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Absoluta sententia expositors

non indiget
When language of law is clear, no
explanation of it is required.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Actus me inuito factus
non est meus actus
An act done by me against my will
is not my act.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Actus non facit reum,
nisi mens sit rea
The act itself does not make a man
guilty unless his intention were so.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Ad proximum antecedens fiat relatio
nisi impediatur sentential
Relative words refer to the nearest
antecedents, unless the context
otherwise requires.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Argumentum a contrario
Negative-opposite doctrine.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Casus omissus pro
omisso habendus est
A person, object or thing omitted from
an enumeration must be held to have
been omitted intentionally.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Cessante ratione legis,
cessat et ipsa lex
When the reason of the law ceases, the
law itself ceases.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Contemporanea expositio est optima
et fortissima in lege
The contemporary construction is
strongest in law.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Distingue tempora
et concordabis jura
Distinguish times and you will
harmonize laws.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Dura lex sed lex
The law may be harsh,
but that is the law.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Ejusdem generis
Of the same kind or specie.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Exceptio firmat regulam
in casibus non exceptis
A thing not being excepted must be
regarded as coming within the purview
of the general rule.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Ex Bolo malo non oritur action
No man can be allowed to found a
claim upon his own wrongdoing.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Expressio unius est exclusio alterius
The express mention of one person,
thing or consequence implies the
exclusion of all others.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Expressum facit cessare taciturn
What is expressed puts an end to
that which is implied.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Ex necessitate legis
By necessary implication of law.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Falsa demonstratio non nocet, cum
de corpore constat
False description does not preclude
construction: vitiate the meaning of the
statute.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Favores ampliandi sunt; odia
restringenda
Penal laws which are favorable to the
accused are given retroactive effect.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Generale dictum generaliter est
interpretandum
A general statement is understood in a
general sense.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Generalia verba sunt generaliter
intelligenda
What is generally spoken shall be
generally understood.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Generalia specialibus non derogant
A general law does not nullify a
specific or special law.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Hoc quidem perquam durum est, sed
ita lex scripta est
It is exceedingly hard
but so the law is written.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Impossibilium nulla obligatio est
There is no obligation to do
an impossible thing.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Index animi sermo est
Speech is the index of intention.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


In eo quod plus sit,
semper finest et minus
The greater includes the lesser.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Interest reipublicae ut sit finis litium
Public interest requires that by the very
nature of things there must be an end to
a legal controversy.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Interpotare et concordare legibus est
optimus interpotandi modus
Every statute must be so construed and
harmonized with other statutes as to
form uniform system of law.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Interpretatio fienda est ut res magis
valeat quam pereat
A law should be interpreted with a
view to upholding rather than
destroying it.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Interpretatio talis in ambiguis semper
fienda est ut evitetur inconveniens
et absurdum
Where there is ambiguity, such
interpretation as will avoid inconvenience
and absurdity is to be adopted.
Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)
Legis interpretatio legis vim obtinet
The authoritative interpretation of the
court of a statute acquires the force of
law by becoming a part thereof.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Leges posteriores priores
contraries abrogant
A later law repeals a prior law on the
same subject which is repugnant
thereto.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Lex de futuro, judex de praterito
The law provides for the future, the
judge for the past.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Lex prospicit, non respicit
The law looks forward, not backward.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Maledicta est expositio quae
corrumpit textum
It is dangerous construction which is
against the text.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Noscitur a sociis
Word construed with reference to
accompanying or associated words.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Nova constitutio futuris formam
imponere debet non praeteritis
A new statute should affect the future,
not the past.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Nullus commodum potest
de injuria propriasua
No man should be allowed to take
advantage of his own wrong.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Nullum crimen sine poena,
nulla poena sine lege
There is no crime without a penalty,
and there is no penalty without a law.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Nullum temp us occurit regi
There can be no legal right as against
the authority that makes the law on
which the right depends.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Optima statuti interpretatrix
est ipsum statutum
The best interpreter of a statute is the
statute itself.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Optimus interpres rerum usus
The best interpreter of the law is usage.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Pari material
Relating to same matter.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Privilegia reciprint largan
interpretationem
voluntate consonan concedentis
Privileges are to be interpreted in
accordance with the will of him who
grants them.
Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)
Potior est in tempore,
potior est in jure
He who is first in time is preferred in
right.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Quando aliquid prohibetur ex
directo, prohibetur et per obliquum
What is prohibited directly is
prohibited indirectly.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Ratihabito mandato aquiparatur
Legislative ratification is equivalent to
a mandate.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Ratio legis
Interpretation according to spirit.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Ratio legis est anima legis
The reason of the law is its soul.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Reddendo singula singulis
Referring each to each; referring each
phrase or expression to its appropriate
object; or let each be put in its proper
place.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Sal us populi est suprema lex
The voice of the people
is the supreme law.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Surplusagium non nocet
Surplusage does not vitiate a statute.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Stare decisis et non quieta movere
Follow past precedents and do not
disturb what has been settled.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Ubi jus, ibi remedium
Where there is a right,
there is a remedy.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Ubi lex non distinguit, nec nos
distinguere debemus
Where the law does not distinguish,
we should not distinguish.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Utile per inutile non vitiatur
The useful is not vitiated
by the non-useful.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Ut res magis valeat quam pereat
That construction is to be sought which
gives effect to the whole of the statute
— its every word.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Verba accipienda sunt secundum
subjectam materiam
A word is to be understood in the
context in which it is used.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Verba intentioni, non e contra,
debent inservire
Words ought to be more subservient to
the intent and not the intent to the
words.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Verba legis
Plain-meaning rule.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Vigilantibus et non dormientibus
jury subveniunt
The laws aid the vigilant, not those
who slumber on their rights.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)


Verba legis non est recedendum
From the words of the statute there
should be no departure.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)