Absoluta sententia expositors non indiget When language of law is clear, no explanation of it is required.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Actus me inuito factus non est meus actus An act done by me against my will is not my act.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Actus non facit reum, nisi mens sit rea The act itself does not make a man guilty unless his intention were so.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Ad proximum antecedens fiat relatio nisi impediatur sentential Relative words refer to the nearest antecedents, unless the context otherwise requires.
Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Argumentum a contrario Negative-opposite doctrine.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Casus omissus pro omisso habendus est A person, object or thing omitted from an enumeration must be held to have been omitted intentionally.
Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Cessante ratione legis, cessat et ipsa lex When the reason of the law ceases, the law itself ceases.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Contemporanea expositio est optima et fortissima in lege The contemporary construction is strongest in law.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Distingue tempora et concordabis jura Distinguish times and you will harmonize laws.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Dura lex sed lex The law may be harsh, but that is the law.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Ejusdem generis Of the same kind or specie.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Exceptio firmat regulam in casibus non exceptis A thing not being excepted must be regarded as coming within the purview of the general rule.
Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Ex Bolo malo non oritur action No man can be allowed to found a claim upon his own wrongdoing.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Expressio unius est exclusio alterius The express mention of one person, thing or consequence implies the exclusion of all others.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Expressum facit cessare taciturn What is expressed puts an end to that which is implied.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Ex necessitate legis By necessary implication of law.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Falsa demonstratio non nocet, cum de corpore constat False description does not preclude construction: vitiate the meaning of the statute.
Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Favores ampliandi sunt; odia restringenda Penal laws which are favorable to the accused are given retroactive effect.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Generale dictum generaliter est interpretandum A general statement is understood in a general sense.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Generalia verba sunt generaliter intelligenda What is generally spoken shall be generally understood.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Generalia specialibus non derogant A general law does not nullify a specific or special law.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Hoc quidem perquam durum est, sed ita lex scripta est It is exceedingly hard but so the law is written.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Impossibilium nulla obligatio est There is no obligation to do an impossible thing.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Index animi sermo est Speech is the index of intention.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

In eo quod plus sit, semper finest et minus The greater includes the lesser.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Interest reipublicae ut sit finis litium Public interest requires that by the very nature of things there must be an end to a legal controversy.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Interpotare et concordare legibus est optimus interpotandi modus Every statute must be so construed and harmonized with other statutes as to form uniform system of law.
Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Interpretatio fienda est ut res magis valeat quam pereat A law should be interpreted with a view to upholding rather than destroying it.
Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Interpretatio talis in ambiguis semper fienda est ut evitetur inconveniens et absurdum Where there is ambiguity, such interpretation as will avoid inconvenience and absurdity is to be adopted.
Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Legis interpretatio legis vim obtinet The authoritative interpretation of the court of a statute acquires the force of law by becoming a part thereof.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Leges posteriores priores contraries abrogant A later law repeals a prior law on the same subject which is repugnant thereto.
Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Lex de futuro, judex de praterito The law provides for the future, the judge for the past.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Lex prospicit, non respicit The law looks forward, not backward.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Maledicta est expositio quae corrumpit textum It is dangerous construction which is against the text.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Noscitur a sociis Word construed with reference to accompanying or associated words.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Nova constitutio futuris formam imponere debet non praeteritis A new statute should affect the future, not the past.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Nullus commodum potest de injuria propriasua No man should be allowed to take advantage of his own wrong.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Nullum crimen sine poena, nulla poena sine lege There is no crime without a penalty, and there is no penalty without a law.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Nullum temp us occurit regi There can be no legal right as against the authority that makes the law on which the right depends.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Optima statuti interpretatrix est ipsum statutum The best interpreter of a statute is the statute itself.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Optimus interpres rerum usus The best interpreter of the law is usage.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Pari material Relating to same matter.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Privilegia reciprint largan interpretationem voluntate consonan concedentis Privileges are to be interpreted in accordance with the will of him who grants them.
Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Potior est in tempore, potior est in jure He who is first in time is preferred in right.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Quando aliquid prohibetur ex directo, prohibetur et per obliquum What is prohibited directly is prohibited indirectly.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Ratihabito mandato aquiparatur Legislative ratification is equivalent to a mandate.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Ratio legis Interpretation according to spirit.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Ratio legis est anima legis The reason of the law is its soul.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Reddendo singula singulis Referring each to each; referring each phrase or expression to its appropriate object; or let each be put in its proper place.
Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Sal us populi est suprema lex The voice of the people is the supreme law.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Surplusagium non nocet Surplusage does not vitiate a statute.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Stare decisis et non quieta movere Follow past precedents and do not disturb what has been settled.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Ubi jus, ibi remedium Where there is a right, there is a remedy.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Ubi lex non distinguit, nec nos distinguere debemus Where the law does not distinguish, we should not distinguish.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Utile per inutile non vitiatur The useful is not vitiated by the non-useful.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Ut res magis valeat quam pereat That construction is to be sought which gives effect to the whole of the statute — its every word.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Verba accipienda sunt secundum subjectam materiam A word is to be understood in the context in which it is used.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Verba intentioni, non e contra, debent inservire Words ought to be more subservient to the intent and not the intent to the words.
Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Verba legis Plain-meaning rule.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Vigilantibus et non dormientibus jury subveniunt The laws aid the vigilant, not those who slumber on their rights.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

Verba legis non est recedendum From the words of the statute there should be no departure.

Agpalo’s Statutory Construction - Legal Maxims (by D. Ilagan ‘10)

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