FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as NOT permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army# b$t by %e t"e &iti'enry %" paid ! r it

(a)e 1 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

TABLE OF CONTENTS
FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL ............................................................1 +A,L- .F /.N+-N+S......................................................................................................................... 2 /0A(+-R 1 - IN+R.DU/+I.N.......................................................................................................... 11 SURVIVAL A/+I.NS...................................................................................................................... 11 S -Si'e Up t"e Sit$ati n................................................................................................................ 11 U -Use A11 Y $r Senses# Und$e 0aste Ma2es 3aste...................................................................11 R -Remember 3"ere Y $ Are......................................................................................................12 V -Van4$is" Fear and (ani&......................................................................................................... 12 I -Impr 5ise................................................................................................................................... 12 V -Va1$e Li5in).............................................................................................................................. 12 A -A&t Li2e t"e Nati5es.................................................................................................................. 12 L -Li5e by Y $r 3its# ,$t ! r N %# Learn ,asi& S2i11s....................................................................1* (A++-RN F.R SURVIVAL............................................................................................................. 1* /0A(+-R 2 - (SY/0.L.6Y .F SURVIVAL....................................................................................17 A L..8 A+ S+R-SS....................................................................................................................... 17 Need ! r Stress............................................................................................................................. 17 S$r5i5a1 Stress rs......................................................................................................................... 19 NA+URAL R-A/+I.NS.................................................................................................................. 16 An)er and Fr$strati n................................................................................................................... 17 Depressi n.................................................................................................................................... 17 L ne1iness and , red m............................................................................................................... 17 6$i1t............................................................................................................................................... 1: (R-(ARIN6 Y.URS-LF................................................................................................................ 1: 8n % Y $rse1!............................................................................................................................... 1: Anti&ipate Fears............................................................................................................................ 1: ,e Rea1isti&................................................................................................................................... 1: Ad pt a ( siti5e Attit$de............................................................................................................... 1: Remind Y $rse1! 3"at Is at Sta2e.................................................................................................1; +rain.............................................................................................................................................. 1; Learn Stress Mana)ement +e&"ni4$es.........................................................................................1; /0A(+-R * - SURVIVAL (LANNIN6 AND SURVIVAL 8I+S.............................................................2< IM(.R+AN/- .F (LANNIN6........................................................................................................2< SURVIVAL 8I+S.............................................................................................................................. 2< /0A(+-R 7 - ,ASI/ SURVIVAL M-DI/IN-......................................................................................22 R-=UIR-M-N+S F.R MAIN+-NAN/- .F 0-AL+0....................................................................22 3ater............................................................................................................................................ 22 F d.............................................................................................................................................. 2* (1ant F ds................................................................................................................................... 27 Anima1 F ds................................................................................................................................ 27 (ers na1 0y)iene.......................................................................................................................... 27 8eep Y $r 0ands /1ean................................................................................................................ 27 8eep Y $r 0air /1ean................................................................................................................... 29 8eep Y $r /1 t"in) /1ean............................................................................................................. 29 8eep Y $r +eet" /1ean................................................................................................................. 29 +a2e /are ! Y $r Feet................................................................................................................. 29 6et S$!!i&ient Rest........................................................................................................................ 29 8eep /amp Site /1ean.................................................................................................................. 29 M-DI/AL -M-R6-N/I-S.............................................................................................................. 26 ,reat"in) (r b1ems....................................................................................................................... 26 Se5ere ,1eedin)............................................................................................................................ 26
(a)e 2 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

S" &2............................................................................................................................................ 26 LIF-SAVIN6 S+-(S....................................................................................................................... 26 .pen Air%ay and Maintain............................................................................................................ 26 / ntr 1 ,1eedin)............................................................................................................................ 27 Dire&t (ress$re............................................................................................................................. 2: -1e5ati n....................................................................................................................................... 2: (ress$re ( ints............................................................................................................................. 2; Di)ita1 Li)ati n............................................................................................................................... 2; + $rni4$et..................................................................................................................................... 2; (re5ent and +reat S" &2............................................................................................................... *< ,.N- AND >.IN+ IN>URY............................................................................................................. *2 Fra&t$res....................................................................................................................................... *2 Dis1 &ati ns................................................................................................................................... *7 Sprains.......................................................................................................................................... *7 ,I+-S AND S+IN6S........................................................................................................................ *7 +reatment...................................................................................................................................... *9 ,ee and 3asp Stin)s.................................................................................................................... *9 Spider ,ites and S& rpi n Stin)s..................................................................................................*9 Sna2ebites.................................................................................................................................... *6 3.UNDS......................................................................................................................................... *7 .pen 3 $nds............................................................................................................................... *7 S2in Diseases and Ai1ments.......................................................................................................... *: , i1s.............................................................................................................................................. *: F$n)a1 In!e&ti ns........................................................................................................................... *; Ras"es.......................................................................................................................................... *; Fr stbite........................................................................................................................................ *; +ren&" F t................................................................................................................................... *; ,$rns............................................................................................................................................. 7< -NVIR.NM-N+AL IN>URI-S......................................................................................................... 7< 0eatstr 2e..................................................................................................................................... 7< 0yp t"ermia.................................................................................................................................. 7< Diarr"ea........................................................................................................................................ 71 Intestina1 (arasites........................................................................................................................ 71 0-R,AL M-DI/IN-S...................................................................................................................... 71 /0A(+-R 9 - S0-L+-RS................................................................................................................... 72 S0-L+-R SI+- S-L-/+I.N.......................................................................................................... 72 +Y(-S .F S0-L+-RS................................................................................................................... 7* ( n&" Lean-+ ............................................................................................................................ 7* ( n&" +ent.................................................................................................................................. 77 +"ree-( 1e (ara&"$te +epee........................................................................................................79 .ne-( 1e (ara&"$te +epee........................................................................................................... 76 N -( 1e (ara&"$te +epee............................................................................................................. 77 .ne-Man S"e1ter........................................................................................................................... 7: (ara&"$te 0amm &2..................................................................................................................... 7; Fie1d--?pedient Lean-+ ............................................................................................................... 7; S%amp ,ed................................................................................................................................... 9< Nat$ra1 S"e1ters............................................................................................................................ 91 Debris 0$t..................................................................................................................................... 91 +ree-(it Sn % S"e1ter................................................................................................................... 92 ,ea&" S"ade S"e1ter.................................................................................................................... 9* Desert S"e1ters............................................................................................................................. 97 /0A(+-R 6 - 3A+-R (R./UR-M-N+............................................................................................97 3A+-R S.UR/-S......................................................................................................................... 97 S+ILL /.NS+RU/+I.N.................................................................................................................. 62
(a)e * ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Ab 5e)r $nd Sti11.......................................................................................................................... 62 ,e1 %)r $nd Sti11.......................................................................................................................... 6* 3A+-R (URIFI/A+I.N.................................................................................................................. 69 3A+-R FIL+RA+I.N D-VI/-S......................................................................................................69 /0A(+-R 7 - FIR-/RAF+.................................................................................................................. 67 ,ASI/ FIR- (RIN/I(L-S............................................................................................................... 67 SI+- S-L-/+I.N AND (R-(ARA+I.N.........................................................................................67 FIR- MA+-RIAL S-L-/+I.N.........................................................................................................7< 0.3 +. ,UILD A FIR-.................................................................................................................. 7< +epee............................................................................................................................................ 7< Lean-+ ......................................................................................................................................... 71 /r ss-Dit&"................................................................................................................................... 71 (yramid......................................................................................................................................... 71 0.3 +. LI60+ A FIR-.................................................................................................................. 71 M dern Met" ds........................................................................................................................... 71 Mat&"es........................................................................................................................................ 72 / n5e? Lens................................................................................................................................. 72 Meta1 Mat&".................................................................................................................................. 72 ,attery........................................................................................................................................... 72 6$np %der................................................................................................................................... 72 (rimiti5e Met" ds.......................................................................................................................... 7* F1int and Stee1............................................................................................................................... 7* Fire-(1 %....................................................................................................................................... 7* , % and Dri11................................................................................................................................. 7* /0A(+-R : - F..D (R./UR-M-N+..............................................................................................79 ANIMALS F.R F..D..................................................................................................................... 79 Inse&ts........................................................................................................................................... 79 3 rms........................................................................................................................................... 76 /r$sta&eans.................................................................................................................................. 76 M 11$s2s........................................................................................................................................ 76 Fis"............................................................................................................................................... 77 Amp"ibians................................................................................................................................... 7; Repti1es......................................................................................................................................... 7; ,irds.............................................................................................................................................. :< Mamma1s...................................................................................................................................... :1 +RA(S AND SNAR-S..................................................................................................................... :1 Use ! ,ait.................................................................................................................................... :2 +rap and Snare / nstr$&ti n........................................................................................................ :2 Simp1e Snare................................................................................................................................. :* Dra) N se................................................................................................................................... :* +%it&"-Up...................................................................................................................................... :7 +%it&"-Up Snare........................................................................................................................... :7 S4$irre1 ( 1e.................................................................................................................................. :9 .@ib%a ,ird ( 1e............................................................................................................................ :9 N sin) 3and............................................................................................................................... :6 +read1e Sprin) Snare.................................................................................................................... :6 Fi)$re 7 Dead!a11........................................................................................................................... :7 (ai$te Dead!a11.............................................................................................................................. :: , % +rap....................................................................................................................................... :; (i) Spear S"a!t............................................................................................................................. ;< , tt1e +rap.................................................................................................................................... ;< 8ILLIN6 D-VI/-S........................................................................................................................... ;1 Rabbit Sti&2................................................................................................................................... ;1 Spear............................................................................................................................................ ;1
(a)e 7 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

, % and Arr %.............................................................................................................................. ;1 S1in).............................................................................................................................................. ;2 FIS0IN6 D-VI/-S.......................................................................................................................... ;2 Impr 5ised Fis"" 2s................................................................................................................... ;2 Sta2e $t........................................................................................................................................ ;2 6i11 Net.......................................................................................................................................... ;* Fis" +raps..................................................................................................................................... ;7 Spear!is"in).................................................................................................................................. ;9 /" p Fis"in)................................................................................................................................. ;6 Fis" ( is n................................................................................................................................... ;6 (R-(ARA+I.N .F FIS0 AND 6AM- F.R /..8IN6 AND S+.RA6-............................................................................................................. ;7 Fis"............................................................................................................................................... ;7 Sna2es.......................................................................................................................................... ;: ,irds.............................................................................................................................................. ;: S2innin) and ,$t&"erin) 6ame.....................................................................................................;; Sm 2in) Meat............................................................................................................................. 1<< Dryin) Meat................................................................................................................................. 1<1 .t"er (reser5ati n Met" ds....................................................................................................... 1<1 Free'in)...................................................................................................................................... 1<1 ,rine and Sa1t.............................................................................................................................. 1<1 /0A(+-R ; - SURVIVAL US- .F (LAN+S.....................................................................................1<2 -DI,ILI+Y .F (LAN+S................................................................................................................. 1<2 (1ant Identi!i&ati n....................................................................................................................... 1<* Uni5ersa1 -dibi1ity +est................................................................................................................ 1<9 Sea%eeds................................................................................................................................... 1<: (reparati n ! (1ant F d........................................................................................................... 1<: (LAN+S F.R M-DI/IN-.............................................................................................................. 1<; +erms and De!initi ns................................................................................................................. 1<; Spe&i!i& Remedies...................................................................................................................... 1<; /0A(+-R 1< - (.IS.N.US (LAN+S.............................................................................................111 0.3 (LAN+S (.IS.N................................................................................................................. 111 ALL A,.U+ (LAN+S.................................................................................................................... 111 RUL-S F.R AV.IDIN6 (.IS.N.US (LAN+S...........................................................................112 /.N+A/+ D-RMA+I+IS............................................................................................................... 112 IN6-S+I.N (.IS.NIN6.............................................................................................................. 112 /0A(+-R 11 - DAN6-R.US ANIMALS..........................................................................................117 INS-/+S AND ARA/0NIDS......................................................................................................... 117 S& rpi ns.................................................................................................................................... 117 Spiders........................................................................................................................................ 119 /entipedes and Mi11ipedes.......................................................................................................... 119 ,ees# 3asps# and 0 rnets.......................................................................................................... 119 +i&2s............................................................................................................................................ 119 L--/0-S...................................................................................................................................... 116 ,A+S............................................................................................................................................. 116 (.IS.N.US SNA8-S.................................................................................................................. 116 Sna2e-Free Areas....................................................................................................................... 117 DAN6-R.US LIAARDS................................................................................................................ 117 6i1a M nster................................................................................................................................ 117 Me?i&an ,eaded Li'ard............................................................................................................... 11: 8 m d Dra) n.......................................................................................................................... 11: DAN6-RS IN RIV-RS.................................................................................................................. 11: -1e&tri& -e1.................................................................................................................................. 11: (iran"a........................................................................................................................................ 11:
(a)e 9 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+$rt1e........................................................................................................................................... 11: (1atyp$s...................................................................................................................................... 11: DAN6-RS IN ,AYS AND -S+UARI-S.........................................................................................11; SAL+3A+-R DAN6-RS............................................................................................................... 11; Fis" Dan)er $s t 0and1e# + $&"# r / nta&t............................................................................11; Anima1s and Fis" ( is n $s t -at.............................................................................................12< .t"er Dan)er $s Sea /reat$res.................................................................................................12< /0A(+-R 12 - FI-LD--B(-DI-N+ 3-A(.NS# +..LS# AND -=UI(M-N+............................................................................................................................. 122 /LU,S........................................................................................................................................... 122 Simp1e /1$b................................................................................................................................. 122 3ei)"ted /1$b............................................................................................................................. 122 S1in) /1$b.................................................................................................................................... 12* -D6-D 3-A(.NS....................................................................................................................... 127 8ni5es......................................................................................................................................... 127 Spear ,1ades............................................................................................................................... 126 Arr % ( ints................................................................................................................................ 126 .+0-R -B(-DI-N+ 3-A(.NS..................................................................................................127 +"r %in) Sti&2............................................................................................................................. 127 Ar&"ery -4$ipment...................................................................................................................... 127 , 1a............................................................................................................................................. 12: LAS0IN6 AND /.RDA6-............................................................................................................ 12; Nat$ra1 / rda)e Se1e&ti n.......................................................................................................... 12; Las"in) Materia1.......................................................................................................................... 12; RU/8SA/8 /.NS+RU/+I.N.....................................................................................................12; 0 rses" e (a&2.......................................................................................................................... 1*< S4$are (a&2................................................................................................................................ 1*< /L.+0IN6 AND INSULA+I.N......................................................................................................1*1 (ara&"$te Assemb1y................................................................................................................... 1*1 Anima1 S2ins............................................................................................................................... 1*1 (1ant Fibers................................................................................................................................. 1*1 /..8IN6 AND -A+IN6 U+-NSILS.............................................................................................1*1 , %1s.......................................................................................................................................... 1*1 F r2s# 8ni5es# and Sp ns......................................................................................................... 1*2 ( ts............................................................................................................................................. 1*2 3ater , tt1es............................................................................................................................... 1*2 /0A(+-R 1* - D-S-R+ SURVIVAL.................................................................................................1** +-RRAIN....................................................................................................................................... 1** M $ntain Deserts........................................................................................................................ 1** R &2y (1atea$ Deserts................................................................................................................ 1** Sandy r D$ne Deserts............................................................................................................... 1*7 Sa1t Mars"es............................................................................................................................... 1*7 ,r 2en +errain............................................................................................................................ 1*7 -NVIR.NM-N+AL FA/+.RS......................................................................................................1*7 L % Rain!a11................................................................................................................................. 1*7 Intense S$n1i)"t and 0eat........................................................................................................... 1*7 3ide +emperat$re Ran)e........................................................................................................... 1*9 Sparse Ve)etati n....................................................................................................................... 1*9 0i)" Minera1 / ntent................................................................................................................... 1*6 Sandst rms................................................................................................................................. 1*6 Mira)es....................................................................................................................................... 1*6 N--D F.R 3A+-R....................................................................................................................... 1*7 0-A+ /ASUAL+I-S...................................................................................................................... 1*: 0eat /ramps............................................................................................................................... 1*;
(a)e 6 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

0eat -?"a$sti n.......................................................................................................................... 1*; 0eat Str 2e................................................................................................................................. 1*; (R-/AU+I.NS............................................................................................................................. 1*; D-S-R+ 0AAARDS...................................................................................................................... 1*; /0A(+-R 17 - +R.(I/AL SURVIVAL.............................................................................................171 +R.(I/AL 3-A+0-R.................................................................................................................. 171 >UN6L- +Y(-S............................................................................................................................ 171 +r pi&a1 Rain F rests.................................................................................................................. 172 Se& ndary >$n)1es...................................................................................................................... 172 Semie5er)reen Seas na1 and M ns n F rests.........................................................................172 +r pi&a1 S&r$b and +" rn F rests...............................................................................................17* +r pi&a1 Sa5annas...................................................................................................................... 17* Sa1t%ater S%amps...................................................................................................................... 17* Fres"%ater S%amps.................................................................................................................... 17* +RAV-L +0R.U60 >UN6L- AR-AS..........................................................................................177 IMM-DIA+- /.NSID-RA+I.NS..................................................................................................177 3A+-R (R./UR-M-N+............................................................................................................. 179 Anima1s as Si)ns ! 3ater.......................................................................................................... 179 3ater Fr m (1ants...................................................................................................................... 179 Vines........................................................................................................................................... 179 R ts........................................................................................................................................... 179 (a1m +rees.................................................................................................................................. 179 3ater Fr m / ndensati n.......................................................................................................... 176 F..D............................................................................................................................................ 176 (.IS.N.US (LAN+S.................................................................................................................. 177 /0A(+-R 19 - /.LD 3-A+0-R SURVIVAL..................................................................................17: /.LD R-6I.NS AND L./A+I.NS..............................................................................................17: 3et / 1d 3eat"er -n5ir nments................................................................................................17: Dry / 1d 3eat"er -n5ir nments.................................................................................................17: 3IND/0ILL................................................................................................................................... 17; ,ASI/ (RIN/I(L-S .F /.LD 3-A+0-R SURVIVAL.................................................................................................................. 19< 0Y6I-N-....................................................................................................................................... 191 M-DI/AL AS(-/+S..................................................................................................................... 191 /.LD IN>URI-S............................................................................................................................ 191 0yp t"ermia................................................................................................................................ 191 Fr stbite...................................................................................................................................... 192 +ren&" F t and Immersi n F t................................................................................................19* De"ydrati n................................................................................................................................. 19* / 1d Di$resis............................................................................................................................... 19* S$nb$rn...................................................................................................................................... 19* Sn % ,1indness........................................................................................................................... 19* / nstipati n................................................................................................................................ 197 Inse&t ,ites.................................................................................................................................. 197 S0-L+-RS.................................................................................................................................... 197 Sn % /a5e S"e1ter..................................................................................................................... 199 Sn % +ren&" S"e1ter................................................................................................................... 196 Sn % ,1 &2 and (ara&"$te S"e1ter.............................................................................................196 Sn % 0 $se r I)1 ................................................................................................................... 197 Lean-+ S"e1ter.......................................................................................................................... 197 Fa11en +ree S"e1ter...................................................................................................................... 197 +ree-(it S"e1ter........................................................................................................................... 197 2<-Man Li!e Ra!t.......................................................................................................................... 19: FIR-............................................................................................................................................... 19:
(a)e 7 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

3A+-R.......................................................................................................................................... 19; F..D............................................................................................................................................ 16< Fis"............................................................................................................................................. 16< Sea I&e Anima1s.......................................................................................................................... 16< (1ants.......................................................................................................................................... 161 +RAV-L......................................................................................................................................... 162 3-A+0-R SI6NS......................................................................................................................... 162 3ind............................................................................................................................................ 162 /1 $ds......................................................................................................................................... 162 Sm 2e......................................................................................................................................... 16* ,irds and Inse&ts......................................................................................................................... 16* L %-(ress$re Fr nt..................................................................................................................... 16* /0A(+-R 16 - S-A SURVIVAL........................................................................................................167 +0- .(-N S-A............................................................................................................................. 167 (re&a$ti nary Meas$res............................................................................................................. 167 D %n at Sea................................................................................................................................ 167 / 1d 3eat"er / nsiderati ns......................................................................................................16; 0 t 3eat"er / nsiderati ns.......................................................................................................17< Ra!t (r &ed$res.......................................................................................................................... 17< Sai1in) Ra!ts................................................................................................................................ 176 3ater.......................................................................................................................................... 177 F d (r &$rement...................................................................................................................... 17: Medi&a1 (r b1ems Ass &iated 3it" Sea S$r5i5a1........................................................................1:< S"ar2s......................................................................................................................................... 1:1 Dete&tin) Land............................................................................................................................ 1:2 Ra!tin) r ,ea&"in) +e&"ni4$es.................................................................................................1:2 S%immin) As" re....................................................................................................................... 1:* (i&2$p r Res&$e........................................................................................................................ 1:* S-AS0.R-S................................................................................................................................. 1:7 Spe&ia1 0ea1t" 0a'ards............................................................................................................... 1:7 F d............................................................................................................................................ 1:9 /0A(+-R 17 - -B(-DI-N+ 3A+-R /R.SSIN6S.........................................................................1:6 RIV-RS AND S+R-AMS............................................................................................................... 1:6 RA(IDS.......................................................................................................................................... 1:7 RAF+S........................................................................................................................................... 1:; ,r$s" Ra!t................................................................................................................................... 1:; A$stra1ian ( n&" Ra!t................................................................................................................ 1;< ( n&" D n$t Ra!t...................................................................................................................... 1;1 L ) Ra!t...................................................................................................................................... 1;2 FL.+A+I.N D-VI/-S.................................................................................................................. 1;2 .+0-R 3A+-R .,S+A/L-S......................................................................................................1;* V-6-+A+I.N .,S+A/L-S.......................................................................................................... 1;* /0A(+-R 1: - FI-LD--B(-DI-N+ DIR-/+I.N FINDIN6..............................................................1;7 USIN6 +0- SUN AND S0AD.3S...............................................................................................1;7 S"ad %-+ip Met" ds.................................................................................................................. 1;7 +"e 3at&" Met" d...................................................................................................................... 1;9 USIN6 +0- M..N....................................................................................................................... 1;6 USIN6 +0- S+ARS....................................................................................................................... 1;6 +"e N rt"ern S2y........................................................................................................................ 1;6 +"e S $t"ern S2y....................................................................................................................... 1;7 MA8IN6 IM(R.VIS-D /.M(ASS-S..........................................................................................1;: .+0-R M-ANS .F D-+-RMININ6 DIR-/+I.N........................................................................1;: /0A(+-R 1; - SI6NALIN6 +-/0NI=U-S......................................................................................2<< A((LI/A+I.N............................................................................................................................... 2<<
(a)e : ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

M-ANS F.R SI6NALIN6............................................................................................................. 2<< Vis$a1 Si)na1s.............................................................................................................................. 2<< A$di Si)na1s.............................................................................................................................. 2<9 /.D-S AND SI6NALS................................................................................................................. 2<9 S.S............................................................................................................................................ 2<9 6r $nd-t -Air -mer)en&y / de..................................................................................................2<6 , dy Si)na1s............................................................................................................................... 2<6 (ane1 Si)na1s.............................................................................................................................. 2<6 Air&ra!t A&2n %1ed)ments........................................................................................................... 2<7 AIR/RAF+ V-/+.RIN6 (R./-DUR-S.....................................................................................2<: /0A(+-R 2< - SURVIVAL M.V-M-N+ IN 0.S+IL- AR-AS.........................................................2<; (0AS-S .F (LANNIN6............................................................................................................... 2<; / ntin)en&y (1an ! A&ti n C/(AD...............................................................................................2<; Standin) .peratin) (r &ed$res..................................................................................................21< N ti!i&ati n t M 5e and A5 id /apt$re......................................................................................21< -B-/U+I.N.................................................................................................................................. 21< 0ide Site A&ti5ities...................................................................................................................... 211 0 1e-Up Areas............................................................................................................................. 212 R-+URN +. FRI-NDLY /.N+R.L.............................................................................................21* , rder /r ssin)s........................................................................................................................ 21* Lin2$p at t"e F-,AEFL.+........................................................................................................... 21* Lin2$p 3it" Friend1y (atr 1s........................................................................................................217 /0A(+-R 21 - /AM.UFLA6-.........................................................................................................219 (-RS.NAL /AM.UFLA6-.......................................................................................................... 219 S"ape and .$t1ine...................................................................................................................... 219 / 1 r and +e?t$re....................................................................................................................... 219 S"ine........................................................................................................................................... 216 S"ad %....................................................................................................................................... 216 M 5ement................................................................................................................................... 216 N ise........................................................................................................................................... 217 S&ent........................................................................................................................................... 217 M-+0.DS .F S+AL8IN6............................................................................................................. 217 Upri)"t Sta12in)........................................................................................................................... 217 /ra%1in)...................................................................................................................................... 217 (r ne Sta12in)............................................................................................................................. 21: Anima1 Sta12in)........................................................................................................................... 21: /0A(+-R 22 - /.N+A/+ 3I+0 (-.(L-.......................................................................................21; /.N+A/+ 3I+0 L./AL (-.(L-................................................................................................21; +0- SURVIV.RFS ,-0AVI.R......................................................................................................22< /0AN6-S +. (.LI+I/AL ALL-6IAN/-.....................................................................................22< /0A(+-R 2* - SURVIVAL IN MAN-MAD- 0AAARDS.....................................................................221 +0- NU/L-AR -NVIR.NM-N+...................................................................................................221 -!!e&ts ! N$&1ear 3eap ns........................................................................................................221 +ypes ! N$&1ear ,$rsts.............................................................................................................. 222 N$&1ear In@$ries........................................................................................................................... 222 Resid$a1 Radiati n...................................................................................................................... 222 , di1y Rea&ti ns t Radiati n.....................................................................................................22* / $ntermeas$res A)ainst (enetratin) -?terna1 Radiati n..........................................................22* S"e1ter......................................................................................................................................... 227 3ater (r &$rement..................................................................................................................... 227 F d (r &$rement...................................................................................................................... 227 ,I.L.6I/AL -NVIR.NM-N+S....................................................................................................22: ,i 1 )i&a1 A)ents and -!!e&ts......................................................................................................22: Dete&ti n ! ,i 1 )i&a1 A)ents.....................................................................................................22;
(a)e ; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

In!1$en&e ! 3eat"er and +errain................................................................................................2*< (r te&ti n A)ainst ,i 1 )i&a1 A)ents...........................................................................................2*< S"e1ter......................................................................................................................................... 2*< 3ater (r &$rement..................................................................................................................... 2*1 F d (r &$rement...................................................................................................................... 2*1 /0-MI/AL -NVIR.NM-N+S.......................................................................................................2*1 Dete&ti n ! /"emi&a1 A)ents.....................................................................................................2*1 (r te&ti n A)ainst /"emi&a1 A)ents...........................................................................................2*2 S"e1ter......................................................................................................................................... 2*2 3ater (r &$rement..................................................................................................................... 2*2 F d (r &$rement...................................................................................................................... 2**

(a)e 1< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

This manual is based entirely on the keyword SURVIVAL. The letters in this word can help guide you in your actions in any survival situation. henever !aced with a survival situation" remember the word SURVIVAL.

SURVIVAL ACTIONS
+"e ! 11 %in) para)rap"s e?pand n t"e meanin) ! ea&" 1etter ! t"e % rd s$r5i5a1. St$dy and remember %"at ea&" 1etter si)ni!ies be&a$se y $ may s me day "a5e t ma2e it % r2 ! r y $.

S -Size Up the Sit !ti"#
I! y $ are in a & mbat sit$ati n# !ind a p1a&e %"ere y $ &an & n&ea1 y $rse1! !r m t"e enemy. Remember# se&$rity ta2es pri rity. Use y $r senses ! "earin)# sme11# and si)"t t )et a !ee1 ! r t"e batt1e!ie1d. 3"at is t"e enemy d in)G Ad5an&in)G 0 1din) in p1a&eG Retreatin)G Y $ %i11 "a5e t & nsider %"at is de5e1 pin) n t"e batt1e!ie1d %"en y $ ma2e y $r s$r5i5a1 p1an. Size Up Your Surroundings Determine t"e pattern ! t"e area. 6et a !ee1 ! r %"at is ) in) n ar $nd y $. -5ery en5ir nment# %"et"er ! rest# @$n)1e# r desert# "as a r"yt"m r pattern. +"is r"yt"m r pattern in&1$des anima1 and bird n ises and m 5ements and inse&t s $nds. It may a1s in&1$de enemy tra!!i& and &i5i1ian m 5ements. Size Up Your Physical Condition +"e press$re ! t"e batt1e y $ %ere in r t"e tra$ma ! bein) in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n may "a5e &a$sed y $ t 5er1 2 % $nds y $ re&ei5ed. /"e&2 y $r % $nds and )i5e y $rse1! !irst aid. +a2e &are t pre5ent !$rt"er b di1y "arm. F r instan&e# in any &1imate# drin2 p1enty ! %ater t pre5ent de"ydrati n. I! y $ are in a & 1d r %et &1imate# p$t n additi na1 &1 t"in) t pre5ent "yp t"ermia. Size Up Your !uip"ent (er"aps in t"e "eat ! batt1e# y $ 1 st r dama)ed s me ! y $r e4$ipment. /"e&2 t see %"at e4$ipment y $ "a5e and %"at & nditi n it is in. N % t"at y $ "a5e si'ed $p y $r sit$ati n# s$rr $ndin)s# p"ysi&a1 & nditi n# and e4$ipment# y $ are ready t ma2e y $r s$r5i5a1 p1an. In d in) s # 2eep in mind y $r basi& p"ysi&a1 needs--%ater# ! d# and s"e1ter.

U -U$e A%% Y" & Se#$e$' U#( e H!$te M!)e$ *!$te
Y $ may ma2e a %r n) m 5e %"en y $ rea&t 4$i&21y %it" $t t"in2in) r p1annin). +"at m 5e may res$1t in y $r &apt$re r deat". D nFt m 5e @$st ! r t"e sa2e ! ta2in) a&ti n. / nsider a11 aspe&ts ! y $r sit$ati n Csi'e $p y $r sit$ati nD be! re y $ ma2e a de&isi n and a m 5e. I! y $ a&t in "aste# y $ may ! r)et r 1 se s me ! y $r e4$ipment. In y $r "aste y $ may a1s be& me dis riented s t"at y $ d nFt 2n % %"i&" %ay t ) . (1an y $r m 5es. ,e ready t m 5e $t 4$i&21y %it" $t endan)erin) y $rse1! i! t"e enemy is near y $. Use a11 y $r senses t e5a1$ate t"e sit$ati n. N te s $nds and sme11s. ,e sensiti5e t temperat$re &"an)es. ,e bser5ant.
(a)e 11 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

R -Re+e+,e& *he&e Y" A&e
Sp t y $r 1 &ati n n y $r map and re1ate it t t"e s$rr $ndin) terrain. +"is is a basi& prin&ip1e t"at y $ m$st a1%ays ! 11 %. I! t"ere are t"er pers ns %it" y $# ma2e s$re t"ey a1s 2n % t"eir 1 &ati n. A1%ays 2n % %" in y $r )r $p# 5e"i&1e# r air&ra!t "as a map and & mpass. I! t"at pers n is 2i11ed# y $ %i11 "a5e t )et t"e map and & mpass !r m "im. (ay &1 se attenti n t %"ere y $ are and t %"ere y $ are ) in). D n t re1y n t"ers in t"e )r $p t 2eep tra&2 ! t"e r $te. / nstant1y rient y $rse1!. A1%ays try t determine# as a minim$m# " % y $r 1 &ati n re1ates t -• +"e 1 &ati n ! enemy $nits and & ntr 11ed areas. • +"e 1 &ati n ! !riend1y $nits and & ntr 11ed areas. • +"e 1 &ati n ! 1 &a1 %ater s $r&es Cespe&ia11y imp rtant in t"e desertD. • Areas t"at %i11 pr 5ide ) d & 5er and & n&ea1ment. +"is in! rmati n %i11 a11 % y $ t ma2e inte11i)ent de&isi ns %"en y $ are in a s$r5i5a1 and e5asi n sit$ati n.

V -V!#- i$h Fe!& !#( P!#i.
+"e )reatest enemies in a & mbat s$r5i5a1 and e5asi n sit$ati n are !ear and pani&. I! $n& ntr 11ed# t"ey &an destr y y $r abi1ity t ma2e an inte11i)ent de&isi n. +"ey may &a$se y $ t rea&t t y $r !ee1in)s and ima)inati n rat"er t"an t y $r sit$ati n. +"ey &an drain y $r ener)y and t"ereby &a$se t"er ne)ati5e em ti ns. (re5i $s s$r5i5a1 and e5asi n trainin) and se1!-& n!iden&e %i11 enab1e y $ t 5an4$is" !ear and pani&.

I -I+p&"/i$e
In t"e United States# %e "a5e items a5ai1ab1e ! r a11 $r needs. Many ! t"ese items are &"eap t rep1a&e %"en dama)ed. .$r easy & me# easy ) # easy-t -rep1a&e &$1t$re ma2es it $nne&essary ! r $s t impr 5ise. +"is ine?perien&e in impr 5isati n &an be an enemy in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. Learn t impr 5ise. +a2e a t 1 desi)ned ! r a spe&i!i& p$rp se and see " % many t"er $ses y $ &an ma2e ! it. Learn t $se nat$ra1 b@e&ts ar $nd y $ ! r di!!erent needs. An e?amp1e is $sin) a r &2 ! r a "ammer. N matter " % & mp1ete a s$r5i5a1 2it y $ "a5e %it" y $# it %i11 r$n $t r %ear $t a!ter a %"i1e. Y $r ima)inati n m$st ta2e 5er %"en y $r 2it %ears $t.

V -V!% e Li/i#0
A11 ! $s %ere b rn 2i&2in) and !i)"tin) t 1i5e# b$t %e "a5e be& me $sed t t"e s !t 1i!e. 3e "a5e be& me &reat$res ! & m! rt. 3e dis1i2e in& n5enien&es and dis& m! rts. 3"at "appens %"en %e are !a&ed %it" a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n %it" its stresses# in& n5enien&es# and dis& m! rtsG +"is is %"en t"e %i11 t 1i5e- p1a&in) a "i)" 5a1$e n 1i5in)-is 5ita1. +"e e?perien&e and 2n %1ed)e y $ "a5e )ained t"r $)" 1i!e and y $r Army trainin) %i11 "a5e a bearin) n y $r %i11 t 1i5e. St$bb rnness# a re!$sa1 t )i5e in t pr b1ems and bsta&1es t"at !a&e y $# %i11 )i5e y $ t"e menta1 and p"ysi&a1 stren)t" t end$re.

A -A.t Li)e the N!ti/e$
+"e nati5es and anima1s ! a re)i n "a5e adapted t t"eir en5ir nment. + )et a !ee1 ! t"e area# %at&" " % t"e pe p1e ) ab $t t"eir dai1y r $tine. 3"en and %"at d t"ey eatG 3"en# %"ere# and " % d t"ey )et t"eir ! dG 3"en and %"ere d t"ey ) ! r %aterG 3"at time d t"ey $s$a11y ) t bed and )et $pG +"ese a&ti ns are imp rtant t y $ %"en y $ are tryin) t a5 id &apt$re. Anima1 1i!e in t"e area &an a1s )i5e y $ &1$es n " % t s$r5i5e. Anima1s a1s re4$ire ! d# %ater# and s"e1ter. ,y %at&"in) t"em# y $ &an !ind s $r&es ! %ater and ! d. *ARNIN1
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FM 21-76

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Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

A#i+!%$ .!##"t $e&/e !$ !# !,$"% te 0 i(e t" 2h!t 3" .!# e!t !#( (&i#)4 M!#3 !#i+!%$ e!t p%!#t$ th!t !&e t"5i. t" h +!#$4 8eep in mind t"at t"e rea&ti n ! anima1s &an re5ea1 y $r presen&e t t"e enemy. I! in a !riend1y area# ne %ay y $ &an )ain rapp rt %it" t"e nati5es is t s" % interest in t"eir t 1s and " % t"ey )et ! d and %ater. ,y st$dyin) t"e pe p1e# y $ 1earn t respe&t t"em# y $ !ten ma2e 5a1$ab1e !riends# and# m st imp rtant# y $ 1earn " % t adapt t t"eir en5ir nment and in&rease y $r &"an&es ! s$r5i5a1.

L -Li/e ,3 Y" & *it$' #ut $or No%& Le!&# B!$i. S)i%%$
3it" $t trainin) in basi& s2i11s ! r s$r5i5in) and e5adin) n t"e batt1e!ie1d# y $r &"an&es ! 1i5in) t"r $)" a & mbat s$r5i5a1 and e5asi n sit$ati n are s1i)"t. Learn t"ese basi& s2i11s #"2--n t %"en y $ are "eaded ! r r are in t"e batt1e. 0 % y $ de&ide t e4$ip y $rse1! be! re dep1 yment %i11 impa&t n %"et"er r n t y $ s$r5i5e. Y $ need t 2n % ab $t t"e en5ir nment t %"i&" y $ are ) in)# and y $ m$st pra&ti&e basi& s2i11s )eared t t"at en5ir nment. F r instan&e# i! y $ are ) in) t a desert# y $ need t 2n % " % t )et %ater in t"e desert. (ra&ti&e basi& s$r5i5a1 s2i11s d$rin) a11 trainin) pr )rams and e?er&ises. S$r5i5a1 trainin) red$&es !ear ! t"e $n2n %n and )i5es y $ se1!-& n!iden&e. It tea&"es y $ t live by your wits.

PATT RN 'OR SURVIVAL
De5e1 p a s$r5i5a1 pattern t"at 1ets y $ beat t"e enemies ! s$r5i5a1. +"is s$r5i5a1 pattern m$st in&1$de ! d# %ater# s"e1ter# !ire# !irst aid# and si)na1s p1a&ed in rder ! imp rtan&e. F r e?amp1e# in a & 1d en5ir nment# y $ % $1d need a !ire t )et %armH a shelter t pr te&t y $ !r m t"e & 1d# %ind# and rain r sn %H traps r snares t )et !ood# a means t signal !riend1y air&ra!tH and !irst aid t maintain "ea1t". I! in$ured" !irst aid has top priority n matter %"at &1imate y $ are in. /"an)e y $r s$r5i5a1 pattern t meet y $r immediate p"ysi&a1 needs as t"e en5ir nment &"an)es. As y $ read t"e rest ! t"is man$a1# 2eep in mind t"e 2ey% rd SURVIVAL and t"e need ! r a s$r5i5a1 pattern.

(a)e 1* ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 2 - PSYCHOLO1Y OF SURVIVAL

It takes much more than the knowledge and skills to build shelters" get !ood" make !ires" and travel without the aid o! standard navigational devices to live success!ully through a survival situation. Some people with little or no survival training have managed to survive li!e%threatening circumstances. Some people with survival training have not used their skills and died. A key ingredient in any survival situation is the mental attitude o! the individual&s' involved. (aving survival skills is important# having the will to survive is essential. ithout a desk to survive" ac)uired skills serve little purpose and invaluable knowledge goes to waste. There is a psychology to survival. The soldier in a survival environment !aces many stresses that ultimately impact on his mind. These stresses can produce thoughts and emotions that" i! poorly understood" can trans!orm a con!ident" well%trained soldier into an indecisive" ine!!ective individual with )uestionable ability to survive. Thus" every soldier must be aware o! and be able to recogni*e those stresses commonly associated with survival. Additionally" it is imperative that soldiers be aware o! their reactions to the wide variety o! stresses associated with survival. This chapter will identi!y and e+plain the nature o! stress" the stresses o! survival" and those internal reactions soldiers will naturally e+perience when !aced with the stresses o! a real%world survival situation. The knowledge you" the soldier" gain !rom this chapter and other chapters in this manual" will prepare you to come through the toughest times ali(e)

A LOO* AT STR SS
,e! re %e &an $nderstand $r psy&" 1 )i&a1 rea&ti ns in a s$r5i5a1 settin)# it is "e1p!$1 t !irst 2n % a 1itt1e bit ab $t stress. Stress is n t a disease t"at y $ &$re and e1iminate. Instead# it is a & nditi n %e a11 e?perien&e. Stress &an be des&ribed as $r rea&ti n t press$re. It is t"e name )i5en t t"e e?perien&e %e "a5e as %e p"ysi&a11y# menta11y# em ti na11y# and spirit$a11y resp nd t 1i!eFs tensi ns.

Nee( 6"& St&e$$
3e need stress be&a$se it "as many p siti5e bene!its. Stress pr 5ides $s %it" &"a11en)esH it )i5es $s &"an&es t 1earn ab $t $r 5a1$es and stren)t"s. Stress &an s" % $r abi1ity t "and1e press$re %it" $t brea2in)H it tests $r adaptabi1ity and !1e?ibi1ityH it &an stim$1ate $s t d $r best. ,e&a$se %e $s$a11y d n t & nsider $nimp rtant e5ents stress!$1# stress &an a1s be an e?&e11ent indi&at r ! t"e si)ni!i&an&e %e atta&" t an e5ent--in t"er % rds# it "i)"1i)"ts %"at is imp rtant t $s. 3e need t "a5e s me stress in $r 1i5es# b$t t m$&" ! anyt"in) &an be bad. +"e ) a1 is t "a5e stress# b$t n t an e?&ess ! it. + m$&" stress &an ta2e its t 11 n pe p1e and r)ani'ati ns. + m$&" stress 1eads t distress. Distress &a$ses an $n& m! rtab1e tensi n t"at %e try t es&ape and# pre!erab1y#
(a)e 17 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

a5 id. Listed be1 % are a !e% ! t"e & mm n si)ns ! distress y $ may !ind in y $r !e11 % s 1diers r y $rse1! %"en !a&ed %it" t m$&" stressI • Di!!i&$1ty ma2in) de&isi ns. • An)ry $tb$rsts. • F r)et!$1ness. • L % ener)y 1e5e1. • / nstant % rryin). • (r pensity ! r mista2es. • +" $)"ts ab $t deat" r s$i&ide. • +r $b1e )ettin) a1 n) %it" t"ers. • 3it"dra%in) !r m t"ers. • 0idin) !r m resp nsibi1ities. • /are1essness. As y $ &an see# stress &an be & nstr$&ti5e r destr$&ti5e. It &an en& $ra)e r dis& $ra)e# m 5e $s a1 n) r st p $s dead in $r tra&2s# and ma2e 1i!e meanin)!$1 r seemin)1y meanin)1ess. Stress &an inspire y $ t perate s$&&ess!$11y and per! rm at y $r ma?im$m e!!i&ien&y in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. It &an a1s &a$se y $ t pani& and ! r)et a11 y $r trainin). 8ey t y $r s$r5i5a1 is y $r abi1ity t mana)e t"e ine5itab1e stresses y $ %i11 en& $nter. +"e s$r5i5 r is t"e s 1dier %" % r2s %it" "is stresses instead ! 1ettin) "is stresses % r2 n "im.

S &/i/!% St&e$$"&$
Any e5ent &an 1ead t stress and# as e5ery ne "as e?perien&ed# e5ents d nFt a1%ays & me ne at a time. .!ten# stress!$1 e5ents &&$r sim$1tane $s1y. +"ese e5ents are n t stress# b$t t"ey pr d$&e it and are &a11ed Jstress rs.J Stress rs are t"e b5i $s &a$se %"i1e stress is t"e resp nse. .n&e t"e b dy re& )ni'es t"e presen&e ! a stress r# it t"en be)ins t a&t t pr te&t itse1!. In resp nse t a stress r# t"e b dy prepares eit"er t J!i)"t r !1ee.J +"is preparati n in5 15es an interna1 S.S sent t"r $)" $t t"e b dy. As t"e b dy resp nds t t"is S.S# se5era1 a&ti ns ta2e p1a&e. +"e b dy re1eases st red !$e1s Cs$)ar and !atsD t pr 5ide 4$i&2 ener)yH breat"in) rate in&reases t s$pp1y m re ?y)en t t"e b1 dH m$s&1e tensi n in&reases t prepare ! r a&ti nH b1 d &1 ttin) me&"anisms are a&ti5ated t red$&e b1eedin) !r m &$tsH senses be& me m re a&$te C"earin) be& mes m re sensiti5e# eyes be& me bi)# sme11 be& mes s"arperD s t"at y $ are m re a%are ! y $r s$rr $ndin) and "eart rate and b1 d press$re rise t pr 5ide m re b1 d t t"e m$s&1es. +"is pr te&ti5e p st$re 1ets a pers n & pe %it" p tentia1 dan)ersH " %e5er# a pers n &ann t maintain s$&" a 1e5e1 ! a1ertness inde!inite1y. Stress rs are n t & $rte $sH ne stress r d es n t 1ea5e be&a$se an t"er ne arri5es. Stress rs add $p. +"e &$m$1ati5e e!!e&t ! min r stress rs &an be a ma@ r distress i! t"ey a11 "appen t &1 se t )et"er. As t"e b dyFs resistan&e t stress %ears d %n and t"e s $r&es ! stress & ntin$e C r in&reaseD# e5ent$a11y a state ! e?"a$sti n arri5es. At t"is p int# t"e abi1ity t resist stress r $se it in a p siti5e %ay )i5es $t and si)ns ! distress appear. Anti&ipatin) stress rs and de5e1 pin) strate)ies t & pe %it" t"em are t% in)redients in t"e e!!e&ti5e mana)ement ! stress. It is t"ere! re essentia1 t"at t"e s 1dier in a s$r5i5a1 settin) be a%are ! t"e types ! stress rs "e %i11 en& $nter. LetFs ta2e a 1 2 at a !e% ! t"ese. In+ury& Illness& or ,eath In@$ry# i11ness# and deat" are rea1 p ssibi1ities a s$r5i5 r "as t !a&e. (er"aps n t"in) is m re stress!$1 t"an bein) a1 ne in an $n!ami1iar en5ir nment %"ere y $ & $1d die !r m " sti1e a&ti n# an a&&ident# r !r m eatin) s met"in) 1et"a1. I11ness and in@$ry &an a1s add t stress by 1imitin) y $r abi1ity t mane$5er# )et ! d and drin2# !ind s"e1ter# and de!end y $rse1!. -5en i! i11ness and in@$ry d nFt 1ead t deat"# t"ey add t stress t"r $)" t"e pain and dis& m! rt t"ey )enerate. It is n1y by & n-tr 11in) t"e stress ass &iated %it" t"e 5$1nerabi1ity t in@$ry# i11ness# and deat" t"at a s 1dier &an "a5e t"e & $ra)e t ta2e t"e ris2s ass &iated %it" s$r5i5a1 tas2s. Uncertainly and Lac- o$ Control S me pe p1e "a5e tr $b1e peratin) in settin)s %"ere e5eryt"in) is n t &1ear-&$t. +"e n1y )$arantee in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n is t"at n t"in) is )$aranteed. It &an be e?treme1y stress!$1 peratin) n 1imited
(a)e 19 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

in! rmati n in a settin) %"ere y $ "a5e 1imited & ntr 1 ! y $r s$rr $ndin)s. +"is $n&ertainty and 1a&2 ! & ntr 1 a1s add t t"e stress ! bein) i11# in@$red# r 2i11ed. n(iron"ent -5en $nder t"e m st idea1 &ir&$mstan&es# nat$re is 4$ite ! rmidab1e. In s$r5i5a1# a s 1dier %i11 "a5e t & ntend %it" t"e stress rs ! %eat"er# terrain# and t"e 5ariety ! &reat$res in"abitin) an area. 0eat# & 1d# rain# %inds# m $ntains# s%amps# deserts# inse&ts# dan)er $s repti1es# and t"er anima1s are @$st a !e% ! t"e &"a11en)es a%aitin) t"e s 1dier % r2in) t s$r5i5e. Dependin) n " % a s 1dier "and1es t"e stress ! "is en5ir nment# "is s$rr $ndin)s &an be eit"er a s $r&e ! ! d and pr te&ti n r &an be a &a$se ! e?treme dis& m! rt 1eadin) t in@$ry# i11ness# r deat". .unger and Thirst 3it" $t ! d and %ater a pers n %i11 %ea2en and e5ent$a11y die. +"$s# )ettin) and preser5in) ! d and %ater ta2es n in&reasin) imp rtan&e as t"e 1en)t" ! time in a s$r5i5a1 settin) in&reases. F r a s 1dier $sed t "a5in) "is pr 5isi ns iss$ed# ! ra)in) &an be a bi) s $r&e ! stress. 'atigue F r&in) y $rse1! t & ntin$e s$r5i5in) is n t easy as y $ )r % m re tired. It is p ssib1e t be& me s !ati)$ed t"at t"e a&t ! @$st stayin) a%a2e is stress!$1 in itse1!. Isolation +"ere are s me ad5anta)es t !a&in) ad5ersity %it" t"ers. As s 1diers %e 1earn indi5id$a1 s2i11s# b$t %e train t !$n&ti n as part ! a team. A1t" $)" %e# as s 1diers# & mp1ain ab $t "i)"er "ead4$arters# %e be& me $sed t t"e in! rmati n and )$idan&e it pr 5ides# espe&ia11y d$rin) times ! & n!$si n. ,ein) in & nta&t %it" t"ers a1s pr 5ides a )reater sense ! se&$rity and a !ee1in) s me ne is a5ai1ab1e t "e1p i! pr b1ems &&$r. A si)ni!i&ant stress r in s$r5i5a1 sit$ati ns is t"at !ten a pers n r team "as t re1y s 1e1y n its %n res $r&es. +"e s$r5i5a1 stress rs menti ned in t"is se&ti n are by n means t"e n1y nes y $ may !a&e. Remember# %"at is stress!$1 t ne pers n may n t be stress!$1 t an t"er. Y $r e?perien&es# trainin)# pers na1 $t1 2 n 1i!e# p"ysi&a1 and menta1 & nditi nin)# and 1e5e1 ! se1!-& n!iden&e & ntrib$te t %"at y $ %i11 !ind stress!$1 in a s$r5i5a1 en5ir nment. +"e b@e&t is n t t a5 id stress# b$t rat"er t mana)e t"e stress rs ! s$r5i5a1 and ma2e t"em % r2 ! r y $. 3e n % "a5e a )enera1 2n %1ed)e ! stress and t"e stress rs & mm n t s$r5i5a1H t"e ne?t step is t e?amine $r rea&ti ns t t"e stress rs %e may !a&e.

NATURAL R ACTIONS
Man "as been ab1e t s$r5i5e many s"i!ts in "is en5ir nment t"r $)" $t t"e &ent$ries. 0is abi1ity t adapt p"ysi&a11y and menta11y t a &"an)in) % r1d 2ept "im a1i5e %"i1e t"er spe&ies ar $nd "im )rad$a11y died !!. +"e same s$r5i5a1 me&"anisms t"at 2ept $r ! re!at"ers a1i5e &an "e1p 2eep $s a1i5e as %e11K 0 %e5er# t"ese s$r5i5a1 me&"anisms t"at &an "e1p $s &an a1s % r2 a)ainst $s i! %e d nFt $nderstand and anti&ipate t"eir presen&e. It is n t s$rprisin) t"at t"e a5era)e pers n %i11 "a5e s me psy&" 1 )i&a1 rea&ti ns in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. 3e %i11 n % e?amine s me ! t"e ma@ r interna1 rea&ti ns y $ and any ne %it" y $ mi)"t e?perien&e %it" t"e s$r5i5a1 stress rs addressed in t"e ear1ier para)rap"s. LetFs be)in. Fe!& Fear is $r em ti na1 resp nse t dan)er $s &ir&$mstan&es t"at %e be1ie5e "a5e t"e p tentia1 t &a$se deat"# in@$ry# r i11ness. +"is "arm is n t @$st 1imited t p"ysi&a1 dama)eH t"e t"reat t neFs em ti na1 and menta1 %e11-bein) &an )enerate !ear as %e11. F r t"e s 1dier tryin) t s$r5i5e# !ear &an "a5e a p siti5e !$n&ti n i! it en& $ra)es "im t be &a$ti $s in sit$ati ns %"ere re&21essness & $1d res$1t in in@$ry. Un! rt$nate1y# !ear &an a1s imm bi1i'e a pers n. It &an &a$se "im t be& me s !ri)"tened t"at "e !ai1s t per! rm a&ti5ities essentia1 ! r s$r5i5a1. M st s 1diers %i11 "a5e s me de)ree ! !ear %"en p1a&ed in $n!ami1iar s$rr $ndin)s $nder ad5erse & nditi ns. +"ere is n s"ame in t"isK -a&" s 1dier m$st train "imse1! n t t be 5er& me by "is !ears. Idea11y# t"r $)" rea1isti& trainin)# %e &an a&4$ire t"e 2n %1ed)e and s2i11s needed t in&rease $r & n!iden&e and t"ereby mana)e $r !ears. A#5iet3 Ass &iated %it" !ear is an?iety. ,e&a$se it is nat$ra1 ! r $s t be a!raid# it is a1s nat$ra1 ! r $s t e?perien&e an?iety. An?iety &an be an $neasy# appre"ensi5e !ee1in) %e )et %"en !a&ed %it" dan)er $s sit$ati ns Cp"ysi&a1# menta1# and em ti na1D. 3"en $sed in a "ea1t"y %ay# an?iety $r)es $s t a&t t end#
(a)e 16 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

r at 1east master# t"e dan)ers t"at t"reaten $r e?isten&e. I! %e %ere ne5er an?i $s# t"ere % $1d be 1itt1e m ti5ati n t ma2e &"an)es in $r 1i5es. +"e s 1dier in a s$r5i5a1 settin) red$&es "is an?iety by per! rmin) t" se tas2s t"at %i11 ens$re "is & min) t"r $)" t"e rdea1 a1i5e. As "e red$&es "is an?iety# t"e s 1dier is a1s brin)in) $nder & ntr 1 t"e s $r&e ! t"at an?iety--"is !ears. In t"is ! rm# an?iety is ) dH " %e5er# an?iety &an a1s "a5e a de5astatin) impa&t. An?iety &an 5er%"e1m a s 1dier t t"e p int %"ere "e be& mes easi1y & n!$sed and "as di!!i&$1ty t"in2in). .n&e t"is "appens# it be& mes m re and m re di!!i&$1t ! r "im t ma2e ) d @$d)ments and s $nd de&isi ns. + s$r5i5e# t"e s 1dier m$st 1earn te&"ni4$es t &a1m "is an?ieties and 2eep t"em in t"e ran)e %"ere t"ey "e1p# n t "$rt.

A#0e& !#( F& $t&!ti"#
Fr$strati n arises %"en a pers n is & ntin$a11y t"%arted in "is attempts t rea&" a ) a1. +"e ) a1 ! s$r5i5a1 is t stay a1i5e $nti1 y $ &an rea&" "e1p r $nti1 "e1p &an rea&" y $. + a&"ie5e t"is ) a1# t"e s 1dier m$st & mp1ete s me tas2s %it" minima1 res $r&es. It is ine5itab1e# in tryin) t d t"ese tas2s# t"at s met"in) %i11 ) %r n)H t"at s met"in) %i11 "appen bey nd t"e s 1dierFs & ntr 1H and t"at %it" neFs 1i!e at sta2e# e5ery mista2e is ma)ni!ied in terms ! its imp rtan&e. +"$s# s ner r 1ater# s 1diers %i11 "a5e t & pe %it" !r$strati n %"en a !e% ! t"eir p1ans r$n int tr $b1e. .ne $t)r %t" ! t"is !r$strati n is an)er. +"ere are many e5ents in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n t"at &an !r$strate r an)er a s 1dier. 6ettin) 1 st# dama)ed r ! r) tten e4$ipment# t"e %eat"er# in" spitab1e terrain# enemy patr 1s# and p"ysi&a1 1imitati ns are @$st a !e% s $r&es ! !r$strati n and an)er. Fr$strati n and an)er en& $ra)e imp$1si5e rea&ti ns# irrati na1 be"a5i r# p r1y t" $)"t- $t de&isi ns# and# in s me instan&es# an JI 4$itJ attit$de Cpe p1e s metimes a5 id d in) s met"in) t"ey &anFt masterD. I! t"e s 1dier &an "arness and pr per1y &"anne1 t"e em ti na1 intensity ass &iated %it" an)er and !r$strati n# "e &an pr d$&ti5e1y a&t as "e ans%ers t"e &"a11en)es ! s$r5i5a1. I! t"e s 1dier d es n t pr per1y ! &$s "is an)ry !ee1in)s# "e &an %aste m$&" ener)y in a&ti5ities t"at d 1itt1e t !$rt"er eit"er "is &"an&es ! s$r5i5a1 r t"e &"an&es ! t" se ar $nd "im.

Dep&e$$i"#
It % $1d be a rare pers n indeed %" % $1d n t )et sad# at 1east m mentari1y# %"en !a&ed %it" t"e pri5ati ns ! s$r5i5a1. As t"is sadness deepens# %e 1abe1 t"e !ee1in) Jdepressi n.J Depressi n is &1 se1y 1in2ed %it" !r$strati n and an)er. +"e !r$strated pers n be& mes m re and m re an)ry as "e !ai1s t rea&" "is ) a1s. I! t"e an)er d es n t "e1p t"e pers n t s$&&eed# t"en t"e !r$strati n 1e5e1 ) es e5en "i)"er. A destr$&ti5e &y&1e bet%een an)er and !r$strati n & ntin$es $nti1 t"e pers n be& mes % rn d %n-p"ysi&a11y# em ti na11y# and menta11y. 3"en a pers n rea&"es t"is p int# "e starts t )i5e $p# and "is ! &$s s"i!ts !r m J3"at &an I d J t J+"ere is n t"in) I &an d .J Depressi n is an e?pressi n ! t"is " pe1ess# "e1p1ess !ee1in). +"ere is n t"in) %r n) %it" bein) sad as y $ temp rari1y t"in2 ab $t y $r 1 5ed nes and remember %"at 1i!e is 1i2e ba&2 in J&i5i1i'ati nJ r Jt"e % r1d.J S$&" t" $)"ts# in !a&t# &an )i5e y $ t"e desire t try "arder and 1i5e ne m re day. .n t"e t"er "and# i! y $ a11 % y $rs e1! t sin2 int a depressed state# t"en it &an sap a11 y $r ener)y and# m re imp rtant# y $r %i11 t s$r5i5e. It is imperati5e t"at ea&" s 1dier resist s$&&$mbin) t depressi n.

L"#e%i#e$$ !#( B"&e("+
Man is a s &ia1 anima1. +"is means %e# as "$man bein)s# en@ y t"e & mpany ! t"ers. Very !e% pe p1e %ant t be a1 ne all the time, As y $ are a%are# t"ere is a distin&t &"an&e ! is 1ati n in a s$r5i5a1 settin). +"is is n t bad. L ne1iness and b red m &an brin) t t"e s$r!a&e 4$a1ities y $ t" $)"t n1y t"ers "ad. +"e e?tent ! y $r ima)inati n and &reati5ity may s$rprise y $. 3"en re4$ired t d s # y $ may dis& 5er s me "idden ta1ents and abi1ities. M st ! a11# y $ may tap int a reser5 ir ! inner stren)t" and ! rtit$de y $ ne5er 2ne% y $ "ad. / n5erse1y# 1 ne1iness and b red m &an be an t"er s $r&e ! depressi n. As a s 1dier s$r5i5in) a1 ne# r %it" t"ers# y $ m$st !ind %ays t 2eep y $r mind pr d$&ti5e1y &&$pied. Additi na11y# y $ m$st de5e1 p a de)ree ! se1!-s$!!i&ien&y. Y $ m$st "a5e !ait" in y $r &apabi1ity t J) it a1 ne.J
(a)e 17 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

1 i%t
+"e &ir&$mstan&es 1eadin) t y $r bein) in a s$r5i5a1 settin) are s metimes dramati& and tra)i&. It may be t"e res$1t ! an a&&ident r mi1itary missi n %"ere t"ere %as a 1 ss ! 1i!e. (er"aps y $ %ere t"e n1y# r ne ! a !e%# s$r5i5 rs. 3"i1e nat$ra11y re1ie5ed t be a1i5e# y $ sim$1tane $s1y may be m $rnin) t"e deat"s ! t"ers %" %ere 1ess ! rt$nate. It is n t $n& mm n ! r s$r5i5 rs t !ee1 )$i1ty ab $t bein) spared !r m deat" %"i1e t"ers %ere n t. +"is !ee1in)# %"en $sed in a p siti5e %ay# "as en& $ra)ed pe p1e t try "arder t s$r5i5e %it" t"e be1ie! t"ey %ere a11 %ed t 1i5e ! r s me )reater p$rp se in 1i!e. S metimes# s$r5i5 rs tried t stay a1i5e s t"at t"ey & $1d &arry n t"e % r2 ! t" se 2i11ed. 3"ate5er reas n y $ )i5e y $rse1!# d n t 1et )$i1t !ee1in)s pre5ent y $ !r m 1i5in). +"e 1i5in) %" aband n t"eir &"an&e t s$r5i5e a&& mp1is" n t"in). S$&" an a&t % $1d be t"e )reatest tra)edy.

PR PARIN/ YOURS L'
Y $r missi n as a s 1dier in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n is t stay a1i5e. As y $ &an see# y $ are ) in) t e?perien&e an ass rtment ! t" $)"ts and em ti ns. +"ese &an % r2 ! r y $# r t"ey &an % r2 t y $r d %n!a11. Fear# an?iety# an)er# !r$strati n# )$i1t# depressi n# and 1 ne1iness are a11 p ssib1e rea&ti ns t t"e many stresses & mm n t s$r5i5a1. +"ese rea&ti ns# %"en & ntr 11ed in a "ea1t"y %ay# "e1p t in&rease a s 1dierFs 1i2e1i" d ! s$r5i5in). +"ey pr mpt t"e s 1dier t pay m re attenti n in trainin)# t !i)"t ba&2 %"en s&ared# t ta2e a&ti ns t"at ens$re s$stenan&e and se&$rity# t 2eep !ait" %it" "is !e11 % s 1diers# and t stri5e a)ainst 1ar)e dds. 3"en t"e s$r5i5 r &ann t & ntr 1 t"ese rea&ti ns in a "ea1t"y %ay# t"ey &an brin) "im t a standsti11. Instead ! ra11yin) "is interna1 res $r&es# t"e s 1dier 1istens t "is interna1 !ears. +"is s 1dier e?perien&es psy&" 1 )i&a1 de!eat 1 n) be! re "e p"ysi&a11y s$&&$mbs. Remember# s$r5i5a1 is nat$ra1 t e5ery neH bein) $ne?pe&ted1y t"r$st int t"e 1i!e and deat" str$))1e ! s$r5i5a1 is n t. D nFt be a!raid ! y $r Jnat$ra1 rea&ti ns t t"is $nnat$ra1 sit$ati n.J (repare y $rse1! t r$1e 5er t"ese rea&ti ns s t"ey ser5e y $r $1timate interest--stayin) a1i5e %it" t"e " n r and di)nity ass &iated %it" bein) an Ameri&an s 1dier. It in5 15es preparati n t ens$re t"at y $r rea&ti ns in a s$r5i5a1 settin) are pr d$&ti5e# n t destr$&ti5e. +"e &"a11en)e ! s$r5i5a1 "as pr d$&ed & $nt1ess e?amp1es ! "er ism# & $ra)e# and se1!-sa&ri!i&e. +"ese are t"e 4$a1ities it &an brin) $t in y $ i! y $ "a5e prepared y $rse1!. ,e1 % are a !e% tips t "e1p prepare y $rse1! psy&" 1 )i&a11y ! r s$r5i5a1. +"r $)" st$dyin) t"is man$a1 and attendin) s$r5i5a1 trainin) y $ &an de5e1 p t"e survival attitude.

7#"2 Y" &$e%6
+"r $)" trainin)# !ami1y# and !riends ta2e t"e time t dis& 5er %" y $ are n t"e inside. Stren)t"en y $r str n)er 4$a1ities and de5e1 p t"e areas t"at y $ 2n % are ne&essary t s$r5i5e.

A#ti.ip!te Fe!&$
D nFt pretend t"at y $ %i11 "a5e n !ears. ,e)in t"in2in) ab $t %"at % $1d !ri)"ten y $ t"e m st i! ! r&ed t s$r5i5e a1 ne. +rain in t" se areas ! & n&ern t y $. +"e ) a1 is n t t e1iminate t"e !ear# b$t t b$i1d & n!iden&e in y $r abi1ity t !$n&ti n despite y $r !ears.

Be Re!%i$ti.
D nFt be a!raid t ma2e an " nest appraisa1 ! sit$ati ns. See &ir&$mstan&es as t"ey are# n t as y $ %ant t"em t be. 8eep y $r " pes and e?pe&tati ns %it"in t"e estimate ! t"e sit$ati n. 3"en y $ ) int a s$r5i5a1 settin) %it" $nrea1isti& e?pe&tati ns# y $ may be 1ayin) t"e )r $nd% r2 ! r bitter disapp intment. F 11 % t"e ada)e# J0 pe ! r t"e best# prepare ! r t"e % rst.J It is m$&" easier t ad@$st t p1easant s$rprises ab $t neFs $ne?pe&ted ) d ! rt$nes t"an t be $pset by neFs $ne?pe&ted "ars" &ir&$mstan&es.

A("pt ! P"$iti/e Attit (e
(a)e 1: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Learn t see t"e p tentia1 ) d in e5eryt"in). L 2in) ! r t"e ) e?&e11ent ! r e?er&isin) y $r ima)inati n and &reati5ity.

d n t n1y b

sts m ra1e# it a1s is

Re+i#( Y" &$e%6 *h!t I$ !t St!)e
Remember# !ai1$re t prepare y $rse1! psy&" 1 )i&a11y t & pe %it" s$r5i5a1 1eads t rea&ti ns s$&" as depressi n# &are1essness# inattenti n# 1 ss ! & n!iden&e# p r de&isi n-ma2in)# and )i5in) $p be! re t"e b dy )i5es in. At sta2e is y $r 1i!e and t"e 1i5es ! t"ers %" are dependin) n y $ t d y $r s"are.

T&!i#
+"r $)" mi1itary trainin) and 1i!e e?perien&es# be)in t day t prepare y $rse1! t & pe %it" t"e ri) rs ! s$r5i5a1. Dem nstratin) y $r s2i11s in trainin) %i11 )i5e y $ t"e & n!iden&e t &a11 $p n t"em s" $1d t"e need arise. Remember# t"e m re rea1isti& t"e trainin)# t"e 1ess 5er%"e1min) an a&t$a1 s$r5i5a1 settin) %i11 be.

Le!&# St&e$$ M!#!0e+e#t Te.h#i- e$
(e p1e $nder stress "a5e a p tentia1 t pani& i! t"ey are n t %e11-trained and n t prepared psy&" 1 )i&a11y t !a&e %"ate5er t"e &ir&$mstan&es may be. 3"i1e %e !ten &ann t & ntr 1 t"e s$r5i5a1 &ir&$mstan&es in %"i&" %e !ind $rse15es# it is %it"in $r abi1ity t & ntr 1 $r resp nse t t" se &ir&$mstan&es. Learnin) stress mana)ement te&"ni4$es &an en"an&e si)ni!i&ant1y y $r &apabi1ity t remain &a1m and ! &$sed as y $ % r2 t 2eep y $rse1! and t"ers a1i5e. A !e% ) d te&"ni4$es t de5e1 p in&1$de re1a?ati n s2i11s# time mana)ement s2i11s# asserti5eness s2i11s# and & )niti5e restr$&t$rin) s2i11s Ct"e abi1ity t & ntr 1 " % y $ 5ie% a sit$ati nD. Remember# Jt"e %i11 t s$r5i5eJ &an a1s be & nsidered t be Jt"e re!$sa1 t )i5e $p.J

(a)e 1; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 8 - SURVIVAL PLANNIN1 AND SURVIVAL 7ITS

S$r5i5a1 p1annin) is n t"in) m re t"an rea1i'in) s met"in) & $1d "appen t"at % $1d p$t y $ in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n and# %it" t"at in mind# ta2in) steps t in&rease y $r &"an&es ! s$r5i5a1. +"$s# s$r5i5a1 p1annin) means preparati n. (reparati n means "a5in) s$r5i5a1 items and 2n %in) " % t $se t"em (e p1e %" 1i5e in sn % re)i ns prepare t"eir 5e"i&1es ! r p r r ad & nditi ns. +"ey p$t sn % tires n t"eir 5e"i&1es# add e?tra %ei)"t in t"e ba&2 ! r tra&ti n# and t"ey &arry a s" 5e1# sa1t# and a b1an2et. An t"er e?amp1e ! preparati n is !indin) t"e emer)en&y e?its n an air&ra!t %"en y $ b ard it ! r a !1i)"t. (reparati n & $1d a1s mean 2n %in) y $r intended r $te ! tra5e1 and !ami1iari'in) y $rse1! %it" t"e area. Fina11y# emer)en&y p1annin) is essentia1.

I0PORTANC O' PLANNIN/
Detai1ed pri r p1annin) is essentia1 in p tentia1 s$r5i5a1 sit$ati ns. In&1$din) s$r5i5a1 & nsiderati ns in missi n p1annin) %i11 en"an&e y $r &"an&es ! s$r5i5a1 i! an emer)en&y &&$rs. F r e?amp1e# i! y $r @ b re-4$ires t"at y $ % r2 in a sma11# en&1 sed area t"at 1imits %"at y $ &an &arry n y $r pers n# p1an %"ere y $ &an p$t y $r r$&2sa&2 r y $r 1 ad-bearin) e4$ipment. ($t it %"ere it %i11 n t pre5ent y $ !r m )ettin) $t ! t"e area 4$i&21y# yet %"ere it is readi1y a&&essib1e. .ne imp rtant aspe&t ! pri r p1annin) is pre5enti5e medi&ine. -ns$rin) t"at y $ "a5e n denta1 pr b1ems and t"at y $r imm$ni'ati ns are &$rrent %i11 "e1p y $ a5 id p tentia1 denta1 r "ea1t" pr b1ems. A denta1 pr b1em in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n %i11 red$&e y $r abi1ity t & pe %it" t"er pr b1ems t"at y $ !a&e. Fai1$re t 2eep y $r s" ts &$rrent may mean y $r b dy is n t imm$ne t diseases t"at are pre5a1ent in t"e area. (reparin) and &arryin) a s$r5i5a1 2it is as imp rtant as t"e & nsiderati ns menti ned ab 5e. A11 Army air&ra!t n rma11y "a5e s$r5i5a1 2its n b ard ! r t"e type areaCsD 5er %"i&" t"ey %i11 !1y. +"ere are 2its ! r 5er-%ater s$r5i5a1# ! r " t &1imate s$r5i5a1# and an a5iat r s$r5i5a1 5est Csee Appendi? A ! r a des&ripti n ! t"ese s$r5i5a1 2its and t"eir & ntentsD. I! y $ are n t an a5iat r# y $ %i11 pr bab1y n t "a5e a&&ess t t"e s$r5i5a1 5ests r s$r5i5a1 2its. 0 %e5er# i! y $ 2n % %"at t"ese 2its & ntain# it %i11 "e1p y $ t p1an and t prepare y $r %n s$r5i5a1 2it. -5en t"e sma11est s$r5i5a1 2it# i! pr per1y prepared# is in5a1$ab1e %"en !a&ed %it" a s$r5i5a1 pr b1em. ,e! re ma2in) y $r s$r5i5a1 2it# " %e5er# & nsider y $r $nitFs missi n# t"e perati na1 en5ir nment# and t"e e4$ipment and 5e"i&1es assi)ned t y $r $nit.

SURVIVAL *ITS
+"e en5ir nment is t"e 2ey t t"e types ! items y $ %i11 need in y $r s$r5i5a1 2it. 0 % m$&" e4$ipment y $ p$t in y $r 2it depends n " % y $ %i11 &arry t"e 2it. A 2it &arried n y $r b dy %i11 "a5e t be sma11er t"an ne &arried in a 5e"i&1e. A1%ays 1ayer y $r s$r5i5a1 2it# 2eepin) t"e m st imp rtant items n y $r b dy. F r e?amp1e# y $r map and & mpass s" $1d a1%ays be n y $r b dy. /arry 1ess imp rtant items n y $r 1 ad-bearin) e4$ipment. (1a&e b$12y items in t"e r$&2sa&2. In preparin) y $r s$r5i5a1 2it# se1e&t items y $ &an $se ! r m re t"an ne p$rp se. I! y $ "a5e t% items t"at %i11 ser5e t"e same !$n&ti n# pi&2 t"e ne y $ &an $se ! r an t"er !$n&ti n. D n t d$p1i&ate items# as t"is in&reases y $r 2itFs si'e and %ei)"t. Y $r s$r5i5a1 2it need n t be e1ab rate. Y $ need n1y !$n&ti na1 items t"at %i11 meet y $r needs and a &ase t " 1d t"e items. F r t"e &ase# y $ mi)"t %ant t $se a ,and-Aid b ?# a !irst aid &ase# an amm$niti n p $&"# r an t"er s$itab1e &ase. +"is &ase s" $1d be-• 3ater repe11ent r %aterpr !.
(a)e 2< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

• • •

-asy t &arry r atta&" t y $r b dy. S$itab1e t a&&ept 5arisi'ed & mp nents. D$rab1e.

In y $r s$r5i5a1 2it# y $ s" $1d "a5e-• First aid items. • 3ater p$ri!i&ati n tab1ets r dr ps. • Fire startin) e4$ipment. • Si)na1in) items. • F d pr &$rement items. • S"e1ter items. S me e?amp1es ! t"ese items are-• Li)"ter# meta1 mat&"# %aterpr ! mat&"es. • Snare %ire. • Si)na1in) mirr r. • 3rist & mpass. • Fis" and snare 1ine. • Fis"" 2s. • /and1e. • Sma11 "and 1ens. • .?ytetra&y&1ine tab1ets Cdiarr"ea r in!e&ti nD. • 3ater p$ri!i&ati n tab1ets. • S 1ar b1an2et. • S$r)i&a1 b1ades. • ,$tter!1y s$t$res. • / nd ms ! r %ater st ra)e. • /"ap Sti&2. • Need1e and t"read. • 8ni!e. In&1$de a %eap n n1y i! t"e sit$ati n s di&tates. Read ab $t and pra&ti&e t"e s$r5i5a1 te&"ni4$es in t"is man$a1. / nsider y $r $nitFs missi n and t"e en5ir nment in %"i&" y $r $nit %i11 perate. +"en prepare y $r s$r5i5a1 2it.

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FM 21-76

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Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 9 - BASIC SURVIVAL MEDICINE

-oremost among the many problems that can compromise a survivor.s ability to return to sa!ety are medical problems resulting !rom parachute descent and landing" e+treme climates" ground combat" evasion" and illnesses contracted in captivity. /any evaders and survivors have reported di!!iculty in treating in$uries and illness due to the lack o! training and medical supplies. -or some" this led to capture or surrender. Survivors have related !eeling o! apathy and helplessness because they could not treat themselves in this environment. The ability to treat themselves increased their morale and cohesion and aided in their survival and eventual return to !riendly !orces. 0ne man with a !air amount o! basic medical knowledge can make a di!!erence in the lives o! many. ithout )uali!ied medical personnel available" it is you who must know what to do to stay alive.

R 1UIR 0 NTS 'OR 0AINT NANC O' . ALT.
+ s$r5i5e# y $ need %ater and ! d. Y $ m$st a1s "a5e and app1y "i)" pers na1 "y)iene standards.

*!te&
Y $r b dy 1 ses %ater t"r $)" n rma1 b dy pr &esses Cs%eatin)# $rinatin)# and de!e&atin)D. D$rin) a5era)e dai1y e?erti n %"en t"e atm sp"eri& temperat$re is 2< de)rees /e1si$s C/D C6: de)rees Fa"ren"eitD# t"e a5era)e ad$1t 1 ses and t"ere! re re4$ires 2 t * 1iters ! %ater dai1y. .t"er !a&t rs# s$&" as "eat e?p s$re# & 1d e?p s$re# intense a&ti5ity# "i)" a1tit$de# b$rns# r i11ness# &an &a$se y $r b dy t 1 se m re %ater. Y $ m$st rep1a&e t"is %ater. De"ydrati n res$1ts !r m inade4$ate rep1a&ement ! 1 st b dy !1$ids. It de&reases y $r e!!i&ien&y and# i! in@$red# in&reases y $r s$s&eptibi1ity t se5ere s" &2. / nsider t"e ! 11 %in) res$1ts ! b dy !1$id 1 ssI • A 9 per&ent 1 ss ! b dy !1$ids res$1ts in t"irst# irritabi1ity# na$sea# and %ea2ness. • A 1< per&ent 1 ss res$1ts in di''iness# "eada&"e# inabi1ity t %a12# and a tin)1in) sensati n in t"e 1imbs. • A 19 per&ent 1 ss res$1ts in dim 5isi n# pain!$1 $rinati n# s% 11en t n)$e# dea!ness# and a n$mb !ee1in) in t"e s2in. • A 1 ss )reater t"an 19 per&ent ! b dy !1$ids may res$1t in deat". +"e m st & mm n si)ns and sympt ms ! de"ydrati n are-• Dar2 $rine %it" a 5ery str n) d r. • L % $rine $tp$t. • Dar2# s$n2en eyes.
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FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

• • • • • •

Fati)$e. -m ti na1 instabi1ity. L ss ! s2in e1asti&ity. De1ayed &api11ary re!i11 in !in)ernai1 beds. +ren&" 1ine d %n &enter ! t n)$e. +"irst. Last n t"e 1ist be&a$se y $ are a1ready 2 per&ent de"ydrated by t"e time y $ &ra5e !1$ids.

Y $ rep1a&e t"e %ater as y $ 1 se it. +ryin) t ma2e $p a de!i&it is di!!i&$1t in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# and t"irst is n t a si)n ! " % m$&" %ater y $ need. M st pe p1e &ann t & m! rtab1y drin2 m re t"an 1 1iter ! %ater at a time. S # e5en %"en n t t"irsty# drin2 sma11 am $nts ! %ater at re)$1ar inter5a1s ea&" " $r t pre5ent de"ydrati n. I! y $ are $nder p"ysi&a1 and menta1 stress r s$b@e&t t se5ere & nditi ns# in&rease y $r %ater inta2e. Drin2 en $)" 1i4$ids t maintain a $rine $tp$t ! at 1east <.9 1iter e5ery 27 " $rs. In any sit$ati n %"ere ! d inta2e is 1 %# drin2 6 t : 1iters ! %ater per day. In an e?treme &1imate# espe&ia11y an arid ne# t"e a5era)e pers n &an 1 se 2.9 t *.9 1iters ! %ater per hour. In t"is type ! &1imate# y $ s" $1d drin2 17 t *< 1iters ! %ater per day. 3it" t"e 1 ss ! %ater t"ere is a1s a 1 ss ! e1e&tr 1ytes Cb dy sa1tsD. +"e a5era)e diet &an $s$a11y 2eep $p %it" t"ese 1 sses b$t in an e?treme sit$ati n r i11ness# additi na1 s $r&es need t be pr 5ided. A mi?t$re ! <.29 teasp n ! sa1t t 1 1iter ! %ater %i11 pr 5ide a & n&entrati n t"at t"e b dy tiss$es &an readi1y abs rb. .! a11 t"e p"ysi&a1 pr b1ems en& $ntered in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# t"e 1 ss ! %ater is t"e m st pre5entab1e. +"e ! 11 %in) are basi& )$ide1ines ! r t"e pre5enti n ! de"ydrati nI • Always drink water when eating. 3ater is $sed and & ns$med as a part ! t"e di)esti n pr &ess and &an 1ead t de"ydrati n. • Acclimati*e. +"e b dy per! rms m re e!!i&ient1y in e?treme & nditi ns %"en a&&1imati'ed. • 1onserve sweat not water. Limit s%eat-pr d$&in) a&ti5ities b$t drin2 %ater. • Ration water. Unti1 y $ !ind a s$itab1e s $r&e# rati n y $r %ater sensib1y. A dai1y inta2e ! 9<< &$bi& &entimeter C<.9 1iterD ! a s$)ar-%ater mi?t$re C2 teasp ns per 1iterD %i11 s$!!i&e t pre5ent se5ere de"ydrati n ! r at 1east a %ee2# pr 5ided y $ 2eep %ater 1 sses t a minim$m by 1imitin) a&ti5ity and "eat )ain r 1 ss. Y $ &an estimate !1$id 1 ss by se5era1 means. A standard !ie1d dressin) " 1ds ab $t <.29 1iter C ne-! $rt" &anteenD ! b1 d. A s a2ed +-s"irt " 1ds <.9 t <.79 1iter. Y $ &an a1s $se t"e p$1se and breat"in) rate t estimate !1$id 1 ss. Use t"e ! 11 %in) as a )$ideI • 3it" a <.79 1iter 1 ss t"e %rist p$1se rate %i11 be $nder 1<< beats per min$te and t"e breat"in) rate 12 t 2< breat"s per min$te. • 3it" a <.79 t 1.9 1iter 1 ss t"e p$1se rate %i11 be 1<< t 12< beats per min$te and 2< t *< breat"s per min$te. • 3it" a 1.9 t 2 1iter 1 ss t"e p$1se rate %i11 be 12< t 17< beats per min$te and *< t 7< breat"s per min$te. Vita1 si)ns ab 5e t"ese rates re4$ire m re ad5an&ed &are.

F""(
A1t" $)" y $ &an 1i5e se5era1 %ee2s %it" $t ! d# y $ need an ade4$ate am $nt t stay "ea1t"y. 3it" $t ! d y $r menta1 and p"ysi&a1 &apabi1ities %i11 deteri rate rapid1y# and y $ %i11 be& me %ea2. F d rep1enis"es t"e s$bstan&es t"at y $r b dy b$rns and pr 5ides ener)y. It pr 5ides 5itamins# minera1s# sa1ts# and t"er e1ements essentia1 t ) d "ea1t". ( ssib1y m re imp rtant# it "e1ps m ra1e. +"e t% basi& s $r&es ! ! d are p1ants and anima1s Cin&1$din) !is"D. In 5aryin) de)rees b t" pr 5ide t"e &a1 ries# &arb "ydrates# !ats# and pr teins needed ! r n rma1 dai1y b dy !$n&ti ns. /a1 ries are a meas$re ! "eat and p tentia1 ener)y. +"e a5era)e pers n needs 2#<<< &a1 ries per day t !$n&ti n at a minim$m 1e5e1. An ade4$ate am $nt ! &arb "ydrates# !ats# and pr teins %it" $t an ade4$ate &a1 ri& inta2e %i11 1ead t star5ati n and &anniba1ism ! t"e b dyFs %n tiss$e ! r ener)y.
(a)e 2* ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Plant 'oods
+"ese ! ds pr 5ide &arb "ydrates--t"e main s $r&e ! ener)y. Many p1ants pr 5ide en $)" pr tein t 2eep t"e b dy at n rma1 e!!i&ien&y. A1t" $)" p1ants may n t pr 5ide a ba1an&ed diet# t"ey %i11 s$stain y $ e5en in t"e ar&ti&# %"ere meatFs "eat-pr d$&in) 4$a1ities are n rma11y essentia1. Many p1ant ! ds s$&" as n$ts and seeds %i11 )i5e y $ en $)" pr tein and i1s ! r n rma1 e!!i&ien&y. R ts# )reen 5e)etab1es# and p1ant ! d & ntainin) nat$ra1 s$)ar %i11 pr 5ide &a1 ries and &arb "ydrates t"at )i5e t"e b dy nat$ra1 ener)y. +"e ! d 5a1$e ! p1ants be& mes m re and m re imp rtant i! y $ are e1$din) t"e enemy r i! y $ are in an area %"ere %i1d1i!e is s&ar&e. F r instan&e-• Y $ &an dry p1ants by %ind# air# s$n# r !ire. +"is retards sp i1a)e s t"at y $ &an st re r &arry t"e p1ant ! d %it" y $ t $se %"en needed. • Y $ &an btain p1ants m re easi1y and m re 4$iet1y t"an meat. +"is is e?treme1y imp rtant %"en t"e enemy is near.

Ani"al 'oods
Meat is m re n $ris"in) t"an p1ant ! d. In !a&t# it may e5en be m re readi1y a5ai1ab1e in s me p1a&es. 0 %e5er# t )et meat# y $ need t 2n % t"e "abits !# and " % t &apt$re# t"e 5ari $s %i1d1i!e. + satis!y y $r immediate ! d needs# !irst see2 t"e m re ab$ndant and m re easi1y btained %i1d1i!e# s$&" as inse&ts# &r$sta&eans# m 11$s2s# !is"# and repti1es. +"ese &an satis!y y $r immediate "$n)er %"i1e y $ are preparin) traps and snares ! r 1ar)er )ame.

Pe&$"#!% H30ie#e
In any sit$ati n# &1ean1iness is an imp rtant !a&t r in pre5entin) in!e&ti n and disease. It be& mes e5en m re imp rtant in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. ( r "y)iene &an red$&e y $r &"an&es ! s$r5i5a1. A dai1y s" %er %it" " t %ater and s ap is idea1# b$t y $ &an stay &1ean %it" $t t"is 1$?$ry. Use a &1 t" and s apy %ater t %as" y $rse1!. (ay spe&ia1 attenti n t t"e !eet# armpits# &r t&"# "ands# and "air as t"ese are prime areas ! r in!estati n and in!e&ti n. I! %ater is s&ar&e# ta2e an JairJ bat". Rem 5e as m$&" ! y $r &1 t"in) as pra&ti&a1 and e?p se y $r b dy t t"e s$n and air ! r at 1east 1 " $r. ,e &are!$1 n t t s$nb$rn. I! y $ d nFt "a5e s ap# $se as"es r sand# r ma2e s ap !r m anima1 !at and % d as"es# i! y $r sit$ati n a11 %s. + ma2e s ap-• -?tra&t )rease !r m anima1 !at by &$ttin) t"e !at int sma11 pie&es and & 2in) t"em in a p t. • Add en $)" %ater t t"e p t t 2eep t"e !at !r m sti&2in) as it & 2s. • / 2 t"e !at s1 %1y# stirrin) !re4$ent1y. • A!ter t"e !at is rendered# p $r t"e )rease int a & ntainer t "arden. • (1a&e as"es in a & ntainer %it" a sp $t near t"e b tt m. • ( $r %ater 5er t"e as"es and & 11e&t t"e 1i4$id t"at drips $t ! t"e sp $t in a separate & ntainer. +"is 1i4$id is t"e p tas" r 1ye. An t"er %ay t )et t"e 1ye is t p $r t"e s1$rry Ct"e mi?t$re ! as"es and %aterD t"r $)" a strainin) &1 t". • In a & 2in) p t# mi? t% parts )rease t ne part p tas". • (1a&e t"is mi?t$re 5er a !ire and b i1 it $nti1 it t"i&2ens. A!ter t"e mi?t$re--t"e s ap--& 1s# y $ &an $se it in t"e semi 1i4$id state dire&t1y !r m t"e p t. Y $ &an a1s p $r it int a pan# a11 % it t "arden# and &$t it int bars ! r 1ater $se.

*eep Your .ands Clean
6erms n y $r "ands &an in!e&t ! d and % $nds. 3as" y $r "ands a!ter "and1in) any materia1 t"at is 1i2e1y t &arry )erms# a!ter 5isitin) t"e 1atrine# a!ter &arin) ! r t"e si&2# and be! re "and1in) any ! d# ! d
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FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

$tensi1s# r drin2in) %ater. 8eep y $r !in)ernai1s &1 se1y trimmed and &1ean# and 2eep y $r !in)ers $t ! y $r m $t".

*eep Your .air Clean
Y $r "air &an be& me a "a5en ! r ba&teria r !1eas# 1i&e# and t"er parasites. 8eepin) y $r "air &1ean# & mbed# and trimmed "e1ps y $ a5 id t"is dan)er.

*eep Your Clothing Clean
8eep y $r &1 t"in) and beddin) as &1ean as p ssib1e t red$&e t"e &"an&e ! s2in in!e&ti n as %e11 as t de&rease t"e dan)er ! parasiti& in!estati n. /1ean y $r $ter &1 t"in) %"ene5er it be& mes s i1ed. 3ear &1ean $nder&1 t"in) and s &2s ea&" day. I! %ater is s&ar&e# JairJ &1ean y $r &1 t"in) by s"a2in)# airin)# and s$nnin) it ! r 2 " $rs. I! y $ are $sin) a s1eepin) ba)# t$rn it inside $t a!ter ea&" $se# !1$!! it# and air it.

*eep Your Teeth Clean
+" r $)"1y &1ean y $r m $t" and teet" %it" a t t"br$s" at 1east n&e ea&" day. I! y $ d nFt "a5e a t t"br$s"# ma2e a &"e%in) sti&2. Find a t%i) ab $t 2< &entimeters 1 n) and 1 &entimeter %ide. /"e% ne end ! t"e sti&2 t separate t"e !ibers. N % br$s" y $r teet" t" r $)"1y. An t"er %ay is t %rap a &1ean strip ! &1 t" ar $nd y $r !in)ers and r$b y $r teet" %it" it t %ipe a%ay ! d parti&1es. Y $ &an a1s br$s" y $r teet" %it" sma11 am $nts ! sand# ba2in) s da# sa1t# r s ap. +"en rinse y $r m $t" %it" %ater# sa1t %ater# r %i11 % bar2 tea. A1s # !1 ssin) y $r teet" %it" strin) r !iber "e1ps ra1 "y)iene. I! y $ "a5e &a5ities# y $ &an ma2e temp rary !i11in)s by p1a&in) &and1e %a?# t ba&& # aspirin# " t pepper# t t" paste r p %der# r p rti ns ! a )in)er r t int t"e &a5ity. Ma2e s$re y $ &1ean t"e &a5ity by rinsin) r pi&2in) t"e parti&1es $t ! t"e &a5ity be! re p1a&in) a !i11in) in t"e &a5ity.

Ta-e Care o$ Your 'eet
+ pre5ent seri $s ! t pr b1ems# brea2 in y $r s" es be! re %earin) t"em n any missi n. 3as" and massa)e y $r !eet dai1y. +rim y $r t enai1s strai)"t a&r ss. 3ear an ins 1e and t"e pr per si'e ! dry s &2s. ( %der and &"e&2 y $r !eet dai1y ! r b1isters. I! y $ )et a sma11 b1ister# d n t pen it. An inta&t b1ister is sa!e !r m in!e&ti n. App1y a paddin) materia1 ar $nd t"e b1ister t re1ie5e press$re and red$&e !ri&ti n. I! t"e b1ister b$rsts# treat it as an pen % $nd. /1ean and dress it dai1y and pad ar $nd it. Lea5e 1ar)e b1isters inta&t. + a5 id "a5in) t"e b1ister b$rst r tear $nder press$re and &a$se a pain!$1 and pen s re# d t"e ! 11 %in)I • .btain a se%in)-type need1e and a &1ean r steri1i'ed t"read. • R$n t"e need1e and t"read t"r $)" t"e b1ister a!ter &1eanin) t"e b1ister. • Deta&" t"e need1e and 1ea5e b t" ends ! t"e t"read "an)in) $t ! t"e b1ister. +"e t"read %i11 abs rb t"e 1i4$id inside. +"is red$&es t"e si'e ! t"e " 1e and ens$res t"at t"e " 1e d es n t &1 se $p. • (ad ar $nd t"e b1ister.

/et Su$$icient Rest
Y $ need a &ertain am $nt ! rest t 2eep ) in). (1an ! r re)$1ar rest peri ds ! at 1east 1< min$tes per " $r d$rin) y $r dai1y a&ti5ities. Learn t ma2e y $rse1! & m! rtab1e $nder 1ess t"an idea1 & nditi ns. A &"an)e !r m menta1 t p"ysi&a1 a&ti5ity r 5i&e 5ersa &an be re!res"in) %"en time r sit$ati n d es n t permit t ta1 re1a?ati n.

*eep Ca"p Site Clean
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D n t s i1 t"e )r $nd in t"e &amp site area %it" $rine r !e&es. Use 1atrines# i! a5ai1ab1e. 3"en 1atrines are n t a5ai1ab1e# di) J&at " 1esJ and & 5er t"e %aste. / 11e&t drin2in) %ater $pstream !r m t"e &amp site. ($ri!y a11 %ater.

0 ,ICAL 0 R/ NCI S
Medi&a1 pr b1ems and emer)en&ies y $ may be !a&ed %it" in&1$de breat"in) pr b1ems# se5ere b1eedin)# and s" &2.

B&e!thi#0 P&",%e+$
Any ne ! t"e ! 11 %in) &an &a$se air%ay bstr$&ti n# res$1tin) in st pped breat"in)I • F rei)n matter in m $t" ! t"r at t"at bstr$&ts t"e penin) t t"e tra&"ea. • Fa&e r ne&2 in@$ries. • In!1ammati n and s%e11in) ! m $t" and t"r at &a$sed by in"a1in) sm 2e# !1ames# and irritatin) 5ap rs r by an a11er)i& rea&ti n. • J8in2J in t"e t"r at C&a$sed by t"e ne&2 bent ! r%ard s t"at t"e &"in rests $p n t"e &"estD may b1 &2 t"e passa)e ! air. • + n)$e b1 &2s passa)e ! air t t"e 1$n)s $p n $n& ns&i $sness. 3"en an indi5id$a1 is $n& ns&i $s# t"e m$s&1es ! t"e 1 %er @a% and t n)$e re1a? as t"e ne&2 dr ps ! r%ard# &a$sin) t"e 1 %er @a% t sa) and t"e t n)$e t dr p ba&2 and b1 &2 t"e passa)e ! air.

Se/e&e B%ee(i#0
Se5ere b1eedin) !r m any ma@ r b1 d 5esse1 in t"e b dy is e?treme1y dan)er $s. +"e 1 ss ! 1 1iter ! b1 d %i11 pr d$&e m derate sympt ms ! s" &2. +"e 1 ss ! 2 1iters %i11 pr d$&e a se5ere state ! s" &2 t"at p1a&es t"e b dy in e?treme dan)er. +"e 1 ss ! * 1iters is $s$a11y !ata1.

Sh".)
S" &2 Ca&$te stress rea&ti nD is n t a disease in itse1!. It is a &1ini&a1 & nditi n &"ara&teri'ed by sympt ms t"at arise %"en &ardia& $tp$t is ins$!!i&ient t !i11 t"e arteries %it" b1 d $nder en $)" press$re t pr 5ide an ade4$ate b1 d s$pp1y t t"e r)ans and tiss$es.

LI' SAVIN/ ST PS
/ ntr 1 pani&# b t" y $r %n and t"e 5i&timFs. Reass$re "im and try t 2eep "im 4$iet. (er! rm a rapid p"ysi&a1 e?am. L 2 ! r t"e &a$se ! t"e in@$ry and ! 11 % t"e A,/s ! !irst aid# startin) %it" t"e air%ay and breat"in)# b$t be dis&ernin). A pers n may die !r m arteria1 b1eedin) m re 4$i&21y t"an !r m an air%ay bstr$&ti n in s me &ases.

Ope# Ai&2!3 !#( M!i#t!i#
Y $ &an pen an air%ay and maintain it by $sin) t"e ! 11 %in) steps. Step 2. /"e&2 i! t"e 5i&tim "as a partia1 r & mp1ete air%ay bstr$&ti n. I! "e &an & $)" r spea2# a11 % "im t &1ear t"e bstr$&ti n nat$ra11y. Stand by# reass$re t"e 5i&tim# and be ready t &1ear "is air%ay and per! rm m $t"-t -m $t" res$s&itati n s" $1d "e be& me $n& ns&i $s. I! "is air%ay is & mp1ete1y bstr$&ted# administer abd mina1 t"r$sts $nti1 t"e bstr$&ti n is &1eared. Step 3. Usin) a !in)er# 4$i&21y s%eep t"e 5i&timFs m $t" &1ear ! any ! rei)n b@e&ts# br 2en teet"# dent$res# sand. Step 4. Usin) t"e @a% t"r$st met" d# )rasp t"e an)1es ! t"e 5i&timFs 1 %er @a% and 1i!t %it" b t" "ands# ne n ea&" side# m 5in) t"e @a% ! r%ard. F r stabi1ity# rest y $r e1b %s n t"e s$r!a&e n %"i&" t"e 5i&tim is 1yin). I! "is 1ips are &1 sed# )ent1y pen t"e 1 %er 1ip %it" y $r t"$mb CFi)$re 7-1D.
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Step 5. 3it" t"e 5i&timFs air%ay pen# pin&" "is n se &1 sed %it" y $r t"$mb and ! re!in)er and b1 % t% & mp1ete breat"s int "is 1$n)s. A11 % t"e 1$n)s t de!1ate a!ter t"e se& nd in!1ati n and per! rm t"e ! 11 %in)I • Look ! r "is &"est t rise and !a11. • Listen ! r es&apin) air d$rin) e?"a1ati n. • -eel ! r !1 % ! air n y $r &"ee2. Step 6. I! t"e ! r&ed breat"s d n t stim$1ate sp ntane $s breat"in)# maintain t"e 5i&timFs breat"in) by per! rmin) m $t"-t -m $t" res$s&itati n. Step 7. +"ere is dan)er ! t"e 5i&tim 5 mitin) d$rin) m $t"-t -m $t" res$s&itati n. /"e&2 t"e 5i&timFs m $t" peri di&a11y ! r 5 mit and &1ear as needed. 8ote9 1ardiopulmonary resuscitation &1:R' may be necessary a!ter cleaning the airway" but only a!ter ma$or bleeding is under control. See -/ 32%3;" the American (eart Association manual" the Red 1ross manual" or most other !irst aid books !or detailed instructions on 1:R.

C"#t&"% B%ee(i#0
In a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# y $ m$st & ntr 1 seri $s b1eedin) immediate1y be&a$se rep1a&ement !1$ids n rma11y are n t a5ai1ab1e and t"e 5i&tim &an die %it"in a matter ! min$tes. -?terna1 b1eedin) !a11s int t"e ! 11 %in) &1assi!i&ati ns Ca&& rdin) t its s $r&eDI • Arterial. ,1 d 5esse1s &a11ed arteries &arry b1 d a%ay !r m t"e "eart and t"r $)" t"e b dy. A &$t artery iss$es bright red b1 d !r m t"e % $nd in distinct spurts r p$1ses t"at & rresp nd t t"e r"yt"m ! t"e "eartbeat. ,e&a$se t"e b1 d in t"e arteries is $nder "i)" press$re# an indi5id$a1 &an 1 se a 1ar)e 5 1$me ! b1 d in a s" rt peri d %"en dama)e t an artery ! si)ni!i&ant si'e &&$rs. +"ere! re# arteria1 b1eedin) is t"e m st seri $s type ! b1eedin). I! n t & ntr 11ed pr mpt1y# it &an be !ata1. • Venous. Ven $s b1 d is b1 d t"at is ret$rnin) t t"e "eart t"r $)" b1 d 5esse1s &a11ed 5eins. A steady !1 % ! dark red" maroon" or bluish blood &"ara&teri'es b1eedin) !r m a 5ein. Y $ &an $s$a11y & ntr 1 5en $s b1eedin) m re easi1y t"an arteria1 b1eedin). • 1apillary. +"e &api11aries are t"e e?treme1y sma11 5esse1s t"at & nne&t t"e arteries %it" t"e 5eins. /api11ary b1eedin) m st & mm n1y &&$rs in min r &$ts and s&rapes. +"is type ! b1eedin) is n t di!!i&$1t t & ntr 1. Y $ &an & ntr 1 e?terna1 b1eedin) by dire&t press$re# indire&t Cpress$re p intsD press$re# e1e5ati n# di)ita1 1i)ati n# r t $rni4$et.

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,irect Pressure
+"e m st e!!e&ti5e %ay t & ntr 1 e?terna1 b1eedin) is by app1yin) press$re dire&t1y 5er t"e % $nd. +"is press$re m$st n t n1y be !irm en $)" t st p t"e b1eedin)# b$t it m$st a1s be maintained 1 n) en $)" t Jsea1 !!J t"e dama)ed s$r!a&e. I! b1eedin) & ntin$es a!ter "a5in) app1ied dire&t press$re ! r *< min$tes# app1y a press$re dressin). +"is dressin) & nsists ! a t"i&2 dressin) ! )a$'e r t"er s$itab1e materia1 app1ied dire&t1y 5er t"e % $nd and "e1d in p1a&e %it" a ti)"t1y %rapped banda)e CFi)$re 7-2D. It s" $1d be ti)"ter t"an an rdinary & mpressi n banda)e b$t n t s ti)"t t"at it impairs &ir&$1ati n t t"e rest ! t"e 1imb. .n&e y $ app1y t"e dressin)# do not remove it" e5en %"en t"e dressin) be& mes b1 d s a2ed.

Lea5e t"e press$re dressin) in p1a&e ! r 1 r 2 days# a!ter %"i&" y $ &an rem 5e and rep1a&e it %it" a sma11er dressin). In t"e 1 n)-term s$r5i5a1 en5ir nment# ma2e !res"# dai1y dressin) &"an)es and inspe&t ! r si)ns ! in!e&ti n.

le(ation
Raisin) an in@$red e?tremity as "i)" as p ssib1e ab 5e t"e "eartFs 1e5e1 s1 %s b1 d 1 ss by aidin) t"e ret$rn ! b1 d t t"e "eart and 1 %erin) t"e b1 d press$re at t"e % $nd. 0 %e5er# e1e5ati n a1 ne %i11
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Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

n t & ntr 1 b1eedin) entire1yH y $ m$st a1s app1y dire&t press$re 5er t"e % $nd. 3"en treatin) a sna2ebite# " %e5er# 2eep t"e e?tremity 1 %er t"an t"e "eart.

Pressure Points
A press$re p int is a 1 &ati n %"ere t"e main artery t t"e % $nd 1ies near t"e s$r!a&e ! t"e s2in r %"ere t"e artery passes dire&t1y 5er a b ny pr minen&e CFi)$re 7-*D. Y $ &an $se di)ita1 press$re n a press$re p int t s1 % arteria1 b1eedin) $nti1 t"e app1i&ati n ! a press$re dressin). (ress$re p int & ntr 1 is n t as e!!e&ti5e ! r & ntr 11in) b1eedin) as dire&t press$re e?erted n t"e % $nd. It is rare %"en a sin)1e ma@ r & mpressib1e artery s$pp1ies a dama)ed 5esse1.

I! y $ &ann t remember t"e e?a&t 1 &ati n ! t"e press$re p ints# ! 11 % t"is r$1eI App1y press$re at t"e end ! t"e @ int @$st ab 5e t"e in@$red area. .n "ands# !eet# and "ead# t"is %i11 be t"e %rist# an21e# and ne&2# respe&ti5e1y. *ARNIN1 Use &a$ti n %"en app1yin) press$re t t"e ne&2. + m$&" press$re ! r t 1 n) may &a$se $n& ns&i $sness r deat". Ne5er p1a&e a t $rni4$et ar $nd t"e ne&2. Maintain press$re p ints by p1a&in) a r $nd sti&2 in t"e @ int# bendin) t"e @ int 5er t"e sti&2# and t"en 2eepin) it ti)"t1y bent by 1as"in). ,y $sin) t"is met" d t maintain press$re# it !rees y $r "ands t % r2 in t"er areas.

,igital Ligation
Y $ &an st p ma@ r b1eedin) immediate1y r s1 % it d %n by app1yin) press$re %it" a !in)er r t% n t"e b1eedin) end ! t"e 5ein r artery. Maintain t"e press$re $nti1 t"e b1eedin) st ps r s1 %s d %n en $)" t app1y a press$re banda)e# e1e5ati n# and s ! rt".

Tourni!uet

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Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Use a t $rni4$et n1y %"en dire&t press$re 5er t"e b1eedin) p int and a11 t"er met" ds did n t & ntr 1 t"e b1eedin). I! y $ 1ea5e a t $rni4$et in p1a&e t 1 n)# t"e dama)e t t"e tiss$es &an pr )ress t )an)rene# %it" a 1 ss ! t"e 1imb 1ater. An impr per1y app1ied t $rni4$et &an a1s &a$se permanent dama)e t ner5es and t"er tiss$es at t"e site ! t"e & nstri&ti n. I! y $ m$st $se a t $rni4$et# p1a&e it ar $nd t"e e?tremity# bet%een t"e % $nd and t"e "eart# 9 t 1< &entimeters ab 5e t"e % $nd site CFi)$re 7-7D. Ne5er p1a&e it dire&t1y 5er t"e % $nd r a !ra&t$re. Use a sti&2 as a "and1e t ti)"ten t"e t $rni4$et and ti)"ten it n1y en $)" t st p b1 d !1 %. 3"en y $ "a5e ti)"tened t"e t $rni4$et# bind t"e !ree end ! t"e sti&2 t t"e 1imb t pre5ent $n%indin).

A!ter y $ se&$re t"e t $rni4$et# &1ean and banda)e t"e % $nd. A 1 ne s$r5i5 r ("e$ #"t rem 5e r re1ease an app1ied t $rni4$et. In a b$ddy system# " %e5er# t"e b$ddy &an re1ease t"e t $rni4$et press$re e5ery 1< t 19 min$tes ! r 1 r 2 min$tes t 1et b1 d !1 % t t"e rest ! t"e e?tremity t pre5ent 1imb 1 ss.

P&e/e#t !#( T&e!t Sh".)
(a)e *< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Anti&ipate s" &2 in a11 in@$red pers nne1. +reat a11 in@$red pers ns as ! 11 %s# re)ard1ess ! %"at sympt ms appear CFi)$re 7-9DI • I! t"e 5i&tim is & ns&i $s# p1a&e "im n a 1e5e1 s$r!a&e %it" t"e 1 %er e?tremities e1e5ated 19 t 2< &entimeters. • I! t"e 5i&tim is $n& ns&i $s# p1a&e "im n "is side r abd men %it" "is "ead t$rned t ne side t pre5ent &" 2in) n 5 mit# b1 d# r t"er !1$ids. • I! y $ are $ns$re ! t"e best p siti n# p1a&e t"e 5i&tim per!e&t1y !1at. .n&e t"e 5i&tim is in a s" &2 p siti n# d n t m 5e "im. • Maintain b dy "eat by ins$1atin) t"e 5i&tim !r m t"e s$rr $ndin)s and# in s me instan&es# app1yin) e?terna1 "eat. • I! %et# rem 5e a11 t"e 5i&timFs %et &1 t"in) as s n as p ssib1e and rep1a&e %it" dry &1 t"in). • Impr 5ise a s"e1ter t ins$1ate t"e 5i&tim !r m t"e %eat"er. • Use %arm 1i4$ids r ! ds# a pre%armed s1eepin) ba)# an t"er pers n# %armed %ater in &anteens# " t r &2s %rapped in &1 t"in)# r !ires n eit"er side ! t"e 5i&tim t pr 5ide e?terna1 %armt". • I! t"e 5i&tim is & ns&i $s# s1 %1y administer sma11 d ses ! a %arm sa1t r s$)ar s 1$ti n# i! a5ai1ab1e. • I! t"e 5i&tim is $n& ns&i $s r "as abd mina1 % $nds# d n t )i5e !1$ids by m $t". • 0a5e t"e 5i&tim rest ! r at 1east 27 " $rs. • I! y $ are a 1 ne s$r5i5 r# 1ie in a depressi n in t"e )r $nd# be"ind a tree# r any t"er p1a&e $t ! t"e %eat"er# %it" y $r "ead 1 %er t"an y $r !eet. • I! y $ are %it" a b$ddy# reassess y $r patient & nstant1y.

(a)e *1 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

#ON AN, 2OINT IN2URY
Y $ & $1d !a&e b ne and @ int in@$ries t"at in&1$de !ra&t$res# dis1 &ati ns# and sprains.

F&!.t &e$
+"ere are basi&a11y t% types ! !ra&t$resI pen and &1 sed. 3it" an pen C r & mp $ndD !ra&t$re# t"e b ne pr tr$des t"r $)" t"e s2in and & mp1i&ates t"e a&t$a1 !ra&t$re %it" an pen % $nd. A!ter settin) t"e !ra&t$re# treat t"e % $nd as any t"er pen % $nd. +"e &1 sed !ra&t$re "as n pen % $nds. F 11 % t"e )$ide1ines ! r imm bi1i'ati n# and set and sp1int t"e !ra&t$re. +"e si)ns and sympt ms ! a !ra&t$re are pain# tenderness# dis& 1 rati n# s%e11in) de! rmity# 1 ss ! !$n&ti n# and )ratin) Ca s $nd r !ee1in) t"at &&$rs %"en br 2en b ne ends r$b t )et"erD.
(a)e *2 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+"e dan)ers %it" a !ra&t$re are t"e se5erin) r t"e & mpressi n ! a ner5e r b1 d 5esse1 at t"e site ! !ra&t$re. F r t"is reas n minim$m manip$1ati n s" $1d be d ne# and n1y 5ery &a$ti $s1y. I! y $ n ti&e t"e area be1 % t"e brea2 be& min) n$mb# s% 11en# & 1 t t"e t $&"# r t$rnin) pa1e# and t"e 5i&tim s" %s si)ns ! s" &2# a ma@ r 5esse1 may "a5e been se5ered. Y $ m$st & ntr 1 t"is interna1 b1eedin). Rest t"e 5i&tim ! r s" &2# and rep1a&e 1 st !1$ids. .!ten y $ m$st maintain tra&ti n d$rin) t"e sp1intin) and "ea1in) pr &ess. Y $ &an e!!e&ti5e1y p$11 sma11er b nes s$&" as t"e arm r 1 %er 1e) by "and. Y $ &an &reate tra&ti n by %ed)in) a "and r ! t in t"e V-n t&" ! a tree and p$s"in) a)ainst t"e tree %it" t"e t"er e?tremity. Y $ &an t"en sp1int t"e brea2. Very str n) m$s&1es " 1d a br 2en t"i)"b ne C!em$rD in p1a&e ma2in) it di!!i&$1t t maintain tra&ti n d$rin) "ea1in). Y $ &an ma2e an impr 5ised tra&ti n sp1int $sin) nat$ra1 materia1 CFi)$re 7-6D as ! 11 %sI • 6et t% ! r2ed bran&"es r sap1in)s at 1east 9 &entimeters in diameter. Meas$re ne !r m t"e patientFs armpit t 2< t *< &entimeters past "is $nbr 2en 1e). Meas$re t"e t"er !r m t"e )r in t 2< t *< &entimeters past t"e $nbr 2en 1e). -ns$re t"at b t" e?tend an e4$a1 distan&e bey nd t"e end ! t"e 1e). • (ad t"e t% sp1ints. N t&" t"e ends %it" $t ! r2s and 1as" a 2<- t *<-&entimeter &r ss member made !r m a 9-&entimeter diameter bran&" bet%een t"em. Usin) a5ai1ab1e materia1 C5ines# &1 t"# ra%"ideD# tie t"e sp1int ar $nd t"e $pper p rti n ! t"e b dy and d %n t"e 1en)t" ! t"e br 2en 1e). F 11 % t"e sp1intin) )$ide1ines. • 3it" a5ai1ab1e materia1# !as"i n a %rap t"at %i11 e?tend ar $nd t"e an21e# %it" t"e t% !ree ends tied t t"e &r ss member. • (1a&e a 1<- by 2.9-&entimeter sti&2 in t"e midd1e ! t"e !ree ends ! t"e an21e %rap bet%een t"e &r ss member and t"e ! t. Usin) t"e sti&2# t%ist t"e materia1 t ma2e t"e tra&ti n easier. • / ntin$e t%istin) $nti1 t"e br 2en 1e) is as 1 n) r s1i)"t1y 1 n)er t"an t"e $nbr 2en 1e). • Las" t"e sti&2 t maintain tra&ti n. 8ote9 0ver time you may lose traction because the material weakened. 1heck the traction periodically. I! you must change or repair the splint" maintain the traction manually !or a short time.

(a)e ** ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Di$%".!ti"#$
Dis1 &ati ns are t"e separati ns ! b ne @ ints &a$sin) t"e b nes t ) $t ! pr per a1i)nment. +"ese misa1i)nments &an be e?treme1y pain!$1 and &an &a$se an impairment ! ner5e r &ir&$1at ry !$n&ti n be1 % t"e area a!!e&ted. Y $ m$st p1a&e t"ese @ ints ba&2 int a1i)nment as 4$i&21y as p ssib1e. Si)ns and sympt ms ! dis1 &ati ns are @ int pain# tenderness# s%e11in)# dis& 1 rati n# 1imited ran)e ! m ti n# and de! rmity ! t"e @ int. Y $ treat dis1 &ati ns by red$&ti n# imm bi1i'ati n# and re"abi1itati n. Red$&ti n r Jsettin)J is p1a&in) t"e b nes ba&2 int t"eir pr per a1i)nment. Y $ &an $se se5era1 met" ds# b$t man$a1 tra&ti n r t"e $se ! %ei)"ts t p$11 t"e b nes are t"e sa!est and easiest. .n&e per! rmed# red$&ti n de&reases t"e 5i&timFs pain and a11 %s ! r n rma1 !$n&ti n and &ir&$1ati n. 3it" $t an B ray# y $ &an @$d)e pr per a1i)nment by t"e 1 2 and !ee1 ! t"e @ int and by & mparin) it t t"e @ int n t"e pp site side. Imm bi1i'ati n is n t"in) m re t"an sp1intin) t"e dis1 &ati n a!ter red$&ti n. Y $ &an $se any !ie1de?pedient materia1 ! r a sp1int r y $ &an sp1int an e?tremity t t"e b dy. +"e basi& )$ide1ines ! r sp1intin) are-• Sp1int ab 5e and be1 % t"e !ra&t$re site. • (ad sp1ints t red$&e dis& m! rt. • /"e&2 &ir&$1ati n be1 % t"e !ra&t$re a!ter ma2in) ea&" tie n t"e sp1int. + re"abi1itate t"e dis1 &ati n# rem 5e t"e sp1ints a!ter 7 t 17 days. 6rad$a11y $se t"e in@$red @ int $nti1 !$11y "ea1ed.

Sp&!i#$
+"e a&&identa1 5erstret&"in) ! a tend n r 1i)ament &a$ses sprains. +"e si)ns and sympt ms are pain# s%e11in)# tenderness# and dis& 1 rati n Cb1a&2 and b1$eD. 3"en treatin) sprains# t"in2 RI/--R Rest in@$red area. I / I&e ! r 27 " $rs# t"en "eat a!ter t"at. / mpressi n-%rappin) andE r sp1intin) t "e1p stabi1i'e. I! p ssib1e# 1ea5e t"e b sprained an21e $n1ess &ir&$1ati n is & mpr mised. -1e5ati n ! t"e a!!e&ted area. t na

#IT S AN, STIN/S
Inse&ts and re1ated pests are "a'ards in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. +"ey n t n1y &a$se irritati ns# b$t t"ey are !ten &arriers ! diseases t"at &a$se se5ere a11er)i& rea&ti ns in s me indi5id$a1s. In many parts ! t"e % r1d y $ %i11 be e?p sed t seri $s# e5en !ata1# diseases n t en& $ntered in t"e United States. Ticks &an &arry and transmit diseases# s$&" as R &2y M $ntain sp tted !e5er & mm n in many parts ! t"e United States. +i&2s a1s transmit t"e Lyme disease. /os)uitoes may &arry ma1aria# den)$e# and many t"er diseases. -lies &an spread disease !r m & nta&t %it" in!e&ti $s s $r&es. +"ey are &a$ses ! s1eepin) si&2ness# typ" id# &" 1era# and dysentery. -leas &an transmit p1a)$e. Lice &an transmit typ"$s and re1apsin) !e5er. +"e best %ay t a5 id t"e & mp1i&ati ns ! inse&t bites and stin)s is t 2eep imm$ni'ati ns Cin&1$din) b ster s" tsD $p-t -date# a5 id inse&t-in!ested areas# $se nettin) and inse&t repe11ent# and %ear a11 &1 t"in) pr per1y.
(a)e *7 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

I! y $ )et bitten r st$n)# d n t s&rat&" t"e bite r stin)# it mi)"t be& me in!e&ted. Inspe&t y $r b dy at 1east n&e a day t ens$re t"ere are n inse&ts atta&"ed t y $. I! y $ !ind ti&2s atta&"ed t y $r b dy# & 5er t"em %it" a s$bstan&e# s$&" as Vase1ine# "ea5y i1# r tree sap# t"at %i11 &$t !! t"eir air s$pp1y. 3it" $t air# t"e ti&2 re1eases its " 1d# and y $ &an rem 5e it. +a2e &are t rem 5e t"e %" 1e ti&2. Use t%ee'ers i! y $ "a5e t"em. 6rasp t"e ti&2 %"ere t"e m $t" parts are atta&"ed t t"e s2in. D n t s4$ee'e t"e ti&2Fs b dy. 3as" y $r "ands a!ter t $&"in) t"e ti&2. /1ean t"e ti&2 % $nd dai1y $nti1 "ea1ed.

T&e!t+e#t
It is imp ssib1e t 1ist t"e treatment ! a11 t"e di!!erent types ! bites and stin)s. +reat bites and stin)s as ! 11 %sI • I! antibi ti&s are a5ai1ab1e ! r y $r $se# be& me !ami1iar %it" t"em be! re dep1 yment and $se t"em. • (redep1 yment imm$ni'ati ns &an pre5ent m st ! t"e & mm n diseases &arried by m s4$it es and s me &arried by !1ies. • +"e & mm n !1y-b rne diseases are $s$a11y treatab1e %it" peni&i11ins r eryt"r my&in. • M st ti&2-# !1ea-# 1 $se-# and mite-b rne diseases are treatab1e %it" tetra&y&1ine. • M st antibi ti&s & me in 29< mi11i)ram Cm)D r 9<< m) tab1ets. I! y $ &ann t remember t"e e?a&t d se rate t treat a disease# 2 tab1ets# 7 times a day ! r 1< t 17 days %i11 $s$a11y 2i11 any ba&teria.

Bee !#( *!$p Sti#0$
I! st$n) by a bee# immediate1y rem 5e t"e stin)er and 5en m sa&# i! atta&"ed# by s&rapin) %it" a !in)ernai1 r a 2ni!e b1ade. D n t s4$ee'e r )rasp t"e stin)er r 5en m sa&# as s4$ee'in) %i11 ! r&e m re 5en m int t"e % $nd. 3as" t"e stin) site t" r $)"1y %it" s ap and %ater t 1essen t"e &"an&e ! a se& ndary in!e&ti n. I! y $ 2n % r s$spe&t t"at y $ are a11er)i& t inse&t stin)s# a1%ays &arry an inse&t stin) 2it %it" y $. Re1ie5e t"e it&"in) and dis& m! rt &a$sed by inse&t bites by app1yin)-• / 1d & mpresses. • A & 1in) paste ! m$d and as"es. • Sap !r m dande1i ns. • / & n$t meat. • /r$s"ed &1 5es ! )ar1i&. • .ni n.

Spi(e& Bite$ !#( S."&pi"# Sti#0$
+"e b1a&2 %id % spider is identi!ied by a red " $r)1ass n its abd men. .n1y t"e !ema1e bites# and it "as a ne$r t ?i& 5en m. +"e initia1 pain is n t se5ere# b$t se5ere 1 &a1 pain rapid1y de5e1 ps. +"e pain )rad$a11y spreads 5er t"e entire b dy and sett1es in t"e abd men and 1e)s. Abd mina1 &ramps and pr )ressi5e na$sea# 5 mitin)# and a ras" may &&$r. 3ea2ness# trem rs# s%eatin)# and sa1i5ati n may &&$r. Anap"y1a&ti& rea&ti ns &an &&$r. Sympt ms be)in t re)ress a!ter se5era1 " $rs and are $s$a11y ) ne in a !e% days. +"reat ! r s" &2. ,e ready t per! rm /(R. /1ean and dress t"e bite area t red$&e t"e ris2 ! in!e&ti n. An anti5enin is a5ai1ab1e. +"e !$nne1%eb spider is a 1ar)e br %n r )ray spider ! $nd in A$stra1ia. +"e sympt ms and t"e treatment ! r its bite are as ! r t"e b1a&2 %id % spider. +"e br %n " $se spider r br %n re&1$se spider is a sma11# 1i)"t br %n spider identi!ied by a dar2 br %n 5i 1in n its ba&2. +"ere is n pain# r s 1itt1e pain# t"at $s$a11y a 5i&tim is n t a%are ! t"e bite. 3it"in a !e% " $rs a pain!$1 red area %it" a m tt1ed &yan ti& &enter appears. Ne&r sis d es n t &&$r in a11 bites# b$t $s$a11y in * t 7 days# a star-s"aped# !irm area ! deep p$rp1e dis& 1 rati n appears at t"e bite site. +"e area t$rns dar2 and m$mmi!ied in a %ee2 r t% . +"e mar)ins separate and t"e s&ab !a11s !!# 1ea5in) an pen $1&er. Se& ndary in!e&ti n and re)i na1 s% 11en 1ymp" )1ands $s$a11y be& me 5isib1e at t"is sta)e. +"e $tstandin) &"ara&teristi& ! t"e br %n re&1$se bite is an $1&er t"at d es n t "ea1 b$t
(a)e *9 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

persists ! r %ee2s r m nt"s. In additi n t t"e $1&er# t"ere is !ten a systemi& rea&ti n t"at is seri $s and may 1ead t deat". Rea&ti ns C!e5er# &"i11s# @ int pain# 5 mitin)# and a )enera1i'ed ras"D &&$r &"ie!1y in &"i1dren r debi1itated pers ns. +arant$1as are 1ar)e# "airy spiders ! $nd main1y in t"e tr pi&s. M st d n t in@e&t 5en m# b$t s me S $t" Ameri&an spe&ies d . +"ey "a5e 1ar)e !an)s. I! bitten# pain and b1eedin) are &ertain# and in!e&ti n is 1i2e1y. +reat a tarant$1a bite as ! r any pen % $nd# and try t pre5ent in!e&ti n. I! sympt ms ! p is nin) appear# treat as ! r t"e bite ! t"e b1a&2 %id % spider. S& rpi ns are a11 p is n $s t a )reater r 1esser de)ree. +"ere are t% di!!erent rea&ti ns# dependin) n t"e spe&iesI • Se5ere 1 &a1 rea&ti n n1y# %it" pain and s%e11in) ar $nd t"e area ! t"e stin). ( ssib1e pri&21y sensati n ar $nd t"e m $t" and a t"i&2-!ee1in) t n)$e. • Se5ere systemi& rea&ti n# %it" 1itt1e r n 5isib1e 1 &a1 rea&ti n. L &a1 pain may be present. Systemi& rea&ti n in&1$des respirat ry di!!i&$1ties# t"i&2-!ee1in) t n)$e# b dy spasms# dr 1in)# )astri& distenti n# d $b1e 5isi n# b1indness# in5 1$ntary rapid m 5ement ! t"e eyeba11s# in5 1$ntary $rinati n and de!e&ati n# and "eart !ai1$re. Deat" is rare# &&$rrin) main1y in &"i1dren and ad$1ts %it" "i)" b1 d press$re r i11nesses. +reat s& rpi n stin)s as y $ % $1d a b1a&2 %id % bite.

S#!)e,ite$
+"e &"an&e ! a sna2ebite in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n is rat"er sma11# i! y $ are !ami1iar %it" t"e 5ari $s types ! sna2es and t"eir "abitats. 0 %e5er# it & $1d "appen and y $ s" $1d 2n % " % t treat a sna2ebite. Deat"s !r m sna2ebites are rare. M re t"an ne-"a1! ! t"e sna2ebite 5i&tims "a5e 1itt1e r n p is nin)# and n1y ab $t ne-4$arter de5e1 p seri $s systemi& p is nin). 0 %e5er# t"e &"an&e ! a sna2ebite in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n &an a!!e&t m ra1e# and !ai1$re t ta2e pre5enti5e meas$res r !ai1$re t treat a sna2ebite pr per1y &an res$1t in need1ess tra)edy. +"e primary & n&ern in t"e treatment ! sna2ebite is t 1imit t"e am $nt ! e5ent$a1 tiss$e destr$&ti n ar $nd t"e bite area. A bite % $nd# re)ard1ess ! t"e type ! anima1 t"at in!1i&ted it# &an be& me in!e&ted !r m ba&teria in t"e anima1Fs m $t". 3it" n np is n $s as %e11 as p is n $s sna2ebites# t"is 1 &a1 in!e&ti n is resp nsib1e ! r a 1ar)e part ! t"e resid$a1 dama)e t"at res$1ts. Sna2e 5en ms n t n1y & ntain p is ns t"at atta&2 t"e 5i&timFs &entra1 ner5 $s system Cne$r t ?insD and b1 d &ir&$1ati n C"em t ?insD# b$t a1s di)esti5e en'ymes C&yt t ?insD t aid in di)estin) t"eir prey. +"ese p is ns &an &a$se a 5ery 1ar)e area ! tiss$e deat"# 1ea5in) a 1ar)e pen % $nd. +"is & nditi n & $1d 1ead t t"e need ! r e5ent$a1 amp$tati n i! n t treated. S" &2 and pani& in a pers n bitten by a sna2e &an a1s a!!e&t t"e pers nFs re& 5ery. -?&itement# "ysteria# and pani& &an speed $p t"e &ir&$1ati n# &a$sin) t"e b dy t abs rb t"e t ?in 4$i&21y. Si)ns ! s" &2 &&$r %it"in t"e !irst *< min$tes a!ter t"e bite. ,e! re y $ start treatin) a sna2ebite# determine %"et"er t"e sna2e %as p is n $s r n np is n $s. ,ites !r m a n np is n $s sna2e %i11 s" % r %s ! teet". ,ites !r m a p is n $s sna2e may "a5e r %s ! teet" s" %in)# b$t %i11 "a5e ne r m re distin&ti5e p$n&t$re mar2s &a$sed by !an) penetrati n. Sympt ms ! a p is n $s bite may be sp ntane $s b1eedin) !r m t"e n se and an$s# b1 d in t"e $rine# pain at t"e site ! t"e bite# and s%e11in) at t"e site ! t"e bite %it"in a !e% min$tes r $p t 2 " $rs 1ater. ,reat"in) di!!i&$1ty# para1ysis# %ea2ness# t%it&"in)# and n$mbness are a1s si)ns ! ne$r t ?i& 5en ms. +"ese si)ns $s$a11y appear 1.9 t 2 " $rs a!ter t"e bite. I! y $ determine t"at a p is n $s sna2e bit an indi5id$a1# ta2e t"e ! 11 %in) stepsI • Reass$re t"e 5i&tim and 2eep "im sti11. • Set $p ! r s" &2 and ! r&e !1$ids r )i5e an intra5en $s CIVD. • Rem 5e %at&"es# rin)s# bra&e1ets# r t"er & nstri&tin) items. • /1ean t"e bite area. • Maintain an air%ay Cespe&ia11y i! bitten near t"e !a&e r ne&2D and be prepared t administer m $t"-t -m $t" res$s&itati n r /(R.
(a)e *6 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

• • •

Use a & nstri&tin) band bet%een t"e % $nd and t"e "eart. Imm bi1i'e t"e site. Rem 5e t"e p is n as s n as p ssib1e by $sin) a me&"ani&a1 s$&ti n de5i&e r by s4$ee'in).

D" #"t-• 6i5e t"e 5i&tim a1& " 1i& be5era)es r t ba&& pr d$&ts. • 6i5e m rp"ine r t"er &entra1 ner5 $s system C/NSD depress rs. • Ma2e any deep &$ts at t"e bite site. /$ttin) pens &api11aries t"at in t$rn pen a dire&t r $te int t"e b1 d stream ! r 5en m and in!e&ti n. 8ote9 I! medical treatment is over one hour away" make an incision &no longer than 7 millimeters and no deeper than 4 millimeter' over each puncture" cutting $ust deep enough to enlarge the !ang opening" but only through the !irst or second layer o! skin. :lace a suction cup over the bite so that you have a good vacuum seal. Suction the bite site 4 to 5 times. Use mouth suction only as a last resort and only i$ you do not ha(e open sores in your "outh) Spit the envenomed blood out and rinse your mouth with water. This method will draw out 36 to 4; percent o! the venom.
• •

($t y $r "ands n y $r !a&e r r$b y $r eyes# as 5en m may be n y $r "ands. Ven m may &a$se b1indness. ,rea2 pen t"e 1ar)e b1isters t"at ! rm ar $nd t"e bite site.

A!ter &arin) ! r t"e 5i&tim as des&ribed ab 5e# ta2e t"e ! 11 %in) a&ti ns t minimi'e 1 &a1 e!!e&tsI
• • • •

I! in!e&ti n appears# 2eep t"e % $nd pen and &1ean. Use "eat a!ter 27 t 7: " $rs t "e1p pre5ent t"e spread ! 1 &a1 in!e&ti n. 0eat a1s "e1ps t dra% $t an in!e&ti n. 8eep t"e % $nd & 5ered %it" a dry# steri1e dressin). 0a5e t"e 5i&tim drin2 1ar)e am $nts ! !1$ids $nti1 t"e in!e&ti n is ) ne.

3OUN,S
An interr$pti n ! t"e s2inFs inte)rity &"ara&teri'es % $nds. +"ese % $nds & $1d be pen % $nds# s2in diseases# !r stbite# tren&" ! t# and b$rns.

Ope# *" #($
.pen % $nds are seri $s in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# n t n1y be&a$se ! tiss$e dama)e and b1 d 1 ss# b$t a1s be&a$se t"ey may be& me in!e&ted. ,a&teria n t"e b@e&t t"at made t"e % $nd# n t"e indi5id$a1Fs s2in and &1 t"in)# r n t"er ! rei)n materia1 r dirt t"at t $&"es t"e % $nd may &a$se in!e&ti n. ,y ta2in) pr per &are ! t"e % $nd y $ &an red$&e !$rt"er & ntaminati n and pr m te "ea1in). /1ean t"e % $nd as s n as p ssib1e a!ter it &&$rs by-• Rem 5in) r &$ttin) &1 t"in) a%ay !r m t"e % $nd. • A1%ays 1 2in) ! r an e?it % $nd i! a s"arp b@e&t# )$n s" t# r pr @e&ti1e &a$sed a % $nd. • +" r $)"1y &1eanin) t"e s2in ar $nd t"e % $nd. • Rinsin) Cn t s&r$bbin)D t"e % $nd %it" 1ar)e am $nts ! %ater $nder press$re. Y $ &an $se !res" $rine i! %ater is n t a5ai1ab1e. +"e J pen treatmentJ met" d is t"e sa!est %ay t mana)e % $nds in s$r5i5a1 sit$ati ns. D n t try t &1 se any % $nd by s$t$rin) r simi1ar pr &ed$res. Lea5e t"e % $nd pen t a11 % t"e draina)e ! any p$s res$1tin) !r m in!e&ti n. As 1 n) as t"e % $nd &an drain# it )enera11y %i11 n t be& me 1i!e-t"reatenin)# re)ard1ess ! " % $np1easant it 1 2s r sme11s.
(a)e *7 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

/ 5er t"e % $nd %it" a &1ean dressin). (1a&e a banda)e n t"e dressin) t " 1d it in p1a&e. /"an)e t"e dressin) dai1y t &"e&2 ! r in!e&ti n. I! a % $nd is )apin)# y $ &an brin) t"e ed)es t )et"er %it" ad"esi5e tape &$t in t"e ! rm ! a Jb$tter!1yJ r Jd$mbbe11J CFi)$re 7-7D.

In a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# s me de)ree ! % $nd in!e&ti n is a1m st ine5itab1e. (ain# s%e11in)# and redness ar $nd t"e % $nd# in&reased temperat$re# and p$s in t"e % $nd r n t"e dressin) indi&ate in!e&ti n is present. + treat an in!e&ted % $nd-• (1a&e a %arm# m ist & mpress dire&t1y n t"e in!e&ted % $nd. /"an)e t"e & mpress %"en it & 1s# 2eepin) a %arm & mpress n t"e % $nd ! r a t ta1 ! *< min$tes. App1y t"e & mpresses t"ree r ! $r times dai1y. • Drain t"e % $nd. .pen and )ent1y pr be t"e in!e&ted % $nd %it" a steri1e instr$ment. • Dress and banda)e t"e % $nd. • Drin2 a 1 t ! %ater. / ntin$e t"is treatment dai1y $nti1 a11 si)ns ! in!e&ti n "a5e disappeared. I! y $ d n t "a5e antibi ti&s and t"e % $nd "as be& me se5ere1y in!e&ted# d es n t "ea1# and rdinary debridement is imp ssib1e# & nsider ma)) t t"erapy# despite its "a'ardsI • -?p se t"e % $nd t !1ies ! r ne day and t"en & 5er it. • /"e&2 dai1y ! r ma)) ts. • .n&e ma)) ts de5e1 p# 2eep % $nd & 5ered b$t &"e&2 dai1y. • Rem 5e a11 ma)) ts %"en t"ey "a5e &1eaned $t a11 dead tiss$e and be! re t"ey start n "ea1t"y tiss$e. In&reased pain and bri)"t red b1 d in t"e % $nd indi&ate t"at t"e ma)) ts "a5e rea&"ed "ea1t"y tiss$e. • F1$s" t"e % $nd repeated1y %it" steri1e %ater r !res" $rine t rem 5e t"e ma)) ts. • /"e&2 t"e % $nd e5ery ! $r " $rs ! r se5era1 days t ens$re a11 ma)) ts "a5e been rem 5ed. • ,anda)e t"e % $nd and treat it as any t"er % $nd. It s" $1d "ea1 n rma11y.

S)i# Di$e!$e$ !#( Ai%+e#t$
A1t" $)" b i1s# !$n)a1 in!e&ti ns# and ras"es rare1y de5e1 p int a seri $s "ea1t" pr b1em# t"ey &a$se dis& m! rt and y $ s" $1d treat t"em.

#oils

(a)e *: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

App1y %arm & mpresses t brin) t"e b i1 t a "ead. +"en pen t"e b i1 $sin) a steri1e 2ni!e# %ire# need1e# r simi1ar item. +" r $)"1y &1ean $t t"e p$s $sin) s ap and %ater. / 5er t"e b i1 site# &"e&2in) it peri di&a11y t ens$re n !$rt"er in!e&ti n de5e1 ps.

'ungal In$ections
8eep t"e s2in &1ean and dry# and e?p se t"e in!e&ted area t as m$&" s$n1i)"t as p ssib1e. <o not scratch t"e a!!e&ted area. D$rin) t"e S $t"east Asian & n!1i&t# s 1diers $sed anti!$n)a1 p %ders# 1ye s ap# &"1 rine b1ea&"# a1& " 1# 5ine)ar# & n&entrated sa1t %ater# and i dine t treat !$n)a1 in!e&ti ns %it" 5aryin) de)rees ! s$&&ess. As with any =unorthodo+= method o! treatment" use it with caution.

Rashes
+ treat a s2in ras" e!!e&ti5e1y# !irst determine %"at is &a$sin) it. +"is determinati n may be di!!i&$1t e5en in t"e best ! sit$ati ns. .bser5e t"e ! 11 %in) r$1es t treat ras"esI • I! it is m ist# 2eep it dry. • I! it is dry# 2eep it m ist. • D n t s&rat&" it. Use a & mpress ! 5ine)ar r tanni& a&id deri5ed !r m tea r !r m b i1in) a& rns r t"e bar2 ! a "ard% d tree t dry %eepin) ras"es. 8eep dry ras"es m ist by r$bbin) a sma11 am $nt ! rendered anima1 !at r )rease n t"e a!!e&ted area. Remember# treat ras"es as pen % $nds and &1ean and dress t"em dai1y. +"ere are many s$bstan&es a5ai1ab1e t s$r5i5 rs in t"e %i1d r in &apti5ity ! r $se as antisepti&s t treat % $ndI • Iodine tablets. Use 9 t 19 tab1ets in a 1iter ! %ater t pr d$&e a ) d rinse ! r % $nds d$rin) "ea1in). • >arlic. R$b it n a % $nd r b i1 it t e?tra&t t"e i1s and $se t"e %ater t rinse t"e a!!e&ted area. • Salt water. Use 2 t * tab1esp ns per 1iter ! %ater t 2i11 ba&teria. • ?ee honey. Use it strai)"t r diss 15ed in %ater. • Sphagnum moss. F $nd in b ))y areas % r1d%ide# it is a nat$ra1 s $r&e ! i dine. Use as a dressin). Again" use noncommercially prepared materials with caution.

F&"$t,ite
+"is in@$ry res$1ts !r m !r 'en tiss$es. Li)"t !r stbite in5 15es n1y t"e s2in t"at ta2es n a d$11# %"itis" pa11 r. Deep !r stbite e?tends t a dept" be1 % t"e s2in. +"e tiss$es be& me s 1id and imm 5ab1e. Y $r !eet# "ands# and e?p sed !a&ia1 areas are parti&$1ar1y 5$1nerab1e t !r stbite. 3"en %it" t"ers# pre5ent !r stbite by $sin) t"e b$ddy system. /"e&2 y $r b$ddyFs !a&e !ten and ma2e s$re t"at "e &"e&2s y $rs. I! y $ are a1 ne# peri di&a11y & 5er y $r n se and 1 %er part ! y $r !a&e %it" y $r mittens. D n t try t t"a% t"e a!!e&ted areas by p1a&in) t"em &1 se t an pen !1ame. 6ent1y r$b t"em in 1$2e%arm %ater. Dry t"e part and p1a&e it ne?t t y $r s2in t %arm it at b dy temperat$re.

T&e#.h F""t
+"is & nditi n res$1ts !r m many " $rs r days ! e?p s$re t %et r damp & nditi ns at a temperat$re @$st ab 5e !ree'in). +"e ner5es and m$s&1es s$stain t"e main dama)e# b$t )an)rene &an &&$r. In e?treme &ases t"e !1es" dies and it may be& me ne&essary t "a5e t"e ! t r 1e) amp$tated. +"e best pre5enti n is t 2eep y $r !eet dry. /arry e?tra s &2s %it" y $ in a %aterpr ! pa&2et. Dry %et s &2s a)ainst y $r b dy. 3as" y $r !eet dai1y and p$t n dry s &2s.
(a)e *; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

B &#$
+"e ! 11 %in) !ie1d treatment ! r b$rns re1ie5es t"e pain s me%"at# seems t "e1p speed "ea1in)# and !!ers s me pr te&ti n a)ainst in!e&ti nI • First# st p t"e b$rnin) pr &ess. ($t $t t"e !ire by rem 5in) &1 t"in)# d $sin) %it" %ater r sand# r by r 11in) n t"e )r $nd. / 1 t"e b$rnin) s2in %it" i&e r %ater. F r b$rns &a$sed by %"ite p" sp" r $s# pi&2 $t t"e %"ite p" sp" r $s %it" t%ee'ersH d n t d $se %it" %ater. • S a2 dressin)s r &1ean ra)s ! r 1< min$tes in a b i1in) tanni& a&id s 1$ti n C btained !r m tea# inner bar2 ! "ard% d trees# r a& rns b i1ed in %aterD. • / 1 t"e dressin)s r &1ean ra)s and app1y 5er b$rns. • +reat as an pen % $nd. • Rep1a&e !1$id 1 ss. • Maintain air%ay. • +reat ! r s" &2. • / nsider $sin) m rp"ine# $n1ess t"e b$rns are near t"e !a&e.

NVIRON0 NTAL IN2URI S
0eatstr 2e# "yp t"ermia# diarr"ea# and intestina1 parasites are en5ir nmenta1 in@$ries y $ & $1d !a&e.

He!t$t&")e
+"e brea2d %n ! t"e b dyFs "eat re)$1at ry system Cb dy temperat$re m re t"an 7<.9 de)rees / L1<9 de)rees FMD &a$ses a "eatstr 2e. .t"er "eat in@$ries# s$&" as &ramps r de"ydrati n# d n t a1%ays pre&ede a "eatstr 2e. Si)ns and sympt ms ! "eatstr 2e are-• S% 11en# beet-red !a&e. • Reddened %"ites ! eyes. • Vi&tim n t s%eatin). • Un& ns&i $sness r de1iri$m# %"i&" &an &a$se pa11 r# a b1$is" & 1 r t 1ips and nai1 beds C&yan sisD# and & 1 s2in. 8ote9 ?y this time the victim is in severe shock. 1ool the victim as rapidly as possible. 1ool him by dipping him in a cool stream. I! one is not available" douse the victim with urine" water" or at the very least" apply cool wet com%presses to all the $oints" especially the neck" armpits" and crotch. ?e sure to wet the victim.s head. (eat loss through the scalp is great. Administer IVs and provide drinking !luids. @ou may !an the individual. -?pe&t# d$rin) & 1in)-• V mitin). • Diarr"ea. • Str$))1in). • S"i5erin). • S" $tin). • (r 1 n)ed $n& ns&i $sness. • Reb $nd "eatstr 2e %it"in 7: " $rs. • /ardia& arrestH be ready t per! rm /(R. 8ote9 Treat !or dehydration with lightly salted water.

H3p"the&+i!

(a)e 7< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

De!ined as t"e b dyFs !ai1$re t maintain a temperat$re ! *6 de)rees / C;7 de)rees FD. -?p s$re t & 1 r & 1d temperat$re 5er a s" rt r 1 n) time &an &a$se "yp t"ermia. De"ydrati n and 1a&2 ! ! and rest predisp se t"e s$r5i5 r t "yp t"ermia. Un1i2e "eatstr 2e# y $ m$st )rad$a11y %arm t"e "yp t"ermia 5i&tim. 6et t"e 5i&tim int dry &1 t"in). Rep1a&e 1 st !1$ids# and %arm "im.

d

Di!&&he!
A & mm n# debi1itatin) ai1ment &a$sed by a &"an)e ! %ater and ! d# drin2in) & ntaminated %ater# eatin) sp i1ed ! d# be& min) !ati)$ed# and $sin) dirty dis"es. Y $ &an a5 id m st ! t"ese &a$ses by pra&ti&in) pre5enti5e medi&ine. I! y $ )et diarr"ea# " %e5er# and d n t "a5e antidiarr"ea1 medi&ine# ne ! t"e ! 11 %in) treatments may be e!!e&ti5eI • Limit y $r inta2e ! !1$ids ! r 27 " $rs. • Drin2 ne &$p ! a str n) tea s 1$ti n e5ery 2 " $rs $nti1 t"e diarr"ea s1 %s r st ps. +"e tanni& a&id in t"e tea "e1ps t & ntr 1 t"e diarr"ea. , i1 t"e inner bar2 ! a "ard% d tree ! r 2 " $rs r m re t re1ease t"e tanni& a&id. • Ma2e a s 1$ti n ! ne "and!$1 ! )r $nd &"a12# &"ar& a1# r dried b nes and treated %ater. I! y $ "a5e s me app1e p ma&e r t"e rinds ! &itr$s !r$it# add an e4$a1 p rti n t t"e mi?t$re t ma2e it m re e!!e&ti5e. +a2e 2 tab1esp ns ! t"e s 1$ti n e5ery 2 " $rs $nti1 t"e diarr"ea s1 %s r st ps.

I#te$ti#!% P!&!$ite$
Y $ &an $s$a11y a5 id % rm in!estati ns and t"er intestina1 parasites i! y $ ta2e pre5enti5e meas$res. F r e?amp1e# ne5er ) bare! t. +"e m st e!!e&ti5e %ay t pre5ent intestina1 parasites is t a5 id $n& 2ed meat and ra% 5e)etab1es & ntaminated by ra% se%a)e r "$man %aste $sed as a !erti1i'er. 0 %e5er# s" $1d y $ be& me in!ested and 1a&2 pr per medi&ine# y $ &an $se " me remedies. 8eep in mind t"at t"ese " me remedies % r2 n t"e prin&ip1e ! &"an)in) t"e en5ir nment ! t"e )astr intestina1 tra&t. +"e ! 11 %in) are " me remedies y $ & $1d $seI • Salt water. Diss 15e 7 tab1esp ns ! sa1t in 1 1iter ! %ater and drin2. D n t repeat t"is treatment. • Tobacco. -at 1 t 1.9 &i)arettes. +"e ni& tine in t"e &i)arette %i11 2i11 r st$n t"e % rms 1 n) en $)" ! r y $r system t pass t"em. I! t"e in!estati n is se5ere# repeat t"e treatment in 27 t 7: " $rs# but no sooner. • Aerosene. Drin2 2 tab1esp ns ! 2er sene but no more. I! ne&essary# y $ &an repeat t"is treatment in 27 t 7: " $rs. ,e &are!$1 n t t in"a1e t"e !$mes. +"ey may &a$se 1$n) irritati n. • (ot peppers. (eppers are e!!e&ti5e n1y i! t"ey are a steady part ! y $r diet. Y $ &an eat t"em ra% r p$t t"em in s $ps r ri&e and meat dis"es. +"ey &reate an en5ir nment t"at is pr "ibiti5e t parasiti& atta&"ment.

. R#AL 0 ,ICIN S
.$r m dern % nder dr$)s# 1ab rat ries# and e4$ipment "a5e bs&$red m re primiti5e types ! medi&ine in5 15in) determinati n# & mm n sense# and a !e% simp1e treatments. In many areas ! t"e % r1d# " %e5er# t"e pe p1e sti11 depend n 1 &a1 J%it&" d &t rsJ r "ea1ers t &$re t"eir ai1ments. Many ! t"e "erbs Cp1antsD and treatments t"ey $se are as e!!e&ti5e as t"e m st m dern medi&ati ns a5ai1ab1e. In !a&t# many m dern medi&ati ns & me !r m re!ined "erbs. *ARNIN1 Use "erba1 medi&ines %it" e?treme &are# " %e5er# and n1y %"en y $ 1a&2 r "a5e 1imited medi&a1 s$pp1ies. S me "erba1 medi&ines are dan)er $s and may &a$se !$rt"er dama)e r e5en deat". See /"apter ;# S$r5i5a1 Use ! (1ants# ! r s me basi& "erba1 medi&ine treatments.

(a)e 71 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER : - SHELTERS

A shelter can protect you !rom the sun" insects" wind" rain" snow" hot or cold temperatures" and enemy observation. It can give you a !eeling o! well%being. It can help you maintain your will to survive. In some areas" your need !or shelter may take precedence over your need !or !ood and possibly even your need !or water. -or e+ample" prolonged e+posure to cold can cause e+cessive !atigue and weakness &e+haustion'. An e+hausted person may develop a =passive= outlook" thereby losing the will to survive. The most common error in making a shelter is to make it too large. A shelter must be large enough to protect you. It must also be small enough to contain your body heat" especially in cold climates.

S. LT R SIT S L CTION
3"en y $ are in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n and rea1i'e t"at s"e1ter is a "i)" pri rity# start 1 2in) ! r s"e1ter as s n as p ssib1e. As y $ d s # remember %"at y $ %i11 need at t"e site. +% re4$isites are-• It m$st & ntain materia1 t ma2e t"e type ! s"e1ter y $ need. • It m$st be 1ar)e en $)" and 1e5e1 en $)" ! r y $ t 1ie d %n & m! rtab1y. 3"en y $ & nsider t"ese re4$isites# " %e5er# y $ &ann t i)n re y $r ta&ti&a1 sit$ati n r y $r sa!ety. Y $ m$st a1s & nsider %"et"er t"e site-• (r 5ides & n&ea1ment !r m enemy bser5ati n. • 0as &am $!1a)ed es&ape r $tes. • Is s$itab1e ! r si)na1in)# i! ne&essary. • (r 5ides pr te&ti n a)ainst %i1d anima1s and r &2s and dead trees t"at mi)"t !a11. • Is !ree !r m inse&ts# repti1es# and p is n $s p1ants. Y $ m$st a1s remember t"e pr b1ems t"at & $1d arise in y $r en5ir nment. F r instan&e-• A5 id !1as" !1 d areas in ! t"i11s. • A5 id a5a1an&"e r r &2s1ide areas in m $ntain $s terrain. • A5 id sites near b dies ! %ater t"at are be1 % t"e "i)" %ater mar2. In s me areas# t"e seas n ! t"e year "as a str n) bearin) n t"e site y $ se1e&t. Idea1 sites ! r a s"e1ter di!!er in %inter and s$mmer. D$rin) & 1d %inter m nt"s y $ %i11 %ant a site t"at %i11 pr te&t y $ !r m t"e & 1d and %ind# b$t %i11 "a5e a s $r&e ! !$e1 and %ater. D$rin) s$mmer m nt"s in t"e same area y $ %i11 %ant a s $r&e ! %ater# b$t y $ %i11 %ant t"e site t be a1m st inse&t !ree.
(a)e 72 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

3"en & nsiderin) s"e1ter site se1e&ti n# $se t"e % rd ,LISS as a )$ide. , - ,1end in %it" t"e s$rr $ndin)s. L - L % si1" $ette. I - Irre)$1ar s"ape. S - Sma11. S - Se&1$ded 1 &ati n.

TYP S O' S. LT RS
3"en 1 2in) ! r a s"e1ter site# 2eep in mind t"e type ! s"e1ter Cpr te&ti nD y $ need. 0 %e5er# y $ m$st a1s & nsider-• 0 % m$&" time and e!! rt y $ need t b$i1d t"e s"e1ter. • I! t"e s"e1ter %i11 ade4$ate1y pr te&t y $ !r m t"e e1ements Cs$n# %ind# rain# sn %D. • I! y $ "a5e t"e t 1s t b$i1d it. I! n t# &an y $ ma2e impr 5ised t 1sG • I! y $ "a5e t"e type and am $nt ! materia1s needed t b$i1d it. + ans%er t"ese 4$esti ns# y $ need t 2n % " % t ma2e 5ari $s types ! s"e1ters and %"at materia1s y $ need t ma2e t"em.

P"#.h" Le!#-T"
It ta2es n1y a s" rt time and minima1 e4$ipment t b$i1d t"is 1ean-t CFi)$re 9-1D. Y $ need a p n&" # 2 t * meters ! r pe r para&"$te s$spensi n 1ine# t"ree sta2es ab $t *< &entimeters 1 n)# and t% trees r t% p 1es 2 t * meters apart. ,e! re se1e&tin) t"e trees y $ %i11 $se r t"e 1 &ati n ! y $r p 1es# &"e&2 t"e %ind dire&ti n. -ns$re t"at t"e ba&2 ! y $r 1ean-t %i11 be int t"e %ind.

+ ma2e t"e 1ean-t -• +ie !! t"e " d ! t"e p n&" . ($11 t"e dra%strin) ti)"t# r 11 t"e " d 1 n)%ays# ! 1d it int t"irds# and tie it !! %it" t"e dra%strin). • /$t t"e r pe in "a1!. .n ne 1 n) side ! t"e p n&" # tie "a1! ! t"e r pe t t"e & rner )r mmet. +ie t"e t"er "a1! t t"e t"er & rner )r mmet. • Atta&" a drip sti&2 Cab $t a 1<-&entimeter sti&2D t ea&" r pe ab $t 2.9 &entimeters !r m t"e )r mmet. +"ese drip sti&2s %i11 2eep rain%ater !r m r$nnin) d %n t"e r pes int t"e 1ean-t . +yin) strin)s Cab $t 1< &entimeters 1 n)D t ea&" )r mmet a1 n) t"e p n&" Fs t p ed)e %i11 a11 % t"e %ater t r$n t and d %n t"e 1ine %it" $t drippin) int t"e s"e1ter. • +ie t"e r pes ab $t %aist "i)" n t"e trees C$pri)"tsD. Use a r $nd t$rn and t% "a1! "it&"es %it" a 4$i&2-re1ease 2n t.
(a)e 7* ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Spread t"e p n&" and an&" r it t t"e )r $nd# p$ttin) s"arpened sti&2s t"r $)" t"e )r mmets and int t"e )r $nd.

I! y $ p1an t $se t"e 1ean-t ! r m re t"an ne ni)"t# r y $ e?pe&t rain# ma2e a &enter s$pp rt ! r t"e 1ean-t . Ma2e t"is s$pp rt %it" a 1ine. Atta&" ne end ! t"e 1ine t t"e p n&" " d and t"e t"er end t an 5er"an)in) bran&". Ma2e s$re t"ere is n s1a&2 in t"e 1ine. An t"er met" d is t p1a&e a sti&2 $pri)"t $nder t"e &enter ! t"e 1ean-t . +"is met" d# " %e5er# %i11 restri&t y $r spa&e and m 5ements in t"e s"e1ter. F r additi na1 pr te&ti n !r m %ind and rain# p1a&e s me br$s"# y $r r$&2sa&2# r t"er e4$ipment at t"e sides ! t"e 1ean-t . + red$&e "eat 1 ss t t"e )r $nd# p1a&e s me type ! ins$1atin) materia1# s$&" as 1ea5es r pine need1es# inside y $r 1ean-t . 8ote9 hen at rest" you lose as much as B; percent o! your body heat to the ground.

+ in&rease y $r se&$rity !r m enemy bser5ati n# 1 %er t"e 1ean-t Fs si1" $ette by ma2in) t% &"an)es. First# se&$re t"e s$pp rt 1ines t t"e trees at 2nee "ei)"t Cn t at %aist "ei)"tD $sin) t% 2nee-"i)" sti&2s in t"e t% &enter )r mmets Csides ! 1ean-t D. Se& nd# an)1e t"e p n&" t t"e )r $nd# se&$rin) it %it" s"arpened sti&2s# as ab 5e.

P"#.h" Te#t
+"is tent CFi)$re 9-2D pr 5ides a 1 % si1" $ette. It a1s pr te&ts y $ !r m t"e e1ements n t% sides. It "as# " %e5er# 1ess $sab1e spa&e and bser5ati n area t"an a 1ean-t # de&reasin) y $r rea&ti n time t enemy dete&ti n. + ma2e t"is tent# y $ need a p n&" # t% 1.9- t 2.9-meter r pes# si? s"arpened sti&2s ab $t *< &entimeters 1 n)# and t% trees 2 t * meters apart.

+ ma2e t"e tent-• +ie !! t"e p n&" " d in t"e same %ay as t"e p n&" 1ean-t . • +ie a 1.9- t 2.9-meter r pe t t"e &enter )r mmet n ea&" side ! t"e p n&" . • +ie t"e t"er ends ! t"ese r pes at ab $t 2nee "ei)"t t t% trees 2 t * meters apart and stret&" t"e p n&" ti)"t. • Dra% ne side ! t"e p n&" ti)"t and se&$re it t t"e )r $nd p$s"in) s"arpened sti&2s t"r $)" t"e )r mmets. • F 11 % t"e same pr &ed$re n t"e t"er side.

(a)e 77 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

I! y $ need a &enter s$pp rt# $se t"e same met" ds as ! r t"e p n&" 1ean-t . An t"er &enter s$pp rt is an A-!rame set $tside b$t 5er t"e &enter ! t"e tent CFi)$re 9-*D. Use t% ;<- t 12<-&entimeter-1 n) sti&2s# ne %it" a ! r2ed end# t ! rm t"e A-!rame. +ie t"e " dFs dra%strin) t t"e A-!rame t s$pp rt t"e &enter ! t"e tent.

Th&ee-P"%e P!&!.h te Tepee
I! y $ "a5e a para&"$te and t"ree p 1es and t"e ta&ti&a1 sit$ati n a11 %s# ma2e a para&"$te tepee. It is easy and ta2es 5ery 1itt1e time t ma2e t"is tepee. It pr 5ides pr te&ti n !r m t"e e1ements and &an a&t as a si)na1in) de5i&e by en"an&in) a sma11 am $nt ! 1i)"t !r m a !ire r &and1e. It is 1ar)e en $)" t " 1d se5era1 pe p1e and t"eir e4$ipment and t a11 % s1eepin)# & 2in)# and st rin) !ire% d. Y $ &an ma2e t"is tepee $sin) parts ! r a %" 1e pers nne1 main r reser5e para&"$te &an py. I! $sin) a standard pers nne1 para&"$te# y $ need t"ree p 1es *.9 t 7.9 meters 1 n) and ab $t 9 &entimeters in diameter. + ma2e t"is tepee CFi)$re 9-7D-• Lay t"e p 1es n t"e )r $nd and 1as" t"em t )et"er at ne end. • Stand t"e !rame% r2 $p and spread t"e p 1es t ! rm a trip d. • F r m re s$pp rt# p1a&e additi na1 p 1es a)ainst t"e trip d. Fi5e r si? additi na1 p 1es % r2 best# b$t d n t 1as" t"em t t"e trip d. • Determine t"e %ind dire&ti n and 1 &ate t"e entran&e ;< de)rees r m re !r m t"e mean %ind dire&ti n. • Lay $t t"e para&"$te n t"e Jba&2sideJ ! t"e trip d and 1 &ate t"e brid1e 1 p Cny1 n %eb 1 pD at t"e t p Cape?D ! t"e &an py. • (1a&e t"e brid1e 1 p 5er t"e t p ! a !ree-standin) p 1e. +"en p1a&e t"e p 1e ba&2 $p a)ainst t"e trip d s t"at t"e &an pyFs ape? is at t"e same "ei)"t as t"e 1as"in) n t"e t"ree p 1es. • 3rap t"e &an py ar $nd ne side ! t"e trip d. +"e &an py s" $1d be ! d $b1e t"i&2ness# as y $ are %rappin) an entire para&"$te. Y $ need n1y %rap "a1! ! t"e trip d# as t"e remainder ! t"e &an py %i11 en&ir&1e t"e trip d in t"e pp site dire&ti n. • / nstr$&t t"e entran&e by %rappin) t"e ! 1ded ed)es ! t"e &an py ar $nd t% !ree-standin) p 1es. Y $ &an t"en p1a&e t"e p 1es side by side t &1 se t"e tepeeFs entran&e. • (1a&e a11 e?tra &an py $nderneat" t"e tepee p 1es and inside t &reate a !1 r ! r t"e s"e1ter. • Lea5e a *<- t 9<-&entimeter penin) at t"e t p ! r 5enti1ati n i! y $ intend t "a5e a !ire inside t"e tepee.

(a)e 79 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

O#e-P"%e P!&!.h te Tepee
Y $ need a 17-) re se&ti n Cn rma11yD ! &an py# sta2es# a st $t &enter p 1e# and inner & re and need1e t & nstr$&t t"is tepee. Y $ &$t t"e s$spensi n 1ines e?&ept ! r 7<- t 79-&entimeter 1en)t"s at t"e &an pyFs 1 %er 1atera1 band. + ma2e t"is tepee CFi)$re 9-9D-• Se1e&t a s"e1ter site and s&ribe a &ir&1e ab $t 7 meters in diameter n t"e )r $nd. • Sta2e t"e para&"$te materia1 t t"e )r $nd $sin) t"e 1ines remainin) at t"e 1 %er 1atera1 band. • A!ter de&idin) %"ere t p1a&e t"e s"e1ter d r# emp1a&e a sta2e and tie t"e !irst 1ine C!r m t"e 1 %er 1atera1 bandD se&$re1y t it. • Stret&" t"e para&"$te materia1 ta$t t t"e ne?t 1ine# emp1a&e a sta2e n t"e s&ribed 1ine# and tie t"e 1ine t it. • / ntin$e t"e sta2in) pr &ess $nti1 y $ "a5e tied a11 t"e 1ines.
(a)e 76 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

• •

L se1y atta&" t"e t p ! t"e para&"$te materia1 t t"e &enter p 1e %it" a s$spensi n 1ine y $ pre5i $s1y &$t and# t"r $)" tria1 and err r# determine t"e p int at %"i&" t"e para&"$te materia1 %i11 be p$11ed ti)"t n&e t"e &enter p 1e is $pri)"t. +"en se&$re1y atta&" t"e materia1 t t"e p 1e. Usin) a s$spensi n 1ine C r inner & reD# se% t"e end ) res t )et"er 1ea5in) 1 r 1.2 meters ! r a d r.

N"-P"%e P!&!.h te Tepee
Y $ $se t"e same materia1s# e?&ept ! r t"e &enter p 1e# as ! r t"e ne-p 1e para&"$te tepee. + ma2e t"is tepee CFi)$re 9-6D-• +ie a 1ine t t"e t p ! para&"$te materia1 %it" a pre5i $s1y &$t s$spensi n 1ine. • +"r % t"e 1ine 5er a tree 1imb# and tie it t t"e tree tr$n2. • Startin) at t"e pp site side !r m t"e d r# emp1a&e a sta2e n t"e s&ribed *.9- t 7.*-meter &ir&1e. • +ie t"e !irst 1ine n t"e 1 %er 1atera1 band. • / ntin$e emp1a&in) t"e sta2es and tyin) t"e 1ines t t"em. • A!ter sta2in) d %n t"e materia1# $n!asten t"e 1ine tied t t"e tree tr$n2# ti)"ten t"e tepee materia1 by p$11in) n t"is 1ine# and tie it se&$re1y t t"e tree tr$n2.

(a)e 77 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

O#e-M!# She%te&
A ne-man s"e1ter y $ &an easi1y ma2e $sin) a para&"$te re4$ires a tree and t"ree p 1es. .ne p 1e s" $1d be ab $t 7.9 meters 1 n) and t"e t"er t% ab $t * meters 1 n). + ma2e t"is s"e1ter CFi)$re 9-7D-• Se&$re t"e 7.9-meter p 1e t t"e tree at ab $t %aist "ei)"t. • Lay t"e t% *-meter p 1es n t"e )r $nd n eit"er side ! and in t"e same dire&ti n as t"e 7.9meter p 1e. • Lay t"e ! 1ded &an py 5er t"e 7.9 meter p 1e s t"at ab $t t"e same am $nt ! materia1 "an)s n b t" sides. • +$&2 t"e e?&ess materia1 $nder t"e *-meter p 1es# and spread it n t"e )r $nd inside t ser5e as a !1 r. • Sta2e d %n r p$t a spreader bet%een t"e t% *-meter p 1es at t"e s"e1terFs entran&e s t"ey %i11 n t s1ide in%ard. • Use any e?&ess materia1 t & 5er t"e entran&e.

+"e para&"$te &1 t" ma2es t"is s"e1ter %ind resistant# and t"e s"e1ter is sma11 en $)" t"at it is easi1y %armed. A &and1e# $sed &are!$11y# &an 2eep t"e inside temperat$re & m! rtab1e. +"is s"e1ter is $nsatis!a&t ry# " %e5er# %"en sn % is !a11in) as e5en a 1i)"t sn %!a11 %i11 &a5e it in.
(a)e 7: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

P!&!.h te H!++".)
Y $ &an ma2e a "amm &2 $sin) 6 t : ) res ! para&"$te &an py and t% trees ab $t 7.9 meters apart CFi)$re 9-:D.

Fie%(-E5pe(ie#t Le!#-T"
I! y $ are in a % ded area and "a5e en $)" nat$ra1 materia1s# y $ &an ma2e a !ie1d-e?pedient 1ean-t CFi)$re 9-;D %it" $t t"e aid ! t 1s r %it" n1y a 2ni!e. It ta2es 1 n)er t ma2e t"is type ! s"e1ter t"an it d es t ma2e t"er types# b$t it %i11 pr te&t y $ !r m t"e e1ements.

(a)e 7; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Y $ %i11 need t% trees C r $pri)"t p 1esD ab $t 2 meters apartH ne p 1e ab $t 2 meters 1 n) and 2.9 &entimeters in diameterH !i5e t ei)"t p 1es ab $t * meters 1 n) and 2.9 &entimeters in diameter ! r beamsH & rd r 5ines ! r se&$rin) t"e " ri' nta1 s$pp rt t t"e treesH and t"er p 1es# sap1in)s# r 5ines t &riss&r ss t"e beams. + ma2e t"is 1ean-t -• +ie t"e 2-meter p 1e t t"e t% trees at %aist t &"est "ei)"t. +"is is t"e " ri' nta1 s$pp rt. I! a standin) tree is n t a5ai1ab1e# & nstr$&t a biped $sin) Y-s"aped sti&2s r t% trip ds. • (1a&e ne end ! t"e beams C*-meter p 1esD n ne side ! t"e " ri' nta1 s$pp rt. As %it" a11 1ean-t type s"e1ters# be s$re t p1a&e t"e 1ean-t Fs ba&2side int t"e %ind. • /riss&r ss sap1in)s r 5ines n t"e beams. • / 5er t"e !rame% r2 %it" br$s"# 1ea5es# pine need1es# r )rass# startin) at t"e b tt m and % r2in) y $r %ay $p 1i2e s"in)1in). • (1a&e stra%# 1ea5es# pine need1es# r )rass inside t"e s"e1ter ! r beddin). In & 1d %eat"er# add t y $r 1ean-t Fs & m! rt by b$i1din) a !ire re!1e&t r %a11 CFi)$re 9-;D. Dri5e ! $r 1.9meter-1 n) sta2es int t"e )r $nd t s$pp rt t"e %a11. Sta&2 )reen 1 )s n t p ! ne an t"er bet%een t"e s$pp rt sta2es. F rm t% r %s ! sta&2ed 1 )s t &reate an inner spa&e %it"in t"e %a11 t"at y $ &an !i11 %it" dirt. +"is a&ti n n t n1y stren)t"ens t"e %a11 b$t ma2es it m re "eat re!1e&ti5e. ,ind t"e t p ! t"e s$pp rt sta2es s t"at t"e )reen 1 )s and dirt %i11 stay in p1a&e. 3it" @$st a 1itt1e m re e!! rt y $ &an "a5e a dryin) ra&2. /$t a !e% 2-&entimeter-diameter p 1es C1en)t" depends n t"e distan&e bet%een t"e 1ean-t Fs " ri' nta1 s$pp rt and t"e t p ! t"e !ire re!1e&t r %a11D. Lay ne end ! t"e p 1es n t"e 1ean-t s$pp rt and t"e t"er end n t p ! t"e re!1e&t r %a11. (1a&e and tie int p1a&e sma11er sti&2s a&r ss t"ese p 1es. Y $ n % "a5e a p1a&e t dry &1 t"es# meat# r !is".

S2!+p Be(
In a mars" r s%amp# r any area %it" standin) %ater r & ntin$a11y %et )r $nd# t"e s%amp bed CFi)$re 9-1<D 2eeps y $ $t ! t"e %ater. 3"en se1e&tin) s$&" a site# & nsider t"e %eat"er# %ind# tides# and a5ai1ab1e materia1s.

(a)e 9< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+ ma2e a s%amp bed-• L 2 ! r ! $r trees &1$stered in a re&tan)1e# r &$t ! $r p 1es Cbamb is idea1D and dri5e t"em !irm1y int t"e )r $nd s t"ey ! rm a re&tan)1e. +"ey s" $1d be !ar en $)" apart and str n) en $)" t s$pp rt y $r "ei)"t and %ei)"t# t in&1$de e4$ipment. • /$t t% p 1es t"at span t"e %idt" ! t"e re&tan)1e. +"ey# t # m$st be str n) en $)" t s$pp rt y $r %ei)"t. • Se&$re t"ese t% p 1es t t"e trees C r p 1esD. ,e s$re t"ey are "i)" en $)" ab 5e t"e )r $nd r %ater t a11 % ! r tides and "i)" %ater. • /$t additi na1 p 1es t"at span t"e re&tan)1eFs 1en)t". Lay t"em a&r ss t"e t% side p 1es# and se&$re t"em. • / 5er t"e t p ! t"e bed !rame %it" br ad 1ea5es r )rass t ! rm a s !t s1eepin) s$r!a&e. • ,$i1d a !ire pad by 1ayin) &1ay# si1t# r m$d n ne & mer ! t"e s%amp bed and a11 % it t dry. An t"er s"e1ter desi)ned t )et y $ ab 5e and $t ! t"e %ater r %et )r $nd $ses t"e same re&tan)$1ar & n!i)$rati n as t"e s%amp bed. Y $ 5ery simp1y 1ay sti&2s and bran&"es 1en)t"%ise n t"e inside ! t"e trees C r p 1esD $nti1 t"ere is en $)" materia1 t raise t"e s1eepin) s$r!a&e ab 5e t"e %ater 1e5e1.

N!t &!% She%te&$
D n t 5er1 2 nat$ra1 ! rmati ns t"at pr 5ide s"e1ter. -?amp1es are &a5es# r &2y &re5i&es# &1$mps ! b$s"es# sma11 depressi ns# 1ar)e r &2s n 1ee%ard sides ! "i11s# 1ar)e trees %it" 1 %-"an)in) 1imbs# and !a11en trees %it" t"i&2 bran&"es. 0 %e5er# %"en se1e&tin) a nat$ra1 ! rmati n-• Stay a%ay !r m 1 % )r $nd s$&" as ra5ines# narr % 5a11eys# r &ree2 beds. L % areas & 11e&t t"e "ea5y & 1d air at ni)"t and are t"ere! re & 1der t"an t"e s$rr $ndin) "i)" )r $nd. +"i&2# br$s"y# 1 % )r $nd a1s "arb rs m re inse&ts. • /"e&2 ! r p is n $s sna2es# ti&2s# mites# s& rpi ns# and stin)in) ants. • L 2 ! r 1 se r &2s# dead 1imbs# & & n$ts# r t"er nat$ra1 )r %t" t"an & $1d !a11 n y $r s"e1ter.

De,&i$ H t
F r %armt" and ease ! & nstr$&ti n# t"is s"e1ter is ne ! t"e best. 3"en s"e1ter is essentia1 t s$r5i5a1# b$i1d t"is s"e1ter. + ma2e a debris "$t CFi)$re 9-11D-• ,$i1d it by ma2in) a trip d %it" t% s" rt sta2es and a 1 n) rid)ep 1e r by p1a&in) ne end ! a 1 n) rid)ep 1e n t p ! a st$rdy base.
(a)e 91 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

• •

• • • •

Se&$re t"e rid)ep 1e Cp 1e r$nnin) t"e 1en)t" ! t"e s"e1terD $sin) t"e trip d met" d r by an&" rin) it t a tree at ab $t %aist "ei)"t. (r p 1ar)e sti&2s a1 n) b t" sides ! t"e rid)ep 1e t &reate a %ed)e-s"aped ribbin) e!!e&t. -ns$re t"e ribbin) is %ide en $)" t a&& mm date y $r b dy and steep en $)" t s"ed m ist$re. (1a&e !iner sti&2s and br$s" &r ss%ise n t"e ribbin). +"ese ! rm a 1atti&e% r2 t"at %i11 2eep t"e ins$1atin) materia1 C)rass# pine need1es# 1ea5esD !r m !a11in) t"r $)" t"e ribbin) int t"e s1eepin) area. Add 1i)"t# dry# i! p ssib1e# s !t debris 5er t"e ribbin) $nti1 t"e ins$1atin) materia1 is at 1east 1 meter t"i&2--t"e t"i&2er t"e better. (1a&e a *<-&entimeter 1ayer ! ins$1atin) materia1 inside t"e s"e1ter. At t"e entran&e# pi1e ins$1atin) materia1 t"at y $ &an dra) t y $ n&e inside t"e s"e1ter t &1 se t"e entran&e r b$i1d a d r. As a !ina1 step in & nstr$&tin) t"is s"e1ter# add s"in)1in) materia1 r bran&"es n t p ! t"e debris 1ayer t pre5ent t"e ins$1atin) materia1 !r m b1 %in) a%ay in a st rm.

T&ee-Pit S#"2 She%te&
I! y $ are in a & 1d# sn %-& 5ered area %"ere e5er)reen trees )r % and y $ "a5e a di))in) t &an ma2e a tree-pit s"e1ter CFi)$re 9-12D. 1# y $

(a)e 92 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+ ma2e t"is s"e1ter-• Find a tree %it" b$s"y bran&"es t"at pr 5ides 5er"ead & 5er. • Di) $t t"e sn % ar $nd t"e tree tr$n2 $nti1 y $ rea&" t"e dept" and diameter y $ desire# r $nti1 y $ rea&" t"e )r $nd. • (a&2 t"e sn % ar $nd t"e t p and t"e inside ! t"e " 1e t pr 5ide s$pp rt. • Find and &$t t"er e5er)reen b $)"s. (1a&e t"em 5er t"e t p ! t"e pit t )i5e y $ additi na1 5er"ead & 5er. (1a&e e5er)reen b $)"s in t"e b tt m ! t"e pit ! r ins$1ati n. See /"apter 19 ! r t"er ar&ti& r & 1d %eat"er s"e1ters.

Be!.h Sh!(e She%te&
+"is s"e1ter pr te&ts y $ !r m t"e s$n# %ind# rain# and "eat. It is easy t ma2e $sin) nat$ra1 materia1s. + ma2e t"is s"e1ter CFi)$re 9-1*D-• Find and & 11e&t dri!t% d r t"er nat$ra1 materia1 t $se as s$pp rt beams and as a di))in) t 1. • Se1e&t a site t"at is ab 5e t"e "i)" %ater mar2. • S&rape r di) $t a tren&" r$nnin) n rt" t s $t" s t"at it re&ei5es t"e 1east am $nt ! s$n1i)"t. Ma2e t"e tren&" 1 n) and %ide en $)" ! r y $ t 1ie d %n & m! rtab1y. • M $nd s i1 n t"ree sides ! t"e tren&". +"e "i)"er t"e m $nd# t"e m re spa&e inside t"e s"e1ter. • Lay s$pp rt beams Cdri!t% d r t"er nat$ra1 materia1D t"at span t"e tren&" n t p ! t"e m $nd t ! rm t"e !rame% r2 ! r a r !. • -n1ar)e t"e s"e1terFs entran&e by di))in) $t m re sand in !r nt ! it. • Use nat$ra1 materia1s s$&" as )rass r 1ea5es t ! rm a bed inside t"e s"e1ter.

(a)e 9* ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

De$e&t She%te&$
In an arid en5ir nment# & nsider t"e time# e!! rt# and materia1 needed t ma2e a s"e1ter. I! y $ "a5e materia1 s$&" as a p n&" # &an5as# r a para&"$te# $se it a1 n) %it" s$&" terrain !eat$res as r &2 $t&r ppin)# m $nds ! sand# r a depressi n bet%een d$nes r r &2s t ma2e y $r s"e1ter. Usin) r &2 $t&r ppin)s-• An&" r ne end ! y $r p n&" C&an5as# para&"$te# r t"er materia1D n t"e ed)e ! t"e $t&r p $sin) r &2s r t"er %ei)"ts. • -?tend and an&" r t"e t"er end ! t"e p n&" s it pr 5ides t"e best p ssib1e s"ade. In a sandy area-• ,$i1d a m $nd ! sand r $se t"e side ! a sand d$ne ! r ne side ! t"e s"e1ter. • An&" r ne end ! t"e materia1 n t p ! t"e m $nd $sin) sand r t"er %ei)"ts. • -?tend and an&" r t"e t"er end ! t"e materia1 s it pr 5ides t"e best p ssib1e s"ade. 8ote9 I! you have enough material" !old it in hal! and !orm a 4;%centimeter to 56% centimeter airspace between the two halves. This airspace will reduce the temperature under the shelter. A be1 %)r $nd s"e1ter CFi)$re 9-17D &an red$&e t"e midday "eat as m$&" as 16 t 22 de)rees / C*< t 7< de)rees FD. ,$i1din) it# " %e5er# re4$ires m re time and e!! rt t"an ! r t"er s"e1ters. Sin&e y $r p"ysi&a1 e!! rt %i11 ma2e y $ s%eat m re and in&rease de"ydrati n# & nstr$&t it be! re t"e "eat ! t"e day.

(a)e 97 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+ ma2e t"is s"e1ter-• Find a 1 % sp t r depressi n bet%een d$nes r r &2s. I! ne&essary# di) a tren&" 79 t 6< &entimeters deep and 1 n) and %ide en $)" ! r y $ t 1ie in & m! rtab1y. • (i1e t"e sand y $ ta2e !r m t"e tren&" t ! rm a m $nd ar $nd t"ree sides. • .n t"e pen end ! t"e tren&"# di) $t m re sand s y $ &an )et in and $t ! y $r s"e1ter easi1y. • / 5er t"e tren&" %it" y $r materia1. • Se&$re t"e materia1 in p1a&e $sin) sand# r &2s# r t"er %ei)"ts. I! y $ "a5e e?tra materia1# y $ &an !$rt"er de&rease t"e midday temperat$re in t"e tren&" by se&$rin) t"e materia1 *< t 79 &entimeters ab 5e t"e t"er & 5er. +"is 1ayerin) ! t"e materia1 %i11 red$&e t"e inside temperat$re 11 t 22 de)rees / C2< t 7< de)rees FD. An t"er type ! be1 %)r $nd s"ade s"e1ter is ! simi1ar & nstr$&ti n# e?&ept a11 sides are pen t air &$rrents and &ir&$1ati n. F r ma?im$m pr te&ti n# y $ need a minim$m ! t% 1ayers ! para&"$te materia1 CFi)$re 9-19D. 3"ite is t"e best & 1 r t re!1e&t "eatH t"e innerm st 1ayer s" $1d be ! dar2er materia1.

(a)e 99 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

(a)e 96 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 6 - *ATER PROCUREMENT

ater is one o! your most urgent needs in a survival situation. @ou can. t live long without it" especially in hot areas where you lose water rapidly through perspiration. Cven in cold areas" you need a minimum o! 3 liters o! water each day to maintain e!!iciency. /ore than three%!ourths o! your body is composed o! !luids. @our body loses !luid as a result o! heat" cold" stress" and e+ertion. To !unction e!!ectively" you must replace the !luid your body loses. So" one o! your !irst goals is to obtain an ade)uate supply o! water.

3AT R SOURC S
A1m st any en5ir nment "as %ater present t s me de)ree. Fi)$re 6-1 1ists p ssib1e s $r&es ! %ater in 5ari $s en5ir nments. It a1s pr 5ides in! rmati n n " % t ma2e t"e %ater p tab1e.

(a)e 97 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

(a)e 9: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

8ote9 I! you do not have a canteen" a cup" a can" or other type o! container" improvise one !rom plastic or water%resistant cloth. Shape the plastic or cloth into a bowl by pleating it. Use pins or other suitable items%%even your hands%%to hold the pleats. I! y $ d n t "a5e a re1iab1e s $r&e t rep1enis" y $r %ater s$pp1y# stay a1ert ! r %ays in %"i&" y $r en5ir nment &an "e1p y $. CAUTION D n t s$bstit$te t"e !1$ids 1isted in Fi)$re 6-2 ! r %ater.

(a)e 9; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

0ea5y de% &an pr 5ide %ater. +ie ra)s r t$!ts ! !ine )rass ar $nd y $r an21es and %a12 t"r $)" de%& 5ered )rass be! re s$nrise. As t"e ra)s r )rass t$!ts abs rb t"e de%# %rin) t"e %ater int a & ntainer. Repeat t"e pr &ess $nti1 y $ "a5e a s$pp1y ! %ater r $nti1 t"e de% is ) ne. A$stra1ian nati5es s metimes m p $p as m$&" as a 1iter an " $r t"is %ay. ,ees r ants ) in) int a " 1e in a tree may p int t a %ater-!i11ed " 1e. Sip" n t"e %ater %it" p1asti& t$bin) r s& p it $p %it" an impr 5ised dipper. Y $ &an a1s st$!! &1 t" in t"e " 1e t abs rb t"e %ater and t"en %rin) it !r m t"e &1 t". 3ater s metimes )at"ers in tree &r t&"es r r &2 &re5i&es. Use t"e ab 5e pr &ed$res t )et t"e %ater. In arid areas# bird dr ppin)s ar $nd a &ra&2 in t"e r &2s may indi&ate %ater in r near t"e &ra&2. 6reen bamb t"i&2ets are an e?&e11ent s $r&e ! !res" %ater. 3ater !r m )reen bamb is &1ear and d r1ess. + )et t"e %ater# bend a )reen bamb sta12# tie it d %n# and &$t !! t"e t p CFi)$re 6-*D. +"e %ater %i11 drip !ree1y d$rin) t"e ni)"t. .1d# &ra&2ed bamb may & ntain %ater.

CAUTION ($ri!y t"e %ater be! re drin2in) it. 3"ere5er y $ !ind banana r p1antain trees# y $ &an )et %ater. /$t d %n t"e tree# 1ea5in) ab $t a *<&entimeter st$mp# and s& p $t t"e &enter ! t"e st$mp s t"at t"e " 11 % is b %1-s"aped. 3ater !r m t"e r ts %i11 immediate1y start t !i11 t"e " 11 %. +"e !irst t"ree !i11in)s ! %ater %i11 be bitter# b$t s$&&eedin) !i11in)s %i11 be pa1atab1e. +"e st$mp CFi)$re 6-7D %i11 s$pp1y %ater ! r $p t ! $r days. ,e s$re t & 5er it t 2eep $t inse&ts.

(a)e 6< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

S me tr pi&a1 5ines &an )i5e y $ %ater. /$t a n t&" in t"e 5ine as "i)" as y $ &an rea&"# t"en &$t t"e 5ine !! &1 se t t"e )r $nd. /at&" t"e dr ppin) 1i4$id in a & ntainer r in y $r m $t" CFi)$re 6-9D.

(a)e 61 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CAUTION D n t drin2 t"e 1i4$id i! it is sti&2y# mi12y# r bitter tastin). +"e mi12 !r m )reen C$nripeD & & n$ts is a ) d t"irst 4$en&"er. 0 %e5er# t"e mi12 !r m mat$re & & n$ts & ntains an i1 t"at a&ts as a 1a?ati5e. Drin2 in m derati n n1y. In t"e Ameri&an tr pi&s y $ may !ind 1ar)e trees %" se bran&"es s$pp rt air p1ants. +"ese air p1ants may " 1d a & nsiderab1e am $nt ! rain%ater in t"eir 5er1appin)# t"i&21y )r %in) 1ea5es. Strain t"e %ater t"r $)" a &1 t" t rem 5e inse&ts and debris. Y $ &an )et %ater !r m p1ants %it" m ist p$1py &enters. /$t !! a se&ti n ! t"e p1ant and s4$ee'e r smas" t"e p$1p s t"at t"e m ist$re r$ns $t. /at&" t"e 1i4$id in a & ntainer. (1ant r ts may pr 5ide %ater. Di) r pry t"e r ts $t ! t"e )r $nd# &$t t"em int s" rt pie&es# and smas" t"e p$1p s t"at t"e m ist$re r$ns $t. /at&" t"e 1i4$id in a & ntainer. F1es"y 1ea5es# stems# r sta12s# s$&" as bamb # & ntain %ater. /$t r n t&" t"e sta12s at t"e base ! a @ int t drain $t t"e 1i4$id. +"e ! 11 %in) trees &an a1s pr 5ide %aterI • :alms. (a1ms# s$&" as t"e b$ri# & & n$t# s$)ar# rattan# and nips# & ntain 1i4$id. ,r$ise a 1 %er !r nd and p$11 it d %n s t"e tree %i11 Jb1eedJ at t"e in@$ry. • Traveler.s tree. F $nd in Mada)as&ar# t"is tree "as a &$p1i2e s"eat" at t"e base ! its 1ea5es in %"i&" %ater & 11e&ts. • Umbrella tree. +"e 1ea! bases and r ts ! t"is tree ! %estern tr pi&a1 A!ri&a &an pr 5ide %ater. • ?aobab tree. +"is tree ! t"e sandy p1ains ! n rt"ern A$stra1ia and A!ri&a & 11e&ts %ater in its b tt1e1i2e tr$n2 d$rin) t"e %et seas n. Fre4$ent1y# y $ &an !ind &1ear# !res" %ater in t"ese trees a!ter %ee2s ! dry %eat"er. CAUTION D n t 2eep t"e sap !r m p1ants 1 n)er t"an 27 " $rs. It be)ins !ermentin)# be& min) dan)er $s as a %ater s $r&e.

STILL CONSTRUCTION
Y $ &an $se sti11s in 5ari $s areas ! t"e % r1d. +"ey dra% m ist$re !r m t"e )r $nd and !r m p1ant materia1. Y $ need &ertain materia1s t b$i1d a sti11# and y $ need time t 1et it & 11e&t t"e %ater. It ta2es ab $t 27 " $rs t )et <.9 t 1 1iter ! %ater.

A,"/e0&" #( Sti%%
+ ma2e t"e ab 5e)r $nd sti11# y $ need a s$nny s1 pe n %"i&" t p1a&e t"e sti11# a &1ear p1asti& ba)# )reen 1ea!y 5e)etati n# and a sma11 r &2 CFi)$re 6-6D.

(a)e 62 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+ ma2e t"e sti11-• Fi11 t"e ba) %it" air by t$rnin) t"e penin) int t"e bree'e r by Js& pin)J air int t"e ba). • Fi11 t"e p1asti& ba) "a1! t t"ree-! $rt"s !$11 ! )reen 1ea!y 5e)etati n. ,e s$re t rem 5e a11 "ard sti&2s r s"arp spines t"at mi)"t p$n&t$re t"e ba). CAUTION D n t $se p is n $s 5e)etati n. It %i11 pr 5ide p is n $s 1i4$id.
• •

• •

(1a&e a sma11 r &2 r simi1ar item in t"e ba). /1 se t"e ba) and tie t"e m $t" se&$re1y as &1 se t t"e end ! t"e ba) as p ssib1e t 2eep t"e ma?im$m am $nt ! air spa&e. I! y $ "a5e a pie&e ! t$bin)# a sma11 stra%# r a " 11 % reed# insert ne end in t"e m $t" ! t"e ba) be! re y $ tie it se&$re1y. +"en tie !! r p1$) t"e t$bin) s t"at air %i11 n t es&ape. +"is t$bin) %i11 a11 % y $ t drain $t & ndensed %ater %it" $t $ntyin) t"e ba). (1a&e t"e ba)# m $t" d %n"i11# n a s1 pe in !$11 s$n1i)"t. ( siti n t"e m $t" ! t"e ba) s1i)"t1y "i)"er t"an t"e 1 % p int in t"e ba). Sett1e t"e ba) in p1a&e s t"at t"e r &2 % r2s itse1! int t"e 1 % p int in t"e ba).

+ )et t"e & ndensed %ater !r m t"e sti11# 1 sen t"e tie ar $nd t"e ba)Fs m $t" and tip t"e ba) s t"at t"e %ater & 11e&ted ar $nd t"e r &2 %i11 drain $t. +"en retie t"e m $t" se&$re1y and rep siti n t"e sti11 t a11 % !$rt"er & ndensati n. /"an)e t"e 5e)etati n in t"e ba) a!ter e?tra&tin) m st ! t"e %ater !r m it. +"is %i11 ens$re ma?im$m $tp$t ! %ater.

Be%"20&" #( Sti%%
+ ma2e a be1 %)r $nd sti11# y $ need a di))in) t and a r &2 CFi)$re 6-7D. 1# a & ntainer# a &1ear p1asti& s"eet# a drin2in) t$be#

(a)e 6* ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Se1e&t a site %"ere y $ be1ie5e t"e s i1 %i11 & ntain m ist$re Cs$&" as a dry stream bed r a 1 % sp t %"ere rain%ater "as & 11e&tedD. +"e s i1 at t"is site s" $1d be easy t di)# and s$n1i)"t m$st "it t"e site m st ! t"e day. + & nstr$&t t"e sti11-• Di) a b %1-s"aped " 1e ab $t 1 meter a&r ss and 6< &entimeters deep. • Di) a s$mp in t"e &enter ! t"e " 1e. +"e s$mpFs dept" and perimeter %i11 depend n t"e si'e ! t"e & ntainer t"at y $ "a5e t p1a&e in it. +"e b tt m ! t"e s$mp s" $1d a11 % t"e & ntainer t stand $pri)"t. • An&" r t"e t$bin) t t"e & ntainerFs b tt m by ! rmin) a 1 se 5er"and 2n t in t"e t$bin). • (1a&e t"e & ntainer $pri)"t in t"e s$mp. • -?tend t"e $nan&" red end ! t"e t$bin) $p# 5er# and bey nd t"e 1ip ! t"e " 1e. • (1a&e t"e p1asti& s"eet 5er t"e " 1e# & 5erin) its ed)es %it" s i1 t " 1d it in p1a&e. • (1a&e a r &2 in t"e &enter ! t"e p1asti& s"eet. • L %er t"e p1asti& s"eet int t"e " 1e $nti1 it is ab $t 7< &entimeters be1 % )r $nd 1e5e1. It n % ! rms an in5erted & ne %it" t"e r &2 at its ape?. Ma2e s$re t"at t"e & neFs ape? is dire&t1y 5er y $r & ntainer. A1s ma2e s$re t"e p1asti& & ne d es n t t $&" t"e sides ! t"e " 1e be&a$se t"e eart" %i11 abs rb t"e & ndensed %ater. • ($t m re s i1 n t"e ed)es ! t"e p1asti& t " 1d it se&$re1y in p1a&e and t pre5ent t"e 1 ss ! m ist$re. • (1$) t"e t$be %"en n t in $se s t"at t"e m ist$re %i11 n t e5ap rate. Y $ &an drin2 %ater %it" $t dist$rbin) t"e sti11 by $sin) t"e t$be as a stra%. Y $ may %ant t $se p1ants in t"e " 1e as a m ist$re s $r&e. I! s # di) $t additi na1 s i1 !r m t"e sides ! t"e " 1e t ! rm a s1 pe n %"i&" t p1a&e t"e p1ants. +"en pr &eed as ab 5e. I! p 11$ted %ater is y $r n1y m ist$re s $r&e# di) a sma11 tr $)" $tside t"e " 1e ab $t 29 &entimeters !r m t"e sti11Fs 1ip CFi)$re 6-:D. Di) t"e tr $)" ab $t 29 &entimeters deep and : &entimeters %ide. ( $r t"e p 11$ted %ater in t"e tr $)". ,e s$re y $ d n t spi11 any p 11$ted %ater ar $nd t"e rim ! t"e " 1e %"ere t"e p1asti& s"eet t $&"es t"e s i1. +"e tr $)" " 1ds t"e p 11$ted %ater and t"e s i1 !i1ters it as t"e sti11 dra%s it. +"e %ater t"en & ndenses n t"e p1asti& and drains int t"e & ntainer. +"is pr &ess % r2s e?treme1y %e11 %"en y $r n1y %ater s $r&e is sa1t %ater.

(a)e 67 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Y $ %i11 need at 1east t"ree sti11s t meet y $r indi5id$a1 dai1y %ater inta2e needs.

3AT R PURI'ICATION
Rain%ater & 11e&ted in &1ean & ntainers r in p1ants is $s$a11y sa!e ! r drin2in). 0 %e5er# p$ri!y %ater !r m 1a2es# p nds# s%amps# sprin)s# r streams# espe&ia11y t"e %ater near "$man sett1ements r in t"e tr pi&s. 3"en p ssib1e# p$ri!y a11 %ater y $ ) t !r m 5e)etati n r !r m t"e )r $nd by $sin) i dine r &"1 rine# r by b i1in). ($ri!y %ater by-• Usin) %ater p$ri!i&ati n tab1ets. CF 11 % t"e dire&ti ns pr 5ided.D • (1a&in) 9 dr ps ! 2 per&ent tin&t$re ! i dine in a &anteen !$11 ! &1ear %ater. I! t"e &anteen is !$11 ! &1 $dy r & 1d %ater# $se 1< dr ps. CLet t"e &anteen ! %ater stand ! r *< min$tes be! re drin2in).D • , i1in) %ater ! r 1 min$te at sea 1e5e1# addin) 1 min$te ! r ea&" additi na1 *<< meters ab 5e sea 1e5e1# r b i1 ! r 1< min$tes n matter %"ere y $ are. ,y drin2in) n np tab1e %ater y $ may & ntra&t diseases r s%a11 % r)anisms t"at &an "arm y $. -?amp1es ! s$&" diseases r r)anisms are-• <ysentery. Se5ere# pr 1 n)ed diarr"ea %it" b1 dy st 1s# !e5er# and %ea2ness. • 1holera and typhoid. Y $ may be s$s&eptib1e t t"ese diseases re)ard1ess ! in &$1ati ns. • -lukes. Sta)nant# p 11$ted %ater--espe&ia11y in tr pi&a1 areas-- !ten & ntains b1 d !1$2es. I! y $ s%a11 % !1$2es# t"ey %i11 b re int t"e b1 dstream# 1i5e as parasites# and &a$se disease. • Leeches. I! y $ s%a11 % a 1ee&"# it &an " 2 nt t"e t"r at passa)e r inside t"e n se. It %i11 s$&2 b1 d# &reate a % $nd# and m 5e t an t"er area. -a&" b1eedin) % $nd may be& me in!e&ted.

3AT R 'ILTRATION , VIC S
I! t"e %ater y $ !ind is a1s m$ddy# sta)nant# and ! $1 sme11in)# y $ &an &1ear t"e %ater-• ,y p1a&in) it in a & ntainer and 1ettin) it stand ! r 12 " $rs. • ,y p $rin) it t"r $)" a !i1terin) system. 8ote9 These procedures only clear the water and make it more palatable. @ou will have to puri!y it.
(a)e 69 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+ ma2e a !i1terin) system# p1a&e se5era1 &entimeters r 1ayers ! !i1terin) materia1 s$&" as sand# &r$s"ed r &2# &"ar& a1# r &1 t" in bamb # a " 11 % 1 )# r an arti&1e ! &1 t"in) CFi)$re 6-;D.

Rem 5e t"e d r !r m %ater by addin) &"ar& a1 !r m y $r !ire. Let t"e %ater stand ! r 79 min$tes be! re drin2in) it.

(a)e 66 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 7 - FIRECRAFT

In many survival situations" the ability to start a !ire can make the di!!erence between living and dying. -ire can !ul!ill many needs. It can provide warmth and com!ort. It not only cooks and preserves !ood" it also provides warmth in the !orm o! heated !ood that saves calories our body normally uses to produce body heat. @ou can use !ire to puri!y water" sterili*e bandages" signal !or rescue" and provide protection !rom animals. It can be a psychological boost by providing peace o! mind and companionship. @ou can also use !ire to produce tools and weapons. -ire can cause problems" as well. The enemy can detect the smoke and light it produces. It can cause !orest !ires or destroy essential e)uipment. -ire can also cause burns carbon mono+ide poisoning when used in shelters. Remember weigh your need !or !ire against your need to avoid enemy detection.

#ASIC 'IR PRINCIPL S
+ b$i1d a !ire# it "e1ps t $nderstand t"e basi& prin&ip1es ! a !ire. F$e1 Cin a n n)ase $s stateD d es n t b$rn dire&t1y. 3"en y $ app1y "eat t a !$e1# it pr d$&es a )as. +"is )as# & mbined %it" ?y)en in t"e air# b$rns. Understandin) t"e & n&ept ! t"e !ire trian)1e is 5ery imp rtant in & rre&t1y & nstr$&tin) and maintainin) a !ire. +"e t"ree sides ! t"e trian)1e represent air" heat" and !uel. I! y $ rem 5e any ! t"ese# t"e !ire %i11 ) $t. +"e & rre&t rati ! t"ese & mp nents is 5ery imp rtant ! r a !ire t b$rn at its )reatest &apabi1ity. +"e n1y %ay t 1earn t"is rati is t pra&ti&e.

SIT S L CTION AN, PR PARATION
Y $ %i11 "a5e t de&ide %"at site and arran)ement t $se. ,e! re b$i1din) a !ire & nsider-• +"e area Cterrain and &1imateD in %"i&" y $ are peratin). • +"e materia1s and t 1s a5ai1ab1e. • +imeI " % m$&" time y $ "a5eG • NeedI %"y y $ need a !ireG • Se&$rityI " % &1 se is t"e enemyG L
• • •

2 ! r a dry sp t t"at-Is pr te&ted !r m t"e %ind. Is s$itab1y p1a&ed in re1ati n t y $r s"e1ter Ci! anyD. 3i11 & n&entrate t"e "eat in t"e dire&ti n y $ desire. d r t"er !$e1 a5ai1ab1e. CSee Fi)$re 7-7 ! r types ! materia1 y $ &an $se.D
(a)e 67 ! 2**

0as a s$pp1y ! %

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

I! y $ are in a % ded r br$s"-& 5ered area# &1ear t"e br$s" and s&rape t"e s$r!a&e s i1 !r m t"e sp t y $ "a5e se1e&ted. /1ear a &ir&1e at 1east 1 meter in diameter s t"ere is 1itt1e &"an&e ! t"e !ire spreadin). I! time a11 %s# & nstr$&t a !ire %a11 $sin) 1 )s r r &2s. +"is %a11 %i11 "e1p t re!1e&t r dire&t t"e "eat %"ere y $ %ant it CFi)$re 7-1D. It %i11 a1s red$&e !1yin) spar2s and &$t d %n n t"e am $nt ! %ind b1 %in) int t"e !ire. 0 %e5er# y $ %i11 need en $)" %ind t 2eep t"e !ire b$rnin). CAUTION D n t $se %et r p r $s r &2s as t"ey may e?p1 de %"en "eated.

(a)e 6: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

In s me sit$ati ns# y $ may !ind t"at an $nder)r $nd !irep1a&e %i11 best meet y $r needs. It & n&ea1s t"e !ire and ser5es %e11 ! r & 2in) ! d. + ma2e an $nder)r $nd !irep1a&e r Da2 ta !ire " 1e CFi)$re 7-2D-• Di) a " 1e in t"e )r $nd. • .n t"e $p%ind side ! t"is " 1e# p 2e r di) a 1ar)e & nne&tin) " 1e ! r 5enti1ati n. • ,$i1d y $r !ire in t"e " 1e as i11$strated.

I! y $ are in a sn %-& 5ered area# $se )reen 1 )s t ma2e a dry base ! r y $r !ire CFi)$re 7-*D. +rees %it" %rist-si'ed tr$n2s are easi1y br 2en in e?treme & 1d. /$t r brea2 se5era1 )reen 1 )s and 1ay t"em side by side n t p ! t"e sn %. Add ne r t% m re 1ayers. Lay t"e t p 1ayer ! 1 )s pp site t" se be1 % it.

(a)e 6; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

'IR 0AT RIAL S L CTION
Y $ need t"ree types ! materia1s CFi)$re 7-7D t b$i1d a !ire--tinder# 2ind1in)# and !$e1. +inder is dry materia1 t"at i)nites %it" 1itt1e "eat--a spar2 starts a !ire. +"e tinder m$st be abs 1$te1y dry t be s$re @$st a spar2 %i11 i)nite it. I! y $ n1y "a5e a de5i&e t"at )enerates spar2s# &"arred &1 t" %i11 be a1m st essentia1. It " 1ds a spar2 ! r 1 n) peri ds# a11 %in) y $ t p$t tinder n t"e " t area t )enerate a sma11 !1ame. Y $ &an ma2e &"arred &1 t" by "eatin) & tt n &1 t" $nti1 it t$rns b1a&2# b$t d es n t b$rn. .n&e it is b1a&2# y $ m$st 2eep it in an airti)"t & ntainer t 2eep it dry. (repare t"is &1 t" %e11 in ad5an&e ! any s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. Add it t y $r indi5id$a1 s$r5i5a1 2it. 8ind1in) is readi1y & mb$stib1e materia1 t"at y $ add t t"e b$rnin) tinder. A)ain# t"is materia1 s" $1d be abs 1$te1y dry t ens$re rapid b$rnin). 8ind1in) in&reases t"e !ireFs temperat$re s t"at it %i11 i)nite 1ess & mb$stib1e materia1. F$e1 is 1ess & mb$stib1e materia1 t"at b$rns s1 %1y and steadi1y n&e i)nited.

.O3 TO #UIL, A 'IR
+"ere are se5era1 met" ds ! r 1ayin) a !ire# ea&" ! %"i&" "as ad5anta)es. +"e sit$ati n y $ !ind y $rse1! in %i11 determine %"i&" !ire t $se.

Tepee
+ ma2e t"is !ire CFi)$re 7-9D# arran)e t"e tinder and a !e% sti&2s ! 2ind1in) in t"e s"ape ! a tepee r & ne. Li)"t t"e &enter. As t"e tepee b$rns# t"e $tside 1 )s %i11 !a11 in%ard# !eedin) t"e !ire. +"is type ! !ire b$rns %e11 e5en %it" %et % d.

(a)e 7< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Le!#-T"
+ 1ay t"is !ire CFi)$re 7-9D# p$s" a )reen sti&2 int t"e )r $nd at a *<-de)ree an)1e. ( int t"e end ! t"e sti&2 in t"e dire&ti n ! t"e %ind. (1a&e s me tinder deep $nder t"is 1ean-t sti&2. Lean pie&es ! 2ind1in) a)ainst t"e 1ean-t sti&2. Li)"t t"e tinder. As t"e 2ind1in) &at&"es !ire !r m t"e tinder# add m re 2ind1in).

C&"$$-Dit.h
+ $se t"is met" d CFi)$re 7-9D# s&rat&" a &r ss ab $t *< &entimeters in si'e in t"e )r $nd. Di) t"e &r ss 7.9 &entimeters deep. ($t a 1ar)e %ad ! tinder in t"e midd1e ! t"e &r ss. ,$i1d a 2ind1in) pyramid ab 5e t"e tinder. +"e s"a11 % dit&" a11 %s air t s%eep $nder t"e tinder t pr 5ide a dra!t.

P3&!+i(
+ 1ay t"is !ire CFi)$re 7-9D# p1a&e t% sma11 1 )s r bran&"es para11e1 n t"e )r $nd. (1a&e a s 1id 1ayer ! sma11 1 )s a&r ss t"e para11e1 1 )s. Add t"ree r ! $r m re 1ayers ! 1 )s r bran&"es# ea&" 1ayer sma11er t"an and at a ri)"t an)1e t t"e 1ayer be1 % it. Ma2e a starter !ire n t p ! t"e pyramid. As t"e starter !ire b$rns# it %i11 i)nite t"e 1 )s be1 % it. +"is )i5es y $ a !ire t"at b$rns d %n%ard# re4$irin) n attenti n d$rin) t"e ni)"t. +"ere are se5era1 t"er %ays t 1ay a !ire t"at are 4$ite e!!e&ti5e. Y $r sit$ati n and t"e materia1 a5ai1ab1e in t"e area may ma2e an t"er met" d m re s$itab1e.

.O3 TO LI/.T A 'IR
A1%ays 1i)"t y $r !ire !r m t"e $p%ind side. Ma2e s$re t 1ay y $r tinder# 2ind1in)# and !$e1 s t"at y $r !ire %i11 b$rn as 1 n) as y $ need it. I)niters pr 5ide t"e initia1 "eat re4$ired t start t"e tinder b$rnin). +"ey !a11 int t% &ate) riesI m dern met" ds and primiti5e met" ds.

M"(e&# Meth"($
(a)e 71 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

M dem i)niters $se m dem de5i&es--items %e n rma11y t"in2 ! t start a !ire.

0atches
Ma2e s$re t"ese mat&"es are %aterpr dependab1e stri2er pad. !. A1s # st re t"em in a %aterpr ! & ntainer a1 n) %it" a

Con(e4 Lens
Use t"is met" d CFi)$re 7-6D n1y n bri)"t# s$nny days. +"e 1ens &an & me !r m bin &$1ars# &amera# te1es& pi& si)"ts# r ma)ni!yin) )1asses. An)1e t"e 1ens t & n&entrate t"e s$nFs rays n t"e tinder. 0 1d t"e 1ens 5er t"e same sp t $nti1 t"e tinder be)ins t sm 1der. 6ent1y b1 % r !an t"e tinder int !1ame# and app1y it t t"e !ire 1ay.

0etal 0atch
(1a&e a !1at# dry 1ea! $nder y $r tinder %it" a p rti n e?p sed. (1a&e t"e tip ! t"e meta1 mat&" n t"e dry 1ea!# " 1din) t"e meta1 mat&" in ne "and and a 2ni!e in t"e t"er. S&rape y $r 2ni!e a)ainst t"e meta1 mat&" t pr d$&e spar2s. +"e spar2s %i11 "it t"e tinder. 3"en t"e tinder starts t sm 1der# pr &eed as ab 5e.

#attery
Use a battery t )enerate a spar2. Use ! t"is met" d depends n t"e type ! battery a5ai1ab1e. Atta&" a %ire t ea&" termina1. + $&" t"e ends ! t"e bare %ires t )et"er ne?t t t"e tinder s t"e spar2s %i11 i)nite it.

/unpo%der
.!ten# y $ %i11 "a5e amm$niti n %it" y $r e4$ipment. I! s # &are!$11y e?tra&t t"e b$11et !r m t"e s"e11 &asin)# and $se t"e )$np %der as tinder. A spar2 %i11 i)nite t"e p %der. ,e e?treme1y &are!$1 %"en e?tra&tin) t"e b$11et !r m t"e &ase.
(a)e 72 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

P&i+iti/e Meth"($
(rimiti5e i)niters are t" se attrib$ted t $r ear1y an&est rs.

'lint and Steel
+"e dire&t spar2 met" d is t"e easiest ! t"e primiti5e met" ds t $se. +"e !1int and stee1 met" d is t"e m st re1iab1e ! t"e dire&t spar2 met" ds. Stri2e a !1int r t"er "ard# s"arp-ed)ed r &2 ed)e %it" a pie&e ! &arb n stee1 Cstain1ess stee1 %i11 n t pr d$&e a ) d spar2D. +"is met" d re4$ires a 1 se-@ inted %rist and pra&ti&e. 3"en a spar2 "as &a$)"t in t"e tinder# b1 % n it. +"e spar2 %i11 spread and b$rst int !1ames.

'ire5Plo%
+"e !ire-p1 % CFi)$re 7-7D is a !ri&ti n met" d ! i)niti n. Y $ r$b a "ard% d s"a!t a)ainst a s !ter % d base. + $se t"is met" d# &$t a strai)"t )r 5e in t"e base and p1 % t"e b1$nt tip ! t"e s"a!t $p and d %n t"e )r 5e. +"e p1 %in) a&ti n ! t"e s"a!t p$s"es $t sma11 parti&1es ! % d !ibers. +"en# as y $ app1y m re press$re n ea&" str 2e# t"e !ri&ti n i)nites t"e % d parti&1es.

#o% and ,rill
+"e te&"ni4$e ! startin) a !ire %it" a b % and dri11 CFi)$re 7-:D is simp1e# b$t y $ m$st e?ert m$&" e!! rt and be persistent t pr d$&e a !ire. Y $ need t"e ! 11 %in) items t $se t"is met" dI
• • •

Socket. +"e s &2et is an easi1y )rasped st ne r pie&e ! "ard% d r b ne %it" a s1i)"t depressi n in ne side. Use it t " 1d t"e dri11 in p1a&e and t app1y d %n%ard press$re. <rill. +"e dri11 s" $1d be a strai)"t# seas ned "ard% d sti&2 ab $t 2 &entimeters in diameter and 29 &entimeters 1 n). +"e t p end is r $nd and t"e 1 % end b1$nt Ct pr d$&e m re !ri&ti nD. -ire board. Its si'e is $p t y $. A seas ned s !t% d b ard ab $t 2.9 &entimeters t"i&2 and 1< &entimeters %ide is pre!erab1e. /$t a depressi n ab $t 2 &entimeters !r m t"e ed)e n ne side ! t"e b ard. .n t"e $nderside# ma2e a V-s"aped &$t !r m t"e ed)e ! t"e b ard t t"e depressi n.
(a)e 7* ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

?ow. +"e b % is a resi1ient# )reen sti&2 ab $t 2.9 &entimeters in diameter and a strin). +"e type ! % d is n t imp rtant. +"e b %strin) &an be any type ! & rda)e. Y $ tie t"e b %strin) !r m ne end ! t"e b % t t"e t"er# %it" $t any s1a&2.

+ $se t"e b % and dri11# !irst prepare t"e !ire 1ay. +"en p1a&e a b$nd1e ! tinder $nder t"e V-s"aped &$t in t"e !ire b ard. (1a&e ne ! t n t"e !ire b ard. L p t"e b %strin) 5er t"e dri11 and p1a&e t"e dri11 in t"e pre&$t depressi n n t"e !ire b ard. (1a&e t"e s &2et# "e1d in ne "and# n t"e t p ! t"e dri11 t " 1d it in p siti n. (ress d %n n t"e dri11 and sa% t"e b % ba&2 and ! rt" t t%ir1 t"e dri11 CFi)$re 7-:D. .n&e y $ "a5e estab1is"ed a sm t" m ti n# app1y m re d %n%ard press$re and % r2 t"e b % !aster. +"is a&ti n %i11 )rind " t b1a&2 p %der int t"e tinder# &a$sin) a spar2 t &at&". ,1 % n t"e tinder $nti1 it i)nites. 8ote9 :rimitive !ire%building methods are e+haustive and re)uire practice to ensure success. HELPFUL HINTS Use n nar mati& seas ned "ard% d ! r !$e1# i! p ssib1e. / 11e&t 2ind1in) and tinder a1 n) t"e trai1. Add inse&t repe11ent t t"e tinder. 8eep t"e !ire% d dry. Dry damp !ire% d near t"e !ire. ,an2 t"e !ire t 2eep t"e & a1s a1i5e 5erni)"t. /arry 1i)"ted p$n2# %"en p ssib1e. ,e s$re t"e !ire is $t be! re 1ea5in) &amp. D n t se1e&t % d 1yin) n t"e )r $nd. It may appear t be dry b$t )enera11y d esnFt pr 5ide en $)" !ri&ti n.

(a)e 77 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER ; - FOOD PROCUREMENT

A!ter water" man.s most urgent re)uirement is !ood. In contemplating virtually any hypothetical survival situation" the mind immediately turns to thoughts o! !ood. Unless the situation occurs in an arid environment" even water" which is more important to maintaining body !unctions" will almost always !ollow !ood in our initial thoughts. The survivor must remember that the three essentials o! survival%%water" !ood" and shelter%%are prioriti*ed according to the estimate o! the actual situation. This estimate must not only be timely but accurate as well. Some situations may well dictate that shelter precede both !ood and water.

ANI0ALS 'OR 'OO,
Un1ess y $ "a5e t"e &"an&e t ta2e 1ar)e )ame# & n&entrate y $r e!! rts n t"e sma11er anima1s# d$e t t"eir ab$ndan&e. +"e sma11er anima1 spe&ies are a1s easier t prepare. Y $ m$st n t 2n % a11 t"e anima1 spe&ies t"at are s$itab1e as ! d. Re1ati5e1y !e% are p is n $s# and t"ey ma2e a sma11er 1ist t remember. 3"at is imp rtant is t 1earn t"e "abits and be"a5i ra1 patterns ! &1asses ! anima1s. F r e?amp1e# anima1s t"at are e?&e11ent &" i&es ! r trappin)# t" se t"at in"abit a parti&$1ar ran)e and &&$py a den r nest# t" se t"at "a5e s me%"at !i?ed !eedin) areas# and t" se t"at "a5e trai1s 1eadin) !r m ne area t an t"er. Lar)er# "erdin) anima1s# s$&" as e12 r &arib $# r am 5ast areas and are s me%"at m re di!!i&$1t t trap. A1s # y $ m$st $nderstand t"e ! d &" i&es ! a parti&$1ar spe&ies. Y $ &an# %it" re1ati5e1y !e% e?&epti ns# eat anyt"in) t"at &ra%1s# s%ims# %a12s# r !1ies. +"e !irst bsta&1e is 5er& min) y $r nat$ra1 a5ersi n t a parti&$1ar ! d s $r&e. 0ist ri&a11y# pe p1e in star5ati n sit$ati ns "a5e res rted t eatin) e5eryt"in) ima)inab1e ! r n $ris"ment. A pers n %" i)n res an t"er%ise "ea1t"y ! d s $r&e d$e t a pers na1 bias# r be&a$se "e !ee1s it is $nappeti'in)# is ris2in) "is %n s$r5i5a1. A1t" $)" it may pr 5e di!!i&$1t at !irst# a s$r5i5 r m$st eat %"at is a5ai1ab1e t maintain "is "ea1t".

I#$e.t$
+"e m st ab$ndant 1i!e-! rm n eart"# inse&ts are easi1y &a$)"t. Inse&ts pr 5ide 69 t :< per&ent pr tein & mpared t 2< per&ent ! r bee!. +"is !a&t ma2es inse&ts an imp rtant# i! n t 5er1y appeti'in)# ! d s $r&e. Inse&ts t a5 id in&1$de a11 ad$1ts t"at stin) r bite# "airy r bri)"t1y & 1 red inse&ts# and &aterpi11ars and inse&ts t"at "a5e a p$n)ent d r. A1s a5 id spiders and & mm n disease &arriers s$&" as ti&2s# !1ies# and m s4$it es. R ttin) 1 )s 1yin) n t"e )r $nd are e?&e11ent p1a&es t 1 2 ! r a 5ariety ! inse&ts in&1$din) ants# termites# beet1es# and )r$bs# %"i&" are beet1e 1ar5ae. D n t 5er1 2 inse&t nests n r in t"e )r $nd. 6rassy areas# s$&" as !ie1ds# are ) d areas t sear&" be&a$se t"e inse&ts are easi1y seen. St nes# b ards# r t"er materia1s 1yin) n t"e )r $nd pr 5ide t"e inse&ts %it" ) d nestin) sites. /"e&2 t"ese sites. Inse&t 1ar5ae are a1s edib1e. Inse&ts s$&" as beet1es and )rass" ppers t"at "a5e a "ard $ter
(a)e 79 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

s"e11 %i11 "a5e parasites. / 2 t"em be! re eatin). Rem 5e any %in)s and barbed 1e)s a1s . Y $ &an eat m st inse&ts ra%. +"e taste 5aries !r m ne spe&ies t an t"er. 3 d )r$bs are b1and# %"i1e s me spe&ies ! ants st re " ney in t"eir b dies# )i5in) t"em a s%eet taste. Y $ &an )rind a & 11e&ti n ! inse&ts int a paste. Y $ &an mi? t"em %it" edib1e 5e)etati n. Y $ &an & 2 t"em t impr 5e t"eir taste.

*"&+$
3 rms CAnnelideaD are an e?&e11ent pr tein s $r&e. Di) ! r t"em in damp "$m$s s i1 r %at&" ! r t"em n t"e )r $nd a!ter a rain. A!ter &apt$rin) t"em# dr p t"em int &1ean# p tab1e %ater ! r a !e% min$tes. +"e % rms %i11 nat$ra11y p$r)e r %as" t"emse15es $t# a!ter %"i&" y $ &an eat t"em ra%.

C& $t!.e!#$
Fres"%ater s"rimp ran)e in si'e !r m <.29 &entimeter $p t 2.9 &entimeters. +"ey &an ! rm rat"er 1ar)e & 1 nies in mats ! !1 atin) a1)ae r in m$d b tt ms ! p nds and 1a2es. /ray!is" are a2in t marine 1 bsters and &rabs. Y $ &an distin)$is" t"em by t"eir "ard e? s2e1et n and !i5e pairs ! 1e)s# t"e !r nt pair "a5in) 5ersi'ed pin&ers. /ray!is" are a&ti5e at ni)"t# b$t y $ &an 1 &ate t"em in t"e daytime by 1 2in) $nder and ar $nd st nes in streams. Y $ &an a1s !ind t"em by 1 2in) in t"e s !t m$d near t"e &"imney1i2e breat"in) " 1es ! t"eir nests. Y $ &an &at&" &ray!is" by tyin) bits ! !!a1 r interna1 r)ans t a strin). 3"en t"e &ray!is" )rabs t"e bait# p$11 it t s" re be! re it "as a &"an&e t re1ease t"e bait. Y $ !ind sa1t%ater 1 bsters# &rabs# and s"rimp !r m t"e s$r!Fs ed)e $t t %ater 1< meters deep. S"rimp may & me t a 1i)"t at ni)"t %"ere y $ &an s& p t"em $p %it" a net. Y $ &an &at&" 1 bsters and &rabs %it" a baited trap r a baited " 2. /rabs %i11 & me t bait p1a&ed at t"e ed)e ! t"e s$r!# %"ere y $ &an trap r net t"em. L bsters and &rabs are n &t$rna1 and &a$)"t best at ni)"t.

M"%% $)$
+"is &1ass in&1$des &t p$ses and !res"%ater and sa1t%ater s"e11!is" s$&" as snai1s# &1ams# m$sse1s# bi5a15es# barna&1es# peri%in21es# &"it ns# and sea $r&"ins CFi)$re :-1D. Y $ !ind bi5a15es simi1ar t $r !res"%ater m$sse1 and terrestria1 and a4$ati& snai1s % r1d%ide $nder a11 %ater & nditi ns.

(a)e 76 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Ri5er snai1s r !res"%ater peri%in21es are p1enti!$1 in ri5ers# streams# and 1a2es ! n rt"ern & ni!er $s ! rests. +"ese snai1s may be pen&i1 p int r )1 b$1ar in s"ape. In !res" %ater# 1 2 ! r m 11$s2s in t"e s"a11 %s# espe&ia11y in %ater %it" a sandy r m$ddy b tt m. L 2 ! r t"e narr % trai1s t"ey 1ea5e in t"e m$d r ! r t"e dar2 e11ipti&a1 s1it ! t"eir pen 5a15es. Near t"e sea# 1 2 in t"e tida1 p 1s and t"e %et sand. R &2s a1 n) bea&"es r e?tendin) as ree!s int deeper %ater !ten bear &1in)in) s"e11!is". Snai1s and 1impets &1in) t r &2s and sea%eed !r m t"e 1 % %ater mar2 $p%ard. Lar)e snai1s# &a11ed &"it ns# ad"ere ti)"t1y t r &2s ab 5e t"e s$r! 1ine. M$sse1s $s$a11y ! rm dense & 1 nies in r &2 p 1s# n 1 )s# r at t"e base ! b $1ders. CAUTION M$sse1s may be p is n $s in tr pi&a1 ' nes d$rin) t"e s$mmerK Steam# b i1# r ba2e m 11$s2s in t"e s"e11. +"ey ma2e e?&e11ent ste%s in & mbinati n %it" )reens and t$bers. CAUTION D n t eat s"e11!is" t"at are n t & 5ered by %ater at "i)" tideK

Fi$h
(a)e 77 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Fis" represent a ) d s $r&e ! pr tein and !at. +"ey !!er s me distin&t ad5anta)es t t"e s$r5i5 r r e5ader. +"ey are $s$a11y m re ab$ndant t"an mamma1 %i1d1i!e# and t"e %ays t )et t"em are si1ent. + be s$&&ess!$1 at &at&"in) !is"# y $ m$st 2n % t"eir "abits. F r instan&e# !is" tend t !eed "ea5i1y be! re a st rm. Fis" are n t 1i2e1y t !eed a!ter a st rm %"en t"e %ater is m$ddy and s% 11en. Li)"t !ten attra&ts !is" at ni)"t. 3"en t"ere is a "ea5y &$rrent# !is" %i11 rest in p1a&es %"ere t"ere is an eddy# s$&" as near r &2s. Fis" %i11 a1s )at"er %"ere t"ere are deep p 1s# $nder 5er"an)in) br$s"# and in and ar $nd s$bmer)ed ! 1ia)e# 1 )s# r t"er b@e&ts t"at !!er t"em s"e1ter. +"ere are n p is n $s !res"%ater !is". 0 %e5er# t"e &at!is" spe&ies "as s"arp# need1e1i2e pr tr$si ns n its d rsa1 !ins and barbe1s. +"ese &an in!1i&t pain!$1 p$n&t$re % $nds t"at 4$i&21y be& me in!e&ted. / 2 a11 !res"%ater !is" t 2i11 parasites. A1s & 2 sa1t%ater !is" &a$)"t %it"in a ree! r %it"in t"e in!1$en&e ! a !res"%ater s $r&e as a pre&a$ti n. Any marine 1i!e btained !art"er $t in t"e sea %i11 n t & ntain parasites be&a$se ! t"e sa1t%ater en5ir nment. Y $ &an eat t"ese ra%. /ertain sa1t%ater spe&ies ! !is" "a5e p is n $s !1es". In s me spe&ies t"e p is n &&$rs seas na11y in t"ers# it is permanent. -?amp1es ! p is n $s sa1t%ater !is" are t"e p r&$pine !is"# tri))er!is"# & %!is"# t" rn !is"# i1!is"# red snapper# @a&2# and p$!!er CFi)$re :-2D. +"e barra&$da# %"i1e n t a&t$a11y p is n $s itse1!# may transmit &i)$atera C!is" p is nin)D i! eaten ra%.

(a)e 7: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

A+phi,i!#$
Fr )s and sa1amanders are easi1y ! $nd ar $nd b dies ! !res" %ater. Fr )s se1d m m 5e !r m t"e sa!ety ! t"e %aterFs ed)e. At t"e !irst si)n ! dan)er# t"ey p1$n)e int t"e %ater and b$ry t"emse15es in t"e m$d and debris. +"ere are !e% p is n $s spe&ies ! !r )s. A5 id any bri)"t1y & 1 red !r ) r ne t"at "as a distin&t JBJ mar2 n itFs ba&2. D n t & n!$se t ads %it" !r )s. Y $ n rma11y !ind t ads in drier en5ir nments. Se5era1 spe&ies ! t ads se&rete a p is n $s s$bstan&e t"r $)" t"eir s2in as a de!ense a)ainst atta&2. +"ere! re# t a5 id p is nin)# d n t "and1e r eat t ads. Sa1amanders are n &t$rna1. +"e best time t &at&" t"em is at ni)"t $sin) a 1i)"t. +"ey &an ran)e in si'e !r m a !e% &entimeters t %e11 5er 6< &entimeters in 1en)t". L 2 in %ater ar $nd r &2s and m$d ban2s ! r sa1amanders.

Repti%e$
(a)e 7; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Repti1es are a ) d pr tein s $r&e and re1ati5e1y easy t &at&". Y $ s" $1d & 2 t"em# b$t in an emer)en&y# y $ &an eat t"em ra%. +"eir ra% !1es" may transmit parasites# b$t be&a$se repti1es are & 1db1 ded# t"ey d n t &arry t"e b1 d diseases ! t"e %arm-b1 ded anima1s. +"e b ? t$rt1e is a & mm n1y en& $ntered t$rt1e t"at y $ s" $1d n t eat. It !eeds n p is n $s m$s"r ms and may b$i1d $p a "i)"1y t ?i& p is n in its !1es". / 2in) d es n t destr y t"is t ?in. A5 id t"e "a%2sbi11 t$rt1e# ! $nd in t"e At1anti& .&ean# be&a$se ! its p is n $s t" ra? )1and. ( is n $s sna2es# a11i)at rs# &r & di1es# and 1ar)e sea t$rt1es present b5i $s "a'ards t t"e s$r5i5 r.

Bi&($
A11 spe&ies ! birds are edib1e# a1t" $)" t"e !1a5 r %i11 5ary & nsiderab1y. Y $ may s2in !is"-eatin) birds t impr 5e t"eir taste. As %it" any %i1d anima1# y $ m$st $nderstand birdsF & mm n "abits t "a5e a rea1isti& &"an&e ! &apt$rin) t"em. Y $ &an ta2e pi)e ns# as %e11 as s me t"er spe&ies# !r m t"eir r st at ni)"t by "and. D$rin) t"e nestin) seas n# s me spe&ies %i11 n t 1ea5e t"e nest e5en %"en appr a&"ed. 8n %in) %"ere and %"en t"e birds nest ma2es &at&"in) t"em easier CFi)$re :-*D. ,irds tend t "a5e re)$1ar !1y%ays ) in) !r m t"e r st t a !eedin) area# t %ater# and s ! rt". /are!$1 bser5ati n s" $1d re5ea1 %"ere t"ese !1y%ays are and indi&ate ) d areas ! r &at&"in) birds in nets stret&"ed a&r ss t"e !1y%ays CFi)$re :-7D. R stin) sites and %ater" 1es are s me ! t"e m st pr misin) areas ! r trappin) r snarin).

(a)e :< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Nestin) birds present an t"er ! d s $r&e--e))s. Rem 5e a11 b$t t% r t"ree e))s !r m t"e &1$t&"# mar2in) t"e nes t"at y $ 1ea5e. +"e bird %i11 & ntin$e t 1ay m re e))s t !i11 t"e &1$t&". / ntin$e rem 5in) t"e !res" e))s# 1ea5in) t"e nes y $ mar2ed.

M!++!%$
Mamma1s are e?&e11ent pr tein s $r&es and# ! r Ameri&ans# t"e m st tasty ! d s $r&e. +"ere are s me dra%ba&2s t btainin) mamma1s. In a " sti1e en5ir nment# t"e enemy may dete&t any traps r snares p1a&ed n 1and. +"e am $nt ! in@$ry an anima1 &an in!1i&t is in dire&t pr p rti n t its si'e. A11 mamma1s "a5e teet" and near1y a11 %i11 bite in se1!-de!ense. -5en a s4$irre1 &an in!1i&t a seri $s % $nd and any bite presents a seri $s ris2 ! in!e&ti n. A1s # a m t"er &an be e?treme1y a))ressi5e in de!ense ! "er y $n). Any anima1 %it" n r $te ! es&ape %i11 !i)"t %"en & rnered. A11 mamma1s are edib1eH " %e5er# t"e p 1ar bear and bearded sea1 "a5e t ?i& 1e5e1s ! 5itamin A in t"eir 1i5ers. +"e p1atyp$s# nati5e t A$stra1ia and +asmania# is an e))-1ayin)# semia4$ati& mamma1 t"at "as p is n $s )1ands. S&a5en)in) mamma1s# s$&" as t"e p ss$m# may &arry diseases.

TRAPS AN, SNAR S
F r an $narmed s$r5i5 r r e5ader# r %"en t"e s $nd ! a ri!1e s" t & $1d be a pr b1em# trappin) r snarin) %i1d )ame is a ) d a1ternati5e. Se5era1 %e11-p1a&ed traps "a5e t"e p tentia1 t &at&" m$&" m re )ame t"an a man %it" a ri!1e is 1i2e1y t s" t. + be e!!e&ti5e %it" any type ! trap r snare# y $ m$st-• ,e !ami1iar %it" t"e spe&ies ! anima1 y $ intend t &at&". • ,e &apab1e ! & nstr$&tin) a pr per trap. • N t a1arm t"e prey by 1ea5in) si)ns ! y $r presen&e. +"ere are n &at&"a11 traps y $ &an set ! r a11 anima1s. Y $ m$st determine %"at spe&ies are in a )i5en area and set y $r traps spe&i!i&a11y %it" t" se anima1s in mind. L 2 ! r t"e ! 11 %in)I • R$ns and trai1s. • +ra&2s. • Dr ppin)s. • /"e%ed r r$bbed 5e)etati n. • Nestin) r r stin) sites. • Feedin) and %aterin) areas.

(a)e :1 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

( siti n y $r traps and snares %"ere t"ere is pr ! t"at anima1s pass t"r $)". Y $ m$st determine i! it is a Jr$nJ r a Jtrai1.J A trai1 %i11 s" % si)ns ! $se by se5era1 spe&ies and %i11 be rat"er distin&t. A r$n is $s$a11y sma11er and 1ess distin&t and %i11 n1y & ntain si)ns ! ne spe&ies. Y $ may & nstr$&t a per!e&t snare# b$t it %i11 n t &at&" anyt"in) i! "ap"a'ard1y p1a&ed in t"e % ds. Anima1s "a5e beddin) areas# %ater" 1es# and !eedin) areas %it" trai1s 1eadin) !r m ne t an t"er. Y $ m$st p1a&e snares and traps ar $nd t"ese areas t be e!!e&ti5e. F r an e5ader in a " sti1e en5ir nment# trap and snare & n&ea1ment is imp rtant. It is e4$a11y imp rtant# " %e5er# n t t &reate a dist$rban&e t"at %i11 a1arm t"e anima1 and &a$se it t a5 id t"e trap. +"ere! re# i! y $ m$st di)# rem 5e a11 !res" dirt !r m t"e area. M st anima1s %i11 instin&ti5e1y a5 id a pit!a11-type trap. (repare t"e 5ari $s parts ! a trap r snare a%ay !r m t"e site# &arry t"em in# and set t"em $p. S$&" a&ti ns ma2e it easier t a5 id dist$rbin) t"e 1 &a1 5e)etati n# t"ereby a1ertin) t"e prey. D n t $se !res"1y &$t# 1i5e 5e)etati n t & nstr$&t a trap r snare. Fres"1y &$t 5e)etati n %i11 Jb1eedJ sap t"at "as an d r t"e prey %i11 be ab1e t sme11. It is an a1arm si)na1 t t"e anima1. Y $ m$st rem 5e r mas2 t"e "$man s&ent n and ar $nd t"e trap y $ set. A1t" $)" birds d n t "a5e a de5e1 ped sense ! sme11# near1y a11 mamma1s depend n sme11 e5en m re t"an n si)"t. -5en t"e s1i)"test "$man s&ent n a trap %i11 a1arm t"e prey and &a$se it t a5 id t"e area. A&t$a11y rem 5in) t"e s&ent !r m a trap is di!!i&$1t b$t mas2in) it is re1ati5e1y easy. Use t"e !1$id !r m t"e )a11 and $rine b1adders ! pre5i $s 2i11s. D n t $se "$man $rine. M$d# parti&$1ar1y !r m an area %it" p1enty ! r ttin) 5e)etati n# is a1s ) d. Use it t & at y $r "ands %"en "and1in) t"e trap and t & at t"e trap %"en settin) it. In near1y a11 parts ! t"e % r1d# anima1s 2n % t"e sme11 ! b$rned 5e)etati n and sm 2e. It is n1y %"en a !ire is a&t$a11y b$rnin) t"at t"ey be& me a1armed. +"ere! re# sm 2in) t"e trap parts is an e!!e&ti5e means t mas2 y $r s&ent. I! ne ! t"e ab 5e te&"ni4$es is n t pra&ti&a1# and i! time permits# a11 % a trap t %eat"er ! r a !e% days and t"en set it. D n t "and1e a trap %"i1e it is %eat"erin). 3"en y $ p siti n t"e trap# &am $!1a)e it as nat$ra11y as p ssib1e t pre5ent dete&ti n by t"e enemy and t a5 id a1armin) t"e prey. +raps r snares p1a&ed n a trai1 r r$n s" $1d $se &"anne1i'ati n. + b$i1d a &"anne1# & nstr$&t a !$nne1-s"aped barrier e?tendin) !r m t"e sides ! t"e trai1 t %ard t"e trap# %it" t"e narr %est part nearest t"e trap. /"anne1i'ati n s" $1d be in& nspi&$ $s t a5 id a1ertin) t"e prey. As t"e anima1 )ets t t"e trap# it &ann t t$rn 1e!t r ri)"t and & ntin$es int t"e trap. Fe% %i1d anima1s %i11 ba&2 $p# pre!errin) t !a&e t"e dire&ti n ! tra5e1. /"anne1i'ati n d es n t "a5e t be an impassab1e barrier. Y $ n1y "a5e t ma2e it in& n5enient ! r t"e anima1 t ) 5er r t"r $)" t"e barrier. F r best e!!e&t# t"e &"anne1i'ati n s" $1d red$&e t"e trai1Fs %idt" t @$st s1i)"t1y %ider t"an t"e tar)eted anima1Fs b dy. Maintain t"is & nstri&ti n at 1east as !ar ba&2 !r m t"e trap as t"e anima1Fs b dy 1en)t"# t"en be)in t"e %idenin) t %ard t"e m $t" ! t"e !$nne1.

U$e "6 B!it
,aitin) a trap r snare in&reases y $r &"an&es ! &at&"in) an anima1. 3"en &at&"in) !is"# y $ m$st bait near1y a11 t"e de5i&es. S$&&ess %it" an $nbaited trap depends n its p1a&ement in a ) d 1 &ati n. A baited trap &an a&t$a11y dra% anima1s t it. +"e bait s" $1d be s met"in) t"e anima1 2n %s. +"is bait# " %e5er# s" $1d n t be s readi1y a5ai1ab1e in t"e immediate area t"at t"e anima1 &an )et it &1 se by. F r e?amp1e# baitin) a trap %it" & rn in t"e midd1e ! a & rn !ie1d % $1d n t be 1i2e1y t % r2. Li2e%ise# i! & rn is n t )r %n in t"e re)i n# a & rn-baited trap may ar $se an anima1Fs &$ri sity and 2eep it a1erted %"i1e it p nders t"e stran)e ! d. Under s$&" &ir&$mstan&es it may n t ) ! r t"e bait. .ne bait t"at % r2s %e11 n sma11 mamma1s is t"e pean$t b$tter !r m a mea1# ready-t -eat CMR-D rati n. Sa1t is a1s a ) d bait. 3"en $sin) s$&" baits# s&atter bits ! it ar $nd t"e trap t )i5e t"e prey a &"an&e t samp1e it and de5e1 p a &ra5in) ! r it. +"e anima1 %i11 t"en 5er& me s me ! its &a$ti n be! re it )ets t t"e trap. I! y $ set and bait a trap ! r ne spe&ies b$t an t"er spe&ies ta2es t"e bait %it" $t bein) &a$)"t# try t determine %"at t"e anima1 %as. +"en set a pr per trap ! r t"at anima1# $sin) t"e same bait. 8ote9 0nce you have success!ully trapped an animal" you will not only gain con!idence in your ability" you also will have resupplied yoursel! with bait !or several more traps.

T&!p !#( S#!&e C"#$t& .ti"#
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FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+raps and snares crush" choke" hang" r entangle t"e prey. A sin)1e trap r snare %i11 & mm n1y in& rp rate t% r m re ! t"ese prin&ip1es. +"e me&"anisms t"at pr 5ide p %er t t"e trap are a1m st a1%ays 5ery simp1e. +"e str$))1in) 5i&tim# t"e ! r&e ! )ra5ity# r a bent sap1in)Fs tensi n pr 5ides t"e p %er. +"e "eart ! any trap r snare is t"e tri))er. 3"en p1annin) a trap r snare# as2 y $rse1! " % it s" $1d a!!e&t t"e prey# %"at is t"e s $r&e ! p %er# and %"at %i11 be t"e m st e!!i&ient tri))er. Y $r ans%ers %i11 "e1p y $ de5ise a spe&i!i& trap ! r a spe&i!i& spe&ies. +raps are desi)ned t &at&" and " 1d r t &at&" and 2i11. Snares are traps t"at in& rp rate a n se t a&& mp1is" eit"er !$n&ti n.

Si"ple Snare
A simp1e snare CFi)$re :-9D & nsists ! a n se p1a&ed 5er a trai1 r den " 1e and atta&"ed t a !irm1y p1anted sta2e. I! t"e n se is s me type ! & rda)e p1a&ed $pri)"t n a )ame trai1# $se sma11 t%i)s r b1ades ! )rass t " 1d it $p. Fi1aments !r m spider %ebs are e?&e11ent ! r " 1din) n ses pen. Ma2e s$re t"e n se is 1ar)e en $)" t pass !ree1y 5er t"e anima1Fs "ead. As t"e anima1 & ntin$es t m 5e# t"e n se ti)"tens ar $nd its ne&2. +"e m re t"e anima1 str$))1es# t"e ti)"ter t"e n se )ets. +"is type ! snare $s$a11y d es n t 2i11 t"e anima1. I! y $ $se & rda)e# it may 1 sen en $)" t s1ip !! t"e anima1Fs ne&2. 3ire is t"ere! re t"e best &" i&e ! r a simp1e snare.

,rag Noose
Use a dra) n se n an anima1 r$n CFi)$re :-6D. (1a&e ! r2ed sti&2s n eit"er side ! t"e r$n and 1ay a st$rdy &r ssmember a&r ss t"em. +ie t"e n se t t"e &r ssmember and "an) it at a "ei)"t ab 5e t"e anima1Fs "ead. CN ses desi)ned t &at&" by t"e "ead s" $1d ne5er be 1 % en $)" ! r t"e prey t step int %it" a ! t.D As t"e n se ti)"tens ar $nd t"e anima1Fs ne&2# t"e anima1 p$11s t"e &r ssmember !r m t"e ! r2ed sti&2s and dra)s it a1 n). +"e s$rr $ndin) 5e)etati n 4$i&21y &at&"es t"e &r ssmember and t"e anima1 be& mes entan)1ed.

(a)e :* ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

T%itch5Up
A t%it&"-$p is a s$pp1e sap1in)# %"i&"# %"en bent 5er and se&$red %it" a tri))erin) de5i&e# %i11 pr 5ide p %er t a 5ariety ! snares. Se1e&t a "ard% d sap1in) a1 n) t"e trai1. A t%it&"-$p %i11 % r2 m$&" !aster and %it" m re ! r&e i! y $ rem 5e a11 t"e bran&"es and ! 1ia)e.

T%itch5Up Snare
A simp1e t%it&"-$p snare $ses t% ! r2ed sti&2s# ea&" %it" a 1 n) and s" rt 1e) CFi)$re :-7D. ,end t"e t%it&"-$p and mar2 t"e trai1 be1 % it. Dri5e t"e 1 n) 1e) ! ne ! r2ed sti&2 !irm1y int t"e )r $nd at t"at p int. -ns$re t"e &$t n t"e s" rt 1e) ! t"is sti&2 is para11e1 t t"e )r $nd. +ie t"e 1 n) 1e) ! t"e remainin) ! r2ed sti&2 t a pie&e ! & rda)e se&$red t t"e t%it&"-$p. /$t t"e s" rt 1e) s t"at it &at&"es n t"e s" rt 1e) ! t"e t"er ! r2ed sti&2. -?tend a n se 5er t"e trai1. Set t"e trap by bendin) t"e t%it&"-$p and en)a)in) t"e s" rt 1e)s ! t"e ! r2ed sti&2s. 3"en an anima1 &at&"es its "ead in t"e n se# it p$11s t"e ! r2ed sti&2s apart# a11 %in) t"e t%it&"-$p t sprin) $p and "an) t"e prey. 8ote9 <o not use green sticks !or the trigger. The sap that oo*es out could glue them together.

(a)e :7 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

S!uirrel Pole
A s4$irre1 p 1e is a 1 n) p 1e p1a&ed a)ainst a tree in an area s" %in) a 1 t ! s4$irre1 a&ti5ity CFi)$re ::D. (1a&e se5era1 %ire n ses a1 n) t"e t p and sides ! t"e p 1e s t"at a s4$irre1 tryin) t ) $p r d %n t"e p 1e %i11 "a5e t pass t"r $)" ne r m re ! t"em. ( siti n t"e n ses C9 t 6 &entimeters in diameterD ab $t 2.9 &entimeters !! t"e p 1e. (1a&e t"e t p and b tt m %ire n ses 79 &entimeters !r m t"e t p and b tt m ! t"e p 1e t pre5ent t"e s4$irre1 !r m )ettin) its !eet n a s 1id s$r!a&e. I! t"is "appens# t"e s4$irre1 %i11 &"e% t"r $)" t"e %ire. S4$irre1s are nat$ra11y &$ri $s. A!ter an initia1 peri d ! &a$ti n# t"ey %i11 try t ) $p r d %n t"e p 1e and %i11 )et &a$)"t in a n se. +"e str$))1in) anima1 %i11 s n !a11 !r m t"e p 1e and stran)1e. .t"er s4$irre1s %i11 s n ! 11 % and# in t"is %ay# y $ &an &at&" se5era1 s4$irre1s. Y $ &an emp1a&e m$1tip1e p 1es t in&rease t"e &at&".

O+i6%a #ird Pole

(a)e :9 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

An .@ib%a bird p 1e is a snare $sed by nati5e Ameri&ans ! r &ent$ries CFi)$re :-;D. + be e!!e&ti5e# p1a&e it in a re1ati5e1y pen area a%ay !r m ta11 trees. F r best res$1ts# pi&2 a sp t near !eedin) areas# d$stin) areas# r %aterin) " 1es. /$t a p 1e 1.: t 2.1 meters 1 n) and trim a%ay a11 1imbs and ! 1ia)e. D n t $se resin $s % d s$&" as pine. S"arpen t"e $pper end t a p int# t"en dri11 a sma11 diameter " 1e 9 t 7.9 &entimeters d %n !r m t"e t p. /$t a sma11 sti&2 1< t 19 &entimeters 1 n) and s"ape ne end s t"at it %i11 a1m st !it int t"e " 1e. +"is is t"e per&". (1ant t"e 1 n) p 1e in t"e )r $nd %it" t"e p inted end $p. +ie a sma11 %ei)"t# ab $t e4$a1 t t"e %ei)"t ! t"e tar)eted spe&ies# t a 1en)t" ! & rda)e. (ass t"e !ree end ! t"e & rda)e t"r $)" t"e " 1e# and tie a s1ip n se t"at & 5ers t"e per&". +ie a sin)1e 5er"and 2n t in t"e & rda)e and p1a&e t"e per&" a)ainst t"e " 1e. A11 % t"e & rda)e t s1ip t"r $)" t"e " 1e $nti1 t"e 5er"and 2n t rests a)ainst t"e p 1e and t"e t p ! t"e per&". +"e tensi n ! t"e 5er"and 2n t a)ainst t"e p 1e and per&" %i11 " 1d t"e per&" in p siti n. Spread t"e n se 5er t"e per&"# ens$rin) it & 5ers t"e per&" and drapes 5er n b t" sides. M st birds pre!er t rest n s met"in) ab 5e )r $nd and %i11 1and n t"e per&". As s n as t"e bird 1ands# t"e per&" %i11 !a11# re1easin) t"e 5er-"and 2n t and a11 %in) t"e %ei)"t t dr p. +"e n se %i11 ti)"ten ar $nd t"e birdFs !eet# &apt$rin) it. I! t"e %ei)"t is t "ea5y# it %i11 &$t t"e birdFs !eet !!# a11 %in) it t es&ape.

Noosing 3and
A n se sti&2 r Jn sin) %andJ is $se!$1 ! r &apt$rin) r stin) birds r sma11 mamma1s CFi)$re :-1<D. It re4$ires a patient perat r. +"is %and is m re a %eap n t"an a trap. It & nsists ! a p 1e Cas 1 n) as y $ &an e!!e&ti5e1y "and1eD %it" a s1ip n se ! %ire r sti!! & rda)e at t"e sma11 end. + &at&" an anima1# y $ s1ip t"e n se 5er t"e ne&2 ! a r stin) bird and p$11 it ti)"t. Y $ &an a1s p1a&e it 5er a den " 1e and "ide in a nearby b1ind. 3"en t"e anima1 emer)es !r m t"e den# y $ @er2 t"e p 1e t ti)"ten t"e n se and t"$s &apt$re t"e anima1. /arry a st $t &1$b t 2i11 t"e prey.

Treadle Spring Snare
Use a tread1e snare a)ainst sma11 )ame n a trai1 CFi)$re :-11D. Di) a s"a11 % " 1e in t"e trai1. +"en dri5e a ! r2ed sti&2 C! r2 d %nD int t"e )r $nd n ea&" side ! t"e " 1e n t"e same side ! t"e trai1. Se1e&t t% !air1y strai)"t sti&2s t"at span t"e t% ! r2s. ( siti n t"ese t% sti&2s s t"at t"eir ends en)a)e t"e ! r2s. (1a&e se5era1 sti&2s 5er t"e " 1e in t"e trai1 by p siti nin) ne end 5er t"e 1 %er " ri' nta1 sti&2
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FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

and t"e t"er n t"e )r $nd n t"e t"er side ! t"e " 1e. / 5er t"e " 1e %it" en $)" sti&2s s t"at t"e prey m$st step n at 1east ne ! t"em t set !! t"e snare. +ie ne end ! a pie&e ! & rda)e t a t%it&"$p r t a %ei)"t s$spended 5er a tree 1imb. ,end t"e t%it&"-$p r raise t"e s$spended %ei)"t t determine %"ere Y $ %i11 tie a 9 &entimeter r s 1 n) tri))er. F rm a n se %it" t"e t"er end ! t"e & rda)e. R $te and spread t"e n se 5er t"e t p ! t"e sti&2s 5er t"e " 1e. (1a&e t"e tri))er sti&2 a)ainst t"e " ri' nta1 sti&2s and r $te t"e & rda)e be"ind t"e sti&2s s t"at t"e tensi n ! t"e p %er s $r&e %i11 " 1d it in p1a&e. Ad@$st t"e b tt m " ri' nta1 sti&2 s t"at it %i11 bare1y " 1d a)ainst t"e tri))er. A t"e anima1 p1a&es its ! t n a sti&2 a&r ss t"e " 1e# t"e b tt m " ri' nta1 sti&2 m 5es d %n# re1easin) t"e tri))er and a11 %in) t"e n se t &at&" t"e anima1 by t"e ! t. ,e&a$se ! t"e dist$rban&e n t"e trai1# an anima1 %i11 be %ary. Y $ m$st t"ere! re $se &"anne1i'ati n.

'igure 7 ,ead$all
+"e !i)$re 7 is a tri))er $sed t dr p a %ei)"t nt a prey and &r$s" it CFi)$re :-12D. +"e type ! %ei)"t $sed may 5ary# b$t it s" $1d be "ea5y en $)" t 2i11 r in&apa&itate t"e prey immediate1y. / nstr$&t t"e
(a)e :7 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

!i)$re 7 $sin) t"ree n t&"ed sti&2s. +"ese n t&"es " 1d t"e sti&2s t )et"er in a !i)$re 7 pattern %"en $nder tensi n. (ra&ti&e ma2in) t"is tri))er be! re-"andH it re4$ires &1 se t 1eran&es and pre&ise an)1es in its & nstr$&ti n.

Paiute ,ead$all
+"e (ai$te dead!a11 is simi1ar t t"e !i)$re 7 b$t $ses a pie&e ! & rda)e and a &at&" sti&2 CFi)$re :-1*D. It "as t"e ad5anta)e ! bein) easier t set t"an t"e !i)$re 7. +ie ne end ! a pie&e ! & rda)e t t"e 1 %er end ! t"e dia) na1 sti&2. +ie t"e t"er end ! t"e & rda)e t an t"er sti&2 ab $t 9 &entimeters 1 n). +"is 9-&entimeter sti&2 is t"e &at&" sti&2. ,rin) t"e & rd "a1!%ay ar $nd t"e 5erti&a1 sti&2 %it" t"e &at&" sti&2 at a ;<-de)ree an)1e. (1a&e t"e bait sti&2 %it" ne end a)ainst t"e dr p %ei)"t# r a pe) dri5en int t"e )r $nd# and t"e t"er a)ainst t"e &at&" sti&2. 3"en a prey dist$rbs t"e bait sti&2# it !a11s !ree# re1easin) t"e &at&" sti&2. As t"e dia) na1 sti&2 !1ies $p# t"e %ei)"t !a11s# &r$s"in) t"e prey.

(a)e :: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

#o% Trap
A b % trap is ne ! t"e dead1iest traps. It is dan)er $s t man as %e11 as anima1s CFi)$re :-17D. + & nstr$&t t"is trap# b$i1d a b % and an&" r it t t"e )r $nd %it" pe)s. Ad@$st t"e aimin) p int as y $ an&" r t"e b %. Las" a t ))1e sti&2 t t"e tri))er sti&2. +% $pri)"t sti&2s dri5en int t"e )r $nd " 1d t"e tri))er sti&2 in p1a&e at a p int %"ere t"e t ))1e sti&2 %i11 en)a)e t"e p$11ed b % strin). (1a&e a &at&" sti&2 bet%een t"e t ))1e sti&2 and a sta2e dri5en int t"e )r $nd. +ie a trip %ire r & rda)e t t"e &at&" sti&2 and r $te it ar $nd sta2es and a&r ss t"e )ame trai1 %"ere y $ tie it !! Cas in Fi)$re :-17D. 3"en t"e prey trips t"e trip %ire# t"e b % 1 ses an arr % int it. A n t&" in t"e b % ser5es t "e1p aim t"e arr %. *ARNIN1 +"is is a 1et"a1 trap. Appr a&" it %it" &a$ti n and !r m t"e rear n1yK

(a)e :; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Pig Spear Sha$t
+ & nstr$&t t"e pi) spear s"a!t# se1e&t a st $t p 1e ab $t 2.9 meters 1 n) CFi)$re :-19D. At t"e sma11er end# !irm1y 1as" se5era1 sma11 sta2es. Las" t"e 1ar)e end ti)"t1y t a tree a1 n) t"e )ame trai1. +ie a 1en)t" ! & rda)e t an t"er tree a&r ss t"e trai1. +ie a st$rdy# sm t" sti&2 t t"e t"er end ! t"e & rd. Fr m t"e !irst tree# tie a trip %ire r & rd 1 % t t"e )r $nd# stret&" it a&r ss t"e trai1# and tie it t a &at&" sti&2. Ma2e a s1ip rin) !r m 5ines r t"er s$itab1e materia1. -n&ir&1e t"e trip %ire and t"e sm t" sti&2 %it" t"e s1ip rin). -mp1a&e ne end ! an t"er sm t" sti&2 %it"in t"e s1ip rin) and its t"er end a)ainst t"e se& nd tree. ($11 t"e sma11er end ! t"e spear s"a!t a&r ss t"e trai1 and p siti n it bet%een t"e s" rt & rd and t"e sm t" sti&2. As t"e anima1 trips t"e trip %ire# t"e &at&" sti&2 p$11s t"e s1ip rin) !! t"e sm t" sti&2s# re1easin) t"e spear s"a!t t"at sprin)s a&r ss t"e trai1 and impa1es t"e prey a)ainst t"e tree. *ARNIN1 +"is is a 1et"a1 trap. Appr a&" it %it" &a$ti nK

#ottle Trap
A b tt1e trap is a simp1e trap ! r mi&e and 5 1es CFi)$re :-16D. Di) a " 1e *< t 79 &entimeters deep t"at is %ider at t"e b tt m t"an at t"e t p. Ma2e t"e t p ! t"e " 1e as sma11 as p ssib1e. (1a&e a pie&e ! bar2 r % d 5er t"e " 1e %it" sma11 st nes $nder it t " 1d it $p 2.9 t 9 &entimeters !! t"e )r $nd. Mi&e r 5 1es %i11 "ide $nder t"e & 5er t es&ape dan)er and !a11 int t"e " 1e. +"ey &ann t &1imb $t be&a$se ! t"e %a11Fs ba&2%ard s1 pe. Use &a$ti n %"en &"e&2in) t"is trapH it is an e?&e11ent "idin) p1a&e ! r sna2es.

(a)e ;< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

*ILLIN/ , VIC S
+"ere are se5era1 2i11in) de5i&es t"at y $ &an & nstr$&t t "e1p y $ btain sma11 )ame t "e1p y $ s$r5i5e. +"e rabbit sti&2# t"e spear# t"e b % and arr %# and t"e s1in) are s$&" de5i&es.

R!,,it Sti.)
.ne ! t"e simp1est and m st e!!e&ti5e 2i11in) de5i&es is a st $t sti&2 as 1 n) as y $r arm# !r m !in)ertip t s" $1der# &a11ed a Jrabbit sti&2.J Y $ &an t"r % it eit"er 5er"and r sidearm and %it" & nsiderab1e ! r&e. It is 5ery e!!e&ti5e a)ainst sma11 )ame t"at st ps and !ree'es as a de!ense.

Spe!&
Y $ &an ma2e a spear t 2i11 sma11 )ame and t !is". >ab %it" t"e spear# d n t t"r % it. See spear!is"in) be1 %.

B"2 !#( A&&"2
A ) d b % is t"e res$1t ! many " $rs ! % r2. Y $ &an & nstr$&t a s$itab1e s" rt-term b % !air1y easi1y. 3"en it 1 ses its sprin) r brea2s# y $ &an rep1a&e it. Se1e&t a "ard% d sti&2 ab $t ne meter 1 n) t"at is !ree ! 2n ts r 1imbs. /are!$11y s&rape t"e 1ar)e end d %n $nti1 it "as t"e same p$11 as t"e sma11 end. /are!$1 e?aminati n %i11 s" % t"e nat$ra1 &$r5e ! t"e sti&2. A1%ays s&rape !r m t"e side t"at !a&es y $# r t"e b % %i11 brea2 t"e !irst time y $ p$11 it. Dead# dry % d is pre!erab1e t )reen % d. + in&rease t"e p$11# 1as" a se& nd b % t t"e !irst# !r nt t !r nt# ! rmin) an JBJ %"en 5ie%ed !r m t"e side. Atta&" t"e tips ! t"e b %s %it" & rda)e and n1y $se a b %strin) n ne b %. Se1e&t arr %s !r m t"e strai)"test dry sti&2s a5ai1ab1e. +"e arr %s s" $1d be ab $t "a1! as 1 n) as t"e b %. S&rape ea&" s"a!t sm t" a11 ar $nd. Y $ %i11 pr bab1y "a5e t strai)"ten t"e s"a!t. Y $ &an bend an arr % strai)"t by "eatin) t"e s"a!t 5er " t & a1s. D n t a11 % t"e s"a!t t s& r&" r b$m. 0 1d t"e s"a!t strai)"t $nti1 it & 1s. Y $ &an ma2e arr %"eads !r m b ne# )1ass# meta1# r pie&es ! r &2. Y $ &an a1s s"arpen and !ire "arden t"e end ! t"e s"a!t. + !ire "arden % d# " 1d it 5er " t & a1s# bein) &are!$1 n t t b$m r s& r&" t"e % d. Y $ m$st n t&" t"e ends ! t"e arr %s ! r t"e b %strin). /$t r !i1e t"e n t&"H d n t sp1it it. F1et&"in) Caddin) !eat"ers t t"e n t&"ed end ! an arr %D impr 5es t"e arr %Fs !1i)"t &"ara&teristi&s# b$t is n t ne&essary n a !ie1d-e?pedient arr %.
(a)e ;1 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

S%i#0
Y $ &an ma2e a s1in) by tyin) t% pie&es ! & rda)e# ab $t si?ty &entimeters 1 n)# at pp site ends ! a pa1m-si'ed pie&e ! 1eat"er r &1 t". (1a&e a r &2 in t"e &1 t" and %rap ne & rd ar $nd t"e midd1e !in)er and " 1d in y $r pa1m. 0 1d t"e t"er & rd bet%een t"e ! re!in)er and t"$mb. + t"r % t"e r &2# spin t"e s1in) se5era1 times in a &ir&1e and re1ease t"e & rd bet%een t"e t"$mb and ! re!in)er. (ra&ti&e t )ain pr !i&ien&y. +"e s1in) is 5ery e!!e&ti5e a)ainst sma11 )ame.

'IS.IN/ , VIC S
Y $ &an ma2e y $r %n !is"" sit$ati n. 2s# nets and traps and $se se5era1 met" ds t btain !is" in a s$r5i5a1

I+p&"/i$e( Fi$hh"")$
Y $ &an ma2e !ie1d-e?pedient !is"" 2s !r m pins# need1es# %ire# sma11 nai1s# r any pie&e ! meta1. Y $ &an a1s $se % d# b ne# & & n$t s"e11# t" rns# !1int# seas"e11# r t rt ise s"e11. Y $ &an a1s ma2e !is"" 2s !r m any & mbinati n ! t"ese items CFi)$re :-17D.

+ ma2e a % den " 2# &$t a pie&e ! "ard% d ab $t 2.9 &entimeters 1 n) and ab $t 6 mi11imeters in diameter t ! rm t"e s"an2. /$t a n t&" in ne end in %"i&" t p1a&e t"e p int. (1a&e t"e p int Cpie&e ! b ne# %ire# nai1D in t"e n t&". 0 1d t"e p int in t"e n t&" and tie se&$re1y s t"at it d es n t m 5e $t ! p siti n. +"is is a !air1y 1ar)e " 2. + ma2e sma11er " 2s# $se sma11er materia1. A ) r)e is a sma11 s"a!t ! % d# b ne# meta1# r t"er materia1. It is s"arp n b t" ends and n t&"ed in t"e midd1e %"ere y $ tie & rda)e. ,ait t"e ) r)e by p1a&in) a pie&e ! bait n it 1en)t"%ise. 3"en t"e !is" s%a11 %s t"e bait# it a1s s%a11 %s t"e ) r)e.

St!)e" t
A sta2e $t is a !is"in) de5i&e y $ &an $se in a " sti1e en5ir nment CFi)$re :-1:D. + & nstr$&t a sta2e $t# dri5e t% s$pp1e sap1in)s int t"e b tt m ! t"e 1a2e# p nd# r stream %it" t"eir t ps @$st be1 % t"e %ater s$r!a&e. +ie a & rd bet%een t"em and s1i)"t1y be1 % t"e s$r!a&e. +ie t% s" rt & rds %it" " 2s r ) r)es t t"is & rd# ens$rin) t"at t"ey &ann t %rap ar $nd t"e p 1es r ea&" t"er. +"ey s" $1d a1s n t s1ip a1 n) t"e 1 n) & rd. ,ait t"e " 2s r ) r)es.

(a)e ;2 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

1i%% Net
I! a )i11 net is n t a5ai1ab1e# y $ &an ma2e ne $sin) para&"$te s$spensi n 1ine r simi1ar materia1 CFi)$re :-1;D. Rem 5e t"e & re 1ines !r m t"e s$spensi n 1ine and tie t"e easin) bet%een t% trees. Atta&" se5era1 & re 1ines t t"e easin) by d $b1in) t"em 5er and tyin) t"em %it" pr$si2 2n ts r )irt" "it&"es. +"e 1en)t" ! t"e desired net and t"e si'e ! t"e mes" determine t"e n$mber ! & re 1ines $sed and t"e spa&e bet%een t"em. Startin) at ne end ! t"e easin)# tie t"e se& nd and t"e t"ird & re 1ines t )et"er $sin) an 5er"and 2n t. +"en tie t"e ! $rt" and !i!t"# si?t" and se5ent"# and s n# $nti1 y $ rea&" t"e 1ast & re 1ine. Y $ s" $1d n % "a5e a11 & re 1ines tied in pairs %it" a sin)1e & re 1ine "an)in) at ea&" end. Start t"e se& nd r % %it" t"e !irst & re 1ine# tie it t t"e se& nd# t"e t"ird t t"e ! $rt"# and s n.

+ 2eep t"e r %s e5en and t re)$1ate t"e si'e ! t"e mes"# tie a )$ide1ine t t"e trees. ( siti n t"e )$ide1ine n t"e pp site side ! t"e net y $ are % r2in) n. M 5e t"e )$ide1ine d %n a!ter & mp1etin) ea&" r %. +"e 1ines %i11 a1%ays "an) in pairs and y $ a1%ays tie a & rd !r m ne pair t a & rd !r m an ad@ inin) pair. / ntin$e tyin) r %s $nti1 t"e net is t"e desired %idt". +"read a s$spensi n 1ine easin) a1 n) t"e b tt m ! t"e net t stren)t"en it. Use t"e )i11 net as s" %n in Fi)$re :-2<.

(a)e ;* ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Fi$h T&!p$
Y $ may trap !is" $sin) se5era1 met" ds CFi)$re :-21D. Fis" bas2ets are ne met" d. Y $ & nstr$&t t"em by 1as"in) se5era1 sti&2s t )et"er %it" 5ines int a !$nne1 s"ape. Y $ &1 se t"e t p# 1ea5in) a " 1e 1ar)e en $)" ! r t"e !is" t s%im t"r $)".

(a)e ;7 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Y $ &an a1s $se traps t &at&" sa1t%ater !is"# as s&" 1s re)$1ar1y appr a&" t"e s" re %it" t"e in& min) tide and !ten m 5e para11e1 t t"e s" re. (i&2 a 1 &ati n at "i)" tide and b$i1d t"e trap at 1 % tide. .n r &2y s" res# $se nat$ra1 r &2 p 1s. .n & ra1 is1ands# $se nat$ra1 p 1s n t"e s$r!a&e ! ree!s by b1 &2in) t"e penin)s as t"e tide re&edes. .n sandy s" res# $se sandbars and t"e dit&"es t"ey en&1 se. ,$i1d t"e trap as a 1 % st ne %a11 e?tendin) $t%ard int t"e %ater and ! rmin) an an)1e %it" t"e s" re.

Spe!&6i$hi#0
I! y $ are near s"a11 % %ater Cab $t %aist deepD %"ere t"e !is" are 1ar)e and p1enti!$1# y $ &an spear t"em. + ma2e a spear# &$t a 1 n)# strai)"t sap1in) CFi)$re :-22D. S"arpen t"e end t a p int r atta&" a 2ni!e# @a))ed pie&e ! b ne# r s"arpened meta1. Y $ &an a1s ma2e a spear by sp1ittin) t"e s"a!t a !e% in&"es d %n !r m t"e end and insertin) a pie&e ! % d t a&t as a spreader. Y $ t"en s"arpen t"e t% separated "a15es t p ints. + spear !is"# !ind an area %"ere !is" eit"er )at"er r %"ere t"ere is a !is" r$n. (1a&e t"e spear p int int t"e %ater and s1 %1y m 5e it t %ard t"e !is". +"en# %it" a s$dden p$s"# impa1e t"e !is" n t"e stream b tt m. D n t try t 1i!t t"e !is" %it" t"e spear# as it %it" pr bab1y s1ip !! and y $ %i11 1 se itH " 1d t"e spear %it" ne "and and )rab and " 1d t"e !is" %it" t"e t"er. D n t t"r % t"e spear# espe&ia11y i! t"e p int is a 2ni!e. Y $ &ann t a!! rd t 1 se a 2ni!e in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. ,e a1ert t t"e pr b1ems &a$sed by 1i)"t re!ra&ti n %"en 1 2in) at b@e&ts in t"e %ater.

(a)e ;9 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Ch"p Fi$hi#0
At ni)"t# in an area %it" a ) d !is" density# y $ &an $se a 1i)"t t attra&t !is". +"en# armed %it" a ma&"ete r simi1ar %eap n# y $ &an )at"er !is" $sin) t"e ba&2 side ! t"e b1ade t stri2e t"em. D n t $se t"e s"arp side as y $ %i11 &$t t"em in t% pie&es and end $p 1 sin) s me ! t"e !is".

Fi$h P"i$"#
An t"er %ay t &at&" !is" is by $sin) p is n. ( is n % r2s 4$i&21y. It a11 %s y $ t remain & n&ea1ed %"i1e it ta2es e!!e&t. It a1s enab1es y $ t &at&" se5era1 !is" at ne time. 3"en $sin) !is" p is n# be s$re t )at"er a11 ! t"e a!!e&ted !is"# be&a$se many dead !is" !1 atin) d %nstream & $1d ar $se s$spi&i n. S me p1ants t"at )r % in %arm re)i ns ! t"e % r1d & ntain r ten ne# a s$bstan&e t"at st$ns r 2i11s & 1d-b1 ded anima1s b$t d es n t "arm pers ns %" eat t"e anima1s. +"e best p1a&e t $se r ten ne# r r ten ne-pr d$&in) p1ants# is in p nds r t"e "ead%aiters ! sma11 streams & ntainin) !is". R ten ne % r2s 4$i&21y n !is" in %ater 21 de)rees / C7< de)rees FD r ab 5e. +"e !is" rise "e1p1ess1y t t"e s$r!a&e. It % r2s s1 %1y in %ater 1< t 21 de)rees / C9< t 7< de)rees FD and is ine!!e&ti5e in %ater be1 % 1< de)rees / C9< de)rees FD. +"e ! 11 %in) p1ants# $sed as indi&ated# %i11 st$n r 2i11 !is"I Anamirta cocculus CFi)$re :-2*D. +"is % dy 5ine )r %s in s $t"ern Asia and n is1ands ! t"e S $t" (a&i!i&. /r$s" t"e bean-s"aped seeds and t"r % t"em in t"e %ater. 1roton tiglium CFi)$re :-2*D. +"is s"r$b r sma11 tree )r %s in %aste areas n is1ands ! t"e S $t" (a&i!i&. It bears seeds in t"ree an)1ed &aps$1es. /r$s" t"e seeds and t"r % t"em int t"e %ater. ?arringtonia CFi)$re :-2*D. +"ese 1ar)e trees )r % near t"e sea in Ma1aya and parts ! ( 1ynesia. +"ey bear a !1es"y ne-seeded !r$it. /r$s" t"e seeds and bar2 and t"r % int t"e %ater. <erris eliptica CFi)$re :-2*D. +"is 1ar)e )en$s ! tr pi&a1 s"r$bs and % dy 5ines is t"e main s $r&e ! & mmer&ia11y pr d$&ed r ten ne. 6rind t"e r ts int a p %der and mi? %it" %ater. +"r % a 1ar)e 4$antity ! t"e mi?t$re int t"e %ater. <uboisia CFi)$re :-2*D. +"is s"r$b )r %s in A$stra1ia and bears %"ite &1$sters ! !1 %ers and berry1i2e !r$it. /r$s" t"e p1ants and t"r % t"em int t"e %ater. Tephrosia CFi)$re :-2*D. +"is spe&ies ! sma11 s"r$bs# %"i&" bears bean1i2e p ds# )r %s t"r $)" $t t"e tr pi&s. /r$s" r br$ise b$nd1es ! 1ea5es and stems and t"r % t"em int t"e %ater. • Lime. Y $ &an )et 1ime !r m & mmer&ia1 s $r&es and in a)ri&$1t$ra1 areas t"at $se 1ar)e 4$antities ! it. Y $ may pr d$&e y $r %n by b$rnin) & ra1 r seas"e11s. +"r % t"e 1ime int t"e %ater.
(a)e ;6 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

8ut husks. /r$s" )reen "$s2s !r m b$ttern$ts r b1a&2 %a1n$ts. +"r % t"e "$s2s int t"e %ater.

PR PARATION O' 'IS. AN, /A0 'OR COO*IN/ AN, STORA/
Y $ m$st 2n % " % t prepare !is" and )ame ! r & 2in) and st ra)e in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. Impr per &1eanin) r st ra)e &an res$1t in inedib1e !is" r )ame.

Fi$h
D n t eat !is" t"at appears sp i1ed. / sp i1a)e are-• S$n2en eyes. • (e&$1iar d r. 2in) d es n t ens$re t"at sp i1ed !is" %i11 be edib1e. Si)ns !

(a)e ;7 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

• • • •

S$spi&i $s & 1 r. C6i11s s" $1d be red t pin2. S&a1es s" $1d be a pr n $n&ed s"ade ! )ray# n t !aded.D Dents stay in t"e !is"Fs !1es" a!ter pressin) it %it" y $r t"$mb. S1imy# rat"er t"an m ist r %et b dy. S"arp r peppery taste.

-atin) sp i1ed r r tten !is" may &a$se diarr"ea# na$sea# &ramps# 5 mitin)# it&"in)# para1ysis# r a meta11i& taste in t"e m $t". +"ese sympt ms appear s$dden1y# ne t si? " $rs a!ter eatin). Ind$&e 5 mitin) i! sympt ms appear. Fis" sp i1s 4$i&21y a!ter deat"# espe&ia11y n a " t day. (repare !is" ! r eatin) as s n as p ssib1e a!ter &at&"in) it. /$t $t t"e )i11s and 1ar)e b1 d 5esse1s t"at 1ie near t"e spine. 6$t !is" t"at is m re t"an 1< &entimeters 1 n). S&a1e r s2in t"e !is". Y $ &an impa1e a %" 1e !is" n a sti&2 and & 2 it 5er an pen !ire. 0 %e5er# b i1in) t"e !is" %it" t"e s2in n is t"e best %ay t )et t"e m st ! d 5a1$e. +"e !ats and i1 are $nder t"e s2in and# by b i1in)# y $ &an sa5e t"e @$i&es ! r br t". Y $ &an $se any ! t"e met" ds $sed t & 2 p1ant ! d t & 2 !is". (a&2 !is" int a ba11 ! &1ay and b$ry it in t"e & a1s ! a !ire $nti1 t"e &1ay "ardens. ,rea2 pen t"e &1ay ba11 t )et t t"e & 2ed !is". Fis" is d ne %"en t"e meat !1a2es !!. I! y $ p1an t 2eep t"e !is" ! r 1ater# sm 2e r !ry it. + prepare !is" ! r sm 2in)# &$t !! t"e "ead and rem 5e t"e ba&2b ne.

S#!)e$
+ s2in a sna2e# !irst &$t !! its "ead and b$ry it. +"en &$t t"e s2in d %n t"e b dy 19 t 2< &entimeters CFi)$re :-27D. (ee1 t"e s2in ba&2# t"en )rasp t"e s2in in ne "and and t"e b dy in t"e t"er and p$11 apart. .n 1ar)e# b$12y sna2es it may be ne&essary t s1it t"e be11y s2in. / 2 sna2es in t"e same manner as sma11 )ame. Rem 5e t"e entrai1s and dis&ard. /$t t"e sna2e int sma11 se&ti ns and b i1 r r ast it.

Bi&($
A!ter 2i11in) t"e bird# rem 5e its !eat"ers by eit"er p1$&2in) r s2innin). Remember# s2innin) rem 5es s me ! t"e ! d 5a1$e. .pen $p t"e b dy &a5ity and rem 5e its entrai1s# sa5in) t"e &ra% Cin seed-eatin) birdsD# "eart# and 1i5er. /$t !! t"e !eet. / 2 by b i1in) r r astin) 5er a spit. ,e! re & 2in) s&a5en)er birds# b i1 t"em at 1east 2< min$tes t 2i11 parasites.
(a)e ;: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

S)i##i#0 !#( B t.he&i#0 1!+e
,1eed t"e anima1 by &$ttin) its t"r at. I! p ssib1e# &1ean t"e &ar&ass near a stream. (1a&e t"e &ar&ass be11y $p and sp1it t"e "ide !r m t"r at t tai1# &$ttin) ar $nd a11 se?$a1 r)ans CFi)$re :-29D. Rem 5e t"e m$s2 )1ands at p ints A and , t a5 id taintin) t"e meat. F r sma11er mamma1s# &$t t"e "ide ar $nd t"e b dy and insert t% !in)ers $nder t"e "ide n b t" sides ! t"e &$t and p$11 b t" pie&es !! CFi)$re :-26D. 8ote9 hen cutting the hide" insert the kni!e blade under the skin and turn the blade up so that only the hide gets cut. This will also prevent cutting hair and getting it on the meat.

Rem 5e t"e entrai1s !r m sma11er )ame by sp1ittin) t"e b dy pen and p$11in) t"em $t %it" t"e !in)ers. D n t ! r)et t"e &"est &a5ity. F r 1ar)er )ame# &$t t"e )$11et a%ay !r m t"e diap"ra)m. R 11 t"e entrai1s $t ! t"e b dy. /$t ar $nd t"e an$s# t"en rea&" int t"e 1 %er abd mina1 &a5ity# )rasp t"e 1 %er intestine# and p$11 t rem 5e. Rem 5e t"e $rine b1adder by pin&"in) it !! and &$ttin) it be1 % t"e !in)ers. I! y $ spi11 $rine n t"e meat# %as" it t a5 id taintin) t"e meat. Sa5e t"e "eart and 1i5er. /$t t"ese pen and inspe&t ! r si)ns ! % rms r t"er parasites. A1s inspe&t t"e 1i5erFs & 1 rH it & $1d indi&ate a diseased anima1. +"e 1i5erFs s$r!a&e s" $1d be sm t" and %et and its & 1 r deep red r p$rp1e. I! t"e 1i5er appears diseased# dis&ard it. 0 %e5er# a diseased 1i5er d es n t indi&ate y $ &ann t eat t"e m$s&1e tiss$e. /$t a1 n) ea&" 1e) !r m ab 5e t"e ! t t t"e pre5i $s1y made b dy &$t. Rem 5e t"e "ide by p$11in) it a%ay !r m t"e &ar&ass# &$ttin) t"e & nne&ti5e tiss$e %"ere ne&essary. /$t !! t"e "ead and !eet. /$t 1ar)er )ame int mana)eab1e pie&es. First# s1i&e t"e m$s&1e tiss$e & nne&tin) t"e !r nt 1e)s t t"e b dy. +"ere are n b nes r @ ints & nne&tin) t"e !r nt 1e)s t t"e b dy n ! $r-1e))ed anima1s. /$t t"e "ind4$arters !! %"ere t"ey @ in t"e b dy. Y $ m$st &$t ar $nd a 1ar)e b ne at t"e t p ! t"e 1e) and &$t
(a)e ;; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

t t"e ba11 and s &2et "ip @ int. /$t t"e 1i)aments ar $nd t"e @ int and bend it ba&2 t separate it. Rem 5e t"e 1ar)e m$s&1es Ct"e tender1 inD t"at 1ie n eit"er side ! t"e spine. Separate t"e ribs !r m t"e ba&2b ne. +"ere is 1ess % r2 and 1ess %ear n y $r 2ni!e i! y $ brea2 t"e ribs !irst# t"en &$t t"r $)" t"e brea2s. / 2 1ar)e meat pie&es 5er a spit r b i1 t"em. Y $ &an ste% r b i1 sma11er pie&es# parti&$1ar1y t" se t"at remain atta&"ed t b ne a!ter t"e initia1 b$t&"erin)# as s $p r br t". Y $ &an & 2 b dy r)ans s$&" as t"e "eart# 1i5er# pan&reas# sp1een# and 2idneys $sin) t"e same met" ds as ! r m$s&1e meat. Y $ &an a1s & 2 and eat t"e brain. /$t t"e t n)$e $t# s2in it# b i1 it $nti1 tender# and eat it.

S+")i#0 Me!t
+ sm 2e meat# prepare an en&1 s$re ar $nd a !ire CFi)$re :-27D. +% p n&" s snapped t )et"er %i11 % r2. +"e !ire d es n t need t be bi) r " t. +"e intent is t pr d$&e sm 2e# n t "eat. D n t $se resin $s % d in t"e !ire be&a$se its sm 2e %i11 r$in t"e meat. Use "ard% ds t pr d$&e ) d sm 2e. +"e % d s" $1d be s me%"at )reen. I! it is t dry# s a2 it. /$t t"e meat int t"in s1i&es# n m re t"an 6 &entimeters t"i&2# and drape t"em 5er a !rame% r2. Ma2e s$re n ne ! t"e meat t $&"es an t"er pie&e. 8eep t"e p n&" en&1 s$re ar $nd t"e meat t " 1d t"e sm 2e and 2eep a &1 se %at&" n t"e !ire. D n t 1et t"e !ire )et t " t. Meat sm 2ed 5erni)"t in t"is manner %i11 1ast ab $t 1 %ee2. +% days ! & ntin$ $s sm 2in) %i11 preser5e t"e meat ! r 2 t 7 %ee2s. (r per1y sm 2ed meat %i11 1 2 1i2e a dar2# &$r1ed# britt1e sti&2 and y $ &an eat it %it" $t !$rt"er & 2in). Y $ &an a1s $se a pit t sm 2e meat CFi)$re :-2:D.

(a)e 1<< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

D&3i#0 Me!t
+ preser5e meat by dryin)# &$t it int 6-mi11imeter strips %it" t"e )rain. 0an) t"e meat strips n a ra&2 in a s$nny 1 &ati n %it" ) d air !1 %. 8eep t"e strips $t ! t"e rea&" ! anima1s and & 5er t"em t 2eep b1 %!1ies !!. A11 % t"e meat t dry t" r $)"1y be! re eatin). (r per1y dried meat %i11 "a5e a dry# &risp te?t$re and %i11 n t !ee1 & 1 t t"e t $&".

Othe& P&e$e&/!ti"# Meth"($
Y $ &an a1s preser5e meats $sin) t"e !ree'in) r brine and sa1t met" ds.

'reezing
In & 1d &1imates# y $ &an !ree'e and 2eep meat inde!inite1y. Free'in) is n t a means ! preparin) meat. Y $ m$st sti11 & 2 it be! re eatin).

#rine and Salt
Y $ &an preser5e meat by s a2in) it t" r $)"1y in a sa1t%ater s 1$ti n. +"e s 1$ti n m$st & 5er t"e meat. Y $ &an a1s $se sa1t by itse1!. 3as" !! t"e sa1t be! re & 2in).

(a)e 1<1 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER < - SURVIVAL USE OF PLANTS

A!ter having solved the problems o! !inding water" shelter" and animal !ood" you will have to consider the use o! plants you can eat. In a survival situation you should always be on the lookout !or !amiliar wild !oods and live o!! the land whenever possible. @ou must not count on being able to go !or days without !ood as some sources would suggest. Cven in the most static survival situation" maintaining health through a complete and nutritious diet is essential to maintaining strength and peace o! mind. 8ature can provide you with !ood that will let you survive any ordeal" i! you don.t eat the wrong plant. @ou must there!ore learn as much as possible be!orehand about the !lora o! the region where you will be operating. :lants can provide you with medicines in a survival situation. :lants can supply you with weapons and raw materials to construct shelters and build !ires. :lants can even provide you with chemicals !or poisoning !ish" preserving animal hides" and !or camou!laging yoursel! and your e)uipment. 8ote9 @ou will !ind illustrations o! the plants described in this chapter in Appendi+es ? and 1.

,I#ILITY O' PLANTS
(1ants are 5a1$ab1e s $r&es ! ! d be&a$se t"ey are %ide1y a5ai1ab1e# easi1y pr &$red# and# in t"e pr per & mbinati ns# &an meet a11 y $r n$triti na1 needs. *ARNIN1 +"e &riti&a1 !a&t r in $sin) p1ants ! r ! d is t a5 id a&&identa1 p is nin). -at n1y t" se p1ants y $ &an p siti5e1y identi!y and y $ 2n % are sa!e t eat. Abs 1$te1y identi!y p1ants be! re $sin) t"em as ! d. ( is n "em1 &2 "as 2i11ed pe p1e %" mist 2 it ! r its re1ati5es# %i1d &arr ts and %i1d parsnips. At times y $ may !ind y $rse1! in a sit$ati n ! r %"i&" y $ & $1d n t p1an. In t"is instan&e y $ may n t "a5e "ad t"e &"an&e t 1earn t"e p1ant 1i!e ! t"e re)i n in %"i&" y $ m$st s$r5i5e. In t"is &ase y $ &an $se t"e Uni5ersa1 -dibi1ity +est t determine %"i&" p1ants y $ &an eat and t" se t a5 id. It is imp rtant t be ab1e t re& )ni'e b t" &$1ti5ated and %i1d edib1e p1ants in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. M st ! t"e in! rmati n in t"is &"apter is dire&ted t %ards identi!yin) %i1d p1ants be&a$se in! rmati n re1atin) t &$1ti5ated p1ants is m re readi1y a5ai1ab1e. Remember t"e ! 11 %in) %"en & 11e&tin) %i1d p1ants ! r ! dI • (1ants )r %in) near " mes and &&$pied b$i1din)s r a1 n) r adsides may "a5e been sprayed %it" pesti&ides. 3as" t"em t" r $)"1y. In m re "i)"1y de5e1 ped & $ntries %it" many a$t m bi1es# a5 id r adside p1ants# i! p ssib1e# d$e t & ntaminati n !r m e?"a$st emissi ns.
(a)e 1<2 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

• • •

(1ants )r %in) in & ntaminated %ater r in %ater & ntainin) >iardia lamblia and t"er parasites are & ntaminated t"emse15es. , i1 r disin!e&t t"em. S me p1ants de5e1 p e?treme1y dan)er $s !$n)a1 t ?ins. + 1essen t"e &"an&e ! a&&identa1 p is nin)# d n t eat any !r$it t"at is startin) t sp i1 r s" %in) si)ns ! mi1de% r !$n)$s. (1ants ! t"e same spe&ies may di!!er in t"eir t ?i& r s$bt ?i& & mp $nds & ntent be&a$se ! )eneti& r en5ir nmenta1 !a&t rs. .ne e?amp1e ! t"is is t"e ! 1ia)e ! t"e & mm n &" 2e&"erry. S me &" 2e&"erry p1ants "a5e "i)" & n&entrati ns ! dead1y &yanide & mp $nds %"i1e t"ers "a5e 1 % & n&entrati ns r n ne. 0 rses "a5e died !r m eatin) %i1ted %i1d &"erry 1ea5es. A5 id any %eed# 1ea5es# r seeds %it" an a1m nd1i2e s&ent# a &"ara&teristi& ! t"e &yanide & mp $nds. S me pe p1e are m re s$s&eptib1e t )astri& distress C!r m p1antsD t"an t"ers. I! y $ are sensiti5e in t"is %ay# a5 id $n2n %n %i1d p1ants. I! y $ are e?treme1y sensiti5e t p is n i5y# a5 id pr d$&ts !r m t"is !ami1y# in&1$din) any parts !r m s$ma&s# man) es# and &as"e%s. S me edib1e %i1d p1ants# s$&" as a& rns and %ater 1i1y r"i' mes# are bitter. +"ese bitter s$bstan&es# $s$a11y tannin & mp $nds# ma2e t"em $npa1atab1e. , i1in) t"em in se5era1 &"an)es ! %ater %i11 $s$a11y rem 5e t"ese bitter pr perties. Many 5a1$ab1e %i1d p1ants "a5e "i)" & n&entrati ns ! ?a1ate & mp $nds# a1s 2n %n as ?a1i& a&id. .?a1ates pr d$&e a s"arp b$rnin) sensati n in y $r m $t" and t"r at and dama)e t"e 2idneys. ,a2in)# r astin)# r dryin) $s$a11y destr ys t"ese ?a1ate &rysta1s. +"e & rm Cb$1bD ! t"e @a&2-in-t"e-p$1pit is 2n %n as t"e JIndian t$rnip#J b$t y $ &an eat it n1y a!ter rem 5in) t"ese &rysta1s by s1 % ba2in) r by dryin).

*ARNIN1 D n t eat m$s"r ms in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati nK +"e n1y %ay t te11 i! a m$s"r m is edib1e is by p siti5e identi!i&ati n. +"ere is n r m ! r e?perimentati n. Sympt ms ! t"e m st dan)er $s m$s"r ms a!!e&tin) t"e &entra1 ner5 $s system may s" % $p a!ter se5era1 days "a5e passed %"en it is t 1ate t re5erse t"eir e!!e&ts.

P%!#t I(e#ti6i.!ti"#
Y $ identi!y p1ants# t"er t"an by mem ri'in) parti&$1ar 5arieties t"r $)" !ami1iarity# by $sin) s$&" !a&t rs as 1ea! s"ape and mar)in# 1ea! arran)ements# and r t str$&t$re. +"e basi& 1ea! mar)ins CFi)$re ;-1D are t t"ed# 1 bed# and t t"1ess r sm t".

+"ese 1ea5es may be 1an&e-s"aped# e11ipti&a1# e))-s"aped# b1 n)# %ed)e-s"aped# trian)$1ar# 1 n)p inted# r t p-s"aped CFi)$re ;-2D.

(a)e 1<* ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+"e basi& types ! 1ea! arran)ements CFi)$re ;-*D are pp site# a1ternate# & mp $nd# simp1e# and basa1 r sette.

+"e basi& types ! r t str$&t$res CFi)$re ;-7D are t"e b$1b# &1 5e# tapr t# t$ber# r"i' me# & rm# and &r %n. ,$1bs are !ami1iar t $s as ni ns and# %"en s1i&ed in "a1!# %i11 s" % & n&entri& rin)s. /1 5es are t" se b$1b1i2e str$&t$res t"at remind $s ! )ar1i& and %i11 separate int sma11 pie&es %"en br 2en apart. +"is &"ara&teristi& separates %i1d ni ns !r m %i1d )ar1i&. +apr ts resemb1e &arr ts and may be sin)1er ted r bran&"ed# b$t $s$a11y n1y ne p1ant sta12 arises !r m ea&" r t. +$bers are 1i2e p tat es and day1i1ies and y $ %i11 !ind t"ese str$&t$res eit"er n strin)s r in &1$sters $nderneat" t"e parent p1ants.
(a)e 1<7 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

R"i' mes are 1ar)e &reepin) r tst &2 r $nder)r $nd stems and many p1ants arise !r m t"e JeyesJ ! t"ese r ts. / rms are simi1ar t b$1bs b$t are s 1id %"en &$t rat"er t"an p ssessin) rin)s. A &r %n is t"e type ! r t str$&t$re ! $nd n p1ants s$&" as aspara)$s and 1 2s m$&" 1i2e a m p"ead $nder t"e s i1Fs s$r!a&e.

Learn as m$&" as p ssib1e ab $t p1ants y $ intend t $se ! r ! d and t"eir $ni4$e &"ara&teristi&s. S me p1ants "a5e b t" edib1e and p is n $s parts. Many are edib1e n1y at &ertain times ! t"e year. .t"ers may "a5e p is n $s re1ati5es t"at 1 2 5ery simi1ar t t"e nes y $ &an eat r $se ! r medi&ine.

U#i/e&$!% E(i,i%it3 Te$t
+"ere are many p1ants t"r $)" $t t"e % r1d. +astin) r s%a11 %in) e5en a sma11 p rti n ! s me &an &a$se se5ere dis& m! rt# e?treme interna1 dis rders# and e5en deat". +"ere! re# i! y $ "a5e t"e s1i)"test d $bt ab $t a p1antFs edibi1ity# app1y t"e Uni5ersa1 -dibi1ity +est CFi)$re ;-9D be! re eatin) any p rti n ! it.

(a)e 1<9 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

,e! re testin) a p1ant ! r edibi1ity# ma2e s$re t"ere are en $)" p1ants t ma2e t"e testin) % rt" y $r time and e!! rt. -a&" part ! a p1ant Cr ts# 1ea5es# !1 %ers# and s nD re4$ires m re t"an 27 " $rs t test. D n t %aste time testin) a p1ant t"at is n t re1ati5e1y ab$ndant in t"e area. Remember# eatin) 1ar)e p rti ns ! p1ant ! d n an empty st ma&" may &a$se diarr"ea# na$sea# r &ramps. +% ) d e?amp1es ! t"is are s$&" !ami1iar ! ds as )reen app1es and %i1d ni ns. -5en a!ter testin) p1ant ! d and !indin) it sa!e# eat it in m derati n. Y $ &an see !r m t"e steps and time in5 15ed in testin) ! r edibi1ity @$st " % imp rtant it is t be ab1e t identi!y edib1e p1ants. + a5 id p tentia11y p is n $s p1ants# stay a%ay !r m any %i1d r $n2n %n p1ants t"at "a5e-• Mi12y r dis& 1 red sap. • ,eans# b$1bs# r seeds inside p ds. • ,itter r s apy taste. • Spines# !ine "airs# r t" rns. • Di11# &arr t# parsnip# r pars1ey1i2e ! 1ia)e. • JA1m ndJ s&ent in % dy parts and 1ea5es.
(a)e 1<6 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

• •

6rain "eads %it" pin2# p$rp1is"# r b1a&2 sp$rs. +"ree-1ea5ed )r %t" pattern.

Usin) t"e ab 5e &riteria as e1iminat rs %"en &" sin) p1ants ! r t"e Uni5ersa1 -dibi1ity +est %i11 &a$se y $ t a5 id s me edib1e p1ants. M re imp rtant# t"ese &riteria %i11 !ten "e1p y $ a5 id p1ants t"at are p tentia11y t ?i& t eat r t $&". An entire en&y&1 pedia ! edib1e %i1d p1ants & $1d be %ritten# b$t spa&e 1imits t"e n$mber ! p1ants presented "ere. Learn as m$&" as p ssib1e ab $t t"e p1ant 1i!e ! t"e areas %"ere y $ train re)$1ar1y and %"ere y $ e?pe&t t be tra5e1in) r % r2in). Listed be1 % and 1ater in t"is &"apter are s me ! t"e m st & mm n edib1e and medi&ina1 p1ants. Detai1ed des&ripti ns and p" t )rap"s ! t"ese and t"er & mm n p1ants are at Appendi? ,. TEMPERATE =ONE FOOD PLANTS • Amarant" CAmaranthus retro!le+us and t"er spe&iesD • Arr %r t CSagittaria spe&iesD • Aspara)$s &Asparagus o!!icinalis' • ,ee&"n$t C-agus spe&iesD • ,1a&2berries CRubus spe&iesD • ,1$eberries CVaccinium spe&iesD • ,$rd &2 &Arctium lappa' • /attai1 CTypha spe&iesD • /"estn$t C1astanea spe&iesD • /"i& ry &1ichorium intybus' • /"$!a &1yperus esculentus' • Dande1i n &Tara+acum o!!icinale' • Day1i1y &(emerocallis !ulva' • Nett1e CUrtica spe&iesD • .a2s CDuercus spe&iesD • (ersimm n &<iospyros virginiana' • (1antain C:lantago spe&iesD • ( 2e%eed &:hytolacca americana' • (ri&21y pear &a&t$s C0puntia spe&iesD • ($rs1ane &:ortulaca oleracea' • Sassa!ras &Sassa!ras albidum' • S"eep s rre1 &Rume+ acetosella' • Stra%berries C-ragaria spe&iesD • +"ist1e C1irsium spe&iesD • 3ater 1i1y and 1 t$s C8uphar" 8elumbo" and t"er spe&iesD • 3i1d ni n and )ar1i& CAllium spe&iesD • 3i1d r se CRosa spe&iesD • 3 d s rre1 C0+alis spe&iesD TROPICAL =ONE FOOD PLANTS • ,amb C?ambusa and t"er spe&iesD • ,ananas C/usa spe&iesD • ,read!r$it &Artocarpus incisa' • /as"e% n$t &Anacardium occidental' • / & n$t &1ocos nuci!era' • Man) &/angi!era indica' • (a1ms C5ari $s spe&iesD • (apaya C1arica spe&iesD • S$)ar&ane &Saccharum o!!icinarum'
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FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+ar C1olocasia spe&iesD

DESERT =ONE FOOD PLANTS
• • • • •

A&a&ia &Acacia !arnesiana' A)a5e CAgave spe&iesD /a&t$s C5ari $s spe&iesD Date pa1m &:hoeni+ dactyli!era' Desert amarant" &Amaranths palmeri'

Se!2ee($
.ne p1ant y $ s" $1d ne5er 5er1 2 is sea%eed. It is a ! rm ! marine a1)ae ! $nd n r near &ean s" res. +"ere are a1s s me edib1e !res"%ater 5arieties. Sea%eed is a 5a1$ab1e s $r&e ! i dine# t"er minera1s# and 5itamin /. Lar)e 4$antities ! sea%eed in an $na&&$st med st ma&" &an pr d$&e a se5ere 1a?ati5e e!!e&t. 3"en )at"erin) sea%eeds ! r ! d# !ind 1i5in) p1ants atta&"ed t r &2s r !1 atin) !ree. Sea%eed %as"ed ns" re any 1en)t" ! time may be sp i1ed r de&ayed. Y $ &an dry !res"1y "ar5ested sea%eeds ! r 1ater $se. Its preparati n ! r eatin) depends n t"e type ! sea%eed. Y $ &an dry t"in and tender 5arieties in t"e s$n r 5er a !ire $nti1 &risp. /r$s" and add t"ese t s $ps r br t"s. , i1 t"i&2# 1eat"ery sea%eeds ! r a s" rt time t s !ten t"em. -at t"em as a 5e)etab1e r %it" t"er ! ds. Y $ &an eat s me 5arieties ra% a!ter testin) ! r edibi1ity. SEA*EEDS
• • • • • • •

D$1se &Rhodymenia palmata' 6reen sea%eed &Ulva lactuca' Iris" m ss &1hondrus crispus' 8e1p &Alaria esculenta' La5er C:orphyra spe&iesD M @aban &Sargassum !ulvellum' S$)ar %ra&2 &Laminaria saccharina'

P&ep!&!ti"# "6 P%!#t F""(
A1t" $)" s me p1ants r p1ant parts are edib1e ra%# y $ m$st & 2 t"ers t be edib1e r pa1atab1e. -dib1e means t"at a p1ant r ! d %i11 pr 5ide y $ %it" ne&essary n$trients# %"i1e pa1atab1e means t"at it a&t$a11y is p1easin) t eat. Many %i1d p1ants are edib1e b$t bare1y pa1atab1e. It is a ) d idea t 1earn t identi!y# prepare# and eat %i1d ! ds. Met" ds $sed t impr 5e t"e taste ! p1ant ! d in&1$de s a2in)# b i1in)# & 2in)# r 1ea&"in). Lea&"in) is d ne by &r$s"in) t"e ! d C! r e?amp1e# a& rnsD# p1a&in) it in a strainer# and p $rin) b i1in) %ater t"r $)" it r immersin) it in r$nnin) %ater. , i1 1ea5es# stems# and b$ds $nti1 tender# &"an)in) t"e %ater# i! ne&essary# t rem 5e any bitterness. , i1# ba2e# r r ast t$bers and r ts. Dryin) "e1ps t rem 5e &a$sti& ?a1ates !r m s me r ts 1i2e t" se in t"e Arum !ami1y. Lea&" a& rns in %ater# i! ne&essary# t rem 5e t"e bitterness. S me n$ts# s$&" as &"estn$ts# are ) d ra%# b$t taste better r asted. Y $ &an eat many )rains and seeds ra% $nti1 t"ey mat$re. 3"en "ard r dry# y $ may "a5e t b i1 r )rind t"em int mea1 r !1 $r.
(a)e 1<: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+"e sap !r m many trees# s$&" as map1es# bir&"es# %a1n$ts# and sy&am res# & ntains s$)ar. Y $ may b i1 t"ese saps d %n t a syr$p ! r s%eetenin). It ta2es ab $t *9 1iters ! map1e sap t ma2e ne 1iter ! map1e syr$pK

PLANTS 'OR 0 ,ICIN
In a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n y $ %i11 "a5e t $se %"at is a5ai1ab1e. In $sin) p1ants and t"er nat$ra1 remedies# p siti5e identi!i&ati n ! t"e p1ants in5 15ed is as &riti&a1 as in $sin) t"em ! r ! d. (r per $se ! t"ese p1ants is e4$a11y imp rtant.

Te&+$ !#( De6i#iti"#$
+"e ! 11 %in) terms# and t"eir de!initi ns# are ass &iated %it" medi&ina1 p1ant $seI • :oultice. +"e name )i5en t &r$s"ed 1ea5es r t"er p1ant parts# p ssib1y "eated# t"at y $ app1y t a % $nd r s re eit"er dire&t1y r %rapped in &1 t" r paper. • In!usion or tisane or tea. +"e preparati n ! medi&ina1 "erbs ! r interna1 r e?terna1 app1i&ati n. Y $ p1a&e a sma11 4$antity ! a "erb in a & ntainer# p $r " t %ater 5er it# and 1et it steep C& 5ered r $n& 5eredD be! re $se. • <ecoction. +"e e?tra&t ! a b i1ed d %n r simmered "erb 1ea! r r t. Y $ add "erb 1ea! r r t t %ater. Y $ brin) t"em t a s$stained b i1 r simmer t dra% t"eir &"emi&a1s int t"e %ater. +"e a5era)e rati is ab $t 2: t 96 )rams C1 t 2 $n&esD ! "erb t <.9 1iter ! %ater. • C+pressed $uice. Li4$ids r saps s4$ee'ed !r m p1ant materia1 and eit"er app1ied t t"e % $nd r made int an t"er medi&ine. Many nat$ra1 remedies % r2 s1 %er t"an t"e medi&ines y $ 2n %. +"ere! re# start %it" sma11er d ses and a11 % m re time ! r t"em t ta2e e!!e&t. Nat$ra11y# s me %i11 a&t m re rapid1y t"an t"ers.

Spe.i6i. Re+e(ie$
+"e ! 11 %in) remedies are ! r $se n1y in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# n t ! r r $tine $seI • <iarrhea. Drin2 tea made !r m t"e r ts ! b1a&2berries and t"eir re1ati5es t st p diarr"ea. 3"ite a2 bar2 and t"er bar2s & ntainin) tannin are a1s e!!e&ti5e. 0 %e5er# $se t"em %it" &a$ti n %"en n t"in) e1se is a5ai1ab1e be&a$se ! p ssib1e ne)ati5e e!!e&ts n t"e 2idneys. Y $ &an a1s st p diarr"ea by eatin) %"ite &1ay r &amp!ire as"es. +ea made !r m & %berry r &ranberry r "a'e1 1ea5es % r2s t . • Antihemorrhagics. Ma2e medi&ati ns t st p b1eedin) !r m a p $1ti&e ! t"e p$!!ba11 m$s"r m# !r m p1antain 1ea5es# r m st e!!e&ti5e1y !r m t"e 1ea5es ! t"e & mm n yarr % r % $nd% rt &Achillea mille!olium'. • Antiseptics. Use t &1eanse % $nds# s res# r ras"es. Y $ &an ma2e t"em !r m t"e e?pressed @$i&e !r m %i1d ni n r )ar1i&# r e?pressed @$i&e !r m &"i&2%eed 1ea5es r t"e &r$s"ed 1ea5es ! d &2. Y $ &an a1s ma2e antisepti&s !r m a de& &ti n ! b$rd &2 r t# ma11 % 1ea5es r r ts# r %"ite a2 bar2. A11 t"ese medi&ati ns are ! r e?terna1 $se n1y. • -evers. +reat a !e5er %it" a tea made !r m %i11 % bar2# an in!$si n ! e1der !1 %ers r !r$it# 1inden !1 %er tea# r e1m bar2 de& &ti n. • 1olds and sore throats. +reat t"ese i11nesses %it" a de& &ti n made !r m eit"er p1antain 1ea5es r %i11 % bar2. Y $ &an a1s $se a tea made !r m b$rd &2 r ts# ma11 % r m$11ein !1 %ers r r ts# r mint 1ea5es. • Aches" pains" and sprains. +reat %it" e?terna11y app1ied p $1ti&es ! d &2# p1antain# &"i&2%eed# %i11 % bar2# )ar1i&# r s rre1. Y $ &an a1s $se sa15es made by mi?in) t"e e?pressed @$i&es ! t"ese p1ants in anima1 !at r 5e)etab1e i1s. • Itching. Re1ie5e t"e it&" !r m inse&t bites# s$nb$rn# r p1ant p is nin) ras"es by app1yin) a p $1ti&e ! @e%e1%eed &Impatiens bi!lora' r %it&" "a'e1 1ea5es &(amamelis virginiana'. +"e @e%e1%eed @$i&e %i11 "e1p %"en app1ied t p is n i5y ras"es r inse&t stin)s. It % r2s n s$nb$rn as %e11 as a1 e 5era.
(a)e 1<; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

• • • • • •

Sedatives. 6et "e1p in !a11in) as1eep by bre%in) a tea made !r m mint 1ea5es r passi n!1 %er 1ea5es. (emorrhoids. +reat t"em %it" e?terna1 %as"es !r m e1m bar2 r a2 bar2 tea# !r m t"e e?pressed @$i&e ! p1antain 1ea5es# r !r m a S 1 m nFs sea1 r t de& &ti n. 1onstipation. Re1ie5e & nstipati n by drin2in) de& &ti ns !r m dande1i n 1ea5es# r se "ips# r %a1n$t bar2. -atin) ra% day1i1y !1 %ers %i11 a1s "e1p. orms or intestinal parasites. Usin) m derati n# treat %it" tea made !r m tansy &Tanacetum vulgare' r !r m %i1d &arr t 1ea5es. >as and cramps. Use a tea made !r m &arr t seeds as an anti!1at$1entH $se tea made !r m mint 1ea5es t sett1e t"e st ma&". Anti!ungal washes. Ma2e a de& &ti n ! %a1n$t 1ea5es r a2 bar2 r a& rns t treat rin)% rm and at"1eteFs ! t. App1y !re4$ent1y t t"e site# a1ternatin) %it" e?p s$re t dire&t s$n1i)"t.

MISCELLANEOUS USES OF PLANTS Ma2e dyes !r m 5ari $s p1ants t & 1 r &1 t"in) r t &am $!1a)e y $r s2in. Us$a11y# y $ %i11 "a5e t b i1 t"e p1ants t )et t"e best res$1ts. .ni n s2ins pr d$&e ye11 %# %a1n$t "$11s pr d$&e br %n# and p 2eberries pr 5ide a p$rp1e dye.

Ma2e !ibers and & rda)e !r m p1ant !ibers. M st & mm n1y $sed are t"e stems !r m nett1es and mi12%eeds# y$&&a p1ants# and t"e inner bar2 ! trees 1i2e t"e 1inden.

Ma2e !is" p is n by immersin) %a1n$t "$11s in a sma11 area ! 4$iet %ater. +"is p is n ma2es it imp ssib1e ! r t"e !is" t breat"e b$t d esnFt ad5erse1y a!!e&t t"eir edibi1ity.

Ma2e tinder ! r startin) !ires !r m &attai1 !1$!!# &edar bar2# 1i)"ter 2n t % trees# r "ardened sap !r m resin $s % d trees.

d !r m pine

Ma2e ins$1ati n by !1$!!in) $p !ema1e &attai1 "eads r mi12%eed d %n.

Ma2e inse&t repe11ents by app1yin) t"e e?pressed @$i&e ! %i1d )ar1i& r ni n t t"e s2in# by p1a&in) sassa!ras 1ea5es in y $r s"e1ter# r by b$rnin) r sm$d)in) &attai1 seed "air !ibers. (1ants &an be y $r a11y as 1 n) as y $ $se t"em &a$ti $s1y. The key to the sa!e use o! plants is positive identi!ication %"et"er y $ $se t"em as ! d r medi&ine r in & nstr$&tin) s"e1ters r e4$ipment.

(a)e 11< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 1> - POISONOUS PLANTS

Success!ul use o! plants in a survival situation depends on positive identi!ication. Anowing poisonous plants is as important to a survivor as knowing edible plants. Anowing the poisonous plants will help you avoid sustaining in$uries !rom them.

.O3 PLANTS POISON
(1ants )enera11y p is n by-• Ingestion. 3"en a pers n eats a part ! a p is n $s p1ant. • 1ontact. 3"en a pers n ma2es & nta&t %it" a p is n $s p1ant t"at &a$ses any type ! s2in irritati n r dermatitis. • Absorption or inhalation. 3"en a pers n eit"er abs rbs t"e p is n t"r $)" t"e s2in r in"a1es it int t"e respirat ry system. (1ant p is nin) ran)es !r m min r irritati n t deat". A & mm n 4$esti n as2ed is# J0 % p is n $s is t"is p1antGJ It is di!!i&$1t t say " % p is n $s p1ants are be&a$se-• • • •

S me p1ants re4$ire & nta&t %it" a 1ar)e am $nt ! t"e p1ant be! re n ti&in) any ad5erse rea&ti n %"i1e t"ers %i11 &a$se deat" %it" n1y a sma11 am $nt. -5ery p1ant %i11 5ary in t"e am $nt ! t ?ins it & ntains d$e t di!!erent )r %in) & nditi ns and s1i)"t 5ariati ns in s$bspe&ies. -5ery pers n "as a di!!erent 1e5e1 ! resistan&e t t ?i& s$bstan&es. S me pers ns may be m re sensiti5e t a parti&$1ar p1ant.

S me & mm n mis& n&epti ns ab $t p is n $s p1ants are-• atch the animals and eat what they eat. M st ! t"e time t"is statement is tr$e# b$t s me anima1s &an eat p1ants t"at are p is n $s t "$mans. • ?oil the plant in water and any poisons will be removed. , i1in) rem 5es many p is ns# b$t n t a11. • :lants with a red color are poisonous. S me p1ants t"at are red are p is n $s# b$t n t a11. +"e p int is t"ere is n ne r$1e t aid in identi!yin) p is n $s p1ants. Y $ m$st ma2e an e!! rt t 1earn as m$&" ab $t t"em as p ssib1e.

ALL A#OUT PLANTS
It is t y $r bene!it t 1earn as m$&" ab $t p1ants as p ssib1e. Many p is n $s p1ants 1 2 1i2e t"eir edib1e re1ati5es r 1i2e t"er edib1e p1ants. F r e?amp1e# p is n "em1 &2 appears 5ery simi1ar t %i1d &arr t. /ertain p1ants are sa!e t eat in &ertain seas ns r sta)es ! )r %t" and p is n $s in t"er sta)es. F r e?amp1e# t"e 1ea5es ! t"e p 2e%eed are edib1e %"en it !irst starts t )r %# b$t it s n be& mes p is n $s. Y $ &an eat s me p1ants and t"eir !r$its n1y %"en t"ey are ripe. F r e?amp1e# t"e
(a)e 111 ! 2**

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US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

ripe !r$it ! mayapp1e is edib1e# b$t a11 t"er parts and t"e )reen !r$it are p is n $s. S me p1ants & ntain b t" edib1e and p is n $s partsH p tat es and t mat es are & mm n p1ant ! ds# b$t t"eir )reen parts are p is n $s. S me p1ants be& me t ?i& a!ter %i1tin). F r e?amp1e# %"en t"e b1a&2 &"erry starts t %i1t# "ydr &yani& a&id de5e1 ps. Spe&i!i& preparati n met" ds ma2e s me p1ants edib1e t"at are p is n $s ra%. Y $ &an eat t"e t"in1y s1i&ed and t" r $)"1y dried & rms Cdryin) may ta2e a yearD ! t"e @a&2-in-t"e-p$1pit# b$t t"ey are p is n $s i! n t t" r $)"1y dried. Learn t identi!y and $se p1ants be! re a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. S me s $r&es ! in! rmati n ab $t p1ants are pamp"1ets# b 2s# !i1ms# nat$re trai1s# b tani&a1 )ardens# 1 &a1 mar2ets# and 1 &a1 nati5es. 6at"er and &r ss-re!eren&e in! rmati n !r m as many s $r&es as p ssib1e# be&a$se many s $r&es %i11 n t & ntain a11 t"e in! rmati n needed.

RUL S 'OR AVOI,IN/ POISONOUS PLANTS
Y $r best p 1i&y is t be ab1e t 1 2 at a p1ant and identi!y it %it" abs 1$te &ertainty and t 2n % its $ses r dan)ers. Many times t"is is n t p ssib1e. I! y $ "a5e 1itt1e r n 2n %1ed)e ! t"e 1 &a1 5e)etati n# $se t"e r$1es t se1e&t p1ants ! r t"e JUni5ersa1 -dibi1ity +est.J Remember# a5 id -• All mushrooms. M$s"r m identi!i&ati n is 5ery di!!i&$1t and m$st be pre&ise# e5en m re s t"an %it" t"er p1ants. S me m$s"r ms &a$se deat" 5ery 4$i&21y. S me m$s"r ms "a5e n 2n %n antid te. +% )enera1 types ! m$s"r m p is nin) are )astr intestina1 and &entra1 ner5 $s system. • 1ontact with or touching plants unnecessarily.

CONTACT , R0ATITIS
/ nta&t dermatitis !r m p1ants %i11 $s$a11y &a$se t"e m st tr $b1e in t"e !ie1d. +"e e!!e&ts may be persistent# spread by s&rat&"in)# and are parti&$1ar1y dan)er $s i! t"ere is & nta&t in r ar $nd t"e eyes. +"e prin&ipa1 t ?in ! t"ese p1ants is $s$a11y an i1 t"at )ets n t"e s2in $p n & nta&t %it" t"e p1ant. +"e i1 &an a1s )et n e4$ipment and t"en in!e&t %" e5er t $&"es t"e e4$ipment. Ne5er b$m a & nta&t p is n $s p1ant be&a$se t"e sm 2e may be as "arm!$1 as t"e p1ant. +"ere is a )reater dan)er ! bein) a!!e&ted %"en 5er"eated and s%eatin). +"e in!e&ti n may be 1 &a1 r it may spread 5er t"e b dy. Sympt ms may ta2e !r m a !e% " $rs t se5era1 days t appear. Si)ns and sympt ms &an in&1$de b$rnin)# reddenin)# it&"in)# s%e11in)# and b1isters. 3"en y $ !irst & nta&t t"e p is n $s p1ants r t"e !irst sympt ms appear# try t rem 5e t"e i1 by %as"in) %it" s ap and & 1d %ater. I! %ater is n t a5ai1ab1e# %ipe y $r s2in repeated1y %it" dirt r sand. D n t $se dirt i! b1isters "a5e de5e1 ped. +"e dirt may brea2 pen t"e b1isters and 1ea5e t"e b dy pen t in!e&ti n. A!ter y $ "a5e rem 5ed t"e i1# dry t"e area. Y $ &an %as" %it" a tanni& a&id s 1$ti n and &r$s" and r$b @e%e1%eed n t"e a!!e&ted area t treat p1ant-&a$sed ras"es. Y $ &an ma2e tanni& a&id !r m a2 bar2. ( is n $s p1ants t"at &a$se & nta&t dermatitis are-• / %"a)e. • ( is n i5y. • ( is n a2. • ( is n s$ma&. • Ren)as tree. • +r$mpet 5ine.

IN/ STION POISONIN/
In)esti n p is nin) &an be 5ery seri $s and & $1d 1ead t deat" 5ery 4$i&21y. D n t eat any p1ant $n1ess y $ "a5e p siti5e1y identi!ied it !irst. 8eep a 1 ) ! a11 p1ants eaten. Si)ns and sympt ms ! in)esti n p is nin) &an in&1$de na$sea# 5 mitin)# diarr"ea# abd mina1 &ramps# depressed "eartbeat and respirati n# "eada&"es# "a11$&inati ns# dry m $t"# $n& ns&i $sness# & ma# and deat".

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US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

I! y $ s$spe&t p1ant p is nin)# try t rem 5e t"e p is n $s materia1 !r m t"e 5i&timFs m $t" and st ma&" as s n as p ssib1e. Ind$&e 5 mitin) by ti&21in) t"e ba&2 ! "is t"r at r by )i5in) "im %arm sa1t%ater# i! "e is & ns&i $s. Di1$te t"e p is n by administerin) 1ar)e 4$antities ! %ater r mi12# i! "e is & ns&i $s. +"e ! 11 %in) p1ants &an &a$se in)esti n p is nin) i! eatenI • /ast r bean. • /"inaberry. • Deat" &amas. • Lantana. • Man&"inee1. • .1eander. • (an)i. • ("ysi& n$t. • ( is n and %ater "em1 &2s. • R sary pea. • Stry&"nine tree. See Appendi? / ! r p" t )rap"s and des&ripti ns ! t"ese p1ants.

(a)e 11* ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 11 - DAN1EROUS ANIMALS

Animals rarely are as threatening to the survivor as the rest o! the environment. 1ommon sense tells the survivor to avoid encounters with lions" bears" and other large or dangerous animals. @ou should also avoid large gra*ing animals with horns" hooves" and great weight. @our actions may prevent une+pected meetings. /ove care!ully through their environment. <o not attract large predators by leaving !ood lying around your camp. 1are!ully survey the scene be!ore entering water or !orests. Smaller animals actually present more o! a threat to the survivor than large animals. To compensate !or their si*e" nature has given many small animals weapons such as !angs and stingers to de!end themselves. Cach year" a !ew people are bitten by sharks" mauled by alligators" and attacked by bears. /ost o! these incidents were in some way the victim.s !ault. (owever" each year more victims die !rom bites by relatively small venomous snakes than by large dangerous animals. Cven more victims die !rom allergic reactions to bee stings. -or this reason" we will pay more attention to smaller and potentially more dangerous creatures. These are the animals you are more likely to meet as you unwittingly move into their habitat" or they slip into your environment unnoticed. Aeeping a level head and an awareness o! your surroundings will keep you alive i! you use a !ew simple sa!ety procedures. <o not let curiosity and carelessness kill or in$ure you.

INS CTS AN, ARAC.NI,S
Y $ re& )ni'e and identi!y inse&ts# e?&ept &entipedes and mi11ipedes# by t"eir si? 1e)s %"i1e ara&"nids "a5e ei)"t. A11 t"ese sma11 &reat$res be& me pests %"en t"ey bite# stin)# r irritate y $. A1t" $)" t"eir 5en m &an be 4$ite pain!$1# bee# %asp# and " rnet stin)s rare1y 2i11 a s$r5i5 r $n1ess "e is a11er)i& t t"at parti&$1ar t ?in. -5en t"e m st dan)er $s spiders rare1y 2i11# and t"e e!!e&ts ! ti&2-b rne diseases are 5ery s1 %-a&tin). 0 %e5er# in a11 &ases# a5 idan&e is t"e best de!ense. In en5ir nments 2n %n t "a5e spiders and s& rpi ns# &"e&2 y $r ! t)ear and &1 t"in) e5ery m rnin). A1s &"e&2 y $r beddin) and s"e1ter ! r t"em. Use &are %"en t$rnin) 5er r &2s and 1 )s. See Appendi? D ! r e?amp1es ! dan)er $s inse&ts and ara&"nids.

S."&pi"#$
Y $ !ind s& rpi ns C?uthotus spe&iesD in deserts# @$n)1es# and ! rests ! tr pi&a1# s$btr pi&a1# and %arm temperate areas ! t"e % r1d. +"ey are m st1y n &t$rna1 in "abit. Y $ &an !ind desert s& rpi ns !r m be1 % sea 1e5e1 in Deat" Va11ey t e1e5ati ns as "i)" as *#6<< meters in t"e Andes. +ypi&a11y br %n r b1a&2 in m ist areas# t"ey may be ye11 % r 1i)"t )reen in t"e desert. +"eir a5era)e si'e is ab $t 2.9 &entimeters. 0 %e5er# t"ere are 2<-&entimeter )iants in t"e @$n)1es ! /entra1 Ameri&a# Ne% 6$inea# and s $t"ern A!ri&a. Fata1ities !r m s& rpi n stin)s are rare# b$t t"ey &an &&$r in &"i1dren# t"e e1der1y#
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Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

and i11 pers ns. S& rpi ns resemb1e sma11 1 bsters %it" raised# @ inted tai1s bearin) a stin)er in t"e tip. Nat$re mimi&s t"e s& rpi ns %it" %"ip s& rpi ns r 5ine)ar-r ns. +"ese are "arm1ess and "a5e a tai1 1i2e a %ire r %"ip# rat"er t"an t"e @ inted tai1 and stin)er ! tr$e s& rpi ns.

Spi(e&$
Y $ re& )ni'e t"e br %n re&1$se r !idd1eba&2 spider ! N rt" Ameri&a &Lo+osceles reclusa' by a pr minent 5i 1in-s"aped 1i)"t sp t n t"e ba&2 ! its b dy. As its name s$))ests# t"is spider 1i2es t "ide in dar2 p1a&es. +" $)" rare1y !ata1# its bite &a$ses e?&essi5e tiss$e de)enerati n ar $nd t"e % $nd and &an e5en 1ead t amp$tati n ! t"e di)its i! 1e!t $ntreated. Y $ !ind members ! t"e %id % !ami1y &Latrodectus species' % r1d%ide# t" $)" t"e b1a&2 %id % ! N rt" Ameri&a is per"aps t"e m st %e11-2n %n. F $nd in %armer areas ! t"e % r1d# t"e %id %s are sma11# dar2 spiders %it" !ten " $r)1ass-s"aped %"ite# red# r ran)e sp ts n t"eir abd mens. F$nne1%ebs CAtra+ spe&iesD are 1ar)e# )ray r br %n A$stra1ian spiders. /"$n2y# %it" s" rt 1e)s# t"ey are ab1e t m 5e easi1y $p and d %n t"e & ne-s"aped %ebs !r m %"i&" t"ey )et t"eir name. +"e 1 &a1 p p$1a&e & nsiders t"em dead1y. A5 id t"em as t"ey m 5e ab $t# $s$a11y at ni)"t# in sear&" ! prey. Sympt ms ! t"eir bite are simi1ar t t" se ! t"e %id %Fs--se5ere pain a&& mpanied by s%eatin) and s"i5erin)# %ea2ness# and disab1in) epis des t"at &an 1ast a %ee2. +arant$1as are 1ar)e# "airy spiders CTheraphosidae and Lycosa spe&iesD best 2n %n be&a$se t"ey are !ten s 1d in pet st res. +"ere is ne spe&ies in -$r pe# b$t m st & me !r m tr pi&a1 Ameri&a. S me S $t" Ameri&an spe&ies d in@e&t a dan)er $s t ?in# b$t m st simp1y pr d$&e a pain!$1 bite. S me tarant$1as &an be as 1ar)e as a dinner p1ate. +"ey a11 "a5e 1ar)e !an)s ! r &apt$rin) ! d s$&" as birds# mi&e# and 1i'ards. I! bitten by a tarant$1a# pain and b1eedin) are &ertain# and in!e&ti n is 1i2e1y.

Ce#tipe(e$ !#( Mi%%ipe(e$
/entipedes and mi11ipedes are m st1y sma11 and "arm1ess# a1t" $)" s me tr pi&a1 and desert spe&ies may rea&" 29 &entimeters. A !e% 5arieties ! &entipedes "a5e a p is n $s bite# b$t in!e&ti n is t"e )reatest dan)er# as t"eir s"arp &1a%s di) in and p$n&t$re t"e s2in. + pre5ent s2in p$n&t$res# br$s" t"em !! in t"e dire&ti n t"ey are tra5e1in)# i! y $ !ind t"em &ra%1in) n y $r s2in.

Bee$' *!$p$' !#( H"&#et$
3e are a11 !ami1iar %it" bees# %asps# and " rnets. +"ey & me in many 5arieties and "a5e a %ide di5ersity ! "abits and "abitats. Y $ re& )ni'e bees by t"eir "airy and $s$a11y t"i&2 b dy# %"i1e t"e %asps# " rnets# and ye11 % @a&2ets "a5e m re s1ender# near1y "air1ess# b dies. S me bees# s$&" as " neybees# 1i5e in & 1 nies. +"ey may be eit"er d mesti&ated r 1i5in) %i1d in &a5es r " 11 % trees. Y $ may !ind t"er bees# s$&" as &arpenter bees# in indi5id$a1 nest " 1es in % d# r in t"e )r $nd# 1i2e b$mb1ebees. +"e main dan)er !r m bees is t"eir barbed stin)er 1 &ated n t"eir abd mens. 3"en t"e bee stin)s y $# it rips its stin)er $t ! its abd men a1 n) %it" t"e 5en m sa&# and t"e bee dies. -?&ept ! r 2i11er bees# m st bees tend t be m re d &i1e t"an %asps# " rnets# and ye11 % @a&2ets t"at "a5e sm t" stin)ers and are &apab1e ! repeated atta&2s. A5 idan&e is t"e best ta&ti& ! r se1!-pr te&ti n. 3at&" $t ! r !1 %ers r !r$it %"ere bees may be !eedin). ,e &are!$1 ! meat-eatin) ye11 % @a&2ets %"en &1eanin) !is" r )ame. +"e a5era)e pers n "as a re1ati5e1y min r and temp rary rea&ti n t bee stin)s and re& 5ers in a & $p1e ! " $rs %"en t"e pain and "eada&"e ) a%ay. +" se %" are a11er)i& t bee 5en m "a5e se5ere rea&ti ns in&1$din) anap"y1a&ti& s" &2# & ma# and deat". I! anti"istamine medi&ine is n t a5ai1ab1e and y $ &ann t !ind a s$bstit$te# an a11er)y s$!!erer in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n is in )ra5e dan)er.

Ti.)$
+i&2s are & mm n in t"e tr pi&s and temperate re)i ns. +"ey are !ami1iar t m st ! $s. +i&2s are sma11 r $nd ara&"nids %it" ei)"t 1e)s and &an "a5e eit"er a s !t r "ard b dy. +i&2s re4$ire a b1 d " st t
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US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

s$r5i5e and repr d$&e. +"is ma2es t"em dan)er $s be&a$se t"ey spread diseases 1i2e Lyme disease# R &2y M $ntain sp tted !e5er# en&ep"a1itis# and t"ers t"at &an $1timate1y be disab1in) r !ata1. +"ere is 1itt1e y $ &an d t treat t"ese diseases n&e & ntra&ted# b$t time is y $r a11y sin&e t"ey are s1 %-a&tin) ai1ments. A&& rdin) t m st a$t" rities# it ta2es at 1east 6 " $rs ! atta&"ment t t"e " st ! r t"e ti&2 t transmit t"e disease r)anisms. +"$s# y $ "a5e time t t" r $)"1y inspe&t y $r b dy ! r t"eir presen&e. ,e%are ! ti&2s %"en passin) t"r $)" t"e t"i&2 5e)etati n t"ey &1in) t # %"en &1eanin) " st anima1s ! r ! d# and %"en )at"erin) nat$ra1 materia1s t & nstr$&t a s"e1ter. A1%ays $se inse&t repe11ents# i! p ssib1e.

L

C. S

Lee&"es are b1 d-s$&2in) &reat$res %it" a % rm1i2e appearan&e. Y $ !ind t"em in t"e tr pi&s and in temperate ' nes. Y $ %i11 &ertain1y en& $nter t"em %"en s%immin) in in!ested %aters r ma2in) e?pedient %ater &r ssin)s. Y $ &an !ind t"em %"en passin) t"r $)" s%ampy# tr pi&a1 5e)etati n and b )s. Y $ &an a1s !ind t"em %"i1e &1eanin) ! d anima1s# s$&" as t$rt1es# ! $nd in !res" %ater. Lee&"es &an &ra%1 int sma11 penin)sH t"ere! re# a5 id &ampin) in t"eir "abitats %"en p ssib1e. 8eep y $r tr $sers t$&2ed in y $r b ts. /"e&2 y $rse1! !re4$ent1y ! r 1ee&"es. S%a11 %ed r eaten# 1ee&"es &an be a )reat "a'ard. It is t"ere! re essentia1 t treat %ater !r m 4$esti nab1e s $r&es by b i1in) r $sin) &"emi&a1 %ater treatments. S$r5i5 rs "a5e de5e1 ped se5ere in!e&ti ns !r m % $nds inside t"e t"r at r n se %"en s res !r m s%a11 %ed 1ee&"es be&ame in!e&ted.

#ATS
Despite t"e 1e)ends# bats C<esmodus spe&iesD are a re1ati5e1y sma11 "a'ard t t"e s$r5i5 r. +"ere are many bat 5arieties % r1d%ide# b$t y $ !ind t"e tr$e 5ampire bats n1y in /entra1 and S $t" Ameri&a. +"ey are sma11# a)i1e !1iers t"at 1and n t"eir s1eepin) 5i&tims# m st1y & %s and " rses# t 1ap a b1 d mea1 a!ter bitin) t"eir 5i&tim. +"eir sa1i5a & ntains an anti& a)$1ant t"at 2eeps t"e b1 d s1 %1y !1 %in) %"i1e t"ey !eed. .n1y a sma11 per&enta)e ! t"ese bats a&t$a11y &arry rabiesH " %e5er# a5 id any si&2 r in@$red bat. +"ey &an &arry t"er diseases and in!e&ti ns and %i11 bite readi1y %"en "and1ed. +a2in) s"e1ter in a &a5e &&$pied by bats# " %e5er# presents t"e m$&" )reater "a'ard ! in"a1in) p %dered bat d$n)# r )$an . ,at d$n) &arries many r)anisms t"at &an &a$se diseases. -atin) t" r $)"1y & 2ed !1yin) ! ?es r t"er bats presents n dan)er !r m rabies and t"er diseases# b$t a)ain# t"e emp"asis is n t" r $)" & 2in).

POISONOUS SNA* S
+"ere are n in!a11ib1e r$1es ! r e?pedient identi!i&ati n ! p is n $s sna2es in t"e !ie1d# be&a$se t"e )$ide1ines a11 re4$ire &1 se bser5ati n r manip$1ati n ! t"e sna2eFs b dy. +"e best strate)y is t 1ea5e a11 sna2es a1 ne. 3"ere sna2es are p1enti!$1 and p is n $s spe&ies are present# t"e ris2 ! t"eir bites ne)ates t"eir ! d 5a1$e. App1y t"e ! 11 %in) sa!ety r$1es %"en tra5e1in) in areas %"ere t"ere are p is n $s sna2esI
• • •

• • • • •

3a12 &are!$11y and %at&" %"ere y $ step. Step nt 1 )s rat"er t"an 5er t"em be! re 1 2in) and m 5in) n. L 2 &1 se1y %"en pi&2in) !r$it r m 5in) ar $nd %ater. D n t tease# m 1est# r "arass sna2es. Sna2es &ann t &1 se t"eir eyes. +"ere! re# y $ &ann t te11 i! t"ey are as1eep. S me sna2es# s$&" as mambas# & bras# and b$s"masters# %i11 atta&2 a))ressi5e1y %"en & rnered r )$ardin) a nest. Use sti&2s t t$rn 1 )s and r &2s. 3ear pr per ! t)ear# parti&$1ar1y at ni)"t. /are!$11y &"e&2 beddin)# s"e1ter# and &1 t"in). ,e &a1m %"en y $ en& $nter serpents. Sna2es &ann t "ear and y $ &an &&asi na11y s$rprise t"em %"en t"ey are s1eepin) r s$nnin). N rma11y# t"ey %i11 !1ee i! )i5en t"e pp rt$nity. Use e?treme &are i! y $ m$st 2i11 sna2es ! r ! d r sa!ety. A1t" $)" it is n t & mm n# %arm# s1eepin) "$man b dies &&asi na11y attra&t sna2es.
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US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

See Appendi? - ! r detai1ed des&ripti ns ! t"e sna2es 1isted be1 %.

S#!)e-F&ee A&e!$
+"e p 1ar re)i ns are !ree ! sna2es d$e t t"eir in" spitab1e en5ir nments. .t"er areas & nsidered t be !ree ! p is n $s sna2es are Ne% Aea1and# /$ba# 0aiti# >amai&a# ($ert Ri& # Ire1and# ( 1ynesia# and 0a%aii. POISONOUS SNA7ES OF THE AMERICAS
• • • • • •

Ameri&an / pper"ead &Agkistrodon contortri+' ,$s"master &Lachesis mutus' / ra1 sna2e &/icrurus !ulvius' / tt nm $t" &Agkistrodon piscivorus' Fer-de-1an&e &?othrops atro+' Ratt1esna2e &1rotalus species'

POISONOUS SNA7ES OF EUROPE • / mm n adder &Vipers berus' • (a11asF 5iper &Agkistrodon halys' POISONOUS SNA7ES OF AFRICA AND ASIA • , ms1an) &<ispholidus typus' • / bra &8a$a species' • 6ab n 5iper &?itis gabonica' • 6reen tree pit 5iper &Trimeresurus gramineus' • 0ab$ pit 5iper &Trimeresurus !lavoviridis' • 8rait &?ungarus caeruleus' • Ma1ayan pit 5iper &1allaselasma rhodostoma' • Mamba &<endraspis species' • ($!! adder &?itis arietans' • R"in &er s 5iper &?itis nasicornis' • R$sse11F s 5iper &Vipera russellii' • Sand 5iper &1erastes vipera' • Sa%-s&a1ed 5iper &Cchis carinatus' • 3a)1erFs pit 5iper &Trimeresurus wagleri' POISONOUS SNA7ES OF AUSTRALASIA • Deat" adder &Acanthophis antarcticus' • +aipan &0+yuranus scutellatus' • +i)er sna2e &8otechis scutatus' • Ye11 %-be11ied sea sna2e &:elamis platurus'

,AN/ ROUS LI8AR,S
+"e 6i1a m nster and t"e Me?i&an beaded 1i'ard are dan)er $s and p is n $s 1i'ards.

1i%! M"#$te&
(a)e 117 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+"e 6i1a m nster &(eloderma suspectrum' ! t"e Ameri&an s $t"%est# in&1$din) Me?i& # is a 1ar)e 1i'ard %it" dar2# "i)"1y te?t$red s2in mar2ed by pin2is" m tt1in). It a5era)es *9 t 79 &entimeters in 1en)t" and "as a t"i&2# st$mpy tai1. Un1i2e1y t bite $n1ess m 1ested# it "as a p is n $s bite.

Me5i.!# Be!(e( Liz!&(
+"e Me?i&an beaded 1i'ard &(eloderma horridum' resemb1es its re1ati5e# t"e 6i1a m nster. It "as m re $ni! rm sp ts rat"er t"an bands ! & 1 r Ct"e 6i1a m nsterD. It a1s is p is n $s and "as a d &i1e nat$re. Y $ !ind it !r m Me?i& t /entra1 Ameri&a.

7"+"(" D&!0"#
+"is )iant 1i'ard &Varanus komodoensis' )r %s t m re t"an * meters in 1en)t" and &an be dan)er $s i! y $ try t &apt$re it. +"is Ind nesian 1i'ard &an %ei)" m re t"an 1*9 2i1 )rams.

,AN/ RS IN RIV RS
/ mm n sense %i11 te11 y $ t a5 id & n!r ntati ns %it" "ipp p tami# a11i)at rs# &r & di1es# and t"er 1ar)e ri5er &reat$res. +"ere are# " %e5er# a !e% sma11er ri5er &reat$res %it" %"i&" y $ s" $1d be &a$ti $s.

E%e.t&i. Ee%
-1e&tri& ee1s &Clectrophorus electricus' may rea&" 2 meters in 1en)t" and 2< &entimeters in diameter. A5 id t"em. +"ey are &apab1e ! )eneratin) $p t 9<< 5 1ts ! e1e&tri&ity in &ertain r)ans in t"eir b dy. +"ey $se t"is s" &2 t st$n prey and enemies. N rma11y# y $ !ind t"ese ee1s in t"e .rin & and Ama' n Ri5er systems in S $t" Ameri&a. +"ey seem t pre!er s"a11 % %aters t"at are m re "i)"1y ?y)enated and pr 5ide m re ! d. +"ey are b$12ier t"an $r nati5e ee1s. +"eir $pper b dy is dar2 )ray r b1a&2# %it" a 1i)"ter-& 1 red $nderbe11y.

Pi&!#h!
(iran"as CSerrasalmo spe&iesD are an t"er "a'ard ! t"e .rin & and Ama' n Ri5er systems# as %e11 as t"e (ara)$ay Ri5er ,asin# %"ere t"ey are nati5e. +"ese !is" 5ary )reat1y in si'e and & 1 rati n# b$t $s$a11y "a5e a & mbinati n ! ran)e $ndersides and dar2 t ps. +"ey "a5e %"ite# ra' r-s"arp teet" t"at are &1ear1y 5isib1e. +"ey may be as 1 n) as 9< &entimeters. Use )reat &are %"en &r ssin) %aters %"ere t"ey 1i5e. ,1 d attra&ts t"em. +"ey are m st dan)er $s in s"a11 % %aters d$rin) t"e dry seas n.

T &t%e
,e &are!$1 %"en "and1in) and &apt$rin) 1ar)e !res"%ater t$rt1es# s$&" as t"e snappin) t$rt1es and s !ts"e11ed t$rt1es ! N rt" Ameri&a and t"e matamata and t"er t$rt1es ! S $t" Ameri&a. A11 ! t"ese t$rt1es %i11 bite in se1!-de!ense and &an amp$tate !in)ers and t es.

P%!t3p $
+"e p1atyp$s r d$&2bi11 &0rnithorhyncus anatinus' is t"e n1y member ! its !ami1y and is easi1y re& )ni'ed. It "as a 1 n) b dy & 5ered %it" )rayis"# s" rt "air# a tai1 1i2e a bea5er# and a bi11 1i2e a d$&2. 6r %in) $p t 6< &entimeters in 1en)t"# it may appear t be a ) d ! d s $r&e# b$t t"is e))-1ayin) mamma1# t"e n1y ne in t"e % r1d# is 5ery dan)er $s. +"e ma1e "as a p is n $s sp$r n ea&" "ind ! t t"at &an in!1i&t intense1y pain!$1 % $nds. Y $ !ind t"e p1atyp$s n1y in A$stra1ia# main1y a1 n) m$d ban2s n %ater%ays.
(a)e 11: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

,AN/ RS IN #AYS AN, STUARI S
In areas %"ere seas and ri5ers & me t )et"er# t"ere are dan)ers ass &iated %it" b t" !res" and sa1t %ater. In s"a11 % sa1t %aters# t"ere are many &reat$res t"at &an in!1i&t pain and &a$se in!e&ti n t de5e1 p. Steppin) n sea $r&"ins# ! r e?amp1e# &an pr d$&e pain and in!e&ti n. 3"en m 5in) ab $t in s"a11 % %ater# %ear s me ! rm ! ! t)ear and s"$!!1e y $r !eet a1 n) t"e b tt m# rat"er t"an pi&2in) $p y $r !eet and steppin). Stin)rays C<asyatidae spe&iesD are a rea1 "a'ard in s"a11 % %aters# espe&ia11y tr pi&a1 %aters. +"e type ! b tt m appears t be irre1e5ant. +"ere is a )reat 5arian&e bet%een spe&ies# b$t a11 "a5e a s"arp spi2e in t"eir tai1 t"at may be 5en m $s and &an &a$se e?treme1y pain!$1 % $nds i! stepped n. A11 rays "a5e a typi&a1 s"ape t"at resemb1es a 2ite. Y $ !ind t"em a1 n) t"e & asts ! t"e Ameri&as# A!ri&a# and A$stra1asia.

SALT3AT R ,AN/ RS
+"ere are se5era1 !is" t"at y $ s" $1d n t "and1e# t $&"# r & nta&t. +"ere are t"ers t"at y $ s" $1d n t eat.

Fi$h D!#0e&" $ t" H!#(%e' T" .h' "& C"#t!.t
+"ere are se5era1 !is" y $ s" $1d n t "and1e# t $&"# r & nta&t t"at are identi!ied be1 %. SharS"ar2s are t"e m st !eared anima1 in t"e sea. Us$a11y# s"ar2 atta&2s &ann t be a5 ided and are & nsidered a&&idents. Y $# as a s$r5i5 r# s" $1d ta2e e5ery pre&a$ti n t a5 id any & nta&t %it" s"ar2s. +"ere are many s"ar2 spe&ies# b$t in )enera1# dan)er $s s"ar2s "a5e %ide m $t"s and 5isib1e teet"# %"i1e re1ati5e1y "arm1ess nes "a5e sma11 m $t"s n t"e $nderside ! t"eir "eads. 0 %e5er# any s"ar2 &an in!1i&t pain!$1 and !ten !ata1 in@$ries# eit"er t"r $)" bites r t"r $)" abrasi ns !r m t"eir r $)" s2in. Ra66it$ish Rabbit!is" r spine! t CSiganidae spe&iesD &&$r main1y n & ra1 ree!s in t"e Indian and (a&i!i& &eans. +"ey "a5e 5ery s"arp# p ssib1y 5en m $s spines in t"eir !ins. 0and1e t"em %it" &are# i! at a11. +"is !is"# 1i2e many t"ers ! t"e dan)er $s !is" in t"is se&ti n# is & nsidered edib1e by nati5e pe p1es %"ere t"e !is" are ! $nd# b$t deat"s &&$r !r m &are1ess "and1in). See2 t"er n np is n $s !is" t eat i! at a11 p ssib1e. Tang +an) r s$r)e n!is" CAcanthuridae spe&iesD a5era)e 2< t 29 &entimeters in 1en)t" and !ten are bea$ti!$11y & 1 red. +"ey are &a11ed s$r)e n!is" be&a$se ! t"e s&a1pe11i2e spines 1 &ated in t"e tai1. +"e % $nds in!1i&ted by t"ese spines &an brin) ab $t deat" t"r $)" in!e&ti n# en5en mati n# and 1 ss ! b1 d# %"i&" may in&identa11y attra&t s"ar2s. Toad$ish + ad!is" C,atra&" ididae spe&iesD &&$r in tr pi&a1 %aters !! t"e 6$1! / ast ! t"e United States and a1 n) b t" & asts ! /entra1 and S $t" Ameri&a. +"ese d$11y & 1 red !is" a5era)e 1: t 29 &entimeters in 1en)t". +"ey typi&a11y b$ry t"emse15es in t"e sand t a%ait !is" and t"er prey. +"ey "a5e s"arp# 5ery t ?i& spines a1 n) t"eir ba&2s. Scorpion 'ish ( is n $s s& rpi n !is" r 'ebra !is" CScorpaenidae spe&iesD are m st1y ar $nd ree!s in t"e tr pi&a1 Indian and (a&i!i& &eans and &&asi na11y in t"e Mediterranean and Ae)ean seas. +"ey a5era)e *< t 79 &entimeters in 1en)t". +"eir & 1 rati n is "i)"1y 5ariab1e# !r m reddis" br %n t a1m st p$rp1e r br %nis" ye11 %. +"ey "a5e 1 n)# %a5y !ins and spines and t"eir stin) is intensi5e1y pain!$1. Less p is n $s re1ati5es 1i5e in t"e At1anti& .&ean. Stone$ish St ne!is" CSynance$a spe&iesD are in t"e (a&i!i& and Indian &eans. +"ey &an in@e&t a pain!$1 5en m !r m t"eir d rsa1 spines %"en stepped n r "and1ed &are1ess1y. +"ey are a1m st imp ssib1e t see be&a$se ! t"eir 1$mpy s"ape and drab & 1 rs. +"ey ran)e in si'e $p t 7< &entimeters. 3ee(er 'ish
(a)e 11; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

3ee5er !is" CTrachinidae spe&iesD a5era)e *< &entimeters 1 n). +"ey are "ard t see as t"ey 1ie b$ried in t"e sand !! t"e & asts ! -$r pe# A!ri&a# and t"e Mediterranean. +"eir & 1 r is $s$a11y a d$11 br %n. +"ey "a5e 5en m $s spines n t"e ba&2 and )i11s. See Appendi? F ! r m re detai1s n t"ese 5en m $s !is".

A#i+!%$ !#( Fi$h P"i$"#" $ t" E!t
S$r5i5a1 man$a1s !ten menti n t"at t"e 1i5ers ! p 1ar bears are t ?i& d$e t t"eir "i)" & n&entrati ns ! 5itamin A. F r t"is reas n# %e menti n t"e &"an&e ! deat" a!ter eatin) t"is r)an. An t"er t ?i& meat is t"e !1es" ! t"e "a%2sbi11 t$rt1e. Y $ re& )ni'e t"em by t"eir d %n-t$rned bi11 and ye11 % p 12a d ts n t"eir ne&2 and !r nt !1ippers. +"ey %ei)" m re t"an 279 2i1 )rams and are $n1i2e1y t be &apt$red. Many !is" 1i5in) in ree!s near s" re# r in 1a) ns and est$aries# are p is n $s t eat# t" $)" s me are n1y seas na11y dan)er $s. +"e ma@ rity are tr pi&a1 !is"H " %e5er# be %ary ! eatin) any $nidenti!iab1e !is" %"ere5er y $ are. S me predat ry !is"# s$&" as barra&$da and snapper# may be& me t ?i& i! t"e !is" t"ey !eed n in s"a11 % %aters are p is n $s. +"e m st p is n $s types appear t "a5e parr t1i2e bea2s and "ard s"e11-1i2e s2ins %it" spines and !ten &an in!1ate t"eir b dies 1i2e ba11 ns. 0 %e5er# at &ertain times ! t"e year# indi)en $s p p$1ati ns & nsider t"e p$!!er a de1i&a&y. #lo%$ish ,1 %!is" r p$!!er CTetraodontidae spe&iesD are m re t 1erant ! & 1d %ater. Y $ !ind t"em a1 n) tr pi&a1 and temperate & asts % r1d%ide# e5en in s me ! t"e ri5ers ! S $t"east Asia and A!ri&a. St $t-b died and r $nd# many ! t"ese !is" "a5e s" rt spines and &an in!1ate t"emse15es int a ba11 %"en a1armed r a)itated. +"eir b1 d# 1i5er# and ) nads are s t ?i& t"at as 1itt1e as 2: mi11i)rams C1 $n&eD &an be !ata1. +"ese !is" 5ary in & 1 r and si'e# )r %in) $p t 79 &entimeters in 1en)t". Trigger$ish +"e tri))er!is" C?alistidae spe&iesD &&$r in )reat 5ariety# m st1y in tr pi&a1 seas. +"ey are deep-b died and & mpressed# resemb1in) a sea) in) pan&a2e $p t 6< &entimeters in 1en)t"# %it" 1ar)e and s"arp d rsa1 spines. A5 id t"em a11# as many "a5e p is n $s !1es". #arracuda A1t" $)" m st pe p1e a5 id t"em be&a$se ! t"eir !er &ity# t"ey &&asi na11y eat barra&$da &Sphyraena barracuda'. +"ese predat rs ! m st1y tr pi&a1 seas &an rea&" a1m st 1.9 meters in 1en)t" and "a5e atta&2ed "$mans %it" $t pr 5 &ati n. +"ey &&asi na11y &arry t"e p is n &i)$atera in t"eir !1es"# ma2in) t"em dead1y i! & ns$med. See Appendi? F ! r m re detai1s n t ?i& !is" and t ?i& m 11$s2s.

Othe& D!#0e&" $ Se! C&e!t &e$
+"e b1$e-rin)ed &t p$s# @e11y!is"# and t"e & ne and a$)er s"e11s are t"er dan)er $s sea &reat$res. #lue5Ringed Octopus M st &t pi are e?&e11ent %"en pr per1y prepared. 0 %e5er# t"e b1$erin)ed &t p$s &(apalochlaena lunulata' &an in!1i&t a dead1y bite !r m its parr t1i2e bea2. F rt$nate1y# it is restri&ted t t"e 6reat ,arrier Ree! ! A$stra1ia and is 5ery sma11. It is easi1y re& )ni'ed by its )rayis" %"ite 5era11 & 1 r and irides&ent b1$e rin)s. A$t" rities %arn t"at a11 tr pi&a1 &t p$s spe&ies s" $1d be treated %it" &a$ti n# sin&e many "a5e p is n $s bites# a1t" $)" t"e !1es" is edib1e. 2elly$ish >e11y!is"-re1ated deat"s are rare# b$t t"e stin) t"ey in!1i&t is e?treme1y pain!$1. +"e ( rt$)$ese man- !%ar resemb1es a 1ar)e pin2 r p$rp1e ba11 n !1 atin) n t"e sea. It "as p is n $s tenta&1es "an)in) $p t 12 meters be1 % its b dy. +"e "$)e tenta&1es are a&t$a11y & 1 nies ! stin)in) &e11s. M st 2n %n deat"s !r m @e11y!is" are attrib$ted t t"e man- !-%ar. .t"er @e11y!is" &an in!1i&t 5ery pain!$1 stin)s as %e11. A5 id t"e 1 n) tenta&1es ! any @e11y!is"# e5en t" se %as"ed $p n t"e bea&" and apparent1y dead. Cone Shell +"e s$btr pi&a1 and tr pi&a1 & ne s"e11s C1onidae spe&iesD "a5e a 5en m $s "arp n1i2e barb. A11 are & ne-s"aped and "a5e a !ine net1i2e pattern n t"e s"e11. A membrane may p ssib1y bs&$re t"is & 1 rati n. +"ere are s me 5ery p is n $s & ne s"e11s# e5en s me 1et"a1 nes in t"e Indian and (a&i!i& &eans. A5 id any s"e11 s"aped 1i2e an i&e &ream & ne.
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FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Auger Shell +"e a$)er s"e11 r terebra CTerebridae spe&iesD are m$&" 1 n)er and t"inner t"an t"e & ne s"e11s# b$t &an be near1y as dead1y as t"e & ne s"e11s. +"ey are ! $nd in temperate and tr pi&a1 seas. +" se in t"e Indian and (a&i!i& &eans "a5e a m re t ?i& 5en m in t"eir stin)in) barb. D n t eat t"ese snai1s# as t"eir !1es" may be p is n $s.

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Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 12 - FIELD-E?PEDIENT *EAPONS' TOOLS' AND E@UIPMENT

As a soldier you know the importance o! proper care and use o! your weapons" tools" and e)uipment. This is especially true o! your kni!e. @ou must always keep it sharp and ready to use. A kni!e is your most valuable tool in a survival situation. Imagine being in a survival situation without any weapons" tools" or e)uipment e+cept your kni!e. It could happen, @ou might even be without a kni!e. @ou would probably !eel helpless" but with the proper knowledge and skills" you can easily improvise needed items. In survival situations" you may have to !ashion any number and type o! !ield%e+pedient tools and e)uipment to survive. C+amples o! tools and e)uipment that could make your li!e much easier are ropes" rucksacks" clothes" nets" and so on. eapons serve a dual purpose. @ou use them to obtain and prepare !ood and to provide sel!%de!ense. A weapon can also give you a !eeling o! security and provide you with the ability to hunt on the move.

CLU#S
Y $ " 1d &1$bs# y $ d n t t"r % t"em. As a !ie1d-e?pedient %eap n# t"e &1$b d es n t pr te&t y $ !r m enemy s 1diers. It &an# " %e5er# e?tend y $r area ! de!ense bey nd y $r !in)ertips. It a1s ser5es t in&rease t"e ! r&e ! a b1 % %it" $t in@$rin) y $rse1!. +"ere are t"ree basi& types ! &1$bs. +"ey are t"e simp1e# %ei)"ted# and s1in) &1$b.

Si+p%e C% ,
A simp1e &1$b is a sta!! r bran&". It m$st be s" rt en $)" ! r y $ t s%in) easi1y# b$t 1 n) en $)" and str n) en $)" ! r y $ t dama)e %"ate5er y $ "it. Its diameter s" $1d !it & m! rtab1y in y $r pa1m# b$t it s" $1d n t be s t"in as t a11 % t"e &1$b t brea2 easi1y $p n impa&t. A strai)"t-)rained "ard% d is best i! y $ &an !ind it.

*ei0hte( C% ,
A %ei)"ted &1$b is any simp1e &1$b %it" a %ei)"t n ne end. +"e %ei)"t may be a nat$ra1 %ei)"t# s$&" as a 2n t n t"e % d# r s met"in) added# s$&" as a st ne 1as"ed t t"e &1$b. + ma2e a %ei)"ted &1$b# !irst !ind a st ne t"at "as a s"ape t"at %i11 a11 % y $ t 1as" it se&$re1y t t"e &1$b. A st ne %it" a s1i)"t " $r)1ass s"ape % r2s %e11. I! y $ &ann t !ind a s$itab1y s"aped st ne# y $ m$st !as"i n a )r 5e r &"anne1 int t"e st ne by a te&"ni4$e 2n %n as pe&2in). ,y repeated1y rappin) t"e &1$b st ne %it" a sma11er "ard st ne# y $ &an )et t"e desired s"ape.
(a)e 122 ! 2**

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US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Ne?t# !ind a pie&e ! % d t"at is t"e ri)"t 1en)t" ! r y $. A strai)"t-)rained "ard% d is best. +"e 1en)t" ! t"e % d s" $1d !ee1 & m! rtab1e in re1ati n t t"e %ei)"t ! t"e st ne. Fina11y# 1as" t"e st ne t t"e "and1e. +"ere are t"ree te&"ni4$es ! r 1as"in) t"e st ne t t"e "and1eI sp1it "and1e# ! r2ed bran&"# and %rapped "and1e. +"e te&"ni4$e y $ $se %i11 depend n t"e type ! "and1e y $ &" se. See Fi)$re 12-1.

S%i#0 C% ,
A s1in) &1$b is an t"er type ! %ei)"ted &1$b. A %ei)"t "an)s : t 1< &entimeters !r m t"e "and1e by a str n)# !1e?ib1e 1as"in) CFi)$re 12-2D. +"is type ! &1$b b t" e?tends t"e $serFs rea&" and m$1tip1ies t"e ! r&e ! t"e b1 %.

(a)e 12* ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

,/ , 3 APONS
8ni5es# spear b1ades# and arr % p ints !a11 $nder t"e &ate) ry ! ed)ed %eap ns. +"e ! 11 %in) para)rap"s %i11 dis&$ss t"e ma2in) ! s$&" %eap ns.

7#i/e$
A 2ni!e "as t"ree basi& !$n&ti ns. It &an p$n&t$re# s1as" r &" p# and &$t. A 2ni!e is a1s an in5a1$ab1e t 1 $sed t & nstr$&t t"er s$r5i5a1 items. Y $ may !ind y $rse1! %it" $t a 2ni!e r y $ may need an t"er type 2ni!e r a spear. + impr 5ise y $ &an $se st ne# b ne# % d# r meta1 t ma2e a 2ni!e r spear b1ade. Stone + ma2e a st ne 2ni!e# y $ %i11 need a s"arp-ed)ed pie&e ! st ne# a &"ippin) t 1# and a !1a2in) t 1. A &"ippin) t 1 is a 1i)"t# b1$nt-ed)ed t 1 $sed t brea2 !! sma11 pie&es ! st ne. A !1a2in) t 1 is a p inted t 1 $sed t brea2 !! t"in# !1attened pie&es ! st ne. Y $ &an ma2e a &"ippin) t 1 !r m % d# b ne# r meta1# and a !1a2in) t 1 !r m b ne# ant1er tines# r s !t ir n CFi)$re 12-*D.

(a)e 127 ! 2**

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Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Start ma2in) t"e 2ni!e by r $)"in) $t t"e desired s"ape n y $r s"arp pie&e ! st ne# $sin) t"e &"ippin) t 1. +ry t ma2e t"e 2ni!e !air1y t"in. +"en# $sin) t"e !1a2in) t 1# press it a)ainst t"e ed)es. +"is a&ti n %i11 &a$se !1a2es t & me !! t"e pp site side ! t"e ed)e# 1ea5in) a ra' r s"arp ed)e. Use t"e !1a2in) t 1 a1 n) t"e entire 1en)t" ! t"e ed)e y $ need t s"arpen. -5ent$a11y# y $ %i11 "a5e a 5ery s"arp &$ttin) ed)e t"at y $ &an $se as a 2ni!e. Las" t"e b1ade t s me type ! "i1t CFi)$re 12-*D. 8ote9 Stone will make an e+cellent puncturing tool and a good chopping tool but will not hold a !ine edge. Some stones such as chert or !lint can have very !ine edges. #one Y $ &an a1s $se b ne as an e!!e&ti5e !ie1d-e?pedient ed)ed %eap n. First# y $ %i11 need t se1e&t a s$itab1e b ne. +"e 1ar)er b nes# s$&" as t"e 1e) b ne ! a deer r an t"er medi$m-si'ed anima1# are best. Lay t"e b ne $p n an t"er "ard b@e&t. S"atter t"e b ne by "ittin) it %it" a "ea5y b@e&t# s$&" as a r &2. Fr m t"e pie&es# se1e&t a s$itab1e p inted sp1inter. Y $ &an !$rt"er s"ape and s"arpen t"is sp1inter by r$bbin) it n a r $)"-s$r!a&ed r &2. I! t"e pie&e is t sma11 t "and1e# y $ &an sti11 $se it by addin) a "and1e t it. Se1e&t a s$itab1e pie&e ! "ard% d ! r a "and1e and 1as" t"e b ne sp1inter se&$re1y t it. 8ote9 Use the bone kni!e only to puncture. It will not hold an edge and it may !lake or break i! used di!!erently.
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Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

3ood Y $ &an ma2e !ie1d-e?pedient ed)ed %eap ns !r m % d. Use t"ese n1y t p$n&t$re. ,amb is t"e n1y % d t"at %i11 " 1d a s$itab1e ed)e. + ma2e a 2ni!e $sin) % d# !irst se1e&t a strai)"t-)rained pie&e ! "ard% d t"at is ab $t *< &entimeters 1 n) and 2.9 &entimeters in diameter. Fas"i n t"e b1ade ab $t 19 &entimeters 1 n). S"a5e it d %n t a p int. Use n1y t"e strai)"t-)rained p rti ns ! t"e % d. D n t $se t"e & re r pit"# as it % $1d ma2e a %ea2 p int. 0arden t"e p int by a pr &ess 2n %n as !ire "ardenin). I! a !ire is p ssib1e# dry t"e b1ade p rti n 5er t"e !ire s1 %1y $nti1 1i)"t1y &"arred. +"e drier t"e % d# t"e "arder t"e p int. A!ter 1i)"t1y &"arrin) t"e b1ade p rti n# s"arpen it n a & arse st ne. I! $sin) bamb and a!ter !as"i nin) t"e b1ade# rem 5e any t"er % d t ma2e t"e b1ade t"inner !r m t"e inside p rti n ! t"e bamb . Rem 5a1 is d ne t"is %ay be&a$se bamb Fs "ardest part is its $ter 1ayer. 8eep as m$&" ! t"is 1ayer as p ssib1e t ens$re t"e "ardest b1ade p ssib1e. 3"en &"arrin) bamb 5er a !ire# &"ar n1y t"e inside % dH d n t &"ar t"e $tside. Meta1 Meta1 is t"e best materia1 t ma2e !ie1d-e?pedient ed)ed %eap ns. Meta1# %"en pr per1y desi)ned# &an !$1!i11 a 2ni!eFs t"ree $ses--p$n&t$re# s1i&e r &" p# and &$t. First# se1e&t a s$itab1e pie&e ! meta1# ne t"at m st resemb1es t"e desired end pr d$&t. Dependin) n t"e si'e and ri)ina1 s"ape# y $ &an btain a p int and &$ttin) ed)e by r$bbin) t"e meta1 n a r $)"-s$r!a&ed st ne. I! t"e meta1 is s !t en $)"# y $ &an "ammer $t ne ed)e %"i1e t"e meta1 is & 1d. Use a s$itab1e !1at# "ard s$r!a&e as an an5i1 and a sma11er# "arder b@e&t ! st ne r meta1 as a "ammer t "ammer $t t"e ed)e. Ma2e a 2ni!e "and1e !r m % d# b ne# r t"er materia1 t"at %i11 pr te&t y $r "and. .t"er Materia1s Y $ &an $se t"er materia1s t pr d$&e ed)ed %eap ns. 61ass is a ) d a1ternati5e t an ed)ed %eap n r t 1# i! n t"er materia1 is a5ai1ab1e. .btain a s$itab1e pie&e in t"e same manner as des&ribed ! r b ne. 61ass "as a nat$ra1 ed)e b$t is 1ess d$rab1e ! r "ea5y % r2. Y $ &an a1s s"arpen p1asti&--i! it is t"i&2 en $)" r "ard en $)"--int a d$rab1e p int ! r p$n&t$rin).

Spe!& B%!(e$
+ ma2e spears# $se t"e same pr &ed$res t ma2e t"e b1ade t"at y $ $sed t ma2e a 2ni!e b1ade. +"en se1e&t a s"a!t Ca strai)"t sap1in)D 1.2 t 1.9 meters 1 n). +"e 1en)t" s" $1d a11 % y $ t "and1e t"e spear easi1y and e!!e&ti5e1y. Atta&" t"e spear b1ade t t"e s"a!t $sin) 1as"in). +"e pre!erred met" d is t sp1it t"e "and1e# insert t"e b1ade# t"en %rap r 1as" it ti)"t1y. Y $ &an $se t"er materia1s %it" $t addin) a b1ade. Se1e&t a 1.2-t 1.9-meter 1 n) strai)"t "ard% d s"a!t and s"a5e ne end t a p int. I! p ssib1e# !ire "arden t"e p int. ,amb a1s ma2es an e?&e11ent spear. Se1e&t a pie&e 1.2 t 1.9 meters 1 n). Startin) : t 1< &entimeters ba&2 !r m t"e end $sed as t"e p int# s"a5e d %n t"e end at a 79-de)ree an)1e CFi)$re 12-7D. Remember# t s"arpen t"e ed)es# s"a5e n1y t"e inner p rti n.

A&&"2 P"i#t$

(a)e 126 ! 2**

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US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+ ma2e an arr % p int# $se t"e same pr &ed$res ! r ma2in) a st ne 2ni!e b1ade. /"ert# !1int# and s"e11type st nes are best ! r arr % p ints. Y $ &an !as"i n b ne 1i2e st ne--by !1a2in). Y $ &an ma2e an e!!i&ient arr % p int $sin) br 2en )1ass.

OT. R 9P ,I NT 3 APONS
Y $ &an ma2e t"er !ie1d-e?pedient %eap ns s$&" as t"e t"r %in) sti&2# ar&"ery e4$ipment# and t"e b 1a.

Th&"2i#0 Sti.)
+"e t"r %in) sti&2# & mm n1y 2n %n as t"e rabbit sti&2# is 5ery e!!e&ti5e a)ainst sma11 )ame Cs4$irre1s# &"ipm$n2s# and rabbitsD. +"e rabbit sti&2 itse1! is a b1$nt sti&2# nat$ra11y &$r5ed at ab $t a 79-de)ree an)1e. Se1e&t a sti&2 %it" t"e desired an)1e !r m "ea5y "ard% d s$&" as a2. S"a5e !! t% pp site sides s t"at t"e sti&2 is !1at 1i2e a b meran) CFi)$re 12-9D. Y $ m$st pra&ti&e t"e t"r %in) te&"ni4$e ! r a&&$ra&y and speed. First# a1i)n t"e tar)et by e?tendin) t"e n nt"r %in) arm in 1ine %it" t"e mid t 1 %er se&ti n ! t"e tar)et. S1 %1y and repeated1y raise t"e t"r %in) arm $p and ba&2 $nti1 t"e t"r %in) sti&2 &r sses t"e ba&2 at ab $t a 79-de)ree an)1e r is in 1ine %it" t"e n nt"r %in) "ip. ,rin) t"e t"r %in) arm ! r%ard $nti1 it is @$st s1i)"t1y ab 5e and para11e1 t t"e n nt"r %in) arm. +"is %i11 be t"e t"r %in) sti&2Fs re1ease p int. (ra&ti&e s1 %1y and repeated1y t attain a&&$ra&y.

A&.he&3 E- ip+e#t
Y $ &an ma2e a b % and arr % CFi)$re 12-6D !r m materia1s a5ai1ab1e in y $r s$r5i5a1 area. + ma2e a b %# $se t"e pr &ed$re des&ribed $nder 8i11in) De5i&es in /"apter :.

(a)e 127 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

3"i1e it may be re1ati5e1y simp1e t ma2e a b % and arr %# it is n t easy t $se ne. Y $ m$st pra&ti&e $sin) it a 1 n) time t be reas nab1y s$re t"at y $ %i11 "it y $r tar)et. A1s # a !ie1d-e?pedient b % %i11 n t 1ast 5ery 1 n) be! re y $ "a5e t ma2e a ne% ne. F r t"e time and e!! rt in5 15ed# y $ may %e11 de&ide t $se an t"er type ! !ie1d-e?pedient %eap n.

B"%!
+"e b 1a is an t"er !ie1d-e?pedient %eap n t"at is easy t ma2e CFi)$re 12-7D. It is espe&ia11y e!!e&ti5e ! r &apt$rin) r$nnin) )ame r 1 %-!1yin) ! %1 in a !1 &2. + $se t"e b 1a# " 1d it by t"e &enter 2n t and t%ir1 it ab 5e y $r "ead. Re1ease t"e 2n t s t"at t"e b 1a !1ies t %ard y $r tar)et. 3"en y $ re1ease t"e b 1a# t"e %ei)"ted & rds %i11 separate. +"ese & rds %i11 %rap ar $nd and imm bi1i'e t"e ! %1 r anima1 t"at y $ "it.

(a)e 12: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

LAS.IN/ AN, COR,A/
Many materia1s are str n) en $)" ! r $se as 1as"in) and & rda)e. A n$mber ! nat$ra1 and man-made materia1s are a5ai1ab1e in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. F r e?amp1e# y $ &an ma2e a & tt n %eb be1t m$&" m re $se!$1 by $nra5e1in) it. Y $ &an t"en $se t"e strin) ! r t"er p$rp ses C!is"in) 1ine# t"read ! r se%in)# and 1as"in)D.

N!t &!% C"&(!0e Se%e.ti"#
,e! re ma2in) & rda)e# t"ere are a !e% simp1e tests y $ &an d t determine y $ materia1Fs s$itabi1ity. First# p$11 n a 1en)t" ! t"e materia1 t test ! r stren)t". Ne?t# t%ist it bet%een y $r !in)ers and r 11 t"e !ibers t )et"er. I! it %it"stands t"is "and1in) and d es n t snap apart# tie an 5er"and 2n t %it" t"e !ibers and )ent1y ti)"ten. I! t"e 2n t d es n t brea2# t"e materia1 is $sab1e. Fi)$re 12-: s" %s 5ari $s met" ds ! ma2in) & rda)e.

L!$hi#0 M!te&i!%
+"e best nat$ra1 materia1 ! r 1as"in) sma11 b@e&ts is sine%. Y $ &an ma2e sine% !r m t"e tend ns ! 1ar)e )ame# s$&" as deer. Rem 5e t"e tend ns !r m t"e )ame and dry t"em & mp1ete1y. Smas" t"e dried tend ns s t"at t"ey separate int !ibers. M isten t"e !ibers and t%ist t"em int a & ntin$ $s strand. I! y $ need str n)er 1as"in) materia1# y $ &an braid t"e strands. 3"en y $ $se sine% ! r sma11 1as"in)s# y $ d n t need 2n ts as t"e m istened sine% is sti&2y and it "ardens %"en dry. Y $ &an s"red and braid p1ant !ibers !r m t"e inner bar2 ! s me trees t ma2e & rd. Y $ &an $se t"e 1inden# e1m# "i&2 ry# %"ite a2# m$1berry# &"estn$t# and red and %"ite &edar trees. A!ter y $ ma2e t"e & rd# test it t be s$re it is str n) en $)" ! r y $r p$rp se. Y $ &an ma2e t"ese materia1s str n)er by braidin) se5era1 strands t )et"er. Y $ &an $se ra%"ide ! r 1ar)er 1as"in) @ bs. Ma2e ra%"ide !r m t"e s2ins ! medi$m r 1ar)e )ame. A!ter s2innin) t"e anima1# rem 5e any e?&ess !at and any pie&es ! meat !r m t"e s2in. Dry t"e s2in & mp1ete1y. Y $ d n t need t stret&" it as 1 n) as t"ere are n ! 1ds t trap m ist$re. Y $ d n t "a5e t rem 5e t"e "air !r m t"e s2in. /$t t"e s2in %"i1e it is dry. Ma2e &$ts ab $t 6 mi11imeters %ide. Start !r m t"e &enter ! t"e "ide and ma2e ne & ntin$ $s &ir&$1ar &$t# % r2in) &1 &2%ise t t"e "ideFs $ter ed)e. S a2 t"e ra%"ide ! r 2 t 7 " $rs r $nti1 it is s !t. Use it %et# stret&"in) it as m$&" as p ssib1e %"i1e app1yin) it. It %i11 be str n) and d$rab1e %"en it dries.

RUC*SAC* CONSTRUCTION
+"e materia1s ! r & nstr$&tin) a r$&2sa&2 r pa&2 are a1m st 1imit1ess. Y $ &an $se % d# bamb # r pe# p1ant !iber# &1 t"in)# anima1 s2ins# &an5as# and many t"er materia1s t ma2e a pa&2. +"ere are se5era1 & nstr$&ti n te&"ni4$es ! r r$&2sa&2s. Many are 5ery e1ab rate# b$t t" se t"at are simp1e and easy are !ten t"e m st readi1y made in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n.
(a)e 12; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

H"&$e$h"e P!.)
+"is pa&2 is simp1e t ma2e and $se and re1ati5e1y & m! rtab1e t &arry 5er ne s" $1der. Lay a5ai1ab1e s4$are-s"aped materia1# s$&" as p n&" # b1an2et# r &an5as# !1at n t"e )r $nd. Lay items n ne ed)e ! t"e materia1. (ad t"e "ard items. R 11 t"e materia1 C%it" t"e itemsD t %ard t"e pp site ed)e and tie b t" ends se&$re1y. Add e?tra ties a1 n) t"e 1en)t" ! t"e b$nd1e. Y $ &an drape t"e pa&2 5er ne s" $1der %it" a 1ine & nne&tin) t"e t% ends CFi)$re 12-;D.

S- !&e P!.)
+"is pa&2 is easy t & nstr$&t i! r pe r & rda)e is a5ai1ab1e. .t"er%ise# y $ m$st !irst ma2e & rda)e. + ma2e t"is pa&2# & nstr$&t a s4$are !rame !r m bamb # 1imbs# r sti&2s. Si'e %i11 5ary ! r ea&" pers n and t"e am $nt ! e4$ipment &arried CFi)$re 12-1<D.

(a)e 1*< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CLOT.IN/ AN, INSULATION
Y $ &an $se many materia1s ! r &1 t"in) and ins$1ati n. , t" man-made materia1s# s$&" as para&"$tes# and nat$ra1 materia1s# s$&" as s2ins and p1ant materia1s# are a5ai1ab1e and !!er si)ni!i&ant pr te&ti n.

P!&!.h te A$$e+,%3
/ nsider t"e entire para&"$te assemb1y as a res $r&e. Use e5ery pie&e ! materia1 and "ard%are# t in&1$de t"e &an py# s$spensi n 1ines# & nne&t r snaps# and para&"$te "arness. ,e! re disassemb1in) t"e para&"$te# & nsider a11 ! y $r s$r5i5a1 re4$irements and p1an t $se di!!erent p rti ns ! t"e para&"$te a&& rdin)1y. F r e?amp1e# & nsider s"e1ter re4$irements# need ! r a r$&2sa&2# and s n# in additi n t &1 t"in) r ins$1ati n needs.

A#i+!% S)i#$
+"e se1e&ti n ! anima1 s2ins in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n %i11 m st !ten be 1imited t %"at y $ mana)e t trap r "$nt. 0 %e5er# i! t"ere is an ab$ndan&e ! %i1d1i!e# se1e&t t"e "ides ! 1ar)er anima1s %it" "ea5ier & ats and 1ar)e !at & ntent. D n t $se t"e s2ins ! in!e&ted r diseased anima1s i! at a11 p ssib1e. Sin&e t"ey 1i5e in t"e %i1d# anima1s are &arriers ! pests s$&" as ti&2s# 1i&e# and !1eas. ,e&a$se ! t"ese pests# $se %ater t t" r $)"1y &1ean any s2in btained !r m any anima1. I! %ater is n t a5ai1ab1e# at 1east s"a2e $t t"e s2in t" r $)"1y. As %it" ra%"ide# 1ay $t t"e s2in# and rem 5e a11 !at and meat. Dry t"e s2in & mp1ete1y. Use t"e "ind 4$arter @ int areas t ma2e s" es and mittens r s &2s. 3ear t"e "ide %it" t"e !$r t t"e inside ! r its ins$1atin) !a&t r.

P%!#t Fi,e&$
Se5era1 p1ants are s $r&es ! ins$1ati n !r m & 1d. /attai1 is a mars"1and p1ant ! $nd a1 n) 1a2es# p nds# and t"e ba&2%aters ! ri5ers. +"e !$'' n t"e t ps ! t"e sta12s ! rms dead air spa&es and ma2es a ) d d %n-1i2e ins$1ati n %"en p1a&ed bet%een t% pie&es ! materia1. Mi12%eed "as p 11en1i2e seeds t"at a&t as ) d ins$1ati n. +"e "$s2 !ibers !r m & & n$ts are 5ery ) d ! r %ea5in) r pes and# %"en dried# ma2e e?&e11ent tinder and ins$1ati n.

COO*IN/ AN, ATIN/ UT NSILS
Many materia1s may be $sed t ma2e e4$ipment ! r t"e & 2in)# eatin)# and st rin) ! ! d.

B"2%$
Use % d# b ne# " rn# bar2# r t"er simi1ar materia1 t ma2e b %1s. + ma2e % den b %1s# $se a " 11 %ed $t pie&e ! % d t"at %i11 " 1d y $r ! d and en $)" %ater t & 2 it in. 0an) t"e % den & ntainer 5er t"e !ire and add " t r &2s t t"e %ater and ! d. Rem 5e t"e r &2s as t"ey & 1 and add m re " t r &2s $nti1 y $r ! d is & 2ed. CAUTION D n t $se r &2s %it" air p &2ets# s$&" as 1imest ne and sandst ne. +"ey may e?p1 de %"i1e "eatin) in t"e !ire. Y $ &an a1s $se t"is met" d %it" & ntainers made ! bar2 r 1ea5es. 0 %e5er# t"ese & ntainers %i11 b$rn ab 5e t"e %ater1ine $n1ess y $ 2eep t"em m ist r 2eep t"e !ire 1 %. A se&ti n ! bamb % r2s 5ery %e11# i! y $ &$t $t a se&ti n bet%een t% sea1ed @ ints CFi)$re 12-11D.

(a)e 1*1 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CAUTION A sea1ed se&ti n ! bamb

%i11 e?p1 de i! "eated be&a$se ! trapped air and %ater in t"e se&ti n.

F"&)$' 7#i/e$' !#( Sp""#$
/ar5e ! r2s# 2ni5es# and sp ns !r m n nresin $s % ds s t"at y $ d n t )et a % d resin a!tertaste r d n t taint t"e ! d. N nresin $s % ds in&1$de a2# bir&"# and t"er "ard% d trees. 8ote9 <o not use those trees that secrete a syrup or resinlike li)uid on the bark or when cut.

P"t$
Y $ &an ma2e p ts !r m t$rt1e s"e11s r % d. As des&ribed %it" b %1s# $sin) " t r &2s in a " 11 %ed $t pie&e ! % d is 5ery e!!e&ti5e. ,amb is t"e best % d ! r ma2in) & 2in) & ntainers. + $se t$rt1e s"e11s# !irst t" r $)"1y b i1 t"e $pper p rti n ! t"e s"e11. +"en $se it t "eat ! d and %ater 5er a !1ame CFi)$re 12-11D.

*!te& B"tt%e$
Ma2e %ater b tt1es !r m t"e st ma&"s ! 1ar)er anima1s. +" r $)"1y !1$s" t"e st ma&" $t %it" %ater# t"en tie !! t"e b tt m. Lea5e t"e t p pen# %it" s me means ! !astenin) it &1 sed.

(a)e 1*2 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 18 - DESERT SURVIVAL

To survive and evade in arid or desert areas" you must understand and prepare !or the environment you will !ace. @ou must determine your e)uipment needs" the tactics you will use" and how the environment will a!!ect you and your tactics. @our survival will depend upon your knowledge o! the terrain" basic climatic elements" your ability to cope with these elements" and your will to survive.

T RRAIN
M st arid areas "a5e se5era1 types ! terrain. +"e !i5e basi& desert terrain types are-• M $ntain $s C0i)" A1tit$deD. • R &2y p1atea$. • Sand d$nes. • Sa1t mars"es. • ,r 2en# disse&ted terrain CJ)ebe1J r J%adiJD. Desert terrain ma2es m 5ement di!!i&$1t and demandin). Land na5i)ati n %i11 be e?treme1y di!!i&$1t as t"ere may be 5ery !e% 1andmar2s. / 5er and & n&ea1ment may be 5ery 1imitedH t"ere! re# t"e t"reat ! e?p s$re t t"e enemy remains & nstant.

M" #t!i# De$e&t$
S&attered ran)es r areas ! barren "i11s r m $ntains separated by dry# !1at basins &"ara&teri'e m $ntain deserts. 0i)" )r $nd may rise )rad$a11y r abr$pt1y !r m !1at areas t se5era1 t" $sand meters ab 5e sea 1e5e1. M st ! t"e in!re4$ent rain!a11 &&$rs n "i)" )r $nd and r$ns !! rapid1y in t"e ! rm ! !1as" !1 ds. +"ese !1 d%aters er de deep )$11ies and ra5ines and dep sit sand and )ra5e1 ar $nd t"e ed)es ! t"e basins. 3ater rapid1y e5ap rates# 1ea5in) t"e 1and as barren as be! re# a1t" $)" t"ere may be s" rt-1i5ed 5e)etati n. I! en $)" %ater enters t"e basin t & mpensate ! r t"e rate ! e5ap rati n# s"a11 % 1a2es may de5e1 p# s$&" as t"e 6reat Sa1t La2e in Uta"# r t"e Dead Sea. M st ! t"ese 1a2es "a5e a "i)" sa1t & ntent.

R".)3 P%!te! De$e&t$
R &2y p1atea$ deserts "a5e re1ati5e1y s1i)"t re1ie! interspersed %it" e?tensi5e !1at areas %it" 4$antities ! s 1id r br 2en r &2 at r near t"e s$r!a&e. +"ere may be steep-%a11ed# er ded 5a11eys# 2n %n as %adis in t"e Midd1e -ast and arr y s r &any ns in t"e United States and Me?i& . A1t" $)" t"eir !1at b tt ms may be s$per!i&ia11y attra&ti5e as assemb1y areas# t"e narr %er 5a11eys &an be e?treme1y dan)er $s t men and materia1 d$e t !1as" !1 din) a!ter rains. +"e 6 1an 0ei)"ts is an e?amp1e ! a r &2y p1atea$ desert.
(a)e 1** ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

S!#(3 "& D #e De$e&t$
Sandy r d$ne deserts are e?tensi5e !1at areas & 5ered %it" sand r )ra5e1. JF1atJ is a re1ati5e term# as s me areas may & ntain sand d$nes t"at are 5er *<< meters "i)" and 16 t 27 2i1 meters 1 n). +ra!!i&abi1ity in s$&" terrain %i11 depend n t"e %ind%ard r 1ee%ard s1 pe ! t"e d$nes and t"e te?t$re ! t"e sand. .t"er areas# " %e5er# may be !1at ! r *#<<< meters and m re. (1ant 1i!e may 5ary !r m n ne t s&r$b 5er 2 meters "i)". -?amp1es ! t"is type ! desert in&1$de t"e ed)es ! t"e Sa"ara# t"e empty 4$arter ! t"e Arabian Desert# areas ! /a1i! rnia and Ne% Me?i& # and t"e 8a1a"ari in S $t" A!ri&a.

S!%t M!&$he$
Sa1t mars"es are !1at# des 1ate areas# s metimes st$dded %it" &1$mps ! )rass b$t de5 id ! t"er 5e)etati n. +"ey &&$r in arid areas %"ere rain%ater "as & 11e&ted# e5ap rated# and 1e!t 1ar)e dep sits ! a12a1i sa1ts and %ater %it" a "i)" sa1t & n&entrati n. +"e %ater is s sa1ty it is $ndrin2ab1e. A &r$st t"at may be 2.9 t *< &entimeters t"i&2 ! rms 5er t"e sa1t%ater. In arid areas t"ere are sa1t mars"es "$ndreds ! 2i1 meters s4$are. +"ese areas $s$a11y s$pp rt many inse&ts# m st ! %"i&" bite. A5 id sa1t mars"es. +"is type ! terrain is "i)"1y & rr si5e t b ts# &1 t"in)# and s2in. A ) d e?amp1e is t"e S"at-e1-Arab %ater%ay a1 n) t"e Iran-Ira4 b rder.

B&")e# Te&&!i#
A11 arid areas & ntain br 2en r "i)"1y disse&ted terrain. Rainst rms t"at er de s !t sand and &ar5e $t &any ns ! rm t"is terrain. A %adi may ran)e !r m * meters %ide and 2 meters deep t se5era1 "$ndred meters %ide and deep. +"e dire&ti n it ta2es 5aries as m$&" as its %idt" and dept". It t%ists and t$rns and ! rms a ma'e1i2e pattern. A %adi %i11 )i5e y $ ) d & 5er and & n&ea1ment# b$t d n t try t m 5e t"r $)" it be&a$se it is 5ery di!!i&$1t terrain t ne) tiate.

NVIRON0 NTAL 'ACTORS
S$r5i5in) and e5adin) t"e enemy in an arid area depends n %"at y $ 2n % and " % prepared y $ are ! r t"e en5ir nmenta1 & nditi ns y $ %i11 !a&e. Determine %"at e4$ipment y $ %i11 need# t"e ta&ti&s y $ %i11 $se# and t"e en5ir nmentFs impa&t n t"em and y $. In a desert area t"ere are se5en en5ir nmenta1 !a&t rs t"at y $ m$st & nsider-• L % rain!a11. • Intense s$n1i)"t and "eat. • 3ide temperat$re ran)e. • Sparse 5e)etati n. • 0i)" minera1 & ntent near )r $nd s$r!a&e. • Sandst rms. • Mira)es.

L"2 R!i#6!%%
L % rain!a11 is t"e m st b5i $s en5ir nmenta1 !a&t r in an arid area. S me desert areas re&ei5e 1ess t"an 1< &entimeters ! rain ann$a11y# and t"is rain & mes in brie! t rrents t"at 4$i&21y r$n !! t"e )r $nd s$r!a&e. Y $ &ann t s$r5i5e 1 n) %it" $t %ater in "i)" desert temperat$res. In a desert s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# y $ m$st !irst & nsider J0 % m$&" %ater d I "a5eGJ and J3"ere are t"er %ater s $r&esGJ

I#te#$e S #%i0ht !#( He!t
Intense s$n1i)"t and "eat are present in a11 arid areas. Air temperat$re &an rise as "i)" as 6< de)rees / C17< de)rees FD d$rin) t"e day. 0eat )ain res$1ts !r m dire&t s$n1i)"t# " t b1 %in) %inds# re!1e&ti5e "eat
(a)e 1*7 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Ct"e s$nFs rays b $n&in) !! t"e sandD# and & nd$&ti5e "eat !r m dire&t & nta&t %it" t"e desert sand and r &2 CFi)$re 1*-1D.

+"e temperat$re ! desert sand and r &2 a5era)es 16 t 22 de)rees / C*< t 7< de)rees FD m re t"an t"at ! t"e air. F r instan&e# %"en t"e air temperat$re is 7* de)rees / C11< de)rees FD# t"e sand temperat$re may be 6< de)rees / C17< de)rees FD. Intense s$n1i)"t and "eat in&rease t"e b dyFs need ! r %ater. + & nser5e y $r b dy !1$ids and ener)y# y $ %i11 need a s"e1ter t red$&e y $r e?p s$re t t"e "eat ! t"e day. +ra5e1 at ni)"t t 1essen y $r $se ! %ater. Radi s and sensiti5e items ! e4$ipment e?p sed t dire&t intense s$n1i)"t %i11 ma1!$n&ti n.

*i(e Te+pe&!t &e R!#0e
+emperat$res in arid areas may )et as "i)" as 99 de)rees / d$rin) t"e day and as 1 % as 1< de)rees / d$rin) t"e ni)"t. +"e dr p in temperat$re at ni)"t &&$rs rapid1y and %i11 &"i11 a pers n %" 1a&2s %arm &1 t"in) and is $nab1e t m 5e ab $t. +"e & 1 e5enin)s and ni)"ts are t"e best times t % r2 r tra5e1. I! y $r p1an is t rest at ni)"t# y $ %i11 !ind a % 1 s%eater# 1 n) $nder%ear# and a % 1 st &2in) &ap e?treme1y "e1p!$1.

Sp!&$e Ve0et!ti"#
Ve)etati n is sparse in arid areas. Y $ %i11 t"ere! re "a5e tr $b1e !indin) s"e1ter and &am $!1a)in) y $r m 5ements. D$rin) day1i)"t " $rs 1ar)e areas ! terrain are 5isib1e and easi1y & ntr 11ed by a sma11 pp sin) ! r&e.
(a)e 1*9 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

I! tra5e1in) in " sti1e territ ry# ! 11 % t"e prin&ip1es ! desert &am $!1a)e-• 0ide r see2 s"e1ter in dry %as"es C%adisD %it" t"i&2er )r %t"s ! 5e)etati n and & 5er !r m b1i4$e bser5ati n. • Use t"e s"ad %s &ast !r m br$s"# r &2s# r $t&r ppin). +"e temperat$re in s"aded areas %i11 be 11 t 17 de)rees / & 1er t"an t"e air temperat$re. • / 5er b@e&ts t"at %i11 re!1e&t t"e 1i)"t !r m t"e s$n. ,e! re m 5in)# s$r5ey t"e area ! r sites t"at pr 5ide & 5er and & n&ea1ment. Y $ %i11 "a5e tr $b1e estimatin) distan&e. +"e emptiness ! desert terrain &a$ses m st pe p1e t $nderestimate distan&e by a !a&t r ! t"reeI 3"at appears t be 1 2i1 meter a%ay is rea11y * 2i1 meters a%ay.

Hi0h Mi#e&!% C"#te#t
A11 arid re)i ns "a5e areas %"ere t"e s$r!a&e s i1 "as a "i)" minera1 & ntent Cb ra?# sa1t# a12a1i# and 1imeD. Materia1 in & nta&t %it" t"is s i1 %ears $t 4$i&21y# and %ater in t"ese areas is e?treme1y "ard and $ndrin2ab1e. 3ettin) y $r $ni! rm in s$&" %ater t & 1 !! may &a$se a s2in ras". +"e 6reat Sa1t La2e area in Uta" is an e?amp1e ! t"is type ! minera1-1aden %ater and s i1. +"ere is 1itt1e r n p1ant 1i!eH t"ere-! re# s"e1ter is "ard t !ind. A5 id t"ese areas i! p ssib1e.

S!#($t"&+$
Sandst rms Csand-1aden %indsD &&$r !re4$ent1y in m st deserts. +"e JSeistanJ desert %ind in Iran and A!)"anistan b1 %s & nstant1y ! r $p t 12< days. 3it"in Sa$di Arabia# %inds a5era)e *.2 t 7.: 2i1 meters per " $r C2p"D and &an rea&" 112 t 12: 2p" in ear1y a!tern n. -?pe&t ma@ r sandst rms and d$st st rms at 1east n&e a %ee2. +"e )reatest dan)er is )ettin) 1 st in a s%ir1in) %a11 ! sand. 3ear ) ))1es and & 5er y $r m $t" and n se %it" &1 t". I! nat$ra1 s"e1ter is $na5ai1ab1e# mar2 y $r dire&ti n ! tra5e1# 1ie d %n# and sit $t t"e st rm. D$st and %ind-b1 %n sand inter!ere %it" radi transmissi ns. +"ere! re# be ready t $se t"er means ! r si)na1in)# s$&" as pyr te&"ni&s# si)na1 mirr rs# r mar2er pane1s# i! a5ai1ab1e.

Mi&!0e$
Mira)es are pti&a1 p"en mena &a$sed by t"e re!ra&ti n ! 1i)"t t"r $)" "eated air risin) !r m a sandy r st ny s$r!a&e. +"ey &&$r in t"e interi r ! t"e desert ab $t 1< 2i1 meters !r m t"e & ast. +"ey ma2e b@e&ts t"at are 1.9 2i1 meters r m re a%ay appear t m 5e. +"is mira)e e!!e&t ma2es it di!!i&$1t ! r y $ t identi!y an b@e&t !r m a distan&e. It a1s b1$rs distant ran)e & nt $rs s m$&" t"at y $ !ee1 s$rr $nded by a s"eet ! %ater !r m %"i&" e1e5ati ns stand $t as Jis1ands.J +"e mira)e e!!e&t ma2es it "ard ! r a pers n t identi!y tar)ets# estimate ran)e# and see b@e&ts &1ear1y. 0 %e5er# i! y $ &an )et t "i)" )r $nd C* meters r m re ab 5e t"e desert !1 rD# y $ &an )et ab 5e t"e s$per"eated air &1 se t t"e )r $nd and 5er& me t"e mira)e e!!e&t. Mira)es ma2e 1and na5i)ati n di!!i&$1t be&a$se t"ey bs&$re nat$ra1 !eat$res. Y $ &an s$r5ey t"e area at da%n# d$s2# r by m n1i)"t %"en t"ere is 1itt1e 1i2e1i" d ! mira)e. Li)"t 1e5e1s in desert areas are m re intense t"an in t"er )e )rap"i& areas. M n1it ni)"ts are $s$a11y &rysta1 &1ear# %inds die d %n# "a'e and )1are disappear# and 5isibi1ity is e?&e11ent. Y $ &an see 1i)"ts# red !1as"-1i)"ts# and b1a&2 $t 1i)"ts at )reat distan&es. S $nd &arries 5ery !ar. / n5erse1y# d$rin) ni)"ts %it" 1itt1e m n1i)"t# 5isibi1ity is e?treme1y p r. +ra5e1in) is e?treme1y "a'ard $s. Y $ m$st a5 id )ettin) 1 st# !a11in) int ra5ines# r st$mb1in) int enemy p siti ns. M 5ement d$rin) s$&" a ni)"t is pra&ti&a1 n1y i! y $ "a5e a & mpass and "a5e spent t"e day in a s"e1ter# restin)# bser5in) and mem ri'in) t"e terrain# and se1e&tin) y $r r $te.

(a)e 1*6 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

N

, 'OR 3AT R

+"e s$b@e&t ! man and %ater in t"e desert "as )enerated & nsiderab1e interest and & n!$si n sin&e t"e ear1y days ! 3 r1d 3ar II %"en t"e U. S. Army %as preparin) t !i)"t in N rt" A!ri&a. At ne time t"e U. S. Army t" $)"t it & $1d & nditi n men t d %it" 1ess %ater by pr )ressi5e1y red$&in) t"eir %ater s$pp1ies d$rin) trainin). +"ey &a11ed it %ater dis&ip1ine. It &a$sed "$ndreds ! "eat &as$a1ties. A 2ey !a&t r in desert s$r5i5a1 is $nderstandin) t"e re1ati ns"ip bet%een p"ysi&a1 a&ti5ity# air temperat$re# and %ater & ns$mpti n. +"e b dy re4$ires a &ertain am $nt ! %ater ! r a &ertain 1e5e1 ! a&ti5ity at a &ertain temperat$re. F r e?amp1e# a pers n per! rmin) "ard % r2 in t"e s$n at 7* de)rees / re4$ires 1; 1iters ! %ater dai1y. La&2 ! t"e re4$ired am $nt ! %ater &a$ses a rapid de&1ine in an indi5id$a1Fs abi1ity t ma2e de&isi ns and t per! rm tas2s e!!i&ient1y. Y $r b dyFs n rma1 temperat$re is *6.; de)rees / C;:.6 de)rees FD. Y $r b dy )ets rid ! e?&ess "eat C& 1s !!D by s%eatin). +"e %armer y $r b dy be& mes--%"et"er &a$sed by % r2# e?er&ise# r air temperat$re--t"e m re y $ s%eat. +"e m re y $ s%eat# t"e m re m ist$re y $ 1 se. S%eatin) is t"e prin&ipa1 &a$se ! %ater 1 ss. I! a pers n st ps s%eatin) d$rin) peri ds ! "i)" air temperat$re and "ea5y % r2 r e?er&ise# "e %i11 4$i&21y de5e1 p "eat str 2e. +"is is an emer)en&y t"at re4$ires immediate medi&a1 attenti n. Fi)$re 1*-2 s" %s dai1y %ater re4$irements ! r 5ari $s 1e5e1s ! % r2. Understandin) " % t"e air temperat$re and y $r p"ysi&a1 a&ti5ity a!!e&t y $r %ater re4$irements a11 %s y $ t ta2e meas$res t )et t"e m st !r m y $r %ater s$pp1y. +"ese meas$res are-• Find s"adeK 6et $t ! t"e s$nK • (1a&e s met"in) bet%een y $ and t"e " t )r $nd. • Limit y $r m 5ementsK • / nser5e y $r s%eat. 3ear y $r & mp1ete $ni! rm t in&1$de +-s"irt. R 11 t"e s1ee5es d %n# & 5er y $r "ead# and pr te&t y $r ne&2 %it" a s&ar! r simi1ar item. +"ese steps %i11 pr te&t y $r b dy !r m " t-b1 %in) %inds and t"e dire&t rays ! t"e s$n. Y $r &1 t"in) %i11 abs rb y $r s%eat# 2eepin) it a)ainst y $r s2in s t"at y $ )ain its !$11 & 1in) e!!e&t. ,y stayin) in t"e s"ade 4$iet1y# !$11y &1 t"ed# n t ta12in)# 2eepin) y $r m $t" &1 sed# and breat"in) t"r $)" y $r n se# y $r %ater re4$irement ! r s$r5i5a1 dr ps dramati&a11y. • I! %ater is s&ar&e# d n t eat. F d re4$ires %ater ! r di)esti nH t"ere! re# eatin) ! d %i11 $se %ater t"at y $ need ! r & 1in).

(a)e 1*7 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Thirst is not a reliable guide !or your need !or water. A pers n %" $ses t"irst as a )$ide %i11 drin2 n1y t% -t"irds ! "is dai1y %ater re4$irement. + pre5ent t"is J5 1$ntaryJ de"ydrati n# $se t"e ! 11 %in) )$ideI • At temperat$res be1 % *: de)rees /# drin2 <.9 1iter ! %ater e5ery " $r. • At temperat$res ab 5e *: de)rees /# drin2 1 1iter ! %ater e5ery " $r. Drin2in) %ater at re)$1ar inter5a1s "e1ps y $r b dy remain & 1 and de&reases s%eatin). -5en %"en y $r %ater s$pp1y is 1 %# sippin) %ater & nstant1y %i11 2eep y $r b dy & 1er and red$&e %ater 1 ss t"r $)" s%eatin). / nser5e y $r !1$ids by red$&in) a&ti5ity d$rin) t"e "eat ! day. D" #"t rati n y $r %aterK I! y $ try t rati n %ater# y $ stand a ) d &"an&e ! be& min) a "eat &as$a1ty.

. AT CASUALTI S
Y $r &"an&es ! be& min) a "eat &as$a1ty as a s$r5i5 r are )reat# d$e t in@$ry# stress# and 1a&2 ! &riti&a1 items ! e4$ipment. F 11 %in) are t"e ma@ r types ! "eat &as$a1ties and t"eir treatment when little water and no medical help are available.
(a)e 1*: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

He!t C&!+p$
+"e 1 ss ! sa1t d$e t e?&essi5e s%eatin) &a$ses "eat &ramps. Sympt ms are m derate t se5ere m$s&1e &ramps in 1e)s# arms# r abd men. +"ese sympt ms may start as a mi1d m$s&$1ar dis& m! rt. Y $ s" $1d n % st p a11 a&ti5ity# )et in t"e s"ade# and drin2 %ater. I! y $ !ai1 t re& )ni'e t"e ear1y sympt ms and & ntin$e y $r p"ysi&a1 a&ti5ity# y $ %i11 "a5e se5ere m$s&1e &ramps and pain. +reat as ! r "eat e?"a$sti n# be1 %.

He!t E5h! $ti"#
A 1ar)e 1 ss ! b dy %ater and sa1t &a$ses "eat e?"a$sti n. Sympt ms are "eada&"e# menta1 & n!$si n# irritabi1ity# e?&essi5e s%eatin)# %ea2ness# di''iness# &ramps# and pa1e# m ist# & 1d C&1ammyD s2in. Immediate1y )et t"e patient $nder s"ade. Ma2e "im 1ie n a stret&"er r simi1ar item ab $t 79 &entimeters !! t"e )r $nd. L sen "is &1 t"in). Sprin21e "im %it" %ater and !an "im. 0a5e "im drin2 sma11 am $nts ! %ater e5ery * min$tes. -ns$re "e stays 4$iet and rests.

He!t St&")e
A se5ere "eat in@$ry &a$sed by e?treme 1 ss ! %ater and sa1t and t"e b dyFs inabi1ity t & 1 itse1!. +"e patient may die i! n t & 1ed immediate1y. Sympt ms are t"e 1a&2 ! s%eat# " t and dry s2in# "eada&"e# di''iness# !ast p$1se# na$sea and 5 mitin)# and menta1 & n!$si n 1eadin) t $n& ns&i $sness. Immediate1y )et t"e pers n t s"ade. Lay "im n a stret&"er r simi1ar item ab $t 79 &entimeters !! t"e )r $nd. L sen "is &1 t"in). ( $r %ater n "im Cit d es n t matter i! t"e %ater is p 11$ted r bra&2is"D and !an "im. Massa)e "is arms# 1e)s# and b dy. I! "e re)ains & ns&i $sness# 1et "im drin2 sma11 am $nts ! %ater e5ery * min$tes.

PR CAUTIONS
In a desert s$r5i5a1 and e5asi n sit$ati n# it is $n1i2e1y t"at y $ %i11 "a5e a medi& r medi&a1 s$pp1ies %it" y $ t treat "eat in@$ries. +"ere! re# ta2e e?tra &are t a5 id "eat in@$ries. Rest d$rin) t"e day. 3 r2 d$rin) t"e & 1 e5enin)s and ni)"ts. Use a b$ddy system t %at&" ! r "eat in@$ry# and bser5e t"e ! 11 %in) )$ide1inesI • Ma2e s$re y $ te11 s me ne %"ere y $ are ) in) and %"en y $ %i11 ret$rn. • 3at&" ! r si)ns ! "eat in@$ry. I! s me ne & mp1ains ! tiredness r %anders a%ay !r m t"e )r $p# "e may be a "eat &as$a1ty. • Drin2 %ater at 1east n&e an " $r. • 6et in t"e s"ade %"en restin)H d n t 1ie dire&t1y n t"e )r $nd. • D n t ta2e !! y $r s"irt and % r2 d$rin) t"e day. • /"e&2 t"e & 1 r ! y $r $rine. A 1i)"t & 1 r means y $ are drin2in) en $)" %ater# a dar2 & 1 r means y $ need t drin2 m re.

, S RT .A8AR,S
+"ere are se5era1 "a'ards $ni4$e t desert s$r5i5a1. +"ese in&1$de inse&ts# sna2es# t" rned p1ants and &a&ti# & ntaminated %ater# s$nb$rn# eye irritati n# and &1imati& stress. Inse&ts ! a1m st e5ery type ab $nd in t"e desert. Man# as a s $r&e ! %ater and ! d# attra&ts 1i&e# mites# %asps# and !1ies. +"ey are e?treme1y $np1easant and may &arry diseases. .1d b$i1din)s# r$ins# and &a5es are !a5 rite "abitats ! spiders# s& rpi ns# &entipedes# 1i&e# and mites. +"ese areas pr 5ide pr te&ti n !r m t"e e1ements and a1s attra&t t"er %i1d-1i!e. +"ere! re# ta2e e?tra &are %"en stayin) in t"ese areas. 3ear )1 5es at a11 times in t"e desert. D n t p1a&e y $r "ands any%"ere %it" $t !irst 1 2in) t see %"at is t"ere. Vis$a11y inspe&t an area be! re sittin) r 1yin) d %n. 3"en y $ )et $p# s"a2e $t and inspe&t y $r b ts and &1 t"in). A11 desert areas "a5e sna2es. +"ey in"abit r$ins# nati5e 5i11a)es# )arba)e d$mps# &a5es# and nat$ra1 r &2 $t&r ppin) t"at !!er s"ade. Ne5er ) bare! t r %a12 t"r $)" t"ese areas %it" $t &are!$11y inspe&tin) t"em ! r sna2es. (ay attenti n t %"ere y $ p1a&e y $r
(a)e 1*; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

!eet and "ands. M st sna2ebites res$1t !r m steppin) n r "and1in) sna2es. A5 id t"em. .n&e y $ see a sna2e# )i5e it a %ide bert".

(a)e 17< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 19 - TROPICAL SURVIVAL

/ost people think o! the tropics as a huge and !orbidding tropical rain !orest through which every step taken must be hacked out" and where every inch o! the way is crawling with danger. Actually" over hal! o! the land in the tropics is cultivated in some way. A knowledge o! !ield skills" the ability to improvise" and the application o! the principles o! survival will increase the prospects o! survival. <o not be a!raid o! being alone in the $ungle# !ear will lead to panic. :anic will lead to e+haustion and decrease your chance o! survival. Cverything in the $ungle thrives" including disease germs and parasites that breed at an alarming rate. 8ature will provide water" !ood" and plenty o! materials to build shelters. Indigenous peoples have lived !or millennia by hunting and gathering. (owever" it will take an outsider some time to get used to the conditions and the nonstop activity o! tropical survival.

TROPICAL 3 AT. R
0i)" temperat$res# "ea5y rain!a11# and ppressi5e "$midity &"ara&teri'e e4$at ria1 and s$btr pi&a1 re)i ns# e?&ept at "i)" a1tit$des. At 1 % a1tit$des# temperat$re 5ariati n is se1d m 1ess t"an 1< de)rees / and is !ten m re t"an *9 de)rees /. At a1tit$des 5er 1#9<< meters# i&e !ten ! rms at ni)"t. +"e rain "as a & 1in) e!!e&t# b$t %"en it st ps# t"e temperat$re s ars. Rain!a11 is "ea5y# !ten %it" t"$nder and 1i)"tnin). S$dden rain beats n t"e tree &an py# t$rnin) tri&21es int ra)in) t rrents and &a$sin) ri5ers t rise. >$st as s$dden1y# t"e rain st ps. Vi 1ent st rms may &&$r# $s$a11y t %ard t"e end ! t"e s$mmer m nt"s. 0$rri&anes# &y&1 nes# and typ" ns de5e1 p 5er t"e sea and r$s" in1and# &a$sin) tida1 %a5es and de5astati n as" re. In &" sin) &ampsites# ma2e s$re y $ are ab 5e any p tentia1 !1 din). (re5ai1in) %inds 5ary bet%een %inter and s$mmer. +"e dry seas n "as rain n&e a day and t"e m ns n "as & ntin$ $s rain. In S $t"east Asia# %inds !r m t"e Indian .&ean brin) t"e m ns n# b$t it is dry %"en t"e %ind b1 %s !r m t"e 1andmass ! /"ina. +r pi&a1 day and ni)"t are ! e4$a1 1en)t". Dar2ness !a11s 4$i&21y and daybrea2 is @$st as s$dden.

2UN/L TYP S
+"ere is n standard @$n)1e. +"e tr pi&a1 area may be any ! t"e ! 11 %in)I • Rain ! rests. • Se& ndary @$n)1es. • Semie5er)reen seas na1 and m ns n ! rests. • S&r$b and t" rn ! rests.
(a)e 171 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

• • •

Sa5annas. Sa1t%ater s%amps. Fres"%ater s%amps.

T&"pi.!% R!i# F"&e$t$
+"e &1imate 5aries 1itt1e in rain ! rests. Y $ !ind t"ese ! rests a&r ss t"e e4$at r in t"e Ama' n and / n) basins# parts ! Ind nesia# and se5era1 (a&i!i& is1ands. Up t *.9 meters ! rain !a11 e5en1y t"r $)" $t t"e year. +emperat$res ran)e !r m ab $t *2 de)rees / in t"e day t 21 de)rees / at ni)"t. +"ere are !i5e 1ayers ! 5e)etati n in t"is @$n)1e CFi)$re 17-1D. 3"ere $nt $&"ed by man# @$n)1e trees rise !r m b$ttress r ts t "ei)"ts ! 6< meters. ,e1 % t"em# sma11er trees pr d$&e a &an py s t"i&2 t"at 1itt1e 1i)"t rea&"es t"e @$n)1e !1 r. Seed1in)s str$))1e beneat" t"em t rea&" 1i)"t# and masses ! 5ines and 1ianas t%ine $p t t"e s$n. Ferns# m sses# and "erba&e $s p1ants p$s" t"r $)" a t"i&2 &arpet ! 1ea5es# and a )reat 5ariety ! !$n)i )r % n 1ea5es and !a11en tree tr$n2s.

,e&a$se ! t"e 1a&2 ! 1i)"t n t"e @$n)1e !1 r# t"ere is 1itt1e $nder)r %t" t "amper m 5ement# b$t dense )r %t" 1imits 5isibi1ity t ab $t 9< meters. Y $ &an easi1y 1 se y $r sense ! dire&ti n in t"is @$n)1e# and it is e?treme1y "ard ! r air&ra!t t see y $.

Se."#(!&3 A #0%e$
Se& ndary @$n)1e is 5ery simi1ar t rain ! rest. (r 1i!i& )r %t"# %"ere s$n1i)"t penetrates t t"e @$n)1e !1 r# typi!ies t"is type ! ! rest. S$&" )r %t" "appens main1y a1 n) ri5er ban2s# n @$n)1e !rin)es# and %"ere man "as &1eared rain ! rest. 3"en aband ned# tan)1ed masses ! 5e)etati n 4$i&21y re&1aim t"ese &$1ti5ated areas. Y $ &an !ten !ind &$1ti5ated ! d p1ants am n) t"is 5e)etati n.

Se+ie/e&0&ee# Se!$"#!% !#( M"#$""# F"&e$t$
+"e &"ara&teristi&s ! t"e Ameri&an and A!ri&an semie5er)reen seas na1 ! rests & rresp nd %it" t" se ! t"e Asian m ns n ! rests. +"ese &"ara&teristi&s are-• +"eir trees !a11 int t% st ries ! tree strata. +" se in t"e $pper st ry a5era)e 1: t 27 metersH t" se in t"e 1 %er st ry a5era)e 7 t 1* meters. • +"e diameter ! t"e trees a5era)es <.9 meter. • +"eir 1ea5es !a11 d$rin) a seas na1 dr $)"t. -?&ept ! r t"e sa) # nipa# and & & n$t pa1ms# t"e same edib1e p1ants )r % in t"ese areas as in t"e tr pi&a1 rain ! rests.

(a)e 172 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Y $ !ind t"ese ! rests in p rti ns ! / 1$mbia and Vene'$e1a and t"e Ama' n basin in S $t" Ameri&aH in p rti ns ! s $t"east & asta1 8enya# +an'ania# and M 'ambi4$e in A!ri&aH in N rt"eastern India# m$&" ! ,$rma# +"ai1and# Ind &"ina# >a5a# and parts ! t"er Ind nesian is1ands in Asia.

T&"pi.!% S.& , !#( Th"&# F"&e$t$
+"e &"ie! &"ara&teristi&s ! tr pi&a1 s&r$b and t" rn ! rests are-• +"ere is a de!inite dry seas n. • +rees are 1ea!1ess d$rin) t"e dry seas n. • +"e )r $nd is bare e?&ept ! r a !e% t$!ted p1ants in b$n&"esH )rasses are $n& mm n. • (1ants %it" t" rns pred minate. • Fires &&$r !re4$ent1y. Y $ !ind tr pi&a1 s&r$b and t" rn ! rests n t"e %est & ast ! Me?i& # Y$&atan penins$1a# Vene'$e1a# ,ra'i1H n t"e n rt"%est & ast and &entra1 parts ! A!ri&aH and in Asia# in +$r2estan and India. 3it"in t"e tr pi&a1 s&r$b and t" rn ! rest areas# y $ %i11 !ind it "ard t btain ! d p1ants d$rin) t"e dry seas n. D$rin) t"e rainy seas n# p1ants are & nsiderab1y m re ab$ndant.

T&"pi.!% S!/!##!$
6enera1 &"ara&teristi&s ! t"e sa5anna are-• It is ! $nd %it"in t"e tr pi&a1 ' nes in S $t" Ameri&a and A!ri&a. • It 1 2s 1i2e a br ad# )rassy mead %# %it" trees spa&ed at %ide inter5a1s. • It !re4$ent1y "as red s i1. • It )r %s s&attered trees t"at $s$a11y appear st$nted and )nar1ed 1i2e app1e trees. (a1ms a1s &&$r n sa5annas. Y $ !ind sa5annas in parts ! Vene'$e1a# ,ra'i1# and t"e 6$ianas in S $t" Ameri&a. In A!ri&a# y $ !ind t"em in t"e s $t"ern Sa"ara Cn rt"-&entra1 /amer n and 6ab n and s $t"ern S$danD# ,enin# + ) # m st ! Ni)eria# n rt"eastern Aaire# n rt"ern U)anda# %estern 8enya# part ! Ma1a%i# part ! +an'ania# s $t"ern Aimbab%e# M 'ambi4$e# and %estern Mada)as&ar.

S!%t2!te& S2!+p$
Sa1t%ater s%amps are & mm n in & asta1 areas s$b@e&t t tida1 !1 din). Man)r 5e trees t"ri5e in t"ese s%amps. Man)r 5e trees &an rea&" "ei)"ts ! 12 meters# and t"eir tan)1ed r ts are an bsta&1e t m 5ement. Visibi1ity in t"is type ! s%amp is p r# and m 5ement is e?treme1y di!!i&$1t. S metimes# streams t"at y $ &an ra!t ! rm &"anne1s# b$t y $ $s$a11y m$st tra5e1 n ! t t"r $)" t"is s%amp. Y $ !ind sa1t%ater s%amps in 3est A!ri&a# Mada)as&ar# Ma1aysia# t"e (a&i!i& is1ands# /entra1 and S $t" Ameri&a# and at t"e m $t" ! t"e 6an)es Ri5er in India. +"e s%amps at t"e m $t"s ! t"e .rin & and Ama' n ri5ers and ri5ers ! 6$yana & nsist ! m$d and trees t"at !!er 1itt1e s"ade. +ides in sa1t%ater s%amps &an 5ary as m$&" as 12 meters. -5eryt"in) in a sa1t%ater s%amp may appear " sti1e t y $# !r m 1ee&"es and inse&ts t &r & di1es and &aimans. A5 id t"e dan)er $s anima1s in t"is s%amp. A5 id t"is s%amp a1t )et"er i! y $ &an. I! t"ere are %ater &"anne1s t"r $)" it# y $ may be ab1e t $se a ra!t t es&ape.

F&e$h2!te& S2!+p$
Y $ !ind !res"%ater s%amps in 1 %-1yin) in1and areas. +"eir &"ara&teristi&s are masses ! t" rny $nder)r %t"# reeds# )rasses# and &&asi na1 s" rt pa1ms t"at red$&e 5isibi1ity and ma2e tra5e1 di!!i&$1t.
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+"ere are !ten is1ands t"at d t t"ese s%amps# a11 %in) y $ t )et $t ! t"e %ater. 3i1d1i!e is ab$ndant in t"ese s%amps.

TRAV L T.ROU/. 2UN/L AR AS
3it" pra&ti&e# m 5ement t"r $)" t"i&2 $nder)r %t" and @$n)1e &an be d ne e!!i&ient1y. A1%ays %ear 1 n) s1ee5es t a5 id &$ts and s&rat&"es. + m 5e easi1y# y $ m$st de5e1 p J@$n)1e eye#J t"at is# y $ s" $1d n t & n&entrate n t"e pattern ! b$s"es and trees t y $r immediate !r nt. Y $ m$st ! &$s n t"e @$n)1e !$rt"er $t and !ind nat$ra1 brea2s in t"e ! 1ia)e. L 2 through t"e @$n)1e# n t at it. St p and st p d %n &&asi na11y t 1 2 a1 n) t"e @$n)1e !1 r. +"is a&ti n may re5ea1 )ame trai1s t"at y $ &an ! 11 %. Stay a1ert and m 5e s1 %1y and steadi1y t"r $)" dense ! rest r @$n)1e. St p peri di&a11y t 1isten and ta2e y $r bearin)s. Use a ma&"ete t &$t t"r $)" dense 5e)etati n# b$t d n t &$t $nne&essari1y r y $ %i11 4$i&21y %ear y $rse1! $t. I! $sin) a ma&"ete# str 2e $p%ard %"en &$ttin) 5ines t red$&e n ise be&a$se s $nd &arries 1 n) distan&es in t"e @$n)1e. Use a sti&2 t part t"e 5e)etati n. Usin) a sti&2 %i11 a1s "e1p dis1 d)e bitin) ants# spiders# r sna2es. D" #"t )rasp at br$s" r 5ines %"en &1imbin) s1 pesH t"ey may "a5e irritatin) spines r s"arp t" rns. Many @$n)1e and ! rest anima1s ! 11 % )ame trai1s. +"ese trai1s %ind and &r ss# b$t !re4$ent1y 1ead t %ater r &1earin)s. Use t"ese trai1s i! t"ey 1ead in y $r desired dire&ti n ! tra5e1. In many & $ntries# e1e&tri& and te1ep" ne 1ines r$n ! r mi1es t"r $)" sparse1y in"abited areas. Us$a11y# t"e ri)"t- !-%ay is &1ear en $)" t a11 % easy tra5e1. 3"en tra5e1in) a1 n) t"ese 1ines# be &are!$1 as y $ appr a&" trans! rmer and re1ay stati ns. In enemy territ ry# t"ey may be )$arded. TRAVEL TIPS (inp int y $r initia1 1 &ati n as a&&$rate1y as p ssib1e t determine a )enera1 1ine ! tra5e1 t sa!ety. I! y $ d n t "a5e a & mpass# $se a !ie1d-e?pedient dire&ti n !indin) met" d.

+a2e st &2 ! %ater s$pp1ies and e4$ipment.

M 5e in ne dire&ti n# b$t n t ne&essari1y in a strai)"t 1ine. A5 id bsta&1es. In enemy territ ry# ta2e ad5anta)e ! nat$ra1 & 5er and & n&ea1ment.

M 5e sm t"1y t"r $)" t"e @$n)1e. D n t b1$nder t"r $)" it sin&e y $ %i11 )et many &$ts and s&rat&"es. +$rn y $r s" $1ders# s"i!t y $r "ips# bend y $r b dy# and s" rten r 1en)t"en y $r stride as ne&essary t s1ide bet%een t"e $nder)r %t".

I00 ,IAT CONSI, RATIONS
+"ere is 1ess 1i2e1i" d ! y $r res&$e !r m beneat" a dense @$n)1e &an py t"an in t"er s$r5i5a1 sit$ati ns. Y $ %i11 pr bab1y "a5e t tra5e1 t rea&" sa!ety. I! y $ are t"e 5i&tim ! an air&ra!t &ras"# t"e m st imp rtant items t ta2e %it" y $ !r m t"e &ras" site are a ma&"ete# a & mpass# a !irst aid 2it# and a para&"$te r t"er materia1 ! r $se as m s4$it nettin) and s"e1ter. +a2e s"e1ter !r m tr pi&a1 rain# s$n# and inse&ts. Ma1aria-&arryin) m s4$it es and t"er inse&ts are immediate dan)ers# s pr te&t y $rse1! a)ainst bites. D n t 1ea5e t"e &ras" area %it" $t &are!$11y b1a'in) r mar2in) y $r r $te. Use y $r & mpass. 8n % %"at dire&ti n y $ are ta2in). In t"e tr pi&s# e5en t"e sma11est s&rat&" &an 4$i&21y be& me dan)er $s1y in!e&ted. (r mpt1y treat any % $nd# n matter " % min r.
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3AT R PROCUR 0 NT
-5en t" $)" %ater is ab$ndant in m st tr pi&a1 en5ir nments# y $ may# as a s$r5i5 r# "a5e tr $b1e !indin) it. I! y $ d !ind %ater# it may n t be sa!e t drin2. S me ! t"e many s $r&es are 5ines# r ts# pa1m trees# and & ndensati n. Y $ &an s metimes ! 11 % anima1s t %ater. .!ten y $ &an )et near1y &1ear %ater !r m m$ddy streams r 1a2es by di))in) a " 1e in sandy s i1 ab $t 1 meter !r m t"e ban2. 3ater %i11 seep int t"e " 1e. Y $ m$st p$ri!y any %ater btained in t"is manner.

A#i+!%$ !$ Si0#$ "6 *!te&
Anima1s &an !ten 1ead y $ t %ater. M st anima1s re4$ire %ater re)$1ar1y. 6ra'in) anima1s s$&" as deer# are $s$a11y ne5er !ar !r m %ater and $s$a11y drin2 at da%n and d$s2. / n5er)in) )ame trai1s !ten 1ead t %ater. /arni5 res Cmeat eatersD are n t re1iab1e indi&at rs ! %ater. +"ey )et m ist$re !r m t"e anima1s t"ey eat and &an ) %it" $t %ater ! r 1 n) peri ds. ,irds &an s metimes a1s 1ead y $ t %ater. 6rain eaters# s$&" as !in&"es and pi)e ns# are ne5er !ar !r m %ater. +"ey drin2 at da%n and d$s2. 3"en t"ey !1y strai)"t and 1 %# t"ey are "eadin) ! r %ater. 3"en ret$rnin) !r m %ater# t"ey are !$11 and %i11 !1y !r m tree t tree# restin) !re4$ent1y. D n t re1y n %ater birds t 1ead y $ t %ater. +"ey !1y 1 n) distan&es %it" $t st ppin). 0a%2s# ea)1es# and t"er birds ! prey )et 1i4$ids !r m t"eir 5i&timsH y $ &ann t $se t"em as a %ater indi&at r. Inse&ts &an be ) d indi&at rs ! %ater# espe&ia11y bees. ,ees se1d m ran)e m re t"an 6 2i1 meters !r m t"eir nests r "i5es. +"ey $s$a11y %i11 "a5e a %ater s $r&e in t"is ran)e. Ants need %ater. A & 1$mn ! ants mar&"in) $p a tree is ) in) t a sma11 reser5 ir ! trapped %ater. Y $ !ind s$&" reser5 irs e5en in arid areas. M st !1ies stay %it"in 1<< meters ! %ater# espe&ia11y t"e -$r pean mas n !1y# easi1y re& )ni'ed by its irides&ent )reen b dy. 0$man tra&2s %i11 $s$a11y 1ead t a %e11# b re " 1e# r s a2. S&r$b r r &2s may & 5er it t red$&e e5ap rati n. Rep1a&e t"e & 5er a!ter $se.

*!te& F&"+ P%!#t$
(1ants s$&" as 5ines# r ts# and pa1m trees are ) d s $r&es ! %ater.

Vines
Vines %it" r $)" bar2 and s" ts ab $t 9 &entimeters t"i&2 &an be a $se!$1 s $r&e ! %ater. Y $ m$st 1earn by e?perien&e %"i&" are t"e %ater-bearin) 5ines# be&a$se n t a11 "a5e drin2ab1e %ater. S me may e5en "a5e a p is n $s sap. +"e p is n $s nes yie1d a sti&2y# mi12y sap %"en &$t. N np is n $s 5ines %i11 )i5e a &1ear !1$id. S me 5ines &a$se a s2in irritati n n & nta&tH t"ere! re 1et t"e 1i4$id drip int y $r m $t"# rat"er t"an p$t y $r m $t" t t"e 5ine. (re!erab1y# $se s me type ! & ntainer. Use t"e pr &ed$re des&ribed in /"apter 6 t btain %ater !r m a 5ine.

Roots
In A$stra1ia# t"e %ater tree# desert a2# and b1 d% d "a5e r ts near t"e s$r!a&e. (ry t"ese r ts $t ! t"e )r $nd and &$t t"em int *<-&entimeter 1en)t"s. Rem 5e t"e bar2 and s$&2 $t t"e m ist$re# r s"a5e t"e r t t a p$1p and s4$ee'e it 5er y $r m $t".

Pal" Trees
+"e b$ri# & & n$t# and nipa pa1ms a11 & ntain a s$)ary !1$id t"at is 5ery ) d t drin2. + btain t"e 1i4$id# bend a !1 %erin) sta12 ! ne ! t"ese pa1ms d %n%ard# and &$t !! its tip. I! y $ &$t a t"in s1i&e !! t"e sta12 e5ery 12 " $rs# t"e !1 % %i11 rene%# ma2in) it p ssib1e t & 11e&t $p t a 1iter per day. Nipa pa1m s" ts )r % !r m t"e base# s t"at y $ &an % r2 at )r $nd 1e5e1. .n )r %n trees ! t"er spe&ies# y $ may "a5e t &1imb t"em t rea&" a !1 %erin) sta12. Mi12 !r m & & n$ts "as a 1ar)e %ater & ntent# b$t may
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& ntain a str n) 1a?ati5e in ripe n$ts. Drin2in) t t"an y $ drin2.

m$&" ! t"is mi12 may &a$se y $ t 1 se m re !1$id

*!te& F&"+ C"#(e#$!ti"#
.!ten it re4$ires t m$&" e!! rt t di) ! r r ts & ntainin) %ater. It may be easier t 1et a p1ant pr d$&e %ater ! r y $ in t"e ! rm ! & ndensati n. +yin) a &1ear p1asti& ba) ar $nd a )reen 1ea!y bran&" %i11 &a$se %ater in t"e 1ea5es t e5ap rate and & ndense in t"e ba). (1a&in) &$t 5e)etati n in a p1asti& ba) %i11 a1s pr d$&e & ndensati n. +"is is a s 1ar sti11 Csee /"apter 6D.

'OO,
F d is $s$a11y ab$ndant in a tr pi&a1 s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. + btain anima1 ! d# $se t"e pr &ed$res $t1ined in /"apter :. In additi n t anima1 ! d# y $ %i11 "a5e t s$pp1ement y $r diet %it" edib1e p1ants. +"e best p1a&es t ! ra)e are t"e ban2s ! streams and ri5ers. 3"ere5er t"e s$n penetrates t"e @$n)1e# t"ere %i11 be a mass ! 5e)etati n# b$t ri5er ban2s may be t"e m st a&&essib1e areas. I! y $ are %ea2# d n t e?pend ener)y &1imbin) r !e11in) a tree ! r ! d. +"ere are m re easi1y btained s $r&es ! ! d nearer t"e )r $nd. D n t pi&2 m re ! d t"an y $ need. F d sp i1s rapid1y in tr pi&a1 & nditi ns. Lea5e ! d n t"e )r %in) p1ant $nti1 y $ need it# and eat it !res". +"ere are an a1m st $n1imited n$mber ! edib1e p1ants !r m %"i&" t &" se. Un1ess y $ &an p siti5e1y identi!y t"ese p1ants# it may be sa!er at !irst t be)in %it" pa1ms# bamb s# and & mm n !r$its. +"e 1ist be1 % identi!ies s me ! t"e m st & mm n ! ds. Detai1ed des&ripti ns and p" t )rap"s are at Appendi? ,. TROPICAL =ONE FOOD PLANTS • ,ae1 !r$it &Aegle marmelos' • ,amb C5ari $s spe&iesD • ,anana r p1antain C/usa spe&iesD • ,i)nay &Antidesma bunius' • ,read!r$it &Artrocarpus incisa' • / & n$t pa1m &1ocos nuci!era' • Fis"tai1 pa1m &1aryota urens' • 0 rseradis" tree &/oringa pterygosperma' • L t$s C8elumbo spe&iesD • Man) &/angi!era indica' • Mani & &/anihot utillissima' • Nipa pa1m &8ipa !ruticans' • (apaya &1arica papaya' • (ersimm n &<iospyros virginiana' • Rattan pa1m C1alamus spe&iesD • Sa) pa1m &/etro+ylon sagu' • Ster&$1ia &Sterculia !oetida' • S$)ar&ane &Saccharum o!!icinarum' • S$)ar pa1m &Arenga pinnata' • S%eets p &Annona s)uamosa' • +ar C1olocasia and Alocasia spe&iesD • 3ater 1i1y &8ymphaea odorata' • 3i1d !i) C-icus spe&iesD • 3i1d ri&e &Ei*ania a)uatica' • Yam C<ioscorea spe&iesD

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POISONOUS PLANTS
+"e pr p rti n ! p is n $s p1ants in tr pi&a1 re)i ns is n )reater t"an in any t"er area ! t"e % r1d. 0 %e5er# it may appear t"at m st p1ants in t"e tr pi&s are p is n $s be&a$se ! t"e )reat density ! p1ant )r %t" in s me tr pi&a1 areas. See Appendi? /.

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CHAPTER 1: - COLD *EATHER SURVIVAL

0ne o! the most di!!icult survival situations is a cold weather scenario. Remember" cold weather is an adversary that can be as dangerous as an enemy soldier. Cvery time you venture into the cold" you are pitting yoursel! against the elements. ith a little knowledge o! the environment" proper plans" and appropriate e)uipment" you can overcome the elements. As you remove one or more o! these !actors" survival becomes increasingly di!!icult. Remember" winter weather is highly variable. :repare yoursel! to adapt to bli**ard conditions even during sunny and clear weather. 1old is a !ar greater threat to survival than it appears. It decreases your ability to think and weakens your will to do anything e+cept to get warm. 1old is an insidious enemy# as it numbs the mind and body" it subdues the will to survive. 1old makes it very easy to !orget your ultimate goal%%to survive.

COL, R /IONS AN, LOCATIONS
/ 1d re)i ns in&1$de ar&ti& and s$bar&ti& areas and areas immediate1y ad@ inin) t"em. Y $ &an &1assi!y ab $t 7: per&ent ! t"e n rt"ern "emisp"ereFs t ta1 1andmass as a & 1d re)i n d$e t t"e in!1$en&e and e?tent ! air temperat$res. .&ean &$rrents a!!e&t & 1d %eat"er and &a$se 1ar)e areas n rma11y in&1$ded in t"e temperate ' ne t !a11 %it"in t"e & 1d re)i ns d$rin) %inter peri ds. -1e5ati n a1s "as a mar2ed e!!e&t n de!inin) & 1d re)i ns. 3it"in t"e & 1d %eat"er re)i ns# y $ may !a&e t% types ! & 1d %eat"er en5ir nments--%et r dry. 8n %in) in %"i&" en5ir nment y $r area ! perati ns !a11s %i11 a!!e&t p1annin) and e?e&$ti n ! a & 1d %eat"er perati n.

*et C"%( *e!the& E#/i&"#+e#t$
3et & 1d %eat"er & nditi ns e?ist %"en t"e a5era)e temperat$re in a 27-" $r peri d is -1< de)rees / r ab 5e. /"ara&teristi&s ! t"is & nditi n are !ree'in) d$rin) t"e & 1der ni)"t " $rs and t"a%in) d$rin) t"e day. -5en t" $)" t"e temperat$res are %armer d$rin) t"is & nditi n# t"e terrain is $s$a11y 5ery s1 ppy d$e t s1$s" and m$d. Y $ m$st & n&entrate n pr te&tin) y $rse1! !r m t"e %et )r $nd and !r m !ree'in) rain r %et sn %.

D&3 C"%( *e!the& E#/i&"#+e#t$
Dry & 1d %eat"er & nditi ns e?ist %"en t"e a5era)e temperat$re in a 27-" $r peri d remains be1 % -1< de)rees /. -5en t" $)" t"e temperat$res in t"is & nditi n are m$&" 1 %er t"an n rma1# y $ d n t "a5e t & ntend %it" t"e !ree'in) and t"a%in). In t"ese & nditi ns# y $ need m re 1ayers ! inner &1 t"in) t

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pr te&t y $ !r m temperat$res as 1 % as -6< de)rees /. -?treme1y "a'ard $s & nditi ns e?ist %"en %ind and 1 % temperat$re & mbine.

3IN,C.ILL
3ind&"i11 in&reases t"e "a'ards in & 1d re)i ns. 3ind&"i11 is t"e e!!e&t ! m 5in) air n e?p sed !1es". F r instan&e# %it" a 27.:-2p" C19-2n tD %ind and a temperat$re ! -1< de)rees /# t"e e4$i5a1ent %ind&"i11 temperat$re is -2* de)rees /. Fi)$re 19-1 )i5es t"e %ind&"i11 !a&t rs ! r 5ari $s temperat$res and %ind speeds.

Remember# e5en %"en t"ere is n %ind# y $ %i11 &reate t"e e4$i5a1ent %ind by s2iin)# r$nnin)# bein) t %ed n s2is be"ind a 5e"i&1e# % r2in) ar $nd air&ra!t t"at pr d$&e %ind b1asts.

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Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

#ASIC PRINCIPL S O' COL, 3 AT. R SURVIVAL
It is m re di!!i&$1t ! r y $ t satis!y y $r basi& %ater# ! d# and s"e1ter needs in a & 1d en5ir nment t"an in a %arm en5ir nment. -5en i! y $ "a5e t"e basi& re4$irements# y $ m$st a1s "a5e ade4$ate pr te&ti5e &1 t"in) and t"e %i11 t s$r5i5e. +"e %i11 t s$r5i5e is as imp rtant as t"e basi& needs. +"ere "a5e been in&idents %"en trained and %e11-e4$ipped indi5id$a1s "a5e n t s$r5i5ed & 1d %eat"er sit$ati ns be&a$se t"ey 1a&2ed t"e %i11 t 1i5e. / n5erse1y# t"is %i11 "as s$stained indi5id$a1s 1ess %e11trained and e4$ipped. +"ere are many di!!erent items ! & 1d %eat"er e4$ipment and &1 t"in) iss$ed by t"e U.S. Army t day. Spe&ia1i'ed $nits may "a5e a&&ess t ne%er# 1i)"t%ei)"t )ear s$&" as p 1ypr py1ene $nder%ear# 6.R-+-B $ter%ear and b ts# and t"er spe&ia1 e4$ipment. Remember# " %e5er# t"e 1der )ear %i11 2eep y $ %arm as 1 n) as y $ app1y a !e% & 1d %eat"er prin&ip1es. I! t"e ne%er types ! &1 t"in) are a5ai1ab1e# $se t"em. I! n t# t"en y $r &1 t"in) s" $1d be entire1y % 1# %it" t"e p ssib1e e?&epti n ! a %indbrea2er. Y $ m$st n t n1y "a5e en $)" &1 t"in) t pr te&t y $ !r m t"e & 1d# y $ m$st a1s 2n % " % t ma?imi'e t"e %armt" y $ )et !r m it. F r e?amp1e# a1%ays 2eep y $r "ead & 5ered. Y $ &an 1 se 7< t 79 per&ent ! b dy "eat !r m an $npr te&ted "ead and e5en m re !r m t"e $npr te&ted ne&2# %rist# and an21es. +"ese areas ! t"e b dy are ) d radiat rs ! "eat and "a5e 5ery 1itt1e ins$1atin) !at. +"e brain is 5ery s$s&eptib1e t & 1d and &an stand t"e 1east am $nt ! & 1in). ,e&a$se t"ere is m$&" b1 d &ir&$1ati n in t"e "ead# m st ! %"i&" is n t"e s$r!a&e# y $ &an 1 se "eat 4$i&21y i! y $ d n t & 5er y $r "ead. +"ere are ! $r basi& prin&ip1es t ! 11 % t 2eep %arm. An easy %ay t remember t"ese basi& prin&ip1es is t $se t"e % rd /.LD-/ - 8eep &1 t"in) clean. . - A5 id overheating. L - 3ear &1 t"es loose and in layers. D - 8eep &1 t"in) dry. /Aeep clothing clean. +"is prin&ip1e is a1%ays imp rtant ! r sanitati n and & m! rt. In %inter# it is a1s imp rtant !r m t"e standp int ! %armt". /1 t"es matted %it" dirt and )rease 1 se m$&" ! t"eir ins$1ati n 5a1$e. 0eat &an es&ape m re easi1y !r m t"e b dy t"r $)" t"e &1 t"in)Fs &r$s"ed r !i11ed $p air p &2ets. .Avoid overheating. 3"en y $ )et t " t# y $ s%eat and y $r &1 t"in) abs rbs t"e m ist$re. +"is a!!e&ts y $r %armt" in t% %aysI dampness de&reases t"e ins$1ati n 4$a1ity ! &1 t"in)# and as s%eat e5ap rates# y $r b dy & 1s. Ad@$st y $r &1 t"in) s t"at y $ d n t s%eat. D t"is by partia11y penin) y $r par2a r @a&2et# by rem 5in) an inner 1ayer ! &1 t"in)# by rem 5in) "ea5y $ter mittens# r by t"r %in) ba&2 y $r par2a " d r &"an)in) t 1i)"ter "ead)ear. +"e "ead and "ands a&t as e!!i&ient "eat dissipaters %"en 5er"eated. Lear your clothing loose and in layers. 3earin) ti)"t &1 t"in) and ! t)ear restri&ts b1 d &ir&$1ati n and in5ites & 1d in@$ry. It a1s de&reases t"e 5 1$me ! air trapped bet%een t"e 1ayers# red$&in) its ins$1atin) 5a1$e. Se5era1 1ayers ! 1i)"t%ei)"t &1 t"in) are better t"an ne e4$a11y t"i&2 1ayer ! &1 t"in)# be&a$se t"e 1ayers "a5e dead-air spa&e bet%een t"em. +"e dead-air spa&e pr 5ides e?tra ins$1ati n. A1s # 1ayers ! &1 t"in) a11 % y $ t ta2e !! r add &1 t"in) 1ayers t pre5ent e?&essi5e s%eatin) r t in&rease %armt". DAeep clothing dry. In & 1d temperat$res# y $r inner 1ayers ! &1 t"in) &an be& me %et !r m s%eat and y $r $ter 1ayer# i! n t %ater repe11ent# &an be& me %et !r m sn % and !r st me1ted by b dy "eat. 3ear %ater repe11ent $ter &1 t"in)# i! a5ai1ab1e. It %i11 s"ed m st ! t"e %ater & 11e&ted !r m me1tin) sn % and !r st. ,e! re enterin) a "eated s"e1ter# br$s" !! t"e sn % and !r st. Despite t"e pre&a$ti ns y $ ta2e# t"ere %i11 be times %"en y $ &ann t 2eep !r m )ettin) %et. At s$&" times# dryin) y $r &1 t"in) may be& me a ma@ r pr b1em. .n t"e mar&"# "an) y $r damp mittens and s &2s n y $r r$&2sa&2. S metimes in !ree'in) temperat$res# t"e %ind and s$n %i11 dry t"is &1 t"in). Y $ &an a1s p1a&e damp s &2s r mittens# $n! 1ded# near y $r b dy s t"at y $r b dy "eat &an dry t"em. In a &ampsite# "an) damp &1 t"in) inside t"e s"e1ter near t"e t p# $sin) dryin) 1ines r impr 5ised ra&2s. Y $ may e5en be ab1e t dry ea&" item by " 1din) it be! re an pen !ire. Dry 1eat"er items s1 %1y. I! n t"er means are
(a)e 19< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

a5ai1ab1e ! r dryin) y $r b ts# p$t t"em bet%een y $r s1eepin) ba) s"e11 and 1iner. Y $r b dy "eat %i11 "e1p t dry t"e 1eat"er. A "ea5y# d %n-1ined s1eepin) ba) is a 5a1$ab1e pie&e ! s$r5i5a1 )ear in & 1d %eat"er. -ns$re t"e d %n remains dry. I! %et# it 1 ses a 1 t ! its ins$1ati n 5a1$e. I! y $ d n t "a5e a s1eepin) ba)# y $ &an ma2e ne $t ! para&"$te &1 t" r simi1ar materia1 and nat$ra1 dry materia1# s$&" as 1ea5es# pine need1es# r m ss. (1a&e t"e dry materia1 bet%een t% 1ayers ! t"e materia1. .t"er imp rtant s$r5i5a1 items are a 2ni!eH %aterpr ! mat&"es in a %aterpr ! & ntainer# pre!erab1y ne %it" a !1int atta&"edH a d$rab1e & mpassH mapH %at&"H %aterpr ! )r $nd &1 t" and & 5erH !1as"1i)"tH bin &$1arsH dar2 )1assesH !atty emer)en&y ! dsH ! d )at"erin) )earH and si)na1in) items. Remember# a & 1d %eat"er en5ir nment &an be 5ery "ars". 6i5e a ) d dea1 ! t" $)"t t se1e&tin) t"e ri)"t e4$ipment ! r s$r5i5a1 in t"e & 1d. I! $ns$re ! an item y $ "a5e ne5er $sed# test it in an J 5erni)"t ba&2yardJ en5ir nment be! re 5ent$rin) !$rt"er. .n&e y $ "a5e se1e&ted items t"at are essentia1 ! r y $r s$r5i5a1# d n t 1 se t"em a!ter y $ enter a & 1d %eat"er en5ir nment.

.Y/I N
A1t" $)" %as"in) y $rse1! may be impra&ti&a1 and $n& m! rtab1e in a & 1d en5ir nment# y $ m$st d s . 3as"in) "e1ps pre5ent s2in ras"es t"at &an de5e1 p int m re seri $s pr b1ems. In s me sit$ati ns# y $ may be ab1e t ta2e a sn % bat". +a2e a "and!$1 ! sn % and %as" y $r b dy %"ere s%eat and m ist$re a&&$m$1ate# s$&" as $nder t"e arms and bet%een t"e 1e)s# and t"en %ipe y $rse1! dry. I! p ssib1e# %as" y $r !eet dai1y and p$t n &1ean# dry s &2s. /"an)e y $r $nder%ear at 1east t%i&e a %ee2. I! y $ are $nab1e t %as" y $r $nder%ear# ta2e it !!# s"a2e it# and 1et it air $t ! r an " $r r t% . I! y $ are $sin) a pre5i $s1y $sed s"e1ter# &"e&2 y $r b dy and &1 t"in) ! r 1i&e ea&" ni)"t. I! y $r &1 t"in) "as be& me in!ested# $se inse&ti&ide p %der i! y $ "a5e any. .t"er%ise# "an) y $r &1 t"es in t"e & 1d# t"en beat and br$s" t"em. +"is %i11 "e1p )et rid ! t"e 1i&e# b$t n t t"e e))s. I! y $ s"a5e# try t d s be! re ) in) t bed. +"is %i11 )i5e y $r s2in a &"an&e t re& 5er be! re e?p sin) it t t"e e1ements.

0 ,ICAL ASP CTS
3"en y $ are "ea1t"y# y $r inner & re temperat$re Ct rs temperat$reD remains a1m st & nstant at *7 de)rees / C;:.6 de)rees FD. Sin&e y $r 1imbs and "ead "a5e 1ess pr te&ti5e b dy tiss$e t"an y $r t rs # t"eir temperat$res 5ary and may n t rea&" & re temperat$re. Y $r b dy "as a & ntr 1 system t"at 1ets it rea&t t temperat$re e?tremes t maintain a temperat$re ba1an&e. +"ere are t"ree main !a&t rs t"at a!!e&t t"is temperat$re ba1an&e--"eat pr d$&ti n# "eat 1 ss# and e5ap rati n. +"e di!!eren&e bet%een t"e b dyFs & re temperat$re and t"e en5ir nmentFs temperat$re ) 5erns t"e "eat pr d$&ti n rate. Y $r b dy &an )et rid ! "eat better t"an it &an pr d$&e it. S%eatin) "e1ps t & ntr 1 t"e "eat ba1an&e. Ma?im$m s%eatin) %i11 )et rid ! "eat ab $t as !ast as ma?im$m e?erti n pr d$&es it. S"i5erin) &a$ses t"e b dy t pr d$&e "eat. It a1s &a$ses !ati)$e t"at# in t$rn# 1eads t a dr p in b dy temperat$re. Air m 5ement ar $nd y $r b dy a!!e&ts "eat 1 ss. It "as been &a1&$1ated t"at a na2ed man e?p sed t sti11 air at r ab $t < de)rees / &an maintain a "eat ba1an&e i! "e s"i5ers as "ard as "e &an. 0 %e5er# "e &anFt s"i5er ! re5er. It "as a1s been &a1&$1ated t"at a man at rest %earin) t"e ma?im$m ar&ti& &1 t"in) in a & 1d en5ir nment &an 2eep "is interna1 "eat ba1an&e d$rin) temperat$res %e11 be1 % !ree'in). + %it"stand rea11y & 1d & nditi ns ! r any 1en)t" ! time# " %e5er# "e %i11 "a5e t be& me a&ti5e r s"i5er.

COL, IN2URI S
+"e best %ay t dea1 %it" in@$ries and si&2nesses is t ta2e meas$res t pre5ent t"em !r m "appenin) in t"e !irst p1a&e. +reat any in@$ry r si&2ness t"at &&$rs as s n as p ssib1e t pre5ent it !r m % rsenin). +"e 2n %1ed)e ! si)ns and sympt ms and t"e $se ! t"e b$ddy system are &riti&a1 in maintainin) "ea1t". F 11 %in) are & 1d in@$ries t"at &an &&$r.

H3p"the&+i!
(a)e 191 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

0yp t"ermia is t"e 1 %erin) ! t"e b dy temperat$re at a rate !aster t"an t"e b dy &an pr d$&e "eat. /a$ses ! "yp t"ermia may be )enera1 e?p s$re r t"e s$dden %ettin) ! t"e b dy by !a11in) int a 1a2e r sprayin) %it" !$e1 r t"er 1i4$ids. +"e initia1 sympt m is s"i5erin). +"is s"i5erin) may pr )ress t t"e p int t"at it is $n& ntr 11ab1e and inter!eres %it" an indi5id$a1Fs abi1ity t &are ! r "imse1!. +"is be)ins %"en t"e b dyFs & re Cre&ta1D temperat$re !a11s t ab $t *9.9 de)rees / C;6 de)rees FD. 3"en t"e & re temperat$re rea&"es *9 t *2 de)rees / C;9 t ;< de)rees FD# s1$))is" t"in2in)# irrati na1 reas nin)# and a !a1se !ee1in) ! %armt" may &&$r. / re temperat$res ! *2 t *< de)rees / C;< t :6 de)rees FD and be1 % res$1t in m$s&1e ri)idity# $n& ns&i $sness# and bare1y dete&tab1e si)ns ! 1i!e. I! t"e 5i&timFs & re temperat$re !a11s be1 % 29 de)rees / C77 de)rees FD# deat" is a1m st &ertain. + treat "yp t"ermia# re%arm t"e entire b dy. I! t"ere are means a5ai1ab1e# re%arm t"e pers n by !irst immersin) t"e tr$n2 area n1y in %arm %ater ! *7.7 t 7*.* de)rees / C1<< t 11< de)rees FD. CAUTION Re%armin) t"e t ta1 b dy in a %arm %ater bat" s" $1d be d ne n1y in a " spita1 en5ir nment be&a$se ! t"e in&reased ris2 ! &ardia& arrest and re%armin) s" &2. .ne ! t"e 4$i&2est %ays t )et "eat t t"e inner & re is t )i5e %arm %ater enemas. S$&" an a&ti n# " %e5er# may n t be p ssib1e in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. An t"er met" d is t %rap t"e 5i&tim in a %armed s1eepin) ba) %it" an t"er pers n %" is a1ready %armH b t" s" $1d be na2ed. CAUTION +"e indi5id$a1 p1a&ed in t"e s1eepin) ba) %it" 5i&tim & $1d a1s be& me a "yp t"ermia 5i&tim i! 1e!t in t"e ba) t 1 n). I! t"e pers n is & ns&i $s# )i5e "im " t# s%eetened !1$ids. .ne ! t"e best s $r&es ! &a1 ries is " ney r de?tr seH i! $na5ai1ab1e# $se s$)ar# & & a# r a simi1ar s 1$b1e s%eetener. CAUTION D n t ! r&e an $n& ns&i $s pers n t drin2. +"ere are t% dan)ers in treatin) "yp t"ermia--re%armin) t rapid1y and Ja!ter dr p.J Re%armin) t rapid1y &an &a$se t"e 5i&tim t "a5e &ir&$1at ry pr b1ems# res$1tin) in "eart !ai1$re. A!ter dr p is t"e s"arp b dy & re temperat$re dr p t"at &&$rs %"en ta2in) t"e 5i&tim !r m t"e %arm %ater. Its pr bab1e m$se is t"e ret$rn ! pre5i $s1y sta)nant 1imb b1 d t t"e & re Cinner t rs D area as re&ir&$1ati n &&$rs. / n&entratin) n %armin) t"e & re area and stim$1atin) perip"era1 &ir&$1ati n %i11 1essen t"e e!!e&ts ! a!ter dr p. Immersin) t"e t rs in a %arm bat"# i! p ssib1e# is t"e best treatment.

F&"$t,ite
+"is in@$ry is t"e res$1t ! !r 'en tiss$es. Li)"t !r stbite in5 15es n1y t"e s2in t"at ta2es n a d$11 %"itis" pa11 r. Deep !r stbite e?tends t a dept" be1 % t"e s2in. +"e tiss$es be& me s 1id and imm 5ab1e. Y $r !eet# "ands# and e?p sed !a&ia1 areas are parti&$1ar1y 5$1nerab1e t !r stbite. +"e best !r stbite pre5enti n# %"en y $ are %it" t"ers# is t $se t"e b$ddy system. /"e&2 y $r b$ddyFs !a&e !ten and ma2e s$re t"at "e &"e&2s y $rs. I! y $ are a1 ne# peri di&a11y & 5er y $r n se and 1 %er part ! y $r !a&e %it" y $r mittened "and. +"e ! 11 %in) p inters %i11 aid y $ in 2eepin) %arm and pre5entin) !r stbite %"en it is e?treme1y & 1d r %"en y $ "a5e 1ess t"an ade4$ate &1 t"in)I • -ace. Maintain &ir&$1ati n by t%it&"in) and %rin21in) t"e s2in n y $r !a&e ma2in) !a&es. 3arm %it" y $r "ands. • Cars. 3i))1e and m 5e y $r ears. 3arm %it" y $r "ands. • (ands. M 5e y $r "ands inside y $r )1 5es. 3arm by p1a&in) y $r "ands &1 se t y $r b dy. • -eet. M 5e y $r !eet and %i))1e y $r t es inside y $r b ts.

(a)e 192 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

A 1 ss ! !ee1in) in y $r "ands and !eet is a si)n ! !r stbite. I! y $ "a5e 1 st !ee1in) ! r n1y a s" rt time# t"e !r stbite is pr bab1y 1i)"t. .t"er%ise# ass$me t"e !r stbite is deep. + re%arm a 1i)"t !r stbite# $se y $r "ands r mittens t %arm y $r !a&e and ears. (1a&e y $r "ands $nder y $r armpits. (1a&e y $r !eet ne?t t y $r b$ddyFs st ma&". A deep !r stbite in@$ry# i! t"a%ed and re!r 'en# %i11 &a$se m re dama)e t"an a n nmedi&a11y trained pers n &an "and1e. Fi)$re 19-2 1ists s me d Fs and d nFts re)ardin) !r stbite.

T&e#.h F""t !#( I++e&$i"# F""t
+"ese & nditi ns res$1t !r m many " $rs r days ! e?p s$re t %et r damp & nditi ns at a temperat$re @$st ab 5e !ree'in). +"e sympt ms are a sensati n ! pins and need1es# tin)1in)# n$mbness# and t"en pain. +"e s2in %i11 initia11y appear %et# s ))y# %"ite# and s"ri5e1ed. As it pr )resses and dama)e appears# t"e s2in %i11 ta2e n a red and t"en a b1$is" r b1a&2 dis& 1 rati n. +"e !eet be& me & 1d# s% 11en# and "a5e a %a?y appearan&e. 3a12in) be& mes di!!i&$1t and t"e !eet !ee1 "ea5y and n$mb. +"e ner5es and m$s&1es s$stain t"e main dama)e# b$t )an)rene &an &&$r. In e?treme &ases# t"e !1es" dies and it may be& me ne&essary t "a5e t"e ! t r 1e) amp$tated. +"e best pre5enti n is t 2eep y $r !eet dry. /arry e?tra s &2s %it" y $ in a %aterpr ! pa&2et. Y $ &an dry %et s &2s a)ainst y $r t rs Cba&2 r &"estD. 3as" y $r !eet and p$t n dry s &2s dai1y.

Deh3(&!ti"#
3"en b$nd1ed $p in many 1ayers ! &1 t"in) d$rin) & 1d %eat"er# y $ may be $na%are t"at y $ are 1 sin) b dy m ist$re. Y $r "ea5y &1 t"in) abs rbs t"e m ist$re t"at e5ap rates in t"e air. Y $ m$st drin2 %ater t rep1a&e t"is 1 ss ! !1$id. Y $r need ! r %ater is as )reat in a & 1d en5ir nment as it is in a %arm en5ir nment C/"apter 1*D. .ne %ay t te11 i! y $ are be& min) de"ydrated is t &"e&2 t"e & 1 r ! y $r $rine n sn %. I! y $r $rine ma2es t"e sn % dar2 ye11 %# y $ are be& min) de"ydrated and need t rep1a&e b dy !1$ids. I! it ma2es t"e sn % 1i)"t ye11 % t n & 1 r# y $r b dy !1$ids "a5e a m re n rma1 ba1an&e.

C"%( Di &e$i$
-?p s$re t & 1d in&reases $rine $tp$t. It a1s de&reases b dy !1$ids t"at y $ m$st rep1a&e.

S #, &#
-?p sed s2in &an be& me s$nb$rned e5en %"en t"e air temperat$re is be1 % !ree'in). +"e s$nFs rays re!1e&t at a11 an)1es !r m sn %# i&e# and %ater# "ittin) sensiti5e areas ! s2in--1ips# n stri1s# and eye1ids. -?p s$re t t"e s$n res$1ts in s$nb$rn m re 4$i&21y at "i)" a1tit$des t"an at 1 % a1tit$des. App1y s$nb$rn &ream r 1ip sa15e t y $r !a&e %"en in t"e s$n.

S#"2 B%i#(#e$$
(a)e 19* ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+"e re!1e&ti n ! t"e s$nFs $1tra5i 1et rays !! a sn %-& 5ered area &a$ses t"is & nditi n. +"e sympt ms ! sn % b1indness are a sensati n ! )rit in t"e eyes# pain in and 5er t"e eyes t"at in&reases %it" eyeba11 m 5ement# red and teary eyes# and a "eada&"e t"at intensi!ies %it" & ntin$ed e?p s$re t 1i)"t. (r 1 n)ed e?p s$re t t"ese rays &an res$1t in permanent eye dama)e. + treat sn % b1indness# banda)e y $r eyes $nti1 t"e sympt ms disappear. Y $ &an pre5ent sn % b1indness by %earin) s$n)1asses. I! y $ d nFt "a5e s$n)1asses# impr 5ise. /$t s1its in a pie&e ! &ardb ard# t"in % d# tree bar2# r t"er a5ai1ab1e materia1 CFi)$re 19-*D. ($ttin) s t $nder y $r eyes %i11 "e1p red$&e s"ine and )1are.

C"#$tip!ti"#
It is 5ery imp rtant t re1ie5e y $rse1! %"en needed. D n t de1ay be&a$se ! t"e & 1d & nditi n. De1ayin) re1ie5in) y $rse1! be&a$se ! t"e & 1d# eatin) de"ydrated ! ds# drin2in) t 1itt1e 1i4$id# and irre)$1ar eatin) "abits &an &a$se y $ t be& me & nstipated. A1t" $)" n t disab1in)# & nstipati n &an &a$se s me dis& m! rt. In&rease y $r !1$id inta2e t at 1east 2 1iters ab 5e y $r n rma1 2 t * 1iters dai1y inta2e and# i! a5ai1ab1e# eat !r$it and t"er ! ds t"at %i11 1 sen t"e st 1.

I#$e.t Bite$
Inse&t bites &an be& me in!e&ted t"r $)" & nstant s&rat&"in). F1ies &an &arry 5ari $s disease-pr d$&in) )erms. + pre5ent inse&t bites# $se inse&t repe11ent# nettin)# and %ear pr per &1 t"in). See /"apter 11 ! r in! rmati n n inse&t bites and /"apter 7 ! r treatment.

S. LT RS
Y $r en5ir nment and t"e e4$ipment y $ &arry %it" y $ %i11 determine t"e type ! s"e1ter y $ &an b$i1d. Y $ &an b$i1d s"e1ters in % ded areas# pen & $ntry# and barren areas. 3 ded areas $s$a11y pr 5ide t"e best 1 &ati n# %"i1e barren areas "a5e n1y sn % as b$i1din) materia1. 3 ded areas pr 5ide timber ! r s"e1ter & nstr$&ti n# % d ! r !ire# & n&ea1ment !r m bser5ati n# and pr te&ti n !r m t"e %ind. 8ote9 In e+treme cold" do not use metal" such as an aircra!t !uselage" !or shelter. The metal will conduct away !rom the shelter what little heat you can generate. S"e1ters made !r m i&e r sn % $s$a11y re4$ire t 1s s$&" as i&e a?es r sa%s. Y $ m$st a1s e?pend m$&" time and ener)y t b$i1d s$&" a s"e1ter. ,e s$re t 5enti1ate an en&1 sed s"e1ter# espe&ia11y i! y $ intend t b$i1d a !ire in it. A1%ays b1 &2 a s"e1terFs entran&e# i! p ssib1e# t 2eep t"e "eat in and t"e %ind $t. Use a r$&2sa&2 r sn % b1 &2. / nstr$&t a s"e1ter n 1ar)er t"an needed. +"is %i11 red$&e t"e am $nt ! spa&e t "eat. A !ata1 err r in & 1d %eat"er s"e1ter & nstr$&ti n is ma2in) t"e s"e1ter s 1ar)e t"at it stea1s b dy "eat rat"er t"an sa5in) it. 8eep s"e1ter spa&e sma11.
(a)e 197 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Ne5er s1eep dire&t1y n t"e )r $nd. Lay d %n s me pine b $)"s# )rass# r t"er ins$1atin) materia1 t 2eep t"e )r $nd !r m abs rbin) y $r b dy "eat. Ne5er !a11 as1eep %it" $t t$rnin) $t y $r st 5e r 1amp. /arb n m n ?ide p is nin) &an res$1t !r m a !ire b$rnin) in an $n5enti1ated s"e1ter. /arb n m n ?ide is a )reat dan)er. It is & 1 r1ess and d r1ess. Any time y $ "a5e an pen !1ame# it may )enerate &arb n m n ?ide. A1%ays &"e&2 y $r 5enti1ati n. -5en in a 5enti1ated s"e1ter# in& mp1ete & mb$sti n &an &a$se &arb n m n ?ide p is nin). Us$a11y# t"ere are n sympt ms. Un& ns&i $sness and deat" &an &&$r %it" $t %arnin). S metimes# " %e5er# press$re at t"e temp1es# b$rnin) ! t"e eyes# "eada&"e# p $ndin) p$1se# dr %siness# r na$sea may &&$r. +"e ne &"ara&teristi&# 5isib1e si)n ! &arb n m n ?ide p is nin) is a &"erry red & 1 rin) in t"e tiss$es ! t"e 1ips# m $t"# and inside ! t"e eye1ids. 6et int !res" air at n&e i! y $ "a5e any ! t"ese sympt ms. +"ere are se5era1 types ! !ie1d-e?pedient s"e1ters y $ &an 4$i&21y b$i1d r emp1 y. Many $se sn % ! r ins$1ati n.

S#"2 C!/e She%te&
+"e sn % &a5e s"e1ter CFi)$re 19-7D is a m st e!!e&ti5e s"e1ter be&a$se ! t"e ins$1atin) 4$a1ities ! sn %. Remember t"at it ta2es time and ener)y t b$i1d and t"at y $ %i11 )et %et %"i1e b$i1din) it. First# y $ need t !ind a dri!t ab $t * meters deep int %"i&" y $ &an di). 3"i1e b$i1din) t"is s"e1ter# 2eep t"e r ! ar&"ed ! r stren)t" and t a11 % me1ted sn % t drain d %n t"e sides. ,$i1d t"e s1eepin) p1at! rm "i)"er t"an t"e entran&e. Separate t"e s1eepin) p1at! rm !r m t"e sn % &a5eFs %a11s r di) a sma11 tren&" bet%een t"e p1at! rm and t"e %a11. +"is p1at! rm %i11 pre5ent t"e me1tin) sn % !r m %ettin) y $ and y $r e4$ipment. +"is & nstr$&ti n is espe&ia11y imp rtant i! y $ "a5e a ) d s $r&e ! "eat in t"e sn % &a5e. -ns$re t"e r ! is "i)" en $)" s t"at y $ &an sit $p n t"e s1eepin) p1at! rm. ,1 &2 t"e entran&e %it" a sn % b1 &2 r t"er materia1 and $se t"e 1 %er entran&e area ! r & 2in). +"e %a11s and &ei1in) s" $1d be at 1east *< &entimeters t"i&2. Insta11 a 5enti1ati n s"a!t. I! y $ d n t "a5e a dri!t 1ar)e en $)" t b$i1d a sn % &a5e# y $ &an ma2e a 5ariati n ! it by pi1in) sn % int a m $nd 1ar)e en $)" t di) $t.

(a)e 199 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

S#"2 T&e#.h She%te&
+"e idea be"ind t"is s"e1ter CFi)$re 19-7D is t )et y $ be1 % t"e sn % and %ind 1e5e1 and $se t"e sn %Fs ins$1atin) 4$a1ities. I! y $ are in an area ! & mpa&ted sn %# &$t sn % b1 &2s and $se t"em as 5er"ead & 5er. I! n t# y $ &an $se a p n&" r t"er materia1. ,$i1d n1y ne entran&e and $se a sn % b1 &2 r r$&2sa&2 as a d r.

S#"2 B%".) !#( P!&!.h te She%te&
Use sn % b1 &2s ! r t"e sides and para&"$te materia1 ! r 5er"ead & 5er CFi)$re 19-7D. I! sn %!a11 is "ea5y# y $ %i11 "a5e t &1ear sn % !r m t"e t p at re)$1ar inter5a1s t pre5ent t"e & 11apse ! t"e para&"$te materia1.

(a)e 196 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

S#"2 H" $e "& I0%""
In &ertain areas# t"e nati5es !re4$ent1y $se t"is type ! s"e1ter CFi)$re 19-7D as "$ntin) and !is"in) s"e1ters. +"ey are e!!i&ient s"e1ters b$t re4$ire s me pra&ti&e t ma2e t"em pr per1y. A1s # y $ m$st be in an area t"at is s$itab1e ! r &$ttin) sn % b1 &2s and "a5e t"e e4$ipment t &$t t"em Csn % sa% r 2ni!eD.

Le!#-T" She%te&
/ nstr$&t t"is s"e1ter in t"e same manner as ! r t"er en5ir nmentsH " %e5er# pi1e sn % ar $nd t"e sides ! r ins$1ati n CFi)$re 19-9D.

F!%%e# T&ee She%te&
+ b$i1d t"is s"e1ter# !ind a !a11en tree and di) $t t"e sn % $nderneat" it CFi)$re 19-6D. +"e sn % %i11 n t be deep $nder t"e tree. I! y $ m$st rem 5e bran&"es !r m t"e inside# $se t"em t 1ine t"e !1 r.

T&ee-Pit She%te&

(a)e 197 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Di) sn % $t !r m $nder a s$itab1e 1ar)e tree. It %i11 n t be as deep near t"e base ! t"e tree. Use t"e &$t bran&"es t 1ine t"e s"e1ter. Use a )r $nd s"eet as 5er"ead & 5er t pre5ent sn % !r m !a11in) !! t"e tree int t"e s"e1ter. I! b$i1t pr per1y# y $ &an "a5e *6<-de)ree 5isibi1ity CFi)$re 9-12# /"apter 9D.

2>-M!# Li6e R!6t
+"is ra!t is t"e standard 5er%ater ra!t n U.S. Air F r&e air&ra!t. Y $ &an $se it as a s"e1ter. D n t 1et 1ar)e am $nts ! sn % b$i1d $p n t"e 5er"ead pr te&ti n. I! p1a&ed in an pen area# it a1s ser5es as a ) d si)na1 t 5er"ead air&ra!t.

'IR
Fire is espe&ia11y imp rtant in & 1d %eat"er. It n t n1y pr 5ides a means t prepare ! d# b$t a1s t )et %arm and t me1t sn % r i&e ! r %ater. It a1s pr 5ides y $ %it" a si)ni!i&ant psy&" 1 )i&a1 b st by ma2in) y $ !ee1 a 1itt1e m re se&$re in y $r sit$ati n. Use t"e te&"ni4$es des&ribed in /"apter 7 t b$i1d and 1i)"t y $r !ire. I! y $ are in enemy territ ry# remember t"at t"e sm 2e# sme11# and 1i)"t !r m y $r !ire may re5ea1 y $r 1 &ati n. Li)"t re!1e&ts !r m s$rr $ndin) trees r r &2s# ma2in) e5en indire&t 1i)"t a s $r&e ! dan)er. Sm 2e tends t ) strai)"t $p in & 1d# &a1m %eat"er# ma2in) it a bea& n d$rin) t"e day# b$t "e1pin) t & n&ea1 t"e sme11 at ni)"t. In %armer %eat"er# espe&ia11y in a % ded area# sm 2e tends t "$) t"e )r $nd# ma2in) it 1ess 5isib1e in t"e day# b$t ma2in) its d r spread. I! y $ are in enemy territ ry# &$t 1 % tree b $)"s rat"er t"an t"e entire tree ! r !ire% d. Fa11en trees are easi1y seen !r m t"e air. A11 % d %i11 b$rn# b$t s me types ! % d &reate m re sm 2e t"an t"ers. F r instan&e# & ni!er $s trees t"at & ntain resin and tar &reate m re and dar2er sm 2e t"an de&id$ $s trees. +"ere are !e% materia1s t $se ! r !$e1 in t"e "i)" m $ntain $s re)i ns ! t"e ar&ti&. Y $ may !ind s me )rasses and m ss# b$t 5ery 1itt1e. +"e 1 %er t"e e1e5ati n# t"e m re !$e1 a5ai1ab1e. Y $ may !ind s me s&r$b %i11 % and sma11# st$nted spr$&e trees ab 5e t"e tree 1ine. .n sea i&e# !$e1s are seemin)1y n ne?istent. Dri!t% d r !ats may be t"e n1y !$e1s a5ai1ab1e t a s$r5i5 r n t"e barren & ast1ines in t"e ar&ti& and s$bar&ti& re)i ns. Ab$ndant !$e1s %it"in t"e tree 1ine are-• Spr$&e trees are & mm n in t"e interi r re)i ns. As a & ni!er# spr$&e ma2es a 1 t ! sm 2e %"en b$rned in t"e sprin) and s$mmer m nt"s. 0 %e5er# it b$rns a1m st sm 2e-!ree in 1ate !a11 and %inter. • +"e tamara&2 tree is a1s a & ni!er. It is t"e n1y tree ! t"e pine !ami1y t"at 1 ses its need1es in t"e !a11. 3it" $t its need1es# it 1 2s 1i2e a dead spr$&e# b$t it "as many 2n bby b$ds and & nes n its bare bran&"es. 3"en b$rnin)# tamara&2 % d ma2es a 1 t ! sm 2e and is e?&e11ent ! r si)na1in) p$rp ses. • ,ir&" trees are de&id$ $s and t"e % d b$rns " t and !ast# as i! s a2ed %it" i1 r 2er sene. M st bir&"es )r % near streams and 1a2es# b$t &&asi na11y y $ %i11 !ind a !e% n "i)"er )r $nd and a%ay !r m %ater. • 3i11 % and a1der )r % in ar&ti& re)i ns# n rma11y in mars" areas r near 1a2es and streams. +"ese % ds b$rn " t and !ast %it" $t m$&" sm 2e. Dried m ss# )rass# and s&r$b %i11 % are t"er materia1s y $ &an $se ! r !$e1. +"ese are $s$a11y p1enti!$1 near streams in t$ndras C pen# tree1ess p1ainsD. ,y b$nd1in) r t%istin) )rasses r t"er s&r$b 5e)etati n t ! rm a 1ar)e# s 1id mass# y $ %i11 "a5e a s1 %er b$rnin)# m re pr d$&ti5e !$e1. I! !$e1 r i1 is a5ai1ab1e !r m a %re&2ed 5e"i&1e r d %ned air&ra!t# $se it ! r !$e1. Lea5e t"e !$e1 in t"e tan2 ! r st ra)e# dra%in) n t"e s$pp1y n1y as y $ need it. .i1 & n)ea1s in e?treme1y & 1d temperat$res# t"ere! re# drain it !r m t"e 5e"i&1e r air&ra!t %"i1e sti11 %arm i! t"ere is n dan)er ! e?p1 si n r !ire. I! y $ "a5e n & ntainer# 1et t"e i1 drain nt t"e sn % r i&e. S& p $p t"e !$e1 as y $ need it. CAUTION D n t e?p se !1es" t petr 1e$m# i1# and 1$bri&ants in e?treme1y & 1d temperat$res. +"e 1i4$id state !
(a)e 19: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

t"ese pr d$&ts is de&epti5e in t"at it &an &a$se !r stbite. S me p1asti& pr d$&ts# s$&" as MR- sp ns# "e1met 5is rs# 5is r " $sin)s# aid ! am r$bber %i11 i)nite 4$i&21y !r m a b$rnin) mat&". +"ey %i11 a1s b$rn 1 n) en $)" t "e1p start a !ire. F r e?amp1e# a p1asti& sp n %i11 b$rn ! r ab $t 1< min$tes. In & 1d %eat"er re)i ns# t"ere are s me "a'ards in $sin) !ires# %"et"er t 2eep %arm r t & 2. F r e?amp1e-• Fires "a5e been 2n %n t b$rn $nder)r $nd# res$r!a&in) nearby. +"ere! re# d n t b$i1d a !ire t &1 se t a s"e1ter. • In sn % s"e1ters# e?&essi5e "eat %i11 me1t t"e ins$1atin) 1ayer ! sn % t"at may a1s be y $r &am $!1a)e. • A !ire inside a s"e1ter 1a&2in) ade4$ate 5enti1ati n &an res$1t in &arb n m n ?ide p is nin). • A pers n tryin) t )et %arm r t dry &1 t"es may be& me &are1ess and b$rn r s& r&" "is &1 t"in) and e4$ipment. • Me1tin) 5er"ead sn % may )et y $ %et# b$ry y $ and y $r e4$ipment# and p ssib1y e?tin)$is" y $r !ire. In )enera1# a sma11 !ire and s me type ! st 5e is t"e best & mbinati n ! r & 2in) p$rp ses. A " b st 5e CFi)$re 19-7D is parti&$1ar1y s$itab1e t t"e ar&ti&. It is easy t ma2e $t ! a tin &an# and it & nser5es !$e1. A bed ! " t & a1s pr 5ides t"e best & 2in) "eat. / a1s !r m a &riss&r ss !ire %i11 sett1e $ni! rm1y. Ma2e t"is type ! !ire by &riss&r ssin) t"e !ire% d. A simp1e &rane pr pped n a ! r2ed sti&2 %i11 " 1d a & 2in) & ntainer 5er a !ire.

F r "eatin) p$rp ses# a sin)1e &and1e pr 5ides en $)" "eat t %arm an en&1 sed s"e1ter. A sma11 !ire ab $t t"e si'e ! a manFs "and is idea1 ! r $se in enemy territ ry. It re4$ires 5ery 1itt1e !$e1# yet it )enerates & nsiderab1e %armt" and is " t en $)" t %arm 1i4$ids.

3AT R
+"ere are many s $r&es ! %ater in t"e ar&ti& and s$bar&ti&. Y $r 1 &ati n and t"e seas n ! t"e year %i11 determine %"ere and " % y $ btain %ater. 3ater s $r&es in ar&ti& and s$bar&ti& re)i ns are m re sanitary t"an in t"er re)i ns d$e t t"e &1imati& and en5ir nmenta1 & nditi ns. 0 %e5er# always puri!y t"e %ater be! re drin2in) it. D$rin) t"e s$mmer m nt"s# t"e best nat$ra1 s $r&es ! %ater are !res"%ater 1a2es# streams# p nds# ri5ers# and sprin)s. 3ater !r m p nds r 1a2es may be s1i)"t1y sta)nant# b$t sti11 $sab1e. R$nnin) %ater in streams# ri5ers# and b$bb1in) sprin)s is $s$a11y !res" and s$itab1e ! r drin2in).
(a)e 19; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+"e br %nis" s$r!a&e %ater ! $nd in a t$ndra d$rin) t"e s$mmer is a ) d s $r&e ! %ater. 0 %e5er# y $ may "a5e t !i1ter t"e %ater be! re p$ri!yin) it. Y $ &an me1t !res"%ater i&e and sn % ! r %ater. / mp1ete1y me1t b t" be! re p$ttin) t"em in y $r m $t". +ryin) t me1t i&e r sn % in y $r m $t" ta2es a%ay b dy "eat and may &a$se interna1 & 1d in@$ries. I! n r near pa&2 i&e in t"e sea# y $ &an $se 1d sea i&e t me1t ! r %ater. In time# sea i&e 1 ses its sa1inity. Y $ &an identi!y t"is i&e by its r $nded & rners and b1$is" & 1 r. Y $ &an $se b dy "eat t me1t sn %. (1a&e t"e sn % in a %ater ba) and p1a&e t"e ba) bet%een y $r 1ayers ! &1 t"in). +"is is a s1 % pr &ess# b$t y $ &an $se it n t"e m 5e r %"en y $ "a5e n !ire. 8ote9 <o not waste !uel to melt ice or snow when drinkable water is available !rom other sources. 3"en i&e is a5ai1ab1e# me1t it# rat"er t"an sn %. .ne &$p ! i&e yie1ds m re %ater t"an ne &$p ! sn %. I&e a1s ta2es 1ess time t me1t. Y $ &an me1t i&e r sn % in a %ater ba)# MR- rati n ba)# tin &an# r impr 5ised & ntainer by p1a&in) t"e & ntainer near a !ire. ,e)in %it" a sma11 am $nt ! i&e r sn % in t"e & ntainer and# as it t$rns t %ater# add m re i&e r sn %. An t"er %ay t me1t i&e r sn % is by p$ttin) it in a ba) made !r m p r $s materia1 and s$spendin) t"e ba) near t"e !ire. (1a&e a & ntainer $nder t"e ba) t &at&" t"e %ater. D$rin) & 1d %eat"er# a5 id drin2in) a 1 t ! 1i4$id be! re ) in) t bed. /ra%1in) $t ! a %arm s1eepin) ba) at ni)"t t re1ie5e y $rse1! means 1ess rest and m re e?p s$re t t"e & 1d. .n&e y $ "a5e %ater# 2eep it ne?t t y $ t pre5ent re!ree'in). A1s # d n t !i11 y $r &anteen & mp1ete1y. A11 %in) t"e %ater t s1 s" ar $nd %i11 "e1p 2eep it !r m !ree'in).

'OO,
+"ere are se5era1 s $r&es ! ! d in t"e ar&ti& and s$bar&ti& re)i ns. +"e type ! ! d--!is"# anima1# ! %1# r p1ant--and t"e ease in btainin) it depend n t"e time ! t"e year and y $r 1 &ati n.

Fi$h
D$rin) t"e s$mmer m nt"s# y $ &an easi1y )et !is" and t"er %ater 1i!e !r m & asta1 %aters# streams# ri5ers# and 1a2es. Use t"e te&"ni4$es des&ribed in /"apter : t &at&" !is". +"e N rt" At1anti& and N rt" (a&i!i& & asta1 %aters are ri&" in sea! d. Y $ &an easi1y !ind &ra%!is"# snai1s# &1ams# ysters# and 2in) &rab. In areas %"ere t"ere is a )reat di!!eren&e bet%een t"e "i)" and 1 % tide %ater 1e5e1s# y $ &an easi1y !ind s"e11!is" at 1 % tide. Di) in t"e sand n t"e tida1 !1ats. L 2 in tida1 p 1s and n !!s" re ree!s. In areas %"ere t"ere is a sma11 di!!eren&e bet%een t"e "i)"- and 1 %-tide %ater 1e5e1s# st rm %a5es !ten %as" s"e11!is" nt t"e bea&"es. +"e e))s ! t"e spiny sea $r&"in t"at 1i5es in t"e %aters ar $nd t"e A1e$tian Is1ands and s $t"ern A1as2a are e?&e11ent ! d. L 2 ! r t"e sea $r&"ins in tida1 p 1s. ,rea2 t"e s"e11 by p1a&in) it bet%een t% st nes. +"e e))s are bri)"t ye11 % in & 1 r. M st n rt"ern !is" and !is" e))s are edib1e. -?&epti ns are t"e meat ! t"e ar&ti& s"ar2 and t"e e))s ! t"e s&$1pins. +"e bi5a15es# s$&" as &1ams and m$sse1s# are $s$a11y m re pa1atab1e t"an spira1-s"e11ed sea! d# s$&" as snai1s. *ARNIN1 +"e b1a&2 m$sse1# a & mm n m 11$s2 ! t"e !ar n rt"# may be p is n $s in any seas n. + ?ins s metimes ! $nd in t"e m$sse1Fs tiss$e are as dan)er $s as stry&"nine. +"e sea &$&$mber is an t"er edib1e sea anima1. Inside its b dy are !i5e 1 n) %"ite m$s&1es t"at taste m$&" 1i2e &1am meat. In ear1y s$mmer# sme1t spa%n in t"e bea&" s$r!. S metimes y $ &an s& p t"em $p %it" y $r "ands. Y $ &an !ten !ind "errin) e))s n t"e sea%eed in mids$mmer. 8e1p# t"e 1 n) ribb n1i2e sea%eed# and t"er sma11er sea%eed t"at )r % am n) !!s" re r &2s are a1s edib1e.

Se! I.e A#i+!%$
(a)e 16< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Y $ !ind p 1ar bears in pra&ti&a11y a11 ar&ti& & asta1 re)i ns# b$t rare1y in1and. A5 id t"em i! p ssib1e. +"ey are t"e m st dan)er $s ! a11 bears. +"ey are tire1ess# &1e5er "$nters %it" ) d si)"t and an e?tra rdinary sense ! sme11. I! y $ m$st 2i11 ne ! r ! d# appr a&" it &a$ti $s1y. Aim ! r t"e brainH a b$11et e1se%"ere %i11 rare1y 2i11 ne. A1%ays & 2 p 1ar bear meat be! re eatin) it. CAUTION D n t eat p 1ar bear 1i5er as it & ntains a t ?i& & n&entrati n ! 5itamin A. -ar1ess sea1 meat is s me ! t"e best meat a5ai1ab1e. Y $ need & nsiderab1e s2i11# " %e5er# t )et &1 se en $)" t an ear1ess sea1 t 2i11 it. In sprin)# sea1s !ten bas2 n t"e i&e beside t"eir breat"in) " 1es. +"ey raise t"eir "eads ab $t e5ery *< se& nds# " %e5er# t 1 2 ! r t"eir enemy# t"e p 1ar bear. + appr a&" a sea1# d as t"e -s2im s d --stay d %n%ind !r m it# &a$ti $s1y m 5in) &1 ser %"i1e it s1eeps. I! it m 5es# st p and imitate its m 5ements by 1yin) !1at n t"e i&e# raisin) y $r "ead $p and d %n# and %ri))1in) y $r b dy s1i)"t1y. Appr a&" t"e sea1 %it" y $r b dy side-%ays t it and y $r arms &1 se t y $r b dy s t"at y $ 1 2 as m$&" 1i2e an t"er sea1 as p ssib1e. +"e i&e at t"e ed)e ! t"e breat"in) " 1e is $s$a11y sm t" and at an in&1ine# s t"e 1east m 5ement ! t"e sea1 may &a$se it t s1ide int t"e %ater. +"ere! re# try t )et %it"in 22 t 79 meters ! t"e sea1 and 2i11 it instant1y Caim ! r t"e brainD. +ry t rea&" t"e sea1 be! re it s1ips int t"e %ater. In %inter# a dead sea1 %i11 $s$a11y !1 at# b$t it is di!!i&$1t t retrie5e !r m t"e %ater. 8eep t"e sea1 b1$bber and s2in !r m & min) int & nta&t %it" any s&rat&" r br 2en s2in y $ may "a5e. Y $ & $1d )et Jspe22-!in)er#J t"at is# a rea&ti n t"at &a$ses t"e "ands t be& me bad1y s% 11en. 8eep in mind t"at %"ere t"ere are sea1s# t"ere are $s$a11y p 1ar bears# and p 1ar bears "a5e sta12ed and 2i11ed sea1 "$nters. Y $ &an !ind p r&$pines in s $t"ern s$bar&ti& re)i ns %"ere t"ere are trees. ( r&$pines !eed n bar2H i! y $ !ind tree 1imbs stripped bare# y $ are 1i2e1y t !ind p r&$pines in t"e area. (tarmi)ans# %1s# /anadian @ays# )r $se# and ra5ens are t"e n1y birds t"at remain in t"e ar&ti& d$rin) t"e %inter. +"ey are s&ar&e n rt" ! t"e tree 1ine. (tarmi)ans and %1s are as ) d ! r ! d as any )ame bird. Ra5ens are t t"in t be % rt" t"e e!! rt it ta2es t &at&" t"em. (tarmi)ans# %"i&" &"an)e & 1 r t b1end %it" t"eir s$rr $ndin)s# are "ard t sp t. R &2 ptarmi)ans tra5e1 in pairs and y $ &an easi1y appr a&" t"em. 3i11 % ptarmi)ans 1i5e am n) %i11 % &1$mps in b tt m-1ands. +"ey )at"er in 1ar)e !1 &2s and y $ &an easi1y snare t"em. D$rin) t"e s$mmer m nt"s a11 ar&ti& birds "a5e a 2- t *-%ee2 m 1tin) peri d d$rin) %"i&" t"ey &ann t !1y and are easy t &at&". Use ne ! t"e te&"ni4$es des&ribed in /"apter : t &at&" t"em. S2in and b$t&"er )ame Csee /"apter :D %"i1e it is sti11 %arm. I! y $ d n t "a5e time t s2in t"e )ame# at 1east rem 5e its entrai1s# m$s2 )1ands# and )enita1s be! re st rin). I! time a11 %s# &$t t"e meat int $sab1e pie&es and !ree'e ea&" separate1y s t"at y $ &an $se t"e pie&es as needed. Lea5e t"e !at n a11 anima1s e?&ept sea1s. D$rin) t"e %inter# )ame !ree'es 4$i&21y i! 1e!t in t"e pen. D$rin) t"e s$mmer# y $ &an st re it in $nder)r $nd i&e " 1es.

P%!#t$
A1t" $)" t$ndras s$pp rt a 5ariety ! p1ants d$rin) t"e %arm m nt"s# a11 are sma11# " %e5er# %"en & mpared t p1ants in %armer &1imates. F r instan&e# t"e ar&ti& %i11 % and bir&" are s"r$bs rat"er t"an trees. +"e ! 11 %in) is a 1ist ! s me p1ant ! ds ! $nd in ar&ti& and s$bar&ti& re)i ns Csee Appendi? , ! r des&ripti nsD. ARCTIC FOOD PLANTS • Ar&ti& raspberry and b1$eberry • Ar&ti& %i11 % • ,earberry • /ranberry • /r %berry • Dande1i n • -s2im p tat • Fire%eed
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• • • • •

I&e1and m ss Mars" mari) 1d Reindeer m ss R &2 tripe Spatterd &2

+"ere are s me p1ants )r %in) in ar&ti& and s$bar&ti& re)i ns t"at are p is n $s i! eaten Csee Appendi? /D. Use t"e p1ants t"at y $ 2n % are edib1e. 3"en in d $bt# ! 11 % t"e Uni5ersa1 -dibi1ity +est in /"apter ;# Fi)$re ;-9.

TRAV L
As a s$r5i5 r r an e5ader in an ar&ti& r s$bar&ti& re)i n# y $ %i11 !a&e many bsta&1es. Y $r 1 &ati n and t"e time ! t"e year %i11 determine t"e types ! bsta&1es and t"e in"erent dan)ers. Y $ s" $1d-• A5 id tra5e1in) d$rin) a b1i''ard. • +a2e &are %"en &r ssin) t"in i&e. Distrib$te y $r %ei)"t by 1yin) !1at and &ra%1in). • /r ss streams %"en t"e %ater 1e5e1 is 1 %est. N rma1 !ree'in) and t"a%in) a&ti n may &a$se a stream 1e5e1 t 5ary as m$&" as 2 t 2.9 meters per day. +"is 5arian&e may &&$r any time d$rin) t"e day# dependin) n t"e distan&e !r m a )1a&ier# t"e temperat$re# and t"e terrain. / nsider t"is 5ariati n in %ater 1e5e1 %"en se1e&tin) a &ampsite near a stream. • / nsider t"e &1ear ar&ti& air. It ma2es estimatin) distan&e di!!i&$1t. Y $ m re !re4$ent1y $nderestimate t"an 5erestimate distan&es. • D n t tra5e1 in J%"ite $tJ & nditi ns. +"e 1a&2 ! & ntrastin) & 1 rs ma2es it imp ssib1e t @$d)e t"e nat$re ! t"e terrain. • A1%ays &r ss a sn % brid)e at ri)"t an)1es t t"e bsta&1e it &r sses. Find t"e str n)est part ! t"e brid)e by p 2in) a"ead ! y $ %it" a p 1e r i&e a?e. Distrib$te y $r %ei)"t by &ra%1in) r by %earin) sn %s" es r s2is. • Ma2e &amp ear1y s t"at y $ "a5e p1enty ! time t b$i1d a s"e1ter. • / nsider !r 'en r $n!r 'en ri5ers as a5en$es ! tra5e1. 0 %e5er# s me ri5ers t"at appear !r 'en may "a5e s !t# pen areas t"at ma2e tra5e1 5ery di!!i&$1t r may n t a11 % %a12in)# s2iin)# r s1eddin). • Use sn %s" es i! y $ are tra5e1in) 5er sn %-& 5ered terrain. Sn % *< r m re &entimeters deep ma2es tra5e1in) di!!i&$1t. I! y $ d n t "a5e sn %s" es# ma2e a pair $sin) %i11 %# strips ! &1 t"# 1eat"er# r t"er s$itab1e materia1. It is a1m st imp ssib1e t tra5e1 in deep sn % %it" $t sn %s" es r s2is. +ra5e1in) by ! t 1ea5es a %e11mar2ed trai1 ! r any p$rs$ers t ! 11 %. I! y $ m$st tra5e1 in deep sn %# a5 id sn %-& 5ered streams. +"e sn %# %"i&" a&ts as an ins$1at r# may "a5e pre5ented i&e !r m ! rmin) 5er t"e %ater. In "i11y terrain# a5 id areas %"ere a5a1an&"es appear p ssib1e. +ra5e1 in t"e ear1y m rnin) in areas %"ere t"ere is dan)er ! a5a1an&"es. .n rid)es# sn % )at"ers n t"e 1ee side in 5er"an)in) pi1es &a11ed & rni&es. +"ese !ten e?tend !ar $t !r m t"e rid)e and may brea2 1 se i! stepped n.

3 AT. R SI/NS
+"ere are se5era1 ) d indi&at rs ! &1imati& &"an)es.

*i#(
Y $ &an determine %ind dire&ti n by dr ppin) a !e% 1ea5es r )rass r by %at&"in) t"e treet ps. .n&e y $ determine t"e %ind dire&ti n# y $ &an predi&t t"e type ! %eat"er t"at is imminent. Rapid1y s"i!tin) %inds indi&ate an $nsett1ed atm sp"ere and a 1i2e1y &"an)e in t"e %eat"er.

C%" ($
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/1 $ds & me in a 5ariety ! s"apes and patterns. A )enera1 2n %1ed)e ! &1 $ds and t"e atm sp"eri& & nditi ns t"ey indi&ate &an "e1p y $ predi&t t"e %eat"er. See Appendi? 6 ! r detai1s.

S+")e
Sm 2e risin) in a t"in 5erti&a1 & 1$mn indi&ates !air %eat"er. L % risin) r J!1attened $tJ sm 2e indi&ates st rmy %eat"er.

Bi&($ !#( I#$e.t$
,irds and inse&ts !1y 1 %er t t"e )r $nd t"an n rma1 in "ea5y# m ist$re-1aden air. S$&" !1i)"t indi&ates t"at rain is 1i2e1y. M st inse&t a&ti5ity in&reases be! re a st rm# b$t bee a&ti5ity in&reases be! re !air %eat"er.

L"2-P&e$$ &e F&"#t
S1 %-m 5in) r imper&eptib1e %inds and "ea5y# "$mid air !ten indi&ate a 1 %-press$re !r nt. S$&" a !r nt pr mises bad %eat"er t"at %i11 pr bab1y 1in)er ! r se5era1 days. Y $ &an Jsme11J and J"earJ t"is !r nt. +"e s1$))is"# "$mid air ma2es %i1derness d rs m re pr n $n&ed t"an d$rin) "i)"-press$re & nditi ns. In additi n# s $nds are s"arper and &arry !art"er in 1 %-press$re t"an "i)"-press$re & nditi ns.

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Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 16 - SEA SURVIVAL

:erhaps the most di!!icult survival situation to be in is sea survival. Short%or long%term survival depends upon rations and e)uipment available and your ingenuity. @ou must be resource!ul to survive. ater covers about F6 percent o! the earth.s sur!ace" with about F; percent being oceans and seas. @ou can assume that you will sometime cross vast e+panses o! water. There is always the chance that the plane or ship you are on will become crippled by such ha*ards as storms" collision" !ire" or war.

T. OP N S A
As a s$r5i5 r n t"e pen sea# y $ %i11 !a&e %a5es and %ind. Y $ may a1s !a&e e?treme "eat r & 1d. + 2eep t"ese en5ir nmenta1 "a'ards !r m be& min) seri $s pr b1ems# ta2e pre&a$ti nary meas$res as s n as p ssib1e. Use t"e a5ai1ab1e res $r&es t pr te&t y $rse1! !r m t"e e1ements and !r m "eat r e?treme & 1d and "$midity. (r te&tin) y $rse1! !r m t"e e1ements meets n1y ne ! y $r basi& needs. Y $ m$st a1s be ab1e t btain %ater and ! d. Satis!yin) t"ese t"ree basi& needs %i11 "e1p pre5ent seri $s p"ysi&a1 and psy&" 1 )i&a1 pr b1ems. 0 %e5er# y $ m$st 2n % " % t treat "ea1t" pr b1ems t"at may res$1t !r m y $r sit$ati n.

P&e.! ti"#!&3 Me!$ &e$
Y $r s$r5i5a1 at sea depends $p n-• Y $r 2n %1ed)e ! and abi1ity t $se t"e a5ai1ab1e s$r5i5a1 e4$ipment. • Y $r spe&ia1 s2i11s and abi1ity t app1y t"em t & pe %it" t"e "a'ards y $ !a&e. • Y $r %i11 t 1i5e. 3"en y $ b ard a s"ip r air&ra!t# !ind $t %"at s$r5i5a1 e4$ipment is n b ard# %"ere it is st %ed# and %"at it & ntains. F r instan&e# " % many 1i!e preser5ers and 1i!eb ats r ra!ts are n b ardG 3"ere are t"ey 1 &atedG 3"at type ! s$r5i5a1 e4$ipment d t"ey "a5eG 0 % m$&" ! d# %ater# and medi&ine d t"ey & ntainG 0 % many pe p1e are t"ey desi)ned t s$pp rtG I! y $ are resp nsib1e ! r t"er pers nne1 n b ard# ma2e s$re y $ 2n % %"ere t"ey are and t"ey 2n % %"ere y $ are.

D"2# !t Se!
I! y $ are in an air&ra!t t"at ) es d %n at sea# ta2e t"e ! 11 %in) a&ti ns n&e y $ &1ear t"e air&ra!t. 3"et"er y $ are in t"e %ater r in a ra!t -• 6et &1ear and $p%ind ! t"e air&ra!t as s n as p ssib1e# b$t stay in t"e 5i&inity $nti1 t"e air&ra!t sin2s. • 6et &1ear ! !$e1-& 5ered %ater in &ase t"e !$e1 i)nites.
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+ry t !ind t"er s$r5i5 rs.

A sear&" ! r s$r5i5 rs $s$a11y ta2es p1a&e ar $nd t"e entire area ! and near t"e &ras" site. Missin) pers nne1 may be $n& ns&i $s and !1 atin) 1 % in t"e %ater. Fi)$re 16-1 i11$strates res&$e pr &ed$res.

+"e best te&"ni4$e ! r res&$in) pers nne1 !r m t"e %ater is t t"r % t"em a 1i!e preser5er atta&"ed t a 1ine. An t"er is t send a s%immer Cres&$erD !r m t"e ra!t %it" a 1ine atta&"ed t a !1 tati n de5i&e t"at %i11 s$pp rt t"e res&$erFs %ei)"t. +"is de5i&e %i11 "e1p & nser5e a res&$erFs ener)y %"i1e re& 5erin) t"e s$r5i5 r. +"e 1east a&&eptab1e te&"ni4$e is t send an atta&"ed s%immer %it" $t !1 tati n de5i&es t retrie5e a s$r5i5 r. In a11 &ases# t"e res&$er %ears a 1i!e preser5er. A res&$er s" $1d n t $nderestimate t"e stren)t" ! a pani&-stri&2en pers n in t"e %ater. A &are!$1 appr a&" &an pre5ent in@$ry t t"e res&$er. 3"en t"e res&$er appr a&"es a s$r5i5 r in tr $b1e !r m be"ind# t"ere is 1itt1e dan)er t"e s$r5i5 r %i11 2i&2# s&rat&"# r )rab "im. +"e res&$er s%ims t a p int dire&t1y be"ind t"e s$r5i5 r and )rasps t"e 1i!e preser5erFs ba&2strap. +"e res&$er $ses t"e sidestr 2e t dra) t"e s$r5i5 r t t"e ra!t.

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I! y $ are in t"e %ater# ma2e y $r %ay t a ra!t. I! n ra!ts are a5ai1ab1e# try t !ind a 1ar)e pie&e ! !1 atin) debris t &1in) t . Re1a?H a pers n %" 2n %s " % t re1a? in &ean %ater is in 5ery 1itt1e dan)er ! dr %nin). +"e b dyFs nat$ra1 b$ yan&y %i11 2eep at 1east t"e t p ! t"e "ead ab 5e %ater# b$t s me m 5ement is needed t 2eep t"e !a&e ab 5e %ater. F1 atin) n y $r ba&2 ta2es t"e 1east ener)y. Lie n y $r ba&2 in t"e %ater# spread y $r arms and 1e)s# and ar&" y $r ba&2. ,y & ntr 11in) y $r breat"in) in and $t# y $r !a&e %i11 a1%ays be $t ! t"e %ater and y $ may e5en s1eep in t"is p siti n ! r s" rt peri ds. Y $r "ead %i11 be partia11y s$bmer)ed# b$t y $r !a&e %i11 be ab 5e %ater. I! y $ &ann t !1 at n y $r ba&2 r i! t"e sea is t r $)"# !1 at !a&ed %n in t"e %ater as s" %n in Fi)$re 16-2.

+"e ! 11 %in) are t"e best s%immin) str 2es d$rin) a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati nI • <og paddle. +"is str 2e is e?&e11ent %"en &1 t"ed r %earin) a 1i!e @a&2et. A1t" $)" s1 % in speed# it re4$ires 5ery 1itt1e ener)y. • ?reaststroke. Use t"is str 2e t s%im $nder%ater# t"r $)" i1 r debris# r in r $)" seas. It is pr bab1y t"e best str 2e ! r 1 n)-ran)e s%immin)I it a11 %s y $ t & nser5e y $r ener)y and maintain a reas nab1e speed. • Sidestroke. It is a ) d re1ie! str 2e be&a$se y $ $se n1y ne arm t maintain m ment$m and b$ yan&y. • ?ackstroke. +"is str 2e is a1s an e?&e11ent re1ie! str 2e. It re1ie5es t"e m$s&1es t"at y $ $se ! r t"er str 2es. Use it i! an $nder%ater e?p1 si n is 1i2e1y. I! y $ are in an area %"ere s$r!a&e i1 is b$rnin)-• Dis&ard y $r s" es and b$ yant 1i!e preser5er. 8ote9 I! you have an unin!lated li!e preserver" keep it.
• • •

/ 5er y $r n se# m $t"# and eyes and 4$i&21y ) $nder%ater. S%im $nder%ater as !ar as p ssib1e be! re s$r!a&in) t breat"e. ,e! re s$r!a&in) t breat"e and %"i1e sti11 $nder%ater# $se y $r "ands t p$s" b$rnin) !1$id a%ay !r m t"e area %"ere y $ %is" t s$r!a&e. .n&e an area is &1ear ! b$rnin) 1i4$id# y $ &an s$r!a&e and ta2e a !e% breat"s. +ry t !a&e d %n%ind be! re in"a1in). S$bmer)e !eet !irst and & ntin$e as ab 5e $nti1 &1ear ! t"e !1ames.

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I! y $ are in i1-& 5ered %ater t"at is !ree ! !ire# " 1d y $r "ead "i)" t 2eep t"e i1 $t ! y $r eyes. Atta&" y $r 1i!e preser5er t y $r %rist and t"en $se it as a ra!t. I! y $ "a5e a 1i!e preser5er# y $ &an stay a!1 at ! r an inde!inite peri d. In t"is &ase# $se t"e J0-L(J b dy p siti nI 0eat -s&apin) Lessenin) ( st$re C0-L(D. Remain sti11 and ass$me t"e !eta1 p siti n t "e1p y $ retain b dy "eat. Y $ 1 se ab $t 9< per&ent ! y $r b dy "eat t"r $)" y $r "ead. +"ere! re# 2eep y $r "ead $t ! t"e %ater. .t"er areas ! "i)" "eat 1 ss are t"e ne&2# t"e sides# and t"e )r in. Fi)$re 16-* i11$strates t"e 0-L( p siti n.

I! y $ are in a ra!t-• /"e&2 t"e p"ysi&a1 & nditi n ! a11 n b ard. 6i5e !irst aid i! ne&essary. +a2e seasi&2ness pi11s i! a5ai1ab1e. +"e best %ay t ta2e t"ese pi11s is t p1a&e t"em $nder t"e t n)$e and 1et t"em diss 15e. +"ere are a1s s$pp sit ries r in@e&ti ns a)ainst seasi&2ness. V mitin)# %"et"er !r m seasi&2ness r t"er &a$ses# in&reases t"e dan)er ! de"ydrati n. • +ry t sa15a)e a11 !1 atin) e4$ipment--rati nsH &anteens# t"erm s @$)s# and t"er & ntainersH &1 t"in)H seat &$s"i nsH para&"$tesH and anyt"in) e1se t"at %i11 be $se!$1 t y $. Se&$re t"e sa15a)ed items in r t y $r ra!t. Ma2e s$re t"e items "a5e n s"arp ed)es t"at &an p$n&t$re t"e ra!t. • I! t"ere are t"er ra!ts# 1as" t"e ra!ts t )et"er s t"ey are ab $t 7.9 meters apart. ,e ready t dra% t"em &1 ser t )et"er i! y $ see r "ear an air&ra!t. It is easier ! r an air&re% t sp t ra!ts t"at are &1 se t )et"er rat"er t"an s&attered. • Remember# res&$e at sea is a & perati5e e!! rt. Use a11 a5ai1ab1e 5is$a1 r e1e&tr ni& si)na1in) de5i&es t si)na1 and ma2e & nta&t %it" res&$ers. F r e?amp1e# raise a !1a) r re!1e&tin) materia1 n an ar as "i)" as p ssib1e t attra&t attenti n. • L &ate t"e emer)en&y radi and )et it int perati n. .peratin) instr$&ti ns are n it. Use t"e emer)en&y trans&ei5er n1y %"en !riend1y air&ra!t are 1i2e1y t be in t"e area. • 0a5e t"er si)na1in) de5i&es ready ! r instant $se. I! y $ are in enemy territ ry# a5 id $sin) a si)na1in) de5i&e t"at %i11 a1ert t"e enemy. 0 %e5er# i! y $r sit$ati n is desperate# y $ may "a5e t si)na1 t"e enemy ! r res&$e i! y $ are t s$r5i5e.

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US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

/"e&2 t"e ra!t ! r in!1ati n# 1ea2s# and p ints ! p ssib1e &"a!in). Ma2e s$re t"e main b$ yan&y &"ambers are !irm C%e11 r $ndedD b$t n t 5er1y ti)"t CFi)$re 16-7D. /"e&2 in!1ati n re)$1ar1y. Air e?pands %it" "eatH t"ere! re# n " t days# re1ease s me air and add air %"en t"e %eat"er & 1s. • De& ntaminate t"e ra!t ! a11 !$e1. (etr 1e$m %i11 %ea2en its s$r!a&es and brea2 d %n its )1$ed @ ints. +"r % $t t"e sea an&" r# r impr 5ise a dra) !r m t"e ra!tFs &ase# bai1in) b$&2et# r a r 11 ! &1 t"in). A sea an&" r "e1ps y $ stay &1 se t y $r dit&"in) site# ma2in) it easier ! r sear&"ers t !ind y $ i! y $ "a5e re1ayed y $r 1 &ati n. 3it" $t a sea an&" r# y $r ra!t may dri!t 5er 16< 2i1 meters in a day# ma2in) it m$&" "arder t !ind y $. Y $ &an ad@$st t"e sea an&" r t a&t as a dra) t s1 % d %n t"e rate ! tra5e1 %it" t"e &$rrent# r as a means t tra5e1 %it" t"e &$rrent. Y $ ma2e t"is ad@$stment by penin) r &1 sin) t"e sea an&" rFs ape?. 3"en pen# t"e sea an&" r CFi)$re 16-9D a&ts as a dra) t"at 2eeps y $ in t"e )enera1 area. 3"en &1 sed# it ! rms a p &2et ! r t"e &$rrent t stri2e and pr pe1s t"e ra!t in t"e &$rrentFs dire&ti n.

(a)e 16: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Additi na11y# ad@$st t"e sea an&" r s t"at %"en t"e ra!t is n t"e %a5eFs &rest# t"e sea an&" r is in t"e %a5eFs tr $)" CFi)$re 16-6D. • 3rap t"e sea an&" r r pe %it" &1 t" t pre5ent its &"a!in) t"e ra!t. +"e an&" r a1s "e1ps t 2eep t"e ra!t "eaded int t"e %ind and %a5es. • In st rmy %ater# ri) t"e spray and %inds"ie1d at n&e. In a 2<-man ra!t# 2eep t"e &an py ere&ted at a11 times. 8eep y $r ra!t as dry as p ssib1e. 8eep it pr per1y ba1an&ed. A11 pers nne1 s" $1d stay seated# t"e "ea5iest ne in t"e &enter. • /a1m1y & nsider a11 aspe&ts ! y $r sit$ati n and determine %"at y $ and y $r & mpani ns m$st d t s$r5i5e. In5ent ry a11 e4$ipment# ! d# and %ater. 3aterpr ! items t"at sa1t %ater may a!!e&t. +"ese in&1$de & mpasses# %at&"es# se?tant# mat&"es# and 1i)"ters. Rati n ! d and %ater. • Assi)n a d$ty p siti n t ea&" pers nI ! r e?amp1e# %ater & 11e&t r# ! d & 11e&t r# 1 2 $t# radi perat r# si)na1er# and %ater bai1ers. 8ote9 Lookout duty should not e+ceed 3 hours. Aeep in mind and remind others that cooperation is one o! the keys to survival.

8eep a 1 ). Re& rd t"e na5i)at rFs 1ast !i?# t"e time ! dit&"in)# t"e names and p"ysi&a1 & nditi n ! pers nne1# and t"e rati n s&"ed$1e. A1s re& rd t"e %inds# %eat"er# dire&ti n ! s%e11s# times ! s$nrise and s$nset# and t"er na5i)ati na1 data. I! y $ are d %n in $n!riend1y %aters# ta2e spe&ia1 se&$rity meas$res t a5 id dete&ti n. D n t tra5e1 in t"e daytime. +"r % $t t"e sea an&" r and %ait ! r ni)"t!a11 be! re padd1in) r " istin) sai1. 8eep 1 % in t"e ra!tH stay & 5ered %it" t"e b1$e side ! t"e &am $!1a)e &1 t" $p. ,e s$re a passin) s"ip r air&ra!t is !riend1y r ne$tra1 be-! re tryin) t attra&t its attenti n. I! t"e enemy dete&ts y $ and y $ are &1 se t &apt$re# destr y t"e 1 ) b 2# radi # na5i)ati n e4$ipment# maps# si)na1in) e4$ipment# and !irearms. >$mp 5erb ard and s$bmer)e i! t"e enemy starts stra!in). De&ide %"et"er t stay in p siti n r t tra5e1. As2 y $rse1!# J0 % m$&" in! rmati n %as si)na1ed be! re t"e a&&identG Is y $r p siti n 2n %n t res&$ersG D y $ 2n % it y $rse1!G Is t"e %eat"er !a5 rab1e ! r a sear&"G Are t"er s"ips r air&ra!t 1i2e1y t pass y $r present p siti nG 0 % many days s$pp1y ! ! d and %ater d y $ "a5eGJ

C"%( *e!the& C"#$i(e&!ti"#$
I! y $ are in a & 1d &1imate--

(a)e 16; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

• • • • • •

($t n an antie?p s$re s$it. I! $na5ai1ab1e# p$t n any e?tra &1 t"in) a5ai1ab1e. 8eep &1 t"es 1 se and & m! rtab1e. +a2e &are n t t sna) t"e ra!t %it" s" es r s"arp b@e&ts. 8eep t"e repair 2it %"ere y $ &an readi1y rea&" it. Ri) a %indbrea2# spray s"ie1d# and &an py. +ry t 2eep t"e !1 r ! t"e ra!t dry. / 5er it %it" &an5as r &1 t" ! r ins$1ati n. 0$dd1e %it" t"ers t 2eep %arm# m 5in) en $)" t 2eep t"e b1 d &ir&$1atin). Spread an e?tra tarpa$1in# sai1# r para&"$te 5er t"e )r $p. 6i5e e?tra rati ns# i! a5ai1ab1e# t men s$!!erin) !r m e?p s$re t & 1d.

+"e )reatest pr b1em y $ !a&e %"en s$bmer)ed in & 1d %ater is deat" d$e t "yp t"ermia. 3"en y $ are immersed in & 1d %ater# "yp t"ermia &&$rs rapid1y d$e t t"e de&reased ins$1atin) 4$a1ity ! %et &1 t"in) and t"e res$1t ! %ater disp1a&in) t"e 1ayer ! sti11 air t"at n rma11y s$rr $nds t"e b dy. +"e rate ! "eat e?&"an)e in %ater is ab $t 29 times )reater t"an it is in air ! t"e same temperat$re. Fi)$re 16-7 1ists 1i!e e?pe&tan&y times ! r immersi n in %ater.

Y $r best pr te&ti n a)ainst t"e e!!e&ts ! & 1d %ater is t )et int t"e 1i!e ra!t# stay dry# and ins$1ate y $r b dy !r m t"e & 1d s$r!a&e ! t"e b tt m ! t"e ra!t. I! t"ese a&ti ns are n t p ssib1e# %earin) an antie?p s$re s$it %i11 e?tend y $r 1i!e e?pe&tan&y & nsiderab1y. Remember# 2eep y $r "ead and ne&2 $t ! t"e %ater and %e11 ins$1ated !r m t"e & 1d %aterFs e!!e&ts %"en t"e temperat$re is be1 % 1; de)rees /. 3earin) 1i!e preser5ers in&reases t"e predi&ted s$r5i5a1 time as b dy p siti n in t"e %ater in&reases t"e &"an&e ! s$r5i5a1.

H"t *e!the& C"#$i(e&!ti"#$
I! y $ are in a " t &1imate-• Ri) a s$ns"ade r &an py. Lea5e en $)" spa&e ! r 5enti1ati n. • / 5er y $r s2in# %"ere p ssib1e# t pr te&t it !r m s$nb$rn. Use s$nb$rn &ream# i! a5ai1ab1e# n a11 e?p sed s2in. Y $r eye1ids# t"e ba&2 ! y $r ears# and t"e s2in $nder y $r &"in s$nb$rn easi1y.

R!6t P&".e( &e$
M st ! t"e ra!ts in t"e U. S. Army and Air F r&e in5ent ries &an satis!y t"e needs ! r pers na1 pr te&ti n# m de ! tra5e1# and e5asi n and &am $!1a)e. 8ote9 ?e!ore boarding any ra!t" remove and tether &attach' your li!e preserver to yoursel! or the ra!t. Cnsure there are no other metallic or sharp ob$ects on your clothing or e)uipment that could damage the ra!t. A!ter boarding the ra!t" don your li!e preserver again. One50an Ra$t
(a)e 17< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+"e ne-man ra!t "as a main &e11 in!1ati n. I! t"e /.2 b tt1e s" $1d ma1!$n&ti n r i! t"e ra!t de5e1 ps a 1ea2# y $ &an in!1ate it by m $t". +"e spray s"ie1d a&ts as a s"e1ter !r m t"e & 1d# %ind# and %ater. In s me &ases# t"is s"ie1d ser5es as ins$1ati n. +"e ra!tFs ins$1ated b tt m 1imits t"e & nd$&ti n ! & 1d t"ereby pr te&tin) y $ !r m "yp t"ermia CFi)$re 16-:D.

Y $ &an tra5e1 m re e!!e&ti5e1y by in!1atin) r de!1atin) t"e ra!t t ta2e ad5anta)e ! t"e %ind r &$rrent. Y $ &an $se t"e spray s"ie1d as a sai1 %"ite t"e ba11ast b$&2ets ser5e t in&rease dra) in t"e %ater. Y $ may $se t"e sea an&" r t & ntr 1 t"e ra!tFs speed and dire&ti n. +"ere are ra!ts de5e1 ped ! r $se in ta&ti&a1 areas t"at are b1a&2. +"ese ra!ts b1end %it" t"e seaFs ba&2)r $nd. Y $ &an !$rt"er m di!y t"ese ra!ts ! r e5asi n by partia11y de!1atin) t"em t btain a 1 %er pr !i1e. A 1anyard & nne&ts t"e ne-man ra!t t a para&"$tist Cs$r5i5 rD 1andin) in t"e %ater. Y $ Ct"e s$r5i5 rD in!1ate it $p n 1andin). Y $ d n t s%im t t"e ra!t# b$t p$11 it t y $ 5ia t"e 1anyard. +"e ra!t may "it t"e %ater $pside d %n# b$t y $ &an ri)"t it by appr a&"in) t"e side t %"i&" t"e b tt1e is atta&"ed and !1ippin) t"e ra!t 5er. +"e spray s"ie1d m$st be in t"e ra!t t e?p se t"e b ardin) "and1es. F 11 % t"e steps $t1ined in t"e n te $nder ra!t pr &ed$res ab 5e %"en b ardin) t"e ra!t CFi)$re 16-;D.

I! y $ "a5e an arm in@$ry# t"e best %ay t b ard is by t$rnin) y $r ba&2 t t"e sma11 end ! t"e ra!t# p$s"in) t"e ra!t $nder y $r b$tt &2s# and 1yin) ba&2. An t"er %ay t b ard t"e ra!t is t p$s" d %n n its sma11 end $nti1 ne 2nee is inside and 1ie ! r%ard CFi)$re 16-1<D.

(a)e 171 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

In r $)" seas# it may be easier ! r y $ t )rasp t"e sma11 end ! t"e ra!t and# in a pr ne p siti n# t 2i&2 and p$11 y $rse1! int t"e ra!t. 3"en y $ are 1yin) !a&e d %n in t"e ra!t# dep1 y and ad@$st t"e sea an&" r. + sit $pri)"t# y $ may "a5e t dis& nne&t ne side ! t"e seat 2it and r 11 t t"at side. +"en y $ ad@$st t"e spray s"ie1d. +"ere are t% 5ariati ns ! t"e ne-man ra!tH t"e impr 5ed m de1 in& rp rates an in!1atab1e spray s"ie1d and !1 r t"at pr 5ide additi na1 ins$1ati n. +"e spray s"ie1d "e1ps 2eep y $ dry and %arm in & 1d &eans and pr te&ts y $ !r m t"e s$n in t"e " t &1imates CFi)$re 16-11D.

Se5en-Man Ra!t S me m$1tip1a&e air&ra!t &arry t"e se5en-man ra!t. It is a & mp nent ! t"e s$r5i5a1 dr p 2it CFi)$re 1612D. +"is ra!t may in!1ate $pside d %n and re4$ire y $ t ri)"t t"e ra!t be! re b ardin). A1%ays % r2 !r m t"e b tt1e side t pre5ent in@$ry i! t"e ra!t t$rns 5er. Fa&in) int t"e %ind# t"e %ind pr 5ides additi na1 "e1p in ri)"tin) t"e ra!t. Use t"e "and1es n t"e inside b tt m ! t"e ra!t ! r b ardin) CFi)$re 16-1*D.

(a)e 172 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Use t"e b ardin) ramp i! s me ne " 1ds d %n t"e ra!tFs pp site side. I! y $ d nFt "a5e "e1p# a)ain % r2 !r m t"e b tt1e side %it" t"e %ind at y $r ba&2 t "e1p " 1d d %n t"e ra!t. F 11 % t"e steps $t1ined in t"e n te $nder ra!t pr &ed$res ab 5e. +"en )rasp an ar1 &2 and b ardin) "and1e# 2i&2 y $r 1e)s t )et y $r b dy pr ne n t"e %ater# and t"en 2i&2 and p$11 y $rse1! int t"e ra!t. I! y $ are %ea2 r in@$red# y $ may partia11y de!1ate t"e ra!t t ma2e b ardin) easier CFi)$re 16-17D.

(a)e 17* ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Use t"e "and p$mp t 2eep t"e b$ yan&y &"ambers and &r ss seat !irm. Ne5er 5erin!1ate t"e ra!t. +%enty- r +%enty-Fi5e-Man Ra!ts Y $ may !ind 2<- r 29-man ra!ts in m$1tip1a&e air&ra!t CFi)$res 16-19 and 16-16D. Y $ %i11 !ind t"em in a&&essib1e areas ! t"e !$se1a)e r in ra!t & mpartments. S me may be a$t mati&a11y dep1 yed !r m t"e & &2-pit# %"i1e t"ers may need man$a1 dep1 yment. N matter " % t"e ra!t 1ands in t"e %ater# it is ready ! r b ardin). A 1anyard & nne&ts t"e a&&ess ry 2it t t"e ra!t and y $ retrie5e t"e 2it by "and. Y $ m$st man$a11y in!1ate t"e &enter &"amber %it" t"e "and p$mp. , ard t"e 2<- r 29-man ra!t !r m t"e air&ra!t# i! p ssib1e. I! n t# b ard in t"e ! 11 %in) mannerI • Appr a&" t"e 1 %er b ardin) ramp. • Rem 5e y $r 1i!e preser5er and tet"er it t y $rse1! s t"at it trai1s be"ind y $. • 6rasp t"e b ardin) "and1es and 2i&2 y $r 1e)s t )et y $r b dy int a pr ne p siti n n t"e %aterFs s$r!a&eH t"en 2i&2 and p$11 $nti1 y $ are inside t"e ra!t.

(a)e 177 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

(a)e 179 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

An in& mp1ete1y in!1ated ra!t %i11 ma2e b ardin) easier. Appr a&" t"e interse&ti n ! t"e ra!t and ramp# )rasp t"e $pper b ardin) "and1e# and s%in) ne 1e) nt t"e &enter ! t"e ramp# as in m $ntin) a " rse CFi)$re 16-17D.

Immediate1y ti)"ten t"e e4$a1i'er &1amp $p n enterin) t"e ra!t t pre5ent de!1atin) t"e entire ra!t in &ase ! a p$n&t$re CFi)$re 16-1:D.

Use t"e p$mp t 2eep t"ese ra!tsF &"ambers and &enter rin) !irm. +"ey s" $1d be %e11 r $nded b$t n t 5er1y ti)"t.

S!i%i#0 R!6t$
Ra!ts d n t "a5e 2ee1s# t"ere! re# y $ &anFt sai1 t"em int t"e %ind. 0 %e5er# any ne &an sai1 a ra!t d %n%ind. Y $ &an s$&&ess!$11y sai1 m$1tip1a&e Ce?&ept 2<- t 29-manD ra!ts 1< de)rees !! !r m t"e dire&ti n ! t"e %ind. D n t try t sai1 t"e ra!t $n1ess 1and is near. I! y $ de&ide t sai1 and t"e %ind is b1 %in) t %ard a desired destinati n# !$11y in!1ate t"e ra!t# sit "i)"# ta2e in t"e sea an&" r# ri) a sai1# and $se an ar as a r$dder.
(a)e 176 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

In a m$1tip1a&e Ce?&ept 2<- t 29-manD ra!t# ere&t a s4$are sai1 in t"e b % $sin) t"e ars and t"eir e?tensi ns as t"e mast and &r ssbar CFi)$re 16-1;D. Y $ may $se a %aterpr ! tarpa$1in r para&"$te materia1 ! r t"e sai1. I! t"e ra!t "as n re)$1ar mast s &2et and step# ere&t t"e mast by tyin) it se&$re1y t t"e !r nt &r ss seat $sin) bra&es. (ad t"e b tt m ! t"e mast t pre5ent it !r m &"a!in) r p$n&"in) a " 1e t"r $)" t"e !1 r# %"et"er r n t t"ere is a s &2et. +"e "ee1 ! a s" e# %it" t"e t e %ed)ed $nder t"e seat# ma2es a ) d impr 5ised mast step. D n t se&$re t"e & mers ! t"e 1 %er ed)e ! t"e sai1. 0 1d t"e 1ines atta&"ed t t"e & mers %it" y $r "ands s t"at a )$st ! %ind %i11 n t rip t"e sai1# brea2 t"e mast# r &apsi'e t"e ra!t.

+a2e e5ery pre&a$ti n t pre5ent t"e ra!t !r m t$rnin) 5er. In r $)" %eat"er# 2eep t"e sea an&" r a%ay !r m t"e b %. 0a5e t"e passen)ers sit 1 % in t"e ra!t# %it" t"eir %ei)"t distrib$ted t " 1d t"e $p%ind side d %n. + pre5ent !a11in) $t# t"ey s" $1d a1s a5 id sittin) n t"e sides ! t"e ra!t r standin) $p. A5 id s$dden m 5ements %it" $t %arnin) t"e t"er passen)ers. 3"en t"e sea an&" r is n t in $se# tie it t t"e ra!t and st % it in s$&" a manner t"at it %i11 " 1d immediate1y i! t"e ra!t &apsi'es.

*!te&
3ater is y $r m st imp rtant need. 3it" it a1 ne# y $ &an 1i5e ! r ten days r 1 n)er# dependin) n y $r %i11 t 1i5e. 3"en drin2in) %ater# m isten y $r 1ips# t n)$e# and t"r at be! re s%a11 %in). Short 3ater Rations 3"en y $ "a5e a 1imited %ater s$pp1y and y $ &anFt rep1a&e it by &"emi&a1 r me&"ani&a1 means# $se t"e %ater e!!i&ient1y. (r te&t !res"%ater s$pp1ies !r m sea%ater & ntaminati n. 8eep y $r b dy %e11
(a)e 177 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

s"aded# b t" !r m 5er"ead s$n and !r m re!1e&ti n !! t"e sea s$r!a&e. A11 % 5enti1ati n ! airH dampen y $r &1 t"es d$rin) t"e " ttest part ! t"e day. D n t e?ert y $rse1!. Re1a? and s1eep %"en p ssib1e. Fi? y $r dai1y %ater rati n a!ter & nsiderin) t"e am $nt ! %ater y $ "a5e# t"e $tp$t ! s 1ar sti11s and desa1tin) 2it# and t"e n$mber and p"ysi&a1 & nditi n ! y $r party. I! y $ d nFt "a5e %ater# d nFt eat. I! y $r %ater rati n is t% 1iters r m re per day# eat any part ! y $r rati n r any additi na1 ! d t"at y $ may &at&"# s$&" as birds# !is"# s"rimp. +"e 1i!e ra!tFs m ti n and an?iety may &a$se na$sea. I! y $ eat %"en na$seated# y $ may 1 se y $r ! d immediate1y. I! na$seated# rest and re1a? as m$&" as y $ &an# and ta2e n1y %ater. + red$&e y $r 1 ss ! %ater t"r $)" perspirati n# s a2 y $r &1 t"es in t"e sea and %rin) t"em $t be! re p$ttin) t"em n a)ain. D nFt 5erd t"is d$rin) " t days %"en n &an py r s$n s"ie1d is a5ai1ab1e. +"is is a trade- !! bet%een & 1in) and sa1t%ater b i1s and ras"es t"at %i11 res$1t. ,e &are!$1 n t t )et t"e b tt m ! t"e ra!t %et. 3at&" t"e &1 $ds and be ready ! r any &"an&e ! s" %ers. 8eep t"e tarpa$1in "andy ! r &at&"in) %ater. I! it is en&r$sted %it" dried sa1t# %as" it in sea%ater. N rma11y# a sma11 am $nt ! sea%ater mi?ed %it" rain %i11 "ard1y be n ti&eab1e and %i11 n t &a$se any p"ysi&a1 rea&ti n. In r $)" seas y $ &ann t )et $n& ntaminated !res" %ater. At ni)"t# se&$re t"e tarpa$1in 1i2e a s$ns"ade# and t$rn $p its ed)es t & 11e&t de%. It is a1s p ssib1e t & 11e&t de% a1 n) t"e sides ! t"e ra!t $sin) a sp n)e r &1 t". 3"en it rains# drin2 as m$&" as y $ &an " 1d. Solar Still 3"en s 1ar sti11s are a5ai1ab1e# read t"e instr$&ti ns and set t"em $p immediate1y. Use as many sti11s as p ssib1e# dependin) n t"e n$mber ! men in t"e ra!t and t"e am $nt ! s$n1i)"t a5ai1ab1e. Se&$re s 1ar sti11s t t"e ra!t %it" &are. +"is type ! s 1ar sti11 n1y % r2s n !1at# &a1m seas. ,esalting *its 3"en desa1tin) 2its are a5ai1ab1e in additi n t s 1ar sti11s# $se t"em n1y ! r immediate %ater needs r d$rin) 1 n) 5er&ast peri ds %"en y $ &ann t $se s 1ar sti11s. In any e5ent# 2eep desa1tin) 2its and emer)en&y %ater st res ! r peri ds %"en y $ &ann t $se s 1ar sti11s r &at&" rain%ater. 3ater 'ro" 'ish Drin2 t"e a4$e $s !1$id ! $nd a1 n) t"e spine and in t"e eyes ! 1ar)e !is". /are!$11y &$t t"e !is" in "a1! t )et t"e !1$id a1 n) t"e spine and s$&2 t"e eye. I! y $ are s s" rt ! %ater t"at y $ need t d t"is# t"en (" #"t drin2 any ! t"e t"er b dy !1$ids. +"ese t"er !1$ids are ri&" in pr tein and !at and %i11 $se $p m re ! y $r reser5e %ater in di)esti n t"an t"ey s$pp1y. Sea Ice In ar&ti& %aters# $se 1d sea i&e ! r %ater. +"is i&e is b1$is"# "as r $nded & mers# and sp1inters easi1y. It is near1y !ree ! sa1t. Ne% i&e is )ray# mi12y# "ard# and sa1ty. 3ater !r m i&eber)s is !res"# b$t i&eber)s are dan)er $s t appr a&". Use t"em as a s $r&e ! %ater n1y in emer)en&ies. REMEMBERB D" #"t drin2 sea%ater. D" #"t drin2 $rine. D" #"t drin2 a1& " 1. D" #"t sm 2e. D" #"t eat# $n1ess %ater is a5ai1ab1e. S1eep and rest are t"e best %ays ! end$rin) peri ds ! red$&ed %ater and ! d inta2e. 0 %e5er# ma2e s$re t"at y $ "a5e en $)" s"ade %"en nappin) d$rin) t"e day. I! t"e sea is r $)"# tie y $rse1! t t"e ra!t# &1 se any & 5er# and ride $t t"e st rm as best y $ &an. Rela+ is t"e 2ey % rd--at 1east try t re1a?.

F""( P&". &e+e#t
In t"e pen sea# !is" %i11 be t"e main ! d s $r&e. +"ere are s me p is n $s and dan)er $s &ean !is"# b$t# in )enera1# %"en $t ! si)"t ! 1and# !is" are sa!e t eat. Nearer t"e s" re t"ere are !is" t"at are b t" dan)er $s and p is n $s t eat. +"ere are s me !is"# s$&" as t"e red snapper and barra&$da# t"at are n rma11y edib1e b$t p is n $s %"en ta2en !r m t"e %aters ! at 11s and ree!s. F1yin) !is" %i11 e5en @$mp int y $r ra!tK
(a)e 17: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

'ish 3"en !is"in)# d n t "and1e t"e !is"in) 1ine %it" bare "ands and ne5er %rap it ar $nd y $r "ands r tie it t a 1i!e ra!t. +"e sa1t t"at ad"eres t it &an ma2e it a s"arp &$ttin) ed)e# an ed)e dan)er $s b t" t t"e ra!t and y $r "ands. 3ear )1 5es# i! t"ey are a5ai1ab1e# r $se a &1 t" t "and1e !is" and t a5 id in@$ry !r m s"arp !ins and )i11 & 5ers. In %arm re)i ns# )$t and b1eed !is" immediate1y a!ter &at&"in) t"em. /$t !is" t"at y $ d n t eat immediate1y int t"in# narr % strips and "an) t"em t dry. A %e11-dried !is" stays edib1e ! r se5era1 days. Fis" n t &1eaned and dried may sp i1 in "a1! a day. Fis" %it" dar2 meat are 5ery pr ne t de& mp siti n. I! y $ d n t eat t"em a11 immediate1y# d n t eat any ! t"e 1e!t 5ers. Use t"e 1e!t 5ers ! r bait. Ne5er eat !is" t"at "a5e pa1e# s"iny )i11s# s$n2en eyes# !1abby s2in and !1es"# r an $np1easant d r. 6 d !is" s" % t"e pp site &"ara&teristi&s. Sea !is" "a5e a sa1t%ater r &1ean !is"y d r. D n t & n!$se ee1s %it" sea sna2es t"at "a5e an b5i $s1y s&a1y b dy and str n)1y & mpressed# padd1es"aped tai1. , t" ee1s and sea sna2es are edib1e# b$t y $ m$st "and1e t"e 1atter %it" &are be&a$se ! t"eir p is n $s bites. +"e "eart# b1 d# intestina1 %a11# and 1i5er ! m st !is" are edib1e. / 2 t"e intestines. A1s edib1e are t"e part1y di)ested sma11er !is" t"at y $ may !ind in t"e st ma&"s ! 1ar)e !is". In additi n# sea t$rt1es are edib1e. S"ar2 meat is a ) d s $r&e ! ! d %"et"er ra%# dried# r & 2ed. S"ar2 meat sp i1s 5ery rapid1y d$e t t"e "i)" & n&entrati n ! $rea in t"e b1 d# t"ere! re# b1eed it immediate1y and s a2 it in se5era1 &"an)es ! %ater. (e p1e pre!er s me s"ar2 spe&ies 5er t"ers. / nsider t"em a11 edib1e e?&ept t"e 6reen1and s"ar2 %" se !1es" & ntains "i)" 4$antities ! 5itamin A. D n t eat t"e 1i5ers# d$e t "i)" 5itamin A & ntent. 'ishing Aids Y $ &an $se di!!erent materia1s t ma2e !is"in) aids as des&ribed in t"e ! 11 %in) para)rap"sI • -ishing line. Use pie&es ! tarpa$1in r &an5as. Unra5e1 t"e t"reads and tie t"em t )et"er in s" rt 1en)t"s in )r $ps ! t"ree r m re t"reads. S" e1a&es and para&"$te s$spensi n 1ine a1s % r2 %e11. • -ish hooks. N s$r5i5 r at sea s" $1d be %it" $t !is"in) e4$ipment b$t i! y $ are# impr 5ise " 2s as s" %n in /"apter :. • -ish lures. Y $ &an !as"i n 1$res by atta&"in) a d $b1e " 2 t any s"iny pie&e ! meta1. • >rapple. Use )rapp1es t " 2 sea%eed. Y $ may s"a2e &rabs# s"rimp# r sma11 !is" $t ! t"e sea%eed. +"ese y $ may eat r $se ! r bait. Y $ may eat sea%eed itse1!# b$t n1y %"en y $ "a5e p1enty ! drin2in) %ater. Impr 5ise )rapp1es !r m % d. Use a "ea5y pie&e ! % d as t"e main s"a!t# and 1as" t"ree sma11er pie&es t t"e s"a!t as )rapp1es. • ?ait. Y $ &an $se sma11 !is" as bait ! r 1ar)er nes. S& p t"e sma11 !is" $p %it" a net. I! y $ d nFt "a5e a net# ma2e ne !r m &1 t" ! s me type. 0 1d t"e net $nder t"e %ater and s& p $p%ard. Use a11 t"e )$ts !r m birds and !is" ! r bait. 3"en $sin) bait# try t 2eep it m 5in) in t"e %ater t )i5e it t"e appearan&e ! bein) a1i5e. .elp$ul 'ishing .ints Y $r !is"in) s" $1d be s$&&ess!$1 i! y $ remember t"e ! 11 %in) imp rtant "intsI • ,e e?treme1y &are!$1 %it" !is" t"at "a5e teet" and spines. • /$t a 1ar)e !is" 1 se rat"er t"an ris2 &apsi'in) t"e ra!t. +ry t &at&" sma11 rat"er t"an 1ar)e !is". • D n t p$n&t$re y $r ra!t %it" " 2s r t"er s"arp instr$ments. • D n t !is" %"en 1ar)e s"ar2s are in t"e area. • 3at&" ! r s&" 1s ! !is"H try t m 5e &1 se t t"ese s&" 1s. • Fis" at ni)"t $sin) a 1i)"t. +"e 1i)"t attra&ts !is". • In t"e daytime# s"ade attra&ts s me !is". Y $ may !ind t"em $nder y $r ra!t. • Impr 5ise a spear by tyin) a 2ni!e t an ar b1ade. +"is spear &an "e1p y $ &at&" 1ar)er !is"# b$t y $ m$st )et t"em int t"e ra!t 4$i&21y r t"ey %i11 s1ip !! t"e b1ade. A1s # tie t"e 2ni!e 5ery se&$re1y r y $ may 1 se it. • A1%ays ta2e &are ! y $r !is"in) e4$ipment. Dry y $r !is"in) 1ines# &1ean and s"arpen t"e " 2s# and d n t a11 % t"e " 2s t sti&2 int t"e !is"in) 1ines.

(a)e 17; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

#irds As stated in /"apter :# a11 birds are edib1e. -at any birds y $ &an &at&". S metimes birds may 1and n y $r ra!t# b$t $s$a11y t"ey are &a$ti $s. Y $ may be ab1e t attra&t s me birds by t %in) a bri)"t pie&e ! meta1 be"ind t"e ra!t. +"is %i11 brin) t"e bird %it"in s" tin) ran)e# pr 5ided y $ "a5e a !irearm. I! a bird 1ands %it"in y $r rea&"# y $ may be ab1e t &at&" it. I! t"e birds d n t 1and &1 se en $)" r 1and n t"e t"er end ! t"e ra!t# y $ may be ab1e t &at&" t"em %it" a bird n se. ,ait t"e &enter ! t"e n se and %ait ! r t"e bird t 1and. 3"en t"e birdFs !eet are in t"e &enter ! t"e n se# p$11 it ti)"t. Use a11 parts ! t"e bird. Use t"e !eat"ers ! r ins$1ati n# t"e entrai1s and !eet ! r bait# and s n. Use y $r ima)inati n.

Me(i.!% P&",%e+$ A$$".i!te( *ith Se! S &/i/!%
At sea# y $ may be& me seasi&2# )et sa1t%ater s res# r !a&e s me ! t"e same medi&a1 pr b1ems t"at &&$r n 1and# s$&" as de"ydrati n r s$nb$rn. +"ese pr b1ems &an be& me &riti&a1 i! 1e!t $ntreated. Seasic-ness Seasi&2ness is t"e na$sea and 5 mitin) &a$sed by t"e m ti n ! t"e ra!t. It &an res$1t in-• -?treme !1$id 1 ss and e?"a$sti n. • L ss ! t"e %i11 t s$r5i5e. • .t"ers be& min) seasi&2. • Attra&ti n ! s"ar2s t t"e ra!t. • Un&1ean & nditi ns. + treat seasi&2ness-• 3as" b t" t"e patient and t"e ra!t t rem 5e t"e si)"t and d r ! 5 mit. • 8eep t"e patient !r m eatin) ! d $nti1 "is na$sea is ) ne. • 0a5e t"e patient 1ie d %n and rest. • 6i5e t"e patient seasi&2ness pi11s i! a5ai1ab1e. I! t"e patient is $nab1e t ta2e t"e pi11s ra11y# insert t"em re&ta11y ! r abs rpti n by t"e b dy. 8ote9 Some survivors have said that erecting a canopy or using the hori*on as a !ocal point helped overcome seasickness. 0thers have said that swimming alongside the ra!t !or short periods helped" but e+treme care must be taken i! swimming. Salt%ater Sores +"ese s res res$1t !r m a brea2 in s2in e?p sed t sa1t%ater ! r an e?tended peri d. +"e s res may ! rm s&abs and p$s. D n t pen r drain. F1$s" t"e s res %it" !res" %ater# i! a5ai1ab1e# and a11 % t dry. App1y an antisepti&# i! a5ai1ab1e. Immersi n R t# Fr stbite# and 0yp t"ermia +"ese pr b1ems are simi1ar t t" se en& $ntered in & 1d %eat"er en5ir nments. Sympt ms and treatment are t"e same as & 5ered in /"apter 19. ,1indnessE0eada&"e I! !1ame# sm 2e# r t"er & ntaminants )et in t"e eyes# !1$s" t"em immediate1y %it" sa1t %ater# t"en %it" !res" %ater# i! a5ai1ab1e. App1y intment# i! a5ai1ab1e. ,anda)e b t" eyes 1: t 27 " $rs# r 1 n)er i! dama)e is se5ere. I! t"e )1are !r m t"e s2y and %ater &a$ses y $r eyes t be& me b1 ds" t and in!1amed# banda)e t"em 1i)"t1y. +ry t pre5ent t"is pr b1em by %earin) s$n)1asses. Impr 5ise s$n)1asses i! ne&essary. / nstipati n +"is & nditi n is a & mm n pr b1em n a ra!t. D n t ta2e a 1a?ati5e# as t"is %i11 &a$se !$rt"er de"ydrati n. -?er&ise as m$&" as p ssib1e and drin2 an ade4$ate am $nt ! %ater# i! a5ai1ab1e. Di!!i&$1t Urinati n +"is pr b1em is n t $n$s$a1 and is d$e main1y t de"ydrati n. It is best n t t treat it# as it & $1d &a$se !$rt"er de"ydrati n. S$nb$rn
(a)e 1:< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

S$nb$rn is a seri $s pr b1em in sea s$r5i5a1. +ry t pre5ent s$nb$rn by stayin) in s"ade and 2eepin) y $r "ead and s2in & 5ered. Use &ream r /"ap Sti&2 !r m y $r !irst aid 2it. Remember# re!1e&ti n !r m t"e %ater a1s &a$ses s$nb$rn.

Sh!&)$
3"et"er y $ are in t"e %ater r in a b at r ra!t# y $ may see many types ! sea 1i!e ar $nd y $. S me may be m re dan)er $s t"an t"ers. 6enera11y# s"ar2s are t"e )reatest dan)er t y $. .t"er anima1s s$&" as %"a1es# p rp ises# and stin)rays may 1 2 dan)er $s# b$t rea11y p se 1itt1e t"reat in t"e pen sea. .! t"e many "$ndreds ! s"ar2 spe&ies# n1y ab $t 2< spe&ies are 2n %n t atta&2 man. +"e m st dan)er $s are t"e )reat %"ite s"ar2# t"e "ammer"ead# t"e ma2 # and t"e ti)er s"ar2. .t"er s"ar2s 2n %n t atta&2 man in&1$de t"e )ray# b1$e# 1em n# sand# n$rse# b$11# and &eani& %"ite tip s"ar2s. / nsider any s"ar2 1 n)er t"an 1 meter dan)er $s. +"ere are s"ar2s in a11 &eans and seas ! t"e % r1d. 3"i1e many 1i5e and !eed in t"e dept"s ! t"e sea# t"ers "$nt near t"e s$r!a&e. +"e s"ar2s 1i5in) near t"e s$r!a&e are t"e nes y $ %i11 m st 1i2e1y see. +"eir d rsa1 !ins !re4$ent1y pr @e&t ab 5e t"e %ater. S"ar2s in t"e tr pi&a1 and s$btr pi&a1 seas are !ar m re a))ressi5e t"an t" se in temperate %aters. A11 s"ar2s are basi&a11y eatin) ma&"ines. +"eir n rma1 diet is 1i5e anima1s ! any type# and t"ey %i11 stri2e at in@$red r "e1p1ess anima1s. Si)"t# sme11# r s $nd may )$ide t"em t t"eir prey. S"ar2s "a5e an a&$te sense ! sme11 and t"e sme11 ! b1 d in t"e %ater e?&ites t"em. +"ey are a1s 5ery sensiti5e t any abn rma1 5ibrati ns in t"e %ater. +"e str$))1es ! a % $nded anima1 r s%immer# $nder%ater e?p1 si ns# r e5en a !is" str$))1in) n a !is"1ine %i11 attra&t a s"ar2. S"ar2s &an bite !r m a1m st any p siti nH t"ey d n t "a5e t t$rn n t"eir side t bite. +"e @a%s ! s me ! t"e 1ar)er s"ar2s are s !ar ! r%ard t"at t"ey &an bite !1 atin) b@e&ts easi1y %it" $t t%istin) t t"e side. S"ar2s may "$nt a1 ne# b$t m st rep rts ! atta&2s &ite m re t"an ne s"ar2 present. +"e sma11er s"ar2s tend t tra5e1 in s&" 1s and atta&2 in mass. 3"ene5er ne ! t"e s"ar2s !inds a 5i&tim# t"e t"er s"ar2s %i11 4$i&21y @ in it. S"ar2s %i11 eat a % $nded s"ar2 as 4$i&21y as t"eir prey. S"ar2s !eed at a11 " $rs ! t"e day and ni)"t. M st rep rted s"ar2 & nta&ts and atta&2s %ere d$rin) day1i)"t# and many ! t"ese "a5e been in t"e 1ate a!tern n. S me ! t"e meas$res t"at y $ &an ta2e t pr te&t y $rse1! a)ainst s"ar2s %"en y $ are in t"e %ater are-• Stay with other swimmers. A )r $p &an maintain a *6<-de)ree %at&". A )r $p &an eit"er !ri)"ten r !i)"t !! s"ar2s better t"an ne man. • Always watch !or sharks. 8eep a11 y $r &1 t"in) n# t in&1$de y $r s" es. 0ist ri&a11y# s"ar2s "a5e atta&2ed t"e $n&1 t"ed men in )r $ps !irst# main1y in t"e !eet. /1 t"in) a1s pr te&ts a)ainst abrasi ns s" $1d t"e s"ar2 br$s" a)ainst y $. • Avoid urinating. I! y $ m$st# n1y d s in sma11 am $nts. Let it dissipate bet%een dis&"ar)es. I! y $ m$st de!e&ate# d s in sma11 am $nts and t"r % it as !ar a%ay !r m y $ as p ssib1e. D t"e same i! y $ m$st 5 mit. I! a s"ar2 atta&2 is imminent %"i1e y $ are in t"e %ater# sp1as" and ye11 @$st en $)" t 2eep t"e s"ar2 at bay. S metimes ye11in) $nder%ater r s1appin) t"e %ater repeated1y %i11 s&are t"e s"ar2 a%ay. / nser5e y $r stren)t" ! r !i)"tin) in &ase t"e s"ar2 atta&2s. I! atta&2ed# 2i&2 and stri2e t"e s"ar2. 0it t"e s"ar2 n t"e )i11s r eyes i! p ssib1e. I! y $ "it t"e s"ar2 n t"e n se# y $ may in@$re y $r "and i! it )1an&es !! and "its its teet". 3"en y $ are in a ra!t and see s"ar2s-• D n t !is". I! y $ "a5e " 2ed a !is"# 1et it ) . D n t &1ean !is" in t"e %ater. • D n t t"r % )arba)e 5erb ard. • D n t 1et y $r arms# 1e)s# r e4$ipment "an) in t"e %ater. • 8eep 4$iet and d n t m 5e ar $nd. • ,$ry a11 dead as s n as p ssib1e. I! t"ere are many s"ar2s in t"e area# & nd$&t t"e b$ria1 at ni)"t.
(a)e 1:1 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

3"en y $ are in a ra!t and a s"ar2 atta&2 is imminent# "it t"e s"ar2 %it" anyt"in) y $ "a5e# e?&ept y $r "ands. Y $ %i11 d m re dama)e t y $r "ands t"an t"e s"ar2. I! y $ stri2e %it" an ar# be &are!$1 n t t 1 se r brea2 it.

Dete.ti#0 L!#(
Y $ s" $1d %at&" &are!$11y ! r any si)ns ! 1and. +"ere are many indi&at rs t"at 1and is near. A !i?ed &$m$1$s &1 $d in a &1ear s2y r in a s2y %"ere a11 t"er &1 $ds are m 5in) !ten " 5ers 5er r s1i)"t1y d %n%ind !r m an is1and. In t"e tr pi&s# t"e re!1e&ti n ! s$n1i)"t !r m s"a11 % 1a) ns r s"e15es ! & ra1 ree!s !ten &a$ses a )reenis" tint in t"e s2y. In t"e ar&ti&# 1i)"t-& 1 red re!1e&ti ns n &1 $ds !ten indi&ate i&e !ie1ds r sn %-& 5ered 1and. +"ese re!1e&ti ns are 4$ite di!!erent !r m t"e dar2 )ray nes &a$sed by pen %ater. Deep %ater is dar2 )reen r dar2 b1$e. Li)"ter & 1 r indi&ates s"a11 % %ater# %"i&" may mean 1and is near. At ni)"t# r in ! )# mist# r rain# y $ may dete&t 1and by d rs and s $nds. +"e m$sty d r ! man)r 5e s%amps and m$d !1ats &arry a 1 n) %ay. Y $ "ear t"e r ar ! s$r! 1 n) be! re y $ see t"e s$r!. +"e & ntin$ed &ries ! seabirds & min) !r m ne dire&ti n indi&ate t"eir r stin) p1a&e n nearby 1and. +"ere $s$a11y are m re birds near 1and t"an 5er t"e pen sea. +"e dire&ti n !r m %"i&" !1 &2s !1y at da%n and t %"i&" t"ey !1y at d$s2 may indi&ate t"e dire&ti n ! 1and. D$rin) t"e day# birds are sear&"in) ! r ! d and t"e dire&ti n ! !1i)"t "as n si)ni!i&an&e. Mira)es &&$r at any 1atit$de# b$t t"ey are m re 1i2e1y in t"e tr pi&s# espe&ia11y d$rin) t"e midd1e ! t"e day. ,e &are!$1 n t t mista2e a mira)e ! r nearby 1and. A mira)e disappears r its appearan&e and e1e5ati n &"an)e %"en 5ie%ed !r m s1i)"t1y di!!erent "ei)"ts. Y $ may be ab1e t dete&t 1and by t"e pattern ! t"e %a5es Cre!ra&tedD as t"ey appr a&" 1and CFi)$re 162<D. ,y tra5e1in) %it" t"e %a5es and para11e1 t t"e s1i)"t1y t$rb$1ent area mar2ed JBJ n t"e i11$strati n# y $ s" $1d rea&" 1and.

R!6ti#0 "& Be!.hi#0 Te.h#i- e$
.n&e y $ "a5e ! $nd 1and# y $ m$st )et as" re sa!e1y. + ra!t as" re# y $ &an $s$a11y $se t"e ne-man ra!t %it" $t dan)er. 0 %e5er# ) in) as" re in a str n) s$r! is dan)er $s. +a2e y $r time. Se1e&t y $r 1andin) p int &are!$11y. +ry n t t 1and %"en t"e s$n is 1 % and strai)"t in !r nt ! y $. +ry t 1and n t"e 1ee side ! an is1and r n a p int ! 1and @$ttin) $t int t"e %ater. 8eep y $r eyes pen ! r )aps in t"e s$r! 1ine# and "ead ! r t"em. A5 id & ra1 ree!s and r &2y &1i!!s. +"ere are n & ra1 ree!s near t"e m $t"s ! !res"%ater streams. A5 id rip &$rrents r str n) tida1 &$rrents t"at may &arry y $ !ar $t t sea. -it"er si)na1 as" re ! r "e1p r sai1 ar $nd and 1 2 ! r a s1 pin) bea&" %"ere t"e s$r! is )ent1e.
(a)e 1:2 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

I! y $ "a5e t ) t"r $)" t"e s$r! t rea&" s" re# ta2e d %n t"e mast. 8eep y $r &1 t"es and s" es n t a5 id se5ere &$ts. Ad@$st and in!1ate y $r 1i!e 5est. +rai1 t"e sea an&" r 5er t"e stem $sin) as m$&" 1ine as y $ "a5e. Use t"e ars r padd1es and & nstant1y ad@$st t"e sea an&" r t 2eep a strain n t"e an&" r 1ine. +"ese a&ti ns %i11 2eep t"e ra!t p inted t %ard s" re and pre5ent t"e sea !r m t"r %in) t"e stern ar $nd and &apsi'in) y $. Use t"e ars r padd1es t "e1p ride in n t"e sea%ard side ! a 1ar)e %a5e. +"e s$r! may be irre)$1ar and 5e1 &ity may 5ary# s m di!y y $r pr &ed$re as & nditi ns demand. A ) d met" d ! )ettin) t"r $)" t"e s$r! is t "a5e "a1! t"e men sit n ne side ! t"e ra!t# "a1! n t"e t"er# !a&in) a%ay !r m ea&" t"er. 3"en a "ea5y sea bears d %n# "a1! s" $1d r % Cp$11D t %ard t"e sea $nti1 t"e &rest passesH t"en t"e t"er "a1! s" $1d r % Cp$11D t %ard t"e s" re $nti1 t"e ne?t "ea5y sea & mes a1 n). A)ainst a str n) %ind and "ea5y s$r!# t"e ra!t m$st "a5e a11 p ssib1e speed t pass rapid1y t"r $)" t"e n& min) &rest t a5 id bein) t$rned br adside r t"r %n end 5er end. I! p ssib1e# a5 id meetin) a 1ar)e %a5e at t"e m ment it brea2s. I! in a medi$m s$r! %it" n %ind r !!s" re %ind# 2eep t"e ra!t !r m passin) 5er a %a5e s rapid1y t"at it dr ps s$dden1y a!ter t ppin) t"e &rest. I! t"e ra!t t$rns 5er in t"e s$r!# try t )rab " 1d ! it and ride it in. As t"e ra!t nears t"e bea&"# ride in n t"e &rest ! a 1ar)e %a5e. (add1e r r % "ard and ride in t t"e bea&" as !ar as y $ &an. D n t @$mp $t ! t"e ra!t $nti1 it "as )r $nded# t"en 4$i&21y )et $t and bea&" it. I! y $ "a5e a &" i&e# d n t 1and at ni)"t. I! y $ "a5e reas n t be1ie5e t"at pe p1e 1i5e n t"e s" re# 1ay a%ay !r m t"e bea&"# si)na1# and %ait ! r t"e in"abitants t & me $t and brin) y $ in. I! y $ en& $nter sea i&e# 1and n1y n 1ar)e# stab1e !1 es. A5 id i&eber)s t"at may &apsi'e and sma11 !1 es r t" se b5i $s1y disinte)ratin). Use ars and "ands t 2eep t"e ra!t !r m r$bbin) n t"e ed)e ! t"e i&e. +a2e t"e ra!t $t ! t"e %ater and st re it %e11 ba&2 !r m t"e !1 eFs ed)e. Y $ may be ab1e t $se it ! r s"e1ter. 8eep t"e ra!t in!1ated and ready ! r $se. Any !1 e may brea2 $p %it" $t %arnin).

S2i++i#0 A$h"&e
I! ra!tin) as" re is n t p ssib1e and y $ "a5e t s%im# %ear y $r s" es and at 1east ne t"i&2ness ! &1 t"in). Use t"e sidestr 2e r breaststr 2e t & nser5e stren)t". I! t"e s$r! is m derate# ride in n t"e ba&2 ! a sma11 %a5e by s%immin) ! r%ard %it" it. Di5e t a s"a11 % dept" t end t"e ride @$st be! re t"e %a5e brea2s. In "i)" s$r!# s%im t %ard s" re in t"e tr $)" bet%een %a5es. 3"en t"e sea%ard %a5e appr a&"es# !a&e it and s$bmer)e. A!ter it passes# % r2 t %ard s" re in t"e ne?t tr $)". I! &a$)"t in t"e $ndert % ! a 1ar)e %a5e# p$s" !! t"e b tt m r s%im t t"e s$r!a&e and pr &eed t %ard s" re as ab 5e. I! y $ m$st 1and n a r &2y s" re# 1 2 ! r a p1a&e %"ere t"e %a5es r$s" $p nt t"e r &2s. A5 id p1a&es %"ere t"e %a5es e?p1 de %it" a "i)"# %"ite spray. S%im s1 %1y %"en ma2in) y $r appr a&". Y $ %i11 need y $r stren)t" t " 1d n t t"e r &2s. Y $ s" $1d be !$11y &1 t"ed and %ear s" es t red$&e in@$ry. A!ter se1e&tin) y $r 1andin) p int# ad5an&e be"ind a 1ar)e %a5e int t"e brea2ers. Fa&e t %ard s" re and ta2e a sittin) p siti n %it" y $r !eet in !r nt# 6< t ;< &entimeters C2 r * !eetD 1 %er t"an y $r "ead. +"is p siti n %i11 1et y $r !eet abs rb t"e s" &2 %"en y $ 1and r stri2e s$b-mer)ed b $1ders r ree!s. I! y $ d n t rea&" s" re be"ind t"e %a5e y $ pi&2ed# s%im %it" y $r "ands n1y. As t"e ne?t %a5e appr a&"es# ta2e a sittin) p siti n %it" y $r !eet ! r%ard. Repeat t"e pr &ed$re $nti1 y $ 1and. 3ater is 4$ieter in t"e 1ee ! a "ea5y )r %t" ! sea%eed. +a2e ad5anta)e ! s$&" )r %t". D n t s%im t"r $)" t"e sea%eedH &ra%1 5er t"e t p by )raspin) t"e 5e)etati n %it" 5er"and m 5ements. /r ss a r &2y r & ra1 ree! as y $ % $1d 1and n a r &2y s" re. 8eep y $r !eet &1 se t )et"er and y $r 2nees s1i)"t1y bent in a re1a?ed sittin) p st$re t &$s"i n t"e b1 %s a)ainst t"e & ra1.

Pi.) p "& Re$. e
.n si)"tin) res&$e &ra!t appr a&"in) ! r pi&2$p Cb at# s"ip# & n5enti na1 air&ra!t# r "e1i& pterD# 4$i&21y &1ear any 1ines C!is"in) 1ines# desa1tin) 2it 1inesD r t"er )ear t"at & $1d &a$se entan)1ement d$rin) res&$e. Se&$re a11 1 se items in t"e ra!t. +a2e d %n &an pies and sai1s t ens$re a sa!er pi&2$p. A!ter se&$rin) a11 items# p$t n y $r "e1met# i! a5ai1ab1e. F$11y in!1ate y $r 1i!e preser5er. Remain in t"e ra!t#
(a)e 1:* ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

$n1ess t"er%ise instr$&ted# and rem 5e a11 e4$ipment e?&ept t"e preser5ers. I! p ssib1e# y $ %i11 re&ei5e "e1p !r m res&$e pers nne1 1 %ered int t"e %ater. Remember# ! 11 % a11 instr$&ti ns )i5en by t"e res&$e pers nne1. I! t"e "e1i& pter re& 5ery is $nassisted# d t"e ! 11 %in) be! re pi&2$pI • Se&$re a11 t"e 1 se e4$ipment in t"e ra!t# a&&ess ry ba)# r in p &2ets. • Dep1 y t"e sea an&" r# stabi1ity ba)s# and a&&ess ry ba). • (artia11y de!1ate t"e ra!t and !i11 it %it" %ater. • Unsnap t"e s$r5i5a1 2it & ntainer !r m t"e para&"$te "arness. • 6rasp t"e ra!t "and" 1d and r 11 $t ! t"e ra!t. • A11 % t"e re& 5ery de5i&e r t"e &ab1e t )r $nd $t n t"e %aterFs s$r!a&e. • Maintain t"e "and" 1d $nti1 t"e re& 5ery de5i&e is in y $r t"er "and. • M $nt t"e re& 5ery de5i&e# a5 idin) entan)1ement %it" t"e ra!t. • Si)na1 t"e " ist perat r ! r pi&2$p.

S AS.OR S
Sear&" p1anes r s"ips d n t a1%ays sp t a dri!tin) ra!t r s%immer. Y $ may "a5e t 1and a1 n) t"e & ast be! re bein) res&$ed. S$r5i5in) a1 n) t"e seas" re is di!!erent !r m pen sea s$r5i5a1. F d and %ater are m re ab$ndant and s"e1ter is b5i $s1y easier t 1 &ate and & nstr$&t. I! y $ are in !riend1y territ ry and de&ide t tra5e1# it is better t m 5e a1 n) t"e & ast t"an t ) in1and. D n t 1ea5e t"e & ast e?&ept t a5 id bsta&1es Cs%amps and &1i!!sD r $n1ess y $ !ind a trai1 t"at y $ 2n % 1eads t "$man "abitati n. In time ! %ar# remember t"at t"e enemy patr 1s m st & ast1ines. +"ese patr 1s may &a$se pr b1ems ! r y $ i! y $ 1and n a " sti1e s" re. Y $ %i11 "a5e e?treme1y 1imited tra5e1 pti ns in t"is sit$ati n. A5 id a11 & nta&t %it" t"er "$mans# and ma2e e5ery e!! rt t & 5er a11 tra&2s y $ 1ea5e n t"e s" re.

Spe.i!% He!%th H!z!&($
/ ra1# p is n $s and a))ressi5e !is"# &r & di1es# sea $r&"ins# sea bis&$its# sp n)es# anem nes# and tides and $ndert % p se spe&ia1 "ea1t" "a'ards. Coral / ra1# dead r a1i5e# &an in!1i&t pain!$1 &$ts. +"ere are "$ndreds ! %ater "a'ards t"at &an &a$se deep p$n&t$re % $nds# se5ere b1eedin)# and t"e dan)er ! in!e&ti n. /1ean a11 & ra1 &$ts t" r $)"1y. D n t $se i dine t disin!e&t any & ra1 &$ts. S me & ra1 p 1yps !eed n i dine and may )r % inside y $r !1es" i! y $ $se i dine. Poisonous 'ish Many ree! !is" "a5e t ?i& !1es". F r s me spe&ies# t"e !1es" is a1%ays p is n $s# ! r t"er spe&ies# n1y at &ertain times ! t"e year. +"e p is ns are present in a11 parts ! t"e !is"# b$t espe&ia11y in t"e 1i5er# intestines# and e))s. Fis" t ?ins are %ater s 1$b1e--n am $nt ! & 2in) %i11 ne$tra1i'e t"em. +"ey are taste1ess# t"ere! re t"e standard edibi1ity tests are $se-1ess. ,irds are 1east s$s&eptib1e t t"e p is ns. +"ere! re# d n t t"in2 t"at be&a$se a bird &an eat a !is"# it is a sa!e spe&ies ! r y $ t eat. +"e t ?ins %i11 pr d$&e a n$mbness ! t"e 1ips# t n)$e# t es# and tips ! t"e !in)ers# se5ere it&"in)# and a &1ear re5ersa1 ! temperat$re sensati ns. / 1d items appear " t and " t items & 1d. +"ere %i11 pr bab1y a1s be na$sea# 5 mitin)# 1 ss ! spee&"# di''iness# and a para1ysis t"at e5ent$a11y brin)s deat". In additi n t !is" %it" p is n $s !1es"# t"ere are t" se t"at are dan)er $s t t $&". Many stin)rays "a5e a p is n $s barb in t"eir tai1. +"ere are a1s spe&ies t"at &an de1i5er an e1e&tri& s" &2. S me ree! !is"# s$&" as st ne!is" and t ad!is"# "a5e 5en m $s spines t"at &an &a$se 5ery pain!$1 a1t" $)" se1d m !ata1 in@$ries. +"e 5en m !r m t"ese spines &a$ses a b$rnin) sensati n r e5en an a) ni'in) pain t"at is $t ! pr p rti n t t"e apparent se5erity ! t"e % $nd. >e11y!is"# %"i1e n t $s$a11y !ata1# &an in!1i&t a 5ery pain!$1 stin) i! it t $&"es y $ %it" its tenta&1es. See /"apter 11 and Appendi? F ! r detai1s n parti&$1ar1y dan)er $s !is" ! t"e sea and seas" re. Aggressi(e 'ish
(a)e 1:7 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Y $ s" $1d a1s a5 id s me !er &i $s !is". +"e b 1d and in4$isiti5e barra&$da "as atta&2ed men %earin) s"iny b@e&ts. It may &"ar)e 1i)"ts r s"iny b@e&ts at ni)"t. +"e sea bass# %"i&" &an )r % t 1.7 meters# is an t"er !is" t a5 id. +"e m ray ee1# %"i&" "as many s"arp teet" and )r %s t 1.9 meters# &an a1s be a))ressi5e i! dist$rbed. Sea Sna-es Sea sna2es are 5en m $s and s metimes ! $nd in mid &ean. +"ey are $n1i2e1y t bite $n1ess pr 5 2ed. A/"i( t"em. Crocodiles /r & di1es in"abit tr pi&a1 sa1t%ater bays and man)r 5e-b rdered est$aries and ran)e $p t 69 2i1 meters int t"e pen sea. Fe% remain near in"abited areas. Y $ & mm n1y !ind &r & di1es in t"e rem te areas ! t"e -ast Indies and S $t"east Asia. / nsider spe&imens 5er 1 meter 1 n) dan)er $s# espe&ia11y !ema1es )$ardin) t"eir nests. /r & di1e meat is an e?&e11ent s $r&e ! ! d %"en a5ai1ab1e. Sea Urchins& Sea #iscuits& Sponges& and Ane"ones +"ese anima1s &an &a$se e?treme# t" $)" se1d m !ata1# pain. Us$a11y ! $nd in tr pi&a1 s"a11 % %ater near & ra1 ! rmati ns# sea $r&"ins resemb1e sma11# r $nd p r&$pines. I! stepped n# t"ey s1ip !ine need1es ! 1ime r si1i&a int t"e s2in# %"ere t"ey brea2 !! and !ester. I! p ssib1e# rem 5e t"e spines and treat t"e in@$ry ! r in!e&ti n. +"e t"er anima1s menti ned in!1i&t in@$ry simi1ar1y. Tides and Underto% +"ese are an t"er "a'ard t & ntend %it". I! &a$)"t in a 1ar)e %a5eFs $ndert %# p$s" !! t"e b tt m r s%im t t"e s$r!a&e and pr &eed s" re%ard in a tr $)" bet%een %a5es. D n t !i)"t a)ainst t"e p$11 ! t"e $ndert %. S%im %it" it r perpendi&$1ar t it $nti1 it 1 ses stren)t"# t"en s%im ! r s" re.

F""(
.btainin) ! d a1 n) a seas" re s" $1d n t present a pr b1em. +"ere are many types ! sea%eed and t"er p1ants y $ &an easi1y !ind and eat. See /"apter ; and Appendi? , ! r a dis&$ssi n ! t"ese p1ants. +"ere is a )reat 5ariety ! anima1 1i!e t"at &an s$pp1y y $r need ! r ! d in t"is type ! s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. 0ollus-s M$sse1s# 1impets# &1ams# sea snai1s# &t p$ses# s4$ids# and sea s1$)s are a11 edib1e. S"e11!is" %i11 $s$a11y s$pp1y m st ! t"e pr tein eaten by & asta1 s$r5i5 rs. A5 id t"e b1$e-rin)ed &t p$s and & ne s"e11s Cdes&ribed in /"apter 11 and Appendi? FD. A1s be%are ! Jred tidesJ t"at ma2e m 11$s2s p is n $s. App1y t"e edibi1ity test n ea&" spe&ies be! re eatin). 3or"s / asta1 % rms are )enera11y edib1e# b$t it is better t $se t"em ! r !is" bait. A5 id brist1e % rms t"at 1 2 1i2e !$''y &aterpi11ars. A1s a5 id t$be% rms t"at "a5e s"arp-ed)ed t$bes. Arr %% rms# a1ias amp"i ?$s# are n t tr$e % rms. Y $ !ind t"em in t"e sand and are e?&e11ent eit"er !res" r dried. Cra6s& Lo6sters& and #arnacles +"ese anima1s are se1d m dan)er $s t man and are an e?&e11ent ! d s $r&e. +"e pin&ers ! 1ar)er &rabs r 1 bsters &an &r$s" a manFs !in)er. Many spe&ies "a5e spines n t"eir s"e11s# ma2in) it pre!erab1e t %ear )1 5es %"en &at&"in) t"em. ,arna&1es &an &a$se s&rapes r &$ts and are di!!i&$1t t deta&" !r m t"eir an&" r# b$t t"e 1ar)er spe&ies are an e?&e11ent ! d s $r&e. Sea Urchins +"ese are & mm n and &an &a$se pain!$1 in@$ries %"en stepped n r t $&"ed. +"ey are a1s a ) d s $r&e ! ! d. 0and1e t"em %it" )1 5es# and rem 5e a11 spines. Sea Cucu"6ers +"is anima1 is an imp rtant ! d s $r&e in t"e Ind -(a&i!i& re)i ns. Use t"em %" 1e a!ter e5is&erati n r rem 5e t"e !i5e m$s&$1ar strips t"at r$n t"e 1en)t" ! its b dy. -at t"em sm 2ed# pi&21ed# r & 2ed.

(a)e 1:9 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 17 - E?PEDIENT *ATER CROSSIN1S

In a survival situation" you may have to cross a water obstacle. It may be in the !orm o! a river" a stream" a lake" a bog" )uicksand" )uagmire" or muskeg. Cven in the desert" !lash !loods occur" making streams an obstacle. hatever it is" you need to know how to cross it sa!ely.

RIV RS AN, STR A0S
Y $ &an app1y a1m st e5ery des&ripti n t ri5ers and streams. +"ey may be s"a11 % r deep# s1 % r !ast m 5in)# narr % r %ide. ,e! re y $ try t &r ss a ri5er r stream# de5e1 p a ) d p1an. Y $r !irst step is t 1 2 ! r a "i)" p1a&e !r m %"i&" y $ &an )et a ) d 5ie% ! t"e ri5er r stream. Fr m t"is p1a&e# y $ &an 1 2 ! r a p1a&e t &r ss. I! t"ere is n "i)" p1a&e# &1imb a tree. 6 d &r ssin) 1 &ati ns in&1$de-• A 1e5e1 stret&" %"ere it brea2s int se5era1 &"anne1s. +% r t"ree narr % &"anne1s are $s$a11y easier t &r ss t"an a %ide ri5er. • A s"a11 % ban2 r sandbar. I! p ssib1e# se1e&t a p int $pstream !r m t"e ban2 r sandbar s t"at t"e &$rrent %i11 &arry y $ t it i! y $ 1 se y $r ! tin). • A & $rse a&r ss t"e ri5er t"at 1eads d %nstream s t"at y $ %i11 &r ss t"e &$rrent at ab $t a 79de)ree an)1e. +"e ! 11 %in) areas p ssess p tentia1 "a'ardsH a5 id t"em# i! p ssib1eI • 0bstacles on the opposite side o! the river that might hinder your travel. +ry t se1e&t t"e sp t !r m %"i&" tra5e1 %i11 be t"e sa!est and easiest. • A ledge o! rocks that crosses the river. +"is !ten indi&ates dan)er $s rapids r &any ns. • A deep or rapid water!all or a deep channel. Ne5er try t ! rd a stream dire&t1y ab 5e r e5en &1 se t s$&" "a'ards. • Rocky places. Y $ may s$stain seri $s in@$ries !r m s1ippin) r !a11in) n r &2s. Us$a11y# s$bmer)ed r &2s are 5ery s1i&2# ma2in) ba1an&e e?treme1y di!!i&$1t. An &&asi na1 r &2 t"at brea2s t"e &$rrent# " %e5er# may "e1p y $. • An estuary o! a river. An est$ary is n rma11y %ide# "as str n) &$rrents# and is s$b@e&t t tides. +"ese tides &an in!1$en&e s me ri5ers many 2i1 meters !r m t"eir m $t"s. 6 ba&2 $pstream t an easier &r ssin) site. • Cddies. An eddy &an pr d$&e a p %er!$1 ba&2%ard p$11 d %nstream ! t"e bstr$&ti n &a$sin) t"e eddy and p$11 y $ $nder t"e s$r!a&e. +"e dept" ! a ! rdab1e ri5er r stream is n deterrent i! y $ &an 2eep y $r ! tin). In !a&t# deep %ater s metimes r$ns m re s1 %1y and is t"ere! re sa!er t"an !ast-m 5in) s"a11 % %ater. Y $ &an a1%ays dry y $r &1 t"es 1ater# r i! ne&essary# y $ &an ma2e a ra!t t &arry y $r &1 t"in) and e4$ipment a&r ss t"e ri5er. Y $ m$st n t try t s%im r %ade a&r ss a stream r ri5er %"en t"e %ater is at 5ery 1 % temperat$res. +"is s%im & $1d be !ata1. +ry t ma2e a ra!t ! s me type. 3ade a&r ss i! y $ &an )et n1y y $r !eet %et. Dry t"em 5i) r $s1y as s n as y $ rea&" t"e t"er ban2.
(a)e 1:6 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

RAPI,S
I! ne&essary# y $ &an sa!e1y &r ss a deep# s%i!t ri5er r rapids. + s%im a&r ss a deep# s%i!t ri5er# s%im %it" t"e &$rrent# ne5er !i)"t it. +ry t 2eep y $r b dy " ri' nta1 t t"e %ater. +"is %i11 red$&e t"e dan)er ! bein) p$11ed $nder. In !ast# s"a11 % rapids# 1ie n y $r ba&2# !eet p intin) d %nstream# !innin) y $r "ands a1 n)side y $r "ips. +"is a&ti n %i11 in&rease b$ yan&y and "e1p y $ steer a%ay !r m bsta&1es. 8eep y $r !eet $p t a5 id )ettin) t"em br$ised r &a$)"t by r &2s. In deep rapids# 1ie n y $r st ma&"# "ead d %nstream# an)1in) t %ard t"e s" re %"ene5er y $ &an. 3at&" ! r bsta&1es and be &are!$1 ! ba&2%ater eddies and & n5er)in) &$rrents# as t"ey !ten & ntain dan)er $s s%ir1s. / n5er)in) &$rrents &&$r %"ere ne% %ater& $rses enter t"e ri5er r %"ere %ater "as been di5erted ar $nd 1ar)e bsta&1es s$&" as sma11 is1ands. + ! rd a s%i!t# trea&"er $s stream# app1y t"e ! 11 %in) stepsI • Rem 5e y $r pants and s"irt t 1essen t"e %aterFs p$11 n y $. 8eep y $r ! t)ear n t pr te&t y $r !eet and an21es !r m r &2s. It %i11 a1s pr 5ide y $ %it" !irmer ! tin). • +ie y $r pants and t"er arti&1es t t"e t p ! y $r r$&2sa&2 r in a b$nd1e# i! y $ "a5e n pa&2. +"is %ay# i! y $ "a5e t re1ease y $r e4$ipment# a11 y $r arti&1es %i11 be t )et"er. It is easier t !ind ne 1ar)e pa&2 t"an t !ind se5era1 sma11 items. • /arry y $r pa&2 %e11 $p n y $r s" $1ders and be s$re y $ &an easi1y rem 5e it# i! ne&essary. N t bein) ab1e t )et a pa&2 !! 4$i&21y en $)" &an dra) e5en t"e str n)est s%immers $nder. Find a str n) p 1e ab $t 7.9 &entimeters in diameter and 2.1 t 2.7 meters 1 n) t "e1p y $ ! rd t"e stream. 6rasp t"e p 1e and p1ant it !irm1y n y $r $pstream side t brea2 t"e &$rrent. (1ant y $r !eet !irm1y %it" ea&" step# and m 5e t"e p 1e ! r%ard a 1itt1e d %nstream !r m its pre5i $s p siti n# b$t sti11 $pstream !r m y $. 3it" y $r ne?t step# p1a&e y $r ! t be1 % t"e p 1e. 8eep t"e p 1e %e11 s1anted s t"at t"e ! r&e ! t"e &$rrent 2eeps t"e p 1e a)ainst y $r s" $1der CFi)$re 17-1D. • /r ss t"e stream s t"at y $ %i11 &r ss t"e d %nstream &$rrent at a 79-de)ree an)1e.

Usin) t"is met" d# y $ &an sa!e1y &r ss &$rrents $s$a11y t str n) ! r ne pers n t stand a)ainst. D n t & n&ern y $rse1! ab $t y $r pa&2Fs %ei)"t# as t"e %ei)"t %i11 "e1p rat"er t"an "inder y $ in ! rdin) t"e stream. I! t"ere are t"er pe p1e %it" y $# &r ss t"e stream t )et"er. -ns$re t"at e5ery ne "as prepared t"eir pa&2 and &1 t"in) as $t1ined ab 5e. ( siti n t"e "ea5iest pers n n t"e d %nstream end ! t"e p 1e and t"e 1i)"test n t"e $pstream end. In $sin) t"is met" d# t"e $pstream pers n brea2s t"e &$rrent# and t" se be1 % &an m 5e %it" re1ati5e ease in t"e eddy ! rmed by t"e $pstream pers n. I! t"e $pstream pers n )ets temp rari1y s%ept !! "is !eet# t"e t"ers &an " 1d steady %"i1e "e re)ains "is ! tin) CFi)$re 17-2D.

(a)e 1:7 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

I! y $ "a5e t"ree r m re pe p1e and a r pe a5ai1ab1e# y $ &an $se t"e te&"ni4$e s" %n in Fi)$re 17-* t &r ss t"e stream. +"e 1en)t" ! t"e r pe m$st be t"ree times t"e %idt" ! t"e stream.

(a)e 1:: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

RA'TS
I! y $ "a5e t% p n&" s# y $ &an & nstr$&t a br$s" ra!t r an A$stra1ian p n&" ra!t. 3it" eit"er ! t"ese ra!ts# y $ &an sa!e1y !1 at y $r e4$ipment a&r ss a s1 %-m 5in) stream r ri5er.

B& $h R!6t
+"e br$s" ra!t# i! pr per1y & nstr$&ted# %i11 s$pp rt ab $t 119 2i1 )rams. + & nstr$&t it# $se p n&" s# !res" )reen br$s"# t% sma11 sap1in)s# and r pe r 5ine as ! 11 %s CFi)$re 17-7DI • ($s" t"e " d ! ea&" p n&" t t"e inner side and ti)"t1y tie !! t"e ne&2s $sin) t"e dra%strin)s. • Atta&" t"e r pes r 5ines at t"e & rner and side )r mmets ! ea&" p n&" . Ma2e s$re t"ey are 1 n) en $)" t &r ss t and tie %it" t"e t"ers atta&"ed at t"e pp site & rner r side. • Spread ne p n&" n t"e )r $nd %it" t"e inner side $p. (i1e !res"# )reen br$s" Cn t"i&2 bran&"esD n t"e p n&" $nti1 t"e br$s" sta&2 is ab $t 79 &entimeters "i)". ($11 t"e dra%strin) $p t"r $)" t"e &enter ! t"e br$s" sta&2. • Ma2e an B-!rame !r m t% sma11 sap1in)s and p1a&e it n t p ! t"e br$s" sta&2. +ie t"e B-!rame se&$re1y in p1a&e %it" t"e p n&" dra%strin). • (i1e an t"er 79 &entimeters ! br$s" n t p ! t"e B-!rame# t"en & mpress t"e br$s" s1i)"t1y.
(a)e 1:; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

• • •

($11 t"e p n&" sides $p ar $nd t"e br$s" and# $sin) t"e r pes r 5ines atta&"ed t t"e & mer r side )r mmets# tie t"em dia) na11y !r m & mer t & rner and !r m side t side. Spread t"e se& nd p n&" # inner side $p# ne?t t t"e br$s" b$nd1e. R 11 t"e br$s" b$nd1e nt t"e se& nd p n&" s t"at t"e tied side is d %n. +ie t"e se& nd p n&" ar $nd t"e br$s" b$nd1e in t"e same manner as y $ tied t"e !irst p n&" ar $nd t"e br$s". (1a&e it in t"e %ater %it" t"e tied side ! t"e se& nd p n&" !a&in) $p.

A $t&!%i!# P"#.h" R!6t
I! y $ d n t "a5e time t )at"er br$s" ! r a br$s" ra!t# y $ &an ma2e an A$stra1ian p n&" ra!t. +"is ra!t# a1t" $)" m re %aterpr ! t"an t"e p n&" br$s" ra!t# %i11 n1y !1 at ab $t *9 2i1 )rams ! e4$ipment. + & nstr$&t t"is ra!t# $se t% p n&" s# t% r$&2sa&2s# t% 1.2-meter p 1es r bran&"es# and r pes# 5ines# b t1a&es# r & mparab1e materia1 as ! 11 %s CFi)$re 17-9DI • ($s" t"e " d ! ea&" p n&" t t"e inner side and ti)"t1y tie !! t"e ne&2s $sin) t"e dra%strin)s. • Spread ne p n&" n t"e )r $nd %it" t"e inner side $p. (1a&e and &enter t"e t% 1.2-meter p 1es n t"e p n&" ab $t 79 &entimeters apart. • (1a&e y $r r$&2sa&2s r pa&2s r t"er e4$ipment bet%een t"e p 1es. A1s p1a&e t"er items t"at y $ %ant t 2eep dry bet%een t"e p 1es. Snap t"e p n&" sides t )et"er. • Use y $r b$ddyFs "e1p t & mp1ete t"e ra!t. 0 1d t"e snapped p rti n ! t"e p n&" in t"e air and r 11 it ti)"t1y d %n t t"e e4$ipment. Ma2e s$re y $ r 11 t"e !$11 %idt" ! t"e p n&" . • +%ist t"e ends ! t"e r 11 t ! rm pi)tai1s in pp site dire&ti ns. F 1d t"e pi)tai1s 5er t"e b$nd1e and tie t"em se&$re1y in p1a&e $sin) r pes# b t1a&es# r 5ines. • Spread t"e se& nd p n&" n t"e )r $nd# inner side $p. I! y $ need m re b$ yan&y# p1a&e s me !res" )reen br$s" n t"is p n&" . • (1a&e t"e e4$ipment b$nd1e# tied side d %n# n t"e &enter ! t"e se& nd p n&" . 3rap t"e se& nd p n&" ar $nd t"e e4$ipment b$nd1e ! 11 %in) t"e same pr &ed$re y $ $sed ! r %rappin) t"e e4$ipment in t"e !irst p n&" . • +ie r pes# b t1a&es# 5ines# r t"er bindin) materia1 ar $nd t"e ra!t ab $t *< &entimeters !r m t"e end ! ea&" pi)tai1. (1a&e and se&$re %eap ns n t p ! t"e ra!t. • +ie ne end ! a r pe t an empty &anteen and t"e t"er end t t"e ra!t. +"is %i11 "e1p y $ t t % t"e ra!t.
(a)e 1;< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

P"#.h" D"# t R!6t
An t"er type ! ra!t is t"e p n&" d n$t ra!t. It ta2es m re time t & nstr$&t t"an t"e br$s" ra!t r A$stra1ian p n&" ra!t# b$t it is e!!e&ti5e. + & nstr$&t it# $se ne p n&" # sma11 sap1in)s# %i11 % r 5ines# and r pe# b t1a&es# r t"er bindin) materia1 CFi)$re 17-6D as ! 11 %sI • Ma2e a !rame% r2 &ir&1e by p1a&in) se5era1 sta2es in t"e )r $nd t"at r $)"1y $t1ine an inner and $ter &ir&1e. • Usin) y $n) sap1in)s# %i11 %# r 5ines# & nstr$&t a d n$t rin) %it"in t"e &ir&1es ! sta2es. • 3rap se5era1 pie&es ! & rda)e ar $nd t"e d n$t rin) ab $t *< t 6< &entimeters apart and tie t"em se&$re1y. • ($s" t"e p n&" Fs " d t t"e inner side and ti)"t1y tie !! t"e ne&2 $sin) t"e dra%strin). • (1a&e t"e p n&" n t"e )r $nd# inner side $p. (1a&e t"e d n$t rin) n t"e &enter ! t"e p n&" . 3rap t"e p n&" $p and 5er t"e d n$t rin) and tie !! ea&" )r mmet n t"e p n&" t t"e rin). • +ie ne end ! a r pe t an empty &anteen and t"e t"er end t t"e ra!t. +"is r pe %i11 "e1p y $ t t % t"e ra!t.

3"en 1a$n&"in) any ! t"e ab 5e ra!ts# ta2e &are n t t p$n&t$re r tear it by dra))in) it n t"e )r $nd. ,e! re y $ start t &r ss t"e ri5er r stream# 1et t"e ra!t 1ay n t"e %ater a !e% min$tes t ens$re t"at it !1 ats. I! t"e ri5er is t deep t ! rd# p$s" t"e ra!t in !r nt ! y $ %"i1e y $ are s%immin). +"e desi)n ! t"e ab 5e ra!ts d es n t a11 % t"em t &arry a pers nFs !$11 b dy %ei)"t. Use t"em as a !1 at t )et y $ and y $r e4$ipment sa!e1y a&r ss t"e ri5er r stream. ,e s$re t &"e&2 t"e %ater temperat$re be! re tryin) t &r ss a ri5er r %ater bsta&1e. I! t"e %ater is e?treme1y & 1d and y $ are $nab1e t !ind a s"a11 % ! rdin) p1a&e in t"e ri5er# d n t try t ! rd it. De5ise
(a)e 1;1 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

t"er means ! r &r ssin). F r instan&e# y $ mi)"t impr 5ise a brid)e by !e11in) a tree 5er t"e ri5er. .r y $ mi)"t b$i1d a ra!t 1ar)e en $)" t &arry y $ and y $r e4$ipment. F r t"is# " %e5er# y $ %i11 need an a?e# a 2ni!e# a r pe r 5ines# and time.

L"0 R!6t
Y $ &an ma2e a ra!t $sin) any dry# dead# standin) trees ! r 1 )s. 0 %e5er# spr$&e trees ! $nd in p 1ar and s$bp 1ar re)i ns ma2e t"e best ra!ts. A simp1e met" d ! r ma2in) a ra!t is t $se press$re bars 1as"ed se&$re1y at ea&" end ! t"e ra!t t " 1d t"e 1 )s t )et"er CFi)$re 17-7D.

'LOTATION , VIC S
I! t"e %ater is %arm en $)" ! r s%immin) and y $ d n t "a5e t"e time r materia1s t & nstr$&t ne ! t"e p n&" -type ra!ts# y $ &an $se 5ari $s !1 tati n de5i&es t ne) tiate t"e %ater bsta&1e. S me items y $ &an $se ! r !1 tati n de5i&es are-• Trousers. 8n t ea&" tr $ser 1e) at t"e b tt m and &1 se t"e !1y. 3it" b t" "ands# )rasp t"e %aistband at t"e sides and s%in) t"e tr $sers in t"e air t trap air in ea&" 1e). =$i&21y press t"e sides ! t"e %aistband t )et"er and " 1d it $nder%ater s t"at t"e air %i11 n t es&ape. Y $ n % "a5e %ater %in)s t 2eep y $ a!1 at as y $ &r ss t"e b dy ! %ater. 8ote9 et the trousers be!ore in!lating to trap the air better @ou may have to rein!late the trousers several times when crossing a large body o! water.

Cmpty containers. Las" t )et"er "er empty )as &ans# %ater @$)s# amm &ans# b ?es# r t"er items t"at %i11 trap r " 1d air. Use t"em as %ater %in)s. Use t"is type ! !1 tati n de5i&e n1y in a s1 %-m 5in) ri5er r stream. :lastic bags and ponchos. Fi11 t% r m re p1asti& ba)s %it" air and se&$re t"em t )et"er at t"e penin). Use y $r p n&" and r 11 )reen 5e)etati n ti)"t1y inside it s t"at y $ "a5e a r 11 at 1east 2< &entimeters in diameter. +ie t"e ends ! t"e r 11 se&$re1y. Y $ &an %ear it ar $nd y $r %aist r a&r ss ne s" $1der and $nder t"e pp site arm.

Logs. Use a stranded dri!t 1 ) i! ne is a5ai1ab1e# r !ind a 1 ) near t"e %ater t $se as a !1 at. ,e s$re t test t"e 1 ) be! re startin) t &r ss. S me tree 1 )s# pa1m ! r e?amp1e# %i11 sin2 e5en %"en t"e % d is dead. An t"er met" d is t tie t% 1 )s ab $t 6< &entimeters apart. Sit bet%een t"e 1 )s %it" y $r ba&2 a)ainst ne and y $r 1e)s 5er t"e t"er CFi)$re 17-:D. • 1attails. 6at"er sta12s ! &attai1s and tie t"em in a b$nd1e 29 &entimeters r m re in diameter. +"e many air &e11s in ea&" sta12 &a$se a sta12 t !1 at $nti1 it r ts. +est t"e &attai1 b$nd1e t be s$re it %i11 s$pp rt y $r %ei)"t be! re tryin) t &r ss a b dy ! %ater.

(a)e 1;2 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+"ere are many t"er !1 tati n de5i&es t"at y $ &an de5ise by $sin) s me ima)inati n. >$st ma2e s$re t test t"e de5i&e be! re tryin) t $se it.

OT. R 3AT R O#STACL S
.t"er %ater bsta&1es t"at y $ may !a&e are b )s# 4$a)mire# m$s2e)# r 4$i&2sand. D n t try t %a12 a&r ss t"ese. +ryin) t 1i!t y $r !eet %"i1e standin) $pri)"t %i11 ma2e y $ sin2 deeper. +ry t bypass t"ese bsta&1es. I! y $ are $nab1e t bypass t"em# y $ may be ab1e t brid)e t"em $sin) 1 )s# bran&"es# r ! 1ia)e. A %ay t &r ss a b ) is t 1ie !a&e d %n# %it" y $r arms and 1e)s spread. Use a !1 tati n de5i&e r ! rm p &2ets ! air in y $r &1 t"in). S%im r p$11 y $r %ay a&r ss m 5in) s1 %1y and tryin) t 2eep y $r b dy " ri' nta1. In s%amps# t"e areas t"at "a5e 5e)etati n are $s$a11y !irm en $)" t s$pp rt y $r %ei)"t. 0 %e5er# 5e)etati n %i11 $s$a11y n t be present in pen m$d r %ater areas. I! y $ are an a5era)e s%immer# " %e5er# y $ s" $1d "a5e n pr b1em s%immin)# &ra%1in)# r p$11in) y $r %ay t"r $)" mi1es ! b ) r s%amp. =$i&2sand is a mi?t$re ! sand and %ater t"at ! rms a s"i!tin) mass. It yie1ds easi1y t press$re and s$&2s d %n and en)$1!s b@e&ts restin) n its s$r!a&e. It 5aries in dept" and is $s$a11y 1 &a1i'ed. =$i&2sand & mm n1y &&$rs n !1at s" res# in si1t-&" 2ed ri5ers %it" s"i!tin) %ater& $rses# and near t"e m $t"s ! 1ar)e ri5ers. I! y $ are $n&ertain %"et"er a sandy area is 4$i&2sand# t ss a sma11 st ne n it. +"e st ne %i11 sin2 in 4$i&2sand. A1t" $)" 4$i&2sand "as m re s$&ti n t"an m$d r m$&2# y $ &an &r ss it @$st as y $ % $1d &r ss a b ). Lie !a&e d %n# spread y $r arms and 1e)s# and m 5e s1 %1y a&r ss.

V / TATION O#STACL S
S me %ater areas y $ m$st &r ss may "a5e $nder%ater and !1 atin) p1ants t"at %i11 ma2e s%immin) di!!i&$1t. 0 %e5er# y $ &an s%im t"r $)" re1ati5e1y dense 5e)etati n i! y $ remain &a1m and d n t t"ras" ab $t. Stay as near t"e s$r!a&e as p ssib1e and $se t"e breaststr 2e %it" s"a11 % 1e) and arm m ti n. Rem 5e t"e p1ants ar $nd y $ as y $ % $1d &1 t"in). 3"en y $ )et tired# !1 at r s%im n y $r ba&2 $nti1 y $ "a5e rested en $)" t & ntin$e %it" t"e breaststr 2e. +"e man)r 5e s%amp is an t"er type ! bsta&1e t"at &&$rs a1 n) tr pi&a1 & ast1ines. Man)r 5e trees r s"r$bs t"r % $t many pr p r ts t"at ! rm dense masses. + )et t"r $)" a man)r 5e s%amp# %ait ! r 1 % tide. I! y $ are n t"e in1and side# 1 2 ! r a narr % )r 5e ! trees and % r2 y $r %ay sea%ard t"r $)" t"ese. Y $ &an a1s try t !ind t"e bed ! a %ater%ay r &ree2 t"r $)" t"e trees and ! 11 % it t t"e sea. I! y $ are n t"e sea%ard side# % r2 in1and a1 n) streams r &"anne1s. ,e n t"e 1 2 $t ! r &r & di1es t"at y $ !ind a1 n) &"anne1s and in s"a11 % %ater. I! t"ere are any near y $# 1ea5e t"e %ater and s&ramb1e 5er t"e man)r 5e r ts. 3"i1e &r ssin) a man)r 5e s%amp# it is p ssib1e t )at"er ! d !r m tida1 p 1s r tree r ts. + &r ss a 1ar)e s%amp area# & nstr$&t s me type ! ra!t.

(a)e 1;* ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 1; - FIELD-E?PEDIENT DIRECTION FINDIN1

In a survival situation" you will be e+tremely !ortunate i! you happen to have a map and compass. I! you do have these two pieces o! e)uipment" you will most likely be able to move toward help. I! you are not pro!icient in using a map and compass" you must take the steps to gain this skill. There are several methods by which you can determine direction by using the sun and the stars. These methods" however" will give you only a general direction. @ou can come up with a more nearly true direction i! you know the terrain o! the territory or country. @ou must learn all you can about the terrain o! the country or territory to which you or your unit may be sent" especially any prominent !eatures or landmarks. This knowledge o! the terrain together with using the methods e+plained below will let you come up with !airly true directions to help you navigate.

USIN/ T. SUN AN, S.A,O3S
+"e eart"Fs re1ati ns"ip t t"e s$n &an "e1p y $ t determine dire&ti n n eart". +"e s$n a1%ays rises in t"e east and sets in t"e %est# b$t n t e?a&t1y d$e east r d$e %est. +"ere is a1s s me seas na1 5ariati n. In t"e n rt"ern "emisp"ere# t"e s$n %i11 be d$e s $t" %"en at its "i)"est p int in t"e s2y# r %"en an b@e&t &asts n appre&iab1e s"ad %. In t"e s $t"ern "emisp"ere# t"is same n nday s$n %i11 mar2 d$e n rt". In t"e n rt"ern "emisp"ere# s"ad %s %i11 m 5e &1 &2%ise. S"ad %s %i11 m 5e & $nter&1 &2%ise in t"e s $t"ern "emisp"ere. 3it" pra&ti&e# y $ &an $se s"ad %s t determine b t" dire&ti n and time ! day. +"e s"ad % met" ds $sed ! r dire&ti n !indin) are t"e s"ad %-tip and %at&" met" ds.

Sh!("2-Tip Meth"($
In t"e !irst s"ad %-tip met" d# !ind a strai)"t sti&2 1 meter 1 n)# and a 1e5e1 sp t !ree ! br$s" n %"i&" t"e sti&2 %i11 &ast a de!inite s"ad %. +"is met" d is simp1e and a&&$rate and & nsists ! ! $r stepsI • Step 2. (1a&e t"e sti&2 r bran&" int t"e )r $nd at a 1e5e1 sp t %"ere it %i11 &ast a distin&ti5e s"ad %. Mar2 t"e s"ad %Fs tip %it" a st ne# t%i)# r t"er means. +"is !irst s"ad % mar2 is a1%ays %est--e/e&32he&e n eart". • Step 3. 3ait 1< t 19 min$tes $nti1 t"e s"ad % tip m 5es a !e% &entimeters. Mar2 t"e s"ad % tipFs ne% p siti n in t"e same %ay as t"e !irst. • Step 4. Dra% a strai)"t 1ine t"r $)" t"e t% mar2s t btain an appr ?imate east-%est 1ine. • Step 5. Stand %it" t"e !irst mar2 C%estD t y $r 1e!t and t"e se& nd mar2 t y $r ri)"t--y $ are n % !a&in) n rt". +"is !a&t is tr$e e/e&32he&e n eart". An a1ternate met" d is m re a&&$rate b$t re4$ires m re time. Set $p y $r s"ad % sti&2 and mar2 t"e !irst s"ad % in t"e m rnin). Use a pie&e ! strin) t dra% a &1ean ar& t"r $)" t"is mar2 and ar $nd t"e
(a)e 1;7 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

sti&2. At midday# t"e s"ad % %i11 s"rin2 and disappear. In t"e a!tern n# it %i11 1en)t"en a)ain and at t"e p int %"ere it t $&"es t"e ar&# ma2e a se& nd mar2. Dra% a 1ine t"r $)" t"e t% mar2s t )et an a&&$rate east-%est 1ine Csee Fi)$re 1:-1D.

The *!t.h Meth"(
Y $ &an a1s determine dire&ti n $sin) a & mm n r ana1 ) %at&"-- ne t"at "as "ands. +"e dire&ti n %i11 be a&&$rate i! y $ are $sin) tr$e 1 &a1 time# %it" $t any &"an)es ! r day1i)"t sa5in)s time. Remember# t"e !$rt"er y $ are !r m t"e e4$at r# t"e m re a&&$rate t"is met" d %i11 be. I! y $ n1y "a5e a di)ita1 %at&"# y $ &an 5er& me t"is bsta&1e. =$i&21y dra% a %at&" n a &ir&1e ! paper %it" t"e & rre&t time n it and $se it t determine y $r dire&ti n at t"at time. In t"e n rt"ern "emisp"ere# " 1d t"e %at&" " ri' nta1 and p int t"e " $r "and at t"e s$n. ,ise&t t"e an)1e bet%een t"e " $r "and and t"e 12 F&1 &2 mar2 t )et t"e n rt"-s $t" 1ine CFi)$re 1:-2D. I! t"ere is any d $bt as t %"i&" end ! t"e 1ine is n rt"# remember t"at t"e s$n rises in t"e east# sets in t"e %est# and is d$e s $t" at n n. +"e s$n is in t"e east be! re n n and in t"e %est a!ter n n. 8ote9 I! your watch is set on daylight savings time" use the midway point between the hour hand and 2 o.clock to determine the north%south line.
(a)e 1;9 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

In t"e s $t"ern "emisp"ere# p int t"e %at&"Fs 12 F&1 &2 mar2 t %ard t"e s$n and a midp int "a1!%ay bet%een 12 and t"e " $r "and %i11 )i5e y $ t"e n rt"-s $t" 1ine CFi)$re 1:-2D.

USIN/ T. 0OON
,e&a$se t"e m n "as n 1i)"t ! its %n# %e &an n1y see it %"en it re!1e&ts t"e s$nFs 1i)"t. As it rbits t"e eart" n its 2:-day &ir&$it# t"e s"ape ! t"e re!1e&ted 1i)"t 5aries a&& rdin) t its p siti n. 3e say t"ere is a ne% m n r n m n %"en it is n t"e pp site side ! t"e eart" !r m t"e s$n. +"en# as it m 5es a%ay !r m t"e eart"Fs s"ad %# it be)ins t re!1e&t 1i)"t !r m its ri)"t side and %a?es t be& me a !$11 m n be! re %anin)# r 1 sin) s"ape# t appear as a s1i5er n t"e 1e!t side. Y $ &an $se t"is in! rmati n t identi!y dire&ti n. I! t"e m n rises be! re t"e s$n "as set# t"e i11$minated side %i11 be t"e %est. I! t"e m n rises a!ter midni)"t# t"e i11$minated side %i11 be t"e east. +"is b5i $s dis& 5ery pr 5ides $s %it" a r $)" east-%est re!eren&e d$rin) t"e ni)"t.

USIN/ T. STARS
Y $r 1 &ati n in t"e N rt"ern r S $t"ern 0emisp"ere determines %"i&" & nste11ati n y $ $se t determine y $r n rt" r s $t" dire&ti n.

The N"&the&# S)3
+"e main & nste11ati ns t 1earn are t"e Ursa Ma@ r# a1s 2n %n as t"e ,i) Dipper r t"e (1 %# and /assi peia CFi)$re 1:-*D. Neit"er ! t"ese & nste11ati ns e5er sets. +"ey are a1%ays 5isib1e n a &1ear ni)"t. Use t"em t 1 &ate ( 1aris# a1s 2n %n as t"e p 1estar r t"e N rt" Star. +"e N rt" Star ! rms part ! t"e Litt1e Dipper "and1e and &an be & n!$sed %it" t"e ,i) Dipper. (re5ent & n!$si n by $sin) b t" t"e ,i) Dipper and /assi peia t )et"er. +"e ,i) Dipper and /assi peia are a1%ays dire&t1y pp site ea&". t"er and r tate & $nter&1 &2%ise ar $nd ( 1aris# %it" ( 1aris in t"e &enter. +"e ,i) Dipper is a se5en star & nste11ati n in t"e s"ape ! a dipper. +"e t% stars ! rmin) t"e $ter 1ip ! t"is dipper are t"e Jp inter starsJ be&a$se t"ey p int t t"e N rt" Star. Menta11y dra% a 1ine !r m t"e $ter b tt m star t t"e $ter t p star ! t"e ,i) DipperFs b$&2et. -?tend t"is 1ine ab $t !i5e times t"e distan&e bet%een t"e p inter stars. Y $ %i11 !ind t"e N rt" Star a1 n) t"is 1ine.

(a)e 1;6 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

/assi peia "as !i5e stars t"at ! rm a s"ape 1i2e a J3J n its side. +"e N rt" Star is strai)"t $t !r m /assi peiaFs &enter star. A!ter 1 &atin) t"e N rt" Star# 1 &ate t"e N rt" ( 1e r tr$e n rt" by dra%in) an ima)inary 1ine dire&t1y t t"e eart".

The S" the&# S)3
,e&a$se t"ere is n star bri)"t en $)" t be easi1y re& )ni'ed near t"e s $t" &e1estia1 p 1e# a & nste11ati n 2n %n as t"e S $t"ern /r ss is $sed as a si)np st t t"e S $t" CFi)$re 1:-7D. +"e S $t"ern /r ss r /r$? "as !i5e stars. Its ! $r bri)"test stars ! rm a &r ss t"at ti1ts t ne side. +"e t% stars t"at ma2e $p t"e &r ssFs 1 n) a?is are t"e p inter stars. + determine s $t"# ima)ine a distan&e !i5e times t"e distan&e bet%een +"ese stars and t"e p int %"ere t"is ima)inary 1ine ends is in t"e )enera1 dire&ti n ! s $t". L 2 d %n t t"e " ri' n !r m t"is ima)inary p int and se1e&t a 1andmar2 t steer by. In a stati& s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# y $ &an !i? t"is 1 &ati n in day1i)"t i! y $ dri5e sta2es in t"e )r $nd at ni)"t t p int t"e %ay.

(a)e 1;7 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

0A*IN/ I0PROVIS , CO0PASS S
Y $ &an & nstr$&t impr 5ised & mpasses $sin) a pie&e ! !err $s meta1 t"at &an be need1e s"aped r a !1at d $b1e-ed)ed ra' r b1ade and a pie&e ! n nmeta11i& strin) r 1 n) "air !r m %"i&" t s$spend it. Y $ &an ma)neti'e r p 1ari'e t"e meta1 by s1 %1y str 2in) it in ne dire&ti n n a pie&e ! si12 r &are!$11y t"r $)" y $r "air $sin) de1iberate str 2es. Y $ &an a1s p 1ari'e meta1 by str 2in) it repeated1y at ne end %it" a ma)net. A1%ays r$b in ne dire&ti n n1y. I! y $ "a5e a battery and s me e1e&tri& %ire# y $ &an p 1ari'e t"e meta1 e1e&tri&a11y. +"e %ire s" $1d be ins$1ated. I! n t ins$1ated# %rap t"e meta1 b@e&t in a sin)1e# t"in strip ! paper t pre5ent & nta&t. +"e battery m$st be a minim$m ! 2 5 1ts. F rm a & i1 %it" t"e e1e&tri& %ire and t $&" its ends t t"e batteryFs termina1s. Repeated1y insert ne end ! t"e meta1 b@e&t in and $t ! t"e & i1. +"e need1e %i11 be& me an e1e&tr ma)net. 3"en s$spended !r m a pie&e ! n nmeta11i& strin)# r !1 ated n a sma11 pie&e ! % d in %ater# it %i11 a1i)n itse1! %it" a n rt"-s $t" 1ine. Y $ &an & nstr$&t a m re e1ab rate impr 5ised & mpass $sin) a se%in) need1e r t"in meta11i& b@e&t# a n nmeta11i& & ntainer C! r e?amp1e# a p1asti& dip & ntainerD# its 1id %it" t"e &enter &$t $t and %aterpr !ed# and t"e si15er tip !r m a pen. + & nstr$&t t"is & mpass# ta2e an rdinary se%in) need1e and brea2 in "a1!. .ne "a1! %i11 ! rm y $r dire&ti n p inter and t"e t"er %i11 a&t as t"e pi5 t p int. ($s" t"e p rti n $sed as t"e pi5 t p int t"r $)" t"e b tt m &enter ! y $r & ntainerH t"is p rti n s" $1d be !1$s" n t"e b tt m and n t inter!ere %it" t"e 1id. Atta&" t"e &enter ! t"e t"er p rti n Ct"e p interD ! t"e need1e n t"e penFs si15er tip $sin) )1$e# tree sap# r me1ted p1asti&. Ma)neti'e ne end ! t"e p inter and rest it n t"e pi5 t p int.

OT. R 0 ANS O' , T R0ININ/ ,IR CTION
+"e 1d sayin) ab $t $sin) m ss n a tree t indi&ate n rt" is n t a&&$rate be&a$se m ss )r %s & mp1ete1y ar $nd s me trees. A&t$a11y# )r %t" is m re 1$s" n t"e side ! t"e tree !a&in) t"e s $t" in t"e N rt"ern 0emisp"ere and 5i&e 5ersa in t"e S $t"ern 0emisp"ere. I! t"ere are se5era1 !e11ed trees ar $nd ! r & mparis n# 1 2 at t"e st$mps. 6r %t" is m re 5i) r $s n t"e side t %ard t"e e4$at r and t"e tree )r %t" rin)s %i11 be m re %ide1y spa&ed. .n t"e t"er "and# t"e tree )r %t" rin)s %i11 be &1 ser t )et"er n t"e side t %ard t"e p 1es. 3ind dire&ti n may be "e1p!$1 in s me instan&es %"ere t"ere are pre5ai1in) dire&ti ns and y $ 2n % %"at t"ey are. Re& )ni'in) t"e di!!eren&es bet%een 5e)etati n and m ist$re patterns n n rt"- and s $t"-!a&in) s1 pes &an aid in determinin) dire&ti n. In t"e n rt"ern "emisp"ere# n rt"-!a&in) s1 pes re&ei5e 1ess s$n t"an
(a)e 1;: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

s $t"-!a&in) s1 pes and are t"ere! re & 1er and damper. In t"e s$mmer# n rt"-!a&in) s1 pes retain pat&"es ! sn %. In t"e %inter# t"e trees and pen areas n s $t"-!a&in) s1 pes are t"e !irst t 1 se t"eir sn %# and )r $nd sn %pa&2 is s"a11 %er.

(a)e 1;; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 1< - SI1NALIN1 TECHNI@UES

0ne o! your !irst concerns when you !ind yoursel! in a survival situation is to communicate with your !riends or allies. >enerally" communication is the giving and receiving o! in!ormation. As a survivor" you must get your rescuer.s attention !irst" and second" send a message your rescuer understands. Some attention%getters are man%made geometric patterns such as straight lines" circles" triangles" or G.s displayed in uninhabited areas# a large !ire or !lash o! light# a large" bright ob$ect moving slowly# or contrast" whether !rom color or shadows. The type o! signal used will depend on your environment and the enemy situation.

APPLICATION
I! in a n n& mbat sit$ati n# y $ need t !ind t"e 1ar)est a5ai1ab1e &1ear and !1at area on the highest possible terrain. Use as b5i $s a si)na1 as y $ &an &reate. .n t"e t"er "and# y $ %i11 "a5e t be m re dis&reet in & mbat sit$ati ns. Y $ d n t %ant t si)na1 and attra&t t"e enemy. (i&2 an area t"at is 5isib1e !r m t"e air# b$t ens$re t"ere are "idin) p1a&es nearby. +ry t "a5e a "i11 r t"er b@e&t bet%een t"e si)na1 site and t"e enemy t mas2 y $r si)na1 !r m t"e enemy. (er! rm a t" r $)" re& nnaissan&e ! t"e area t ens$re t"ere are n enemy ! r&es nearby. 3"ate5er si)na1in) te&"ni4$e r de5i&e y $ p1an t $se# 2n % " % t $se it and be ready t p$t it int perati n n s" rt n ti&e. I! p ssib1e# a5 id $sin) si)na1s r si)na1in) te&"ni4$es t"at &an p"ysi&a11y endan)er y $. 8eep in mind t"at si)na1s t y $r 6&ie#($ may a1ert t"e enemy ! y $r presen&e and 1 &ati n. ,e! re si)na1in)# &are!$11y %ei)" y $r res&$e &"an&es by 6&ie#($ a)ainst t"e dan)er ! &apt$re by t"e enemy. A radi is pr bab1y t"e s$rest and 4$i&2est %ay t 1et t"ers 2n % %"ere y $ are and t 1et y $ re&ei5e t"eir messa)es. ,e& me !ami1iar %it" t"e radi s in y $r $nit. Learn " % t perate t"em and " % t send and re&ei5e messa)es. Y $ %i11 !ind des&ripti ns ! t"er si)na1in) te&"ni4$es# de5i&es# and arti&1es y $ &an $se. Learn " % t $se t"em. +"in2 ! %ays in %"i&" y $ &an adapt r &"an)e t"em ! r di!!erent en5ir nments. (ra&ti&e $sin) t"ese si)na1in) te&"ni4$es# de5i&es# and arti&1es be! re y $ need t"em. (1anned# prearran)ed si)na1in) te&"ni4$es may impr 5e y $r &"an&e ! res&$e.

0 ANS 'OR SI/NALIN/
+"ere are t% main %ays t )et attenti n r t & mm$ni&ate--5is$a1 and a$di . +"e means y $ $se %i11 depend n y $r sit$ati n and t"e materia1 y $ "a5e a5ai1ab1e. 3"ate5er t"e means# a1%ays "a5e 5is$a1 and a$di si)na1s ready ! r $se.

Vi$ !% Si0#!%$
+"ese si)na1s are materia1s r e4$ipment y $ $se t ma2e y $r presen&e 2n %n t res&$ers. 'ire
(a)e 2<< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

D$rin) dar2ness# !ire is t"e m st e!!e&ti5e 5is$a1 means ! r si)na1in). ,$i1d t"ree !ires in a trian)1e Ct"e internati na1 distress si)na1D r in a strai)"t 1ine %it" ab $t 29 meters bet%een t"e !ires. ,$i1d t"em as s n as time and t"e sit$ati n permit and pr te&t t"em $nti1 y $ need t"em. I! y $ are a1 ne# maintainin) t"ree !ires may be di!!i&$1t. I! s # maintain ne si)na1 !ire. 3"en & nstr$&tin) si)na1 !ires# & nsider y $r )e )rap"i& 1 &ati n. I! in a @$n)1e# !ind a nat$ra1 &1earin) r t"e ed)e ! a stream %"ere y $ &an b$i1d !ires t"at t"e @$n)1e ! 1ia)e %i11 n t "ide. Y $ may e5en "a5e t &1ear an area. I! in a sn %-& 5ered area# y $ may "a5e t &1ear t"e )r $nd ! sn % r ma2e a p1at! rm n %"i&" t b$i1d t"e !ire s t"at me1tin) sn % %i11 n t e?tin)$is" it. A b$rnin) tree Ctree t r&"D is an t"er %ay t attra&t attenti n CFi)$re 1;-1D. Y $ &an set pit&"-bearin) trees a!ire# e5en %"en )reen. Y $ &an )et t"er types ! trees t b$rn by p1a&in) dry % d in t"e 1 %er bran&"es and i)nitin) it s t"at t"e !1ames !1are $p and i)nite t"e ! 1ia)e. ,e! re t"e primary tree is & ns$med# &$t and add m re sma11 )reen trees t t"e !ire t pr d$&e m re sm 2e. A1%ays se1e&t an is 1ated tree s t"at y $ d n t start a ! rest !ire and endan)er y $rse1!.

S"o-e D$rin) day1i)"t# b$i1d a sm 2e )enerat r and $se sm 2e t )ain attenti n CFi)$re 1;-2D. +"e internati na1 distress si)na1 is t"ree & 1$mns ! sm 2e. +ry t &reate a & 1 r ! sm 2e t"at & ntrasts %it" t"e ba&2)r $ndH dar2 sm 2e a)ainst a 1i)"t ba&2)r $nd and 5i&e 5ersa. I! y $ pra&ti&a11y sm t"er a 1ar)e !ire %it" )reen 1ea5es# m ss# r a 1itt1e %ater# t"e !ire %i11 pr d$&e %"ite sm 2e. I! y $ add r$bber r i1s a2ed ra)s t a !ire# y $ %i11 )et b1a&2 sm 2e.

(a)e 2<1 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

In a desert en5ir nment# sm 2e "an)s &1 se t t"e )r $nd# b$t a pi1 t &an sp t it in pen desert terrain. Sm 2e si)na1s are e!!e&ti5e n1y n & mparati5e1y &a1m# &1ear days. 0i)" %inds# rain# r sn % disperse sm 2e# 1essenin) its &"an&es ! bein) seen. S"o-e /renades I! y $ "a5e sm 2e )renades %it" y $# $se t"em in t"e same pattern as des&ribed ! r !ires. 8eep t"em dry s t"at t"ey %i11 % r2 %"en y $ need t"em. +a2e &are n t t i)nite t"e 5e)etati n in t"e area %"en y $ $se t"em. Pen 'lares +"ese !1ares are part ! an a5iat rFs s$r5i5a1 5est. +"e de5i&e & nsists ! a pen-s"aped )$n %it" a !1are atta&"ed by a ny1 n & rd. 3"en !ired# t"e pen !1are s $nds 1i2e a pist 1 s" t and !ires t"e !1are ab $t 19< meters "i)". It is ab $t * &entimeters in diameter. + "a5e t"e pen !1are ready ! r immediate $se# ta2e it $t ! its %rapper# atta&" t"e !1are# 1ea5e t"e )$n $n& &2ed# and %ear it n a & rd r &"ain ar $nd y $r ne&2. ,e ready t !ire it in !r nt ! sear&" air&ra!t and be ready %it" a se& ndary si)na1. A1s # be ready t ta2e & 5er in &ase t"e pi1 t mista2es t"e !1are ! r enemy !ire. Tracer A""unition Y $ may $se ri!1e r pist 1 tra&er amm$niti n t si)na1 sear&" air&ra!t. D" #"t !ire t"e amm$niti n in !r nt ! t"e air&ra!t. As %it" pen !1ares# be ready t ta2e & 5er i! t"e pi1 t mista2es y $r tra&ers ! r enemy !ire. Star Clusters Red is t"e internati na1 distress & 1 rH t"ere! re# $se a red star &1$ster %"ene5er p ssib1e. Any & 1 r# " %e5er# %i11 1et y $r res&$ers 2n % %"ere y $ are. Star &1$sters rea&" a "ei)"t ! 2<< t 219 meters# b$rn an a5era)e ! 6 t 1< se& nds# and des&end at a rate ! 17 meters per se& nd. Star Parachute 'lares
(a)e 2<2 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+"ese !1ares rea&" a "ei)"t ! 2<< t 219 meters and des&end at a rate ! 2.1 meters per se& nd. +"e M126 CredD b$rns ab $t 9< se& nds and t"e M127 C%"iteD ab $t 29 se& nds. At ni)"t y $ &an see t"ese !1ares at 7: t 96 2i1 meters. 0irrors or Shiny O6+ects .n a s$nny day# a mirr r is y $r best si)na1in) de5i&e. I! y $ d nFt "a5e a mirr r# p 1is" y $r &anteen &$p# y $r be1t b$&21e# r a simi1ar b@e&t t"at %i11 re!1e&t t"e s$nFs rays. Dire&t t"e !1as"es in ne area s t"at t"ey are se&$re !r m enemy bser5ati n. (ra&ti&e $sin) a mirr r r s"iny b@e&t ! r si)na1in) now# d n t %ait $nti1 y $ need it. I! y $ "a5e an M8-* si)na1 mirr r# ! 11 % t"e instr$&ti ns n its ba&2 CFi)$re 1;-*D.

3ear t"e si)na1 mirr r n a & rd r &"ain ar $nd y $r ne&2 s t"at it is ready ! r immediate $se. 0 %e5er# be s$re t"e )1ass side is a)ainst y $r b dy s t"at it %i11 n t !1as"H t"e enemy &an see t"e !1as". CAUTION D n t !1as" a si)na1 mirr r rapid1y be&a$se a pi1 t may mista2e t"e !1as"es ! r enemy !ire. D n t dire&t t"e beam in t"e air&ra!tFs & &2pit ! r m re t"an a !e% se& nds as it may b1ind t"e pi1 t. 0a'e# )r $nd ! )# and mira)es may ma2e it "ard ! r a pi1 t t sp t si)na1s !r m a !1as"in) b@e&t. S # i! p ssib1e# )et t t"e "i)"est p int in y $r area %"en si)na1in). I! y $ &anFt determine t"e air&ra!tFs 1 &ati n# !1as" y $r si)na1 in t"e dire&ti n ! t"e air&ra!t n ise. 8ote9 :ilots have reported seeing mirror !lashes up to 27; kilometers away under ideal conditions. Fi)$res 1;-7 and 1;-9 s" % met" ds ! aimin) a si)na1 mirr r ! r si)na1in).

(a)e 2<* ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

'lashlight or Stro6e Light At ni)"t y $ &an $se a !1as"1i)"t r a str be 1i)"t t send an S.S t an air&ra!t. 3"en $sin) a str be 1i)"t# ta2e &are t pre5ent t"e pi1 t !r m mista2in) it ! r in& min) )r $nd !ire. +"e str be 1i)"t !1as"es 6< times per min$te. S me str be 1i)"ts "a5e in!rared & 5ers and 1enses. ,1$e !1as" & 11imat rs are a1s a5ai1ab1e ! r str be 1i)"ts. VS5:; Panel D$rin) day1i)"t y $ &an $se a VS-17 pane1 t si)na1. (1a&e t"e ran)e side $p as it is easier t see !r m t"e air t"an t"e 5i 1et side. F1as"in) t"e pane1 %i11 ma2e it easier ! r t"e air&re% t sp t. Y $ &an $se any bri)"t ran)e r 5i 1et &1 t" as a s$bstit$te ! r t"e VS-17. Clothing Spreadin) &1 t"in) n t"e )r $nd r in t"e t p ! a tree is an t"er %ay t si)na1. Se1e&t arti&1es %" se & 1 r %i11 & ntrast %it" t"e nat$ra1 s$rr $ndin)s. Arran)e t"em in a 1ar)e )e metri& pattern t ma2e t"em m re 1i2e1y t attra&t attenti n. Natural 0aterial I! y $ 1a&2 t"er means# y $ &an $se nat$ra1 materia1s t ! rm a symb 1 r messa)e t"at &an be seen !r m t"e air. ,$i1d m $nds t"at &ast s"ad %sH y $ &an $se br$s"# ! 1ia)e ! any type# r &2s# r sn % b1 &2s. In sn %-& 5ered areas# tramp t"e sn % t ! rm 1etters r symb 1s and !i11 t"e depressi n %it" & ntrastin) materia1 Ct%i)s r bran&"esD. In sand# $se b $1ders# 5e)etati n# r sea%eed t ! rm a symb 1 r messa)e. In br$s"-& 5ered areas# &$t $t patterns in t"e 5e)etati n r sear t"e )r $nd. In t$ndra# di) tren&"es r t$rn t"e s d $pside d %n. In any terrain# $se & ntrastin) materia1s t"at %i11 ma2e t"e symb 1s 5isib1e t t"e air&re%s. Sea ,ye 0ar-ers
(a)e 2<7 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

A11 Army air&ra!t in5 15ed in perati ns near r 5er %ater %i11 n rma11y &arry a %ater s$r5i5a1 2it t"at & ntains sea dye mar2ers. I! y $ are in a %ater s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# $se sea dye mar2ers d$rin) day1i)"t t indi&ate y $r 1 &ati n. +"ese sp ts ! dye stay & nspi&$ $s ! r ab $t * " $rs# e?&ept in 5ery r $)" seas. Use t"em n1y i! y $ are in a !riend1y area. 8eep t"e mar2ers %rapped $nti1 y $ are ready t $se t"em. Use t"em n1y %"en y $ "ear r si)"t an air&ra!t. Sea dye mar2ers are a1s 5ery e!!e&ti5e n sn %& 5ered )r $ndH $se t"em t %rite distress & de 1etters.

A (i" Si0#!%$
Radi s# %"ist1es# and )$ns" ts are s me ! t"e met" ds y $ &an $se t si)na1 y $r presen&e t res&$ers. Radio !uip"ent +"e ANE(R/-;< s$r5i5a1 radi is a part ! t"e Army a5iat rFs s$r5i5a1 5est. +"e ANE(R/-112 %i11 e5ent$a11y rep1a&e t"e ANE(R/-;<. , t" radi s &an transmit eit"er t ne r 5 i&e. Any t"er type ! Army radi &an d t"e same. +"e ran)es ! t"e di!!erent radi s 5ary dependin) n t"e a1tit$de ! t"e re&ei5in) air&ra!t# terrain# 5e)etati n density# %eat"er# battery stren)t"# type ! radi # and inter!eren&e. + btain ma?im$m per! rman&e !r m radi s# $se t"e ! 11 %in) pr &ed$resI
• • • • • •

+ry t transmit n1y in &1ear# $n bstr$&ted terrain. Sin&e radi s are 1ine- !-si)"t & mm$ni&ati ns de5i&es# any terrain bet%een t"e radi and t"e re&ei5er %i11 b1 &2 t"e si)na1. 8eep t"e antenna at ri)"t an)1es t t"e res&$in) air&ra!t. +"ere is n si)na1 !r m t"e tip ! t"e antenna. I! t"e radi "as t ne &apabi1ity# p1a&e it $pri)"t n a !1at# e1e5ated s$r!a&e s t"at y $ &an per! rm t"er s$r5i5a1 tas2s. Ne5er 1et t"e antenna t $&" y $r &1 t"in)# b dy# ! 1ia)e# r t"e )r $nd. S$&" & nta&t )reat1y red$&es t"e ran)e ! t"e si)na1. / nser5e battery p %er. +$rn t"e radi !! %"en y $ are n t $sin) it. D n t transmit r re&ei5e & nstant1y. In " sti1e territ ry# 2eep transmissi ns s" rt t a5 id enemy radi dire&ti n !indin). In & 1d %eat"er# 2eep t"e battery inside y $r &1 t"in) %"en n t $sin) t"e radi . / 1d 4$i&21y drains t"e batteryFs p %er. D n t e?p se t"e battery t e?treme "eat s$&" as desert s$n. 0i)" "eat may &a$se t"e battery t e?p1 de. +ry t 2eep t"e radi and battery as dry as p ssib1e# as %ater may destr y t"e &ir&$itry.

3histles 3"ist1es pr 5ide an e?&e11ent %ay ! r &1 se $p si)na1in). In s me d &$mented &ases# t"ey "a5e been "eard $p t 1.6 2i1 meters a%ay. Man$!a&t$red %"ist1es "a5e m re ran)e t"an a "$man %"ist1e. 6$ns" ts In s me sit$ati ns y $ &an $se !irearms ! r si)na1in). +"ree s" ts !ired at distin&t inter5a1s $s$a11y indi&ate a distress si)na1. D n t $se t"is te&"ni4$e in enemy territ ry. +"e enemy %i11 s$re1y & me t in5esti)ate s" ts.

CO, S AN, SI/NALS
N % t"at y $ 2n % " % t 1et pe p1e 2n % %"ere y $ are# y $ need t 2n % " % t )i5e t"em m re in! rmati n. It is easier t ! rm ne symb 1 t"an t spe11 $t an entire messa)e. +"ere! re# 1earn t"e & des and symb 1s t"at a11 air&ra!t pi1 ts $nderstand.

SOS
Y $ &an $se 1i)"ts r !1a)s t send an S.S--t"ree d ts# t"ree das"es# t"ree d ts. +"e S.S is t"e internati na11y re& )ni'ed distress si)na1 in radi M rse & de. A d t is a s" rt# s"arp p$1seH a das" is a 1 n)er p$1se. 8eep repeatin) t"e si)na1. 3"en $sin) !1a)s# " 1d !1a)s n t"e 1e!t side ! r das"es and n t"e ri)"t side ! r d ts.
(a)e 2<9 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

1&" #(-t"-Ai& E+e&0e#.3 C"(e
+"is & de CFi)$re 1;-6D is a&t$a11y !i5e de!inite# meanin)!$1 symb 1s. Ma2e t"ese symb 1s a minim$m ! 1 meter %ide and 6 meters 1 n). I! y $ ma2e t"em 1ar)er# 2eep t"e same 1I 6 rati . -ns$re t"e si)na1 & ntrasts )reat1y %it" t"e )r $nd it is n. (1a&e it in an pen area easi1y sp tted !r m t"e air.

B"(3 Si0#!%$
3"en an air&ra!t is &1 se en $)" ! r t"e pi1 t t see y $ &1ear1y# $se b dy m 5ements r p siti ns CFi)$re 1;-7D t & n5ey a messa)e.

P!#e% Si0#!%$
I! y $ "a5e a 1i!e ra!t & 5er r sai1# r a s$itab1e s$bstit$te# $se t"e symb 1s s" %n in Fi)$re 1;-: t & n5ey a messa)e.
(a)e 2<6 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Ai&.&!6t A.)#"2%e(0+e#t$
.n&e t"e pi1 t ! a !i?ed-%in) air&ra!t "as si)"ted y $# "e %i11 n rma11y indi&ate "e "as seen y $ by !1yin) 1 %# m 5in) t"e p1ane# and !1as"in) 1i)"ts as s" %n in Fi)$re 1;-;. ,e ready t re1ay t"er messa)es t t"e pi1 t n&e "e a&2n %1ed)es t"at "e re&ei5ed and $nderst d y $r !irst messa)e. Use a radi # i! p ssib1e# t re1ay !$rt"er messa)es. I! n radi is a5ai1ab1e# $se t"e & des & 5ered in t"e pre5i $s para)rap"s.

(a)e 2<7 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

AIRCRA'T V CTORIN/ PROC ,UR S
I! y $ &an & nta&t a !riend1y air&ra!t %it" a radi # )$ide t"e pi1 t t y $r 1 &ati n. Use t"e ! 11 %in) )enera1 ! rmat t )$ide t"e pi1 tI • Mayday# Mayday. • /a11 si)n Ci! anyD. • Name. • L &ati n. • N$mber ! s$r5i5 rs. • A5ai1ab1e 1andin) sites. • Any remar2s s$&" as medi&a1 aid r t"er spe&i!i& types ! "e1p needed immediate1y. Simp1y be&a$se y $ "a5e made & nta&t %it" res&$ers d es n t mean y $ are sa!e. F 11 % instr$&ti ns and & ntin$e t $se s $nd s$r5i5a1 and e5asi n te&"ni4$es $nti1 y $ are a&t$a11y res&$ed.

(a)e 2<: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 2> - SURVIVAL MOVEMENT IN HOSTILE AREAS

The =rescue at any cost= philosophy o! previous con!licts is not likely to be possible in !uture con!licts. 0ur potential adversaries have made great progress in air de!ense measures and radio direction !inding &R<-' techni)ues. e must assume that U.S. military !orces trapped behind enemy lines in !uture con!licts may not e+perience )uick recovery by !riendly elements. Soldiers may have to move !or e+tended times and distances to places less threatening to the recovery !orces. The soldier will not likely know the type o! recovery to e+pect. Cach situation and the available resources determine the type o! recovery possible. Since no one can be absolutely sure until the recovery e!!ort begins" soldiers !acing a potential cuto!! !rom !riendly !orces should be !amiliar with all the possible types o! recovery" their related problems" and their responsibilities to the recovery e!!ort. :reparation and training can improve the chances o! success.

P.AS S O' PLANNIN/
(reparati n is a re4$irement ! r a11 missi ns. 3"en p1annin)# y $ m$st & nsider " % t a5 id &apt$re and ret$rn t y $r $nit. / ntin)en&y p1ans m$st be prepared in & n@$n&ti n %it" $nit standin) peratin) pr &ed$res CS.(sD. / $rses ! a&ti n y $ r y $r $nit %i11 ta2e m$st a1s be & nsidered.

C"#ti#0e#.3 P%!# "6 A.ti"# CCPAD
Inte11i)en&e se&ti ns &an "e1p prepare pers nne1 ! r & ntin)en&y a&ti ns t"r $)" in! rmati n s$pp1ied in area st$dies# S-R- Cs$r5i5a1# e5asi n# resistan&e# and es&apeD & ntin)en&y )$ides# t"reat brie!in)s# &$rrent inte11i)en&e rep rts# and &$rrent & nta&t and a$t"enti&ati n pr &ed$res. (re-missi n preparati n in&1$des t"e & mp1eti n ! a /(A. +"e st$dy and resear&" needed t de5e1 p t"e /(A %i11 ma2e y $ a%are ! t"e &$rrent sit$ati n in y $r missi n area. Y $r /(A %i11 1et re& 5ery ! r&es 2n % y $r pr bab1e a&ti ns s" $1d y $ "a5e t m 5e t a5 id &apt$re. Start preparin) e5en be! re pre-missi n p1annin). Many parts ! t"e /(A are S.( ! r y $r $nit. In&1$de t"e /(A in y $r trainin). (1annin) starts in y $r dai1y trainin). +"e /(A is y $r entire p1an ! r y $r ret$rn t !riend1y & ntr 1. It & nsists ! !i5e para)rap"s %ritten in t"e perati n rder ! rmat. Y $ &an ta2e m st ! para)rap" 1# Sit$ati n# %it" y $ n t"e missi n. Appendi? 0 & ntains t"e /(A ! rmat. It a1s indi&ates %"at p rti n ! t"e /(A y $ &an ta2e %it" y $. A & mpre"ensi5e /(A is a 5a1$ab1e asset t t"e s 1dier trapped be"ind enemy 1ines %" m$st try t a5 id &apt$re. + & mp1ete para)rap" 1# 2n % y $r $nitFs assi)ned area r & n&entrate n p tentia1 missi n areas ! t"e % r1d. Many pen r &1 sed s $r&es & ntain t"e in! rmati n y $ need t & mp1ete a /(A. .pen s $r&es may in&1$de ne%spapers# ma)a'ines# & $ntry r area "andb 2s# area st$dies# te1e5isi n# radi # pers ns !ami1iar %it" t"e area# and 1ibraries. /1 sed s $r&es may in&1$de area st$dies# area assessments# S-R- & ntin)en&y )$ides# 5ari $s &1assi!ied !ie1d man$a1s# and inte11i)en&e rep rts. (repare y $r /(A in t"ree p"ases. D$rin) y $r n rma1 trainin)# prepare para)rap" 1# Sit$ati n. (repare para)rap"s 2# *# 7# and 9 d$rin) y $r pre-missi n p1annin). A!ter dep1 yment int an area# & ntin$a11y $pdate y $r /(A based n missi n &"an)es and inte11i)en&e $pdates.
(a)e 2<; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+"e /(A is a )$ide. Y $ may add r de1ete &ertain p rti ns based n t"e missi n. +"e /(A may be a re& 5ery ! r&eFs n1y means ! determinin) y $r 1 &ati n and intenti ns a!ter y $ start t m 5e. It is an essentia1 t 1 ! r y $r s$r5i5a1 and ret$rn t !riend1y & ntr 1.

St!#(i#0 Ope&!ti#0 P&".e( &e$
Unit S.(s are 5a1$ab1e t 1s y $r $nit "as t"at %i11 "e1p y $r p1annin). 3"en !a&ed %it" a dan)er $s sit$ati n re4$irin) immediate a&ti n# it is n t t"e time t dis&$ss pti nsH it is t"e time t a&t. Many ! t"e te&"ni4$es $sed d$rin) sma11 $nit m 5ement &an be &arried 5er t !it re4$irements ! r m 5in) and ret$rnin) t !riend1y & ntr 1. Items !r m t"e S.( s" $1d in&1$de# b$t are n t 1imited t -• M 5ement team si'e Ct"ree t ! $r pers ns per teamD. • +eam & mm$ni&ati ns Cte&"ni&a1 and n nte&"ni&a1D. • -ssentia1 e4$ipment. • A&ti ns at dan)er areas. • Si)na1in) te&"ni4$es. • Immediate a&ti n dri11s. • Lin2$p pr &ed$res. • 0e1i& pter re& 5ery de5i&es and pr &ed$res. • Se&$rity pr &ed$res d$rin) m 5ement and at "ide sites. • Ra11y p ints. Re"earsa1s % r2 e!!e&ti5e1y ! r rein! r&in) t"ese S.( s2i11s and a1s pr 5ide pp rt$nities ! r e5a1$ati n and impr 5ement.

N"ti6i.!ti"# t" M"/e !#( A/"i( C!pt &e
An is 1ated $nit "as se5era1 )enera1 & $rses ! a&ti n it &an ta2e t a5 id t"e &apt$re ! t"e )r $p r indi5id$a1s. +"ese & $rses ! a&ti n are n t & $rses t"e & mmander &an &" se instead ! "is ri)ina1 missi n. 0e &ann t arbitrari1y aband n t"e assi)ned missi n. Rat"er# "e may ad pt t"ese & $rses ! a&ti n a!ter & mp1etin) "is missi n %"en "is $nit &ann t & mp1ete its assi)ned missi n Cbe&a$se ! & mbat p %er 1 ssesD r %"en "e re&ei5es rders t e?tra&t "is $nit !r m its &$rrent p siti n. I! s$&" a&ti ns are n t p ssib1e# t"e & mmander may de&ide t "a5e t"e $nit try t m 5e t a5 id &apt$re and ret$rn t !riend1y & ntr 1. In eit"er &ase# as 1 n) as t"ere is & mm$ni&ati n %it" "i)"er "ead4$arters# t"at "ead4$arters %i11 ma2e t"e de&isi n. I! t"e $nit & mmander 1 ses & nta&t %it" "i)"er "ead4$arters# "e m$st ma2e t"e de&isi n t m 5e r %ait. 0e bases "is de&isi n n many !a&t rs# in&1$din) t"e missi n# rati ns and amm$niti n n "and# &as$a1ties# t"e &"an&e ! re1ie! by !riend1y ! r&es# and t"e ta&ti&a1 sit$ati n. +"e & mmander ! an is 1ated $nit !a&es t"er 4$esti ns. 3"at & $rse ! a&ti n %i11 in!1i&t ma?im$m dama)e n t"e enemyG 3"at & $rse ! a&ti n %i11 assist in & mp1etin) t"e "i)"er "ead4$artersF 5era11 missi nG M 5ement teams & nd$&t t"e e?e&$ti n p rti n ! t"e p1an %"en n ti!ied by "i)"er "ead4$arters r# i! t"ere is n & nta&t %it" "i)"er "ead4$arters# %"en t"e "i)"est ran2in) s$r5i5 r de&ides t"at t"e sit$ati n re4$ires t"e $nit t try t es&ape &apt$re r destr$&ti n. M 5ement team 1eaders re&ei5e t"eir n ti!i&ati n t"r $)" prebrie!ed si)na1s. .n&e t"e si)na1 t try t a5 id &apt$re is )i5en# it m$st be passed rapid1y t a11 pers nne1. N ti!y "i)"er "ead4$arters# i! p ssib1e. I! $nab1e t & mm$ni&ate %it" "i)"er "ead4$arters# 1eaders m$st re& )ni'e t"at r)ani'ed resistan&e "as ended# and t"at r)ani'ati na1 & ntr 1 "as &eased. / mmand and & ntr 1 is n % at t"e m 5ement team r indi5id$a1 1e5e1 and is ret$rned t "i)"er r)ani'ati na1 & ntr 1 n1y a!ter rea&"in) !riend1y 1ines.

9 CUTION
Up n n ti!i&ati n t a5 id &apt$re# a11 m 5ement team members %i11 try t 1in2 $p at t"e initia1 m 5ement p int. +"is p int is %"ere team members ra11y and a&t$a11y be)in t"eir m 5ement. +entati5e1y se1e&t t"e initia1 m 5ement p int d$rin) y $r p1annin) p"ase t"r $)" a map re& n. .n&e n t"e )r $nd# t"e team
(a)e 21< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

5eri!ies t"is 1 &ati n r se1e&ts a better ne. A11 team members m$st 2n % its 1 &ati n. +"e initia1 m 5ement p int s" $1d be easy t 1 &ate and &&$py ! r a minim$m am $nt ! time. .n&e t"e team "as ra11ied at t"e initia1 m 5ement p int# it m$st-• 6i5e !irst aid. • In5ent ry its e4$ipment Cde&ide %"at t aband n# destr y# r ta2e a1 n)D. • App1y &am $!1a)e. • Ma2e s$re e5ery ne 2n %s t"e tentati5e "ide 1 &ati ns. • -ns$re e5ery ne 2n %s t"e primary and a1ternate r $tes and ra11y p ints en r $te t t"e "ide 1 &ati ns. • A1%ays maintain se&$rity. • Sp1it t"e team int sma11er e1ements. +"e idea1 e1ement s" $1d "a5e t% t t"ree membersH " %e5er# it & $1d in&1$de m re dependin) n team e4$ipment and e?perien&e. +"e m 5ement p rti n ! ret$rnin) t !riend1y & ntr 1 is t"e m st dan)er $s as y $ are n % m st 5$1nerab1e. It is $s$a11y better t m 5e at ni)"t be&a$se ! t"e & n&ea1ment dar2ness !!ers. -?&epti ns t s$&" m 5ement % $1d be %"en m 5in) t"r $)" "a'ard $s terrain r dense 5e)etati n C! r e?amp1e# @$n)1e r m $ntain $s terrainD. 3"en m 5in)# a5 id t"e ! 11 %in) e5en i! it ta2es m re time and ener)y t bypassI • .bsta&1es and barriers. • R ads and trai1s. • In"abited areas. • 3ater%ays and brid)es. • Nat$ra1 1ines ! dri!t. • Man-made str$&t$res. • A11 &i5i1ian and mi1itary pers nne1. M 5ement in enemy-"e1d territ ry is a 5ery s1 % and de1iberate pr &ess. +"e s1 %er y $ m 5e and t"e m re &are!$1 y $ are# t"e better. Y $r best se&$rity %i11 be $sin) y $r senses. Use y $r eyes and ears t dete&t pe p1e be! re t"ey dete&t y $. Ma2e !re4$ent 1istenin) "a1ts. In day1i)"t# bser5e a se&ti n ! y $r r $te be! re y $ m 5e a1 n) it. +"e distan&e y $ tra5e1 be! re y $ "ide %i11 depend n t"e enemy sit$ati n# y $r "ea1t"# t"e terrain# t"e a5ai1abi1ity ! & 5er and & n&ea1ment ! r "idin)# and t"e am $nt ! dar2ness 1e!t. .n&e y $ "a5e m 5ed int t"e area in %"i&" y $ %ant t "ide C"ide areaD# se1e&t a "ide site. 8eep t"e ! 11 %in) ! rm$1a in mind %"en se1e&tin) a "ide siteI ,LISS. , - ,1ends in %it" t"e s$rr $ndin)s. L - L % in si1" $ette. I - Irre)$1ar in s"ape. S - Sma11 in si'e. S - Se&1$ded. A5 id t"e $se ! e?istin) b$i1din)s r s"e1ters. Us$a11y# y $r best pti n %i11 be t &ra%1 int t"e t"i&2est 5e)etati n y $ &an !ind. / nstr$&t any type ! s"e1ter %it"in t"e "ide area n1y in & 1d %eat"er and desert en5ir nments. I! y $ b$i1d a s"e1ter# ! 11 % t"e ,LISS ! rm$1a.

Hi(e Site A.ti/itie$
A!ter y $ "a5e 1 &ated y $r "ide site# d n t m 5e strai)"t int it. Use a b$tt n " 2 r t"er de&epti5e te&"ni4$e t m 5e t a p siti n $tside ! t"e "ide site. / nd$&t a 1istenin) "a1t be! re m 5in) indi5id$a11y int t"e "ide site. ,e &are!$1 n t t dist$rb r &$t any 5e)etati n. .n&e y $ "a5e &&$pied t"e "ide site# 1imit y $r a&ti5ities t maintainin) se&$rity# restin)# &am $!1a)in)# and p1annin) y $r ne?t m 5es. Maintain y $r se&$rity t"r $)" 5is$a1 s&annin) and 1istenin). Up n dete&ti n ! t"e enemy# t"e se&$rity pers nne1 a1ert a11 pers nne1# e5en i! t"e teamFs p1an is t stay "idden and n t m 5e $p n si)"tin) t"e enemy. +a2e t"is a&ti n s t"at e5ery ne is a%are ! t"e dan)er and ready t rea&t.
(a)e 211 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

I! any team member 1ea5es t"e team# )i5e "im a !i5e-p int & ntin)en&y p1an. +a2e s$&" steps espe&ia11y %"en a re& n team r a % r2 party is $t ! t"e " 1e-$p r "ide site. It is e?treme1y imp rtant t stay "ea1t"y and a1ert %"en tryin) t a5 id &apt$re. +a2e e5ery pp rt$nity t rest# b$t d n t sa&ri!i&e se&$rity. R tate se&$rity s t"at a11 members ! y $r m 5ement team &an rest. +reat a11 in@$ries# n matter " % min r. L ss ! y $r "ea1t" %i11 mean 1 ss ! y $r abi1ity t & ntin$e t a5 id &apt$re. /am $!1a)e is an imp rtant aspe&t ! b t" m 5in) and se&$rin) a "ide site. A1%ays $se a b$ddy system t ens$re t"at &am $!1a)e is & mp1ete. -ns$re t"at team members b1end %it" t"e "ide site. Use nat$ra1 r man-made materia1s. I! y $ add any additi na1 &am $!1a)e materia1 t t"e "ide site# d n t &$t 5e)etati n in t"e immediate area. (1an y $r ne?t a&ti ns %"i1e at t"e "ide site. Start y $r p1annin) pr &ess immediate1y $p n &&$pyin) t"e "ide site. In! rm a11 team members ! t"eir &$rrent 1 &ati n and desi)nate an a1ternate "ide site 1 &ati n. .n&e t"is is d ne# start p1annin) ! r t"e teamFs ne?t m 5ement. (1annin) t"e teamFs m 5ement be)ins %it" a map re& n. /" se t"e ne?t "ide area !irst. +"en &" se a primary and an a1ternate r $te t t"e "ide area. In &" sin) t"e r $tes# d n t $se strai)"t 1ines. Use ne r t% radi&a1 &"an)es in dire&ti n. (i&2 t"e r $tes t"at !!er t"e best & 5er and & n&ea1ment# t"e !e%est bsta&1es# and t"e 1east 1i2e1i" d ! & nta&t %it" "$mans. +"ere s" $1d be 1 &ati ns a1 n) t"e r $te %"ere t"e team &an )et %ater. + aid team na5i)ati n# $se a'im$t"s# distan&es# &"e&2p ints r steerin) mar2s# and & rrid rs. (1an ra11y p ints and rende'5 $s p ints at inter5a1s a1 n) t"e r $te. .t"er p1annin) & nsiderati ns may !a11 $nder %"at t"e team a1ready "as in t"e team S.(. -?amp1es are immediate a&ti n dri11s# a&ti ns n si)"tin) t"e enemy# and "and-and-arm si)na1s. .n&e p1annin) is & mp1ete# ens$re e5ery ne 2n %s and mem ri'es t"e entire p1an. +"e team members s" $1d 2n % t"e distan&es and a'im$t"s ! r t"e entire r $te t t"e ne?t "ide area. +"ey s" $1d st$dy t"e map and 2n % t"e 5ari $s terrain t"ey %i11 be m 5in) a&r ss s t"at t"ey &an m 5e %it" $t $sin) t"e map. D n t &&$py a "ide site ! r m re t"an 27 " $rs. In m st sit$ati ns# "ide d$rin) t"e day and m 5e at ni)"t. Limit y $r a&ti ns in t"e "ide site t t" se dis&$ssed ab 5e. .n&e in t"e "ide site# restri&t a11 m 5ement t 1ess t"an 79 &entimeters ab 5e t"e )r $nd. D n t b$i1d !ires r prepare ! d. Sm 2e and ! d d rs %i11 re5ea1 y $r 1 &ati n. ,e! re 1ea5in) t"e "ide site# steri1i'e it t pre5ent tra&2in).

H"%e-Up A&e!$
A!ter m 5in) and "idin) ! r se5era1 days# $s$a11y t"ree r ! $r# y $ r t"e m 5ement team %i11 "a5e t m 5e int a " 1e-$p area. +"is is an area %"ere y $ &an rest# re&$perate# and )et and prepare ! d. /" se an area near a %ater s $r&e. Y $ t"en "a5e a p1a&e t )et %ater# t p1a&e !is"in) de5i&es# and t trap )ame. Sin&e %ater%ays are a 1ine ! & mm$ni&ati n# 1 &ate y $r "ide site %e11 a%ay !r m t"e %ater. +"e " 1e-$p area s" $1d !!er p1enty ! & 5er and & n&ea1ment ! r m 5ement in and ar $nd t"e area. A1%ays maintain se&$rity %"i1e in t"e " 1e-$p area. A1%ays man t"e " 1e-$p area. A&ti ns in t"e " 1e-$p area are t"e same as in "ide site# e?&ept t"at y $ &an m 5e a%ay !r m t"e " 1e-$p area t )et and prepare ! d. A&ti ns in t"e " 1e-$p area in&1$de-• Se1e&tin) and &&$pyin) t"e ne?t "ide site Cremember y $ are sti11 in a dan)er $s sit$ati nH t"is is n t a !riend1y areaD. • Re& nn iterin) t"e area ! r res $r&es and p tentia1 & n&ea1ed m 5ement r $tes t t"e a1ternate "ide site. • 6at"erin) ! d Cn$ts# berries# 5e)etab1esD. 3"en m 5in) ar $nd t"e area ! r ! d# maintain se&$rity and a5 id 1ea5in) tra&2s r t"er si)ns. 3"en settin) traps and snares# 2eep t"em %e11&am $!1a)ed and in areas %"ere pe p1e are n t 1i2e1y t dis& 5er t"em. Remember# t"e 1 &a1 p p$1ati n s metimes "ea5i1y tra5e1s trai1s near %ater s $r&es. • 6ettin) %ater !r m s $r&es %it"in t"e "ide area. ,e &are!$1 n t t 1ea5e tra&2s ! si)ns a1 n) t"e ban2s ! %ater s $r&es %"en )ettin) %ater. M 5in) n "ard r &2s r 1 )s a1 n) t"e ban2s t )et %ater %i11 red$&e t"e si)ns y $ 1ea5e. • Settin) &1andestine !is"in) de5i&es# s$&" as sta2e $ts# be1 % t"e s$r!a&e ! t"e %ater t a5 id dete&ti n.
(a)e 212 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

L &atin) a !ire site %e11 a%ay !r m t"e "ide site. Use t"is site t prepare ! d r b i1 %ater. /am $!1a)e and steri1i'e t"e !ire site a!ter ea&" $se. ,e &are!$1 t"at sm 2e and 1i)"t !r m t"e !ire d es n t & mpr mise t"e " 1e-$p area.

3"i1e in t"e " 1e-$p area# se&$rity is sti11 y $r primary & n&ern. Desi)nate team members t per! rm spe&i!i& tas2s. + 1imit m 5ement ar $nd t"e area# y $ may "a5e a t% -man team per! rm m re t"an ne tas2. F r e?amp1e# t"e team )ettin) %ater & $1d a1s set t"e !is"in) de5i&es. D n t &&$py t"e " 1e$p area 1 n)er t"an 72 " $rs.

R TURN TO 'RI N,LY CONTROL
-stab1is"in) & nta&t %it" !riend1y 1ines r patr 1s is t"e m st &r$&ia1 part ! m 5ement and ret$rn t !riend1y & ntr 1. A11 y $r patien&e# p1annin)# and "ards"ips %i11 be in 5ain i! y $ d n t e?er&ise &a$ti n %"en & nta&tin) !riend1y !r nt1ine ! r&es. Friend1y patr 1s "a5e 2i11ed pers nne1 peratin) be"ind enemy 1ines be&a$se t"ey did n t ma2e & nta&t pr per1y. M st ! t"e &as$a1ties & $1d "a5e been a5 ided i! &a$ti n "ad been e?er&ised and a !e% simp1e pr &ed$res ! 11 %ed. +"e n rma1 tenden&y is t t"r % &a$ti n t t"e %inds %"en in si)"t ! !riend1y ! r&es. Y $ m$st 5er& me t"is tenden&y and $nderstand t"at 1in2$p is a 5ery sensiti5e sit$ati n.

B"&(e& C&"$$i#0$
I! y $ "a5e made y $r %ay t a !riend1y r ne$tra1 & $ntry# $se t"e ! 11 %in) pr &ed$res t &r ss t"e b rder and 1in2 $p %it" !riend1y ! r&es n t"e t"er sideI • .&&$py a "ide site n t"e near side ! t"e b rder and send a team $t t re& nn iter t"e p tentia1 &r ssin) site. • S$r5ei1 t"e &r ssin) site ! r at 1east 27 " $rs# dependin) n t"e enemy sit$ati n. • Ma2e a s2et&" ! t"e site# ta2in) n te ! terrain# bsta&1es# )$ard r $tines and r tati ns# and any sens r de5i&es r trip %ires. .n&e t"e re& n is & mp1ete# t"e team m 5es t t"e "ide site# brie!s t"e rest ! t"e team# and p1ans t &r ss t"e b rder at ni)"t. • A!ter &r ssin) t"e b rder# set $p a "ide site n t"e !ar side ! t"e b rder and try t 1 &ate !riend1y p siti ns. D n t re5ea1 y $r presen&e. • Dependin) n t"e si'e ! y $r m 5ement team# "a5e t% men s$r5ei1 t"e p tentia1 1in2$p site %it" !riend1y ! r&es $nti1 satis!ied t"at t"e pers nne1 are indeed !riend1y. • Ma2e & nta&t %it" t"e !riend1y ! r&es d$rin) day1i)"t. (ers nne1 &" sen t ma2e & nta&t s" $1d be $narmed# "a5e n e4$ipment# and "a5e p siti5e identi!i&ati n readi1y a5ai1ab1e. +"e pers n %" a&t$a11y ma2es t"e 1in2$p s" $1d be s me ne %" 1 2s 1east 1i2e t"e enemy. • D$rin) t"e a&t$a1 & nta&t# "a5e n1y ne pers n ma2e t"e & nta&t. +"e t"er pers n pr 5ides t"e se&$rity and bser5es t"e 1in2$p area !r m a sa!e distan&e. +"e bser5er s" $1d be !ar en $)" a%ay s t"at "e &an %arn t"e rest ! t"e m 5ement team i! s met"in) ) es %r n). • 3ait $nti1 t"e party "e is & nta&tin) 1 2s in "is dire&ti n s t"at "e d es n t s$rprise t"e & nta&t. 0e stands $p !r m be"ind & 5er# %it" "ands 5er"ead and states t"at "e is an Ameri&an. A!ter t"is# "e ! 11 %s any instr$&ti ns )i5en "im. 0e a5 ids ans%erin) any ta&ti&a1 4$esti ns and d es n t )i5e any indi&ati n t"at t"ere are t"er team members. • Re5ea1 t"at t"ere are t"er pers nne1 %it" "im n1y a!ter 5eri!yin) "is identity and satis!yin) "imse1! "e "as made & nta&t %it" !riend1y ! r&es. Lan)$a)e pr b1ems r di!!i&$1ties & n!irmin) identities may arise. +"e m 5ement team s" $1d maintain se&$rity# be patient# and "a5e a & ntin)en&y p1an. 8ote9 I! you are moving to a neutral country" you are surrendering to that power and become a detained person.

Li#) p !t the FEBAEFLOT
(a)e 21* ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

I! &a$)"t bet%een !riend1y and enemy ! r&es and t"ere is "ea5y !i)"tin) in t"e area# y $ may &" se t "ide and 1et t"e !riend1y 1ines pass 5er y $. I! 5err$n by !riend1y ! r&es# y $ may try t 1in2 $p !r m t"eir rear d$rin) day1i)"t " $rs. I! 5err$n by enemy ! r&es# y $ may m 5e !$rt"er t t"e enemy rear# try t m 5e t t"e ! r%ard ed)e ! t"e batt1e area CF-,ADE! r%ard 1ine ! %n tr ps CFL.+D d$rin) a 1$11 in t"e !i)"tin)# r m 5e t an t"er area a1 n) t"e !r nt. +"e a&t$a1 1in2$p %i11 be d ne as ! r 1in2$p d$rin) a b rder &r ssin). +"e n1y di!!eren&e is t"at y $ m$st be m re &are!$1 n t"e initia1 & nta&t. Fr nt1ine pers nne1 are m re 1i2e1y t s" t !irst and as2 4$esti ns 1ater# espe&ia11y in areas ! "ea5y !i)"tin). Y $ s" $1d be near r be"ind & 5er be! re tryin) t ma2e & nta&t.

Li#) p *ith F&ie#(%3 P!t&"%$
I! !riend1y 1ines are a &ir&$1ar perimeter r an is 1ated &amp# ! r e?amp1e# any dire&ti n y $ appr a&" !r m %i11 be & nsidered enemy territ ry. Y $ d n t "a5e t"e pti n ! m 5in) be"ind t"e 1ines and tryin) t 1in2 $p. +"is m 5e ma2es t"e 1in2$p e?treme1y dan)er $s. .ne pti n y $ "a5e is t p1a&e t"e perimeter $nder bser5ati n and %ait ! r a !riend1y patr 1 t m 5e $t in y $r dire&ti n# pr 5idin) a &"an&e ! r a 1in2$p. Y $ may a1s &&$py a p siti n $tside ! t"e perimeter and &a11 $t t )et t"e attenti n ! t"e !riend1y ! r&es. Idea11y# disp1ay anyt"in) t"at is %"ite %"i1e ma2in) & nta&t. I! n t"in) e1se is a5ai1ab1e# $se any arti&1e ! &1 t"in). +"e idea is t dra% attenti n %"i1e stayin) be"ind & 5er. .n&e y $ "a5e dra%n attenti n t y $r si)na1 and &a11ed $t# ! 11 % instr$&ti ns )i5en t y $. ,e & nstant1y n t"e a1ert ! r !riend1y patr 1s be&a$se t"ese pr 5ide a means ! r ret$rn t !riend1y & ntr 1. Find a & n&ea1ed p siti n t"at a11 %s y $ ma?im$m 5is$a1 & 5era)e ! t"e area. +ry t mem ri'e e5ery terrain !eat$re s t"at# i! ne&essary# y $ &an in!i1trate t !riend1y p siti ns $nder t"e & 5er ! dar2ness. Remember# tryin) t in!i1trate in dar2ness is e?treme1y dan)er $s. ,e&a$se ! t"e missi ns ! & mbat and re& n patr 1s and %"ere t"ey are peratin)# ma2in) & nta&t &an be dan)er $s. I! y $ de&ide n t t ma2e & nta&t# y $ &an bser5e t"eir r $te and appr a&" !riend1y 1ines at ab $t t"e same 1 &ati n. S$&" bser5ati n %i11 enab1e y $ t a5 id mines and b by traps. .n&e y $ "a5e sp tted a patr 1# remain in p siti n and# i! p ssib1e# a11 % t"e patr 1 t m 5e t %ard y $. 3"en t"e patr 1 is 29 t 9< meters !r m y $r p siti n# si)na1 t"em and &a11 $t a )reetin) t"at is &1ear1y and $nmista2ab1y ! Ameri&an ri)in. I! y $ "a5e n t"in) %"ite# an arti&1e ! &1 t"in) %i11 s$!!i&e t dra% attenti n. I! t"e distan&e is )reater t"an 9< meters# a re& n patr 1 may a5 id & nta&t and bypass y $r p siti n. I! t"e distan&e is 1ess t"an 29 meters# a patr 1 member may rea&t instant1y by !irin) a !ata1 s" t. It is &r$&ia1# at t"e time ! & nta&t# t"at t"ere is en $)" 1i)"t ! r t"e patr 1 t identi!y y $ as an Ameri&an. 3"ate5er 1in2$p te&"ni4$e y $ de&ide t $se# $se e?treme &a$ti n. Fr m t"e perspe&ti5e ! t"e !riend1y patr 1 r !riend1y pers nne1 &&$pyin) a perimeter# y $ are " sti1e $nti1 t"ey ma2e p siti5e identi!i&ati n.

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CHAPTER 21 - CAMOUFLA1E

In a survival situation" especially in a hostile environment" you may !ind it necessary to camou!lage yoursel!" your e)uipment" and your movement. It may mean the di!!erence between survival and capture by the enemy. 1amou!lage and movement techni)ues" such as stalking" will also help you get animals or game !or !ood using primitive weapons and skills.

P RSONAL CA0OU'LA/
3"en &am $!1a)in) y $rse1!# & nsider t"at &ertain s"apes are parti&$1ar t "$mans. +"e enemy %i11 1 2 ! r t"ese s"apes. +"e s"ape ! a "at# "e1met# r b1a&2 b ts &an )i5e y $ a%ay. -5en anima1s 2n % and r$n !r m t"e s"ape ! a "$man si1" $ette. ,rea2 $p y $r $t1ine by p1a&in) sma11 am $nts ! 5e)etati n !r m t"e s$rr $ndin) area in y $r $ni! rm# e4$ipment# and "ead)ear. +ry t red$&e any s"ine !r m s2in r e4$ipment. ,1end in %it" t"e s$rr $ndin) & 1 rs and sim$1ate t"e te?t$re ! y $r s$rr $ndin)s.

Sh!pe !#( O t%i#e
/"an)e t"e $t1ine ! %eap ns and e4$ipment by tyin) 5e)etati n r strips ! &1 t" nt t"em. Ma2e s$re t"e added &am $!1a)e d es n t "inder t"e e4$ipmentFs perati n. 3"en "idin)# & 5er y $rse1! and y $r e4$ipment %it" 1ea5es# )rass# r t"er 1 &a1 debris. / n&ea1 any si)na1in) de5i&es y $ "a5e prepared# b$t 2eep t"em ready ! r $se.

C"%"& !#( Te5t &e
-a&" area ! t"e % r1d and ea&" &1imati& & nditi n Car&ti&E%inter# temperateE@$n)1e# r s%ampEdesertD "as & 1 r patterns and te?t$res t"at are nat$ra1 ! r t"at area. 3"i1e & 1 r is se1!-e?p1anat ry# te?t$re de!ines t"e s$r!a&e &"ara&teristi&s ! s met"in) %"en 1 2in) at it. F r e?amp1e# s$r!a&e te?t$res may be sm t"# r $)"# r &2y# 1ea!y# r many t"er p ssib1e & mbinati ns. Use & 1 r and te?t$re t )et"er t &am $!1a)e y $rse1! e!!e&ti5e1y. It ma2es 1itt1e sense t & 5er y $rse1! %it" dead# br %n 5e)etati n in t"e midd1e ! a 1ar)e )rassy !ie1d. Simi1ar1y# it % $1d be $se1ess t &am $!1a)e y $rse1! %it" )reen )rass in t"e midd1e ! a desert r r &2y area. + "ide and &am $!1a)e m 5ement in any spe&i!i& area ! t"e % r1d# y $ m$st ta2e n t"e & 1 r and te?t$re ! t"e immediate s$rr $ndin)s. Use nat$ra1 r man-made materia1s t &am $!1a)e y $rse1!. /am $!1a)e paint# &"ar& a1 !r m b$rned paper r % d# m$d# )rass# 1ea5es# strips ! &1 t" r b$r1ap# pine b $)"s# and &am $!1a)ed $ni! rms are a !e% e?amp1es. / 5er a11 areas ! e?p sed s2in# in&1$din) !a&e# "ands# ne&2# and ears. Use &am $!1a)e paint# &"ar& a1# r m$d t &am $!1a)e y $rse1!. / 5er %it" a dar2er & 1 r areas t"at sti&2 $t m re and &at&" m re 1i)"t C! re"ead# n se# &"ee2b nes# &"in# and earsD. / 5er t"er areas# parti&$1ar1y re&essed r s"aded areas Car $nd t"e eyes and $nder t"e &"inD# %it" 1i)"ter & 1 rs. ,e s$re t $se an irre)$1ar pattern. Atta&"
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5e)etati n !r m t"e area r strips ! &1 t" ! t"e pr per & 1 r t &1 t"in) and e4$ipment. I! y $ $se 5e)etati n# rep1a&e it as it %i1ts. As y $ m 5e t"r $)" an area# be a1ert t t"e & 1 r &"an)es and m di!y y $r &am $!1a)e & 1 rs as ne&essary. Fi)$re 21-1 )i5es a )enera1 idea ! " % t app1y &am $!1a)e ! r 5ari $s areas and &1imates. Use appr priate & 1 rs ! r y $r s$rr $ndin)s. +"e b1 t&"es r s1as"es %i11 "e1p t sim$1ate te?t$re.

Shi#e
As s2in )ets i1y# it be& mes s"iny. -4$ipment %it" % rn !! paint is a1s s"iny. -5en painted b@e&ts# i! sm t"# may s"ine. 61ass b@e&ts s$&" as mirr rs# )1asses# bin &$1ars# and te1es& pes s"ine. Y $ m$st & 5er t"ese )1ass b@e&ts %"en n t in $se. Anyt"in) t"at s"ines a$t mati&a11y attra&ts attenti n and %i11 )i5e a%ay y $r 1 &ati n. 3"ene5er p ssib1e# %as" i1y s2in and reapp1y &am $!1a)e. S2in i1 %i11 %as" !! &am $!1a)e# s reapp1y it !re4$ent1y. I! y $ m$st %ear )1asses# &am $!1a)e t"em by app1yin) a t"in 1ayer ! d$st t t"e $tside ! t"e 1enses. +"is 1ayer ! d$st %i11 red$&e t"e re!1e&ti n ! 1i)"t. / 5er s"iny sp ts n e4$ipment by paintin)# & 5erin) %it" m$d# r %rappin) %it" &1 t" r tape. (ay parti&$1ar attenti n t & 5erin) b t eye1ets# b$&21es n e4$ipment# %at&"es and @e%e1ry# 'ippers# and $ni! rm insi)nia. /arry a si)na1 mirr r in its desi)ned p $&" r in a p &2et %it" t"e mirr r p rti n !a&in) y $r b dy.

Sh!("2
3"en "idin) r tra5e1in)# stay in t"e deepest part ! t"e s"ad %s. +"e $ter ed)es ! t"e s"ad %s are 1i)"ter and t"e deeper parts are dar2er. Remember# i! y $ are in an area %"ere t"ere is p1enty ! 5e)etati n# 2eep as m$&" 5e)etati n bet%een y $ and a p tentia1 enemy as p ssib1e. +"is a&ti n %i11 ma2e it 5ery "ard ! r t"e enemy t see y $ as t"e 5e)etati n %i11 partia11y mas2 y $ !r m "is 5ie%. F r&in) an enemy t 1 2 t"r $)" many 1ayers ! mas2in) 5e)etati n %i11 !ati)$e "is eyes 5ery 4$i&21y. 3"en tra5e1in)# espe&ia11y in b$i1t-$p areas at ni)"t# be a%are ! %"ere y $ &ast y $r s"ad %. It may e?tend $t ar $nd t"e & mer ! a b$i1din) and )i5e a%ay y $r p siti n. A1s # i! y $ are in a dar2 s"ad % and t"ere is a 1i)"t s $r&e t ne side# an enemy n t"e t"er side &an see y $r si1" $ette a)ainst t"e 1i)"t.

M"/e+e#t
M 5ement# espe&ia11y !ast m 5ement# attra&ts attenti n. I! at a11 p ssib1e# a5 id m 5ement in t"e presen&e ! an enemy. I! &apt$re appears imminent in y $r present 1 &ati n and y $ m$st m 5e# m 5e a%ay s1 %1y# ma2in) as 1itt1e n ise as p ssib1e. ,y m 5in) s1 %1y in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# y $ de&rease t"e &"an&e ! dete&ti n and & nser5e ener)y t"at y $ may need ! r 1 n)-term s$r5i5a1 r 1 n)-distan&e e5asi n. 3"en m 5in) past bsta&1es# a5 id ) in) 5er t"em. I! y $ m$st &1imb 5er an bsta&1e# 2eep y $r b dy 1e5e1 %it" its t p t a5 id si1" $ettin) y $rse1!. D n t si1" $ette y $rse1! a)ainst t"e s2y1ine %"en
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&r ssin) "i11s r rid)es. 3"en y $ are m 5in)# y $ %i11 "a5e di!!i&$1ty dete&tin) t"e m 5ement ! t"ers. St p !re4$ent1y# 1isten# and 1 2 ar $nd s1 %1y t dete&t si)ns ! " sti1e m 5ement.

N"i$e
N ise attra&ts attenti n# espe&ia11y i! t"ere is a se4$en&e ! 1 $d n ises s$&" as se5era1 snappin) t%i)s. I! p ssib1e# a5 id ma2in) any n ise at a11. S1 % d %n y $r pa&e as m$&" as ne&essary t a5 id ma2in) n ise %"en m 5in) ar $nd r a%ay !r m p ssib1e t"reats. Use ba&2)r $nd n ises t & 5er t"e n ise ! y $r m 5ement. S $nds ! air&ra!t# tr$&2s# )enerat rs# str n) %inds# and pe p1e ta12in) %i11 & 5er s me r a11 t"e s $nds pr d$&ed by y $r m 5ement. Rain %i11 mas2 a 1 t ! m 5ement n ise# b$t it a1s red$&es y $r abi1ity t dete&t p tentia1 enemy n ise.

S.e#t
3"et"er "$ntin) anima1s r a5 idin) t"e enemy# it is a1%ays %ise t &am $!1a)e t"e s&ent ass &iated %it" "$mans. Start by %as"in) y $rse1! and y $r &1 t"es %it" $t $sin) s ap. +"is %as"in) met" d rem 5es s ap and b dy d rs. A5 idin) str n) sme11in) ! ds# s$&" as )ar1i&# "e1ps red$&e b dy d rs. D n t $se t ba&& pr d$&ts# &andy# )$m# r & smeti&s. Y $ &an $se ar mati& "erbs r p1ants t %as" y $rse1! and y $r &1 t"in)# t r$b n y $r b dy and &1 t"in)# r t &"e% n t &am $!1a)e y $r breat". (ine need1es# mint# r any simi1ar ar mati& p1ant %i11 "e1p &am $!1a)e y $r s&ent !r m b t" anima1s and "$mans. Standin) in sm 2e !r m a !ire &an "e1p mas2 y $r s&ent !r m anima1s. 3"i1e anima1s are a!raid ! !res" sm 2e !r m a !ire# 1der sm 2e s&ents are n rma1 sme11s a!ter ! rest !ires and d n t s&are t"em. 3"i1e tra5e1in)# $se y $r sense ! sme11 t "e1p y $ !ind r a5 id "$mans. (ay attenti n t sme11s ass &iated %it" "$mans# s$&" as !ire# &i)arettes# )as 1ine# i1# s ap# and ! d. S$&" sme11s may a1ert y $ t t"eir presen&e 1 n) be! re y $ &an see r "ear t"em# dependin) n %ind speed and dire&ti n. N te t"e %indFs dire&ti n and# %"en p ssib1e# appr a&" !r m r s2irt ar $nd n t"e d %n%ind side %"en nearin) "$mans r anima1s.

0 T.O,S O' STAL*IN/
S metimes y $ need t m 5e# $ndete&ted# t r !r m a 1 &ati n. Y $ need m re t"an @$st &am $!1a)e t ma2e t"ese m 5es s$&&ess!$11y. +"e abi1ity t sta12 r m 5e %it" $t ma2in) any s$dden 4$i&2 m 5ement r 1 $d n ise is essentia1 t a5 idin) dete&ti n. Y $ m$st pra&ti&e sta12in) i! it is t be e!!e&ti5e. Use t"e ! 11 %in) te&"ni4$es %"en pra&ti&in).

Up&i0ht St!%)i#0
+a2e steps ab $t "a1! y $r n rma1 stride %"en sta12in) in t"e $pri)"t p siti n. S$&" strides "e1p y $ t maintain y $r ba1an&e. Y $ s" $1d be ab1e t st p at any p int in t"at m 5ement and " 1d t"at p siti n as 1 n) as ne&essary. /$r1 t"e t es $p $t ! t"e %ay %"en steppin) d %n s t"e $tside ed)e ! t"e ba11 ! t"e ! t t $&"es t"e )r $nd. Fee1 ! r sti&2s and t%i)s t"at may snap %"en y $ p1a&e y $r %ei)"t n t"em. I! y $ start t step n ne# 1i!t y $r ! t and m 5e it. A!ter ma2in) & nta&t %it" t"e $tside ed)e ! t"e ba11 ! y $r ! t# r 11 t t"e inside ba11 ! y $r ! t# p1a&e y $r "ee1 d %n# ! 11 %ed by y $r t es. +"en )rad$a11y s"i!t y $r %ei)"t ! r%ard t t"e !r nt ! t. Li!t t"e ba&2 ! t t ab $t 2nee "ei)"t and start t"e pr &ess 5er a)ain. 8eep y $r "ands and arms &1 se t y $r b dy and a5 id %a5in) t"em ab $t r "ittin) 5e)etati n. 3"en m 5in) in a &r $&"# y $ )ain e?tra s$pp rt by p1a&in) y $r "ands n y $r 2nees. .ne step $s$a11y ta2es 1 min$te t & mp1ete# b$t t"e time it ta2es %i11 depend n t"e sit$ati n.

C&!2%i#0

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Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

/ra%1 n y $r "ands and 2nees %"en t"e 5e)etati n is t 1 % t a11 % y $ t %a12 $pri)"t %it" $t bein) seen. M 5e ne 1imb at a time and be s$re t set it d %n s !t1y# !ee1in) ! r anyt"in) t"at may snap and ma2e n ise. ,e &are!$1 t"at y $r t es and "ee1s d n t &at&" n 5e)etati n.

P&"#e St!%)i#0
+ sta12 in t"e pr ne p siti n# y $ d a 1 %# m di!ied p$s"-$p n y $r "ands and t es# m 5in) y $rse1! ! r%ard s1i)"t1y# and t"en 1 %erin) y $rse1! a)ain s1 %1y. A5 id dra))in) and s&rapin) a1 n) t"e )r $nd as t"is ma2es e?&essi5e n ise and 1ea5es 1ar)e trai1s ! r tra&2ers t ! 11 %.

A#i+!% St!%)i#0
,e! re sta12in) an anima1# se1e&t t"e best r $te. I! t"e anima1 is m 5in)# y $ %i11 need an inter&eptin) r $te. (i&2 a r $te t"at p$ts b@e&ts bet%een y $ and t"e anima1 t & n&ea1 y $r m 5ement !r m it. ,y p siti nin) y $rse1! in t"is %ay# y $ %i11 be ab1e t m 5e !aster# $nti1 y $ pass t"at b@e&t. S me b@e&ts# s$&" as 1ar)e r &2s and trees# may t ta11y & n&ea1 y $# and t"ers# s$&" as sma11 b$s"es and )rass# may n1y partia11y & n&ea1 y $. (i&2 t"e r $te t"at !!ers t"e best & n&ea1ment and re4$ires t"e 1east am $nt ! e!! rt. 8eep y $r eyes n t"e anima1 and st p %"en it 1 2s y $r %ay r t$rns its ears y $r %ay# espe&ia11y i! it s$spe&ts y $r presen&e. As y $ )et &1 se# s4$int y $r eyes s1i)"t1y t & n&ea1 b t" t"e 1i)"t-dar2 & ntrast ! t"e %"ites ! t"e eyes and any s"ine !r m y $r eyes. 8eep y $r m $t" &1 sed s t"at t"e anima1 d es n t see t"e %"iteness r s"ine ! y $r teet".

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Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 22 - CONTACT *ITH PEOPLE

Some o! the best and most !re)uently given advice" when dealing with local peoples" is !or the survivor to accept" respect" and adapt to their ways. Thus" =when in Rome" do as the Romans do.= This is e+cellent advice" but there are several considerations involved in putting this advice into practice.

CONTACT 3IT. LOCAL P OPL
Y $ m$st )i5e seri $s & nsiderati n t dea1in) %it" t"e 1 &a1 pe p1e. D t"ey "a5e a primiti5e &$1t$reG Are t"ey !armers# !is"ermen# !riend1y pe p1e# r enemyG As a s$r5i5 r# J&r ss-&$1t$ra1 & mm$ni&ati nJ &an 5ary radi&a11y !r m area t area and !r m pe p1e t pe p1e. It may mean intera&ti n %it" pe p1e ! an e?treme1y primiti5e &$1t$re r & nta&t %it" pe p1e %" "a5e a re1ati5e1y m dem &$1t$re. A &$1t$re is identi!ied by standards ! be"a5i r t"at its members & nsider pr per and a&&eptab1e b$t may r may n t & n! rm t y $r idea ! %"at is pr per. N matter %" t"ese pe p1e are# y $ &an e?pe&t t"ey %i11 "a5e 1a%s# s &ia1 and e& n mi& 5a1$es# and p 1iti&a1 and re1i)i $s be1ie!s t"at may be radi&a11y di!!erent !r m y $rs. ,e! re dep1 yin) int y $r area ! perati ns# st$dy t"ese di!!erent &$1t$ra1 aspe&ts. (ri r st$dy and preparati n %i11 "e1p y $ ma2e r a5 id & nta&t i! y $ "a5e t dea1 %it" t"e 1 &a1 p p$1ati n. (e p1e %i11 be !riend1y# $n!riend1y# r t"ey %i11 &" se t i)n re y $. +"eir attit$de may be $n2n %n. I! t"e pe p1e are 2n %n t be !riend1y# try t 2eep t"em !riend1y t"r $)" y $r & $rtesy and respe&t ! r t"eir re1i)i n# p 1iti&s# s &ia1 &$st ms# "abits# and a11 t"er aspe&ts ! t"eir &$1t$re. I! t"e pe p1e are 2n %n t be enemies r are $n2n %ns# ma2e e5ery e!! rt t a5 id any & nta&t and 1ea5e n si)n ! y $r presen&e. A basi& 2n %1ed)e ! t"e dai1y "abits ! t"e 1 &a1 pe p1e %i11 be essentia1 in t"is attempt. I! a!ter &are!$1 bser5ati n y $ determine t"at an $n2n %n pe p1e are !riend1y# y $ may & nta&t t"em i! y $ abs 1$te1y need t"eir "e1p. Us$a11y# y $ "a5e 1itt1e t !ear and m$&" t )ain !r m &a$ti $s and respe&t!$1 & nta&t %it" 1 &a1 pe p1e ! !riend1y r ne$tra1 & $ntries. I! y $ be& me !ami1iar %it" t"e 1 &a1 &$st ms# disp1ay & mm n de&en&y# and m st imp rtant# s" % respe&t ! r t"eir &$st ms# y $ s" $1d be ab1e t a5 id tr $b1e and p ssib1y )ain needed "e1p. + ma2e & nta&t# %ait $nti1 n1y ne pers n is near and# i! p ssib1e# 1et t"at pers n ma2e t"e initia1 appr a&". M st pe p1e %i11 be %i11in) t "e1p a s$r5i5 r %" appears t be in need. 0 %e5er# 1 &a1 p 1iti&a1 attit$des# instr$&ti n# r pr pa)anda e!! rts may &"an)e t"e attit$des ! t"er%ise !riend1y pe p1e. / n5erse1y# in $n!riend1y & $ntries# many pe p1e# espe&ia11y in rem te areas# may !ee1 anim sity t %ard t"eir p 1iti&ians and may be m re !riend1y t %ard a s$r5i5 r. +"e 2ey t s$&&ess!$1 & nta&t %it" 1 &a1 pe p1es is t be !riend1y# & $rte $s# and patient. Disp1ayin) !ear# s" %in) %eap ns# and ma2in) s$dden r t"reatenin) m 5ements &an &a$se a 1 &a1 pers n t !ear y $. S$&" a&ti ns &an pr mpt a " sti1e resp nse. 3"en attemptin) a & nta&t# smi1e as !ten as y $ &an. Many 1 &a1 pe p1es are s"y and seem $nappr a&"ab1e# r t"ey may i)n re y $. Appr a&" t"em s1 %1y and d n t r$s" y $r & nta&t.

(a)e 21; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

T. SURVIVOR<S # .AVIOR
Use sa1t# t ba&& # si15er m ney# and simi1ar items dis&reet1y %"en tradin) %it" 1 &a1 pe p1e. (aper m ney is %e11-2n %n % r1d%ide. D n t 5erpayH it may 1ead t embarrassment and e5en dan)er. A1%ays treat pe p1e %it" respe&t. D n t b$11y t"em r 1a$)" at t"em. Usin) si)n 1an)$a)e r a&tin) $t needs r 4$esti ns &an be 5ery e!!e&ti5e. Many pe p1e are $sed t s$&" 1an)$a)e and & mm$ni&ate $sin) n n5erba1 si)n 1an)$a)e. +ry t 1earn a !e% % rds and p"rases ! t"e 1 &a1 1an)$a)e in and ar $nd y $r p tentia1 area ! perati ns. +ryin) t spea2 s me neFs 1an)$a)e is ne ! t"e best %ays t s" % respe&t ! r "is &$1t$re. Sin&e -n)1is" is %ide1y $sed# s me ! t"e 1 &a1 pe p1e may $nderstand a !e% % rds ! -n)1is". S me areas may be tab . +"ey ran)e !r m re1i)i $s r sa&red p1a&es t diseased r dan)er areas. In s me areas# &ertain anima1s m$st n t be 2i11ed. Learn t"e r$1es and ! 11 % t"em. 3at&" and 1earn as m$&" as p ssib1e. S$&" a&ti ns %i11 "e1p t stren)t"en re1ati ns and pr 5ide ne% 2n %1ed)e and s2i11s t"at may be 5ery imp rtant 1ater. See2 ad5i&e n 1 &a1 "a'ards and !ind $t !r m !riend1y pe p1e %"ere t"e " sti1e pe p1e are. A1%ays remember t"at pe p1e !re4$ent1y insist t"at t"er pe p1es are " sti1e# simp1y be&a$se t"ey d n t $nderstand di!!erent &$1t$res and distant pe p1es. +"e pe p1e t"ey &an $s$a11y tr$st are t"eir immediate nei)"b rs--m$&" t"e same as in $r %n nei)"b r" d. Fre4$ent1y# 1 &a1 pe p1e# 1i2e $rse15es# %i11 s$!!er !r m & nta)i $s diseases. ,$i1d a separate s"e1ter# i! p ssib1e# and a5 id p"ysi&a1 & nta&t %it" $t )i5in) t"e impressi n ! d in) s . (ers na11y prepare y $r ! d and drin2# i! y $ &an d s %it" $t )i5in) !!ense. Fre4$ent1y# t"e 1 &a1 pe p1e %i11 a&&ept t"e $se ! Jpers na1 r re1i)i $s &$st mJ as an e?p1anati n ! r is 1ati nist be"a5i r. ,arter# r tradin)# is & mm n in m re primiti5e s &ieties. 0ard & in is $s$a11y ) d# %"et"er ! r its e?&"an)e 5a1$e r as @e%e1ry r trin2ets. In is 1ated areas# mat&"es# t ba&& # sa1t# ra' r b1ades# empty & ntainers# r &1 t" may be % rt" m re t"an any ! rm ! m ney. ,e 5ery &a$ti $s %"en t $&"in) pe p1e. Many pe p1e & nsider Jt $&"in)J tab and s$&" a&ti ns may be dan)er $s. A5 id se?$a1 & nta&t. 0 spita1ity am n) s me pe p1e is s$&" a str n) &$1t$ra1 trait t"at t"ey may seri $s1y red$&e t"eir %n s$pp1ies t !eed a stran)er. A&&ept %"at t"ey !!er and s"are it e4$a11y %it" a11 present. -at in t"e same %ay t"ey eat and# m st imp rtant# try t eat a11 t"ey !!er. I! y $ ma2e any pr mises# 2eep t"em. Respe&t pers na1 pr perty and 1 &a1 &$st ms and manners# e5en i! t"ey seem dd. Ma2e s me 2ind ! payment ! r ! d# s$pp1ies# and s ! rt". Respe&t pri5a&y. D n t enter a " $se $n1ess in5ited.

C.AN/ S TO POLITICAL ALL /IANC
In t dayFs % r1d ! !ast-pa&ed internati na1 p 1iti&s# p 1iti&a1 attit$des and & mmitments %it"in nati ns are s$b@e&t t rapid &"an)e. +"e p p$1ati n ! many & $ntries# espe&ia11y p 1iti&a11y " sti1e & $ntries# m$st n t be & nsidered !riend1y @$st be&a$se t"ey d n t dem nstrate pen " sti1ity. Un1ess brie!ed t t"e & ntraryH a5 id a11 & nta&t %it" s$&" pe p1e.

(a)e 22< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 28 - SURVIVAL IN MAN-MADE HA=ARDS

8uclear" chemical" and biological weapons have become potential realities on any modern battle!ield. Recent e+perience in A!ghanistan" 1ambodia" and other areas o! con!lict has proved the use o! chemical and biological weapons &such as mycoto+ins'. The war!ighting doctrine o! the 8AT0 and arsaw :act nations addresses the use o! both nuclear and chemical weapons. The potential use o! these weapons intensi!ies the problems o! survival because o! the serious dangers posed by either radioactive !allout or contamination produced by persistent biological or chemical agents. @ou must use special precautions i! you e+pect to survive in these man%made ha*ards. I! you are sub$ected to any o! the e!!ects o! nuclear" chemical" or biological war!are" the survival procedures recommended in this chapter may save your li!e. This chapter presents some background in!ormation on each type o! ha*ard so that you may better understand the true nature o! the ha*ard. Awareness o! the ha*ards" knowledge o! this chapter" and application o! common sense should keep you alive.

T. NUCL AR NVIRON0 NT
(repare y $rse1! t s$r5i5e in a n$&1ear en5ir nment. 8n % " % t rea&t t a n$&1ear "a'ard.

E66e.t$ "6 N .%e!& *e!p"#$
+"e e!!e&ts ! n$&1ear %eap ns are &1assi!ied as eit"er initia1 r resid$a1. Initia1 e!!e&ts &&$r in t"e immediate area ! t"e e?p1 si n and are "a'ard $s in t"e !irst min$te a!ter t"e e?p1 si n. Resid$a1 e!!e&ts &an 1ast ! r days r years and &a$se deat". +"e prin&ipa1 initia1 e!!e&ts are b1ast and radiati n. #last De!ined as t"e brie! and rapid m 5ement ! air a%ay !r m t"e e?p1 si nFs &enter and t"e press$re a&& mpanyin) t"is m 5ement. Str n) %inds a&& mpany t"e b1ast. ,1ast "$r1s debris and pers nne1# & 11apses 1$n)s# r$pt$res eardr$ms# & 11apses str$&t$res and p siti ns# and &a$ses immediate deat" r in@$ry %it" its &r$s"in) e!!e&t. Ther"al Radiation +"e "eat and 1i)"t radiati n a n$&1ear e?p1 si nFs !ireba11 emits. Li)"t radiati n & nsists ! b t" 5isib1e 1i)"t and $1tra5i 1et and in!rared 1i)"t. +"erma1 radiati n pr d$&es e?tensi5e !ires# s2in b$rns# and !1as" b1indness. Nuclear Radiation N$&1ear radiati n brea2s d %n int t% &ate) ries-initia1 radiati n and resid$a1 radiati n. Initia1 n$&1ear radiati n & nsists ! intense )amma rays and ne$tr ns pr d$&ed d$rin) t"e !irst min$te a!ter t"e e?p1 si n. +"is radiati n &a$ses e?tensi5e dama)e t &e11s t"r $)" $t t"e b dy. Radiati n dama)e may &a$se "eada&"es# na$sea# 5 mitin)# diarr"ea# and e5en deat"# dependin) n t"e radiati n d se re&ei5ed. +"e ma@ r pr b1em in pr te&tin) y $rse1! a)ainst t"e initia1 radiati nFs e!!e&ts is t"at y $
(a)e 221 ! 2**

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US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

may "a5e re&ei5ed a 1et"a1 r in&apa&itatin) d se be! re ta2in) any pr te&ti5e a&ti n. (ers nne1 e?p sed t 1et"a1 am $nts ! initia1 radiati n may %e11 "a5e been 2i11ed r !ata11y in@$red by b1ast r t"erma1 radiati n. Resid$a1 radiati n & nsists ! a11 radiati n pr d$&ed a!ter ne min$te !r m t"e e?p1 si n. It "as m re e!!e&t n y $ t"an initia1 radiati n. A dis&$ssi n ! resid$a1 radiati n ta2es p1a&e in a s$bse4$ent para)rap".

T3pe$ "6 N .%e!& B &$t$
+"ere are t"ree types ! n$&1ear b$rsts--airb$rst# s$r!a&e b$rst# and s$bs$r!a&e b$rst. +"e type ! b$rst dire&t1y a!!e&ts y $r &"an&es ! s$r5i5a1. A s$bs$r!a&e b$rst &&$rs & mp1ete1y $nder)r $nd r $nder%ater. Its e!!e&ts remain beneat" t"e s$r!a&e r in t"e immediate area %"ere t"e s$r!a&e & 11apses int a &rater 5er t"e b$rstFs 1 &ati n. S$bs$r!a&e b$rsts &a$se y $ 1itt1e r n radi a&ti5e "a'ard $n1ess y $ enter t"e immediate area ! t"e &rater. N !$rt"er dis&$ssi n ! t"is type ! b$rst %i11 ta2e p1a&e. An airb$rst &&$rs in t"e air ab 5e its intended tar)et. +"e airb$rst pr 5ides t"e ma?im$m radiati n e!!e&t n t"e tar)et and is# t"ere! re# m st dan)er $s t y $ in terms ! immediate n$&1ear e!!e&ts. A s$r!a&e b$rst &&$rs n t"e )r $nd r %ater s$r!a&e. Lar)e am $nts ! !a11 $t res$1t# %it" seri $s 1 n)term e!!e&ts ! r y $. +"is type ! b$rst is y $r greatest n$&1ear "a'ard.

N .%e!& I#F &ie$
M st in@$ries in t"e n$&1ear en5ir nment res$1t !r m t"e initia1 n$&1ear e!!e&ts ! t"e det nati n. +"ese in@$ries are &1assed as b1ast# t"erma1# r radiati n in@$ries. F$rt"er radiati n in@$ries may &&$r i! y $ d n t ta2e pr per pre&a$ti ns a)ainst !a11 $t. Indi5id$a1s in t"e area near a n$&1ear e?p1 si n %i11 pr bab1y s$!!er a & mbinati n ! a11 t"ree types ! in@$ries. #last In+uries ,1ast in@$ries pr d$&ed by n$&1ear %eap ns are simi1ar t t" se &a$sed by & n5enti na1 "i)"-e?p1 si5e %eap ns. ,1ast 5erpress$re &an pr d$&e & 11apsed 1$n)s and r$pt$red interna1 r)ans. (r @e&ti1e % $nds &&$r as t"e e?p1 si nFs ! r&e "$r1s debris at y $. Lar)e pie&es ! debris stri2in) y $ %i11 &a$se !ra&t$red 1imbs r massi5e interna1 in@$ries. ,1ast 5er-press$re may t"r % y $ 1 n) distan&es# and y $ %i11 s$!!er se5ere in@$ry $p n impa&t %it" t"e )r $nd r t"er b@e&ts. S$bstantia1 & 5er and distan&e !r m t"e e?p1 si n are t"e best pr te&ti n a)ainst b1ast in@$ry. / 5er b1ast in@$ry % $nds as s n as p ssib1e t pre5ent t"e entry ! radi a&ti5e d$st parti&1es. Ther"al In+uries +"e "eat and 1i)"t t"e n$&1ear !ireba11 emits &a$ses t"erma1 in@$ries. First-# se& nd-# r t"ird-de)ree b$rns may res$1t. F1as" b1indness a1s &&$rs. +"is b1indness may be permanent r temp rary dependin) n t"e de)ree ! e?p s$re ! t"e eyes. S$bstantia1 & 5er and distan&e !r m t"e e?p1 si n &an pre5ent t"erma1 in@$ries. /1 t"in) %i11 pr 5ide si)ni!i&ant pr te&ti n a)ainst t"erma1 in@$ries. / 5er as m$&" e?p sed s2in as p ssib1e be! re a n$&1ear e?p1 si n. First aid ! r t"erma1 in@$ries is t"e same as !irst aid ! r b$rns. / 5er pen b$rns Cse& nd- r t"ird-de)reeD t pre5ent t"e entry ! radi a&ti5e parti&1es. 3as" a11 b$rns be! re & 5erin). Radiation In+uries Ne$tr ns# )amma radiati n# a1p"a radiati n# and beta radiati n &a$se radiati n in@$ries. Ne$tr ns are "i)"-speed# e?treme1y penetratin) parti&1es t"at a&t$a11y smas" &e11s %it"in y $r b dy. 6amma radiati n is simi1ar t B rays and is a1s a "i)"1y penetratin) radiati n. D$rin) t"e initia1 !ireba11 sta)e ! a n$&1ear det nati n# initia1 )amma radiati n and ne$tr ns are t"e m st seri $s t"reat. ,eta and a1p"a radiati n are radi a&ti5e parti&1es n rma11y ass &iated %it" radi a&ti5e d$st !r m !a11 $t. +"ey are s" rt-ran)e parti&1es and y $ &an easi1y pr te&t y $rse1! a)ainst t"em i! y $ ta2e pre&a$ti ns. See ?odily Reactions to Radiation" be1 %# ! r t"e sympt ms ! radiati n in@$ries.

Re$i( !% R!(i!ti"#

(a)e 222 ! 2**

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US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Resid$a1 radiati n is a11 radiati n emitted a!ter 1 min$te !r m t"e instant ! t"e n$&1ear e?p1 si n. Resid$a1 radiati n & nsists ! ind$&ed radiati n and !a11 $t. Induced Radiation It des&ribes a re1ati5e1y sma11# intense1y radi a&ti5e area dire&t1y $nderneat" t"e n$&1ear %eap nFs !ireba11. +"e irradiated eart" in t"is area %i11 remain "i)"1y radi a&ti5e ! r an e?treme1y 1 n) time. Y $ s" $1d n t tra5e1 int an area ! ind$&ed radiati n. 'allout Fa11 $t & nsists ! radi a&ti5e s i1 and %ater parti&1es# as %e11 as %eap n !ra)ments. D$rin) a s$r!a&e det nati n# r i! an airb$rstFs n$&1ear !ireba11 t $&"es t"e )r $nd# 1ar)e am $nts ! s i1 and %ater are 5ap ri'ed a1 n) %it" t"e b mbFs !ra)ments# and ! r&ed $p%ard t a1tit$des ! 29#<<< meters r m re. 3"en t"ese 5ap ri'ed & ntents & 1# t"ey &an ! rm m re t"an 2<< di!!erent radi a&ti5e pr d$&ts. +"e 5ap ri'ed b mb & ntents & ndense int tiny radi a&ti5e parti&1es t"at t"e %ind &arries and t"ey !a11 ba&2 t eart" as radi a&ti5e d$st. Fa11 $t parti&1es emit a1p"a# beta# and )amma radiati n. A1p"a and beta radiati n are re1ati5e1y easy t & $ntera&t# and resid$a1 )amma radiati n is m$&" 1ess intense t"an t"e )amma radiati n emitted d$rin) t"e !irst min$te a!ter t"e e?p1 si n. Fa11 $t is y $r m st si)ni!i&ant radiati n "a'ard# pr 5ided y $ "a5e n t re&ei5ed a 1et"a1 radiati n d se !r m t"e initia1 radiati n.

B"(i%3 Re!.ti"#$ t" R!(i!ti"#
+"e e!!e&ts ! radiati n n t"e "$man b dy &an be br ad1y &1assed as eit"er &"r ni& r a&$te. /"r ni& e!!e&ts are t" se t"at &&$r s me years a!ter e?p s$re t radiati n. -?amp1es are &an&er and )eneti& de!e&ts. /"r ni& e!!e&ts are ! min r & n&ern ins !ar as t"ey a!!e&t y $r immediate s$r5i5a1 in a radi a&ti5e en5ir nment. .n t"e t"er "and# a&$te e!!e&ts are ! primary imp rtan&e t y $r s$r5i5a1. S me a&$te e!!e&ts &&$r %it"in " $rs a!ter e?p s$re t radiati n. +"ese e!!e&ts res$1t !r m t"e radiati nFs dire&t p"ysi&a1 dama)e t tiss$e. Radiati n si&2ness and beta b$rns are e?amp1es ! a&$te e!!e&ts. Radiati n si&2ness sympt ms in&1$de na$sea# diarr"ea# 5 mitin)# !ati)$e# %ea2ness# and 1 ss ! "air. (enetratin) beta rays &a$se radiati n b$rnsH t"e % $nds are simi1ar t !ire b$rns. Reco(ery Capa6ility +"e e?tent ! b dy dama)e depends main1y n t"e part ! t"e b dy e?p sed t radiati n and " % 1 n) it %as e?p sed# as %e11 as its abi1ity t re& 5er. +"e brain and 2idneys "a5e 1itt1e re& 5ery &apabi1ity. .t"er parts Cs2in and b ne marr %D "a5e a )reat abi1ity t re& 5er !r m dama)e. Us$a11y# a d se ! 6<< &enti)rams C&)ysD t t"e entire b dy %i11 res$1t in a1m st &ertain deat". I! n1y y $r "ands re&ei5ed t"is same d se# y $r 5era11 "ea1t" % $1d n t s$!!er m$&"# a1t" $)" y $r "ands % $1d s$!!er se5ere dama)e. 4ternal and Internal .azards An e?terna1 r an interna1 "a'ard &an &a$se b dy dama)e. 0i)"1y penetratin) )amma radiati n r t"e 1ess penetratin) beta radiati n t"at &a$ses b$rns &an &a$se e?terna1 dama)e. +"e entry ! a1p"a r beta radiati n-emittin) parti&1es int t"e b dy &an &a$se interna1 dama)e. +"e e?terna1 "a'ard pr d$&es 5era11 irradiati n and beta b$rns. +"e interna1 "a'ard res$1ts in irradiati n ! &riti&a1 r)ans s$&" as t"e )astr intestina1 tra&t# t"yr id )1and# and b ne. A 5ery sma11 am $nt ! radi a&ti5e materia1 &an &a$se e?treme dama)e t t"ese and t"er interna1 r)ans. +"e interna1 "a'ard &an enter t"e b dy eit"er t"r $)" & ns$mpti n ! & ntaminated %ater r ! d r by abs rpti n t"r $)" &$ts r abrasi ns. Materia1 t"at enters t"e b dy t"r $)" breat"in) presents n1y a min r "a'ard. Y $ &an )reat1y red$&e t"e interna1 radiati n "a'ard by $sin) ) d pers na1 "y)iene and &are!$11y de& ntaminatin) y $r ! d and %ater. Sy"pto"s +"e sympt ms ! radiati n in@$ries in&1$de na$sea# diarr"ea# and 5 mitin). +"e se5erity ! t"ese sympt ms is d$e t t"e e?treme sensiti5ity ! t"e )astr intestina1 tra&t t radiati n. +"e se5erity ! t"e sympt ms and t"e speed ! nset a!ter e?p s$re are ) d indi&at rs ! t"e de)ree ! radiati n dama)e. +"e )astr intestina1 dama)e &an & me !r m eit"er t"e e?terna1 r t"e interna1 radiati n "a'ard.

C" #te&+e!$ &e$ A0!i#$t Pe#et&!ti#0 E5te&#!% R!(i!ti"#
8n %1ed)e ! t"e radiati n "a'ards dis&$ssed ear1ier is e?treme1y imp rtant in s$r5i5in) in a !a11 $t area. It is a1s &riti&a1 t 2n % " % t pr te&t y $rse1! !r m t"e m st dan)er $s ! rm ! resid$a1 radiati n-penetratin) e?terna1 radiati n.
(a)e 22* ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+"e means y $ &an $se t pr te&t y $rse1! !r m penetratin) e?terna1 radiati n are time# distan&e# and s"ie1din). Y $ &an red$&e t"e 1e5e1 ! radiati n and "e1p in&rease y $r &"an&e ! s$r5i5a1 by & ntr 11in) t"e d$rati n ! e?p s$re. Y $ &an a1s )et as !ar a%ay !r m t"e radiati n s $r&e as p ssib1e. Fina11y y $ &an p1a&e s me radiati n-abs rbin) r s"ie1din) materia1 bet%een y $ and t"e radiati n. Ti"e +ime is imp rtant t y $# as t"e s$r5i5 r# in t% %ays. First# radiati n d sa)es are &$m$1ati5e. +"e 1 n)er y $ are e?p sed t a radi a&ti5e s $r&e# t"e )reater t"e d se y $ %i11 re&ei5e. .b5i $s1y# spend as 1itt1e time in a radi a&ti5e area as p ssib1e. Se& nd# radi a&ti5ity de&reases r de&ays 5er time. +"is & n&ept is 2n %n as radi a&ti5e hal!%li!e. +"$s# a radi a&ti5e e1ement de&ays r 1 ses "a1! ! its radi a&ti5ity %it"in a &ertain time. +"e r$1e ! t"$mb ! r radi a&ti5ity de&ay is t"at it de&reases in intensity by a !a&t r ! ten ! r e5ery se5en! 1d in&rease in time ! 11 %in) t"e pea2 radiati n 1e5e1. F r e?amp1e# i! a n$&1ear !a11 $t area "ad a ma?im$m radiati n rate ! 2<< &)ys per " $r %"en !a11 $t is & mp1ete# t"is rate % $1d !a11 t 2< &)ys per " $r a!ter 7 " $rsH it % $1d !a11 sti11 !$rt"er t 2 &)ys per " $r a!ter 7; " $rs. -5en an $ntrained bser5er &an see t"at t"e )reatest "a'ard !r m !a11 $t &&$rs immediate1y a!ter det nati n# and t"at t"e "a'ard de&reases 4$i&21y 5er a re1ati5e1y s" rt time. As a s$r5i5 r# try t a5 id !a11 $t areas $nti1 t"e radi a&ti5ity de&ays t sa!e 1e5e1s. I! y $ &an a5 id !a11 $t areas 1 n) en $)" ! r m st ! t"e radi a&ti5ity t de&ay# y $ en"an&e y $r &"an&e ! s$r5i5a1. ,istance Distan&e pr 5ides 5ery e!!e&ti5e pr te&ti n a)ainst penetratin) )amma radiati n be&a$se radiati n intensity de&reases by t"e s4$are ! t"e distan&e !r m t"e s $r&e. F r e?amp1e# i! e?p sed t 1#<<< &)ys ! radiati n standin) *< &entimeters !r m t"e s $r&e# at 6< &entimeters# y $ % $1d n1y re&ei5e 29< &)ys. +"$s# %"en y $ d $b1e t"e distan&e# radiati n de&reases t C<.9D2 r <.29 t"e am $nt. 3"i1e t"is ! rm$1a is 5a1id ! r & n&entrated s $r&es ! radiati n in sma11 areas# it be& mes m re & mp1i&ated ! r 1ar)e areas ! radiati n s$&" as !a11 $t areas. Shielding S"ie1din) is t"e m st imp rtant met" d ! pr te&ti n !r m penetratin) radiati n. .! t"e t"ree & $ntermeas$res a)ainst penetratin) radiati n# s"ie1din) pr 5ides t"e )reatest pr te&ti n and is t"e easiest t $se $nder s$r5i5a1 & nditi ns. +"ere! re# it is t"e m st desirab1e met" d. I! s"ie1din) is n t p ssib1e# $se t"e t"er t% met" ds t t"e ma?im$m e?tent pra&ti&a1. S"ie1din) a&t$a11y % r2s by abs rbin) r %ea2enin) t"e penetratin) radiati n# t"ereby red$&in) t"e am $nt ! radiati n rea&"in) y $r b dy. +"e denser t"e materia1# t"e better t"e s"ie1din) e!!e&t. Lead# ir n# & n&rete# and %ater are ) d e?amp1es ! s"ie1din) materia1s. Special 0edical Aspects +"e presen&e ! !a11 $t materia1 in y $r area re4$ires s1i)"t &"an)es in !irst aid pr &ed$res. Y $ m$st & 5er a11 % $nds t pre5ent & ntaminati n and t"e entry ! radi a&ti5e parti&1es. Y $ m$st !irst %as" b$rns ! beta radiati n# t"en treat t"em as rdinary b$rns. +a2e e?tra meas$res t pre5ent in!e&ti n. Y $r b dy %i11 be e?treme1y sensiti5e t in!e&ti ns d$e t &"an)es in y $r b1 d &"emistry. (ay &1 se attenti n t t"e pre5enti n ! & 1ds r respirat ry in!e&ti ns. Ri) r $s1y pra&ti&e pers na1 "y)iene t pre5ent in!e&ti ns. / 5er y $r eyes %it" impr 5ised ) ))1es t pre5ent t"e entry ! parti&1es.

She%te&
As stated ear1ier# t"e s"ie1din) materia1Fs e!!e&ti5eness depends n its t"i&2ness and density. An amp1e t"i&2ness ! s"ie1din) materia1 %i11 red$&e t"e 1e5e1 ! radiati n t ne)1i)ib1e am $nts. +"e primary reas n ! r !indin) and b$i1din) a s"e1ter is t )et pr te&ti n a)ainst t"e "i)"-intensity radiati n 1e5e1s ! ear1y )amma !a11 $t as !ast as p ssib1e. Fi5e min$tes t 1 &ate t"e s"e1ter is a ) d )$ide. Speed in !indin) s"e1ter is abs 1$te1y essentia1. 3it" $t s"e1ter# t"e d sa)e re&ei5ed in t"e !irst !e% " $rs %i11 e?&eed t"at re&ei5ed d$rin) t"e rest ! a %ee2 in a & ntaminated area. +"e d sa)e re&ei5ed in t"is !irst %ee2 %i11 e?&eed t"e d sa)e a&&$m$1ated d$rin) t"e rest ! a 1i!etime spent in t"e same & ntaminated area. Shielding 0aterials +"e t"i&2ness re4$ired t %ea2en )amma radiati n !r m !a11 $t is !ar 1ess t"an t"at needed t s"ie1d a)ainst initia1 )amma radiati n. Fa11 $t radiati n "as 1ess ener)y t"an a n$&1ear det nati nFs initia1 radiati n. F r !a11 $t radiati n# a re1ati5e1y sma11 am $nt ! s"ie1din) materia1 &an pr 5ide ade4$ate
(a)e 227 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

pr te&ti n. Fi)$re 2*-1 )i5es an idea ! t"e t"i&2ness ! 5ari $s materia1s needed t red$&e resid$a1 )amma radiati n transmissi n by 9< per&ent.

+"e prin&ip1e ! hal!%value layer thickness is $se!$1 in $nderstandin) t"e abs rpti n ! )amma radiati n by 5ari $s materia1s. A&& rdin) t t"is prin&ip1e# i! 9 &entimeters ! bri&2 red$&e t"e )amma radiati n 1e5e1 by ne-"a1!# addin) an t"er 9 &entimeters ! bri&2 Can t"er "a1!-5a1$e 1ayerD %i11 red$&e t"e intensity by an t"er "a1!# name1y# t ne-! $rt" t"e ri)ina1 am $nt. Fi!teen &entimeters %i11 red$&e )amma radiati n !a11 $t 1e5e1s t ne-ei)"t" its ri)ina1 am $nt# 2< &entimeters t ne-si?teent"# and s n. +"$s# a s"e1ter pr te&ted by 1 meter ! dirt % $1d red$&e a radiati n intensity ! 1#<<< &)ys per " $r n t"e $tside t ab $t <.9 &)y per " $r inside t"e s"e1ter. Natural Shelters +errain t"at pr 5ides nat$ra1 s"ie1din) and easy s"e1ter & nstr$&ti n is t"e idea1 1 &ati n ! r an emer)en&y s"e1ter. 6 d e?amp1es are dit&"es# ra5ines# r &2y $t&r ppin)# "i11s# and ri5er ban2s. In 1e5e1 areas %it" $t nat$ra1 pr te&ti n# di) a !i)"tin) p siti n r s1it tren&". Trenches 3"en di))in) a tren&"# % r2 !r m inside t"e tren&" as s n as it is 1ar)e en $)" t & 5er part ! y $r b dy t"ereby n t e?p sin) a11 y $r b dy t radiati n. In pen & $ntry# try t di) t"e tren&" !r m a pr ne p siti n# sta&2in) t"e dirt &are!$11y and e5en1y ar $nd t"e tren&". .n 1e5e1 )r $nd# pi1e t"e dirt ar $nd y $r b dy ! r additi na1 s"ie1din). Dependin) $p n s i1 & nditi ns# s"e1ter & nstr$&ti n time %i11 5ary !r m a !e% min$tes t a !e% " $rs. I! y $ di) as 4$i&21y as p ssib1e# y $ %i11 red$&e t"e d sa)e y $ re&ei5e. Other Shelters 3"i1e an $nder)r $nd s"e1ter & 5ered by 1 meter r m re ! eart" pr 5ides t"e best pr te&ti n a)ainst !a11 $t radiati n# t"e ! 11 %in) $n &&$pied str$&t$res Cin rder 1istedD !!er t"e ne?t best pr te&ti nI • /a5es and t$nne1s & 5ered by m re t"an 1 meter ! eart". • St rm r st ra)e &e11ars. • /$15erts. • ,asements r &e11ars ! aband ned b$i1din)s. • Aband ned b$i1din)s made ! st ne r m$d. Roo$s It is n t mandat ry t"at y $ b$i1d a r ! n y $r s"e1ter. ,$i1d ne n1y i! t"e materia1s are readi1y a5ai1ab1e %it" n1y a brie! e?p s$re t $tside & ntaminati n. I! b$i1din) a r ! % $1d re4$ire e?tended e?p s$re t penetratin) radiati n# it % $1d be %iser t 1ea5e t"e s"e1ter r !1ess. A r !Fs s 1e !$n&ti n is t red$&e radiati n !r m t"e !a11 $t s $r&e t y $r b dy. Un1ess y $ $se a t"i&2 r !# a r ! pr 5ides 5ery 1itt1e s"ie1din). Y $ &an & nstr$&t a simp1e r ! !r m a p n&" an&" red d %n %it" dirt# r &2s# r t"er re!$se !r m y $r s"e1ter. Y $ &an rem 5e 1ar)e parti&1es ! dirt and debris !r m t"e t p ! t"e p n&" by beatin) it !! !r m
(a)e 229 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

t"e inside at !re4$ent inter5a1s. +"is & 5er %i11 n t !!er s"ie1din) !r m t"e radi a&ti5e parti&1es dep sited n t"e s$r!a&e# b$t it %i11 in&rease t"e distan&e !r m t"e !a11 $t s $r&e and 2eep t"e s"e1ter area !r m !$rt"er & ntaminati n. S"e1ter Site Se1e&ti n and (reparati n + red$&e y $r e?p s$re time and t"ereby red$&e t"e d sa)e re&ei5ed# remember t"e ! 11 %in) !a&t rs %"en se1e&tin) and settin) $p a s"e1terI • 3"ere p ssib1e# see2 a &r$de# e?istin) s"e1ter t"at y $ &an impr 5e. I! n ne is a5ai1ab1e# di) a tren&". • Di) t"e s"e1ter deep en $)" t )et ) d pr te&ti n# t"en en1ar)e it as re4$ired ! r & m! rt. • / 5er t"e t p ! t"e !i)"tin) p siti n r tren&" %it" any readi1y a5ai1ab1e materia1 and a t"i&2 1ayer ! eart"# i! y $ &an d s %it" $t 1ea5in) t"e s"e1ter. 3"i1e a r ! and &am $!1a)e are b t" desirab1e# it is pr bab1y sa!er t d %it" $t t"em t"an t e?p se y $rse1! t radiati n $tside y $r !i)"tin) p siti n. • 3"i1e b$i1din) y $r s"e1ter# 2eep a11 parts ! y $r b dy & 5ered %it" &1 t"in) t pr te&t it a)ainst beta b$rns. • /1ean t"e s"e1ter site ! any s$r!a&e dep sit $sin) a bran&" r t"er b@e&t t"at y $ &an dis&ard. D t"is &1eanin) t rem 5e & ntaminated materia1s !r m t"e area y $ %i11 &&$py. +"e &1eaned area s" $1d e?tend at 1east 1.9 meters bey nd y $r s"e1terFs area. • De& ntaminate any materia1s y $ brin) int t"e s"e1ter. +"ese materia1s in&1$de )rass r ! 1ia)e t"at y $ $se as ins$1ati n r beddin)# and y $r $ter &1 t"in) Cespe&ia11y ! t)earD. I! t"e %eat"er permits and y $ "a5e "ea5i1y & ntaminated $ter &1 t"in)# y $ may %ant t rem 5e it and b$ry it $nder a ! t ! eart" at t"e end ! y $r s"e1ter. Y $ may retrie5e it 1ater Ca!ter t"e radi a&ti5ity de&aysD %"en 1ea5in) t"e s"e1ter. I! t"e &1 t"in) is dry# y $ may de& ntaminate it by beatin) r s"a2in) it $tside t"e s"e1terFs entran&e t rem 5e t"e radi a&ti5e d$st. Y $ may $se any b dy ! %ater# e5en t" $)" & ntaminated# t rid materia1s ! e?&ess !a11 $t parti&1es. Simp1y dip t"e materia1 int t"e %ater and s"a2e it t )et rid ! t"e e?&ess %ater. D n t %rin) it $t# t"is a&ti n %i11 trap t"e parti&1es. • I! at a11 p ssib1e and %it" $t 1ea5in) t"e s"e1ter# %as" y $r b dy t" r $)"1y %it" s ap and %ater# e5en i! t"e %ater n "and may be & ntaminated. +"is %as"in) %i11 rem 5e m st ! t"e "arm!$1 radi a&ti5e parti&1es t"at are 1i2e1y t &a$se beta b$rns r t"er dama)e. I! %ater is n t a5ai1ab1e# %ipe y $r !a&e and any t"er e?p sed s2in s$r!a&e t rem 5e & ntaminated d$st and dirt. Y $ may %ipe y $r !a&e %it" a &1ean pie&e ! &1 t" r a "and!$1 ! $n& ntaminated dirt. Y $ )et t"is $n& ntaminated dirt by s&rapin) !! t"e t p !e% in&"es ! s i1 and $sin) t"e J&1eanJ dirt. • Up n & mp1etin) t"e s"e1ter# 1ie d %n# 2eep %arm# and s1eep and rest as m$&" as p ssib1e %"i1e in t"e s"e1ter. • 3"en n t restin)# 2eep b$sy by p1annin) !$t$re a&ti ns# st$dyin) y $r maps# r ma2in) t"e s"e1ter m re & m! rtab1e and e!!e&ti5e. • D nFt pani& i! y $ e?perien&e na$sea and sympt ms ! radiati n si&2ness. Y $r main dan)er !r m radiati n si&2ness is in!e&ti n. +"ere is n !irst aid ! r t"is si&2ness. Restin)# drin2in) !1$ids# ta2in) any medi&ine t"at pre5ents 5 mitin)# maintainin) y $r ! d inta2e# and pre5entin) additi na1 e?p s$re %i11 "e1p a5 id in!e&ti n and aid re& 5ery. -5en sma11 d ses ! radiati n &an &a$se t"ese sympt ms %"i&" may disappear in a s" rt time. 4posure Ti"eta6le +"e ! 11 %in) timetab1e pr 5ides y $ %it" t"e in! rmati n needed t a5 id re&ei5in) seri $s d sa)e and sti11 1et y $ & pe %it" s$r5i5a1 pr b1emsI • / mp1ete is 1ati n !r m 7 t 6 days ! 11 %in) de1i5ery ! t"e 1ast %eap n. • A 5ery brie! e?p s$re t pr &$re %ater n t"e t"ird day is permissib1e# b$t e?p s$re s" $1d n t e?&eed *< min$tes. • .ne e?p s$re ! n t m re t"an *< min$tes n t"e se5ent" day. • .ne e?p s$re ! n t m re t"an 1 " $r n t"e ei)"t" day. • -?p s$re ! 2 t 7 " $rs !r m t"e nint" day t"r $)" t"e t%e1!t" day. • N rma1 perati n# ! 11 %ed by rest in a pr te&ted s"e1ter# !r m t"e t"irteent" day n.
(a)e 226 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

In a11 instan&es# ma2e y $r e?p s$res as brie! as p ssib1e. / nsider n1y mandat ry re4$irements as 5a1id reas ns ! r e?p s$re. De& ntaminate at e5ery st p.

+"e times )i5en ab 5e are & nser5ati5e. I! ! r&ed t m 5e a!ter t"e !irst r se& nd day# y $ may d s # Ma2e s$re t"at t"e e?p s$re is n 1 n)er t"an abs 1$te1y ne&essary.

*!te& P&". &e+e#t
In a !a11 $t-& ntaminated area# a5ai1ab1e %ater s $r&es may be & ntaminated. I! y $ %ait at 1east 7: " $rs be! re drin2in) any %ater t a11 % ! r radi a&ti5e de&ay t ta2e p1a&e and se1e&t t"e sa!est p ssib1e %ater s $r&e# y $ %i11 )reat1y red$&e t"e dan)er ! in)estin) "arm!$1 am $nts ! radi a&ti5ity. A1t" $)" many !a&t rs C%ind dire&ti n# rain!a11# sedimentD %i11 in!1$en&e y $r &" i&e in se1e&tin) %ater s $r&es# & nsider t"e ! 11 %in) )$ide1ines. Sa$est 3ater Sources 3ater !r m sprin)s# %e11s# r t"er $nder)r $nd s $r&es t"at $nder) nat$ra1 !i1trati n %i11 be y $r sa!est s $r&e. Any %ater ! $nd in t"e pipes r & ntainers ! aband ned " $ses r st res %i11 a1s be !ree !r m radi a&ti5e parti&1es. +"is %ater %i11 be sa!e t drin2# a1t" $)" y $ %i11 "a5e t ta2e pre&a$ti ns a)ainst ba&teria in t"e %ater. Sn % ta2en !r m 19 r m re &entimeters be1 % t"e s$r!a&e d$rin) t"e !a11 $t is a1s a sa!e s $r&e ! %ater. Strea"s and Ri(ers 3ater !r m streams and ri5ers %i11 be re1ati5e1y !ree !r m !a11 $t %it"in se5era1 days a!ter t"e 1ast n$&1ear e?p1 si n be&a$se ! di1$ti n. I! at a11 p ssib1e# !i1ter s$&" %ater be! re drin2in) t )et rid ! radi a&ti5e parti&1es. +"e best !i1trati n met" d is t di) sediment " 1es r seepa)e basins a1 n) t"e side ! a %ater s $r&e. +"e %ater %i11 seep 1atera11y int t"e " 1e t"r $)" t"e inter5enin) s i1 t"at a&ts as a !i1terin) a)ent and rem 5es t"e & ntaminated !a11 $t parti&1es t"at sett1ed n t"e ri)ina1 b dy ! %ater. +"is met" d &an rem 5e $p t ;; per&ent ! t"e radi a&ti5ity in %ater. Y $ m$st & 5er t"e " 1e in s me %ay in rder t pre5ent !$rt"er & ntaminati n. See Fi)$re 6-; ! r an e?amp1e ! a %ater !i1ter. Standing 3ater 3ater !r m 1a2es# p 1s# p nds# and t"er standin) s $r&es is 1i2e1y t be "ea5i1y & ntaminated# t" $)" m st ! t"e "ea5ier# 1 n)-1i5ed radi a&ti5e is t pes %i11 sett1e t t"e b tt m. Use t"e sett1in) te&"ni4$e t p$ri!y t"is %ater. First# !i11 a b$&2et r t"er deep & ntainer t"ree-! $rt"s !$11 %it" & ntaminated %ater. +"en ta2e dirt !r m a dept" ! 1< r m re &entimeters be1 % t"e )r $nd s$r!a&e and stir it int t"e %ater. Use ab $t 2.9 &entimeters ! dirt ! r e5ery 1< &entimeters ! %ater. Stir t"e %ater $nti1 y $ see m st dirt parti&1es s$spended in t"e %ater. Let t"e mi?t$re sett1e ! r at 1east 6 " $rs. +"e sett1in) dirt parti&1es %i11 &arry m st ! t"e s$spended !a11 $t parti&1es t t"e b tt m and & 5er t"em. Y $ &an t"en dip $t t"e &1ear %ater. ($ri!y t"is %ater $sin) a !i1trati n de5i&e. Additional Precautions As an additi na1 pre&a$ti n a)ainst disease# treat a11 %ater %it" %ater p$ri!i&ati n tab1ets !r m y $r s$r5i5a1 2it r b i1 it.

F""( P&". &e+e#t
A1t" $)" it is a seri $s pr b1em t btain edib1e ! d in a radiati n-& ntaminated area# it is n t imp ssib1e t s 15e. Y $ need t ! 11 % a !e% spe&ia1 pr &ed$res in se1e&tin) and preparin) rati ns and 1 &a1 ! ds ! r $se. Sin&e se&$re pa&2a)in) pr te&ts y $r & mbat rati ns# t"ey %i11 be per!e&t1y sa!e ! r $se. S$pp1ement y $r rati ns %it" any ! d y $ &an !ind n trips $tside y $r s"e1ter. M st pr &essed ! ds y $ may !ind in aband ned b$i1din)s are sa!e ! r $se a!ter de& ntaminatin) t"em. +"ese in&1$de &anned and pa&2a)ed ! ds a!ter rem 5in) t"e & ntainers r %rappers r %as"in) t"em !ree ! !a11 $t parti&1es. +"ese pr &essed ! ds a1s in&1$de ! d st red in any &1 sed & ntainer and ! d st red in pr te&ted areas Cs$&" as &e11arsD# i! y $ %as" t"em be! re eatin). 3as" a11 ! d & ntainers r %rappers be! re "and1in) t"em t pre5ent !$rt"er & ntaminati n.

(a)e 227 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

I! 1itt1e r n pr &essed ! d is a5ai1ab1e in y $r area# y $ may "a5e t s$pp1ement y $r diet %it" 1 &a1 ! d s $r&es. L &a1 ! d s $r&es are anima1s and p1ants. Ani"als as a 'ood Source Ass$me t"at a11 anima1s# re)ard1ess ! t"eir "abitat r 1i5in) & nditi ns# %ere e?p sed t radiati n. +"e e!!e&ts ! radiati n n anima1s are simi1ar t t" se n "$mans. +"$s# m st ! t"e %i1d anima1s 1i5in) in a !a11 $t area are 1i2e1y t be& me si&2 r die !r m radiati n d$rin) t"e !irst m nt" a!ter t"e n$&1ear e?p1 si n. -5en t" $)" anima1s may n t be !ree !r m "arm!$1 radi a&ti5e materia1s# y $ &an and m$st $se t"em in s$r5i5a1 & nditi ns as a ! d s $r&e i! t"er ! ds are n t a5ai1ab1e. 3it" &are!$1 preparati n and by ! 11 %in) se5era1 imp rtant prin&ip1es# anima1s &an be sa!e ! d s $r&es. First# d n t eat an anima1 t"at appears t be si&2. It may "a5e de5e1 ped a ba&teria1 in!e&ti n as a res$1t ! radiati n p is nin). / ntaminated meat# e5en i! t" r $)"1y & 2ed# & $1d &a$se se5ere i11ness r deat" i! eaten. /are!$11y s2in a11 anima1s t pre5ent any radi a&ti5e parti&1es n t"e s2in r !$r !r m enterin) t"e b dy. D n t eat meat &1 se t t"e b nes and @ ints as an anima1Fs s2e1et n & ntains 5er ;< per&ent ! t"e radi a&ti5ity. +"e remainin) anima1 m$s&1e tiss$e# " %e5er# %i11 be sa!e t eat. ,e! re & 2in) it# &$t t"e meat a%ay !r m t"e b ne# 1ea5in) at 1east a *-mi11imeter t"i&2ness ! meat n t"e b ne. Dis&ard a11 interna1 r)ans C"eart# 1i5er# and 2idneysD sin&e t"ey tend t & n&entrate beta and )amma radi a&ti5ity. / 2 a11 meat $nti1 it is 5ery %e11 d ne. + be s$re t"e meat is %e11 d ne# &$t it int 1ess t"an 1*mi11imeter-t"i&2 pie&es be! re & 2in). S$&" &$ts %i11 a1s red$&e & 2in) time and sa5e !$e1. +"e e?tent ! & ntaminati n in !is" and a4$ati& anima1s %i11 be m$&" )reater t"an t"at ! 1and anima1s. +"is is a1s tr$e ! r %ater p1ants# espe&ia11y in & asta1 areas. Use a4$ati& ! d s $r&es n1y in & nditi ns ! e?treme emer)en&y. A11 e))s# e5en i! 1aid d$rin) t"e peri d ! !a11 $t# %i11 be sa!e t eat. / mp1ete1y a5 id mi12 !r m any anima1s in a !a11 $t area be&a$se anima1s abs rb 1ar)e am $nts ! radi a&ti5ity !r m t"e p1ants t"ey eat. Plants as a 'ood Source (1ant & ntaminati n &&$rs by t"e a&&$m$1ati n ! !a11 $t n t"eir $ter s$r!a&es r by abs rpti n ! radi a&ti5e e1ements t"r $)" t"eir r ts. Y $r !irst &" i&e ! p1ant ! d s" $1d be 5e)etab1es s$&" as p tat es# t$rnips# &arr ts# and t"er p1ants %" se edib1e p rti n )r %s $nder)r $nd. +"ese are t"e sa!est t eat n&e y $ s&r$b t"em and rem 5e t"eir s2ins. Se& nd in rder ! pre!eren&e are t" se p1ants %it" edib1e parts t"at y $ &an de& ntaminate by %as"in) and pee1in) t"eir $ter s$r!a&es. -?amp1es are bananas# app1es# t mat es# pri&21y pears# and t"er s$&" !r$its and 5e)etab1es. Any sm t"-s2inned 5e)etab1e# !r$it# r p1ant t"at y $ &ann t easi1y pee1 r e!!e&ti5e1y de& ntaminate by %as"in) %i11 be y $r t"ird &" i&e ! emer)en&y ! d. +"e e!!e&ti5eness ! de& ntaminati n by s&r$bbin) is in5erse1y pr p rti na1 t t"e r $)"ness ! t"e !r$itFs s$r!a&e. Sm t"-s$r!a&ed !r$its "a5e 1 st ;< per&ent ! t"eir & ntaminati n a!ter %as"in)# %"i1e %as"in) r $)"-s$r!a&ed p1ants rem 5es n1y ab $t 9< per&ent ! t"e & ntaminati n. Y $ eat r $)"-s$r!a&ed p1ants Cs$&" as 1ett$&eD n1y as a 1ast res rt be&a$se y $ &ann t e!!e&ti5e1y de& ntaminate t"em by pee1in) r %as"in). .t"er di!!i&$1t ! ds t de& ntaminate by %as"in) %it" %ater in&1$de dried !r$its C!i)s# pr$nes# pea&"es# apri& ts# pearsD and s ya beans. In )enera1# y $ &an $se any p1ant ! d t"at is ready ! r "ar5est i! y $ &an e!!e&ti5e1y de& ntaminate it. 6r %in) p1ants# " %e5er# &an abs rb s me radi a&ti5e materia1s t"r $)" t"eir 1ea5es as %e11 as !r m t"e s i1# espe&ia11y i! rains "a5e &&$rred d$rin) r a!ter t"e !a11 $t peri d. A5 id $sin) t"ese p1ants ! r ! d e?&ept in an emer)en&y.

#IOLO/ICAL NVIRON0 NTS
+"e $se ! bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents is rea1. (repare y $rse1! ! r s$r5i5a1 by bein) pr !i&ient in t"e tas2s identi!ied in y $r S 1dierFs Man$a1s ! / mm n +as2s CSM/+sD. 8n % %"at t d t pr te&t y $rse1! a)ainst t"ese a)ents.

Bi"%"0i.!% A0e#t$ !#( E66e.t$
,i 1 )i&a1 a)ents are mi&r r)anisms t"at &an &a$se disease am n) pers nne1# anima1s# r p1ants. +"ey &an a1s &a$se t"e deteri rati n ! materia1. +"ese a)ents !a11 int t% br ad &ate) ries-pat" )ens
(a)e 22: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

C$s$a11y &a11ed )ermsD and t ?ins. (at" )ens are 1i5in) mi&r r)anisms t"at &a$se 1et"a1 r in&apa&itatin) diseases. ,a&teria# ri&2ettsiae# !$n)i# and 5ir$ses are in&1$ded in t"e pat" )ens. + ?ins are p is ns t"at p1ants# anima1s# r mi&r r)anisms pr d$&e nat$ra11y. ( ssib1e bi 1 )i&a1 %ar-!are t ?ins in&1$de a 5ariety ! ne$r t ?i& Ca!!e&tin) t"e &entra1 ner5 $s systemD and &yt t ?i& C&a$sin) &e11 deat"D & mp $nds. /er"s 6erms are 1i5in) r)anisms. S me nati ns "a5e $sed t"em in t"e past as %eap ns. .n1y a !e% )erms &an start an in!e&ti n# espe&ia11y i! in"a1ed int t"e 1$n)s. ,e&a$se )erms are s sma11 and %ei)" s 1itt1e# t"e %ind &an spread t"em 5er )reat distan&esH t"ey &an a1s enter $n!i1tered r n nairti)"t p1a&es. ,$i1din)s and b$n2ers &an trap t"em t"$s &a$sin) a "i)"er & n&entrati n. 6erms d n t a!!e&t t"e b dy immediate1y. +"ey m$st m$1tip1y inside t"e b dy and 5er& me t"e b dyFs de!enses--a pr &ess &a11ed t"e in&$bati n peri d. In&$bati n peri ds 5ary !r m se5era1 " $rs t se5era1 m nt"s# dependin) n t"e )erm. M st )erms m$st 1i5e %it"in an t"er 1i5in) r)anism C" stD# s$&" as y $r b dy# t s$r5i5e and )r %. 3eat"er & nditi ns s$&" as %ind# rain# & 1d# and s$n1i)"t rapid1y 2i11 )erms. S me )erms &an ! rm pr te&ti5e s"e11s# r sp res# t a11 % s$r5i5a1 $tside t"e " st. Sp re-pr d$&in) a)ents are a 1 n)-term "a'ard y $ m$st ne$tra1i'e by de& ntaminatin) in!e&ted areas r pers nne1. F rt$nate1y# m st 1i5e a)ents are n t sp re-pr d$&in). +"ese a)ents m$st !ind a " st %it"in r $)"1y a day ! t"eir de1i5ery r t"ey die. 6erms "a5e t"ree basi& r $tes ! entry int y $r b dyI t"r $)" t"e respirat ry tra&t# t"r $)" a brea2 in t"e s2in# and t"r $)" t"e di)esti5e tra&t. Sympt ms ! in!e&ti n 5ary a&& rdin) t t"e disease. To4ins + ?ins are s$bstan&es t"at p1ants# anima1s# r )erms pr d$&e nat$ra11y. +"ese t ?ins are %"at a&t$a11y "arm man# n t ba&teria. , t$1in# %"i&" pr d$&es b t$1ism# is an e?amp1e. M dern s&ien&e "as a11 %ed 1ar)e-s&a1e pr d$&ti n ! t"ese t ?ins %it" $t t"e $se ! t"e )erm t"at pr d$&es t"e t ?in. + ?ins may pr d$&e e!!e&ts simi1ar t t" se ! &"emi&a1 a)ents. + ?i& 5i&tims may n t# " %e5er# resp nd t !irst aid meas$res $sed a)ainst &"emi&a1 a)ents. + ?ins enter t"e b dy in t"e same manner as )erms. 0 %e5er# s me t ?ins# $n1i2e )erms# &an penetrate $nbr 2en s2in. Sympt ms appear a1m st immediate1y# sin&e t"ere is n in&$bati n peri d. Many t ?ins are e?treme1y 1et"a1# e5en in 5ery sma11 d ses. Sympt ms may in&1$de any ! t"e ! 11 %in)I • Di''iness. • Menta1 & n!$si n. • ,1$rred r d $b1e 5isi n. • N$mbness r tin)1in) ! s2in. • (ara1ysis. • / n5$1si ns. • Ras"es r b1isters. • / $)"in). • Fe5er. • A&"in) m$s&1es. • +iredness. • Na$sea# 5 mitin)# andE r diarr"ea. • ,1eedin) !r m b dy penin)s. • ,1 d in $rine# st 1# r sa1i5a. • S" &2. • Deat".

Dete.ti"# "6 Bi"%"0i.!% A0e#t$
,i 1 )i&a1 a)ents are# by nat$re# di!!i&$1t t dete&t. Y $ &ann t dete&t t"em by any ! t"e !i5e p"ysi&a1 senses. .!ten# t"e !irst si)n ! a bi 1 )i&a1 a)ent %i11 be sympt ms ! t"e 5i&tims e?p sed t t"e a)ent. Y $r best &"an&e ! dete&tin) bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents be! re t"ey &an a!!e&t y $ is t re& )ni'e t"eir means ! de1i5ery. +"e t"ree main means ! de1i5ery are-(a)e 22; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

• •

?ursting%type munitions. +"ese may be b mbs r pr @e&ti1es %" se b$rst &a$ses 5ery 1itt1e dama)e. +"e b$rst %i11 pr d$&e a sma11 &1 $d ! 1i4$id r p %der in t"e immediate impa&t area. +"is &1 $d %i11 disperse e5ent$a11yH t"e rate ! dispersi n depends n terrain and %eat"er & nditi ns. Spray tanks or generators. Air&ra!t r 5e"i&1e spray tan2s r )r $nd-1e5e1 aer s 1 )enerat rs pr d$&e an aer s 1 &1 $d ! bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents. Vectors. Inse&ts s$&" as m s4$it es# !1eas# 1i&e# and ti&2s de1i5er pat" )ens. Lar)e in!estati ns ! t"ese inse&ts may indi&ate t"e $se ! bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents.

An t"er si)n ! a p ssib1e bi 1 )i&a1 atta&2 is t"e presen&e ! $n$s$a1 s$bstan&es n t"e )r $nd r n 5e)etati n# r si&2-1 2in) p1ants# &r ps# r anima1s.

I#6% e#.e "6 *e!the& !#( Te&&!i#
Y $r 2n %1ed)e ! " % %eat"er and terrain a!!e&t t"e a)ents &an "e1p y $ a5 id & ntaminati n by bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents. Ma@ r %eat"er !a&t rs t"at a!!e&t bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents are s$n1i)"t# %ind# and pre&ipitati n. Aer s 1 sprays %i11 tend t & n&entrate in 1 % areas ! terrain# simi1ar t ear1y m rnin) mist. S$n1i)"t & ntains 5isib1e and $1tra5i 1et s 1ar radiati n t"at rapid1y 2i11s m st )erms $sed as bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents. 0 %e5er# nat$ra1 r man-made & 5er may pr te&t s me a)ents !r m s$n1i)"t. .t"er man-made m$tant strains ! )erms may be resistant t s$n1i)"t. 0i)" %ind speeds in&rease t"e dispersi n ! bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents# di1$te t"eir & n&entrati n# and de"ydrate t"em. +"e !$rt"er d %n%ind t"e a)ent tra5e1s# t"e 1ess e!!e&ti5e it be& mes d$e t di1$ti n and deat" ! t"e pat" )ens. 0 %e5er# t"e d %n%ind "a'ard area ! t"e bi 1 )i&a1 a)ent is si)ni!i&ant and y $ &ann t i)n re it. (re&ipitati n in t"e ! rm ! m derate t "ea5y rain tends t %as" bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents $t ! t"e air# red$&in) d %n%ind "a'ard areas. 0 %e5er# t"e a)ents may sti11 be 5ery e!!e&ti5e %"ere t"ey %ere dep sited n t"e )r $nd.

P&"te.ti"# A0!i#$t Bi"%"0i.!% A0e#t$
3"i1e y $ m$st maintain a "ea1t"y respe&t ! r bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents# t"ere is n reas n ! r y $ t pani&. Y $ &an red$&e y $r s$s&eptibi1ity t bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents by maintainin) &$rrent imm$ni'ati ns# a5 idin) & ntaminated areas# and & ntr 11in) r dents and pests. Y $ m$st a1s $se pr per !irst aid meas$res in t"e treatment ! % $nds and n1y sa!e r pr per1y de& ntaminated s $r&es ! ! d and %ater. Y $ m$st ens$re t"at y $ )et en $)" s1eep t pre5ent a r$n-d %n & nditi n. Y $ m$st a1%ays $se pr per !ie1d sanitati n pr &ed$res. Ass$min) y $ d n t "a5e a pr te&ti5e mas2# a1%ays try t 2eep y $r !a&e & 5ered %it" s me type ! &1 t" t pr te&t y $rse1! a)ainst bi 1 )i&a1 a)ent aer s 1s. D$st may & ntain bi 1 )i&a1 a)entsH %ear s me type ! mas2 %"en d$st is in t"e air. Y $r $ni! rm and )1 5es %i11 pr te&t y $ a)ainst bites !r m 5e&t rs Cm s4$it es and ti&2sD t"at &arry diseases. / mp1ete1y b$tt n y $r &1 t"in) and t$&2 y $r tr $sers ti)"t1y int y $r b ts. 3ear a &"emi&a1 pr te&ti5e 5er)arment# i! a5ai1ab1e# as it pr 5ides better pr te&ti n t"an n rma1 &1 t"in). / 5erin) y $r s2in %i11 a1s red$&e t"e &"an&e ! t"e a)ent enterin) y $r b dy t"r $)" &$ts r s&rat&"es. A1%ays pra&ti&e "i)" standards ! pers na1 "y)iene and sanitati n t "e1p pre5ent t"e spread ! 5e&t rs. ,at"e %it" s ap and %ater %"ene5er p ssib1e. Use )ermi&ida1 s ap# i! a5ai1ab1e. 3as" y $r "air and b dy t" r $)"1y# and &1ean $nder y $r !in)ernai1s. /1ean teet"# )$ms# t n)$e# and t"e r ! ! y $r m $t" !re4$ent1y. 3as" y $r &1 t"in) in " t# s apy %ater i! y $ &an. I! y $ &ann t %as" y $r &1 t"in)# 1ay it $t in an area ! bri)"t s$n1i)"t and a11 % t"e 1i)"t t 2i11 t"e mi&r r)anisms. A!ter a t ?in atta&2# de& ntaminate y $rse1! as i! ! r a &"emi&a1 atta&2 $sin) t"e M29:A2 2it Ci! a5ai1ab1eD r by %as"in) %it" s ap and %ater.

She%te&
(a)e 2*< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Y $ &an b$i1d e?pedient s"e1ters $nder bi 1 )i&a1 & ntaminati n & nditi ns $sin) t"e same te&"ni4$es des&ribed in /"apter 9. 0 %e5er# y $ m$st ma2e s1i)"t &"an)es t red$&e t"e &"an&e ! bi 1 )i&a1 & ntaminati n. D n t b$i1d y $r s"e1ter in depressi ns in t"e )r $nd. Aer s 1 sprays tend t & n&entrate in t"ese depressi ns. A5 id b$i1din) y $r s"e1ter in areas ! 5e)etati n# as 5e)etati n pr 5ides s"ade and s me de)ree ! pr te&ti n t bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents. A5 id $sin) 5e)etati n in & nstr$&tin) y $r s"e1ter. (1a&e y $r s"e1terFs entran&e at a ;<-de)ree an)1e t t"e pre5ai1in) %inds. S$&" p1a&ement %i11 1imit t"e entry ! airb rne a)ents and pre5ent air sta)nati n in y $r s"e1ter. A1%ays 2eep y $r s"e1ter &1ean.

*!te& P&". &e+e#t
3ater pr &$rement $nder bi 1 )i&a1 & nditi ns is di!!i&$1t b$t n t imp ssib1e. 3"ene5er p ssib1e# try t $se %ater t"at "as been in a sea1ed & ntainer. Y $ &an ass$me t"at t"e %ater inside t"e sea1ed & ntainer is n t & ntaminated. 3as" t"e %ater & ntainer t" r $)"1y %it" s ap and %ater r b i1 it ! r at 1east 1< min$tes be! re brea2in) t"e sea1. I! %ater in sea1ed & ntainers is n t a5ai1ab1e# y $r ne?t &" i&e# only under emergency conditions" is %ater !r m sprin)s. A)ain# b i1 t"e %ater ! r at 1east 1< min$tes be! re drin2in). 8eep t"e %ater & 5ered %"i1e b i1in) t pre5ent & ntaminati n by airb rne pat" )ens. Y $r last choice" only in an e+treme emergency" is t $se standin) %ater. Ve&t rs and )erms &an s$r5i5e easi1y in sta)nant %ater. , i1 t"is %ater as 1 n) as pra&ti&a1 t 2i11 a11 r)anisms. Fi1ter t"is %ater t"r $)" a &1 t" t rem 5e t"e dead 5e&t rs. Use %ater p$ri!i&ati n tab1ets in a11 &ases.

F""( P&". &e+e#t
F d pr &$rement# 1i2e %ater pr &$rement# is n t imp ssib1e# b$t y $ m$st ta2e spe&ia1 pre&a$ti ns. Y $r & mbat rati ns are sea1ed# and y $ &an ass$me t"ey are n t & ntaminated. Y $ &an a1s ass$me t"at sea1ed & ntainers r pa&2a)es ! pr &essed ! d are sa!e. + ens$re sa!ety# de& ntaminate a11 ! d & ntainers by %as"in) %it" s ap and %ater r by b i1in) t"e & ntainer in %ater ! r 1< min$tes. @ou consider supplementing your rations with local plants or animals only in e+treme emergencies. N matter %"at y $ d t prepare t"e ! d# t"ere is n )$arantee t"at & 2in) %i11 2i11 a11 t"e bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents. Use 1 &a1 ! d n1y in 1i!e r deat" sit$ati ns. Remember# y $ &an s$r5i5e ! r a 1 n) time %it" $t ! d# espe&ia11y i! t"e ! d y $ eat may 2i11 y $K I! y $ m$st $se 1 &a1 ! d# se1e&t n1y "ea1t"y-1 2in) p1ants and anima1s. D n t se1e&t 2n %n &arriers ! 5e&t rs s$&" as rats r t"er 5ermin. Se1e&t and prepare p1ants as y $ % $1d in radi a&ti5e areas. (repare anima1s as y $ d p1ants. A1%ays $se )1 5es and pr te&ti5e &1 t"in) %"en "and1in) anima1s r p1ants. / 2 a11 p1ant and anima1 ! d by b i1in) n1y. , i1 a11 ! d ! r at 1east 1< min$tes t 2i11 a11 pat" )ens. D n t try t !ry# ba2e# r r ast 1 &a1 ! d. +"ere is n )$arantee t"at a11 in!e&ted p rti ns "a5e rea&"ed t"e re4$ired temperat$re t 2i11 a11 pat" )ens. D n t eat ra% ! d.

C. 0ICAL NVIRON0 NTS
/"emi&a1 a)ent %ar!are is rea1. It &an &reate e?treme pr b1ems in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# b$t y $ &an 5er& me t"e pr b1ems %it" t"e pr per e4$ipment# 2n %1ed)e# and trainin). As a s$r5i5 r# y $r !irst 1ine ! de!ense a)ainst &"emi&a1 a)ents is y $r pr !i&ien&y in indi5id$a1 n$&1ear# bi 1 )i&a1# and &"emi&a1 CN,/D trainin)# t in&1$de d nnin) and %earin) t"e pr te&ti5e mas2 and 5er)arment# pers na1 de& ntaminati n# re& )niti n ! &"emi&a1 a)ent sympt ms# and indi5id$a1 !irst aid ! r &"emi&a1 a)ent & ntaminati n. +"e SM/+s & 5er t"ese s$b@e&ts. I! y $ are n t pr !i&ient in t"ese s2i11s# y $ %i11 "a5e 1itt1e &"an&e ! s$r5i5in) a &"emi&a1 en5ir nment. +"e s$b@e&t matter & 5ered be1 % is n t a s$bstit$te ! r any ! t"e indi5id$a1 tas2s in %"i&" y $ m$st be pr !i&ient. +"e SM/+s address t"e 5ari $s &"emi&a1 a)ents# t"eir e!!e&ts# and !irst aid ! r t"ese a)ents. +"e ! 11 %in) in! rmati n is pr 5ided $nder t"e ass$mpti n t"at y $ are pr !i&ient in t"e $se ! &"emi&a1 pr te&ti5e e4$ipment and 2n % t"e sympt ms ! 5ari $s &"emi&a1 a)ents.

Dete.ti"# "6 Che+i.!% A0e#t$
(a)e 2*1 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+"e best met" d ! r dete&tin) &"emi&a1 a)ents is t"e $se ! a &"emi&a1 a)ent dete&t r. I! y $ "a5e ne# $se it. 0 %e5er# in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# y $ %i11 m st 1i2e1y "a5e t re1y s 1e1y n t"e $se ! a11 ! y $r p"ysi&a1 senses. Y $ m$st be a1ert and ab1e t dete&t any &1$es indi&atin) t"e $se ! &"emi&a1 %ar!are. 6enera1 indi&at rs ! t"e presen&e ! &"emi&a1 a)ents are tears# di!!i&$1t breat"in)# &" 2in)# it&"in)# & $)"in)# and di''iness. 3it" a)ents t"at are 5ery "ard t dete&t# y $ m$st %at&" ! r sympt ms in !e11 % s$r5i5 rs. Y $r s$rr $ndin)s %i11 pr 5ide 5a1$ab1e &1$es t t"e presen&e ! &"emi&a1 a)entsH ! r e?amp1e# dead anima1s# si&2 pe p1e# r pe p1e and anima1s disp1ayin) abn rma1 be"a5i r. Y $r sense ! sme11 may a1ert y $ t s me &"emi&a1 a)ents# b$t m st %i11 be d r1ess. +"e d r ! ne%1y &$t )rass r "ay may indi&ate t"e presen&e ! &" 2in) a)ents. A sme11 ! a1m nds may indi&ate b1 d a)ents. Si)"t %i11 "e1p y $ dete&t &"emi&a1 a)ents. M st &"emi&a1 a)ents in t"e s 1id r 1i4$id state "a5e s me & 1 r. In t"e 5ap r state# y $ &an see s me &"emi&a1 a)ents as a mist r t"in ! ) immediate1y a!ter t"e b mb r s"e11 b$rsts. ,y bser5in) ! r sympt ms in t"ers and by bser5in) de1i5ery means# y $ may be ab1e t "a5e s me %arnin) ! &"emi&a1 a)ents. M$stard )as in t"e 1i4$id state %i11 appear as i1y pat&"es n 1ea5es r n b$i1din)s. +"e s $nd ! enemy m$niti ns %i11 )i5e s me &1$e t t"e presen&e ! &"emi&a1 %eap ns. M$!!1ed s"e11 r b mb det nati ns are a ) d indi&at r. Irritati n in t"e n se r eyes r n t"e s2in is an $r)ent %arnin) t pr te&t y $r b dy !r m &"emi&a1 a)ents. Additi na11y# a stran)e taste in ! d# %ater# r &i)arettes may ser5e as a %arnin) t"at t"ey "a5e been & ntaminated.

P&"te.ti"# A0!i#$t Che+i.!% A0e#t$
As a s$r5i5 r# a1%ays $se t"e ! 11 %in) )enera1 steps# in t"e rder 1isted# t pr te&t y $rse1! !r m a &"emi&a1 atta&2I • Use pr te&ti5e e4$ipment. • 6i5e 4$i&2 and & rre&t se1!-aid %"en & ntaminated. • A5 id areas %"ere &"emi&a1 a)ents e?ist. • De& ntaminate y $r e4$ipment and b dy as s n as p ssib1e. Y $r pr te&ti5e mas2 and 5er)arment are t"e 2ey t y $r s$r5i5a1. 3it" $t t"ese# y $ stand 5ery 1itt1e &"an&e ! s$r5i5a1. Y $ m$st ta2e &are ! t"ese items and pr te&t t"em !r m dama)e. Y $ m$st pra&ti&e and 2n % & rre&t se1!-aid pr &ed$res be! re e?p s$re t &"emi&a1 a)ents. +"e dete&ti n ! &"emi&a1 a)ents and t"e a5 idan&e ! & ntaminated areas is e?treme1y imp rtant t y $r s$r5i5a1. Use %"ate5er dete&ti n 2its may be a5ai1ab1e t "e1p in dete&ti n. Sin&e y $ are in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# a5 id & ntaminated areas at a11 & sts. Y $ &an e?pe&t n "e1p s" $1d y $ be& me & ntaminated. I! y $ d be& me & ntaminated# de& ntaminate y $rse1! as s n as p ssib1e $sin) pr per pr &ed$res.

She%te&
I! y $ !ind y $rse1! in a & ntaminated area# try t m 5e $t ! t"e area as !ast as p ssib1e. +ra5e1 &r ss%ind r $p%ind t red$&e t"e time spent in t"e d %n%ind "a'ard area. I! y $ &ann t 1ea5e t"e area immediate1y and "a5e t b$i1d a s"e1ter# $se n rma1 s"e1ter & nstr$&ti n te&"ni4$es# %it" a !e% &"an)es. ,$i1d t"e s"e1ter in a &1earin)# a%ay !r m a11 5e)etati n. Rem 5e a11 t ps i1 in t"e area ! t"e s"e1ter t de& ntaminate t"e area. 8eep t"e s"e1terFs entran&e &1 sed and riented at a ;<-de)ree an)1e t t"e pre5ai1in) %ind. D n t b$i1d a !ire $sin) & ntaminated % d--t"e sm 2e %i11 be t ?i&. Use e?treme &a$ti n %"en enterin) y $r s"e1ter s t"at y $ %i11 n t brin) & ntaminati n inside.

*!te& P&". &e+e#t
As %it" bi 1 )i&a1 and n$&1ear en5ir nments# )ettin) %ater in a &"emi&a1 en5ir nment is di!!i&$1t. .b5i $s1y# %ater in sea1ed & ntainers is y $r best and sa!est s $r&e. Y $ m$st pr te&t t"is %ater as m$&" as p ssib1e. ,e s$re t de& ntaminate t"e & ntainers be! re penin).
(a)e 2*2 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

I! y $ &ann t )et %ater in sea1ed & ntainers# try t )et it !r m a &1 sed s $r&e s$&" as $nder)r $nd %ater pipes. Y $ may $se rain%ater r sn % i! t"ere is n e5iden&e ! & ntaminati n. Use %ater !r m s1 %-m 5in) streams# i! ne&essary# b$t a1%ays &"e&2 !irst ! r si)ns ! & ntaminati n# and a1%ays !i1ter t"e %ater as des&ribed $nder n$&1ear & nditi ns. Si)ns ! %ater s $r&e & ntaminati n are ! rei)n d rs s$&" as )ar1i&# m$stard# )erani$m# r bitter a1m ndsH i1y sp ts n t"e s$r!a&e ! t"e %ater r nearbyH and t"e presen&e ! dead !is" r anima1s. I! t"ese si)ns are present# d n t $se t"e %ater. A1%ays b i1 r p$ri!y t"e %ater t pre5ent ba&teri 1 )i&a1 in!e&ti n.

F""( P&". &e+e#t
It is e?treme1y di!!i&$1t t eat %"i1e in a & ntaminated area. Y $ %i11 "a5e t brea2 t"e sea1 n y $r pr te&ti5e mas2 t eat. I! y $ eat# !ind an area in %"i&" y $ &an sa!e1y $nmas2. +"e sa!est s $r&e ! ! d is y $r sea1ed & mbat rati ns. F d in sea1ed &ans r b tt1es %i11 a1s be sa!e. De& ntaminate a11 sea1ed ! d & ntainers be! re penin)# t"er%ise y $ %i11 & ntaminate t"e ! d. I! y $ m$st s$pp1ement y $r & mbat rati ns %it" 1 &a1 p1ants r anima1s# do not $se p1ants !r m & ntaminated areas r anima1s t"at appear t be si&2. 3"en "and1in) p1ants r anima1s# a1%ays $se pr te&ti5e )1 5es and &1 t"in).

(a)e 2** ! 2**

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