable 6.18): Web Thickness: Web Depth: Top Flange Width: Top Flange Thickness: Bottom Flange Width: Bottom Flange Thickness: tw = 13 ⋅ mm D = 1372 ⋅ mm bfltR = 356 ⋅ mm tfltR = 28.18): Web Thickness: Web Depth: Top Flange Width: Top Flange Thickness: Bottom Flange Width: Bottom Flange Thickness: tw = 13 ⋅ mm D = 1372 ⋅ mm bfltL = 356 ⋅ mm tfltL = 16 ⋅ mm bflbL = 356 ⋅ mm tflbL = 22 ⋅ mm Plate Dimensions of the Right Girder (reference Design Step 3. These properties will be used for the splice plates as well.4.5 ⋅ mm bflbR = 356 ⋅ mm tflbR = 35 ⋅ mm 4-3 .

2.1 Concrete Deck Properties (reference Design Step 3.13.3 S6.3.3): Effective Slab Thickness: Modular Ratio: Haunch Depth (measured from top of web): Effective Flange Width: tseff = 212 ⋅ mm n = 8 dhaunch = 90 ⋅ mm Weff = 2722 ⋅ mm Based on the concrete deck design example and as illustrated in Figure 2-18.Splice Bolt Properties: Bolt Diameter: Bolt Hole Diameter: (for design purposes) Bolt Tensile Strength: dbolt = 22 ⋅ mm dhole = 25 ⋅ mm Fubolt = 830 ⋅ MPa S6. the area of longitudinal deck reinforcing steel in the negative moment region is computed as follows: For the top steel: Adeckreinftop = 199 ⋅ mm ( 2 )⋅ Weff 125 ⋅ mm Adeckreinftop = 4333 mm 2 For the bottom steel: Adeckreinfbot = 199 ⋅ mm ( 2 )⋅ Weff 125 ⋅ mm Adeckreinfbot = 4333 mm 2 4-4 .4.8.5 S6.

80 φ y = 0.90 φ u = 0. fracture in net section: Tension.80 S6.Resistance Factors: Flexure: Shear: Axial Compression: Tension.95 φ bb = 0.80 φ bs = 0.00 φ c = 0.5.80 φ s = 0.00 φ v = 1. yielding in gross section: Bolts bearing on material: A325 and A490 bolts in shear: Block shear: φ f = 1.2 4-5 .4.

The live loads include impact and distribution factors. The girder located to the right of the bolted field splice will be designated the Right Girder.13. Loads Dead Loads: Noncomposite: Composite: Future Wearing Surface: Live Loads: HL-93 Positive: HL-93 Negative: Fatigue Positive: Fatigue Negative: MPLL = 1773050373 ⋅ N ⋅ mm MNLL = −1292436856 ⋅ N ⋅ mm MPFLL = 534572382 ⋅ N ⋅ mm MNFLL = −385033113 ⋅ N ⋅ mm MNDL = −70227870 ⋅ N ⋅ mm MCDL = 21014131 ⋅ N ⋅ mm MFWS = 25488107 ⋅ N ⋅ mm Moments 4-6 .3 .Design Step 4.Select Girder Section as Basis for Field Splice Design Where a section changes at a splice.1 Design Step 4. For this design example.2 . the bolted field splice will be designed based on the left adjacent girder section properties. This will be referred to as the Left Girder throughout the calculations.Compute Flange Splice Design Loads Girder Moments at the Splice Location: Based on the properties defined in Design Step 3 (Steel Girder Design). any number of commercially available software programs can be used to obtain the design dead and live loads at the splice. A summary of the unfactored moments at the splice from the initial trial of the girder design are listed below. the AASHTO Opis software was used. Therefore.6. the smaller of the two connected sections shall be used in the design. S6.1.

whichever gives the higher stresses.75 γ max 1. and the live load acts on the n-composite slab section. the applicable limit states for the splice design are Strength I. The S6. and Fatigue Limit States.13. Service II.30 0. S6.00 1. Case 1: Dead Load + Positive Live Load For this case. stresses will be computed using the effective top flange area for the noncomposite dead load.10. and Fatigue. The stresses corresponding to these limit states will be computed at the midthickness of the top and bottom flanges.30 Fatigue STable 3.3.1-2 DC dead loads (noncomposite and composite) and the maximum load factor is used for the future wearing surface.00 1. Service II. and the effective bottom flange area for the composite dead load. Where necessary. splices are designed for the Strength I.75 γ min 0.13. The appropriate section properties and load factors for use in computing stresses are described below.75 0.00 1.65 1. Strength I Limit State: At the strength limit state.00 1.6 S6. future wearing surface.90 0. the section properties for flexural members with holes in the tension flange shall be computed using an effective flange area. refer to the signs of the previously documented design moments.Typically.4. The minimum load factor is used for the STable 3.1b composite dead load and future wearing surface act on the 3nor the n-composite slab section.6 4-7 .75 STable 3.1-1 γ min γ max γ min 1.4.25 1.3.6 Load Factors Strength I Service II Load DC DW LL γ max 1.1-2 Table 4-1 Load Factors Flange Stress Computation Procedure: As previously mentioned.50 1. and live load.4.10.1. The load factors for these limit states are shown in Table 4-1: S6.

1c .10. Case 2: Negative Live Load For this case.6.or n-composite slab section. on the 3n. stresses will be computed using the effective top flange area for all loads. The live load acts on the n-composite slab section.13. The live load acts on the n-composite slab section. The composite dead load is applied to this section as well. stresses will be computed using the gross steel section.1. since the net effect of the live load is to induce tension in the slab. as a conservative assumption for simplicity and convenience.4a Case 1: Positive Live Load For this case. The live load acts on the n-composite slab section. 4-8 S6. whichever gives the larger stresses.6. Service II Limit State: S6.10. stresses will be computed using the gross steel section.or n-composite slab section. The composite dead load acts on the 3n.1c Fatigue Limit State: C6.1.1.Case 2: Dead Load + Negative Live Load For this case. stresses will be computed using the gross steel section.3.3.1.13. The live load acts on the n-composite slab section. whichever gives the higher stresses. Case 2: Dead Load + Negative Live Load For this case. stresses will be computed using the gross steel section. S6.4a Case 1: Dead Load + Positive Live Load For this case. The live load acts on the composite steel girder plus longitudinal reinforcement section. The future wearing surface is excluded and the maximum load factor is used for the DC dead loads. The future wearing surface is included and acts. along with the composite dead load. The reinforcing steel in the deck that is used corresponds to the negative moment deck reinforcement shown in Figure 2-18. The future wearing surface is excluded.

the governing failure chain is straight across the flange (i.6-1 For holes equal to or less than 32 millimeters in diameter: β = ⎜ ⎛ An ⎞ ⎡⎛ φ u ⋅ Fu ⎞ ⎤ ⋅ ⎢⎜ − 1⎥ ≥ 0.10.3.6.4c S6.e.07 4-9 .0 ⎝ Ag ⎠ ⎣⎝ φ y ⋅ Fyf ⎠ ⎦ The effective area of the bottom flange of the steel girder is as follows: Ag = tflbL ⋅ bflbL Ag = 7832 mm 2 The net area of the bottom flange of the steel girder is defined as the product of the thickness of the flange and the smallest net width.13.6 SEquation 6.8. and then adding the quantity s2 /4g for each space between consective holes in the chain.1.Section Properties: Effective Flange Areas: Ae = An + β ⋅ Ag ≤ Ag S6. The net width is determined by subtracting from the width of the flange the sum of the widths of all holes in the assumed failure chain.3 β = ⎜ ⎛ An ⎞ ⎡⎛ φ u ⋅ Fu ⎞ ⎤ ⋅ ⎢⎜ − 1⎥ ⎝ Ag ⎠ ⎣⎝ φ y ⋅ Fyf ⎠ ⎦ β = 0. The net area of the bottom flange of the steel girder now follows: An = ( bflbL − 4 ⋅ dhole) ⋅ tflbL An = 5632 mm 2 S6.10.. s2 /4g is equal to zero). Since the bolt holes in the flanges are lined up transverse to the loading direction.3.

With the gross and net areas identified. along with beta. the effective tension area of the bottom flange can now be computed as follows: Ae = An + β ⋅ Ag Ae = 6186 mm 2 Check: Ae = 6186 mm 2 < Ag = 7832 mm 2 OK 2 Effective bottom flange area: Aebot = 6186 ⋅ mm Similar calculations determine the effective tension area for the top flange of the steel girder: 2 Effective top flange area: Aetop = 4495 ⋅ mm 4-10 .

Slab and Longitudinal Reinforcement 4-11 . This requires the modular ratio as follows: Ac= Effective Slab Width x tseff Modular Ratio where: Effective Slab Width: Modular Ratio: For the n-composite beam: Ac = Weff n ⋅ tseff Ac = 72133mm 2 Weff = 2722 mm n=8 For the 3n-composite beam: Weff 3n 2 Ac3n = ⋅ tseff Ac3n = 24044mm The section properties for the Left Girder are calculated with the aid of Figure 4-2 shown below: 1 2 3 Neutral Axis 4 5 Y Figure 4-2 Girder.The transformed effective area of the concrete flange of the steel girder is now determined.

and these properties are used for computation of stresses for the Strength I Limit State.The following tables contain the section properties for the left (i.. respectively. and these properties are used for computation of stresses for the Service II and Fatigue Limit States.e. A*d (mm 3) (mm 2) d (mm) Io (mm 4) A*y2 (mm 4) Itotal (mm 4) Composite (3n): Girder Slab Total 31364 24044 55408 31364 72133 103497 20699832 9274240405 5108398846 14382639251 38230490 90054043 6663516895 6753570939 58930322 9364294448 11771915741 21136210190 20699832 9274240405 13177164229 22451404634 114691470 270162129 5729535426 5999697555 135391302 9544402535 18906699654 28451102189 Composite (n): Girder Slab Total Section y botmid (mm) y topmid (mm) 742 338 94 Sbotweb (mm ) 14536723 20292757 22120856 3 Sbotmid (mm3) 14290333 20080684 21933270 Stopmid (mm3) Stopweb (mm3) 12498757 62452651 303208171 12634981 63964658 331468275 Girder only 649 Composite (3n) 1053 Composite (n) 1297 Table 4-2 Section Properties Based on Gross Steel Section 4-12 . The properties in Table 4-2 are based on the gross area of the steel girder. A Centroid. smaller) girder section at the splice location. The properties in Tables 4-3 and 4-4 are based on the effective top flange and effective bottom flange of the steel girder. Gross Section Properties Section Girder only: Top flange 5696 Web 17836 Bottom flange 7832 Total 31364 1402 708 11 660 660 1590 1064 660 1590 1308 7985792 121515 3136122504 12627888 2797850085 41116421 86152 315891 3298713989 20699832 2798287491 6475952915 3136244019 2838966506 3299029880 9274240405 Area.

A Centroid. 4 A*d (mm3) Io (mm ) A*y 2 (mm4) (mm2) d (mm) 1402 708 11 630 630 1613 1533 841 630 1590 1056 630 1590 1307 6301990 121515 2675879525 12627888 2797850085 107287151 86152 315891 3005206680 19016030 2798287491 5788373356 Itotal (mm4) 2676001040 2905137236 3005522571 8586660847 Top flange 4495 Web 17836 Bottom flange 7832 Total 30163 Deck Steel: Girder Top Steel Bottom Steel Total 30163 4333 4333 38830 30163 24044 54207 30163 72133 102296 19016030 8586660847 1334717272 9921378119 6988036 0 2581250105 2581250105 6644049 0 2077583679 2077583679 32648115 8586660847 5993551056 14580211903 19016030 8586660847 5464194506 14050855353 38230490 90054043 6854691981 6944746025 57246520 8676714890 12318886488 20995601378 19016030 8586660847 13809165731 22395826577 114691470 270162129 5774414844 6044576973 133707500 8856822976 19583580574 28440403551 Composite (3n): Girder Slab Total Composite (n): Girder Slab Total Section Girder only Deck Steel Composite (3n) Composite (n) y botmid (mm) 619 830 1045 1296 y topmid (mm) 772 561 346 95 Sbotmid (mm3) 13861923 17570766 20090216 21943659 Stopmid (mm3) 11128993 25980395 60692501 299576988 Table 4-3 Section Properties Using Effective Top Flange Area of Steel Girder 4-13 .Section Girder only: Section Properties .Effective Top Flange Area Area.

A Centroid.Effective Bottom Flange Area Area. 4 A*d (mm3) Io (mm ) A*y 2 (mm4) (mm2) d (mm) 1402 708 11 696 696 1613 1533 894 696 1590 1096 696 1590 1329 7985792 12627888 68046 20681726 0 6561 249500 256062 2839633295 2597302 2902054958 5744285555 Itotal (mm4) 2839633295 2603863 2902304459 5744541617 Top flange 5696 Web 17836 Bottom flange 6186 Total 29718 Deck Steel: Girder Top Steel Bottom Steel Total 29718 4333 4333 38385 29718 24044 53762 29718 72133 101851 20681726 5744541617 1165169623 6909711239 6988036 0 2238020955 2238020955 6644049 0 1770914939 1770914939 34313811 5744541617 5174105517 10918647134 20681726 5744541617 4751484610 10496026227 38230490 90054043 5872677678 5962731721 58912216 5834595660 10624162289 16458757948 20681726 5744541617 11915093649 17659635265 114691470 270162129 4908887098 5179049227 135373196 6014703746 16823980747 22838684493 Composite (3n): Girder Slab Total Composite (n): Girder Slab Total Section Girder only Deck Steel Composite (3n) Composite (n) y botmid (mm) 685 883 1085 1318 y topmid (mm) 706 508 306 73 Sbotmid (mm3) 8387017 12366217 15172302 17326583 Stopmid (mm3) 8135968 21490928 53749867 313415833 Table 4-4 Section Properties Using Effective Bottom Flange Area of Steel Girder 4-14 .Section Girder only: Section Properties .

Dead Load + Positive Live Load: The section properties for this case have been calculated in Tables 4-3 and 4-4. The stress in the bottom flange of the girder is computed using the 3n-composite section for the composite dead load and future wearing surface. and the n-composite section for the live load: f = M S Noncomposite DL: Stress at the midthickness: f = fbotgdr 1 Noncomposite DL Moment: MNDL = −70227870 N ⋅ mm Section Modulus (girder only). from Table 4-3: Sbotgdr = 13861923 ⋅ mm 1 3 Stress due to the noncomposite dead load: fbotgdr = 1 MNDL Sbotgdr 1 fbotgdr = −5. which immediately follows the sample calculation presented below. A typical computation for the stresses occurring at the midthickness of the flanges is presented in the example below.1 MPa 1 4-15 .Strength I Limit State Stresses . The stresses at the midthickness of the flanges are shown in Table 4-6.

Composite DL: Stress at the midthickness: f = fbotgdr 2 Composite DL Moment: MCDL = 21014131 N ⋅ mm Section Modulus (3n-composite).7 MPa 3 4-16 . From Table 4-4: Sbotgdr = 15172302 ⋅ mm 3 3 Stress due to the composite dead load: fbotgdr = 3 MFWS Sbotgdr 3 fbotgdr = 1.4 MPa 2 Future Wearing Surface: Stress at the midthickness: f = fbotgdr 3 FWS Moment: MFWS = 25488107 N ⋅ mm Section Modulus (3n-composite). From Table 4-4: Sbotgdr = 15172302 ⋅ mm 2 3 Stress due to the composite dead load: fbotgdr = 2 MCDL Sbotgdr 2 fbotgdr = 1.

90 ⋅ fbotgdr + 1.90 ⋅ fbotgdr + 0.50 ⋅ fbotgdr + 1. fbotgdr = 0. 4-17 .4. From Table 4-4: Sbotgdr = 17326583 ⋅ mm 4 3 Stress due to the positive live load: fbotgdr = 4 MPLL Sbotgdr 4 fbotgdr = 102 MPa 4 The preceding stresses are now factored by their respective load factors to obtain the final factored stress at the midthickness of the bottom flange for this load case.Positive Live Load: Stress at the midthickness: f = fbotgdr 4 Live Load Moment: MPLL = 1773050373 N ⋅ mm Section Modulus (n-composite). The section properties used to obtain the stresses in the top flange are also from Tables 4-3 and 4-4.4. The applicable load factors for this case were discussed previously.75 ⋅ fbotgdr 1 2 3 4 fbotgdr = 178 MPa STable 3.1-2 ( ) The stresses at the midthickness of the top flange for this load case are computed in a similar manner.1-1 STable 3.

3 -5.3 Table 4-5 Strength I Flange Stresses for Dead + Pos.HL-93 -1292436856 Summary of Factored Values Limit State Strength I -2323281672 -133. Strength I .4 -0. LL The computation of the midthickness flange stresses for the remaining load cases are computed in a manner similar to what was shown in the sample calculation that preceded Table 4-5.6 ftopmid (MPa) 6.7 Noncomposite DL -70227870 Composite DL 21014131 Live Load .4 49.3 -0.7 Noncomposite DL -70227870 Composite DL 21014131 FWS DL 25488107 Live Load .3 ftopmid (MPa) 6. shown below.5 Table 4-6 Strength I Flange Stresses for Dead + Neg.Dead Load + Negative Live Load: The computed stresses in the following table require the use of section properties from Table 4-3.The top and bottom flange midthickness stresses are summarized in Table 4-5.3 94.1 1.5 -5.4 -73.7 102.3 -0.Dead Load + Negative Live Load Summary of Unfactored Values Loading Moment (N-mm) fbotmid (MPa) -5.Dead Load + Positive Live Load Summary of Unfactored Values Loading Moment (N-mm) fbotmid (MPa) -5. LL 4-18 .1 1.HL-93 1773050373 Summary of Factored Values Limit State Strength I 3096777948 178. Strength I Limit State .4 1. Strength I .

6 11.Dead Load + Negative Live Load: The computed stresses in the following table require the use of section properties from Table 4-2.HL-93 -1292436856 Summary of Factored Values Limit State Service II -1729381652 -80.HL-93 1773050373 Summary of Factored Values Limit State Service II 2281239853 102.Dead Load + Negative Live Load Summary of Unfactored Values Loading Moment (N-mm) fbotmid (MPa) -4.Dead Load + Positive Live Load: The computed stresses in the following table require the use of section properties from Table 4-2.3 Noncomposite DL -70227870 Composite DL 21014131 Live Load .0 -58.3 -0.3 80. Service II .6 -0.1 4.9 1.5 -2.7 Table 4-7 Service II Flange Stresses for Dead + Pos.9 ftopmid (MPa) 5.9 1.1 Table 4-8 Service II Flange Stresses for Dead + Neg. LL Service II Limit State . LL 4-19 .6 -0.Dead Load + Positive Live Load Summary of Unfactored Values Loading Moment (N-mm) fbotmid (MPa) -4. Service II .8 ftopmid (MPa) 5.0 1.8 Noncomposite DL -70227870 Composite DL 21014131 FWS 25488107 Live Load .Service II Limit State .4 -5.

3 Table 4-9 Fatigue Flange Stresses for Positive LL Fatigue Limit State .3 Live Load-Fatigue -385033114 Summary of Factored Values Limit State Fatigue -288774835 -13.Fatigue Limit State .0 Table 4-10 Fatigue Flange Stresses for Negative LL 4-20 .Positive Live Load: The computed stresses in the following table require the use of section properties from Table 4-2. Fatigue .6 ftopmid (MPa) 1.2 1.8 Live Load-Fatigue 534572383 Summary of Factored Values Limit State Fatigue 400929287 18.4 ftopmid (MPa) -1. Fatigue .Positive Live Load Summary of Unfactored Values Loading Moment (N-mm) fbotmid (MPa) 24.3 -1.Negative Live Load: The computed stresses in the following table require the use of section properties from Table 4-2.Negative Live Load Summary of Unfactored Values Loading Moment (N-mm) fbotmid (MPa) -17.

1 -13. Fatigue .Fatigue Limit State: The computed stresses in the following table require the use of section properties from Table 4-2.2 Live Load-Pos 534572383 Live Load-Neg -385033114 Summary of Factored Values Limit State Pos Fatigue 400929287 Neg Fatigue -288774835 18.6 1.1 -1.9 Table 4-11 Fatigue Web Stresses for Positive and Negative Live Load 4-21 .2 0.2 -17.4 ftopweb (MPa) -1.Live Load Summary of Unfactored Values Loading Moment (Nmm) fbotweb (MPa) 24.

and Fatigue limit states are presented below in Tables 4-12 through 4-14. LL Dead + Neg.7 11.3 -13.6 -2.5 -80. LL 102.2 0. Table 4-14 also contains the top and bottom web fatigue stresses.1 -13. Limit State Strength I Location Bottom Flange Top Flange Stress (MPa) Dead + Pos. LL Dead + Neg. Service II.1 -1.3 -133.A summary of the factored stresses at the midthickness of the top and bottom flanges for the Strength I.2 -1.3 94. LL 178.3 -5.1 Table 4-13 Service II Flange Stresses Limit State Fatigue Location Bottom Flange Top Flange Bottom of Web Top of Web Stress (MPa) Positive LL Negative LL 18.3 1.5 Table 4-12 Strength I Flange Stresses Limit State Service II Location Bottom Flange Top Flange Stress (MPa) Dead + Pos.9 Table 4-14 Fatigue Flange and Web Stresses 4-22 .0 18.

The minimum design force for the controlling flange.13. times the smaller effective flange area.3.1. By inspection of Table 4-12.0 α = 1. When a flange is in compression.e. The minimum design stress for the controlling (bottom) flange is computed as follows: S6.3 ⋅ MPa Rh = 1.4c S6.Controlling Flange: The next step is to determine the minimum design forces for the controlling flange of each load case (i. Fcf. positive and negative live load).75 ⋅ α ⋅ φ ⋅ F = ⎝ f yf 2 SEquation 6. on either side of the splice.6.. the effective compression flange area shall be taken as Ae = Ag.10.0 Fyf = 345 MPa 4-23 .1): Minimum yield strength of the flange: fcf = 178.0 φ f = 1.6 Fcf ⎞ ⎛ fcf + α ⋅ φ f ⋅ Fyf ⎜ Rh ⎠ ≥ 0. Ae. it is obvious that the bottom flange is the controlling flange for both positive and negative live load for the Strength I Limit State.13. is taken equal to the design stress.Strength I Minimum Design Force . Pcu.6.4c-1 where: Maximum flexural stress due to the factored loads at the midthickness of the controlling flange at the point of splice (from Table 4-12): Hybrid girder reduction factor. For homogeneous girders: Flange stress reduction factor: Resistance factor for flexure (Design Step 4.1. The calculation of the minimum design force is presented below for the load case of dead load with positive live load.

75 ⋅ α ⋅ φ f ⋅ Fyf 2 Fcf = 259 MPa 2 The minimum design stress for the bottom flange for this load case is: Fcf = max Fcf .Fcf 1 ⎞ ⎛ fcf + α ⋅ φ f ⋅ Fyf ⎜ Rh ⎠ = ⎝ 2 Fcf = 262 MPa 1 Compute the minimum required design stress: Fcf = 0. Fcf 1 2 Fcf = 262 MPa The minimum design force now follows: Pcu = Fcf ⋅ Ae ( ) The gross area of the bottom flange is: AflbL = bflbL ⋅ tflbL AflbL = 7832 mm 2 4-24 .

This value was computed previously to be: Aebot = 6186 mm Therefore: Pcu = Fcf ⋅ Aebot Pcu = 1618567 N 2 Table 4-15 presents the minimum design forces for the Strength I Limit State for both the positive and negative live load cases. Flange -133. 4-25 .3 262 7832 2049243 Load Case Location Table 4-15 Controlling Flange Forces In the above table. LL Bot. the effective area will be used. the design controlling flange force (Pcu) is a compressive force for negative live load. Strength I Limit State Controlling Flange fcf (MPa) Fcf (MPa) Area (mm2) Pcu (N) Dead + Pos. Flange 178.3 262 6186 1618567 Dead + Neg.Since the bottom flange force for this load case is a tensile force. LL Bot.

Fncf. Ae.4c-2 Fcf = 262 MPa fcf = 178 MPa Hybrid girder reduction factor: Rh = 1 4-26 . the effective compression flange area shall be taken as Ae = Ag.13. By inspection of Table 4-12. The minimum design force for the noncontrolling flange.e.6.3 ⋅ MPa fncf Rh ≥ 0. Pncu. the top flange is the noncontrolling flange for both positive and negative live load for the Strength I Limit State. positive and negative live load). The calculation of the minimum design force is presented below for the load case of dead load with positive live load.1.75 ⋅ α ⋅ φ f ⋅ Fyf S6. on either side of the splice.3.10.Strength I Minimum Design Force .6 SEquation 6.6.Noncontrolling Flange: The next step is to determine the minimum design forces for the noncontrolling flange of each load case (i..1. When a flange is in compression.4c S6. times the smaller effective flange area.13. is taken equal to the design stress. The minimum design stress for the noncontrolling (top) flange is computed as follows: Fncf = Rcf ⋅ where: Maximum flexural stress due to the factored loads at the midthickness of the noncontrolling flange at the point of splice concurrent with f cf (see Table 4-12): Controlling flange design stress: Controlling flange actual stress: Controlling flange stress ratio: Rcf = Fcf fcf Rcf = 1 fncf = −5.

The effective compression flange area shall be taken as: Ae = Ag Ag = tfltL ⋅ bfltL Therefore: Pncu = Fncf ⋅ Ag Pncu = 1473840 N (compression) Ag = 5696 mm 2 ( ) SEquation 6.75 ⋅ α ⋅ φ f ⋅ Fyf 2 Fncf = 259 MPa 2 The minimum design stress in the top flange is: Fncf = max Fncf .3.6-2 4-27 .8 MPa 1 Compute the minimum required design stress: Fncf = 0. the top flange is in compression.Therefore: Fncf = Rcf ⋅ 1 fncf Rh Fncf = 7.10. Fncf 1 2 Fncf = 259 MPa The minimum design force now follows: Pncu = Fncf ⋅ Ae For the positive live load case.

Strength I Limit State Noncontrolling Flange fncf (MPa) Fncf (MPa) Area (mm2) Pncu (N) Dead + Pos. the design noncontrolling flange force (Pncu) is a compressive force for positive live load. 4-28 .Table 4-16 presents the minimum design forces for the Strength I Limit State for both the positive and negative live load cases. LL Top Flange 94.5 259 4495 1163081 Load Case Location Table 4-16 Noncontrolling Flange Forces In the above table.3 259 5696 1473840 Dead + Neg. LL Top Flange -5.

in this design example. The factored Service II design stresses and forces are shown in Table 4-17 below. per the Introduction in Design Step 1.13. multiplied by the smaller gross flange area on either side of the splice. Fs is defined as follows: Fs = fs Rh S6.1 7832 5696 7832 5696 Ps (N) 802780 -15379 -631259 63226 Bot.1. LL Location Fs (MPa) Agross (mm2) 102. bolted connections for flange splices are to be designed as slip-critical connections for the service level flange design force. 4-29 S3. This design force shall be taken as the Service II design stress.5 -2. no special erection procedure is prescribed and.7 -80. By inspection. the Service II Limit State will control for checking of slip-critical connections for the flanges and the web in this example.13.4c SEquation 6.2 . the deck is placed in a single pour.4c-4 fs = maximum flexural Service II stress at the midthickness of the flange under consideration.6.6 11. Fs. Therefore. Flange Dead + Neg. LL Top Flange Table 4-17 Service II Flange Forces It is important to note here that the flange slip resistance must exceed the larger of: (1) the Service II flange forces or (2) the factored flange forces from the moments at the splice due to constructibility (erection and/or deck pouring sequence).6. the constructibility moment is equal to the noncomposite dead load moment shown at the beginning of this design step.4. Service II Limit State Load Case Dead + Pos. Flange Top Flange Bot.Service II Limit State Flange Forces: Per the Specifications.1. However.

2 ⋅ MPa The stress range is determined by: ∆f = fspos + fsneg ∆f = 31.13.6.Fatigue Limit State Stresses: The final portion of this design step is to determine the range of the stresses at the midthickness of both flanges. From Tables 4-9 and 4-10.5 MPa Fatigue Limit State Stress Range (MPa) Location ∆ f (MPa) Bottom Flange 31. the factored stresses at the midthickness of the bottom flange are: Case 1 .Positive Live Load: C6.3 Bottom of Web 31.4c fspos = 18.1.Negative Live Load: fsneg = −13.2 Top of Web 2.5 Top Flange 2.1 Table 4-18 Fatigue Stress Ranges 4-30 .3 ⋅ MPa Case 2 . A typical calculation of the stress range for the bottom flange is shown below. and at the top and bottom of the web for the Fatigue Limit State. The ranges are calculated below and presented in Table 4-18.

C Splice L Girder Web Girder Web Inside Splice Plates 2 Plates .4 . Figure 4-3 illustrates the initial bottom flange splice configuration. try a 11mm x 356mm outside splice plate with two 13mm x 150mm inside splice plates.Design Step 4. Include a 13mm x 356mm fill plate on the outside. Therefore.Design Bottom Flange Splice Splice Plate Dimensions: The width of the outside plate should be at least as wide as the width of the narrowest flange at the splice.13mm x 150mm Flange 22mm x 356mm Fill Plate 13mm x 356mm Outside Splice Plate 11mm x 356mm Flange 35mm x 356mm Figure 4-3 Bottom Flange Splice The dimensions of the elements involved in the bottom flange splice from Figure 4-3 are: Thickness of the inside splice plate: Width of the inside splice plate: Thickness of the outside splice plate: Width of the outside splice plate: Thickness of the fill plate: Width of the fill plate: tin = 13 ⋅ mm bin = 150 ⋅ mm tout = 11 ⋅ mm bout = 356 ⋅ mm tfill = 13 ⋅ mm bfill = 356 ⋅ mm 4-31 .

the flange design force would be proportioned to the inside and outside splice plates. This is calculated by multiplying the flange design force by the ratio of the area of the splice plate under consideration to the total area of the inner and outer splice plates. Gross area of the inside and outside splice plates: Inside: Agross_in = 2 ⋅ tin ⋅ bin Agross_in = 3900 mm Outside: Agross_out = tout ⋅ bout Agross_out = 3916 mm Check: Agross_in ⎞ ⎛ ⋅ 100% = 0. 2 2 C6.6.6.4c 4-32 .41 % ⎜1 − Agross_out ⎠ ⎝ The combined areas are within ten percent.13. then both the inside and outside splice plates may be designed for one-half the flange design force.If the combined area of the inside splice plates is within ten percent of the area of the outside splice plate.1.4c C6. If the areas of the inside and outside splice plates had differed by more than ten percent.13.1.

13.1) SEquation 6. the Strength I bottom flange tension design force is: Pcu = 1618567 N The factored tensile resistance for yielding on the gross section is: Pr = φ y ⋅ Pny P r = φ y ⋅ Fy ⋅ Ag Fy = 345 MPa φy = 1 (Design Step 4.1) (Design Step 4.5. fracture. and block shear.4c S6.2.2 At the Strength Limit State. the design force in the splice plates subjected to tension shall not exceed the factored resistances for yielding.Tension: S6.13. From Table 4-15.Yielding and Fracture of Splice Plates: Case 1 .1-1 For yielding of the outside splice plate: Ag = Agross_out P r = φ y ⋅ Fy ⋅ Ag Pr = 1283469 N The outside splice plate takes half of the design load: Pcu 2 = 809283N Pr = 1283469 N > Pcu 2 = 809283N OK 4-33 .8.1.6.

diagonal or zigzag line.8.1) S6.2.1) (Design Step 4. This is determined by subtracting from the width of the element the sum of the width of all holes in the chain and adding the quantity s2/4g for each space between consecutive holes in the chain.For yielding of the inside splice plates: Ag = Agross_in P r = φ y ⋅ Fy ⋅ Ag Pr = 1278225 N The inside splice plate takes half of the design load: Pcu 2 = 809283N Pcu 2 Pr = 1278225 N > = 809283N OK The factored tensile resistance for fracture on the net section is: Pr = φ u ⋅ Pnu P r = φ u ⋅ Fu ⋅ An ⋅ U Fu = 450 MPa φu = 1 U = 1. the minimum net width is the width of the element minus the number of bolt holes in a line straight across the width.3 SEquation 6.5. S6.0 To compute the net area of the splice plates. such as in this design example. The net width shall be determined for each chain of holes extending across the member along any transverse.8.1-2 (Design Step 4.2 4-34 . For non-staggered holes. assume four 22mm bolts across the width of the splice plate.13.

5.85 ⋅ Agross_out = 3329 mm OK Pr = φ u ⋅ Fu ⋅ An_out ⋅ U Pr = 1013760 N The outside splice plate takes half of the design flange force: Pr = 1013760 N > Pcu 2 = 809283N OK 4-35 .85 Ag: An ≤ 0.13.2 < 0.For fracture of the outside splice plate: The net width is: bn_out = bout − 4 ⋅ dhole dhole = 25 mm bn_out = 256 mm The nominal area is determined to be: An_out = bn_out ⋅ tout An_out = 2816 mm 2 (Design Step 4.85 ⋅ Ag Agross_out = 3916 mm An_out = 2816 mm 2 2 2 S6.1) The net area of the connecting element is limited to 0.

2 < 0.85 Ag: An ≤ 0.For fracture of the inside splice plates: The net width is: bn_in = bin − 2 ⋅ dhole bn_in = 100 mm The nominal area is determined to be: An_in = 2( bn_in ⋅ tin) An_in = 2600 mm 2 The net area of the connecting element is limited to 0.85 ⋅ Agross_in = 3315 mm OK Pr = φ u ⋅ Fu ⋅ An_in ⋅ U Pr = 936000N The inside splice plates take half of the design flange force: Pr = 936000N > Pcu 2 = 809283N OK 4-36 .13.85 ⋅ Ag Agross_in = 3900 mm An_in = 2600 mm 2 2 2 S6.5.

6.1.4c-3 For yielding of the outside splice plate: As = Agross_out Rr_out = φ c ⋅ Fy ⋅ As Rr_out = 1215918 N Rr_out = 1215918 N > Pcu 2 = 1024622 N OK For yielding of the inside splice plates: As = Agross_in Rr_in = φ c ⋅ Fy ⋅ As Rr_in = 1210950 N Pcu 2 Rr_in = 1210950 N > = 1024622 N OK 4-37 .Case 2 .13.1) SEquation 6. the Strength I bottom flange compression design force is: Pcu = 2049243 ⋅ N This force is distributed equally to the inside and outside splice plates. The factored resistance of the splice plate is: R r = φ c ⋅ Fy ⋅ A s φ c = 0.4c From Table 4-15.90 (Design Step 4.6.1.Compression: S6.13.

1. splice plates and gusset plates.4-2 Fu = 450 MPa φ bs = 0.6.4 Rr = φ bs ⋅ ( 0.13.58 ⋅ Avn then: S6. However.2 S6.13. the Strength I bottom flange tension design force is: Pcu = 1618567N To determine the appropriate block shear equation: If Atn ≥ 0. Block shear rupture will usually not govern the design of splice plates of typical proportion.5.4-1 SEquation 6.58 ⋅ Fy ⋅ Avg + Fu ⋅ Atn) Otherwise: Rr = φ bs ⋅ ( 0. from Design Step 4. From Table 4-15.Block Shear: All tension connections.58 ⋅ Fu ⋅ Avn + Fy ⋅ Atg) where. including connection plates.13.13.80 4-38 .1: Minimum yield strength of the connected material: Minimum tensile strength of the connected material: Resistance factor for block shear: Fy = 345 MPa SEquation 6.13. the block shear checks are carried out here for completeness. shall be investigated to ensure that adequate connection material is provided to develop the factored resistance of the connection.4c S6.

is shown in Figure 4-4.5 ⋅ dhole⎤ ⋅ tout ⎣ ⎦ Avn = 1381 mm 2 4-39 . along with the first assumed failure mode.Outside Splice Plate: Failure Mode 1: A bolt pattern must be assumed prior to checking an assumed block shear failure mode. An initial bolt pattern for the bottom flange splice. The outside splice plate will now be checked for block shear. 38mm 38mm 75mm 75mm C Field L Splice 75mm 25mm Ø 49mm 125mm 356mm Figure 4-4 Outside Splice Plate .Failure Mode 1 Applying the factored resistance equations presented previously to the outside splice plate for Failure Mode 1: Gross area along the plane resisting shear stress: Avg = [ 2 ⋅ ( 75 ⋅ mm) + 38 ⋅ mm] ⋅ tout Avg = 2068 mm 2 Net area along the plane resisting shear stress: Avn = ⎡2 ⋅ ( 75 ⋅ mm) + 38 ⋅ mm − 2.

Gross area along the plane resisting tension stress: Atg = [ 2 ⋅ ( 75 ⋅ mm) + 125 ⋅ mm + 38 ⋅ mm] ⋅ tout Atg = 3443 mm 2 Net area along the plane resisting tension stress: Atn = ⎡[ 2 ⋅ ( 75 ⋅ mm) + 125 ⋅ mm + 38 ⋅ mm] − 3.5 ⋅ dhole⎤ ⋅ tout ⎣ ⎦ Atn = 2480 mm 2 To determine which equation should be applied to calculate the factored resistance: Atn = 2480 mm 2 > 0.58 ⋅ Avn = 801 mm 2 Therefore.4-1: Rr = φ bs ⋅ ( 0.58 ⋅ Fy ⋅ Avg + Fu ⋅ Atn) Rr = 1224025 N Check: Rr = 1224025 N > Pcu 2 = 809284N OK 4-40 .13. use SEquation 6.

5 ⋅ dhole⎤ ⋅ tout ⎣ ⎦ Avn = 2761 mm 2 4-41 .Failure Mode 2 Applying the factored resistance equations presented previously to the outside splice plate for Failure Mode 2: Gross area along the plane resisting shear stress: Avg = 2[ 2 ⋅ ( 75 ⋅ mm) + 38 ⋅ mm] ⋅ tout Avg = 4136 mm 2 Net area along the plane resisting shear stress: Avn = 2⎡2 ⋅ ( 75 ⋅ mm) + 38 ⋅ mm − 2.Failure Mode 2: See Figure 4-5 for Failure Mode 2: 38mm 38mm 49mm 25mm Ø 75mm 75mm C Field L Splice 75mm 125mm 356mm Figure 4-5 Outside Splice Plate .

58 ⋅ Fy ⋅ Avg + Fu ⋅ Atn) Rr = 1260051 N Check: Rr = 1260051 N > Pcu 2 = 809284N OK 4-42 .5dhole⎤ ⋅ tout ⎣ ⎦ Atn = 1661 mm 2 To determine which equation should be applied to calculate the factored resistance: Atn = 1661 mm 2 > 0.Gross area along the plane resisting tension stress: Atg = 2( 75 ⋅ mm + 38 ⋅ mm) ⋅ tout Atg = 2486 mm 2 Net area along the plane resisting tension stress: Atn = 2⎡( 75 ⋅ mm + 38 ⋅ mm) − 1.4-1: Rr = φ bs ⋅ ( 0.58 ⋅ Avn = 1601 mm 2 Therefore.13. use SEquation 6.

Block Shear Check Applying the factored resistance equations presented previously to the inside splice plates for the assumed failure mode: Gross area along the plane resisting shear stress: Avg = 2[ 2 ⋅ ( 75 ⋅ mm) + 38 ⋅ mm] ⋅ tin Avg = 4888 mm 2 Net area along the plane resisting shear stress: Avn = 2⎡[ 2 ⋅ ( 75 ⋅ mm) + 38 ⋅ mm] − 2.5 ⋅ dhole⎤ ⋅ tin ⎣ ⎦ Avn = 3263 mm 2 4-43 .Inside Splice Plates: The inside splice plates will now be checked for block shear. See Figure 4-6 for the assumed failure mode: C Field L Splice 38mm 38mm 75mm 75mm 49mm 75mm 25mm Ø 38mm 125mm 330mm 150mm Figure 4-6 Inside Splice Plates .

4-1: Rr = φ bs ⋅ ( 0. use SEquation 6.58 ⋅ Fy ⋅ Avg + Fu ⋅ Atn) Rr = 1489151 N Check: Rr = 1489151 N > Pcu 2 = 809284N OK 4-44 .Gross area along the plane resisting tension stress: Atg = 2( 75 ⋅ mm + 38 ⋅ mm) ⋅ tin Atg = 2938 mm 2 Net area along the plane resisting tension stress: Atn = 2⎡( 75 ⋅ mm + 38 ⋅ mm) − 1.58 ⋅ Avn = 1893 mm 2 Therefore.13.5dhole⎤ ⋅ tin ⎣ ⎦ Atn = 1963 mm 2 To determine which equation should be applied to calculate the factored resistance: Atn = 1963 mm 2 > 0.

Block Shear Check Applying the factored resistance equations presented previously to the bottom flange for the assumed failure mode: Gross area along the plane resisting shear stress: Avg = 4[ 2 ⋅ ( 75 ⋅ mm) + 45 ⋅ mm] ⋅ tflbL Avg = 17160mm 2 Net area along the plane resisting shear stress: Avn = 4⎡[ 2 ⋅ ( 75 ⋅ mm) + 45 ⋅ mm] − 2.Girder Bottom Flange: The girder bottom flange will now be checked for block shear.5 ⋅ dhole⎤ ⋅ tflbL ⎣ ⎦ Avn = 11660mm 2 4-45 . See Figure 4-7 for the assumed failure mode: 75mm 38mm 75mm C Field L 45mm Splice 75mm 25mm Ø 125mm 356mm Figure 4-7 Bottom Flange .

These checks are performed in what follows.0dhole⎤ ⋅ tflbL ⎣ ⎦ Atn = 2200 mm 2 To determine which equation should be applied to calculate the factored resistance: Atn = 2200 mm 2 < 0.58 ⋅ Fu ⋅ Avn + Fy ⋅ Atg) Rr = 3345408 N Check: Rr = 3345408 N > Pcu = 1618567 N OK It should be noted that although the block shear checks performed in this design example indicate an overdesign.58 ⋅ Avn = 6763 mm 2 Therefore. 4-46 .4-2: Rr = φ bs ⋅ ( 0. use SEquation 6. the number of bolts cannot be reduced prior to checking shear on the bolts and bearing at the bolt holes.Gross area along the plane resisting tension stress: Atg = 2( 75 ⋅ mm) ⋅ tflbL Atg = 3300 mm 2 Net area along the plane resisting tension stress: Atn = 2⎡( 75 ⋅ mm) − 1.13.

The nominal shear resistance is computed first as follows: Rn = ( 0. A minimum of two rows of bolts should be provided to ensure proper alignment and stability of the girder during construction.13.Flange Bolts . The Strength I flange design force used in this check was previously computed (reference Table 4-15): Pcu = 2049243 ⋅ N The factored resistance of an ASTM A325 22mm diameter high-strength bolt in shear must be determined.2. assuming the threads are excluded from the shear planes. For this case.7-1 Ab = 380 mm Specified minimum tensile strength of the bolt from Design Step 4. known as double shear.48 ⋅ Ab ⋅ Fub ⋅ Ns) where: Area of the bolt corresponding to the nominal diameter: Ab = π 2 ⋅ dbolt 4 2 SEquation 6. the number of bolts required to provide adequate shear strength is determined by assuming the design force acts on two shear planes.1: Fub = Fubolt Fub = 830 MPa Number of shear planes per bolt: Ns = 2 4-47 .Shear: Determine the number of bolts for the bottom flange splice plates that are required to develop the Strength I design force in the flange in shear assuming the bolts in the connection have slipped and gone into bearing.

13.48 ⋅ Ab ⋅ Fub) Rn = 302890N The factored shear resistance now follows: Ru = φ s ⋅ Rn φ s = 0. specified in Article 6.5-1 where: γ = Ap 4-48 .13. including girder flange splices.Rn = 2 ⋅ ( 0. is reduced by an appropriate factor: In this design example. or The fillers need not be extended and developed provided that the factored resistance of the bolts in shear at the Strength Limit State.6.80 Ru = 242312N When bolts carrying loads pass through fillers 6. the reduction factor approach will be used.1.1.13.0 mm or more in thickness in axially loaded connections.2. either: The fillers shall be extended beyond the gusset or splice material and shall be secured by enough additional bolts to distribute the total stress in the member uniformly over the combined section of the member and the filler.2.1) ⎡ (1 + γ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎣ ( 1 + 2γ ) ⎦ Af SEquation 6.6.5 (Design Step 4. The reduction factor per the Specifications is: R = ⎢ S6.

Sum of the area of the fillers on the top and bottom of the connected plate: Af = bfill tfill Af = 4628 mm 2 The smaller of either the connected plate area (i.e. Ap2) Ap = 7816 mm Therefore: γ = Af Ap γ = 0.59 2 4-49 . girder flange) or the sum of the splice plate areas on the top and bottom of the connected plate determines Ap. Bottom flange area: bflbL = 356 mm tflbL = 22 mm Ap1 = ( bflbL) ⋅ ( tflbL) Ap1 = 7832 mm 2 Sum of splice plate areas is equal to the gross areas of the inside and outside splice plates: Agross_in = 3900 mm 2 Agross_out = 3916 mm 2 Ap2 = Agross_in + Agross_out Ap2 = 7816 mm 2 The minimum of the areas is: Ap = min ( Ap1 ..

3). When checking for slip of the bolted connection for a flange splice with inner and outer splice plates.The reduction factor is determined to be: Rfill = ⎢ ⎡ (1 + γ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎣ ( 1 + 2γ ) ⎦ Rfill = 0. Slip of the connection cannot occur unless slip occurs on both planes.4c C6.13.Slip Resistance: Bolted connections for flange splices shall be designed as slip-critical connections for the Service II flange design force.1.13.13.2. whichever governs.60 The minimum number of bolts required on each side of the splice to resist the maximum Strength I flange design force in shear is twelve. From Table 4-17. In this design example. the Service II flange force controls (see previous discussion in Design Step 4.1.13.2. Flange Bolts .6. the slip resistance should always be determined by dividing the flange design force equally to the two slip planes regardless of the ratio of the splice plate areas. divide the applied Strength I flange design force by the reduced allowable bolt shear strength: R = Ru ⋅ Rfill R = 176624N The number of bolts required per side is: Nbolt = Pcu R Nbolt = 11.4c SEquation 6.2-1 SEquation 6.6.73 To determine the total number of bolts required for the bottom flange splice. or the flange design force from constructibility.8-1 . the Service II bottom flange design force is: Ps = 802780 ⋅ N The factored resistance for slip-critical connections is: Rr = Rn R n = Kh ⋅ Ks ⋅ N s ⋅ Pt 4-50 S 6.

0 Ks = 0.13. Additionally: Number of slip planes per bolt: Minimum required bolt tension: Hole size factor: Surface condition factor for Class B surface conditions: R r = Kh ⋅ Ks ⋅ N s ⋅ Pt Ns = 2 Pt = 176000N Kh = 1.56 Therefore.8-1 STable 6.8-2 STable 6.13.13.6. most inorganic zinc (IOZ) primers provide a Class B surface.13.13. Arrange the bolts in three rows of four bolts per line with no stagger. Friction Coefficient Selection Weathering steel can be blasted for a Class B surface. Also.8-3 S6. standard holes (which are required per S6.4a) and two slip planes per bolt: Class B surfaces are unpainted blast-cleaned surfaces and blast-cleaned surfaces with Class B coatings. 4-51 . Ps Rr Nbolt = 4.1. for painted steel.2.8 The minimum number of bolts required to prevent slip is: Nbolt = Use: Nbolt = 5 bolts < N = 12 bolts determined previously to satisfy the bolt shear requirements.2. the number of bolts required for the bottom-flange splice is controlled by the bolt shear requirements.50 Rr = 176000 N STable 6.2.Determine the factored resistance per bolt assuming a Class B surface condition for the faying surface.2.

Flange Bolts .2 4-52 .1) S6.1 The minimum spacing requirement is satisfied. For a single line adjacent to a free edge of an outside plate or shape (for example.6.Flange Bolts .2.0 ⋅ tout = 144 mm s ≤ 144 ⋅ mm OK 144 ⋅ mm ≤ 175 ⋅ mm tout = 11 mm S6. dbolt = 22 mm smin = 3 ⋅ dbolt smin = 66 mm For this example.6. s = 75 ⋅ mm (see Figures 4-4 thru 4-7) (Design Step 4.0 ⋅ t) ≤ 175 where: Thickness of the thinner outside plate or shape: Maximum spacing for sealing: 100 ⋅ mm + 4.Minimum Spacing: The minimum spacing between centers of bolts in standard holes shall be no less than three times the diameter of the bolt.13. the bolts along the edges of the plate parallel to the direction of the applied force): s ≤ ( 100 + 4.Maximum Spacing for Sealing: The maximum spacing of the bolts is limited to prevent penetration of moisture in the joints.13.2.

0 ⋅ t) ≤ 175 Maximum spacing along the free edge at the end of the splice plate (see Figures 4-4 thru 4-7): send = 125 ⋅ mm Maximum spacing for sealing: 100 ⋅ mm + 4. check for sealing along the free edge at the end of the splice plate. Referring to Figures 4-4 thru 4-7.0 ⋅ tout = 144 mm send ≤ 144 ⋅ mm OK Therefore the requirement is satisfied.13.13. For a 22mm diameter bolt measured to a sheared edge. the minimum edge distance is 38mm.2.2. The bolts are not staggered. Flange Bolts .6-1 4-53 .3 The minimum required edge distance is measured as the distance from the center of any bolt in a standard hole to an edge of the plate.6.6.13.6.Maximum Pitch for Stitch Bolts: The maximum pitch requirements are applicable only for mechanically fastened built-up members and will not be applied in this example.Next.6 S6. it is clear that the minimum edge distance specified for this example is 38mm and thus satisfies the minimum requirement. therefore the applicable equation is: s ≤ ( 100 + 4.Edge Distance: Minimum: S6. STable 6. Flange Bolts .2.

8 ⋅ t ≤ 125 ⋅ mm where: t = tout tout = 11 mm The maximum edge distance allowable is: 8 ⋅ tout = 88 mm The maximum distance from the corner bolts to the corner of the splice plate or girder flange is equal to (reference Figure 4-7): ( 38 ⋅ mm) + ( 45 ⋅ mm) = 59 mm and satisfies the maximum edge distance requirement.Maximum: The maximum edge distance shall not be more than eight times the thickness of the thinnest outside plate or 125mm. 59 ⋅ mm ≤ 88 ⋅ mm OK 2 2 4-54 .

To determine the applicable equation for the calculation of the nominal resistance. Therefore. the clear distance between edges of adjacent holes is computed as: Lc = 75 ⋅ mm − dhole 2 Lc = 50 mm 2 4-55 . The maximum Strength I bottom flange design force from Table 4-15 is: Pcu = 2049243N The design bearing strength of the connected material is calculated as the sum of the bearing strengths of the individual bolt holes parallel to the line of the applied force. the clear end distance between the edge of the hole and the end of the splice plate: dhole = 25 mm Lc = 38 ⋅ mm − 1 S6. the clear distance between holes and the clear end distance must be calculated and compared to the value of two times the nominal diameter of the bolt.2.Bearing at Bolt Holes: Check bearing of the bolts on the connected material under the maximum Strength I Limit State design force. the edge distance is 38mm.Flange Bolts . Therefore.9 (Design Step 4. This check yields: dbolt = 22 mm 2 ⋅ dbolt = 44 mm For the bolts adjacent to the end of the splice plate.1) (Design Step 4. The element of the bottom flange splice that controls the bearing check in this design example is the outer splice plate.1) dhole 2 Lc = 25 mm 1 The center-to-center distance between bolts in the direction of the force is 75mm.13.

1): tout = 11 mm Fu = 450 MPa SEquation 6.2.80 Rr = φ bb ⋅ Rn Rr = 2385504 N Check: Pcu 2 = 1024622 N < Rr = 2385504 N OK (Design Step 4.2 ⋅ Lc ⋅ t ⋅ Fu For the outside splice plate: Thickness of the connected material: Tensile strength of the connected material (Design Step 4.13.9-2 The nominal resistance for the end row of bolt holes is computed as follows: Rn = 4 ⋅ 1.For standard holes.1) 4-56 .2 ⋅ Lc ⋅ tout ⋅ Fu 1 1 ( ) Rn = 605880 N 1 The nominal resistance for the remaining bolt holes is computed as follows: Rn = 8 ⋅ 1.2 ⋅ Lc ⋅ tout ⋅ Fu 2 2 Rn = 2376000 N 2 ( ) The total nominal resistance of the bolt holes is: Rn = Rn + Rn 1 2 Rn = 2981880 N φ bb = 0. where either the clear distance between holes or the clear end distance is less than twice the bolt diameter: Rn = 1.

and therefore.5 ⋅ MPa For load-induced fatigue considerations. an explicit check is not specified.6.2.1. a fatigue check of the splice plates is recommended whenever the combined area of the inside and outside flange splice plates is less than the area of the smaller flange at the splice.1. From Table 4-18.6.Fatigue of Splice Plates: Check the fatigue stresses in the base metal of the bottom flange splice plates adjacent to the slip-critical connections.6. the factored fatigue stress range at the midthickness of the bottom flange is: ∆ffact = 31.6.1 SEquation 6. Fatigue normally does not govern the design of the splice plates. live load stress range due to the passage of the fatigue load: γ ( ∆f ) = ∆ffact Nominal fatigue resistance: 1 3 ( ∆F) n SEquation 6.2. However.3-1 A ⎞ ∆Fn = ⎛ ⎜N ⎝ 1⎠ ≥ 1 ⋅ ∆FTH 2 The fatigue detail category under the condition of Mechanically Fastened Connections for checking the base metal at the gross section of high-strength bolted slip-resistant connections is Category B. 4-57 .1.2-1 Force effect.2. each detail shall satisfy: γ ⋅ ( ∆f ) ≤ ( ∆F) n where: Load factor for the fatigue load combination: γ = 0.5-1 STable 6.75 S6.

the number of stress range cycles per truck passage: Single-lane ADTT.5-1 STable 6.5 MPa < ∆Fn = 55.5 11 STable 6.5-3 A ⎞ ∆Fn = ⎛ ⎜N ⎝ 1⎠ Condition 2: ∆Fn = ∆Fn = 31.1: Constant-amplitude fatigue threshold: Therefore: N1 = 123187500 Determine the nominal fatigue resistance: Condition 1: 1 3 SEquation 6.2.2.1.0 MPa 4-58 OK .The parameters required for the determination of the nominal fatigue resistance are as follows: N1 = ( 365) ⋅ ( 75) ⋅ n ⋅ ( ADTT) SL For Fatigue Category B: For a span length greater than 12000 millimeters and at a location near the interior support.3 ⋅ 10 n = 1.1.6.6.0 MPa (governs) Check that the following is satisfied: ∆ffact ≤ ( ∆F) n ∆ffact = 31.5-2 ADTTSL = 3000 ∆FTH = 110 ⋅ MPa STable 6.2.6.1. from Design Step 3.1.7 MPa 1 ⋅ ∆FTH 2 ∆Fn = 55.6.5-2 A = 39.2.

Control of Permanent Deflection .5.95 ⋅ Fyf = 328 MPa 4-59 OK .10.10.1): ff Fyf = 345 MPa S6.2-1 The flange force is equally distributed to the inner and outer splice plates due to the areas of the flanges being within 10 percent of each other: P = Ps 2 P = 401390 N The resulting stress in the outside splice plate is: Agross_out = 3916 mm f_out = P Agross_out < 2 f_out = 103 MPa f_out = 103 MPa 0.2 SEquation 6. However.5. such a check is recommended.Splice Plates: A check of the flexural stresses in the splice plates at the Service II Limit State is not explicitly specified in the specifications. whenever the combined area of the inside and outside flange splice plates is less than the area of the smaller flange at the splice (which is the case for the bottom flange splice in this example).95 ⋅ Fyf where: Elastic flange stress caused by the factored loading: Specified minimum yield strength of the flange (Design Step 4. The equation presented is for both steel flanges of composite section: ff ≤ 0. The maximum Service II flange force in the bottom flange is taken from Table 4-17: Ps = 802780N The following criteria will be used to make this check.

However.95 ⋅ Fyf = 328 MPa OK Design Step 4.5 . 4-60 .Design Top Flange Splice The design of the top flange splice is not included in this design example (for the sake of simplicity and brevity). the top flange splice is designed using the same procedures and methods presented in this design example for the bottom flange splice.The resulting stress in the inside splice plates is: Agross_in = 3900 mm f_in = P Agross_in < 2 f_in = 103 MPa f_in = 103 MPa 0.

any number of commercially available software programs can be used to obtain the design dead and live loads at the splice.Design Step 4.Compute Web Splice Design Loads S6.6 . The live loads include impact and distribution factors.1. the AASHTO Opis software was used. the moment due to the eccentricity of the shear at the point of splice.4b Web splice plates and their connections shall be designed for shear.6.13. For this design example. Loads Shears Dead Loads: Noncomposite: Composite: Future Wearing Surface: Live Loads: HL-93 Positive: HL-93 Negative: Fatigue Positive: Fatigue Negative: VPLL = 64500N VNLL = −405215N VPFLL = 22240N VNFLL = −148565N VNDL = −270438N VCDL = −38700N VFWS = −47150N 4-61 . Girder Shear Forces at the Splice Location: Based on the girder properties defined in Design Step 3 (Steel Girder Design). and the portion of the flexural moment assumed to be resisted by the web at the point of the splice. A summary of the unfactored shears at the splice from the initial trial of the girder design are listed below.

Huw will equal zero. The web moment and horizontal force resultant are applied together to yield a combined stress distribution equivalent to the unsymmetrical stress distribution in the web. Muw.13.1..1. Muv. For sections with equal compressive and tensile stresses at the top and bottom of the web (i.4b 75 ⋅ mm 2 (Reference Figure 4-8) . the web splice is designed under the conservative assumption that the maximum moment and shear at the splice will occur under the same loading condition. It is important to note that the flange stresses are taken as signed quantities in determining Muw and Huw (positive for tension.6.6. For this design example: e = 49 ⋅ mm + e = 86 mm The total web moment for each load case is computed as follows: Mtotal = Muw + Muv In general. a horizontal design force resultant. horizontal force resultant is zero).4b S6. Huw. This moment is computed as: Muv = Vuw ⋅ e where e is defined as the distance from the centerline of the splice to the centroid of the connection on the side of the joint under consideration. the flange stresses at the midthickness of the flanges are conservatively used. due to the eccentricity of the design shear.1.e. Huw.6.4b C6.13. In the computation of the portion of the flexural moment assumed to be resisted by the web. in the web. negative for compression). 4-62 C6. must also be applied at the mid-depth of the web to maintain equilibrium.. is resisted solely by the web and always acts about the mid-depth of the web (i.13. which simplifies the calculations. Vuw. and in this example.e. with the neutral axis located at the mid-depth of the web). This allows use of the same stress values for both the flange and web splices.Web Moments and Horizontal Force Resultant: Because the portion of the flexural moment assumed to be resisted by the web is to be applied at the mid-depth of the web. and the horizontal design force resultant. The moment.

C.00 Vr = φ v ⋅ Vn Vn = C ⋅ Vp Vp = 0.7.Strength I Limit State: Design Shear: S6.10.10 ⋅ and 1.1-1 SEquation 6.1) S6.1.10.58 ⋅ Fyw ⋅ D ⋅ tw where: Ratio of shear buckling stress to the shear yield strength.2 SEquation 6.3a 1.2 E = 200000MPa Fyw = Fy Fyw = 345 MPa .0 Modulus of Elasticity: Specified minimum yield strength of the web (Design Step 4.7. Assume an unstiffened web at the splice location. is dependent upon the ratio of D/tw in comparison to: E⋅k Fyw E⋅k Fyw (Design Step 4.2-2 S6. the girder web factored shear resistance is required when determining the design shear.7.10.13.6. φ v = 1.38 ⋅ And: k = 5.2-1 SEquation 6.1): From Figure 4-1: Web Depth: Thickness of the web: D = 1372 mm tw = 13 mm 4-63 S6.10.4b For the Strength I Limit State.3.7.7.10.10.7.

Compare: D = 106 tw to the values for: 1. use the following equation to determine C: 1.10 ⋅ E⋅k = 59 Fyw and 1.38 ⋅ E⋅k = 74 Fyw Based on the computed value of D/tw.40 The nominal shear resistance is computed as follows: Vp = 0.7.58 ⋅ Fyw ⋅ D ⋅ tw Vp = 3568984 N Vn = C ⋅ Vp Vn = 1411717 N The factored shear resistance now follows: Vr = φ v ⋅ Vn Vr = 1411717N 4-64 .10.52 ⎛ E ⋅ k ⎞ ⋅ 2 ⎜ Fyw ⎠ ⎛D⎞ ⎝ ⎜t ⎝ w⎠ C = SEquation 6.3.3a-7 C = 0.

For the Strength I Limit State. the factored shear for the positive live load is: Vupos = 0. then: Vuw = 1.50 ⋅ VFWS + 1.75 ⋅ VNLL Vuneg = −1166274N (controls) Therefore: Vu = Vuneg Since Vu exceeds one-half of Vr: Vuw = Vu + Vr 2 SEquation 6.75 ⋅ VPLL Vupos = −165349 N For the Strength I Limit State.13. the factored shear for the negative live load is: Vuneg = 1.13.1.25 ⋅ ( VNDL + VCDL) + 1.4b-1 The shear due to the Strength I loading at the point of splice.4b-2 SEquation 6.5 ⋅ Vu Otherwise: Vuw = Vu + Vr 2 SEquation 6.13.4b-2 Vuw = 1288996 N 4-65 .90 ⋅ ( VNDL + VCDL) + 1.6. is computed from the girder shear forces at the splice location listed at the beginning of this design step.1. shall be taken as: If Vu < 0. Vuw.5 Vr.6.6.1. the design shear.At the strength limit state. Vu.

the controlling flange was previously determined to be the bottom flange.47 Rh = 1. Fcf.0 Web thickness: Web depth: tw = 13 mm D = 1372 mm 4-66 . The maximum elastic flexural stress due to the factored loads at the midthickness of the controlling flange.13. fncu.3 ⋅ MPa Therefore.3 ⋅ MPa Fcf = 262 ⋅ MPa For the same loading condition. the portion of the flexural moment assumed to be resisted by the web is computed as: tw ⋅ D 12 2 Mw = where: ⋅ Rh ⋅ Fcf − Rcf ⋅ fncf CEquation 6. were previously computed for this loading condition.Dead Load + Positive Live Load: For the loading condition with positive live load.Web Moments and Horizontal Force Resultants: Case 1 . was previously computed. From Table 4-16: fncf = −5. the concurrent flexural stress at the midthickness of the noncontrolling (top) flange.6. From Table 4-15: fcf = 178. and the design stress for the controlling flange. fcf.1.4b-1 The hybrid girder reduction factor: The ratio Rcf is computed as follows: Rcf = Fcf fcf Rcf = 1.

13. positive for tension and negative for compression. 4-67 .1.4b-2 Hw_str_pos = 2267 kN The above value is a signed quantity.Compute the portion of the flexural moment to be resisted by the web: tw ⋅ D 12 2 Mw_str_pos = ⋅ Rh ⋅ Fcf − Rcf ⋅ fncf Mw_str_pos = 550164995 N ⋅ mm The total web moment is: Vuw = 1288996N e = 86 mm Mtot_str_pos = Mw_str_pos + ( Vuw ⋅ e) Mtot_str_pos = 661663149 N ⋅ mm Compute the horizontal force resultant (the variables included in this equation are as defined for Mw_str_pos): tw ⋅ D 2 Hw_str_pos = ⋅ ( Rh ⋅ Fcf + Rcf ⋅ fncf) CEquation 6.6.

For this case the stresses were previously computed. for the loading condition with negative live load. the controlling flange was determined to be the bottom flange.Dead Load + Negative Live Load: Similarly.97 Therefore: 2 Mw_str_neg = tw ⋅ D 12 ⋅ Rh ⋅ Fcf − Rcf ⋅ fncf Mw_str_neg = 913905688 N ⋅ mm 4-68 .5 ⋅ MPa The ratio. from Table 4-16: fncf = 94. Rcf.Case 2 . the flexural stress at the midthickness of the flange. From Table 4-15: fcf = −133 ⋅ MPa Fcf = −262 ⋅ MPa For the noncontrolling (top) flange. is computed as follows: Fcf fcf Rcf = Rcf = 1.

4-69 . and negative for compression.The total web moment is: Vuw = 1288996 N e = 86 mm Mtot_str_neg = Mw_str_neg + ( Vuw ⋅ e) Mtot_str_neg = 1025403842 N ⋅ mm Compute the horizontal force resultant: Hw_str_neg = tw ⋅ D 2 ⋅ ( Rh ⋅ Fcf + Rcf ⋅ fncf) Hw_str_neg = −676360 N The above value is a signed quantity. positive for tension.

In this design example.30 ⋅ VNLL Vser_neg = −883068 N (governs) Therefore: Vw_ser = Vser_neg 4-70 . for checking slip of the web splice bolts.00 ⋅ VNDL + 1. The elastic shears due to the unfactored loads at the point of the splice are listed at the beginning of this design step. the Service II shear controls (see previous discussion in Design Step 4.00 ⋅ VFWS + 1. the factored shear for the negative live load is (include future wearing surface): Vser_neg = 1.00 ⋅ VNDL + 1.Service II Limit State: Design Shear: As a minimum.6.13. the factored shear for the positive live load is (ignore future wearing surface): Vser_pos = 1.3).30 ⋅ VPLL S6.00 ⋅ VCDL + 1.1.00 ⋅ VCDL + 1. whichever governs. the design shear shall be taken as the shear at the point of splice under the Service II Limit State.4b Vser_pos = −225288 N For the Service II Limit State. For the Service II Limit State. or the shear from constructibility.

4b-1 and CEquation 6. is termed fos.13.4b-2.e.7 ⋅ MPa Therefore. for the load case of positive live load: tw ⋅ D 12 2 Mw_ser_pos = ⋅ fs_bot_pos − fos_top_pos Mw_ser_pos = 214529030 N ⋅ mm 4-71 .Dead Load + Positive Live Load: The maximum midthickness flange flexural stress for the load case with positive live load moment for the Service II Limit State occurs in the bottom flange.1.13. concurrent with fs.6.13. fs is the maximum Service II midthickness flange stress for the load case considered (i.Web Moments and Horizontal Force Resultants: The web design moment and horizontal force resultant are computed using CEquation 6.6.1.5 ⋅ MPa fos_top_pos = −2. From Table 4-13: fs_bot_pos = 102. modified for the Service II Limit State as follows: tw ⋅ D 12 2 C6..6. positive or negative live load). Case 1 .4b Mw_ser = ⋅ fs − fos Hw_ser = tw ⋅ D 2 ⋅ ( fs + fos) In the above equations.1. The Service II midthickness flange stress in the other flange.

positive for tension.The total web moment is: Vw_ser = 883068N e = 86 mm Mtot_ser_pos = Mw_ser_pos + ( Vw_ser ⋅ e) Mtot_ser_pos = 290914369 N ⋅ mm Compute the horizontal force resultant: Hw_ser_pos = tw ⋅ D 2 ⋅ ( fs_bot_pos + fos_top_pos) Hw_ser_pos = 890016N The above value is a signed quantity. and negative for compression. 4-72 .

positive for tension.6 ⋅ MPa fos_top_neg = 11.1 ⋅ MPa Therefore: Mw_ser_neg = tw ⋅ D 12 2 ⋅ fs_bot_neg − fos_top_neg Mw_ser_neg = 186999164 N ⋅ mm The total web moment is: Vw_ser = 883068N e = 86 mm Mtot_ser_neg = Mw_ser_neg + ( Vw_ser ⋅ e) Mtot_ser_neg = 263384503 N ⋅ mm Compute the horizontal force resultant: Hw_ser_neg = tw ⋅ D 2 ⋅ ( fs_bot_neg + fos_top_neg) Hw_ser_neg = −619801 N The above value is a signed quantity. 4-73 . From Table 4-13: fs_bot_neg = −80.Dead Load + Negative Live Load: The maximum midthickness flange flexural stress for the load case with negative live load moment for the Service II Limit State occurs in the bottom flange.Case 2 . and negative for compression.

the absolute value signs are removed to keep track of the signs.1.4a For the Fatigue Limit State. fatigue will generally not govern the design of the splice plates. the factored shear for the negative live load is: Vfat_neg = 0.Fatigue Limit State: Fatigue of the base metal adjacent to the slip-critical connections in the splice plates may be checked as specified in STable 6. Also. This yields the following equations: Mw = tw ⋅ D 12 tw ⋅ D 2 2 ⋅ ( fbotweb − ftopweb) Hw = ⋅ ( fbotweb + ftopweb) 4-74 . but is carried out in this example for completeness.4b-2.2. respectively. Therefore.75 ⋅ VNFLL Vfat_neg = −111424 N Web Moments and Horizontal Force Resultants: The portion of the flexural moment to be resisted by the web and the horizontal force resultant are computed from equations similar to CEquations 6.6. the areas of the web splice plates will often equal or exceed the area of the web to which it is attached (the case in this design example).1. However.13.1. Design Shear: C6.13.4b-1 and 6.6.1.13.6.75 ⋅ VPFLL Vfat_pos = 16680N For the Fatigue Limit State.3-1 using the gross section of the splice plates and member.6. with appropriate substitutions of the stresses in the web caused by the fatigue-load moment for the flange stresses in the equations. the factored shear for the positive live load is: Vfat_pos = 0.

Case 1 .2 ⋅ MPa fbotweb_pos = 18. from Table 4-14. are: ftopweb_pos = −1.1 ⋅ MPa Therefore: Mw_fat_pos = tw ⋅ D 12 2 ⋅ ( fbotweb_pos − ftopweb_pos) Mw_fat_pos = 39357512 N ⋅ mm The total web moment is: Vfat_pos = 16680N e = 86 mm Mtot_fat_pos = Mw_fat_pos + ( Vfat_pos ⋅ e) Mtot_fat_pos = 40800332 N ⋅ mm Compute the horizontal force resultant: tw ⋅ D 2 ⋅ ( fbotweb_pos + ftopweb_pos) Hw_fat_pos = Hw_fat_pos = 150714N The above value is a signed quantity. 4-75 . and negative for compression. positive for tension.Positive Live Load: The factored stresses due to the positive live load moment for the Fatigue Limit State at the top and bottom of the web.

1 ⋅ MPa ftopweb_neg = 0. and negative for compression. positive for tension.Negative Live Load: The factored stresses due to the negative live load moment for the Fatigue Limit State at the top and bottom of the web.Case 2 . 4-76 . from Table 4-14.9 ⋅ MPa Therefore: Mw_fat_neg = tw ⋅ D 12 2 ⋅ ( fbotweb_neg − ftopweb_neg) Mw_fat_neg = −28549491 N ⋅ mm The total web moment is: Vfat_neg = −111424 N e = 86 mm Mtot_fat_neg = Mw_fat_neg + ( Vfat_neg ⋅ e) Mtot_fat_neg = −38187645 N ⋅ mm Compute the horizontal force resultant: Hw_fat_neg = tw ⋅ D 2 ⋅ ( fbotweb_neg + ftopweb_neg) Hw_fat_neg = −108800 N The above value is a signed quantity. are: fbotweb_neg = −13.

The typical bolt spacings. both horizontally and vertically.Design Step 4. 4-77 . No web fill plate is necessary for this example. The web is spliced symmetrically by plates on each side with a thickness not less than one-half the thickness of the web. Also. Assume 8mm x 1220mm splice plates on each side of the web.7 . are as shown in Figure 4-8.Design Web Splice Web Splice Configuration: Two vertical rows of bolts with sixteen bolts per row will be investigated. This may result in an overdesigned web splice. The outermost rows of bolts are located 115mm from the flanges to provide clearance for assembly (see the AISC Manual of Steel Construction for required bolt assembly clearances). two vertical rows of bolts in the web on each side of the splice is considered a standard minimum. but is considered good engineering practice. C Splice L 75mm 10mm 49mm 38mm 75mm 75mm 38mm Figure 4-8 Web Splice Web Splice Design It is recommended to extend the web splice plates as near as practical to the full depth of the web between flanges without impinging on bolt assembly clearances.

Web Bolts .6.13.4.0 ⋅ twp = 132 mm 75 ⋅ mm ≤ 132 ⋅ mm OK 132 ⋅ mm ≤ 175 ⋅ mm twp = 8 ⋅ mm S6.Minimum Spacing: This check is only dependent upon the bolt diameter.6. S6.1 S6.13.2.13. For a single line adjacent to a free edge of an outside plate or shape (for example.Maximum Pitch for Stitch Bolts: The maximum pitch requirements are applicable only for mechanically fastened built-up members and will not be applied in this example.2 Web Bolts .2.6. the bolts along the edges of the plate parallel to the direction of the applied force): s ≤ ( 100 + 4.2. Web Bolts .0 ⋅ t) ≤ 175 where: Thickness of the thinner outside plate or shape.3 4-78 . in this case the web plate: Maximum spacing for sealing: 100 ⋅ mm + 4.Maximum Spacing for Sealing: The maximum spacing of the bolts is limited to prevent penetration of moisture in the joints. and is therefore satisfied for a 75mm spacing per the check for the flange bolts from Design Step 4.

13.2.13. Maximum: STable 6.Edge Distance: Minimum: S6. 8 ⋅ t ≤ 125mm where: t = twp twp = 8 mm The maximum edge distance allowable is: 8 ⋅ twp = 64 mm The maximum distance from the corner bolts to the corner of the splice plate or girder flange is equal to (reference Figure 4-8): ( 38 ⋅ mm) + ( 38 ⋅ mm) = 54 mm and satisfies the maximum edge distance requirement. 54 ⋅ mm ≤ 64 ⋅ mm OK 4-79 2 2 . it is clear that the minimum edge distance specified for this example is 38mm and thus satisfies the minimum requirement. For a 22mm diameter bolt measured to a sheared edge.6 The minimum required edge distance is measured as the distance from the center of any bolt in a standard hole to an edge of the plate.Web Bolts .6. the minimum edge distance is 38mm. Referring to Figure 4-8.6-1 The maximum edge distance shall not be more than eight times the thickness of the thinnest outside plate or 125mm.2.6.

This is required for determination of the shear force in a given bolt due to the applied web moments.Shear: Ru = 242312N 4-80 . Ip = n⋅m ⎡ 2 2 2 2 ⎣s ⋅ n − 1 + g ⋅ m − 1 ⎤ ⎦ 12 ( ) ( ) CEquation 6.Web Bolts . was computed in Design Step 4. assuming the threads are excluded from the shear planes.Shear: Calculate the polar moment of inertia.4b-3 where: Number of vertical rows of bolts: Number of bolts in one vertical row: Vertical pitch: Horizontal pitch: The polar moment of inertia is: Ip = n⋅m ⎡ 2 2 2 2 ⎣s ⋅ n − 1 + g ⋅ m − 1 ⎤ ⎦ 12 2 m = 2 n = 16 s = 75 ⋅ mm g = 75 ⋅ mm ( ) ( ) Ip = 3870000 mm The total number of web bolts on each side of the splice.1. The shear strength of an ASTM A325 22mm diameter high-strength bolt in double shear.4 for Flange Bolts . of the bolt group on each side of the centerline with respect to the centroid of the connection. Ip. is: Nb = 32 Strength I Limit State: Under the most critical combination of the minimum design shear.6. assuming two vertical rows per side with sixteen bolts per row. it is assumed that the bolts in the web splice have slipped and gone into bearing. moment and horizontal force.13.

6: Vuw = 1288996 N Mtot_str_pos = 661663149 N ⋅ mm Hw_str_pos = 2267063 N The vertical shear force in the bolts due to the applied shear force: Pv_str = Vuw Nb Pv_str = 40281N The horizontal shear force in the bolts due to the horizontal force resultant: PH_str_pos = Hw_str_pos Nb PH_str_pos = 70846N Determine the horizontal and vertical components of the bolt shear force on the extreme bolt due to the total moment in the web: PMv = Mtotal ⋅ x Ip and PMh = Mtotal y Ip 4-81 .Threads in the Shear Plane Since the bolt shear strength for both the flange and web splices is based on the assumption that the threads are excluded from the shear planes. an appropriate note should be placed on the drawings to ensure that the splice is detailed to exclude the bolt threads from the shear planes.Dead Load + Positive Live Load: The following forces were computed in Design Step 4. Case 1 .

For the vertical component: x = g 2 x = 38 mm For the horizontal component: y = 15 ⋅ s 2 y = 563 mm Calculating the components: PMv_str_pos = Mtot_str_pos ⋅ ( x) Ip PMv_str_pos = 6411 N PMh_str_pos = Mtot_str_pos( y) Ip PMh_str_pos = 96172N The resultant bolt force for the extreme bolt is: Pr_str_pos = ( Pv_str + PMv_str_pos) 2 . 2 + ( PH_str_pos + PMh_str_pos) Pr_str_pos = 173422 N 4-82 ...

Case 2 .6: Vuw = 1288996 N Mtot_str_neg = 1025403842 N ⋅ mm Hw_str_neg = −676360 N The vertical shear force in the bolts due to the applied shear force: Pv_str = Vuw Nb Pv_str = 40281N The horizontal shear force in the bolts due to the horizontal force resultant: PH_str_neg = Hw_str_neg Nb PH_str_neg = 21136N Determine the horizontal and vertical components of the bolt shear force on the extreme bolt due to the total moment in the web: Calculating the components: Mtot_str_neg ⋅ ( x) Ip PMv_str_neg = PMv_str_neg = 9936 N 4-83 .Dead Load + Negative Live Load: The following forces were computed in Design Step 4.

PMh_str_neg = Mtot_str_neg( y) Ip PMh_str_neg = 149041 N The resultant bolt force is: Pr_str_neg = ( Pv_str + PMv_str_neg) 2 . 2 + ( PH_str_neg + PMh_str_neg) Pr_str_neg = 177432N The governing resultant bolt force is: Pr_str = max ( Pr_str_pos .. Pr_str_neg) Pr_str = 177432 N Check: Pr_str = 177432 N < Ru = 242312N OK 4-84 ..

6: Vw_ser = 883068N Mtot_ser_pos = 290914369 N ⋅ mm Hw_ser_pos = 890016N The vertical shear force in the bolts due to the applied shear force: Ps_ser = Vw_ser Nb Ps_ser = 27596N The horizontal shear force in the bolts due to the horizontal force resultant: PH_ser_pos = Hw_ser_pos Nb PH_ser_pos = 27813N 4-85 .Dead Load + Positive Live Load: The following forces were computed in Design Step 4.Service II Limit State: The factored slip resistance. for a 22mm diameter high-strength bolt in double shear for a Class B surface and standard holes was determined from Design Step 4.4 to be: Rr = 176000N Case 1 . Rr.

..Determine the horizontal and vertical components of the bolt shear force on the extreme bolt due to the total moment in the web: For the vertical component: x = 38 mm Mtot_ser_pos ⋅ ( x) Ip PMv_ser_pos = PMv_ser_pos = 2819 N For the horizontal component: y = 563 mm PMh_ser_pos = Mtot_ser_pos( y) Ip PMh_ser_pos = 42284N The resultant bolt force is: Pr_ser_pos = ( Ps_ser + PMv_ser_pos) 2 . 2 + ( PH_ser_pos + PMh_ser_pos) Pr_ser_pos = 76411N 4-86 .

Dead Load + Negative Live Load: The following forces were computed in Design Step 4.Case 2 .6: Vw_ser = 883068N Mtot_ser_neg = 263384503 N ⋅ mm Hw_ser_neg = −619801 N The vertical shear force in the bolts due to the applied shear force: Ps_ser = Vw_ser Nb Ps_ser = 27596N The horizontal shear force in the bolts due to the horizontal force resultant: PH_ser_neg = Hw_ser_neg Nb PH_ser_neg = 19369N Determine the horizontal and vertical components of the bolt shear force on the extreme bolt due to the total moment in the web: For the vertical component: PMv_ser_neg = Mtot_ser_neg ⋅ ( x) Ip PMv_ser_neg = 2552 N 4-87 .

. Pr_ser_neg) Pr_ser = 76411N Check: Pr_ser = 76411N < Rr = 176000 N OK Thirty-two 22mm diameter high-strength bolts in two vertical rows on each side of the splice provides sufficient resistance against bolt shear and slip.. 2 + ( PH_ser_neg + PMh_ser_neg) Pr_ser_neg = 65058N The governing resultant bolt force is: Pr_ser = max ( Pr_ser_pos .For the horizontal component: Mtot_ser_neg( y) Ip PMh_ser_neg = PMh_ser_neg = 38283N The resultant bolt force is: Pr_ser_neg = ( Ps_ser + PMv_ser_neg) 2 . 4-88 .

13.00 2 S6.6.1: Specified minimum yield strength of the connection element: Resistance factor for shear: The factored shear resistance is then: Rr = φ v ⋅ ( 0.13.Shear Yielding of Splice Plates: Check for shear yielding on the gross section of the web splice plates under the Strength I design shear force.3-2 Nwp = 2 twp = 8 ⋅ mm dwp = 1220 ⋅ mm 4-89 .58) ⋅ ( Agross_wp) ⋅ ( Fy) Rr = 3905952 N Check: Vuw = 1288996 N < Rr = 3905952 N OK Fy = 345 MPa φ v = 1.13.5.4b SEquation 6. Vuw: Vuw = 1288996 N The factored resistance of the splice plates is taken as: Rr = φ v ⋅ Rn Rn = 0.58 ⋅ Ag ⋅ Fy The gross area of the web splice is calculated as follows: Number of splice plates: Thickness of plate: Depth of splice plate: Agross_wp = Nwp ⋅ twp ⋅ dwp Agross_wp = 19520mm From Design Step 4.3-1 SEquation 6.1.5.

having no parallel planes. Atg = 0 ⋅ mm 2 Atn = 0 ⋅ mm 2 Therefore.80 where the net area resisting shear: Avn = Nwp ⋅ ( dwp − Nfn ⋅ dhole) ⋅ twp (Design Step 4. including the case of a net section extending across the full plate width. is recommended.4-2 4-90 .4 Investigation of critical sections and failure modes. the factored resistance is: Rr = φ bs ⋅ ( 0. the factored design shear for the Strength I Limit State was determined to be: Vuw = 1288996 N Fracture on the Net Section: S6.4b C6.13. From Design Step 4.Fracture and Block Shear Rupture of the Web Splice Plates: Strength I Limit State checks for fracture on the net section of web splice plates and block shear rupture normally do not govern for plates of typical proportion. These checks are provided in this example for completeness. and. the areas of the plate resisting tension are considered to be zero.13. For this case.6. This may be a more severe requirement for a girder flange or splice plate than the block shear rupture mode.13.58 ⋅ Fu ⋅ Avn + Fy ⋅ Atg) φ bs = 0. other than block shear.1. therefore.1) SEquation 6.6.

5.13.Number of web plates: Depth of the web plate: Number of bolts along one plane: Thickness of the web plate: From Design Step 4.85 ⋅ Agross_wp Agross_wp = 19520mm A85 = 16592mm 2 2 2 S6.2 > Avn = 13120mm OK The factored resistance is then: Rr = φ bs ⋅ ( 0.58 ⋅ Fu ⋅ Avn) Rr = 2739456 N > Vuw = 1288996 N OK 4-91 .1: Specified minimum yield strength of the connected material: Specified minimum tensile strength of the connected material: Diameter of the bolt holes: Net area resisting shear: Avn = Nwp ⋅ ( dwp − Nfn ⋅ dhole) ⋅ twp Avn = 13120mm 2 Nwp = 2 dwp = 1220 mm Nfn = 16 twp = 8 mm Fy = 345 MPa Fu = 450 ⋅ MPa dhole = 25 mm Avn of the splice plates to be used in calculating the fracture strength of the splice plates cannot exceed eighty-five percent of the gross area of the plates: A85 = 0.

4 Connection plates.13.4-1 SEquation 6.Web Splice Plate 4-92 .13. splice plates and gusset plates shall be investigated to ensure that adequate connection material is provided to develop the factored resistance of the connection.58 ⋅ Fy ⋅ Avg + Fu ⋅ Atn) otherwise: Rr = φ bs ⋅ ( 0.13. Determine the applicable equation: If Atn ≥ 0.58 ⋅ Fu ⋅ Avn + Fy ⋅ Atg) C Splice L SEquation 6.58 ⋅ Avn then: Rr = φ bs ⋅ ( 0.4-2 38mm 75mm 38mm 75mm Figure 4-9 Block Shear Failure Mode .Block Shear Rupture Resistance: S6.

Gross area along the plane resisting shear stress: Avg = Nwp ⋅ ( dwp − 38 ⋅ mm) ⋅ twp Avg = 18912mm 2 Net area along the plane resisting shear stress: Avn = Nwp ⋅ ⎡ dwp − 38 ⋅ mm − 15.58 ⋅ Fu ⋅ Avn + Fy ⋅ Atg) Rr = 3153274 N Check: Vuw = 1288996 N < Rr = 3153274 N OK 4-93 .50 ⋅ ( dhole) ⎤ ⋅ twp ⎣ ⎦ Avn = 12712mm 2 Gross area along the plane resisting tension stress: Atg = Nwp ⋅ ( 38 ⋅ mm + 75 ⋅ mm) ⋅ twp Atg = 1808 mm 2 Net area along the plane resisting tension stress: Atn = Nwp ⋅ ⎡ 38 ⋅ mm + 75 ⋅ mm − 1.58 ⋅ Avn = 7373 mm 2 Therefore. SEquation 6.13.5 ⋅ ( dhole) ⎤ ⋅ twp ⎣ ⎦ Atn = 1208 mm 2 Identify the appropriate block shear equation: Atn = 1208 mm < 2 0.4-2 is the governing equation: Rr = φ bs ⋅ ( 0.

1.Flexural Yielding of Splice Plates: Check for flexural yielding on the gross section of the web splice plates for the Strength I Limit State due to the total web moment and the horizontal force resultant: S6.4b f = MTotal Spl + Huw Agross_wp ≤ φ f ⋅ Fy where: Resistance factor for flexure (Design Step 4.Dead Load + Positive Live Load: Mtot_str_pos = 661663149 N ⋅ mm Hw_str_pos = 2267063 N fstr_pos = Mtot_str_pos Spl N mm 2 + Hw_str_pos Agross_wp fstr_pos = 283 fstr_pos = 283 MPa < φ f ⋅ Fy = 345 MPa OK 4-94 .13.1): Section modulus of the web splice plate: Spl = 1 ⋅ Agross_wp ⋅ dwp 6 3 φ f = 1.6.00 Spl = 3969067 mm Case 1 .

Case 2 .Dead Load + Negative Live Load: Mtot_str_neg = 1025403842 N ⋅ mm Hw_str_neg = −676360 N Mtot_str_neg Spl Hw_str_neg Agross_wp fstr_neg = + fstr_neg = 293 MPa fstr_neg = 293 MPa < φ f ⋅ Fy = 345 MPa OK 4-95 .

2 f = + ≤ 0.Control of Permanent Deflection .Splice Plates: Check the maximum normal stress on the gross section of the web splice plates for the Service II Limit State due to the total web moment and horizontal force resultant: MTotal Spl Hw Agross_wp S6.Dead Load + Positive Live Load: Mtot_ser_pos = 290914369 N ⋅ mm Hw_ser_pos = 890016N fser_pos = Mtot_ser_pos Spl + Hw_ser_pos Agross_wp fser_pos = 119 MPa fser_pos = 119 MPa < 0.95 ⋅ Fy = 328 MPa OK 4-96 .10.95 ⋅ Fy where: Spl = 3969067 mm 3 Agross_wp = 19520mm 2 Case 1 .5.

95 ⋅ Fy = 328 MPa OK 4-97 .Dead Load + Negative Live Load: Mtot_ser_neg = 263384503 N ⋅ mm Hw_ser_neg = −619801 N fser_neg = Mtot_ser_neg Spl + Hw_ser_neg Agross_wp fser_neg = 98 MPa fser_neg = 98 MPa < 0.Case 2 .

Bearing Resistance at Bolt Holes: Since the girder web thickness is less than twice the thickness of the web splice plates.) Figure 4-10 Bearing Resistance .9 Hole 2 Lc1 Lc2 End of Girder Hole 1 Bottom Flange Shear Planes for Bearing (Typ. the clear distance between holes and the clear end distance must be calculated and compared to the value of two times the nominal diameter of the bolt. the girder web will control for the bearing check. The design bearing strength of the girder web at the location of the extreme bolt in the splice is computed as the minimum resistance along the two orthogonal shear failure planes shown in Figure 4-10.2.Web Bolts .9 4-98 . The maximum force (vector resultant) acting on the extreme bolt is compared to this calculated strength. This check yields: dbolt = 22 mm 2 ⋅ dbolt = 44 mm (Design Step 4.1) S6. Check the bearing of the bolts on the connected material for the Strength I Limit State assuming the bolts have slipped and gone into bearing.13. which is conservative since the components of this force parallel to the failure surfaces are smaller than the maximum force.Girder Web To determine the applicable equation for the calculation of the nominal bearing resistance.2. S6.13.

1: Thickness of the connected material: Tensile strength of the connected material: tw = 13 mm Fu = 450 MPa SEquation 6.0d.13.The edge distance from the center of the hole to the edge of the girder is taken as 45mm.2.6 The center-to-center distance between adjacent holes is 75mm.13. where either the clear distance between holes is less than 2. or the clear end distance is less than 2.6.0d: Rn = 1.2 ⋅ Lc ⋅ tw ⋅ Fu 1 Rn = 228150N 4-99 .1) Lc = 33 mm 1 S6.2. the clear distance between the edge of the hole and the edge of the girder is computed as follows: dhole Lc = 45 ⋅ mm − 1 2 dhole = 25 mm (Design Step 4. Therefore. Therefore. the clear distance between holes is: Lc = 75 ⋅ mm − dhole 2 Lc = 50 mm 2 For standard holes.2 ⋅ Lc ⋅ t ⋅ Fu From Design Step 4.9-2 The nominal bearing resistance at the extreme bolt hole is as follows: Rn = 1.

The factored bearing resistance is: Rr = φ bb ⋅ Rn φ bb = 0. it is recommended that the edge distance be increased slightly in lieu of increasing the number of bolts or thickening the web. 4-100 .80 Rr = 182520 N The controlling minimum Strength I resultant bolt force was previously computed: Pr_str = 177432 N < Rr = 182520 N OK (Design Step 4.1) Bearing Resistance at Web Bolt Holes Should the bearing resistance be exceeded.

6.Fatigue of Splice Plates: For load-induced fatigue considerations.1.2-1 f = + From previous calculations: Spl = 3969067 mm 3 2 Agross_wp = 19520mm Case 1 .6: Mtot_fat_pos = 40800332 N ⋅ mm Hw_fat_pos = 150714N Mtot_fat_pos Spl Hw_fat_pos Agross_wp ffat_pos = + ffat_pos = 18 MPa 4-101 .2.Positive Live Load: From Design Step 4. which by inspection are subject to a net tensile stress. each detail shall satisfy: γ ⋅ ( ∆f ) ≤ ( ∆F) n Fatigue is checked at the bottom edge of the splice plates. The normal stresses at the bottom edge of the splice plates due to the total positive and negative fatigue-load web moments and the corresponding horizontal force resultants are as follows: Mtotal Spl Hw Agross_wp SEquation 6.

Negative Live Load: From Design Step 4.6: Mtot_fat_neg = −38187645 N ⋅ mm Hw_fat_neg = −108800 N Mtot_fat_neg Spl Hw_fat_neg Agross_wp ffat_neg = + ffat_neg = −15 MPa The total fatigue-load stress range at the bottom edge of the web splice plates is therefore: γ∆f = ffat_pos + ffat_neg γ∆f = 33 MPa From Design Step 4. the fatigue resistance was determined as: ∆Fn = 55 MPa The fatigue check is now completed as follows: γ∆f = 33 MPa < ∆Fn = 55 MPa OK 4-102 .4.Case 2 .

) 2 . At 75mm Splice Plate 12 Bolts Total 356mm x (Typ.) 38mm (Typ) Web Plate 1372mm x 13mm (Typ.) 75mm (Typ.) Flange Plate 356mm x 35mm Flange Plate 356mm x 22mm Fill Plate 356mm x 13mm Outside 2 Spa.) 11mm Figure 4-11 Final Bolted Field Splice Design 4-103 .Design Step 4. At 75mm (32 Bolts Total) All Bolts 22mm Diameter ASTM A325 38mm (Typ.) 2 . C Bolted Field L Splice 49mm (Typ.Draw Schematic of Final Bolted Field Splice Design Figure 4-11 shows the final bolted field splice as determined in this design example.8 .Web Splice Plates 1219mm x 8mm 15 Spa.Inside Splice Plates 150mm x 13mm 115mm (Typ.

2 . methodology. a welded connection.Design Shear Connectors Design Step 5. but their design computations are not included in this design example.Design Welded Connections Design Step 5. and criteria for the entire bridge. The following units are defined for use in this design example: kN = 1000 ⋅ N MPa = N mm 2 Refer to Design Step 1 for introductory information about this design example. 3. 5-1 . computations for the shear connectors. including the design features included in this design step.3 . 4. The other features must also be designed.4 presents a narrative description rather than design computations.) 2 10 16 21 Design Step 5 consists of various design computations associated with the steel girder but not necessarily required to design the actual plates of the steel girder. Shear connectors Bearing stiffeners Welded connections Diaphragms and cross-frames Lateral bracing Girder camber For this design example. 2. Such miscellaneous steel design computations include the following: 1. and a cross-frame will be presented.Design Cross-frames (It should be noted that Design Step 5.Design Bearing Stiffeners Design Step 5.Miscellaneous Steel Design Example Design Step 5 Table of Contents Page Design Step 5. 5.1 . Additional information is presented about the design assumptions.4 . 6. a bearing stiffener.

shear connectors must be provided at the interface between the concrete deck slab and the steel section to resist the interface shear. since the longitudinal reinforcement is considered to be a part of the composite section. For this design example. stud shear connectors are being used throughout the length of the bridge.4.1a 90mm 125 mm (Typ.5mm 123.7.5mm 91.4. In the negative flexure region.7. In addition. shear connectors must be provided. The following figure shows the stud shear connector proportions.5mm Table 5-1 Shear Connector Embedment 150mm 5-2 .10.1 .10. 215 mm A B C 22mm φ S6. as well as the location of the stud head within the concrete deck. The shear connectors must permit a thorough compaction of the concrete to ensure that their entire surfaces are in contact with the concrete.1 S6.Design Step 5. shear connectors are normally provided throughout the length of the bridge.Design Shear Connectors Since the steel girder has been designed as a composite section. For continuous composite bridges. the shear connectors must be capable of resisting both horizontal and vertical movement between the concrete and the steel. Studs or channels may be used as shear connectors.) 356 mm Figure 5-1 Stud Shear Connectors Shear Connector Embedment Flexure Region A B C Positive 74mm 76mm 139mm Intermediate 58mm 92mm 123mm Negative 26.

7.10.10.4. the ratio is computed based on the dimensions presented in Figure 5-1.3.1a The pitch of the shear connectors must be determined to satisfy the fatigue limit state as specified in S6.Shear Connector Layout It is common to use several stud shear connectors per transverse row along the top flange of the girder. The resulting number of shear connectors must not be less than the number required to satisfy the strength limit states as specified in S6.0.10. The number of shear connectors per transverse row will depend on the top flange width. The pitch.7.1b S6. The ratio of the height to the diameter of a stud shear connector must not be less than 4. of the shear connectors must satisfy the following equation: p≤ n ⋅ Zr ⋅ I Vsr ⋅ Q The parameters I and Q are based on the short-term composite section and are determined using the deck within the effective flange width.4. 5-3 .1c for transverse spacing requirements.2 and S6.4. Refer to S6.4.4.7.7. p.10.4. as applicable.10. Shear Connector Length The stud shear connector length is commonly set such that its head is located near the middle of the deck slab.1d for shear connector embedment requirements.10.10. as follows: Heightstud = 150mm Diameterstud = 22 ⋅ mm Heightstud Diameterstud =7 OK S6.4.4.7. Refer to S6. For this design example.7.7.

2 (see Design Step 3.In the positive flexure region: n = 3 I = 25562038078 ⋅ mm 4 (see Figure 5-1) (see Table 3-4) S6.4.2.10.0 ⋅ d 2 2 α ⋅ d = 2189 Therefore. p = n ⋅ Zr ⋅ I Vsr ⋅ Q Zr = 9196N = 9196 p = 214 mm 5-4 .5 ⋅ log ( N1) α = 4. The factored value is computed as follows: Vsr = 0.0 ⋅ d 2 S6.7.14 at location of maximum positive flexure) S6.5 N1 = 82125000 α = 238 − 29.3.10.6.1.1.1b ( 212 ⋅ mm) ⋅ ( 2722 ⋅ mm) ⎤ Q = ⎡ ⎢ ⎥ ⋅ ( 1584 ⋅ mm − 1290 ⋅ mm) 8 ⎣ ⎦ Q = 21207102 mm 3 In the positive flexure region.75 ⋅ ( 184370 ⋅ N + 23040 ⋅ N) Vsr = 155558 N (see live load analysis computer run) Zr = α ⋅ d ≥ 2 2 38.523 d = 22 2 mm 38. the maximum fatigue live load shear range is located at the abutment.

0 ⋅ d Zr = α ⋅ d ≥ 2 2 2 S6.In the negative flexure region: n = 3 (see Figure 5-1) SC6.7. unless the concrete slab is considered to be fully effective for negative moment in computing the longitudinal range of stress.10. based on the above pitch computations to satisfy the fatigue limit state.10.6.2 (see previous computation) p = 313 mm Zr = 9196N p = n ⋅ Zr ⋅ I Vsr ⋅ Q Therefore.7.00 ⋅ N + 206965 ⋅ N) Vsr = 155224 N (see Table 3-1 and live load analysis computer run) 38. the parameters I and Q may be determined using the reinforcement within the effective flange width for negative moment. as permitted in S6. I and Q are assumed to be computed considering the concrete slab to be fully effective.2.4. For this design example.75 ⋅ ( 0.1.1.1b In the negative flexure region.4. I = 55951273907 ⋅ mm 4 (see Table 3-5) ( 212 ⋅ mm) ⋅ ( 2722 ⋅ mm) ⎤ Q = ⎡ ⎢ ⎥ ⋅ ( 1630 ⋅ mm − 1190 ⋅ mm) 8 ⎣ ⎦ Q = 31738520 mm 3 Vsr = 0. use the following pitch throughout the entire girder length: p = 250 ⋅ mm 5-5 .

the shear connectors must satisfy the following pitch requirements: p ≤ 600 ⋅ mm p ≥ 6⋅d d = 22 ⋅ mm 6 ⋅ d = 132 mm OK S6. 4 ⋅ d = 88 mm Spacingtransverse = 125 ⋅ mm (see Figure 5-1) OK In addition. Therefore.0 stud diameters center-to-center transverse to the longitudinal axis of the supporting member. 5-6 . and shear connectors should penetrate at least 50 millimeters into the deck. and this can be economically beneficial.1b For transverse spacing. the required pitch for fatigue does not vary significantly over the length of the bridge.4.10. However.4.7. the clear distance between the edge of the top flange and the edge of the nearest shear connector must not be less than 25mm. both of these requirements are satisfied.Shear Connector Pitch The shear connector pitch does not necessarily have to be the same throughout the entire length of the girder.1c OK S6. for this design example. Many girder designs use a variable pitch.4.10.10. a constant shear connector pitch of 250 millimeters will be used.7. the shear connectors must be placed transversely across the top flange of the steel section and may be spaced at regular or variable intervals. Based on the shear connector penetration information presented in Table 5-1. Stud shear connectors must not be closer than 4.1d (see Figure 5-1) Distanceclear = 42 mm The clear depth of concrete cover over the tops of the shear connectors should not be less than 50 millimeters. Distanceclear = 356mm d − 125mm − 2 2 OK S6. In addition.7.

Qr.2.5 ⋅ Asc ⋅ f' c ⋅ Ec ≤ Asc ⋅ Fu Asc = π ⋅ d 4 2 S6.4a S6.4 S6.0 moment is equal to the lesser of the following: Vh = 0.4. Qr = φ sc ⋅ Qn Therefore.2 S6.4.1) S5.0 moment and the centerline of an interior support must not be less than the following: n = Vh Qr S6.85 The nominal shear resistance of one stud shear connector embedded in a concrete slab is computed as follows: Qn = 0.85 ⋅ f' c ⋅ b ⋅ ts or Vh = Fyw ⋅ D ⋅ tw + Fyt ⋅ bt ⋅ tt + Fyc ⋅ bf ⋅ tf S6. the factored resistance of the shear connectors.10.4b 5-7 .10. between the point of maximum positive moment and each adjacent point of 0.4 Ec = 26752 ⋅ MPa (see Design Step 3.4. Qr = 135660 N Qn = 159600N The number of shear connectors provided between the section of maximum positive moment and each adjacent point of 0.For the strength limit state.4.4.4.4. Vh.4.7.4 S6.10.7.5 ⋅ 380 ⋅ 28 ⋅ 26752 = 164441 N 380 ⋅ 420 = 159600 N Therefore.1 S5.7.7.2.10.4.5.3) Fu = 420 ⋅ MPa 0. is computed as follows: Qr = φ sc ⋅ Qn φ sc = 0.4c Asc = 380 mm 2 f' c = 28 ⋅ MPa (see Design Step 3.10.0 moment or between each adjacent point of 0.4a The total horizontal shear force.7.

1-1 Fyt = 345 ⋅ MPa (see Design Step 3. Vh = 10820580N (see Design Step 3.1) D = 1372 ⋅ mm tw = 13 ⋅ mm (see Design Step 3.18) (see Design Step 3.7.18) (see Design Step 3.10.4.0 moment must not be less than the following: n = Vh Qr S6.1-1 Therefore.18) STable 6.85 ⋅ f' c ⋅ b ⋅ ts = 13734123 N Fyw ⋅ D ⋅ tw + Fyt ⋅ bt ⋅ tt + Fyc ⋅ bf ⋅ tf = 10820580 N Therefore.18) STable 6.1) S5.1) bt = 356 ⋅ mm tt = 22 ⋅ mm (see Design Step 3.where f' c = 28 MPa b = 2722 ⋅ mm ts = 212 ⋅ mm (see Design Step 3.4.4a n = 79.2.4.18) STable 6.8 The distance between the end of the girder and the location of maximum positive moment is approximately equal to: L = 14630 ⋅ mm (see Table 3-7) Similarly the distance between the section of the maximum positive moment and the point of dead load contraflexure is approximately equal to: L = 25480 ⋅ mm − 14630 ⋅ mm L = 10850mm 5-8 (see Table 3-7) .1-1 Fyc = 345 ⋅ MPa (see Design Step 3.1) bf = 356 ⋅ mm tf = 16 ⋅ mm 0.4. the number of shear connectors provided between the section of maximum positive moment and each adjacent point of 0.1 Fyw = 345 ⋅ MPa (see Design Step 3.4.3) (see Design Step 3.1) (see Design Step 3.18) (see Design Step 3.

4. the number of shear connectors provided between each adjacent point of 0.10. Vh. the number of shear connectors provided is as follows: L p p = 250 mm OK S6.Using a pitch of 250 millimeters.10. and using the minimum length computed above.0 moment and the centerline of an interior support must not be less than the following: Vh n = Qr n = 26. the number of shear connectors provided is as follows: n = 3⋅ L p p = 250 mm OK 5-9 S6. as previously computed for the fatigue limit state. the total horizontal shear force.4. as previously computed for the fatigue limit state.4a (see Table 3-7) n = 133.2 For continuous span composite sections.7.4b n = 3⋅ L = 10850mm n = 130. between each adjacent point of 0.1) Vh = Ar ⋅ Fyr Vh = 3640140 N Therefore.3) Fyr = 420 ⋅ MPa (see Design Step 3.8 The distance between the point of dead load contraflexure and the centerline of the interior support is approximately equal to: L = 36576 ⋅ mm − 25480 ⋅ mm L = 11096mm Using a pitch of 250 millimeters.2 .7.0 moment and the centerline of an interior support is equal to the following: Vh = Ar ⋅ Fyr where Ar = 8667 ⋅ mm 2 (see Design Step 3.

either in the final state or during construction. Therefore. For plate girders.3.4. with three stud shear connectors per row.1 5-10 .2 . using a pitch of 250 millimeters for each row.8. Symmetrical about C Pier L 146 Spaces @ 250mm = 36500mm (Approximately 36576mm) (3 Stud Shear Connectors Per Row) C Bearing Abutment L C Pier L Figure 5-2 Shear Connector Spacing Design Step 5.4.10. S6.Therefore. The bearing stiffeners in this design example consist of one plate welded to each side of the web.10. use a shear stud spacing as illustrated in the following figure.10.7.10.2. bearing stiffeners are required to be placed on the webs at all bearing locations and at all locations supporting concentrated loads.7.Design Bearing Stiffeners Bearing stiffeners are required to resist the bearing reactions and other concentrated loads. throughout the entire length of the girder satisfies both the fatigue limit state requirements of S6. bearing stiffeners are required at both abutments and at the pier. The connections to the web will be designed to transmit the full bearing force due to factored loads and is presented in Design Step 5.4. for this design example.2 and the strength limit state requirements of S6.7.4. The following design of the abutment bearing stiffeners illustrates the bearing stiffener design procedure.1 and S6. Therefore.

to the outer edges of the flanges. as closely as practical.5mm (Typ.) Figure 5-3 Bearing Stiffeners at Abutments 5-11 . Each stiffener will either be milled to fit against the flange through which it receives its reaction or attached to the flange by a full penetration groove weld.) Bearing Stiffener Section A-A tp = 17. A A C Bearings at L Abutment Partial Girder Elevation at Abutment Bearing Stiffener Web tw = 13mm bt = 140mm (Typ.The stiffeners extend the full depth of the web and. The following figure illustrates the bearing stiffener layout at the abutments.

Apn.2.1 STable 6.10. is computed as follows: Br = φ b ⋅ Apn ⋅ Fys φ b = 1. Then. is taken as the area of the projecting elements of the stiffener outside of the web-to-flange fillet welds but not beyond the edge of the flange.2 bt = 140 ⋅ mm The bearing resistance must be sufficient to resist the factored reaction acting on the bearing stiffeners.1-1 S6.4. Br. This provision is intended to prevent local buckling of the bearing stiffener plates. This is generally a good starting assumption for the bearing stiffener design.2 5-12 . The bearing area.8.4. The projecting width.4. if this configuration does not provide sufficient resistance. Thus the area of direct bearing is less than the gross area of the stiffener.Bearing Stiffener Plates Bearing stiffeners usually consist of one plate connected to each side of the web.5 ⋅ mm E = 200000 ⋅ MPa Fys = 345 ⋅ MPa 0. This is illustrated in the following figure: S6. bt.00 Part of the stiffener must be clipped to clear the web-to-flange weld.8.5.48 ⋅ tp ⋅ tp = 17.48 ⋅ tp ⋅ E = 202 mm Fys (see Figure 5-3) OK S6.10. two plates can be used on each side of the web. bt ≤ 0.3 E Fys (see Figure 5-3) S6. of each bearing stiffener element must satisfy the following equation. The factored bearing resistance.2.

50 ⋅ 48925 ⋅ N) ..) Bearing Width = 115mm 25mm Total Width = 140mm Figure 5-4 Bearing Width bbrg = bt − 25 ⋅ mm Apn = 2bbrg ⋅ tp Fys = 345 MPa Br = φ b ⋅ Apn ⋅ Fys Br = 1388625 N The factored bearing reaction at the abutment is computed as follows. the bearing stiffener at the abutment satisfies the bearing resistance requirements.1-2 and using reactions obtained from a computer analysis run: ReactionFactored = ( 1. + ( 1.4.Bearing Stiffener (Typ. using load factors as presented in STable 3. bbrg = 115 mm Apn = 4025 mm 2 5-13 .) 25mm x 25mm Clip for Fillet Weld (Typ.4.25 ⋅ 305580 ⋅ N) + ( 1.75 ⋅ 491500 ⋅ N) ReactionFactored = 1315488 N Therefore.1-1 and STable 3..

8. For stiffeners consisting of two plates welded to the web. the effective column section consists of the two stiffener elements.2.1 S6.9.4 S6.10.10.) Figure 5-5 Bearing Stiffener Effective Section Pr = φ c ⋅ Pn φ c = 0.4.2. This is illustrated in the following figure: Bearing Stiffener (Typ.75) ⋅ ( 1372mm) ⎡ 17.2 S6.) 9tw = 117mm 9tw = 117mm bt = 140mm S6. and the effective length is taken as 0.The final bearing stiffener check relates to the axial resistance of the bearing stiffeners.) tw = 13mm S6.90 2 ⎛ k ⋅ l ⎞ ⋅ Fy λ = ⎜ ⎝ rs ⋅ π ⎠ E (Typ.4b kl = ( 0.8. The factored axial resistance is determined as specified in S6.5.4.2.8.1 S6.8.2.4a S6. The radius of gyration is computed about the midthickness of the web.9. where D is the web depth.10.1.75D.2.10.5mm (Typ.2.4b Midthickness of Web 234mm tp = 17.5mm ⋅ ( 293mm) 3 ⎤ + ⎡ 234mm ⋅ ( 13mm) 3 ⎤ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Is = ⎣ 12 Is = 36725404 mm 4 5-14 .9.2. plus a centrally located strip of web extending not more than 9tw on each side of the stiffeners.10.4a S6.8.

0412 Therefore.1 λ = 0.2.As = ( 17. use the bearing stiffener as presented in Figures 5-3 and 5-4.1 Pn = 2770676 N Pr = φ c ⋅ Pn Pr = 2493608 N ReactionFactored = 1315488 N Therefore.66 Fy ⋅ As λ S6.5mm ⋅ 293mm) + ( 234mm ⋅ 13mm) As = 8170 mm rs = Is As rs = 67 mm Fy = 345MPa 2 ⎛ kl ⎞ ⋅ Fy λ = ⎜ ⎝ rs ⋅ π ⎠ E 2 S6. the bearing stiffener at the abutment satisfies the axial bearing resistance requirements. The bearing stiffener at the abutment satisfies all bearing stiffener requirements.25 Pn = 0.2.4. S6. Therefore.4b S6. Therefore.4.8.9.1 5-15 .10. λ ≤ 2.9.9.

ThicknessWeld = 6mm Fillet Weld Thickness In most cases.4b S6. For this design example. 2.3. provides a welded connection that satisfies all design requirements.5.4.Design Welded Connections Welded connections are required at several locations on the steel superstructure.6 ⋅ φ e2 ⋅ Fexx φ e2 = 0. the fillet weld must resist the factored reaction computed in Design Step 5.3. ReactionFactored = 1315488 N Assume a fillet weld thickness of 6 millimeters.4b S6.80 Fe483 = 483 ⋅ MPa Rr = 0. For the welded connection between the bearing stiffeners and the web. Therefore.13.6 ⋅ φ e2 ⋅ Fe483 Rr = 232 MPa S6.2. The factored resistance of the weld metal is computed as follows: Rr = 0.3 . as specified in Table 5-2. two fillet welded connection designs will be presented using E483 weld metal: 1.1 S6.13.13.2. the minimum weld thickness.5. Welded connection between the web and the flanges. The resistance of the fillet weld in shear is the product of the effective area and the factored resistance of the weld metal.2. Welded connection between the bearing stiffeners and the web.13.Design Step 5. Base metal.2 SC6.3. and welding design details must conform to the requirements of the ANSI/AASHTO/AWS Bridge Welding Code D1. the minimum weld thickness is generally a good starting point when designing a fillet weld. weld metal.3 5-16 .2.

the maximum size of the fillet weld is 2 millimeters less than the thickness of the material.4 S6.3. the thicker part joined is the bearing stiffener plate.4b For material 6 millimeters or more in thickness. unless the weld is designated on the contract documents to be built out to obtain full throat thickness. Therefore.3. the minimum size of fillet weld is 6 mm.3.13.3. Minimum Size of Fillet Welds Base Metal Thickness of Minimum Size of Thicker Part Joined (T) Fillet Weld (mm) (mm) T ≤ 20 6 T > 20 8 S6. based on Table 5-2.13. The minimum size of fillet welds is as presented in Table 5-2. In addition.13.4-1 Table 5-2 Minimum Size of Fillet Welds In this case. which is 17.3.4 STable 6. the maximum fillet weld size requirement is satisfied.2 mm AreaEff = 22435mm 2 S6.The effective area equals the effective weld length multiplied by the effective throat.3 AreaEff = LengthEff ⋅ ThroatEff The resistance of the fillet weld is then computed as follows: Resistance = Rr ⋅ AreaEff Resistance = 5201350 N OK S6.13. the bearing stiffener thickness is 17. the weld size need not exceed the thickness of the thinner part joined. 5-17 . The effective throat is the shortest distance from the joint root to the weld face.2. LengthEff = 4 ⋅ ( 1372mm − 50mm) LengthEff = 5288 mm ThroatEff = ThicknessWeld 2 ThroatEff = 4.5 millimeters and the web thickness is 13 millimeters. For the fillet weld connecting the bearing stiffeners to the web. Therefore.13. and this requirement is satisfied.5 mm thick.

as presented in Design Steps 3. Therefore.13. The following computations are for the welded connection between the web and the top flange. use a 6 millimeter fillet weld for the connection of the bearing stiffeners to the web.3 and 3. this requirement is also satisfied. The welded connection between the web and the bottom flange is designed in a similar manner.3.3 This value is greatest at the pier. The shear is computed based on the individual section properties and load factors for each loading. For the welded connection between the web and the flanges. the fillet weld must resist a factored horizontal shear per unit length based on the following equation: v = V⋅Q I S6.5 ⋅ mm) ⋅ ( 1474 ⋅ mm − 729 ⋅ mm) QNoncomp = 16841470 mm INoncomp = 27369461200 ⋅ mm vNoncomp = 4 3 VNoncomp ⋅ QNoncomp INoncomp vNoncomp = 392 N mm 5-18 .25 ⋅ 510052 ⋅ N) VNoncomp = 637565 N QNoncomp = ( 356 ⋅ mm ⋅ 63. Since all weld design requirements are satisfied.6: For the noncomposite section.5 S6.13.The minimum effective length of a fillet weld is four times its size and in no case less than 40 millimeters. where the factored shear has its highest value. the factored horizontal shear is computed as follows: VNoncomp = ( 1.

The factored resistance of the weld metal was previously computed as follows: Rr = 0.25 ⋅ 72769 ⋅ N) + ( 1.7 mm mm AreaEff = 11.. the effective area is computed per unit length. the total factored horizontal shear is computed as follows: vTotal = vNoncomp + vComp vTotal = 931 N mm Assume a fillet weld thickness of 8 millimeters.3 mm 2 AreaEff = 2 ⋅ ThroatEff 5-19 .6 ⋅ φ e2 ⋅ Fe483 Rr = 232 MPa S6. + ( 1.3 S6. the factored horizontal shear is computed as follows: VComp = ( 1.3. ThicknessWeld = 8mm The resistance of the fillet weld in shear is the product of the effective area and the factored resistance of the weld metal.13.50 ⋅ 88159 ⋅ N) . based on the use of one weld on each side of the web.3.75 ⋅ 584467 ⋅ N) VComp = 1246017 N QComp = ( 356 ⋅ mm ⋅ 63.13.For the composite section. The effective throat is the shortest distance from the joint root to the weld face. ThroatEff = ThicknessWeld 2 ThroatEff = 5.2.5 ⋅ mm) ⋅ ( 1474 ⋅ mm − 834 ⋅ mm) QComp = 14467840 mm IComp = 33466994234 ⋅ mm vComp = VComp ⋅ QComp IComp 4 3 vComp = 539 N mm Based on the above computations.. In this case.4b The effective area equals the effective weld length multiplied by the effective throat.

6. the maximum fillet weld size requirement is satisfied.1. Specific fatigue details and detail categories are explained and illustrated in STable 6. In addition. S6. Therefore.3-1 and in SFigure 6. unless the weld is designated on the contract documents to be built out to obtain full throat thickness. 3. The specific fatigue considerations depend on the unique characteristics of the girder design. Welds connecting the shear studs to the girder. the thicker part joined is the flange.3. For the fillet weld connecting the web to the flanges. Welds connecting the flanges and the web. The minimum effective length of a fillet weld is four times its size and in no case less than 40 millimeters. 5-20 . and the maximum flange thickness is 70 millimeters.2. the minimum size of fillet weld is 8 millimeters.3-1. based on Table 5-2.6. Fatigue considerations for plate girders may include: 1.13.3.13. The minimum size of fillet welds is as presented in Table 5-2.1. and this requirement is satisfied.2. use a 8 millimeter fillet weld for the connection of the web and the top flange. In this case.The resistance of the fillet weld is then computed as follows: Resistance = Rr ⋅ AreaEff Resistance = 2623 N mm OK S6. the minimum flange thickness is 16 millimeters.5 Load-induced fatigue must be considered in the base metal at a welded S6. The welded connection between the web and the bottom flange is designed in a similar manner. Since all weld design requirements are satisfied.4 S6. Therefore. the web thickness is 13 millimeters. the maximum size of the fillet weld is 2 millimeters less than the thickness of the material.3.6.13.5 connection.3.4 S6. Therefore. which has a minimum thickness of 16 millimeters and a maximum thickness of 70 millimeters. this requirement is also satisfied. the weld size need not exceed the thickness of the thinner part joined. Welds connecting the transverse intermediate stiffeners to the girder. 2.2.4b For material 6 millimeters or more in thickness.2.13.1.

is to use a maximum diaphragm or cross-frame spacing of 7600 mm.4.7.14 for the positive moment region.3 and in ANSI/AASHTO/AWS Bridge Welding Code D1.1. the arbitrary requirement for a 7600 mm maximum spacing has been replaced by a requirement for a rational analysis that will often result in the elimination of fatigue-prone attachment details.In Design Step 3. The 6096-mm spacing in this design example facilitates a reduction in the required flange thicknesses in the girder section at the pier. the fatigue check is illustrated for the fillet-welded connection of the transverse intermediate stiffeners to the girder. For this design example.5. Additional weld connection requirements are presented in S6. The need for diaphragms or cross-frames must be investigated for: • • All stages of assumed construction procedures The final condition S6. This procedure must be considered for the base metal at welded connections.Design Cross-frames Diaphragms and cross-frames may be placed at the following locations along the bridge: • • • At the end of the structure Across interior supports Intermittently along the span Diaphragm or Cross-frame Spacing A common rule of thumb.13.1 5-21 .4.7. Design Step 5. cross-frames are used at a spacing of 6096 mm. Based on C6. based on previous editions of the AASHTO Specifications.4 .

8. Both diaphragms and cross-frames connect adjacent longitudinal flexural components.1.9. 5-22 .4 or S6.2.if they are required only during construction Permanent . When investigating the need for diaphragms or cross-frames and when designing them.3.7 Applicable slenderness requirements in S6. the following must be considered: • • • • Transfer of lateral wind loads from the bottom of the girder to the deck and from the deck to the bearings Stability of the bottom flange for all loads when it is in compression Stability of the top flange in compression prior to curing of the deck Distribution of vertical dead and live loads applied to the structure Diaphragms or cross-frames can be specified as either: • • Temporary .6. while cross-frames consist of a transverse truss framework. connection plates must satisfy the requirements of S6. the Specifications require that diaphragms and cross-frames be designed for the following: • • Transfer of wind loads according to the provisions of S4.1.3 In addition.6.Difference Between Diaphragms and Cross-frames The difference between diaphragms and cross-frames is that diaphragms consist of a transverse flexural component.if they are required during construction and in the bridge's final condition At a minimum.

As illustrated in Figure 5-6. The geometry of a typical K-type cross-frame for an intermediate cross-frame is illustrated in Figure 5-6. cross-frames will be used. 5-23 . In addition. use K-type cross-frames. while X-type cross-frames have an X-shape configuration of angles or structural tees rather than a K-shape configuration of angles or structural tees. the ratio of the girder spacing to the girder depth) is greater than about 1. the intersection of the centroidal axes of the two diagonals coincides with the centroidal axis of the bottom strut. A common rule of thumb is to use K-type cross-frames when the aspect ratio (that is. the intersection of the centroidal axis of each diagonal and the centroidal axis of the top strut coincides with the vertical centerlines of the girders.5 ⋅ mm S =2 D (see Figure 3-2) (see Figure 3-15) (maximum value) Therefore. For this design example.5 to 1. Girder spacing: Girder depth: Aspect ratio: S = 2972 ⋅ mm D = 1505.5 to 1 and to use X-type cross-frames when the aspect ratio is less than 1.Cross-frame Types K-type cross-frames are as shown in Figure 5-6.

5mm W = η ⋅ γ ⋅ PD ⋅ d 2 (for Strength III Limit State) (see Design Step 3.2.6.1 Lb = 6096 ⋅ mm P w = W ⋅ Lb 5-24 .4.6.40 PD = 167 ⋅ Pa d = 1505.17 for the negative moment region.2972mm 1486mm 1486mm Steel Angle or Tee (Typ.176 N mm Pw = 1073 N C4.7.176 N mm C4.7.6.1-1 The horizontal wind force applied to the brace point may then be computed as specified in C4.2. as follows: P w = W ⋅ Lb W = 0.) Figure 5-6 K-Type Cross-frame Based on previous computations in Design Step 3.7.0 γ = 1. the unfactored wind load is computed as follows: W = η ⋅ γ ⋅ PD ⋅ d 2 η = 1.17) (maximum value) W = 0.1 S1.2.1.3 STable 3.

For the design of the cross-frame members. the following checks should be made using the previously computed wind load: • • • • • Slenderness Axial compression Flexure about the major axis Flexure about the minor axis Flexure and axial compression 5-25 .

Design for Anchorage Design Step 6.Check Stability Design Step 6.12 .Bearing Design Example Design Step 6 Table of Contents Page Design Step 6.Check Reinforcement Design Step 6.11 .2 Design Step 6.14 .8 Design Step 6.10 .5 Design Step 6.Design Anchorage for Fixed Bearing Design Step 6.9 Obtain Design Criteria Select Optimum Bearing Type Select Preliminary Bearing Properties Select Design Method (A or B) Compute Shape Factor Check Compressive Stress Check Compressive Deflection Check Shear Deformation Check Rotation or Combined Compression and Rotation Design Step 6.1 Design Step 6.6 Design Step 6.Draw Schematic of Final Bearing Design 2 2 3 3 4 5 5 7 8 9 9 10 12 15 6-1 .3 Design Step 6.7 Design Step 6.13 .4 Design Step 6.

a steel-reinforced elastomeric bearing was selected.6. including the bearing design. and economics. It was decided that the abutment would have expansion bearings. and criteria for the entire bridge. which is the case for this bearing design (first trial of girder design): DLserv = 348723N Service I limit state dead load LLserv = 491059N θ sx = 0. and vertical rotation 3.1 . the required design criteria includes: 1.Design Step 6. S14. methodology. transverse. Additional information is presented about the design assumptions. transverse. For the abutment bearing design.2 6-2 .Select Optimum Bearing Type Selecting the optimum bearing type depends on the load.2 .2-1 and SFigure 14. an abutment bearing was chosen. Longitudinal and transverse movement 2. would be an option. which are more expensive than elasomeric bearings. Longitudinal.Obtain Design Criteria For this bearing design example.6. Therefore. Longitudinal. Refer to STable 14. pot bearings. Refer to Design Step 1 for introductory information about this design example.6. movement capabilities.0121rad Psd = 301574N Service I limit state live load (including dynamic load allowance) Service I limit state total rotation about the transverse axis (see Figure 6-1) Strength limit state minimum vertical force due to permanent loads (used in Design Step 6.12) Design Step 6. and vertical loads Most of the above information is typically obtained from the superstructure design software output. The following units are defined for use in this design example: N kN = 1000 ⋅ N MPa = 2 mm For bearing design. If the loads were considerably larger. the bearing design will be for an expansion bearing.2-1 for guidance on selecting the most practical bearing type.

5.25 Fy = 345MPa Wpad = 380mm hrcover = 6mm hrinternal = 9.5mm Nstlayers = 9 hreinf = 3mm S14.Select Design Method (A or B) For this design example.2-1 Design Step 6.7. The bearing properties are obtained from the Specifications.1 6-3 .5. as well as from past experience.7. C14.66MPa Cd = 0. However.5. Method A is described in S14.7. while Method B is described in S14.2 STable 14.Design Step 6. Method A usually results in a bearing with a lower capacity than a bearing designed with Method B. Method B requires additional testing and quality control.5.7.6.2-1 STable 14.7.7. Method A will be used. the preliminary bearing properties must be defined. The following preliminary bearing properties were selected: Bearing Pad Configuration Pad length (bridge longitudinal direction): Lpad = 356mm Pad width (bridge transverse direction): Elastomer cover thickness: Elastomer internal layer thickness: Number of steel reinforcement layers: Steel reinforcement thickness: Material Properties Elastomer hardness: Elastomer shear modulus: Elastomer creep deflection at 25 years divided by the instantaneous deflection: Steel reinforcement yield strength: HshoreA = 50 G = 0.4 .2 & S14.5.6.Select Preliminary Bearing Properties Once the most practical bearing type has been selected.7.3 .

1 & by the area of perimeter free to bulge.5. The following calculation verifies that Requirement 2 is satisfied: 0. 2.5. From Design Step 6.7.1 For rectangular bearings without holes.Design Step 6. which satisfies Requirement 1.1 S14.5 .32 The shape factor for the internal layers is then: Sint = 2 ⋅ hrinternal⋅ ( Lpad + Wpad) Lpad ⋅ Wpad Sint = 9. all internal elastomer layers are the same thickness. the following requirements must be met prior to calculating the shape factor: 1.1 & S14.7.7 mm hrcover = 6 mm OK S14.70 ⋅ hrinternal = 6.5. S14.6.7. the shape factor for the ith layer is: Si = L⋅W 2 ⋅ hri ⋅ ( L + W) The shape factor for the cover layers is then: Scov = 2 ⋅ hrcover ⋅ ( Lpad + Wpad) Lpad ⋅ Wpad Scov = 15. All internal layers of elastomer must be the same thickness.67 6-4 .7.1 For steel-reinforced elastomeric bearings.6.Compute Shape Factor The shape factor for individual elastomer layers is the plan area divided S14.3.7. The thickness of the cover layers cannot exceed 70 percent of the thickness of the internal layers.

7.6.11.3.3 6-5 .2 The compressive stress is taken as the total reaction at one of the abutment bearings for the service limit state divided by the elastomeric pad plan area.4 MPa OK The service average compressive stress due to live load only will also be computed at this time. Service I limit state dead load: DLserv = 348723N Service I limit state live load (including dynamic load allowance): LLserv = 491059N σs = DLserv + LLserv ( Lpad⋅ Wpad) σ s = 6. The service limit state dead and live load reactions are obtained from the Opis superstructure output. the service limit state live load value was obtained from Opis superstructure output.0 ⋅ G ⋅ Sint = 6.0 ⋅ G ⋅ S S14.3.Check Compressive Deflection The compressive deflection due to the total load at the service limit state is obtained from the following equation: δ = Σε i ⋅ hri S14. It will be needed in Design Step 6. Again.Check Compressive Stress The compressive stress check limits the compressive stress in the elastomer at the service limit state as follows: σ s ≤ 7MPa and σ s ≤ 1.6 MPa Design Step 6.2 MPa 1. σL = ( Lpad⋅ Wpad) LLserv σ L = 3.6 .Design Step 6.7 .5.7. The shape factor used in the above equation should be for the thickest elastomer layer.

3.5.5. δ int1layer = ε int ⋅ hrinternal δ int1layer = 0. In order to reduce design steps.07hri. Therefore.5 mm The effects of creep should also be considered.7.3.3-1 S14. material-specific data is not available. the above requirement will be checked using the deflection calculated for the service limit state including dynamic load allowance.6.3-1 for 50 durometer reinforced bearings using a compressive stress of 6.For this design example.7. For this design example.3 6-6 . calculate the creep deflection value as follows: δ creep = Cd ⋅ δ inst δ creep = 0.9 mm The total deflection is then: δ total = δ inst + δ creep δ total = 4.5.07hrinternal = 0.4 mm 0. If the compressive deflection is greater than 0.67.4 mm The initial compressive deflection in any layer of a steel-reinforced elastomeric bearing at the service limit state without dynamic load allowance shall not exceed 0.3.07hri.3 STable 14. ε int = 0.7.7.04 The instantaneous deflection is then: δ inst = 2 ⋅ ε int ⋅ hrcover + 8 ⋅ ε int ⋅ hrinternal δ inst = 3.3.2 MPa and a shape factor of 9.7.7 mm OK S14.2-1 CTable 14. the instantaneous compressive strain was approximated from CTable 14.5. then the deflection without dynamic load allowance would need to be calculated.

Check Shear Deformation The shear deformation is checked to ensure that the bearing is capable S14. braking force. the shear deformation is limited in order to avoid rollover at the edges and C14.4 delamination due to fatigue caused by cyclic expansion and contraction deformations.4.4. Also. The horizontal movement for this bridge design example is based on thermal effects only. One factor that can reduce the amount of shear deformation is the substructure deflection.3mm γ TU = 1. The bearing must satisfy: hrt ≥ 2 ⋅ ∆ s hrt = 2 ⋅ hrcover + 8 ⋅ hrinternal hrt = 88 mm ∆ contr = 16. and longitudinal wind if applicable. The thermal movement is taken from Design Step 7.1-1 & S3.5.8 .6 mm 2 ⋅ ∆ s = 39. which is contraction. Since the abutment height is relatively short and the shear deformation is relatively small.4 of allowing the anticipated horizontal bridge movement.3.7.3.Design Step 6.20 from Design Step 7.1 for the service limit state ∆ s = γ TU ⋅ ∆ contr ∆ s = 19.6 for the controlling movement.6 for thermal contraction STable 3.9mm OK 6-7 . the abutment deflection will not be taken into account. Other criteria that could add to the shear deformation include construction tolerances.6.1 mm 88mm ≥ 38.7.

The rotation check ensures that no point in the bearing undergoes net uplift and is as follows: σ s ≥ 0.7.5 θ sx ⎛ Lpad ⎞ 0.3.7.5G ⋅ S ⋅ ⎜ ⎝ hri ⎠ n (associated with rotation about longitudinal axis) σ s = 6.5d 2 ⎛ W ⎞ ⋅ θ sz σ s ≥ 0.2 MPa The service rotation due to the total load about the transverse axis was taken from Opis: θ sx = 0.9 . it is good engineering practice to include an additional 0. The number of interior layers is: n = 8 + 0.0121 rad Construction Tolerance For spans over approximately 30500 mm.5d OK The service rotation due to the total load about the longitudinal axis is negligible compared to the service rotation about the transverse axis.3.0 MPa ⎝ hrinternal ⎠ ( 8 + 1) 2 S14.5 ⋅ G ⋅ Sint ⋅ ⎜ ⋅ = 6.6. combined compression and rotation does not need to be checked. 6-8 .6. the check about the longitudinal axis will be assumed to be negligible and is not computed in this bearing design example.5G ⋅ S ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ 2 L ⎞ θ sx ⋅ hri ⎠ n ⎝ S14.6.3.7.005 radians of rotation about both pad axes to account for construction tolerances.Design Step 6. Therefore.Check Rotation or Combined Compression and Rotation Since Design Method A was chosen.5 (associated with rotation about transverse axis) and S14.5 + 0.

7 mm Wpad 3 = 126.11 .7 S14.3.Check Reinforcement The thickness of the steel reinforcement must be able to sustain the tensile stresses induced by compression in the bearing.6.3.7 hmax = hrinternal σ s = 6.5.5 mm Fy = 345 MPa S14. Lpad 3 = 118.Design Step 6.Check Stability The total thickness of the pad shall not exceed the least of L/3 or W/3.3.7. For the service limit state: hs ≥ 3hmax ⋅ σ s Fy hmax = 9.2 MPa 3 ⋅ hmax ⋅ σ s Fy = 0.0 mm OK Design Step 6.7 mm S14.6.10 .7.5 mm hreinf = 3 mm OK 6-9 .6 The total thickness of the pad based on the preliminary dimensions is: htotal = 2 ⋅ hrcover + 8 ⋅ hrinternal + Nstlayers ⋅ hreinf htotal = 115.7. The reinforcement thickness must also satisfy the requirements of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications.

the service average compressive stress due to live load only is: σ L = 3. adding wind on superstructure and wind on live load. The shear force due to wind on superstructure is taken from Table 7-1: WS = 136897N The shear force due to wind on live load is taken from Table 7-2: WL = 26700N The controlling shear force is either from Strength III or Strength V: 6-10 . Psd = 301574N taken from Opis output S14.6. Psd.1.2.For the fatigue limit state: hs ≥ 2.12 .6.Design for Anchorage The bearing pad must be secured against transverse horizontal movement if the factored shear force sustained by the deformed pad at the strength limit state exceeds one-fifth of the minimum vertical force due to permanent loads. The maximum shear force will occur when wind is taken at 0 degrees.4 mm hreinf = 3 mm OK Design Step 6.6.0hmax ⋅ σ L ∆FTH From Design Step 6.6.5-3 = 0.6 MPa ∆FTH = 165MPa 2 ⋅ hmax ⋅ σ L ∆FTH STable 6.7.4 The maximum factored shear force sustained by the deformed pad at the strength limit state is obtained from Design Step 7.

VwindstrV) Vmax = 38331N 1 ⋅ Psd = 60315N 5 Since the maximum shear force at the strength limit state does not exceed one-fifth of the minimum vertical force due to permanent dead loads.1-1 ( γ WS ⋅ WS + γ WL ⋅ WL) 5 STable 3.40 γ WL = 1.1-1 ( γ WS ⋅ WS + γ WL ⋅ WL) 5 STable 3.4.00 VwindstrIII = STable 3.1-1 VwindstrV = 16292N Use: Vmax = max ( VwindstrIII . 6-11 .4.4.Factored shear force per bearing for Strength III: γ WS = 1.1-1 VwindstrIII = 38331N Factored shear force per bearing for Strength V: γ WS = 0.4.40 γ WL = 0.00 VwindstrV = STable 3. the pad does not need to be secured against horizontal movement.

Therefore.7 S6.4. This transverse load will be used to design the bearing anchor bolts for this design example.12.2 C3.1 resistance factor for A 307 bolts in shear 2 π ⋅ ( 16mm) Ab = 4 Ab = 201 mm 2 6-12 .2.1 S3.10. Also. For the controlling girder (interior): DLserv = 348723N The maximum transverse horizontal earthquake load per bearing is then: HEQ = 0.1 S6.13 .10.4. However.48 ⋅ Ab ⋅ Fub ⋅ Ns φ s = 0.9.2 S14.7 S6.1 ⋅ DLserv HEQ = 34872N The factored shear resistance of the anchor bolts per bearing is then: Assume two 16mm diameter A 307 bolts with a minimum tensile strength of 420 MPa: Rn = 0.3.5. Based on Design Step 6.13.13. the expansion bearing pad does not need to be secured against horizontal movement.2. based on S3. the bearings must be restrained in the transverse direction.Design Step 6. Therefore. no tributary live loads will be considered.8. since all abutment bearings are restrained in the transverse direction.8.9.Design Anchorage for Fixed Bearings The abutment bearings are expansion in the longitudinal direction but fixed in the transverse direction.65 for threads excluded from shear plane S14. γEQ is assumed to be zero.4. the tributary permanent load can be taken as the reaction at the bearing.1 times the vertical reaction due to the tributary permanent load and the tributary live loads assumed to exist during an earthquake. In addition.2. the horizontal connection force in the restrained direction cannot be less than 0.3 S6.3.

8.1 for bearing on concrete Stressbrg = φ b ⋅ 0.1 C14.5.8. the anchor bolt length must be computed.70 m = 0.Fub = 420MPa Ns = 2 (number of bolts) Rn = 81068N Rr = 52694N OK S14.7. As an approximation.85 ⋅ fc ⋅ m Assume: φ b = 0.1 Rn = 0.75 (conservative assumption) S5.3. The bearing resistance of the concrete is based on S5.3.5 MPa The total transverse horizontal load is: HEQ = 34872N The transverse load per anchor bolt is then: P1bolt = HEQ 2 P1bolt = 17436N 6-13 . φ b ⋅ Pn = φ b ⋅ 0.2.85 ⋅ fc ⋅ A1 ⋅ m Stressbrg = φ b ⋅ Pn A1 S5.5.48 ⋅ Ab ⋅ Fub ⋅ Ns Rr = φ s ⋅ Rn Rr ≥ HEQ Once the anchor bolt quantity and size are determined.85 ⋅ ( 28MPa) ⋅ m Stressbrg = 12.7. the bearing stress may be assumed to vary linearly from zero at the end of the embedded length to its maximum value at the top surface of the concrete.4.5 Stressbrg = φ b ⋅ 0.

Since we know the anchor bolt diameter. Lembed = A1 16mm Lembed = 174 mm Individual states and agencies have their own minimum anchor bolt embedment lengths. P1bolt A1 = ⎛ Stressbrg + 0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ A1 = 2791 mm A1 is the product of the anchor bolt diameter and the length the anchor bolt is embedded into the concrete pedestal/beam seat.Using the bearing stress approximation from above. Use: Lembed = 300mm 6-14 . a minimum of 300 millimeters will be used. For this design example. we can now solve for the required embedment length. the required anchor bolt area resisting the transverse horizontal load can be calculated.

internal layers) 115mm 380mm 3mm (Typ. . .Steel reinf.0° Pad length Pad width 356mm C Bearing L (transverse axis) Figure 6-1 Bearing Pad Plan View 6mm thickness (Typ.) Figure 6-2 Bearing Pad Elevation View 6-15 .Design Step 6. layers @ 3mm thickness each 9.top & bottom layer) 9 .14 .5mm thickness (Typ.Draw Schematic of Final Bearing Design C Girder (longitudinal axis) L 380mm 90.

16mm Diameter A 307 Bolt (Typ.) Figure 6-3 Anchor Bolt Embedment 6-16 Embedment (Typ.) 115mm 300mm .

Select Optimum Abutment Type Design Step 7.2 .Select Optimum Wingwall Type Design Step 7.Check Stability and Safety Requirements Design Step 7.Select Preliminary Wingwall Dimensions Design Step 7.12 .Analyze and Combine Force Effects Design Step 7.Design Abutment Footing Design Step 7.Analyze and Combine Force Effects Design Step 7.1 .Draw Schematic of Final Abutment Design Design Step 7.Obtain Design Criteria Design Step 7.Abutment and Wingwall Design Example Design Step 7 Table of Contents Page Design Step 7.7 .9 .Compute Live Load Effects Design Step 7.Select Preliminary Abutment Dimensions Design Step 7.Design Abutment Backwall Design Step 7.4 .8 .5 .Design Wingwall Stem Design Step 7.Compute Other Load Effects Design Step 7.4 .3 .7 .10 .6 .Compute Other Load Effects Design Step 7.Draw Schematic of Final Wingwall Design 2 5 5 6 8 10 27 54 54 63 71 97 98 98 99 101 101 104 111 119 7-1 .Compute Dead Load Effects Design Step 7.Compute Dead Load Effects Design Step 7.5 .6 .2 .3 .12 .11 .9 .Design Abutment Stem Design Step 7.Compute Live Load Effects Design Step 7.

1 is shared by both the abutment and wingwall.12 of the abutment). stem. For the wingwall. the abutment and wingwall properties as well as information about the superstructure that the abutment supports is required. any Design Steps from 7. The wingwall design utilizes the same flowchart as the abutment. 7-2 .Obtain Design Criteria This abutment and wingwall design example is based on AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (through 2002 interims).2 through 7. there are two Design Steps 7. All applicable loads that apply to the abutment and wingwall are either taken from design software or calculated herein. and footing design. For example.12 that apply to the wingwall follow at the end of the abutment design steps.Design Step 7. Design Steps 7. After Design Step 7.one for the abutment and one for the wingwall (after Design Step 7. The design methods presented throughout the example are meant to be the most widely used in general bridge engineering practice.12 are for the abutment. Pile Foundation Design Example. The following units are defined for use in this design example: kN = 1000 ⋅ N MPa = 1000000Pa It should be noted that the superstructure loads and plate girder dimensions used in this design step are based on the first trial of the girder design. using pile loads from Design Step P. Design Step 7. Refer to Design Step 1 for introductory information about this design example. including the abutments and wingwalls.1.2 through 7. The example covers the abutment backwall. methodology. The wingwall design focuses on the wingwall stem only. and criteria for the entire bridge. In order to begin the design. Additional information is presented about the design assumptions.1 .2 .

4.3-1 Backwall back cover .Assuming that the backwall will be subject to deicing salts.3-1 vertical flexure reinforcement in the stem to be lapped with the vertical back face reinforcement in the backwall. the cover is set at 60 millimeters.3-1 STable 5. the footing bottom cover is set at 75 millimeters. Footing bottom cover .3-1 7-3 .12.12.Since the footing bottom is cast directly against the earth. Stem cover .4.2.12.1 STable C5.The stem cover is set at 60 millimeters.The footing top cover is set at 50 millimeters.5.12.2.Material properties: Concrete density: Concrete 28-day compressive strength: Reinforcement strength: Wc = 2400 kg m 3 STable 3. it is assumed that the stem may be exposed to deicing salts due to the abutment having an expansion joint. Also.12.3-1 STable 5.12.4.3-1 STable 5. STable 5.1 SC5.3-1 STable 5.1-1 S5. Footing top cover .1-1 S5.2.3 f' c = 28MPa fy = 420MPa Reinforcing steel cover requirements: Backwall back cover: Stem back cover: Footing top cover: Footing bottom cover: Coverb = 60mm Covers = 60mm Coverft = 50mm Coverfb = 75mm STable 5.12.12.3-1 STable 5. This will allow the STable 5.4.

1.5mm Lwing = 6250mm S11.5mm Superstructure data . Abutment and wingwall height Abutment stem height: hstem = 6700mm S2.2 Wingwall stem design height: hwwstem = 6325mm use height at 3/4 point Abutment and wingwall length Abutment length: Wingwall length: Labut = 14287.3.Relevant superstructure data: Girder spacing: Number of girders: Span length: Parapet height: Parapet weight (each): Out-to-out deck width: S = 2972mm Ng = 5 Lspan = 36576mm Hpar = 1067mm Wpar = 789 kg m Wdeck = 14287.4 7-4 .3.The above superstructure information was taken from Design Steps 1 and 2.6.

S4. the overturning forces are balanced by the vertical earth load on the abutment heel.Select Preliminary Abutment Dimensions Since AASHTO does not have standards for the abutment backwall. gravity. For a concrete cantilever abutment.6. open or spill through. semi-stub or shelf. 7-5 . the designer should base the preliminary abutment dimensions on state specific standards. and integral or semi-integral.3 .Select Optimum Abutment Type Selecting the optimal abutment type depends on the site conditions.4. counterfort. The abutment stem. stub.2 .Design Step 7. however. For this design example. Concrete cantilever abutments are the typical abutment type used for most bridge designs and is considered optimal for this abutment design example. mechanically-stabilized earth.7.2 cost considerations. S11. The most common abutment types include cantilever. superstructure geometry. The minimum support length is calculated in Design Step 7. and aesthetics. previous designs. and past experience. or footing maximum or minimum dimensions. a full-depth reinforced concrete cantilever abutment was chosen because it is the most economical for the site conditions.4 must be wide enough to allow for the minimum displacement requirements. stem. Figure 7-1 Full-Depth Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Abutment Design Step 7.

4 . Design Step 7. 1220mm.5. Along with the abutment dead loads. 2130mm 230mm 405mm 380mm 100mm 5% 1065mm.1. the superstructure dead loads must be computed. slope the top surface of the abutment (excluding bearing seats) a minimum of 5% towards the edge. 4570mm 760mm. S2. Figure 7-2 Preliminary Abutment Dimensions For sealed expansion joints. The dead loads are calculated on a per millimeter basis. The superstructure dead loads acting on the abutment will be given based on the superstructure output from the software used to design the superstructure.2. the dead loads are calculated assuming the beam seat is level. the S3. 3125mm. 610mm 100mm 840mm. Also.5.2 7-6 .The following figure shows the preliminary dimensions for this abutment design example.Compute Dead Load Effects Once the preliminary abutment dimensions are selected.1 corresponding dead loads can be computed.

.. the superstructure dead load reactions must be converted into a load applied to a 1mm strip of abutment. ⎤ ⋅ Wc ⎢ ⎡⎛ 610mm + 510mm ⎞ ⎥ + ⎢⎜ ⋅ 100mm⎤ .The superstructure dead load reactions per bearing were obtained from trial one of the steel grider design and are as follows.. Fascia girder: RDCfascia = 308000N Interior girder: RDCinterior = 327000N RDWinterior = 50000N RDWfascia = 50000N As previously stated. This is accomplished by adding the two fascia girder dead load reactions with the three interior girder dead load reactions and then dividing by the abutment length.. RDCtot = ( 2 ⋅ RDCfascia) + ( 3 ⋅ RDCinterior) Labut N mm RDCtot = 112 RDWtot = ( 2 ⋅ RDWfascia) + ( 3RDWinterior) Labut N mm RDWtot = 17 Backwall dead load: DLbw = g ⋅ ⎡( 380mm ⋅ 405mm) + ( 610mm ⋅ 205mm) . ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 2 ⎝ ⎦ ⎢+ ⎣1420mm ⋅ 510mm) ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ( ⎦ DLbw = 25 N mm Stem dead load: DLstem = g ⋅ 4570mm ⋅ 1065mm ⋅ Wc DLstem = 115 N mm 7-7 .

6.1-1 STable 3.2.6. IM Multiple presence factor. without impact.20 m2 = 1. m (1 lane) Multiple presence factor.1. m (3 lanes) IM = 0.1. m (2 lanes) Multiple presence factor.1.00 m3 = 0.1. This load is applied to the entire length of abutment backwall and is assumed to act at the front top corner (bridge side) of the backwall.6.5.33 m1 = 1.7 7-8 . however.5 .3 ⋅ N ⎞ ⋅ ( 610 ⋅ mm) ⎤ ⎢ ⎜ ⎥ mm ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ ⎦ = Labut N mm RLLbw = 41.Compute Live Load Effects The live load effects were also obtained from trial one of the girder design.2-1 STable 3. The reactions for one girder are given as unfactored. the backwall live load is computed by placing three design truck axles along the abutment and calculating the load on a per millimeter basis including impact and the multiple presence factor. RLLbw ⎡ 6 ⋅ ( 72500⋅ N) ⋅ ( 1 + IM) + 3 ⋅ ⎛ 9.85 STable 3.1. This load is not applied.1-1 DLearth = g ⋅ 6700mm ⋅ 1220mm ⋅ γ s DLearth = 154 N mm Design Step 7.Footing dead load: DLftg = g ⋅ 3125mm ⋅ 760mm ⋅ Wc DLftg = 56 N mm Earth dead load: kg γ s = 1925 3 m use average of loose and compacted gravel STable 3.1. Dynamic load allowance. and without distribution factors.2-1 For this design example. The given reactions are converted into one loaded lane and then converted into a per millimeter load. when designing the abutment stem or footing.2-1 STable 3.6.

Vvehmax = 288675N Vlanemax = 147900N Vvehmin = −32400N Vlanemin = −22900N Based on first trial of girder design Based on first trial of girder design Based on first trial of girder design Based on first trial of girder design The controlling maximum and minimum live loads are for three lanes loaded.The following loads are obtained from girder design software output for one lane loaded and they are applied at the beam seat or top of abutment stem for the stem design. Maximum unfactored live load used for abutment stem design: rLLmax = Vvehmax ⋅ ( 1 + IM) + Vlanemax rLLmax = 531838 N RLLmax = for one lane 3 ⋅ m3 ⋅ rLLmax Labut N mm RLLmax = 95 Minimum unfactored live load representing uplift used for abutment stem design: rLLmin = Vvehmin ⋅ ( 1 + IM) + Vlanemin rLLmin = −65992 N RLLmin = 3 ⋅ m3 ⋅ rLLmin Labut N mm for one lane RLLmin = −12 7-9 . The loads are multiplied by dynamic load allowance and the multiple presence factor.

6. Braking force calculations are provided in Design Step 8.2. and temperature loads. earthquake loads. live load surcharge.6 .The following loads are applied at the beam seat or top of abutment stem for the footing design. the braking force does not apply at the abutment. The loads do not include dynamic load allowance. The entire braking force is resisted by the fixed bearings located at the pier. but do include the multiple presence factor. Maximum unfactored live load used for abutment footing design: rLLmax1 = Vvehmax + Vlanemax rLLmax1 = 436575 N for one lane loaded RLLmax1 = 3 ⋅ m3 ⋅ rLLmax1 Labut N mm S3. 7-10 .Compute Other Load Effects Other load effects that need to be computed include braking force. earth pressure. Braking Force Since the abutment has expansion bearings. wind loads.1 RLLmax1 = 78 Minimum unfactored vehicle load used for abutment footing design: rLLmin1 = Vvehmin + Vlanemin rLLmin1 = −55300 N RLLmin1 = for one lane loaded 3 ⋅ m3 ⋅ rLLmin1 Labut N mm RLLmin1 = −10 Design Step 7.

therefore.2 top flange embedded in haunch. Once the total depth is known. Included in this depth is any haunch and/or depth due to the bridge deck cross slope. the wind area can be calculated and the wind pressure can be applied. ignore top flange thickness dweb = 1675mm based on first trial of girder design tbotflg = 57mm thaunch = 90mm Dtot = hpar + tdeck + tcslope + ttopflg + dweb + tbotflg + thaunch Dtot = 3119 mm use maximum bottom flange thickness.Wind Load on Superstructure When calculating the superstructure wind load.8.1. the total depth from the top of the barrier to the bottom of the girder is required. The total depth is: hpar = 1067mm tdeck = 230mm overhang deck thickness tcslope = 0mm ttopflg = 0mm assume no cross slope for design S3. based on first trial of girder design 7-11 .

8.1. The attack angle is measured from a line perpendicular to the girder longitudinal axis.8. VB = 160 VDZ = VB From this. The base wind pressures for the superstructure for various attack angles are given in STable 3.5 N mm .2 .8.2. the total wind loading on girders must be greater than or equal to 4. All wind loads are tabulated in Table 7-1 for the various attack angles. VDZ.The wind load on the abutment from the superstructure will be from one-half of one span length or: Lwind = 18288mm The wind area is: Awsuper = Dtot ⋅ Lwind Awsuper = 57040272 mm 2 Since the abutment is less than 10000mm in height.8.0024MPa ⋅ Dtot Windtotal = 7. the design wind pressure is equal to the base wind pressure: 2 ⎛ 160 km ⎞ 2 ⎜ hr ⎛ VDZ ⎞ or PD = PB ⋅ ⎜ PD = PB ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ VB ⎠ ⎜ 160 km hr ⎠ ⎝ PD = PB Also.1.2.1.1. which is greater than 4. Two wind load calculations are provided for two different wind attack angles.4 N/mm km hr S3.8. The wind pressure can be applied to either superstructure face. the design wind velocity. 7-12 S3. the longitudinal component of the wind load on superstructure will not be resisted by the abutment and is not required to be calculated. Since the abutment has expansion bearings.2-1. The fixed pier will resist the longitudinal wind component.1 S3. does not have to be adjusted and is equal to the base wind velocity.4 N/mm: Windtotal = 0.1.1 S3.1 The wind load from the superstructure acting on the abutment depends on the attack angle of the wind.2.2.

Wind Attack Angle 90.) 90.0° Plan View Elevation View Figure 7-3 Application of Superstructure Wind Load on Abutment 7-13 3119mm Superstructure Depth .0° Abutment Footprint Girder Line (Typ.

1.1.2.0024MPa WSsupertrans0 = 136897N WSsuperlong0 = Awsuper ⋅ 0. the superstructure wind loads acting on the abutment are: WSsupertrans60 = Awsuper ⋅ 0.2-1 For a wind attack angle of 60 degrees.000MPa WSsuperlong0 = 0 N not applicable due to expansion bearings at abutment STable 3.2-1 Wind Attack Angle Degrees 0 15 30 45 60 Abutment Design Wind Loads from Superstructure Bridge Bridge * Transverse Axis Longitudinal Axis N N 136897 0 119785 17112 114081 34224 91264 45632 45632 51336 * Provided but not applicable due to expansion bearings at abutment.2.For a wind attack angle of 0 degrees.8. These loads act simultaneously with the superstructure wind loads. Table 7-1 Abutment Design Wind Loads from Superstructure for Various Wind Attack Angles Wind Load on Abutment (Substructure) The wind loads acting on the exposed portion of the abutment front and end elevations are calculated from a base wind pressure of 0.8.2.0009MPa WSsuperlong60 = 51336N not applicable due to expansion bearings at abutment STable 3.0008MPa WSsupertrans60 = 45632N WSsuperlong60 = Awsuper ⋅ 0. the superstructure wind loads acting on the abutment are: WSsupertrans0 = Awsuper ⋅ 0. S3.0019 MPa.3 7-14 .8.1.

For a wind attack angle of 0 degrees. the wind loads acting on the abutment end elevation are: WSsubtransend0 = Awsubend ⋅ ( 0.0019MPa ⋅ sin ( 0deg) ) WSsublongend0 = 0 N 7-15 . All other wind attack angles do not control and are not shown.Since all wind loads acting on the abutment front face decrease the maximum longitudinal moment.0019 ⋅ MPa ⋅ cos ( 0 ⋅ deg) ) WSsubtransend0 = 13557N WSsublongend0 = Awsubend ⋅ ( 0. all abutment front face wind loads will be conservatively ignored. The abutment exposed end elevation wind area is: Awsubend = ( 1065mm) ⋅ ( 6700mm) Awsubend = 7135500 mm 2 Two wind load calculations for the abutment end elevation are shown below for a wind attack angle of zero and sixty degrees.

1.1.8. The calculation for longitudinal vehicular wind loads is not required but is provided in this design example.3 ⎝ STable 3. As with the superstructure wind load.0019 ⋅ MPa ⋅ cos ( 60 ⋅ deg) ) WSsubtransend60 = 6779 N WSsublongend60 = Awsubend ⋅ ( 0. the Specifications give a table of wind components on live load. the vehicular wind loads are: Lwind = 18288mm WLtrans0 = Lwind ⋅ ⎛ 1.8.0019MPa ⋅ sin ( 60deg) ) WSsublongend60 = 11741N Wind Load on Vehicles The wind load applied to vehicles is given as 1. For a wind attack angle of 0 degrees. the wind load is calculated by multiplying the wind component by the length of structure over which it acts.46 N/mm acting normal to and 1800mm above the roadway. the longitudinal wind load on vehicles is not resisted by the abutment due to expansion bearings. For normal and skewed wind pressures on vehicles.8. For wind loads that are not normal to the roadway.For a wind attack angle of 60 degrees.3-1 WLlong0 = 0 N 7-16 .00 ⎜ ⎝ N ⎞ mm ⎠ not applicable due to expansion bearings at abutment STable 3.1. An example calculation is provided and Table 7-2 shows all the vehicle wind loads for the various wind attack angles. the wind loads acting on the abutment end elevation are: WSsubtransend60 = Awsubend ⋅ ( 0.46 ⋅ ⎜ N ⎞ mm ⎠ S3.3-1 WLtrans0 = 26700N WLlong0 = Lwind ⋅ ⎛ 0.

since all abutment bearings are restrained in the transverse direction.10.9. γEQ is assumed to be zero.10 S4. Also. The horizontal connection force in the restrained direction is 0. It is applied to the windward quarter-point of the deck only for limit states that do not include wind on live load.1 times the vertical reaction due to the tributary permanent load and the tributary live loads assumed to exist during an earthquake.7. In addition.4. the wind attack angle must be zero degrees for the vertical wind load to apply. For Seismic Zone I.7.4.2 S3. Table 7-2 Design Vehicular Wind Loads for Various Wind Attack Angles Vertical Wind Load The vertical wind load is calculated by multiplying a 0.1 S3.9. Therefore.00096 MPa vertical wind pressure by the out-to-out bridge deck width.10.02 and a Soil Type I.Design Vehicular Wind Loads Wind Attack Angle Degrees 0 15 30 45 60 Bridge Bridge * Transverse Axis Longitudinal Axis N N 26700 0 23409 3292 21946 6401 17556 8595 9144 10058 * Provided but not applicable due to expansion bearings at abutment. no seismic analysis is required except designing for the minimum connection force between the superstructure and substructure and the minimum bridge seat requirements. Refer to Design Step 6 for bearing and anchor bolt design and the calculation of the horizontal connection force.2 This design example assumes that the structure is located in Seismic Zone I with an acceleration coefficient of 0. no tributary live loads will be considered.9 S4. This transverse load is calculate and used to design the bearing anchor bolts and is mentioned here for reference only.4 S3.1 . Wvert = 0. 7-17 SC3.2 S3.4.10. Also. the tributary permanent load can be taken as the reaction at the bearing.8.00096MPa ⋅ Wdeck Wvert = 14 Earthquake Load N acts vertically upward mm S3.

000125S N1 = 369 mm Use N1 = 370 mm ( ( 2 ) ) S4.000125S L = 73152 mm H = 6700 mm S = 0 deg N1 = ( 200 + 0. an acceleration coefficient of 0.7.4.4. the minimum displacement requirement must be obtained from a percentage of the empirical seat width.3 leave 455 millimeters as a support length.0017L + 0.4 2 Since the selected preliminary abutment dimensions in Design Step 7.4-1 N1 = ( 200 + 0. Figure 7-4 Minimum Support Length Required 7-18 . 50 percent or greater of the minimum support length is required.4-1 N=370mm 1065mm.0067H) ⋅ 1 + 0.7.4.4 STable 4.0067H) ⋅ 1 + 0. The percentage of the minimum support length.02.0017L + 0. and Soil Type I. is based on Seismic Zone I.From S4.4.4. this design example will use 100 percent of the minimum support length.3. Therefore.7. N.7. 85mm STable 4. Minimum support length required: S4. no seismic analysis is required.7. From the above information. for Seismic Zone I.

5 S3.6 that the use of weep holes. It should be noted S11. geosynthetic drains.6.11.Earth Loads The earth loads that need to be investigated for this design example include loads due to basic lateral earth pressure. or drains at the wall face. the effect of hydrostatic water pressure does not need to be added to the earth pressure.3 γ s = 1925 kg m 3 S3.5. Some ways that can reduce or eliminate hydrostatic water pressure include the use of pipe drains. loads due to uniform surcharge. the earth pressure (p) must first be calculated from the following equation.5. or backfilling with crushed rock. and live load surcharge loads. Hydrostatic water pressure should be avoided if possible in all abutment and retaining wall design cases through the design of an appropriate drainage system.3 design example. Loads due to basic lateral earth pressure: To obtain the lateral loads due to basic earth pressure.1-1 z = 2130mm backwall height p = ka ⋅ γ s ⋅ g ⋅ z p = 0. p = ka ⋅ γ s ⋅ g ⋅ z Bottom of backwall lateral earth load: ka = 0. S3.11. gravel drains.1 obtained from geotechnical information use average of loose and compacted gravel STable 3.11.6 The water table is considered to be below the bottom of footing for this S3.5 S3. perforated drains. do not assure fully drained conditions.11. Therefore.012 MPa 7-19 .11 S3.11.

11. This load acts at a distance of H/3 from the bottom of the section being investigated.REHbw 710mm.5.1 SC3.5. 4570mm 2130mm S3.8 N mm 760mm. the lateral load due to the earth pressure can be calculated. 3125mm. p 1065mm. Figure 7-5 Backwall Design Earth Pressure Once the lateral earth pressure is calculated.1 7-20 .11. hbkwll = 2130mm 1 REHbw = ⎛ ⎞ ⋅ p ⋅ hbkwll ⎜ ⎝ 2⎠ REHbw = 12.

1 REHstem = ⎛ ⎞ ⋅ p ⋅ hstem ⎜ ⎝ 2⎠ REHstem = 127 N mm 4570mm S3.Bottom of abutment stem lateral earth load: ka = 0. 760mm.038 MPa 2130mm REHstem 1065mm. 2233mm. Figure 7-6 Abutment Stem Design Earth Pressure Once the lateral earth pressure is calculated.11.5.1-1 z = 6700mm height used for maximum moment at bottom of abutment stem p = ka ⋅ γ s ⋅ g ⋅ z p = 0. This load acts at a distance of H/3 from the bottom of the section being investigated.3 γ s = 1925 kg m 3 obtained from geotechnical information use average of loose and compacted gravel STable 3.11. p 3125mm. the lateral load due to the earth pressure can be calculated.1 7-21 .5.5.1 SC3.

4570mm 2130mm S3. the lateral load due to the earth pressure can be calculated.5.5.11. p 3125mm. 1065mm. tftg = 760mm 1 REHftg = ⎛ ⎞ ⋅ p ⋅ ( hstem + tftg) ⎜ ⎝ 2⎠ REHftg = 157.5.1 . Figure 7-7 Bottom of Footing Design Earth Load Once the lateral earth pressure is calculated.6 N mm 7-22 760mm.11.1-1 m z = 7460mm height from top of backwall to bottom of footing p = ka ⋅ γ s ⋅ g ⋅ z p = 0.3 γ s = 1925 kg 3 obtained from geotechnical information use average of loose and compacted gravel STable 3. This load acts at a distance of H/3 from the bottom of the section being investigated.042 MPa REHftg 2486mm.1 SC3.Bottom of footing lateral earth load: ka = 0.

0 N mm Bottom of abutment stem live load surcharge load: k = ka γ s = 1925 kg m 3 use average of loose and compacted gravel equivalent height of soil for vehicular loading based on stem height STable 3.6.6. The horizontal pressure increase due to live load surcharge is estimated based on the following equation: ∆ p = k ⋅ γ s ⋅ heq Bottom of backwall live load surcharge load: k = ka γ s = 1925 kg m 3 S3.4-1 heq = 1074mm equivalent height of soil for vehicular loading based on 2130mm backwall height (interpolate between 4 and 3 in the Table) ∆ p = k ⋅ γ s ⋅ g ⋅ heq ∆ p = 0.5.1 S3.11. no uniform surcharge load will be applied.0034 MPa 7-23 .006 MPa The lateral load due to the live load surcharge is: RLSbw = ∆ p ⋅ hbkwll RLSbw = 13.5.11. Loads due to live load surcharge: Loads due to live load surcharge must be applied when a vehicular live load acts on the backfill surface behind the back face within one-half the wall height.4 use average of loose and compacted gravel STable 3.6.4-1 heq = 600mm ∆ p = k ⋅ γ s ⋅ g ⋅ heq ∆ p = 0.11.6.11.1-1 STable 3.Loads due to uniform surcharge: Since an approach slab and roadway will cover the abutment backfill material.1-1 STable 3.

11.1-1 STable 3. For this design example.4.5. two horizontal temperature loads need to be calculated: load due to temperature rise and load due to temperature fall.11.12.1 S6. is needed. as well as the thermal coefficient of expansion for steel. The expansion or contraction can then be calculated. the temperature range.0034 MPa The lateral load due to the live load surcharge is: RLSftg = ∆ p ⋅ ( hstem + tftg) RLSftg = 25.12. ε = 11. a reduction of live load surcharge could be taken into account.1 S14.6.1 (mm/mm/oC) tset = 20 oC assumed steel girder setting temperature 7-24 .3 N mm S3. Also.The lateral load due to the live load surcharge is: RLSstem = ∆ p ⋅ hstem RLSstem = 22.6. To calculate these loads.2.7 × 10 −6 S3.8 N mm Bottom of footing live load surcharge load: k = ka γ s = 1925 kg m 3 use average of loose and compacted gravel equivalent height of soil for vehicular loading STable 3.6. Using the expansion or contraction.12 S3. Loads due to temperature: For this abutment design example. the thermal loads can be calculated based on the neoprene bearing properties.5 Since one edge of the approach slab will be supported by the abutment.3.4.4-1 heq = 600mm ∆ p = k ⋅ γ s ⋅ g ⋅ heq ∆ p = 0.2. the steel girder setting temperature is required. a surcharge reduction is not accounted for.1-1 S6.2 STable 3.

assume a moderate climate.6.8 mm Contraction calculation: ∆ contr = ε ⋅ ∆ t ⋅ ( Lspan) ∆tfall = tset − ( −18) ∆tfall = 38 oC ∆ contr = ε ⋅ ∆tfall ⋅ ( Lspan) ∆ contr = 16. The temperature STable 3.3. the loads due to temperature can be calculated based on the following equation: Hu = G ⋅ A ⋅ ∆ hrt S14.3 mm Once the expansion and contraction is known.12. Expansion calculation: ∆ exp = ε ⋅ ∆ t ⋅ ( Lspan) ∆trise = 50 − tset ∆trise = 30 oC ∆ exp = ε ⋅ ∆trise ⋅ ( Lspan) ∆ exp = 12.1-1 range is then -18 oC to 50 oC.2.For this design example.1 7-25 .

the temperature loads can be estimated by assuming bearing pad properties that are larger than expected from the bearing pad design. multiply Hurise by five bearings and divide by the abutment length to get the total load due to temperature rise: Hurisetot = Hurise ⋅ 5 Labut N mm Hurisetot = 4. If the bearing pad design is not complete at the time the temperature loads are being calculated. The bearing pad properties for this design example are: G = 0.Before the loads due to temperature rise and fall can be calculated.8 .66MPa shear modulus STable 14.7.2-1 A = 356mm ⋅ 380mm area of the bearing pad in plan view A = 135280 mm hrt = 88mm 2 elastomer thickness (not including steel reinforcement) Load due to temperature rise: Hurise = G ⋅ A ⋅ ∆ exp hrt per bearing Hurise = 13026N Now. multiply Hufall by five bearings and divide by the abutment length to get the total load due to temperature fall: Hufalltot = Hufall ⋅ 5 Labut N mm 7-26 Hufalltot = 5.6 Load due to temperature fall: Hufall = G ⋅ A ⋅ ∆ contr hrt Hufall = 16499N Now.5. the neoprene bearing properties are needed (see Design Step 6).

Bottom of Abutment Backwall In order to analyze and combine the force effects. In addition.7 . REHbw 510mm. although they are still minimal. RLLbw Live load surcharge. DLbw 710mm. and the application location of the loads are needed. the appropriate loads. the bottom of stem or top of footing. For the backwall and stem design. Also. p C Backwall L 355mm Figure 7-8 Abutment Backwall Dimensions and Loading The following limit states will be investigated for the backwall analysis.Analyze and Combine Force Effects There are three critical locations where the force effects need to be combined and analyzed for an abutment design. transverse horizontal loads do not need to be considered due to the high moment of inertia about that axis. The small moment that is created by the top of the backwall corbel concrete will be neglected in this design example. and the bottom of footing. 7-27 2130mm . They are the base or bottom of the backwall. Strength III or Strength V may control for abutments supporting fixed bearings. The load factor for future wearing surface is given. Horizontal earth load.Design Step 7. the abutment backwall dimensions. the transverse horizontal loads will need to be considered for the footing and pile design. but at the bottom of footing. limit states that are not shown either do not control or are not applicable. Strength III and Strength V limit states are included but generally will not control for an abutment with expansion bearings. but the load due to future wearing surface on the abutment backwall will be ignored since its effects are negligible. RLSbw 230mm 380mm.

redundancy.25 1.00 1.4. 7.4.9 N mm N mm REHbw = 12.90 0.00 1.75 The factored vertical force at the base of the backwall is: FvbwstrI = γ DC ⋅ DLbw + γ LL ⋅ RLLbw STable 3.1-1 FvbwstrI = 104.4.90 0.5.Load Factors Strength I Strength III Strength V Service I Loads DC DW LL EH LS γ max 1.4.65 --0.00 1.50 1.90 0. and will not be shown. the product of ductility.65 1.25 1.75 γ max 1.35 γ max 1.1-2 STable 3.25 γ LL = 1.00 STable 3.65 1.8 RLSbw = 13.1-2 STable 3.7 Abutment backwall Strength I force effects: The following load factors will be used to calculate the force effects for Strength I. γ DC = 1.50 1. is not shown.50 γ LS = 1.1 N mm 7-28 . and 7.1-2 Table 7-3 Applicable Abutment Backwall Limit States with the Corresponding Load Factors The loads that are required from Design Steps 7.00 γ min 1.50 1.00 1. Note that eta (η).50 1.50 --1.35 0.90 --γ max 1.90 1.25 1.00 1.1-1 STable 3.75 1.6 include: DLbw = 24. Eta is discussed in detail in Design Step 1. and operational importance factors.35 γ min 0.00 1.35 1.4.0.90 1.50 --γ min 0.00 1.75 γ EH = 1. For all portions of this design example.0 N mm N mm RLLbw = 41.4.00 1.75 0. eta is taken as 1.4.75 γ min 0.1-1 STable 3.

50 γ LS = 0. + γ LS ⋅ RLSbw ⋅ 1065 ⋅ mm ( ( ) ( ) ) MubwstrI = 63725 N ⋅ mm mm Abutment backwall Strength III force effects: The following load factors will be used to calculate the force effects for Strength III: γ DC = 1.1-1 FvbwstrIII = 31.9 N mm ( ) ( ) The factored moment at the base of the backwall is: MubwstrI = γ LL ⋅ RLLbw ⋅ 355 ⋅ mm + γ EH ⋅ REHbw ⋅ 710 ⋅ mm .3 N mm ( ) ( ) 7-29 .4.25 γ LL = 0.1-2 STable 3.00 The factored vertical force at the base of the backwall is: FvbwstrIII = γ DC ⋅ DLbw + γ LL ⋅ RLLbw STable 3.00 γ EH = 1.4...The factored longitudinal shear force at the base of the backwall is: VubwstrI = γ EH ⋅ REHbw + γ LS ⋅ RLSbw VubwstrI = 41.2 N mm The factored longitudinal shear force at the base of the backwall is: VubwstrIII = γ EH ⋅ REHbw + γ LS ⋅ RLSbw VubwstrIII = 19.4.4.1-2 STable 3.1-1 STable 3.

4.4 N mm The factored longitudinal shear force at the base of the backwall is: VubwstrV = γ EH ⋅ REHbw + γ LS ⋅ RLSbw VubwstrV = 36. + γ LS ⋅ RLSbw ⋅ 1065 ⋅ mm ( ( ) ( ) ) MubwstrV = 52286 N ⋅ mm mm 7-30 .4.4.The factored moment at the base of the backwall is: MubwstrIII = γ LL ⋅ RLLbw ⋅ 355 ⋅ mm + γ EH ⋅ REHbw ⋅ 710 ⋅ mm .8 N mm ( ) ( ) The factored moment at the base of the backwall is: MubwstrV = γ LL ⋅ RLLbw ⋅ 355 ⋅ mm + γ EH ⋅ REHbw ⋅ 710 ⋅ mm .35 γ EH = 1.. + γ LS ⋅ RLSbw ⋅ 1065 ⋅ mm ( ( ) ( ) ) MubwstrIII = 13682 N ⋅ mm mm Abutment backwall Strength V force effects: The following load factors will be used to calculate the force effects for Strength V: γ DC = 1.1-1 STable 3.1-2 STable 3..50 γ LS = 1.35 The factored vertical force at the base of the backwall is: FvbwstrV = γ DC ⋅ DLbw + γ LL ⋅ RLLbw STable 3.1-2 STable 3.4.25 γ LL = 1.1-1 FvbwstrV = 87...

.8 N mm ( ) ( ) The factored moment at the base of the backwall is: MubwservI = γ LL ⋅ RLLbw ⋅ 355 ⋅ mm + γ EH ⋅ REHbw ⋅ 710 ⋅ mm .1-2 STable 3.0 γ EH = 1.4.1-1 FvbwservI = 66.0 γ LS = 1.0 γ LL = 1.6 N mm The factored longitudinal shear force at the base of the backwall is: VubwservI = γ EH ⋅ REHbw + γ LS ⋅ RLSbw VubwservI = 25.4.0 The factored vertical force at the base of the backwall is: FvbwservI = γ DC ⋅ DLbw + γ LL ⋅ RLLbw STable 3.Abutment backwall Service I force effects: The following load factors will be used to calculate the force effects for Service I: γ DC = 1.1-2 STable 3.4..4. + γ LS ⋅ RLSbw ⋅ 1065 ⋅ mm ( ( ) ( ) ) MubwservI = 37717 N ⋅ mm mm 7-31 .1-1 STable 3.

VubwstrIII . VubwstrV) Vubwmax = 41. shear force. FvbwstrIII .The maximum factored backwall vertical force. MubwstrV) N ⋅ mm mm Mubwmax = 63725 7-32 .1 N mm Vubwmax = max ( VubwstrI . FvbwstrV) Fvbwmax = 104. MubwstrIII . and moment for the strength limit state are: Fvbwmax = max ( FvbwstrI .9 N mm Mubwmax = max ( MubwstrI .

The loads and load factors are also similar to the backwall with the addition of wind on structure. the extreme event limit states will not be investigated.Bottom of Abutment Stem The combination of force effects for the bottom of abutment stem are similar to the backwall with the addition of the superstructure dead and live loads. wind on live load. As with the backwall. and thermal effects. Figure 7-9 Abutment Stem Dimensions and Loading The force effects for the stem will be combined for the same limit states as the backwall. 7-33 .

35 0.00 1.50 γ max 1.00 1.50 use contraction temperature force 7-34 STable 3.1-2 Table 7-4 Applicable Abutment Stem Limit States with the Corresponding Load Factors The loads that are required from Design Steps 7.00 1.8 RDWtot = 17.50 γ LS = 1.50 γ min 0.4.1-2 STable 3.35 0.9 N mm N mm N mm RLLmax = 94.25 1.50 1.50 --1.00 1.00 1.25 1.40 --0.50 γ max 1.1-2 STable 3.50 γ LL = 1.4.75 γ TU = 0.25 γ DW = 1.00 0.5 REHstem = 127.35 0.4.50 γ min 0.75 1.75 0.50 γ min 0.8 Hufalltot = 5.1-1 STable 3.6 RDCtot = 111.00 1.50 1.75 ----0.90 --1.00 0.40 1.75 ----0.75 γ EH = 1.50 γ max 1.1 RLSstem = 22.4.00 1.35 1.00 0.50 1.00 0.90 0.90 1.25 1.65 1.00 STable 3.4.30 1.00 1.50 1.40 --0.4.90 0.1-2 STable 3.4.5 and 7.4.65 1.8 N mm N mm N mm Abutment stem Strength I force effects: The following load factors will be used to calculate the controlling force effects for Strength I: γ DC = 1.40 1.6 include: DLbw = 24.1-1 .Load Factors Strength I Strength III Strength V Service I Loads DC DW LL EH LS WS WL TU γ max 1.1-1 STable 3.90 0.50 --1.65 --0.1-1 STable 3. 7.9 N mm N mm DLstem = 114.00 γ min 1.4.00 1.00 1.90 1.30 1.

50 all longitudinal wind loads ignored use contraction temperature force STable 3.4 N mm The factored longitudinal shear force at the base of the stem is: VustemstrI = γ EH ⋅ REHstem + γ LS ⋅ RLSstem .1-1 7-35 .1-2 STable 3. + γ TU ⋅ Hufalltot ( ( ) ( ) ) VustemstrI = 233....25 γ DW = 1.4 N mm The factored moment about the bridge transverse axis at the base of the abutment stem is: MustemstrI = γ DC ⋅ DLbw ⋅ 246. + γ TU ⋅ Hufalltot ⋅ 4570 ⋅ mm ( ( ( ( ( ) ( ) ) ) ) ) MustemstrI = 693682 N ⋅ mm mm Abutment stem Strength III force effects: The following load factors will be used to calculate the force effects for Strength III: γ DC = 1..1-2 STable 3. + γ LS ⋅ RLSstem ⋅ 3350 ⋅ mm ....1-2 STable 3.50 γ WS = 1..The factored vertical force at the base of the abutment stem is: FvstemstrI = γ DC ⋅ DLbw + γ DC ⋅ DLstem + γ DC ⋅ RDCtot . + γ DW ⋅ RDWtot + γ LL ⋅ RLLmax ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ) FvstemstrI = 506..4.50 γ EH = 1..4.5 ⋅ mm + γ DC ⋅ RDCtot ⋅ 342 ⋅ mm .40 γ TU = 0.. + γ DW ⋅ RDWtot ⋅ 342 ⋅ mm + γ LL ⋅ RLLmax ⋅ 342 ⋅ mm .4. + γ EH ⋅ REHstem ⋅ 2233 ⋅ mm .1-1 STable 3..4.4.

1-1 STable 3.35 γ EH = 1.. + γ DW ⋅ RDWtot ⋅ 342 ⋅ mm .6 N mm ( ) ( ) The factored moment about the bridge transverse axis at the base of the abutment stem is: MustemstrIII = γ DC ⋅ DLbw ⋅ 246..50 γ LS = 1.25 γ DW = 1.3 N mm The factored longitudinal shear force at the base of the stem is: VustemstrIII = γ EH ⋅ REHstem + γ TU ⋅ Hufalltot VustemstrIII = 193.35 γ WS = 0..50 all longitudinal wind loads ignored only applicable for wind angle of 0 degrees use contraction temperature force STable 3...4.4.50 γ LL = 1..00 γ TU = 0.4.40 γ WL = 1.4. + γ EH ⋅ REHstem ⋅ 2233 ⋅ mm ..1-2 STable 3. + γ TU ⋅ Hufalltot ⋅ 4570 ⋅ mm ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) MustemstrIII = 503402 N ⋅ mm mm Abutment stem Strength V force effects: The following load factors will be used to calculate the force effects for Strength V: γ DC = 1.The factored vertical force at the base of the abutment stem is: FvstemstrIII = γ DC ⋅ DLbw + γ DC ⋅ DLstem .1-2 STable 3.4.5 ⋅ mm + γ DC ⋅ RDCtot ⋅ 342 ⋅ mm .4.1-2 STable 3. + γ DC ⋅ RDCtot + γ DW ⋅ RDWtot ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) FvstemstrIII = 340.1-1 STable 3.1-1 STable 3.4..4.1-1 7-36 .1-1 STable 3.

.. + γ TU ⋅ Hufalltot ⋅ 4570 ⋅ mm ( ( ( ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ) ) ) MustemstrV = 650190 N ⋅ mm mm 7-37 .... + γ DW ⋅ RDWtot ⋅ 342 ⋅ mm + γ LL ⋅ RLLmax ⋅ 342 ⋅ mm .The factored vertical force at the base of the abutment stem is: FvstemstrV = γ DC ⋅ DLbw + γ DC ⋅ DLstem .3 N mm The factored moment about the bridge transverse axis at the base of the abutment stem is: MustemstrV = γ DC ⋅ DLbw ⋅ 246. + γ LL ⋅ RLLmax ( ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ) FvstemstrV = 468. + γ LS ⋅ RLSstem ⋅ 3350 ⋅ mm ..... + γ EH ⋅ REHstem ⋅ 2233 ⋅ mm ..5 ⋅ mm + γ DC ⋅ RDCtot ⋅ 342 ⋅ mm .5 N mm The factored longitudinal shear force at the base of the stem is: VustemstrV = γ EH ⋅ REHstem + γ LS ⋅ RLSstem ... + γ DC ⋅ RDCtot + γ DW ⋅ RDWtot . + γ TU ⋅ Hufalltot ( ( ) ( ) ) VustemstrV = 224...

+ γ DC ⋅ RDCtot + γ DW ⋅ RDWtot .30 γ WL = 1..00 γ LL = 1.4..4...00 γ DW = 1. + γ TU ⋅ Hufalltot ( ( ) ( ) ) VustemservI = 155.7 N mm The factored longitudinal shear force at the base of the stem is: VustemservI = γ EH ⋅ REHstem + γ LS ⋅ RLSstem .00 use for wind on stem end face for controlling wind at 60 degrees only applicable for wind angle of 0 degrees use contraction temperature force STable 3.4..7 N mm 7-38 .00 γ LS = 1..1-1 STable 3.1-1 STable 3.1-1 STable 3.1-2 STable 3.00 γ EH = 1.4.00 γ TU = 1.1-1 The factored vertical force at the base of the abutment stem is: FvstemservI = γ DC ⋅ DLbw + γ DC ⋅ DLstem .4.4.Abutment stem Service I force effects: The following load factors will be used to calculate the force effects for Service I: γ DC = 1.00 γ WS = 0. + γ LL ⋅ RLLmax ( ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ) FvstemservI = 363.1-2 STable 3.1-2 STable 3.4.1-1 STable 3.4.

FvstemstrV) Fvstemmax = 506.4 N mm Vustemmax = max ( VustemstrI .... shear force.. + γ DW ⋅ RDWtot ⋅ 342 ⋅ mm + γ LL ⋅ RLLmax ⋅ 342 ⋅ mm . + γ LS ⋅ RLSstem ⋅ 3350 ⋅ mm . MustemstrIII . VustemstrIII . VustemstrV) Vustemmax = 233... + γ EH ⋅ REHstem ⋅ 2233 ⋅ mm . and moment for the strength limit state are: Fvstemmax = max ( FvstemstrI . + γ TU ⋅ Hufalltot ⋅ 4570 ⋅ mm ( ( ( ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ) ) ) MustemservI = 469320 N ⋅ mm mm The maximum factored abutment stem vertical force...5 ⋅ mm + γ DC ⋅ RDCtot ⋅ 342 ⋅ mm .4 N mm Mustemmax = max ( MustemstrI . MustemstrV) Mustemmax = 693682 N ⋅ mm mm 7-39 . FvstemstrIII .The factored moment about the bridge transverse axis at the base of the abutment stem is: MustemservI = γ DC ⋅ DLbw ⋅ 246.

S3. dynamic load allowance must be removed from the live load portion of the force effects for foundation components that are completely below the ground level.2.6.1 Figure 7-10 Abutment Footing Dimensions and Loading 7-40 .Bottom of Abutment Footing The combination of force effects for the bottom of abutment footing are similar to the backwall and stem with the addition of the earth load on the abutment heel. Also.

4.3 RDCtot = 111.40 --0.00 1.4.35 1.35 1.00 0.90 0.6 include: DLbw = 24. and 7.9 N mm N mm REHftg = 157. Load Factors Strength I Strength III Strength V Service I Loads DC DW LL EH EV LS WS WL TU γ max 1.00 1.90 0.8 DLearth = 154.50 1.50 γ max 1.35 1.9 RLLmax1 = 77.50 1.25 1.00 1.00 1.75 ----0.00 1.9 .00 0.50 γ min 0.65 --0.50 γ min 0.00 1.5.90 0.75 0.8 RDWtot = 17.6 N mm N mm DLftg = 55.75 ----0.50 1.00 γ min 1.00 0.90 1.5 WSsupertrans0 = 136897N WSsubtransend0 = 13557N WLtrans0 = 26700N WSsubtransend60 = 6779 N WSsublongend60 = 11741N 7-41 N mm N mm N mm N mm RLLmin1 = −9.75 1.00 STable 3.The force effects for the bottom of footing will be combined for the same limit states as the backwall and stem.00 1.00 1.65 1.50 γ max 1.3 N mm DLstem = 114.35 --1.6 RLSftg = 25.90 1.00 1.00 1. The loads and load factors are also similar with the addition of vertical earth load.40 1.00 1.9 N mm N mm Hufalltot = 5.35 0.65 1.00 1.00 1.30 1.50 1. 7.50 1.00 0.25 1.35 0.40 1.00 1.40 --0.90 1.30 1.25 1.50 γ min 0.4.1-2 Table 7-5 Applicable Abutment Footing Limit States with the Corresponding Load Factors The loads that are required from Design Steps 7.1-1 STable 3.50 γ max 1.00 --1.35 0.50 --1.

Abutment bottom of footing Strength I force effects using the maximum load factors: The following load factors will be used to calculate the controlling force effects for Strength I: γ DC = 1.25 γ DW = 1.4. + γ DC ⋅ RDCtot + γ DW ⋅ RDWtot .1-2 STable 3.4.1-2 STable 3..1-1 STable 3..75 γ EH = 1. + γ DC ⋅ DLftg + γ EV ⋅ DLearth .4.4..50 use contraction temperature force use maximum value to maximize the pile loads STable 3..1-1 The factored vertical force at the bottom of footing is: FvftgstrI = γ DC ⋅ DLbw + γ DC ⋅ DLstem .1-1 STable 3.50 γ LL = 1.1-2 STable 3..1-2 STable 3.4. 7-42 .4..75 γ TU = 0.35 γ LS = 1.4. ⎤ ⎢+ γ ⋅ H ⎥ TU ufalltot ⎣ ⎦ ( ( ) ( ) ) FlonftgstrI = 283.50 γ EV = 1... + γ LL ⋅ RLLmax1 ( ( ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ) ) FvftgstrI = 754.6 N mm The factored transverse horizontal force at the bottom of footing is: FtraftgstrI = 0 N mm The load factors for the loads that produce transverse horizontal forces are zero for Strength I.9 N mm The factored longitudinal horizontal force at the bottom of footing is: FlonftgstrI = ⎡ γ EH ⋅ REHftg + γ LS ⋅ RLSftg .

1-1 STable 3... + γ LL ⋅ RLLmax1 ⋅ 532 ⋅ mm .4.1-2 STable 3.1-1 STable 3. + γ LS ⋅ RLSftg ⋅ 3730 ⋅ mm . + γ TU ⋅ Hufalltot ⋅ 5330 ⋅ mm ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) MlonftgstrI = 756358 N ⋅ mm mm The factored moment about the bridge longitudinal axis at the bottom of footing is: MtraftgstrI = 0 N ⋅ mm mm The load factors for the loads that produce transverse horizontal forces are zero for Strength I.. ⎣ ⎦ + ⎡γ EV ⋅ DLearth ⋅ ( −952.The factored moment about the bridge transverse axis at the bottom of footing is: MlonftgstrI = ⎡γ DC ⋅ ( DLbw) ⋅ ( −56... Abutment bottom of footing Strength I force effects using the minimum load factors: The following load factors will be used to calculate the controlling force effects for Strength I: γ DC = 0. ⎣ ⎦ + γ DC ⋅ RDCtot ⋅ 532 ⋅ mm .75 γ TU = 0.4.00 γ LS = 1...50 use contraction temperature force use minimum value to minimize the pile loads STable 3.90 γ EV = 1.1-1 7-43 .4.4.4..1-2 STable 3.... ⎣ ⎦ + ⎡γ DC ⋅ ( DLstem) ⋅ ( 190 ⋅ mm)⎤ . + γ EH ⋅ REHftg ⋅ 2486 ⋅ mm .5 ⋅ mm)⎤ ..65 γ LL = 1.1-2 STable 3.4.5mm)⎤ ..75 γ EH = 0.4. + γ DW ⋅ RDWtot ⋅ 532 ⋅ mm .1-2 STable 3....90 γ DW = 0.

......8 N mm The factored longitudinal horizontal force at the bottom of footing is: FlonftgstrImin = γ EH ⋅ REHftg + γ LS ⋅ RLSftg . + γ DW ⋅ RDWtot ⋅ 532 ⋅ mm .. ⎣ ⎦ + ⎡γ DC ⋅ ( DLstem) ⋅ ( 190 ⋅ mm)⎤ ..1 N mm The factored transverse horizontal force at the bottom of footing is: FtraftgstrImin = 0 N mm The load factors for the loads that produce transverse horizontal forces are zero for Strength I. ⎣ ⎦ + γ DC ⋅ RDCtot ⋅ 532 ⋅ mm ...... + γ DC ⋅ DLftg + γ EV ⋅ DLearth . + γ LS ⋅ RLSftg ⋅ 3730 ⋅ mm ..5mm)⎤ . + γ DC ⋅ RDCtot + γ DW ⋅ RDWtot . ⎣ ⎦ + ⎡γ EV ⋅ DLearth ⋅ ( −952. + γ TU ⋅ Hufalltot ⋅ 5330 ⋅ mm ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) MlonftgstrImin = 455162 N ⋅ mm mm 7-44 . + γ TU ⋅ Hufalltot ( ( ) ( ) ) FlonftgstrImin = 189..... + γ EH ⋅ REHftg ⋅ 2486 ⋅ mm . The factored moment about the bridge transverse axis at the bottom of footing is: MlonftgstrImin = ⎡γ DC ⋅ ( DLbw) ⋅ ( −56... + γ LL ⋅ RLLmin1 ⋅ 532 ⋅ mm .5mm)⎤ ..... + γ LL ⋅ RLLmin1 ( ( ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ) ) FvftgstrImin = 424.The factored vertical force at the bottom of footing is: FvftgstrImin = γ DC ⋅ DLbw + γ DC ⋅ DLstem .

7-45 .4. such as Strength I.50 use minimum value to maximize the longitudinal moment use a wind angle of 0 degrees use contraction temperature force STable 3. The engineer should use engineering judgement when selecting the most appropriate load factor for each individual load within a limit state.40 γ TU = 0. over and over again using many different load factor combinations to obtain the controlling factored effects.4.1-2 STable 3.4.1 There are numerous load factor combinations for each limit state as can be seen from STables 3.4.1-2 STable 3. For the Strength III force effects below. The following load factors will be used to calculate the force effects for Strength III: γ DC = 1.1-1 and 3.4.The factored moment about the bridge longitudinal axis at the bottom of footing is: MtraftgstrImin = 0 N The load factors for the loads that mm produce transverse horizontal forces are zero for Strength I. the horizontal earth load is factored by the maximum load factor while the vertical earth load is factored by the minimum factor to maximize the overturning moment.4.00 γ WS = 1.4.1-1 STable 3.4. It is possible to check one limit state.4.1-2 STable 3.1-2 STable 3. Abutment bottom of footing Strength III force effects: Load Combinations S3.1-2.50 γ EV = 1.1-1 Vertical wind load will be ignored since the moment of inertia about the abutment longitudinal axis is so large.50 γ EH = 1.25 γ DW = 1.

.5 ⋅ mm)⎤ .... + γ DC ⋅ RDCtot + γ DW ⋅ RDWtot ( ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ) FvftgstrIII = 564.. Labut ⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ + γ EH ⋅ REHftg ⋅ 2486 ⋅ mm ... ⎣ ⎦ + γ DC ⋅ RDCtot ⋅ 532 ⋅ mm .7 N mm The factored moment about the bridge transverse axis at the bottom of footing is: MlonftgstrIII = ⎡γ DC ⋅ ( DLbw) ⋅ ( −56.3 N mm ( ) ( ) The factored transverse horizontal force at the bottom of footing is: FtraftgstrIII = γ WS ⋅ ⎜ ⎛ WSsupertrans0 WSsubtransend0 ⎞ + Labut Labut ⎝ ⎠ FtraftgstrIII = 14..... + γ DW ⋅ RDWtot ⋅ 532 ⋅ mm . + γ TU ⋅ Hufalltot ⋅ 5330 ⋅ mm ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) MlonftgstrIII = 569791 N ⋅ mm mm 7-46 . + γ DC ⋅ DLftg + γ EV ⋅ DLearth ....The factored vertical force at the bottom of footing is: FvftgstrIII = γ DC ⋅ DLbw + γ DC ⋅ DLstem .. ⎣ ⎦ + ⎡γ DC ⋅ ( DLstem) ⋅ 190 ⋅ mm⎤ .... ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ WSsublongend0 ⎞ + ⎢γ WS ⋅ ⎜ ⋅ 3048 ⋅ mm⎥ .5 N mm The factored longitudinal horizontal force at the bottom of footing is: FlonftgstrIII = γ EH ⋅ REHftg + γ TU ⋅ Hufalltot FlonftgstrIII = 239. ⎣ ⎦ + ⎡γ EV ⋅ DLearth ⋅ ( −952.5mm)⎤ .

..4.40 γ WL = 1.25 γ DW = 1..1-1 STable 3..1-2 STable 3.1-1 STable 3.50 use contraction temperature force use a wind angle of 0 degrees use minimum value to maximize the longitudinal moment STable 3.7 N mm 7-47 .1-1 STable 3..1-1 STable 3.00 γ LS = 1.00 γ TU = 0.1-2 STable 3.50 γ EV = 1..50 γ LL = 1.4. + γ DC ⋅ DLftg + γ EV ⋅ DLearth .4.The factored moment about the bridge longitudinal axis at the bottom of footing is: MtraftgstrIII = γ WS ⋅ ⎜ ⎞ ⎛ WSsupertrans0 ⋅ 5330 ⋅ mm ...4.4.1-1 The factored vertical force at the bottom of footing is: FvftgstrV = γ DC ⋅ DLbw + γ DC ⋅ DLstem .4.35 γ WS = 0.35 γ EH = 1. + γ DC ⋅ RDCtot + γ DW ⋅ RDWtot . + γ LL ⋅ RLLmax1 ( ( ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ) ) FvftgstrV = 669.4.1-2 STable 3. Labut ⎝ ⎠ WSsubtransend0 ⎞ ⎛ + γ WS ⋅ ⎜ ⋅ 3048 ⋅ mm Labut ⎝ ⎠ N ⋅ mm mm MtraftgstrIII = 75547 Abutment bottom of footing Strength V force effects: The following load factors will be used to calculate the force effects for Strength V: γ DC = 1.4.1-2 STable 3.4.

5 ⋅ mm)⎤ ...5 N mm ( ) ( ) ( ) The factored transverse shear force at the bottom of footing is: FtraftgstrV = γ WS ⋅ ⎜ ⎛ WSsupertrans0 WSsubtransend0 ⎞ + . ⎣ ⎦ + ⎡γ EV ⋅ DLearth ⋅ ( −952... ⎣ ⎦ + ⎡γ DC ⋅ ( DLstem) ⋅ 190 ⋅ mm⎤ ..5mm)⎤ .... ⎣ ⎦ + γ DC ⋅ RDCtot ⋅ 532 ⋅ mm ... + γ LS ⋅ RLSftg ⋅ 3730 ⋅ mm ..... Labut Labut ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ WLtrans0 ⎞ + γ WL ⋅ ⎜ ⎝ Labut ⎠ N mm FtraftgstrV = 6. WSsublongend0 ⎞ ⎛ + ⎜ γ WS ⋅ ⋅ 3048 ⋅ mm ... + γ TU ⋅ Hufalltot ⋅ 5330 ⋅ mm ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) MlonftgstrV = 753398 N ⋅ mm mm 7-48 ... + γ LL ⋅ RLLmax1 ⋅ 532 ⋅ mm .The factored longitudinal horizontal force at the bottom of footing is: FlonftgstrV = γ EH ⋅ REHftg + γ LS ⋅ RLSftg ... WSsublongend0 ⎞ ⎛ + ⎜ γ WS ⋅ + γ TU ⋅ Hufalltot Labut ⎝ ⎠ FlonftgstrV = 273. + γ DW ⋅ RDWtot ⋅ 532 ⋅ mm ..1 The factored moment about the bridge transverse axis at the bottom of footing is: MlonftgstrV = ⎡γ DC ⋅ ( DLbw) ⋅ ( −56. Labut ⎝ ⎠ + γ EH ⋅ REHftg ⋅ 2486 ⋅ mm ..

+ γ DC ⋅ RDCtot + γ DW ⋅ RDWtot .....4.The factored moment about the bridge longitudinal axis at the bottom of footing is: MtraftgstrV = γ WS ⋅ ⎜ ⎞ ⎛ WSsupertrans0 ⋅ 5330 ⋅ mm .1-2 STable 3.1-2 STable 3..4..1-1 The factored vertical force at the bottom of footing is: FvftgservI = γ DC ⋅ DLbw + γ DC ⋅ DLstem .1-2 STable 3...00 use contraction temperature force use wind at 0 degrees STable 3.1-1 STable 3.4.4.00 γ EV = 1.00 γ TU = 1..1-1 STable 3.1-2 STable 3.4.4.4.1-1 STable 3.9 N mm 7-49 .00 γ EH = 1. + γ LL ⋅ RLLmax1 ( ( ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ) ) FvftgservI = 556.00 γ LL = 1.1-1 STable 3.4.00 γ WS = 0. Labut ⎝ ⎠ WSsubtransend0 ⎞ ⎛ + γ WS ⋅ ⎜ ⋅ 3048 ⋅ mm .00 γ LS = 1. Labut ⎝ ⎠ WLtrans0 ⎞ ⎛ + γ WL ⋅ ⎜ ⋅ 9296mm ⎝ Labut ⎠ N ⋅ mm mm MtraftgstrV = 38957 Abutment bottom of footing Service I force effects for wind at 0 degrees and maximum live load: The following load factors will be used to calculate the force effects for Service I: γ DC = 1..30 γ WL = 1. + γ DC ⋅ DLftg + γ EV ⋅ DLearth .00 γ DW = 1.4.

The factored longitudinal shear force at the bottom of footing is: FlonftgservI = γ EH ⋅ REHftg + γ LS ⋅ RLSftg ......5mm)⎤ ..... ⎣ ⎦ + γ DC ⋅ RDCtot ⋅ 532mm . ⎣ ⎦ + ⎡γ EV ⋅ DLearth ⋅ ( −952...7 N mm The factored transverse shear force at the bottom of footing is: FtraftgservI = γ WS ⋅ ⎜ ⎛ WSsupertrans0 ⎞ . Labut ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ WSsubtransend0 ⎞ + γ WS ⋅ ⎜ .. Labut ⎝ ⎠ + γ EH ⋅ REHftg ⋅ 2486 ⋅ mm .5mm)⎤ .... Labut ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ WLtrans0 ⎞ + γ WL ⋅ ⎜ ⎝ Labut ⎠ N mm FtraftgservI = 5. + γ LL ⋅ RLLmax1 ⋅ 532 ⋅ mm .. WSsublongend0 ⎞ ⎛ + ⎜ γ WS ⋅ .. + γ TU ⋅ Hufalltot ⋅ 5330 ⋅ mm ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) MlonftgservI = 500694 N ⋅ mm mm 7-50 . + γ DW ⋅ RDWtot ⋅ 532 ⋅ mm ..0 The factored moment about the bridge transverse axis at the bottom of footing is: MlonftgservI = ⎡γ DC ⋅ ( DLbw) ⋅ ( −56..... WSsublongend0 ⎞ ⎛ + ⎜ γ WS ⋅ ⋅ 3048 ⋅ mm .. Labut ⎝ ⎠ + γ TU ⋅ Hufalltot ( ) ( ) ) ( FlonftgservI = 188... + γ LS ⋅ RLSftg ⋅ 3730 ⋅ mm . ⎣ ⎦ + ⎡γ DC ⋅ ( DLstem) ⋅ 190 ⋅ mm⎤ ..

1-2 STable 3.1-1 STable 3.4.1-2 STable 3.1-1 STable 3..00 γ EH = 1.1-2 STable 3..The factored moment about the bridge longitudinal axis at the bottom of footing is: MtraftgservI = γ WS ⋅ ⎜ ⎞ ⎛ WSsupertrans0 ⋅ 5330 ⋅ mm .4.1-2 STable 3. Labut ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ ⎛ WLtrans0 + γ WL ⋅ ⎜ ⋅ 9296mm ⎝ Labut ⎠ N ⋅ mm mm MtraftgservI = 33561 Abutment bottom of footing Service I force effects for wind at 60 degrees and minimum live load: The following load factors will be used to calculate the force effects for Service I: γ DC = 1.. Labut ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ ⎛ WSsubtransend0 + γ WS ⋅ ⎜ ⋅ 3048 ⋅ mm .00 γ LS = 1.00 γ DW = 1..1 N mm 7-51 . + γ DC ⋅ RDCtot + γ DW ⋅ RDWtot ....00 γ TU = 1.4. + γ DC ⋅ DLftg + γ EV ⋅ DLearth ..1-1 STable 3.4..4.1-1 STable 3.00 γ EV = 1.30 γ WL = 1..4.00 γ LL = 1.00 use for wind on stem end face for wind at 60 degrees only applicable for wind angle of 0 degrees use contraction temperature force STable 3.4.1-1 The factored vertical force at the bottom of footing is: FvftgservImin = γ DC ⋅ DLbw + γ DC ⋅ DLstem .00 γ WS = 0. + γ LL ⋅ RLLmin1 ( ( ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ) ) FvftgservImin = 469.4.4.

.... + γ TU ⋅ Hufalltot ⋅ 5330 ⋅ mm ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) MlonftgservImin = 501445 N ⋅ mm mm 7-52 ....5 ⋅ mm)⎤ .5mm)⎤ . ⎣ ⎦ + γ DC ⋅ RDCtot ⋅ 532 ⋅ mm .. + + γ LS ⋅ RLSftg ⋅ 3730 ⋅ mm . ⎣ ⎦ + ⎡γ DC ⋅ ( DLstem) ⋅ 190 ⋅ mm⎤ ...0 N mm The factored transverse shear force at the bottom of footing is: FtraftgservImin = γ WS ⋅ ⎜ ⎛ WSsupertrans60 .. WSsublongend60 ⎞ ⎛ + ⎜ γ WS ⋅ . Labut ⎝ ⎠ γ EH ⋅ REHftg ⋅ 2486 ⋅ mm .. Labut ⎜ ⎜ WSsubtransend60 ⎜+ Labut ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ FtraftgservImin = 1....1 N mm The factored moment about the bridge transverse axis at the bottom of footing is: MlonftgservImin = ⎡γ DC ⋅ ( DLbw) ⋅ ( −56.. + γ DW ⋅ RDWtot ⋅ 532 ⋅ mm .. ⎣ ⎦ + ⎡γ EV ⋅ DLearth ⋅ ( −952.The factored longitudinal shear force at the bottom of footing is: FlonftgservImin = γ EH ⋅ REHftg + γ LS ⋅ RLSftg ...... WSsublongend60 ⎞ ⎛ + ⎜ γ WS ⋅ ⋅ 3048 ⋅ mm . + γ LL ⋅ RLLmax1 ⋅ 532 ⋅ mm .. Labut ⎝ ⎠ + γ TU ⋅ Hufalltot ( ) ( ) ) ( FlonftgservImin = 189..

the geotechnical engineer would need to revisit the pile foundation design calculations and update the results based on the final design bottom of footing forces given below.The factored moment about the bridge longitudinal axis at the bottom of footing is: ⎞ ⎛ WSsupertrans60 MtraftgservImin = γ WS ⋅ ⎜ ⋅ 5330 ⋅ mm . Moment (N-mm) 0 0 10785067 10806466761 6069987 6503132386 Strength III 8065219 Max/Final Service I Max/Final Service I Min/Final 7956374 6702093 8140895408 1079375174 3418534 7153663033 7164399091 479502342 83701974 2696195 2699717 Table 7-6 Pile Foundation Design Forces 7-53 . Lateral Lateral Load Load (Long. It should be noted that Design Step P was based on preliminary pile foundation design forces. Direction) Direction) (N) (N) 4052341 2701426 0 0 210636 71837 15723 Vertical Limit State Force (N) Strength I Max/Final Strength I Min/Final Long. In an actual design.. Moment (N-mm) Trans.. (Trans. The values shown in the table were multiplied by the abutment length to obtain the total effect. Labut ⎝ ⎠ WSsublongend60 ⎞ ⎛ + γ WS ⋅ ⎜ ⋅ 3048 ⋅ mm Labut ⎝ ⎠ MtraftgservImin = 5858406 N ⋅ mm m The following table summarizes the combined forces at the bottom of footing that were calculated above. These forces are required for the geotechnical engineer to design the pile foundation. The forces were calculated at the center of the bottom of footing.

9 .8 is reviewed prior to beginning the abutment design.8 .6.7.7.2 SEquation 5. For this design example.2 It is recommended that Pier Design Step 8.Check Stability and Safety Requirements For abutment footings supported by piles.2-2 7-54 . 38 millimeters of horizontal movement is acceptable and 13 millimeters of vertical settlement is acceptable. the minimum reinforcement requirements will be calculated.8 reviews the design philosophy used to design the structural components of the pier and is applicable for the abutment as well.33 times the factored moment from the applicable strength load combinations. the stability and safety requirements deal with the amount of settlement that will occur to the substructure.9mm bar_area = 199mm 2 First.3. Design for flexure: Assume #16 bars: bar_diam = 15. Design Step P verifies that less than the allowable horizontal and vertical displacements will take place using the pile size and layout described in Design Step P.7. The tensile reinforcement provided must be enough to develop a factored flexural resistance at least equal to the lesser of 1.2 & C11.Design Abutment Backwall S10.2 times the cracking strength or 1.Design Step 7.5.3.3. Design Step 7.2. The cracking strength is calculated by: Mcr = fr ⋅ Ig yt S5. Design Step 8.

2.33MPa Ig = 1 3 ( 300mm) ( 510mm) 12 4 S5.4.6 Ig = 3316275000 mm yt = 255mm fr⋅ Ig Mcr = yt ft N ⋅ mm mm N ⋅ mm mm Mcr = 142082 1.63 ⋅ f' c fr = 3.2 ⋅ Mcr = 170499 7-55 .Front face of backwall at base 1mm 510mm 255mm Centroidal Axis 68mm #16 bars @ 225mm spacing Figure 7-11 Abutment Backwall Cracking Moment Dimensions fr = 0.

cover .0 − ( 0.1.85 ⋅ f'c) ⎥ ⎝ fy ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ ρ = 0.90 b = 1mm Rn = Mubwdes ⋅ 1mm S5.33 times the factored controlling backwall moment is: Mubwmax = 63725 N ⋅ mm mm N ⋅ mm mm 1. use: Mubwdes = 1. as follows: φ f = 0.33 ⋅ Mubwmax Mubwdes = 84754 N ⋅ mm mm Effective depth.1/2 bar diameter tbw = 510mm backwall thickness bar_diam 2 de = tbw − Coverb − de = 442 mm Solve for the required amount of reinforcing steel.5.33 times the controlling factored backwall moment controls the minimum reinforcement requirements.33 ⋅ Mubwmax = 84754 Since 1.2.001159 7-56 . de = total backwall thickness .85⎜ ⎛ f'c ⎞ ⎡ ( 2 ⋅ Rn) ⎤ ⋅ ⎢ 1.1 ( φ f ⋅ b ⋅ de ) 2 Rn = 481918Pa ρ = 0.0 − 1.4.

3. After completing the stem design.42 The backwall flexure reinforcement bar spacing was set at 225 millimeters so that it could lap with the flexure reinforcement in the stem.3.04 ≤ 0.7.1 Once the bar size and spacing are known.3.7.884 mm 2 per mm S5. T = As ⋅ fy a = T 0. the backwall bars were set at 300 millimeters.2.3.85 ⋅ f' c ⋅ b T = 371 N a = 16 mm β 1 = 0.7. the backwall design was updated to match the stem flexure reinforcement bar spacing.04 de 0. 7-57 .2.1 c = 0.2 S5.7.85 c = a β1 where OK c = 18 mm c ≤ 0.Note: The above two equations are derived formulas that can be found in most reinforced concrete textbooks.512 mm mm 2 Required bar spacing = bar_area = 388 mm As Use #16 bars @ bar_space = 225mm As = bar_area ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ 1mm ⎞ ⎝ bar_space ⎠ As = 0.2 S5. the maximum reinforcement limit must be checked. Originally. A s = ρ ⋅ de As = 0.42 de S5.

use: Z = 23000 N mm S5.3.6 ⋅ fy ( dc ⋅ Ac) 3 fsa = 200 MPa Use fsa = 200MPa S5.2 S5.4.4.2.4 Thickness of clear cover used to compute dc bar_diam dc = 60mm + should not be greater than 50 millimeters: 2 dc = 68 mm use dc = 50mm + dc = 58 mm Concrete area with centroid the same as transverse bar and bounded by the cross section and line parallel to neutral axis: bar_diam 2 Ac = 2 ⋅ ( dc) ⋅ bar_space Ac = 26078mm 2 The equation that gives the allowable reinforcement service load stress for crack control is: fsa = Z 1 where fsa ≤ 0.6fy = 252 MPa Es = 200000MPa Ec = 25399MPa n = Es Ec n=8 Use n = 8 7-58 .7. Since this design example assumes that the backwall will be exposed to deicing salts.Check crack control: The control of cracking by distribution of reinforcement must be checked.3.4 0.

884 ρ = 0.00200 mm mm 2 n=8 k = ( ρ ⋅ n) 2 + ( 2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ n ) − ρ ⋅ n k = 0.164 k ⋅ de = 72 mm Front face of backwall at base 72mm 1mm Neutral Axis 510mm 370mm #16 bars @ 225mm spacing 68mm Figure 7-12 Abutment Backwall Crack Control Check 7-59 .Service backwall total load moment: N ⋅ mm MubwservI = 37717 mm To solve for the actual stress in the reinforcement. the transformed moment of inertia and the distance from the neutral axis to the centroid of the reinforcement must be computed: de = 442 mm ρ = As b ⋅ de mm As = 0.

3. the actual stress in the reinforcement can be computed: y = 370 mm mm ⎞ ⋅y mm ⎠ fs = n ⋅ ⎛ MubwservI ⋅ 1 ⎜ ⎝ It fsa > fs OK fs = 102 MPa Design for shear: The factored longitudinal shear force at the base of the backwall is: Vubwmax = 41.3 The nominal shear resistance is the lesser of: Vn1 = Vc + Vs or Vn2 = 0.8.083 ⋅ β ⋅ f' c ⋅ bv ⋅ dv and Vs = Av ⋅ fy ⋅ dv ⋅ ( cotθ + cotα) ⋅ sinα s neglect for this abutment design 7-60 .9 N mm S5. the transformed moment of inertia can be computed: de = 442 mm As = 0.Once kde is known.25 ⋅ f' c ⋅ bv ⋅ dv where: Vc = 0.884 It = mm mm 2 1 ⎛ mm ⎞ 3 2 ⋅ ⎜1 ⋅ ( k ⋅ d e ) + n ⋅ A s ⋅ ( de − k ⋅ de ) 3 ⎝ mm ⎠ 4 mm It = 1092827 mm y = de − k ⋅ de Now.

083 ⋅ β ⋅ f' c ⋅ bv ⋅ dv Vn1 = 381.1 Vr > Vubwmax 7-61 . 0.1 dv = max ⎛ de − ⎜ ⎝ a .4. 0. β = 2. all the variables used in the above equations need to be defined.0 bv = 1 mm S5.3.2 N mm Vn2 = 0.5.2.8. Vn1 and Vn2 can be calculated: For f' c = 28 MPa Vn1 = 0.4.0 Use: N mm N mm Vn = 381.9 ⋅ de .25 ⋅ f' c ⋅ bv ⋅ dv Vn2 = 3038.9 where: h = 510 mm dv = 434 mm Now.90 Vr = φ v ⋅ Vn Vr = 343.72 ⋅ h⎞ 2 ⎠ S5.2 The factored shear resistance is then: φ v = 0.1 N mm OK S5.2.Before the nominal shear resistance can be calculated.8.

Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement: For members less than 1200 millimeters thick.911 mm mm OK Based on the backwall design.75 or ΣAb = 0.0015Ag mm ⎞ Ag = ( 510 ⋅ mm) ⋅ ⎛ 1 ⋅ Ag = 510 ⎜ ⎝ mm ⎠ fy = 420 0.8 S5. The horizontal temperature and shrinkage reinforcement will consist of #13 bars at 275mm spacing for the front and back faces.0015Ag = 0. the area of reinforcement in each direction shall not be spaced greater than 300 millimeters and satisfy the lesser of: As ≥ 0.7mm bar_area = 129mm bar_area As = 2 ⋅ 275mm 2 2 mm As = 0.911 mm2/mm The above steel must be distributed equally on both faces of the backwall. #16 bars at 225mm spacing will be used for the back face flexure reinforcement. 7-62 .938 ≥ 0.8.2 Ag fy mm mm 2 MPa = 0.10.75 ⋅ Ag fy or 0.911 mm mm 2 As must be greater than or equal to 0.765 mm mm 2 S5.938 mm 2 2 mm mm 0. Try 1 horizontal # 13 bar for each face of the backwall at 275mm spacing: bar_diam = 12.10. The same bar size and spacing will be used for the front face vertical reinforcement.

7.33 times the factored moment from the applicable strength load combinations.2 times the cracking strength or 1.Design Step 7.7. Centroidal Axis Figure 7-13 Abutment stem Cracking Moment Dimensions 74mm.7mm bar_area = 645mm fy = 420MPa As with the backwall. The tensile reinforcement provided must be enough to develop a factored flexural resistance at least equal to the lesser of 1.6.2-2 1066mm.2 SEquation 5. 532. the minimum reinforcement requirements will be calculated for the stem.3.3.10 . #29 bars @ 225 mm spacing 7-63 .3. The cracking strength is calculated by: Mcr = fr ⋅ Ig yt Front face of stem at base 1mm 2 S5.5mm.Design Abutment Stem Design for flexure: Assume #29 bars: bar_diam = 28.

33MPa Ig = 1 3 ( 1mm) ( 1065mm) 12 4 S5.4. Mustemdes = 1. use 1.2 times the cracking moment for design.fr = 0.2 times the cracking moment controls the minimum reinforcement requirements.cover . therefore. de = total backwall thickness .1/2 bar diameter thickness of stem: tstem = 1065mm de = tstem − Covers − de = 991 mm 7-64 bar_diam 2 .2 times the cracking moment is also greater than the controlling applied factored moment.6 Ig = 100662469 mm yt = 532.33 ⋅ Mustemmax = 922597 1.2.33 times the factored controlling stem moment is: Mustemmax = 693682 N ⋅ mm mm N ⋅ mm mm 1.63 ⋅ f' c fr = 3.2 ⋅ Mcr = 755394 1. 1.2 ⋅ Mcr Mustemdes = 755394 N ⋅ mm mm Effective depth.5mm fr⋅ Ig Mcr = yt mm N ⋅ mm mm N ⋅ mm mm Mcr = 629495 1.

7.85 c = a β1 where OK 7-65 S5.2.1 ( φ f ⋅ b ⋅ de ) 2 Rn = 855245Pa ρ = 0.06 de 0.2.Solve for the required amount of reinforcing steel.2.7.2 S5.90 b = 1mm f' c = 28MPa Rn = Mustemdes ⋅ 1mm S5.7. A s = ρ ⋅ de As = 2.1 c = 0.00207 Note: The above two equations are derived formulas that can be found in most reinforced concrete textbooks.867 mm 2 As = bar_area ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ per mm S5.055 mm mm 2 Required bar spacing = Use #29 bars @ bar_area = 314 mm As bar_space = 225mm 1mm ⎞ ⎝ bar_space ⎠ As = 2.1 Now.7. T = As ⋅ fy a = T 0.42 .3.5.3.2 times the cracking moment.85⎜ ⎛ f'c ⎞ ⎡ ( 2 ⋅ Rn) ⎤ ⋅ ⎢ 1. as follows: φ f = 0.85 ⋅ f'c) ⎥ ⎝ fy ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ ρ = 0.2 c = 60 mm c ≤ 0.0 − ( 0. the maximum reinforcement limit must be checked. This check could be skipped since the calculated factored design moment is less than 1.3.0 − 1.85 ⋅ f' c ⋅ b T = 1204 N a = 51 mm β 1 = 0.4.3.42 de S5.06 ≤ 0.

4.6fy = 252 MPa Es = 200000MPa Ec = 25399MPa n = Es Ec n=8 Use n = 8 7-66 .6 ⋅ fy ( dc ⋅ Ac) 3 fsa = 187 MPa Use fsa = 187MPa S5.3. use: Thickness of clear cover used to compute dc bar_diam dc = 60mm + should not be greater than 50mm: 2 dc = 74 mm use dc = 50mm + dc = 64 mm Concrete area with centroid the same as transverse bar and bounded by the cross section and line parallel to neutral axis: bar_diam 2 S5.4 0.7. N Since this design example assumes that the Z = 23000 mm abutment stem will be exposed to deicing salts.2.Check crack control: The control of cracking by distribution of reinforcement must be checked.4.2 S5.3.4 Ac = 2 ⋅ ( dc) ⋅ bar_space Ac = 28958mm 2 The equation that gives the allowable reinforcement service load stress for crack control is: fsa = Z 1 where fsa ≤ 0.

the transformed moment of inertia and the distance from the neutral axis to the centroid of the reinforcement must be computed: de = 991 mm ρ = As b ⋅ de mm As = 2.00289 mm mm 2 n=8 k = ( ρ ⋅ n) 2 + ( 2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ n ) − ρ ⋅ n k = 0.867 ρ = 0.Stem factored service moment: MustemservI = 469320 N ⋅ mm mm To solve for the actual stress in the reinforcement.193 k ⋅ de = 191 mm Front face of stem at base 1mm 191mm Neutral Axis 1065mm 800mm #29 bars @ 225mm spacing 74mm Figure 7-14 Abutment Stem Crack Control Check 7-67 .

the transformed moment of inertia can be computed: de = 991 mm mm As = 2.Once kde is known.8. the actual stress in the reinforcement can be computed: y = de − k ⋅ de n ⋅ ⎛ MustemservI ⋅ 1 ⎜ y = 799 mm mm ⎞ ⋅y mm ⎠ OK fs = ⎝ It fsa > fs fs = 177 MPa Design for shear: The factored longitudinal shear force at the base of the stem is: Vustemmax = 233.25 ⋅ f' c ⋅ bv ⋅ dv where: Vc = 0.4 N mm S5.3.3 The nominal shear resistance is the lesser of: Vn1 = Vc + Vs or Vn2 = 0.867 mm It = 2 1 ⎛ mm ⎞ 3 2 ⋅ ⎜1 ⋅ ( k ⋅ d e ) + n ⋅ A s ⋅ ( de − k ⋅ de ) 3 ⎝ mm ⎠ mm mm 4 It = 16988775 Now.083 ⋅ β ⋅ f' c ⋅ bv ⋅ dv and Vs = Av ⋅ fy ⋅ dv ⋅ ( cotθ + cotα) ⋅ sinα s neglect for this abutment design 7-68 .

2.4.4. 0.2.3.083 ⋅ β ⋅ f' c ⋅ bv ⋅ dv Vn1 = 848.Before the nominal shear resistance can be calculated.3 N mm OK S5.5.5 mm Now.1 The factored shear resistance is then: φ v = 0.9 where: h = 1065 mm dv = 965.1 N mm Vn2 = 0.72 ⋅ h⎞ 2 ⎠ S5.90 Vr = φ v ⋅ Vn Vr = 763.8.1 dv = max ⎛ de − ⎜ ⎝ a . Vn1 and Vn2 can be calculated: For f' c = 28 MPa Vn1 = 0.0 bv = 1 mm S5. all the variables used in the above equations need to be defined.25 ⋅ f' c ⋅ bv ⋅ dv Vn2 = 6759 use N mm N mm Vn = 848. 0.9 ⋅ de . β = 2.8.1 Vr > Vustemmax 7-69 .

75 ⋅ = 1. The horizontal temperature and shrinkage reinforcement will consist of #16 bars at 225 mm spacing for the front and back faces.598 mm mm Based on the abutment stem design.Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement: For members less than 1200mm thick.10.0015Ag = 1.598 mm mm 2 As must be greater than or equal to 1.8.10. The same bar size and spacing will be used for the front face vertical reinforcement to reduce design steps.2 Ag = 1065 mm mm 2 mm 0. #29 bars at 225mm spacing will be used for the back face flexure reinforcement.769 ≥ 1.0015Ag mm ⎞ Ag = ( 1065 ⋅ mm) ⋅ ⎛ 1 ⋅ ⎜ ⎝ mm ⎠ fy = 420 Ag MPa 2 S5.9mm bar_area = 199mm bar_area 225mm 2 2 2 As = 2 ⋅ As = 1.902 fy mm or 0.75 fy or ΣAb = 0.8 S5.598 mm2/mm The above steel must be distributed equally on both faces of the stem.769 OK mm mm 2 mm mm 1. the area of reinforcement in each direction shall not be spaced greater than 300mm and satisfy the lesser of: Ag As ≥ 0. 7-70 . Try 1 horizontal # 16 bar for each face of the stem at 225mm spacing: bar_diam = 15.

13. Refer to Design Step P for the pile foundation design.11 . one-way and two-way shear action.7.3 S5. the footing and pile foundation designs are interdependent and should be designed concurrently to be more efficient. S5.Design Abutment Footing The abutment footing is designed for flexure in the heel and toe. For footings supported by pile foundations. The following figures show the assumed footing dimensions and pile locations within the footing. and the control of cracking by the distribution of reinforcement.4 7-71 .Design Step 7.3.

5mm 3125mm 2 Figure 7-15 Abutment Footing and Pile Foundation Plan View 7-72 14287.5mm 1752.5mm 3 2235mm 4 438.75mm 190.) Gr.C footing and pile L group (transverse axis) 438.5mm C footing and L pile group (longitudinal axis) . 345 steel 11 2235mm 12 Abutment footing toe Abutment footing heel 9 2235mm 10 7 2235mm 8 5 2235mm 6 7143.75mm 380mm 2365mm C abutment L stem 380mm Legend: Vertical Pile Battered Pile 13 2235mm 14 HP310x79 (Typ.75mm 1 1562.

1 10'-3" Figure 7-16 Abutment Footing and Pile Foundation Elevation View Design for flexure: The flexure reinforcement must be designed at two critical sections for abutment footings. 1220mm. 3 380mm. The moments at the abutment faces are calculated from the pile reactions.13. 1065mm. 760mm. 840mm. S5. The two sections include the back and front face of the stem.4 7-73 .3. 380mm.Abutment stem Toe Heel 300mm.

From Tables P-17 to P-20. Figure 7-17 Abutment Toe Critical Flexure Section The controlling moment on the critical section occurs when the pile loads on the front row of piles are maximized. no load factors need to be applied and the total factored moment is as follows: Mutoe = 460mm ⋅ ( P2 + P4 + P6 + P8 + P10 + P12 + P14) Mutoe = 4713144820 N ⋅ mm 7-74 P10 = 1491859N P12 = 1470953N P14 = 1403789N . the front row pile loads are maximized for Strength I using the maximum load factors at the final construction condition and are summarized below.For the abutment front face. P2 = 1402454N P4 = 1470064N P6 = 1494973N P8 = 1511875N Since the above pile loads are already factored. the following moment arm will be used: Abutment Toe Critical Flexure Section Toe 460mm.

These bars will extend from the back of the heel to the front of the toe taking into account the clear cover: Assume #25 bars: bar_diam = 25. The footing toe flexure reinforcement is located longitudinally in the bottom of the footing since the bottom of footing is in tension at the critical toe section.3. The cracking strength is calculated by: Mcr = fr ⋅ Ig yt SEquation 5. the same procedure that was used for the backwall and stem to calculate the flexure reinforcement must be followed.2 times the cracking strength or 1.3.33 times the factored moment from the applicable strength load combinations.2 2 7-75 .The moment on a per millimeter basis is then: Mutoeft = Mutoe Labut N ⋅ mm mm Mutoeft = 329879 Once the maximum moment at the critical section is known.6. The tensile reinforcement provided must be enough to develop a factored flexural resistance at least equal to the lesser of 1.7.7.4mm bar_area = 510mm fy = 420MPa The footing toe critical section minimum tensile reinforcement requirements will be calculated.2-2 S5.3.

2.2 ⋅ Mcr = 384682 1. #25 bars @ 300mm spacing Figure 7-18 Abutment Footing Toe Cracking Moment Dimensions fr = 0.4.33 times the factored controlling stem moment is: Mutoeft = 329879 N ⋅ mm mm N ⋅ mm mm 7-76 1.63 ⋅ f' c fr = 3.33 ⋅ Mutoeft = 438739 .33MPa Ig = 1 3 ( 1mm) ( 760mm) 12 4 S5.6 Ig = 36581333 mm yt = 380mm fr⋅ Ig Mcr = yt mm N ⋅ mm mm N ⋅ mm mm Mcr = 320568 1.Front face of stem at base 1mm 760mm 380mm Centroidal Axis 88mm.

85⎜ ⎛ f'c ⎞ ⎡ ( 2 ⋅ Rn) ⎤ ⋅ ⎢ 1.1. 1.0 − 1.1/2 bar diameter thickness of footing: Coverfb = 75 mm de = tftg − Coverfb − de = 672 mm Solve for the required amount of reinforcing steel. Mufttoedes = 1.2 times the cracking moment is also greater than the factored footing toe moment.85 ⋅ f'c) ⎥ ⎝ fy ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ ρ = 0. A s = ρ ⋅ de mm As = 1.545 mm 2 Required bar spacing = bar_area = 330 mm As 7-77 .0 − ( 0. Therefore. use 1.cover .2 times the cracking moment controls the minimum reinforcement requirements.1 tftg = 760mm bar_diam 2 ( φ f ⋅ b ⋅ de 2 ) Rn = 945655Pa ρ = 0.90 b = 1mm f' c = 28MPa Rn = Mufttoedes ⋅ 1mm S5.00230 Note: The above two equations are derived formulas that can be found in most reinforced concrete textbooks.5. de = total footing thickness .2 times the cracking moment to design the toe flexure reinforcement.2 ⋅ Mcr Mufttoedes = 384682 N ⋅ mm mm Effective depth.4. as follows: φ f = 0.2.

42 Check crack control: The control of cracking by distribution of reinforcement must be checked for the abutment toe.1 Once the bar size and spacing are known.05 de 0.3.Use #25 bars @ bar_space = 300mm 1mm ⎞ ⎝ 300mm ⎠ As = 1.2 S5. use: Z = 30000 N mm S5.2.85 ⋅ f' c ⋅ b T = 714 N a = 30 mm β 1 = 0. Since the footing is buried.7.3.1 c = 0. moderate exposure will be assumed.42 de S5. T = As ⋅ fy a = T 0.7.3.3.4 Thickness of clear cover used to compute dc bar_diam dc = 75mm + should not be greater than 50mm: 2 dc = 88 mm use dc = 50mm + dc = 63 mm Concrete area with centroid the same as transverse bar and bounded by the cross section and line parallel to neutral axis: bar_diam 2 Ac = 2 ⋅ ( dc) ⋅ bar_space Ac = 37620mm 7-78 2 .700 mm 2 As = bar_area ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ per mm S5.2.7. the maximum reinforcement limit must be checked.05 ≤ 0.2 S5.7.3.7.85 c = a β1 where OK c = 35 mm c ≤ 0.

6 ⋅ fy ( dc ⋅ Ac) 3 fsa = 225 MPa Use fsa = 225MPa S5.The equation that gives the allowable reinforcement service load stress for crack control is: fsa = Z 1 where fsa ≤ 0.4. P2 = 985232N P4 = 1032826N P6 = 1049283N P8 = 1061293N The footing toe service moment is then calculated by: MutoeservI = 460mm ⋅ ( P2 + P4 + P6 + P8 + P10 + P12 + P14) MutoeservI = 3300735980 N ⋅ mm The moment on a per millimeter basis is then: MutoeftservI = MutoeservI Labut N ⋅ mm mm 7-79 P10 = 1044835N P12 = 1026598N P14 = 975446N MutoeftservI = 231023 .2 S5.2.6fy = 252 MPa Es = 200000MPa Ec = 25399MPa n = Es Ec n=8 Use n = 8 The pile loads used to compute the controlling footing toe moment for the Service I limit state are again taken from Design Step P.4 0.3.4. Tables P-17 through P-20.

the transformed moment of inertia and the distance from the neutral axis to the centroid of the reinforcement must be computed: de = 672 mm ρ = As b ⋅ de mm As = 1.00253 mm mm 2 n=8 k = ( ρ ⋅ n) 2 + ( 2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ n ) − ρ ⋅ n k = 0.To solve for the actual stress in the reinforcement.700 ρ = 0.182 k ⋅ de = 122 mm 122mm Top of footing toe 1mm Neutral Axis 760mm 550mm #25 bars @ 300mm spacing 88mm Figure 7-19 Abutment Footing Toe Crack Control Check 7-80 .

the transformed moment of inertia can be computed: de = 672 mm As = 1. the actual stress in the reinforcement can be computed: y = 550 mm mm ⎞ ⋅y mm ⎠ OK fs = n ⋅ ⎛ MutoeftservI ⋅ 1 ⎜ ⎝ It fsa > fs fs = 215 MPa 7-81 .Once kde is known.700 It = mm mm 2 1 ⎛ mm ⎞ 3 2 ⋅ ⎜1 ⋅ ( k ⋅ d e ) + n ⋅ A s ⋅ ( de − k ⋅ de ) 3 ⎝ mm ⎠ 4 mm It = 4723759 mm y = de − k ⋅ de Now.

From Tables P-17 to P-20. Piles in tension are shown as having negative pile loads. 1220mm. the following moment arm will be used: Abutment Heel Critical Flexure Section Heel 300mm. 840mm. Figure 7-20 Abutment Heel Critical Flexure Section The controlling moment on the critical section occurs when the pile loads on the back row of piles are minimized. the back row pile loads are minimized for Strength I using the minimum load factors at the final construction condition and are summarized below. 840mm. 380mm.For the abutment back face flexure design. P1 = −68054N P3 = −65830N P5 = −64496N P7 = −64051N Since the above pile loads are already factored. 3 1 3125mm. no load factors need to be applied and the total factored moment is as follows: Muheel = 840mm ⋅ ( P1 + P3 + P5 + P7 + P9 + P11 + P13) Muheel = −387081240 N ⋅ mm 7-82 P9 = −64496N P11 = −65830N P13 = −68054N 760mm. Toe .

7. the same procedure that was used for the toe must be followed. The cracking strength is calculated by: Mcr = fr ⋅ Ig yt SEquation 5.3.The moment on a per millimeter basis is then: Muheelft = Muheel Labut N ⋅ mm mm Muheelft = −27092 Once the moment at the critical section is known.3.2-2 S5.33 times the factored moment from the applicable strength load combinations.2 times the cracking strength or 1.9mm bar_area = 199mm fy = 420MPa The footing heel critical section minimum tensile reinforcement requirements will be calculated.2 2 7-83 . The bars will extend from the back of the heel to the front of the toe taking into account the concrete cover. The flexure reinforcement for the footing heel is placed longitudinally along the top of the footing since the top of the footing heel is in tension at the critical heel section.7.3. The tensile reinforcement provided must be enough to develop a factored flexural resistance at least equal to the lesser of 1.6. Assume #16 bars: bar_diam = 15.

2. Top of footing heel #16 bars @ 300mm spacing 760mm Centroidal Axis 380mm 1mm Figure 7-21 Abutment Footing Heel Cracking Moment Dimensions fr = 0.33 times the factored controlling heel moment is: 1.58mm.63 ⋅ f' c fr = 3.33 ⋅ Muheelft = −36033 N ⋅ mm mm 7-84 .6 Ig = 36581333 mm yt = 380mm − fr⋅ Ig Mcr = yt mm N ⋅ mm mm N ⋅ mm mm Mcr = −320568 1.2 ⋅ Mcr = −384682 1.33MPa Ig = 1 3 ( 1mm) ( 760mm) 12 4 S5.4.

33 ⋅ ( −Muheelft) Muftheeldes = 36033 N ⋅ mm mm Effective depth.0 − 1.1 tftg = 760mm bar_diam 2 ( φ f ⋅ b ⋅ de ) 2 Rn = 81230Pa ρ = 0.85⎜ ⎛ f'c ⎞ ⎡ ( 2 ⋅ Rn) ⎤ ⋅ ⎢ 1.4. de = total footing thickness .33 times the factored controlling heel moment controls the minimum reinforcement requirements.0 − ( 0.1. as follows: φ f = 0.2.00019 Note: The above two equations are derived formulas that can be found in most reinforced concrete textbooks.1/2 bar diameter thickness of footing: Coverft = 50 mm de = tftg − Coverft − de = 702 mm Solve for the required amount of reinforcing steel.5. Use 1.90 b = 1mm f' c = 28MPa Rn = Muftheeldes ⋅ 1mm S5.85 ⋅ f'c) ⎥ ⎝ fy ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ ρ = 0. A s = ρ ⋅ de mm As = 0. Muftheeldes = 1.33 times the factored controlling heel moment to design the heel flexure reinforcement.136 mm 2 Required bar spacing = bar_area = 1463 mm As 7-85 .cover .

3.1 Once the bar size and spacing are known.1 c = 0. It has been the designer's experience that in many footing designs. 7-86 .2.3. The above is true for LRFD because LFD allows a certain percentage of overstress for the service cases due to the low probability that the loads combined for each service case will actually occur simultaneously.85 c = a β1 where OK c = 14 mm c ≤ 0.7.663 mm 2 As = bar_area ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ per mm S5.02 ≤ 0.2. Preliminary Design A quick way to come up with a design section that will probably work for all design checks is to just check the crack control requirements for LRFD. stem.02 de 0.7.85 ⋅ f' c ⋅ b T = 279 N a = 12 mm β 1 = 0. T = As ⋅ fy a = T 0. The calculations are similar to that of the abutment backwall. and footing toe.3.42 The crack control check for the footing heel critical section will not be carried out.7.42 de S5.2 S5. the crack control requirements control the footing design. the maximum reinforcement limit must be checked.Use #16 bars @ bar_space = 300mm 1mm ⎞ ⎝ bar_space ⎠ As = 0.7.2 S5.3.

the area of reinforcement in each direction shall not be spaced greater than 300mm and satisfy the lesser of: Ag or As ≥ 0.2 Ag = 760 mm mm 2 MPa = 1.Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement: For members less than 1200mm thick.0015Ag fy mm ⎞ Ag = ( 760 ⋅ mm) ⋅ ⎛ 1 ⋅ ⎜ ⎝ mm ⎠ fy = 420 0.140 mm 2 S5.0015Ag = 1.140 mm Astop = 2 2 2 mm Astop = 0. For one face only: mm 1.357 mm mm 2 The total combined amount of reinforcing steel on the top and bottom transverse faces must be greater than or equal to 1.570 mm Try 1 # 16 bar at 300mm spacing for one face: bar_diam = 15.8 S5.10.663 mm mm 2 mm mm 0.570 mm mm 2 OK 7-87 .663 ≥ 0.10.75 ⋅ Ag fy or mm 0.8.75 ΣAb = 0.140 mm2/mm.9mm bar_area = 199mm bar_area ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ 2 As = 1mm ⎞ ⎝ 300mm ⎠ mm 2 As = 0.

2. Design for shear: Shear design in abutment footings consists of having adequate resistance against one-way action and two-way action.5 ⋅ dv ⋅ cot ( θ ) = 328 use dv = 657 mm mm or dv = 657 mm 7-88 .9 ⋅ de . the critical section is taken as the larger of: 0.8.3.72 ⋅ h⎞ 2 ⎠ taken from footing toe strength flexure design taken from footing toe strength flexure design S5. 0.5 ⋅ dv ⋅ cotθ θ = 45deg The term dv is calculated the same as it is for the backwall and stem: dv = max ⎛ de − ⎜ or dv S5. the shrinkage and temperature reinforcement calculations require #16 bars at 300mm spacing for the top and bottom mats.3.13.9 where: de = 672 mm a = 30 mm h = 760 mm dv = 657 mm Now the critical section can be calculated: 0.Based on the abutment footing flexure design. For both one-way and two-way actions.6.1 & S5. Two-way action in abutment footings supported by piles is generally checked taking a critical perimeter around individual piles or around a group of piles when the critical perimeter of individual piles overlap. the design shear is taken at a critical section. 0. The factored shear force at the critical section is computed by cutting the footing at the critical section and summing the pile loads or portions of pile loads that are outside the critical section. one-way action is checked in the toe and heel. #16 bars at 300mm spacing are required for the top longitudinal flexure reinforcement. For one way action in the abutment footing toe.8. For abutments.13.2 S5. In the footing transverse direction. #25 bars at 300mm spacing are required for the bottom longitudinal flexure reinforcement.6 ⎝ a .3.

Figure 7-22 Abutment Toe One-way Action Critical Section Since the front row of piles are all inside the critical section. However. the factored shear outside the critical section is zero and does not have to be checked. Abutment Toe Critical One-way Shear Section Toe 657mm 380mm. The pile loads used to compute the controlling footing toe shear force are for the Strength I limit state using the maximum load factors at the final construction stage. the manner in which the design shear force would be calculated if the front row of piles were outside the critical section is shown below. Tables P-17 through P-20 and are as follows: P2 = 1398896N P4 = 1469174N P6 = 1494528N P8 = 1511875N P10 = 1491414N P12 = 1470064N P14 = 1400230N 7-89 .840mm. They are taken from Design Step P. Note that this check is not required and does not apply since the front row of piles are all inside the critical section.

Vn1 and Vn2 can be calculated: For f' c = 28 MPa Vn1 = 0.083 ⋅ β ⋅ f' c ⋅ bv ⋅ dv Vn1 = 577.2.3.8.1 .3.1 S5.4 The nominal shear resistance is the lesser of: Vn1 = Vc + Vs or Vn2 = 0.8.8. all the variables used in the above equations need to be defined.25 ⋅ f' c ⋅ bv ⋅ dv where: Vc = 0.9 Now.1 N mm Vn2 = 0.4.The factored one-way shear force at the abutment footing toe critical section on a per millimeter basis is then: Vuftgtoe = ( P2 + P4 + P6 + P8 + P10 + P12 + P14) Labut N mm S5.25 ⋅ f' c ⋅ bv ⋅ dv Vn2 = 4599 Use: N mm N mm 7-90 Vn = 577.0 bv = 1 dv = 657 mm mm S5.083 ⋅ β ⋅ f' c ⋅ bv ⋅ dv and Vs = Av ⋅ fy ⋅ dv ⋅ ( cotθ + cotα) ⋅ sinα s neglect for this abutment design Before the nominal shear resistance can be calculated. β = 2.3 Vuftgtoe = 716.

9 where: de = 672 a = 30 mm mm h = 760 mm dv = 657 mm 7-91 . the one-way shear for the abutment footing toe would fail.4. The footing depth would have to be increased or the piles would have to be redesigned to reduce the shear force outside the critical section.90 Vr = φ v ⋅ Vn Vr = 519.conservative S5.13.2. For heels that are in compression on the top face. the critical section is taken at the stem back face. the critical section is calculated according to S5. Again.6.The factored shear resistance is then: φ v = 0. For one way action in the abutment footing heel.5.1 ⎝ a . S5. the critical section is taken at the abutment face for heels that are in tension on the top face of the heel.2. The term dv is calculated the same as it is for the abutment toe: dv = max ⎛ de − ⎜ S5. 0.G.2. The maximum factored abutment footing heel shear occurs when the heel is in tension on the top face.8.6.1 & C5. the above design shear force and resistance are just shown to illustrate the toe one-way shear check if the pile loads were outside the critical section.3.9 ⋅ de .72 ⋅ h⎞ 2 ⎠ use the same effective depth as the toe .9.8.1 Vr < Vuftgtoe If the front row of piles were outside the critical section.4 N mm N. Therefore.conservative use the same stress block depth as the toe .3. 0.13.

Abutment Heel Critical Shear Section Heel 380mm. The pile loads used to compute the controlling footing heel shear force are for the Strength I limit state using the minimum load factors at the final construction stage. the factored shear is computed by summing all the back row pile loads. Tables P-17 through P-20 and are as follows: P1 = −68054N P3 = −65830N P5 = −64496N P7 = −64051N P9 = −64496N P11 = −65830N P13 = −68054N 7-92 . Figure 7-23 Abutment Heel One-way Action Critical Section Since the back row of piles are all outside the critical section. They are taken from Design Step P.1220mm.

083 ⋅ β ⋅ f' c ⋅ bv ⋅ dv Vn1 = 577.8.3.3.4.1 S5.9 Now.2. β = 2.25 ⋅ f' c ⋅ bv ⋅ dv where: Vc = 0.0 bv = 1 dv = 657 mm mm S5.The factored one-way shear force at the abutment footing heel critical section on a per millimeter basis is then: Vuftgheel = ( P1 + P3 + P5 + P7 + P9 + P11 + P13) Labut N mm S5.25 ⋅ f' c ⋅ bv ⋅ dv Vn2 = 4599 Use: K ft N mm 7-93 Vn = 577.3 Vuftgheel = −32.1 .3 The nominal shear resistance is the lesser of: Vn1 = Vc + Vs or Vn2 = 0.1 N mm Vn2 = 0. Vn1 and Vn2 can be calculated: For f' c = 28 MPa Vn1 = 0.083 ⋅ β ⋅ f' c ⋅ bv ⋅ dv and Vs = Av ⋅ fy ⋅ dv ⋅ ( cotθ + cotα) ⋅ sinα s neglect for this abutment design Before the nominal shear resistance can be calculated.8. all the variables used in the above equations need to be defined.8.

5.4. dv. The effective shear depth.4 N mm OK S5.13. Vutwoway = P8 Vutwoway = 1511875 N dv = 657 mm 0. is located a minimum of 0. bo.1 S5. or pile # 8 (see Design Step P .6.2.3.1 Vr > Vuftgheel For two-way action.5dv from the perimeter of the pile. is the same as that used for the one-way shear check for the footing toe. that portion of the critical perimeter is limited by the footing edge. If portions of the critical perimeter are located off the footing. Two-way action should be checked for the maximum loaded pile.Tables P-17 through P-20). the pile critical perimeter.5 ⋅ dv = 329 mm 7-94 .90 Vr = φ v ⋅ Vn Vr = 519.The factored shear resistance is then: φ v = 0.

) 329mm 964mm 858. Since the overlap is minimal. ignore the overlap and assume the critical perimeter and the front face of the stem are aligned at the same plane. In fact.Abutment footing heel 329mm Abutment footing toe HP310x79 (Typ. it can be seen that the critical perimeter is approximately at the face of the stem. the critical perimeter overlaps the front face of the stem by approximately 2 millimeters.5mm Pile critical perimeter Backwall front face Backwall back face Stem back face Stem front face 7 8 Figure 7-24 Pile Two-way Action Critical Perimeter In the above figure. 7-95 .

3 βc = 1 bo = 2 ⋅ ( 964 + 858.5.1 7-96 .Two-way action or punching shear resistance for sections without transverse reinforcement can then be calculated as follows: 0.2.3.33 ⎞ Vn = ⎛ 0.4.13.17 + 0.33 ⋅ f' c ⋅ bo ⋅ dv ⎜ βc ⎠ ⎝ βc = 964mm 858.33 ⋅ f' c ⋅ bo ⋅ dv = 4181729 use Vn = 4181729N N N The factored punching shear resistance is then: φ v = 0.33 ⎞ ⋅ f' ⋅ b ⋅ d = 5878305 c o v ⎜ βc ⎠ ⎝ 0.5) bo = 3645 mm mm ⎛ 0.90 Vr = φ v ⋅ Vn Vr = 3763556 N Vr > Vutwoway OK S5.6.17 + ⋅ f' c ⋅ bo ⋅ dv ≤ 0.5mm ratio of long to short side of critical perimeter S5.

1065mm. # 16 bars @ 300mm spacing(top & bottom mat) 3 1 3125mm. 380mm. 760mm.Draw Schematic of Final Abutment Design 405mm 610mm 230mm 380mm # 13 bars @ 275mm spacing (front & back face) # 16 bars @ 225mm spacing 5% Backfill with acceptable material # 16 bars @ 225mm spacing (front & back face) 2440mm. Figure 7-25 Final Abutment Design 7-97 4570mm 2130mm . # 16 bars @ 300mm spacing # 25 bars @ 300mm spacing # 29 bars @ 225mm spacing 840mm.Design Step 7.12 . 300mm.

The following figure shows the preliminary dimensions for the wingwall. S11.3 .Select Preliminary Wingwall Dimensions The designer should base the preliminary wingwall dimensions on state specific standards. 7-98 . Wingwall classifications include most of the abutment types listed in the abutment section.Select Optimum Wingwall Type Selecting the most optimal wingwall type depends on the site conditions.26 Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Wingwall Design Step 7.2 .Design Step 7. and past experience. The wingwall is skewed at a 45 degree angle from the front face of the abutment stem. and aesthetics. a reinforced concrete cantilever wingwall was chosen. For this design example. Figure 7. Wingwalls can be integral or independent. previous designs.2 cost considerations.

the corresponding dead loads can be computed.46 0m m 150mm 4H:1 V 1 12 6700mm 6250mm Figure 7-27 Preliminary Wingwall Dimensions Design Step 7.Compute Dead Load Effects Once the preliminary wingwall dimensions are selected.1 7-99 .4 . For sloped wingwalls.5. The dead loads are calculated on a per millimeter basis. 5200mm S3. the design section is generally taken at a distance of one-third down from the high end of the wingwall.

246 6100mm mm The wingwall design height is then: Hwing = 6700mm − ⎡( 1525mm) ⋅ 0.Design section stem height: Distance from start of slope at high end of stem: ( 6100mm) = 1525 mm 4 Amount wingwall stem drops per millimeter: ( 6700mm − 5200mm) mm = 0.246 ⎢ mm ⎤ ⎥ mm ⎦ ⎣ Hwing = 6325 mm Use Hwing = 6325mm 460mm Location of design section 1675mm 6325mm 1 12 987mm Wingwall toe Figure 7-28 Wingwall Design Section 7-100 .

11.1. For seismic zone I.Compute Other Load Effects Other load effects that need to be computed include: wind loads. Wind Load on Wingwall S3. the only live load effects are from live load surcharge. Also.11 S3.10 This design example assumes that the structure is located in seismic zone I with an acceleration coefficient of 0.02.6 . The reason for this is due to the fact that the majority of force effects required to produce a transverse shear or moment will also reduce the maximum overturning moment.Wingwall stem: DLwwstem = g ⋅ ⎡⎛ ⎢⎜ 460mm + 987mm ⎞ ⋅ 6325mm⎤ ⋅ Wc ⎥ 2 ⎣⎝ ⎠ ⎦ N mm DLwwstem = 107.5 S3.2. the wind loads acting on the wingwall will only decrease the overturning moment and will be ignored for this design example.0019 MPa.3 The wind loads acting on the exposed portion of the wingwall front and end elevations are calculated from a base wind pressure of 0.8. live load surcharge.5 . loads due to uniform surcharge.7 Design Step 7.6 The earth loads that need to be investigated for this design example include: loads due to basic lateral earth pressure. The effects from live load surcharge are computed in Design Step 7. earth pressure.Compute Live Load Effects Since the wingwall does not support a parapet. and temperature loads. For the wingwall temporary state. the wind loads acting on the wingwall should be investigated. In the wingwall final state. 7-101 . any wind loads that produce a transverse shear or moment in the wingwall footing are ignored. no seismic analysis is required. Earthquake Load S3. Earth Loads S3. Design Step 7.6. earthquake loads.11. and live load surcharge loads.

Loads due to basic lateral earth pressure: To obtain the lateral loads due to basic earth pressure, the earth pressure (p) must first be calculated from the following equation. p = ka ⋅ γ s ⋅ g ⋅ z Bottom of wingwall stem lateral earth load: ka = 0.3 γ s = 1925 kg m

3

S3.11.5 S3.11.5.1

**obtained from geotechnical information use average of loose and compacted gravel
**

STable 3.5.1-1

**z = 6325mm + 610mm Depth below the surface of the earth p = ka ⋅ γ s ⋅ g ⋅ z p = 0.039 MPa
**

18.5° 460mm

6935mm

1 Horizontal earth load, REHstem 12

6325mm

2312mm

987mm

Wingwall toe

p 18.5°

Figure 7-29 Wingwall Stem Design Earth Pressure

7-102

Once the lateral earth pressure is calculated, the lateral load due to the earth pressure can be calculated. This load acts at a distance of H/3 from the bottom of the section being investigated. For cases where the ground line is sloped, H is taken as the height from the top of earth to the bottom of the section being investigated. hwwstem = 6325mm + 610mm 1 REHstem = ⎛ ⎞ ⋅ p ⋅ hwwstem ⎜ ⎝ 2⎠ REHstem = 136.2 N mm

S3.11.5.1 SC3.11.5.1

Since the ground line is sloped, REHstem, must be broken down into horizontal and vertical components as follows: REHstemhoriz = REHstem ⋅ cos ( 18.5deg) REHstemhoriz = 129.1 N mm

**REHstemvert = REHstem ⋅ sin ( 18.5deg) REHstemvert = 43.2 N mm
**

S3.11.6.1

Loads due to uniform surcharge: Since an approach slab and roadway will cover the abutment backfill material, no uniform surcharge load will be applied. Loads due to live load surcharge: Loads due to live load surcharge must be applied when a vehicular live load acts on the backfill surface behind the backface within one-half the wall height. Since the distance from the wingwall back face to the edge of traffic is greater than 300 millimeters, the equivalent height of fill is constant. The horizontal pressure increase due to live load surcharge is estimated based on the following equation: ∆ p = k ⋅ γ s ⋅ g ⋅ heq

S3.11.6.4

7-103

**Bottom of wingwall stem live load surcharge load: k = ka γ s = 1925 kg m
**

3

use average of loose and compacted gravel

STable 3.5.1-1 STable 3.11.6.4-1

heq = 600mm equivalent height of soil for vehicular loading ∆ p = k ⋅ γ s ⋅ g ⋅ heq ∆ p = 0.0034 MPa The lateral load due to the live load surcharge is: RLSstem = ∆ p ⋅ hwwstem RLSstem = 23.6 N mm

Since the ground line is sloped, RLSstem, must be broken down into horizontal and vertical components as follows: RLSstemhoriz = RLSstem ⋅ cos ( 18.5deg) RLSstemhoriz = 22.3 N mm

**RLSstemvert = RLSstem ⋅ sin ( 18.5deg) RLSstemvert = 7.5 N mm
**

S3.12

**Loads due to temperature: Temperature loads are not applicable for the wingwall design.
**

Design Step 7.7 - Analyze and Combine Force Effects

There are two critical locations where the force effects need to be combined and analyzed for design. They include: the bottom of stem or top of footing and the bottom of footing. For the stem design, transverse horizontal loads do not need be considered due to the high moment of inertia about that axis, but at the bottom of footing, the transverse horizontal loads will need to be considered for the footing and pile design. Note that the footing design calculations for wingwalls are similar to abutments. Therefore, the wingwall footing design calculations will not be shown.

7-104

Bottom of Wingwall Stem

The combination of force effects for the bottom of the wingwall stem includes:

Figure 7-30 Wingwall Stem Dimensions and Loading

7-105

The force effects for the wingwall stem will be combined for the following limit states. Load Factors Strength I Strength III Strength V Service I Load DC EH LS γ max 1.25 1.50 1.75 γ min γ max γ min 0.90 1.25 0.90 0.90 1.50 0.90 1.75 ----γ max 1.25 1.50 1.35 γ min 0.90 0.90 1.35 γ max 1.00 1.00 1.00 γ min 1.00 1.00 1.00

STable 3.4.1-1 STable 3.4.1-2

Table 7-7 Applicable Wingwall Stem Limit States with the Corresponding Load Factors

The loads that are required to combine force effects at the base of the wingwall stem include: N DLwwstem = 107.7 mm REHstemhoriz = 129.1 RLSstemhoriz = 22.3 N mm

N mm

Wingwall stem Strength I force effects: The following load factors will be used to calculate the controlling force effects for Strength I: γ DC = 1.25 γ EH = 1.50 γ LS = 1.75 The factored vertical force at the base of the wingwall stem is: FvstmstrI = γ DC ⋅ DLwwstem FvstmstrI = 134.6 N mm

STable 3.4.1-2 STable 3.4.1-2 STable 3.4.1-1

7-106

The factored longitudinal shear force at the base of the wingwall stem is: VustmstrI = γ EH ⋅ REHstemhoriz + γ LS ⋅ RLSstemhoriz VustmstrI = 232.8 N mm

(

) (

)

The factored moment about the bridge transverse axis at the base of the wingwall stem is: MustmstrI = γ EH ⋅ REHstemhoriz ⋅ 2312 ⋅ mm ... + γ LS ⋅ RLSstemhoriz ⋅ 3443 ⋅ mm

(

(

)

)

MustmstrI = 582539

N ⋅ mm mm

Wingwall stem Strength III force effects: The following load factors will be used to calculate the force effects for Strength III: γ DC = 1.25 γ EH = 1.50 The factored vertical force at the base of the wingwall stem is: FvstmstrIII = γ DC ⋅ DLwwstem FvstmstrIII = 134.6 N mm

STable 3.4.1-2 STable 3.4.1-2

The factored longitudinal shear force at the base of the abutment stem is: VustmstrIII = γ EH ⋅ REHstemhoriz VustmstrIII = 193.7 N mm

7-107

The factored longitudinal moment at the base of the wingwall stem is: MustmstrIII = γ EH ⋅ REHstemhoriz ⋅ 2312 ⋅ mm MustmstrIII = 447890 N ⋅ mm mm

Wingwall stem Strength V force effects: The following load factors will be used to calculate the force effects for Strength V: γ DC = 1.25 γ EH = 1.50 γ LS = 1.35 The factored vertical force at the base of the wingwall stem is: FvstmstrV = γ DC ⋅ DLwwstem FvstmstrV = 134.6 N mm

STable 3.4.1-2 STable 3.4.1-2 STable 3.4.1-1

The factored longitudinal shear force at the base of the wingwall stem is: VustmstrV = γ EH ⋅ REHstemhoriz + γ LS ⋅ RLSstemhoriz VustmstrV = 223.9 N mm

(

) (

)

The factored longitudinal moment at the base of the wingwall stem is: MustmstrV = γ EH ⋅ REHstemhoriz ⋅ 2312 ⋅ mm ... + γ LS ⋅ RLSstemhoriz ⋅ 3443 ⋅ mm

(

(

)

)

MustmstrV = 551762

N ⋅ mm mm

7-108

Wingwall stem Service I force effects: The following load factors will be used to calculate the force effects for Service I: γ DC = 1.00 γ EH = 1.00 γ LS = 1.00 The factored vertical force at the base of the wingwall stem is: FvstmservI = γ DC ⋅ DLwwstem FvstmservI = 107.7 N mm

STable 3.4.1-2 STable 3.4.1-2 STable 3.4.1-1

The factored longitudinal shear force at the base of the wingwall stem is: VustmservI = γ EH ⋅ REHstemhoriz + γ LS ⋅ RLSstemhoriz VustmservI = 151.5 N mm

(

) (

)

The factored longitudinal moment at the base of the wingwall stem is: MustmservI = γ EH ⋅ REHstemhoriz ⋅ 2312 ⋅ mm ... + γ LS ⋅ RLSstemhoriz ⋅ 3443 ⋅ mm

(

(

)

)

MustmservI = 375535

N ⋅ mm mm

7-109

The maximum factored wingwall stem vertical force, shear force, and moment for the strength limit state are: Fvertstemmax = max ( FvstmstrI , FvstmstrIII , FvstmstrV ) Fvertstemmax = 134.6 N mm

Vuwwstemmax = max ( VustmstrI , VustmstrIII , VustmstrV) Vuwwstemmax = 232.8 N mm

Muwwstemmax = max ( MustmstrI , MustmstrIII , MustmstrV) Muwwstemmax = 582539 N ⋅ mm mm

7-110

Design Step 7.9 - Design Wingwall Stem

**Design for flexure: Assume #29 bars: bar_diam = 28.7mm bar_area = 645mm
**

2

First, the minimum reinforcement requirements will be calculated. The tensile reinforcement provided must be enough to develop a factored flexural resistance at least equal to the lesser of 1.2 times the cracking strength or 1.33 times the factored moment from the applicable strength load combinations. The cracking strength is calculated by: Mcr = fr ⋅ Ig yt

1mm

S5.7.3.3.2

SEquation 5.7.3.6.2-2

Front face of wingwall at base 493.5mm 987mm

Centroidal Axis

74mm

#29 bars @ 225mm spacing

**Figure 7-31 Wingwall Cracking Moment Dimensions
**

7-111

**fr = 0.63 ⋅ f' c fr = 3.33MPa Ig = 1 3 ( 1mm) ( 987mm) 12 Ig = 80125400 mm
**

4

S5.4.2.6

**yt = 493.5mm
**

fr⋅ Ig

Mcr =

yt

mm N ⋅ mm mm

Mcr = 540664

N ⋅ mm mm

1.2 ⋅ Mcr = 648797

1.33 times the factored controlling backwall moment is: N ⋅ mm Muwwstemmax = 582539 mm 1.33 ⋅ Muwwstemmax = 774776 N ⋅ mm mm

1.2 times the cracking moment controls the minimum reinforcement requirements. 1.2 times the cracking moment is also greater than the factored wingwall stem moment. Therefore, use 1.2 times the cracking moment to design the wingwall stem flexure reinforcement. Muwwstemdes = 1.2 ⋅ Mcr Muwwstemdes = 648797 N ⋅ mm mm

Effective depth, de = total backwall thickness - cover - 1/2 bar diameter tbw = 987mm wingwall thickness at base

Covers = 60 mm de = tbw − Covers − de = 913 mm bar_diam 2

7-112

**Solve for the required amount of reinforcing steel, as follows: φ f = 0.90 b = 1mm f' c = 28MPa fy = 420MPa Rn = Muwwstemdes ⋅ 1mm
**

S5.5.4.2.1

( φ f ⋅ b ⋅ de 2 )

Rn = 865481Pa

ρ = 0.85⎜

⎛ f'c ⎞ ⎡ ( 2 ⋅ Rn) ⎤ ⋅ ⎢ 1.0 − 1.0 − ( 0.85 ⋅ f'c) ⎥ ⎝ fy ⎠ ⎣ ⎦

ρ = 0.00210

Note: The above two equations are derived formulas that can be found in most reinforced concrete textbooks. A s = ρ ⋅ de As = 1.916 mm mm

2

Required bar spacing =

bar_area = 337 mm As

Use #29 bars @ bar_space = 225mm to match the abutment stem vertical bar spacing As = bar_area ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ 1mm ⎞ ⎝ bar_space ⎠ As = 2.867 mm

2

per mm

S5.7.3.3.1

Once the bar size and spacing are known, the maximum reinforcement limit must be checked. T = As ⋅ fy a = T 0.85 ⋅ f' c ⋅ b T = 1204 N a = 51 mm

β 1 = 0.85 c = a β1 where OK

7-113

S5.7.2.2

c = 60 mm c ≤ 0.42 de

S5.7.2.2 S5.7.3.3.1

c = 0.07 de 0.07 ≤ 0.42

Check crack control: The control of cracking by distribution of reinforcement must be checked. Since this design example assumes that the wingwall will be exposed to deicing salts, use: Z = 23000 N mm

S5.7.3.4

Thickness of clear cover used to compute dc bar_diam dc = 60mm + should not be greater than 50mm: 2 dc = 74 mm use dc = 50mm + dc = 64 mm Concrete area with centroid the same as transverse bar and bounded by the cross section and line parallel to neutral axis: bar_diam 2

**Ac = 2 ⋅ ( dc) ⋅ bar_space Ac = 28958mm
**

2

The equation that gives the allowable reinforcement service load stress for crack control is: fsa = Z

1

where

fsa ≤ 0.6 ⋅ fy

( dc ⋅ Ac) 3

fsa = 187 MPa Use fsa = 187MPa

S5.4.3.2 S5.4.2.4

0.6fy = 252 MPa

**Es = 200000MPa Ec = 25399MPa n = Use Es Ec n = 8
**

7-114

n=8

the transformed moment of inertia and the distance from the neutral axis to the centroid of the reinforcement must be computed: de = 913 mm n=8 ρ = As b ⋅ de mm ρ = 0.867 mm mm 2 k = ( ρ ⋅ n) 2 + ( 2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ n ) − ρ ⋅ n k = 0.00314 As = bar_area ⎛ 1mm ⎞ ⋅⎜ mm ⎝ bar_space ⎠ As = 2.Service backwall total load moment: MustmservI = 375535 N ⋅ mm mm To solve for the actual stress in the reinforcement.200 k ⋅ de = 183 mm Front face of wingwall at base 1mm 183mm Neutral Axis 987mm 730mm #29 bars @ 225mm spacing Figure 7-32 Wingwall Crack Control Check 7-115 74mm .

8.Once kde is known. the actual stress in the reinforcement can be computed: y = 730 mm mm ⎞ ⋅y mm ⎠ fs = n ⋅ ⎛ MustmservI ⋅ 1 ⎜ ⎝ It fsa > fs OK fs = 154 MPa Design for shear: The factored longitudinal shear force at the base of the wingwall is: Vuwwstemdes = Vuwwstemmax Vuwwstemdes = 232.3.3 The nominal shear resistance is the lesser of: Vn1 = Vc + Vs or Vn2 = 0.083 ⋅ β ⋅ f' c ⋅ bv ⋅ dv and Vs = Av ⋅ fy ⋅ dv ⋅ ( cotθ + cotα) ⋅ sinα s neglect for this wingwall design 7-116 . the transformed moment of inertia can be computed: de = 913 mm As = 3 It = mm mm 2 1 ⎛ mm ⎞ 3 2 ⋅ ⎜1 ⋅ ( k ⋅ d e ) + n ⋅ A s ⋅ ( de − k ⋅ de ) 3 ⎝ mm ⎠ 4 mm It = 14252286 mm y = de − k ⋅ de Now.25 ⋅ f' c ⋅ bv ⋅ dv where: Vc = 0.8 N mm S5.

Vn1 and Vn2 can be calculated: For f' c = 28 MPa Vn1 = 0.9 where: de = 913 mm a = 51 mm h = 987 mm Therefore: dv = 887.0 bv = 1 mm dv = max ⎛ de − ⎜ S5.083 ⋅ β ⋅ f' c ⋅ bv ⋅ dv Vn1 = 779. β = 2.90 Vr = φ v ⋅ Vn Vr = 701.8. 0.2.6 The factored shear resistance is then: φ v = 0.4.5 mm Now.5. all the variables used in the above equations need to be defined.1 ⎝ a .72 ⋅ h⎞ 2 ⎠ S5.25 ⋅ f' c ⋅ bv ⋅ dv Vn2 = 6213 Use: N mm N mm Vn = 779.9 ⋅ de .Before the nominal shear resistance can be calculated.3.6 N mm Vn2 = 0.1 Vr > Vuwwstemdes . 0.4.6 N mm OK 7-117 S5.2.8.

2 Ag = ( 987 ⋅ mm) ⋅ ⎛ 1 ⋅ ⎜ ⎝ Ag = 987 fy = 420 MPa 0. # 29 bars at 225mm spacing will be used for the back face flexure reinforcement.75 ⋅ Ag fy or 0.8.480 mm mm 2 OK Based on the wingwall design.10.0015Ag = 1. Use # 16 bars at 225mm spacing for the front face vertical reinforcement. the area of reinforcement in each direction shall not be spaced greater than 300mm and satisfy the lesser of: As ≥ 0.Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement: For members less than 1200mm thick. The horizontal temperature and shrinkage reinforcement will consist of # 16 bars at 225mm spacing for the front and back faces.0015Ag mm mm 2 S5. 7-118 .8 S5.763 mm mm 2 mm mm 2 As must be greater than or equal to 1.769 2 1.480 = 1. Try 1 horizontal # 16 bar for each face of the wingwall at 225mm spacing: bar_diam = 16mm bar_area = 199mm As = 2 ⋅ 2 bar_area ⎛ 1mm ⎞ ⋅⎜ mm ⎝ 225mm ⎠ mm mm 2 As = 1.769 mm mm ≥ 1.10.480 mm2/mm The above steel must be distributed equally on both faces of the wingwall.75 Ag fy or mm ⎞ mm ⎠ ΣAb = 0.

Design Step 7.Draw Schematic of Final Wingwall Design 460mm Backfill with acceptable material #16 bars @ 22 5mm spacing (front & back fa ce) 1 12 60mm (Typ.) 2440mm #29 bars @ 225mm spacing 987mm #16 bars @ 225mm spacing Figure 7-33 Final Wingwall Design 7-119 6325mm .12 .

Compute Live Load Effects Design Step 8.Pier Design Example Design Step 8 Table of Contents Page Design Step 8.7 .Design Pier Footing Design Step 8.Analyze and Combine Force Effects Design Step 8.2 .9 .Obtain Design Criteria Design Step 8.8 .11 .5 .Design Pier Piles Design Step 8.6 .3 .Select Optimum Pier Type Design Step 8.Compute Other Load Effects Design Step 8.1 .4 .Select Preliminary Pier Dimensions Design Step 8.Compute Dead Load Effects Design Step 8.10 .Final Pier Schematic 2 4 5 6 8 10 24 39 51 61 62 69 8-1 .12 .Design Pier Column Design Step 8.Design Pier Cap Design Step 8.

4. 28 MPa is used for the 28-day compressive strength. The first design step is to identify the appropriate design criteria.Obtain Design Criteria This pier design example is based on AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (through 2002 interims). However. per the Specifications.1 CTable5. The design methods presented throughout the example are meant to be the most widely used in general bridge engineering practice.1-1 S5. determining the required pier height.2. and criteria for the entire bridge. The following units are defined for use in this design example: kN = 1000N MPa = 1000000Pa Material Properties: Concrete density: Concrete 28-day compressive strength: Reinforcement strength: Wc = 2400 kg m 3 STable 3. Additional information is presented about the design assumptions.4. Refer to Design Step 1 for introductory information about this design example. and determining the bottom of footing elevation.1-1 S5.4.Design Step 8.1 . but is not limited to.1 8-2 . methodology.5.3 f' c = 28MPa fy = 420MPa Concrete 28-day compressive strength . 17 MPa could be used for the pier footing. defining material properties. identifying relevant superstructure information.For all components of this pier design example.2. C5.2. including the pier. This includes.4.

12. it is assumed here that the pier can be subjected to a deicing salt spray from nearby vehicles.3-1 pier.12.12.Since the footing bottom is cast directly against the earth. Therefore.The footing top cover is set at 50 millimeters.3-1 STable 5. the footing bottom cover is set at 75 millimeters.3-1 STable 5.Reinforcing steel cover requirements (assume non-epoxy rebars): Pier cap: Pier column: Footing top cover: Footing bottom cover: Covercp = 60mm Coverco = 60mm Coverft = 50mm Coverfb = 75mm STable 5. Relevant superstructure data: Girder spacing: Number of girders: Deck overhang: Span length: Parapet height: Deck overhang thickness: Haunch thickness: Web depth: Bot. a 50 millimeter cover could be used with the assumption that the pier is not subject to deicing salts.3-1 Do = 1676mm (based on 1st trial section) tbf = 57mm Hbrng = 125mm Hsuper = Hpar + ⎜ (maximum thickness) ⎛ to + Hhnch + Do + tbf ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ 1 mm mm ⎠ Hsuper = 3120 mm 8-3 .3-1 Pier cap and column cover . the cover is set at 60 millimeters.3-1 STable 5. However.12.12.12. flange thickness: Bearing height: Superstructure Depth: S = 2972mm Ng = 5 DOH = 1200mm Lspan = 36576mm Hpar = 1067mm to = 230mm Hhnch = 90mm (includes top flange) STable 5.Since no joint exists in the deck at the STable 5. Footing top cover . Footing bottom cover .12.3-1 STable 5.

S3.Select Optimum Pier Type Selecting the most optimal pier type depends on site conditions. In this example.The bottom of footing elevation may depend on the potential for scour (not applicable in this example) and/or the geotechnical properties of the soil and/or rock. For this design example. It will be assumed here that adequate vertical clearance is provided given a ground line that is 600 millimeters above the top of the footing and the pier dimensions given in Design Step 8.3. The most common pier types are single column (i. Design Step 8.2 .6. a single column (hammerhead) pier was chosen. cost considerations.3. and aesthetics. as a S10. and bent type (multi-column or pile bent).2 minimum. A typical hammerhead pier is shown in Figure 8-1.1. Pier height .e.2 Bottom of Footing Elevation .Superstructure data . solid wall type.8 S2.. "hammerhead").The above superstructure data is important because it sets the width of the pier cap and defines the depth and length of the superstructure needed for computation of wind loads. However. S11. it should be at or below the frost depth for a given geographic region.Guidance on determining the appropriate pier height can be found in the AASHTO publication A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. it is assumed that the 600 millimeters of soil above the footing plus the footing thickness provides sufficient depth below the ground line for frost protection of the structure.2 Figure 8-1 Typical Hammerhead Pier 8-4 .3. superstructure geometry.

The pier cap. however.3 . 7010mm. 14173mm.Front Elevation 8-5 . Figure 8-2 Preliminary Pier Dimensions . previous designs. 1524mm. column. 1067mm.Select Preliminary Pier Dimensions Since the Specifications do not have standards regarding maximum or minimum dimensions for a pier cap.Design Step 8. and past experience. 4725mm. or footing. must be wide enough to accommodate the bearing. Figures 8-2 and 8-3 show the preliminary dimensions selected for this pier design example. 4572mm. the designer should base the preliminary pier dimensions on state specific standards. 4725mm. 1830mm.

Exterior girder dead load reactions (DC and DW): RDCE = 1128500N RDWE = 174400N Interior girder dead load reactions (DC and DW): RDCI = 1197000N RDWI = 174400N 8-6 . the corresponding S3.5. 3660mm. Figure 8-3 Preliminary Pier Dimensions .Compute Dead Load Effects Once the preliminary pier dimensions are selected. The pier dead loads must then be combined with the superstructure dead loads. the AASHTO Opis software was used. any number of commercially available software programs can be used to obtain these loads.1524mm. 1830mm.1 dead loads can be computed. and the values shown below correspond to the first design iteration.4 . For this design example. The superstructure dead loads shown below are obtained from the superstructure analysis/design software. Based on the properties defined in Design Step 3 (Steel Girder Design).End Elevation Design Step 8. 1524mm. 1372mm.

5. The 610mm height of soil above the footing was previously defined. Assuming a unit weight of soil at 1925 kg/m^3 : STable 3.Pier cap dead load: Overhang:DLovrhg = ( 1524mm ⋅ 1524mm ⋅ 4725mm) ⋅ g ⋅ Wc .1-1 EVftg = 1925 ⋅ ( 610mm) ⋅ ⎡( 7010mm ⋅ 3660mm) ..... the weight of the soil on top of the footing must be computed. 1 + ⋅ ( 1830mm ⋅ 1524mm ⋅ 4725mm) ⋅ g ⋅ Wc 2 DLovrhg = 413362 N Interior: DLint = ( 3354mm ⋅ 1524mm ⋅ 4725mm) ⋅ g ⋅ Wc DLint = 568436 N Total: DLcap = 2 ⋅ DLovrhg + DLint DLcap = 1395160 N Pier column dead load: DLcol = ( 4725mm ⋅ 1372mm ⋅ 4572mm) ⋅ g ⋅ Wc DLcol = 697580N Pier footing dead load: DLftg = ( 1067mm ⋅ 7010mm ⋅ 3660mm) ⋅ g Wc DLftg = 644311N In addition to the above dead loads. ⎤ ⋅ g m ⎣+ ( −4725mm ⋅ 1372mm) ⎦ 3 kg EVftg = 220796 N 8-7 .

2. The positioning shown in Figure 8-4 is arrived at by first determining the number of design lanes.6.B 3600mm Lane . S3.Design Step 8.1.5 .1 S3. which has a 1800 millimeter wheel spacing and a 600 millimeter clearance to the edge of the lane.6. the maximum live load effects in the pier cap.1 S3.C 600mm 2'-0" P 600mm 2'-0" P P 600mm 2'-0" P P 1800mm w 1800mm w 1800mm w P 2972mm 1 2972mm 2 2972mm 3 2972mm 4 762mm 5 C Pier L 610mm Figure 8-4 Pier Live Loading 8-8 .1.1.1 13411. which occupies 3000 millimeters of the lane.1.6. Then the lane loading.6.3.4 S3. are positioned within each lane to maximize the force effects in each of the respective pier components. column and footing are based on either one.2.5mm 3600mm Lane .A 3600mm Lane . which is the integer part of the ratio of the clear roadway width divided by 3600 millimeters per lane. two or three lanes loaded (whichever results in the worst force effect).1. Figure 8-4 illustrates the lane positions when three lanes are loaded. and the HL-93 truck loading.Compute Live Load Effects For the pier in this design example.

IM IM = 0. Solving for the reactions is then elementary.9 N mm S3.2.2.0).3. The subscripts indicate the bearing location and the lane loaded to obtain the respective reaction: Pwheel⋅ ( 1334mm + 3134mm) + Wlane ⋅ 3000mm ⋅ 2234mm 2972mm 8-9 R5_c = . These reactions do not include dynamic load allowance and are given on a per lane basis (i.1 STable 3.6.. The value of these reactions from the first design iteration are as follows: Rtruck = 553800N Rlane = 433200N Dynamic load allowance.1-1 The values of the unfactored concentrated loads which represent the girder truck load reaction per wheel line in Figure 8-4 are: Pwheel = Rtruck 2 ⋅ ( 1 + IM) ⋅ ( 0. distribution factor = 1.6. This load is transversely distributed over 3000mm and is not subject to dynamic load allowance.e. Wlane = Rlane 10ft ⋅ ( 0. the reactions do not include the ten percent reduction permitted by the Specifications for interior pier reactions that result from longitudinally loading the superstructure with a truck pair in conjunction with lane loading.90) Wlane = 127.33 S3.e.1. This is generally carried out by assuming the deck is pinned (i.1 The next step is to compute the reactions due to the above loads at each of the five bearing locations. Also.6. The computations for the reactions with only Lane C loaded are illustrated below as an example..90) Pwheel = 331449 N The value of the unfactored uniformly distributed load which represents the girder lane load reaction in Figure 8-4 is computed next.The unfactored girder reactions for lane load and truck load are obtained from the superstructure analysis/design software. discontinuous) at the interior girder locations but continuous over the exterior girders.

1 S3. The calculation of the braking force for a single traffic lane follows: 8-10 S3. Also.1.4 S3.R5_c = 786740 N R4_c = Pwheel⋅ 2 + Wlane ⋅ 3000mm − R5_c R4_c = 259899 N The reactions at bearings 1. it is assumed that Lane B's loading is resisted entirely.6 .2. wind loads. the entire longitudinal braking force is resisted by the pier. 2 and 3 with only Lane C loaded are zero.6. Calculations similar to those above yield the following live load reactions with the remaining lanes loaded (for simplicity. It is assumed in this example that this bridge is likely to become one-directional in the future.6. and earthquake loads.1 .1. by bearings 3 and 4): R5_a = 0N R4_a = 0N R3_a = 315630N R2_a = 718752N R1_a = 4K R5_b = 0N R4_b = 526465N R3_b = 526465N R2_b = 0N R1_b = 0N R3_c = 0N R2_c = 0N R1_c = 0N Design Step 8. temperature loads. Braking Force Since expansion bearings exist at the abutments. and equally. The braking force per lane is the greater of: 25 percent of the axle weights of the design truck or tandem 5 percent of the axle weights of the design truck plus lane load 5 percent of the axle weights of the design tandem plus lane load The total braking force is computed based on the number of design lanes in the same direction. braking forces are not increased for dynamic load allowance. any and all design lanes may be used to compute the governing braking force. Therefore.Compute Other Load Effects Other load effects that will be considered for this pier design include braking force.6.

.6.05 ⋅ ⎡( 110000N + 110000N ) . since the bearings are assumed incapable of transmitting longitudinal moment. BRKtan .. 125 millimeters above the top of the pier cap).. BRKtan_lan) BRK = 81250N The Specifications state that the braking force is applied at a distance of 1800 millimeters above the roadway surface.25 ⋅ ( 110000N + 110000N ) BRKtan = 55000N 5 percent of the axle weights of the design truck plus lane load: BRKtrk_lan = 0.. Additionally. ⎤ ⎢ ⎛ ⎥ N ⎞ ⎢+ ⎜ 9. However.. the braking force will be applied at the bearing elevation (i.e. ⎤ ⎢ ⎛ ⎥ N + ⎜ 9.05 ⋅ ⎡( 145000N + 145000N + 35000N) . BRKtrk_lan . This force may be applied in either horizontal direction (back or ahead station) to cause the maximum force effects.25 percent of the design truck: BRKtrk = 0. the total braking force is typically assumed equally distributed among the bearings: BRKbrg = BRK 5 8-11 S3.4 .3 ⋅ 73152mm⎞ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎝ mm ⎠ ⎦ BRKtan_lan = 45016N Use BRK = max ( BRKtrk .25 ⋅ ( 145000N + 145000N + 35000N) BRKtrk = 81250N 25 percent of the design tandem: BRKtan = 0.3 mm ⋅ 73152mm ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ BRKtrk_lan = 50266N 5 percent of the axle weights of the design tandem plus lane load: BRKtan_lan = 0.

the tributary length for wind load on the pier in the transverse direction is one-half the total length of the bridge: 8-12 S3. Included in this depth is any haunch and/or depth due to the deck cross-slope.1.8.8. For this example.2 S3. the wind area can be calculated and the wind pressure applied.8. the structure is considered wind-sensitive and design wind loads should be based on wind tunnel studies. the exposed area is the total superstructure depth multiplied by length tributary to the pier. Once the total depth is known. Lspan = 36576mm Width = 14287.1 .3 Since the span length to width and depth ratios are both less than 30.1.BRKbrg = 16250N Wind Load from Superstructure Prior to calculating the wind load on the superstructure. The total depth was previously computed in Section 8. The superstructure depth includes the total depth from the top of the barrier to the bottom of the girder. Due to expansion bearings at the abutment. If the span length to width or depth ratio is greater than 30.1 and is as follows: Hsuper = 3120 mm For this two-span bridge example. the structure does not need to be investigated for aeroelastic instability.5mm Depth = Hsuper − Hpar Depth = 2053 mm Lspan Width =3 OK Lspan Depth = 18 OK S3. To compute the wind load on the superstructure. the structure must be checked for aeroelastic instability. the area of the superstructure exposed to the wind must be defined. the transverse length tributary to the pier is not the same as the longitudinal length.

1 S3.2.2.1.8. VB. Therefore: VB = 160 VDZ = VB From this.4 N/mm: Windtotal = 0. the design wind velocity.1 .8.1. the tributary length is the entire bridge length due to the expansion bearings at the abutments: LwindL = 73152mm The transverse wind area is: AwsuperT = Hsuper ⋅ LwindT AwsuperT = 114117120 mm The longitudinal wind area is: AwsuperL = Hsuper ⋅ LwindL AwsuperL = 228234240 mm 2 2 Since the superstructure is approximately 10000 millimeters above low ground level.LwindT = 73152 mm 2 LwindT = 36576mm In the longitudinal direction. does not have to be adjusted. the minimum transverse normal wind loading on girders must be greater than or equal to 4.1.0024MPa ⋅ Hsuper 8-13 S3. the design wind pressure is equal to the base wind pressure: km hr S3.8.1 PD = PB ⋅ ⎜ PD = PB ⎛ VDZ ⎞ ⎝ VB ⎠ 2 or ⎛ 160 km ⎞ ⎜ hr PD = PB ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ km ⎜ 160 hr ⎠ ⎝ 2 Also.

The base wind pressures for the superstructure for various attack angles are given in STable 3.8. which is greater than 4.2-1.2. or attack angle of the wind. Wind Attack Angle 90.1.2.5 N mm .0° Pier Cap Girder Line (Typ.2 The wind load from the superstructure acting on the pier depends on the angle of wind direction.1. The attack angle is taken as measured from a line perpendicular to the girder longitudinal axis (see Figure 8-5).4 N/mm S3.0° Plan View Elevation View Figure 8-5 Application of Wind Load 8-14 3120mm Superstructure Depth .Windtotal = 7.8.) 90.

8.Two wind load calculations are illustrated below for two different wind attack angles.1.8.0008MPa WSsuptrns60 = 91294N WSsuplng60 = AwsuperL ⋅ 0. the superstructure wind loads acting on the pier are: WSsuptrns60 = AwsuperT ⋅ 0.0024MPa WSsuptrns0 = 273881N WSsuplng0 = AwsuperL ⋅ 0.0009MPa WSsuplng60 = 205411 N STable 3.2. the superstructure wind loads acting on the pier are: WSsuptrns0 = AwsuperT ⋅ 0.000MPa WSsuplng0 = 0 N For a wind attack angle of 60 degrees. The wind loads for all Specifications required attack angles are tabulated in Table 8-1.2.1.2-1 STable 3.2-1 Wind Attack Angle Degrees 0 15 30 45 60 Pier Design Wind Loads from Superstructure Bridge Bridge Transverse Axis Longitudinal Axis N N 273881 0 239646 68470 228234 136941 182587 182587 91294 205411 Table 8-1 Pier Design Wind Loads from Superstructure for Various Wind Attack Angles 8-15 . For a wind attack angle of 0 degrees.

These assumptions are consistent with those used in determining the bearing forces due to the longitudinal braking force. This moment. 14287. induces vertical loads at the bearings as illustrated in Figure 8-6.. as shown in Figure 8-6. the load at each bearing is assumed to be applied at the top of the bearing (i. the transverse load also applies a moment to the pier cap.The total longitudinal wind load shown above for a given attack angle is assumed to be divided equally among the bearings. In addition. 125 millimeters above the pier cap).5mm 4 Spaces @ 2972mm = 11888mm Figure 8-6 Transverse Wind Load Reactions at Pier Bearings from Wind on Superstructure Mtrns0 = WSsuptrns0 ⋅ ⎜ ⎛ Hsuper ⎞ ⎝ 2 ⎠ Mtrns0 = 427254497 N ⋅ mm Igirders = 2 ⋅ ( 5944mm) + 2 ⋅ ( 2972mm) Igirders = 88327840 mm RWS1_5trns0 = 2 2 2 Mtrns0 ⋅ 5944mm Igirders RWS1_5trns0 = 28752N 8-16 . The transverse wind loads shown in Table 8-1 for a given attack angle are also assumed to be equally divided among the bearings and applied at the top of each bearing.e. which acts about the centerline of the pier cap. The computations for these vertical forces with an attack angle of zero are presented below. However.

8.6 × 10 −4 S3. Also. Alternatively. Similarly for bearings 2 and 4: RWS2_4trns0 = Mtrns0 ⋅ 2972mm Igirders RWS2_4trns0 = 14376N Finally. From previous definitions: Width = 14287. The value of this moment is: 8-17 . the reactions for other attack angles can be obtained simply by multiplying the reactions obtained above by the ratio of the transverse load at the angle of interest to the transverse load at an attack angle of zero (i.6x10-4 MPa vertical wind pressure by the out-to-out bridge deck width.The reactions at bearings 1 and 5 are equal but opposite in direction. the wind attack angle must be zero degrees for the vertical wind load to apply. Vertical Wind Load The vertical (upward) wind load is calculated by multiplying a 9.5 mm LwindT = 36576mm The total vertical wind load is then: WSvert = 9..0K The vertical reactions at the bearings due to transverse wind on the superstructure at attack angles other than zero are computed as above using the appropriate transverse load from Table 8-1. 273018N).e. It is applied at the windward quarter-point of the deck only for limit states that do not include wind on live load. by inspection: RWS3trns0 = 0.2 MPa ⋅ ( Width) ⋅ ( LwindT) WSvert = 501676 N This load causes a moment about the pier centerline.

Mwind_vert = WSvert ⋅ Width 4 Mwind_vert = 1791925 kN ⋅ mm The reactions at the bearings are computed as follows: RWSvert1 = −WSvert 5 + Mwind_vert ⋅ 5944mm Igirders RWSvert2 = −WSvert 5 + Mwind_vert ⋅ 2972mm Igirders RWSvert3 = −WSvert 5 −WSvert 5 Mwind_vert ⋅ 2972mm Igirders RWSvert4 = − RWSvert5 = −WSvert 5 − Mwind_vert ⋅ 5944mm Igirders The above computations lead to the following values: RWSvert1 = 20252N RWSvert2 = −40042 N RWSvert3 = −100335 N RWSvert4 = −160629 N RWSvert5 = −220922 N (vertically upward) (vertically upward) (vertically upward) (vertically upward) 8-18 .

3-1 WLlong30 = 25603N Table 8-2 contains the total transverse and longitudinal loads due to wind load on vehicular traffic at each Specifications required attack angle. Furthermore. STable 3. this load is to be applied at a distance of 1800 millimeters above the roadway surface.2 ⋅ ⎜ ⎝ N ⎞ mm ⎠ N ⎞ mm ⎠ STable 3. The magnitude of this load with a wind attack angle of zero is 1.3-1 gives values for the longitudinal and transverse components.1. the total force in each respective direction is calculated by multiplying the appropriate component by the length of structure tributary to the pier. Similar to the superstructure wind loading.1.3-1 WLtrans30 = 43891N WLlong30 = LwindL⋅ ⎛ 0.1. For wind attack angles other than zero.8.8.35 ⎜ ⎝ STable 3.8.3 An example calculation is illustrated below using a wind attack angle of 30 degrees: WLtrans30 = LwindT ⋅ ⎛ 1. Design Vehicular Wind Loads Bridge Bridge Transverse Axis Longitudinal Axis N N 53401 0 46817 13167 43891 25603 35113 34381 18288 40234 Wind Attack Angle Degrees 0 15 30 45 60 Table 8-2 Design Vehicular Wind Loads for Various Wind Attack Angles 8-19 . or both transversely and longitudinally. LwindT = 36576mm LwindL = 73152mm S3.46 N/mm. the longitudinal length tributary to the pier differs from the transverse length.8. For the transverse and longitudinal loadings.1. this load can act transversely.Wind Load on Vehicles The representation of wind pressure acting on vehicular traffic is given by the Specifications as a uniformly distributed load. Based on the skew angle.

In addition.3 8-20 . The values of these vertical reactions for a zero degree attack angle are given below. RWL1_5trns0 = 13846N RWL2_4trns0 = 6923N RWL3trns0 = 0N Wind Load on Substructure The Specifications state that the wind loads acting directly on substructure units shall be calculated from a base wind pressure of 0. This is illustrated in Figure 8-7. the total transverse and longitudinal load is equally distributed to each bearing and applied at the the top of the bearing (125 millimeters above the top of the pier cap).0019 MPa. That is.2. The computations for these reactions are not shown but are carried out as shown in the subsection "Wind Load from Superstructure.Hpar + 1800mm)." The only difference is that the moment arm used for calculating the moment is equal to (Hsuper .1. this force is resolved into components applied to the front and end elevations of the pier. S3. This moment induces vertical reactions at the bearings. the transverse load acting 1800mm above the roadway applies a moment to the pier cap.0019 MPa and the projected area.The vehicular live loads shown in Table 8-2 are applied to the bearings in the same manner as the wind load from the superstructure. For nonzero wind attack angles. respectively. It is interpreted herein that this pressure should be applied to the projected area of the pier that is normal to the wind direction. These loads act simultaneously with the superstructure wind loads. The resulting force is then the product of 0.8.

Component areas of the pier cap: Acap1 = ( 3354mm) ⋅ ( 1524mm) Acap2 = ( 3354mm) ⋅ ( 14173mm) Acap1 = 5111496 mm 2 2 Acap2 = 47536242 mm 8-21 .Wind Attack Angle θ Pier Cap θ θ Projected Face Projected Face Plan View Figure 8-7 Projected Area for Wind Pressure on Pier What follows is an example of the calculation of the wind loads acting directly on the pier for a wind attack angle of 30 degrees. The column height exposed to wind is the distance from the ground line (which is 600 millimeters above the footing) to the bottom of the pier cap. For simplicity. the tapers of the pier cap overhangs will be considered solid (this is conservative and helpful for wind angles other than zero degrees).

Projected area of pier cap: APcap = Acap1 ⋅ cos ( 30 ⋅ deg) + Acap2 ⋅ sin ( 30 ⋅ deg) APcap = 28194806 mm 2 Component areas of the pier column: Acol1 = ( 4572mm − 600mm) ⋅ ( 1372mm) Acol2 = ( 4572mm − 600mm) ⋅ ( 4725mm) Projected area of pier column: APcol = Acol1 ⋅ cos ( 30 ⋅ deg) + Acol2 ⋅ sin ( 30 ⋅ deg) APcol = 14103328 mm 2 Acol1 = 5449584 mm 2 2 Acol2 = 18767700 mm The total wind force is then: WSsub30 = 0.0019MPa ⋅ ( APcap + APcol) WSsub30 = 80366N The transverse and longitudinal force components are: WSsub30T = WSsub30 ⋅ cos ( 30 ⋅ deg) WSsub30L = WSsub30 ⋅ sin ( 30 ⋅ deg) WSsub30T = 69599N WSsub30L = 40183N The point of application of these loads will be the centroid of the loaded area of each face. This point will be approximated here as 5200 millimeters above the top of the footing for both the transverse and longitudinal directions. respectively. 8-22 .

Wind Loads Applied Directly to Pier Wind Attack Angle Degrees 0 15 30 45 60 APcap mm 5111496 17240611 28194806 37227573 43723341 2 APcol mm 5449584 10121332 14103328 17124206 18978097 2 Total Wind Load N 20066 51988 80366 103268 119133 Trans. Force N 0 13455 40183 73022 103172 Table 8-3 Design Wind Loads Applied Directly to Pier for Various Wind Attack Angles Earthquake Load It is assumed in this design example that the structure is located in Seismic Zone I with an acceleration coefficient of 0.4 . Also.1 S3.The wind attack angles for the pier must match the wind attack angles used for the superstructure.4. a minimum bridge seat must be provided. Force N 20066 50216 69599 73022 59566 Long.7. Table 8-3 shows the pier wind loads for the various attack angles.10. the calculations for the check of the connection will not be shown here. the earthquake provisions as identified in the above paragraph will have no impact on the overall pier design and will not be discussed further. since the bearing design is carried out in Design Step 6. the Specifications require a minimum design force for the check of the superstructure to substructure connection. Since the bearings at the pier are fixed both longitudinally and transversely. For Seismic Zone I.10 S4.4.9 S4.7. Also. minimum bridge seat requirements for seismic loads are not applicable. at locations of expansion bearings. Therefore.02. However. 8-23 S3. a seismic analysis is not required.

However. Also. it is considered good practice to include an approximate thermal loading even when theory indicates the absence of any such force. Tables 8-9 through 8-12 summarize the horizontal longitudinal loads. which are shown after the tables. These loads along with the pier self-weight loads. 8-24 .Temperature Loading (Superimposed Deformations) In general. Additionally. For the purpose of this design example.Analyze and Combine Force Effects The first step within this design step will be to summarize the loads acting on the pier at the bearing locations. 125 millimeters above the pier cap).7 . These forces can arise from restraint of free movement at the bearings. the physical locations and number of substructure units can cause or influence these forces. uniform thermal expansion and contraction of the superstructure can impose longitudinal forces on the substructure units.e. In this particular structure.2 STable 3.2. This force acts in the longitudinal direction of the bridge (either back or ahead station) and is equally divided among the bearings. Therefore. seldom are ideal conditions achieved in a physical structure. Tables 8-4 through 8-8 summarize the vertical loads. theoretically no force will develop at the pier from thermal movement of the superstructure. and Tables 8-13 through 8-15 summarize the horizontal transverse loads. TU1 = 18000N TU2 = 18000N TU3 = 18000N TU4 = 18000N TU5 = 18000N S3. column and footing.12 S3. with a single pier centered between two abutments that have identical bearing types.12. This is done in Tables 8-4 through 8-15 shown below. a total force of 90000 Newtons will be assumed.12.1-1 Design Step 8. need to be factored and combined to obtain total design forces to be resisted in the pier cap. the forces at each bearing from this load will be applied at the top of the bearing (i..

It will be noted here that loads applied due to braking and temperature can act either ahead or back station. Superstructure Dead Load Bearing 1 2 3 4 5 Wearing Surface Dead Load Variable Reaction Variable Reaction Name (N) Name (N) RDCE 1128500 RDWE 174400 RDCI RDCI RDCI RDCE 1197000 1197000 1197000 1128500 RDWI RDWI RDWI RDWE 174400 174400 174400 174400 Table 8-4 Unfactored Vertical Bearing Reactions from Superstructure Dead Load Vehicular Live Load ** Lane A Bearing Lane B Lane C Variable Reaction Variable Reaction Variable Reaction Name (N) Name (N) Name (N) 1 2 3 4 5 R1_a R2_a R3_a R4_a R5_a 4 718752 315630 0 0 R1_b R2_b R3_b R4_b R5_b 0 0 526465 526465 0 R1_c R2_c R3_c R4_c R5_c 0 0 0 259899 786740 **Note: Live load reactions include impact on truck loading. Table 8-5 Unfactored Vertical Bearing Reactions from Live Load 8-25 . Also. This must be kept in mind when considering the signs of the forces in the tables below. wind loads can act on either side of the structure and with positive or negative skew angles. The tables assume a particular direction for illustration only.

Reactions from Transverse Wind Load on Superstructure (N) Wind Attack Angle (degrees) Bearing 1 2 3 4 5 0 28752 14376 0 -14376 -28752 15 25158 12579 0 -12579 -25158 30 45 23960 19168 11980 9584 0 0 -11980 -9584 -23960 -19168 60 9584 4792 0 -4792 -9584 Table 8-6 Unfactored Vertical Bearing Reactions from Wind on Superstructure Reactions from Transverse Wind Load on Vehicular Live Load (N) Wind Attack Angle (degrees) Bearing 0 1 13846 2 6923 3 0 4 -6923 5 -13846 15 12139 6070 0 -6070 -12139 30 11380 5690 0 -5690 -11380 45 9104 4552 0 -4552 -9104 60 4742 2371 0 -2371 -4742 Table 8-7 Unfactored Vertical Bearing Reactions from Wind on Live Load 8-26 .

Vertical Wind Load on Superstructure Bearing 1 2 3 4 5 Variable Name RWSvert1 RWSvert2 RWSvert3 RWSvert4 RWSvert5 Reaction (N) 20252 -40042 -100335 -160629 -220922 Table 8-8 Unfactored Vertical Bearing Reactions from Vertical Wind on Superstructure Braking Load ** Temperature Loading Bearing 1 2 3 4 5 Variable Reaction Variable Reaction Name (N) Name (N) 16250 TU1 18000 BRKbrg BRKbrg BRKbrg BRKbrg BRKbrg 16250 16250 16250 16250 TU2 TU3 TU4 TU5 18000 18000 18000 18000 **Note: Values shown are for a single lane loaded Table 8-9 Unfactored Horizontal Longitudinal Bearing Reactions from Braking and Temperature 8-27 .

00 0.00 0.Longitudinal Wind Loads from Superstructure (N) Wind Attack Angle (degrees) Bearing 1 2 3 4 5 Total = 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 15 30 13694 27388 13694 27388 13694 27388 13694 27388 13694 27388 68470 136941 45 36517 36517 36517 36517 36517 182587 60 41082 41082 41082 41082 41082 205411 Table 8-10 Unfactored Horizontal Longitudinal Bearing Reactions from Wind on Superstructure Longitudinal Wind Loads from Vehicular Live Load (N) Wind Attack Angle (degrees) Bearing 1 2 3 4 5 Total = 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 15 2633 2633 2633 2633 2633 13167 30 5121 5121 5121 5121 5121 25603 45 6876 6876 6876 6876 6876 34381 60 8047 8047 8047 8047 8047 40234 Table 8-11 Unfactored Horizontal Longitudinal Bearing Reactions from Wind on Live Load 8-28 .

Longitudinal Substructure Wind Loads Applied Directly to Pier (N) Wind Attack Angle (degrees) 0 0.00 15 13455 30 40183 45 60 73022 103172 Table 8-12 Unfactored Horizontal Longitudinal Loads from Wind Directly on Pier Transverse Wind Loads from Superstructure (N) Wind Attack Angle Bearing 1 2 3 4 5 Total = 0 54776 54776 54776 54776 54776 273881 15 47929 47929 47929 47929 47929 239646 30 45647 45647 45647 45647 45647 228234 45 36517 36517 36517 36517 36517 182587 60 18259 18259 18259 18259 18259 91294 Table 8-13 Unfactored Horizontal Transverse Bearing Reactions from Wind on Superstructure 8-29 .

These loads were previously calculated and are shown below: DLcap = 1395160 N DLcol = 697580N DLftg = 644311N EVftg = 220796 N 8-30 . the weight of the earth on top of the footing must be considered. the pier self-weight must be considered when determining the final design forces. Additionally for the footing and pile designs.Transverse Wind Loads from Vehicular Live Load (N) Wind Attack Angle (degrees) Bearing 1 2 3 4 5 Total = 0 10680 10680 10680 10680 10680 53401 15 9363 9363 9363 9363 9363 46817 30 8778 8778 8778 8778 8778 43891 45 7023 7023 7023 7023 7023 35113 60 3658 3658 3658 3658 3658 18288 Table 8-14 Unfactored Horizontal Transverse Bearing Reactions from Wind on Live Load Transverse Substructure Wind Loads Applied Directly to Pier (N) Wind Attack Angle (degrees) 0 20066 15 50216 30 69599 45 73022 60 59566 Table 8-15 Unfactored Horizontal Transverse Loads from Wind Directly on Pier In addition to all the loads tabulated above.

1 8-31 .2.3. It is important to note here that the maximum load factors shown in Table 8-16 for uniform temperature loading (TU) apply only for deformations.1-2 S1.1. and operational importance of the structure. These factors for this bridge are shown as follows: Multiple presence factor. These factors are termed multiple presence factors by the Specifications.1.In the AASHTO LRFD design philosophy. The other set of factors mentioned in the first paragraph above applies only to the live load force effects and are dependent upon the number of loaded lanes.1. Since the force effects from the uniform temperature loading are considered in this pier design. These factors are related to the ductility. The load factors shown in Table 8-16 are the standard load factors assigned by the Specifications and are exclusive of multiple presence and eta factors. the applied loads are factored by statistically calibrated load factors. combined eta is required for every structure. In addition to these factors.85 STable 3.4. and the minimum load factors apply for all other effects. the minimum load factors will be used.6.4. m (3 lanes) m1 = 1.1-1 STable 3. The first set of additional factors applies to all force effects and are represented by the Greek letter η (eta) in the Specifications.20 m2 = 1.4.2-1 Table 8-16 contains the applicable limit states and corresponding load factors that will be used for this pier design.1 STable 3. A single. redundancy. all eta factors are taken equal to one. These factors and their application are discussed in detail in Design Step 1. one must be aware of two additional sets of factors which may further modify the applied loads. S3.00 m3 = 0. Limit states not shown either do not control the design or are not applicable. In this design example. m (2 lanes) Multiple presence factor. m (1 lane) Multiple presence factor.

This is the location of maximum moment.30 1. Pier Cap Force Effects The controlling limit states for the design of the pier cap are Strength I (for moment.75 ⋅ R4_c ⋅ m1 8-32 . and torsion.35 1. For this design example. In the following calculations.20 ----1.20 0.90 0.90 0.00 1.00 1.75 1.35 1. cause the force effects at the critical section.75 1.35 γ min 0.00 STable 3.50 1.00 γ min 1. column.65 1.35 γ min 0.25 1.20 1.00 1.25 1.50 0. The reactions at the two outermost bearings (numbered 4 and 5 in Figure 8-4).50 1.00 1.25 1. along with the self-weight of the cap overhang.00 γ max 1.00 γ max 1.75 1. shear.00 1.00 γ max 1. Also shown are the moment arms to the critical section.65 ----0.50 1. footing and piles.50 ----1.20 0. the governing limit states for the pier components were determined from a commercially available pier design computer program. Design calculations will be carried out for the governing limit states only. The critical design location is where the cap meets the column.75 0.1-1 STable 3.50 ----1.40 1.65 1.00 1.40 --1.25 ⋅ RDCI + 1.00 1. note that the number of lanes loaded to achieve the maximum moment is different than that used to obtain the maximum shear and torsion. the factored vertical and horizontal forces at the bearings and corresponding force effects at the critical section are shown below.30 1. Flexure from vertical loads (reference Tables 8-4 and 8-5): FV4cap_flexstr1 = 1. For Strength I.1-2 Table 8-16 Load Factors and Applicable Pier Limit States The loads discussed and tabulated previously can now be factored by the appropriate load factors and combined to determine the governing limit states in the pier cap.35 0.Load Factors Strength I Strength III Strength V Service I Load DC DW LL BR TU WS WL EV γ max 1.4.40 1.00 1.00 1. shear and torsion) and Service I ( for crack control). or 4725mm from the end of the cap.50 ⋅ RDWI + 1.35 1.35 γ min 0.90 0.4.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.40 --1.

25 ⋅ RDCI + 1.75 ⋅ ( R5_c + R5_b) ⋅ m2 FV5cap_shearstr1 = 3049020 N Vucap_str1 = FV4cap_shearstr1 + FV5cap_shearstr1 .50 ⋅ RDWI ..25 ⋅ DLovrhg ⋅ ⎛ mm⎞ ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ Mucap_str1 = 14533853274 N ⋅ mm Shear from vertical loads (reference Tables 8-4 and 8-5): FV4cap_shearstr1 = 1.. + 1..75 ⋅ ( R4_c + R4_b) ⋅ m2 FV4cap_shearstr1 = 3133987 N FV5cap_shearstr1 = 1.. + 1.75 ⋅ R5_c ⋅ m1 FV5cap_flexstr1 = 3324379 N ArmV5cap = 3582mm Mucap_str1 = FV4cap_flexstr1 ⋅ ArmV4cap ... + FV5cap_flexstr1 ⋅ ArmV5cap .50 ⋅ RDWE .25 ⋅ RDCE + 1.. + 1..25 ⋅ RDCE + 1.FV4cap_flexstr1 = 2303638 N ArmV4cap = 610mm (see Figure 8-4) FV5cap_flexstr1 = 1.25 ⋅ DLovrhg Vucap_str1 = 6699709 N 8-33 . 4725 + 1.50 ⋅ RDWE + 1...

However. Therefore.75 ⋅ BRKbrg ⋅ m2) + 0. variables for transverse wind load on the structure and on the live load with an attack angle of zero degrees will be defined. AASHTO does not.50 ⋅ TU5 FH5cap_torstr1 = 65875N ArmHcap = Hbrng 3354 mm + 2 mm 1 mm ArmHcap = 1802 mm Tucap_str1 = ( FH4cap_torstr1 + FH5cap_torstr1) ⋅ ArmHcap Tucap_str1 = 237413500 N ⋅ mm The applied torsion would be larger than the value just calculated if the vertical loads at the bearings are not coincident with the centerline of the pier cap.75 ⋅ BRKbrg ⋅ m2) + 0. For Service I.Torsion from horizontal loads (reference Table 8-9): FH4cap_torstr1 = 2 ⋅ ( 1.8. no eccentricity of vertical loads is considered in this design example. RWS5trans0 = 28752N RWS4trans0 = 14376N RWL5trans0 = 13846N RWL4trans0 = 6923N S3. First.50 ⋅ TU4 FH4cap_torstr1 = 65875N FH5cap_torstr1 = 2 ⋅ ( 1. the factored vertical forces at the bearings and corresponding force effects at the critical section are shown next.2 8-34 . Some state agencies mandate a minimum eccentricity to account for this possibility. Force effects from vertical wind load on the structure are not applicable since the Service I limit state includes wind on live load.

.. + 0. 4725 + 1.30 ⋅ RWS4trans0 + 1. and loading only Lane B and Lane C with live load. Strength III (for transverse shear) and Strength V (for longitudinal shear).30 ⋅ RWS5trans0 + 1..00 ⋅ DLovrhg ⋅ ⎛ mm⎞ ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ Mucap_ser1 = 10139425268 N ⋅ mm Pier Column Force Effects The controlling limit states for the design of the pier column are Strength I (for biaxial bending with axial load).. Transverse and longitudinal shears are maximized with wind attack angles of zero and 60 degrees. 8-35 . or at the column base.Flexure from vertical loads (reference Tables 8-4 and 8-5): FV4cap_flexser1 = 1. + 0.00 ⋅ RDWE + 1.00 ⋅ RDCE + 1.00 ⋅ RWL4trans0 FV4cap_flexser1 = 1694514 N Arm4V = 610mm (see Figure 8-4) FV5cap_flexser1 = 1..00 ⋅ RWL5trans0 FV5cap_flexser1 = 2269459 N Arm5V = 3582mm Mucap_ser1 = FV4cap_flexser1 ⋅ Arm4V + FV5cap_flexser1 ⋅ Arm5V . applying minimum load factors on the structure dead load. respectively. The governing force effects for Strength I are achieved by excluding the future wearing surface.00 ⋅ R5_c ⋅ m1 .00 ⋅ RDCI + 1.00 ⋅ R4_c ⋅ m1 . The critical design location is where the column meets the footing.00 ⋅ RDWI + 1..

90 ⋅ ( DLcap + DLcol) AxDL_sub = 1883466 N AxLL = 1.90 ⋅ ( 2 ⋅ RDCE + 3 ⋅ RDCI) AxDL_super = 5263200 N AxDL_sub = 0. Axial force (reference Tables 8-4 and 8-5): AxDL_super = 0.75( R3_b + R4_b + R4_c + R5_c) ⋅ m2 AxLL = 3674245 N Axcol = AxDL_super + AxDL_sub + AxLL Axcol = 10820912 N Transverse moment (reference Table 8-5): ArmV4col = 2972mm ArmV5col = 5944mm Mutcol = 1.75( R4_b + R4_c) ⋅ m2 ⋅ ArmV4col ... + 1.75 ⋅ ( R5_c) ⋅ m2 ⋅ ArmV5col Mutcol = 12273546865 N ⋅ mm Longitudinal moment (reference Table 8-9): ArmHcol_sup = 4572mm + 3354mm + Hbrng 1 ArmHcol_sup = 8051 mm 8-36 mm mm .For Strength I. the factored vertical forces and corresponding moments at the critical section are shown below.

. ⎞ ⋅ ArmHcol_sup ⎜ + TU + TU + TU 3 4 5 ⎠ ⎝ Mulcol = 2651798125 N ⋅ mm For Strength III. 8-37 . The force effects in the piles cannot be determined without a pile layout. + 0.50⎛ TU1 + TU2 .. the factored longitudinal shear in the column is (reference Table 8-9): WSsuplng60 = 205411 N WLlong60 = 40234N Vulcol = 0.75 ⋅ BRKbrg ⋅ ArmHcol_sup) ⋅ 2 ⋅ m2 ..10 (Figure 8-11)..40( WSsuptrns0 + WSsub0T) Vutcol = 411526N For Strength V.00 ⋅ WLlong60 .35 ⋅ ( 5 ⋅ BRKbrg) ⋅ 3 ⋅ m3 Vulcol = 488370 N WSsub60L = 103172N Pier Pile Force Effects The foundation system for the pier is a reinforced concrete footing on steel H-piles.40( WSsuplng60 + WSsub60L) + 1..50 ⋅ ( TU1 + TU2 + TU3 + TU4 + TU5) . + 0. the factored transverse shear in the column is: WSsuptrns0 = 273881N WSsub0T = 20066N Vutcol = 1.Mulcol = 5 ⋅ ( 1... + 1. The pile layout depends upon the pile capacity and affects the footing design. The pile layout used for this pier foundation is shown in Design Step 8..

the controlling limit states for the pile design are Strength I (for maximum pile load). punching shear at the column. Rather. and punching shear at the maximum loaded pile). This results in the following bottom of column forces: Axcol_punch = 15937184N Mutcol_punch = 7167852365 ⋅ N ⋅ mm Mulcol_punch = 3736448102N ⋅ mm Factored force effects for the remaining limit states discussed above are not shown. The reason for this is discussed in Design Step 8. The factored axial load and corresponding factored biaxial moments at the base of the column are obtained in a manner similar to that for the Strength I force effects in the pier column. The force effects in the piles for the above-mentioned limit states are not given. Pier Footing Force Effects The controlling limit states for the design of the pier footing are Strength I (for flexure. in this case the future wearing surface is now included. and all three lanes are loaded with live load. the punching shear checks are carried out using critical perimeters around the column and maximum loaded pile. The Strength I limit state controls for the punching shear check at the column. The reason for this is discussed in Design Step 8. and Strength V (for maximum horizontal loading of the pile group). maximum factors are applied to all the dead load components. and Service I ( for crack control).10.Based on the pile layout shown in Figure 8-11.11. the force effects act at different locations in the footing and must be checked at their respective locations. There is not a single critical design location in the footing where all of the force effects just mentioned are checked. while the flexure and one-way shear checks are carried out on a vertical face of the footing either parallel or perpendicular to the bridge longitudinal axis. Strength III (for minimum pile load). However. 8-38 . For example. Strength IV (for one-way shear).

6. As stated in Design Step 8.7.6. will be designed in accordance with the conventional strength of materials assumptions described above. nonuniform shear distribution. regardless of dimensions.1 Traditionally. that a strut-and-tie model be used to determine force effects and required reinforcing. separate designs are carried out for Vu and Mu at different locations along the member. Specifications Commentary C5. S5. When a structural member meets the definition of a deep component. Use of strut-and-tie models for the design of reinforced concrete members is new to the LRFD Specification.3.3.1 indicates that a strut-and-tie model properly accounts for nonlinear strain distribution. In this C5. or 15. Tu and Mu. and the mechanical interaction of Vu. The governing force effects and their corresponding limit states were determined to be: Strength I Mucap_str1 = 14533853274 N ⋅ mm Vucap_str1 = 6699709 N Tucap_str1 = 237413500 N ⋅ mm Service I Mucap_ser1 = 10139425268 N ⋅ mm 8-39 .1 approach.8 . The design of the pier cap will now proceed. although does not mandate. Furthermore. This approach is currently standard engineering practice.6. For the purpose of this design example.2 S5. a brief discussion is in order regarding the design philosophy that will be used for the design of the structural components of this pier.5' from the end of the cap.3. piers have been designed using conventional methods of strength of materials regardless of member dimensions. all structural components.Design Step 8.Design Pier Cap Prior to carrying out the actual design of the pier cap. the Specifications recommends. the critical section in the pier cap is where the cap meets the column. it is assumed that longitudinal strains vary linearly over the depth of the member and the shear distribution remains uniform.

2 .7. The tensile reinforcement provided must be enough to develop a factored flexural resistance at least equal to the lesser of 1. (typ . bottom face 1524mm. 8-40 2 S5. 2 rows of 10 #36 bars #25 bars @ 200mm O.A preliminary estimate of the required section size and reinforcement is shown in Figure 8-8.C.33 times the factored moment from the applicable strength load combinations.8mm bar_area36 = 1006mm fy = 420MPa The minimum reinforcement requirements will be calculated for the cap.3.C.3. clear (typ) #16 hoops @ 225mm O. (typ) 75mm. de= 3205mm.2 times the cracking strength or 1. Figure 8-8 Preliminary Pier Cap Design Design for Flexure (Strength I) Assume #36 bars: bar_diam36 = 35. clear (typ) #25 bars @ 300mm O. 60mm.C.side faces) 3354mm.

**The cracking strength is calculated as follows: fr = 0.63 ⋅ f' c fr = 3.33MPa Ig = 1 3 ( 1524mm) ( 3354mm) 12
**

4

S5.4.2.6

Ig = 4791736144728mm yt = 1677mm Mcr = fr ⋅ Ig yt ⋅ 1 mm 1 mm

Mcr = 9514896 kN ⋅ mm 1.2 ⋅ Mcr = 11417876 kN ⋅ mm By inspection, the applied moment from the Strength I limit state exceeds 120 percent of the cracking moment. Therefore, providing steel sufficient to resist the applied moment automatically satisfies the minimum reinforcement check. The effective depth (de) of the section shown in Figure 8-8 is computed as follows: Covercp = 60 mm de = 3354mm − ⎛ Covercp + 15.9mm + 35.8mm + ⎜

⎝

75 mm⎞ 2 ⎠

**de = 3205 mm Solve for the required amount of reinforcing steel, as follows: φ f = 0.90 b = 1524mm fc = 28MPa
**

8-41

S5.5.4.2.1

**Mucap_str1 = 14533853 kN ⋅ mm Mucap_str1 ⋅ 1 Rn =
**

2

( φ f ⋅ b ⋅ de )

mm mm

Rn = 1031695 Pa

ρ = 0.85⎜

⎛ fc ⎞ ⎡ ( 2 ⋅ Rn) ⎤ ⋅ ⎢ 1.0 − 1.0 − ( 0.85 ⋅ fc) ⎥ ⎝ fy ⎠ ⎣ ⎦

ρ = 0.00251 The above two equations are derived formulas that can be found in most reinforced concrete textbooks. A s = ρ ⋅ b ⋅ de As = 12269mm

2

**The area of steel provided is: As_cap = 20 ⋅ ( bar_area36) As_cap = 20120mm As_cap ≥ As
**

2

OK S5.7.3.3.1

The reinforcement area provided must now be checked to ensure that the section is not overreinforced: T = As_cap ⋅ fy a = T 0.85 ⋅ fc ⋅ b T = 8450400 N a = 233 mm

β 1 = 0.85 c = a β1 where OK

8-42

S5.7.2.2 c = 274 mm c ≤ 0.42 de S5.7.2.2

c = 0.09 de 0.09 ≤ 0.42

S5.7.3.3.1

Design for Flexure (Service I) The control of cracking by distribution of reinforcement must be satisfied. Since this design example assumes that the pier cap will be exposed to deicing salts, use: Z = 23000 N mm S5.7.3.4

The distance from the extreme tension fiber to the center of the closest bar, using a maximum cover dimension of 50mm, is: dc = 50mm + 15.9mm + dc = 84 mm The area of concrete having the same centroid as the principal tensile reinforcement and bounded by the surfaces of the cross-section and a straight line parallel to the neutral axis, divided by the number of bars, is: bar_diam36 75mm ⎞ 2 ⋅ ⎛ dc + + ⋅b ⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ Ac = 20 Ac = 21214mm

2

bar_diam36 2

**The equation that gives the allowable reinforcement service load stress for crack control is: Z
**

1

fsa =

where

fsa ≤ 0.6 ⋅ fy

S5.7.3.4

( dc ⋅ Ac) 3

8-43

fsa = 190 MPa Use fsa = 190MPa

0.6fy = 252 MPa

Es = 200000MPa Ec = 25399MPa n = Es Ec n=8 Use n = 8

S5.4.3.2 SEquation C5.4.2.4-1

The factored service moment in the cap is: Mucap_ser1 = 10139425268 N ⋅ mm To solve for the actual stress in the reinforcement, the distance from the neutral axis to the centroid of the reinforcement (see Figure 8-9) and the transformed moment of inertia must be computed: n=8 de = 3205 mm As_cap b ⋅ de As_cap = 20120mm

2

ρ =

ρ = 0.00412

k =

( ρ ⋅ n) 2 + ( 2 ⋅ ρ ⋅ n ) − ρ ⋅ n

k = 0.226 k ⋅ de = 724 mm

8-44

3354mm.

2481mm.

Centroidal Axis 724mm.

1524mm.

Figure 8-9 Pier Cap Under Service Loads Once kde is known, the transformed moment of inertia can be computed: de = 3205 mm As_cap = 20120mm It =

2

1 3 2 ⋅ ( 1524mm) ⋅ ( k ⋅ de) + n ⋅ As_cap ⋅ ( de − k ⋅ de) 3

4

It = 1183394905668mm

Now, the actual stress in the reinforcement is computed: Mucap_ser1 = 10139425268 N ⋅ mm y = de − k ⋅ de y = 2481 mm

fs =

( Mucap_ser1 ⋅ y) ⋅ n

It

8-45

fs = 170 MPa fsa > fs OK

fsa = 190 MPa

Design for Flexure (Skin Reinforcement) In addition to the above check for crack control, additional longitudinal steel must be provided along the side faces of concrete members deeper than 900mm. This additional steel is referred to in the Specifications as longitudinal skin reinforcement. This is also a crack control check. However, this check is carried out using the effective depth (de) and the required longitudinal tension steel in place of specific applied factored loads. Figure 8-8 shows longitudinal skin reinforcement (#25 bars spaced at 200mm on center) over the entire depth of the pier cap at the critical section. The Specifications require this steel only over a distance de/2 from the nearest flexural tension reinforcement. However, the reinforcing bar arrangement shown in Figure 8-8 is considered good engineering practice. This includes the placement of reinforcing steel along the bottom face of the pier cap as well, which some state agencies mandate. The calculations shown below are for the critical section in the pier cap. The skin reinforcement necessary at this section is adequate for the entire pier cap. de = 3205 mm bar_area25 = 510mm

2

S5.7.3.4

As_cap = 20120mm

2

Ask ≥ 0.001 ⋅ ( de − 760)

and

2

Ask ≤

As 1200

SEquation 5.7.3.4-4

**mm Ask = 0.001 ⋅ ( 3205 − 760) mm mm Ask = 2.445 mm
**

2 2

**(each side face)
**

2

⎛ 20120 ⎞ ⋅ mm = 16.767 mm ⎜ mm ⎝ 1200 ⎠ mm

8-46

mm Ask ≤ 16.7367 mm

2

OK

Spacing of the skin reinforcement: SAsk = min ⎜

⎞ ⎛ de , 300mm ⎝6 ⎠

**SAsk = 300 mm Verify that #25 bars at 200mm on center is adequate: bar_area25 ⋅ ⎛ ⎜
**

2

1 ⎞ 1 mm ⋅ = 2.550 mm ⎝ 200 ⎠ mm OK

2

2.550

mm ≥ Ask mm

Design for Shear and Torsion (Strength I) The shear and torsion force effects were computed previously and are: Vucap_str1 = 6699709 N Tucap_str1 = 237413500 N ⋅ mm

S5.8

The presence of torsion affects the total required amount of both S5.8.2.1 longitudinal and transverse reinforcing steel. However, if the applied torsion is less than one-quarter of the factored torsional cracking moment, then the Specifications allow the applied torsion to be ignored. This computation is shown as follows: φ t = 0.90 Acp = ( 1524mm) ⋅ ( 3354mm) Acp = 5111496 mm

2

S5.5.4.2.1

**Pc = 2 ⋅ ( 1524mm + 3354mm)
**

8-47

Pc = 9756 mm Tcr =

28( 1 ⋅ MPa) = 5 MPa 1 ⎞ ⎜ mm ⎜1 ⎝ mm ⎠

**( Acp) 2 ⋅ ⎛ .328( 5MPa) ⋅
**

Pc

Tcr = 4392058408 N ⋅ mm 0.25 ⋅ φ t ⋅ Tcr = 988213142 N ⋅ mm Tucap_str1 < 0.25 ⋅ φ t ⋅ Tcr Based on the above check, torsion will be neglected and will not be discussed further. The shear check of the critical cap section will now proceed. The nominal shear resistance of the critical section is a combination of the nominal resistance of the concrete and the nominal resistance of the steel. This value is then compared to a computed upper-bound value and the lesser of the two controls. These calculations are illustrated below: bv = 1524mm dv = max ⎛ de − ⎜ h = 3354 ⋅ mm a , 0.9 ⋅ de , 0.72 ⋅ h⎞ 2 ⎠ S5.8.2.9 S5.8.3.3

⎝

dv = 3088 mm β = 2.0 θ = 45deg S5.8.3.4.1

The nominal concrete shear strength is: 28( 1 ⋅ MPa) = 5291503 Pa Vc = 0.083 ⋅ β ⋅ ( 5291503Pa) ⋅ bv ⋅ dv Vc = 4134216 N Note that unless one-half of the product of Vc and the phi-factor for shear is greater than Vu, then transverse reinforcement must be provided. Therefore, when Vc is less than Vu, as in this case, transverse reinforcement is automatically required.

8-48

S5.8.3.3

S5.8.2.4

**The nominal steel shear strength is (using vertical stirrups, theta equal to 45 degrees): Av = 796mm s = 225mm Av ⋅ fy ⋅ dv s S5.8.3.3
**

2

(4 legs of #16 bars)

Vs =

Vs = 4588818 N The nominal shear strength of the critical section is the lesser of the following two values: Vn1 = Vc + Vs Vn2 = 0.25 ⋅ fc ⋅ bv ⋅ dv Define Vn as follows: Vn = Vn1 The factored shear resistance is: φ v = 0.90 Vr = φ v ⋅ Vn Vr = 7850730 N Vr > Vucap_str1 OK S5.5.4.2.1 Vn = 8723034 N Vn1 = 8723034 N Vn2 = 32946101 N (controls) S5.8.3.3

The shear check is not complete until the provided transverse steel is compared to the Specifications requirements regarding minimum quantity and maximum spacing. Minimum quantity required: 28( 1 ⋅ MPa) = 5291503 Pa

8-49

S5.8.2.5

**Av_min = 0.083 ⋅ 5291503Pa ⋅ Av_min = 359 mm Av > Av_min
**

2

bv ⋅ s fy

OK

Maximum spacing allowed: Vucap_str1 = 6699709 N vu_stress =

S5.8.2.7

( φv) ⋅ ( bv) ⋅ ( dv)

Vucap_str1

S5.8.2.9

vu_stress = 1581639 Pa 0.125 ⋅ f' c = 3500000 Pa vu_stress < 3500000Pa s_stress = 0.8 ⋅ ( dv) s_stress = 2471 mm smax = min ( s_stress , 600mm) smax = 600 mm s ≤ smax OK

8-50

Design Step 8.9 - Design Pier Column As stated in Design Step 8.7, the critical section in the pier column is where the column meets the footing, or at the column base. The governing force effects and their corresponding limit states were determined to be: Strength I Axcol = 10820912 N Mutcol = 12273546865 N ⋅ mm Mulcol = 2651798125 N ⋅ mm Strength III Vutcol = 411526N Strength V Vulcol = 488370 N A preliminary estimate of the required section size and reinforcement is shown in Figure 8-10.

Y

4725mm.

X

1372mm.

60mm.(TYP) X

#32 bars (typ)

#13 hoops @ 300mm O.C. Y

**Figure 8-10 Preliminary Pier Column Design
**

8-51

Design for Axial Load and Biaxial Bending (Strength I): The preliminary column reinforcing is show in Figure 8-10 and corresponds to #32 bars equally spaced around the column perimeter. The Specifications prescribes limits (both maximum and minimum) on the amount of reinforcing steel in a column. These checks are performed on the preliminary column as follows: Num_bars = 76 bar_area32 = 819mm

2

S5.7.4 S5.7.4.2

**As_col = ( Num_bars) ⋅ ( bar_area32) As_col = 62244mm
**

2

**Ag_col = ( 1372 ⋅ mm) ⋅ ( 4725 ⋅ mm) Ag_col = 6482700 mm As_col Ag_col
**

2

= 0.0096

0.0096 ≤ 0.08

OK

As_col ⋅ fy Ag_col ⋅ fc

= 0.144

0.144 ≥ 0.135

OK S5.7.4.3 S5.7.4.1

The column slenderness ratio (Klu/r) about each axis of the column is computed below in order to assess slenderness effects. Note that the Specifications only permit the following approximate evaluation of slenderness effects when the slenderness ratio is below 100.

For this pier, the unbraced lengths (lux, luy) used in computing the slenderness ratio about each axis is the full pier height. This is the height from the top of the footing to the top of the pier cap (7926mm). The effective length factors, Kx and Ky, are both taken equal to 2.1. This CTable4.6.2.5-1 assumes that the superstructure has no effect on restraining the pier from buckling. In essence, the pier is considered a free-standing cantilever. For simplicity in the calculations that follow, let lu=lux=luy and Kcol=Kx=Ky. This is conservative for the transverse direction for this structure, and the designer may select a lower value. The radius of gyration (r) about each axis can then be computed as follows:

8-52

Ixx =

1 3 ⋅ ( 4725mm) ⋅ ( 1372mm) 12 1 3 ⋅ ( 1372mm) ⋅ ( 4725mm) 12 Ixx Ag_col

Ixx = 1016910896400mm

4

Iyy =

Iyy = 12060860765625mm

4

rxx =

rxx = 396 mm Iyy Ag_col

ryy =

ryy = 1364 mm

The slenderness ratio for each axis now follows: Kcol = 2.1 lu = 7926mm

( Kcol ⋅ lu)

rxx

= 42

42 < 100

OK

( Kcol ⋅ lu)

ryy

= 12

12 < 100

OK

The Specifications permits slenderness effects to be ignored when the slenderness ratio is less than 22 for members not braced against sidesway. It is assumed in this example that the pier is not braced against sidesway in either its longitudinal or transverse directions. Therefore, slenderness will be considered for the pier longitudinal direction only (i.e., about the "X-X" axis).

8-53

S5.7.4.3

4.4.3. for the sake of clarity in this example.1 The final parameter necessary for the calculation of the amplification factor is the phi-factor for compression.7. Therefore. the Specifications permit the value of phi to be increased linearly to the value for flexure (0.5.2. Neither of these are permanent or long-term loads.3 EI1 = ( Ec ⋅ Ixx) 5 + Es ⋅ Is 2 EI1 = 8911537063132721 N ⋅ mm EI2 = Ec ⋅ Ixx 2. which is the end result of the slenderness effect.1 . This value is defined as follows: φ axial = 0. the ratio of the maximum factored moment due to permanent load to the maximum factored moment due to total load must be identified (βd).75 It is worth noting at this point that when axial load is present in addition to flexure. From Design Step 8. if phi may be increased it will be labeled separately from φaxial identified above.5 EI2 = 10331407943065443 N ⋅ mm 2 (controls) S5.2b S5.5.75) even when the increase just described is permitted. the column stiffness (EI) about the "X-X" axis must be defined. it can be seen that the only force effects contributing to the longitudinal moment are the live load braking force and the temperature force.90) as the factored axial load decreases from ten percent of the gross concrete strength to zero. The column stiffness is taken as the greater of the following two calculations: Ec = 25399MPa Es = 200000MPa Ixx = 1016910896400mm Is = 18729165458mm 4 4 S4.2.In computing the amplification factor that is applied to the longitudinal moment.4.5.2. 8-54 S5. βd is taken equal to zero for this design. Therefore. However. In doing so. certain equations in the Specification still require the use of the phi factor for axial compression (0.7.

3.10) ⋅ ( f' c) ⋅ ( Ag_col) = 18151560 N Since the factored axial load in the column is less than ten percent of the gross concrete strength.04 The final design forces at the base of the column for the Strength I limit state will be redefined as follows: Pu_col = Axcol Mux = Mulcol ⋅ δ s Muy = Mutcol Pu_col = 10820912 N Mux = 2759990755 N ⋅ mm Muy = 12273546865 N ⋅ mm The assessment of the resistance of a compression member with S5. 8-55 . the phi-factor will be modified and separately labeled as follows: Axcol ⎤ ⎡ ⎥ ⎣ ( ( 0.15 ⋅ ⎢ φ Low_axial = 0.10) ) ⋅ ( fc) ⋅ ( Ag_col) ⎦ φ Low_axial = 0.2b ( Kcol ⋅ lu) 2 Pe = 368054838 N δs = 1 ⎛ Axcol ⎞ 1−⎜ ⎝ φ axial ⋅ Pe ⎠ δ s = 1.81 The longitudinal moment magnification factor will now be calculated as follows: Pe = π ⋅ ( EI2) 2 S4.4.2.90 − 0.Axcol = 10820912 N ( 0.7. This value determines which of two equations provided by the Specification are used.5.5 biaxial flexure for strength limit states is dependent upon the magnitude of the factored axial load.

8-56 . P rx with Mux.7.e. SEquation 5. axial resistances of the column are computed (using φLow_axial if applicable) with each moment acting separately (i.0 OK ( ) The factored flexural resistances shown above.7.45 ≤ 1.4. Consistent with this. Pry with Muy). commercially available software is generally used to obtain the moment and axial load resistances.4.90) was used in obtaining the factored resistance from the factored nominal strength.5-1).7. Regardless of which of the two equations mentioned in the above paragraph controls.. Mrx and Mry.45 Muy = 12273547 kN ⋅ mm Mry = 48960214kN ⋅ mm 0. These are used along with the theoretical maximum possible axial resistance (Po multiplied by φaxial) to obtain the factored axial resistance of the biaxially loaded column. Mux = 2759991 kN ⋅ mm Mrx = 14154034kN ⋅ mm Mux Mrx + Muy Mry = 0. the phi-factor for flexure (0. were obtained by the use of commercial software.5-3).If the factored axial load is less than ten percent of the gross concrete strength multiplied by the phi-factor for compression members (φaxial). Although the column has a fairly large excess flexural capacity. the procedure as discussed above is carried out as follows: ( 0.4. In this method. These values are the flexural capacities about each respective axis assuming that no axial load is present. For this pier design. a more optimal design will not be pursued per the discussion following the column shear check. Otherwise. an axial load resistance (Prxy) is computed based on the reciprocal load method (SEquation 5.5-3 will be used.10) ⋅ φ axial ⋅ ( f' c) ⋅ ( Ag_col) = 13613670 N Pu_col < 13613670N Therefore. then the Specifications require that a linear interaction equation for only the moments is satisfied (SEquation 5.

3.4. This is demonstrated for the transverse direction as follows: bv = 1372mm dv = ( 0. β = 2.3 8-57 .0 θ = 45deg S5.4 S5. For the pier column of this example.1 h = 4725 ⋅ mm S5.3.7 and are as follows: Vutcol = 411526N Vulcol = 488370 N (Strength III) (Strength V) S5. the maximum factored shear in either direction is less than one-half of the factored resistance of the concrete.3 S5. separate shear designs can be carried out for the longitudinal and transverse directions using only the maximum shear force in that direction.2.72) ⋅ ( h) dv = 3402 mm The above calculation for dv is simple to use for columns and generally results in a conservative estimate of the shear capacity.3.8.8.8. shear reinforcement is not required.8 These maximum shear forces do not act concurrently.083 ⋅ β ⋅ ( 5291503Pa) ⋅ bv ⋅ dv Vc = 4099922 N S5.9 The nominal concrete shear strength is: 28( 1 ⋅ MPa) = 5291503 Pa Vc = 0. Therefore.2. Although a factored longitudinal shear force is present in Strength III and a factored transverse shear force is present in Strength V. they both are small relative to their concurrent factored shear.8. Therefore.Design for Shear (Strength III and Strength V) The maximum factored transverse and longitudinal shear forces were derived in Design Step 8.8.

1 Vn1 = 4099922 N Vn2 = 32672808 N (controls) S5.8. In general. Secondly. ties or spirals is required for compression members.2.90 Vr = φ v ⋅ Vn Vr = 3689930 N Vr 2 Vr 2 = 1844965 N S5. The reason for this is twofold: First.10.3 > Vutcol OK It has just been demonstrated that transverse steel is not required to S5.7.4. in this design example. the transverse steel requirements for shear and confinement must both be satisfied per the Specifications. while good engineering practice generally prescribes a column thickness 150 to 300 millimeters less than that of the pier cap).6 confinement steel in the form of hoops.4.2.25 ⋅ fc ⋅ bv ⋅ dv Define Vn as follows: Vn = 4099922N The factored shear resistance is: φ v = 0.The nominal shear strength of the column is the lesser of the following two values: Vn1 = Vc Vn2 = 0. 8-58 .3.6 resist the applied factored shear forces. transverse S5. a short.5. squat column such as the column in this design example generally has a relatively large excess capacity even when only minimally reinforced. the requirements of the pier cap dictate the column dimensions (a reduction in the column width will increase the moment in the pier cap. However. a more optimal column size will not be pursued.1 S5. It is worth noting that although the preceding design checks for shear and flexure show the column to be overdesigned.8.

the Specifications requires that the transfer of lateral forces from the pier to the footing be in accordance with the shear-transfer provisions of S5.00 µ = 1.e.2 S5. With the standard detailing practices for bridge piers previously mentioned (i. this requirement is generally satisfied.Transfer of Force at Base of Column The provisions for the transfer of forces and moments from the column to the footing are new to the AASHTO LRFD Specifications. However. in the footing (see Figure 8-13).3. In general.00 f' c = 28 MPa 2 2 S5. these provisions are absent from the AASHTO Standard Specifications. and are developed. a minimum of four bars.2.4. all steel reinforcing bars in the column extend into. along with identical design compressive strengths for the column and footing. of these requirements. This automatically satisfies the following requirements for reinforcement across the interface of the column and footing: A minimum reinforcement area of 0. with all of the column reinforcement extended into the footing.5 percent of the gross area of the supported member.8. if not all.5. In this design example.13.8.1 8-59 . and any tensile force must be resisted by the reinforcement.70MPa µ = 1.4..4.1 S5. along with the fact that the column and footing have the same compressive strength. for the sake of completeness.90 Acv = 6482700 mm Avf = 62244mm λ = 1. standard engineering practice for bridge piers automatically satisfies most.4. a bearing check at the base of the column and the top of the footing is not applicable.8. and consistent with standard engineering practice.8 S5. all column reinforcement extended and developed in the footing). this check will be carried out as follows: Acv = Ag_col Avf = As_col ccv = 0. In addition to the above. Additionally. Although similar provisions have existed in the ACI Building Code for some time.0 ⋅ λ fy = 420 MPa φ v = 0.

1 equations (conservatively ignore permanent axial compression): Vnsf1 = ccv ⋅ Acv + µ ⋅ Avf ⋅ fy Vnsf2 = 0. In addition.3.The nominal shear-friction capacity is the smallest of the following three S5. This is partially due to the fact that the column itself is overdesigned in general (this was discussed previously). However.8. the horizontal forces generally encountered with common bridges are typically small relative to the shear-friction capacity of the column (assuming all reinforcing bars are extended into the footing). 8-60 . a large excess capacity exists for this check.2 ⋅ f' c ⋅ Acv Vnsf3 = 5.13. the presence of a shear-key.5 ⋅ Acv ⋅ ( 1 ⋅ MPa) Vnsf1 = 30680370 N Vnsf2 = 36303120 N Vnsf3 = 35654850 N Define the nominal shear-friction capacity as follows: Vnsf = Vnsf1 Vnsf = 30680370 N The maximum applied shear was previously identified from the Strength V limit state: Vulcol = 488370 N It then follows: φ v ⋅ ( Vnsf) = 27612333 N φ v ⋅ ( Vnsf) ≥ Vulcol OK As can be seen. S5. Transfer of Force at Column Base For common bridges with standard detailing of bridge piers and the same design compressive strength of the column and the footing. This may account for the absence of this check in both the Standard Specifications and in standard practice.8 can be considered satisfied. further increase the shear-friction capacity at the column/footing interface beyond that shown above. along with the permanent axial compression from the bridge dead load.4.

10 . 1524mm. The reason for this is that the pile design will not be performed in this design step. However. This is discussed in the next design step. 6 7 8 9 10 X 11 12 13 14 15 1142. the design procedure is similar. The pile layout used for this pier foundation is shown in Figure 8-11. The pile layout depends upon the pile capacity and affects the footing design. 1524mm. 458mm. 458mm. Based on the given pile layout. pile loads were not provided.Design Pier Piles The foundation system for the pier is a reinforced concrete footing on steel H-piles. Ahead Station Y 7010mm. 914mm. 16 17 18 19 20 459mm.5mm.7 914mm. 1524mm. 1524mm. the controlling limit states for the pile design were given in Design Step 8.7. and the pile design procedure is carried out in its entirety there. Y Figure 8-11 Pier Pile Layout 8-61 . discussed in Design Step 7.Design Step 8. 914mm. is identical to that of the pier. Although individual pile loads may vary between the abutment and the pier. 459mm. S10. The abutment foundation system. 1144mm. The force effects in the piles cannot be determined without a pile layout. The pile layout shown in Figure 8-11 is used only to demonstrate the aspects of the footing design that are unique to the pier. 1 2 3 4 5 X 3660mm.

11 .6. The factored force effects from Design Step 8. only the aspects of the footing design that are unique to the pier footing will be discussed in this design step. These live load force effects are part of the factored axial load and transverse moment shown above.9). the Specifications do not require dynamic load allowance for foundation components that are entirely below ground level. the resulting pile loads will be somewhat larger (by about four percent) than necessary for the following design check. The computed magnification factor and final factored forces are: δ s_punch = 1.5. Therefore.1 ( ) 8-62 .2.7 for the punching shear check at the column are: Axcol_punch = 15937184 N Mutcol_punch = 7167852365 N ⋅ mm Mulcol_punch = 3736448102 N ⋅ mm It should be noted that in Design Step 8. the factored force effects were only given for the Strength I check of punching shear at the column.5.06 Pu_punch = Axcol_punch Mux_punch = ( Mulcol_punch) ⋅ δ s_punch Mux_punch = 3960634988 N ⋅ mm Pu_punch = 15937kN S3. the governing limit states were identified for the design of the pier footing. For the sake of clarity and simplicity in Design Step 8. This includes the punching (or two-way) shear check at the column and a brief discussion regarding estimating the applied factored shear and moment per millimeter width of the footing when adjacent pile loads differ. However.Design Pier Footing In Design Step 8.Design Step 8. The reason for this is that most of the design checks for the pier footing are performed similarly to those of the abutment footing in Design Step 7. The longitudinal moment given above must be magnified to account for slenderness of the column (see Design Step 8.7. a separate set of live load reactions with dynamic load allowance excluded was not provided. Therefore. However. the live load reactions at the bearings include dynamic load allowance on the truck loads.

1 punching shear check is to define the critical perimeter. dv. In other words. The effective shear depth.13. bo. the next step in the column S5. but need not be closer than dv/2 to the perimeter of the concentrated load area. an average effective shear depth should be used since the two-way shear area includes both the "X-X" and "Y-Y" sides of the footing.13. Actually.3. must be defined in order to determine bo and the punching (or two-way) shear resistance. the concentrated load area is the area of the column on the footing as seen in plan.6.3 bar_diam29 = 28.7mm hftg = 1067mm (per mm width) Effective depth for each axis: Coverftg = 75mm dey = 1067mm − Coverftg − dey = 978 mm dex = 1067mm − Coverftg − bar_diam29 − dex = 949 mm bar_diam29 2 bar_diam29 2 8-63 . dex is not equal to dey. This is illustrated as follows assuming a 1067mm footing with #29 reinforcing bars at 150mm on center in both directions in the bottom of the footing: bar_area29 = 645mm bftg = 1mm As_ftg = 2 ⋅ ( bar_area29) As_ftg = 1290 mm 2 2 S5.Muy_punch = Mutcol_punch Muy_punch = 7167852365 N ⋅ mm With the applied factored loads determined. In this case. therefore dvx will not be equal to dvy. The Specifications require that this perimeter be minimized.6.3.

72 ⋅ hftg ⎞ ⎠ S5.85 ⋅ fc ⋅ bftg aftg = aftg = 22765mm dvx = max ⎜ dex − ⎛ ⎝ aftg 2 .8. 0.72 ⋅ hftg ⎞ ⎠ S5.8. 0.9 dvy = 880 mm Average effective shear depth: dv_avg = ( dvx + dvy) 2 dv_avg = 867 mm With the average effective shear depth determined.2.Effective shear depth for each axis: Tftg = As_ftg ⋅ fy Tftg = 541800N Tftg 0.9 dvx = 854 mm dvy = max ⎜ dey − ⎛ ⎝ aftg 2 . the critical perimeter can be calculated as follows: bcol = 4725mm tcol = 1372mm 8-64 .9 ⋅ dey .9 ⋅ dex .2. 0. 0.

13.13.3.3.6.33 ⎞ Vn_punch1 = ⎛ 0.17 + ⋅ 5291503Pa ⋅ ( b0) ⋅ ( dv_avg) ⎜ βc ⎠ ⎝ Vn_punch1 = 19099337 N Vn_punch2 = 0. If part of a pile is inside the critical perimeter.11.1 perimeter. this includes Piles 1 through 5. 15. then only the portion of the pile load outside the critical perimeter is used for the punching shear check. 8-65 . As can be seen in Figure 8-12. This value is obtained by summing the loads in the piles that are outside of the critical perimeter.33 ⋅ ( 5291503Pa) ⋅ ( b0) ⋅ ( dv_avg) Vn_punch2 = 23710513 N Define Vn_punch as follows: Vn_punch = Vn_punch1 φv = 1 Vr_punch = φ v ⋅ ( Vn_punch) Vr_punch = 17189403 N With the factored shear resistance determined.b0 = 2⎢ bcol + 2 ⋅ ⎜ ⎡ ⎣ ⎛ dv_avg ⎞ ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ dv_avg ⎞ ⎤ ⎥ + 2 ⋅ ⎢ tcol + 2 ⋅ ⎜ ⎥ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ b0 = 15662mm The factored shear resistance to punching shear is the smaller of the following two computed values: βc = bcol tcol β c = 3. the applied factored punching shear load will be computed.3 28( 1 ⋅ MPa) = 5291503 Pa 0. 10. These piles are entirely outside of the critical S5. and 16 through 20.44 S5.6. 6.

Critical Perimeter for Column Punching Shear Y +Muy 3 4 5 1 2 dv/2 6 7 8 9 10 X 11 12 +Mux 13 14 15 X 16 17 18 19 20 Column Perimeter Y Figure 8-12 Critical Perimeter for Column Punching Shear The following properties of the pile group are needed to determine the pile loads (reference Figures 8-11 and 8-12): npiles = 20 2 2 Ip_xx = 5 ⋅ ⎡ ( 457mm) + ( 1371mm) ⎤ ⋅ 2 ⎣ ⎦ Ip_xx = 20884900 mm 2 2 2 Ip_yy = 4 ⋅ ⎡ ( 1524 ⋅ mm) + ( 3048mm) ⎤ ⋅ 2 ⎣ ⎦ Ip_yy = 92903040 mm 2 The following illustrates the pile load in Pile 1: P1 = Pu_punch npiles + Mux_punch ⋅ ( 1371mm) Ip_xx + Muy_punch ⋅ ( 3048mm) Ip_yy P1 = 1292023 N 8-66 .

. This is only valid for the case where the piles outside of the critical perimeter are symmetric about both axes. The applied factored shear on the critical section is obtained as above (i..e. This is illustrated as follows: Vu_punch_alt = ⎜ ⎛ Pu_punch ⎞ ⋅ 14 ⎝ npiles ⎠ 8-67 . the sum of the piles located outside of the critical perimeter). This approach yields the same value for Vu_punch as was derived above. + P11 + P15 + P16 + P17 + P18 + P19 + P20 Vu_punch = 11158669 N Vu_punch ≤ Vr_punch OK P3 = 1054310N P5 = 819144N P10 = 647495N P15 = 475890N P17 = 657014N P19 = 421848N Alternate Punching Shear Load Calculation An alternate method for carrying out the column punching shear check is to simply use the applied factored axial load to obtain equal pile loads in all of the piles.Similar calculations for the other piles outside of the critical perimeter yield the following: P2 = 1171915N P4 = 936750N P6 = 1117827N P11 = 946223N P16 = 774575N P18 = 539410N P20 = 304245N The total applied factored shear used for the punching shear check is: Vu_punch = P1 + P2 + P3 + P4 + P5 + P6 + P10 ..

Vu_punch_alt = 11156029 N Vu_punch_alt = Vu_punch It has just been shown that the factored axial load alone is sufficient for the punching shear check at the column.4 Estimation of applied factored load per millimeter in the "Y" direction: Restimate_yy = 2 ⋅ ( P 1 + P 6) Lftg_yy N mm Restimate_yy = 1316. However. respectively. What follows is a demonstration. The following estimations are based on the outer row of piles in each direction. what is unique to the pier footing is that significant moments act about both axes. and flexure. using the pile forces previously computed. the appropriate footing design checks are the same as those for the abutment footing. Lftg_xx = 7010mm Lftg_yy = 3660mm Estimation of applied factored load per millimeter in the "X" direction: Restimate_xx = 2 ⋅ ( P 1 + P 2) + P 3 Lftg_xx N mm Restimate_xx = 853. consideration of the factored axial load along with the corresponding applied factored moments is necessary for other footing design checks such as punching shear at the maximum loaded pile.9 8-68 . one-way shear. This applies to the abutment footing in Design Step 7 as well. However. of an estimation of the applied factored load on a per millimeter basis acting on each footing face. Once these estimates are obtained.

#32 bars equally spaced around column perimeter 7010mm. 4572mm. 1067mm. Figure 8-13 Final Pier Design 8-69 #16 hoops @ 300mm spacing (typ) 4725mm.Design Step 8. 76 .#36 bars #25 bars @ 200mm spacing 1830mm. 1524mm. #16 hoops @ 225mm spacing 2 rows of 10 .12 . #25 bars @ 300mm spacing . 14173mm.Final Pier Schematic Figure 8-13 shows the final pier dimensions along with the required reinforcement in the pier cap and column.

Determine Factored Axial Geotechnical Resistance for Single Pile Design Step P.15 .Select Suitable Pile Type and Size Design Step P.Check Geotechnical Axial Capacity Design Step P.5 .Define Subsurface Conditions and Any Geometric Constraints Design Step P.Determine Nominal Axial Structural Resistance for Selected Pile Type / Size Design Step P.9 .Determine Applicable Loads and Load Combinations Design Step P.Do Preliminary Pile Layout Based on Factored Loads and Overturning Moments Design Step P.Pile Foundation Design Example Design Step P Table of Contents Design Step P.Check Structural Axial Capacity (in lower portion of pile) Design Step P.8 .1 .10 .6 .2 .14 .4 .Check Structural Axial Capacity in Combined Bending and Axial Load (upper portion of pile) Design Step P.Verify Need for a Pile Foundation Design Step P.12 .7 .3 .13 .Perform Pile Soil Interaction Analysis Design Step P.16 .Check Structural Shear Capacity P-1 Page 2 13 14 16 23 32 33 36 37 38 53 63 65 77 78 79 89 .Determine Nominal Axial Geotechnical Resistance for Selected Pile Type / Size Design Step P.11 .Evaluate Pile Head Fixity Design Step P.17 .Determine Factored Axial Structural Resistance for Single Pile Design Step P.Check Drivability of Pile Design Step P.Factor Loads for Each Combination Design Step P.

Design Step P. Rock was continuously sampled with an N series core barrel in accordance with ASTM D-2113. The design of the foundation system needs to address any identified issues. Soils were sampled at 915mm intervals using a split spoon sampler in accordance with ASTM D-1586. A subsurface investigation was conducted at the site. These borings are illustrated graphically in Section A1 below. and criteria for the entire bridge. including the Pile Foundation Design. methodology.Additional Miscellaneous Design Issues References 92 103 Design Step P. Two test borings were drilled at each substructure unit.1 . The following units are defined for use in this design example: kN = 1000 ⋅ N MPa = N mm 2 P-2 .Check Maximum Horizontal and Vertical 91 Deflection of Pile Group at Beam Seats Using Service Load Case Design Step P.Define Subsurface Conditions and Any Geometric Constraints This task involves determining the location and extent of soil and rock materials beneath the proposed abutment and determining engineering design properties for each of those materials. Additional information is presented about the design assumptions. For Abutment 1. It also includes identification of any specific subsurface conditions that may impact the performance of the structure. Refer to Design Step 1 for introductory information about this design example. one boring was drilled at each side of the abutment.19 .18 .

101 ELEVATION (FEET) Loose Silty Sand (sm) Hard Grey Sandstone Figure P-1 Section A1 . primarily along bedding planes which are horizontal. Fractures are tight with no infilling and occur at a spacing of 305-914 mm. Below a depth of about 1524 mm the soil is saturated. This material is non-plastic and contains about 15% fine material.Subsurface Conditions at Abutment 1 Note: Boring Log is in US Units Evaluation of Section A1 indicates that subsurface conditions are relatively uniform beneath the proposed abutment consisting of essentially 2 materials. Slight weathering was observed in the upper 305 mm of the rock but the remainder of the rock is unweathered. Rock was encountered at about elevation 70 in both borings. P-3 .Centerline Bridge Prop. Bottom of Footing Elev. Loose silty sand was encountered in the top 10668 mm of each boring. The rock consists of a hard gray sandstone.

7.1. S10. (Note: Seed and Idriss (NCEER-97-0022) provides more up to date material for evaluation of liquefaction) C10. The granular material should compress essentially elastically with little or no long term consolidation. C10. Liquefaction is a function of the anticipated maximum earthquake magnitude and the soil properties. since the full height abutment will likely be placed prior to completion of the approach embankment in the vicinity of the abutment.4. For this example it is assumed that the potential for liquefaction has been evaluated and has been found to be negligible.1. this compression will result in settlement and rotation of the footing. For deep foundations this compression could result in negative skin friction (downdrag) loads on the foundation elements. If liquefaction is a problem. For shallow foundations.Special Geotechnical Considerations: The loose fine sandy soils could be subject to liquefaction under seismic loading.4.7.4 P-4 . SAppendix A10 The weight of the approach embankment will cause compression of the loose soil horizon. soil compression beneath the abutment must be accounted for in foundation design.5. the soils can not be relied upon to provide lateral support to deep foundation systems. However. particularly in the back row of piles.

336 ⋅ m = 9 m Unit Weight (Υ): Consider relevant published data when selecting design parameters. the unit weights were selected as follows: Dry unit weight: Wet unit weight: Unit weight of water: Effective unit weight: Υ dry = 1442 ⋅ Υ wet = 1762 ⋅ kg m 3 C10.4.1-22. For unit weights of in-situ soil materials.1 kg m 3 Υ water = 1000 kg m 3 Υ eff = Υ wet − Υ water Υ eff = 762 kg m 3 P-5 . and the above description of the soil horizon as loose silty sand. Based on this reference.785 m and a top of rock elevation of 21.Soil Depth: Assuming a bottom of footing elevation of 30. general and local experience. a good reference is NAVFAC DM7.Development of Parameters for Design: Layer 1 .336 m as described above: 30.785 ⋅ m − 21.

The raw SPT N-values determined in the test borings must be corrected for overburden pressure as follows: 1.77 ⋅ log ⎛ ⋅N ⎜ ⎜ σ' ⎝ ⎝ ν ⎠⎠ where: Corrected SPT blow count (Blows/300mm) Note: The formula above is generally considered valid for values of σ' > 0. Wet unit weight is used for the soil above the water table and effective unit weight is used for the soil below the water table.92 ⎞ ⎞ Ncorr = ⎛ 0.02394 MPa (Bowles 1977): Ncorr SEquation 10.3-4 SPT blow count (Blows/300mm): Vertical effective stress at bottom of sample (MPa): N2 σ'ν σ'ν = Σ hi ⋅ Υ effi where: ( ) hi Υ effi i Thickness of soil layer i above point being considered (mm): Effective unit weight of soil layer i (kg/m^3): Number of soil layer under consideration: This formula is implemented for each of the borings below.3. P-6 .Angle of internal friction (ϕ): The angle of internal friction can be estimated based on correlation to Standard Penetration Test (SPT) N values.7.2.

0716 0.35 BPMM Ncorr = 8.0647 0.5 762.0374 0.0853 0.5 762.0784 0.5 762.0079 0.0237 0.0784 0.5 762.5 762.5 762.5 Ncorr N2 σν' Blows/300mm Blows/300mm (MPa) (BPMM) (BPMM) 0.5 762.5 762. N2 = 7.0716 0.0442 0.0442 0.0579 0.5 762.5 762.5 1762 1762 762.0511 0.5 762.5 762.0237 0.Depth to Top Depth to Υef f i of Sample Bottom of (kg/m^3) (mm) Sample (mm) Boring A1-1 0 914 1829 2743 3658 4572 5486 6401 7315 8230 9144 10058 Boring A1-2 0 914 1829 2743 3658 4572 5486 6401 7315 8230 9144 10058 457 1371 2286 3200 4115 5029 5943 6858 7772 8687 9601 10515 457 1371 2286 3200 4115 5029 5943 6858 7772 8687 9601 10515 1762 1762 762.5 762.3 BPMM P-7 .0647 0.5 762.0921 0.5 762.0374 0.0853 0.5 762.5 762. This means ignoring the first two values of each boring.0079 0.5 762.0305 0.0921 5 5 4 3 5 6 3 3 6 9 12 14 2 3 5 6 8 4 6 9 10 10 11 13 9 7 6 4 6 7 4 3 7 10 12 14 4 4 7 8 10 5 7 10 11 11 11 13 Table P-1 Calculation of Corrected SPT Blow Count Find average values for zone between bottom of footing and top of rock.0511 0.0305 0.0579 0.

The correlation published in FHWA-HI-96-033 Page 4-17 (after Bowles.3 b = 27.5 27.25 30 o Dense 30-50 35-40 0.15 33 o Very Dense >50 38-43o 0 40. a = 0.5 Thus φ'f = a ⋅ Ncorr + b φ'f = 32 o say φ'f = 31 o P-8 .5 o Loose 4-10 27-32 0.5 Ncorr = 8.5 Table P-2 Correlation This correlation can be expressed numerically as: φ'f = a ⋅ Ncorr + b where: a and b are as listed in Table P-2.5 o Medium 10-30 30-35 0. 1977) is used to determine the angle of internal friction. This correlation is reproduced below.5 27. Description Ncorr = ϕf = a= b= Very Loose 0-4 25-30 0.

2. in Table 10.7 ⋅ Ncorr E0 = 6 MPa STable 10.3b-1 N1 is equivalent to Ncorr Clean fine to medium sands and slightly silty sands E0 = 0.3b-1 Based on above.2. use: E0 = 6 ⋅ MPa Poisons Ratio (ν): Estimating ν from description Loose Fine Sand: Shear Modulus (G): From Elastic Theory: E0 G0 = 2 ⋅ ( 1 + ν) G0 = 2400000 Pa ν = 0.2.10 MPa STable 10.2.3b-1 P-9 .6.6.25 STable 10.3b-1 7.7 ⋅ N1 E0 = 0.Modulus of elasticity (E): Estimating E0 from description Loose Fine Sand E0 = Estimating E0 from N corr Note.2.2.5 .6.2.6.2.

Depth (mm) Υ (kg/m^3) A1-1 22098 2435 A1-1 22890 2467 A1-2 21915 2323 A1-2 23256 2451 P1-1 24750 2579 P1-2 21885 2275 A2-1 23256 2323 A2-2 22464 2419 Average Υ 2409 Table P-3 Unit Weight Υ ave = 2409 ⋅ kg m 3 P-10 .Rock: Depth: Rock is encountered at elevation 70 and extends a minimum of 7620 mm beyond this point. Table 9-13: This is used for lateral analysis of deep foundation elements Submerged Loose Sand k = 5430 ⋅ kN m 3 Layer 2 .Coefficient of variation of subgrade reaction (k): As per FHWA-HI-96-033. Unit Weight (Υ): Determined from unconfined compression tests on samples of intact rock core as listed below: Boring No.

3d-1 P-11 .3d-2 Poisons Ratio (ν): This is to be used for prediction of pile tip response For sandstone.Unconfined Compressive Strength (q): Determined from unconfined compression tests on samples of intact rock core as listed below: Boring No.2. Average: ν ave = 0.2 STable 10.6.2.2. Depth (mm) A1-1 22098 A1-1 22890 A1-2 21915 A1-2 23256 P1-1 24750 P1-2 21885 A2-1 23256 A2-2 22464 Average qu qu (Pa) 89149210 72050210 44471180 89493950 96940290 46194870 92527640 102662900 79186281 Table P-4 Unconfined Compressive Strength quave = 79186281 ⋅ Pa Modulus of elasticity (E): This is to be used for prediction of deep foundation response For sandstone.6.2. Average: E0 = 14700 ⋅ MPa STable 10.

4 80 94 96 92 90 90 80 96 90 96 90.Shear Modulus (G): From elastic theory E0 G0 = 2 ⋅ 1 + ν ave ( ) G0 = 6125000000 Pa G0 = 6125 ⋅ MPa Rock Mass Quality: Rock mass quality is used to correct the intact rock strength and intact modulus values for the effects of existing discontinuities in the rock mass.4 Boring A1-1 10668 12192 13716 15240 16764 Boring A1-2 10668 12192 13716 15240 16764 Averages Table P-5 Rock Mass Quality P-12 . This is done through empirical correlations using parameters determined during core drilling. Data from the test borings is summarized below: Depth (mm) Run Length (mm) 1524 1524 1524 1524 1524 1524 1524 1524 1524 1524 Recovery RQD (%) (%) 100 96 100 98 98 98 100 100 96 98 98.

Design Step P. If several combinations produce the same horizontal load. The critical load cases for evaluation of foundation design are summarized below: 1). 3). 2).Determine Applicable Loads and Load Combinations Loads and load combinations are determined elsewhere in the design process. select the one with the minimum vertical load as this will be critical for evaluation of spread footing sliding or response of battered deep foundations. In some cases. particularly deep foundations employing all vertical elements. This will typically be a Strength I and a Service I load case with the maximum load factors applied.2 . The load combination that produces the maximum vertical load on the foundation system. P-13 . The load combination that produces the maximum lateral load. The load combination that produces the maximum overturning on the foundation which will tend to lift a spread footing off the bearing stratum or place deep foundation elements in tension. the highest lateral load and associated highest vertical load should also be evaluated as this case may produce higher foundation element stress and deflections due to combined axial load and bending in the foundation elements.

The loads are provided at the horizontal centroid of the assumed footing and at the bottom of that footing. A diagram showing the location and direction of the applied loads is provided below.3 .Design Step P.7 mm Y B = 3125 mm Z NOTE: Loads and moments shown in positive direction Bottom of footing Horizontal centroid of footing X Figure P-2 Application of Loads P-14 .Factor Loads for Each Combination It is extremely important to understand where the loads are being applied with respect to foundation design.5 mm CL Footing P trans Plong CL Bearings Mtrans CL Footing and Bridge Mlong 533.5 mm long footing that is offset behind the bearings a distance of 533.4 mm 1028. Pvert L = 14287.4 mm. In this case the loads were developed based on an assumed 3125 mm wide by 14287.

) (N-m) (N-m) Ptrans (N) Plong (N) 0 219643 0 219643 688756 219643 3803229 2539935 3803229 2526590 3500750 2539935 0 44482 0 44482 164584 44482 10021840 10430308 7966765 8273692 7966765 8073522 7966765 6472675 9885269 6384547 8641984 6472675 Table P-6 Summary of Factored Loads It should be noted that the calculations performed in Design Step P are based on preliminary pile foundation design forces. the geotechnical engineer would need to revisit the pile foundation design calculations and update the results based on the final design bottom of booting forces given at the end of Design Step 7. In an actual design. P-15 . (IN TRANS. Mlong Mtrans DIR.LIMIT STATE STR-I MAX/FIN SER-I MAX/FIN STR-I Maximum MIN/FIN Overturning SER-I MIN/FIN STR-III Maximum MAX/FIN Lateral SER-I Load MAX/FIN Maximum Vertical Load AXIAL FORCE Pv ert (N) LATERAL LATERAL LONG TRANS LOAD LOAD MOMENT MOMENT (IN LONG.7.) DIR.

the Maximum service load is The Required area: Pvert = 7.22 ⋅ MPa SM = 220000Pa Presumptive bearing capacity is a service limit state.1-1 S10. This is determined from previous geometry calculations.Design Step P.Verify Need for a Pile Foundation Evaluate a spread footing design: Check vertical capacity: Presumptive Bearing Capacity for loose sand with silt (SM) Presumptive bearing capacity SM = 0.2.2 The length of the footing is controlled by the length of the abutment step required to support the steel beams and the approach roadway. thus compare against maximum service load.5 ⋅ mm Bmin = 3882 ⋅ mm P-16 .6.4 .3.3.967 × 10 ⋅ N A = 55463110 ⋅ mm 2 6 STable 10.5. From Design Step P. Maximum possible length of footing Preliminary minimum required width L = 14287.

P-17 . the footing will have to be widened and the centroid shifted toward the toe. This can be accomplished by adding width to the toe of the footing.6.3.5 = 781 mm In order to resolve the bearing pressure and eccentricity issue. Width of the footing: Bi 4 Bi = 3125 ⋅ mm S10.5. This would require recalculation of the loads and was not pursued here.Excessive loss of contact: This is a strength limit state thus use strength loads for the case of maximum overturning which is STR I Min.1. Note that the issue could also be resolved by adding width to the heel of the footing. Determine the maximum eccentricity eB in the direction parallel to the width of the footing (B) Mlong Pvert Mlong = 9885269 ⋅ N ⋅ m Pvert = 8273692 ⋅ N S10.3.3 eB = From the loads obtained in Design Step P. eB = Mlong Pvert eB = 1195 mm To prevent excessive loss of contact eB must be less than B/4. which would increase the weight of soil that resists overturning.

50 Table P-7 Excessive Loss of Contact .00 1143.5 SEquation 10.0 623.5 319.5 2757.5 2757.Strength For the Strength Load Case.0 1081.5 471.5 776.5 2757.6.5 2757.0 2286.5 1676.5 2591. the condition was satisfed first when the width of the footing B = 3963 mm P-18 .25 838.5 1829.0 1981.In order to satisfy bearing pressure and eccentricity concerns.1.0 928.5 B/4 (mm) 781.25 914.3.0 2757. the footing width is increased incrementally until the following two criteria are met: Bi 4 eB < Based on Strength Loads B' > Bmin = 3882 mm Based on Service Loads Where B' is the effective footing width under eccentric load B' = Bi − 2 ⋅ eB For the Strength Load case: Footing width B (mm) 3125 3353 3658 3963 4268 4572 4877 5182 Distance Distance from heel to from heel to Centroid of centroid of footing (mm) load (mm) 1562.5-1 eB (mm) 1195.25 1295.5 2134.0 2438.5 2757.00 1219.5 2757.0 166.50 990.5 2757.75 1067.

3.0 240. or the shoulder pavement structure.50 1981.0 545. long = 6472675 ⋅ N ⋅ m M Pvert = 7966765 ⋅ N eB = Mlong Pvert eB = 812 mm Footing width B (mm) 3125 3353 3658 3963 4268 4572 4877 Distance Distance from heel to from heel to Centroid of centroid of footing (mm) load (mm) 1562.0 2374. P-19 .50 2286.0 2374.5 88.50 eB (mm) 812.Service For the Service Load Case.5 2374.0 B' (mm) 1501 1957 2567 3177 3787 4395 5005 Table P-8 Presumptive Bearing Pressure .5 393.For the Service Load Case eB = Mlong Pvert From the loads obtained from Design Step P. assume this is not the case and investigate potential settlement of such a footing.50 1676. However.5 2374. the condition was satisfed first when the width of the footing B = 4572 mm The first width to satisfy both conditions is 4572 mm.5 2374.5 2374.0 2374.5 -64.50 2438.50 2134.50 1829. roadside utilities. Which would require the toe of the footing to be extended: ∆B = 4572 ⋅ mm − Bi ∆B = 1447 mm This increase may not be possible because it may interfere with roadway drainage.0 698.

For the granular subsoils.1: Poisson's ratio of soil.2. the Effective Area is A = L' ⋅ B' Modulus of elasticity of soil. thus q0 is the presumptive bearing capacity and effective loaded area is as calculated above Average bearing pressure on loaded area: q0 = SM q0 = 220000Pa Effective are of footing: Length of footing L' = L L' = 14 m A = L' ⋅ B' Width of the footing B' = Bmin B' = 3882 mm Therfore.5 Es ⋅ β z SEquation 10. from Design Step P.1: Shape factor for rigid footing: A = 55 m 2 Es = 6 ⋅ MPa ν =0 L' =4 B' β z at P-20 . from Design Step P. settlement should be esentially elastic thus Settlement (S0) is computed from: q0 ⋅ 1 − ν S0 = ( 2 ) ⋅ A0.Settlement is a service limit state check.6.2.3b-1 Assume the footing is fully loaded.

15 1.79 I for rigid circular area over stiff base at H/B of 3: Isb = 0. P-21 .1-211) indicate the difference between assuming an infinite compressible layer and a rigid base at a depth equal to 3 times the footing width (H/B = 3) below the footing can be estimated by computing the ratio between appropriate influence factors (I) as follows: As per NAVFAC DM7. and DM7.1-212.6.18 S0 = q0 ⋅ 1 − ν ( 2 ) ⋅ A0.2.5 Es ⋅ β z S0 = 216.25 is used for the soil. at β z = 1. This difference is small for the purposes of estimating elastic settlement. Other computation methods that allow for the rigid base (NAVFAC DM-7.64 The influence value determined above is for a Poisson's ratio of 0.3b-2 Table P-9 Rigid Footing L' =4 B' By interpolation. A Poisson's ration of 0.24 STable 10.6.2.2.95 mm Note: This computation assumes an infinite depth of the compressible layer.3b-2 for rigid footing: L'/B' 3 5 βz 1.2.33.1-213: I for rigid circular area over infinite halfspace: Iinf = 0.From Table 10.

810127 Iinf Since I is directly proportional to settlement. this ratio can be multiplied by S0 to arrive at a more realistic prediction of settlement of this footing. Thus. it is unlikely this requirement can be met. Since most of the loads will be applied after construction of the abutment (backfill. superstructure. Isb S'0 = S0 ⋅ Iinf S'0 = 176 mm This settlement will occur as load is applied to the footing and may involve some rotation of the footing due to eccentricities of the applied load. P-22 . The structural engineer has determined that the structure can accommodate up to 38 mm of horizontal displacement and up to 13 mm vertical displacement.Ratio of I values: Isb = 0. Consideration of this would increase the settlement making the decision to abandon a spread footing foundation even more decisive. Note that the above calculation did not account for the weight of the approach embankment fill and the effect that this will have on the elastic settlement. Given the magnitude of the predicted displacements. a deep foundation system or some form of ground improvement is required. deck) this will result in unacceptable displacement.

2) It can be driven to high capacities on and into the top weathered portion of the rock. P-23 . a steel H-pile end bearing on rock is selected for this application for the following reasons. dynamic deep compaction. 3) It is relatively stiff in bending thus lateral deflections will be less than for comparably sized concrete or timber piles.5 . 4) Soils have not been shown to be corrosive thus steel loss is not an issue. Thus a driven pile foundation will be designed.Design Step P. water bearing strata). It is further assumed that drilled shaft foundations have been shown to be more costly than driven pile foundations under the existing subsurface conditions (granular. 1) It is a low displacement pile which will minimize friction in the overlying soils. ground improvement methods such as vibro-flotation. Of the available driven pile types. vibro replacement. and others have been ruled out as impractical or too costly.Select Suitable Pile Type and Size It will be assumed that for the purposes of this example.

5 times the pile diameter (D). Thus it is desirable to maintain at least 5D spacing in the direction of the load and preferable to maintain 8D spacing. consideration is given to the following: 1) Pile diameter: H-Piles range in size from 200 to 360 mm width.1.2-241: For spacing in the direction of loading. The designer's experience has shown 3D to be a more practical limit that will help avoid problems during construction.8. spacing is to be no less than: 2.5 ⋅ D = 775 mm 3) Minimum pile spacing to reduce group effects: As per FHWA-HI-96-033.8. Section 9. 1991.5 . various model studies indicate that group efficiency is very low at 3D spacing. However. note that the FHWA driven pile manual recommends a minimum c-c spacing of 3D or 1 meter in granular soils to optimize group capacity and minimize installation problems.To determine the optimum pile size for this application.1. Thus for preliminary analysis assume a 310 inch H-Pile. As per FHWA-HI-96-033.7. pile sizes 300 mm and under will result in the same minimum spacing of 750 mm. From Reese and Wang. Lateral group effects are controlled by pile spacing in the direction of loading and perpendicular to the direction of loading.4 & NACVFAC DM7.3 (personal communication): For spacing perpendicular to the direction of loading 3D results in no significant group impacts.5 ⋅ D Where the pile diameter: D = 310 ⋅ mm 2. moderate at about 5D spacing and near 100% for spacings over about 8D.1: Axial group effects for end bearing piles on hard rock are likely to be negligible thus axial group capacity is not a consideration. P-24 S10. Since pile spacing is controlled by the greater of 750 inches or 2. Figure 5. Section 9. 2) Absolute Minimum Spacing: Per referenced article.

B = 3125 ⋅ mm P-25 . Thus: From Design Step P.7.4: Lmax = L Lmax = 14288mm The width of the pile cap in the direction parallel to the centerline of the bridge (B) can generally be made wider as required.1. 4) Edge clearance Referenced section indicates minimum cover:covermin = 225 ⋅ mm S10.5 Thus for a 310 mm pile. minimum distance from edge of footing to center of pile: D distmin = covermin + 2 distmin = 380 mm 5) Maximum pile cap dimensions The length of the pile cap in the direction perpendicular to the centerline (L) is limited to the width of the abutment. Initial loadings were developed assuming a width of 3125 mm thus use this dimension as a starting point.Maximum pile spacing Spacing the piles more than 3048 mm c-c results in higher bending moments in the pile cap between each pile and negative bending moments over the top of each pile that may result in additional steel reinforcing or thicker pile caps. Thus it is desirable to keep the pile spacing less than 3048 mm c-c.

Determine the maximum and minimum number of piles that can be placed beneath the cap (See sketch below for definition of variables) B SB Edge Distance SL L NL Edge Distance NB Figure P-3 Plan View of Pile Cap P-26 .

P-27 .In B direction: SB is defined as: Width of the pile cap .2 times the edge distance SB = B − 2 ⋅ distmin SB = 2365 mm Max number of spaces at 5D spacing (NB) NB < SB 5⋅D SB 5⋅D =2 NB < 1.55 Minimum number of spaces at 3048 mm each (NB) NB > SB 3048 ⋅ mm SB 3048 ⋅ mm =1 NB > 0.775 Since the number of spaces has to be an integer NB = 1 Which results in two rows of piles in the B direction.

P-28 .792 Minimum number of spaces at 3048 mm each (NL) NL > SL 3048 ⋅ mm SL 3048 ⋅ mm =4 NL > 4.2 times the edge distance SL = L − 2 ⋅ distmin SL = 13528mm Max number of spaces at 3D spacing (NL) NL < SL 3⋅D SL 3⋅D = 15 NL < 14.438 Since the number of spaces has to be an integer NL = 5 to 14 Which results in 6 to 15 rows of piles in the L direction.In L direction: SL is defined as: Width of the pile cap .

from Table P. from Table P. determine reactions on the front and back pile rows: Pvert Mlong X B F RBACK Z SB = 2365 mm RFRONT Figure P-4 Section View of Pile Cap Summing the forces in the z-direction and the moments about point B: ΣFz = 0 ΣFz = Pvert − RBACK − RFRONT SB ΣMB = −Mlong − ⋅ Pvert + SB ⋅ RFRONT 2 ΣMB = 0 For STR I max.6: Pvert 1 = 10021840 ⋅ N Mlong = 10796379 ⋅ N ⋅ m 1 RBACK = 596062 ⋅ N 1 RFRONT = 9425782 ⋅ N 1 For STR I min.Determine maximum axial load acting on piles Using factored loads and diagram below.6: Pvert 2 = 8273692 ⋅ N Mlong = 9885269 ⋅ N ⋅ m 2 RBACK = −49 ⋅ N 2 P-29 RFRONT = 8322623 ⋅ N 2 .

4.9. φ c = 0.2 P-30 .4. The need for using a higher strength steel will be investigated in future design steps S6.9.1-1 NOTE: λ in equation 6.Max axial load on front row of piles: RFRONT = max RFRONT . Max anticipated factored pile load can range between: ( ) RFRONT6 = RFRONT 6 and RFRONT15 = RFRONT 15 RFRONT6 = 1570964 N Assuming the following: RFRONT15 = 628385 N Axial pile resistance is controlled by structural resistance Structural resistance P r = φ c ⋅ Fy ⋅ As SEquation 6.9.5.2.6 Fy = 250 ⋅ MPa NOTE: Grade 250 steel is assumed at this stage even though most H-pile sections are available in higher grades at little or no cost differential.4.1-1 is assumed to be zero (because unbraced length is zero) resulting in the simplified equation shown above.15 piles. RFRONT 1 2 RFRONT = 9425782 N Since the front row can have 6 .1-1 and SEquation 6.

0 ⋅ mm Ixx = 163 ⋅ 10 ⋅ mm 6 6 4 4 3 2 Iyy = 52.Compute required pile area to resist the anticipated maximum factored pile load.6 ⋅ 10 ⋅ mm 3 Zx = 1210 ⋅ 10 ⋅ mm Zy = 525 ⋅ 10 ⋅ mm 3 3 Note: Plastic section modulus is used to evaluate nominal moment capacity Es = 200000 ⋅ MPa P-31 . select: HP 310x79 Properties of HP 310x79: As = 10000 ⋅ mm d = 299 ⋅ mm bf = 306 ⋅ mm tf = 11.0 ⋅ mm tw = 11. The required steel area can range between: ⎛ RFRONT6 ⎞ ⎜ φc ⎝ ⎠ = 10473mm2 and Fy ⎛ RFRONT15 ⎞ ⎜ φc ⎝ ⎠ = 4189 mm2 Fy For preliminary layout and design.

1-2.66 ⋅ Fy ⋅ As Pn = 2500000 N λ λ S6. use equation 6. Since the pile will be fully embedded in soil.1-1 to calculate the nominal compressive resistance.1-3 which accounts for buckling of unbraced sections.9.4. The selection of equation is based on the computation of l in equation 6.6 .9.Design Step P.66 ⋅ Fy ⋅ As where: Fy = 250 MPa As = 10000mm λ = 0 Therefore: Pn = 0.1 SEquation 6.Determine Nominal Axial Structural Resistance for Selected Pile Type / Size Ultimate axial compressive resistance is determined in accordance with either equation 6.9.4.4.9.1-1 or 6. Based on this this.9. Pn = 0. the unbraced length is zero and therefore l is zero.4.9.4.1-1 2 P-32 .4.

3.4 ⋅ Hs Ds d < 3.5-1 10 ⋅ ⎜ 1 + 300 ⎛ ⎝ SEquation 10.7.1: td = 0 ⋅ mm P-33 sd = 305 ⋅ mm .1 and description of rock: Width of discontinuities: Joints are tight as per discussion in Design Step P.1: qu = quave qu = 79 MPa Spacing of discontinuities: Based on high observed RQD in Design Step P.5-2 d = 1 + 0.5 Nominal unit bearing resistance of pile point.Design Step P.Determine Nominal Axial Geotechnical Resistance for Selected Pile Type / Size Geotechnical axial resistance for a pile end bearing on rock is determined by the CGS method outlined in 10.7.3.7.7 . qp qp = 3 ⋅ qu ⋅ Ksp ⋅ d for which: 3+ Ksp = sd D td ⎞ sd ⎠ 0.3.5 SEquation 10.4 where: Average compressive strength of rock core: From Design Step P.

5 Hs = 0 ⋅ mm Ds = 305 ⋅ mm td ⎞ ⎛ 10 ⋅ ⎜ 1 + 300 sd ⎠ ⎝ Ksp = 0 and: d = 1 + 0.4 ⋅ Hs Ds d=1 Thus: qp = 3 ⋅ qu ⋅ Ksp ⋅ d qp = 95 MPa P-34 .Pile width: HP 310x79 used: D = 310 mm Depth of embedment of pile socketed into rock: Pile is end bearing on rock: Diameter of socket: Assumed but does not matter since Hs = 0: so: 3+ Ksp = sd D 0.

This will be the case if the pile is driven into the upper weathered portion of the rock.2-3 P-35 .Nominal geotechnical resistance (Qp): Qp = qp ⋅ Ap where: Nominal unit bearing resistance as defined above: qp = 95 MPa Area of the pile tip: Area determined assuming a plug develops between flanges of the H-Pile. Therefore: Qp = qp ⋅ Ap Qp = 8792375 N Ap = 92903 ⋅ mm 2 SEquation 10.7.3.

Design Step P.8 .1 P-36 .5.6: Therefore: Pr = 1500000 N φc = 1 Pn = 2500000 N S6.2.4.2 SEquation 6.9.Determine Factored Axial Structural Resistance for Single Pile Factored Structural Resistance (Pr): Pr = φ c ⋅ Pn where: Resistance factor for H-pile in compression. no damage anticipated: Nominal resistance as computed in Design Step P.

3.5-2 SEquation 10.7. end bearing on rock (CGS method): φ qp = 0.5 ⋅ λ v φ qp = 1 λ v = 1.9 . Thus: and therefore: φ qp = 0.0 STable 10.5. where: Resistance factor. stress wave measurements will be specified on 2% of the piles (a minimum of one per substructure unit) and the capacity will be verified by CAPWAP analysis.Design Step P. thus structural capacity controls.2-2 Factor to account for method controlling pile installation: For this porject.Determine Factored Axial Geotechnical Resistance for Single Pile Factored Geotechnical Resistance (QR): QR = φ qp ⋅ Qp Note: remainder of equation not included since piles are point bearing and skin friction is zero.7: Qp = 8792375 N Therefore: Qr = φ qp ⋅ Qp Qr = 4396188 N Note: This is greater than the structural capacity.5.5 ⋅ λ v STable 10.5-2 Nominal resistance as computed in Design Step P. P-37 .

modification to the recommended pile type are necessary.Check Drivability of Pile Pile drivability is checked using the computer program WEAP. a bigger hammer is specified and the analysis is repeated. If the ultimate capacity is not sufficient. Drivability of Piles If a suitable hammer can not be found that allows driving the piile to the required ultimate capacity without exceeding the permissible driving stress. a smaller hammer is specified and the analysis is repeated. The analysis proceeds by selecting a suitable sized hammer.10 . The bearing graph is then entered at the driving resistance to be specified for the job (in this case absolute refusal of 240 BP300MM will be used) and the ultimate capacity and driving stress correlating to that driving resistance is read. If the driving stress exceeds the permitted driving stress for the pile. Determining the maximum pile stress and driving resistance (BP300MM) at several levels of ultimate capacity and plotting a bearing graph relating these variables. Therefore assume that 10668 mm long piles will be ordered to allow for some variation in subsurface conditions and minimize pile wasted during cut off. These may include: • • • Specifying a heavier pile section Specifying a higher yield stress for the pile steel Reducing the factored resistance of the pile Develop input parameters for WEAP Driving lengths of piles The finished pile will likely be 9754-10059 mm long which includes a 300 mm projection into the pile cap and up to 300 mm of penetration of the pile tip into the weathered rock.Design Step P. P-38 .

0 PILE INFORMATION Pile Type: H Pile .0/1500.0 Output P-39 . No driving strength loss is assumed since the H-Pile is a low displacement pile and excess pore pressure should dissipate rapidly in the loose sand.0 Nordlund 0.00 N 0.00 mm 0.00 N 0.00% 1762 kg/m^3 Strength Ultimate Cur granular 1500.1 is input and an HP310x79 pile selected.HP310X79 Top of Pile: 1220 mm Perimeter Analysis: Box Tip Analysis: Pile Area ULTIMATE CONSIDERATIONS Water Table Depth At Time Of: .00 N 4449 N 5561 N 5605 N 9875 N 9875 N 9875 N 9875 N Total Capacity 0.00 N 2847 N 2936 N 43104 N 105779 N 191007 N 224146 N End Bearing 0. The soil profile determined in Step P. DRIVEN 1.00 mm DRIVING – SUMMARY OF CAPACITIES Depth 3 mm 1217 mm 1220 mm 1521 mm 1528 mm 4271 mm 7014 mm 9757 mm 10665 mm Skin Friction 0.Driving/Restrike .Drilling: .Ultimate: Ultimate Considerations: 1524 mm 1524 mm 1524 mm .0. This skin friction can be quickly computed using the FHWA computer program DRIVEN 1. Summary output from the program is provided below.00 N 4449 N 8452 N 8497 N 52979 N 115699 N 200882 N 234066 N Figure P-5 DRIVEN 1.Soft Soil: ULTIMATE PROFILE Layer 1 Type Thickness Driving Loss Unit Weight 10668 mm 0.00 mm 0.Distribution and magnitude of side friction This pile will be primarily end bearing but some skin friction in the overlying sand will develop during driving.Local Scour: .00 N 0.00 N 0. The pile top is set at 1220 mm depth to account for that portion of soil that will be excavated for pile cap construction.Long Term Scour: .

NOTE: Side friction is added here because downdrag is expected to reduce or reverse the skin friction in the final condition.8 and is controlled by structural resistance of the pile. P-40 .Driving 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 Skin Friction End Bearing Total Capacity Figure P-6 Bearing Capacity From this analysis. and will be about: Qs = 222411 ⋅ N The distribution will start 1220mm below the top of the pile which is: 1220 ⋅ N = 11 % below the top of the pile. 10668 ⋅ N The desired factored resistance was determined in Design Step P.Capacity (N) 0 0 2000 Depth (mm) 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 Bearing Capacity Graph . This value is: Pr = 1500000 N The ultimate resistance that must be achieved during wave equation analysis will be this value divided by the appropriate resistance factor for wave equation analysis + the estimated side friction. the side friction during driving will vary in a triangular distribution. sufficient point capacity must be developed during driving to adequately resist all applied loads plus the downdrag. Therefore.

φ = 0.9: λv = 1 Thus: φ =1 and Pr QP = φ QP = 2307692 N At this Ultimate point resistance the percent side friction is: Qs = 9% Qs + QP and the resistance required by wave equation analysis is: Qreq = Qs + QP Qreq = 2530103 N STable 10.65 ⋅ λ v From Design Step P.5-2 P-41 .5.

Smith damping factors are preferred. Hard Sandstone Skin Damping: Skin Quake: Toe Damping: Toe Quake: SD = 0. P-42 .05 DIM SQ = 2.Soil parameters (use Case damping factors): Damping Factors Case damping factors are used here because of experience with similar jobs.5 ⋅ mm TD = 0. The parameters for loose sand and hard sandstone were estimated based on local experience with similar soils. Loose Sand Skin Damping: Skin Quake: Toe Damping: Toe Quake: SD = 0. In general.15 DIM TQ = 2.5 ⋅ mm Use skin damping and skin quake for pile shaft.5 ⋅ mm TD = 0.2 DIM SQ = 2. In this case. the Smith damping factors would likely give very similar results to what is computed using the selected Case damping factors.5 ⋅ mm Use toe damping and toe quake for pile toe.05 DIM TQ = 2.

9 ⋅ φ ⋅ Fy = 225 MPa Sd < 22779450 ⋅ kg m 3 P-43 .8 kg m 3 72% S10.5.4 Steel yield stress.5 Rated Energy: Er = ( 272J) ⋅ As Er = 2720000 J Select open ended diesel common to area DELMAG 12-32 (ID=37) rated at: Helmet weight: Hammer Cushion Properties: Area: 182903 ⋅ mm 2 42478 ⋅ N ⋅ m 9564 ⋅ N Elastic Modulus: 196859500 ⋅ Thickness: COR: Hammer Efficiency: Permissible Driving Stress: Driving Stress. start out with a rated energy of 272 Joules times the steel area of the pile.0 S6. where: Resistance factor for driving: φ = 1. from Design Fy = 250 MPa Step P.7. Area: As = 10000 mm 2 from Design Step P. Sd < 0.Hammer Selection: As a rule of thumb.1.5: 0.16 Note that the equation above was modified to yield stress rather than load.9 ⋅ φ ⋅ Fy 51 ⋅ mm 0.

Summary of Wave Equations Analysis: 42 KSI 660 Kips 240 BPF Figure P-7 Wave Equation Analysis at refusal the pile has an ultimate capacity of Qult = 660 ⋅ K Qult = 2935826 ⋅ N at refusal the driving stress in the pile is Sd_act = 42 ⋅ ksi Sd_act = 29528920 ⋅ kg m 3 P-44 .

Try reducing hammer energy DELMAG D 12 (ID=3) rated at 31984 ⋅ N ⋅ m Hammer Cushion Properties same as before P-45 .no good.Check: The ultimate capacity exceeds that required Qult > Qreq Qult = 2935826 N > Qreq = 2530103 N OK The permissible driving stress exceeds the actual value SD > Sd_act Sd = 22779450 ⋅ kg m 3 > Sd_act = 29528920 kg m 3 This condition is not satisfied .

Summary of Wave Equations Analysis: 34 KSI 29 KSI 520 Kips 420 Kips 100 BPF 240 BPF Figure P-8 Wave Equation Analysis at refusal the pile has an ultimate capacity ofQult = 2313075 ⋅ N at refusal the driving stress in the pile is Sd_act = 23904370 ⋅ kg m 3 P-46 .

no good The permissible driving stress exceeds the actual value SD > Sd_act Sd = 22779450 ⋅ kg m 3 > Sd_act = 23904370 kg m 3 This condition is not satisfied .no good. P-47 . no hammer can possibly drive this pile to the required capacity without exceeding the permissible driving stress. A decision must be made at this point: Is pile drivable to minimum of Ultimate Geotechnical Axial Resistance or Ultimate Structural Resistance without pile damage? Based on above analysis.Check: The ultimate capacity exceeds that required Qult > Qreq Qult = 2313075 N > Qreq = 2530103 N This condition is not satisfied .

8 Fy) the penetration resistance is about 100 BP300MM and the ultimate capacity would be: Qult = 1868253 ⋅ N This value includes skin friction during driving which was set in the program to be 9% of the ultimate resistance. Based on the above bearing graph and allowing for some tolerance in the driving stress (requiring the contractor to select a driving system that produces exactly 22779450 kg/m^3 in the pile is unreasonable) a reasonable driven capacity is estimated.65 Qp = 1700110 N QR = φ ⋅ Qp QR = 1105072 N P-48 . Therefore. Using a minimum driving stress of 20389020 kg/m^3 (0. point resistance at this driving stress would be: Qp = 91% ⋅ Qult and: φ = 0.There are 2 approaches to resolving this problem 1) Reduce the factored resistance of the pile to a value that can be achieved without over stressing the pile.

Thus. It can be seen from the results of the wave equation analysis that the driving stress times the pile area is about equal to the mobilized pile capacity.1.4 Since option 2 involves little or no additional cost and option 1 will result in significant increase in cost due to required additional piles.9 ⋅ φ ⋅ Fy = 311 MPa Sd < 311MPa φ = 1 Fy = 345 ⋅ MPa S6.16 (Equation modified to yield stress instead of load) where: Resistance factor for driving: Steel yield stress: 0. then the ultimate required dynamic capacity determined above is valid and the driving stress associated with this capacity can be estimated by: Qult As Driving Stress Sd = P-49 . if the factored structural resistance determined in step P.2) Increase the yield strength of the pile without increasing the previously computed factored resistance Using grade 345 steel Driving Stress: Sd < 0.5.7.9 ⋅ φ ⋅ Fy S10. select option 2 In this case The Delmag 12-32 produced acceptable driving results.8 is used as the final design pile resistance.

5: Qult As Qult = 2530103 ⋅ N As = 10000⋅ mm 2 Driving Stress Sd = Sd = 253. an acceptable driven capacity should be achieved during construction.01 MPa Thus. Using a minimum driving stress of Qult = Sd_min ⋅ As Qult = 2550000 N Qp = Qult − Qs Qs = 222411N Qp = 2327589 N As defined previously Sd_min = 255 ⋅ MPa P-50 .where: Ultimate required capacity as previously determined by wave equation analysis: Pile area. so long as the contractor selects a hammer that will produce a driving stress between about 255 and 310 MPa at refusal. from Design Step 9.

side friction is subtracted from the ultimate capacity since it will be present during driving but will not be present in the final condition.6 Pn = 0.9.Again. and the minimum driven resistance is QR = φ ⋅ Qp φ = 0.65 Qp = 2327589 N QR = φ ⋅ Qp QR = 1512933 N Recompute structural resistance based on higher yield steel.4. as in Design Step P. Resistance is based on the point resistance achieved during driving the pile to refusal.66 ⋅ Fy ⋅ As where Nominal compressive resistance: Fy = 345 MPa As = 10000mm λ =0 Pn = 3450000 N 2 λ SEquation 6.1-1 Pn P-51 .

9.The factored axial structural resistance.8 is: Pr = φ c ⋅ Pn φc = 1 Pr = 2070000 N Driven capacity controls Thus final axial resistance of driven pile: Q = QR Q = 1512933 N SEquation 6. as in Design Step P.2.1-1 P-52 .

Do Preliminary Pile Layout Based on Factored Loads and Overturning Moments The purpose of this step is to produce a suitable pile layout beneath the pile cap that results in predicted factored axial loads in any of the piles that are less than the final factored resistance for the selected piles. A brief evaluation of lateral resistance is also included but lateral resistance is more fully investigated in step P.11 .6 Piles Additional piles will be required to resist the over turning moment.Design Step P.3. from Design Step P. From Design Step P. Load Case STR I max: Pvert = 10021840 ⋅ N The final controlling factored resistance for the QR = 1512933 N selected pile type. from Design Step P. RFRONT = 9425782 N RBACK = 596062 ⋅ N P-53 .13 The minimum number of piles to support the maximum factored vertical load is: Pvert QR Np = where: The maximum factored vertical load on the abutment.10: Pf = QR Np = Pvert Pf Np = 6. the maximum load that needed to be supported by each row of piles was calculated.5.

a load case in which the longitudinal loads such as temperature and braking loads are reversed will increase the loads on the back row. so start with 7 piles in the front row. from Design Step P.5: c-c spacing of piles: s = SL = 13528mm SL NFRONT − 1 s = 2255 mm Set c-c spacing of piles = 2235 mm This is approaching the maximum pile spacing identified in Step 5 thus set the back row of piles to the same spacing.2 Piles Additional load in the corner pile will come from the lateral moment but this is small. This will result in the back row of piles being under utilized for axial loads. Further. However. the additional piles are expected to be necessary to help handle lateral loads and to resist downdrag loads that will be applied to the back row only.The required number of piles in the front row is determined as above. NFRONT = RFRONT Pf NFRONT = 6. P-54 . NFRONT = 7 Piles This results in a pile spacing of: SL NFRONT c-c spacing of piles: s = where: The length of footing available for piles.

Thus. the final preliminary layout is diagramed below 3125mm 2363 mm 381 mm 439 mm Figure P-9 Plan View of Pile Cap 6 spaces @ 2235 mm = 13410mm 14288 mm P-55 .

M'x . y = 0 Fz = −10021844 ⋅ N Mx = 0 ⋅ N ⋅ m My = 10430308 ⋅ N ⋅ m The coordinate system for the following calculations is provided in Figure P. y' Iyy . Ixx Calculation of Individual Pile Loads on an Eccentrically Loaded Footing: Input Applied Loads: At x = 0.The spreadsheet below is used to calculate individual pile loads using the following formula: P = F'z N + M'x ⋅ x' y' + M'y ⋅ Iyy Ixx where: Vertical load and moments applied at the centroid of the pile group: Distance from centroid of pile group to pile in the x and y directions: Moment of inertia of the pile group about the y and x axis respectively: F'z . M'y x' .10: +z +y +x Figure P-10 Coordinate System P-56 .

5 -4470 5 -1181.5 1181.5 -1181.5 1181.5 -2235 7 -1181.5 -4470 4 1181.5 1181.5 -6705 2 1181. Centroids: yc = 0 ⋅ mm xc = 0 ⋅ mm Moment of Inertia about the y axis: Moment of Inertia about the x axis: Iyy = 279732600 ⋅ mm Ixx = 19543192 ⋅ mm 4 4 P-57 .5 1181. Sum of the distances in the y direction is zero. Input Pile Location Pile x y Number 1 -1181.5 1181.5 -1181.5 -2235 6 1181.5 4470 13 -1181. and the moment of inertia of the pile group.5 1181.5 -1181.5 -1181.5 -6705 3 -1181.5 6705 14 1181.5 1181.5 2235 11 -1181.5 6705 Calculated Values x' -1181.5 -1181.5 -1181.5 4470 12 1181.Table P-10 is used to calculate the vertical load and moments.5 0 8 1181.5 2235 10 1181.5 y' -6705 -6705 -4470 -4470 -2235 -2235 0 0 2235 2235 4470 4470 6705 6705 x' 2 1395942 1395942 1395942 1395942 1395942 1395942 1395942 1395942 1395942 1395942 1395942 1395942 1395942 1395942 y' 2 44957025 44957025 19980900 19980900 4995225 4995225 0 0 4995225 4995225 19980900 19980900 44957025 44957025 Pile load -91710 -1352856 -91710 -1352856 -91710 -1352856 -91710 -1352856 -91710 -1352856 -91710 -1352856 -91710 -1352856 Table P-10 Pile Calculations Sum of the distances in the x direction is zero.5 0 9 -1181.

Load STR-I SER-I STR-I SER-I STR-III SER-I Case MAX/FIN MAX/FIN MIN/FIN MIN/FIN MAX/FIN MAX/FIN Fz = -10111960 -8038402 -8348089 -8038402 -8146119 -8038402 Mx = 0 219642527 0 219642527 688755577 219642527 My = 10430308379 6472675445 9885269516 6384547271 8641984350 6472675445 Pile No. 1 -91710 -188125 1330 -193453 -75916 -188125 2 -1352856 -970747 -1193914 -965419 -1120833 -970747 3 -91710 -186370 1330 -191698 -70413 -186370 4 -1352856 -968992 -1193914 -963665 -1115330 -968992 5 -91710 -184615 1330 -189943 -64910 -184615 6 -1352856 -967237 -1193914 -961910 -1109827 -967237 7 -91710 -182861 1330 -188188 -59407 -182861 8 -1352856 -965483 -1193914 -960155 -1104324 -965483 9 -91710 -181106 1330 -186434 -53904 -181106 10 -1352856 -963728 -1193914 -958400 -1098821 -963728 11 -91710 -179351 1330 -184679 -48401 -179351 12 -1352856 -961973 -1193914 -956645 -1093318 -961973 13 -91710 -177596 1330 -182924 -42898 -177596 14 -1352856 -960218 -1193914 -954890 -1087815 -960218 Max Min -1352856 -91710 -970747 -177596 -1193914 1330 -965419 -182924 -1120833 -42898 -970747 -177596 Table P-11 Individual Loads for All Load Cases P-58 .Resolved loads at Centroid: F'z = Fz F'z = −10021844 N M'x = −F'z ⋅ yc + Mx M'x = 0 N ⋅ m M'y = −F'z ⋅ xc + My M'y = 10430308 N ⋅ m Summary of individual pile loads for all load cases: This table was generated by inserting each load case in the spreadsheet above and recording the resulting pile loads for that load combination.

The maximum compressive load is reasonably close to the factored resistance for the selected pile and the tension load is minimized thus this is a reasonable layout with respect to axial load. The maximum longitudinal service load is: Plong = 2539935 ⋅ N Number of piles: Npile = 14 P = Plong Npile Thus. The controlling criterion with respect to horizontal loads on vertical piles is usually deflection which is a service load case. Evaluate lateral loads: If all piles are vertical they can all be assumed to take an equal portion of the applied horizontal load since group effects have been minimized by keeping the pile spacing large enough. Looking at the maximum horizontal loads in section P. Brohms method can be used to estimate ultimate capacity (strength limit state) and various published elastic solutions may be used to estimate deflection (service limit state). it can be seen that the transverse loads are relatively small and can be ignored for the purposes of this step.3. Pressumptive allowable lateral capacities based on the designer's experience (service limit state) may be used or a preliminary P-y analysis using COM624 may be performed at this point to assist in initial pile group layout P-59 . load per pile: P = 181424N Lateral Capacity The design chart used below to estimate the lateral capacity of steel H-Piles is one of many methods available to the designer.Pile loads range between -1352856 N in compression and 1330 N in tension for all load cases.

Based on the design chart below.6K From PennDOT DM4 Appendix F-20: 92 KN Figure P-11 Maximum Service Load Per Pile P-60 . the maximum service load per pile for an assumed 1.5" deflection (38mm) is: 92KN = 20.

P-61 .Notes on chart: Solid lines represent load vs deflection for full depth loose saturated sand I values are moment of inertia for pile about axis perpendicular to applied load (shown in mm4 x 108) For HP 310 x 79 Ixx = 164000000mm 4 Load in KN is applied at ground surface and pile head is assumed to be 50% fixed Thus. To resolve this. battering the piles makes more sense. Since at least twice as many piles would be required to handle the anticipated horizontal loads. there probably will not be sufficient lateral load capacity with 14 vertical piles. Investigate battering front row of piles at 1:3 (back row of piles not battered due to lack of vertical load and potential for downdrag) Total vertical load on front row for each of the load cases is computed by summing the individual pile loads computed above. it will be necessary to add more piles or batter some of the piles.

From Design Step P. P-62 .available horizontal force (N) Force per pile (N) 661006 298921 1029318 298031 935461 298921 47151 21352 73396 21352 66723 21352 Table P-12 Vertical Load on Front Row of Piles for Each Load Case The remaining force per pile to be handled in bending is in the reasonable range thus this may be a workable configuration but it must be confirmed by interaction analysis.3: STR-I SER-I STR-I SER-I STR-III SER-I MAX/FIN MAX/FIN MIN/FIN MIN/FIN MAX/FIN MAX/FIN 9426226 6723487 8321733 6686122 7695423 6723487 Load Case Total vertical load on front row of piles (N) Batter = 0.333333333 Available resisting force due to horizontal component of axial pile 3142224 2241014 2773911 load = Batter x vertical load on front row (N) Plong = (N) 222856 2565289 2241014 3803229 2539935 3803229 2526590 3500750 2539935 Remaining force to be handled by bending of pile = Plong . Thus proceed to next step with a 14 pile group with the front row battered at 3V:1H.

the pile cap will tend to rotate backwards as it deflects.Evaluate Pile Head Fixity The performance of the pile group and the resulting pile stresses are greatly influenced by the degree to which piles are fixed against rotation at the pile head. However. there will be 7 rows of piles that when deflected force the pile cap to remain level. P-63 . Each of these is evaluated below.3.5 Pile cap stiffness Flexing of the pile cap due to applied loads and moments tends to reduce the fixity at the head of the pile. S10.12 .8 S10. These piles will be embedded the minimum of 300 mm since the thickness of the pile cap is expected to be only 762 mm. Group geometry In the transverse direction. This condition will result in full fixity of the pile head pending evaluation of other factors. the stiffness of the pile cap.7. In the longitudinal direction there will be only 2 rows of piles which should be sufficient to enforce fixity pending evaluation of other factors. Embedding the piles 610 mm into a 762 mm thick cap places the tops of the piles near the top layer of reinforcing and increases the probability of the pile punching through the top of the cap under load. the geometry of the pile group. In this case the pile cap is expected to be relatively thin so this effect becomes important. This could conceivably result in a moment applied to the pile heads greater than that required to fix the head (i.1. This fixity is provided by the pile cap and is a function of the embedment of the pile into the cap.Design Step P.7. Thus full pile head fixity will likely not develop regardless of other factors. if the front row of piles is battered and the back row of piles is left vertical. The stiffness of the pile cap is accounted for in the group interaction analysis so this does not effect the evaluation of fixity. greater than 100% fixity) This backwards rotation of the pile cap is accounted for in the group analysis so it does not need to be considered here. and the deflection.e. Embedment Research has shown that a pile needs to be embedded 2-3 times its diameter into the pile cap in order to develop full fixity.

For the vertical pile group deflections are expected to be large but for the battered group deflections are likely to be small. To be conservative.Deflection The fixity of a pile is reduced at large deflections due to cracking of the concrete at the bottom of the pile cap. the remaining factors of embedment and deflection need to be accounted for. Both of these indicate that pile head fixity is likely to be somewhere between 25 and 75% with the higher values for the battered group. Conclusion Since the group analysis will account for the group geometry and the stiffness of the pile cap. the group will be analyzed with 0 and 100% fixity to determine the critical conditions for pile stress (usually 100% fixity) and deflection (0 % fixity) P-64 .

Perform Pile Soil Interaction Analysis Group interaction analysis will be performed using the computer program FB-Pier developed by FHWA.Design Step P. 3) The axial response of the soil and rock (T-z and Q-z) 4) The lateral response of soil (P-y) 5) The torsional response of the soil and rock (T. a few additional soil and pile cap properties need to be established. In order to properly use the program. FloridaDOT and University of Florida. Version 3 of the program is used in this example. This program is available from the Bridge Software Institute associated with the University of Florida. These are: 1) The location and thickness of the abutment stem. This controls the relative stiffness of the pile cap.13 .q) 6) Other miscellaneous considerations Each is evaluated below: S10.7.11 P-65 .3. 2) The location and distribution of applied loads.

Location and thickness of stem. Previous analysis has developed a preliminary stem thickness of 1067 mm located 838 mm from the toe of the footing. The stem is 4572 mm tall thus the footing will be thickened to 4572 mm in this zone as shown on the sketch below: 3125 mm 2363 mm 381 mm X ZONE OF THICKENED FOOTING TO ACCOUNT FOR STEM 6 spaces @ 2235 mm = 13410 mm 14286 mm 1067 mm 838 mm ASSUMED LOCATIONS OF APPLIED LOADS (typical 3 spots) 438 mm Y CL of pile cap Figure P-12 Location and Thickness of Stem P-66 .

only the pile cap will be modeled in FB-Pier. The coordinate system used is a right handed system as shown in the sketch above with Z pointing down. that are distributed over the proposed structure. The supplied loads will be divided by 3 and applied to the pile cap at 3 locations along the length of the stem at the centerline of the pile group. Since the cap will be modeled as a membrane element at an elevation that corresponds to the base of the pile cap and the loads were supplied at the base of the pile cap. no additional changes to the supplied loads and moments are required.Location of applied loads The loads as supplied so far were resolved to a point at the center of the footing and the bottom of the pile cap. The magnitude of loads and moments are computed from those provided in section P. The loads actually consist of numerous loads due to earth pressure. To simplify the analysis.3 as shown below. The terminology and sign convention has been converted to that used in FB-Pier. superstructure. Note the loads at each point provided below are in N-m units FB-Pier Load Case 1 2 3 4 5 6 LIMIT STATE STR-I MAX/FIN SER-I MAX/FIN STR-I MIN/FIN SER-I MIN/FIN STR-III MAX/FIN SER-I MAX/FIN Fz (N) 3340614 2655588 2757897 2655588 2691174 2655588 My (N-m) -3476765 -2157554 -3295086 -2128187 -2880666 -2158367 Mx (N-m) 0 73214 0 73214 229540 73214 Fx (N) 1267743 846630 1267743 842182 1166902 846630 Fy (N) 0 14827 0 14827 54860 14827 Table P-13 Loads for Each Limit State P-67 . The assumed locations of the applied loads are shown above. self weight etc.

two cases will need to be run. friction response of the soil will be small compared to the point resistance and can be ignored. frictional response of the soil will be the only thing that resists that tension.3. for cases that develop tension in the piles. Point response of the pile bearing on rock (Q-z) will be a function of the elastic properties of the rock and will be input as a custom Q-z curve as defined below.The axial response of the soil and rock (T-z and Q-z) Since the piles will be point bearing. Point 2 Point 3 Q max Q Point 1 Z @ Q max Z Figure P-13 Q-z Curve From Design Step P.7: Qmax = 8829720 ⋅ N z @ Qmax is estimated using the methods for a drilled shaft socketed in rock.5-2 P-68 . one with the frictional response set to zero by specifying a custom T-z curve and the second with the friction response set to the default for a driven pile in granular material.8. Therefore. However. z @ Qmax: ρ base = ΣPi ⋅ Ip D s ⋅ Er CEquation 10.

4% Ke = 0.888 mm P-69 .3.5-1 Influence coefficient (DIM): Diameter of socket.8.5-3 Modulus of elasticity of intact rock. from Design Step P.8.1: Thus.1 DIM Ds = 310 ⋅ mm Modulus of elasticity of rock mass (TSF): where: Modulus modification ratio based on RQD. for HP310 pile: Ip = 1.5-3 D s ⋅ Er ρ base = 2. Er = Ke ⋅ Ei Er = 10842MPa and: ρ base = ΣPi ⋅ Ip Ei = 14652⋅ MPa CEquation 10.where: Load at top of socket: Since Hs Ds = 0 ΣPi = 8825272 ⋅ N CFigure 10.1: Er RQD = 90. from Design Step P.3.3.74 CFigure 10.8.

00 3.05 50.Thus Q-z curve is defined by the following points (refer to the sketch above for location of the points) Point 1 2 3 Q (N) 0 8829720 8829720 z (mm) 0.80 Table P-14 Q-z Curve Points P-70 .

Design Step P.The lateral response of soil and rock (P-y) For Soil. To simulate this response.186 MPa Arbitrarily reduce to 10% of this value to account for weathering 10% of Average qu: Shear strength. use built in P-y curve for sand (Reese) with φ'f = 31 o Υ wet = 1762 kg m 3 k = 5430 kN m 3 Assume pile will drive into top weathered portion of rock estimated to be 300 mm thick. Input parameters for this curve are estimated below: Shear strength Average qu. use the built in P-y curve for a stiff clay above the water table since the shape of this curve is closest to actual rock response. The response of the rock will be relatively stiff compared to the soil. The embedment of the pile into the rock will provide some amount of lateral restraint at the pile tip.1: quave = 79186281 Pa quave = 79. 1/2 qu: Say shear strength: 10% ⋅ qu = 7918628 Pa 1 ⋅ 10% qu = 3959314 Pa 2 ( ) qu = 3830421 ⋅ Pa P-71 .

a more sophisticated analysis is not warranted since torsional response of the piles will be minimal in a multi pile group that is not subject to significant eccentric horizontal loading. P-72 . This represents an average value along the length of the pile and is not truly representative of the torsional response of the pile.Unit weight Average Υ.q) From Design Step P. Design Step P. The torsional response of the soil and rock (T. However.1: Υ ave = 2409 kg m 3 Strain at 50% ultimate shear strength (ε50) ε 50 = 0.10: Tmax = 19966 ⋅ Pa Note: Τmax calculated as the total skin friction calculated by DRIVEN analysis divided by surface area of pile embedded in soil during that analysis.002 This is based on experience with similar rocks or it can be determined from the results of the unconfined tests if stress and strain data was recorded during the test.1: φ'f = 31 o Υ wet = 1762 kg m 3 Go = 2275270 ⋅ Pa From Design Step P.

3333 (3V:1H) Lfront = 10281⋅ mm P-73 . modulus of elasticity of concrete Ec = 4800 ⋅ f' c Ec = 21830 Ec = 21830⋅ 0. front row of piles will be slightly longer than back row so set up front row as a second pile set.2 Pile lengths Since top of rock is level and front row of piles is battered.Miscellaneous other considerations Modulus of elasticity of concrete in pile cap Assume pile cap is constructed of concrete with f' c = 20.5 kg m kg m 3 3 Poisson's ratio for concrete Assume: ν c = 0.68427 MPa Then. Back row of piles: Batter Front row of piles: Lback = 9754 ⋅ mm Btr = 0.

The C-C spacing in both directions is greater than 3D thus there should be no horizontal or vertical group effects.75 ⋅ D sperp_load = 7.Group Interaction c-c spacing in direction of load: c-c spacing in direction perpendicular to load: sload = 7. P-74 .33 ⋅ D The C-C spacing in direction of load is almost 8D and since it gets larger with depth due to the batter on the front row. To account for pile cap rotations in the computation of displacement. This is a stick only with nominal properties and sees no load due to the way the problem is modeled. add a 5334 mm column to the center of the footing. there should be no horizontal group effects.0 Deflection measurement location See previous design sections for geometry of abutment The critical point for evaluation of deflections is at the bearing locations which are 5334 mm above the bottom of the pile cap as modeled. Therefore set all group interaction factors to 1.

7 3.35 LC6 70727 Pile 7 LC3 15124 Pile 2 LC5 11.4 LC6 0.Results of Analyses Four runs were made with different combinations of pile head fixity and considering frictional resistance from the soil.2 LC6 0.2 3.8 LC6 1.4 3. The results of the four runs are summarized in the table below.51 LC6 80513 Pile 7 LC3 13345 Pile 13 LC5 12. The results in Table P-15 are summarized from the FB-Pier Output files Run # Pile head condition Soil Friction Strength Limit State Units 1 Fixed No 2 Pinned No 3 Fixed Yes 4 Pinned Yes Maximum Axial load Pile number and LC Maximum Tension Pile number and LC Max combined load Axial M2 M3 Pile number and LC Depth Max V2 Pile number and LC Max V3 Pile number and LC Service Limit State N 1512395 1476810 1512395 1476810 Pile 8 Pile 8 Pile 8 Pile 8 LC1 LC1 LC1 LC1 267 Pile 7 LC3 6450 Pile 7 LC3 68058 Pile 1 LC3 10009 Pile 13 LC3 N N N-m N-m mm N 1281088 1285536 1494602 1289984 0 0 0 0 145073 135582 35252 131515 Pile 8 Pile 8 Pile 6 Pile 8 LC3 LC3 LC1 LC3 2439 2439 2439 2439 80513 Pile 7 LC3 15124 Pile 2 LC5 12.1 LC6 1.51 LC6 80958 Pile 7 LC3 13345 Pile 13 LC5 12.35 LC6 N Max X Displacement Max Vertical Displacement Load Case Max Y displacement Load Case mm mm mm Table P-15 Results P-75 . These are expected to bracket the extremes of behavior of the pile group.1 2.

View of model Beam Seat Elevation (Displacement Measurement Location) Loose Sand Rock Figure P-14 Model P-76 .

2 The computer program Driven employs the Nordlund method to compute shaft friction.5-2 S10. thus: QR = φ u ⋅ Qs QR = 89658N The geotechnical resistance in compression and tension exceeds the maximum factored compressive and tensile pile loads.7. No resistance factor is provided for the Nordlund method applied to granular soils but the method is similar to the b method and has similar reliability.7.14 . Thus geotechnical resistance is adequate.3.10 using driven Qs = 224146 ⋅ N Factored resistance: QR = φ u ⋅ Qs where: The ultimate shaft resistance in compression: Resistance factor for tension loading: Qs φ u = 0. P-77 S10.5.10 is: Qr = 1512395 ⋅ N (Controlled by drivability considerations) The ultimate geotechnical tension resistance can be taken as the reverse of what was computed in step P.Check Geotechnical Axial Capacity From the FB-Pier analyses. from Design Step P.5. and Design Step P.3 .13: Max factored axial pile load: Max factored tension pile load: Pmax_a = 1512395 ⋅ N Pmax_t = 68058⋅ N These occurred when the pile was assumed to be fully fixed in the pile cap and when soil friction was considered The maximum factored geotechnical axial resistance.4 STable 10.Design Step P.

Design Step P. The factored structural resistance far exceeds the maximum factored loads. the piles are adequately sized to transmit axial loads. from Design Step P. and Design Step P.10 is: Pr = 2070000 N This is also applicable to tension. P-78 .Check Structural Axial Capacity (in lower portion of pile) From the FB-Pier analyses.15 . Thus.13: Max factored axial pile load: Max factored tension pile load: Pmax_a = 1512395 ⋅ N Pmax_t = 68058⋅ N These occurred when the pile was assumed to be fully fixed in the pile cap and when soil friction was considered The maximum factored structural axial resistance in the lower portion of the pile.

4.2 Pu Pr = φ c ⋅ Pn Pn = 3450000 N φ c = 0.53 S6.Design Step P.Check Structural Axial Capacity in Combined Bending and Axial Load (upper portion of pile) The equation to use to evaluate combined axial load and bending is determined by the ratio: Pu Pr where: Axial compressive load: Factored compressive resistance: where: From Design Step P.13.5.16 .2 to Pu_max = 1494602 ⋅ N to Pu_max Pr = 0.10: For combined axial and bending (undamaged section of pile): so: Pr = φ c ⋅ Pn Pr = 2415000 N From Design Step P.9.2.619 P-79 . maximum combined loadings range from: Pu_min = 1281088 ⋅ N so: Pu_min Pr = 0.7 S6.

9. Pr are as defined above Mux Factored flexural moment about the x axis. from Design Step P.4-1 φ f = 1. from Design Step P.2.10.13: Factored flexural moment about the y axis.0 S6.0 Mry ⎠ 9 ⎝ Mrx + SEquation 6.4. P-80 .2 Mn is computed in accordance with the provisions of Section 6.5.2-2 where: Pu .12.2 The combined loading must satisfy: Pu Pr 8 ⎛ Mux Muy ⎞ ⋅⎜ + ≤ 1.Since these are both greater than 0.13: Factored flexural resistance about the x axis: Factored flexural resistance about the y axis: Flexural resistance is: Mr = φ f ⋅ Mn where: The resistance factor for combined bending and axial load in piles: Muy Mrx Mry S6.

not the elastic section modulus.4.76 ⋅ ⎛ ⎜F ⎝ yc ⎠ 0.12.4.10.5 = 91 P-81 .1.5 ⋅ mm tw = 0 m E = 200000 ⋅ MPa Fyc = 345 ⋅ MPa From Design Step P. Note that the plastic section modulus is used in LRFD design.10. When the unbraced length is zero.10: Check: 2 ⋅ Dcp tw = 25 E ⎞ 3.2: 2 ⋅ Dcp tw E ⎞ ≤ 3.5: Modulus of Elasticity: As in Design Step P. For bending about the x axis.2.10.5 S6.Deep Foundations Surrounded by Soil In most cases where deep foundations are completely surrounded by soil.10.4 apply as follows: Criteria from Section 6.2-1 for HP 310 x 79 Grade 345 piles: Dcp = d − 2 ⋅ tf 2 Dcp = 138.2. the provisions of Section 6.1 SEquation 6.1.4 generally result in no reduction of the ultimate bending stress and Mn=the plastic moment or Mn=fy*Z where Z is the plastic section modulus. the buckling considerations of section 6. lateral support from even the weakest soil is sufficient such that the unbraced length can be considered zero.76 ⋅ ⎛ ⎜F ⎝ yc ⎠ 0. The evaluation of buckling criteria on the following pages is presented for completeness.

4.4: Criteria from Section 6.3-1 E ⎞ 0.3: E ⎞ ≤ 0. P-82 .10.10.1.4 distortion of the flange during welding. Criteria from Section 6. this criteria is intended for welded sections to prevent S6.4.4.76 ⋅ ⎛ ⎜F ⎝ yc ⎠ 0.4.1.10.5 =9 Therefore: E ⎞ ≤ 0.382 ⋅ ⎛ ⎜F ⎝ yc ⎠ 0.5 is satisfied.4.382 ⋅ ⎛ ⎜F 2 ⋅ tf ⎝ yc ⎠ bf 0.1. this practical limit does not apply.5 SEquation 6.1.4: bf 2 ⋅ tf Check: bf 2 ⋅ tf = 14 ≤ 12 > 12 Condition is NOT SATISFIED However.Therefore: 2 ⋅ Dcp tw E ⎞ ≤ 3.382 ⋅ ⎛ ⎜F 2 ⋅ tf ⎝ yc ⎠ where: bf = 306 mm tf = 11 mm Check: bf 2 ⋅ tf = 14 bf 0.10.5 NOT SATISFIED Proceed with criteria of Section 6.10. Since this is a rolled section.1.

10.2.4.4.1 for a homogeneous section: Load shedding factor specified in Section 6.4 For compression flange: Fn = Rb ⋅ Rh ⋅ Fcr where: Fcr = 1.10.2.4.4.4.10.4.4.10.0 S6.5 SEquation 6.3.3.9: Criteria from Section 6.1a Fyc = 345 MPa Rb P-83 .1.1.904 ⋅ E 2 0.2: Rh = 1.4.10.9: The pile is laterally braced along its entire length by the adjacent soil S6.Therefore proceed to bracing requirements of Section 6.4a-2 ⎛ bf ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⋅ Dcp ⎞ ⋅⎜ ⎜ 2 ⋅ tf ⎠ ⎝ tw ⎠ ⎝ Fcr = 392 MPa but: Fcr cannot exceed so: Fcr = 345 ⋅ MPa and: Hybrid factor as specified in Section 6.10. Proceed to noncompact section flange flexural resistance of Section 6.3.10.9 thus the unbraced length (Lb) is zero and this condition is always satisfied.10.1.

fc = Fyc Check: 2Dcp tw = 25 fc = 345 MPa E λb⋅⎛ ⎞ ⎜f ⎝ c⎠ Therefore: 2 ⋅ Dcp tw 0. Since this condition will be critical when fc is the largest.76 Compressive stress in the flange due to factored loads. assume fc = the maximum possible stress which is the yield stress of the steel.2a-1 λ b = 5.10.5 is satisfied P-84 .4.Check: 2 ⋅ Dcp tw where: Since Dcp ≤ d 2 E ≤ λb⋅⎛ ⎞ ⎜f ⎝ c⎠ 0.3.5 SEquation 6.5 = 139 E ≤ λb⋅⎛ ⎞ ⎜f ⎝ c⎠ 0.

Mn = Mp Mp = Fy ⋅ Zx P-85 .3.10.2b SEquation 6.thus: Rb = 1.2b-1 Fyt = 345 ⋅ MPa Therefore: Fn = Rb ⋅ Rh ⋅ Fyt Fn = 345 MPa Since the nominal plastic stress in all components of the pile is equal to the yield stress.4. The nominal moment capacity may be computed as the plastic moment.0 so: Fn = Rb ⋅ Rh ⋅ Fcr Fn = 345 MPa For tension flange: Fn = Rb ⋅ Rh ⋅ Fyt where: Rh = 1 Rb = 1 for tension flange S6.10.4.

2.1 apply.where: The plastic section modulus about the x axis. provisions of Section 6.5.12. Zx = 1210000 mm from Design Step P.1-1 From Design Step P. Mny = Mp Mp = Fy ⋅ Zy Zy = 525000mm 3 SEquation 6. Mny = Fy ⋅ Zy Mny = 181125N ⋅ m P-86 .5: so: Mnx = Mp Mp = Fy ⋅ Zx Mnx = 417450N ⋅ m Mp = 417450N ⋅ m 3 For bending about the y axis.2.2.12.2.

5 ⋅ Fy ⋅ Sy Mny = 178 N ⋅ m Use Mny = Fy ⋅ Zy close to that computed above Mny = 181125N ⋅ m 3 CEquation 6.1 Mny = 1.2.5 ⋅ Fy ⋅ Sy where: The elastic section modulus about the y axis: Sy = 344 ⋅ mm Mny = 1.1 The factored moment resistances are now determined as: Mr = φ f ⋅ Mn so: Mrx = φ f ⋅ Mnx Mrx = 417450N ⋅ m and: Mry = φ f ⋅ Mny Mry = 181125N ⋅ m SEquation 6.4-1 P-87 .12.2.Check using alternate method from Section C6.2.10.2.12.

84 0.0 9 ⎝ 417450 181125 ⎠ + SEquation 6.From the maximum combined loads from Design Step P.9.2.13: The interaction equation is now applied to the maximum combined loading conditions determined in the 4 FB-Pier analyses as follows Pu 2415000 Muy ⎞ 8 ⎛ Mux ⋅⎜ + ≤ 1. P-88 .2-2 FB-Pier Run # 1 2 3 4 Pu (N) 1281088 1285536 1494602 1289984 Mux (N-m) 145073 135582 35252 131515 Muy (N-m) 0 0 0 0 Results of interaction equation 0.82 0.69 0.81 Table P-16 Results of Interaction Equation All conditions satisfy the interaction equation thus piles are acceptable under combined loading.

7. Vn = C ⋅ Vp where: Vp = 0. this can become the controlling criteria.10.58 ⋅ Fyw ⋅ D ⋅ tw Vp = 658129N and SEquation 6.58 ⋅ Fyw ⋅ D ⋅ tw Fyw = 345 ⋅ MPa From Design Step P. The nominal shear capacity of the pile section is computed as for an unstiffened web of a steel beam. It is checked here for completeness. However.7.17 .Design Step P.5 D = 299 ⋅ mm tw = 11 mm so: Vp = 0.Check Structural Shear Capacity Pile Capacity The capacity of the pile section to resist the maximum applied shear force is usually not critical for steel pile sections placed in groups such that high overturning moments are not required to be resisted by the pile.10. in foundation systems consisting of concrete foundation elements arranged as a single element or a single row of elements supporting a tall laterally loaded pier or supporting a column subject to a large eccentric vertical load.2-2 SEquation 6.2-1 P-89 .

2 Resistance factor for shear: φ v = 1.10. Thus.3.3.1 ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ E⋅k ⎞ ⎝ Fyw ⎠ 0. the maximum factored shear in any pile in the FB-Pier analysis was 80958 N.5.0 so: Vr = φ v ⋅ Vn Vr = 658129N From Design Step P.1 ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ ⎝ 345 ⎠ Check: 27.3a with k = 5 D = 27.7.2 tw 1.3a-5 0.10.13.0 Vn = 658129N Factored resistance: Vr = φ v ⋅ Vn S6. piles are acceptable for shear.5 200000 ⋅ 5 ⎞ 1.7.4.2 < 59 = 59 thus: so: Vn = C ⋅ Vp C = 1.5 compute: compute: SEquation 6.C is determined based on criteria in Section 6. P-90 .

2. From Design Step P.4 and S10.2. the battered piles in the front row resist the majority of the lateral load so pile head fixity is not critical to performance of the foundation system. P-91 .13: The maximum horizontal deflection observed is The maximum vertical deflection observed is ∆ h = 12.2.Design Step P.4 ⋅ mm ∆ v = 3.7.3.2.7.3.4 ⋅ mm The structural engineer has determined allowable deflections as The maximum horizontal deflection allowed is The maximum vertical deflection allowed is ∆ h_all = 38 ⋅ mm ∆ v_all = 13 ⋅ mm S10. This is expected and the difference is usually much greater.Check Maximum Horizontal and Vertical Deflection of Pile Group at Beam Seats Using Service Load Case Displacements were determined in the interaction analysis with FB-Pier It can be seen from the results that the horizontal displacements at the beam seat elevation are slightly higher for the cases of pinned head piles.18 .1 Thus deflections are within tolerances and Service limit states are satisfied.7.7.1 S10. In this case.2 S10.

7. However. 45720 mm 2744 mm Edge of pile cap 9144 mm R1 R2 Top of slope Toe of slope A R3 R4 B Abutment S10.4 Wingwall Figure P-15 Plan View of Approach Embankment Compute settlement at back edge of pile cap (Point A) Depth of layer = 9449 ⋅ mm ν = 0. The 45720 mm length was arbitrarily selected as representative of the length beyond which additional influence from the approach embankment at the abutment location is not significant.25 Es = 5745631 ⋅ Pa h of fill = 6401 ⋅ mm Υ of fill = 209 ⋅ kg m 3 q0 = 130713 ⋅ Pa P-92 .19 . use of 45720 mm is considered a reasonable upper bound.1. The final approach embankment geometry relative to existing grade may decrease or increase this value.Additional Miscellaneous Design Issues Downdrag As indicated in step P. Compute Settlement for consideration of Downdrag Figure P-15 shows the location and dimensions of rectangles used to simulate approach embankment loading.1 elastic settlement of the loose sand will occur after construction of the pile foundation and abutment as the backfill behind the abutment is placed and the approach embankment is constructed.Design Step P.

1-211: S0_R1 = q0 ⋅ 1 − ν Es ( 2 ) B⋅I S0_R1 = 31.0333333 B Note: Influence factors from NAVFAC DM7 are used here because they allow proper consideration of a layer of finite thickness underlain by a rigid base. The influence values published in NAVFAC must be used with the settlement equation in NAVFAC as presented below. From NAVFAC DM7.204 mm For two rectangles: S0_R1R2 = 2 ⋅ S0_R1 S0_R1R2 = 62 mm P-93 .At point A include influence from R1 and R2 B = 9144 ⋅ mm L = 5 B H = 1.1-213: I = 0. The influence values in AASHTO assume an infinite elastic halfspace.16 for ν = 0.33 NAVFAC DM7. Also note that the influence values in NAVFAC are for use with a different form of the elastic settlement equation than the one contained in AASHTO.

45 for ν = 0.736 mm P-94 . the corner of R1 and R2 are shifted forward to be coincident with point B. and the settlement due to the approach fill weight will be equal to that computed for Point A. Thus the settlement at point B can be computed by subtracting the influence of rectangles R3 and R4 from the settlement computed for rectangles R1 and R2 alone.333333 B H = 3. the weight of the approach embankment above the heel of the footing will be supported by the pile foundation and will not contribute to elastic settlement. Contribution of R3 and R4 only B = 2744 ⋅ mm L = 3.Compute settlement at front row of piles (Point B) To simulate this case.33 q0 ⋅ 1 − ν Es S0_R3 = ( 2 ) B⋅I S0_R3R4 = 2 ⋅ S0_R3 S0_R3R4 = 53 mm (for two rectangles) R1 + R2 − ( R3 + R4) = S0_R1R2 − S0_R3R4 S0_R1R2 − S0_R3R4 = 9.1-213 I = 0.444444 B From NAVFAC DM7. However.

Section 9. This conservatively assumes that downdrag is mobilized along the entire length of the pile and is not reduced by the live load portion of the axial load. P-95 . To verify this.1.1-2. Since the back row of piles is lightly loaded and vertical. Evaluation of downdrag loads is required for the back row of piles but not the front row.4 and C10.4.10 Q = 1512933 N Thus downdrag loads can be safely supported by the back row of piles as designed. The maximum possible downdrag force per pile is equal to the ultimate tension capacity computed in step P.4. This is because the loading producing the settlement is transmitted to the soil starting at the back edge of the footing. Qs = 224146N Since downdrag is a load.7.This is not sufficient settlement to mobilize downdrag on the front row of piles as per FHWA HI-96-033. the maximum factored Axial load on back row of piles is 106090 N. it is factored in accordance with Section 3. the following conservative approach is used. If the factored downdrag is added to the maximum observed factored pile load on the back row.8 STable 3.4 (maximum) Maximum factored drag load per pile Qdd = φ dd ⋅ Qs Qdd = 403463N From FB-Pier analysis.1-2 S10.7.14. the total factored load is: 508877K This is well below the factored resistance computed in Design Step P.1 Sufficient settlement to mobilize downdrag forces is expected at the back row of piles but not at the front row of piles.1. φ dd = 1.9. they can probably handle the downdrag load without any special details. Note: higher loads were observed for service load cases.

6 Protection Against Deterioration Design Step P.1.Battered Piles This bridge is not in seismic zones 3 or 4 thus battered piles are OK No downdrag is expected at the front row of piles thus batter of front row is OK S10.7. the maximum factored tension force is 68058 ⋅ N The pile cap connection should be designed to resist this force.1.13.8 Uplift and Pile to Pile Cap Connection The FB-Pier analysis showed some of the piles in the back row to be in tension under some of the strength limit states.7.7.1. P-96 . S10. S10. a special connection detail involving reinforcing passing through a hole in the pile web or shear studs would be normally required.1 determined soils and ground water were non corrosive thus no special protection scheme or sacrificial steel is required.9 However. The cases run in FB-Pier that used no skin friction effectively simulate the case of a pile pulling out of the bottom of the footing under tension load. From Design Step P. None of the service limit states showed piles in tension. Review of these runs indicate that the pile could be pulled completely out of the bottom of the footing thus design of a tension connection should be included in the design of the pile cap. Pile Capacity To adequately transfer the tension load from the pile to the pile cap.

Based on the above.14 through P.Evaluation of the Pile Group Design Does Pile Foundation Meet all Applicable Criteria? Design Steps P. The back row of piles is severely under utilized for the loads investigated. Still. the design is optimized to the greatest extent practical P-97 . However.19 indicate that all the applicable criteria are met Is Pile System Optimized? Determine if the pile system could be improved to reduce cost Maximum factored axial load is: Pmax_a Qr = 100 % of resistance Maximum factored combined load is: From Table P. it may be possible to eliminate every other pile in the back row and still meet all criteria. load cases in which the longitudinal forces are reversed will result in higher loads on the back row of piles. the maximum results of the interaction equation yields: 84% of resistance Some of the front row are not fully loaded due to flexing of the relatively thin pile cap but the front row can be considered optimized. A brief evaluation of this possibility using FB-Pier indicates that removing 3 piles from the back row could cause the combined bending and axial stress in the front row of piles to exceed that allowed by the interaction equation.16. These loads will not exceed the loads on the front row since some longitudinal loads can not be reversed (earth pressure). This is because elimination of the piles in the back row causes more of the horizontal loads to be absorbed by the front piles which produces higher bending moments in these piles.

Summary of Final Design Recommendations Final Pile Cap Layout All Piles are HP 310 x 79 Grade 345 All dimensions shown at bottom of pile cap 3125 mm 2363 mm 381 mm STEM 6 spaces @ 2235 mm = 13410 mm 14286 mm 1067 mm 838 mm Battered at 1H:3V 438 mm CL of pile cap Figure P-16 Final Pile Cap Layout P-98 .

Design considerations for design of pile cap Piles to be embedded 300 mm into pile cap Piles to have bar through web or shear stud to transfer 66724 N tension load to cap For structural design of the cap.out CASE: FB-Pier Load Case Limit State Pile Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 LC1 Fixed Pile Heads LC2 LC3 LC4 No Skin Friction LC5 LC6 STR-I SER-I STR-I SER-I STR-III SER-I MAX/FIN MAX/FIN MIN/FIN MIN/FIN MAX/FIN MAX/FIN -30512 -1402435 -56546 -1469959 -68565 -1494825 -75442 -1511817 -68271 -1491889 -55950 -1470938 -29601 -1403859 -155563 -985148 -178445 -1032788 -186220 -1049513 -190348 -1061212 -181114 -1044976 -167956 -1026605 -139269 -975584 258 -1215566 258 -1277218 257 -1300616 257 -1300571 257 -1283001 258 -1279976 258 -1219302 -160567 -979810 -183689 -1027228 -191505 -1043909 -195691 -1055563 -186403 -1039416 -173205 -1021045 -144278 -970246 7 -1224284 8 -1266275 10 -1273704 13 -1272903 17 -1242566 22 -1212363 27 -1140658 -155563 -985148 -178445 -1032788 -186220 -1049513 -190348 -1061212 -181114 -1044976 -167956 -1026605 -139269 -975584 Table P-17 Factored Axial Load per Pile Fixed Pile Heads . the factored axial load per pile is summarized in tables below.No Skin Friction P-99 . From FB-Pier File FHWA_bat_fix_noskin.

From FB-Pier File FHWA_bat_pin_noskin.out CASE: FB-Pier Load Case Limit State Pile Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 LC1 Pinned Pile Heads LC2 LC3 LC4 No Skin Friction LC5 LC6 STR-I SER-I STR-I SER-I STR-III SER-I MAX/FIN MAX/FIN MIN/FIN MIN/FIN MAX/FIN MAX/FIN -60785 -1371787 -86878 -1440290 -98862 -1465556 -105650 -1477744 -98346 -1458038 -85820 -1442514 -59130 -1375034 -162912 -975228 -185598 -1024426 -193048 -1042352 -196825 -1054318 -187181 -1039238 -173503 -1022958 -144265 -973049 6437 -1221170 6436 -1283045 6436 -1306309 6435 -1307733 6436 -1290118 6436 -1285536 6437 -1224596 -168014 -969801 -190944 -1018821 -198440 -1036658 -202274 -1048579 -192581 -1033544 -178867 -1017308 -149394 -967577 -64993 -1131272 -74846 -1187987 -74383 -1208760 -70273 -1210495 -55087 -1193058 -35052 -1186519 -3619 -1129137 -162912 -975228 -185598 -1024426 -193048 -1042352 -196825 -1054318 -187181 -1039238 -173503 -1022958 -144265 -973049 Table P-18 Factored Axial Load per Pile Pinned Pile Heads .No Skin Friction P-100 .

Skin Friction P-101 .From FB-Pier File FHWA_bat_fix_skin.out CASE: FB-Pier Load Case Limit State Pile Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 LC1 Fixed Pile Heads LC2 LC3 STR-I MIN/FIN LC4 Skin Friction LC5 LC6 STR-I SER-I MAX/FIN MAX/FIN SER-I MIN/FIN STR-III SER-I MAX/FIN MAX/FIN -25122 -1398921 -52347 -1469114 -64851 -1494736 -72030 -1511951 -64570 -1491311 -51782 -1470137 -24261 -1400389 -151035 -981144 -175020 -1031053 -183173 -1048446 -187577 -1060456 -178040 -1043686 -164446 -1025137 -134568 -971981 67898 -1276417 65669 -1339627 64473 -1362935 63872 -1375791 64557 -1357197 65838 -1340605 68142 -1277796 -156021 -975806 -180269 -1025493 -188471 -1042841 -192942 -1054807 -183360 -1038082 -169740 -1019532 -139625 -966554 -6963 -1208760 -6171 -1258135 885 -1270902 3440 -1275083 7823 -1248660 12912 -1222638 19587 -1153513 -151035 -981144 -175020 -1031053 -183173 -1048446 -187577 -1060456 -178040 -1043686 -164446 -1025137 -134568 -971981 Table P-19 Factored Axial Load per Pile Fixed Pile Heads .

From FB-Pier File FHWA_bat_fix_skin.Skin Friction Absolute maximum from above: Absolute minimum from above: 68142 −1511951 FB-Pier may be used to print out all stresses in each element of the pile cap as a check on manual methods if desired. P-102 .out CASE: FB-Pier Load Case Limit State Pile Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Pinned Pile Heads Skin Friction LC1 LC2 LC3 STR-I MIN/FIN LC4 SER-I MIN/FIN LC5 LC6 STR-I SER-I MAX/FIN MAX/FIN STR-III SER-I MAX/FIN MAX/FIN -59304 -1367606 -86527 -1438866 -98991 -1465066 -106090 -1476988 -98497 -1456526 -85504 -1441268 -57702 -1371031 -161030 -969668 -184824 -1021134 -192684 -1039772 -196767 -1051649 -186865 -1035946 -172805 -1019844 -142472 -967711 9193 -1221571 6308 -1286381 4801 -1310669 4088 -1312403 5069 -1294121 6844 -1289540 9995 -1226019 -166106 -964241 -190153 -1015485 -198057 -1034078 -202198 -1045910 -192243 -1030297 -178147 -1014195 -147565 -962284 -63538 -1131450 -74361 -1190834 -74397 -1212407 -70673 -1214231 -55403 -1196038 -35127 -1189410 -2933 -1129315 -161030 -969668 -184824 -1021134 -192684 -1039772 -196767 -1051649 -186865 -1035946 -172805 -1019844 -142472 -967711 Table P-20 Factored Axial Load per Pile Pined Pile Heads .

Notes to be placed on Final Drawing Maximum Factored Axial Pile Load = 1512395 N Required Factored Axial Resistance = 1512395 N Piles to be driven to absolute refusal defined as a penetration resistance of 240 Blows Per 300 mm (BP300MM) using a hammer and driving system components that produces a driving stress between 255 and 310 MPa at refusal.J. Thedean.Soil Mechanics.. F. Naval Facilities Engineering Command. for FHWA. P. Volume 1 .G. Hannigan. Volume 2 . G.65 for piles tested dynamically.Foundations and Earth Structures... References: FHWA HI-96-033 Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations. Driving stress to be estimated using wave equation analysis of the selected hammer. and Rausche. Department of the Navy. Verify capacity and driving system performance by performing stress wave measurements on a minimum of 2 piles in each substructure. December 1996. P-103 . Likins. G. The CAPWAP analysis shall confirm the following: Driving stress is in the range specified above. G. Perform a CAPWAP analysis of each dynamically tested pile. May 1982. The ultimate pile point capacity (after subtracting modeled skin friction) is greater than: Qp = 2326420 ⋅ K This is based on a resistance factor (φ) of 0.E. One test shall be on a vertical pile and the other shall be on a battered pile. Gobel. Volume 1 and 2 NAVFAC DM7 Design Manual 7.

Summary Report. Idriss. Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Publication 15M. Youd. Edited by T. MCEER Publication NCEER-97-0022 Reese and Wang (1991) NCEER-97-0022 P-104 .L. Proceedings of the NCEER Workshop on Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance of Soils. 1997. I.M. April 2000 Unpublished paper presenting group efficiencies of pile groups subject to horizontal loads in diferent directions and at different spacings.PADOT DM4 Design Manual Part 4.

Additional iterations were performed resulting in final design conditions that differ slightly from those presented in this design sample. and reactions. It was generated during preliminary stages of this project to compute final design moments. shears. .INPUT SAMPLE Note: This Opis file is included for illustrative purposes.

2003 14:58:34 m m Degrees m m 0. TRUE FALSE SI / Metric -1 73.Current: X Plane Coordinate: Y Plane Coordinate: Elevation: Longitude: Latitude: Impact Factor Adjustment: Impact Factor Override: Impact Factor Type: LRFD Constant Impact Factor: LRFD Fatigue Impact Factor: r2 Span Steel Bridge r2 SpanBridge FHWA LRFD Steel Bridge Design Example Thursday.00 . December 18.0 % % Bridge Alt Name: Description: Creation Timestamp: Last Modified Timestamp: Reference Line Length: Station: Bearing: Distance: Elevation: Bridge Alternative #1 Thursday.0 15.152 m km -1 -1 Bridge Alternative #1 Bridge Alternative #1 m m m % Standard . 2003 15:23:47 Revised. December 18.AASHTO 33. December 18.Bridge Bridge Id: Structure Number: Name: Creation Timestamp: Last Modified Timestamp: Description: Location: Bridge Completely Defined Indicator: Template Indicator: Facility Carried: Feature Intersected: Year Built: System Of Units: Route Number: Length: Mile/Km Post: Recent ADTT: District: County: Owner: Maintainer: Administrative Area: National Highway System Indicator: Functional Class: Bridge Alt Name . 2003 14:58:34 Thursday.Existing: Bridge Alt Name .

1791 kg/m^3 199947.98 MPa Concrete Material Name: Description: Si Or Us Type: 28 Day Compressive Strength: Initial Compressive Strength: Density For DL: Density For Modulus Of Elasticity: Modulus Of Elasticity: Initial Modulus Of Elasticity: Coefficient Of Thermal Expansion: Poissons Ratio: Composition Type: Modulus Of Rupture: Class A (US) Class A cement concrete US Customary 27.72 kg/m^3 25125.63 MPa 0.0000117000 1/C 7849. 2003 14:58:34 Structure Alternative #1 Structure Alternative #1 m m Degrees Structure Alternative Name: Description: Creation Timestamp: Last Modified Timestamp: Super Structure Definition Name: Structure Alternative #1 Thursday. December 18.Offset: m Structure Name: Description: Creation Timestamp: Last Modified Timestamp: Super Structure Alternative Name .58 MPa MPa 2402.0000108000 1/C 0.Current: Distance: Offset: Angle: Structure #1 Thursday.81 kg/m^3 2322.52 MPa MPa 0.74 MPa 482. December 18.31 MPa .200 Normal 3. 2003 14:58:34 2 Span 5 Girder System Materials Structural Steel Material Name: Description: Si Or Us Type: Yield Strength: Tensile Strength: Coefficient Of Thermal Expansion: Density: Modulus Of Elasticity: Grade 50W AASHTO M270 Grade 50W US Customary 344.Existing: Super Structure Alternative Name .

5 mm 82.8099 kg/m^3 mm kN/m 235.9 mm 114. 2003 15:23:59 SI / Metric 5 2 .0 mm 88.Shear Factor: 1.3 mm 0.53 MPa Reinforcing Bar Type: Plain Beam Shapes Steel Beam Shapes Appurtenances Concrete Parapet Name: Description: Si Or Us Type: Concrete Density: Distance To Additional Load: Additional Load: X1: X2: X3: Y1: Y2: Y3: Y4: Standard Parapet Standard Parapet US Customary 2402.Lanes Available to Trucks: 2 Span 5 Girder System Thursday.5 mm Factors Super Structure Definitions Girder System Structure Def Name: Description: Creation Timestamp: Last Modified Timestamp: System Of Units: Number Of Girders: Number Of Spans: Frame Structure Simplified Definition Indicator: LRFD .0 mm 812. December 18.98 MPa Ultimate Strength: 620.000 Reinforcing Steel Material Name: Grade 60 Description: 60 ksi reinforcing steel Si Or Us Type: US Customary Yield Strength: 413.69 MPa Modulus Of Elasticity: 199947. December 18. 2003 14:58:34 Thursday.8 mm 171.

Override Truck Fraction Indicator: LRFD .0000 3 0.0 15.000 0.AASHTO 33.DC Load Application Time (Days) Name Description DC acting on non-composite section DC acting on long-term composite section DW acting on long-term composite section Stage Name DC1 DC2 DW Non-composite (Stage 1) Composite (long term) (Stage 2) Composite (long term) (Stage 2) Non-composite (Stage 1) SIP Weight due to stay-in-place forms Forms Structure Framing Plan Details Support Skew Support Number Skew Frame Connections Indicator Degrees 1 0.DC D.5760 2 36.DC D.0000 .LRFD .0 Tributary Area Uniformly to All Girders % % % Span Lengths Span Length (m) 1 36.0 Standard .0000 2 0.DW D.5760 Load Case Description Load Type D.Override Truck Fraction: Average Humidity: Override LFD Factor Name: Override LRFD Factor Name: Girder Spacing Display Type: Impact Factor Adjustment: Impact Factor Override: Impact Factor Type: LRFD Constant Impact Factor: LRFD Fatigue Impact Factor: Dead Load 1 Distribution Type: Dead Load 2 Distribution Type: FALSE % Perpendicular 0.

000 0.640 1 0.000 4.640 40.064 4.000 40.640 1 0.9718 3 2.064 4.640 8 4.000 1 0.9718 2.9718 4 2.9718 2.064 4.064 40.640 40.064 .064 40.640 40.000 40.000 4.640 1 0.000 1 0.9718 Diaphragm Locations Bay Number: 1 Right Member Distance Left Member Distance Number of Spaces Spacing Weight (m) (m) (m) (kN) 0.640 40.064 1 0.000 40.064 4.Girder Spacings Bay Number Start Spacing End Spacing m m 1 2.064 1 0.000 4.064 8 4.9718 2 2.064 Bay Number: 2 Right Member Distance Left Member Distance Number of Spaces Spacing Weight (m) (m) (m) (kN) 0.640 8 4.9718 2.064 4.000 0.064 1 0.064 4.064 4.9718 2.000 Bay Number: 3 Right Member Distance Left Member Distance Number of Spaces Spacing Weight (m) (m) (m) (kN) 0.000 4.000 4.064 8 4.000 0.000 1 0.640 8 4.064 40.640 40.064 8 4.640 40.

000 Offset Right End (m) 0.000 0.640 40.200 m Concrete Class A (US) 215.000 0.152 73.064 Structure Typical Section Concrete Deck Width Left Start: Width Right Start: Width Left End: Width Right End: Left Overhang Start: Left Overhang End: Deck Type: Deck Concrete Name: Total Deck Thickness: Deck Crack Control Parameter Z: Modular Ratio Sustained Factor: 7.000 0.Bay Number: 4 Right Member Distance Left Member Distance Number of Spaces Spacing Weight (m) (m) (m) (kN) 0.706 0.064 4.640 8 4.000 73.144 m 7.000 6.144 m 1.640 40.200 m 1.510 N/mm 3.000 40.000 40.064 8 4.000 4.000 Offset Right Start (m) 0.000 Concrete Appurtenances Load Case Measured To Front Offset Offset at Offset at Name Face Indicator Reference Type Start End (m) (m) DC2 DC2 FALSE FALSE Left Edge Right Edge 0.144 m 7.064 4.640 1 0.000 6.000 0.000 1 0.000 Face Left Indicator FALSE TRUE Name Standard Parapet Standard Parapet Travelway Number Of Lanes 2 2 Offset Left Start (m) -6.064 1 0.152 Wearing Surface .706 Offset Left End (m) -6.706 Distance Length (m) (m) 0.706 0.9 mm 22766.144 m 7.064 4.000 0.

5 mm 2242.7 mm Width: 139.Plate Name: Abutment Bearing Stiffener Steel Name: Grade 50W Thickness: 12.1 mm Top Outside Clip Length: mm mm Top Inside Clip Horz Length: Top Inside Clip Vert Length: mm mm Bot Outside Clip Length: Bot Inside Clip Horz Length: mm Bot Inside Clip Vert Length: mm Top Flange Weld Name: Web Weld Name: Bot Flange Weld Name: .623 kg/m^3 DW Transverse Stiffener .4 mm mm Top Gap: Bot Gap: mm Top Flange Weld Name: Web Weld Name: Bot Flange Weld Name: Bearing Stiffeners .Wearing Surface Material Name: Wearing Surface Description: Wearing Surface Thickness: Wearing Surface Density: Wearing Surface Load Case Name: Bituminous Bituminous Wearing Surface 63.2 mm Width: 165.7 mm Top Outside Clip Length: mm Top Inside Clip Horz Length: mm Top Inside Clip Vert Length: mm Bot Outside Clip Length: mm Bot Inside Clip Horz Length: mm Bot Inside Clip Vert Length: mm Top Flange Weld Name: Web Weld Name: Bot Flange Weld Name: Bearing Stiffeners .9 mm Width: 152.Plate Name: Pier Bearing Stiffener Steel Name: Grade 50W Thickness: 22.Plate Name: 1 Sided Plate Stiffener Number Of Sides: 1 Steel Name: Grade 50W Thickness: 15.

22 Settlement Load Case Support Number 1 2 3 X Translation Settlement (mm) Y Translation Settlement (mm) Z Rotation Settlement (Radians) Supports General Support Number Support Type X Translation Type Y Translation Type Z Rotation Type 1 Roller Free Fixed Free 2 Pinned Fixed Fixed Free 3 Roller Free Fixed Free Elastic Support Number X Translation Spring Constant (kN/m) Y Translation Spring Constant (kN/m) Z Rotation Override Z Rot Spring Const Indicator Spring Constant (kN-m/rad) . 2003 15:24:05 Steel Plate Girder Steel Plate Girder 0.Current: Pedestrian Live Load Force: G1 Thursday.000 kN/m Member Loads Distributed Member Loads Load Case Name Distance Length Load Start Load End (m) (m) (kN/m) (kN/m) SIP Forms 0. December 18. 2003 14:58:34 Thursday. December 18.13 DC1 0.22 0.Girder Member Name: Description: Creation Timestamp: Last Modified Timestamp: Same As Structure Member Name: Member Alternative Name .152 0.000 73.152 2.Existing: Member Alternative Name .13 2.000 73.

000 0.LFD: Analysis Module Name .LRFD: Override LFD Factor Name: Override LRFD Factor Name: ASD Inv Structural Steel Factor: ASD Inv Concrete Factor: ASD Inv Rebar Factor: ASD Inv Bearing Stiffener Factor: ASD Opr Structural Steel Factor: ASD Opr Concrete Factor: ASD Opr Rebar Factor: ASD Opr Bearing Stiffener Factor: Default Structural Steel Name: Default Deck Concrete Name: Default Deck Reinf Steel Name: Default Weld Name: Default Bolt Name: Haunch Type: Haunch Embedded Flange Indicator: Impact Factor Adjustment: Impact Factor Override: Impact Factor Type: LRFD Constant Impact Factor: LRFD Fatigue Impact Factor: LFD Multi LL Factor Moment: LFD Multi LL Factor Shear: LFD Multi LL Factor Shear At Supports: LFD Multi LL Factor Deflection: LFD Single LL Factor Moment: LFD Single LL Factor Shear: LFD Single LL Factor Shear At Supports: LFD Single LL Factor Deflection: Steel Plate Girder Thursday.W-flange edge FALSE 0. December 18.1 2 3 Member Alt .ASD: Analysis Module Name .0 % % % .Steel Plate I Beam .AASHTO 33.Schd Name: Description: Creation Timestamp: Last Modified Timestamp: Cross Section Based Indicator: System Of Units: Additional Self Load: Additional Self Load Percent: Beam Projection Start: Beam Projection End: Default Rating Method: Analysis Module Name . December 18.0 15.8 304.0 Standard . 2003 14:58:34 Thursday.8 LFD BRASS ASD BRASS LFD BRASS LRFD kN/m % mm mm Grade 50W Class A (US) Grade 60 T-web top. 2003 15:24:05 FALSE SI / Metric 304.

603 Grade 50W Deck Concrete Profile Concrete Name Class A (US) Structural Thickness (mm) 203.000 25.2 Effective Width Effective Width Std LRFD (mm) (mm) 2438.9 25.6 Depth Variation Thickness Distance Length Type (mm) (m) (m) None 12.6 End Depth (mm) 1371.315 Grade 50W 32.7 34.6 End Width (mm) 355.152 Steel Name Grade 50W Weld At Right Name Steel Bottom Flange Plate Ranges Begin Width (mm) 355.6 355.315 Grade 50W 32.9 66.6 355.315 Grade 50W 47.549 25.1 34.7 0.6 355.603 Grade 50W Steel Web Plate Ranges Begin Depth (mm) 1371.9 19.6 355.918 7.315 Grade 50W 40.Import Event Steel Top Flange Plate Ranges Begin Width (mm) 355.6 355.6 355.603 Grade 50W 25.234 7.4 0.6 355.000 73.315 Grade 50W 47.603 Grade 50W 25.918 7.6 355.000 Deck Reinforcement Profile .7 34.6 355.6 355.000 25.3 Distance Length (m) (m) 0.315 Grade 50W 40.6 End Width (mm) 355.6 355.4 34.603 7.234 7.6 355.6 Steel Name Weld Name Weld At Right Name Thickness Distance Length (mm) (m) (m) 25.000 73.1 0.4 2508.6 355.152 Modular Ratio 8.6 355.549 25.603 7.6 Steel Name Weld Name Weld At Right Name Thickness Distance Length (mm) (m) (m) 19.6 355.9 66.6 355.

152 73.9 76.152 73.150 10.000 0.300 10.000 0.425 5.0 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 8.000 73.4 33.152 73.032 2 2032.0 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 30.032 1 0.480 2 2032.4 71.152 73.000 0.152 Haunch Profile Distance Length Z1 Z2 Z3 Z4 Y1 Y2 Y3 (m) (m) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) 0.4 31.300 5.000 0.7 46.000 73.000 73.850 10.9 88.0 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 2.000 73.9 88.000 0.000 0.128 5 4064.9 88.000 0.0 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 8.4 71.850 Bar Size 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 Vert Distance (mm) 44.128 1 0.150 5.152 73.3 71.152 Number Of Bars 5.0 Vert Distance Reference Type Bottom of Slab Top of Slab Top of Slab Top of Slab Bottom of Slab Top of Slab Bottom of Slab Bottom of Slab Shear Connector Profile Distance Length Connector Name Number Per Row Number Of Spaces Transverse Spacing (m) (m) (mm) 0.425 10.152 88.9 88.152 Transverse Stiffener Ranges Trans Stiffener Name Distance Number Of Spaces Spacing (m) (mm) 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 2.4 71.2 Lateral Support Distance Length (m) (m) 0.152 73.152 73.Reinf Steel Name Grade 60 Grade 60 Grade 60 Grade 60 Grade 60 Grade 60 Grade 60 Grade 60 Distance Length (m) (m) 0.0 .

0 0.2 Support Number: 3 Offset (mm) Abutment Bearing Stiffener -76.0 4064.704 44.608 44.432 Right FALSE m mm mm mm Grade 50W 1 Plate FALSE mm mm .0 0.0 2032.2 Abutment Bearing Stiffener 76.0 Bearing Stiffeners Support Number: 1 Offset (mm) Abutment Bearing Stiffener -76.2 Support Number: 2 Offset (mm) Pier Bearing Stiffener -76.056 67.0 0.2 Name Name Name Point of Interest Distance: Section Location Type: Override Transverse Stiff Indicator: Transverse Stiff Spacing: Transverse Stiff Width: Transverse Stiff Thickness: Transverse Stiff Steel Name: Transverse Stiff Number: Transverse Stiff Type: Override Bearing Stiff Indicator: Bearing Stiff Width: Bearing Stiff Thickness: 27.2 Pier Bearing Stiffener 76.0 2032.056 1 2 1 5 1 1 2 0.608 38.704 67.480 38.2 Abutment Bearing Stiffener 76.1 Sided Plate Stiffener 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 30.

720 Right FALSE m mm mm mm Grade 50W 1 Plate FALSE mm mm Grade 50W mm mm Welds FALSE mm mm Grade 50W mm .Bearing Stiff Steel Name: Grade 50W Bearing Stiff Clip: mm Bearing Stiff Number Pairs: Bearing Stiff Pair Spacing: mm Bearing Stiff Attachment Type: Welds FALSE Override Long Stiff Indicator: Long Stiff Width: mm mm Long Stiff Thickness: Long Stiff Steel Name: Grade 50W mm Long Stiff Distance: Long Stiff Distance Reference Type: Top Flange Number Fatigue Cycles: Override Lateral Support Schedule: Override Diaph Indicator: FALSE m Distance Diaph Left: m Distance Diaph Right: Diaph At Point Indicator: FALSE m Compression Flange Unsupported Length: Tension Field Action Indicator: FALSE Net Moment Of Inertia: mm^4 Distance to Centroid: mm Web Net Area: mm^2 Allowable Shear Top Plate: MPa Allowable Shear Bottom Plate: MPa Percent Area Top Flange: % Percent Area Bottom Flange: % Point of Interest Distance: Section Location Type: Override Transverse Stiff Indicator: Transverse Stiff Spacing: Transverse Stiff Width: Transverse Stiff Thickness: Transverse Stiff Steel Name: Transverse Stiff Number: Transverse Stiff Type: Override Bearing Stiff Indicator: Bearing Stiff Width: Bearing Stiff Thickness: Bearing Stiff Steel Name: Bearing Stiff Clip: Bearing Stiff Number Pairs: Bearing Stiff Pair Spacing: Bearing Stiff Attachment Type: Override Long Stiff Indicator: Long Stiff Width: Long Stiff Thickness: Long Stiff Steel Name: Long Stiff Distance: 45.

2003 14:58:34 Thursday.000 73.152 2.152 0.22 0.Long Stiff Distance Reference Type: Number Fatigue Cycles: Override Lateral Support Schedule: Override Diaph Indicator: Distance Diaph Left: Distance Diaph Right: Diaph At Point Indicator: Compression Flange Unsupported Length: Tension Field Action Indicator: Net Moment Of Inertia: Distance to Centroid: Web Net Area: Allowable Shear Top Plate: Allowable Shear Bottom Plate: Percent Area Top Flange: Percent Area Bottom Flange: Top Flange FALSE m m FALSE m FALSE mm^4 mm mm^2 MPa MPa % % Girder Member Name: Description: Creation Timestamp: Last Modified Timestamp: Same As Structure Member Name: Member Alternative Name . 2003 15:24:13 Steel Plate Girder Steel Plate Girder 0.Existing: Member Alternative Name .000 kN/m Member Loads Distributed Member Loads Load Case Name Distance Length Load Start Load End (m) (m) (kN/m) (kN/m) SIP Forms 0.13 DC1 0. December 18.000 73.22 Settlement Load Case Support Number 1 2 3 X Translation Settlement (mm) Y Translation Settlement (mm) Z Rotation Settlement (Radians) . December 18.Current: Pedestrian Live Load Force: G2 Thursday.13 2.

ASD: Analysis Module Name .LRFD: Override LFD Factor Name: Override LRFD Factor Name: ASD Inv Structural Steel Factor: ASD Inv Concrete Factor: ASD Inv Rebar Factor: ASD Inv Bearing Stiffener Factor: ASD Opr Structural Steel Factor: ASD Opr Concrete Factor: ASD Opr Rebar Factor: ASD Opr Bearing Stiffener Factor: Default Structural Steel Name: Default Deck Concrete Name: Default Deck Reinf Steel Name: Steel Plate Girder Thursday. 2003 15:24:13 FALSE SI / Metric 304.LFD: Analysis Module Name .Schd Name: Description: Creation Timestamp: Last Modified Timestamp: Cross Section Based Indicator: System Of Units: Additional Self Load: Additional Self Load Percent: Beam Projection Start: Beam Projection End: Default Rating Method: Analysis Module Name . December 18.Supports General Support Number Support Type X Translation Type Y Translation Type Z Rotation Type 1 Roller Free Fixed Free 2 Pinned Fixed Fixed Free 3 Roller Free Fixed Free Elastic Support Number 1 2 3 X Translation Spring Constant (kN/m) Y Translation Spring Constant (kN/m) Z Rotation Override Z Rot Spring Spring Constant Const Indicator (kN-m/rad) Member Alt .Steel Plate I Beam .8 LFD BRASS ASD BRASS LFD BRASS LRFD kN/m % mm mm Grade 50W Class A (US) Grade 60 . December 18. 2003 14:58:34 Thursday.8 304.

0 Standard .000 0.AASHTO 33.W-flange edge FALSE 0.1 0.000 25.234 7.6 End Depth (mm) 1371.6 355.603 Grade 50W 25.0 15.1 34.Default Weld Name: Default Bolt Name: Haunch Type: Haunch Embedded Flange Indicator: Impact Factor Adjustment: Impact Factor Override: Impact Factor Type: LRFD Constant Impact Factor: LRFD Fatigue Impact Factor: LFD Multi LL Factor Moment: LFD Multi LL Factor Shear: LFD Multi LL Factor Shear At Supports: LFD Multi LL Factor Deflection: LFD Single LL Factor Moment: LFD Single LL Factor Shear: LFD Single LL Factor Shear At Supports: LFD Single LL Factor Deflection: T-web top.6 355.315 Grade 50W 40.6 355.6 355.6 355.6 355.6 Steel Name Weld Name Weld At Right Name Thickness Distance Length (m) (mm) (m) 19.9 19.603 7.7 34.918 7.6 End Width (mm) 355.603 Grade 50W Steel Web Plate Ranges Begin Depth (mm) 1371.315 Grade 50W 32.9 66.6 355.0 % % % Import Event Steel Top Flange Plate Ranges Begin Width (mm) 355.549 25.152 Steel Name Grade 50W Weld At Right Name Steel Bottom Flange Plate Ranges Begin Width (mm) End Width (mm) Steel Name Weld Name Weld At Right Name Thickness Distance Length (mm) (m) (m) .6 355.6 Depth Variation Thickness Distance Length Type (mm) (m) (m) None 12.315 Grade 50W 47.000 73.7 0.

700 11.315 Grade 50W 40.6 355.152 73.315 Grade 50W 47.7 33.6 355.315 Grade 50W 32.152 Modular Ratio 8.6 25.9 88.000 0.6 355.000 73.9 25.4 31.6 355.355.603 Grade 50W 25.000 73.400 11.6 355.152 Number Of Bars 23.2 Distance Length (m) (m) 0.000 73.918 7.000 25.152 .4 2616.3 Vert Distance Reference Type Top of Slab Top of Slab Bottom of Slab Bottom of Slab Distance Length (m) (m) 0.6 355.603 7.7 34.4 71.000 73.152 88.9 Lateral Support Distance Length (m) (m) 0.4 0.000 Deck Reinforcement Profile Reinf Steel Name Grade 60 Grade 60 Grade 60 Grade 60 Bar Size 5 5 4 5 Vert Distance (mm) 71.000 0.152 Haunch Profile Distance Length Z1 Z2 Z3 Z4 Y1 Y2 Y3 (m) (m) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) 0.4 34.9 88.2 Effective Width Effective Width Std LRFD (mm) (mm) 2438.152 73.700 23.9 66.152 73.6 355.234 7.603 Grade 50W Deck Concrete Profile Concrete Name Class A (US) Structural Thickness (mm) 203.549 25.400 Shear Connector Profile Distance Length Connector Name Number Per Row Number Of Spaces Transverse Spacing (m) (m) (mm) 0.6 355.000 0.000 73.6 355.

0 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 30.480 2 2032.128 5 4064.0 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 8.704 1 0.2 Name Name Name Point of Interest Distance: 27.432 m .2 Pier Bearing Stiffener 76.0 Bearing Stiffeners Support Number: 1 Offset (mm) Abutment Bearing Stiffener -76.0 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 38.2 Abutment Bearing Stiffener 76.608 2 2032.0 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 44.2 Support Number: 2 Offset (mm) Pier Bearing Stiffener -76.0 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 44.0 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 67.Transverse Stiffener Ranges Trans Stiffener Name Distance Number Of Spaces Spacing (m) (mm) 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 2.032 2 2032.2 Support Number: 3 Offset (mm) Abutment Bearing Stiffener -76.2 Abutment Bearing Stiffener 76.056 2 2032.128 1 0.0 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 30.480 1 0.704 5 4064.056 1 0.032 1 0.0 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 38.0 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 67.0 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 2.608 1 0.0 1 Sided Plate Stiffener 8.

Section Location Type: Right Override Transverse Stiff Indicator: FALSE Transverse Stiff Spacing: mm Transverse Stiff Width: mm Transverse Stiff Thickness: mm Transverse Stiff Steel Name: Grade 50W Transverse Stiff Number: 1 Transverse Stiff Type: Plate Override Bearing Stiff Indicator: FALSE mm Bearing Stiff Width: Bearing Stiff Thickness: mm Bearing Stiff Steel Name: Grade 50W Bearing Stiff Clip: mm Bearing Stiff Number Pairs: mm Bearing Stiff Pair Spacing: Welds Bearing Stiff Attachment Type: Override Long Stiff Indicator: FALSE mm Long Stiff Width: Long Stiff Thickness: mm Grade 50W Long Stiff Steel Name: Long Stiff Distance: mm Long Stiff Distance Reference Type: Top Flange Number Fatigue Cycles: Override Lateral Support Schedule: Override Diaph Indicator: FALSE Distance Diaph Left: m Distance Diaph Right: m Diaph At Point Indicator: FALSE Compression Flange Unsupported Length: m Tension Field Action Indicator: FALSE Net Moment Of Inertia: mm^4 Distance to Centroid: mm Web Net Area: mm^2 Allowable Shear Top Plate: MPa Allowable Shear Bottom Plate: MPa Percent Area Top Flange: % Percent Area Bottom Flange: % Point of Interest Distance: Section Location Type: Override Transverse Stiff Indicator: Transverse Stiff Spacing: Transverse Stiff Width: Transverse Stiff Thickness: Transverse Stiff Steel Name: Transverse Stiff Number: Transverse Stiff Type: Override Bearing Stiff Indicator: Bearing Stiff Width: 45.720 Right FALSE m mm mm mm Grade 50W 1 Plate FALSE mm .

Existing: Member Alternative Name . December 18.Bearing Stiff Thickness: mm Bearing Stiff Steel Name: Grade 50W Bearing Stiff Clip: mm Bearing Stiff Number Pairs: Bearing Stiff Pair Spacing: mm Welds Bearing Stiff Attachment Type: Override Long Stiff Indicator: FALSE mm Long Stiff Width: Long Stiff Thickness: mm Grade 50W Long Stiff Steel Name: Long Stiff Distance: mm Long Stiff Distance Reference Type: Top Flange Number Fatigue Cycles: Override Lateral Support Schedule: FALSE Override Diaph Indicator: m Distance Diaph Left: Distance Diaph Right: m FALSE Diaph At Point Indicator: Compression Flange Unsupported Length: m Tension Field Action Indicator: FALSE Net Moment Of Inertia: mm^4 Distance to Centroid: mm Web Net Area: mm^2 Allowable Shear Top Plate: MPa Allowable Shear Bottom Plate: MPa Percent Area Top Flange: % Percent Area Bottom Flange: % Girder Member Name: Description: Creation Timestamp: Last Modified Timestamp: Same As Structure Member Name: Member Alternative Name . 2003 14:58:34 G2 kN/m Member Loads Settlement Load Case Support Number 1 2 X Translation Settlement (mm) Y Translation Settlement (mm) Z Rotation Settlement (Radians) .Current: Pedestrian Live Load Force: G3 Thursday.

Current: Pedestrian Live Load Force: G4 Thursday. 2003 14:58:34 G2 kN/m Member Loads Settlement Load Case Support Number 1 2 3 X Translation Settlement (mm) Y Translation Settlement (mm) Z Rotation Settlement (Radians) Supports .3 Supports General Support Number Support Type X Translation Type Y Translation Type Z Rotation Type 1 Pinned Fixed Fixed Free 2 Roller Free Fixed Free 3 Roller Free Fixed Free Elastic Support Number 1 2 3 X Translation Spring Constant (kN/m) Y Translation Spring Constant (kN/m) Z Rotation Override Z Rot Spring Const Indicator Spring Constant (kN-m/rad) Girder Member Name: Description: Creation Timestamp: Last Modified Timestamp: Same As Structure Member Name: Member Alternative Name .Existing: Member Alternative Name . December 18.

Current: Pedestrian Live Load Force: G5 Thursday.Existing: Member Alternative Name . December 18.General Support Number Support Type X Translation Type Y Translation Type Z Rotation Type 1 Pinned Fixed Fixed Free 2 Roller Free Fixed Free 3 Roller Free Fixed Free Elastic Support Number 1 2 3 X Translation Spring Constant (kN/m) Y Translation Spring Constant (kN/m) Z Rotation Override Z Rot Spring Spring Constant Const Indicator (kN-m/rad) Girder Member Name: Description: Creation Timestamp: Last Modified Timestamp: Same As Structure Member Name: Member Alternative Name . 2003 14:58:34 G1 kN/m Member Loads Settlement Load Case Support Number 1 2 3 X Translation Settlement (mm) Y Translation Settlement (mm) Z Rotation Settlement (Radians) Supports General Support Number Support Type X Translation Type Y Translation Type Z Rotation Type 1 Pinned Fixed Fixed Free .

2 3 Roller Roller Free Free Fixed Fixed Free Free Elastic Support Number 1 2 3 X Translation Spring Constant (kN/m) Y Translation Spring Constant (kN/m) Z Rotation Override Z Rot Spring Spring Constant Const Indicator (kN-m/rad) .

shears. It was generated during preliminary stages of this project to compute final design moments.OUTPUT SAMPLE Note: This Opis file is included for illustrative purposes. and reactions. Additional iterations were performed resulting in final design conditions that differ slightly from those presented in this design sample. .

Bridge Name: FHWA LRFD Steel Bridge Design Example NBI Structure ID: r2 SpanBridge Bridge ID: r2 Span Steel Bridge Analyzed By: Virtis Analyze Date: Thursday.5. December 18.0. 2002 ** BRASS Export Version 4.Apr.1 .3001 Report By: virtis Report Date: Thursday.2. 23. 2003 15:26:41 Structure Definition Name: 2 Span 5 Girder System Member Name: G1 Member Aternative Name: Steel Plate Girder . 2003 15:25:40 Analysis Engine: BRASS-GIRDER(LRFD) . December 18.Version 1.

01 Support 1 2 3 Controlling Live Load Axle Truck Train Axle Controlling Live Load Axle Truck Train Axle Note: Impact.000 % Maximum Reaction (kN) 474. .00 0.Reactions Live Load HL-93 (US) Impact = 33.00 -63.19 Minimum Reaction (kN) -63.18 1066. distribution factors.85 474. and design lane load included in above reactions.

30 3431.0 10.0 Maximum Positive Moment (kN-m) 0.00 Controlling Live Load Truck Train Truck Train Truck Train Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Truck Train Note: "N/A" indicates not applicable "**" indicates not available Note: Impact.973 14.00 1503.630 18.05 3431.79 1262.0 60.Moment Summary Live Load HL-93 (US) Impact = ** % Span 1 Maximum Positive Moment (kN-m) 0.918 36. and design lane load included in above moments.27 468.0 10.946 25.0 Controlling Live Load Truck Train Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Tandem Truck Train Controlling Live Load Truck Train Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Truck Train Truck Train Truck Train Location (m) 0.05 -1968.946 25.0 90.14 3176.603 29.261 32.64 2558.28 2212.23 -921.288 21.0 80.33 -460.0 30.0 40.93 Location (m) 0.00 2928.0 100.93 -2995.04 -4606.35 2928.44 -460.0 20.02 3175.12 -1382.0 40.09 3339.0 30.000 3.576 Span 2 Percent 0.79 -1152.00 Controlling Live Load Truck Train Tandem Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Truck Train Maximum Negative Moment (kN-m) -4606.0 70.576 Percent 0.0 100.0 50.315 10.88 -230.261 32.96 2558.0 70.658 7.78 0.0 20.0 80.0 60.000 3.0 50.45 -0.10 -1968.09 3339.00 468.918 36.78 -691.00 1262.68 -1152. .603 29. distribution factors.00 -230.315 10.288 21.07 -2995.658 7.630 18.00 Maximum Negative Moment (kN-m) -0.08 1503.10 -1613.35 -921.67 -1613.23 -1382.10 2212.65 0.90 -691.973 14.0 90.

261 32.00 -12. and design lane load included in above shears.18 -101.0 90.973 14.31 -62.18 32.0 30.630 18.0 20.0 100.31 12.84 Location (m) 0.44 -32. distribution factors. .94 -401.30 89.603 29.0 80.000 3.44 0.0 90.67 -144.973 14.28 -390.93 261.02 -508.31 -204.946 25.78 451.315 10.28 266.0 Maximum Positive Shear (kN) 563.630 18.07 -147.0 10.658 7.918 36.0 70.0 20.0 70.0 50.81 63.94 204.14 -261.94 -474.13 147.288 21.Shear Summary Live Load HL-93 (US) Impact = ** % Span 1 Maximum Positive Shear (kN) 474.603 29.00 -64.0 40.43 -201.78 -563.83 508.81 -89.02 390.94 329.576 Percent 0.96 -266.0 60.0 100.96 144.19 Controlling Live Load Truck Train Tandem Tandem Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Note: "N/A" indicates not applicable "**" indicates not available Note: Impact.658 7.94 328.0 30.18 401.94 -329.315 10.43 101.0 10.81 -328.0 50.0 40.576 Span 2 Percent 0.01 Controlling Live Load Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Tandem Axle Axle Maximum Negative Shear (kN) 0.0 Controlling Live Load Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Tandem Tandem Truck Train Controlling Live Load Axle Axle Tandem Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Axle Location (m) 0.261 32.918 36.946 25.80 201.0 80.95 -451.07 62.67 64.0 60.000 3.288 21.00 Maximum Negative Shear (kN) -63.

00(3) 0.49 1443.00 Neg 0.00(1) 0.00(1) 0.00(1) 0.64 0.00 Pos 0.00 Neg 0.00(3) 0.00 Total DL Moment Max Min (kN-m) (kN-m) 0.00(3) 0.00(2) 0.00 -9101.00 -9101.93 -806.00(1) -0.00(3) 2631.23(2) (1) 1350.27 (1) (2) 2250.00(3) 0.00(2) 0.17(3) (1) 0.58 (3) (1) 3453.00(3) 0.07 1509.07 1509.00 Neg 0.00 Neg 0.00(3) 0.00(3) -0.49 1443.00(3) -0.315 20.55 906.00(3) -0.00(1) 0.70 (1) (2) 1574.55 906.00(1) 1350.00(1) -0.27 (1) (2) 2250.00(2) 0.49 901.00(3) Limit State STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 3.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II 1954.55 906.00 -9101.00(3) 0.00(2) 0.00 Pos 0.27 Total LL Moment Max Min (kN-m) (kN-m) 0.00(2) 0.00(2) 0.00(3) 0.57(3) (1) 4476.55 906.64 0.Flexure Analysis Summary Live Load HL-93 (US) Span 1 Location (m) Percent 0.00 Pos 0.04(3) (1) -311.23(2) (1) 1350.00(2) 0.74 499.55 906.0 Resistance Moment Flexure (kN-m) Pos 0.66 (1) (1) 1049.658 10.92 519.23(2) (1) 1574.27 (3) (1) 2029.96 -403.55 906.83(3) (1) -125.00(1) 0.00(3) -0.07 1509.38 672.00 0.70 (1) (2) 1049.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.66 1049.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.00 Neg 0.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.17(3) (1) -194.00(3) -0.00(1) 0.64 0.00(1) 0.00(3) -0.00(3) 0.00 0.00(2) 0.27 (1) (2) 2250.57 -93.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.09 -97.66 (1) (1) 2250.00(1) 0.66 1049.00 0.00 0.23(2) (1) 1350.00(3) 0.23(2) (1) 1350.00 Pos 0.82(3) (1) -299.00(3) 0.00(1) 0.23(2) (1) 1350.00 Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos 0.000 0.00(3) 0.19 (1) (3) -251.35 -622.22 .00 -9101.64 0.0 7.75 1168.07 1509.

00(3) 0.64 0.86 (3) (1) 4287.79 (1) 2622.00 0.64 0.00 0.58 (1) (3) -388.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 14.57 (1) 1805.00 0.17 (3) (1) 5558.00 -9101.64 0.00(3) 0.00(3) (1) 0.71 (2) 1805.32 (3) (1) 0.54 (1) 2698.00(3) 0.54 (1) 3144.00 0.00(3) 0.71 (2) (3) 0.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg -9101.00(3) 0.00 (1) 2250.27 (2) 1509.80 (2) 2403.64 0.53 (1) 1809.973 30.09 1486.STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 10.58 867.00 0.57 (1) 2096.09 (2) 1809.95 (1) (2) 1509.64 0.89 (1) (3) -280.00 0.26 (2) 2880.95 (1) 2695.79 (1) 1748.00 0.00(3) .00(3) 0.64 0.00 -9101.95 (1) 2695.31 (1) (3) -503.00(3) 3325.53 (1) 1748.97 1254.00(3) 0.41 1626.89 -1209.54 (1) 2698.00(3) 0.09 (2) 1809.09 (2) 1809.53 (1) 2698.75 (3) (1) 6004.71 (2) 1805.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.54 (1) 2698.00 0.00(3) 4128.09 (2) 1809.00(3) 0.26 (2) 2096.95 (1) 2695.630 40.71 (2) 1805.71 (2) 1805.13 (3) (1) 4631.71 (2) 1805.00(3) 0.00 -9101.00 (1) (3) -377.54 (1) 2698.35 (1) (3) -291.07 (1) 2250.72 -898.09 (2) 1809.00(3) 0.27 (2) 2403.00 -9101.57 (1) 2695.86 (1) 2096.00 -9101.80 (2) 1748.42 (3) (1) 0.95 (1) 2695.15 -599.67 1146.54 (1) 2698.07 (1) 2622.52 -933.69 -1244.53 (1) 1748.00(3) 0.00 0.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.79(3) (1) -187.95 (1) 2695.85 -1613.09 (2) 2880.86 (1) 3144.64 0.86 1103.57 (1) 2096.00 -9101.

288 50.00(3) 889.00(3) 1407.81 (1) 2873.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.33 (1) 2242.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.69 (1) 3140.00 -9101.33(2) 889.00(3) 1020.00 0.21 (1) 1740.81 (1) 0.00 0.21 (1) 1337.00(3) 0.00 0.86 1589.29 (2) 2382.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.66 (1) 1337.94 1060.09 (2) 2873.42 1208.00 0.12 (2) 1499.09 (2) 2093.77 -755.22 (1) (3) -583.33(2) 889.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos 0.31 (1) 2610.33(2) 0.00(3) 0.946 60.STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 18.00 0.53 (1) .12 1225.00(3) 0.00 N/A 0.12 (2) 1499.33(2) 0.33(2) 889.09 (1) (3) -629.31 (1) 1740.47 (1) (3) -467.29 -1198.12 (2) 1499.00 -9101.00(3) 0.66 (1) 1337.00(3) 4341.00 N/A 0.00(3) 0.11 (1) (3) -374.12 (2) 2382.36 (1) (3) -755.00(3) 3806.33 (1) 2610.86 -1497.87 (1) (3) -485.71 (1) 1035.21 (1) 889.33 (1) 2242.96 (3) 889.29 (2) 1740.00 3140.00 0.00(3) 0.77 (3) (3) 3952.66 (1) 1553.71 (1) 1553.51 (3) (1) 0.66 (1) 1337.12 (2) 1499.15 1180.00 -9101.64 0.92 (3) (2) 4508.80 (1) 2093.86 (2) 1407.21 (1) 1740.80 (1) 2242.33 (1) 2242.80 (1) 2093.00(3) 4460.33 (3) (1) 5843.86 (2) 1035.00(3) 0.18 1374.12 (2) 1499.80 (1) 1499.33(2) 0.00 0.90 (3) (1) 5124.86 -1555.33 (1) 2242.64 0.00 0.66 (1) 1337.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 21.33 (1) 2242.00 0.00 N/A 0.69 (1) 2093.00(3) 0.66 (1) 1337.64 0.00 0.02 -583.02 (3) (3) 0.81 -1638.

99 0.00 N/A 0.58(3) N/A 719.43 (3) 982.99 433.35 (1) N/A 2373.70 12798.70 12760.00 0.40(1) ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** -1242.00(3) (1) -2143.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.12(3) N/A 757.70 N/A 12798.SERVICE-II 25.00(3) 0.00 (1) N/A 2986.87 (2) ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** N/A -1828.87 (2) -1242.00(3) (1) -1828.93 12798.70 12798.03 (1) N/A 2208.81 (1) (1) 4.11(1) -46.87 (2) -1242.60(1) -46.00(3) 0.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 27.11(1) -29.00(3) 0.32(2) 4.32(2) -50.70 12798.261 80.00(3) N/A 0.32(2) 4.99 N/A N/A (1) -1828.99 0.72 N/A 12798.43 (3) 3871.99 N/A N/A (1) -1828.20 (1) N/A 0.00 N/A 12733.93 N/A 12733.70 1035.60(1) 4.64(3) N/A 0.99 1704.93 N/A 12733.45(3) .40(1) -19.60(1) -46.70 N/A 12798.60(1) -46.00(3) (1) -2143.87 (2) -1242.00(3) 2286.26(3) (1) -1828.70 12798.60 (1) N/A 3077.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.45(3) N/A 555.40(1) -19.87 (2) -1242.00(3) 0.00(3) (1) -561.32(2) 4.00(3) 0.60(1) -29.60(1) 4.00 0.16 0.00 0.00 0.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 29.00(3) 2875.97 (1) -561.32(2) -46.00(3) 0.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg N/A 0.87 (2) -1242.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.96 (1) N/A 0.87 (2) -1996.00(3) 729.32(2) -46.06 334.19(2) -50.603 70.00(3) 0.81 1035.16 0.00(3) 0.00(3) 534.87 (2) -1996.00(3) 0.00 N/A 0.19(2) -19.432 75.40(1) -19.23(3) (1) (1) -1828.70 12798.

00(3) N/A 0.25 (2) -4437.70 N/A 12798.00(3) 0.59 (1) -4616.00(3) 0.41 (2) -5328.93 18677.38 (1) -3195.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.93 18677.00(3) 0.14(3) N/A N/A 632.87 (2) -4616.77 (1) -2771.95 321.25 (2) -2771.42(2) 70.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 36.07 (1) -6840.00(3) 0.70 12798.70 12798.39(3) N/A 0.00(3) 0.13 (2) -4437.00(3) 0.59 (1) -3195.07 (1) -7993.77 (1) -1428.27 (1) -4099.07 (1) -6840.00(3) N/A N/A 0.00(3) N/A 0.77 (1) -4099.07 (1) -6840.81 (1) -5328.41 (2) -7384.85(3) (1) N/A N/A 820.67(3) N/A 0.93 N/A -1428.00(3) 0.07 (1) -6840.93 18677.27 (1) -4099.87 (2) -4616.93 N/A 18677.25 (2) -2771.70 N/A 12798.70 12798.07 (1) -6840.00(3) N/A 0.87 (2) -7384.81 (1) -5328.00(3) N/A 0.38 (1) -4793.77 (1) -1428.00(3) 0.21 (1) -5328.81 (1) -1428.87 (2) -4616.59 (1) -6840.00(3) 0.25 (2) -2771.27 (1) -4099.59 (1) -3195.70 N/A 12798.21 (1) -7993.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.37(2) 95.27 (1) -4099.27 (1) -4793.81 (1) 1640.00(3) N/A .87 (2) -4616.918 90.25 (2) -2771.576 100.93 18677.86(2) 73.SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 32.87 (2) -4616.70 12798.00(3) 0.93 N/A 18677.13 (2) -3195.25 (2) -2771.70 N/A 18677.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II Span 2 Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg 12798.00(3) N/A 0.27 (1) -4099.00(3) 609.

00(3) 0.27 Pos 12798.00(3) N/A 820.39 Pos 12798.87 -6840.59 Pos 12798.00(3) N/A 0.07 Neg 18677.00(3) N/A 0.98 433.00 Pos 12798.93 (2) (1) -7384.00(3) 0.000 0.00(3) 609.81 Pos 18677.81 -5328.38(2) 95.93 (1) (1) -5328.27 Neg N/A (2) (1) -2771.93 (2) (1) -7384.70 (2) (1) -4437.81 -5328.00(3) N/A 0.14(3) N/A N/A 632.00(3) 0.Location (m) Percent 0.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 7.00(3) 0.41 -7993.13 -4793.42(2) 70.25 -4099.0 Limit State STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 3.315 20.00(3) N/A 0.00(3) 0.658 10.25 -4099.87 -1829.39(3) N/A 0.87 -6840.67(3) N/A N/A 2208.00(3) 0.07 Pos 18677.00(3) 0.25 -4099.25 -4099.25 -4099.87 -6840.00(3) 0.86(2) 73.00(3) 0.87 -6840.07 Pos 18677.27 Pos 12798.13 -4793.00(3) N/A 0.0 STRENGTH-I Resistance Total DL Moment Moment Max Min Flexure (kN-m) (kN-m) (kN-m) -4616.39 Neg 12798.87 -6840.70 (2) (1) -2771.21 Neg 18677.41 -7993.25 -4099.70 (2) (1) -3195.00(3) 0.59 -3195.27 Neg 12798.70 (2) (1) -2771.07 Neg N/A (2) (1) -4616.07 Neg N/A (2) (1) -4616.93 (2) (1) -4616.27 Pos 12798.70 (2) (1) Total LL Moment Max Min (kN-m) (kN-m) 0.93 (2) (1) -4616.59 -3195.93 (2) (1) -5328.00(3) 0.00(3) N/A 0.07 Pos 18677.21 Pos 18677.81 Neg N/A (1) (1) -2771.00(3) 0.26(3) (1) .00(3) 0.70 (2) (1) -2771.87 -6840.93 (2) (1) -4616.27 Neg N/A (2) (1) -2771.70 (1) (1) -3195.00(3) 0.59 Neg N/A (1) (1) -1242.70 (2) (1) -4437.

93 N/A 12733.00(3) 0.41(1) -19.87 (2) -1242.00(3) ** 0.12(1) -19.70 N/A 12798.00 0.78 (1) -1428.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg N/A 12798.78 (1) ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 4.00 N/A N/A (1) -1829.00(3) 0.87 (2) -1242.00(3) -46.78 N/A N/A (1) 3077.00(3) 0.00 1704.78 1640.144 25.70 N/A 12733.00(3) 2286.16 0.00(3) 0.16 0.70 12798.00(3) ** 0.00(3) 0.STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 9.45(3) (1) ** N/A N/A 3871.00(3) 0.36 ** 719.01(3) (1) ** N/A N/A ** 0.93 N/A 12733.00(3) (1) -2143.60 -19.73 N/A 0.00(3) (1) -2143.00(3) 0.32(2) 757.87 (2) -1242.00(3) 0.32(2) N/A N/A -46.32(2) 982.00(3) 0.32(2) 0.59(1) 4.00 0.00 0.64(3) (1) -46.70 12798.973 30.23(3) (1) (1) -1829.58(3) (1) -19.00 N/A -1242.70 12760.12(3) (1) -46.97 ** 555.87 (2) -1428.20 -46.00(3) 2875.00 0.00(3) 0.87 (2) -1996.00 0.70 12798.00(3) -50.00(3) (1) -1829.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 10.00 -46.07 334.32(2) N/A N/A 2986.87 (2) -1996.12(1) -29.93 12798.70 12798.59(1) 4.87 (2) -1242.45(3) (1) ** N/A N/A 2373.00 0.70 12798.59(1) 4.96 321.00(3) 0.59(1) 4.00(3) (1) -1428.00(3) -50.59(1) 4.41(1) -1829.59(1) -29.41(1) N/A N/A .04 ** 534.32(2) 0.85(3) (1) (1) -1428.70 12798.00(3) 0.00(3) ** 0.00 N/A 0.20(2) 0.00 N/A N/A (1) -1829.41(1) 729.20(2) 0.00 N/A 0.

00 0.946 60.77 1589.11 (2) 2382.64 0.95 (1) (3) -561.28 1626.00 N/A 0.00(3) 3806.90 (3) (1) 6004.00(3) 889.00 0.00 -9101.00(3) 0.00 0.11 (2) 1499.65 (1) 1337.22 (3) -583.00 0.85 (2) 1035.33(2) (3) 889.80 (1) 1035.33(2) (1) -583.88 1254.93 (1) 2695.65 (1) 1337.288 50.00 N/A 0.55 (1) (3) .00(3) 0.00(3) 0.00 N/A 0.20 (1) 1805.31 (1) 2610.64 0.27 (2) 2382.00(3) 0.70 (1) 1553.09 1180.00(3) 0.11 (3) (1) 4631.80 (1) 2242.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.92 889.14.86 -1497.00 -9101.64 0.11 (2) 1499.16 (1) -755.86 -1555.00 N/A 0.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II 1337.80 (1) 1499.31 (1) 2242.43 (3) (3) 5843.69 (2) 1805.69 (2) 0.20 (1) 1740.11 (2) 1499.27 (1) (3) -503.45 (1) (3) -467.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos 0.35 (3) -755.00(3) 4341.85 (2) 1407.00(3) 0.65 (1) 1337.43 -561.00 0.00(3) 1407.30 (1) 1740.00 -9101.00 18.03 889.78 889.33(2) 0.91 (3) (2) 4508.85 -1613.33(2) 0.11 (2) 1499.27 (2) 1740.30 (1) 2610.31 (1) 2242.00 0.80 (1) 1035.630 40.00(3) 0.93 (1) 2695.31 (1) 2242.81 -1638.33(2) 889.00(3) 0.00 0.31 (1) 2242.51 (3) (1) 0.31 (1) 2242.65 (1) 1337.70 (1) 1035.20 (1) 1740.00 0.52 1020.00(3) 1374.85 (1) (3) -485.65 (1) 1553.33(2) (3) 3952.11 (2) 1499.07 (1) (3) -629.05 1225.00(3) 0.69 (2) 1805.03 (3) 0.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 21.20 (1) 2695.65 (1) 1337.93 (1) 5124.78 (3) 1060.

29 -1198.64 0.00 2695.00 -9101.25 (2) 1509.82 (3) (1) 4287.55 (3) (1) 3453.07 (2) 1809.06 (2) 2873.00(3) 0.69 (2) 1805.55 1146.07 (2) 2880.55 (1) 2096.00 0.05 (1) 2250.31 (3) (1) 5557.00(3) 0.72 (3) (1) 4476.STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 25.93 (1) 2695.86 (1) (3) -280.51 (1) 2698.67 (1) 3140.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg -9101.00(3) 0.00(3) -1244.08 (1) (3) -374.05 (1) 2250.07 (2) 1809.00 -9101.25 (2) 1509.00 0.00 0.96 (1) (3) -377.19 (3) (1) 0.00(3) 4128.67 (1) 2093.93 (1) 3140.51 (1) 2698.68 (3) 0.00(3) 4460.15 (1) (3) -251.78 (1) 1809.51 (1) 3144.40 901.00(3) 0.00 0.00(3) 0.55 (1) 2250.63 1168.33 1208.00 -9101.07 (2) 1809.64 0.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 29.23 (2) 2096.05 (1) 2250.00 -9101.51 -933.00(3) 0.05 (1) 2250.06 (2) 2093.88 -1209.07 (2) 1809.78 (1) 2093.93 1485.00(3) 0.23 (2) 2880.83 (1) 3144.00 0.00(3) 0.00(3) .40 (1) 0.78 (1) 2093.25 (2) 1509.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.64 0.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.34 -622.00 0.00(3) 0.25 (2) -388.55 (1) 1509.00(3) 0.00 -9101.51 (1) 2698.78 (1) 2698.64 0.83 (1) 2096.64 0.00 0.55 (1) 2096.64 0.603 70.29 (3) (1) 0.51 (1) 2698.69 (2) 1805.00(3) 0.92 -806.75 1103.93 (1) 2695.25 (2) 1509.31 (1) (3) -291.71 -898.00 0.00 -9101.05 (1) 2250.261 80.25 (2) 1509.05 (1) 1805.14(3) (1) -194.00 0.07 (2) 1809.51 (1) 2698.64 0.69 (2) 2873.00(3) 0.

00(1) -0.00 0.11 906.29 906.77(3) (1) -187.00(1) 0.00(2) 0.64 0.67 1954.00(3) 0.23(2) -97.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.50 (1) 1049.STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 32.00(2) 0.82(3) (1) (1) 1049.00(3) 0.00(2) 0.05(3) (1) -311.00(2) 0.00(3) 1443.00(3) 0.00 -9101.00(3) 0.56 (1) 1350.00(1) 3325.00 0.00(3) 2403.00 0.93 906.00(3) 0.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 36.00(1) 0.00(1) 0.00 -9101.39 906.00(3) 0.67 (1) 1049.00(3) 0.15 (3) (1) 2631.00(3) 0.00(3) -0.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.64 0.51 (1) 1748.00(3) 0.58 -93.576 100.00(3) 0.00 -9101.50 (1) 1574.00(3) 906.00 -9101.00 0.00(2) 0.71 0.77 (1) 2622.918 90.77 (1) 1748.00 0.74 499.78 (2) 1748.00(3) 0.00(1) 0.00 0.00 0.56 (1) 1350.23(2) 0.23(2) 0.00(2) 0.78 (2) 2403.00(1) 0.84(3) (1) -125.56 (1) 1350.67 (1) 0.00(2) 0.00 0.00 0.00(3) 0.00(1) -0.23(2) 519.64 0.57(3) (1) (1) 0.00 0.00(3) (2) 1049.00 0.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.50 867.71 0.56 (1) 1574.00(1) -0.00(3) -0.23(2) 672.96 -403.00(2) 0.67 -299.00(3) Note: "N/A" indicates not applicable "**" indicates not available DL Codes: (1) Maximum dead load factors controlled .00(1) 0.00 2622.00(3) 0.00(1) 0.56 (1) 1350.00(3) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00(3) 0.00(3) (2) 1443.51 (1) 0.00 0.14 -599.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg 0.00(3) -0.51 (1) 1350.00(3) 0.56 (1) 1350.00(1) 0.51 (1) 1748.64 0.17(3) (1) 906.00(3) 0.23(2) (3) (1) 2029.

(2) Minimum dead load factors controlled LL Codes: (1) Design truck + design lane controlled (2) Design tandem + design lane controlled (3) Design truck train + design lane controlled .

21(2) 640.75 184.64(3) Neg 1915.11(1) 0.00(3) 0.59(1) 206.11(1) 143.000 0.00(3) Neg 0.00(3) 0.11(1) 143.27(1) 123.70 184.0 10.00(3) Neg 2057.57(3) -85.315 20.00(3) Neg 0.90(1) 289.98 502.94(1) 334.00 239.27 307.00(3) 0.95(1) 40.74(3) -113.83(2) 0.02 307.00 143.00(3) 0.76(3) -87.00(3) Pos 2144.23(3) -110.54(1) 328.32(2) 542.98 430.49(1) Pos 1915.90(1) 289.27(1) 123.00(3) 0.00(3) Neg 1915.94(1) 0.98 307.60(2) 0.00(3) 0.67(1) 196.98 502.0 Resistance Total DL Shear Total LL Shear Shear Max Min Max Min Flexure (kN) (kN) (kN) (kN) (kN) Pos 1915.15(1) 160.00(3) 0.00 239.05(1) Pos 1915.90(1) 289.59(1) 206.70 184.94(1) 0.658 10.42(2) -35.00(3) Pos 1915.83(2) 0.92 Neg -2678.00(3) 0.32(2) -37.98 430.27(1) 123.90(1) 289.42(2) 0.973 30.00(3) Neg 0.59(1) 206.00(3) Neg 1915.59(1) 206.21(2) 0.Shear Analysis Summary Live Load HL-93 (US) Span 1 Location (m) Percent 0.10 214.98 430.00(3) 0.06 Neg 2678.63(1) 125.41(1) 460.27(1) 123.00(3) 0.00 143.90(1) 289.21(2) -26.32(2) 0.42(2) 0.75 184.0 7.82(1) 208.98 430.00(3) 0.38(2) 0.09(3) Neg 2255.32(2) -28.42(2) 444.00(3) Pos 1915.98 430.10 214.40(1) 164.00 334.06(1) 96.98 358.42(3) (2) Pos 2678.42(2) 575.00(3) 0.98 430.90(1) 289.02(1) 0.60(2) 0.02(1) 239.00(3) 0.02 307.00(3) Neg 1915.21(2) -34.29(3) (1) Pos 2255.44(3) (1) Pos 1915.41(1) 460.00(3) Pos 2370.32(2) 0.70 184.00(3) 0.00(3) Pos 0.10(3) -156.00(3) Neg 2144.16(1) 91.0 .00(3) 0.00(3) Pos 0.00(3) Pos 2678.00(3) Neg 1915.00 334.11(1) 0.27(1) 123.00(3) Pos 0.38(2) 0.94(1) 334.28 60.32(2) 703.52(2) 458.00(3) 0.21(2) 0.02(1) 239.59(1) 206.54(1) 328.00(3) 0.27(1) 123.42 Neg 2370.81(3) (2) Pos 2057.61(3) Limit State STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II STRENGTH-I 3.59(1) 206.98 307.21(2) 829.02(1) 0.62(1) 127.70 184.67(1) 196.25 Neg 1915.42(2) -46.00(3) 0.51(3) -121.00(3) Pos 2027.98 358.27 307.

00 176.68 (1) -185.946 60.52(2) 40.52(2) 64.00(3) 0.37(2) -68.00(3) 0.30 (2) -144.28 -42.03(1) 32.83 -1715.00 47.52(2) -61.28 -42.00(3) 0.27 (2) -125.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.87(1) 25.17 -62.00(3) 0.61(3) 1634.72(1) -48.00(3) -360.07(2) -68.53 60.53 (1) 70.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 21.94 (1) -216.36(1) 0.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.36(1) 271.00(3) 0.37(2) -42.45 -1555.68 (1) -185.00(3) 0.37(2) -62.37(2) -62.68 (1) 49.00(3) 0.37(2) -62.38 (1) 0.45 -1619.28 60.95(1) 1717.00(3) 0.68 (1) -216.53 60.00 0.07(1) -73.63 (1) -144.36(1) -63.71 0.78 (3) -467.15(2) 64.00(3) 64.00(3) 0.20(1) 0.00(3) 0.28 -1555.68 (1) -185.00(3) 0.27 (2) -200.00(3) -252.70 (1) 0.00(1) 42.69(3) 0.68 (1) -185.0 -2027.95(1) 1634.28 60.36(1) -82.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.06 70.27 (2) -125.98(3) -1633.72(1) -125.06 70.STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 18.44(1) -2027.71(3) 2027.15(2) 47.63 (1) -208.00(3) 0.06(3) -358.27 (2) -125.28 -2027.30 (2) -200.00 47.52(2) -47.94(3) 2027.81 (1) 0.28 -42.53(1) -2027.36(1) -73.68 (1) -185.98(1) 14.00(3) 258.95(1) 40.00(3) 0.13(3) -109.00(3) -309.83 -1633.37(2) 40.00(3) 351.20(1) -62.15 (1) 199.41(3) .28 -42.50(3) -84.95 0.52(2) 353.28 2027.80(1) 1717.07(2) -48.63 (1) -144.20(1) 2027.67(3) -194.07(1) -48.00(3) 0.94 (1) -144.00 -2027.71 -1619.95 -1715.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.72(1) -185.95(1) 40.00(3) 0.28 60.72(1) -48.630 40.20(1) 47.00(3) 0.27 (2) -125.27 (2) -125.00(3) 0.63 (1) 0.00(3) 0.28 -42.42(3) -276.00(3) 0.00 0.95(1) 40.00 2027.00(3) 0.0 STRENGTH-I Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos -2027.80(1) 0.288 50.36(1) -62.28 -2027.00(3) 0.

66 -1742.00(3) (1) -336.00(3) (1) -309.00 -141.17 (2) -332.06 (2) -291.28 -2027.00 136.00(3) (1) ** 79.00(3) (1) -360.00(3) (1) -432.19 -1466.42 -444.11 -1981.00 0.68 0.06 (2) -291.17 (2) -208.68 0.28 -2027.32 -137.19 0.00(3) 0.35(3) (1) -432.00(3) (1) -240.54 (1) -240.46 0.17 (2) -208.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.46 (1) ** ** ** ** (1) -309.32 0.65 ** (3) (1) .28 -1981.52 (2) -332.81 0.66 -1622.432 75.62 -684.00(3) 0.81 0.21 -568.00(3) 0.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg -2027.00(3) (1) -432.46 (1) -336.75 (2) -336.94(1) 10.06 (2) -291.42(3) (1) -432.06 (2) -291.28 -2027.32 83.STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 25.603 70.82(1) 13.95(3) -153.00(3) 0.06 (2) -291.32 -178.00(3) 0.59(1) 9.60(3) (1) -309.54 0.00(3) 0.19 0.51 -1622.52 (2) -240.19 -1466.00(3) 0.80 -527.14 ** (3) (1) ** 61.19 -1466.16 (1) (3) (1) -432.28 (2) -208.00 0.00(3) (1) -240.54 (1) -291.46 0.00(3) (1) -336.00 -1742.00(3) 0.61 -737.00(3) 0.00 -109.00 0.00(3) (1) -504.78 (1) (3) (1) -432.00(3) (1) -360.00 0.19 -1466.01(3) -198.06 (2) -464.17 (2) -208.32 108.53 (1) (3) (1) -309.54 0.17 (2) -208.45(1) 19.11 -1466.75 (2) -464.00(3) (1) -504.32 0.19 -1466.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 27.51 -1466.40(1) 6.19 -1466.00(3) 0.84 -576.00 -2027.24 (1) (3) (1) -309.

90 (1) -557.00 0.65 (2) -531.60 (2) -599.00(3) 0.07 (3) 16.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 32.13 (2) -460.28 (1) -434.00(3) 0.18 (1) -434.00(3) 0.88 (1) 0.98 -2678.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.18 (1) -683.70 -2678.49 (1) -683.90 (1) -651.13 (2) -460.70 -2678.60 (2) -375.90 (1) -557.28 -2027.28 -2027.00(3) 0.71 (3) 0.70 (2) -434.70 -2678.86 (1) 0.00(3) 0.00(3) 1.00(3) 0.62(2) -169.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.70 -2678.00 -2678.00 0.70 -2678.90 (1) -557.91 (1) -531.60 (2) -375.18 (1) -460.70 0.918 90.00(3) 0.70 0.91 (1) -531.49 (1) -683.90 (1) -557.STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 29.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.38 (3) 0.60 (2) -375.87 (1) -531.87 (1) -797.98 -1915.60 (2) -375.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.80(2) -203.00(3) 0.28 0.49 (1) -797.00(3) 0.70 -2678.91 0.70 -2678.78(2) -264.13 (2) -460.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.70 -2678.58(3) -789.28 -2027.29 (1) 4.13 (2) -460.00(3) 56.00 ** ** ** ** ** ** -375.18 (1) -434.49 (1) -683.00(3) 0.00(3) 5.60 (2) -375.70 -2678.28 (1) -651.70 -2678.261 80.00 -1915.54(2) -219.00(3) 0.13 (2) -460.00(3) 0.30(3) -608.13 (2) -734.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos -2027.70 (2) -599.01(3) -686.00(3) 0.49 (1) -683.00(3) 0.00(3) .37 (1) 1.00(3) 21.00(3) 0.90 (1) -557.56 (3) 43.00(3) 0.65 (2) -734.91 ** ** ** ** ** ** -557.98 -1915.49 (1) -683.98 -1915.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.31(3) -890.

00(3) 0.70 683.00(3) 0.00(3) 890.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.00 634.64(2) Neg 2678.00(3) 0.70 815.00(3) 0.20(1) 549.54(1) 634.00(3) 0.70 951.20 (1) -815.70 815.94 (2) -634.576 100.94 (2) -876.00(3) 0.20(1) 549.54(1) Pos 1915.00(3) 0.64(2) Total LL Shear Max Min (kN) (kN) 986.00(3) -240.00 (1) -549.98 683.00(3) 0.20 (1) -951.54 (1) (1) -815.54 (1) 0.70 797.20(1) 549.00(3) 0.54 (1) -634.20(1) 549.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II Span 2 Location (m) Percent 0.13(2) Pos 1915.00 634.00(3) 0.SERVICE-II 36.00(3) 0.37(1) 264.98 -1915.86(1) 203.00(3) -311.49(1) 460.13(2) Neg 1915.49(1) 460.54(1) Neg 0.00(3) 0.18(1) 240.49(1) 460.98 683.00(3) 0.87(1) 734.98 -2263.07(3) -1.00(3) 0.13(2) Pos 2678.49(1) 460.78(2) 686.00(3) 0.70 -2678.20 (1) -815.71 (1) 0.00(3) 0.87(1) 734.07(2) Pos 2263.20(1) 549.07 (2) -549.49(1) 460.00(3) 0.0 Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg 0.13(2) Neg 2678.82 (1) -951.07 (2) -549.56 -2263.94(2) Neg 2678.71(1) 311.07(2) Neg 2263.07(2) Neg 2678.00(3) .000 0.80(2) 0.00 0.71(3) -1.56 815.54 (1) -634.01(3) -16.70 0.98 683.33(3) 0.00(3) 0.20 (1) -815.658 10.54(3) 0.00(3) 0.56 -2678.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.70 951.00(3) 3.07(2) Pos 2678.98 683.00(3) 0.33 (3) 0.07 (2) -876.00(3) 0.31(3) -21.70 -2678.07(2) Pos 2678.00(3) 761.54(1) 634.00(3) 0.13(2) Pos 2678.94(2) Pos 0.81(1) 876.07 (2) -549.00(3) 0.98 815.00(3) -761.07 (2) -549.07(2) Neg 1915.00(3) 0.70 797.00(3) 0.07 (2) -549.0 Limit State STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV Resistance Total DL Shear Shear Max Min Flexure (kN) (kN) (kN) Pos 1915.54 (3) 0.18 (1) 0.81(1) 876.70 -2678.82 (1) -634.20 (1) -815.00(3) 0.49(1) 460.13(2) Neg 1915.70 683.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.20(1) 549.20 (1) -815.00 -1915.56 815.00(3) -986.98 815.

00(3) 0.84(3) -176.95(3) 0.75(2) 504.15(1) 1742.00(3) 198.00(3) 0.60(2) 557.00(3) 141.00(3) 0.7.28 432.88(1) -4.65(1) -6.31(1) 291.00(3) 0.42(3) -136.82 (1) 137.28 2027.28(1) 599.00(3) 0.58(3) 608.91(1) 531.38(3) -43.66 531.00(3) 0.31(1) 291.00 2027.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.90(1) 375.91(1) 557.06(2) 432.90(1) 375.31(1) 291.70(2) 434.21(3) -61.45(1) 309.70(2) 651.00 2678.00 0.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.18(1) ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 432.68(1) 464.17(2) 0.00(1) 208.14(1) -9.00(3) 0.45(1) 336.00(3) 0.0 SERVICE-II SERVICE-II STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos 0.70 2678.00(3) 576.06(2) -13.52(2) 0.06(2) 0.00(3) 737.00 0.28 2027.00(3) 0.62(2) 0.77(1) -10.19 1466.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.01(3) 568.90(1) 375.00(3) 178.35(3) 0.51 1622.95(1) 0.17(2) 0.00(3) 0.28 309.00 2027.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.54(2) 169.70 0.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.28(1) 599.00(3) 0.40(1) 0.28 2027.00(1) 208.00 0.60(2) 557.00(1) 208.973 30.70 2678.28 2027.28 2027.75(2) 336.68(1) 464.00(3) 1466.70 2678.00(3) 0.00 1742.18(1) 434.45(1) 336.62(3) -108.31(1) 291.91(1) 531.70 2678.42(3) 1622.19 0.19 1466.66 432.59(1) 153.90(1) 375.00(3) 219.28 2027.18(1) 434.17(2) 527.00(3) 0.88 (1) 109.00(3) 1466.51 1466.19 309.00(1) 208.17(2) -25.19 309.06(2) 432.80(3) -83.31(1) 291.61(3) -79.91(1) 531.00(1) 208.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.24(1) 14.10 309.28 2027.00(3) 0.0 10.29(1) -5.10 309.315 20.18(1) 434.00(3) 0.19 1466.90(1) 375.81(1) 332.45 (1) 0.53(1) 1981.28 0.70 2678.0 9.56(3) -56.00(3) 0.17(2) 444.00(3) 789.30(3) 0.00(3) .70 2678.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.60(3) 1466.19 360.70 2678.00 0.630 40.0 2027.17(2) -19.06(2) 504.31(1) 291.60(2) 557.00(3) 684.41(3) 1981.00(3) 0.90(1) 375.00(3) 0.45(1) 336.06(2) 432.60(2) 557.00(1) 208.60(2) 651.00(3) 0.60(2) 557.00(3) 0.144 25.

69(3) -199.54(1) 240.28 185.28 -40.67(3) -40.03 (1) 0.37(2) -49.81(1) -2027.53(1) 25.28 -40.92(2) 46.00 -60.00 48.28 360.00(3) 0.27(2) 360.68(1) 125.00(3) 0.07(2) 48.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.53 (1) 0.95(1) 0.00(3) 109.61(3) -353.946 60.00(3) 0.68(1) 125.27 (1) 0.00(3) 82.20(1) -184.54(1) 240.78(3) -258.69(1) -2027.95 73.71(1) 2027.37(2) 68.94(1) 200.00(3) 0.20(1) -47.71(3) -458.00(3) 0.37(1) -2027.00 48.00 0.28 185.0 -2027.00(3) 0.42 2678.36(1) 42.00(3) 0.68(1) 125.27(2) 216.42(3) 1633.95(1) -70.00 (1) 84.62(3) 2027.00(3) 0.95 73.70 1619.00(3) 0.603 70.50(3) 1555.00 2027.68(1) 125.37(2) -64.28 62.00(3) 0.52(2) 240.0 -2027.37(2) 276.00(3) 0.81(1) 332.95(1) 194.70 0.27(2) 185.28 -40.42(3) -125.63(1) 144.52(2) -64.52(2) 42.20(1) -123.28 185.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.36(1) 1715.00(3) 0.17 (1) 47.80(1) -47.28 185.63(1) 62.288 50.28 62.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.54(1) 185.45 1619.00(3) 0.27 (1) -184.30(2) 216.83 62.94(1) 200.00(3) 61.99 (1) 63.27(2) -32.06(3) 2027.52(2) -40.71(1) -60.44 (1) 0.64 (1) .0 STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg 1466.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.95(1) -60.00 0.05 0.71(1) 48.00(3) 0.00 0.70 (2) -1634.70 (2) -123.00(3) 0.36(1) 42.28 62.27(2) 0.52 -1717.00(3) 0.80(1) -70.54(1) 240.15(2) -64.00(3) 358.27(2) -42.52 -1634.94(3) -351.68(1) 21.00(3) 0.00(3) 467.36(1) 42.00(3) 0.42 -2678.28 -40.00(3) 252.98(3) -271.68(1) 125.10 (3) -575.36(1) 42.00(3) 0.00 2027.261 80.30(2) 144.45 1555.13(3) 2027.68(1) 125.00(3) 0.71(1) 0.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.07(1) 1715.37(2) 42.07(1) 0.37(2) 0.63(1) 144.63(1) 144.00(3) 29.83 62.15(1) -2027.36(1) 1633.07(2) 68.00(3) 0.52(2) -60.20(1) -47.15(2) -47.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I 156.52(2) -60.00(3) 0.52(2) -60.19 0.95(1) -70.00(3) 0.18.95(1) -91.00(3) 0.05 -1717.

00(3) 0.60 (2) -239.00(3) 0.54 (1) -239.32 (2) -206.57(3) -160.64 (3) 0.06(1) 26.STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 32.576 100.98 -1915.29(3) -164.00(3) 0.98 -1915.28 -2370.75 -2144.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.21 (2) -289.44(3) -208.00(3) -444.00(3) 0.06(2) 35.21 (2) -184.59 (1) -307.50(1) 28.27 (1) -184.42 (2) -123.02 -2255.11 (1) -143.00(3) 110.03 (1) -430.70 -2057.51(3) 0.10 0.59 (1) -358.40 (1) 87.00(3) 0.06 (1) 0.00(3) 0.90 (1) 121.59 (1) -307.90 (1) -430.00(3) 113.00(3) 0.27 (1) -184.00(3) 0.67 (1) -143.32 (2) -206.27 (1) -214.00(3) 0.60 (2) -328.38 (2) -143.74 (3) -703.59 (1) -307.98 -1915.42 (2) -196.10 -2144.76(3) -127.00(3) 0.32 (2) -206.11 (1) -307.59 (1) -307.90 (1) -430.70 -2678.00(3) -542.98 -1915.23 (3) -829.38 (2) -196.09 (3) 0.32 (2) -206.03 (1) -239.00(3) 0.98 -1915.21 (2) -289.918 90.03 (1) -239.32 (2) -328.54 (1) -358.98 -1915.00(3) 0.32 (2) -206.63 (1) 0.03 (1) -289.00(3) -640.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg Pos -2678.42 (2) -123.00 0.28 -2255.67 (1) -214.11 (1) -143.42 (2) -123.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.90 (1) -430.00 -2370.98 -123.00(3) 0.02 -1915.26(1) 34.15 (1) 0.21 (2) -289.00 -1915.00(3) 0.98 0.0 STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II 36.00 0.75 -2057.59 (1) -307.00(3) .98 -1915.81(3) -96.83 (1) 85.90 (1) -430.00(3) 0.11 (1) -206.21 (2) -289.42(1) 37.27 (1) -184.00(3) 0.

98 -1915.94 (1) -334.94 (1) -334.00(3) DL Codes: (1) Maximum dead load factors controlled (2) Minimum dead load factors controlled LL Codes: (1) Design truck + design lane controlled (2) Design tandem + design lane controlled (3) Design truck train + design lane controlled .98 0.21 (2) -460.00(3) 0.83 (2) -334.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.41 (1) -334.90 (1) -502.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV STRENGTH-IV SERVICE-II SERVICE-II Note: "N/A" indicates not applicable "**" indicates not available Neg Pos Neg Pos Neg -1915.00 -289.00 0.98 -1915.83 (2) -460.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.00(3) 0.41 (1) -502.94 (1) 0.94 (1) -430.

73 0. .00 -27.000 % Maximum Reaction (kN) 221.Reactions Live Load LRFD Fatigue Truck (US) Impact = 15.73 Support 1 2 3 Controlling Live Load Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Controlling Live Load Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Note: Impact and distribution factors included in above reactions.76 271.23 221.76 Minimum Reaction (kN) -27.

63 1437.91 -811.00 -101.67 1492.97 0.69 1286.973 14.973 14.603 29.0 60.261 32.0 100.00 Controlling Live Load Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Note: "N/A" indicates not applicable "**" indicates not available .315 10.42 685.288 21.918 36.0 100.33 1492.84 -304.51 0.0 90.97 564.0 90.09 -608.576 Percent 0.59 1437.00 Controlling Live Load Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Maximum Negative Moment (kN-m) -1014.658 7.41 -202.603 29.0 50.Moment Summary Live Load LRFD Fatigue Truck (US) Impact = ** % Span 1 Maximum Positive Moment (kN-m) 0.0 20.83 -101.0 Controlling Live Load Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Controlling Live Load Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Location (m) 0.0 70.05 564.91 985.0 20.630 18.18 -912.0 30.25 -202.946 25.35 -709.000 3.45 1414.26 -405.000 3.42 -0.09 -405.77 -811.315 10.0 40.261 32.51 -507.918 36.60 1414.92 -608.29 1133.05 1286.33 -912.0 Maximum Positive Moment (kN-m) 0.0 80.75 -1014.288 21.50 -709.60 985.67 -304.0 10.0 10.67 -507.0 70.0 80.00 64.00 Maximum Negative Moment (kN-m) -0.0 40.91 64.51 1133.0 50.0 30.658 7.18 Location (m) 0.630 18.946 25.00 685.0 60.576 Span 2 Percent 0.

.Note: Impact and distribution factors included in above moments.

75 -70.0 10.576 Percent 0.946 25.0 20.10 46.44 -125.0 60.05 -228.0 30.658 7.0 60.26 -178.76 Controlling Live Load Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Note: "N/A" indicates not applicable "**" indicates not available .00 0.76 -149.576 Span 2 Percent 0.0 70.73 -30.0 70.630 18.76 190.0 90.00 0.60 -248.0 20.94 228.0 100.49 -117.51 -156.59 0.0 80.288 21.315 10.59 -26.10 -52.04 -221.10 -96.0 40.73 27.75 84.0 40.00 Maximum Negative Shear (kN) -27.315 10.Shear Summary Live Load LRFD Fatigue Truck (US) Impact = ** % Span 1 Maximum Positive Shear (kN) 221.75 26.973 14.0 10.603 29.64 -46.49 149.000 3.973 14.0 30.261 32.04 156.946 25.288 21.0 80.0 100.59 205.603 29.49 -205.49 52.88 125.78 -84.0 Controlling Live Load Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Controlling Live Load Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Location (m) 0.05 178.73 Controlling Live Load Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Fatigue Maximum Negative Shear (kN) 0.51 96.26 117.658 7.10 27.918 36.261 32.630 18.0 50.63 9.78 30.44 70.0 50.95 Location (m) 0.00 -9.0 Maximum Positive Shear (kN) 248.88 -190.918 36.0 90.000 3.73 -27.

Note: Impact and distribution factors included in above shears. .

- [eBook] Bridge Design Manual - WSDOT
- Composite Steel Girder
- 6 Plate Girder Bridges
- Determination of Design Moments in Bridges Constructed by Balanced Cantilever Method
- Bridge by Peter Bishop
- Bridge Design Manual_2006
- Steel Bridge Superstructure
- Plate Girder Bridges
- 28728452 Slab Formwork Design[1]
- Introduction to Plate Girder Design
- Bridge Foundation
- Plate and Box Girder Design
- BridgeSuperstructureDesign
- r.c Bridge Design for Natai
- Box Girder
- RC pier-f(Box & Girder).xls
- Bridge Substructure and Foundation Design - Xanthakos
- Design Pedestrian Bridge Report
- Bridge Management
- Abutment
- Design of Abutment Bridge
- Bridge Collapses
- Flexible Pavement Manual 2002, from usa
- Military Bridges
- Calculo Puente Acero Aashto Lrfd

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd