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FOR CIVIL

SERVICE TESTS

Math

FOR CIVIL

SERVICE TESTS

Jessika Sobanski

NEW YORK

Copyright © 2003 LearningExpress, LLC.

All rights reserved under International and Pan-American

Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by

LearningExpress, LLC, New York.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:

Sobanski, Jessika.

Math for civil service tests / Jessika Sobanski.—1st ed.

p. cm.

ISBN 1-57685-428-0 (pbk. : alk. paper)

1. Mathematics—Examinations, questions, etc. I. Title.

QA43 .S664 2002

510'.76—dc21

2002008106

Printed in the United States of America

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

First Edition

ISBN 1-57685-428-0

For more information or to place an order, contact

LearningExpress at:

900 Broadway

Suite 604

New York, NY 10003

Or visit us at:

www.learnatest.com

=

1 INTRODUCTION 1

2 LEARNINGEXPRESS TEST PREPARATION SYSTEM 9

3 ARITHMETIC, POWERS, AND ROOTS 31

4 FRACTIONS 45

5 DECIMALS 67

6 NUMBER SERIES AND ANALOGIES 89

7 PERCENTS 105

8 WORD PROBLEMS 123

9 CHARTS, TABLES, AND GRAPHS 141

10 GEOMETRY AND MEASUREMENT 173

11 PRACTICE TEST 1 195

12 PRACTICE TEST 2 209

GLOSSARY OF MATH TERMS 223

v

Contents

About the Author

Jessika Sobanski is a math writer, teacher, and computer consultant. She is the author of Visual Math

and Math Builder, and the coauthor of several other educational books. She lives in Long Island,

New York.

vii

x

÷

=

C H A P T E R

Introduction

Choosing a career as a government employee can be very reward-

ing. But before you begin your job, you will find you must take a

Civil Service exam. Civil Service exams require that candidates score

well on all parts of the exam, but the math section can be espe-

cially daunting if it has been a long time since you have used your

math skills. By making the commitment to practice for the math

section of the Civil Service exam, you are promising yourself

increased scores and marketability.

Þ HOW TO USE THIS BOOK

Whether your exam is months away or weeks away, this book will help you prepare. You should care-

fully read this chapter and the next one, so you can grasp effective strategies and learn to budget your

preparation time wisely. Chapter 2 presents a 30-day Study Plan and a 14-day Study Plan. You can decide

which of these plans is right for you, or you can create a more personalized plan. Remember to stick

as closely as you can to your plan. Always keep your end-goal in mind. If you study hard the ﬁrst time,

you will not have to take this exam again—ever! Use the exercises in this book to get a feel for the

mathematics topics presented on the exam. Review them accordingly, take a practice exam, and then

get ready to walk into the exam room with plenty of self-conﬁdence!

But ﬁrst, let’s review some basic math strategies:

1

Introduction CHAPTER 1 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

1

Þ

Þ MATH STRATEGIES

The suggestions in this section are tried and true. You may use one or all of them. Or, you may decide

to pick and choose the combination that works best for you.

Þ

It’s best not to work in your head! Use your test book or scratch paper to take notes, draw

pictures, and calculate. Although you might think that you can solve math questions more

quickly in your head, that’s a good way to make mistakes. Instead, write out each step.

Þ

Before you begin to make your calculations, read a math question in chunks rather than

straight through from beginning to end. As you read each chunk, stop to think about what it

means. Then make notes or draw a picture to represent that chunk of information.

Þ

When you get to the actual question, circle it. This will keep you more focused as you solve

the problem.

Þ

Glance at the answer choices for clues. If they are fractions, you should do your work in frac-

tions; if they are decimals, you should work in decimals, etc.

Þ

Make a plan of attack to help you solve the problem. If a question stumps you, try one of the

backdoor approaches explained in the next section. These are particularly useful for solving

word problems. When you get your answer, reread the circled question to make sure you

have answered it. This helps avoid the careless mistake of answering the wrong question.

Þ

Check your work after you get an answer. Test takers get a false sense of security when they

get an answer that matches one of the multiple-choice answers. It could be right, but you

should always check your work. Remember to:

✓ Ask yourself if your answer is reasonable and if it makes sense.

✓ Plug your answer back into the problem to make sure the problem holds together.

✓ Do the question a second time, but use a different method.

✓ Approximate when appropriate. For example:

$5.98 + $8.97 is a little less than $15. (Add: $6 + $9)

.9876 × 5.0342 is close to 5. (Multiply: 1 × 5)

Þ

Skip hard questions and come back to them later. Mark them in your test book so you can

ﬁnd them quickly.

Þ BACKDOOR APPROACHES FOR ANSWERING QUESTIONS THAT PUZZLE YOU

Remember those dreaded word problems in high school? Many of them are actually easier to solve by

backdoor approaches. The two techniques that follow are terriﬁc ways to solve multiple-choice word

problems that you don’t know how to solve with a straightforward approach. The ﬁrst technique, nice

numbers, is useful when there are unknowns (like x) in the text of the word problem, making the prob-

lem too abstract for you. Nice numbers are numbers that are easy to work with, like multiples of ten,

for example. The second technique, working backwards, presents a quick way to substitute numeric answer

choices back into the problem to see which one works.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 1 Introduction

2

Nice Numbers

Þ When a question contains unknowns, like x, plug nice numbers in for the unknowns. A nice

number makes calculations easier and makes sense in the problem.

Þ Read the question with the nice numbers in place. Then solve it.

Þ If the answer choices are all numbers, the choice that matches your answer is the right one.

Þ If the answer choices contain unknowns, substitute the same nice numbers into all the

answer choices. The choice that matches your answer is the right one. If more than one

answer matches, do the problem again with different nice numbers. You will only have to

check the answer choices that have already matched.

Example: Judi went shopping with p dollars in her pocket. If the price of shirts was s shirts for

d dollars, what is the maximum number of shirts Judi could buy with the money in her pocket?

a. psd

b. ᎏ

p

d

s

ᎏ

c. ᎏ

p

s

d

ᎏ

d. ᎏ

d

p

s

ᎏ

To solve this problem, let’s try these nice numbers: p = $100; s = 2; d = $25. Now reread it with

the numbers in place:

Judi went shopping with $100 in her pocket. If the price of shirts was 2 shirts for $25, what is

the maximum number of shirts Judi could buy with the money in her pocket? Since 2 shirts cost

$25, that means that 4 shirts cost $50, and 8 shirts cost $100. So our answer is 8. Let’s substitute

the nice numbers into all 4 answers:

a. 100 × 2 × 25 = 5,000

b.

ᎏ

100

25

× 2

ᎏ

= 8

c.

ᎏ

100

2

× 25

ᎏ

= 1,250

d.

ᎏ

25

10

×

0

2

ᎏ

= ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

The answer is b because it is the only one that matches our answer of 8.

Introduction CHAPTER 1 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

3

Þ

Þ WORKING BACKWARDS

You can frequently solve a word problem by plugging the answer choices back into the text of the prob-

lem to see which one ﬁts all the facts stated in the problem. The process is faster than you think because

you’ll probably only have to substitute one or two answers to ﬁnd the right one. This approach works

only when

Þ

all of the answer choices are numbers.

Þ

you are asked to ﬁnd a simple number, not a sum, product, difference, or ratio.

Here’s what to do:

1. Look at all the answer choices and begin with the one in the middle of the range. For exam-

ple, if the answers are 14, 8, 2, 20, and 25, begin by plugging 14 into the problem.

2. If your choice doesn’t work, eliminate it. Determine if you need a bigger or smaller answer.

3. Plug in one of the remaining choices.

4. If none of the answers work, you may have made a careless error. Begin again or look for your

mistake.

Example: Juan ate ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ of the jellybeans. Maria then ate ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ of the remaining jellybeans, which left

10 jellybeans. How many jellybeans were there to begin with?

a. 60

b. 80

c. 90

d. 120

e. 140

Starting with the middle answer, let’s assume there were 90 jellybeans to begin with:

Since Juan ate ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ of them, that means he ate 30 (ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ × 90 = 30), leaving 60 of them (90 − 30 = 60). Maria

then ate ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ of the 60 jellybeans, or 45 of them (ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ × 60 = 45). That leaves 15 jellybeans (60 − 45 = 15).

The problem states that there were 10 jellybeans left, and we wound up with 15 of them. That

indicates that we started with too big a number. Thus, 90, 120, and 140 are all wrong! With only two

choices left, let’s use common sense to decide which one to try. The next lower answer is only a little

smaller than 90 and may not be small enough. So, let’s try 60:

Since Juan ate ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ of them, that means he ate 20 (ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ × 60 = 20), leaving 40 of them (60 − 20 = 40).

Maria then ate ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ of the 40 jellybeans, or 30 of them (ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ × 40 = 30). That leaves 10 jellybeans (40 −

30 = 10).

Since the remainder is 10 jellybeans, the right answer is a.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 1 Introduction

4

Þ KINDS OF CIVIL SERVICE JOBS

Civil Service jobs range from clerical work to forestry, from social work to cartography, from painting

to nursing. The government workforce is diverse with possibilities like these:

Þ EARNINGS AND ADVANCEMENT

The government is the number one employer in our country. Government jobs are secure, have great

holiday and vacation schedules, offer health insurance, and provide paid training for employees. Ben-

eﬁts include: 10 paid holidays a year, 13 to 26 paid vacation days a year, 13 sick days a year, group life

insurance, medical and dental beneﬁts, and a government pension plan.

Civilian government employees are grouped by the type of work they do. This is called the series.

The level of their relative positions (based on difﬁculty) is called the grade. Each grade progresses upwards

through steps. The higher the step, the more money you make. Depending on your prior education,

you may enter the government pay scale at different grades. For example, high school graduates may

enter at GS-2, whereas junior college graduates may enter at GS-4. Following is the pay schedule

for 2002:

Þ

Accounting

Þ

Administration

Þ

Agriculture

Þ

Biology

Þ

Budgetary work

Þ

Cartography

Þ

Chemistry

Þ

Claims work

Þ

Clerical work

Þ

Conservation

Þ

Court work

Þ

Custodial work

Þ

Defense-related work

Þ

Drafting

Þ

Educational service

Þ

Electric

Þ

Engineering

Þ

Finance

Þ

Fireﬁghting

Þ

Health services

Þ

Human services

Þ

Labor

Þ

Law enforcement

Þ

Machinist work

Þ

Nursing

Þ

Painting

Þ

Postal work

Þ

Service work

Þ

Social work

Þ

Technical

Þ

Treasury work

Þ

Visa examination

Introduction CHAPTER 1 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

5

Þ

U.S. Ofﬁce Of Personnel Management

Salary Table 2002-GS

INCORPORATING A 3.60% GENERAL INCREASE

Effective January 2002

2002 General Schedule

Hourly (B)/Overtime (O) Rates by Grade and Step

GS B/O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 B 7.07 7.31 7.54 7.78 8.01 8.15 8.38 8.62 8.63 8.84

O 10.61 10.97 11.31 11.67 12.02 12.23 12.57 12.93 12.95 13.26

2 B 7.95 8.14 8.4 8.63 8.72 8.98 9.23 9.49 9.75 10.00

O 11.93 12.21 12.6 12.95 13.08 13.47 13.85 14.24 14.63 15.00

3 B 8.67 8.96 9.25 9.54 9.83 10.12 10.41 10.70 10.99 11.27

O 13.01 13.44 13.88 14.31 14.75 15.18 15.62 16.05 16.49 16.91

4 B 9.74 10.06 10.39 10.71 11.03 11.36 11.68 12.01 12.33 12.66

O 14.61 15.09 15.59 16.07 16.55 17.04 17.52 18.02 18.50 18.99

5 B 10.89 11.26 11.62 11.98 12.35 12.71 13.07 13.44 13.80 14.16

O 16.34 16.89 17.43 17.97 18.53 19.07 19.61 20.16 20.70 21.24

6 B 12.14 12.55 12.95 13.36 13.76 14.17 14.57 14.98 15.38 15.79

O 18.21 18.83 19.43 20.04 20.64 21.26 21.86 22.47 23.07 23.69

7 B 13.49 13.94 14.39 14.84 15.29 15.74 16.19 16.64 17.09 17.54

O 20.24 20.91 21.59 22.26 22.94 23.61 24.29 24.96 25.64 26.31

8 B 14.95 15.44 15.94 16.44 16.94 17.44 17.94 18.43 18.93 19.43

O 22.43 23.16 23.91 24.66 25.41 26.16 26.91 27.27 27.27 27.27

9 B 16.51 17.06 17.61 18.16 18.71 19.26 19.81 20.36 20.91 21.46

O 24.77 25.59 26.42 27.24 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27

10 B 18.18 18.78 19.39 20.00 20.60 21.21 21.82 22.42 23.03 23.63

O 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27

11 B 19.97 20.64 21.3 21.97 22.64 23.30 23.97 24.63 25.30 25.96

O 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27

12 B 23.94 24.74 25.53 26.33 27.13 27.93 28.72 29.52 30.32 31.12

O 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27

13 B 28.47 29.41 30.36 31.31 32.26 33.21 34.16 35.11 36.06 37.00

O 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27

14 B 33.64 34.76 35.88 37.00 38.12 39.25 40.37 41.49 42.61 43.73

O 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27

15 B 39.57 40.89 42.21 43.53 44.85 46.16 47.48 48.80 50.12 51.44

O 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27 27.27

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 1 Introduction

6

Salary Table 2002-GS

2002 General Schedule

INCORPORATING A 3.60% GENERAL INCREASE

Effective January 2002

Annual Rates by Grade and Step

GS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 14757 15249 15740 16228 16720 17009 17492 17981 18001 18456

2 16592 16985 17535 18001 18201 18736 19271 19806 20341 20876

3 18103 18706 19309 19912 20515 21118 21721 22324 22927 23530

4 20322 20999 21676 22353 23030 23707 24384 25061 25738 26415

5 22737 23495 24253 25011 25769 26527 27285 28043 28801 29559

6 25344 26189 27034 27879 28724 29569 30414 31259 32104 32949

7 28164 29103 30042 30981 31920 32859 33798 34737 35676 36615

8 31191 32231 33271 34311 35351 36391 37431 38471 39511 40551

9 34451 35599 36747 37895 39043 40191 41339 42487 43635 44783

10 37939 39204 40469 41734 42999 44264 45529 46794 48059 49324

11 41684 43073 44462 45851 47240 48629 50018 51407 52796 54185

12 49959 51624 53289 54954 56619 58284 59949 61614 63279 64944

13 59409 61389 63369 65349 67329 69309 71289 73269 75249 77229

14 70205 72545 74885 77225 79565 81905 84245 86585 88925 91265

15 82580 85333 88086 90839 93592 96345 99098 101851 104604 107357

Introduction CHAPTER 1 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

7

Þ

=

C H A P T E R

The LearningExpress

Test Preparation

System

Taking any test can be tough. But, don’t let the written test scare

you! If you prepare ahead of time, you can achieve a top score.

The LearningExpress Test Preparation System, developed exclusively

for LearningExpress by leading test experts, gives you the disci-

pline and attitude you need to be a winner.

First, the bad news: Getting ready for any test takes work! If you plan to obtain an entry-level Civil

Service position, you will have to score well on your Civil Service Exam. This book focuses speciﬁcally

on the math skills that you will be tested on. By sharpening these skills, you will take your ﬁrst step

toward achieving the career of your dreams. However, there are all sorts of pitfalls that can prevent

you from doing your best on exams. Here are some obstacles that can stand in the way of your success.

Þ Being unfamiliar with the format of the exam

Þ Being paralyzed by test anxiety

Þ Leaving your preparation to the last minute

Þ Not preparing at all

Þ Not knowing vital test-taking skills, like:

■ how to pace yourself through the exam

■ how to use the process of elimination

■ when to guess

Þ Not being in tip-top mental and physical shape

2

The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 2 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

9

Þ

Þ

Forgetting to eat breakfast and having to take the test on an empty stomach

Þ

Forgetting a sweater or jacket and shivering through the exam

What’s the common denominator in all these test-taking pitfalls? One word: control. Who’s in con-

trol, you or the exam?

Now the good news: The LearningExpress Test Preparation System puts you in control. In just

nine easy-to-follow steps, you will learn everything you need to know to make sure that you are in charge

of your preparation and your performance on the exam. Other test-takers may let the test get the bet-

ter of them; other test-takers may be unprepared or out of shape, but not you. You will have taken all the

steps you need to take for a passing score.

Here’s how the LearningExpress Test Preparation System works: Nine easy steps lead you

through everything you need to know and do to get ready to master your exam. Each of the steps listed

below gives you tips and activities to help you prepare for any exam. It’s important that you follow the

advice and do the activities, or you won’t be getting the full beneﬁt of the system. Each step gives you

an approximate time estimate.

Step 1. Get Information 30 minutes

Step 2. Conquer Test Anxiety 20 minutes

Step 3. Make a Plan 50 minutes

Step 4. Learn to Manage Your Time 10 minutes

Step 5. Learn to Use the Process of Elimination 20 minutes

Step 6. Know When to Guess 20 minutes

Step 7. Reach Your Peak Performance Zone 10 minutes

Step 8. Get Your Act Together 10 minutes

Step 9. Do it! 10 minutes

Total 3 hours

We estimate that working through the entire system will take you approximately three hours, though

it’s perfectly okay if you work faster or slower than the time estimates say. If you can take a whole after-

noon or evening, you can work through the entire LearningExpress Test Preparation System in one

sitting. Otherwise, you can break it up, and do just one or two steps a day for the next several days. It’s

up to you—remember, you are in control.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 2 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System

10

Þ STEP 1: GET INFORMATION

Time to complete: 30 minutes

Activities: Read Chapter 1, “Introduction.”

If you haven’t already done so, stop here and read Chapter 1 of this book. Here, you will learn how to

use this book, review general math strategies, see an overview of the kinds of Civil Service jobs, and be

presented with a discussion regarding earnings, advancement, and working conditions.

Knowledge is power. The ﬁrst step in the LearningExpress Test Preparation System is ﬁnding

out everything you can about the types of questions that will be asked on any math section of a Civil

Service examination. Practicing and studying the exercises in this book will help prepare you for those

tests. Mathematics topics that are tested include:

Þ

Arithmetic, powers, and roots

Þ

Fractions

Þ

Decimals

Þ

Number series and analogies

Þ

Percents

Þ

Word problems

Þ

Charts, tables, and graphs

Þ

Algebra

Þ

Geometry and measurement

After completing the LearningExpress Test Preparation System, you will then begin to apply these

test-taking strategies as you work through problem sets in the above topic areas (Chapters 3 through

10). You can see how well your training paid off in Chapters 11 and 12, where you will take two prac-

tice Civil Service examinations in math.

Þ STEP 2: CONQUER TEST ANXIETY

Time to complete: 20 minutes

Activity: Take the Test Stress Test

Having complete information about the exam is the ﬁrst step in getting control of the exam. Next, you

have to overcome one of the biggest obstacles to test success: test anxiety. Test anxiety not only impairs

your performance on the exam itself, but it can even keep you from preparing! In Step 2, you will learn

stress management techniques that will help you succeed on your exam. Learn these strategies now,

and practice them as you work through the exams in this book, so they will be second nature to you by

exam day.

The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 2 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

11

Þ

Combating Test Anxiety

The ﬁrst thing you need to know is that a little test anxiety is a good thing. Everyone gets nervous

before a big exam—and if that nervousness motivates you to prepare thoroughly, so much the better.

It’s said that Sir Laurence Olivier, one of the foremost British actors of the last century, threw up before

every performance. His stage fright didn’t impair his performance; in fact, it probably gave him a lit-

tle extra edge—just the kind of edge you need to do well, whether on a stage or in an exam room.

On the next page is the Test Stress Test. Stop here and answer the questions on that page, to ﬁnd

out whether your level of test anxiety is something you should worry about.

Stress Management Before the Test

If you feel your level of anxiety getting the best of you in the weeks before the test, here is what you

need to do to bring the level down again:

Þ Get prepared. There is nothing like knowing what to expect. Being prepared will put you in

control of test anxiety. That’s why you are reading this book. Use it faithfully, and remind

yourself that you are better prepared than most of the people taking the test.

Þ Practice self-conﬁdence. A positive attitude is a great way to combat test anxiety. This is

no time to be humble or shy. Stand in front of the mirror and say to your reﬂection, “I’m

prepared. I’m full of self-conﬁdence. I’m going to ace this test. I know I can do it.” Say it

into a tape recorder and play it back once a day. If you hear it often enough, you’ll believe it.

Þ Fight negative messages. Every time someone starts telling you how hard the exam is or

how it is almost impossible to get a high score, start telling them your self-conﬁdence mes-

sages above. If the someone with the negative messages is you—telling yourself you don’t do

well on exams, you just can’t do this—don’t listen. Turn on your tape recorder and listen to

your self-conﬁdence messages.

Þ Visualize. Imagine yourself reporting for your ﬁrst day on the job. Visualizing success can

help make it happen—and it reminds you why you are preparing for the exam so diligently.

Þ Exercise. Physical activity helps calm your body down and focus your mind. Besides, being

in good physical shape can actually help you do well on the exam. Go for a run, lift weights,

go swimming—and do it regularly.

Stress Management on Test Day

There are several ways you can bring down your level of test anxiety on test day. To ﬁnd a comfort

level, practice these in the weeks before the test, and use the ones that work best for you.

Þ Deep breathing. Take a deep breath while you count to ﬁve. Hold it for a count of one,

then let it out on a count of ﬁve. Repeat several times.

Þ Move your body. Try rolling your head in a circle. Rotate your shoulders. Shake your hands

from the wrist. Many people ﬁnd these movements very relaxing.

Þ Visualize again. Think of the place where you are most relaxed: lying on the beach in the

sun, walking through the park, or whatever. Now, close your eyes and imagine you are actu-

ally there. If you practice in advance, you will ﬁnd that you only need a few seconds of this

exercise to experience a signiﬁcant increase in your sense of well-being.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 2 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System

12

When anxiety threatens to overwhelm you right there during the exam, there are still things you

can do to manage the stress level:

Þ

Repeat your self-conﬁdence messages. You should have them memorized by now. Say

them quietly to yourself, and believe them!

Þ

Visualize one more time. This time, visualize yourself moving smoothly and quickly

through the test answering every question right and ﬁnishing just before time is up. Like

most visualization techniques, this one works best if you have practiced it ahead of time.

Þ

Find an easy question. Skim over the test until you ﬁnd an easy question, and answer it.

Getting even one circle ﬁlled in gets you into the test-taking groove.

Þ

Take a mental break. Everyone loses concentration once in a while during a long test. It’s

normal, so you shouldn’t worry about it. Instead, accept what has happened. Say to yourself,

“Hey, I lost it there for a minute. My brain is taking a break.” Put down your pencil, close

your eyes, and do some deep breathing for a few seconds. Then you are ready to go back to

work.

Try these techniques ahead of time, and see if they don’t work for you!

The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 2 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

13

Þ

TEST STRESS TEST

You only need to worry about test anxiety if it is extreme enough to impair your performance. The fol-

lowing questionnaire will provide a diagnosis of your level of test anxiety. In the blank before each

statement, write the number that most accurately describes your experience.

0 = Never 1 = Once or twice 2 = Sometimes 3 = Often

______ I have gotten so nervous before an exam that I simply put down the books and didn’t study

for it.

______ I have experienced disabling physical symptoms such as vomiting and severe headaches

because I was nervous about an exam.

______ I have simply not showed up for an exam because I was scared to take it.

______ I have experienced dizziness and disorientation while taking an exam.

______ I have had trouble ﬁlling in the little circles because my hands were shaking too hard.

______ I have failed an exam because I was too nervous to complete it.

______ Total: Add up the numbers in the blanks above.

Your Test Stress Score

Here are the steps you should take, depending on your score. If you scored:

■ Below 3, your level of test anxiety is nothing to worry about; it’s probably just enough to

give you the motivation to excel.

■ Between 3 and 6, your test anxiety may be enough to impair your performance, and you

should practice the stress management techniques listed in this section to try to bring your

test anxiety down to manageable levels.

■ Above 6, your level of test anxiety is a serious concern. In addition to practicing the stress

management techniques listed in this section, you may want to seek additional, personal

help. Call your local high school or community college and ask for the academic counselor.

Tell the counselor that you have a level of test anxiety that sometimes keeps you from

being able to take the exam. The counselor may be willing to help you or may suggest

someone else you should talk to.

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Þ STEP 3: MAKE A PLAN

Time to complete: 50 minutes

Activity: Construct a study plan

Maybe the most important thing you can do to get control of yourself and your exam is to make a study

plan. Too many people fail to prepare simply because they fail to plan. Spending hours on the day before

the exam poring over sample test questions not only raises your level of test anxiety, it also is simply

no substitute for careful preparation and practice.

Don’t fall into the cram trap. Take control of your preparation time by mapping out a study sched-

ule. If you are the kind of person who needs deadlines and assignments to motivate you for a project,

here they are. If you are the kind of person who doesn’t like to follow other people’s plans, you can use

the suggested schedules here to construct your own.

Even more important than making a plan is making a commitment. You can’t review everything

you need to know for a Civil Service test in one night. You have to set aside some time every day for

study and practice. Try for at least 20 minutes a day. Twenty minutes daily will do you much more good

than two hours on Saturday.

Don’t put off your study until the day before the exam. Start now. A few minutes a day, with half

an hour or more on weekends can make a big difference in your score.

If you have months before the exam, you are lucky. Don’t put off your study until the week before

the exam! Start now. Even ten minutes a day, with half an hour or more on weekends, can make a big

difference in your score—and in your chances of making the grade you want!

Schedule A: The 30-day Plan

If you have at least a month before you take your test, you have plenty of time to prepare—as long as

you don’t waste it! If you have less than a month, turn to Schedule B.

TIME PREPARATION

Day 1–2 Read Chapters 1 and 2 of this book. Also, skim over the written materials from any courses

or training programs you may have taken, particularly noting:

1) the areas you expect to be emphasized on the exam and

2) the areas you don’t remember well. On Day 4, concentrate on those areas.

Day 3 Read Chapter 3, Basic Arithmetic, and practice these basic skills by working through Ques-

tions 1–50.

Day 4 Read Chapter 4, Fractions. Work through Questions 1–10 and score yourself.

Day 5 Review any Chapter 4 concepts that you feel are necessary for you to brush up on. Work

through Questions 11–30 and score yourself.

Day 6 Work through Questions 31–50 in Chapter 4. You should score yourself and make sure that

you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter.

Day 7 Read Chapter 5, Decimals, and work through Questions 1–10 and score yourself.

Day 8 Review any Chapter 5 concepts that you feel are necessary for you to brush up on. Work

through Questions 11–30 and score yourself.

Day 9 Work through Questions 31–50 in Chapter 5. You should score yourself and make sure that

you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter.

Day 10 Read Chapter 6, Number Series and Analogies, and work through Questions 1–10 and score

yourself.

Day 11 Review any Chapter 6 concepts that you feel are necessary for you to brush up on. Work

through Questions 11–30 and score yourself.

Day 12 Work through Questions 31–49 in Chapter 6. You should score yourself and make sure that

you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter.

Day 13 Read Chapter 7, Percents, and work through Questions 1–10 and score yourself.

Day 14 Review any Chapter 7 concepts that you feel are necessary for you to brush up on. Work

through Questions 11–30 and score yourself.

Day 15 Work through Questions 31–50 in Chapter 7. You should score yourself and make sure that

you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter.

Day 16 Read Chapter 8, Word Problems, and work through Questions 1–10. Score yourself.

Day 17 Review any Chapter 8 concepts that you feel are necessary for you to brush up on. Work

through Questions 11–30 and score yourself.

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MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 2 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System

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Day 18 Work through Questions 31–50 in Chapter 8. You should score yourself and make sure that

you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter.

Day 19 Read Chapter 9, Charts, Tables, and Graphs, and work through Questions 1–10 and score

yourself.

Day 20 Review any Chapter 9 concepts that you feel are necessary for you to brush up on. Work

through Questions 11–30 and score yourself.

Day 21 Work through Questions 31–50 in Chapter 9. You should score yourself and make sure that

you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter.

Day 22 Read Chapter 10, Geometry and Measurement, and work through Questions 1–10. Score

yourself.

Day 23 Review any Chapter 10 concepts that you feel are necessary for you to brush up on. Work

through Questions 11–30 and score yourself.

Day 24 Work through Questions 31–50 in Chapter 10. You should score yourself and make sure that

you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter.

Day 25 In Chapter 11, take Practice Test 1. Score yourself and review any incorrect questions.

Day 26 Review any concepts that you feel are necessary for you to brush up on. Work through simi-

lar questions in the appropriate chapters.

Day 27 In Chapter 12, take Practice Test 2. Score yourself and review any incorrect questions.

Day 28 Review any concepts that you feel are necessary for you to brush up on. Work through simi-

lar questions in the appropriate chapters.

Day 29 Review the chapters that contained the topics that you were weak on during the Practice

Exams.

Day before the exam: Relax. Do something unrelated to the exam and go to bed at a reasonable hour.

Schedule B: The 14-day plan

If you have two weeks or less before you take your exam, you may have your work cut out for you. Use

this 14-day schedule to help you make the most of your time.

TIME PREPARATION

Day 1 Read Chapters 1 and 2.

Day 2 Complete the entire Arithmetic chapter (Chapter 3) including the Practice Questions.

Day 3 Complete the entire Fractions chapter (Chapter 4) including the Practice Questions.

Day 4 Complete the entire Decimals chapter (Chapter 5) including the Practice Questions.

Day 5 Complete the entire Number Series/Analogies chapter (Chapter 6) including the Practice

Questions.

Day 6 Complete the entire Percents chapter (Chapter 7) including the Practice Questions.

Day 7 Complete the entire Word Problems chapter (Chapter 8) including the Practice Questions.

Day 8 Complete the entire Charts, Tables, and Graphs chapter (Chapter 9) including the Practice

Questions.

Day 9 Complete the entire Geometry and Measurement chapter (Chapter 10) including the Practice

Questions.

Day 10 Complete Practice Test 1 (Chapter 11) and score yourself. Review all of the questions that

you missed.

Day 11 Review any concepts that you feel are necessary for you to brush up on. Work through simi-

lar questions in the appropriate chapters.

Day 12 Complete Practice Test 2 (Chapter 12) and score yourself. Review all of the questions that

you missed.

Day 13 Review any topics as indicated by the questions you missed on the Practice Test. Then look

at the questions you missed again and make sure that you understand them.

Day before the exam: Relax. Do something unrelated to the exam and go to bed at a reasonable hour.

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Þ STEP 4: LEARN TO MANAGE YOUR TIME

Time to complete: 10 minutes to read, many hours of practice!

Activities: Practice these strategies as you take the sample tests in this book

Steps 4, 5, and 6 of the LearningExpress Test Preparation System put you in charge of your exam by

showing you test-taking strategies that work. Practice these strategies as you take the sample tests in

this book, and then you will be ready to use them on test day.

First, take control of your time on the exam. Civil Service exams have a time limit, which may

give you more than enough time to complete all the questions—or may not. It’s a terrible feeling to

hear the examiner say, “Five minutes left,” when you are only three-quarters of the way through the

test. Here are some tips to keep that from happening to you.

Þ

Follow directions. If the directions are given orally, listen closely. If they are written on the

exam booklet, read them carefully. Ask questions before the exam begins if there is anything

you don’t understand. If you are allowed to write in your exam booklet, write down the

beginning time and the ending time of the exam.

Þ

Pace yourself. Glance at your watch every few minutes, and compare the time to how far

you’ve gotten in the test. When one-quarter of the time has elapsed, you should be a quarter

of the way through the section, and so on. If you are falling behind, pick up the pace a bit.

Þ

Keep moving. Don’t waste time on one question. If you don’t know the answer, skip the

question and move on. Circle the number of the question in your test booklet in case you

have time to come back to it later.

Þ

Keep track of your place on the answer sheet. If you skip a question, make sure you skip

on the answer sheet too. Check yourself every 5–10 questions to make sure the question

number and the answer sheet number are still the same.

Þ

Don’t rush. Though you should keep moving, rushing won’t help. Try to keep calm and

work methodically and quickly.

Þ STEP 5: LEARN TO USE THE PROCESS OF ELIMINATION

Time to complete: 20 minutes

Activity: Complete worksheet on Using the Process of Elimination

After time management, your next most important tool for taking control of your exam is using the

process of elimination wisely. It’s standard test-taking wisdom that you should always read all the answer

choices before choosing your answer. This helps you ﬁnd the right answer by eliminating wrong answer

choices. And, sure enough, that standard of wisdom applies to your exam, too.

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Choosing the Right Answer by Process of Elimination

As you read a question, you may ﬁnd it helpful to underline important information or make some notes

about what you are reading. When you get to the heart of the question, circle it and make sure you under-

stand what it is asking. If you are not sure of what’s being asked, you will never know whether you have

chosen the right answer. What you do next depends on the type of question you are answering.

Þ If it’s math, take a quick look at the answer choices for some clues. Sometimes this helps to

put the question in a new perspective and makes it easier to answer. Then make a plan of

attack to solve the problem.

Þ Otherwise, follow this simple process of elimination plan to manage your testing time as efﬁ-

ciently as possible: Read each answer choice and make a quick decision about what to do

with it, marking your test book accordingly:

■ The answer seems reasonable; keep it. Put a ✔ next to the answer.

■ The answer is awful. Get rid of it. Put an X next to the answer.

■ You can’t make up your mind about the answer, or you don’t understand it. Keep it for now.

Put a ? next to it.

Whatever you do, don’t waste time with any one answer choice. If you can’t ﬁgure out what an

answer choice means, don’t worry about it. If it’s the right answer, you will probably be able to elimi-

nate all the others, and, if it’s the wrong answer, another answer will probably strike you more obvi-

ously as the right answer.

If you haven’t eliminated any answers at all, skip the question temporarily, but don’t forget to mark

the question so you can come back to it later if you have time. If the test has no penalty for wrong answers,

and you are certain that you could never answer this question in a million years, pick an answer and

move on!

If you have eliminated all but one answer, just reread the circled part of the question to make sure

you are answering exactly what’s asked. Mark your answer sheet and move on to the next question.

Here’s what to do when you have eliminated some, but not all of the answer choices: Compare

the remaining answers looking for similarities and differences, reasoning your way through these choices.

Try to eliminate those choices that don’t seem as strong to you. But DON’T eliminate an answer just

because you don’t understand it. You may even be able to use relevant information from other parts of

the test. If you have narrowed it down to a single answer, check it against the circled question to be

sure you have answered it. Then, mark your answer sheet and move on. If you are down to only two

or three answer choices, you have improved your odds of getting the question right. Make an educated

guess and move on. However, if you think you can do better with more time, mark the question as one

to return to later.

If You’re Penalized for Wrong Answers

You must know whether you will be penalized for wrong answers before you begin the test. If you don’t,

ask the proctor before the test begins. Whether you make a guess or not depends upon the penalty.

Some standardized tests are scored in such a way that every wrong answer reduces your score by a frac-

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tion of a point, and these can really add up against you! Whatever the penalty, if you can eliminate enough

choices to make the odds of answering the question better than the penalty for getting it wrong, make

a guess. This is called educated guessing.

Let’s imagine you are taking a test in which each answer has ﬁve choices and you are penalized ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

of a point for each wrong answer. If you cannot eliminate any of the answer choices, you are better off

leaving the answer blank because the odds of guessing correctly are one in ﬁve. However, if you can

eliminate two of the choices as deﬁnitely wrong, the odds are now in your favor. You have a one in

three chance of answering the question correctly. Fortunately, few tests are scored using such elabo-

rate means, but if your test is one of them, know the penalties and calculate your odds before you take

a guess on a question.

If You Finish Early

Use any time you have left to do the following:

Þ

Go back to questions you marked to return to and try them again.

Þ

Check your work on all the other questions. If you have a good reason for thinking a

response is wrong, change it.

Þ

Review your answer sheet. Make sure that you have put the answers in the right places and

that you have marked only one answer for each question. (Most tests are scored in such a

way that questions with more than one answer are marked wrong.)

Þ

If you have erased an answer, make sure you have done a good job of it.

Þ

Check for stray marks on your answer sheet that could distort your score.

Whatever you do, don’t waste time when you have ﬁnished a test section. Make every second count

by checking your work over and over again until time is called.

Try using your powers of elimination on the questions in the following worksheet called “Using

the Process of Elimination.” The answer explanations that follow show one possible way you might

use the process to arrive at the right answer.

The process of elimination is your tool for the next step, which is knowing when to guess.

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USING THE PROCESS OF ELIMINATION

Use the process of elimination to answer the following questions.

1. Ilsa is as old as Meghan will be in ﬁve years. The difference between Ed’s age and Meghan’s

age is twice the difference between Ilsa’s age and Meghan’s age. Ed is 29. How old is Ilsa?

a. 4

b. 10

c. 19

d. 24

2. “All drivers of commercial vehicles must carry a valid commercial driver’s license whenever oper-

ating a commercial vehicle.” According to this sentence, which of the following people need

NOT carry a commercial driver’s license?

a. a truck driver idling his engine while waiting to be directed to a loading dock

b. a bus operator backing her bus out of the way of another bus in the bus lot

c. a taxi driver driving his personal car to the grocery store

d. a limousine driver taking the limousine to her home after dropping off her last passenger

of the evening

3. Smoking tobacco has been linked to

a. an increased risk of stroke and heart attack.

b. all forms of respiratory disease.

c. increasing mortality rates over the past ten years.

d. juvenile delinquency.

4. Which of the following words is spelled correctly?

a. incorrigible

b. outragous

c. domestickated

d. understandible

Answers

Here are the answers, as well as some suggestions as to how you might have used the process of

elimination to ﬁnd them.

1. d. You should have eliminated choice a immediately. Ilsa can’t be four years old if Meghan

is going to be Ilsa’s age in ﬁve years. The best way to eliminate other answer choices is to try

plugging them in to the information given in the problem. For instance, for choice b, if Ilsa is

10, then Meghan must be 5. The difference in their ages is 5. The difference between Ed’s

age, 29, and Meghan’s age, 5, is 24. Is 24 two times 5? No. Then choice b is wrong. You could

eliminate choice c in the same way and be left with choice d.

2. c. Note the word not in the question, and go through the answers one by one. Is the truck

driver in choice a “operating a commercial vehicle”? Yes, idling counts as “operating,” so he

needs to have a commercial driver’s license. Likewise, the bus operator in choice b is oper-

ating a commercial vehicle; the question doesn’t say the operator has to be on the street. The

limo driver in choice d is operating a commercial vehicle, even if it doesn’t have a passenger

in it. However, the cabbie in choice c is not operating a commercial vehicle, but his own pri-

vate car.

3. a.You could eliminate choice b simply because of the presence of the word all. Such

absolutes hardly ever appear in correct answer choices. Choice c looks attractive until you

think a little about what you know—aren’t fewer people smoking these days, rather than more?

So, how could smoking be responsible for a higher mortality rate? (If you didn’t know that

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mortality rate means the rate at which people die, you might keep this choice as a possibil-

ity, but you would still be able to eliminate two answers and have only two to choose from.)

Choice d can’t be proven, so you could eliminate that one, too. Now you are left with the cor-

rect choice, a.

4. a. How you used the process of elimination here depends on which words you recognized as

being spelled incorrectly. If you knew that the correct spellings were outrageous, domesti-

cated, and understandable, then you were home free. Surely, you knew that at least one of

those words was wrong.

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Þ STEP 6: KNOW WHEN TO GUESS

Time to complete: 20 minutes

Activity: Complete Worksheet on Your Guessing Ability

Armed with the process of elimination, you are ready to take control of one of the big questions in test-

taking: Should I guess? The ﬁrst and main answer is, Yes. Some exams have what’s called a “guessing

penalty,” in which a fraction of your wrong answers is subtracted from your right answers. Check with

the administrators of your particular exam to see if this is the case. In many instances, the number of

questions you answer correctly yields your raw score. So, you have nothing to lose and everything to

gain by guessing.

The more complicated answer to the question, “Should I guess?” depends on you, your person-

ality, and your “guessing intutition.” There are two things you need to know about yourself before you

go into the exam:

Þ Are you a risk-taker?

Þ Are you a good guesser?

You will have to decide about your risk-taking quotient on your own. To ﬁnd out if you are a good

guesser, complete the following worksheet called Your Guessing Ability. Frankly, even if you are a play-

it-safe person with terrible intuition, you are still safe in guessing every time. The best thing would be

if you could overcome your anxieties and go ahead and mark an answer. But you may want to have a

sense of how good your intuition is before you go into the exam.

YOUR GUESSING ABILITY

The following are ten especially hard questions. You are not supposed to know the answers. Rather,

this is an assessment of your ability to guess when you don’t have a clue. Read each question care-

fully, just as if you did expect to answer it. If you have any knowledge at all of the subject of the ques-

tion, use that knowledge to help you eliminate wrong answer choices. Circle the answer choice you

believe to be correct.

1. September 7 is Independence Day in

a. India.

b. Costa Rica.

c. Brazil.

d. Australia.

2. Which of the following is the formula for determining the momentum of an object?

a. p = mv

b. F = ma

c. P = IV

d. E = mc

2

3. Because of the expansion of the universe, the stars and other celestial bodies are all moving

away from each other. This phenomenon is known as

a. Newton’s ﬁrst law.

b. the big bang.

c. gravitational collapse.

d. Hubble ﬂow.

4. American author Gertrude Stein was born in

a. 1713.

b. 1830.

c. 1874.

d. 1901.

5. Which of the following is NOT one of the Five Classics attributed to Confucius?

a. the I Ching

b. the Book of Holiness

c. the Spring and Autumn Annals

d. the Book of History

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6. The religious and philosophical doctrine that holds that the universe is constantly in a struggle

between good and evil is known as

a. Pelagianism.

b. Manichaeanism.

c. neo-Hegelianism.

d. Epicureanism.

7. The third Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court was

a. John Blair.

b. William Cushing.

c. James Wilson.

d. John Jay.

8. Which of the following is the poisonous portion of a daffodil?

a. the bulb

b. the leaves

c. the stem

d. the ﬂowers

9. The winner of the Masters golf tournament in 1953 was

a. Sam Snead.

b. Cary Middlecoff.

c. Arnold Palmer.

d. Ben Hogan.

10. The state with the highest per capita personal income in 1980 was

a. Alaska.

b. Connecticut.

c. New York.

d. Texas.

Answers

Check your answers against the correct answers below.

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1. c.

2. a.

3. d.

4. c.

5. b.

6. b.

7. b.

8. a.

9. d.

10. a.

How Did You Do?

You may have simply gotten lucky and actually known the answer to one or two questions. In addi-

tion, your guessing was more successful if you were able to use the process of elimination on any of

the questions. Maybe you didn’t know who the third Chief Justice was (question 7), but you knew that

John Jay was the ﬁrst. In that case, you would have eliminated answer d and, therefore improved your

odds of guessing right from one in four to one in three.

According to probability, you should get 2ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ answers correct, so getting either two or three right

would be average. If you got four or more right, you may be a really terriﬁc guesser. If you got one or

none right, you may decide not to guess.

Keep in mind, though, that this is only a small sample. You should continue to keep track of your

guessing ability as you work through the sample questions in this book. Circle the numbers of ques-

tions you guess; or, if you don’t have time during the practice tests, go back afterward and try to remem-

ber which questions you guessed. Remember, on a test with four answer choices, your chances of

getting a right answer is one in four. So, keep a separate “guessing” score for each exam. How many

questions did you guess? How many did you get right? If the number you got right is at least one-

fourth of the number of questions you guessed, you are at least an average guesser, maybe better—

and you should always go ahead and guess on the real exam. If the number you got right is signiﬁ-

cantly lower than one-fourth of the number you guessed on, you should not guess on exams where

there is a guessing penalty unless you can eliminate a wrong answer. If there’s no guessing penalty,

you would, frankly, be safe in guessing anyway, but maybe you would feel more comfortable if you

guessed only selectively, when you can eliminate a wrong answer or at least have a good feeling about

one of the answer choices.

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Þ STEP 7: REACH YOUR PEAK PERFORMANCE ZONE

Time to complete: 10 minutes to read; weeks to complete!

Activity: Complete the Physical Preparation Checklist

To get ready for a challenge like a big exam, you have to take control of your physical, as well as your

mental state. Exercise, proper diet, and rest will ensure that your body works with, rather than against,

your mind on test day, as well as during your preparation.

Exercise

If you don’t already have a regular exercise program going, the time during which you are preparing

for an exam is actually an excellent time to start one. If you are already keeping ﬁt—or trying to get

that way—don’t let the pressure of preparing for an exam fool you into quitting now. Exercise helps

reduce stress by pumping wonderful good-feeling hormones called endorphins into your system. It also

increases the oxygen supply throughout your body and your brain, so you will be at peak performance

on test day.

A half hour of vigorous activity—enough to raise a sweat—every day should be your aim. If you

are really pressed for time, every other day is OK. Choose an activity you like and get out there and

do it. Jogging with a friend always makes the time go faster as does listening to music.

But don’t overdo. You don’t want to exhaust yourself. Moderation is the key.

Diet

First of all, cut out the junk. Go easy on caffeine and nicotine, and eliminate alcohol and any other

drugs from your system at least two weeks before the exam. Promise yourself a binge the night after

the exam, if need be.

What your body needs for peak performance is simply a balanced diet. Eat plenty of fruits and

vegetables, along with protein and carbohydrates. Foods that are high in lecithin (an amino acid), such

as ﬁsh and beans, are especially good “brain foods.”

Rest

You probably know how much sleep you need every night to be at your best, even if you don’t always

get it. Make sure you do get that much sleep, though, for at least a week before the exam. Moderation

is important here, too. Extra sleep will just make you groggy.

If you are not a morning person and your exam will be given in the morning, you should reset

your internal clock so that your body doesn’t think you’re taking an exam at 3 A.M. You have to start

this process well before the exam. The way it works is to get up half an hour earlier each morning, and

then go to bed half an hour earlier that night. Don’t try it the other way around; you will just toss and

turn if you go to bed early without getting up early. The next morning, get up another half an hour

earlier, and so on. How long you will have to do this depends on how late you are used to getting up.

Use the Physical Preparation Checklist that follows to make sure you are in tip-top form.

Þ STEP 8: GET YOUR ACT TOGETHER

Time to complete: 10 minutes to read; time to complete will vary

Activity: Complete Final Preparations worksheet

Once you feel in control of your mind and body, you are in charge of test anxiety, test preparation, and

test-taking strategies. Now, it’s time to make charts and gather the materials you need to take to

the exam.

Gather Your Materials

The night before the exam, lay out the clothes you will wear and the materials you have to bring with

you to the exam. Plan on dressing in layers because you won’t have any control over the temperature

of the exam room. Have a sweater or jacket you can take off if it’s warm. Use the checklist on the work-

sheet entitled Final Preparations on page 29 to help you pull together what you will need.

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Don’t Skip Breakfast

Even if you don’t usually eat breakfast, do so on exam morning. A cup of coffee doesn’t count. Don’t

eat doughnuts or other sweet foods, either. A sugar high will leave you with a sugar low in the middle

of the exam. A mix of protein and carbohydrates is best: cereal with milk and just a little sugar or eggs

with toast will do your body a world of good.

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PHYSICAL PREPARATION CHECKLIST

For the week before the test, write down what physical exercise you engaged in and for how long.

Then write down what you ate for each meal. Remember, you are trying for at least half an hour of

exercise every other day (preferably every day) and a balanced diet that’s light on junk food.

Exam minus 7 days

Exercise: ______ for ______ minutes

Breakfast: ____________________________________________________________________

Lunch: ____________________________________________________________________

Dinner: ____________________________________________________________________

Snacks: ____________________________________________________________________

Exam minus 6 days

Exercise: ______ for minutes

Breakfast: ____________________________________________________________________

Lunch: ____________________________________________________________________

Dinner: ____________________________________________________________________

Snacks: ____________________________________________________________________

Exam minus 5 days

Exercise: ______ for ______ minutes

Breakfast: ____________________________________________________________________

Lunch: ____________________________________________________________________

Dinner: ____________________________________________________________________

Snacks: ____________________________________________________________________

Exam minus 4 days

Exercise: ______ for ______ minutes

Breakfast: ____________________________________________________________________

Lunch: ____________________________________________________________________

Dinner: ____________________________________________________________________

Snacks: ____________________________________________________________________

Exam minus 3 days

Exercise: ______ for ______ minutes

Breakfast: ____________________________________________________________________

Lunch: ____________________________________________________________________

Dinner: ____________________________________________________________________

Snacks: ____________________________________________________________________

Exam minus 2 days

Exercise: ______ for ______ minutes

Breakfast: ____________________________________________________________________

Lunch: ____________________________________________________________________

Dinner: ____________________________________________________________________

Snacks: ____________________________________________________________________

Exam minus 1 day

Exercise: ______ for ______ minutes

Breakfast: ____________________________________________________________________

Lunch: ____________________________________________________________________

Dinner: ____________________________________________________________________

Snacks: ____________________________________________________________________

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Þ STEP 9: DO IT!

Time to complete: 10 minutes, plus test-taking time

Activity: Ace Your Test!

Fast forward to exam day. You are ready. You made a study plan and followed through. You practiced

your test-taking strategies while working through this book. You are in control of your physical, men-

tal, and emotional state. You know when and where to show up and what to bring with you. In other

words, you are better prepared than most of the other people taking the test with you. You are psyched!

Just one more thing. When you are done with the exam, you will have earned a reward. Plan a

celebration. Call your friends and plan a party, or have a nice dinner for two—whatever your heart desires.

Give yourself something to look forward to.

And then do it. Go into the exam, full of conﬁdence, armed with test-taking strategies you have

practiced until they’re second nature. You are in control of yourself, your environment, and your per-

formance on exam day. You are ready to succeed. So do it. Go in there and ace the exam! And, then,

look forward to your new career.

FINAL PREPARATIONS

Getting to the Exam Site

Location of exam: ______

Date of exam: ______

Time of exam: ______

Do I know how to get to the exam site? Yes ______ No ______

If no, make a trial run.

Time it will take to get to the exam site: ______

Things to lay out the night before

Clothes I will wear ______

Sweater\jacket ______

Watch ______

Photo ID ______

Admission card ______

4 No. 2 pencils ______

_________________________

_________________________

The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 2 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

29

Þ

=

C H A P T E R

Arithmetic,

Powers, and

Roots

Þ ARITHMETIC

Arithmetic is the term used to encompass the following four familiar operations:

Þ

Addition

Þ

Subtraction

Þ

Multiplication

Þ

Division

When solving arithmetic problems, it is helpful to keep in mind the following deﬁnitions regard-

ing the operations mentioned above:

Þ

A sumis obtained by adding.

Þ

A difference is obtained by subtracting.

Þ

A product is obtained by multiplying.

Þ

A quotient is obtained by dividing.

3

Arithmetic, Powers, and Roots CHAPTER 3 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

31

Þ

Basic arithmetic problems require you to add, subtract, multiply, or divide. You may be asked to

ﬁnd the sum, difference, product, or quotient. More advanced arithmetic questions deal with com-

bined operations. This simply means that two or more of the basic operations are combined into an

equation or expression. For example, a question that asks you to ﬁnd the product of two sums would

be considered a combined operations question.

When dealing with basic arithmetic and combined operations, it is helpful to understand three

basic number laws: The commutative law, the associative law, and the distributive law. Sometimes these

three laws are referred to as properties (such as the Commutative Property).

Þ

The commutative law applies to addition and multiplication and can be represented as

a + b = b + a or a × b = b × a. For example, 2 + 3 = 3 + 2 and 4 × 2 = 2 × 4 exhibit the commu-

tative law.

Þ

The associative law applies to the grouping of addition or multiplication equations and

expressions. It can be represented as a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c or a × (b × c) = (a × b) × c. For

example, 10 + (12 + 14) = (10 + 12) + 14.

Þ

The distributive law applies to multiplication over addition and can be represented as

a(b + c) = ab + ac. For example, 3(5 + 7) = 3 × 5 + 3 × 7.

It is also especially important to understand the order of operations. When dealing with a com-

bination of operations, you must perform the operations in a particular order. An easy way to remem-

ber the order of operations is to use the mnemonic PEMDAS, where each letter stands for an opera-

tion:

Þ

Parentheses: Always calculate the values inside the parentheses ﬁrst.

Þ

Exponents: Exponents (or powers) are calculated second.

Þ

Multiplication/Division: Third, perform any multiplications or divisions in order from left

to right.

Þ

Addition/Subtraction: Last, perform any additions or subtractions in order from left to right.

Sample Question:

Two stores are selling the same air conditioner at $357 and $250, respectively. What is the dif-

ference in price?

a. $607

b. $170

c. $150

d. $107

The term difference means that you will subtract: $357 − $250 = $107. To check your work, just

add: 107 + 250 = 357. The correct answer is d.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 3 Arithmetic, Powers, and Roots

32

Þ POWERS

When you raise a number (the base) to an exponent, this is sometimes called raising the number to a

power.

Base

power

or Base

exponent

When you have the same base, it is easy to combine the exponents according to the follow-

ing rules:

Þ

When multiplying, such as a

x

× a

y

, simply add the exponents: a

x

× a

y

= a

x+y

Þ

When dividing, such as a

x

÷ a

y

, simply subtract the exponents: a

x

÷ a

y

= a

x−y

Þ

When raising a power to a power, such as (a

x

)

y

, simply multiply the exponents: (a

x

)

y

= a

x−y

Note that if more than one base is included in the parentheses, you must raise all of the bases to the

power outside the parentheses, so (a

x

b

y

)

z

= a

xz

b

yz

.

Two common powers have special names. When raising a number to the 2nd power, it is called

squaring the number. When raising a number to the 3rd power, it is called cubing the number.

Sample Question:

(6

2

)

5

=

a. 6

7

b. 6

8

c. 6

10

d. 6

12

When raising a power to a power, you can just multiply the exponents. Here, you should multi-

ply 2 × 5, so (6

2

)

5

= 6

2 × 5

= 6

10

. You can check your work by writing out the solution: (6

2

)

5

= (6 × 6)

5

=

(6 × 6) (6 × 6) (6 × 6) (6 × 6) (6 × 6). This is 6 to the tenth power. Thus, the correct answer is c, 6

10

.

Þ ROOTS

Typically, you will take the square root of a number. This is denoted by a radical sign, which looks like

this: ͙ෆ. In order to ﬁnd the square root of a number, try to ﬁgure out what number when squared

will equal the number under the radical sign. For example, you know that 2

2

= 4, so ͙4 ෆ = 2. Square

roots are easy to calculate for perfect squares. For example, ͙4 ෆ = 2, ͙9 ෆ = 3, ͙16 ෆ= 4, ͙25 ෆ= 5, and so

forth. Other times, you can approximate the value of a radical by pinpointing it between two perfect

squares. For example, since ͙4 ෆ = 2 and ͙9 ෆ = 3, ͙7 ෆ must be a number between 2 and 3.

Arithmetic, Powers, and Roots CHAPTER 3 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

33

Þ

In other cases, it is helpful to ﬁnd equivalents of the radical at hand by applying the rules gov-

erning the manipulation of radicals. These rules can be summarized as:

͙ab ෆ= ͙a ෆ × ͙bෆ

This rule is helpful when simplifying ͙12 ෆfor example. ͙12 ෆ= ͙4 ෆ × ͙3ෆ = 2͙3 ෆ

Ί

ᎏ

a

b

ᎏ

= ͙a ෆ ÷ ͙b ෆ

For example, this rule is helpful when ﬁnding the equivalent of

Ί

ᎏ

2

1

5

ᎏ

. First, take the radical of the

top and bottom:

Ί

ᎏ

2

1

5

ᎏ

= ͙1 ෆ ÷ ͙25 ෆ. Since ͙1 ෆ = 1 and ͙25 ෆ= 5, we have ͙1ෆ ÷ ͙25 ෆ= 1 ÷ 5.

Once you are able to convert the radicals at hand into equivalents that have the same number under

the radical, you can combine them effectively through addition and subtraction. For example, 2͙2ෆ +

3͙2 ෆ = 5͙2 ෆ and 5͙3ෆ − 4͙3ෆ = 1͙3 ෆ.

Sample Question:

͙98 ෆis equivalent to which of the following?

a. ͙9 ෆ × ͙8ෆ

b. 7͙3 ෆ

c. 49͙2 ෆ

d. 7͙2 ෆ

First, look under the radical at 98. Express 98 as 2 factors, trying to make one of the factors a per-

fect square: ͙98 ෆ= ͙49 × 2 ෆ. Sometimes it takes a while to get used to ﬁguring out how to rearrange

the numbers under the radical. Just remember that if you can ﬁnd a perfect square, you will be able to

pull something out from under the radical. Here, 49 is a perfect square, so we can pull a 7 out from

under the radical as follows:

͙49 × 2 ෆ= ͙49 ෆ × ͙2ෆ = 7͙2 ෆ

Thus, choice d is the correct answer.

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

1. Find the sum of 7,805 and 987.

a. 17,675

b. 8,972

c. 8,987

d. 8,792

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 3 Arithmetic, Powers, and Roots

34

2. Lawrence gave $281 to Joel. If he originally had $1,375, how much money does he have left?

a. $1,656

b. $1,294

c. $1,094

d. $984

3. Peter had $10,573 in his savings account. He then deposited $2,900 and $317. How much is in

the account now?

a. $13,156

b. $13,790

c. $7,356

d. $6,006

4. What is the positive difference between 10,752 and 675?

a. 11,427

b. 10,077

c. 3,822

d. -10,077

5. 287,500 − 52,988 + 6,808 =

a. 347,396

b. 46,467

c. 333,680

d. 241,320

6. What is the product of 450 and 122?

a. 54,900

b. 6,588

c. 572

d. 328

7. Find the quotient of 12,440 and 40.

a. 497,600

b. 12,480

c. 12,400

d. 311

8. What is the product of 523 and 13 when rounded to the nearest hundred?

a. 6,799

b. 536

c. 6,800

d. 500

Arithmetic, Powers, and Roots CHAPTER 3 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

35

Þ

9. When the sum of 1,352 and 731 is subtracted from 5,000, the result is

a. 7,083

b. 2,917

c. 2,083

d. 4,379

10. What is the quotient of 90 divided by 18?

a. 5

b. 6

c. 72

d. 1,620

11. What is the product of 52 and 22?

a. 30

b. 74

c. 104

d. 1,144

12. What is the sum of the product of 3 and 2 and the product of 4 and 5?

a. 14

b. 26

c. 45

d. 90

13. Find the difference of 582 and 73.

a. 42,486

b. 655

c. 509

d. 408

14. How much greater is the sum of 523 and 65 than the product of 25 and 18?

a. 138

b. 545

c. 588

d. 33,545

15. Solve 589 + 7,995 ÷ 15.

a. 572 with a remainder of 4

b. 1,122

c. 8,569

d. 8,599

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 3 Arithmetic, Powers, and Roots

36

16. 540 ÷ 6 + 3 × 24 =

a. 2,232

b. 1,440

c. 1,260

d. 162

17. 78 × (32 + 12) =

a. 2,508

b. 3,432

c. 6,852

d. 29,953

18. Which of the following demonstrates the commutative property?

a. 2 + 3 = 4 + 1

b. 2 + (3 + 4) = (2 + 3) + 4

c. 2 × 3 = 3 × 2

d. 2 × (3 × 4) = (2 × 3) × 4

19. Which of the following demonstrates the associative property?

a. 4 + 5 = 5 + 4

b. 2 × (3 + 4) = (2 × 3) + 4

c. 4 × 5 = 5 × 4

d. 2 × (3 × 4) = (2 × 3) × 4

20. Which of the following demonstrates the distributive property?

a. (4 × 5) + 1 = 4 × (5 + 1)

b. 4 × (5 + 1) = 4 × 5 + 4 × 1

c. 4 × 5 × 1 = 1 × 5 × 4

d. (4 + 5) + 1 = 4 + (5 + 1)

21. 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 is equivalent to

a. 4 × 4

2

b. 4

2

× 4

3

c. (4

2

)

2

d. 4

3

+ 4

2

22. What is the square root of 81?

a. 8

b. 9

c. 10

d. 11

Arithmetic, Powers, and Roots CHAPTER 3 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

37

Þ

23. 11

3

=

a. 121

b. 1,331

c. 14,641

d. 15,551

24. (8

3

)

5

is equal to

a. 8

15

b. 8

8

c. 8

4

d. 8

2

25. ͙72 ෆis equivalent to

a. 12

b. 6͙3 ෆ

c. 6͙2 ෆ

d. 36͙2 ෆ

26. 7

3

is equal to

a. 343

b. 49

c. 38

d. 21

27. 2͙128 ෆis equivalent to

a. 8͙2 ෆ

b. 16͙2 ෆ

c. 32͙2 ෆ

d. 64͙2 ෆ

28. ͙50 ෆ+ ͙162 ෆ=

a. 106͙2ෆ

b. 14͙2 ෆ

c. 9͙2 ෆ

d. 5͙2 ෆ

29. 75 − 3 (9−7)

4

=

a. 3

3

b. 144

4

c. 69

4

d. 5

4

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 3 Arithmetic, Powers, and Roots

38

30. ͙1,225 ෆ=

a. 30

b. 35

c. 40

d. 45

31. 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 is equivalent to

a. (3

3

)

3

b. 3

2

× 3

2

× 3

2

c. 3

2

× 3

3

d. (3

4

)

2

32. 2͙3ෆ + 2͙2 ෆ + 5͙3 ෆ =

a. 4͙3 ෆ + 2͙2 ෆ

b. 4͙2 ෆ + 5͙3 ෆ

c. 8͙2 ෆ + 2͙3 ෆ

d. 7͙3 ෆ + 2͙2 ෆ

33.

Ί

ᎏ

8

1

1

ᎏ

=

a. 1 ÷ 9

b. 1 ÷ 81

c. 1 ÷ ͙3 ෆ

d. 1 ÷ ͙9 ෆ

34. (−3)

3

+ (3)

3

is equivalent to

a. 54

b. 27

c. 0

d. −27

35. ͙70 ෆis between which of the following two numbers?

a. 5 and 6

b. 6 and 7

c. 7 and 8

d. 8 and 9

36. 18

3

is how much greater than 16

2

?

a. 6,088

b. 5,576

c. 265

d. 68

Arithmetic, Powers, and Roots CHAPTER 3 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

39

Þ

37. 42

2

is how much greater than 24

2

?

a. 1,188

b. 1,764

c. 576

d. 2,340

38. ͙(−3)

2

(4 ෆ)

2

ෆ is equivalent to

a. 12͙2 ෆ

b. −͙12

2

ෆ

c. 12

d. −12

39. (−12)

2

=

a. −144

b. −121

c. 121

d. 144

40. (−3)

3

=

a. 9

b. −9

c. 27

d. −27

41. The square root of 48 is between which two numbers?

a. 6 and 7

b. 5 and 6

c. 4 and 5

d. 3 and 4

42. 2

4

× 2

7

is equivalent to

a. 2

28

b. 2

11

c. 2

5

d. 2

3

43. 3

2

+ 3

3

=

a. 18

b. 27

c. 6

2

d. 6

5

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 3 Arithmetic, Powers, and Roots

40

44. 7

11

÷ 7

9

=

a. 7

20

b. 7

−20

c. 49

d. 1 ÷ 49

45. 3

5

× 3

2

× 5

3

× 5

9

=

a. 3

7

× 5

12

b. 3

12

× 5

7

c. 3

3

× 5

6

d. 3

6

× 5

3

46. (6

9

× 2

5

) ÷ (6

8

× 2

2

) is equivalent to

a. 64

b. 48

c. 32

d. 16

47. Solve:

ᎏ

1

5

0

×

×

1

1

0

0

2

10

ᎏ

=

a. 10 × 10

8

b. 5 × 10

-8

c. 2 × 10

8

d. 5 × 10

8

48. Find the sum of 3 × 10

2

and 2 × 10

5

.

a. 200,300

b. 23,000

c. 2,300

d. 230

49. What is the product of 2 × 10

6

and 6 × 10

7

?

a. 12 × 10

42

b. 12 × 10

13

c. 12 × 10

5

d. 12 × 10

3

50. A rod that is 8 × 10

6

mm is how much longer than a rod that is 4 × 10

4

mm?

a. twice as large

b. four times as large

c. twenty times as large

d. two hundred times as large

Arithmetic, Powers, and Roots CHAPTER 3 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

41

Þ

ANSWERS

1. d. Sum means addition, so 7,805 + 987 = 8,792. The correct answer is d.

2. c. To ﬁnd the difference, just subtract: 1,375 − 281 = 1,094. He now has $1,094.

3. b. Add all three values together: 10,573 + 2,900 + 317 = $13,790.

4. b. To ﬁnd a difference, just subtract. The term positive difference means you are solving for a pos-

itive answer. This means you should subtract the smaller number from the larger number: 10,752

− 675 = 10,077.

5. d. 287,500 − 52,988 = 234,512. Next, add: 234,512 + 6,808 = 241,320.

6. a. Product means multiply. 450 × 122 = 54,900.

7. d. A quotient results from division. 12,440 ÷ 40 = 311.

8. c. To ﬁnd the product, just multiply: 523 × 13 = 6,799. Rounding to the nearest hundred yields

6,800.

9. b. The sum of 1,352 and 731 is obtained by adding: 1,352 + 731 = 2,083. Next, we subtract

this value from 5,000: 5,000 − 2,083 = 2,917.

10. a. 90 divided by 18 = 5. Thus, the quotient is 5.

11. d. The product is obtained by multiplying: 52 × 22= 1,144.

12. b. First, ﬁnd the 2 products:

3 × 2 = 6 and 4 × 5 = 20.

Next, add these 2 products together: 6 + 20 = 26.

13. c. To ﬁnd a difference, you subtract: 582 − 73 = 509.

14. a. First, calculate the two equations:

The sum of 523 and 65: 523 + 65 = 588

The product of 25 and 18: 25 × 18 = 450

Next, ﬁnd the difference:

588 − 450 = 138

15. b. The rules for the order of operations state that division should be done before addition. Recall

PEMDAS: parentheses, exponents, multiplication, division, addition, subtraction. 7,995 ÷ 15 = 533.

Next add 589 + 533 = 1,122.

16. d. Consider PEMDAS: parentheses, exponents, multiplication, division, addition, subtraction. Here,

you must solve the division ﬁrst: 540 ÷ 6 = 90. The equation becomes 90 + 3 × 24. Again, con-

sidering PEMDAS you know you should calculate the multiplication ﬁrst. 3 × 24 = 72, so the

equation reduces to 90 + 72 = 162.

17. b. Consider PEMDAS: parentheses, exponents, multiplication, division, addition, subtraction. Here,

you must solve the part inside the parentheses ﬁrst: 32 + 12 = 44. The equation becomes 78 ×

44. Multiplying, you get: 3,432.

18. c. Note that this question is not looking for a true equation. It is asking which equation rep-

resents the commutative property. The commutative property applies for addition and multi-

plication and can be represented as a + b = b + a or a × b = b × a. Choice c shows this relation-

ship: 2 × 3 = 3 × 2. In other words, the order in which you multiply two numbers does not matter.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 3 Arithmetic, Powers, and Roots

42

19. d. The associative property applies to grouping of addition or multiplication problems. It can

be represented as a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c or a × (b × c) = (a × b) × c. Note that you CANNOT

combine addition and multiplication as in choice b. 2 × (3 + 4) ≠ (2 × 3) + 4. Only choice d cor-

rectly shows this property: 2 × (3 × 4) = (2 × 3) × 4.

20. b. The distributive property applies to multiplication over addition such as in choice b:

4 × (5 + 1) = 4 × 5 + 4 × 1. Notice that multiplying the sum of the two terms by 4 is equivalent

to multiplying each term by 4 and then adding these values.

21. c. 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 is the same as 4

4

. Choice c also equals 4

4

because when you raise a power to

another power you simply multiply the exponents. Thus, (4

2

)

2

= 4

2×2

. Choice a equals 4

3

, choice

b equals 4

5

, and choice d equals 64 + 16, or 80.

22. b. The square root of 81 simply means ͙81 ෆ. To solve, just ask yourself, “What number squared

equals 81?” 9

2

= 81, so ͙81 ෆ= 9.

23. b. 11

3

= 11 × 11 × 11 = 121 × 11 = 1,331.

24. a. When raising a power of a base to another power, you just multiply the exponents. Here

(8

3

)

5

= 8

3×5

= 8

15

.

25. c. ͙72 ෆ= ͙36 × 2 ෆ. Because 36 = 6

2

, you can pull a 6 out from under the radical. Thus, you

have, 6͙2ෆ.

26. a. 7

3

= 7 × 7 × 7 which equals 49 × 7 = 343.

27. b. 2͙128 ෆis equal to 2͙64 × 2 ෆ, or 2 × ͙64 ෆ× ͙2ෆ. Since ͙64 ෆ= 8, we have 2 × 8 × ͙2ෆ = 16͙2 ෆ.

28. b. Each radical can be rewritten. First, ͙50 ෆ= ͙2 ෆ × ͙25 ෆ= ͙2 ෆ × ͙25 ෆ= ͙2 ෆ × 5 = 5͙2ෆ. Next,

͙162 ෆ= ͙81 × 2 ෆ= ͙81 ෆ × ͙2ෆ = 9͙2 ෆ. Finally, add the 2 radicals: 5͙2ෆ + 9͙2 ෆ = 14͙2 ෆ.

29. a. Consider PEMDAS: parentheses, exponents, multiplication, division, addition, subtraction. First,

calculate the value inside the parentheses: 75 − 3 ( )

4

= 75 − 3 (2)

4

. Second, calculate the

exponent 75 − 3 = 75 − 3 (16). Third, calculate the multiplication: 75 − = 75 − 48.

Finally, subtract: 75 − 48 = 27. Because 27 is not listed as an answer choice, ﬁgure out which

choice equals 27. Here, choice a, 3

3

= 3 × 3 × 3 = 27.

30. b. In this case, it is easiest to see which answer choice when squared equals 1,225. Choice a,

30, would yield 30 × 30 = 900, and is thus too small. Choice b, 35 yields 35 × 35 = 1,225.

Thus ͙1,225 ෆ= 35 and choice b is correct.

31. b. 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 is equivalent to 3

6

. Choice b is equivalent to 3

6

because 3

2

× 3

2

× 3

2

equals 3

2+2+2

. Remember to add the powers when multiplying numbers with the same base. Choice

a equals 3

9

, choice c equals 3

5

, and choice d equals 3

8

.

32. d. You can combine the two terms with the ͙3ෆ. 2͙3 ෆ + 5͙3 ෆ = 7͙3ෆ, so the entire expression

equals 7͙3ෆ + 2͙2 ෆ.

33. a.

Ί

ᎏ

8

1

1

ᎏ

= ͙1 ෆ ÷ ͙81 ෆ= 1 ÷ 9, choice a.

34. c. Cubing a negative number (or taking any odd power of a negative number for that matter)

results in a negative value. Here,

−

3

3

=

−

3 ×

−

3 ×

−

3 =

−

27. 3

3

= 27. Thus, the sum (−3)

3

+ (3)

3

=

−27 + 27 = 0.

35. d. 8

2

is 64 and 9

2

is 81. Thus, the square root of 70 (which is between 64 and 81) must be between

8 and 9.

3(16) (2)

4

9−7

Arithmetic, Powers, and Roots CHAPTER 3 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

43

Þ

36. b. First, calculate both quantities: 18

3

= 18 × 18 × 18 = 5,832 and 16

2

= 256. Next, in order to

ﬁnd out how much greater the ﬁrst quantity is, we ﬁnd the difference (by subtracting): 5,832 −

256 = 5,576.

37. a. Calculate both of the given quantities: 42

2

= 1,764 and 24

2

= 576. Next, subtract to obtain

the difference: 1,764 − 576 = 1,188.

38. c. To solve ͙(−3)

2

(4 ෆ)

2

ෆ we will ﬁrst simplify the value under the radical. (−3)

2

= 9 and 4

2

= 16,

so ͙(−3)

2

(4 ෆ)

2

ෆ= ͙9 × 16 ෆ. This can be rewritten as ͙9ෆ × ͙16 ෆand simpliﬁed to 3 × 4, which

equals 12.

39. d. When you square a negative number (or raise a negative number to any even power) the

result is a positive number. So, (−12)

2

= 144.

40. d. When you raise a negative number to any odd power, the result is a negative number. So,

(−3)

3

= −3 × −3 × −3 = −27.

41. a. 6

2

= 36 and 7

2

= 49. So, radical 48 (which is between 36 and 49) will equal a number that is

between 6 and 7.

42. b. Since the base (2) is the same, you can simply add the exponents. 2

4

× 2

7

= 2

4+7

= 2

11

.

43. c. 3

2

= 9 and 3

3

= 27. 9 + 27 = 36. Because 36 is not listed as an answer choice, calculate which

choice equals 36. Here, choice c, 6

2

= 6 × 6 = 36, and is thus correct.

44. c. Since the base (7) is the same, you can simply subtract the exponents. 7

11

÷ 7

9

= 7

11−9

= 7

2

=

49.

45. a. You can apply the rules of exponents to the terms that have the same bases. Thus, 3

5

× 3

2

×

5

3

× 5

9

= 3

5+2

× 5

3+9

= 3

7

× 5

12

.

46. b. You can apply the rules of exponents to the terms that have the same bases. Thus, (6

9

× 2

5

)

÷ (6

8

× 2

2

) is equivalent to 6

9−8

× 2

5−2

= 6

1

× 2

3

= 6 × 8 = 48.

47. c.

ᎏ

1

5

0

×

×

1

1

0

0

2

10

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

5

0

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

1

1

0

0

1

2

0

ᎏ

= 2 × 10

10−2

= 2 × 10

8

Remember, according to the rules of exponents, when dividing, you can simply subtract the

exponents of the 2 powers of 10.

48. a. 3 × 10

2

= 3 × 100 = 300 and 2 × 10

5

= 2 × 100,000 = 200,000. Adding these 2 values yields

200,000 + 300 = 200,300.

49. b. The product of 2 × 10

6

and 6 × 10

7

would be 2 × 10

6

× 6 × 10

7

= 2 × 6 × 10

6

× 10

7

. Apply-

ing the rules of exponents, you can simply add the exponents of the 2 powers of 10. Thus, 2 ×

6 × 10

6

× 10

7

= 2 × 6 × 10

6+7

= 2 × 6 × 10

13

. Multiplying the ﬁrst 2 terms yields 12 × 10

13

.

50. d. 8 × 10

6

mm = 8 × 1,000,000 = 8,000,000 mm. 4 × 10

4

mm = 4 × 10,000 = 40,000. How many

times larger is 8,000,000 than 40,000? 8,000,000 × 40,000 = 200. Thus, the ﬁrst rod is 200 times

larger than the second.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 3 Arithmetic, Powers, and Roots

44

=

C H A P T E R

Fractions

Problems involving fractions may be straightforward calculation questions,

or they may be word problems. Typically, they ask you to add, subtract,

multiply, divide, or compare fractions.

Þ WORKING WITH FRACTIONS

A fraction is a part of a whole. Fractions are written as part/whole, or more technically as numerator/

denominator.

Þ THREE KINDS OF FRACTIONS

Proper fraction: The top number is less than the bottom number:

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

;

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

;

ᎏ

4

9

ᎏ

;

ᎏ

1

8

3

ᎏ

The value of a proper fraction is less than 1.

Improper fraction: The top number is greater than or equal to the bottom number:

ᎏ

3

2

ᎏ

;

ᎏ

5

3

ᎏ

;

ᎏ

1

9

4

ᎏ

;

ᎏ

1

1

2

2

ᎏ

The value of an improper fraction is 1 or more.

4

Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

45

Þ

Mixed number: A fraction written to the right of a whole number:

3

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

; 4

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

; 7

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

; 12

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

; 24

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

The value of a mixed number is more than 1: it is the sum of the whole number plus the fraction.

Þ CHANGING IMPROPER FRACTIONS INTO MIXED OR WHOLE NUMBERS

It’s easier to add and subtract fractions that are mixed numbers rather than improper fractions. To change

an improper fraction, say

ᎏ

1

2

3

ᎏ

, into a mixed number, follow these steps:

1. Divide the bottom number (2) into the top number (13) to get the 2ͤ1ෆ3ෆ

whole number portion (6) of the mixed number: −12

2. Write the remainder of the division (1) over the old bottom number (2): 6

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

3. Check: Change the mixed number back into an improper fraction

(see steps below).

Þ CHANGING MIXED NUMBERS INTO IMPROPER FRACTIONS

It’s easier to multiply and divide fractions when you are working with improper fractions rather than

mixed numbers. To change a mixed number, say 2

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

, into an improper fraction, follow these steps:

1. Multiply the whole number (2) by the bottom number (4): 2 × 4 = 8

2. Add the result (8) to the top number (3): 8 + 3 = 11

3. Put the total (11) over the bottom number (4):

ᎏ

1

4

1

ᎏ

4. Check: Reverse the process by changing the improper fraction into a

mixed number. If you get back the number you started with, your answer

is right.

Þ REDUCING FRACTIONS

Reducing a fraction means writing it in lowest terms, that is, with smaller numbers. For instance, 50¢

is

ᎏ

1

5

0

0

0

ᎏ

of a dollar, or

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

of a dollar. In fact, if you have 50¢ in your pocket, you say that you have half a

dollar. Reducing a fraction does not change its value.

1

6

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 4 Fractions

46

Follow these steps to reduce a fraction:

1. Find a whole number that divides evenly into both numbers that make up the fraction.

2. Divide that number into the top of the fraction, and replace the top of the fraction with the

quotient (the answer you got when you divided).

3. Do the same thing to the bottom number.

4. Repeat the ﬁrst three steps until you can’t ﬁnd a number that divides evenly into both numbers

of the fraction.

For example, let’s reduce

ᎏ

2

8

4

ᎏ

. We could do it in 2 steps:

ᎏ

2

8

4

÷

÷

4

4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2

6

ᎏ

; then

ᎏ

2

6

÷

÷

2

2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

.

Or we could do it in a single step:

ᎏ

2

8

4

÷

÷

8

8

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

.

Shortcut: When the top and bottom numbers both end in zeros, cross out the same number of

zeros in both numbers to begin the reducing process. For example,

ᎏ

4

3

,0

0

0

0

0

ᎏ

reduces to

ᎏ

4

3

0

ᎏ

when you cross

out two zeros in both numbers.

Whenever you do arithmetic with fractions, reduce your answer. On a multiple-choice test, don’t

panic if your answer isn’t listed. Try to reduce it and then compare it to the choices.

Sample Question:

The fraction

ᎏ

2

8

0

0

0

ᎏ

is equivalent to which of the following?

a.

ᎏ

1

4

00

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

You can reduce this fraction in steps:

ᎏ

2

8

0

0

0

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

2

2

0

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

4

0

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

2

2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

. Thus, choice b is correct.

Þ RAISING FRACTIONS TO HIGHER TERMS

Before you can add and subtract fractions, you have to know how to raise a fraction to higher terms.

This is actually the opposite of reducing a fraction.

Follow these steps to raise

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

to 24ths:

1. Divide the old bottom number (3) into the new one (24): 24 ÷ 3 = 8

2. Multiply the answer (8) by the old top number (2): 2 × 8 = 16

3. Put the answer (16) over the new bottom number (24):

ᎏ

1

2

6

4

ᎏ

4. Check: Reduce the new fraction to see if you get the original number back:

ᎏ

1

2

6

4

÷

÷

8

8

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

47

Þ

Þ ADDING FRACTIONS

If the fractions have the same bottom numbers, just add the top numbers together and write the total

over the bottom number.

Example:

ᎏ

2

9

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

4

9

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2 +

9

4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

6

9

ᎏ

Reduce the sum:

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

Example:

ᎏ

5

8

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

7

8

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

8

2

ᎏ

Change the sum to a mixed number: 1

ᎏ

4

8

ᎏ

; then reduce: 1

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

There are a few extra steps to add mixed numbers with the same bottom numbers, say 2

ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ

+ 1

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

:

1. Add the fractions:

ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

7

5

ᎏ

2. Change the improper fraction into a mixed number:

ᎏ

7

5

ᎏ

= 1

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

3. Add the whole numbers: 2 + 1 = 3

4. Add the results of steps 2 and 3: 1

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

+ 3 = 4

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

Þ FINDING A COMMON DENOMINATOR

If the fractions you want to add don’t have the same bottom number, you will have to raise some or all

of the fractions to higher terms so that they all have the same bottom number, the common denominator.

See if all the bottom numbers divide evenly into the biggest bottom number. Check out the mul-

tiplication table of the largest bottom number until you ﬁnd a number that all the other bottom num-

bers evenly divide into. When all else fails, multiply all the bottom numbers together.

Example:

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

1. Find the common denominator. Multiply the bottom numbers: 3 × 5 = 15

2. Raise each fraction to 15ths:

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

1

0

5

ᎏ

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

1

2

5

ᎏ

3. Add as usual:

ᎏ

2

1

2

5

ᎏ

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 4 Fractions

48

Þ FINDING THE LEAST COMMON DENOMINATOR

If you are asked to ﬁnd the least common denominator (the LCD), you will need to ﬁnd the smallest

number that is a multiple of the original denominators present. Sometimes you can ﬁgure this out men-

tally, or you will stumble onto the LCD by following the steps above.

However, to be sure that you have the least common denominator, you can use one of two

methods:

1. Find the least common multiple. This can be done by checking out the multiplication table of

the largest bottom number until you ﬁnd a number that all the other bottom numbers evenly

divide into, as described above.

2. Determine the prime factorization of each of the denominators. The least common denomi-

nator will encompass every denominator’s prime factorization.

Prime numbers are numbers that have only two factors, the number 1 and itself. For example, 3

is prime because it’s only factors are 1 and 3. Numbers that are not prime can be expressed in terms of

prime factors. For example, let’s compute the prime factorization of 12.

12 = 3 × 4 = 3 × 2 × 2

Thus, the prime factorization of 12 is 3 × 2 × 2.

In order to ﬁnd the LCD of

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

and

ᎏ

5

6

ᎏ

, we can use the prime factorization method as follows:

1. Find the prime factorization of both denominators:

4 = 2 × 2

6 = 2 × 3

2. The LCD will contain the prime factorization of both denominators:

4 = 2 × 2 the LCD must have two 2s

6 = 2 × 3 the LCD must have a 2 and a 3

The LCD will be 2 × 2 × 3. Note that this LCD contains the prime factorization of 4 and 6.

Sample Question:

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

=

a.

ᎏ

5

6

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

1

5

1

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

1

7

5

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

2

3

9

0

ᎏ

Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

49

Þ

The quickest way to ﬁnd a common denominator is to multiply the two given denominators. 5 ×

6 = 30, so the new denominator will be 30. To convert

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

into 30ths, we multiply by

ᎏ

6

6

ᎏ

:

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

6

6

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2

3

4

0

ᎏ

. To

convert

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

into 30ths, we multiply by

ᎏ

5

5

ᎏ

:

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

5

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3

5

0

ᎏ

. Next, we add:

ᎏ

2

3

4

0

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

3

5

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2

3

9

0

ᎏ

. Thus, the correct answer

is d.

Þ SUBTRACTING FRACTIONS

If the fractions have the same bottom numbers, just subtract the top numbers and write the difference

over the bottom number.

Example:

ᎏ

4

9

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

3

9

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

4 −

9

3

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

9

ᎏ

If the fractions you want to subtract don’t have the same bottom number, you will have to raise

some or all of the fractions to higher terms so that they all have the same bottom number, or LCD. If

you forgot how to ﬁnd the LCD, just read the section on adding fractions with different bottom numbers.

Example:

ᎏ

5

6

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

1. Raise each fraction to 12ths because 12 is the LCD, the smallest number

ᎏ

5

6

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

1

0

2

ᎏ

that 6 and 4

both divide into evenly:

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

9

2

ᎏ

2. Subtract as usual:

ᎏ

1

1

2

ᎏ

Subtracting mixed numbers with the same bottom number is similar to adding mixed numbers.

Example: 4

ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ

− 1

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

1. Subtract the fractions:

ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

2. Subtract the whole numbers: 4 − 1 = 3

3. Add the results of steps 1 and 2:

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

+ 3 = 3

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

Sometimes there is an extra borrowing step when you subtract mixed numbers with the same bot-

tom numbers, say 7

ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ

− 2

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

:

1. You can’t subtract the fractions the way they are because

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

is bigger than

ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ

. So you borrow 1

from the 7, making it 6, and change that 1 to

ᎏ

5

5

ᎏ

because 5 is the bottom number: 7

ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ

= 6

ᎏ

5

5

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ

2. Add the numbers from step 1: 6

ᎏ

5

5

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ

= 6

ᎏ

8

5

ᎏ

3. Now, you have a different version of the original problem: 6

ᎏ

8

5

ᎏ

− 2

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

4. Subtract the fractional parts of the two mixed numbers:

ᎏ

8

5

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

5. Subtract the whole number parts of the two mixed numbers: 6 − 2 = 4

6. Add the results of the last two steps together: 4 +

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

= 4

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 4 Fractions

50

Þ MULTIPLYING FRACTIONS

Multiplying fractions is actually easier than adding them. All you do is multiply the top numbers and

then multiply the bottom numbers.

For example,

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

5

7

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2

3

×

×

5

7

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

2

0

1

ᎏ

Sometimes you can cancel before multiplying. Cancelling is a shortcut that makes the multipli-

cation go faster because you are multiplying with smaller numbers. It’s very similar to reducing: if there

is a number that divides evenly into a top number and bottom number, do that division before multi-

plying. If you forget to cancel, you will still get the right answer, but you will have to reduce it.

Example:

ᎏ

5

6

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

2

9

0

ᎏ

1. Cancel the 6 and the 9 by dividing 3 into both of them: 6 ÷ 3 = 2 and 9 ÷ 3 = 3. Cross out the

6 and the 9:

ᎏ

5

6

2

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

2

9

3

0

ᎏ

2. Cancel the 5 and the 20 by dividing 5 into both of them: 5 ÷ 5 = 1 and 20 ÷ 5 = 4. Cross out

the 5 and the 20:

ᎏ

2

5

1

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

2

3

0

4

ᎏ

3. Multiply across the new top numbers and the new bottom numbers:

ᎏ

1

2

×

×

3

4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3

8

ᎏ

To multiply a fraction by a whole number, ﬁrst rewrite the whole number as a fraction with a bot-

tom number of 1:

Example: 5 ×

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

5

1

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

3

0

ᎏ

(Optional: convert

ᎏ

1

3

0

ᎏ

to a mixed number: 3

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

)

To multiply with mixed numbers, it’s easier to change them to improper fractions before multiplying.

Example: 4

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

× 5

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

1. Convert 4

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

to an improper fraction: 4

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

4 ×

3

3 + 1

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

3

4

ᎏ

2. Convert 5

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

to an improper fraction: 5

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

5 ×

2

2 + 1

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

2

1

ᎏ

3. Cancel and multiply the fractions:

4. Optional: convert the improper fraction to a mixed number:

ᎏ

7

3

7

ᎏ

= 25

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

Tip: When you ﬁnd a fraction of a number, you just ﬁnd the product of the two numbers.

Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

51

Þ

Sample Problem: What is 4

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

of 2

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

?

a. 9

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

b. 8

ᎏ

1

1

5

ᎏ

c. 8

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

d. 8

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

To ﬁnd 4

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

of 2

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

, you just ﬁnd the product (multiply). First, convert both fractions into improper

fractions. 4

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

4 ×

5

5 + 1

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2

5

1

ᎏ

; 2

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2 ×

3

3 + 1

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

7

3

ᎏ

. Next, multiply:

ᎏ

2

5

1

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

7

3

ᎏ

. Note that you can cancel:

ᎏ

2

5

1

7

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

7

3

1

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

4

5

9

ᎏ

= 9

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

Thus, choice a is correct.

Þ DIVIDING FRACTIONS

To divide one fraction by a second fraction, invert the second fraction (that is, ﬂip the top and bottom

numbers) and then multiply. That’s all there is to it!

Example:

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ

1. Invert the second fraction (

ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ

):

ᎏ

5

3

ᎏ

2. Change the division sign (÷) to a multiplication sign: (×)

3. Multiply the ﬁrst fraction by the new second fraction:

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

5

3

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

2

×

×

5

3

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

5

6

ᎏ

To divide a fraction by a whole number, ﬁrst change the whole number to a fraction by putting it

over 1. Then follow the division steps above.

Example:

ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ

÷ 2 =

ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

2

1

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3

5

×

×

1

2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

3

0

ᎏ

When the division problem has a mixed number, convert it to an improper fraction and then divide

as usual.

Example: 2

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

1. Convert 2

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

to an improper fraction: 2

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2 ×

4

4 + 3

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

4

1

ᎏ

2. Divide

ᎏ

1

4

1

ᎏ

by

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

:

ᎏ

1

4

1

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

4

1

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

6

1

ᎏ

3. Flip

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

to

ᎏ

6

1

ᎏ

, change ÷ to ×, cancel and multiply:

ᎏ

1

4

2

1

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

1

6

3

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3

2

3

ᎏ

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 4 Fractions

52

Sample Problem: 5

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

÷ 7

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

=

a.

ᎏ

4

1

6

2

5

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

1

1

5

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

3

4

1

5

ᎏ

First, you should convert the mixed numbers into improper fractions. 5

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

5 ×

6

6 + 1

ᎏ

and 7

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

7 ×

2

2 + 1

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

2

5

ᎏ

. So far you have:

ᎏ

3

6

1

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

1

2

5

ᎏ

. Next, rewrite this as a multiplication problem:

ᎏ

3

6

1

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

1

2

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

6

9

2

0

ᎏ

. Finally, reduce

this fraction:

ᎏ

6

9

2

0

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

2

2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3

4

1

5

ᎏ

. Thus, choice d is correct.

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

1. What is the LCD of

ᎏ

1

1

2

ᎏ

,

ᎏ

4

9

ᎏ

,

ᎏ

1

5

8

ᎏ

, and

ᎏ

2

1

4

ᎏ

?

a. 24

b. 48

c. 216

d. 46,656

2. What is the sum of

ᎏ

2

9

ᎏ

and

ᎏ

5

9

ᎏ

?

a.

ᎏ

4

9

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

7

9

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

3. 3

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

is equal to which of the following improper fractions?

a.

ᎏ

1

5

2

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

1

5

7

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

1

5

9

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

2

5

3

ᎏ

4.

ᎏ

5

6

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

=

a.

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

53

Þ

5. Convert

ᎏ

2

3

9

ᎏ

into a mixed number.

a. 9

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

b. 8

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

c. 9

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

d. 8

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

6. Find the sum of

ᎏ

4

9

ᎏ

and

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

.

a.

ᎏ

1

3

1

6

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

4

3

2

6

ᎏ

c. 1

ᎏ

3

7

6

ᎏ

d. 1

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

7. Find the sum of 1

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

and

ᎏ

2

9

ᎏ

.

a. 1

ᎏ

2

4

8

5

ᎏ

b. 3

ᎏ

1

4

4

ᎏ

c. 1

ᎏ

1

4

4

ᎏ

d. 1

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

8. Reduce the following fraction to its simplest form:

ᎏ

5

9

4

ᎏ

a.

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

1

3

8

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

1

3

6

ᎏ

9. Change

ᎏ

1

1

5

1

4

ᎏ

to a whole number.

a. 8

b. 14

c. 18

d. 32

10. What is the sum of 15

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

, 9

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

, 7

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

, and 23

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

?

a. 54

ᎏ

1

1

5

ᎏ

b. 55

ᎏ

3

7

0

ᎏ

c. 55

ᎏ

3

6

7

0

ᎏ

d. 56

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 4 Fractions

54

11. The mixed number 8

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

is equivalent to which improper fraction below?

a.

ᎏ

6

3

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

1

3

0

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

1

3

6

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

2

3

6

ᎏ

12. Express

ᎏ

2

4

0

ᎏ

as a whole number.

a. 8

b. 5

c. 4

d. 3

13. Convert 2

ᎏ

5

8

ᎏ

to an improper fraction.

a.

ᎏ

2

8

1

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

7

8

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

2

8

5

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

1

5

6

ᎏ

14. The reciprocal of 1

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

is

a.

ᎏ

4

3

ᎏ

b. 1

c. −1

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

15. Which of the following choices is an improper fraction?

a.

ᎏ

1

2

6

4

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

9

3

5

7

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

2

9

3

0

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

1

8

1

0

ᎏ

16. Subtract 13

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

from 22

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

.

a. 9

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

b. 9

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

c. 9

ᎏ

1

1

5

ᎏ

d. 9

ᎏ

2

1

0

ᎏ

Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

55

Þ

17. Which of the following has the greatest value?

a.

ᎏ

1

7

8

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

1

1

0

6

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

1

5

2

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

18. What is the product of 18

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

and 35?

a. 630

b. 637

c. 640

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

d. 645

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

19. What is the LCD of

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

,

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

, and

ᎏ

1

5

6

ᎏ

?

a. 192

b. 64

c. 48

d. 16

20. Express this improper fraction as a mixed number:

ᎏ

2

5

3

ᎏ

a. 4

ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ

b. 5

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

c. 4

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

d. 5

ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ

21. What is the LCD of

ᎏ

1

7

8

ᎏ

,

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

, and

ᎏ

1

1

2

ᎏ

?

a. 24

b. 36

c. 48

d. 72

22.

ᎏ

3

7

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

=

a.

ᎏ

1

1

5

4

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

3

6

5

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

2

7

ᎏ

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 4 Fractions

56

23.

ᎏ

1

5

2

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

2

9

ᎏ

=

a.

ᎏ

3

7

6

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

1

1

0

5

8

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

1

9

ᎏ

24. 8

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

− 3

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

+ 1

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

− 5

ᎏ

3

8

ᎏ

=

a. −

ᎏ

2

4

1

0

ᎏ

b. 1

ᎏ

2

4

1

0

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

1

4

9

0

ᎏ

d. 2

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

25.

ᎏ

5

7

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

1

4

5

9

ᎏ

=

a.

ᎏ

5

7

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

2

4

7

9

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

3

7

ᎏ

d. 2

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

26.

ᎏ

4

9

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

3

8

ᎏ

=

a.

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

1

8

2

1

ᎏ

27. 12

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

× 3

ᎏ

4

7

ᎏ

=

a.

ᎏ

3

7

10

ᎏ

b. 36

ᎏ

3

8

5

ᎏ

c. 44

ᎏ

2

7

ᎏ

d. 52

ᎏ

3

3

5

ᎏ

28. 13

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

2

9

1

ᎏ

× 2

ᎏ

5

7

ᎏ

=

a. 15

ᎏ

2

4

5

9

ᎏ

b. 21

ᎏ

3

7

3

6

ᎏ

c. 132

ᎏ

2

5

1

ᎏ

d. 234

ᎏ

4

4

4

5

1

ᎏ

Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

57

Þ

29. Which fraction has the greatest value?

a.

ᎏ

7

9

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

5

9

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

1

1

5

8

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

1

1

0

3

ᎏ

30. A box of bricks weighs 22

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

pounds. How much will 4 boxes of bricks weigh?

a. 5

ᎏ

1

9

6

ᎏ

pounds

b. 88

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

pounds

c. 89 pounds

d. 92

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

pounds

31. What is the product of

ᎏ

4

7

ᎏ

and

ᎏ

1

9

0

1

0

ᎏ

?

a.

ᎏ

3

7

6

0

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

1

2

3

5

ᎏ

c. 12

ᎏ

1

2

2

5

ᎏ

d. 13

ᎏ

1

7

00

ᎏ

32.

ᎏ

3

7

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

4

9

ᎏ

=

a.

ᎏ

2

4

1

ᎏ

b. 1

ᎏ

2

1

7

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

2

2

7

8

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

1

6

2

3

ᎏ

33. 8 ÷

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

=

a.

ᎏ

1

5

6

ᎏ

b. 20

c. 3

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

1

8

0

ᎏ

34.

ᎏ

1

3

7

5

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

3

8

4

7

ᎏ

=

a. 1

ᎏ

1

7

7

0

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

7

8

0

7

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

3

2

5

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

8

2

7

ᎏ

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 4 Fractions

58

35.

ᎏ

7

3

7

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

2

1

3

2

1

ᎏ

=

a. 1

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

2

7

1

7

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

2

3

3

6

1

ᎏ

36. Divide 2

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

by 1

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

.

a. 2

ᎏ

2

1

0

ᎏ

b. 2

ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

1

8

5

ᎏ

d. 1

ᎏ

7

8

ᎏ

37. is equivalent to

a. 1

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

c. 1

ᎏ

1

1

8

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

5

9

ᎏ

38. is equivalent to

a.

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

3

8

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

1

2

7

3

0

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

1

2

6

2

9

5

ᎏ

39. Dividing by

ᎏ

2

7

ᎏ

is the same as

a. multiplying by 7 and dividing by 2

b. multiplying by 2 and dividing by 7

c. multiplying by 7 and multiplying by 2

d. multiplying by

ᎏ

2

7

ᎏ

ᎏ

1

3

3

0

ᎏ

ᎏ

ᎏ

1

2

5

6

ᎏ

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

ᎏ

ᎏ

4

9

ᎏ

Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

59

Þ

40. Which expression can be used to calculate

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

of a $2,300 bill?

a. 2,300 ÷

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

b. 2,300 ×

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

c.

d.

41. Martin’s stock portfolio increased by

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

and then decreased by

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

. If his portfolio was worth $5,400

before, how much is it worth now?

a. $6,750

b. $5,400

c. $4,500

d. $2,250

42. A barrel was ﬁlled

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

of the way with water. Derrick added 18 gallons more, ﬁlling the barrel to

its capacity. How many gallons are in the barrel now?

a. 20 gallons

b. 22 gallons

c. 24 gallons

d. 28 gallons

43. What is

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

of 48,000?

a. 32,000

b. 36,000

c. 40,000

d. 42,000

44. One plank of wood is 18

ᎏ

1

1

3

6

ᎏ

inches long and another is 11

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

inches long. What is their combined

length in inches?

a. 1

ᎏ

1

1

6

ᎏ

b. 29

ᎏ

1

2

4

0

ᎏ

c. 29

ᎏ

1

1

6

ᎏ

d. 30

ᎏ

1

1

6

ᎏ

45. If a delivery of screws is 5

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

gross, how many screws are there? Note: 1 gross = 144 units.

a. 360

b. 648

c. 720

d. 792

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

ᎏ

2,300

2,300

ᎏ

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 4 Fractions

60

46. Jared had to sort 400 referrals into the appropriate folders. In the ﬁrst hour he sorted

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

of the

total. In the second hour he sorted

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

of the remainder. How many referrals does he still have to

sort?

a. 100

b. 120

c. 180

d. 200

47. A large bag of pebbles weighs 12

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

pounds. How many quarter-pound bags of pebbles can be

made from this large bag?

a. exactly 3 bags

b. three bags with some pebbles remaining

c. twenty-four bags with some pebbles remaining

d. exactly 49 bags

48. Greg earned one-quarter of his annual income by working as a freelancer. If he made 32,000

dollars this year, how much did he make freelancing?

a. $4,000

b. $8,000

c. $12,000

d. $16,000

49. JoAnne gave

ᎏ

3

8

ᎏ

of her savings to Karl. If JoAnne initially had $600, how much did JoAnne give

Karl?

a. $180

b. $200

c. $225

d. $240

50. Candice placed wood chips around each of the 8 trees in her yard. If she used 3

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

bags of wood

chips in all, what fraction of a bag did each tree get?

a. 2

ᎏ

2

7

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

1

7

6

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

3

8

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

1

7

6

ᎏ

Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

61

Þ

ANSWERS

1. c. To ﬁnd the LCD you should ﬁrst ﬁnd the prime factorization of each denominator:

12 = 3 × 4 = 3 × 2 × 2

9 = 3 × 3

18 = 9 × 3 = 3 × 3 × 3

24 = 6 × 4 = 2 × 3 × 2 × 2

Next, consider the prime factorization of the LCD which must have all of the prime num-

bers in all of the original denominators.

12 = 3 × 2 × 2 . . . . . . . The LCD must have 1 three and 2 twos

9 = 3 × 3 . . . . . . . . . . The LCD must have 2 threes.

18 = 3 × 3 × 3 . . . . . . . The LCD must have 3 threes

24 = 2 × 3 × 2 × 2 . . . . The LCD must have 3 twos

By multiplying 3 threes and 2 twos, the new denominator will be divisible by all of the old

denominators. 3 × 3 × 3 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 216.

2. b. To ﬁnd the sum of fractions with common denominators (bottoms), you simply add the two

numerators (tops) and keep the same denominator.

ᎏ

2

9

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

5

9

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

7

9

ᎏ

.

3. c. To change 3

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

into an improper fraction, multiply 3 × 5 plus 4 and place this value over 5:

ᎏ

(3 ×

5

5) + 4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

15

5

+ 4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

5

9

ᎏ

Note that the whole number is multiplied by the denominator and added to the numerator

to make the new numerator. The same denominator is kept.

4. b.

ᎏ

5

6

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

4

6

ᎏ

. Dividing top and bottom by 2, this reduces to

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

.

5. a. 29 ÷ 3 = 9 with a remainder of 2. Since the original value was represented as thirds, you put

the remainder over 3. The answer is then 9

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

.

6. c. First, we will ﬁnd the LCD (least common denominator). In this case, it is 9 × 4 = 36. Con-

verting, we get (

ᎏ

4

9

ᎏ

)(

ᎏ

4

4

ᎏ

) + (

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

)(

ᎏ

9

9

ᎏ

) =

ᎏ

1

3

6

6

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

2

3

7

6

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

4

3

3

6

ᎏ

= 1

ᎏ

3

7

6

ᎏ

.

7. a. First, change 1

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

into an improper fraction. We multiply 1 × 5 plus 2 and place this value

over 5:

ᎏ

(1 ×

5

5) + 2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

5 +

5

2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

7

5

ᎏ

.

The expression is now

ᎏ

7

5

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

2

9

ᎏ

. Next, ﬁnd the least common denominator (LCD). In this case

9 × 5, or 45 is the LCD. Converting, we get: (

ᎏ

7

5

ᎏ

)(

ᎏ

9

9

ᎏ

) + (

ᎏ

2

9

ᎏ

)(

ᎏ

5

5

ᎏ

) =

ᎏ

6

4

3

5

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

1

4

0

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

7

4

3

5

ᎏ

. Divide 73 by 45 to

get the mixed number 1

ᎏ

2

4

8

5

ᎏ

.

8. b. To reduce

ᎏ

5

9

4

ᎏ

to simplest form, just divide the top and bottom by 9 to yield

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

.

9. b. To change the improper fraction

ᎏ

1

1

5

1

4

ᎏ

to a whole number, divide 154 by 11: 154 ÷ 11 = 14.

10. c. You can add all of the whole number parts ﬁrst: 15 + 9 + 7 + 23 = 54. Next, add up the frac-

tional parts:

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

. Here the LCD is 60; converting, we have

ᎏ

1

6

5

0

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

4

6

0

0

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

1

6

2

0

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

3

6

0

0

ᎏ

; adding

yields

ᎏ

9

6

7

0

ᎏ

= 1

ᎏ

3

6

7

0

ᎏ

; add this to the 54 to get 55

ᎏ

3

6

7

0

ᎏ

.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 4 Fractions

62

11. d. The term improper fraction is used to describe a fraction whose top part (numerator) is larger

than its bottom part (denominator). To convert 8

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

to an improper fraction you multiply the

whole number part by the denominator, add the numerator and then put this number over the

original denominator. Here, ﬁrst calculate 8 × 3, add 2, and then put this number over 3:

ᎏ

(8 ×

3

3) + 2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

24

3

+ 2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2

3

6

ᎏ

12. b. To change the improper fraction

ᎏ

2

4

0

ᎏ

to a whole number, simply divide 20 by 4: 20 ÷ 4 = 5.

13. a. Multiply the whole number, 2, by the denominator and add the numerator. Then, write this

value over 8 (the initial denominator). 2

ᎏ

5

8

ᎏ

= 2 times 8 plus 5 over 8 =

ᎏ

(2 ×

8

8) + 5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

16

8

+ 5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2

8

1

ᎏ

.

14. d. First, we convert 1

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

to an improper fraction by multiplying the whole number, 1, by the

denominator and adding the numerator. 1

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

= 1 times 3 plus 1 over 3 =

ᎏ

(1 ×

3

3) + 1

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3 +

3

1

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

4

3

ᎏ

To take the reciprocal of

ᎏ

4

3

ᎏ

, we just switch the numerator with the denominator. So, the recip-

rocal of

ᎏ

4

3

ᎏ

is

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

.

15. b. The term improper fraction is used to describe a fraction whose top part (numerator) is larger

than its bottom part (denominator). Only choice b ﬁts this description.

16. d. You can convert the fractions into twentieths in order to perform subtraction. Thus,

22

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

− 13

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

= 22

ᎏ

2

5

0

ᎏ

− 13

ᎏ

2

4

0

ᎏ

= 9

ᎏ

2

1

0

ᎏ

.

17. d. Only two of the choices are greater than

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

, choices b and d. You can compare the two choices

by converting choice d,

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

into sixteenths by multiplying top and bottom by 4. Thus,

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3

4

×

×

4

4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

1

2

6

ᎏ

. This is greater than choice b,

ᎏ

1

1

0

6

ᎏ

, and is thus the largest fraction present.

18. b. Convert 18

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

to an improper fraction and then multiply by 35.

ᎏ

9

5

1

ᎏ

× 35 =

ᎏ

9

5

1

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

3

1

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3,1

5

85

ᎏ

= 637.

19. c. First, ﬁnd the prime factorization of each denominator present:

3 = 3

4 = 2 × 2

16 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2

Next, make the prime factorization of your new denominator, making sure it contains the prime

factorization of all the old denominators.

3 = 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LCD must have 1 three.

4 = 2 × 2 . . . . . . . . . . . LCD must have 2 twos.

16 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 . . . . LCD must have 4 twos.

Thus, the LCD will be 3 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 48.

20. a.

ᎏ

2

5

3

ᎏ

can be converted into a mixed number by dividing 23 by 5 and putting the remainder

over 5: 23 ÷ 5 = 4 with a remainder of 3 = 4

ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ

.

Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

63

Þ

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 4 Fractions

64

21. b. First, ﬁnd the prime factorization of each denominator present:

18 = 6 × 3 = 2 × 3 × 3

4 = 2 × 2

12 = 6 × 2 = 2 × 3 × 2

Next, make the prime factorization of your new denominator, making sure it contains the prime

factorization of all the old denominators.

18 = 2 × 3 × 3 . . . . . . LCD must have 1 two and 2 threes.

4 = 2 × 2 . . . . . . . . . . LCD must have 2 twos.

12 = 2 × 3 × 2 . . . . . . LCD must have 2 twos and a 3.

Thus the LCD will be 3 × 3 × 2 × 2 = 36.

22. c. When multiplying fractions, just multiply numerator × numerator and denominator × denom-

inator:

ᎏ

3

7

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3

6

5

ᎏ

.

23. a. First, ﬁnd the LCD. 12 = 3 × 2 × 2 and 9 = 3 × 3, so the LCD = 3 × 3 × 2 × 2 = 9 × 4 = 36.

ᎏ

1

5

2

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

2

9

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

3

5

6

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

3

8

6

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3

7

6

ᎏ

.

24. c. We can ﬁrst combine all of the whole number portions of each term. 8 − 3 + 1 − 5 = 1. Next,

we will combine the fractional parts. Be careful to take note of the signs:

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

3

8

ᎏ

. Here

the LCD is 40; converting, we have

ᎏ

4

8

0

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

3

4

0

0

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

1

4

6

0

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

1

4

5

0

ᎏ

= −

ᎏ

2

4

1

0

ᎏ

; last we combine the whole num-

ber part with the fractional part: 1 −

ᎏ

2

4

1

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

4

4

0

0

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

2

4

1

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

4

9

0

ᎏ

.

25. d. Note that dividing by

ᎏ

1

4

5

9

ᎏ

is the same as multiplying by

ᎏ

4

1

9

5

ᎏ

. Rewrite this question as a multi-

plication problem, reduce, and solve as follows:

ᎏ

5

7

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

1

4

5

9

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

5

7

1

1

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

4

1

9

7

5

3

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

1

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

7

3

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

7

3

ᎏ

=2

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

26. c. You can do some canceling in this multiplication problem:

ᎏ

4

9

1

3

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

3

8

1

2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3

1

×

× 1

2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

27. c. First, convert these mixed numbers into improper fractions: 12

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

12 ×

5

5 + 2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

6

5

2

ᎏ

. 3

ᎏ

4

7

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3 ×

7

7 + 4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2

7

5

ᎏ

. Next, multiply:

ᎏ

6

5

2

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

2

7

5

ᎏ

. You can cancel before proceeding:

ᎏ

6

5

1

2

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

2

7

5

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

31

7

0

ᎏ

= 44

ᎏ

2

7

ᎏ

28. a. First, you should convert the mixed numbers into improper fractions. 13

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

13 ×

3

3 + 1

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

4

3

0

ᎏ

and 2

ᎏ

5

7

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2 ×

7

7 + 5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

7

9

ᎏ

. Next, multiply all three numbers, reducing wherever possible:

ᎏ

4

3

3

0

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

2

9

3

1

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

1

7

9

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

4

1

0

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

2

3

1

1

7

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

1

7

9

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

7

4

6

9

0

ᎏ

= 15

ᎏ

2

4

5

9

ᎏ

29. c. First of all, you know that choice a is greater than choice b because

ᎏ

7

9

ᎏ

>

ᎏ

5

9

ᎏ

. Next by multi-

plying the

ᎏ

7

9

ᎏ

by

ᎏ

2

2

ᎏ

you get

ᎏ

1

1

4

8

ᎏ

, which is less than choice c. So, all you have to do is compare choices

c and d. You can do this by creating a common denominator: just multiply 18 × 13 = 234.

ᎏ

1

1

5

8

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

2

9

3

5

4

ᎏ

and

ᎏ

1

1

0

3

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

2

8

3

0

4

ᎏ

. Since

ᎏ

1

2

9

3

5

4

ᎏ

>

ᎏ

1

2

8

3

0

4

ᎏ

, choice c is the greatest fraction here.

30. c. This is a multiplication problem. You just multiply the weight of 1 box by 4 to get the weight

of 4 boxes: 22

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

× 4 =

ᎏ

8

4

9

ᎏ

× 4 = 89 pounds.

31. b. To ﬁnd the product, you just multiply:

ᎏ

4

7

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

1

9

0

1

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

4

7

1

1

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

1

9

0

1

13

0

25

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

2

3

5

ᎏ

32. c. Change the division problem into a multiplication problem by ﬂipping the second fraction:

ᎏ

3

7

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

4

9

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3

7

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

9

4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2

2

7

8

ᎏ

.

33. b. When dividing fractions, we actually change the problem into a multiplication problem. The

original problem, 8 ÷

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

, can be written as

ᎏ

8

1

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

5

2

ᎏ

, which equals

ᎏ

4

1

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

5

1

ᎏ

= 4 × 5 = 20.

34. a. To rewrite this question as a multiplication problem, you multiply the ﬁrst fraction by the

reciprocal of the second fraction. Thus,

ᎏ

1

3

7

5

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

3

8

4

7

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

3

7

5

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

8

3

7

4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

3

7

1

5

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

3

8

4

2

7

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

8

7

7

0

ᎏ

=1

ᎏ

1

7

7

0

ᎏ

.

35. b.

ᎏ

7

3

7

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

2

1

3

2

1

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

7

3

7

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

2

1

3

2

1

ᎏ

. This can be reduced:

ᎏ

7

3

1

7

1

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

2

1

3

2

4

1

3

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

36. d. First, convert 2

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

and 1

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

to improper fractions. 2

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

9

4

ᎏ

and 1

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

6

5

ᎏ

. Next, set up the division

problem:

ᎏ

9

4

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

6

5

ᎏ

. Finally, rewrite this division problem as a multiplication problem by taking the

reciprocal of the second fraction:

ᎏ

9

4

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

5

6

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

5

2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

8

5

ᎏ

= 1

ᎏ

7

8

ᎏ

.

37. a. can be rewritten as

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

4

9

ᎏ

. Next, dividing by

ᎏ

4

9

ᎏ

is the same as multiplying by

ᎏ

9

4

ᎏ

:

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

9

4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

1

8

2

ᎏ

. Finally, convert to a mixed number and reduce: 1

ᎏ

1

6

2

ᎏ

= 1

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

.

38. d. is the same as

ᎏ

1

3

3

0

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

1

2

5

6

ᎏ

. Flip the second fraction and change the ÷ sign to a ×:

ᎏ

1

3

3

0

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

2

1

6

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

2

6

2

9

5

ᎏ

.

39. a. Dividing by

ᎏ

2

7

ᎏ

is the same as multiplying by the reciprocal of

ᎏ

2

7

ᎏ

, which is

ᎏ

7

2

ᎏ

. Multiplying by

ᎏ

7

2

ᎏ

is the same as multiplying by 7 and dividing by 2.

40. b.

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

of a number is

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

times a number. Thus

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

of 2,300 would be

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

× 2,300. Choice b, 2,300 ×

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

is equivalent to this.

41. c. An increase of

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

of 5,400 would be

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

× 5,400 = $1,350. The resulting worth would be 5,400

+ 1,350 = $6,750. A decrease of

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

, would be

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

× 6,750 = a $2,250 decrease. The amount left

would be $6,750 − $2,250 = $4,500.

42. c. 18 gallons represents

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

of the whole capacity. 18 = 6 + 6 + 6, so each quarter is 6 gallons.

Four quarters would then add to 24 gallons.

ᎏ

1

3

3

0

ᎏ

ᎏ

ᎏ

1

2

5

6

ᎏ

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

ᎏ

ᎏ

4

9

ᎏ

Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

65

Þ

43. a. In order to ﬁnd

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

of 48,000, you just multiply:

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

× 48,000 = 16,000

ᎏ

2

3

1

ᎏ

× 48,000

16,000

= 32,000

44. d. This is a simple addition problem: 18

ᎏ

1

1

3

6

ᎏ

+ 11

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

. You can add the whole numbers ﬁrst: 18 +

11 = 29. In order to add

ᎏ

1

1

3

6

ᎏ

and

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

, you need to convert the fourths to sixteenths:

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

4

4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

4

6

ᎏ

. Add

the fractions together:

ᎏ

1

1

3

6

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

1

4

6

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

1

7

6

ᎏ

= 1

ᎏ

1

1

6

ᎏ

. Add 1

ᎏ

1

1

6

ᎏ

to the 29 to get 30

ᎏ

1

1

6

ᎏ

.

45. d. There are 144 screws per 1 gross. This can be written as 144

ᎏ

s

g

cr

r

e

o

w

ss

s

ᎏ

. Multiply: 5

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

gross ×

144

ᎏ

s

g

cr

r

e

o

w

ss

s

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

2

1

ᎏ

× 144 = 11 × 72 = 792.

46. c. Jared starts with 400 referrals. During the ﬁrst hour he sorts

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

of the 400:

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

× 400 = 100.

He thus has 400 − 100 = 300 left to sort. In the second hour he sorts

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

of the remaining 300.

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

× 300 = 120 sorted in the second hour. Therefore, he now has 300 − 120 = 180 referrals left

to sort.

47. d. You need to divide the large bag into

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

-pound bags. Hence, you divide 12

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

by

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

. First, con-

vert 12

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

to the improper fraction

ᎏ

4

4

9

ᎏ

. Next, set up your problem:

ᎏ

4

4

9

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

. Convert this division

problem into a multiplication problem by ﬂipping the second fraction:

ᎏ

4

4

9

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

4

1

ᎏ

= 49.

48. b. To ﬁnd

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

of his income you multiply 32,000 by

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

: 32,000 ×

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

32,

4

000

ᎏ

= 8,000.

49. c. JoAnne gave Karl

ᎏ

3

8

ᎏ

of her $600. To ﬁnd

ᎏ

3

8

ᎏ

of this amount, you just multiply:

ᎏ

3

8

ᎏ

× 600 = 225.

50. b. You just divide the 3

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

bags by 8 trees. Since 3

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

7

2

ᎏ

, you can write the equation as

ᎏ

7

2

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

8

1

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

7

2

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

7

6

ᎏ

.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 4 Fractions

66

=

C H A P T E R

Decimals

Þ WHAT IS A DECIMAL?

A decimal is a special kind of fraction. You use decimals every day when you deal with money—$10.35

is a decimal that represents ten dollars and 35¢. The decimal point separates the dollars from the cents.

Because there are 100¢ in one dollar, 1¢ is

ᎏ

1

1

00

ᎏ

of a dollar, or $.01.

Each decimal digit to the right of the decimal point has a name:

Examples:

.1 = 1 tenth =

ᎏ

1

1

0

ᎏ

.02 = 2 hundredths =

ᎏ

1

2

00

ᎏ

.003 = 3 thousandths =

ᎏ

1,0

3

00

ᎏ

.0004 = 4 ten-thousandths =

ᎏ

10,

4

000

ᎏ

5

Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

67

Þ

When you add zeros after the rightmost decimal place, you don’t change the value of the deci-

mal. For example, 6.17 is the same as all of these:

6.170

6.1700

6.17000000000000000

If there are digits on both sides of the decimal point (like 10.35), the number is called a mixed deci-

mal. If there are digits only to the right of the decimal point (like .53), the number is called a decimal.

A whole number (like 15) is understood to have a decimal point at its right (15.). Thus, 15 is the same

as 15.0, 15.00, 15.000, and so on.

Þ CHANGING FRACTIONS TO DECIMALS

To change a fraction to a decimal, divide the bottom number into the top number after you put a deci-

mal point and a few zeros on the right of the top number. When you divide, bring the decimal point

up into your answer.

Example: Change

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

to a decimal.

1. Add a decimal point and 2 zeros to the top number (3): 3.00

2. Divide the bottom number (4) into 3.00:

.75

(Be sure to bring the decimal point up into the answer.) 4ͤ3 ෆ.0 ෆ0ෆ

3. The quotient (result of the division) is the answer: .75

Some fractions may require you to add many decimal zeroes in order for the division to come out

evenly. In fact, when you convert a fraction like

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

to a decimal, you can keep adding decimal zeroes to

the top number forever because the division will never come out evenly! As you divide 3 into 2, you

will keep getting 6’s:

2 ÷ 3 = .6666666666 etc.

This is called a repeating decimal and it can be written as .666

–

. You can approximate it as .67,

.667, .6667, and so on.

Þ CHANGING DECIMALS TO FRACTIONS

To change a decimal to a fraction, write the digits of the decimal as the top number of a fraction, and

write the decimal’s name as the bottom number of the fraction. Then, reduce the fraction, if possible.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 5 Decimals

68

Example: .018

1. Write 18 as the top of the fraction: 18

2. Three places to the right of the decimal means thousandths,

so write 1,000 as the bottom number:

ᎏ

1,

1

0

8

00

ᎏ

3. Reduce the top and bottom numbers by 2:

ᎏ

1,

1

0

8

00

÷

÷

2

2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

5

9

00

ᎏ

Sample Question:

2.47 is equivalent to which fraction below?

a.

ᎏ

1

4

0

7

0

ᎏ

b. 2

ᎏ

1,

4

0

7

00

ᎏ

c. 2

ᎏ

4

5

7

0

ᎏ

d. 2

ᎏ

1

4

0

7

0

ᎏ

2.47 is 2 and 47 hundredths. This is the same as 2

ᎏ

1

4

0

7

0

ᎏ

, choice d.

Þ COMPARING DECIMALS

Because decimals are easier to compare when they have the same number of digits after the decimal

point, tack zeros onto the end of the shorter decimals. Then, all you have to do is compare the num-

bers as if the decimal points weren’t there:

Example: Compare .08 and .1

1. Tack one zero at the end of .1 to get .10.

2. To compare .10 to .08, just compare 10 to 8.

3. Since 10 is larger than 8, .1 is larger than .08.

Þ ADDING AND SUBTRACTING DECIMALS

To add or subtract decimals, line them up so their decimal points are even. You may want to tack on

zeros at the end of shorter decimals so you can keep all your digits lined up evenly. Remember, if a

number doesn’t have a decimal point, then put one at the right end of the number.

Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

69

Þ

Example: 1.23 + 57 + .038

1. Line up the numbers like this: 1.230

57.000

2. Add + .038

58.268

Example: 1.23 − .038

1. Line up the numbers like this: 1.230

2. Subtract: − .038

1.192

Þ MULTIPLYING DECIMALS

To multiply decimals, ignore the decimal points and just multiply the numbers. Then count the total

number of decimal digits (the digits to the right of the decimal point) in the numbers you are multi-

plying. Count off that number of digits in your answer beginning at the right side and put the decimal

point to the left of those digits.

Example: 215.7 × 2.4

1. Multiply 2,157 times 24: 2,157

× 24

51,768

2. Because there are a total of 2 decimal digits in 215.7 and 2.4, count off

2 places from the right in 51,768, placing the decimal point to the left

of the last 2 digits: 517.68

If your answer doesn’t have enough digits, tack zeros onto the left of the answer.

Example: .03 × .006

1. Multiply 3 times 6: 3 × 6 = 18

2. You need 5 decimal digits in your answer, so tack on 3 zeroes: 00018

3. Put the decimal point at the front of the number (which is 5 digits in

from the right): .00018

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 5 Decimals

70

Þ DIVIDING DECIMALS

To divide a decimal by a whole number, set up the division (8ͤ.2 ෆ5ෆ6ෆ) and immediately bring the decimal

point straight up into the answer. Then, divide as you would normally divide whole numbers:

Example: .032

8ͤ.2 ෆ5ෆ6ෆ

− 240

16

− 16

0

To divide any number by a decimal, there is an extra step to perform before you can divide. Move

the decimal point to the very right of the number you are dividing by, counting the number of places

you are moving it. Then, move the decimal point the same number of places to the right in the num-

ber you are dividing into. In other words, ﬁrst change the problem to one in which you are dividing

by a whole number.

Example: .06ͤ1ෆ.2 ෆ1ෆ8ෆ

1. Because there are 2 decimal digits in .06, move the decimal point 2 places to the right in both

numbers and move the decimal point straight up into the answer:

.

06.ͤ1ෆ2ෆ1ෆ.8 ෆ

2. Divide using the new numbers:

20.3

06.ͤ1ෆ2ෆ1ෆ.8 ෆ

− 12

01

− 0

18

− 18

0

Under the following conditions, you have to tack on zeros to the right of the last decimal digit in

the number you are dividing into:

Þ

if there aren’t enough digits for you to move the decimal point to the right.

Þ

if the answer doesn’t come out evenly when you do the division.

Þ

if you are dividing a whole number by a decimal.

Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

71

Þ

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

1. Which of the following choices has a 6 in the tenths place?

a. 60.17

b. 76.01

c. 1.67

d. 7.061

2. Which of the following choices has a 3 in the hundredths place?

a. 354.01

b. .54031

c. .54301

d. .03514

3. 234.816 when rounded to the nearest hundredth is

a. 200

b. 234.8

c. 234.83

d. 234.82

4. Which of the decimals below has the greatest value?

a. .03

b. .003

c. .031

d. .0031

5. 25.682 rounded to the nearest tenth is

a. 26

b. 25

c. 25.68

d. 25.7

6. What is 3.133 when rounded to the nearest tenth?

a. 3

b. 3.1

c. 3.2

d. 3.13

7.

ᎏ

2

3

0

ᎏ

is equivalent to which of the following decimals?

a. .03

b. .06

c. .60

d. .15

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 5 Decimals

72

8. Which number sentence is true?

a. .23 ≥ 2.3

b. .023 ≤ .23

c. .023 ≤ .0023

d. .023 ≥ 2.3

9. Which decimal below is the smallest?

a. .00782

b. .00278

c. .2780

d. 0.000782

10. Which decimal is equivalent to the fraction

ᎏ

2

7

5

ᎏ

?

a. .07

b. .35

c. .28

d. .725

11. What is the sum of 8.514 and 4.821?

a. 12.335

b. 13.335

c. 12.235

d. 13.235

12. What is the sum of 2.523 and 6.76014?

a. 9.3

b. 92.8314

c. 9.28314

d. 928.314

13. 67.104 + 51.406 =

a. 11.851

b. 1185.1

c. 118.51

d. 118.61

14. What is the sum of 3.75, 12.05, and 4.2?

a. 20

b. 19.95

c. 19.00

d. 19.75

Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

73

Þ

15. 14.02 + .987 + 0.145 =

a. 14.152

b. 15.152

c. 14.142

d. 15.142

16. 5.25 + 15.007 + .87436 =

a. 211.3136

b. 20.13136

c. 201.3136

d. 21.13136

17.

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

+ .25 +

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

+ .409 =

a.

ᎏ

1

1

3

ᎏ

+ .659

b. .659 +

ᎏ

4

1

0

ᎏ

c. .984

d. 1.084

18. What is the sum of 12.05, 252.11, 7.626, 240, and 8.003?

a. 5,197.86

b. 519.789

c. 518.685

d. 518.786

19. What is the sum of −8.3 and 9?

a. 17.3

b. 0.7

c. 1.73

d. 7

20. The following is a list of the thickness of four boards: .52 in, .81 in, .72 in, and 2.03 in. If all four

boards are stacked on top of one another, what will the total thickness be?

a. 40.8 in.

b. 0.408 in.

c. 4.008 in.

d. 4.08 in.

21. 324.0073 − 87.663 =

a. 411.6703

b. 236.3443

c. 2363.443

d. 23.634443

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 5 Decimals

74

22. 8.3 − 1.725 =

a. 6.575

b. 6.775

c. 7.575

d. 10.025

23. 12.125 − 3.44 =

a. 9.685

b. 8.785

c. 8.685

d. 8.585

24. 89.037 − 27.0002 − 4.02

a. 62.0368

b. 59.0168

c. 58.168

d. 58.0168

25. .89735 − .20002 − .11733 =

a. .69733

b. .59733

c. .58033

d. .58

26. What is 287.78 − .782 when rounded to the nearest hundred?

a. 286.998

b. 286.90

c. 286.99

d. 300

27. .0325 − (-.0235) =

a. 0

b. .0560

c. .0650

d. .560

28. .667 − (−.02) − .069 =

a. .618

b. .669

c. .596

d. .06

Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

75

Þ

29. −12.3 − (−4.2) =

a. −8.1

b. −16.5

c. 16.5

d. 8.1

30. −6.5 − 8.32 =

a. 14.82

b. 1.82

c. −.82

d. −14.82

31. .205 × .11 =

a. .02255

b. 2255

c. 2.255

d. 22.55

32. .88 × .22 =

a. .01936

b. .1936

c. .1616

d. 1.616

33. 8.03 × 3.2 =

a. 24.06

b. 24.6

c. 25.696

d. 156.96

34. .56 × .03 =

a. 168

b. 16.8

c. .168

d. .0168

35. .32 × .04 =

a. .128

b. .0128

c. 128

d. 12.8

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 5 Decimals

76

36. What is the product of 5.49 and .02?

a. .1098

b. 5.51

c. 5.47

d. 274.5

37. .125 × .8 × .32 =

a. .32

b.

ᎏ

1

1

0

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

2

8

50

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

1

3

0

2

0

ᎏ

38. .15 ×

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

=

a. .2

b. .3

c. .02

d. .03

39. If each capsule contains .03 grams of active ingredients, how many grams of active ingredients

are in 380 capsules?

a. 126

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

grams

b. 11.4 grams

c. 12.6 grams

d. 1.14 grams

40. If a piece of foil is .032 cm. thick, how thick would a stack of 200 such pieces of foil be?

a. 64 cm.

b. 16 cm.

c. 6.4 cm.

d. 1.6 cm.

41. 3.26 ÷ .02 =

a. 163

b. 65.2

c. 16.3

d. 652

42. 512 ÷ .256 =

a. 20

b. 2,000

c. 200

d. 2

Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

77

Þ

43. 3.4 ÷ .17 =

a. 3

b. 2

c. 30

d. 20

44. What is the quotient of 83.4 ÷ 2.1 when rounded to the nearest tenth?

a. 40

b. 39.71

c. 39.7

d. 39.8

45. .895 ÷ .005 =

a. .0079

b. .179

c. 179

d. 1790

46. What is the quotient of .962 ÷ .023 when rounded to the nearest hundredth?

a. 41.83

b. 41.826

c. 42

d. 23.9

47.

ᎏ

8

.0

.4

9

ᎏ

=

a. 93

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

b. .0107

c. .756

d. 75.6

48.

ᎏ

.

3

1

7

2

5

5

ᎏ

=

a. 5,625

b. 3,000

c. 56.25

d. 30

49. A seventy pound bag of cement can be divided into how many smaller bags, each weighing 3.5

pounds?

a. 20

b. 16

c. 10

d. 5

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 5 Decimals

78

50. Markers will be placed along a roadway at regular .31 kilometer intervals. If the entire roadway

is 1.55 kilometers, how many markers will be used?

a. 480.5

b. 50

c. 48.05

d. 5

Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

79

Þ

ANSWERS

1. c. The places to the left of the decimal point are (in order): the tenths place, the hundredths place,

thousandths place, and so on. You are looking for a 6 in the tenths place, which is the ﬁrst spot

to the right of the decimal point. Only choice c has a 6 in this place:

Note that choice b has a 6 in the tens place and NOT the tenths place.

2. d. The places to the left of the decimal point are (in order): the tenths place, the hundredths place,

thousandths place, and so on. You are looking for a 3 in the hundredths place, which is the sec-

ond spot to the right of the decimal point. Only choice d has a 3 in this place:

Note that choice a has a 3 in the hundreds place and NOT the hundredths place.

u

n

i

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(

o

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s

)

t

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n

t

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d

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a

n

d

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t

e

n

t

h

o

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a

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h

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r

e

d

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a

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t

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s

0. 0 3 5 1 4

u

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(

o

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)

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r

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d

t

h

s

1. 6 7

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 5 Decimals

80

3. d. When rounding to the nearest hundredth, you need to truncate (cut short) the number, leav-

ing the last digit in the hundredths place. If the number after the hundredths place is a 5 or

higher, you would round up.

Thus, the answer is 234.82, choice d.

4. c. Choice c has the greatest value,

ᎏ

1,

3

0

1

00

ᎏ

. The four choices are compared below:

a. .03

ᎏ

1

3

00

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1,

3

0

0

00

ᎏ

b. .003

ᎏ

1,0

3

00

ᎏ

c. .031

ᎏ

1,

3

0

1

00

ᎏ

d. .0031

ᎏ

10

3

,0

1

00

ᎏ

5. d. 25.682 has a 6 in the tenths place. Because the number in the hundredths place (the 8) is

greater than 5, you will round up to 25.7.

4

You round up because 8 ≥ 5.

t

e

n

s

u

n

i

t

s

(

o

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s

)

t

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t

h

s

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t

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2 5. 6 8 2

4

6 is higher than 5,

so you round the 1 in the

hundredths place up to 2.

h

u

n

d

r

e

d

s

t

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n

s

u

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t

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(

o

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d

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2 3 4. 8 1 6

Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

81

Þ

6. b. In order to round to the nearest tenth, you need to cut the number short, leaving the last

digit in the tenths place. Here you cut the number short without rounding up because the num-

ber in the hundredths place is not ≥ 5.

You don’t round up because 3 is less than 5. Thus, the answer is 3.1, choice b.

7. d.

ᎏ

2

3

0

ᎏ

can quickly be converted to hundredths by multiplying by

ᎏ

5

5

ᎏ

:

ᎏ

2

3

0

ᎏ

·

ᎏ

5

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

1

0

5

0

ᎏ

.

ᎏ

1

1

0

5

0

ᎏ

is the same

as 15 hundredths, or .15, choice d.

8. b. .023 equals

ᎏ

1,

2

0

3

00

ᎏ

which is less than .23, which equals

ᎏ

1

2

0

3

0

ᎏ

. Thus .023 ≤ .23. The symbol ≤

means less than or equal to.

9. d. Each answer choice is equivalent to the values listed below:

choice a: .00782 =

ᎏ

10

7

0

8

,0

2

00

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1,0

7

0

,8

0

2

,0

0

00

ᎏ

choice b: .00278 =

ᎏ

10

2

0

7

,0

8

00

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1,0

2

0

,7

0

8

,0

0

00

ᎏ

choice c: .2780 =

ᎏ

1

2

0

,7

,0

8

0

0

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

2

,0

8

0

7

0

,0

,0

0

0

0

0

ᎏ

choice d: .000782 =

ᎏ

1,0

7

0

8

0

2

,000

ᎏ

Thus, choice d is the smallest number listed among the choices.

10. c.

ᎏ

2

7

5

ᎏ

can be translated into hundredths by multiplying by

ᎏ

4

4

ᎏ

. Thus,

ᎏ

2

7

5

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

4

4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

2

0

8

0

ᎏ

. 28 hundredths

can be rewritten as .28, choice c.

11. b. Sum means add. Make sure you line up the decimal points and then add:

8.514

+ 4.821

13.335

12. c. Sum means add. Line up the decimal points and add:

2.523

+ 6.76014

9.28314

13. c. Line up the decimal points and add:

67.104

+ 51.406

118.510

4

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3. 1 3 3

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 5 Decimals

82

14. a. 4.2 is equivalent to 4.20. Line up all the decimal points and add:

3.75

12.05

+ 4.2

20.00

15. b. 14.02 is equivalent to 14.020. Line up all the decimal points and add:

14.02

.987

+ .145

15.152

16. d. Add zeros as space holders to the numbers 5.25 and 15.007. Then, line all the numbers up

by their decimal points and add:

5.25

15.007

+ .87436

21.13136

17. c. First, convert the fractions to decimals:

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

= .2 and

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

= .125. Next, line up all the numbers

by their decimal points and add (note that zeros are added as place holders):

.2

.25

.125

+ .409

.984

18. b. Sum signiﬁes addition. Line up the decimal points and add. Note that zeros can be added

as place holders:

12.05

252.11

7.626

240.

+ 8.003

519.7890

19. b. 9 plus -8.3 is the same as 9 minus 8.3. Rewrite 9 as 9.0 and subtract:

9.0

− 8.3

.7

000

0

0

0

00

00

000

0

0

Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

83

Þ

20. d. Line up the decimal points and add:

.52

.81

.72

+ 2.03

4.08

21. b. Line up the decimal points and subtract:

324.0073

− 87.663

236.3443

22. a. Rewrite 8.3 as its equivalent 8.300. Line up the decimal points and subtract:

8.300

− 1.725

6.575

23. c. Line up the decimal points and subtract:

12.125

− 3.44

8.685

24. d. First, rewrite 89.037 as its equivalent 89.0370. Next, subtract 27.0002:

89.0370

− 27.0002

62.0368

Now, you must subtract 4.02 from the 62.0386: (If you chose choice a, you forgot the next step.)

62.0368

− 4.02

58.0168

25. d. Perform the indicated operations (subtractions) in 2 steps:

.89735

− .20002

.69733

Next, subtract .11733 from .69733 to get .58.

26. d. The question asks you to round to the hundred (not hundredth! ). 287.78 − .782 = 286.998.

When this value is rounded to the nearest hundred, you get 300.

27. b. Subtracting a negative is the same as adding a positive. Thus, .0325 − (−.0235) is the same

as .0325 + .0235. Adding, you get .0560.

28. a. Subtracting a negative is the same as adding a positive. Thus, .667 − (−.02) − .069 = .667 +

.02 −.069. This equals .687 − .069 = .618.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 5 Decimals

84

29. a. Subtracting a negative number is the same as adding a positive number. Thus, −12.3 − (−4.2)

= −12.3 +

+

4.2. − 12.3 + 4.2 will yield a negative value because you are starting 12.3 units away

from zero in the negative direction. Adding 4.2 will bring you closer to 0, but you will still have

a negative answer. To ﬁgure out what the answer is, subtract 4.2 from 12.3 and add a minus

sign. Thus, you get −8.1.

30. d. −6.5 − 8.32 is the same as −6.5 +

−

8.32. When adding 2 negative numbers, ﬁrst ignore the

negative signs and add in the normal fashion. 6.5 + 8.32 = 14.82. Next, insert the negative sign

to get −14.82, choice d.

31. a. First, multiply in the usual fashion (ignoring the decimal points): 205 × 11 = 2,255. Next,

you need to insert the decimal point in the correct position, so take note of the position of each

decimal point in the two factors:

.532 the decimal point is 3 places to the left.

.89 the decimal point is 2 places to the left.

In the answer, the decimal point should be 3 + 2 , or 5 places to the left.

2,255 becomes .02255, choice a.

32. b. First, multiply in the usual fashion (ignoring the decimal points): 88 × 22 = 1,936. Next, you

need to insert the decimal point in the correct position, so take note of the position of each

decimal point in the two factors:

.88 the decimal point is 2 places to the left.

.22 the decimal point is 2 places to the left.

In the answer, the decimal point should be 2 + 2 , or 4 places to the left.

1,936 becomes .1936, choice b.

33. c. First, multiply in the usual fashion (ignoring the decimal points): 803 × 32 = 25,696. Next,

you need to insert the decimal point in the correct position, so take note of the position of each

decimal point in the two factors:

8.03 the decimal point is 2 places to the left.

3.2 the decimal point is 1 place to the left.

In the answer, the decimal point should be 3 places to the left.

25,696 becomes 25.696, choice c.

34. d. Multiply in the usual fashion, and insert the decimal point 4 places to the left:

.56 the decimal point is 2 places to the left.

.03 the decimal point is 2 places to the left.

In the answer, the decimal point should be 4 places to the left.

56 × 03 = 168 (when ignoring decimal) and becomes .0168 when you insert the decimal point

4 places to the left. Thus, the answer is choice d.

35. b. Multiply in the usual fashion, and insert the decimal point 4 places to the left: .32 × .04 =

.0128.

36. a. The term product signiﬁes multiplication. Multiply 5.49 by .02 in the usual fashion, and insert

the decimal point 4 places to the left: 5.49 × .02 = .1098.

Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

85

Þ

37. c. First, multiply .125 by .8 to get .1. Next, multiply .1 by .32 to get .032. This answer is equiv-

alent to 32 thousandths, or

ᎏ

1

3

0

2

00

ᎏ

. This reduces to

ᎏ

1

4

25

ᎏ

, choice c.

38. d. First, convert

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

to a decimal:

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

= 1 ÷ 5 = .2. Next, multiply: .15 × .2 = .03

39. b. Multiply the amount of active ingredients in one capsule (.03) by the number of capsules

(380): 380 × .03 = 11.4 grams.

40. c. To solve, simply multiply the thickness of each piece by the total number of pieces. 200 ×

.032 = 6.4 cm.

41. a. The division problem 3.26 ÷ .02 can be solved with long division. First, just move the deci-

mal point 2 places to the right in each number:

Next, divide as usual to get 163, choice a.

42. b. The division problem 512 ÷ .256 can be solved with long division. Move the decimal point

3 places to the right in each number:

Next, divide as usual to get 2,000, choice b.

43. d. The division problem 3.4 ÷ .17 can be solved with long division. First, just move the deci-

mal point 2 places to the right in each number:

Next, divide as usual to get 20, choice d.

44. c. The division problem 83.4 ÷ 2.1 can be solved with long division, moving the decimal point

in each number 1 place to the right:

Next, divide as usual to get 39.714286. Finally, round to the nearest tenth: 39.7, choice c.

45. c. The division problem .895 ÷ .005 can be solved with long division, moving the decimal point

in each number 3 places to the right:

Next, divide to get the answer: 179, choice c.

46. a. The division problem .962 ÷ .023 can be solved with long division, moving the decimal point

in each number 3 places to the right:

9 6 2 0 2 3

8 9 5 0 0 5

8 3 4 2 1

3 4 0 1 7

5 1 2 0 0 0 2 5 6

3 2 6 0 2

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 5 Decimals

86

Next, divide to get 41.826087. Rounding this number to the nearest hundredth yields 41.83,

choice a.

47. a. The division problem 8.4 ÷ .09 can be solved with long division, moving the decimal point

in each number 2 places to the right:

Dividing yields an answer of 93.333333 . . . or 93

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

, choice a.

48. b. The division problem 375 ÷ .125 can be solved with long division, moving the decimal point

in each number 3 places to the right:

Dividing yields 3,000, choice b.

49. a. To solve, divide 70 by 3.5. 70 ÷ 3.5 can be solved with long division, moving the decimal

point in each number 1 place to the right:

Next, divide as usual to get 20, choice a.

50. d. To solve, divide the total 1.55 km distance by the interval, .31 km. 1.55 ÷ .31 can be solved

with long division. The decimal point in each number is moved two places to the right:

Next, divide to get the answer: 5, choice d.

1 5 5 3 1

7 0 0 3 5

3 7 5 0 0 0 1 2 5

8 4 0 0 9

Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

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Þ

=

C H A P T E R

Number Series

and Analogies

Þ NUMBER SERIES

Some number series can be categorized as arithmetic or geometric. Other number series are neither arith-

metic or geometric and, thus, must be analyzed in search of a pattern.

Let’s review the two general number series you will see on the test:

1. Arithmetic Series

Arithmetic series progress by adding (or subtracting) a constant number to each term. For

example, look at the series:

4, 7, 10, 13, 16, . . .

Notice that each term is three more than the term that comes before it. Therefore, this is an

arithmetic series with a common difference of 3.

6

Number Series and Analogies CHAPTER 6 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

89

Þ

2. Geometric Series

Geometric series progress by multiplying each term by a constant number to get the next term.

For example, look at the series:

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, . . .

Notice that each term is two times the prior term. Therefore, this is a geometric series with

a common ratio of 2.

Sample Question:

What number comes next in the following series?

65, 72, 79, 86, ___

a. 87

b. 89

c. 90

d. 93

This is an arithmetic series with a common difference of 7. Thus, the next number will be

86 + 7 = 93. The correct answer is d.

Þ LETTER SERIES

Instead of containing numbers, letter series use the relationship of the letters in the alphabet to gen-

erate patterns. Study the series and try to ﬁgure out what the relationship is.

For example, look at the series:

ABC CBA DEF FED GHI ____

Which answer choice below will correctly ﬁll in the blank?

a. IJK

b. JKL

c. LKJ

d. IHG

The correct answer is d. Notice that the ﬁrst triplet of the series is ABC. The next triplet contains

the same three letters listed in reverse order: CBA. The third triplet is DEF, followed by its inverse

FED. Next comes GHI, so the missing three letters will be GHI in reverse order, or IHG.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 6 Number Series and Analogies

90

Þ SYMBOL SERIES

Symbol series are visual series based on the relationship between images. Carefully analyze this visual

series to ﬁnd the pattern.

For example, look at the symbol series below:

47¬>+×____

Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.

a. ^

b. +

c. 4

d. +¬

Notice that the position of each arrow can be found by rotating the previous arrow by 45° clock-

wise. Thus, the next arrow will be: +, choice b.

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

1. What number is missing from the series below?

18 14 ___ 6 2

a. 12

b. 10

c. 8

d. 4

2. What number is missing from the series below?

5 15 45 ___ 405

a. 50

b. 60

c. 75

d. 135

3. What number is missing from the series below?

72 67 ___ 57 52

a. 62

b. 63

c. 59

d. 58

Number Series and Analogies CHAPTER 6 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

91

Þ

4. What number is missing from the series below?

8.2 ___ 7.6 7.3 7.0

a. 8.1

b. 8

c. 7.9

d. 7.8

5. What number is missing from the series below?

1 4 6 1 ___ 6 1

a. 6

b. 4

c. 1

d. 2

6. What number is missing from the series below?

9.7 10.1 ___ 10.9 11.3

a. 9.7

b. 9.9

c. 10.5

d. 11.3

7. What number is missing from the series below?

0 1 8 27 ___

a. 34

b. 54

c. 64

d. 76

8. What number is missing from the series below?

567, 542, 517, 492, . . .

a. 499

b. 483

c. 477

d. 467

9. What number is missing from the series below?

90 45 ___ 11.25 5.625

a. 0

b. 12.5

c. 16

d. 22.5

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 6 Number Series and Analogies

92

10. What number is missing from the series below?

___ .34 .068 .0136

a. 1.7

b. .408

c. 4.08

d. 17

11. What number should come next in the series below?

2, 1,

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

,

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

, . . .

a.

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

2

8

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

1

1

6

ᎏ

12. What number is missing from the series below?

0 1 ___ 6 10 15

a. 2

b. 3

c. 4

d. 5

13. What number is missing from the series below?

4 1 5 4 1 7 4 1 9 4 1 ___

a. 1

b. 4

c. 9

d. 11

14. What number is missing from the series below?

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ ᎏ

1

1

5

ᎏ

___

ᎏ

5

1

40

ᎏ ᎏ

3,2

1

40

ᎏ

a.

ᎏ

3

2

0

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

4

1

5

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

9

1

0

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

2

1

70

ᎏ

Number Series and Analogies CHAPTER 6 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

93

Þ

15. What number is missing from the series below?

30 ___ 27 25

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

24

a. 29

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

b. 29

c. 28

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

d. 28

16. What number is missing from the series below?

10 12 16 22 30 40 ___

a. 33

b. 34

c. 40

d. 52

17. What number is missing from the series below?

−12 6 4 −13 7 3 −14 ___ 2

a. 8

b. 10

c. 12

d. 13

18. What number is missing from the series below?

5,423 5,548 5,673 5,798 ___

a. 5,823

b. 5,848

c. 5,923

d. 5,948

19. What number is missing from the series below?

6 11 16 16 21 26 26 ___

a. 16

b. 26

c. 30

d. 31

20. What number is missing from the series below?

10 14 84 88 264 ___

a. 18

b. 188

c. 268

d. 334

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 6 Number Series and Analogies

94

21. What number is missing from the series below?

38 20 5 −7 −16 ___

a. −25

b. −22

c. −20

d. −19

22. What number is missing from the series below?

9 8 16 15 ___ 29 58

a. 30

b. 14

c. 9

d. 8

23. What number should ﬁll in the blank in the series below?

53, 53, ___, 40, 27, 27, . . .

a. 14

b. 38

c. 40

d. 51

24. What number should come next in the series below?

0.2,

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

, 0.4,

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

, 0.8,

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

, . . .

a.

ᎏ

1

8

0

ᎏ

b. 0.7

c. 1.6

d. 0.16

25. What number should come next in the series below?

1.5, 2.3, 3.1, 3.9, . . .

a. 4.2

b. 4.4

c. 4.7

d. 5.1

26. What number should come next in the series below?

29, 27, 28, 26, 27, 25, . . .

a. 23

b. 24

c. 26

d. 27

Number Series and Analogies CHAPTER 6 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

95

Þ

27. What number should come next in the series below?

31, 29, 24, 22, 17, . . .

a. 15

b. 14

c. 13

d. 12

28. What number should ﬁll in the blank in the series below?

10, 34, 12, 31, ___, 28, 16, . . .

a. 14

b. 18

c. 30

d. 34

29. What is the missing term in the number pattern below?

240, 120, 60, 30, 15, ___, 3

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

a. 7

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

b. 9

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

c. 10

d. 11

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

30. What number should come next in the series below?

3, 4, 7, 8, 11, 12, . . .

a. 7

b. 10

c. 14

d. 15

31. What number should come next in the series below?

1, 4, 9, 5, 17, . . .

a. 6

b. 8

c. 22

d. 25

32. What number should come next in the series below?

1,

ᎏ

7

8

ᎏ

,

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

,

ᎏ

5

8

ᎏ

, . . .

a.

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

3

8

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 6 Number Series and Analogies

96

33. What two numbers should come next in the series below?

8, 22, 12, 16, 22, 20, 24, . . .

a. 28, 32

b. 28, 22

c. 22, 28

d. 22, 26

34. If the pattern

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

,

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

,

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

,

ᎏ

1

1

6

ᎏ

. . . is continued, what is the denominator of the tenth term?

a. 64

b. 212

c. 512

d. 1,024

35. What number should come next in the series below?

14, 28, 20, 40, 32, 64, . . .

a. 52

b. 56

c. 96

d. 128

36. What two numbers should come next in the series below?

9, 12, 11, 14, 13, 16, 15, . . .

a. 14, 13

b. 8, 21

c. 14, 17

d. 18, 17

37. What number should come next in the series below?

21, 24, 30, 21, 36, 42, . . .

a. 21

b. 27

c. 42

d. 46

38. What number should come next in the series below?

XX, XVI, XII, VIII, . . .

a. IV

b. V

c. VI

d. III

Number Series and Analogies CHAPTER 6 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

97

Þ

39. What number should come next in the series below?

J14, L11, N8, P5, . . .

a. Q2

b. Q3

c. R2

d. S2

40. What number should come next in the series below?

VI, 10, V, 11, IV, 12, . . .

a. VII

b. III

c. IX

d. 13

41. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.

JAK KBL LCM MDN _____

a. OEP

b. NEO

c. MEN

d. PFQ

42. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.

QPO NML KJI ____ EDC

a. HGF

b. CAB

c. JKL

d. GHI

43. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.

ELFA GLHA ILJA ______ MLNA

a. OLPA

b. KLMA

c. LLMA

d. KLLA

44. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.

| | ___

a.

b.

c.

d.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 6 Number Series and Analogies

98

45. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.

| | | ___

a.

b.

c.

d.

46. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.

¬¬ | 4+| ¬¬ | 4+| ___

a. ++

b. ¬¬

c. +4

d. ++

47. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.

| | | ____

a.

b.

c.

d.

48. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.

| | ___ ___

a.

b.

c.

d.

49. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.

| | | __

a.

b.

c.

d.

E

E

E

E

E E

E

E

E

E E E

E

E

E

#

#

# #

#

#

#

#

#

# #

#

#

#

Number Series and Analogies CHAPTER 6 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

99

Þ

50. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.

| | | ___

a.

b.

c.

d.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 6 Number Series and Analogies

100

ANSWERS

1. b. This is an arithmetic series that decreases by four as the series progresses. Thus, the miss-

ing number is 14 − 4 = 10. You can check that this is correct by applying the rule to the 10:

10 − 4 = 6, which is in fact the next term.

2. d. This is a geometric series. You multiply each term by 3 to get the next term. The missing

term is then 45 × 3 = 135. You can check that this rule works by multiplying 135 by 3. This

yields 405, which is the next term.

3. a. This is an arithmetic series. Each term is 5 less than the prior term. To ﬁnd the missing term

just subtract 5 from 67 to get 62. Next, check that the rule is correct by verifying 62 − 5 = 57,

the next term.

4. c. This is an arithmetic series with a common difference of .3. This simply means that each

term is .3 less than the term before it. 8.2 − .3 = 7.9, so the missing term is 7.9. To check that

you found the right rule, subtract .3 from 7.9 to get 7.3, the next term.

5. b. This series is neither arithmetic or geometric. It is simply three numbers repeating over and

over in order. The numbers 1, 4, and 6 repeat. Thus, the missing number is 4.

6. c. This is an arithmetic series. Each term is .4 greater than the previous term. 10.1 + .4 = 10.5.

Using this rule, the term following 10.5 should be 10.5 + .4 = 10.9, and it is. Thus, you know

you used the correct rule.

7. c. This series is neither arithmetic or geometric. If you look carefully at the numbers, you should

notice that each is a cube of a number. In other words, 0, 1, 8, 27 corresponds to 0

3

, 1

3

, 2

3

, 3

3

,

so the next term should equal 4

3

, or 64.

8. d. This is an arithmetic series; each number is 25 less than the previous number. Thus, the

answer is 492 − 25 = 467.

9. d. This is a geometric series with a common ratio of

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

. In other words, each term is

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

of the

term that precedes it. Thus, the missing term is

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

of 45.

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

× 45 = 22.5. To check that you used

the correct rule, take

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

of 22.5: 22.5 ×

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

= 11.25. This is the next term in the series so you know

you are right.

10. a. This is a geometric series with a common ratio of .2. In other words, each term is .2 times

the term that precedes it. You can divide .34 by .2 to ﬁgure out what the ﬁrst term is. .34 ÷ .2

= 1.7. You can check that you have the correct answer by applying the rule: 1.7 × .2 = .34.

11. b. This is a geometric series; each number is one-half of the previous number. Thus, the next

number should be

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

.

12. b. Here, the numbers are increasing, but the amount by which they are increasing is increas-

ing as well. (+ 1) (+2) (+3) (+4) (+5) . Thus, the missing number is 3.

13. d. Consider this series as a triplet. The ﬁrst two terms of the triplet are always 4 followed by

1. Notice that every third term gets 2 added to it: 4 1 4 1 4 1 4 1 . Thus, the miss-

ing number is 9 + 2 = 11.

___ 9 7 5

10 10 6 3 1 0

Number Series and Analogies CHAPTER 6 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

101

Þ

14. c. This is a geometric series with a common ratio of

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

. This means that each term is the prior

term multiplied by

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

. This is more evident when looking at the last two terms of the series:

(×

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

) (×

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

) (×

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

) (×

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

)

ᎏ

3,2

1

40

ᎏ

. Thus, the missing term is

ᎏ

1

1

5

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

9

1

0

ᎏ

.

15. c. This is an arithmetic series with a common difference of 1

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

. The missing term is 30 − 1

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

= 28

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

. You can check your work by applying the rule to 28

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

. 28

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

− 1

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

= 27, which is the next

term.

16. d. Here, the numbers are increasing. Notice that it is not a steady common difference (arith-

metic), nor a steady common ratio (geometric). The amount of increase corresponds more to

an addition, and each term is increasing by having a larger number added to it. The pattern

here is (+2) (+4) (+6) (+8) (+10) (+12) . Thus, the missing number is

40 + 12, or 52.

17. a. Here, the series can be considered as triplets. The ﬁrst number of each triplet is decreased

by 1: 6 4 7 3 __ 2. The second number of each triplet is increased by 1:

−12 4 −13 3 −14 2. Thus, the missing number is 7 + 1 = 8. (Notice also that the 3rd

number in each triplet is decreased by 1: −12 6 −13 7 −14 __ .)

18. c. This is an arithmetic series in which each number is increased by 125. The missing num-

ber will be 5,798 + 125, or 5,923.

19. d. The pattern here is +5, +5, repeat, +5, +5, repeat. See below:

(+5) (+5) (repeat ¬) (+5) (+5) (repeat ¬) (+5)

.

Thus, the missing

number is 26 + 5 = 31.

20. c. The pattern here is + 4, × 6, + 4, × 6, and so forth. See below:

(+ 4) (× 6) (+ 4) (× 6) (+ 4)

Thus, the missing number is 264 + 4 = 268.

21. b. Here, the numbers are decreasing, though not by a steady amount or by a common ratio.

The pattern of decrease is: (minus 3 × 6) (minus 3 × 5) (minus 3 × 4) (minus 3 ×

3) (minus 3 × 2)

Thus, the missing number is −16 minus 3 × 2, or −16 − 6 = −22.

22. a. Here, the pattern is −1, × 2, − 1, × 2, and so forth:

(− 1) (× 2) (− 1) (× 2) (− 1) (× 2)

Thus, the missing number is 15 × 2 = 30. You can check that you are right by subtracting

30 − 1 = 29, which is the next number in the series.

23. c. In this series, two numbers are repeated, then 13 is subtracted to arrive at the next number.

Thus, the missing number is 53 − 13 = 40.

24. c. This is a multiplication series with repetition. The decimal (0.2, 0.4, 0.8) is repeated by a

fraction with the same value (

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

,

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

,

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

) and is then multiplied by 2. Thus, the next number will

be .8 × 2, or 1.6.

25. c. In this simple arithmetic series, each number increases by 0.8. Thus, the next number should

be 3.9 + .8 = 4.7, choice c.

58 29 __ 15 16 8 9

__ −16

−7 5 20 38

__ 264 88 84 14 10

__ 26 26 21 16 16 11 6

2 3 4

__ 7 6

−14 −13 −12

__ 40 30 22 16 12 10

ᎏ

5

1

40

ᎏ

__

ᎏ

1

1

5

ᎏ ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 6 Number Series and Analogies

102

26. c. In this simple alternating addition and subtraction series, 2 is subtracted, then 1 is added,

and so on. Thus, the next number should be 25 + 1, or 26.

27. a. This is a simple alternating subtraction series, which subtracts 2, then 5. Thus, the next num-

ber will be 17 − 2 = 15.

28. a. This is a simple alternating addition and subtraction series. The ﬁrst series begins with 10

and adds 2 (10, 12, 14, 16); the second begins with 34 and subtracts 3 (34, 31, 28). Thus, the

number that belongs in the blank is 14.

29. a. Each number in the pattern is one-half of the previous number. Half of 15 is 7

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

. You can

check the pattern by taking half of 7

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

, which is 3

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

, the next term.

30. d. This alternating addition series begins with 3. 1 is added to give 4; then 3 is added to give

7; then 1 is added, and so on. Thus, the next number will be 12 + 3 = 15.

31. a. This is an alternating series. In the ﬁrst pattern, 8 is added (1, 9, 17); in the second pattern,

1 is added (4, 5, 6). Thus, the next number will be 6.

32. b. This is a simple subtraction series. Each number decreases by

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

. The next number is

ᎏ

5

8

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

,

which is

ᎏ

4

8

ᎏ

, or

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

.

33. c. This is an alternating repetition series, with a random number, 22, introduced as every third

number into an otherwise simple addition series. In the addition series, 4 is added to each num-

ber to arrive at the next number. Thus, the next two numbers will be 22 (the random number)

followed 24 + 4, or 28.

34. d. Given the pattern,

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

,

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

,

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

,

ᎏ

1

1

6

ᎏ

. . . notice that the denominators double as the pattern advances.

There are 4 terms so far. The ﬁfth term will have a denominator of 32, the sixth term will be

64, the seventh term will be 128, the eighth term will be 256, the ninth term will be 512, and

the tenth term will be 1,024. So the tenth term is

ᎏ

1,0

1

24

ᎏ

.

35. b. This is an alternating multiplication and subtraction series: First, multiply by 2, and then

subtract 8. The next term will be 64 − 8 = 56.

36. d. This is a simple alternating addition and subtraction series. First, 3 is added, then 1 is sub-

tracted; then 3 is added, 1 subtracted, and so on. Thus, the next term will be 15 + 3 =18. The

term after that will be 18 − 1 = 17.

37. a. This is a simple addition series with a random number, 21, introduced as every third num-

ber. In the series, 6 is added to each number except 21, to arrive at the next number. The next

number is the random number 21.

38. a. This is a simple subtraction series; each number is 4 less than the previous number. XX =

20, XVI = 16, XII = 12, VIII = 8, so the next number should be 4. In Roman numerals, 4 is writ-

ten as IV, choice a.

39. c. In this series, the letters progress by 2 ( J, L, N, P), while the numbers decrease by 3 (14,

11, 8, 5). Thus, the next term will be R2, choice c.

40. b. This is an alternating addition and subtraction series. Roman numbers alternate with Ara-

bic numbers. In the Roman numeral pattern, each number decreases by 1 (VI, V, IV, III, cor-

responding to 6, 5, 4, 3) . In the Arabic numeral pattern, each number increases by 1 (10, 11,

12, 13). Thus, the next number should be the Roman numeral for 3, which is III.

Number Series and Analogies CHAPTER 6 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

103

Þ

41. b. If you consider each triplet of letters, the ﬁrst letter in each triplet progresses from

J→K→L→M→____. The second letter in each triplet progresses from A→B→C→D→____, and

the third letter in each triplet progresses from K→L→M→N→____. Therefore, the last triplet

should be NEO.

42. a. If you look carefully at this sequence, you will notice that the entire sequence is the alpha-

bet (starting at C) written backwards. Therefore, the missing three letters are HGF.

43. d. If you look at the ﬁrst letter in each quadruplet, you can see that one letter is skipped:

LFA LHA LJA _____ LNA, so the ﬁrst missing letter is K. Looking at the second

letter in each quadruplet, you see that the letter L is constant: E FA G HA I JA _____

M NA, so the second missing letter must be L. Next, look at the third letter in each quadru-

plet: EL A GL A IL A _____ ML A. Again, one letter is skipped, so the missing letter is

L. Finally, look at the last letter in each quadruplet: ELF GLH ILJ _____ MLN . The

letter A is a constant, so the last missing letter is A. Thus, the entire missing piece is KLLA.

44. b. Notice that each group of symbols has three versions of the same shape, the middle version

being the largest: | | ___. Also, a black and white version of the shape borders

this large middle shape. Notice that the circle is on the right and the black triangle is on the

left. The missing shapes will be squares (thus choice c is wrong). The next two shapes will be

a large square with the black square on the right: .

45. a. The ﬁrst group contains a square between 2 triangles. Next, there is a circle between 2 squares.

Third, there is a diamond surrounded by 2 circles. The last set has a rectangle in the middle.

It should be surrounded by 2 diamonds.

46. b. This is simply an alternating pattern. First, the 2 arrows point right, then one points up and

one points down. Thus, the next part of the sequence should contain the 2 arrows pointing right.

47. d. This is a symbol series question. The ﬁrst image is reﬂected (ﬂipped), generating the sec-

ond image. Then, the second is ﬂipped to form the third. Thus, the fourth image will be the

reﬂection of which will look like this: .

48. a. Look at the number of dots on each domino in each triplet: | | __ __ .

The ﬁrst triplet has 5 dots, 3 dots, 1 dot. The next triplet has 1 dot, 3 dots, 5 dots. The last

triplet ends with 1 dot. It is safe to assume that the pattern here is 1-3-5; 5-3-1; 1-3-5, so the

2 missing dominos are , the 5 and the 3.

49. c. Notice that the ﬁrst and the third segments are upside-down versions of each other. The

second and the fourth should also be upside-down versions of each other. Thus, the missing

piece of the last segment looks like this: .

50. c. The ﬁrst and the third sets of ﬁgures are inversions. They swap the inner shape for the outer

shape. The second and fourth would then be expected to swap the top and bottom shapes. Thus,

we would expect the missing shape to be a square on top of a circle, choice c.

E

#

# #

#

A A A A

N J H F

L

L L L

M I G E

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 6 Number Series and Analogies

104

=

C H A P T E R

Percents

Þ WHAT IS A PERCENT?

Percents are a way of expressing values out of 100. For example 30% (30 percent) is equivalent to 30

out of 100 or . Thus, you can express a percent as a fraction by placing the value before the per-

cent symbol over 100. You can express a percent as a decimal by moving the current decimal point 2

places to the left. For example, 30% is also equivalent to .30.

You can convert a decimal value into an equivalent percent by moving the current decimal point

2 places to the right. For example, .30 = 30 %. This makes sense because percents are just hundredths,

so .30 is 30 hundredths, or , otherwise known as 30%.

Fractions can be converted to percentages by converting to a denominator of 100. This can be

done by setting up a simple proportion. For example, to convert into an equivalent percentage, we

set up this proportion:

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

ᎏ

1

3

0

0

0

ᎏ

ᎏ

1

3

0

0

0

ᎏ

7

Percents CHAPTER 7 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

105

Þ

Cross-multiply to get 2 × 100 = 5 × ?, or 200 = 5 × ?. Divide both sides by 5 to get ? = 40. Thus,

is equivalent to 40%.

Sample Question:

is equivalent to what percent?

a. 17%

b. 65%

c. 85%

d. 90%

First, set up a proportion:

ᎏ

1

2

7

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

Cross-multiply to get 17 × 100 = 5 × ?, or 1,700 = 20 × ?. Divide both sides by 20 to get ? = 85.

Thus, the answer is 85%, choice c.

Þ TAKING THE PERCENT OF A NUMBER

When you are calculating the percent of a number, just remember that of means multiply. Thus 50%

of 40 is 50% × 40. You can convert 50% to .50 and multiply .50 × 40 = 20.

To save time, you should be familiar with the following equivalencies:

Fraction Percent

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

20%

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

25%

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

Approximately 33%

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

50%

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

Approximately 66%

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

75%

Sample Question:

What is 75% of 400?

a. 300

b. 275

c. 100

d. 30

ᎏ

1

2

7

0

ᎏ

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 7 Percents

106

Remember that “of ” means multiply. 75% of 400 is equivalent to 75% × 400. Because 75% =

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

,

you write

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

× 400. This equals 300, choice a.

Þ UNKNOWN PERCENTS

When you do not know the percent of a value, you can express this percent as

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

. This means that when

you see the phrase what percent you can express this mathematically as

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

.

Sample Question:

What percent of 800 is 40?

a. .05%

b. 5%

c. 15%

d. 50%

What percent is expressed mathematically as

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

. Of means multiply. Is means equals. Thus, the ques-

tion, “What percent of 800 is 40?” can be rewritten as

ᎏ

100 ×

?

800

ᎏ

= 40. Solving, you get

ᎏ

? ×

10

8

0

00

ᎏ

= 40; ? ×

8 = 40; ? = 5. Thus, the answer is 5%, choice b.

Þ PERCENT CHANGE, PERCENT ERROR, AND PERCENT PROFIT OR LOSS

When calculating a percent change (such as a percent increase or decrease) you simply express the

ratio of the change to the initial as a value over 100. The general proportion to use is:

ᎏ

C

In

h

i

a

t

n

ia

g

l

e

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

Similarly, when calculating the percent error, you set a proportion that equates the difference

between the calculated value and the actual value to the actual value with an unknown out of 100:

=

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

When setting up a proportion to calculate percent proﬁt or loss, you create a ratio of the net proﬁt

(or loss) to the initial cost and set this ratio equal to an unknown out of 100:

ᎏ

ne

i

t

ni

p

t

r

ia

o

l

ﬁt

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ ᎏ

n

i

e

n

t

it

l

i

o

a

s

l

s

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

Difference in values

ᎏᎏᎏ

Actual value

Percents CHAPTER 7 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

107

Þ

Sample Question:

A business spent $1,000 on a shipment of products. The products were sold for only $750—a

loss for the company. What is the percent loss?

a. 50%

b. 25%

c. 20%

d. 15%

Use the proportion:

ᎏ

n

i

e

n

t

it

l

i

o

a

s

l

s

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

The net loss is 1,000 − 750 = 250 dollars and the initial amount was 1,000. The proportion becomes:

ᎏ

1

2

,0

5

0

0

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

. Cross-multiplying yields 250 × 100 = 1,000 × ?, or 25,000 = 1,000 × ?, and ? = 25. Thus,

the answer is b.

Þ SIMPLE AND COMPOUND INTEREST

The formula for simple interest is:

I = PRT

The amount of money deposited is called the principal, P. The interest rate per year is represented

by R, and T represents the time in years.

When calculating compound interest, it is easiest to sequentially calculate the interest earned using

I = PRT. You should be familiar with the following ways of compounding interest:

Þ

Compounded annually: interest is paid each year

Þ

Compounded semi-annually: interest is paid two times per year

Þ

Compounded quarterly: interest is paid four times a year

Þ

Compounded monthly: interest is paid every month

Þ

Compounded daily: interest is paid every day

Sample Question:

If Howard puts $30,000 in the bank at a 4% rate of interest per year, how much interest will he

make in 6 months?

a. $400

b. $600

c. $720

d. $7,200

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 7 Percents

108

The correct answer is choice b. Use the formula I = PRT. Where P equals $30,000, R = 4% = .04,

and T =

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

a year. Note that you must convert the 6 months into years. The formula becomes: I = PRT

= 30,000 × .04 ×

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

= $600.

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

1. 15% is equivalent to which fraction below?

a.

ᎏ

2

3

0

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

1,

1

0

5

00

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

1

1

5

ᎏ

2. 20% is equivalent to which decimal value below?

a. .020

b. 2.0

c. 0.2

d. .002

3. When converted to a decimal, 45% is equivalent to

a. .045

b. .45

c. 4.5

d. 45

4. 73% can be expressed as which of the following fractions?

a.

ᎏ

1

.7

0

3

0

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

1

7

0

3

0

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

1,

7

0

3

00

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

.

.

7

1

3

0

ᎏ

5. 1.5% is equivalent to which decimal value below?

a. .15

b. 1.5

c. .0015

d. .015

Percents CHAPTER 7 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

109

Þ

6. When expressed as a percent,

ᎏ

3

5

1

0

ᎏ

is equivalent to

a. 62%

b.

ᎏ

3

5

1

0

ᎏ

%

c.

ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ

%

d. 31%

7. Another way to write 26.5% is

a.

ᎏ

.

1

2

0

6

0

5

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

2

8

6

0

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

2

5

0

3

0

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

1

2

0

6

0

.5

0

ᎏ

8. .0037% is equivalent to which of the following fractions?

a.

ᎏ

1,

3

0

7

00

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

10

3

,0

7

00

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

1,00

3

0

7

,000

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

10,0

3

0

7

0,000

ᎏ

9. Which of the following is 17% of 6,800?

a. 200

b. 340

c. 578

d. 1,156

10. Which number sentence below is false?

a. 20% ≤

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

b. 25% =

ᎏ

2

8

ᎏ

c. 35% >

ᎏ

2

5

4

0

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

≤ 80%

11. Express 12 out of 52 to the nearest percent.

a. 23%

b. 24%

c. 25%

d. 26%

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 7 Percents

110

12.

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

% is equal to

a. 80

b. 8

c. .08

d. .008

13. 50% of what number equals 20% of 2000?

a. 200

b. 400

c. 600

d. 800

14. 300% of 54.2 equals

a. 16.26

b. 162.6

c. 1,626

d. none of the above

15. What percent of

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

is

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

?

a. 25%

b. 50%

c. 80%

d. none of the above

16. To calculate 75% of a dollar amount, you can

a. multiply the amount by 75

b. divide the amount by 75

c. multiply the amount by

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

d. divide the amount by

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

17. 40% of what number is equal to 460?

a. 575

b. 640

c. 860

d. 1,150

18. Larry makes a 12% commission on every car he sells. If he sold $40,000 worth of cars over the

course of three months, what was his commission on these sales?

a. $44,800

b. $35,200

c. $8,000

d. $4,800

Percents CHAPTER 7 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

111

Þ

19. Zip drives cost $100 each. When more than 50 are purchased, an 8% discount is applied. At a

store that charges 8% tax, how much money will 62 zip drives cost? (Round to the nearest cent.)

a. $6,200

b. $6,160.32

c. $5,704

d. $456.32

20. Mike made $64,000 in 2002, but he had to pay 26% tax on that amount. How much did he make

after taxes?

a. $80,640

b. $67,640

c. $47,360

d. $42,360

21. What percent of

ᎏ

8

9

ᎏ

is

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

?

a. 33%

b. 66%

c. 75%

d. 80%

22. 400 books went on sale this week. So far, 120 were sold. What percent of the books remain?

a. 15%

b. 30%

c. 70%

d. 80%

23. What percent of the circle below is shaded?

a. 25%

b. 50%

c. 75%

d. 100%

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 7 Percents

112

24. What percent of the square below is shaded?

a. 25%

b. 50%

c. 75%

d. 100%

25. What percent of the square below is shaded?

a. 20%

b. 37.5%

c. 40%

d. 80%

26. What percent of the square below is shaded?

a. 20%

b. 37.5%

c. 40%

d. 80%

27. A dealer buys a car from the manufacturer for $13,000. If the dealer wants to earn a proﬁt of

20% based on the cost, at what price should he sell the car?

a. $16,250

b. $15,600

c. $15,200

d. $10,833

Percents CHAPTER 7 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

113

Þ

28. 33 is 12% of which of the following?

a. 3,960

b. 396

c. 275

d. 2,750

29. Of the numbers listed, which choice is not equivalent to the others?

a. 52%

b.

ᎏ

1

2

3

5

ᎏ

c. 52 × 10

−2

d. .052

30. Use the formula I = PRT to answer the following question:

Gary Otto made $8,000 and put half that amount into an account that earned interest at a rate

of 6% per year. After 2 years, what is the dollar amount of the interest earned?

a. $4,800

b. $960

c. $660

d. $480

31. If Kamil puts $10,000 in the bank at a 6% rate of interest per year, how much interest will he

make in 8 months? Use the formula I = PRT.

a. $400

b. $350

c. $300

d. $250

32. If Veronica deposits $5,000 in an account with a yearly interest rate of 9%, and leaves the money

in the account for 8 years, how much interest will her money earn?

a. $360,000

b. $45,000

c. $3,600

d. $450

33. At the city park, 32% of the trees are oaks. If there are 400 trees in the park, how many trees are

NOT oaks?

a. 128

b. 272

c. 278

d. 312

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 7 Percents

114

34. Which ratio best expresses the following: ﬁve hours is what percent of a day?

a.

ᎏ

2

5

00

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2

x

4

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

2

5

4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2

x

4

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

2

5

4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

x

0

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

10

x

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2

5

4

ᎏ

35. If 10% of a number is 45, what would 20% of that number be?

a. 9

b. 90

c. 450

d. 900

36. A dozen staplers cost $10.00 and will be sold for $2.50 each. What is the rate of proﬁt?

a. 75%

b. 100%

c. 150%

d. 200%

37. A statue was bought at a price of $50 and sold for $38. What is the percent loss?

a. 12%

b. 15%

c. 24%

d. 30%

38. The price of a $130 jacket was reduced by 10% and again by 15%. What is the new cost of the

jacket?

a. $97.50

b. $99.45

c. $117

d. $125

39. At an electronics store, all items are sold at 15% above cost. If the store purchased a printer for

$85, how much will they sell it for?

a. $90

b. $98.50

c. $97.75

d. $95.50

Percents CHAPTER 7 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

115

Þ

40. Mark paid $14,105 for his new car. This price included 8.5% for tax. What was the price of the

car excluding tax?

a. $13,000

b. $13,850

c. $11,989.25

d. $1,198.93

41. Steven’s income was $34,000 last year. He must pay $2,380 for income taxes. What is the rate

of taxation?

a. 8%

b. 7%

c. .008%

d. .007%

42. $8,000 is deposited into an account. If interest is compounded semiannually at 5% for 1 year,

how much money is in the account at the end of the year?

a. $8,175

b. $8,200

c. $8,400

d. $8,405

43. $14,000 is deposited into an account. If interest is compounded quarterly at 8% for 9 months,

how much money will be in the account at the end of this period?

a. $14,280.00

b. $14,565.60

c. $14,856.91

d. $15,154.05

44. Sam has $1,000 to invest. He would like to invest

ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ

of it at 6% simple interest. The remainder

would be invested at 8% simple interest. How much interest would he have earned after one

year?

a. $32

b. $36

c. $68

d. $70

45. How many twelfths are there in 33

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

%?

a. 1

b. 4

c. 33

d. 100

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 7 Percents

116

46. What is the percent increase from 150 to 200?

a. 25%

b. 33

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

%

c. 75%

d. 66

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

%

47. What is the percent decrease from 200 to 150?

a. 25%

b. 33

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

%

c. 75%

d. 66

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

%

48. If a crate weighing 600 pounds weighs 540 pounds on a broken scale, what is the percent error?

a. 10%

b. 11%

c. 15%

d. 25%

49. A ﬁve-gallon tank is completely ﬁlled with a solution of 50% water and 50% alcohol. Half of

the tank is drained and 2 gallons of water are added. How much water is in the resulting mix-

ture?

a. 2.5 gallons

b. 3.25 gallons

c. 3.5 gallons

d. 4.5 gallons

50. Steve earned a 4

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

% pay raise. If his salary was $27,400 before the raise, how much was his salary

after the raise?

a. $27,530.15

b. $28,601.50

c. $28,701.50

d. $29,610.50

Percents CHAPTER 7 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

117

Þ

ANSWERS

1. a. 15% equals

ᎏ

1

1

0

5

0

ᎏ

.

ᎏ

1

1

0

5

0

ᎏ

reduces to

ᎏ

2

3

0

ᎏ

.

2. c. To change 20% to its equivalent decimal form, move the decimal point two places to the

left. Thus, 20% = .20. Choice c, 0.2 is equivalent to .20.

3. b. When you see a percent symbol (%), you just move the decimal point 2 places to the left.

Thus, 45% is equivalent to .45.

4. b. When you see a percent symbol (%), you can rewrite the percent as a fraction by placing

the value over 100. Thus, 73% is equivalent to

ᎏ

1

7

0

3

0

ᎏ

.

5. d. 1.5% can be converted to its equivalent decimal form by moving its decimal point 2 places

to the left. Thus, 1.5% is equivalent to .015, choice d.

6. a. When written as fractions, percents have a denominator of 100. You can easily convert

ᎏ

3

5

1

0

ᎏ

to a fraction with a denominator of 100 by multiplying by

ᎏ

2

2

ᎏ

.

ᎏ

3

5

1

0

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

2

2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

6

0

2

0

ᎏ

= 62%, choice a.

7. c. First, put 26.5 over 100 =

ᎏ

2

1

6

0

.

0

5

ᎏ

. This is not an answer choice, so we need to reduce. Multi-

ply

ᎏ

2

1

6

0

.

0

5

ᎏ

by

ᎏ

1

1

0

0

ᎏ

before reducing:

ᎏ

2

1

6

0

.

0

5

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

1

1

0

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

2

0

6

0

5

0

ᎏ

. Now, we reduce

ᎏ

1

2

,0

6

0

5

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2

5

0

3

0

ᎏ

.

8. c. To change a percent to a fraction, just place the value before the percent symbol of 100.

Thus, .0037% =

ᎏ

.0

1

0

0

3

0

7

ᎏ

. In order to get a whole number in the numerator, multiply the fraction

by

ᎏ

1

1

0

0

,

,

0

0

0

0

0

0

ᎏ

. Thus,

ᎏ

.0

1

0

0

3

0

7

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

1

1

0

0

,

,

0

0

0

0

0

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1,00

3

0

7

,000

ᎏ

.

9. d. We need to ﬁnd 17%, or .17 of 6,800. Remember that of means multiply: .17 × 6,800 = 1,156.

10. c. 20% =

ᎏ

1

2

0

0

0

ᎏ

, or

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

, so choice a represents a true statement. 25% =

ᎏ

1

2

0

5

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

, and

ᎏ

2

8

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

, so choice

b is also true. In choice c, 35% =

ᎏ

1

3

0

5

0

ᎏ

and

ᎏ

2

5

4

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

4

0

8

0

ᎏ

. Thus, the statement 35% >

ᎏ

2

5

4

0

ᎏ

is not true.

Choice c is, therefore, the correct answer. In choice d,

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

= 75%, which is in fact less than 80%.

11. a. “12 out of 52” is written as

ᎏ

1

5

2

2

ᎏ

. Set up a proportion to see how many hundredths

ᎏ

1

5

2

2

ᎏ

is equiv-

alent to:

ᎏ

1

5

2

2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

. Cross-multiplying yields 100 × 12 = 52 × ?, or 1,200 = 52 × ?. Dividing both

sides by 52 yields ? = 23.07623. When expressed to the nearest percent, this rounds to 23%.

12. d. It is easier to change

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

into .8 before dealing with the percent symbol.

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

% = .8% = .008.

13. d. “50% of what number equals 20% of 2,000?” can be written mathematically as .50 × ? = .20

× 2,000. Dividing both sides by .5 will yield ? =

ᎏ

(.2)(2

5

,000)

ᎏ

= 800.

14. b. 300% equals

ᎏ

3

1

0

0

0

0

ᎏ

, or 3. To ﬁnd 300% of 54.2, just multiply 3 times 54.2: 3 × 54.2 = 162.6.

15. a. “What percent” can be expressed as

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

. The question, “What percent of

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

is

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

?” can be

expressed as:

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

·

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

. This simpliﬁes to

ᎏ

20

?

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

; cross-multiplying yields 8 × ? = 200; divid-

ing both sides by 8 yields 25.

16. c. 75% =

ᎏ

1

7

0

5

0

ᎏ

. This reduces to

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

. Taking

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

of a dollar amount means you multiply the dollar

amount by

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

.

17. d. The question, “40% of what number is equal to 460?” can be written mathematically as: .40

× ? = 460. Next, divide both sides by .40 to yield ? = 1,150.

18. d. He gets 12% of $40,000, or .12 × $40,000 = $4,800.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 7 Percents

118

19. b. Since more than 50 drives are being purchased, use the discounted price. Take 8% ($8) off

the cost of each drive. So, instead of costing $100 each, the drives will be $92 each. Next, mul-

tiply 62 drives by the price of each drive: 62 × 92 = $5,704. Next, calculate the tax. $5,704 × .08

= $456.32. Add the tax to the $5,704 to get $6,160.32.

20. c. The tax on the $64,000 will equal .26 × 64,000 = $16,640. Subtract the tax from his earn-

ings: 64,000 − 16,640 = $47,360.

21. c. The question, “What percent of

ᎏ

8

9

ᎏ

is

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

?” can be expressed mathematically as

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

8

9

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

.

Divide both sides by

ᎏ

8

9

ᎏ

to get

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

8

9

ᎏ

or

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

9

8

ᎏ

. This simpliﬁes to

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

2

8

4

ᎏ

, or

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

.

Multiply both sides by 100 to get ? =

ᎏ

30

4

0

ᎏ

, so ? = 75.

22. c. 120 out of a total of 400 were sold. Simply set up a proportion to see what this would be

equivalent to when expressed out of 100.

ᎏ

1

4

2

0

0

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

Cross-multiplying, we get 120 · 100 = 400 × ?, which is the same as 12,000 = 400 × ?, and divid-

ing both sides by 400 yields ? = 30. Thus, 30% were sold, so 70% remain.

23. b.

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

of the circle is shaded.

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

5

0

0

0

ᎏ

= 50%.

24. c.

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

of the square is shaded.

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

7

0

5

0

ᎏ

= 75%.

25. b.

ᎏ

3

8

ᎏ

of the square is shaded. 3 ÷ 8 = .375. To express this as a percent, move the decimal two

places to the right: 37.5%.

26. b.

ᎏ

1

6

6

ᎏ

of the square is shaded.

ᎏ

1

6

6

ᎏ

reduces to

ᎏ

3

8

ᎏ

. 3 ÷ 8 = .375. To express this as a percent, move

the decimal two places to the right: 37.5%.

27. b. A 20% mark-up yields a new price that is 120% of the original price. $13,000 × 1.20 = $15,600.

28. c. “33 is 12% of what number?” can be expressed mathematically as 33 = .12 × ?. Just divide

33 by 0.12 (12 percent) to get 275.

29. d. 52% is the same as .52 (drop the % sign and move the decimal point two places to the left).

ᎏ

1

2

3

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2

5

6

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

5

0

2

0

ᎏ

. 52 ÷ 100 = .52. And 52 × 10

−2

= 52 × .01 = .52. Obviously, .052 does not equal

.52, so your answer is d.

30. d. I = PRT means Interest = principal × rate of interest × time. Principal = your original amount

of money (in dollars), and time is in years. Be careful, the original amount of money (P) is $4,000

because Gary put

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

of the $8,000 into the account. I = .06 and T = 2 years. Substituting into

I = PRT, you get I = (4,000)(.06)(2) = $480.

Percents CHAPTER 7 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

119

Þ

31. a. The formula I = PRT means: Interest = principal × rate of interest × time (Where principal =

your original amount of money (in dollars), and time is in years.) Here, we were given the time

frame of 8 months, so we need to convert to years. 8 months ×

ᎏ

12 m

1

o

y

n

r

ths

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

8

2

ᎏ

yr =

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

yr. We are

given P = $10,000 and R = 6% or .06. Next, we substitute these values into the equation:

I = PRT

I = ($10,000)(.06)(

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

)

= 600 ×

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1,2

3

00

ᎏ

= $400.

32. c. In the formula I = PRT, the amount of money deposited is called the principal, P. The inter-

est rate per year is represented by R, and T represents the number of years. The interest rate

must be written as a decimal. Here P = 5,000, R = 9% = .09, and T = 8. Substitute these num-

bers for the respective variables and multiply: I = 5,000 × .09 × 8 = $3,600.

33. b. First, determine what percent of the trees are not oaks by subtracting. 100% − 32% = 68%.

Change 68% to a decimal (.68) and multiply: 0.68 × 400 = 272.

34. c. The problem can be restated as: 5 hours is to 24 hours as x% is to 100%. This is the same

as:

ᎏ

2

5

4

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

x

0

ᎏ

.

35. b. First ﬁgure out what the number is. If 10% of a number is 45, we can call the number “?”

and write .10 × ? = 45. Divide both sides by .10 to get ? = 450. Next, take 20% of 450: .20 ×

450 = 90.

36. d. When all of the staplers sold, the amount collected is $2.50 × 12 = $30. Since a dozen sta-

plers cost $10, the proﬁt is $20. Next, set up a proportion:

ᎏ

i

$

n

2

i

0

tia

p

l

r

$

o

1

fi

0

t

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

Cross-multiply to get (100)(20) = (10)(?), or 2,000 = (10)(?). Divide both sides by 10 to get ? =

200. Thus, the rate of proﬁt is 200%.

37. c. Find the net loss: $50 − $38 = $12. Next, set up a proportion:

ᎏ

in

$

i

1

t

2

ia

l

l

o

$

s

5

s

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

Cross-multiply to get 12 × 100 = 50 × ?, or 1,200 = 50 × ?. Divide both sides by 50 to get ? =

24. Thus, there is a 24% loss.

38. b. $130 − 10% of 130 = 130 − 13 = $117. Next, take 15% of $117 = .15 × 117 = $17.55. Deduct

this amount: $117 − $17.55 = $99.45. Choice a, $97.50, is wrong because this represents a 25%

reduction in price. You cannot add 10% and 15%, and deduct 25%.

39. c. The printer will sell for 115% of the cost. 115% × $85 = 1.15 × 85 = 97.75. This question

can also be solved in two steps: 15% of 85 = $12.75 markup. Add $12.75 to $85 (the cost) to

get $97.75.

40. a. If the price of the car is p, then you know that the price of the car plus 8.5% of that price

added up to $14,105. 8.5% equals .085. Thus, p + .085p = 14,105. 1.085p = 14,105. Dividing

both sides by 1.085 yields p = $13,000.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 7 Percents

120

41. b. You can solve this problem by asking yourself, “2,380 is what percent of 34,000?” and then

expressing this question mathematically: 2,380 =

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

× 34,000. Divide both sides by 34,000 to

get

ᎏ

3

2

4

,3

,0

8

0

0

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

. Cross-multiply to get 238,000 = (34,000)(?). Divide both sides by 34,000 to get

7. Thus, the answer is 7%.

42. d. Because the interest is compounded semiannually (twice a year), after

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

a year the amount

of interest earned I = PRT = 8,000 × .05 ×

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

= $200. Now the account has $8,200 in it. Next,

calculate the interest for the second half of the year with I = PRT = 8,200 × .05 ×

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

= 205. Thus,

the answer is $8,405.

43. c. Note that 9 months =

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

of a year. Because interest is compounded quarterly (4 times a year),

after

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

of a year, the amount of interest earned will be I = PRT = 14,000 × .08 ×

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

= $280. The

amount in the account after this time will be $14,280. After another

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

of a year, we add I = PRT

= 14,280 × .08 ×

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

= $285.60. The new total is $14,565.60. After the next

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

of a year, the amount

of interest earned is I = PRT = 14,565.60 × .08 ×

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

= $291.312. The amount in the account after

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

of a year is $14,856.91.

44. c. Because Sam is making 2 investments, ﬁrst ﬁnd

ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ

of $1,000. Divide $1,000 into 5 equal parts

(

ᎏ

$1,

5

000

ᎏ

= $200) and take 3 parts ($600). $600 is invested at 6% simple interest, which yields:

$600 (6%) = $600 (.06) = $36.

The remaining $400 is invested at 8% simple interest, which yields:

$400 (8%) = $400 (.08) = $32.

The total interest earned is $36 + $32 = $68.

45. b. Convert 33

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

% into a fraction, remembering that the percent sign is equivalent to

ᎏ

1

1

00

ᎏ

. 33

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

%

×

ᎏ

1

1

00

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

. Now,

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

4

2

ᎏ

. Therefore, there are 4 twelfths in 33

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

%.

46. b. Use the proportion:

ᎏ

C

In

h

i

a

t

n

ia

g

l

e

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

Where the change = 200 − 150 = 50, and the initial value is 150. Thus, we have:

ᎏ

1

5

5

0

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

Cross-multiply to get 50 × 100 = 150 × ?, or 5,000 = 150 × ?. Divide both sides by 150 to get

? = 33

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

. Thus, there was a 33

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

% increase.

47. a. Use the proportion:

ᎏ

C

In

h

i

a

t

n

ia

g

l

e

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

Where the change = 200 − 150 = 50, and the initial value is 200. Thus, we have:

ᎏ

2

5

0

0

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

Cross-multiply to get 50 × 100 = 200 × ?, or 5,000 = 200 × ?. Divide both sides by 200 to get

? = 25. Thus, there was a 25% decrease.

Percents CHAPTER 7 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

121

Þ

48. a. Use the proportion:

=

Here, the difference in values is 600 lbs − 540 lbs = 60 lbs. The actual value is 600 lbs. Thus,

we get:

ᎏ

6

6

0

0

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

Cross-multiplying yields 60 × 100 = 600 × ?, or 6,000 = 600 × ?. Divide both sides by 600 to

get ? = 10. Thus, there is a 10% error, choice a.

49. b. Draining half the 5-gallon tank leaves 2.5 gallons inside. Since you know the solution is a

50-50 mixture, there must be 1.25 gallons of water present at this point. After adding 2 gallons

of water, there will be 1.25 + 2, or 3.25 gallons of water in the ﬁnal mixture.

50. c. This problem requires both multiplication and addition. First, to determine the amount of

the raise, change the percent to a decimal and multiply. 0.0475 × 27,400 = 1,301.5. Then, add

this amount to the original salary. 1,301.50 + 27,400 = 28,701.50.

?

ᎏ

100

Difference in values

ᎏᎏᎏ

Actual value

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 7 Percents

122

=

C H A P T E R

Word Problems

In addition to dealing with basic operations, fractions, decimals, and percents, common word problems

on the Civil Service Exam involve distance, work and salaries, tank and pipe questions, labor questions,

and ratio and proportions.

Þ RATIOS AND PROPORTIONS

A ratio is a way of comparing two or more numbers. There are several different ways to write ratios.

Here are some examples:

Þ with the word to: 1 to 2

Þ using a colon (:) to separate the numbers: 1:2

Þ using the term for every: 1 for every 2

Þ separated by a division sign or fraction bar:

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

8

Word Problems CHAPTER 8 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

123

Þ

Usually, a fraction represents a part over a whole:

ᎏ

w

p

h

a

o

r

l

t

e

ᎏ

Often, a ratio represents a part over a part:

ᎏ

p

p

a

a

r

r

t

t

ᎏ

But ratios can also represent a part over a whole:

ᎏ

w

p

h

a

o

r

l

t

e

ᎏ

When a ratio represents a part over a part, you can often ﬁnd the whole if you know all the parts.

A proportion is a way of relating two ratios to one another. If you equate a given ratio to the part that

you know, you can easily ﬁnd an unknown part. Once you know the unknown parts, you can calculate

the whole.

Sample Question:

If the ratio of union workers to non-union workers is 2:3 and there are 360 non-union workers,

how many workers are there in all?

a. 240

b. 360

c. 600

d. 720

Here, you are given a 2:3 ratio. You know one part: that there are 360 non-union workers. You

can set up a proportion in order to calculate the unknown part,

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

36

?

0

ᎏ

.

Cross-multiply to get 360 · 2 = 3 · ?, or 720 = 3 · ?

Divide both sides by 3 to get ? = 240. This is the missing part: the number of union workers. Finally,

add the number of union workers to non-union workers to get the whole: 360 + 240 = 600. Thus, the

correct answer is c.

Þ WORK AND SALARIES

Some word problems deal with salaries. You should be familiar with the following salary schedules:

Þ per hour: amount earned each hour

Þ daily: amount earned each day

Þ

weekly: amount earned each week

Þ

semi-weekly: amount earned twice a week

Þ

semi-monthly: amount earned twice a month

Þ

monthly: amount earned each month

Þ

annually: amount earned each year

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 8 Word Problems

124

Other problems involving work need to be dissected logically. For example, consider the follow-

ing question.

Sample Question:

If 14 workers can complete a job in 2 days, how long will it take 4 workers to complete the same

job? Assume all workers work at the same rate.

a.

ᎏ

4

7

ᎏ

day

b. 5 days

c. 6 days

d. 7 days

Most people try to set up the following proportion when confronted with the above scenario:

ᎏ

14

2

w

d

o

a

r

y

k

s

ers

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

4 w

?

o

d

r

a

k

y

e

s

rs

ᎏ

Notice that the ? in the denominator of the second ratio will necessarily be smaller than the 2

days in the denominator of the ﬁrst ratio. Does it make sense that 4 workers will be able to ﬁnish the

job of 14 workers in less than 2 days?

This sort of question needs to be broken apart logically. If 14 workers can complete the job in 2

days, it will take one person 14 times as long to complete the same job: 28 days. It will take 4 people

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

as long to complete this amount of work, or 7 days. Thus, choice d is correct.

Þ TANK AND PIPE QUESTIONS

Tank and pipe questions must also be solved logically. Tank and pipe questions involve the ﬁlling and

draining of tanks through various pipes. Once you see what the net (overall) effect is, you are able to

solve the question posed to you.

Sample Question:

A tank is partly ﬁlled with water. Pipe X leads into the tank and can ﬁll the entire tank in 4 min-

utes. Pipe Y drains the tank and can drain the entire tank in 3 minutes. At a certain point in time,

the tank is halfway full, and the valves leading to pipes X and Y are closed. When these valves

are opened simultaneously, how long will it take for the tank to drain?

a. 2 min.

b. 4 min.

c. 5 min.

d. 6 min.

First, consider Pipe X. It can ﬁll the tank in 4 minutes. This means that for every minute that goes

by,

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

of the tank would get ﬁlled. Next, consider Pipe Y. This pipe can empty the tank in 3 minutes.

Word Problems CHAPTER 8 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

125

Þ

This means that for every minute that goes by,

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

of the tank would get drained. When we consider

these fractions as twelfths, we see that Pipe X ﬁlls

ᎏ

1

3

2

ᎏ

per minute and Pipe Y drains

ᎏ

1

4

2

ᎏ

per minute. The

net effect is a draining of

ᎏ

1

1

2

ᎏ

of the tank every minute. Since the tank starts out

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

full (or

ᎏ

1

6

2

ᎏ

full), it will

take 6 minutes to drain the

ᎏ

1

6

2

ᎏ

of water (at the rate of

ᎏ

1

1

2

ᎏ

out per minute). Thus, choice d is correct.

Þ DISTANCE

Distance questions can be solved with the formula D = RT, assuming that a constant rate is maintained.

Here, you have the ﬂexibility to use many different combinations of rates, distances, and times, so long

as the units you use in the equation match each other. For example, rates can be measured in meters

per second, kilometers per hour, feet per second, miles per hour, and so forth. Just be sure that if you

use, for example, a rate in miles per hour as your R in the equation, that your D is in miles, and your

T is in hours.

Sample Question:

Train A leaves its station and travels at a constant rate of 65 mph in an eastward direction. At

the same time, Train B leaves a western station heading east at a constant rate of 70 miles an

hour. If the two trains pass each other after 3 hours, how far apart were they initially?

a. 405 miles

b. 210 miles

c. 195 miles

d. none of the above

The correct answer is choice c. The 2 trains initial distance apart equals the sum of the distance

each travels in 3 hours. Using D = RT, you know Train A travels a distance of (65)(3) = 195 miles, and

Train B travels (70)(3) = 210 miles. This means that they were 195 + 210 = 405 miles apart initially. It

is helpful to draw a diagram to understand this better:

Train A

D

A

= RT

Train B

D

B

= RT

initial distance apart

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 8 Word Problems

126

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

Work and Salaries

1. Pete made $4,000 in January, $3,500 in February, and $4,500 in March. If he put 30% of his

total earnings into his checking account and the rest into his saving account, how much money

does he have in his checking account?

a. $3,600

b. $4,200

c. $6,300

d. $8,400

2. Denise had $120. She gave

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

of this amount to Suzanne. She then gave

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

of the remainder to

Darlene. How much money does Denise have left?

a. $26.25

b. $30.00

c. $78.75

d. $80.00

3. Greg had $12,000 in his savings account. Of this amount, he transferred

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

into checking,

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

into

a certiﬁcate of deposit, and spent

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

on a computer system. How much money remains in his sav-

ings account?

a. $3,500

b. $5,000

c. $5,600

d. $6,000

4. If two pieces of wood measuring 2

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

feet and 3

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

feet are laid end to end, how long will their com-

bined length be?

a. 5 feet 5 inches

b. 5 feet 10 inches

c. 6 feet 0 inches

d. 6 feet 5 inches

5. A shipment of cable weighs 3.2 lbs per foot. If the total weight of 3 identical reels of cable is

6,720 lbs, how many feet of cable are in each reel?

a. 64,512 feet

b. 21,504 feet

c. 2,000 feet

d. 700 feet

Word Problems CHAPTER 8 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

127

Þ

6. A school is purchasing 5 monitors at $175 each, 3 printers at $120 each, and 8 surge suppres-

sors at $18 each. If the school receives a 12% discount, what is the ﬁnal cost (excluding tax)?

a. $1,379.00

b. $1,313.52

c. $1,213.52

d. $1,200.00

Ratios and Proportions

7. The Huntington Golf Club has a ratio of two women to every three men. A 2:3 ratio is equiv-

alent to which of the following ratios?

a. 3:2

b. 4:8

c. 8:12

d. 4:12

8. A map drawn to scale shows that the distance between 2 towns is 3 inches. If the scale is such

that 1 inch equals 1 km., how far away are the 2 towns in kilometers?

a. 3 miles

b. 3 km.

c. 30 miles

d. 30 km.

9. If it takes 27 nails to build 3 boxes, how many nails will it take to build 7 boxes?

a. 64

b. 72

c. 56

d. 63

10. Ralph can hike 1.3 miles in 45 minutes. Which equation could be used to ﬁnd d, the distance in

miles that Ralph can hike in 3 hours?

a.

ᎏ

3

d

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

0

1

.7

.3

5

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

0

1

.7

.3

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3

d

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

0.

d

75

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

3

.3

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

0.

3

75

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

d

.3

ᎏ

11. If Jack always spends $18 on gaming equipment in a week, how much does he spend in 6 weeks?

a. $60

b. $48

c. $108

d. $180

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 8 Word Problems

128

12. If it takes a machine 5 minutes to build 3 components, how long would it take the same machine

to build 18 components?

a. 90 min.

b. 18 min.

c. 15 min.

d. 30 min.

13. Dr. Martin sees an average of 2.5 patients per hour. If she takes an hour lunch break, about how

many patients does she see during the typical 9 to 5 work day?

a. 16

b. 18

c. 20

d. 22

14. A diagram drawn to scale shows a diagonal of 12 cm. If the scale is 1.5 cm. = 1 foot, how long is

the actual diagonal?

a. 8 ft.

b. 7.5 ft.

c. 6.8 ft.

d. 6 ft.

15. The height of the Statue of Liberty from foundation to torch is 305 feet 1 inch. Webster’s Amer-

ican Mini-Golf has a 1:60 scale model of the statue. Approximately, how tall is the scale model?

a. 5 inches

b. 5 feet 1 inch

c. 6 feet 5 inches

d. 18,305 feet

Work and Salaries

16. Scott can pot 100 plants in 30 minutes. Henri can do the same job in 60 minutes. If they worked

together, how many minutes would it take them to pot 200 plants?

a. 20 min.

b. 30 min.

c. 40 min.

d. 60 min.

17. Francine and Lydia are in the same book club, and both are reading the same 350-page novel.

Francine has read

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

of the novel. Lydia has read half as much as Francine. What is the ratio of

the number of pages Lydia has read to the number of pages in the novel?

a. 1:2

b. 2:5

c. 2:3

d. 1:4

Word Problems CHAPTER 8 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

129

Þ

18. A construction job calls for 2

ᎏ

5

6

ᎏ

tons of sand. Four trucks, each ﬁlled with

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

tons of sand, arrive

on the job. Is there enough sand, or is there too much sand for the job?

a. There is not enough sand;

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

ton more is needed.

b. There is not enough sand;

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

ton more is needed.

c. There is

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

ton more sand than is needed.

d. There is

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

ton more sand than is needed.

19. Joseph earns a semi-monthly salary of $1,200. What is his yearly salary?

a. $144,000

b. $48,000

c. $28,800

d. $14,400

20. During a normal 40-hour work week, Mitch earns $800. His boss wants him to work this week-

end and Mitch will get paid time and a half for these overtime hours. How much will Mitch make

for 10 weekend hours?

a. $200

b. $240

c. $300

d. $340

21. Gary earns $22 an hour as a lab technician. Monday he worked 5 hours. Tuesday he worked 8

hours, and Wednesday he worked 4

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

hours. How much did he earn during those three days?

a. $363

b. $374

c. $385

d. $407

22. This month Ron earned $2,300 as his gross pay. Of this amount, $160.45 was deducted for FICA

tax, $82.50 was deducted for state tax, $73.25 was deducted for city tax, and $100 was diverted

to his 401K. How much was his net paycheck?

a. $1,883.80

b. $1,888.30

c. $1,983.80

d. $1,988.33

23. Two men can load a truck in 4 hours. How many trucks can they load in 6 hours?

a. 1

b. 1

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

c. 2

d. 2

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 8 Word Problems

130

24. A machine can assemble 400 parts in half an hour. Of the 400 parts, 5% will be defective. If 2

such machines are working, how many non-defective parts will be assembled in 5 hours?

a. 800

b. 1,600

c. 3,800

d. 7,600

25. Kate’s daily salary is $120. If she worked 24 days this month, how much did she earn?

a. $3,600

b. $3,200

c. $3,000

d. $2,880

26. John earns $1,600 a month plus 8% commission on all sales. He sold $825 worth of merchan-

dise during November, $980 worth of merchandise during December, and $600 work of mer-

chandise during January. What was his total earning for these three months?

a. $1,792.40

b. $2,597.40

c. $1,924.00

d. $4,992.40

27. Four machines can complete a job in 6 hours. How long will it take 3 machines to complete the

same job?

a. 4 hours

b. 8 hours

c. 10 hours

d. 12 hours

28. One construction job can be completed by 16 workers in 10 days. How many days would it take

8 workers to complete the job?

a. 12 days

b. 16 days

c. 18 days

d. 20 days

29. A job can be completed by 6 workers in 18 days. How many days would it take 9 workers to com-

plete the job?

a. 12 days

b. 16 days

c. 18 days

d. 20 days

Word Problems CHAPTER 8 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

131

Þ

30. Nine workers working at the same pace can complete a job in 12 days. If this job must be com-

pleted in 3 days, how many workers should be assigned?

a. 27

b. 30

c. 36

d. 48

31. When Anthony and Dave work together they can complete a task in 3 hours. When Anthony

works alone he can complete the same task in 8 hours. How long would it take for Dave to com-

plete the task alone?

a. 6

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

hours

b. 6 hours

c. 4

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

hours

d. 4 hours

32. Rose and Marie worked on a project together. Rose put in 40 hours of work and Marie put in

60 hours of work. The contract for the entire project paid $2,000. The women decide to split

the money according to the ratio of the amount of time each put into the project. How much

did Marie get?

a. $400

b. $600

c. $1,000

d. $1,200

33. Al and Artie worked on a project together. Al put in 18 hours of work and Artie put in 24 hours

of work. The contract for the entire project was $7,000. If the men decide to split the money

according to the ratio of the amount of time each put into the project, how much will Artie get?

a. $3,000

b. $3,500

c. $4,000

d. $4,500

34. Tom’s semi-weekly salary is $400. Jim’s semi-monthly salary is $1,800. If both men work a stan-

dard 40-hour work week, which man earns more for the month of February? (Assume that this

is NOT a leap year.)

a. Tom by $1,400

b. Jim by $400

c. Tom by $400

d. Jim by $1,400

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 8 Word Problems

132

35. Caleb can type 60 reports in 3 hours. Ethan can type 110 reports in 6 hours. Working together,

how fast will it take them to type 375 reports?

a. 13 hours

b. 12 hours

c. 10 hours

d. 9 hours

36. For somebody who works a 30-hour work week, a $28,000 yearly salary translates into which of

the following hourly wages?

a. $13.46

b. $14.50

c. $17.95

d. $19.46

Tank and Pipe Questions

37. A tank containing ﬂuid is half full. A pipe that can ﬁll

ᎏ

1

1

6

ᎏ

of the tank per minute begins letting

more ﬂuid in. At the same time, a drain that can empty

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

of the tank in one minute is opened.

How long will it take to empty the tank?

a. 8 minutes

b. 16 minutes

c. 18 minutes

d. 32 minutes

38. Pipe T leads into a tank and Pipe V drains the tank. Pipe T can ﬁll the entire tank in 6 minutes.

Pipe V can drain the entire tank in 4 minutes. At a certain point in time, the valves leading to

both pipes are shut and the tank is

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

full. If both valves are opened simultaneously, how long will

it take for the pipe to drain?

a. 2 minutes

b. 3 minutes

c. 4 minutes

d. 6 minutes

39. For every 10,000 liters of water that pass through a ﬁltering system, 0.7 gram of a pollutant is

removed. How many grams of the pollutant are removed when 10

6

liters have been ﬁltered?

a. 7 grams

b. 70 grams

c. 700 grams

d. 7,000 grams

Word Problems CHAPTER 8 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

133

Þ

40. Rudy forgot to replace his gas cap the last time he ﬁlled his car with gas. The gas is evaporating

out of his 14-gallon tank at a constant rate of

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

gallon per day. How much gas does Rudy lose

in 1 week?

a. 2 gallons

b. 2

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

gallons

c. 3

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

gallons

d. 4

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

gallons

41. Pipe A leads into a tank and Pipe B drains the tank. Pipe A can ﬁll the entire tank in 10 minutes.

Pipe B can drain the entire tank in 8 minutes. At a certain point in time, the valves leading to

both pipes are shut and the tank is

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

full. If both valves are opened simultaneously, how long will

it take for the pipe to drain?

a. 18 minutes

b. 20 minutes

c. 22 minutes

d. 24 minutes

Distance Questions

42. A car travels at a constant rate of 60 km. per hour for 3 hours. How far did the car travel?

a. 180 kilometers

b. 180 miles

c. 18 kilometers

d. 18 miles

43. If Michael runs at a constant rate of 2.5 meters per second, how long will it take him to run

1 kilometer?

a. 4 minutes

b. 40 minutes

c. 400 seconds

d. 4,000 seconds

44. It took T.J. 20 minutes to jog 2 miles. What was his average speed in miles per hour?

a. 40 mph

b. 10 mph

c. 8 mph

d. 6 mph

45. Sipora drove to Stephanie’s house at a constant rate of 45 mph. If Stephanie’s house is 220 miles

away and Sipora wants to get home in exactly 4 hours, how fast should she drive?

a. 50 mph

b. 55 mph

c. 60 mph

d. 65 mph

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 8 Word Problems

134

46. Amy can run 8 miles at a constant rate in 40 minutes. Sharon can run 12 miles at a constant rate

in an hour. Who has a faster rate?

a. Amy

b. Sharon

c. They both run at the same rate.

d. It cannot be determined by the information given.

47. Train A travels at 60 mph for 20 minutes. Train B travels at 55 mph for 30 minutes. If both trains

are traveling at a constant rate, which train would have traveled a greater distance after the time

periods speciﬁed?

a. Train A

b. Train B

c. Both trains traveled the same distance.

d. It cannot be determined by the information given.

48. A train leaves a station traveling west at 60 mph. At the same time, another train heads east on

a parallel track, traveling at a rate of 70 mph. If the 2 trains are initially 700 miles apart, how far

apart are they after 1 hour?

a. 630 miles

b. 610 miles

c. 570 miles

d. 560 miles

49. Train A leaves Station A at 6 P.M., traveling east at a constant rate of 70 mph. At the same time,

Train B leaves Station B, traveling west at a constant rate of 90 miles per hour. If the 2 trains

pass each other at 8 P.M., then how far apart are the 2 stations?

a. 280 miles

b. 300 miles

c. 320 miles

d. 360 miles

50. An eastbound train destined for Stony Brook Station leaves Penn Station at 4 P.M., traveling at

a rate of 60 miles per hour. At the same time, a westbound train departs the Stony Brook Sta-

tion on its way to Penn Station. If the westbound train travels at a constant speed of 70 miles

per hour and the two stations are 260 miles apart, at what time will the 2 trains pass each other?

a. 4:30 P.M.

b. 5:00 P.M.

c. 5:30 P.M.

d. 6:00 P.M.

Word Problems CHAPTER 8 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

135

Þ

ANSWERS

1. a. First, calculate the total amount of money: $4,000 + $3,500 + $4,500 = $12,000. He puts

30% of the $12,000, or .30 × $12,000 = $3,600 into the checking account.

2. c.

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

of the $120 went to Suzanne:

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

× 120 = $15. This means there was 120 − 15 = $105 left.

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

of the $105 went to Darlene:

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

× 105 = $26.25. Thus, the amount remaining is 105 − 26.25

= $78.75.

3. a.

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

of 12,000 =

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

× 12,000 = $4,000 went to checking.

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

of 12,000 =

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

× 12,000 = $3,000 went

to the CD. And

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

of $12,000 =

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

× 12,000 = $1,500 went to buy the computer. Thus, the amount

left equals 12,000 − 4,000 − 3,000 − 1,500 = $3,500.

4. b. 2

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

feet = 2 feet 6 inches. 3

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

feet = 3 feet 4 inches. The sum of these values is 5 feet 10 inches.

5. d. Divide the total weight by 3 to ﬁgure out how much each of the 3 reels weigh: 6,720 ÷ 3 =

2,240 lbs each. Next, divide the weight of the reel by

ᎏ

3.2

ft

lbs

ᎏ

: 2,240 lbs ÷

ᎏ

3.2

ft

lbs

ᎏ

= 700 feet.

6. c. Five monitors will cost $175 × 5 = $875; Three printers will cost $120 × 3 = $360; Eight

surge suppressors will cost $18 × 8 = $144. Before the discount, this adds up to: $875 + $360 +

$144 = $1,379. 12% of $1,379 = .12 × 1,379 = $165.48. Thus, the ﬁnal cost will be $1,379 −

165.48 = $1,213.52.

7. c. A 2:3 ratio is equivalent to an 8:12 ratio. Just multiply the

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

ratio by

ᎏ

4

4

ᎏ

to get

ᎏ

1

8

2

ᎏ

.

8. b. If 1 inch on the map denotes 1km, then 3 inches on the map would represent 3 kilometers.

9. d. First, set up a proportion:

ᎏ

2

3

7

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

7

x

ᎏ

. You can reduce the ﬁrst fraction:

ᎏ

9

1

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

7

x

ᎏ

and then cross-

multiply: 1(x) = 9(7), so x = 63.

10. b. To ﬁnd the distance Ralph can hike in 3 hours, ﬁrst set up the ratio of the distance he can

walk in a certain amount of time. 45 minutes is equal to

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

of an hour or .75 hours.

ᎏ

0

1

.7

.3

5

m

ho

il

u

e

r

s

s

ᎏ

.

Then, set up the second ratio,

ᎏ

3 ho

d

urs

ᎏ

. Set these 2 ratios equal to each other.

ᎏ

0

1

.7

.3

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3

d

ᎏ

.

11. c. First, set up a proportion:

ᎏ

1

1

8

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

6

x

ᎏ

. Cross-multiplying yields 18 × 6 = 1 × x, and x = 108.

12. d. First, set up a proportion:

ᎏ

5

3

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

x

8

ᎏ

. Next, cross multiply: 3x = 18 × 5. Then, solve for your

answer: 3x = 90, so x = 30 minutes.

13. b. 9 to 5 represents an 8 hour work day, less the one hour lunch break yields 7 working hours.

Multiply the 7 hours by 2.5 patients per hour = 17.5 patients. Of the choices, 18 patients is the

best answer.

14. a. Set up a proportion:

ᎏ

1.

1

5

f

c

t

m

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

12

?

c

ft

m

ᎏ

. Cross-multiply to get 1.5 · ? = 12 · 1 , or 1.5 · ? = 12.

Divide both sides by 1.5 to get ? = 8 ft.

15. b. First, convert the height of the statue to inches. 305 ft. × 12 in. = 3,660 in. The statue is

3,660 + 1, or 3,661, inches tall. Next, set up a proportion:

ᎏ

6

1

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3,6

x

61

ᎏ

. Cross multiply: 60x = 3,661.

Divide both sides by 60: x =

ᎏ

3,

6

6

0

61

ᎏ

; x is about 61 inches. Convert to feet by dividing by 12:

61 ÷ 12 = 5 with a remainder of 1. Thus, the answer is 5 feet 1 inch, choice b.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 8 Word Problems

136

16. c. Because this is a rate of work problem, consider what fraction of the job would get done in

one minute. Scott would get

ᎏ

3

1

0

ᎏ

th of the job done while Henri would get

ᎏ

6

1

0

ᎏ

th of the job done

in one minute. Together, they would get:

ᎏ

3

1

0

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

6

1

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

6

2

0

ᎏ

+

ᎏ

6

1

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

6

3

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2

1

0

ᎏ

of the job done in one minute. Therefore, 20 minutes would be needed to pot 100 plants, and

40 minutes to pot all 200 plants.

17. b. Francine has read

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

of 350 pages, or 0.8 × 350 = 280. Lydia has read half of that, or 140.

Lydia has read 140 pages out of 350, or

ᎏ

1

3

4

5

0

0

ᎏ

. Reduce to

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

.

18. d. This is a two-step problem involving multiplication and simple subtraction. First, determine

the amount of sand contained in the 4 trucks.

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

4

1

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

4

2

ᎏ

. Next, reduce:

ᎏ

1

4

2

ᎏ

= 3. Finally, subtract:

3 − 2

ᎏ

5

6

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

. There is

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

ton more than is needed.

19. c. Semi-monthly means twice a month. This means he makes 2 × $1,200 = $2,400 per month.

Multiply by 12 months per year:

ᎏ

12 m

ye

o

a

n

r

ths

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

m

$2

o

,

n

4

t

0

h

0

s

ᎏ

= $28,800 a year.

20. c. If he typically earns $800 a week, he makes $800 ÷ 40 hours = $20 per hour. This means he

will make 1.5 × 20 = $30 for each overtime hour. 10 hours ×

ᎏ

h

$

o

3

u

0

r

ᎏ

= $300.

21. c. First, add up all the hours he worked: 5 + 8 + 4

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

= 17

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

hours. Next, multiply the number

of hours he worked by his hourly wage: 17.5 hrs ×

ᎏ

$

h

2

r

2

ᎏ

= $385.

22. a. Subtract all of the listed deductions and diversion to yield the net paycheck: $2,300 − $160.45

− $82.50 − $73.25 − $100 = $1,883.80.

23. b. They can load 1 truck in the ﬁrst 4 hours and

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

a truck in the next 2 hours, so they can load

1

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

trucks in 6 hours.

24. d. First, if one machine assembles 400 parts in a half hour, it will assemble 800 parts in an

hour. Two such machines working together will assemble 2 × 800 = 1,600 parts per hour. In 5

hours, they will assemble 5 × 1,600 = 8,000 parts. Of these 8,000 parts, 5% will be defective,

so 95% will be non-defective. 95% of 8,000 = 95% × 8,000 = .95 × 8,000 = 7,600.

25. d. A daily salary is per day. She makes $120 per day times 24 days: $120 day × 24 days = $2,880.

26. d. First, add up all of his merchandise sales: $825 + $980 + $600 = $2,405. Next, take 8% of

the $2,405: .08 × $2,405 = $192.40. Add the $192.40 commission to his 3 months of pay: $192.40

+ (3)($1,600) = $192.40 + $4,800 = $4,992.40.

27. b. If 4 machines can complete the job in 6 hours, it will take 1 machine 4 times as long or 24

hours. It would take 3 machines

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

of 24 hrs =

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

× 24 = 8 hours.

28. d. If it takes 16 workers 10 days to complete a job, it would take 1 worker 16 times that amount,

or 160 days. It would take 8 workers 160 ÷ 8 = 20 days. Also, notice that if the amount of work-

ers is halved, the amount of time will be doubled.

29. a. It would take 1 worker 6 × 18 = 108 days. It would take 9 workers 108 ÷ 9 = 12 days.

30. c. It would take 1 person 9 × 12 = 108 days to complete the job. It would take 36 people 3 days

to complete the same job because 108 ÷ 3 = 36.

31. c. Anthony can complete

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

of the task in 1 hour. You know this because he completes the entire

task in 8 hours. Together, Anthony and Dave complete

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

of the task in 1 hour. (Thus, they are

Word Problems CHAPTER 8 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

137

Þ

done in 3 hours). Convert both fractions into twenty-fourths.

ᎏ

2

8

4

ᎏ

per hour (both men) −

ᎏ

2

3

4

ᎏ

per

hour (just Anthony) =

ᎏ

2

5

4

ᎏ

per hour (just Dave). Thus, Dave completes

ᎏ

2

5

4

ᎏ

of the task per hour.

It will take him

ᎏ

2

5

4

ᎏ

hours to complete the entire task.

ᎏ

2

5

4

ᎏ

= 4

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

hours.

32. d. Here 40 hours of work + 60 hours of work = 100 total hours. Therefore, when considering

the percent of work each did, it would be fair to give Rose 40% of the money and Marie 60%

of the money. Marie gets 60% of $2,000, or 60% × $2,000 = .60 × $2,000 = $1,200. Alterna-

tively, when combining their efforts, Marie and Rose earned a total of $2,000 for $100 of work.

This is a rate of $20 per hour. Since Marie worked 60 hours, she gets 60 hrs ×

ᎏ

$

h

2

r

0

ᎏ

= $1,200.

33. c. The ratio of time spent is 18:24 which reduces to 3:4. Use this 3 to 4 ratio in the algebraic

equation 3x + 4x = 7x, where 3x is the amount of money Al gets, 4x is the amount of money

Artie gets, and 7x is the total amount of money (which we know is $7,000). Thus, if 7x = $7,000,

x = $1,000. Artie’s share equals 4x or (4)($1,000) = $4,000. Alternatively, you can calculate the

fractional part of the job that each man worked and then use that fraction to calculate each man’s

share of the contracted amount. Al worked 18 hours and Artie worked 24 hours. The combined

work time is 18 + 24 = 42 hours. This means the fractional part of the job for Al and Artie equals

ᎏ

1

4

8

2

ᎏ

and

ᎏ

2

4

4

2

ᎏ

, respectively. Thus, Artie gets

ᎏ

2

4

4

2

ᎏ

of the total $7,000.

ᎏ

2

4

4

2

ᎏ

reduces to

ᎏ

4

7

ᎏ

.

ᎏ

4

7

ᎏ

of $7,000 =

$4,000, choice c.

34. b. Tom gets paid $400 semi-weekly (2 times a week) so he gets $800 per week. Multiply this

weekly amount by the 4 weeks per month:

ᎏ

$

w

80

k

0

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

4

m

w

o

k

ᎏ

= $3,200 per month. Jim gets paid $1,800

twice a month (semi-monthly) so he gets $3,600 per month. This means Jim makes $400 more

per month than Tom does.

35. d. Ethan can type 110 reports in 6 hours, so he must type 55 reports in 3 hours. If Caleb types

60 reports and Ethan types 55 reports in 3 hours, the total number equals 125 reports. Now,

compare this value with the 375 reports in the question. If they type 125 reports together in 3

hours, it will take them 3 times as long to type 375 reports. 3 hours × 3 = 9 hours, choice d.

36. c. The person works a 30-hour work week for

ᎏ

52

y

w

ea

e

r

eks

ᎏ

;

ᎏ

30

w

h

k

rs

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

52

yr

wk

ᎏ

= 1,560 hours. Next, divide

the total amount of money by the total amount of hours: $28,000 ÷ 1,560 = $17.95 per hour.

37. a. Use sixteenths when considering the situation. This means

ᎏ

1

1

6

ᎏ

is coming in as

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

2

6

ᎏ

is going

out. So, every minute the net loss of ﬂuid is

ᎏ

1

2

6

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

1

1

6

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

1

6

ᎏ

per minute loss. Since the tank starts

out

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

full, it is

ᎏ

1

8

6

ᎏ

full. If

ᎏ

1

1

6

ᎏ

drains per minute, it will take 8 minutes for the

ᎏ

1

8

6

ᎏ

to drain.

38. b. Pipe T ﬁlls

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

of the tank every minute. Pipe V empties

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

of the tank per minute. This means

the net effect every minute is

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

3

2

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

1

2

2

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

1

2

ᎏ

of the tank is drained. If

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

of the tank is ini-

tially full, this equals

ᎏ

1

3

2

ᎏ

full. It will take 3 minutes for these

ᎏ

1

3

2

ᎏ

to drain out at a rate of

ᎏ

1

1

2

ᎏ

per

minute.

39. b. 10,000 liters = 10

4

liters. Since 10

6

liters = 100 times 10

4

, the number of grams of pollutant

that is removed is 100 times 0.7, or 70.

40. b.

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

gallon is lost per day over the course of a week, or 7 days. So, you multiply:

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

gallons per

day × 7 days =

ᎏ

7

3

ᎏ

gallons, or 2

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

gallons are lost. Notice that it doesn’t matter that the tank holds

14 gallons because the amount lost doesn’t come close to 14.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 8 Word Problems

138

41. b. Pipe A ﬁlls

ᎏ

1

1

0

ᎏ

of the tank every minute. Pipe B empties

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

of the tank per minute. This means

the net effect every minute is

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

1

1

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

4

5

0

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

4

4

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

4

1

0

ᎏ

of the tank is drained. If

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

of the tank is ini-

tially full, this equals

ᎏ

2

4

0

0

ᎏ

full. It will take 20 minutes for the

ᎏ

2

4

0

0

ᎏ

to drain out at a rate of

ᎏ

4

1

0

ᎏ

per

minute.

42. a. Use the constant rate equation: D= RT. Here D =

ᎏ

60

h

k

r

m

ᎏ

× 3 hr = 180 km.

43. c. 1 kilometer = 1,000 meters. Use D = RT with D =1,000, R =

ᎏ

2.

s

5

ec

m

ᎏ

, and T is the unknown.

Rearrange D = RT to T =

ᎏ

D

R

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1,

2

0

.

0

5

0

ᎏ

= 400 seconds.

44. d. Rearrange D = RT into R =

ᎏ

D

T

ᎏ

. Substitute in the given values: R = 20 min =

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

hour, D = 2 mi

into R =

ᎏ

D

T

ᎏ

and R = 2 mi ÷

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

hr = 6 mph.

45. b. Rearrange D = RT to R = D ÷ T = 220 ÷ 4 = 55 mph.

46. c. Rearrange D = RT into R = D ÷ T by dividing both sides of the equation by T. Amy’s rate is

then R= 8 mi ÷ 40 min =

ᎏ

.

m

2 m

in

i

ᎏ

. Next, calculate Sharon’s rate in the same units of miles per minute.

This means you need to convert the 1 hour into 60 min. Sharon’s rate is then R = 12 mi ÷ 60

min =

ᎏ

.

m

2 m

in

i

ᎏ

.

47. b. First, convert minutes to hours: 20 minutes =

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

hour and 30 minutes =

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

hour. Next, cal-

culate the 2 distances by using D= RT. Train A will travel D = 60 ×

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

= 20 miles. Train B will

travel D = 55 ×

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

= 27.5 miles. Thus, Train B travels the greater distance.

48. c. The ﬁrst train will travel D = RT = 60 × 1 = 60 miles west. The second train will travel

D = RT = 70 × 1 = 70 miles east. Thus, if the initial distance between the 2 trains was 700 miles,

now the distance is 700 miles − 60 miles − 70 miles = 700 − 130 = 570 miles.

49. c. The total distance covered is equal to the distance that both trains travel. Train A travels

east, a total of D = RT = 70 × 2 = 140 miles. Train B travels west, a total of D = RT = 90 × 2 =

180 miles. Note that T = 2 because the trains pass each other after 2 hours. Thus, the total ini-

tial distance is 140 miles + 180 miles = 320 miles.

50. d. The total distance will be equal to the distances traveled by both trains throughout the

unknown amount of time (T).

Thus, 260 = 60T + 70T = 130T, and T = 2. The trains will pass each other after 2 hours, so the

time will be 6:00 P.M., choice d.

Train 1

D

1

= 60T

Train 2

D

2

= 70T

initial distance apart = 260 miles

= 60T + 70T.

Penn

Station

SB

Station

Word Problems CHAPTER 8 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

139

Þ

=

C H A P T E R

Charts, Tables,

and Graphs

When you pick up the newspaper or watch a news report on TV, you will often see information

presented in a graph. More and more, we give and receive information visually. That’s one reason you

are likely to ﬁnd graphs on math tests, and a good reason to understand how to read them. This chap-

ter reviews the common kinds of graphs, charts, and tables you should be able to interpret.

Þ PIE CHARTS

Pie charts show how the parts of a whole relate to one another. A pie chart is a circle divided into slices

or wedges. Each slice represents a category. Pie charts are sometimes called circle graphs. Let’s look

at an example of a pie chart on the following page and see what kind of information it provides.

9

Charts, Tables, and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

141

Þ

Example:

The pie chart below represents data collected from a recent telephone survey.

Using the “How Federal Dollars Are Spent” pie chart, answer the following questions:

1. Based on the survey, which category of spending best matches the voter’s wishes?

2. On which category of spending did the voters want most of the money spent?

3. Which category of spending receives the most federal dollars?

4. To which two categories of spending did voters want the most money to go?

5. Which two categories of spending actually received the most money?

Explanations:

1. Energy: Voters say they would like about 10% of the budget to be spent on energy, and about

11% is actually spent on energy.

2. Health.

3. National defense.

4. Voters wanted money to go to health and environment.

5. Defense and health received the most money.

Þ LINE GRAPHS

Line graphs show how two categories of data or information (sometimes called variables) relate to one

another. The data is displayed on a grid and is presented on a scale using a horizontal and a vertical

axis for the different categories of information compared on the graph. Usually, each data point is con-

nected together to form a line so that you can see trends in the data and how the data changes over

time. Often you will see line graphs with time on the horizontal axis. Let’s look at an example of a line

graph and see the kind of information it can provide.

How Federal Dollars Are Spent

How Voters Think the

Money Should Be Spent

How the Money

Is Spent

Space

2%

National

Defense

2%

Environ-

ment

6%

Energy

11%

Space

12%

Health

14%

Other

4%

National

Defense

53%

Health

49%

Environment

29%

Energy

10%

Other

8%

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 9 Charts, Tables, and Graphs

142

Example:

Consider the following information:

Using the “How People Get to Work” line graph, answer the following questions.

1. What variable is shown on the vertical axis? What variable is shown on the horizontal axis?

2. As the population density increases, will more or fewer people drive their own cars to work?

3. At about what point in population density does the use of public transportation begin to level off?

4. Which form of transportation becomes less popular as population density increases?

Explanations:

1. Look at the labels. The percent of workers using each form of transportation is shown on the

vertical axis. Population density is shown on the horizontal axis.

2. As population density increases, less people use their own cars to get to work.

3. At about 80 to 100 workers per acre, the percentage of workers using public transportation begins

to level off at about 70%.

4. Find the line that moves down as population density increases. It’s the line labeled “own car.”

This is the form of transportation that decreases as population density increases.

Þ BAR GRAPHS

Like pie charts, bar graphs show how different categories of data relate to one another. A bar represents

each category. The length of the bar represents the relative frequency of the category—compared to

the other categories on the graph. Let’s look at an example of a bar graph on the next page and see the

kind of information it can provide.

How People Get to Work

Population density (in workers per acre)

P

e

r

c

e

n

t

o

f

w

o

r

k

e

r

s

u

s

i

n

g

e

a

c

h

f

o

r

m

o

f

t

r

a

n

s

p

o

r

t

a

t

i

o

n

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150

Charts, Tables, and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

143

Þ

Example:

The following bar graph compares the 2002 rainfall amounts in Cherokee County with the aver-

age rainfall in Cherokee County over the last ﬁve years.

Using the “Rainfall in Cherokee County” bar graph, answer the following questions.

1. What does each bar represent? What is the difference between the shaded bars and the white

bars?

2. During which months is the rainfall in 2002 greater than the average rainfall?

3. During which months is the rainfall in 2002 less than the average rainfall?

4. How many more inches of rain fell in April 2002 than in January 2002?

5. How many more inches of rain fell in January 2002 than on average during the last ﬁve years

in January?

Explanations:

1. Look at the labels and the key. Each bar represents the number of inches of rainfall during a

particular month. From the key, you know that the shaded bars represent the average monthly

rainfall for 1996–2001. The white bars represent the rainfall in 2002.

2. Compare the white bars with the shaded bars. Rainfall in 2002 is greater than average during

the months that the white bar is taller than the shaded bar for that month. Rainfall in 2002 was

greater than the average rainfall during January, February, and March.

3. Compare the white bars with the shaded bars. Rainfall in 2002 is less than average during the

months that the shaded bar is taller than the white bar for that month. Rainfall in 2002 was less

than the average rainfall during April, May, and June.

4. Compare the height of the white bars for January and April. In April, 6 inches of rain fell. In

January, 4 inches of rain fell. Then subtract: 6 − 4 = 2. So, in April, 2 more inches of rain fell

than in January.

Rainfall in Cherokee County

Months

R

a

i

n

f

a

l

l

(

i

n

i

n

c

h

e

s

)

7.0

6.0

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

0.0

Jan Feb Mar Apr May June

Bar labels

Title

Scale

Key

Monthly

rainfall in

2002

Average

monthly

rainfall for

1997–2001

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 9 Charts, Tables, and Graphs

144

5. Compare the height of the shaded bar and the white bar for January. The shaded bar repre-

sents 2 inches. The white bar represents 4 inches. Subtract: 4 − 2 = 2. So, two more inches of

rain fell in January 2002 than on average during the last ﬁve years in January.

Þ GETTING INFORMATION FROMTABLES

Tables present information in rows and columns. Rows go across, or horizontally. Columns go up and

down, or vertically. The box, or cell, that is made where a row and a column meet provides speciﬁc

information. When looking for information in tables, it’s important to read the table title, the column

headings, and the row labels so you understand all of the information. Let’s look at some examples of

tables and the types of information you might expect to learn from them.

THE FUJITA-PEARSON TORNADO INTENSITY SCALE

CLASSIFICATION WIND SPEED (IN MILES PER HOUR) DAMAGE

F0 72 Mild

F1 73–112 Moderate

F2 113–157 Signiﬁcant

F3 158–206 Severe

F4 207–260 Devastating

F5 261–319 Cataclysmic

F6 320–379 Overwhelming

Example:

Using the “Fujita-Pearson Tornado Intensity Scale” table, answer the following questions.

1. If a tornado has a wind speed of 173 miles per hour, how would it be classiﬁed?

2. What kind of damage would you expect from a tornado having a wind speed of 300 miles per

hour?

3. What wind speed would you anticipate if a tornado of F6 were reported?

Explanations:

1. F3. The wind speed for F3 tornados ranges from 158–206 mph.

2. Cataclysmic: F5 tornados range in wind speed of 261–319 mph and cause cataclysmic damage.

3. F6 tornados range from wind speeds of 320–379 miles per hour.

Charts, Tables, and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

145

Þ

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

Use the chart below to answer questions 1 through 5.

1. What is the mean score of the people listed?

a. 90

b. 89

c. 88

d. 85

2. What is the median score of the people listed?

a. 90

b. 89

c. 88

d. 85

3. What is the range of the scores listed?

a. 90

b. 50

c. 24

d. 13

4. What is the mode of the scores listed?

a. 90

b. 89

c. 88

d. 85

NAME SCORE

Darin 95

Miguel 90

Anthony 82

Christopher 90

Samuel 88

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 9 Charts, Tables, and Graphs

146

5. If Anthony’s score was incorrectly reported as an 82 when his actual score on the test was a 90,

which of the following statements would be true when his actual score is used in the calcula-

tions?

a. the mean, median, range, and mode will change.

b. the mean, median, and range, will change; the mode will remain the same.

c. only the mean and median will change.

d. none of the above.

6. The chart below gives the times that 4 swimmers had in their race. Which swimmer had the

fastest time?

a. Molly

b. Jeff

c. Asta

d. Risa

The chart below lists the number of members present at the monthly meetings for the Environmen-

tal Protection Club. Use this chart to answer questions 7 through 9.

7. What was the average monthly attendance over the course of all the months listed?

a. 71

b. 65

c. 61

d. 56

MONTH # OF MEMBERS

September 54

October 61

November 70

December 75

SWIMMER TIME (SEC)

Molly 38.51

Jeff 39.23

Asta 37.95

Risa 37.89

Charts, Tables, and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

147

Þ

8. What was the median value of members in attendance during the course of the four months shown?

a. 54

b. 61

c. 65.5

d. 70

9. If the data presented in the table were plotted as a bar graph, which of the following would best

represent the data most accurately?

a.

b.

c.

d.

M

e

m

b

e

r

s

a

t

t

e

n

d

i

n

g

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Sept Oct Nov Dec

M

e

m

b

e

r

s

a

t

t

e

n

d

i

n

g

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Sept Oct Nov Dec

M

e

m

b

e

r

s

a

t

t

e

n

d

i

n

g

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Sept Oct Nov Dec

M

e

m

b

e

r

s

a

t

t

e

n

d

i

n

g

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Sept Oct Nov Dec

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 9 Charts, Tables, and Graphs

148

The pie chart below shows the Johnson family budget for one month. Use this information to answer

questions 10 through 12.

10. In percent of overall expenses, how much more money is spent on food than on transportation

and clothing combined?

a. 9%

b. 11%

c. 13%

d. 22%

11. If the Johnson family budget is $4,000 per month, how much money is spent on housing each

month?

a. $800

b. $1,000

c. $1,200

d. $1,400

12. If the Johnson family budget is $4,000 per month, how much money will they save each year?

a. $48,000

b. $4,800

c. $400

d. none of the above

Johnson Family Budget

Housing

30%

Clothing

4%

Transportation

9%

Savings

10%

Entertainment

12%

Misc.

13%

Food

22%

Charts, Tables, and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

149

Þ

The graph below shows the yearly electricity usage for Finnigan Engineering Inc. over the course of

three years for three departments. Use this information to answer questions 13 through 16.

13. How much greater was the electricity cost for Sales during the year 1999 than the electricity

cost for Customer Service in 2000?

a. $200

b. $150

c. $100

d. $50

14. Which of the following statements is supported by the data?

a. The Sales Department showed a steady increase in the dollar amount of electricity used

during the 4-year period.

b. The Customer Service Department showed a steady increase in the dollar amount of elec-

tricity used during the 4-year period.

c. The Engineering Department showed a steady increase in the dollar amount of electricity

used from 2000–2002.

d. none of the above

15. What was the percent decrease in electricity usage (in dollar amount) from 1999 to 2000 for the

Engineering Department?

a. 25%

b. 20%

c. 15%

d. 10%

D

o

l

l

a

r

a

m

o

u

n

t

c

o

n

s

u

m

e

d

1,000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

1999 2000 2001 2002

Sales dept.

Customer

Service

Engineering

Dept.

Year

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 9 Charts, Tables, and Graphs

150

16. If the information in the bar graph associated with question 13 is transcribed and a line graph is

generated, which of the following line graphs is correct?

a.

b.

c.

D

o

l

l

a

r

a

m

o

u

n

t

c

o

n

s

u

m

e

d

1,100

1,000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

1999 2000 2001 2002

Sales dept.

Customer

Service

Engineering

Dept.

Year

D

o

l

l

a

r

a

m

o

u

n

t

c

o

n

s

u

m

e

d

1,100

1,000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

1999 2000 2001 2002

Sales dept.

Customer

Service

Engineering

Dept.

Year

D

o

l

l

a

r

a

m

o

u

n

t

c

o

n

s

u

m

e

d

1,100

1,000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

1999 2000 2001 2002

Sales dept.

Customer

Service

Engineering

Dept.

Year

Charts, Tables, and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

151

Þ

d.

The table below shows the numbers of male and female students involved in several school activities.

Use this information to answer questions 17–19.

17. Which activity has the lowest ratio of males to females?

a. Drama

b. Journalism

c. Science Club

d. Debate

18. For all of the students listed, what percent of the students are involved in Debate?

a. 15%

b. 20%

c. 27%

d. 29%

19. If 3 more males and 4 more females join the Science Club, what percent of the students will be

in this club?

a. 15%

b. 20%

c. 27%

d. 29%

ACTIVITY MALE FEMALE

Drama 11 13

Journalism 12 10

Science Club 9 11

Debate 12 15

D

o

l

l

a

r

a

m

o

u

n

t

c

o

n

s

u

m

e

d

1,100

1,000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

1999 2000 2001 2002

Sales dept.

Customer

Service

Engineering

Dept.

Year

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 9 Charts, Tables, and Graphs

152

Use the chart below to answer questions 20 through 23.

20. Based on the chart above, which answer choice represents a true statement?

a. Online Purchases have increased whereas Charge Card Interest has decreased over the

course of the 4 years shown.

b. Charge Card Interest has increased whereas Online Purchases have decreased over the

course of the 4 years shown.

c. In-Store Purchases have increased whereas Charge Card Interest has decreased over the

course of the 4 years shown.

d. Online Purchases have increased whereas In-Store Purchases have decreased over the

course of the 4 years shown.

21. If all of the information on the graph above were converted into a table, which of the following

tables would correctly display the data (with revenue in thousands of dollars)?

a.

1999 2000 2001 2002

Charge Card Interest $90 $90 $100 $150

In-Store Purchases $80 $90 $80 $70

Online Purchases $15 $60 $30 $120

b. 1999 2000 2001 2002

Charge Card Interest $80 $90 $100 $120

In-Store Purchases $80 $80 $80 $70

Online Purchases $15 $60 $60 $120

c. 1999 2000 2001 2002

Charge Card Interest $80 $90 $100 $150

R

e

v

e

n

u

e

i

n

t

h

o

u

s

a

n

d

s

o

f

d

o

l

l

a

r

s 200

150

100

50

0

1999 2000 2001 2002

Charge Card

interest

In-Store

Purchases

Online

Purchases

Year

Montgomery Inc. Yearly Proﬁts

Charts, Tables, and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

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Þ

In-Store Purchases $100 $90 $80 $70

Online Purchases $15 $30 $60 $120

d. 1999 2000 2001 2002

Charge Card Interest $80 $90 $100 $150

In-Store Purchases $90 $80 $90 $70

Online Purchases $15 $30 $60 $120

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 9 Charts, Tables, and Graphs

154

22. The Online Purchases in 1999 were what fraction of the Charge Card Interest in 2002?

a.

ᎏ

1

5

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

1

1

0

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

23. In-Store Purchases in 1999 made how much more than In-Store Purchases in 2002?

a. $30

b. $60

c. $6,000

d. $30,000

The line graph below shows earning for the three divisions of Steinberg Lumber Company through-

out the 4 quarters in 2002. Use the information presented to answer questions 24 through 26.

24. Which of the following statements is true?

a. The East Division consistently brought in more revenue than the other 2 divisions.

b. The North Division consistently brought in more revenue than the West Division.

c. The West Division consistently out performed the East Division.

d. Both b and c are true.

25. What is the percent decrease in revenue for the North Division when analyzing dollar amounts

from the 3rd and 4th quarters?

a. 33

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

%

b. 40%

c. 50%

d. 60%

R

e

v

e

n

u

e

i

n

t

h

o

u

s

a

n

d

s

o

f

d

o

l

l

a

r

s

100

80

60

40

20

0

1st 2nd 3rd 4th

Qtr Qtr Qtr Qtr

East

West

North

Charts, Tables, and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

155

Þ

26. During the year 2002, Steinberg Lumber secured a major contract with a developer in Canada.

The East and North Divisions both supplied lumber for this project. Which of the following

statements seems to be supported by the data?

a. The West Division was angry that the other two divisions supplied the lumber for this

contract.

b. The next big contract will be covered by the West Division.

c. The contract with the Canadian developer was secured in the third quarter.

d. The contract with the Canadian developer was secured in the fourth quarter.

Use the information below to answer questions 27 through 29. The pie chart shows the percentage of

employees in the various departments of Amelia Computer Consultants Inc.

27. Which two departments account for 32% of the employees?

a. Marketing and Tech Support

b. Customer Service and Sales

c. Sales and Tech Support

d. Marketing and Customer Service

28. If the total number of employees is 400, how many employees are in the Tech Support department?

a. 52

b. 76

c. 110

d. 220

29. Suppose that the Customer Service department is expanded by adding 12 new employees. Which

of the following statements is true?

a. Customer Service and Marketing have the same number of employees.

b. The percent of employees in Marketing is now 11%.

c. The percent of employees in sales is now 20%.

d. The percent of employees in Tech Support is now 53%, while the percent of employees in

Customer Service is 16%.

Customer

Service

Sales

Tech Support

Marketing

13% 13%

55%

19%

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 9 Charts, Tables, and Graphs

156

Use the information below to answer questions 30 and 31. The chart below shows the composition by

percent of the human body with respect to various elements.

30. If a man weighs 260 pounds, how much does the carbon in his body weigh?

a. 46.8 pounds

b. 48.6 pounds

c. 52.4 pounds

d. 54.2 pounds

31. The chart below shows the cost for different categories of UTP cabling. If Athena’s ofﬁce needs

to buy 100 feet of UTP cable that can send data at a speed of 75 megabytes per second, about

how much will she spend?

PRICE

CATEGORY CHARACTERISTICS PER FOOT

Category 1 Does not support data transmission $.75

Category 2 Supports data transmission speeds up to 4 megabytes per second $ 1.00

Category 3 Supports data transmission speeds up to 16 megabytes per second $ 1.75

Category 4 Supports data transmission speeds up to 20 megabytes per second $ 2.50

Category 5 Supports data transmission speeds up to 100 megabytes per second $ 3.00

a. $3

b. $250

c. $275

d. $300

ELEMENT PERCENT BY WEIGHT

Carbon 18%

Hydrogen 10%

Oxygen 65%

Other Elements 7%

Charts, Tables, and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

157

Þ

32. During the year 2000, at Deluxe Vacuum Co., the East and West divisions had equal sales and

the North sold the most. Which graph could be the graph of Deluxe’s yearly sales for 2000?

a. 1

b. 2

c. 3

d. 4

Use the following information to answer questions 33 and 34. Swimming Pool World pledged to donate

3.2% of their sales during the second week of May to the Children’s Hospital. Below is their sales chart

for May.

33. How much did Swimming Pool World donate to the children’s hospital?

a. $2,336.67

b. $3,651.05

c. $23,366.72

d. $36,510.50

MAY SALES

Week 1 $5,895

Week 2 $73,021

Week 3 $54,702

Week 4 $67,891

East West North

1

East West North

2

East West North

3

East West North

4

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 9 Charts, Tables, and Graphs

158

34. If Swimming Pool World pledged 1% of sales for the entire month of May, how much would

they have donated?

a. about $300 more

b. about $300 less

c. about $500 more

d. about $500 less

35. The chart below shows registration for art classes for Fall 2003.

STUDENTS REGISTERING FOR ART CLASSES

Course Number of Students

Stained Glass 21

Beginning Drawing 48

Sculpture 13

Watercolors 18

TOTAL 100

If this is a representative sampling, how many out of 500 students would be expected to choose stained

glass for their art course?

a. 21

b. 92

c. 105

d. 210

Use the following information to answer questions 36 through 37. The following table shows the rain-

fall, in inches, over a 5-day period in August for Hilo, Hawaii. It also includes the total rainfall for the

year and the average rainfall for a typical year.

RAINFALL YEAR NORMAL

Monday 0.08 90.88 79.15

Tuesday 0.09 90.97 79.16

Wednesday 0.70 91.67 79.17

Thursday 0.19 91.86 79.17

Friday 0.32 92.18 79.50

Charts, Tables, and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

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Þ

36. Find the average rainfall for the 5-day period in August.

a. 1.38 inches

b. 0.276 inches

c. 0.32 inches

d. 0.237 inches

37. Using Monday’s reading and rounding off to the nearest one percent, the year-to-date record is

what percent of the normal reading?

a. 13%

b. 15%

c. 87%

d. 115%

Use the following information to answer questions 38 through 40. The chart below shows the colors

of replacement parts for pocket PCs. The total number of parts shipped is 1,650.

BOXED SET OF REPLACEMENT PARTS

Part Color Number of Pieces

Green 430

Red 425

Blue

Yellow 345

TOTAL 1,650

38. If a person randomly grabbed a part out of the box, what is the probability that the part will be

blue?

a.

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

1

9

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

1

1

2

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

1

3

1

ᎏ

39. Approximately what percent of the total shipment is red?

a. 18%

b. 20%

c. 26%

d. 30%

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 9 Charts, Tables, and Graphs

160

40. If the chart below shows the number of replacement parts that were found to be defective, what

percent of the new parts is defective?

BOXED SET OF REPLACEMENT PARTS

Part Color Number of Defective Pieces

Green 14

Red 10

Blue 8

Yellow 12

a. 22

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

%

b. 18%

c. 8

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

%

d. 2

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

%

Use the following information to answer questions 41 through 43. The table lists the size of building

lots in the Orange Grove subdivision and the people who are planning to build on those lots. For each

lot, installation of utilities costs $12,516. The city charges impact fees of $3,879 per lot. There are also

development fees of 16.15 cents per square foot of land.

LOT AREA (SQ. FT.) BUILDER

A 8,023 Ira Taylor

B 6,699 Alexis Funes

C 9,004 Ira Taylor

D 8,900 Mark Smith

E 8,301 Alexis Funes

F 8,269 Ira Taylor

G 6,774 Ira Taylor

41. The area of the smallest lot listed is approximately what percent of the area of the largest lot

listed?

a. 25%

b. 50%

c. 75%

d. 85%

Charts, Tables, and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

161

Þ

42. How much land does Mr. Taylor own in the Orange Grove subdivision?

a. 23,066 sq. ft.

b. 29,765 sq. ft.

c. 31,950 sq. ft.

d. 32,070 sq. ft.

43. How much will Mr. Smith pay in development fees for his lot?

a. $1,157.00

b. $1,437.35

c. $143,735

d. $274,550

44. Felipe is planning to get an Internet service in order to have access to the World Wide Web.

Two service providers, A and B, offer different rates as shown in the table below. If Felipe plans

on using 25 hours of Internet service per month, which of the following statements is true?

INTERNET SERVICE RATES

Provider Free Hours Base Charge Hourly Charge

A 17.5 $20.00 $1.00

B 20 $20.00 $15.0

a. Provider A will be cheaper.

b. Provider B will be cheaper.

c. The providers will cost the same per month.

d. The answer cannot be determined from the information given.

45. Refer to the table below to answer this question: If you take recyclables to the recycler who will

pay the most, what is the greatest amount of money you could get for 2,200 pounds of aluminum,

1,400 pounds of cardboard, 3,100 pounds of glass, and 900 pounds of plastic?

RECYCLER ALUMINUM CARDBOARD GLASS PLASTIC

X $.06/pound $.03/pound $.07/pound $.02/pound

Y $.07/pound $.04/pound $.08/pound $.03/pound

a. $409

b. $440

c. $447

d. $485

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 9 Charts, Tables, and Graphs

162

46. Which of the following brands is the least expensive?

BRAND PRICE ($) WEIGHT (OZ.)

W 0.21 6

X 0.48 15

Y 0.56 20

Z 0.96 32

a. W

b. X

c. Y

d. Z

Use the following information to answer questions 47 through 50.

When an earthquake occurs, some of the energy released travels through the ground as waves. Two

general types of waves are generated. One type is called the P wave, and the other is called the S wave.

A graph can be made of the travel times of these waves.

47. How many minutes does it take the S wave to travel 5,500 kilometers?

a. 15 min.

b. 20 min.

c. 25 min.

d. 30 min.

48. Approximately how many minutes does it take a P wave to travel 8,000 km?

a. 6 min.

b. 12 min.

c. 3 min.

d. 15 min.

1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000

Distance from Epicenter (kilometers)

25

20

15

10

5

0

P wave

S wave

T

r

a

v

e

l

T

i

m

e

(

m

i

n

u

t

e

s

)

Charts, Tables, and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

163

Þ

49. An earthquake occurs at noon, and the recording station receives the S wave at 12:04 P.M. How

far away is the earthquake?

a. 1,000 km.

b. 2,000 km.

c. 3,000 km.

d. 4,000 km.

50. How far away is an earthquake if the difference in arrival time between the P and S waves is

5 minutes?

a. 1,000 km.

b. 3,000 km.

c. 4,000 km.

d. 7,000 km.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 9 Charts, Tables, and Graphs

164

ANSWERS

1. b. The formula for calculating the mean (average) is:

Mean =

ᎏ

sum

#

o

o

f

f

a

v

l

a

l

l

v

u

a

es

lues

ᎏ

.

The sum of all the values given is: 95 + 90 + 82 + 90 + 88 = 445. The number of values (scores)

is 5. Thus, the mean =

ᎏ

44

5

5

ᎏ

= 89.

2. a. First, list all of the scores in order: 82, 88, 90, 90, 95. The middle score will be the median,

thus 90 is the median.

3. d. The range is calculated by subtracting the lowest score from the highest score. Thus, the

range is 95 − 82 = 13.

4. a. The mode is the score that occurs the most. Here, there are two nineties, thus 90 is the mode.

5. d. Calculate the new median, mode, and range and compare them to the original values. To

ﬁnd the new mean, ﬁrst add all the scores: 95 + 90 + 90 + 90 + 88 = 453, and then divide by 5:

453 ÷ 5 = 90.6. Next, we can calculate the median and see if it is different: 88, 90, 90, 90, 95.

Here, we see that the median is the same as it was before, 90. The mode is still 90 because 90

is the score that occurs the most. The range is now 95 − 88 = 7. The chart below compares the

old and new values:

Thus, choice d is the correct answer.

6. d. The fastest swimmer will have the quickest time. 37.89 (Thirty seven and eighty-nine hun-

dredths is the fastest). Thus, Risa is the fastest swimmer.

7. b. The formula for calculating the mean (average) is:

Mean =

ᎏ

sum

#

o

o

f

f

a

v

l

a

l

l

v

u

a

es

lues

ᎏ

.

The sum of all the values given is: 54 + 61 + 70 + 75 = 260. The number of values is 4. Thus,

the mean = 260 ÷ 4 = 65.

8. c. List all of the values in order: 54, 61, 70, 75. Here, there is an even number of values, so we

average the middle 2 numbers. The average of 61 and 70 is

ᎏ

13

2

1

ᎏ

= 65.5.

9. b. The number of members attending for the four months was: 54, 61, 70, 75, for September,

October, November, and December, respectively. This is accurately displayed in choice b. Note

that choice b is also the only choice that depicts the ascending trend. That is to say, the num-

ber of members in attendance increases over time.

OLD NEW

Mean 89 90.6

Median 90 90

Mode 90 90

Range 13 95 − 88 = 7

Charts, Tables, and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

165

Þ

10. a. 22% is spent on food. When we combine transportation (9%) and clothing (4%), the sum

is 13%. Thus, the amount spent on food is 22% − 13% = 9% greater.

11. c. Housing consumes 30% of the monthly budget. 30% of $4,000 is calculated by multiply-

ing: 30% × $4,000 = .30 × $4,000 = $1,200.

12. b. They save 10% of $4,000 each month: .10 × $4,000 = $400. Over the course of a year they

will save $400 per month × 12 months = $4,800.

13. d. The Sales Dept. (black bar) spent $750 on electricity in 1999. The Customer Service Dept.

(lightest-colored bar) spent $700 on electricity in 2000. Thus, the Sales Dept. spent $750 −

$700 = $50 more.

14. c. The usage for the Engineering Department increases by $100 each year from 2000 through

2002. None of the other statements are supported by the data. Claims of steady increase over

the course of 4 years would be visually represented as 4 bars, each with greater height than

the prior.

15. b. The difference in dollar amounts used is $1,000 − $800 = $200. When compared with the

original $1,000 consumed, this can be expressed as a percent by equating

ᎏ

1

2

,0

0

0

0

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

x

0

ᎏ

. Thus,

x = 20%.

16. d. The line graph in choice d accurately displays the data that is obtained from the bar graph.

The data is listed below in table format so that you can easily see the information present on

both the bar graph and the correct line graph:

17. d. The M:F (male to female) ratios are as follows:

Drama:

ᎏ

1

1

1

3

ᎏ

≈ .85

Journalism:

ᎏ

1

1

2

0

ᎏ

= 1.2

Science Club:

ᎏ

1

9

1

ᎏ

≈ .82

Debate:

ᎏ

1

1

2

5

ᎏ

= .8

Here, .8 is the least value, so a

ᎏ

1

1

2

5

ᎏ

ratio is the smallest M:F ratio listed.

1999 2000 2001 2002

Sales 750 800 750 900

Customer Service 750 700 800 800

Engineering 1,000 800 900 1,000

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 9 Charts, Tables, and Graphs

166

18. d. This question is easily solved by adding a column and row labeled “TOTAL” onto the side

and bottom of the given chart:

Now, you can easily see that 27 students out of the 93 total are taking debate.

ᎏ

2

9

7

3

ᎏ

≈ .29. To write

these values as a percent, simply move the decimal point two places to the right and add the

percent symbol: 29%.

19. c. Using the new information, our chart becomes:

This means that 27 out of 100 students are now in the Science Club.

ᎏ

1

2

0

7

0

ᎏ

= 27%.

20. d. The black bars (Charge Card Interest) increase from year to year. The white bars (In-Store

Purchases) decrease from year to year. The gray bars (Online Purchases) increase from year to

year. Thus, only choice d is correct.

21. c. The black bars (Charge Card Interest) increase from 80 to 90 to 100 to 150. The white bars

(In-Store Purchases) decrease from 100 to 90 to 80 to 70. The gray bars (Online Purchases)

increase from 15 to 30 to 60 to 120. Only choice c presents this data correctly.

22. b. In 1999, Online Purchases were at $15,000. In 2002, Charge Card Interest totaled $150,000.

Since 15 is

ᎏ

1

1

0

ᎏ

of 150, the answer is

ᎏ

1

1

0

ᎏ

, choice b.

23. d. Note that all dollar amounts in the chart are expressed as, “Revenue in thousands of dol-

lars.” In 1999, the In-Store Purchases were at $100,000. In 2002, the amount is $70,000. Thus,

the difference is $30,000. Thus, choice d, $30,000, is correct.

24. b. Looking at the graph, we see that the line for North (the line with triangular points) is always

higher than the line for West (the line with the square points). All other statements are NOT

supported by the data in the graph. Thus, only choice b is true.

ACTIVITY MALE FEMALE TOTAL

Drama 11 13 24

Journalism 12 10 22

Science Club 12 15 27

Debate 12 15 27

TOTAL 100

ACTIVITY MALE FEMALE TOTAL

Drama 11 13 24

Journalism 12 10 22

Science Club 9 11 20

Debate 12 15 27

TOTAL 93

Charts, Tables, and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

167

Þ

25. a. Here, the revenue in thousand of dollars decreases from 60 to 40. Thus, the difference is

20. As compared with the original 60, this represents

ᎏ

2

6

0

0

ᎏ

= .333 . . . . To express this as a per-

cent, just move the decimal point 2 places to the right .3333 ¬ 33

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

%.

26. c. Since we are told that this was a “major” contract, the statement best supported by the data

is choice c: “The contract with the Canadian developer was secured in the third quarter.” The

data supports this statement because both the East and North Divisions had a signiﬁcant rev-

enue increase during the third quarter, which might be indicative of having a large contract for

that quarter.

27. b. Customer Service (black) accounts are 13% of the total, and Sales (dark gray) accounts are

19% of the total. Together, these add to 32%. Since both Marketing and Customer Service are

at 13%, either department could be combined with Sales to total 32% of the company employ-

ees. Note that only Customer Service and Sales are listed as a choice.

28. d. Tech Support (white) is 55% of the total. 55% of 400 equals 55% × 400 = .55 × 400 = 220.

You can save time when answering a question like this by noticing that 55% will be slightly

more than

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

the total of 400, so slightly more that 200. Only choice d makes sense.

29. d. Before the addition of the 12 new customer service representatives, the number of employ-

ees in each department was as follows:

Customer Service: .13 × 400 = 52

Marketing: .13 × 400 = 52

Sales: .19 × 400 = 76

Tech Support: .55 × 400 = 220

The new total is 400 + 12 = 412. The new amount of customer service employees is 52 + 12

= 64. The percentages are as follows:

Customer Service:

ᎏ

4

6

1

4

2

ᎏ

≈.15534 ≈ 15.5 % ≈ 16%

Marketing:

ᎏ

4

5

1

2

2

ᎏ

≈ .12621 ≈ 12.6% ≈ 13%

Sales:

ᎏ

4

7

1

6

2

ᎏ

≈ .18447 ≈ 18.4% ≈ 18%

Tech Support:

ᎏ

2

4

2

1

0

2

ᎏ

≈ .53398 ≈ 53.4% ≈ 53%

Thus, the only choice that is true is choice d.

30. a. Carbon accounts for 18% of body weight. 18% of 260 = .18 × 260 = 46.8 pounds.

31. d. Since she needs to support a speed of 75 megabytes per second, only Category 5 UTP cable

can be used. Note that Category 5 “Supports data transmission speeds up to 100 megabytes per sec-

ond.” This cable cost $3 per foot, so 100 feet will cost 100 × $3.00 = $300.

32. d. The East and West divisions had equal sales, so we need a graph where the bars for East

and West are the same height. North sold the most, so we need a graph that also shows North

as having the largest bar in the graph. Graph 4 shows this situation. Thus, choice d is correct.

33. a. During Week 2 they made $73,021. To ﬁnd 3.2% of this amount, just multiply by .032: .032

× $73,021 = $2,336.672. Rounded to the nearest cent, the answer is: $2,336.67.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 9 Charts, Tables, and Graphs

168

34. b. First, calculate the total by adding up all the dollar amounts:

$5,895

$73,021

$54,702

+ $67,891

$201,509

Next, take 1% of the total by multiplying by .01.

.01 × $201,509 = $2,015.09. This is about $300 less than the $2,336.67 that they actually donated.

35. c. Since the sampling is representative, this means that the same trend will be seen when a larger

sample is considered. Thus, simply multiply by 5 to see how many students out of 500 will choose

stained glass. 5 × 21 = 105.

36. b. Add up the values for the 5 days shown: .08 + .09 + .70 + .19 + .32 = 1.38. Divide this amount

by 5 to get the average: 1.38 ÷ 5 = .276 inches.

37. d. On Monday, the year-to-date record is 90.88 inches. The normal amount is 79.15. Thus

the year-to-date value is obviously above 100% of the normal value, making choice d the only

possible correct answer. (Note that

ᎏ

9

7

0

9

.

.

1

1

8

5

ᎏ

≈ 1.1482 ≈ 114.82% ≈ 115%.)

38. d. 430 + 425 + 345 = 1,200 parts are accounted for. Since the total is 1,650, 1,650 − 1,200 =

450 blue parts. When randomly picking a part, the chance of getting blue is 450 out of 1,650

=

ᎏ

1

4

,6

5

5

0

0

ᎏ

. Simplify the expression:

ᎏ

1

4

,6

5

5

0

0

ᎏ

÷

ᎏ

1

1

5

5

0

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

3

1

ᎏ

.

39. c. 425 out of 1,650 is red.

ᎏ

1

4

,6

5

5

0

0

ᎏ

= 425 ÷ 1,650 = .25757

––

. To convert to a percent, just move the

decimal point 2 places to the right and add the percent symbol: 25.7575 . . . % ≈ 26%.

40. d. Add a row for the total at the bottom of the given chart:

44 parts out of 1,650 are defective.

ᎏ

1,

4

6

4

50

ᎏ

= .02666

––

. To express this as a percent, move the deci-

mal point 2 places to the right and add the percent symbol: 2.66666 . . . %. This equals 2

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

%.

41. c. The smallest lot is 6,699 ft

2

, and the largest lot is 9,004 ft

2

. 6,699 out of 9,004 equals

ᎏ

6

9

,

,

6

0

9

0

9

4

ᎏ

≈ .74400 ≈ 74.40% ≈ 74%. Thus, choice c, 75% is the best approximation.

BOXED SET OF REPLACEMENT PARTS

Part Color Number of Defective Pieces

Green 14

Red 10

Blue 8

Yellow 12

TOTAL DEFECTIVE 44

Charts, Tables, and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

169

Þ

42. d. Look at the chart to see all of the land Mr. Taylor owns:

The total amount of land Mr. Taylor owns is 8,023 + 9,004 + 8,269 + 6,774 = 32,070 ft

2

.

43. b. Mr. Smith’s lot is 8,900 ft

2

. You are told, “. . . There are also development fees of 16.15 cents

per square foot of land.” 16.15 cents = $0.1615. Thus, he must pay $.1615 × 8,900 = $1,437.35

in development fees.

44. c. When used for

ᎏ

25

m

h

o

rs

ᎏ

, Provider A will cost: $20 plus 7.5 × $1 (for the hourly charge above

the free hours). This equals $27.50. Provider B will cost $20 plus 5 × $1.50 (for the hourly charge

above the free hours). This equals $20 + $7.50 = $27.50 as well, so choice c is the correct answer.

45. d. Since Recycler Y pays more per pound for all 4 types of recyclables, all 4 items should be

brought there. The aluminum will yield .07 × 2,200 = $154. The cardboard will yield .04 × 1,400

= $56. The glass will yield .08 × 3,100 = $248. The plastic will yield .03 × 900 = $27. These add

to $485.

46. c. Calculate the price per ounce (oz.) for each brand:

W:

ᎏ

.2

6

1

ᎏ

= .035

X:

ᎏ

.

1

4

5

8

ᎏ

= .032

Y:

ᎏ

.

2

5

0

6

ᎏ

= .028

Z:

ᎏ

.

3

9

2

6

ᎏ

= .03

Thus, brand Y is the least expensive, choice c.

LOT AREA (SQ. FT.) BUILDER

A 8,023 Ira Taylor

B 6,699 Alexis Funes

C 9,004 Ira Taylor

D 8,900 Mark Smith

E 8,301 Alexis Funes

F 8,269 Ira Taylor

G 6,774 Ira Taylor

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 9 Charts, Tables, and Graphs

170

47. a. The solid line represents the S wave. This crosses 5,500 km at time = 15 minutes.

48. b. The P wave is the dashed line. It travels 8,000 km at a point above time = 10, but below time

= 15. Hence, a time of 12 minutes is the best answer.

49. a. The S wave was received 4 minutes after the earthquake. Locate 4 minutes on the vertical

axis of the graph and then move across until you reach the S wave graph. Look down to the

horizontal axis to see that this means the earthquake is 1,000 km away.

1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000

Distance from Epicenter (kilometers)

25

20

15

10

5

0

P wave

S wave

T

r

a

v

e

l

T

i

m

e

(

m

i

n

u

t

e

s

)

1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000

Distance from Epicenter (kilometers)

25

20

15

10

5

0

P wave

S wave

T

r

a

v

e

l

T

i

m

e

(

m

i

n

u

t

e

s

)

1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000

Distance from Epicenter (kilometers)

25

20

15

10

5

0

P wave

S wave

T

r

a

v

e

l

T

i

m

e

(

m

i

n

u

t

e

s

)

Charts, Tables, and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

171

Þ

=

C H A P T E R

Geometry and

Measurement

Þ UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

Metric System

In the metric system lengths are calculated in meters, masses are calculated in grams, and volumes are

calculated in liters. The preﬁx of each unit is very important. You should be familiar with the follow-

ing preﬁxes:

PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLE

milli ᎏ

1,0

1

00

ᎏof 1 milligram is ᎏ

1,0

1

00

ᎏof a gram

centi ᎏ

1

1

00

ᎏ of 1 centimeter is ᎏ

1

1

00

ᎏ of a meter

deci ᎏ

1

1

0

ᎏ of 1 decigram is ᎏ

1

1

0

ᎏ of a gram

deca 10 times 1 decameter is 10 meters

hecto 100 times 1 hectoliter is 100 liters

kilo 1,000 times 1 kilometer is 1,000 meters

10

Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

173

Þ

Customary Units

The relationships between the customary units are not as systematic as the relationships between units

in the metric system. Here, lengths are measured in inches, feet, yards, and miles. Weights are mea-

sured in pounds and ounces. And volumes are measured in cubic inches, cubic feet, and so forth. Below

is a chart of common conversions for customary units.

COMMON CONVERSIONS

1 foot = 12 inches 1 cup = 8 ﬂuid ounces

3 feet = 1 yard 1 pint = 2 cups

1 mile = 5,280 feet 1 quart = 2 pints

1 acre = 43,560 square feet 1 gallon = 4 quarts

1 ton = 2,000 pounds 1 pound = 16 ounces

1 gross = 144 units 1 liter = 1,000 cubic centimeters

Þ CONVERTING UNITS

Conversion factors are an easy way to convert units. For example, using the knowledge that 12 in. =

1 foot, you can generate 2 conversion factors:

ᎏ

1

1

2

f

i

t

n

.

.

ᎏ

and

ᎏ

1

1

2

f

i

t

n

.

.

ᎏ

. Suppose you wanted to convert 5 feet

into inches. You can use the conversion factor

ᎏ

1

1

2

f

i

t

n

.

.

ᎏ

:

5 ft . ×

ᎏ

1

1

2

f

i

t

n

.

.

ᎏ

= 60 in.

Notice that you crossed out the units you didn’t want (feet) and ended up with the units you did

want (inches). Having the feet in the denominator of this conversion factor lets us cross-out the “ft.”

unit in the original 1 ft. In other instances you may want to cross-out inches and convert to feet. The

conversion factor to use would be

ᎏ

1

1

2

f

i

t

n

.

.

ᎏ

.

Sample question:

32,000 ounces is equal to how many tons?

a. 16

b. 8

c. 4

d. 1

You know that 1 lb. = 16 oz. and 1 ton = 2,000 lbs. Use this information to make a series of con-

version factors and multiply:

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 10 Geometry and Measurement

174

32,000 oz. ×

ᎏ

1

1

6

l

o

b

z

.

.

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

2,

1

00

t

0

on

lb.

ᎏ

= 32,000 oz . ×

ᎏ

1

1

6

l

o

b

z

.

.

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

2,

1

00

t

0

on

lb.

ᎏ

=1 ton. Thus, the correct answer is d.

Notice that your goal is to cross-out the units you DO NOT want and to end up with the units that

you DO want.

Þ CALCULATIONS WITH GEOMETRIC FIGURES

Perimeter is the distance around a ﬁgure. The perimeter of a circle is called its circumference. Area is a

measure of the surface of a two-dimensional ﬁgure. Volume is a measure of the amount of space inside

a three-dimensional shape. You should be familiar with the following formulas.

Triangle: Area =

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

bh

The interior angles of a triangle add to 180°.

The interior angles of a quadrilateral (4-sided polygon) add to 360°.

Square: Area = s

2

Rectangle: Area = lw

Circle: Area = πr

2

Circumference = πd = 2πr

(π ≈ 3.14 or

ᎏ

2

7

2

ᎏ

)

Parallelogram: Area = bh

h

b

r

w

l

s

b

h

Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

175

Þ

Trapezoid: Area =

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

h(b

1

+ b

2

)

Pythagorean theorem: a

2

+ b

2

= c

2

Right Circular Cylinder: Volume = πr

2

h

Total Surface Area = 2πrh + 2πr

2

Rectangular Solid: Volume = lwh

Total Surface Area = 2(lw) + 2(hw) + 2(lh)

Sample Questions:

1. A rectangular swimming pool measures 204 feet long and 99 feet wide. What is the area of the

pool in square yards?

a. 20,196 square yards

b. 6,732 square yards

c. 2,244 square yards

d. 1,800 square yards

The answer is c. Convert both the length and the width into yards:

204 ft. ×

ᎏ

1

3

y

f

d

t.

.

ᎏ

= 68 yd.

99 ft. ×

ᎏ

1

3

y

f

d

t.

.

ᎏ

= 33 yd.

Next, use the area formula for a rectangle, A = lw:

A = 68 yd × 33 yd = 2,244 square yards.

h

w

l

h

r

c

a

b

h

b

1

b

2

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 10 Geometry and Measurement

176

2. One cubic centimeter of wood weighs 6 grams. How much would a cube weigh if it measured

10 cm on each side?

a. 60 grams

b. 600 grams

c. 6,000 grams

d. 60,000 grams

The answer is c. For this question, you are told that the weight is 6 grams per cubic centimeter,

or ᎏ

c

6

m

g

3

ᎏ. You need to ﬁnd out how many cm

3

there are in the bigger cube, which is the volume of the

cube. Recall that for a cube, V = side

3

. The bigger cube has a side = 10, so V = 10

3

= 1,000 cm

3

. Then,

to ﬁnd the weight you multiply 1,000 cm

3

× ᎏ

c

6

m

g

3

ᎏ = 6,000 grams. Thus, choice c is correct.

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

1. What is the sum of 3 ft. 5 in., 10 ft. 2 in., and 2 ft. 7 in.?

a. 14 ft. 14 in.

b. 15 ft. 11 in.

c. 15 ft. 13 in.

d. 16 ft. 2 in.

2. Three pieces of pipe measure 5 ft. 8 in., 4 ft. 7 in., and 3 ft. 9 in. What is the combined length

of all three pipes?

a. 14 ft.

b. 13 ft. 10 in.

c. 12 ft. 9 in.

d. 12 ft. 5 in.

3. How many inches are there in 3

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

yards?

a. 126 in.

b. 120 in.

c. 160 in.

d. 168 in.

4. 76,000 mL is equivalent to how many liters?

a. 7.6 L

b. 76 L

c. 760 L

d. 7,600 L

Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

177

Þ

5. 2,808 inches is equivalent to how many yards?

a. 234

b. 110

c. 78

d. 36

6. What is the sum of 5 yd. 2 ft., 8 yd. 1 ft., 3 yd.

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

ft., and 4 yd. 6 in.?

a. 20 yd.

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

ft.

b. 20 yd. 1 ft.

c. 21 yd. 1 ft.

d. 21 yd.

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

ft.

7. How many yards are in a mile?

a. 1,760

b. 4,400

c. 5,280

d. 63,360

Use the chart below to answer questions 8 through 10:

CUSTOMARY UNITS—METRIC UNIT CONVERSIONS

LENGTH

1 in. = 2.54 cm.

1 yard = .9 m.

1 mi. = 1.6 km.

8. Convert 3 ft. 5 in. into centimeters.

a. 104.14 cm.

b. 65.6 cm.

c. 51.3 cm.

d. 16.14 cm.

9. 5,500 yd. is equivalent to how many meters?

a. 13,970 m.

b. 11,400 m.

c. 9,800 m.

d. 4,950 m.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 10 Geometry and Measurement

178

10. 1,280 miles is equal to how many kilometers?

a. 800 km.

b. 1,152 km.

c. 2,048 km.

d. 3,200 km.

11. A child has a temperature of 40 degrees C. What is the child’s temperature in degrees Fahren-

heit? (F =

ᎏ

9

5

ᎏ

C + 32)

a. 101°

b. 102°

c. 103°

d. 104°

12. If John was waiting for 45 minutes for an appointment with a contractor that lasted 1 hour and

25 minutes, what is the total amount of time spent at the contractor’s ofﬁce?

a. 2 hr. 10 min.

b. 2 hr. 25 min.

c. 2

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

hr.

d. 3 hr. 10 min.

13. There are 12 yards of twine on a roll. Danielle cuts off 2 feet of twine for a project. How many

feet of twine are left on the roll?

a. 2 ft.

b. 34 ft.

c. 36 ft.

d. 142 ft.

Use the conversion chart below to answer questions 14 through 17:

LIQUID MEASURE

8 oz. = 1 c.

1 pt. = 2 c.

1 qt. = 2 pt.

4 qt. = 1 gal.

14. How many ounces are in 2 pints?

a. 16 oz.

b. 32 oz.

c. 44 oz.

d. 64 oz.

Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

179

Þ

15. 364 oz. is equivalent to how many quarts?

a. 182 qt.

b. 91 qt.

c. 22.75 qt.

d. 11.375 qt.

16. How many ounces are in 3 gallons?

a. 384 oz.

b. 192 oz.

c. 96 oz.

d. 48 oz.

17. A 25-gallon tub of ﬂuid will be poured into containers that hold half of a quart. If all of the con-

tainers are ﬁlled to capacity, how many will be ﬁlled?

a. 50

b. 100

c. 200

d. 250

18. A rotating door, pictured below, has 4 sections, labeled a, b, c, and d. If section a is making a 45

degree angle with wall 1, what angle is section c making with wall 2?

a. 15 degrees

b. 45 degrees

c. 55 degrees

d. 90 degrees

19. A rectangle has 2 sides equaling 6 ft and 1 yd, respectively. What is the area of the rectangle?

a. 6 ft

2

b. 12 ft

2

c. 18 ft

2

d. 20 ft

2

20. A square with s = 6 cm. has the same area of a rectangle with l = 9 cm. What is the width of the

rectangle?

a. 4 cm.

b. 6 cm.

c. 8 cm.

d. 9 cm.

1 2

b

c d

a

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 10 Geometry and Measurement

180

21. If the area of a circle is 9π cm

2

, what is the circumference?

a. 3π cm.

2

b. 3π cm.

c. 6π cm.

2

d. 6π cm.

22. A rectangular tract of land measures 860 feet by 560 feet. Approximately how many acres is this?

(1 acre = 43,560 square feet.)

a. 12.8 acres

b. 11.06 acres

c. 10.5 acres

d. 8.06 acres

23. Marguerite is redoing her bathroom ﬂoor. Each imported tile measures 1

ᎏ

2

7

ᎏ

in. by 1

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

in. What

is the area of each tile?

a. 1

ᎏ

3

8

5

ᎏ

square inches

b. 1

ᎏ

1

3

1

5

ᎏ

square inches

c. 2

ᎏ

1

3

1

5

ᎏ

square inches

d. 3

ᎏ

3

3

5

ᎏ

square inches

24. A rectangular swimming pool measures 160 feet long and 80 feet wide. What is the perimeter

of the pool in yards?

a. 40 yards

b. 160 yards

c. 240 yards

d. 280 yards

25. In the diagram, the angle x equals how many degrees?

a. 70°

b. 110°

c. 140°

d. 290°

x°

40°

Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

181

Þ

26. If the volume of a cube is 8 cubic inches, what is its surface area?

a. 80 square inches

b. 40 square inches

c. 24 square inches

d. 16 square inches

27. Giorgio is making a box. He starts with a 10 × 7 rectangle, then cuts 2 × 2 squares out of each

corner. To ﬁnish, he folds each side up to make the box. What is the box’s volume?

a. 36 squares

b. 42 squares

c. 70 squares

d. 72 squares

28. How many six-inch square tiles are needed to tile the ﬂoor in a room that is 12 feet by 15 feet?

a. 180 tiles

b. 225 tiles

c. 360 tiles

d. 720 tiles

Refer to the polygon below to answer questions 29 and 30:

29. What is the perimeter of the polygon?

a. 8 units

b. 12 units

c. 20 units

d. 24 units

2

2

2

2

2

2

10

7

2

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 10 Geometry and Measurement

182

30. What is the area of the polygon?

a. 8 square units

b. 12 square units

c. 20 square units

d. 24 square units

31. The standard distance of a marathon is 26.2 miles. If the length of a walker’s stride is 1.96 feet,

approximately how many steps does she take to walk a marathon?

a. 23,527

b. 70,580

c. 138,336

d. 271,139

32. What is the measure of angle C in the following triangle?

a. 90°

b. 60°

c. 45°

d. 25°

33. How much greater is the area of circle B?

a. 16π square units

b. 9π square units

c. 25π square units

d. 14π square units

A

B

5

3

C

1.96 ft.

Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

183

Þ

34.

ABCD is a square and E is the midpoint of AB

–––

. Find the area of the shaded region.

a. 4 square units

b. 6 square units

c. 8 square units

d. 12 square units

35. Two angles in quadrilateral ABCD have their measures indicated. The other two angles show

variable expressions. What is x?

a. 50°

b. 60°

c. 70°

d. 80°

36. One cubic centimeter of clay weighs 3 grams. How much would a cube weigh if it measured 5

cm on each side?

a. 15 grams

b. 125 grams

c. 375 grams

d. 75 grams

A

100°

(2x + 20)°

x° 90°

D C

B

A

4

D C

E B

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 10 Geometry and Measurement

184

Use the information and diagram below to answer questions 37 through 39:

Note: All of the sides of ΔA′B′C′ are half the value of the sides of ΔABC.

37. Calculate the length of side A′C′ in triangle ΔA′B′C′.

a. 10

b. 12

c. 13

d. 26

38. The perimeter of ΔABC is how much greater than the perimeter of ΔA′B′C′?

a. 30

b. 40

c. 45

d. 60

39. The area of ΔABC is how much greater than the area of ΔA′B′C′?

a. 30

b. 40

c. 60

d. 90

40. What is the value of X in the ﬁgure below?

a. 3

b. 4

c. 5

d. 6

√10

1

X

A

B C

5

24

A′

B′ C′

Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

185

Þ

41. Find the area of the shaded portion in the ﬁgure below.

a. π

b. π - 1

c. 2 − π

d. 4 − π

42. What is the area of the shaded part of the circle below if the diameter is 6 inches? (Use 3.14

for π.)

a. 4.71 square inches

b. 28.26 square inches

c. 60 square inches

d. 36 square inches

43. A cylindrical can measures 4.2 inches in height. Its circular bases of

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

inch radii are removed,

and the cylinder ﬂattened out. What is the surface area of the ﬂattened-out cylinder? (Use 3.14

for π)

a. 3.297 square inches

b. 8.54 square inches

c. 12.1 square inches

d. 13.188 square inches

44. A point on the outer edge of a wheel is 2.5 feet from the axis of rotation. If the wheel spins at a

full rate of 2,640 revolutions per minute, how many miles will the point on the outer edge of the

wheel travel in one hour?

a. 75π

b. 100π

c. 112π

d. 150π

d = 6

60°

r = 1

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 10 Geometry and Measurement

186

45. What is the perimeter of the shaded area if the shape is a quarter-circle with a radius of 3.5? (Use

π =

ᎏ

2

7

2

ᎏ

)

a. 7 units

b. 11 units

c. 22 units

d. 29 units

46. In the diagram, a half-circle is laid adjacent to a triangle. What is the total area of the shape, if

the radius of the half-circle is 3 and the height of the triangle is 4?

a. 6(π+ 4)

b. 6π + 12

c. 6π + 24

d.

ᎏ

9

2

π

ᎏ

+ 12

47. What is the area of the following shaded triangle?

a. 20 square units

b. 25 square units

c. 40 square units

d. 44 square units

48. A triangle has sides that are consecutive even integers. The perimeter of the triangle is 24 inches.

What is the length of the shortest side?

a. 10 inches

b. 8 inches

c. 6 inches

d. 4 inches

5 6

10

Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

187

Þ

49. In the following diagram, a circle of area 100π square inches is inscribed in a square. What is

the length of AB

–––

?

a. 10 inches

b. 20 inches

c. 40 inches

d. 100 inches

50. A bike wheel has a radius of 12 inches. How many revolutions will it take to cover 1 mile? (Use

1 mile = 5,280 feet, and π =

ᎏ

2

7

2

ᎏ

.)

a. 70

b. 84

c. 120

d. 840

A B

C D

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 10 Geometry and Measurement

188

ANSWERS

1. d. First, add up all of the given values:

3 ft. 5 in.

10 ft. 2 in.

+ 2 ft. 7 in.

15 ft. 14 in.

Next, note that 14 in. = 1 ft. + 2 in. This means 15 ft. 14 in. = 16 ft. 2 in., choice d.

2. a. First, add up all of the given values:

5 ft. 8 in.

4 ft. 7 in.

+ 3 ft. 9 in.

12 ft. 24 in.

Next, note that 24 in. = 2 ft., so 12 ft. 24 in. is equivalent to 14 ft.

3. b. Since there are 36 inches per yard, use the conversion factor

ᎏ

3

1

6

y

i

d

n

.

.

ᎏ

, and multiply: 3

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

yd. ×

ᎏ

3

1

6

y

i

d

n

.

.

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

3

0

ᎏ

yd. ×

ᎏ

3

1

6

y

i

d

n

.

.

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

36

3

0

ᎏ

in. = 120 in.

4. b. 1 L = 1000 mL so you can use the conversion factor

ᎏ

1,00

1

0

L

mL

ᎏ

to convert the milliliters into

liters. 76,000 mL ×

ᎏ

1,00

1

0

L

mL

ᎏ

= 76 L.

5. c. Since there are 36 inches per yard, use the conversion factor

ᎏ

3

1

6

y

i

d

n

.

.

ᎏ

and multiply:

2,808 in. ×

ᎏ

3

1

6

y

i

d

n

.

.

ᎏ

= 78 yd.

6. c. First, note that 4 yd. 6 in. is the same as 4 yd.

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

ft., as this will help you combine units. Next,

add up all the values:

5 yd. 2 ft.

8 yd. 1 ft.

3 yd.

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

ft.

+ 4 yd.

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

ft.

20 yd. 4 ft.

Next, note that 4 ft. = 1 yd. + 1 ft. Thus, 20 yd. 4 ft can be converted to 21 yd. 1 ft.

7. a. 1 mile equals 5,280 feet (memorize this). Since there are 3 feet per yard, use the conversion

factor

ᎏ

1

3

y

f

d

t.

.

ᎏ

and multiply: 5,280 ft. ×

ᎏ

1

3

y

f

d

t.

.

ᎏ

= 1,760 yd.

8. a. First, convert 3 ft. 5 in. into 36 in. + 5 in. = 41 in. Next, use the information given in the

chart to make a conversion factor. Since 1 in. = 2.54 cm., and you want to end up with cm, you

make a conversion factor with inches in the denominator:

ᎏ

2.5

1

4

in

c

.

m.

ᎏ

. Next, multiply: 41 in. ×

ᎏ

2.5

1

4

in

c

.

m.

ᎏ

= 104.14 cm.

9. d. The chart says that 1 yd. = .9 m., so you can write the conversion factor as

ᎏ

.

1

9

y

m

d.

.

ᎏ

and multi-

ply: 5,500 yd. ×

ᎏ

.

1

9

y

m

d.

.

ᎏ

= 4,950 m.

10. c. The chart says that 1 mi. = 1.6 km., so you can write the conversion factor as

ᎏ

1

1

.6

m

km

i.

.

ᎏ

and

multiply: 1,280 mi. ×

ᎏ

1

1

.6

m

km

i.

.

ᎏ

= 2,048 km.

Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

189

Þ

11. d. Substitute 40 in for C in the given equation. Thus, (F =

ᎏ

9

5

ᎏ

C + 32) becomes F =

ᎏ

9

5

ᎏ

(40) + 32 =

(9)(8) + 32 = 72 + 32 = 104 degrees Fahrenheit.

12. a. Line up the units and add:

45 min.

+ 1 hr. 25 min.

1 hr. 70 min.

Next, note that 70 min. = 1 hr. 10 min. Thus, 1 hr. 70 min. = 2 hr. 10 min.

13. b. First, convert the 12 yards into feet: 12 yd. ×

ᎏ

1

3

y

f

d

t.

.

ᎏ

= 36 feet at the start. Next, Danielle cuts

2 feet off, so 34 feet are left.

14. b. Using the chart, you can make conversion factors where you will cross-off pints and end up

with ounces (oz.). Thus, you multiply: 2 pt. ×

ᎏ

1

2

p

c

t

.

.

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

8

1

o

c

z

.

.

ᎏ

= 32 oz.

15. d. Using the chart, you can make conversion factors where you will cross-off ounces and end

up with quarts (qt.): 364 oz. ×

ᎏ

8

1

o

c

z

.

.

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

1

2

p

c

t

.

.

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

1

2

q

p

t

t

.

.

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3

3

6

2

4

ᎏ

= 11.375 qt.

16. a. Using the chart, you can make conversion factors where you will cross-off gallons and end

up with ounces (oz.): 3 gal. ×

ᎏ

1

4

g

q

a

t

l

.

.

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

2

1

p

q

t

t

.

.

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

1

2

p

c

t

.

.

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

8

1

o

c

z

.

.

ᎏ

= 384 oz.

17. c. First, convert the gallons into quarts: 25 gal. ×

ᎏ

1

4

g

q

a

t

l

.

.

ᎏ

= 100 qt. If the ﬂuid will ﬁll 100 one-

quart containers, it will then ﬁll 200

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

-quart containers.

18. b. If you draw a line on the diagram to denote the 45° angle mentioned, you can see that the

angle section c makes with wall 2 must also be 45°. Recall that opposite angles formed by the

intersection of two straight lines are equal:

This means that section c makes a 45° angle with wall 2.

19. c. First, convert the width (1 yd.) into feet: 1 yd. = 3 ft. Next, use A = lw = 6 × 3 = 18 ft

2

. (Note

that all of the answer choices are in ft

2

, so converting to feet is a good idea.)

20. a. The area of the square is A = s

2

= 6

2

= 36 square cm. The area of the rectangle must then

also be 36 cm

2

. Substituting this into the area formula, along with l = 9 we get: A = lw; 36 = 9

× w; w = 36 ÷ 9 = 4 cm.

21. d. You are told that Area = 9π. If A = πr

2

, then πr

2

= 9π, and r = 3. Circumference, C = 2πr =

2π × 3 = 6π cm. Remember that perimeters and circumferences are measured in units (like cm.)

and areas are measured in square units (like cm

2

).

22. b. First, calculate the area in square feet. The area of a rectangle is lw, so A = lw = 860 ft. × 560

ft. = 481,600 ft

2

. Next, use the conversion factor and multiply: 481,600 ft

2

×

≈ 11.056 acres ≈ 11.06 acres.

23. c. Area = lw. First, convert the mixed numbers to improper fractions: 1

ᎏ

2

7

ᎏ

in. =

ᎏ

9

7

ᎏ

in. and 1

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

in.

=

ᎏ

9

7

ᎏ

in. Next, use these fractions in the formula: Area = lw =

ᎏ

9

7

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

9

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

8

3

1

5

ᎏ

in.

2

= 2

ᎏ

1

3

1

5

ᎏ

square inches.

1 acre

ᎏᎏ

43,560 ft

2

1 acre

ᎏᎏ

43,560 ft

2

1 2

b

c d

a

45°

45°

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 10 Geometry and Measurement

190

24. b. The perimeter of a rectangle is the sum of all its sides: 160 + 160 + 80 + 80 = 480 feet. Next,

convert to yards by multiplying 480 with the conversion factor

ᎏ

1

3

y

f

d

t.

.

ᎏ

: 480 ft. ×

ᎏ

1

3

y

f

d

t.

.

ᎏ

= 160 yd.

25. d. The curved markings indicate that the 2 bottom angles are equal. We can call these 2 equal

angles y. Thus, y + y + 40° = 180°, 2y + 40° = 180°; 2y = 140°; y = 70°. Angles x and y form a

complete circle (360°). Thus, x = 360° − y° = 360° − 70° = 290°.

26. c. The volume formula for a cube is V = s

3

, so here s

3

= 8 and s = 2 in. The surface area of one

face is s

2

= 2

2

= 4 square inches. Since there are six faces, the total surface area is 6 × 4 square

inches = 24 square inches.

27. a. When the 2 × 2 squares are cut out, the length of the box is 3, and the width is 6. The height

is 2:

The volume is 3 × 6 × 2, or 36.

28. d. Draw yourself a rectangle to represent the 12 ft. × 15 ft. ﬂoor. Since each tile is 6 in. by 6

in., or

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

ft. by

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

ft., you can see that you could get 24 tiles across the ﬂoor, and 30 tiles going

down. Now, you just multiply 24 by 30 to get the total tiles needed: 24 × 30 = 720.

29. d. Fill in the missing sides:

Next, add up all the sides: P = 6 + 6 + 6(2) = 12 + 12 = 24 units.

6

6

2

2

2

2

2

30 tiles going down

12 ft.

15 ft.

24 tiles across

3

6

2

Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

191

Þ

30. d. Divide up the ﬁgure into squares as shown below:

The ﬁgure is composed of 6 squares. The area of each square is s

2

= 2

2

= 4. Thus the total area

is 6 × 4 = 24 square units.

31. b. Convert 26.2 miles to feet, and divide by the length of the walker’s stride to ﬁnd how many

steps she takes in a marathon: 1 mile = 5,280 feet, so 26.2 miles = 138,336 feet. Divide 138,336

by 1.96 feet per step to get 70,579.6. Round to the nearest whole number to get 70,580 steps.

32. c. The two lines through the sides of the triangle indicate that they are equal. The right angle

is 90° and the 2 angles opposite the 2 equal sides will be equal. Since the interior angles of a

triangle add to 180°, the 2 equal angles must add to 180° − 90° = 90°. Thus, each angle will be

equal to 45°. Thus, angle C = 45°.

33. a. Remember the formula for ﬁguring out the area of a circle: A = πr

2

. Circle A then is π3

2

or

9π and circle B is π5

2

or 25π, so the area of circle B is 16π greater than circle A.

34. c. To ﬁnd the area of the shaded region, simply subtract the area of the triangle from the area

of the square. The area of the triangle is

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

bh =

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

(4)(4) = 8 square units, and the area of the square

is s

2

= 4

2

= 16 square units. Thus, the area of the shaded region is 16 − 8 = 8 square units.

35. a. Set up an equation. (Remember, all the angles added up inside a four-sided ﬁgure equals 360°):

90 + 100 + x + 2x + 20 = 360, which is 3x + 210 = 360. Subtract 210 from both sides to get 3x

= 150. Divide by 3 to get x = 50.

36. c. For this question, you already know that the weight is

ᎏ

c

3

m

g

3

ᎏ

. You need to ﬁnd out how many

cm

3

there are in the given cube, which is the volume of the cube. For a cube, the volume = side

3

.

The given cube has a side = 5, so V = 5

3

= 5 × 5 × 5 = 125. Then, to ﬁnd the weight you mul-

tiply 125 cm

3

×

ᎏ

c

3

m

g

3

ᎏ

= 375 grams for the answer.

37. c. Since BC

–––

= 24, B′C′ will be half that, or 12. Thus, ΔA′B′C′ is a right triangle with legs equal-

ing 5 and 12. You can use the Pythagorean theorem to solve for the hypotenuse: a

2

+ b

2

= c

2

becomes 5

2

+ 12

2

= c

2

, then 25 + 144 = c

2

, then 169 = c

2

, so c = 13.

38. a. ΔA′B′C′ is a 5-12-13 right triangle (see answer explanation for question 37) and ΔABC is

double that, or 10-24-26. Thus, the perimeter of ΔA′B′C′ is 5 + 12 + 13= 30, and the perime-

ter of ΔABC is twice that, or 60. Thus, the difference is 60 − 30 = 30.

39. d. ΔA′B′C′ is a 5-12-13 right triangle (see answer explanation for question 37) and ΔABC is

double that, or 10-24-26. The base of ΔA′B′C′ is 24, and its height is 10. Apply the area for-

mula: A =

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

bh =

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

(24)(10) = 120 units

2

. The base of ΔABC is 12, and its height is 5. Apply the

area formula: A =

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

bh =

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

(12)(5) = 30 units

2

. Thus, the difference is 120 − 30 = 90 units.

2

2

2

2

2

2

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 10 Geometry and Measurement

192

40. a. You can use the Pythagorean theorem to solve for the missing leg: a

2

+ b

2

= c

2

becomes 1

2

+

X

2

= (͙10 ෆ)

2

, then 1 + X

2

= 10, so X

2

= 9, and X = 3.

41. d. The shaded area is the difference between the area of the square and the circle. Because the

radius is 1, a side of the square is 2. The area of the square is s

2

= 2

2

= 4, and the area of the cir-

cle is πr

2

= π1

2

= π. Therefore, the answer is 4 − π.

42. a. First, ﬁnd the area of the circle: Area = πr

2

, or 3.14 × 9, which equals 28.26 square inches.

Then, notice there are 360° in a circle and 60° is one-sixth that (

ᎏ

3

6

6

0

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

). The shaded area is

then only one-sixth the area of the total circle. So, you simply divide 28.26 by 6 to get 4.71

square inches.

43. d. After removing the circular bases, you are left with a ﬂat rectangle. Since the height was 4.2

in, the length of the rectangle is 4.2 in. Since the circumference of the bases was C = 2πr = 2 ×

3.14 ×

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

= 3.14 in., the width of the rectangle is 3.14 in. Thus, the area of the new rectangular

ﬁgure is lw = 4.2 × 3.14 = 13.188 in

2

.

44. d. The point lies on the circumference of a circle with a radius of 2.5 feet. Therefore, the dis-

tance that the point travels in one rotation is the length of the circumference of the circle, or

2πr = 2π(2.5) = 5π feet. Since the wheel spins at 2,640 revolutions per minute, the point trav-

els 2,640 × 5π feet per minute = 13,200π feet per minute. Multiplying by 60 to ﬁnd the dis-

tance traveled in one hour, you get 60 × 13,200π = 792,000π feet per hour. Dividing by 5,280

feet to convert to miles, you get 150π miles per hour.

45. d. The curved length of the perimeter is one quarter of the circumference of a full circle:

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

2πr,

= 2(

ᎏ

2

7

2

ᎏ

)(3.5) = 7 ×

ᎏ

2

7

2

ᎏ

= 22. The linear (straight) lengths are radii, so the solution is simply 22 +

2(3.5); or 29.

46. d. Because the radius of the hemisphere is 3, and it is the same as half the base of the triangle,

the base must be 6. Therefore, the area of the triangle is

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

bh =

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

(4 × 6) = 12. The area of the

circle, if it was a whole circle, is πr

2

, which equals 9π. Therefore, the area of a half-circle is

ᎏ

9

2

π

ᎏ

.

Adding gives

ᎏ

9

2

π

ᎏ

+ 12.

47. a. To get the height of the triangle (h), using the Pythagorean theorem: a

2

+ b

2

= c

2

becomes 6

2

+ h

2

= 10

2

, then 36 + h

2

= 100, and h

2

= 64, so the height, h, equals 8. Then, 5 is plugged in for

the base and 8 for the height in the area equation A =

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

bh. Thus, A =

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

(5)(8) = 20 square units.

48. c. An algebraic equation can be used to solve this problem. The shortest side can be denoted

s. Therefore, s + (s + 2) + (s + 4) = 24; 3s + 6 = 24, and s = 6.

49. b. If the circle is 100π square inches, its radius must be 10 inches (because A = πr

2

and here A

= 100π). AB

–––

is twice the radius, so it is 20 inches.

50. d. The outer edge of the wheel is in contact with the ground. Since you are told to use 1 mile

= 5,280 feet, you would be wise to convert the 12 in. radius to 1 ft. You can ﬁnd the outer edge

(circumference) by using C =2πr = 2(

ᎏ

2

7

2

ᎏ

)(1) =

ᎏ

4

7

4

ᎏ

ft. Thus, each time it revolves it covers

ᎏ

4

7

4

ᎏ

ft.

Divide 5,280 feet by

ᎏ

4

7

4

ᎏ

feet to ﬁnd the number of revolutions in 1 mile: 5,280 ÷

ᎏ

4

7

4

ᎏ

= 5,280 ×

ᎏ

4

7

4

ᎏ

= 840 revolutions.

Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

193

Þ

=

C H A P T E R

Practice Test 1

This chapter contains your ﬁrst practice test. After reviewing the chapters in this book you should

be able to put all that you have learned together and take these sample examinations. Take Practice

Test 1. Be sure to re-evaluate the questions you answered incorrectly by going back and studying the

necessary material from earlier chapters. Then try it again: Take Practice Test 2 in the next chapter.

Each test should take one hour to complete. Good luck!

11

Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 11 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

195

Þ

1. If a piece of packaging foam is .05 in thick, how thick would a stack of 350 such pieces of

foam be?

a. 7,000 in.

b. 700 in.

c. 175 in.

d. 17.5 in.

2. 30% of what number equals 60% of 9,000?

a. 18,000

b. 5,400

c. 2,400

d. 1,620

3. Three pieces of wood measure 4 yd. 1 ft. 3 in., 5 yd. 2 ft. 4 in., and 4 yd. 1 ft. 5 in. lengthwise.

When these boards are laid end to end, what is their combined length?

a. 14 yd. 2 ft.

b. 14 yd. 1 ft. 11 in.

c. 13 yd. 2 in.

d. 13 yd. 2 ft.

4. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.

___

a.

b.

c.

d.

5. During a race, markers will be placed along a roadway at regular .2-mile intervals. If the entire

roadway is 10,560 feet long, how many such markers will be used?

a. 10

b. 100

c. 20

d. 200

6. If it takes 27 nails to build 3 boxes, how many nails will it take to build 7 boxes?

a. 64

b. 72

c. 56

d. 63

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 11 Practice Test 1

196

7. The average purchase price (arithmetic mean) of four shirts is $9. If one shirt was priced at $15,

and another at $7, what might be the prices of the other 2 shirts?

a. $4 and $3

b. $7 and $15

c. $9 and $9

d. $10 and $4

8. What percent of

ᎏ

3

8

ᎏ

is

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

?

a. 25%

b. 33

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

%

c. 75%

d. 133

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

%

9. A large bag of cement mix weighs 38

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

pounds. How many quarter-pound bags of mix can be

made from this large bag?

a. under 10 bags

b. 16 bags

c. 80 bags

d. 154 bags

10. Use (F =

ᎏ

9

5

ᎏ

C + 32) to convert 15° C into the equivalent Fahrenheit temperature.

a. 59°

b. 60°

c. 62°

d. 65°

11. What is the perimeter of the shaded area if the shape is a quarter circle with a radius of 8?

a. 2π

b. 4π

c. 2π + 8

d. 4π + 16

12. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.

CMM EOO GQQ ______ KUU

a. GRR

b. GSS

c. ISS

d. ITT

Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 11 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

197

Þ

13. How many ounces are in 5 pints?

a. 10 oz.

b. 20 oz.

c. 40 oz.

d. 80 oz.

14. A rod that is 3.5 × 10

7

cm. is how much shorter than a rod that is 7 × 10

14

cm.?

a. 20,000,000 times shorter

b. 4,000,000 times shorter

c. 50,000 times shorter

d. 20,000 times shorter

15. Joel had to insert form letters into 800 envelopes. In the ﬁrst hour, he completed

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

of the total.

In the second hour, he completed

ᎏ

2

7

ᎏ

of the remainder. How many envelopes does he still have

to ﬁll?

a. 300

b. 400

c. 500

d. 700

16. Jen’s median bowling score is greater than her mean bowling score for ﬁve tournament games.

If the scores of the ﬁrst four games were 140, 192, 163, and 208, which could have been the score

of her ﬁfth game?

a. 130

b. 145

c. 168

d. 177

17. An 18-gallon barrel of liquid will be poured into containers that each hold half of a pint of ﬂuid.

If all of the containers are ﬁlled to capacity, how many will be ﬁlled?

a. 36

b. 72

c. 144

d. 288

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 11 Practice Test 1

198

18. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.

a.

b.

c.

d.

19. In a box of 300 nails, 27 are defective. If a nail is chosen at random, what is the probability that

it will not be defective?

a.

ᎏ

1

2

0

7

0

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

1

9

0

1

0

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

3

2

0

7

0

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

3

9

0

1

0

ᎏ

20. When Christian and Henrico work together they can complete a task in 6 hours. When

Christian works alone he can complete the same task in 10 hours. How long would it take for

Henrico to complete the task alone?

a. 45

b. 30

c. 15

d. 10

21. The square root of 52 is between which two numbers?

a. 6 and 7

b. 7 and 8

c. 8 and 9

d. none of the above

22. Juliet made $12,000 and put

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

of that amount into an account that earned yearly interest at a

rate of 4%. After 3 years, what is the dollar amount of the interest earned?

a. $10,080

b. $10,800

c. $1,800

d. $1,080

23. If the area of a circle is 16π square inches, what is the circumference?

a. 2π inches

b. 4π inches

c. 8π inches

d. 12π inches

__ __

Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 11 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

199

Þ

24. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.

QAR RAS SAT TAU ______

a. UAV

b. UAT

c. TAS

d. TAT

25. A container was ﬁlled

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

of the way with ﬂuid. Damian added 24 liters more, ﬁlling the container

to full capacity. How many liters are in the container now?

a. 12 L

b. 30 L

c. 36 L

d. 48 L

26. Bolts cost $4 per 10 dozen and will be sold for 10¢ each. What is the rate of proﬁt?

a. 200%

b. 150%

c. 100%

d. 75%

27. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.

____

a.

b.

c.

d.

28. $6,000 is deposited into an account. If interest is compounded semiannually at 2% for 6 months,

then what is the new amount of money in the account?

a. $120

b. $6,060

c. $240

d. $6,240

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 11 Practice Test 1

200

A forest ﬁre engulfed the Wildlife Preserve in Blackhill County in 1998. Since then, park rangers have

kept track of the number of forest animals living in the forest. Below is a graph of how many deer, foxes,

and owls were reported during the years following the ﬁre. Use this information to answer questions

29 through 32.

29. Which of the following statements appears to be true for the years shown?

a. The fox population doubled every year since 1999.

b. The deer population doubled every year since 2000.

c. The owl population showed neither a steady increase nor decrease.

d. Both b and c are true.

30. Which statement might explain the data presented in the graph?

a. The owl population was greatly reduced by the ﬁre, and, thus, the trend shows a steady

increase in this population during the years of recovery.

b. The owls were able to ﬂy away from the ﬁre, thus the owl population does not show the

pattern of recovery that the deer and fox population exhibit.

c. Factors independent of the ﬁre are causing a steady decline in the owl population.

d. A steep decline in the owl population can be attributed to illness.

31. The growth of the deer population from 2001–2002 was how much greater than the growth of

the fox population for the same year?

a. 10

b. 20

c. 30

d. 40

32. What was the percent increase in deer from 1999–2000?

a. 33

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

%

b. 50%

c.

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

%

d.

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

%

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

a

n

i

m

a

l

s

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

1999 2000 2001 2002

deer

foxes

owls

Year

Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 11 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

201

Þ

33. A square with sides = 8 in. has the same area of a rectangle with width = 4 in. What is the length

of the rectangle?

a. 8 in.

b. 12 in.

c. 16 in.

d. 64 in.

34. A rectangular tract of land measures 440 feet by 1,782 feet. What is the area in acres? (1 acre =

43,560 square feet.)

a. 14 acres

b. 16 acres

c. 18 acres

d. 20 acres

35. What is the mode of the following numbers?

12, 9, 8, 7, 8, 9, 5, 9

a. 7

b. 8.375

c. 9

d. 9.5

36. The largest sector of the pie chart below has a central angle equal to how many degrees?

a. 15 degrees

b. 45 degrees

c. 90 degrees

d. 180 degrees

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 11 Practice Test 1

202

37. The chart below shows the monthly attendance for union meetings over the course of 4 months.

Which 2 months had the same number of members attending?

a. November and December

b. December and February

c. November and February

d. December and January

38. If the radius of a cylindrical tank is 7 cm. and its volume is 1,540 cm

3

, what is the height in cm?

a. 10 cm.

b. 15.4 cm.

c. 10π cm.

d. 15.4π cm.

39. If Martin exchanges 120 quarters, 300 dimes, 600 nickels, and 500 pennies for bills, he may get

a. 4 twenty-dollar bills, 2 ten-dollar bills, and 1 ﬁve-dollar bill.

b. 3 twenty-dollar bills, 1 ten-dollar bill, and 1 ﬁve-dollar bill.

c. 2 ﬁfty-dollar bills and 1 twenty-dollar bill.

d. 1 ﬁfty-dollar bills, 2 twenty-dollar bills, and 1 ﬁve-dollar bill.

40. Brian jogged 12 miles. For the ﬁrst 2 miles, his pace was 3 mph. For the next 3 miles, his pace

was 5 mph. For the remainder of his jog, his pace was 4 mph. What was his average speed?

a. 4.2 mph

b. 6.86 mph

c. 7.2 mph

d. 2

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

mph

50

40

30

20

10

0

Nov Dec Jan Feb

Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 11 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

203

Þ

ANSWERS

1. d. To solve, simply multiply the thickness of each piece of foam by the total number of pieces.

.05 × 350 = 17.5 in.

2. a. “30% of what number equals 60% of 9,000?” can be written mathematically as .30 × x = .60

× 9,000. Dividing both sides by .30 will yield

x =

ᎏ

(.60)

.

(

3

9

0

,000)

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

5,

.

4

3

0

0

0

ᎏ

= 18,000.

3. a. First, line up all of the units and add:

4 yd. 1 ft. 3 in.

5 yd. 2 ft. 4 in.

+ 4 yd. 1 ft. 5 in.

13 yd. 4 ft. 12 in.

Next, note that 12 in. = 1 ft., so 13 yd. 4 ft. 12 in. is the same as 13 yd. 5 ft., and that 3 ft. = 1

yd., so 5 ft. = 1 yd. + 2 ft. Ultimately, you can rewrite the entire length as 14 yd. 2 ft.

4. d. The amount of the shaded area changes from

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

¬

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

¬

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

. Thus, you need to ﬁnd the answer

that is

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

shaded, followed by

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

shaded. Choice d is correct.

5. a. 5,280 feet = 1 mile, so 10,560 feet = 2 miles. To solve, divide the total 2 mile distance by the

interval, .2 miles: 2 ÷ .2 = 10.

6. d. First, set up a proportion:

ᎏ

2

3

7

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

7

x

ᎏ

. You can reduce the ﬁrst fraction:

ᎏ

9

1

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

7

x

ᎏ

and then cross-

multiply: 1(x) = 9(7), so x = 63.

7. d. If the cost of 4 shirts averaged out to $9, then the sum of all four shirts was 4 × 9 = $36.

(Note that the sum of all 4 shirts must equal $36 in order for the average to equal 9: Average

= sum ÷ 4 = 36 ÷ 4 = 9.) Of the $36 total, $22 is accounted for (one shirt was $15, and another

$7), leaving $14 unaccounted for. Only choice d adds to $14.

8. d. Recall that “What percent” can be expressed as

ᎏ

10

x

0

ᎏ

. The question, “What percent of

ᎏ

3

8

ᎏ

is

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

?” can be expressed as:

ᎏ

10

x

0

ᎏ

·

ᎏ

3

8

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

. This simpliﬁes to 3 ·

ᎏ

80

x

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

. Cross-multiplying yields 6 ×

x = 800. Dividing both sides by 6 yields x = 133

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

%.

9. d. Divide 38

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

by

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

. By expressing 38

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

as its equivalent 38.5, you get: 38.5 ÷

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

= 38.5 ×

ᎏ

4

1

ᎏ

= 154

bags.

10. a. Substitute 15° C in for the variable C in the given equation. Thus, (F =

ᎏ

9

5

ᎏ

C + 32) becomes

F =

ᎏ

9

5

ᎏ

(15) + 32 = (9)(3) + 32 = 27 + 32 = 59 degrees Fahrenheit.

11. d. The perimeter of the curved length is a quarter of the circumference of a whole circle when

r = 8. Since C = 2πr and you want a quarter of this value, solve

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

× 2 × π × r =

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

× 2 × π × 8 =

4π. The 2 straight edges are radii and are each 8 units long. Thus, the total perimeter = 4π + 8

+ 8 = 4π + 16.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 11 Practice Test 1

204

12. c. The ﬁrst letter of each triplet changes by skipping 1 letter : C ¬ E ¬ G ¬ ¬K. Thus,

the ﬁrst letter in the missing triplet is I. The last 2 letters of each triplet follow the same pat-

tern (skip 1 letter): MM ¬OO ¬QQ ¬ ¬UU. Thus, the answer is ISS.

13. d. Using the knowledge that 1 pt. = 2 c. and 1 c. = 8 oz., you can use a series of conversion fac-

tors to eliminate pints and keep ounces. Thus, you multiply: 5 pt. ×

ᎏ

1

2

p

c

t

.

.

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

8

1

o

c

z

.

.

ᎏ

= 80 oz.

14. a. To ﬁnd how many “times shorter” the ﬁrst rod is, just divide:

ᎏ

3

7

.5

×

×

10

1

1

0

4

7

ᎏ

= 2 × 10

14−7

= 2 × 10

7

= 20,000,000 times shorter.

Hint: Treat their division like two separate division operations, 7 ÷ 3.5 and 10

14

÷ 10

7

. BUT,

you must remember that the dividends are ultimately multiplied together in the end. Also, to

divide 10

14

by 10

7

, simply subtract the exponents.

15. c. Joel starts with 800 envelopes to ﬁll. During the ﬁrst hour he ﬁlled

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

of the 800:

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

× 800 =

100. He then had 800 − 100 = 700 left to ﬁll. In the second hour he ﬁlled

ᎏ

2

7

ᎏ

of the remaining

700.

ᎏ

2

7

ᎏ

× 700 = 200 ﬁlled in the second hour. After two hours, Joel has 700 − 200 = 500 remaining.

16. d. The mean is found by adding up the numbers and dividing by the number of values. The

median is found by listing all of the numbers in order and taking the middle value. To ﬁnd the

solution, try out each answer choice to see if it works. A score of 130 would give a mean of 167

and a median of 163. A score of 145 would give a mean of 169 and a median of 163. A score of

168 would give a mean of 174 and a median of 168. A score of 177 would give a mean of 176

and a median of 177. 177 is the only one which has a median greater than the mean:

Median = 140 163 177 192 208

Mean = (140 + 163 + 177 + 192 + 208) ÷ 5 = 880 ÷ 5 = 176

17. d. Using the knowledge that 1 gal. = 4 qt. and 1 qt. = 2 pt., you can generate a series of con-

version factors and multiply them so that you can cross out the units you do not want (gal.) and

keep the units you do want: 18 gal. ×

ᎏ

1

4

g

q

a

t

l

.

.

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

2

1

p

q

t

t

.

.

ᎏ

= 144 pints. Next, remember you are looking

for

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

-pints. 144 pints will ﬁll 288 half-pint containers.

18. d. This is an alternating series. The ﬁrst and third segments are repeated. The second seg-

ment is simply a reverse of the other two.

19. b. If 27 of the 300 are defective, then 300 − 27 = 273 are not defective. Thus, the probability

of selecting a nail that is not defective will be 273 out of 300:

ᎏ

2

3

7

0

3

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

9

0

1

0

ᎏ

.

20. c. Christian can complete

ᎏ

1

1

0

ᎏ

of the task in 1 hour. (You assume this because he completes the

entire task in 10 hours.) Together, Christian and Henrico complete

ᎏ

1

6

ᎏ

of the task in 1 hour. Con-

vert both fractions into thirtieths.

ᎏ

3

5

0

ᎏ

per hour (both men) −

ᎏ

3

3

0

ᎏ

per hour (just Christian) =

ᎏ

3

2

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

1

5

ᎏ

per hour (just Henrico). Since Henrico completes

ᎏ

1

1

5

ᎏ

of the task per hour, it will take him

15 hours to complete the entire task when working alone.

SS

I

Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 11 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

205

Þ

21. b. 7

2

= 49 and 8

2

= 64. So the square root of 52 will equal a number that is between 7 and 8.

22. d. Use the formula: I = PRT, which means Interest = principal × rate of interest × time. Where

principal equals your original amount of money (in dollars), and time is in years. Here the orig-

inal amount of money (P) is $9,000 because she put

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

of the $12,000 into the account. I = .04

and T = 3 years. Substituting into I = PRT, you get I = (9,000)(.04)(3) = $1,080.

23. c. You are told that Area = 16π . Since A = πr

2

, 16 = r

2

, and r = 4. Use this r in the circumfer-

ence formula: Circumference = C = 2πr = 2π × 4 = 8π inches.

24. a. The ﬁrst letter in each triplet progresses from Q ¬R ¬S ¬T, so the next triplet will begin

with U. The second letter of each triplet is a constant: A. The third letter of each triplet pro-

gresses from R ¬S ¬T ¬U, so the 3rd letter in the next triplet will be V. Thus, the answer

is UAV.

25. c. 24 L represents

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

of the whole capacity. You can ask yourself, “

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

of what number is 24?”

This can be expressed mathematically as

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

× x = 24; x = 24 ÷

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

= 24 ×

ᎏ

3

2

ᎏ

= 36 L.

26. a. 10 dozen bolts = 10 × 12 = 120 bolts. When they are all sold, the amount collected is $.10

× 120 = $12. Since the 10 dozen cost $4, the proﬁt is $12 − $4 = $8. Next, to ﬁnd the rate of

proﬁt, set up a proportion:

ᎏ

i

$

n

8

it

p

ia

r

l

o

$

fi

4

t

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

x

0

ᎏ

.

Cross-multiply to get (100)(8) = (4)(x), or 800 = (4)(x). Divide both sides by 4 to get x = 200.

Thus, the rate of proﬁt is 200%.

27. a. As the series progresses, the amount of shading changes from

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

¬

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

¬whole ¬none ¬

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

¬

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

¬

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

¬whole. So the next 2 terms will be: none ¬

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

.

28. b. Because the interest is compounded semiannually (twice a year), after

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

a year (6 months)

the amount of interest earned I = PRT = 6,000 × .02 ×

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

= $60. Now, the account has $6,000 +

$60 = $6,060 in it.

29. d. The fox population (lightest-colored bars) went up by 10 animals each year. Thus, choice

a is wrong. The deer population (black bar) doubled every year since 2000 ¬ 20 ¬ 40 ¬ 80.

The owl population stayed around 30, showing neither an increase nor decrease. Thus, both

b and c are true statements, making choice d: “Both b and c are true,” the correct answer.

30. b. The owl population is maintaining a steady rate of growth. There is not a steady increase

(a is wrong), a steady decline (c is wrong), or a steep decline (d is wrong). Thus, choice b is the

correct answer.

31. c. The deer (black bar) went from 40 in 2001 to 80 in 2002. That is an increase of 40 deer.

The fox population (lightest-colored bar) grew from 30 in 2001 to 40 in 2002. That is an increase

of 10. Thus, the difference in growths is 40 − 10 = 30.

32. a. The deer (black bar) increased from 15 in 1999 to 20 in 2000. This is a change of 5 deer.

When compared to the initial 15, 5 out of 15 represents

ᎏ

1

5

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

x

0

ᎏ

; x = 33

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

%.

33. c. The area of the square is A = side

2

= s

2

= 8

2

= 64 in

2

. The area of the rectangle must then

also be 64 in

2

. Substituting this area and the given width w = 4 into the area formula, you get:

A = lw; 64 = l × 4 ; l = 64 ÷ 4 = 16 in.

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 11 Practice Test 1

206

34. c. First, calculate the area in square feet: Area = lw = 440 ft × 1,782 ft = 784,080 ft

2

. Next convert

to acres by using the conversion factor

ᎏ

43

1

,5

a

6

c

0

re

ft

2

ᎏ

and multiply: 784,080 ft

2

×

ᎏ

43

1

,5

a

6

c

0

re

ft

2

ᎏ

= 18 acres.

35. c. The mode is the number that occurs the most. You are given:

12, 9, 8, 7, 8, 9, 5, 9.

Note that 9 occurs the most and is the mode.

36. c. The largest sector takes up a quarter of the pie chart (the gray sector). The interior angles

of a circle add to 360 degrees and

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

of 360 =

ᎏ

1

4

ᎏ

× 360 = 90 degrees.

37. c. The attendance for both November and February was 20 members each. You can tell that

this is true because the bars for these months are the same height.

38. a. If you use π =

ᎏ

2

7

2

ᎏ

, and the formula V = πr

2

h, you get 1,540 =

ᎏ

2

7

2

ᎏ

× 7

2

× h. This simpliﬁes to

1,540 = 154 × h. Dividing both sides by 154 yields h = 10 cm.

39. d. Multiply the number of coins by the value of the coin:

120 quarters = 120 × $.25 = $30

300 dimes = 300 × $.10 = $30

600 nickels = 600 × $.05 = $30

500 pennies = 500 × $.01 = $5

Next, add all of the dollar amounts: $30 + $30 + $30 + $5 = $95. The only choice that repre-

sents $95 is d: 1 ﬁfty-dollar bill, 2 twenty-dollar bills, and 1 ﬁve-dollar bill.

40. b. To ﬁnd the average speed, you must use D = RT (Distance = Rate × Time) with the total dis-

tance and the total time as D and T, respectively. You are given the total distance of 12 miles.

You need the total time. This can be found by using the information in the question. The for-

mula D= RT can be rewritten as T =

ᎏ

D

R

ᎏ

. Making a chart for yourself will help you stay orga-

nized:

INFO TIME

2 mi. @ 3 mph T = ᎏ

D

R

ᎏ = ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ = ᎏ

4

6

0

0

ᎏ

3 mi. @ 5 mph T = ᎏ

D

R

ᎏ = ᎏ

3

5

ᎏ = ᎏ

3

6

6

0

ᎏ

7 mi. @ 4 mph T = ᎏ

D

R

ᎏ = ᎏ

7

4

ᎏ = ᎏ

1

6

0

0

5

ᎏ

Total time = ᎏ

1

6

0

0

5

ᎏ hr. = 1.75 hr.

Now, you can use the total time and total distance in the formula D = RT. Since you want R,

you can rearrange this formula to R = D ÷ T. Thus, you have R = D ÷ T = 12 ÷ 1.75 ≈ 6.86 mph.

Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 11 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

207

Þ

=

C H A P T E R

Practice Test 2

This second practice test will give you another chance to measure your skills. By this time, you

should see real progress in your math abilities.

12

Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 12 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

209

Þ

1. What is the mode of the following numbers?

12, 9, 8, 7, 7, 2, 9, 5, 7

a. 5

b. 7

c. 8

d. 9

Use the chart below as a reference for questions 2 through 3:

METRIC UNITS TO CUSTOMARY UNITS CONVERSIONS

1 cm. = .39 in.

1 m. = 1.1 yd.

1 km. = .6 mi.

2. 3.5 ft. is equivalent to approximately how many meters?

a. 4 m.

b. 3.85 m.

c. 3.18 m.

d. 18 m.

3. 5 yd. 2 ft. is equivalent to approximately how many centimeters?

a. 523 cm.

b. 79.56 cm.

c. 52.3 cm.

d. 6.63 cm.

4. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.

VAB WCD XEF ______ ZIJ

a. AKL

b. UHG

c. YGH

d. GHW

5. 20% of what number equals 40% of 120?

a. 48

b. 96

c. 200

d. 240

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 12 Practice Test 2

210

6. The ratio of multimedia designers to graphic designers at a production house is 2:1. If the com-

bined number of multimedia designers and graphic designers is 180, and

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

of the multimedia

designers are women, how many women multimedia designers are there?

a. 60

b. 80

c. 90

d. 120

7. If a map drawn to scale shows 5.2 cm between two points, and the scale is 1 cm. = 1.5 km., how

far away are the 2 points in meters?

a. 7.8

b. 780

c. 7,800

d. 78,000

8. Use (F =

ᎏ

9

5

ᎏ

C + 32) to convert 113° F into the equivalent Celsius temperature.

a. 38°

b. 45°

c. 54°

d. 63°

9. Damian earns a semimonthly salary of $2,300. What is his yearly salary?

a. $55,200

b. $34,000

c. $27,600

d. $24,000

10. It took Amanda 45 minutes to jog 3 miles at a constant rate. Find her rate in mph.

a. 3 mph

b. 4 mph

c. 10 mph

d. 15 mph

11. What percent of

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

is

ᎏ

3

1

2

ᎏ

?

a. 35%

b. 30%

c. 20%

d. 25%

Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 12 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

211

Þ

12. Nicole bought Blue Diamond stock at $15 per share. After 6 months, the stock is worth $20 per

share. This represents a percent increase of

a. 25%

b. 30%

c. 33

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

%

d. 75%

13. One construction job can be completed by 15 workers in 8 days. How many days would it take

20 workers to complete the job?

a. 4 days

b. 6 days

c. 8 days

d. 10 days

14. 3 pieces of wood measure 8 yd. 2 ft. 1 in., 6 yd. 1 ft. 9 in., and 3 yd. 1 ft. 7 in. in length. When

these boards are laid end to end, what is their combined length?

a. 18 yd. 17 in.

b. 18 yd. 5 ft.

c. 18 yd. 2 ft. 5 in.

d. 18 yd. 5 in.

15. What percent of

ᎏ

1

3

6

ᎏ

is

ᎏ

6

1

4

ᎏ

?

a. 5%

b. 8

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

%

c. 33%

d. 80 %

1,200 new nursing students were asked to complete a survey in which they were asked which type of

nursing they would like to pursue. The data was used to make the pie chart below. Use this informa-

tion to answer questions 16 through 18 below:

16. How many nursing students would like to pursue pediatrics?

a. 360

b. 400

c. 600

10%

30%

20%

40%

Nursing Survey

Pediatrics

Surgical

Maternity

ER

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 12 Practice Test 2

212

d. 800

17. Half of the nurses who indicated that they would like to pursue surgical nursing also noted that

they would like to transfer to a sister school across town. How many students indicated that they

would like to make such a transfer?

a. 240 students

b. 120 students

c. 60 students

d. 10 students

18. If the same color scheme is used, which of the following bar graphs could represent the same

data as the pie chart?

a.

b.

c.

d.

19. (8

5

× 3

4

) ÷ (8

3

× 3

2

) is equivalent to

a. 576

b. 420

c. 376

d. 256

20. Pipe A leads into a tank and Pipe B drains the tank. Pipe A can ﬁll the entire tank in 1 hour. Pipe

B can drain the entire tank in 45 minutes. At a certain point in time, the valves leading to both

pipes are shut and the tank is

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

full. If both valves are opened simultaneously, how long will it

take for the pipe to drain?

a.

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

hr.

b. 1 hr.

Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 12 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

213

Þ

c. 1

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

hr.

d. 1

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

hr.

21. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.

B

2

CD ______ BCD

4

B

5

CD BC

6

D

a. B

2

C

2

D

b. BC

3

D

c. B

2

C

3

D

d. BCD

7

22. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.

__ __

a.

b.

c.

d.

23. The reduced price of a computer is $1,250 after a 20% discount is applied. The original price

was then

a. $250.

b. $1,000.

c. $1,562.50.

d. $6,250.

24. Three cylindrical solids with r = ͙7 ෆm. and h = 1 m. are packed into a rectangular crate with

l = 10 m., w = 9 m., and h = 1.2 m. The empty space will be ﬁlled with shredded paper. What

volume will the shredded paper occupy?

a. 86m

2

b. 66πm

2

c. 42πm

3

d. 42m

3

25. External hard drives cost $280 each. When more than 30 drives are purchased a 10% discount

is applied to each drive’s cost. How much money will 40 drives cost (excluding tax)?

a. $7,000

b. $8,200

c. $10,080

d. $11,200

26. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.

BOC COB DOE EOD ______

a. FOG

b. DOG

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 12 Practice Test 2

214

c. DOF

d. FOE

Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 12 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

215

Þ

27. Which of the following rope lengths is longest? (1 cm. = 0.39 inches)

a. 1 meter

b. 1 yard

c. 32 inches

d. 85 centimeters

28.

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

% =

a.

ᎏ

2

1

50

ᎏ

b. .4

c.

ᎏ

2

1

5

ᎏ

d. .04

29. A box contains 23 iron washers, 15 steel washers, and 32 aluminum washers. If a washer is cho-

sen at random, what is the probability that a steel washer will be chosen?

a.

ᎏ

1

3

4

ᎏ

b.

ᎏ

2

7

3

0

ᎏ

c.

ᎏ

3

7

2

0

ᎏ

d.

ᎏ

1

7

5

ᎏ

30. If the volume of a cube is 27 cubic centimeters, what is its surface area?

a. 3 cm

2

b. 6 cm

2

c. 9 cm

2

d. 54 cm

2

Use the chart below to answer question 31 through 33. This graph shows the number of inches of rain

for 5 towns in Suffolk County during spring 2002.

31. What was the median number of inches for the 5 towns?

a. 5

b. 8

c. 9

d. 10

10

8

6

4

2

0

Shirley Mastic Moriches Manorville Ridge

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 12 Practice Test 2

216

32. What was the mode?

a. 5

b. 8

c. 9

d. 10

33. What was the average number of inches for the season shown?

a. 5

b. 8

c. 9

d. 10

34. When expressed as a percent,

ᎏ

1

9

7

ᎏ

is most accurately approximated as

a. .0053%

b. 45.2 %

c. 50%

d. 52.9%

35. The length of a rectangle is equal to 3 inches more than twice the width. If the width is 2 inches,

what is the area of the rectangle?

a. 7 square inches

b. 14 square inches

c. 18 square inches

d. 21 square inches

36. Kira’s register contains 10 twenty-dollar bills, 3 ﬁve-dollar bills, 98 one-dollar bills, 88 quarters,

52 dimes, 200 nickels, and 125 pennies. How much money is in the register?

a. $351.45

b. $351.20

c. $350

d. $345.51

37. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.

DEF DEF

2

DE

2

F

2

______ D

2

E

2

F

3

a. DEF

3

b. D

3

EF

3

c. D

2

E

3

F

d. D

2

E

2

F

2

Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 12 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

217

Þ

38. Hannah’s yard is square. A light is placed in the center of her yard. The light shines a radius of

10 feet on her yard, which is 20 feet on each side. How much of the yard, in square feet, is NOT

lit by the light?

a. 400π

b. 40 − 10π

c. 400 − 10π

d. 400 − 100π

39. Chris drove for 100 miles. During the ﬁrst 45 miles, he drove at a rate of 75 mph. During the

next 45 miles, he drove at a rate of 50 mph. For the last 10 miles, he drove at a rate of 25 mph.

What was his approximate average rate for the whole trip?

a. 40 mph

b. 53 mph

c. 55 mph

d. 60 mph

40. What is the area of the shaded ﬁgure inside the rectangle?

a. 18 units

2

b. 36 units

2

c. 54 units

2

d. 60 units

2

3

3

12

√

1

8

√

1

8

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 12 Practice Test 2

218

ANSWERS

1. b. To ﬁnd the mode, see which number occurs the most: 12, 9, 8, 7, 7, 2, 9, 5, 7. Thus, 7 is the

mode.

2. c. You should know that 3 ft. = 1 yd. and the chart tells you that 1 m. = 1.1 yd. Thus, you can

create conversion factors that let you cross-off feet and end up with meters: 3.5 ft. ×

ᎏ

1

3

y

ft

d

.

.

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

1

1

.1

m

yd

.

.

ᎏ

≈ 3.18 m.

3. a. 5 yd. = 15 ft., so 5 yd. 2 ft. = 17 ft. Next, using the fact that 1 ft. = 12 in. and 1 cm. = .39 in.,

you can create conversion factors that let you cross-off feet and end up with cm.: 17 ft. ×

ᎏ

1

1

2

f

i

t

n

.

.

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

.

1

39

cm

in

.

.

ᎏ

≈ 523 cm.

4. c. The ﬁrst term of each triplet represents the alphabet in sequence: V ¬W ¬X ¬ ¬Z.

Thus, the ﬁrst letter of the missing triplet is Y. The second and third letters of the triplets fol-

low the pattern of skipping one letter. Thus, the second term of the missing triplet will be: A

¬C ¬E ¬ ¬I. And the third term of the missing triplet will be: B ¬D ¬F ¬ ¬I.

Therefore, the answer is YGH.

5. d. “20% of what number equals 40% of 120?” can be written mathematically as .20 × x = .40

× 120. Dividing both sides by .20 yields:

x =

ᎏ

(.40

.

)

2

(

0

120)

ᎏ

= 240.

6. a. You are told that the ratio of multimedia designers to graphic designers at a production house

is 2:1. Thus,

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

of the 180 total must be multimedia designers.

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

of 180 =

ᎏ

2

3

ᎏ

× 180 = 120 multi-

media designers. Half of these are woman, so there are 60 women multimedia designers.

7. c. First use a proportion to get the real life value:

ᎏ

1

1

.5

c

k

m

m

.

.

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

5

x

.2

k

c

m

m

.

.

ᎏ

; x = 1.5 × 5.2 = 7.8 km. Next,

convert kilometers to meters by multiplying by

ᎏ

1,

1

00

k

0

m

m

.

.

ᎏ

: 7.8 km. ×

ᎏ

1,

1

00

k

0

m

m

.

.

ᎏ

= 7,800 m.

8. b. Substitute 113 for F in the given equation. Thus, (F =

ᎏ

9

5

ᎏ

C + 32) becomes 113 =

ᎏ

9

5

ᎏ

C + 32;

113 − 32 =

ᎏ

9

5

ᎏ

C ; 81 =

ᎏ

9

5

ᎏ

C; 81 ×

ᎏ

5

9

ᎏ

= C ; 9 × 5 = C; C = 45 degrees.

9. a. Recall that semimonthly means twice a month. This means he makes 2 × $2,300 = $4,600

per month. Multiply by 12 months per year:

ᎏ

12

y

m

r.

o.

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

$4

m

,6

o

0

.

0

ᎏ

= $55,200 a year.

10. b. First, you should rearrange D = RT into R =

ᎏ

D

T

ᎏ

. Substitute the given values into the formula.

Here, R = 45 min. =

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

hour, and D = 3 mi. Thus, R =

ᎏ

D

T

ᎏ

becomes R = 3 mi. ÷

ᎏ

3

4

ᎏ

hr. = 4 mph.

11. d. The question “What percent of

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

is

ᎏ

3

1

2

ᎏ

?” can be written mathematically as

ᎏ

10

?

0

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

1

8

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3

1

2

ᎏ

. Recall

that what percent is

ᎏ

10

x

0

ᎏ

, of means × , and is means =. Solving, you get

ᎏ

80

x

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

3

1

2

ᎏ

; x =

ᎏ

8

3

0

2

0

ᎏ

= 25%.

12. c. The Blue Diamond stock rose from $15 to $20. This is a difference of $20 − $15 = $5. When

compared with the original $15,

ᎏ

1

5

5

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

x

0

ᎏ

; x =

ᎏ

5

1

0

5

0

ᎏ

= 33

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

%.

13. b. If it takes 15 workers 8 days to complete a job, it would take 1 worker 15 × 8 = 120 days. It

would take 20 workers 120 ÷ 20 = 6 days.

H G

Y

Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 12 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

219

Þ

14. c. First, line up and add all of the units:

8 yd. 2 ft. 1 in.

6 yd. 1 ft. 9 in.

+ 3 yd. 1 ft. 7 in.

17 yd. 4 ft. 17 in.

Next, note that 12 in. = 1 ft., so 17 yd. 4 ft. 17 in. is the same as 17. yd 5 ft. 5 in. Next, note that

3 ft. = 1 yd., so you can rewrite the length as 18 yd. 2 ft. 5 in.

15. b. Recall that “What percent” can be expressed as

ᎏ

10

x

0

ᎏ

. The question “What percent of

ᎏ

1

3

6

ᎏ

is

ᎏ

6

1

4

ᎏ

?” can be expressed as:

ᎏ

10

x

0

ᎏ

×

ᎏ

1

3

6

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

6

1

4

ᎏ

;

ᎏ

1

3

,6

×

0

x

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

6

1

4

ᎏ

; 3 × x = 25; x =

ᎏ

2

3

5

ᎏ

= 8

ᎏ

1

3

ᎏ

%.

16. a. 30% (black sector) of the 1,200 nursing students indicated that they would like to pursue

pediatrics. .30 × 1,200 = 360 students.

17. b. 20% (dark gray) of the nursing students chose surgical nursing. Half of these want to trans-

fer to the sister school, so that is 10%. 10% of 1,200 = .10 × 1,200 = 120 students.

18. b. If the same color scheme is used (as stated), then in decreasing size order, the bars should

be: white, black, dark gray, light gray. Only choice b has bars that match this description.

19. a. You can apply the rules of exponents to the terms that have the same bases. Thus, (8

5

× 3

4

)

÷ (8

3

× 3

2

) is equivalent to 8

5−3

× 3

4−2

= 8

2

× 3

2

= 64 × 9 = 576. Recall that when multiplying

and/or dividing exponential numbers, those exponents to numbers with the same base value

(i.e. 8

5

, 8

3

, or 3

4

, 3

2

) can be either added or subtracted depending on the operation asked to be

performed (multiplication ¬add exponents, division ¬subtract exponents).

20. c. First, convert the hour into minutes. 1 hour = 60 minutes, so Pipe A ﬁlls

ᎏ

6

1

0

ᎏ

of the tank every

minute. Pipe B empties

ᎏ

4

1

5

ᎏ

of the tank per minute. This means the net effect—every minute—

is

ᎏ

4

1

5

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

6

1

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

4

80

ᎏ

−

ᎏ

1

3

80

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

1

80

ᎏ

of the tank is drained. If

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

of the tank is initially full, this equals

ᎏ

1

9

8

0

0

ᎏ

full. It will take 90 minutes for the

ᎏ

1

9

8

0

0

ᎏ

to drain out (at a rate of

ᎏ

1

1

80

ᎏ

per minute). 90 min. =

1

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

hr.

21. b. Notice that the number grows by 1 and moves to the letter on the right of its current posi-

tion: B

2

CD BCD

4

B

5

CD BC

6

D. Thus, the missing term is BC

3

D.

22. d. Note that the number of line segments increases and then decreases by one: 1 ¬2 ¬3 ¬

4 ¬5 ¬ 4 ¬ 3. Thus, the next 2 members of the series will have two sides and then one side.

23. c. If a 20% deduction was applied, then $1,250 represents 80% of the original cost. This ques-

tion is really asking: “80% of what is $1,250?” This can be written mathematically as .80 × x =

1,250; x =

ᎏ

1,

.

2

8

5

0

0

ᎏ

= $1,562.50.

24. d. The formula for a cylinder is V = πr

2

h. If you use π ≈

ᎏ

2

7

2

ᎏ

, and substitute the given values into

this formula, you have: V =

ᎏ

2

7

2

ᎏ

× (͙7ෆ)

2

× 1 =

ᎏ

2

7

2

ᎏ

× 7 = 22m

3

. Three such cylinders will occupy

a volume of 3 × 22m

3

= 66m

3

inside the rectangular crate. The volume of the crate is lwh =

10 × 9 × 1.2 = 108 m

3

. The empty space (to be ﬁlled with shredded paper) is 108 m

3

− 66 m

3

=

42 m

3

.

25. c. Since more than 40 drives are being purchased, use the discounted price. Take 10% ($28)

off the cost of each drive. So, instead of costing $280 each, the drives will be $280 − $28 = $252

each. Next, multiply 40 drives by the price of each drive: 40 × 252 = $10,080.

BC

3

D

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ CHAPTER 12 Practice Test 2

220

26. a. The ﬁrst term progresses from B ¬C ¬D ¬E, so the last triplet will begin with F. Note

that the second term is always O. Every other triplet is the inverse of the triplet before it. So,

the third letter of the last triplet, like its predecessors, is the next letter of the alphabet after F.

27. a. In order to compare the choices, convert them all into inches:

a. 1 m. = 100 cm. = 100 cm. ×

ᎏ

.3

c

9

m

i

.

n.

ᎏ

= 39 in.

b. 1 yd. = 36 in.

c. 32 in.

d. 85 cm. is less than 1 m. (choice a) so you need not waste time converting this choice to inches.

Thus, choice a, 39 inches, is the longest.

28. a. This can be solved by simply equating the percent to its equivalent fractional form(s):

ᎏ

2

5

ᎏ

%

= .4 % = .004 =

ᎏ

1,0

4

00

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

2

1

50

ᎏ

.

29. a. First, note that all the washers together equal: 23 + 15 + 32 = 70. There are 15 steel wash-

ers, so the chance of pulling a steel washer is 15 out of 70:

ᎏ

1

7

5

0

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

1

3

4

ᎏ

.

30. d. The volume formula for a cube is V = s

3

, so here s

3

= 27 and s = 3 cm. The surface area of

one face is s

2

= 3

2

= 9 cm

2

. Since there are six faces, the total surface area is 6 × 9 cm

2

= 54 cm

2

.

31. d. First, list the numbers in order. The middle number will be the median: 5, 5, 10, 10, 10

32. d. To ﬁnd the mode, select the number that occurs the most:

10, 10, 5, 5, 10

10 occurs three times and is the mode.

33. b. First, add up all the values: 10 + 10 + 5 + 5 + 10 = 40. Next divide by 5 (the number of val-

ues): 40 ÷ 5 = 8 inches.

34. d. First, convert

ᎏ

1

9

7

ᎏ

to a decimal: 9 ÷ 17 ≈ .529. Next, to express this value as a percent, just

move the decimal point over 2 places to the right ≈ 52.9%.

35. b. “The length of a rectangle is equal to 3 inches more than twice the width,” can be expressed

mathematically as l = 2w + 3. We know w = 2, so l = (2)(2) + 3 = 7. The area is then A = lw =

7 × 2 = 14 square inches.

36. a. First, multiply the amount of coins (or bills) by the value of the coin (or bill):

10 twenty-dollar bills = 10 × $20 = $200

3 ﬁve-dollar bills = 3 × $5 = $15

98 one-dollar bills = 98 × $1 = $98

88 quarters = 88 × $.25 = $22

52 dimes = 52 × $.10 = $5.20

200 nickels = 200 × $.05 = $10

125 pennies = 125 × $.01 = $1.25

Next, add up all the money: $200 + $15 + $98 + $22 + $5.20 + $10 + $1.25 = $351.45.

37. d. The letters remain the same: DEF. The numbers change as follows (a dash, such as “–” rep-

resents no number): – – – ¬– – 2 ¬– 2 2 ¬ ¬2 2 3. 2 2 2

Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 12 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

221

Þ

=

A P P E N D I X

Glossary of

Math Terms

Area: a measure of the space inside a two-dimensional ﬁgure. Area is expressed in square units.

Arithmetic series: a series which progresses by adding (or subtracting) a constant number to each

term.

Circumference: the distance around a circle.

Compounded annually: interest is paid each year.

Compounded daily: interest is paid every day.

Compounded monthly: interest is paid every month.

Compounded quarterly: interest is paid four times a year.

Compounded semi-annually: interest is paid two times per year.

Constant rate equation: an equation that is used to relate distance, rate, and time when dealing

with a constant velocity: D = RT.

Denominator: the bottom number in a fraction.

Diameter: any line segment that goes through the center of a circle and has both endpoints on the

circle.

Difference: the answer obtained by subtracting.

Glossary of Math Terms APPENDIX MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

223

Þ

Geometric series: a series which progresses by multiplying each term by a constant number to get

the next term.

Improper fraction: a fraction whose numerator is greater than the number in the denominator, such

as

ᎏ

8

7

ᎏ

.

Least Common Denominator: the smallest number that is a multiple of the original denomina-

tors present.

Mean: the average of a set of values. To calculate the mean, follow these steps: Step 1— Add all the

numbers in the list. Step 2— Count the number of numbers in the list. Step 3— Divide the sum

(the result of step 1) by the number (the result of step 2).

Median: the middle number in a group of numbers arranged in sequential order. In a set of numbers,

half will be greater than the median and half will be less than the median. To calculate the median,

follow these steps: Step 1—Put the numbers in sequential order. Step 2—The middle number is

the median. (If there are two middle numbers, you ﬁnd the mean (or average) of the two middle

numbers.)

Mixed Number: a number that is expressed as a whole number with a fraction to the right, such

as 1

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

.

Mode: the number in a set of numbers that occurs most frequently. To ﬁnd the mode, you just look

for numbers that occur more than once and ﬁnd the one that appears most often.

Numerator: the top number in a fraction.

Order of Operations: the order in which operations must be performed. An easy way to remember

the Order of Operations is to use the mnemonic PEMDAS, where each letter stands for an oper-

ation: Parentheses: Always calculate the values inside the parentheses ﬁrst; Exponents: Second,

calculate exponents (or powers); Multiplication/Division: Third, perform any multiplications or

divisions in order from left to right; Addition/Subtraction: Last, perform any additions or sub-

tractions in order from left to right.

Percent change: when calculating the percent increase or decrease, equate the ratio of the amount

of change to the initial value with the ratio of a new value, x, to 100. The general proportion to

use is:

ᎏ

c

i

h

n

a

it

n

ia

g

l

e

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

10

x

0

ᎏ

.

Percent error: is found by converting the ratio between the calculated value and the actual value to

a value out of 100: =

ᎏ

10

x

0

ᎏ

.

Percent: a ratio that expresses a value as per 100 parts. For example 30% is equivalent to 30 per 100,

or

ᎏ

1

3

0

0

0

ᎏ

. You can express a percent as a fraction by placing the number before the percent symbol

over the number 100. You can express a percent as a decimal by moving the current decimal point

2 places to the left.

Perimeter: the distance around a two-dimensional geometric ﬁgure.

Prime numbers: numbers that have only 2 factors, the number 1 and itself.

Product: the answer obtained by multiplying.

Proper fraction: a fraction where the number in the numerator is less than the number in the denom-

inator, such as

ᎏ

1

2

ᎏ

.

difference in values

ᎏᎏᎏ

actual values

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS Þ APPENDIX Glossary of Math Terms

224

Proportion: a pair of 2 equivalent ratios in the form

ᎏ

a

b

ᎏ

=

ᎏ

d

c

ᎏ

.

Quotient: the answer obtained by dividing.

Radius: any line that begins at the center of a circle and ends on a point on the circle.

Ratio: a comparison of 2 or more numbers.

Reciprocal: the multiplicative inverse of a number, for example, the reciprocal of

ᎏ

4

5

ᎏ

is

ᎏ

5

4

ᎏ

.

Simple Interest: interest is calculated with the formula I = PRT. The amount of money deposited

is called the principal, P. The annual interest rate is represented by R, and T represents the time

in years.

Sum: the answer obtained by adding.

Symbol series: a visual series based on the relationship between images.

The Associative Law: this property applies to grouping of addition or multiplication equations and

expressions. It can be represented as a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c or a × (b × c) = (a × b) × c. For example,

10 + (12 + 14) = (10 + 12) + 14.

The Commutative Law: this property applies for addition and multiplication and can be represented

as a + b = b + a or a × b = b × a. For example, 2 + 3 = 3 + 2 and 4 × 2 = 2 × 4 exhibit the Commu-

tative Law.

The Distributive Law: this property applies to multiplication over addition and can be represented

as a(b + c) = ab + ac. For example, 3 (5 + 7) = 3 × 5 + 3 × 7.

Volume: a measure of the amount of space inside a three-dimensional shape. Volume is expressed in

cubic units.

Glossary of Math Terms APPENDIX MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

225

Þ

Math

FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

Jessika Sobanski

NEW YORK

Copyright © 2003 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Sobanski, Jessika. Math for civil service tests / Jessika Sobanski.—1st ed. p. cm. ISBN 1-57685-428-0 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Mathematics—Examinations, questions, etc. I. Title. QA43 .S664 2002 510'.76—dc21 2002008106 Printed in the United States of America 987654321 First Edition ISBN 1-57685-428-0 For more information or to place an order, contact LearningExpress at: 900 Broadway Suite 604 New York, NY 10003 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com

AND GRAPHS GEOMETRY AND MEASUREMENT PRACTICE TEST 1 PRACTICE TEST 2 1 9 31 45 67 89 105 123 141 173 195 209 223 GLOSSARY OF MATH TERMS v .Contents = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 INTRODUCTION LEARNINGEXPRESS TEST PREPARATION SYSTEM ARITHMETIC. POWERS. TABLES. AND ROOTS FRACTIONS DECIMALS NUMBER SERIES AND ANALOGIES PERCENTS WORD PROBLEMS CHARTS.

.

New York. She is the author of Visual Math and Math Builder. She lives in Long Island. and computer consultant. teacher.About the Author ÷ x vii Jessika Sobanski is a math writer. . and the coauthor of several other educational books.

.

you will find you must take a Civil Service exam. Chapter 2 presents a 30-day Study Plan and a 14-day Study Plan. Civil Service exams require that candidates score well on all parts of the exam. so you can grasp effective strategies and learn to budget your preparation time wisely. By making the commitment to practice for the math section of the Civil Service exam. But before you begin your job. you are promising yourself increased scores and marketability. HOW TO USE THIS BOOK Whether your exam is months away or weeks away. You can decide which of these plans is right for you. or you can create a more personalized plan. you will not have to take this exam again—ever! Use the exercises in this book to get a feel for the mathematics topics presented on the exam.= 1 CHAPTER Introduction Choosing a career as a government employee can be very rewarding. but the math section can be especially daunting if it has been a long time since you have used your math skills. You should carefully read this chapter and the next one. take a practice exam. Review them accordingly. Always keep your end-goal in mind. If you study hard the ﬁrst time. and then get ready to walk into the exam room with plenty of self-conﬁdence! But ﬁrst. let’s review some basic math strategies: Introduction CHAPTER 1 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 1 . Remember to stick as closely as you can to your plan. this book will help you prepare.

Glance at the answer choices for clues. BACKDOOR APPROACHES FOR ANSWERING QUESTIONS THAT PUZZLE YOU Remember those dreaded word problems in high school? Many of them are actually easier to solve by backdoor approaches. Make a plan of attack to help you solve the problem. . If they are fractions. read a math question in chunks rather than straight through from beginning to end. stop to think about what it means.2 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 Introduction MATH STRATEGIES The suggestions in this section are tried and true. The ﬁrst technique. is useful when there are unknowns (like x) in the text of the word problem. nice numbers. If a question stumps you. but use a different method. etc. The two techniques that follow are terriﬁc ways to solve multiple-choice word problems that you don’t know how to solve with a straightforward approach. (Add: $6 + $9) . try one of the backdoor approaches explained in the next section.97 is a little less than $15. you should do your work in fractions. (Multiply: 1 × 5) Skip hard questions and come back to them later.0342 is close to 5. It could be right. These are particularly useful for solving word problems. Although you might think that you can solve math questions more quickly in your head. For example: $5. ✓ Do the question a second time. draw pictures.9876 × 5. that’s a good way to make mistakes. you should work in decimals. circle it. write out each step. presents a quick way to substitute numeric answer choices back into the problem to see which one works. Remember to: ✓ Ask yourself if your answer is reasonable and if it makes sense. Or. It’s best not to work in your head! Use your test book or scratch paper to take notes. Nice numbers are numbers that are easy to work with. but you should always check your work. you may decide to pick and choose the combination that works best for you. Check your work after you get an answer. reread the circled question to make sure you have answered it. ✓ Approximate when appropriate. like multiples of ten.98 + $8. You may use one or all of them. working backwards. Mark them in your test book so you can ﬁnd them quickly. for example. if they are decimals. and calculate. ✓ Plug your answer back into the problem to make sure the problem holds together. When you get to the actual question. Instead. Then make notes or draw a picture to represent that chunk of information. Before you begin to make your calculations. This will keep you more focused as you solve the problem. This helps avoid the careless mistake of answering the wrong question. When you get your answer. making the problem too abstract for you. Test takers get a false sense of security when they get an answer that matches one of the multiple-choice answers. The second technique. As you read each chunk.

what is the maximum number of shirts Judi could buy with the money in her pocket? Since 2 shirts cost $25. and 8 shirts cost $100. 100 × 2 × 25 = 5. s = 2. If the answer choices contain unknowns. that means that 4 shirts cost $50. c.Introduction CHAPTER 1 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 3 Nice Numbers When a question contains unknowns. ps d pd s ds p To solve this problem. A nice number makes calculations easier and makes sense in the problem. the choice that matches your answer is the right one. Let’s substitute the nice numbers into all 4 answers: a. d. The choice that matches your answer is the right one. Read the question with the nice numbers in place. You will only have to check the answer choices that have already matched. If more than one answer matches. If the price of shirts was s shirts for d dollars. Now reread it with the numbers in place: Judi went shopping with $100 in her pocket. Then solve it. substitute the same nice numbers into all the answer choices. c. let’s try these nice numbers: p = $100. d. d = $25. do the problem again with different nice numbers. psd b. plug nice numbers in for the unknowns. 100 × 2 25 =8 = 1. Example: Judi went shopping with p dollars in her pocket. . If the price of shirts was 2 shirts for $25. If the answer choices are all numbers. like x. what is the maximum number of shirts Judi could buy with the money in her pocket? a.250 1 2 100 × 25 2 25 × 2 100 = The answer is b because it is the only one that matches our answer of 8. So our answer is 8.000 b.

which left 10 jellybeans. That leaves 15 jellybeans (60 − 45 = 15). 90 d. Example: Juan ate 3 of the jellybeans. If none of the answers work. 3. The next lower answer is only a little smaller than 90 and may not be small enough. and we wound up with 15 of them. The process is faster than you think because you’ll probably only have to substitute one or two answers to ﬁnd the right one. So. Plug in one of the remaining choices. 20. The problem states that there were 10 jellybeans left. the right answer is a. that means he ate 30 ( 3 × 90 = 30). 2. Here’s what to do: 1. you may have made a careless error. That leaves 10 jellybeans (40 − 30 = 10). let’s use common sense to decide which one to try. leaving 40 of them (60 − 20 = 40). begin by plugging 14 into the problem. Maria 3 3 then ate 4 of the 60 jellybeans. or 30 of them ( 4 × 40 = 30). let’s try 60: 1 1 Since Juan ate 3 of them. Thus. if the answers are 14. 1 1 1 3 . That indicates that we started with too big a number. not a sum. 140 Starting with the middle answer. 4. 120. 8. For example. or 45 of them ( 4 × 60 = 45). Determine if you need a bigger or smaller answer. 2. 90. How many jellybeans were there to begin with? a. or ratio. If your choice doesn’t work. leaving 60 of them (90 − 30 = 60). Since the remainder is 10 jellybeans. you are asked to ﬁnd a simple number. eliminate it. Begin again or look for your mistake.4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 Introduction WORKING BACKWARDS You can frequently solve a word problem by plugging the answer choices back into the text of the problem to see which one ﬁts all the facts stated in the problem. let’s assume there were 90 jellybeans to begin with: Since Juan ate 3 of them. that means he ate 20 ( 3 × 60 = 20). product. This approach works only when all of the answer choices are numbers. Look at all the answer choices and begin with the one in the middle of the range. 60 b. 80 c. difference. 120 e. Maria then ate 4 of the remaining jellybeans. and 140 are all wrong! With only two choices left. and 25. 3 3 Maria then ate 4 of the 40 jellybeans.

13 to 26 paid vacation days a year. Each grade progresses upwards through steps. The government workforce is diverse with possibilities like these: Accounting Administration Agriculture Biology Budgetary work Cartography Chemistry Claims work Clerical work Conservation Court work Custodial work Defense-related work Drafting Educational service Electric Engineering Finance Fireﬁghting Health services Human services Labor Law enforcement Machinist work Nursing Painting Postal work Service work Social work Technical Treasury work Visa examination EARNINGS AND ADVANCEMENT The government is the number one employer in our country. Government jobs are secure. you may enter the government pay scale at different grades. group life insurance. Depending on your prior education. whereas junior college graduates may enter at GS-4.Introduction CHAPTER 1 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 5 KINDS OF CIVIL SERVICE JOBS Civil Service jobs range from clerical work to forestry. medical and dental beneﬁts. from social work to cartography. and provide paid training for employees. Following is the pay schedule for 2002: . Beneﬁts include: 10 paid holidays a year. Civilian government employees are grouped by the type of work they do. high school graduates may enter at GS-2. the more money you make. have great holiday and vacation schedules. The level of their relative positions (based on difﬁculty) is called the grade. offer health insurance. For example. This is called the series. 13 sick days a year. from painting to nursing. and a government pension plan. The higher the step.

67 8.94 18.27 27.57 40.00 20.14 8.27 27.60% GENERAL INCREASE Effective January 2002 2002 General Schedule Hourly (B)/Overtime (O) Rates by Grade and Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7.24 27.98 12.61 27.27 36.63 10.27 27.21 34.27 39.27 30.74 16.43 23.24 8.27 23.27 27.27 27.09 25.27 27.08 13.4 8.63 8.26 21.61 24.79 23.68 12.16 26.57 14.24 20.41 10.53 44.16 47.94 14.94 24.93 12.27 27.35 12.27 18.S.97 11.89 11.00 11.95 8.27 27.27 27.78 8.12 27.84 13.21 18.74 25.16 35.16 18.98 18.43 27.27 21.27 27.97 22.16 12.71 19.27 25.27 20.27 27.30 27.31 7.83 10.43 22.27 27.41 26.19 16.91 24.64 21.59 16.71 11.62 11.6 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 Introduction GS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 B/O B O B O B O B O B O B O B O B O B O B O B O B O B O B O B O U.27 27.27 27.44 16.89 42.27 23.34 16.27 27.93 7.01 14.27 50.99 16.27 27.27 27.27 27.12 39.36 31.27 27.01 8.95 15.52 18.21 12.00 15.37 41.04 20.71 13.33 27.94 17.21 21.27 27.99 14.42 27.49 12.31 14.27 27.27 27.98 9.43 17.33 18.95 9.50 13.23 9.64 23.44 16.13 27.63 27.96 9.27 19.39 20.07 13.85 46.16 21.91 27.57 12.36 24.96 27.46 27.31 32.72 29.61 15.27 23.17 14.85 14.27 9 8.32 27.76 35.44 15.36 11.59 26.72 8.55 17.75 15.61 20.25 40.26 22.53 19.07 19.91 21.82 22.66 18.27 27.94 23.3 21.52 27.66 25.26 10.27 16.86 22.24 15.63 12.48 48.27 28.27 37.14 12.26 19.49 11.03 27.6 12.27 .27 27.26 33.06 10.78 19.43 20.11 27.29 24.62 10.27 27.63 27.64 34.97 24.27 27.39 14.27 27.23 12.47 13. Ofﬁce Of Personnel Management Salary Table 2002-GS INCORPORATING A 3.27 27.54 26.02 10.91 12.44 13.91 27.27 27.61 18.76 14.26 11.12 10.39 10.62 16.30 23.70 13.27 27.27 27.54 7.97 18.70 15.44 17.31 19.01 13.12 27.00 38.55 12.09 15.83 19.53 26.03 11.89 17.74 10.27 27.07 16.44 27.80 27.15 8.97 20.95 13.27 27.64 20.18 15.27 27.27 43.93 27.27 27.07 7.27 27.16 23.06 27.27 27.27 16.07 17.04 17.29 15.27 27.94 16.73 27.61 10.88 37.38 23.27 31.42 27.27 51.81 20.06 17.25 9.47 29.49 27.27 42.21 43.59 22.27 27.27 10 8.02 12.64 18.69 17.77 25.36 13.31 11.47 13.00 27.05 9.49 13.93 28.60 21.67 12.54 9.88 14.64 21.84 15.80 20.27 27.27 27.41 30.96 14.18 18.27 33.27 27.27 27.27 25.38 8.75 14.27 27.51 17.27 27.95 13.

60% GENERAL INCREASE Effective January 2002 Annual Rates by Grade and Step 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 15249 15740 16228 16720 17009 17492 17981 18001 16985 17535 18001 18201 18736 19271 19806 20341 18706 19309 19912 20515 21118 21721 22324 22927 20999 21676 22353 23030 23707 24384 25061 25738 23495 24253 25011 25769 26527 27285 28043 28801 26189 27034 27879 28724 29569 30414 31259 32104 29103 30042 30981 31920 32859 33798 34737 35676 32231 33271 34311 35351 36391 37431 38471 39511 35599 36747 37895 39043 40191 41339 42487 43635 39204 40469 41734 42999 44264 45529 46794 48059 43073 44462 45851 47240 48629 50018 51407 52796 51624 53289 54954 56619 58284 59949 61614 63279 61389 63369 65349 67329 69309 71289 73269 75249 72545 74885 77225 79565 81905 84245 86585 88925 85333 88086 90839 93592 96345 99098 101851 104604 10 18456 20876 23530 26415 29559 32949 36615 40551 44783 49324 54185 64944 77229 91265 107357 .Introduction CHAPTER 1 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 7 GS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 14757 16592 18103 20322 22737 25344 28164 31191 34451 37939 41684 49959 59409 70205 82580 Salary Table 2002-GS 2002 General Schedule INCORPORATING A 3.

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But. you will have to score well on your Civil Service Exam. By sharpening these skills. developed exclusively for LearningExpress by leading test experts. The LearningExpress Test Preparation System. However. irst. gives you the discipline and attitude you need to be a winner. don’t let the written test scare you! If you prepare ahead of time. like: ■ how to pace yourself through the exam ■ how to use the process of elimination ■ when to guess Not being in tip-top mental and physical shape F The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 2 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 9 .= 2 CHAPTER The LearningExpress Test Preparation System Taking any test can be tough. Being unfamiliar with the format of the exam Being paralyzed by test anxiety Leaving your preparation to the last minute Not preparing at all Not knowing vital test-taking skills. there are all sorts of pitfalls that can prevent you from doing your best on exams. you will take your ﬁrst step toward achieving the career of your dreams. you can achieve a top score. the bad news: Getting ready for any test takes work! If you plan to obtain an entry-level Civil Service position. This book focuses speciﬁcally on the math skills that you will be tested on. Here are some obstacles that can stand in the way of your success.

you are in control. Conquer Test Anxiety Step 3. or you won’t be getting the full beneﬁt of the system. It’s up to you—remember. Get Your Act Together Step 9.10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System Forgetting to eat breakfast and having to take the test on an empty stomach Forgetting a sweater or jacket and shivering through the exam What’s the common denominator in all these test-taking pitfalls? One word: control. It’s important that you follow the advice and do the activities. Reach Your Peak Performance Zone Step 8. . In just nine easy-to-follow steps. Do it! Total 30 minutes 20 minutes 50 minutes 10 minutes 20 minutes 20 minutes 10 minutes 10 minutes 10 minutes 3 hours We estimate that working through the entire system will take you approximately three hours. If you can take a whole afternoon or evening. Here’s how the LearningExpress Test Preparation System works: Nine easy steps lead you through everything you need to know and do to get ready to master your exam. Get Information Step 2. Who’s in control. but not you. other test-takers may be unprepared or out of shape. Each of the steps listed below gives you tips and activities to help you prepare for any exam. Step 1. Other test-takers may let the test get the better of them. and do just one or two steps a day for the next several days. You will have taken all the steps you need to take for a passing score. Make a Plan Step 4. Each step gives you an approximate time estimate. you or the exam? Now the good news: The LearningExpress Test Preparation System puts you in control. you will learn everything you need to know to make sure that you are in charge of your preparation and your performance on the exam. though it’s perfectly okay if you work faster or slower than the time estimates say. you can break it up. you can work through the entire LearningExpress Test Preparation System in one sitting. Know When to Guess Step 7. Otherwise. Learn to Use the Process of Elimination Step 6. Learn to Manage Your Time Step 5.

tables. and practice them as you work through the exams in this book. Test anxiety not only impairs your performance on the exam itself. Learn these strategies now. so they will be second nature to you by exam day. The ﬁrst step in the LearningExpress Test Preparation System is ﬁnding out everything you can about the types of questions that will be asked on any math section of a Civil Service examination. and be presented with a discussion regarding earnings. You can see how well your training paid off in Chapters 11 and 12. you will then begin to apply these test-taking strategies as you work through problem sets in the above topic areas (Chapters 3 through 10). but it can even keep you from preparing! In Step 2. review general math strategies. STEP 2: CONQUER TEST ANXIETY Time to complete: 20 minutes Activity: Take the Test Stress Test Having complete information about the exam is the ﬁrst step in getting control of the exam. and working conditions. and roots Fractions Decimals Number series and analogies Percents Word problems Charts.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 2 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 11 STEP 1: GET INFORMATION Time to complete: 30 minutes Activities: Read Chapter 1. Knowledge is power. Practicing and studying the exercises in this book will help prepare you for those tests. and graphs Algebra Geometry and measurement After completing the LearningExpress Test Preparation System. Mathematics topics that are tested include: Arithmetic. you have to overcome one of the biggest obstacles to test success: test anxiety.” If you haven’t already done so. Next. see an overview of the kinds of Civil Service jobs. stop here and read Chapter 1 of this book. where you will take two practice Civil Service examinations in math. you will learn stress management techniques that will help you succeed on your exam. Here. “Introduction. powers. advancement. . you will learn how to use this book.

“I’m prepared. Every time someone starts telling you how hard the exam is or how it is almost impossible to get a high score. Practice self-conﬁdence. Imagine yourself reporting for your ﬁrst day on the job. Rotate your shoulders. start telling them your self-conﬁdence messages above. Stress Management Before the Test If you feel your level of anxiety getting the best of you in the weeks before the test.12 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System Combating Test Anxiety The ﬁrst thing you need to know is that a little test anxiety is a good thing. His stage fright didn’t impair his performance. Visualize. There is nothing like knowing what to expect. This is no time to be humble or shy. Go for a run. then let it out on a count of ﬁve. It’s said that Sir Laurence Olivier. Turn on your tape recorder and listen to your self-conﬁdence messages. I’m full of self-conﬁdence. Think of the place where you are most relaxed: lying on the beach in the sun. I’m going to ace this test. Hold it for a count of one. Take a deep breath while you count to ﬁve. Everyone gets nervous before a big exam—and if that nervousness motivates you to prepare thoroughly. Deep breathing. Stop here and answer the questions on that page. being in good physical shape can actually help you do well on the exam. Use it faithfully. If you practice in advance. . walking through the park. Shake your hands from the wrist. If you hear it often enough. one of the foremost British actors of the last century. it probably gave him a little extra edge—just the kind of edge you need to do well. threw up before every performance. Visualizing success can help make it happen—and it reminds you why you are preparing for the exam so diligently. close your eyes and imagine you are actually there. Physical activity helps calm your body down and focus your mind. Exercise. If the someone with the negative messages is you—telling yourself you don’t do well on exams. lift weights. On the next page is the Test Stress Test. you’ll believe it. Move your body. or whatever. Now. to ﬁnd out whether your level of test anxiety is something you should worry about.” Say it into a tape recorder and play it back once a day. Stress Management on Test Day There are several ways you can bring down your level of test anxiety on test day. you will ﬁnd that you only need a few seconds of this exercise to experience a signiﬁcant increase in your sense of well-being. Stand in front of the mirror and say to your reﬂection. Visualize again. Being prepared will put you in control of test anxiety. so much the better. Besides. here is what you need to do to bring the level down again: Get prepared. That’s why you are reading this book. Try rolling your head in a circle. and use the ones that work best for you. practice these in the weeks before the test. To ﬁnd a comfort level. A positive attitude is a great way to combat test anxiety. Repeat several times. and remind yourself that you are better prepared than most of the people taking the test. Fight negative messages. in fact. you just can’t do this—don’t listen. whether on a stage or in an exam room. Many people ﬁnd these movements very relaxing. I know I can do it. go swimming—and do it regularly.

______ I have simply not showed up for an exam because I was scared to take it. this one works best if you have practiced it ahead of time. I lost it there for a minute. visualize yourself moving smoothly and quickly through the test answering every question right and ﬁnishing just before time is up. Say them quietly to yourself. Getting even one circle ﬁlled in gets you into the test-taking groove. Then you are ready to go back to work. Like most visualization techniques. “Hey. Find an easy question. so you shouldn’t worry about it. ______ I have had trouble ﬁlling in the little circles because my hands were shaking too hard.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 2 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 13 When anxiety threatens to overwhelm you right there during the exam. You should have them memorized by now. Instead. 1 = Once or twice 2 = Sometimes 3 = Often ______ I have gotten so nervous before an exam that I simply put down the books and didn’t study . The following questionnaire will provide a diagnosis of your level of test anxiety. In the blank before each statement. ______ I have failed an exam because I was too nervous to complete it. Try these techniques ahead of time. and do some deep breathing for a few seconds. It’s normal. and believe them! Visualize one more time. and see if they don’t work for you! TEST STRESS TEST You only need to worry about test anxiety if it is extreme enough to impair your performance. and answer it. Skim over the test until you ﬁnd an easy question. ______ I have experienced disabling physical symptoms such as vomiting and severe headaches because I was nervous about an exam. write the number that most accurately describes your experience. ______ I have experienced dizziness and disorientation while taking an exam. there are still things you can do to manage the stress level: Repeat your self-conﬁdence messages. close your eyes. Take a mental break.” Put down your pencil. 0 = Never for it. ______ Total: Add up the numbers in the blanks above. This time. Everyone loses concentration once in a while during a long test. accept what has happened. Say to yourself. My brain is taking a break.

In addition to practicing the stress management techniques listed in this section. Start now. If you are the kind of person who doesn’t like to follow other people’s plans.14 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System Your Test Stress Score Here are the steps you should take. and you should practice the stress management techniques listed in this section to try to bring your test anxiety down to manageable levels. depending on your score. Above 6. Don’t put off your study until the week before the exam! Start now. your level of test anxiety is a serious concern. A few minutes a day. Take control of your preparation time by mapping out a study schedule. STEP 3: MAKE A PLAN Time to complete: 50 minutes Activity: Construct a study plan Maybe the most important thing you can do to get control of yourself and your exam is to make a study plan. can make a big difference in your score—and in your chances of making the grade you want! . Don’t fall into the cram trap. Spending hours on the day before the exam poring over sample test questions not only raises your level of test anxiety. Try for at least 20 minutes a day. personal help. here they are. you may want to seek additional. your level of test anxiety is nothing to worry about. you are lucky. You can’t review everything you need to know for a Civil Service test in one night. The counselor may be willing to help you or may suggest someone else you should talk to. Too many people fail to prepare simply because they fail to plan. If you have months before the exam. Between 3 and 6. Even more important than making a plan is making a commitment. with half an hour or more on weekends can make a big difference in your score. it’s probably just enough to give you the motivation to excel. Call your local high school or community college and ask for the academic counselor. You have to set aside some time every day for study and practice. Tell the counselor that you have a level of test anxiety that sometimes keeps you from being able to take the exam. it also is simply no substitute for careful preparation and practice. Don’t put off your study until the day before the exam. If you are the kind of person who needs deadlines and assignments to motivate you for a project. Twenty minutes daily will do you much more good than two hours on Saturday. with half an hour or more on weekends. you can use the suggested schedules here to construct your own. If you scored: ■ ■ ■ Below 3. your test anxiety may be enough to impair your performance. Even ten minutes a day.

and practice these basic skills by working through Questions 1– 50. Review any Chapter 8 concepts that you feel are necessary for you to brush up on. Day 12 Work through Questions 31–49 in Chapter 6. Work through Questions 11– 30 and score yourself. concentrate on those areas. Day 9 Work through Questions 31–50 in Chapter 5. Fractions. Score yourself. Day 16 Day 17 Read Chapter 8. Day 7 Day 8 Read Chapter 5. and work through Questions 1–10 and score yourself. You should score yourself and make sure that you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter. You should score yourself and make sure that you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter. Day 10 Read Chapter 6. particularly noting: 1) the areas you expect to be emphasized on the exam and 2) the areas you don’t remember well. Day 13 Day 14 Read Chapter 7. . you have plenty of time to prepare—as long as you don’t waste it! If you have less than a month. and work through Questions 1–10 and score yourself. turn to Schedule B. Decimals. Basic Arithmetic. Work through Questions 11– 30 and score yourself. Day 4 Day 5 Read Chapter 4. You should score yourself and make sure that you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter. Work through Questions 1–10 and score yourself. Review any Chapter 5 concepts that you feel are necessary for you to brush up on. Review any Chapter 7 concepts that you feel are necessary for you to brush up on. skim over the written materials from any courses or training programs you may have taken. and work through Questions 1–10. Day 6 Work through Questions 31–50 in Chapter 4. Also. On Day 4. Day 15 Work through Questions 31–50 in Chapter 7. Work through Questions 11– 30 and score yourself. Work through Questions 11– 30 and score yourself. Percents. You should score yourself and make sure that you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter. Day 3 Read Chapter 3. and work through Questions 1–10 and score yourself. Number Series and Analogies. Work through Questions 11– 30 and score yourself. TIME PREPARATION Day 1–2 Read Chapters 1 and 2 of this book.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 2 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 15 Schedule A: The 30-day Plan If you have at least a month before you take your test. Review any Chapter 4 concepts that you feel are necessary for you to brush up on. Word Problems. Day 11 Review any Chapter 6 concepts that you feel are necessary for you to brush up on.

Review any concepts that you feel are necessary for you to brush up on. Day 27 Day 28 In Chapter 12. Day 29 Review the chapters that contained the topics that you were weak on during the Practice Exams. Day 22 Read Chapter 10. take Practice Test 2. Score yourself. Score yourself and review any incorrect questions. . take Practice Test 1. and work through Questions 1–10. Day 24 Work through Questions 31–50 in Chapter 10. You should score yourself and make sure that you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter. Charts. Work through Questions 11– 30 and score yourself. You should score yourself and make sure that you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter. Work through similar questions in the appropriate chapters. Day 20 Review any Chapter 9 concepts that you feel are necessary for you to brush up on. Geometry and Measurement. Work through Questions 11– 30 and score yourself. Day 19 Read Chapter 9. Day 25 Day 26 In Chapter 11. Tables. Score yourself and review any incorrect questions. Work through similar questions in the appropriate chapters. and Graphs. Day 23 Review any Chapter 10 concepts that you feel are necessary for you to brush up on. and work through Questions 1–10 and score yourself. Day before the exam: Relax. You should score yourself and make sure that you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter.16 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System Day 18 Work through Questions 31–50 in Chapter 8. Day 21 Work through Questions 31–50 in Chapter 9. Review any concepts that you feel are necessary for you to brush up on. Do something unrelated to the exam and go to bed at a reasonable hour.

Complete the entire Word Problems chapter (Chapter 8) including the Practice Questions. Complete the entire Fractions chapter (Chapter 4) including the Practice Questions. Day 10 Complete Practice Test 1 (Chapter 11) and score yourself. Tables. Day 6 Day 7 Day 8 Complete the entire Percents chapter (Chapter 7) including the Practice Questions. TIME PREPARATION Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Read Chapters 1 and 2. Then look at the questions you missed again and make sure that you understand them. Complete the entire Arithmetic chapter (Chapter 3) including the Practice Questions.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 2 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 17 Schedule B: The 14-day plan If you have two weeks or less before you take your exam. Use this 14-day schedule to help you make the most of your time. Day before the exam: Relax. Day 9 Complete the entire Geometry and Measurement chapter (Chapter 10) including the Practice Questions. you may have your work cut out for you. Day 13 Review any topics as indicated by the questions you missed on the Practice Test. Do something unrelated to the exam and go to bed at a reasonable hour. Work through similar questions in the appropriate chapters. Day 11 Review any concepts that you feel are necessary for you to brush up on. Complete the entire Number Series/Analogies chapter (Chapter 6) including the Practice Questions. Review all of the questions that you missed. Complete the entire Decimals chapter (Chapter 5) including the Practice Questions. Complete the entire Charts. . Day 12 Complete Practice Test 2 (Chapter 12) and score yourself. Review all of the questions that you missed. and Graphs chapter (Chapter 9) including the Practice Questions.

and 6 of the LearningExpress Test Preparation System put you in charge of your exam by showing you test-taking strategies that work. which may give you more than enough time to complete all the questions—or may not. Don’t rush. that standard of wisdom applies to your exam. Civil Service exams have a time limit. read them carefully. If you skip a question. you should be a quarter of the way through the section. If they are written on the exam booklet. Keep moving.18 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System STEP 4: LEARN TO MANAGE YOUR TIME Time to complete: 10 minutes to read. If you are allowed to write in your exam booklet. write down the beginning time and the ending time of the exam. This helps you ﬁnd the right answer by eliminating wrong answer choices. and compare the time to how far you’ve gotten in the test. Keep track of your place on the answer sheet. STEP 5: LEARN TO USE THE PROCESS OF ELIMINATION Time to complete: 20 minutes Activity: Complete worksheet on Using the Process of Elimination After time management. skip the question and move on. rushing won’t help. Here are some tips to keep that from happening to you. and so on. If you don’t know the answer. too. many hours of practice! Activities: Practice these strategies as you take the sample tests in this book Steps 4.” when you are only three-quarters of the way through the test. your next most important tool for taking control of your exam is using the process of elimination wisely. “Five minutes left. Don’t waste time on one question. Ask questions before the exam begins if there is anything you don’t understand. If you are falling behind. pick up the pace a bit. When one-quarter of the time has elapsed. and then you will be ready to use them on test day. Check yourself every 5–10 questions to make sure the question number and the answer sheet number are still the same. Practice these strategies as you take the sample tests in this book. And. Pace yourself. Follow directions. take control of your time on the exam. It’s standard test-taking wisdom that you should always read all the answer choices before choosing your answer. If the directions are given orally. listen closely. 5. Try to keep calm and work methodically and quickly. Though you should keep moving. It’s a terrible feeling to hear the examiner say. Circle the number of the question in your test booklet in case you have time to come back to it later. . Glance at your watch every few minutes. First. make sure you skip on the answer sheet too. sure enough.

marking your test book accordingly: ■ The answer seems reasonable. Otherwise. Try to eliminate those choices that don’t seem as strong to you. Whether you make a guess or not depends upon the penalty. you will probably be able to eliminate all the others. another answer will probably strike you more obviously as the right answer. ■ The answer is awful. or you don’t understand it. and. don’t worry about it. and you are certain that you could never answer this question in a million years. Then. pick an answer and move on! If you have eliminated all but one answer. What you do next depends on the type of question you are answering. mark your answer sheet and move on. If it’s the right answer. mark the question as one to return to later. Make an educated guess and move on. if you think you can do better with more time. Then make a plan of attack to solve the problem. just reread the circled part of the question to make sure you are answering exactly what’s asked. You may even be able to use relevant information from other parts of the test. If you have narrowed it down to a single answer. Get rid of it. If the test has no penalty for wrong answers. Put an X next to the answer. if it’s the wrong answer. When you get to the heart of the question. Sometimes this helps to put the question in a new perspective and makes it easier to answer. ask the proctor before the test begins. If you can’t ﬁgure out what an answer choice means. reasoning your way through these choices. If You’re Penalized for Wrong Answers You must know whether you will be penalized for wrong answers before you begin the test. circle it and make sure you understand what it is asking. If it’s math. skip the question temporarily. but not all of the answer choices: Compare the remaining answers looking for similarities and differences. However. follow this simple process of elimination plan to manage your testing time as efﬁciently as possible: Read each answer choice and make a quick decision about what to do with it. you have improved your odds of getting the question right. take a quick look at the answer choices for some clues. keep it.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 2 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 19 Choosing the Right Answer by Process of Elimination As you read a question. If you haven’t eliminated any answers at all. Put a ✔ next to the answer. don’t waste time with any one answer choice. check it against the circled question to be sure you have answered it. Put a ? next to it. you may ﬁnd it helpful to underline important information or make some notes about what you are reading. Mark your answer sheet and move on to the next question. Whatever you do. ■ You can’t make up your mind about the answer. If you are down to only two or three answer choices. you will never know whether you have chosen the right answer. If you are not sure of what’s being asked. Here’s what to do when you have eliminated some. Some standardized tests are scored in such a way that every wrong answer reduces your score by a frac- . But DON’T eliminate an answer just because you don’t understand it. but don’t forget to mark the question so you can come back to it later if you have time. If you don’t. Keep it for now.

don’t waste time when you have ﬁnished a test section. if you can eliminate two of the choices as deﬁnitely wrong. USING THE PROCESS OF ELIMINATION Use the process of elimination to answer the following questions. If you have a good reason for thinking a response is wrong. Make every second count by checking your work over and over again until time is called. 4 b. Whatever you do. Fortunately. you are better off leaving the answer blank because the odds of guessing correctly are one in ﬁve. but if your test is one of them.” The answer explanations that follow show one possible way you might use the process to arrive at the right answer. Make sure that you have put the answers in the right places and that you have marked only one answer for each question. if you can eliminate enough choices to make the odds of answering the question better than the penalty for getting it wrong. The process of elimination is your tool for the next step. few tests are scored using such elaborate means. You have a one in three chance of answering the question correctly. This is called educated guessing. Check your work on all the other questions. 1 Let’s imagine you are taking a test in which each answer has ﬁve choices and you are penalized 4 of a point for each wrong answer. The difference between Ed’s age and Meghan’s age is twice the difference between Ilsa’s age and Meghan’s age. 19 d. However. If You Finish Early Use any time you have left to do the following: Go back to questions you marked to return to and try them again. Try using your powers of elimination on the questions in the following worksheet called “Using the Process of Elimination. the odds are now in your favor.20 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System tion of a point. know the penalties and calculate your odds before you take a guess on a question. If you cannot eliminate any of the answer choices. Ilsa is as old as Meghan will be in ﬁve years. Review your answer sheet.) If you have erased an answer. Check for stray marks on your answer sheet that could distort your score. and these can really add up against you! Whatever the penalty. change it. (Most tests are scored in such a way that questions with more than one answer are marked wrong. Ed is 29. which is knowing when to guess. How old is Ilsa? a. 24 . make sure you have done a good job of it. 1. 10 c. make a guess.

then Meghan must be 5.” According to this sentence. and go through the answers one by one. The difference between Ed’s age. Likewise. Which of the following words is spelled correctly? a. 4. Choice c looks attractive until you think a little about what you know—aren’t fewer people smoking these days. Smoking tobacco has been linked to a. You could eliminate choice c in the same way and be left with choice d. 2. Note the word not in the question. a taxi driver driving his personal car to the grocery store d. a limousine driver taking the limousine to her home after dropping off her last passenger of the evening 3. juvenile delinquency. The difference in their ages is 5. how could smoking be responsible for a higher mortality rate? (If you didn’t know that . an increased risk of stroke and heart attack. d. incorrigible b. a truck driver idling his engine while waiting to be directed to a loading dock b. domestickated d. 5. which of the following people need NOT carry a commercial driver’s license? a. increasing mortality rates over the past ten years. 29. rather than more? So. c. the question doesn’t say the operator has to be on the street. You should have eliminated choice a immediately. and Meghan’s age. However. the cabbie in choice c is not operating a commercial vehicle. outragous c. Is 24 two times 5? No. understandible Answers Here are the answers. is 24. The limo driver in choice d is operating a commercial vehicle. even if it doesn’t have a passenger in it.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 2 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 21 2. Then choice b is wrong. d. “All drivers of commercial vehicles must carry a valid commercial driver’s license whenever operating a commercial vehicle. idling counts as “operating. b. but his own private car. the bus operator in choice b is operating a commercial vehicle. Is the truck driver in choice a “operating a commercial vehicle”? Yes.You could eliminate choice b simply because of the presence of the word all. a. for choice b. 1. all forms of respiratory disease. The best way to eliminate other answer choices is to try plugging them in to the information given in the problem. c.” so he needs to have a commercial driver’s license. a bus operator backing her bus out of the way of another bus in the bus lot c. if Ilsa is 10. as well as some suggestions as to how you might have used the process of elimination to ﬁnd them. For instance. 3. Such absolutes hardly ever appear in correct answer choices. Ilsa can’t be four years old if Meghan is going to be Ilsa’s age in ﬁve years.

you are still safe in guessing every time. and your “guessing intutition. your personality. The best thing would be if you could overcome your anxieties and go ahead and mark an answer. To ﬁnd out if you are a good guesser. and understandable. STEP 6: KNOW WHEN TO GUESS Time to complete: 20 minutes Activity: Complete Worksheet on Your Guessing Ability Armed with the process of elimination. If you knew that the correct spellings were outrageous. the number of questions you answer correctly yields your raw score. “Should I guess?” depends on you. a.22 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System mortality rate means the rate at which people die. But you may want to have a sense of how good your intuition is before you go into the exam. but you would still be able to eliminate two answers and have only two to choose from. a. 4. too. Check with the administrators of your particular exam to see if this is the case. . In many instances. you might keep this choice as a possibility. Frankly. Yes. even if you are a playit-safe person with terrible intuition. complete the following worksheet called Your Guessing Ability. Surely. Some exams have what’s called a “guessing penalty. then you were home free. Now you are left with the correct choice. The more complicated answer to the question.” There are two things you need to know about yourself before you go into the exam: Are you a risk-taker? Are you a good guesser? You will have to decide about your risk-taking quotient on your own. So. you knew that at least one of those words was wrong. How you used the process of elimination here depends on which words you recognized as being spelled incorrectly. domesticated.” in which a fraction of your wrong answers is subtracted from your right answers. you have nothing to lose and everything to gain by guessing. so you could eliminate that one. you are ready to take control of one of the big questions in testtaking: Should I guess? The ﬁrst and main answer is.) Choice d can’t be proven.

Newton’s ﬁrst law. Circle the answer choice you believe to be correct. gravitational collapse. 2. Which of the following is NOT one of the Five Classics attributed to Confucius? a. Which of the following is the formula for determining the momentum of an object? a. E = mc2 3. d. the big bang. the Spring and Autumn Annals d. d. the Book of Holiness c. use that knowledge to help you eliminate wrong answer choices.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 2 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 23 YOUR GUESSING ABILITY The following are ten especially hard questions. this is an assessment of your ability to guess when you don’t have a clue. Read each question carefully. P = IV d. b. Hubble ﬂow. 4. c. You are not supposed to know the answers. p = mv b. This phenomenon is known as a. September 7 is Independence Day in a. 1. 1901. American author Gertrude Stein was born in a. just as if you did expect to answer it. 1874. Rather. b. b. 1713. Brazil. Australia. Costa Rica. F = ma c. the Book of History . d. If you have any knowledge at all of the subject of the question. the I Ching b. 5. c. c. the stars and other celestial bodies are all moving away from each other. India. Because of the expansion of the universe. 1830.

c. William Cushing. d. 10. c. c. Manichaeanism. b. 1. The winner of the Masters golf tournament in 1953 was a.S. Supreme Court was a.24 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System 6. a. the ﬂowers 9. 5. b. c. John Blair. the stem d. d. d. 4. 7. Sam Snead. Alaska. James Wilson. b. . John Jay. b. 6. a. Answers Check your answers against the correct answers below. 2. neo-Hegelianism. The state with the highest per capita personal income in 1980 was a. 10. 8. the bulb b. Epicureanism. New York. 7. c. b. Cary Middlecoff. d. d. Connecticut. b. Arnold Palmer. The third Chief Justice of the U. Pelagianism. 9. Texas. a. d. Which of the following is the poisonous portion of a daffodil? a. the leaves c. 8. b. 3. The religious and philosophical doctrine that holds that the universe is constantly in a struggle between good and evil is known as a. c. Ben Hogan.

you have to take control of your physical. as well as your mental state. the time during which you are preparing for an exam is actually an excellent time to start one. Circle the numbers of questions you guess. but you knew that John Jay was the ﬁrst. your mind on test day. You should continue to keep track of your guessing ability as you work through the sample questions in this book.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 2 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 25 How Did You Do? You may have simply gotten lucky and actually known the answer to one or two questions. In that case. If you are already keeping ﬁt—or trying to get that way—don’t let the pressure of preparing for an exam fool you into quitting now. go back afterward and try to remember which questions you guessed. so getting either two or three right would be average. when you can eliminate a wrong answer or at least have a good feeling about one of the answer choices. proper diet. maybe better— and you should always go ahead and guess on the real exam. you may be a really terriﬁc guesser. In addition. your chances of getting a right answer is one in four. weeks to complete! Activity: Complete the Physical Preparation Checklist To get ready for a challenge like a big exam. It also increases the oxygen supply throughout your body and your brain. According to probability. you are at least an average guesser. therefore improved your odds of guessing right from one in four to one in three. How many questions did you guess? How many did you get right? If the number you got right is at least onefourth of the number of questions you guessed. be safe in guessing anyway. Exercise If you don’t already have a regular exercise program going. that this is only a small sample. If you got one or none right. If the number you got right is signiﬁcantly lower than one-fourth of the number you guessed on. Exercise helps reduce stress by pumping wonderful good-feeling hormones called endorphins into your system. your guessing was more successful if you were able to use the process of elimination on any of the questions. though. If you got four or more right. you would. if you don’t have time during the practice tests. rather than against. so you will be at peak performance on test day. you should get 2 2 answers correct. frankly. If there’s no guessing penalty. So. Exercise. but maybe you would feel more comfortable if you guessed only selectively. you should not guess on exams where there is a guessing penalty unless you can eliminate a wrong answer. and rest will ensure that your body works with. Remember. or. . you may decide not to guess. on a test with four answer choices. 1 STEP 7: REACH YOUR PEAK PERFORMANCE ZONE Time to complete: 10 minutes to read. Maybe you didn’t know who the third Chief Justice was (question 7). you would have eliminated answer d and. Keep in mind. keep a separate “guessing” score for each exam. as well as during your preparation.

and eliminate alcohol and any other drugs from your system at least two weeks before the exam. Now. Gather Your Materials The night before the exam. though. for at least a week before the exam. Have a sweater or jacket you can take off if it’s warm. are especially good “brain foods. test preparation. time to complete will vary Activity: Complete Final Preparations worksheet Once you feel in control of your mind and body. and then go to bed half an hour earlier that night. and test-taking strategies.M. cut out the junk. Extra sleep will just make you groggy. it’s time to make charts and gather the materials you need to take to the exam. Jogging with a friend always makes the time go faster as does listening to music. Promise yourself a binge the night after the exam. You don’t want to exhaust yourself. Use the checklist on the worksheet entitled Final Preparations on page 29 to help you pull together what you will need. get up another half an hour earlier. every other day is OK. STEP 8: GET YOUR ACT TOGETHER Time to complete: 10 minutes to read. even if you don’t always get it. How long you will have to do this depends on how late you are used to getting up. lay out the clothes you will wear and the materials you have to bring with you to the exam. you are in charge of test anxiety. Moderation is the key. Make sure you do get that much sleep. Moderation is important here. What your body needs for peak performance is simply a balanced diet. Plan on dressing in layers because you won’t have any control over the temperature of the exam room. Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables. Go easy on caffeine and nicotine. If you are really pressed for time. Use the Physical Preparation Checklist that follows to make sure you are in tip-top form. too. Foods that are high in lecithin (an amino acid). if need be. you should reset your internal clock so that your body doesn’t think you’re taking an exam at 3 A. Choose an activity you like and get out there and do it. The next morning. such as ﬁsh and beans. But don’t overdo.” Rest You probably know how much sleep you need every night to be at your best. You have to start this process well before the exam. . along with protein and carbohydrates. If you are not a morning person and your exam will be given in the morning.26 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System A half hour of vigorous activity—enough to raise a sweat—every day should be your aim. The way it works is to get up half an hour earlier each morning. Don’t try it the other way around. and so on. Diet First of all. you will just toss and turn if you go to bed early without getting up early.

Exam minus 7 days Exercise: Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner: Snacks: Exam minus 6 days Exercise: Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner: Snacks: Exam minus 5 days Exercise: Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner: Snacks: Exam minus 4 days Exercise: Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner: Snacks: ______ for ______ minutes ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ______ for ______ minutes ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ______ for minutes ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ______ for ______ minutes ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ . do so on exam morning. Don’t eat doughnuts or other sweet foods. Remember. A mix of protein and carbohydrates is best: cereal with milk and just a little sugar or eggs with toast will do your body a world of good. Then write down what you ate for each meal. A cup of coffee doesn’t count. A sugar high will leave you with a sugar low in the middle of the exam. write down what physical exercise you engaged in and for how long. PHYSICAL PREPARATION CHECKLIST For the week before the test. either.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 2 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 27 Don’t Skip Breakfast Even if you don’t usually eat breakfast. you are trying for at least half an hour of exercise every other day (preferably every day) and a balanced diet that’s light on junk food.

Plan a celebration. or have a nice dinner for two—whatever your heart desires. look forward to your new career. you are better prepared than most of the other people taking the test with you. When you are done with the exam. You are ready to succeed. . You are in control of yourself. and emotional state. you will have earned a reward. So do it. You practiced your test-taking strategies while working through this book. plus test-taking time Activity: Ace Your Test! Fast forward to exam day. then. and your performance on exam day. You are psyched! Just one more thing. armed with test-taking strategies you have practiced until they’re second nature. Go into the exam. full of conﬁdence. And then do it. In other words. You know when and where to show up and what to bring with you.28 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System Exam minus 3 days Exercise: Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner: Snacks: Exam minus 2 days Exercise: Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner: Snacks: Exam minus 1 day Exercise: Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner: Snacks: ______ for ______ minutes ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ______ for ______ minutes ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ______ for ______ minutes ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ STEP 9: DO IT! Time to complete: 10 minutes. Give yourself something to look forward to. You are ready. You are in control of your physical. Go in there and ace the exam! And. Call your friends and plan a party. mental. your environment. You made a study plan and followed through.

make a trial run. Time it will take to get to the exam site: ______ Things to lay out the night before Clothes I will wear Sweater\jacket Watch Photo ID Admission card 4 No. 2 pencils ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ _________________________ _________________________ .The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 2 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 29 FINAL PREPARATIONS Getting to the Exam Site Location of exam: Date of exam: Time of exam: ______ ______ ______ Do I know how to get to the exam site? Yes ______ No ______ If no.

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A quotient is obtained by dividing. it is helpful to keep in mind the following deﬁnitions regarding the operations mentioned above: A sum is obtained by adding. Powers. Powers. Arithmetic. A difference is obtained by subtracting. A product is obtained by multiplying. and Roots Arithmetic is the term used to encompass the following four familiar operations: When solving arithmetic problems.= 3 CHAPTER ARITHMETIC Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Arithmetic. and Roots CHAPTER 3 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 31 .

When dealing with basic arithmetic and combined operations. subtract. It can be represented as a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c or a × (b × c) = (a × b) × c. respectively. multiply. the associative law. For example. When dealing with a combination of operations. product. 3(5 + 7) = 3 × 5 + 3 × 7. Sometimes these three laws are referred to as properties (such as the Commutative Property). Multiplication/Division: Third. For example. For example. $607 b. An easy way to remember the order of operations is to use the mnemonic PEMDAS. The correct answer is d. perform any additions or subtractions in order from left to right. $107 The term difference means that you will subtract: $357 − $250 = $107. and the distributive law. Sample Question: Two stores are selling the same air conditioner at $357 and $250. For example. $170 c. just add: 107 + 250 = 357. or divide. What is the difference in price? a.32 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 3 Arithmetic. You may be asked to ﬁnd the sum. a question that asks you to ﬁnd the product of two sums would be considered a combined operations question. To check your work. you must perform the operations in a particular order. The distributive law applies to multiplication over addition and can be represented as a(b + c) = ab + ac. where each letter stands for an operation: Parentheses: Always calculate the values inside the parentheses ﬁrst. It is also especially important to understand the order of operations. or quotient. Exponents: Exponents (or powers) are calculated second. $150 d. This simply means that two or more of the basic operations are combined into an equation or expression. The associative law applies to the grouping of addition or multiplication equations and expressions. The commutative law applies to addition and multiplication and can be represented as a + b = b + a or a × b = b × a. perform any multiplications or divisions in order from left to right. 10 + (12 + 14) = (10 + 12) + 14. More advanced arithmetic questions deal with combined operations. difference. Addition/Subtraction: Last. and Roots Basic arithmetic problems require you to add. it is helpful to understand three basic number laws: The commutative law. . 2 + 3 = 3 + 2 and 4 × 2 = 2 × 4 exhibit the commutative law. Powers.

In order to ﬁnd the square root of a number. simply add the exponents: a x × a y = a x+y When dividing. this is sometimes called raising the number to a power. it is called squaring the number.Arithmetic. simply subtract the exponents: a x ÷ a y = a x−y When raising a power to a power. you will take the square root of a number. Other times. which looks like this: . Basepower or Baseexponent When you have the same base. 610 d. For example. you should multiply 2 × 5. and so forth. Two common powers have special names. so (axb y)z = axzb yz. 9 = 3. When raising a number to the 2nd power. For example. Powers. 4 = 2. try to ﬁgure out what number when squared will equal the number under the radical sign. you must raise all of the bases to the power outside the parentheses. 16 = 4. For example. the correct answer is c. you know that 22 = 4. so (62)5 = 62 × 5 = 610. 67 b. such as ax ÷ ay. and Roots CHAPTER 3 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 33 POWERS When you raise a number (the base) to an exponent. This is 6 to the tenth power. such as ax × ay. 612 When raising a power to a power. Here. since 4 = 2 and 9 = 3. When raising a number to the 3rd power. you can approximate the value of a radical by pinpointing it between two perfect squares. Sample Question: (62)5 = a. 68 c. You can check your work by writing out the solution: (62)5 = (6 × 6)5 = (6 × 6) (6 × 6) (6 × 6) (6 × 6) (6 × 6). 610. 25 = 5. ROOTS Typically. so 4 = 2. it is called cubing the number. it is easy to combine the exponents according to the following rules: When multiplying. This is denoted by a radical sign. . Thus. you can just multiply the exponents. simply multiply the exponents: (a x) y = ax− y Note that if more than one base is included in the parentheses. Square roots are easy to calculate for perfect squares. such as (a x) y. 7 must be a number between 2 and 3.

49 2 d. you can combine them effectively through addition and subtraction. These rules can be summarized as: ab = a× b 12 for example. so we can pull a 7 out from under the radical as follows: 49 × 2 = 49 × 2=7 2 Thus. choice d is the correct answer. Sample Question: 98 is equivalent to which of the following? a. Here. 12 = 4× 3=2 3 This rule is helpful when simplifying a b = a÷ b 1. Express 98 as 2 factors. this rule is helpful when ﬁnding the equivalent of First. 8. a. 17. 7 2 First. 8.34 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 3 Arithmetic. trying to make one of the factors a perfect square: 98 = 49 × 2. For example. and Roots In other cases. Sometimes it takes a while to get used to ﬁguring out how to rearrange the numbers under the radical. Just remember that if you can ﬁnd a perfect square.805 and 987. Find the sum of 7. we have 1 ÷ 25 = 1 ÷ 5. Powers. it is helpful to ﬁnd equivalents of the radical at hand by applying the rules governing the manipulation of radicals. take the radical of the top and bottom: 215 = 1 ÷ 25. Since 1 = 1 and 25 = 5. 9 × 8 b.987 d. Once you are able to convert the radicals at hand into equivalents that have the same number under the radical. 8. 25 For example. 49 is a perfect square.972 c. 2 2 + 3 2 = 5 2 and 5 3 − 4 3 = 1 3.675 b. look under the radical at 98. PRACTICE QUESTIONS 1. you will be able to pull something out from under the radical.792 . 7 3 c.

440 and 40. Powers.375. What is the positive difference between 10.156 b. 536 c.822 d.656 b. and Roots CHAPTER 3 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 35 2. $984 3. Find the quotient of 12.752 and 675? a.400 d.077 5. Peter had $10.077 c. 6.Arithmetic. $1. $1. What is the product of 450 and 122? a. $13. $6. 347. 328 7. 54.006 4. $13.680 d.808 = a. How much is in the account now? a. 572 d. If he originally had $1. 500 .790 c. 497. $1.094 d. 333. 10. 3. Lawrence gave $281 to Joel.988 + 6. 287.480 c. 241. a. -10. 6.396 b.427 b.900 b.467 c. 12. 311 8. What is the product of 523 and 13 when rounded to the nearest hundred? a. 12.320 6. 46.900 and $317. $7.588 c.600 b.573 in his savings account.356 d.800 d.799 b. how much money does he have left? a.500 − 52. 11.294 c. He then deposited $2. 6.

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9. When the sum of 1,352 and 731 is subtracted from 5,000, the result is a. 7,083 b. 2,917 c. 2,083 d. 4,379 10. What is the quotient of 90 divided by 18? a. 5 b. 6 c. 72 d. 1,620 11. What is the product of 52 and 22? a. 30 b. 74 c. 104 d. 1,144 12. What is the sum of the product of 3 and 2 and the product of 4 and 5? a. 14 b. 26 c. 45 d. 90 13. Find the difference of 582 and 73. a. 42,486 b. 655 c. 509 d. 408 14. How much greater is the sum of 523 and 65 than the product of 25 and 18? a. 138 b. 545 c. 588 d. 33,545 15. Solve 589 + 7,995 ÷ 15. a. 572 with a remainder of 4 b. 1,122 c. 8,569 d. 8,599

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37

16. 540 ÷ 6 + 3 × 24 = a. 2,232 b. 1,440 c. 1,260 d. 162 17. 78 × (32 + 12) = a. 2,508 b. 3,432 c. 6,852 d. 29,953 18. Which of the following demonstrates the commutative property? a. 2 + 3 = 4 + 1 b. 2 + (3 + 4) = (2 + 3) + 4 c. 2 × 3 = 3 × 2 d. 2 × (3 × 4) = (2 × 3) × 4 19. Which of the following demonstrates the associative property? a. 4 + 5 = 5 + 4 b. 2 × (3 + 4) = (2 × 3) + 4 c. 4 × 5 = 5 × 4 d. 2 × (3 × 4) = (2 × 3) × 4 20. Which of the following demonstrates the distributive property? a. (4 × 5) + 1 = 4 × (5 + 1) b. 4 × (5 + 1) = 4 × 5 + 4 × 1 c. 4 × 5 × 1 = 1 × 5 × 4 d. (4 + 5) + 1 = 4 + (5 + 1) 21. 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 is equivalent to a. 4 × 42 b. 42 × 43 c. (42)2 d. 43 + 42 22. What is the square root of 81? a. 8 b. 9 c. 10 d. 11

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23. 113 = a. 121 b. 1,331 c. 14,641 d. 15,551 24. (83)5 is equal to a. 815 b. 88 c. 84 d. 82 25. 72 is equivalent to a. 12 b. 6 3 c. 6 2 d. 36 2

26. 73 is equal to a. 343 b. 49 c. 38 d. 21 27. 2 a. b. c. d. 28. 128 is equivalent to 8 2 16 2 32 2 64 2

50 + 162 = a. 106 2 b. 14 2 c. 9 2 d. 5 2

29. 75 − 3 (9−7)4 = a. 33 b. 1444 c. 694 d. 54

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39

30. a. b. c. d.

1,225 = 30 35 40 45

31. 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 is equivalent to a. (33)3 b. 32 × 32 × 32 c. 32 × 33 d. (34)2 32. 2 a. b. c. d. 33.

1 81

3+2 2+5 3= 4 3+2 2 4 2+5 3 8 2+2 3 7 3+2 2 = 1÷9 1 ÷ 81 1÷ 3 1÷ 9

a. b. c. d.

34. (−3)3 + (3)3 is equivalent to a. 54 b. 27 c. 0 d. −27 35. 70 is between which of the following two numbers? a. 5 and 6 b. 6 and 7 c. 7 and 8 d. 8 and 9

36. 183 is how much greater than 162? a. 6,088 b. 5,576 c. 265 d. 68

3 and 4 42. − 122 c. and Roots 37.764 c. −27 41. 24 × 27 is equivalent to a. 12 d. 62 d. 144 40. 25 d. −121 c. −9 c. (−3)3 = a. 6 and 7 b. 65 . 12 2 b. 211 c. 32 + 33 = a. 2. 9 b. 5 and 6 c. 23 43. 4 and 5 d.340 38.188 b. 18 b. The square root of 48 is between which two numbers? a. 422 is how much greater than 242? a. (−3)2(4)2 is equivalent to a. 121 d. 27 d. 228 b. 576 d. −144 b. (−12)2 = a. 1. 27 c. 1. Powers. −12 39.40 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 3 Arithmetic.

64 b. 49 d. and Roots CHAPTER 3 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 41 44. A rod that is 8 × 106 mm is how much longer than a rod that is 4 × 104 mm? a. four times as large c. 32 d. b. 200. 720 b. 711 ÷ 79 = a. 33 × 56 d. 12 × 103 50. a. 23.300 b. What is the product of 2 × 106 and 6 × 107? a. 12 × 105 d. 48 c.Arithmetic.300 d. 37 × 512 b.000 c. d. 10 × 1010 5 × 102 = 10 × 108 5 × 10-8 2 × 108 5 × 108 48. 16 47. 12 × 1042 b. 35 × 32 × 53 × 59 = a. 230 49. 36 × 53 46. c. Powers. 12 × 1013 c. Solve: a. 2. 1 ÷ 49 45. twenty times as large d. two hundred times as large . Find the sum of 3 × 102 and 2 × 105. twice as large b. 7−20 c. (69 × 25 ) ÷ (68 × 22) is equivalent to a. 312 × 57 c.

3 × 24 = 72. 11.512. In other words.512 + 6. The equation becomes 78 × 44. multiplication. considering PEMDAS you know you should calculate the multiplication ﬁrst. d. Thus. subtraction.375 − 281 = 1. To ﬁnd a difference. 8. multiplication. Next.432. c. ﬁnd the difference: 588 − 450 = 138 b. 15. 14. exponents. Next add 589 + 533 = 1. d.094.352 + 731 = 2. 13. To ﬁnd the product.792.752 − 675 = 10. 16. 9.122. multiplication. a. Here. 12. b. so 7. 7. c. and Roots ANSWERS 1.790.083 = 2. ﬁnd the 2 products: 3 × 2 = 6 and 4 × 5 = 20.352 and 731 is obtained by adding: 1. 90 divided by 18 = 5. exponents. b. Choice c shows this relationship: 2 × 3 = 3 × 2. To ﬁnd a difference. Recall PEMDAS: parentheses. b. Next. The sum of 1. Rounding to the nearest hundred yields 6. Add all three values together: 10. Powers.000 − 2.000: 5. Product means multiply. Note that this question is not looking for a true equation. 4. subtraction. d.799. addition. To ﬁnd the difference. b. addition. 18. add these 2 products together: 6 + 20 = 26. Consider PEMDAS: parentheses. addition. . 287. c.988 = 234. The equation becomes 90 + 3 × 24. Next. The term positive difference means you are solving for a positive answer. exponents. Here. you subtract: 582 − 73 = 509. 3. just subtract. The rules for the order of operations state that division should be done before addition.800. Sum means addition. just subtract: 1. 17. The product is obtained by multiplying: 52 × 22= 1. division.083.094.077. you must solve the division ﬁrst: 540 ÷ 6 = 90. you must solve the part inside the parentheses ﬁrst: 32 + 12 = 44. 5. He now has $1. 6. the quotient is 5. add: 234. 10.900. subtraction.808 = 241. division. calculate the two equations: The sum of 523 and 65: 523 + 65 = 588 The product of 25 and 18: 25 × 18 = 450 Next. the order in which you multiply two numbers does not matter. a. b.573 + 2. The commutative property applies for addition and multiplication and can be represented as a + b = b + a or a × b = b × a. It is asking which equation represents the commutative property.805 + 987 = 8. A quotient results from division. 12. First. c. This means you should subtract the smaller number from the larger number: 10. The correct answer is d.900 + 317 = $13.995 ÷ 15 = 533.440 ÷ 40 = 311.320. just multiply: 523 × 13 = 6. 450 × 122 = 54.42 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 3 Arithmetic. we subtract this value from 5.917. Multiplying.144. First. 2. division. d. you get: 3. Again. d. 7.500 − 52. Consider PEMDAS: parentheses. so the equation reduces to 90 + 72 = 162. a.

3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 is equivalent to 36. and choice d equals 38.225 = 35 and choice b is correct. 23. 33. In this case. It can be represented as a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c or a × (b × c) = (a × b) × c. Thus. Finally. would yield 30 × 30 = 900. 35. 29. Choice b is equivalent to 36 because 32 × 32 × 32 equals 32+2+2. subtract: 75 − 48 = 27. (42)2 = 42×2. 2 128 is equal to 2 64 × 2. 72 = 36 × 2. 21. Choice a. Thus. ﬁgure out which choice equals 27. The associative property applies to grouping of addition or multiplication problems. Here (83)5 = 83×5 = 815. so the entire expression equals 7 3 + 2 2. 1 81 = 1÷ 81 = 1 ÷ 9. 28. 50 = 2 × 25 = 2 × 25 = 2 × 5 = 5 2. Only choice d correctly shows this property: 2 × (3 × 4) = (2 × 3) × 4. calculate the value inside the parentheses: 75 − 3 ( 9−7 )4 = 75 − 3 (2)4. Here. Third. . the square root of 70 (which is between 64 and 81) must be between 8 and 9. Second. and choice d equals 64 + 16. b. Notice that multiplying the sum of the two terms by 4 is equivalent to multiplying each term by 4 and then adding these values. c. First. c. 24. exponents. b. Choice c also equals 44 because when you raise a power to another power you simply multiply the exponents. d. Because 36 = 62. 82 is 64 and 92 is 81. just ask yourself. 30. subtraction. choice c equals 35.331. d. add the 2 radicals: 5 2 + 9 2 = 14 2. Thus. When raising a power of a base to another power. a.Arithmetic. or 2 × 64 × 2. The square root of 81 simply means 81. Note that you CANNOT combine addition and multiplication as in choice b. 31. choice a. You can combine the two terms with the 3. 22. Thus 1. To solve. Thus. 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 is the same as 44. 20. you just multiply the exponents. 33 = 27. First. you have. 162 = 81 × 2 = 81 × 2 = 9 2. d. Finally. “What number squared equals 81?” 92 = 81. b. Because 27 is not listed as an answer choice. Each radical can be rewritten. calculate the multiplication: 75 − 3(16) = 75 − 48. a. 6 2. calculate the exponent 75 − 3 (2)4 = 75 − 3 (16). Powers. 32. Remember to add the powers when multiplying numbers with the same base.225. 27. a. or 80. and is thus too small. 73 = 7 × 7 × 7 which equals 49 × 7 = 343. addition. 113 = 11 × 11 × 11 = 121 × 11 = 1. b. 2 3 + 5 3 = 7 3. choice a. 34. b. b. a. b. Choice b. 2 × (3 + 4) ≠ (2 × 3) + 4. Cubing a negative number (or taking any odd power of a negative number for that matter) results in a negative value. Choice a equals 39. The distributive property applies to multiplication over addition such as in choice b: 4 × (5 + 1) = 4 × 5 + 4 × 1. Here. it is easiest to see which answer choice when squared equals 1. Since 64 = 8. −33 = −3 × −3 × −3 = −27. multiplication. Next. 30. so 81 = 9. and Roots CHAPTER 3 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 43 19. the sum (−3)3 + (3)3 = −27 + 27 = 0. division. 35 yields 35 × 35 = 1. we have 2 × 8 × 2 = 16 2. 33 = 3 × 3 × 3 = 27. choice b equals 45. 25. you can pull a 6 out from under the radical. Choice a equals 43. Consider PEMDAS: parentheses. c. 26.225.

This can be rewritten as 9 × 16 and simpliﬁed to 3 × 4. 62 = 6 × 6 = 36. (−3)2 = 9 and 42 = 16. when dividing. Adding these 2 values yields 200.000.000 = 40. the result is a negative number. (−12)2 = 144. Since the base (2) is the same. Calculate both of the given quantities: 422 = 1. 32 = 9 and 33 = 27. c. 8 × 106 mm = 8 × 1. Because 36 is not listed as an answer choice.000. you can simply add the exponents. so (−3)2(4)2 = 9 × 16. d. First. and Roots 36. 2 × 6 × 106 × 107 = 2 × 6 × 106+7 = 2 × 6 × 1013. Since the base (7) is the same. (69 × 25) ÷ (68 × 22) is equivalent to 69−8 × 25−2 = 61 × 23 = 6 × 8 = 48. So. When you raise a negative number to any odd power. So.000 mm. which equals 12.764 − 576 = 1. When you square a negative number (or raise a negative number to any even power) the result is a positive number. radical 48 (which is between 36 and 49) will equal a number that is between 6 and 7. we ﬁnd the difference (by subtracting): 5. 9 + 27 = 36.000? 8.832 − 256 = 5. The product of 2 × 106 and 6 × 107 would be 2 × 106 × 6 × 107 = 2 × 6 × 106 × 107.000 than 40.000 = 8. 45.832 and 162 = 256. Thus. 37. you can simply add the exponents of the 2 powers of 10. How many times larger is 8. a.000. Thus. b. Next. a. 46. 41. calculate which choice equals 36.000. 47. 711 ÷ 79 = 711−9 = 72 = 49. you can simply subtract the exponents of the 2 powers of 10. 10 × 1010 5 × 102 = 10 5 × 1010 102 = 2 × 1010−2 = 2 × 108 Remember. in order to ﬁnd out how much greater the ﬁrst quantity is. you can simply subtract the exponents. c. Thus. So. (−3)3= −3 × −3 × −3 = −27.300. a. b. 50. You can apply the rules of exponents to the terms that have the same bases. c.000.576.000 = 200. 35 × 32 × 53 × 59 = 35+2 × 53+9 = 37 × 512.000 = 200. calculate both quantities: 183 = 18 × 18 × 18 = 5. 49.000 + 300 = 200. 38. Here. 40. according to the rules of exponents. Powers. Next. b. Multiplying the ﬁrst 2 terms yields 12 × 1013. Thus. 42. 24 × 27 = 24+7 = 211. choice c. the ﬁrst rod is 200 times larger than the second. 62 = 36 and 72 = 49. 44.000 × 40. Applying the rules of exponents. 48. 39. and is thus correct.764 and 242 = 576. c. You can apply the rules of exponents to the terms that have the same bases.188. To solve (−3)2(4)2 we will ﬁrst simplify the value under the radical. 43. b.000. . d. a. 3 × 102 = 3 × 100 = 300 and 2 × 105 = 2 × 100. 4 × 104 mm = 4 × 10. d. subtract to obtain the difference: 1.44 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 3 Arithmetic.

or they may be word problems. THREE KINDS OF FRACTIONS Proper fraction: The top number is less than the bottom number: The value of a proper fraction is less than 1. Typically. 3 . WORKING WITH FRACTIONS A fraction is a part of a whole. divide. or compare fractions. subtract. 9 . multiply. Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 45 . they ask you to add. Fractions are written as part/whole. 3 . or more technically as numerator/ denominator. 12 The value of an improper fraction is 1 or more.= 4 CHAPTER 1 2 4 8 2 . 9 . 13 Fractions Problems involving fractions may be straightforward calculation questions. Improper fraction: The top number is greater than or equal to the bottom number: 3 5 14 12 2 .

with smaller numbers. Put the total (11) over the bottom number (4): 4. Write the remainder of the division (1) over the old bottom number (2): 3. 50¢ 50 1 is 100 of a dollar. or 2 of a dollar. 12 4 . 7 3 . follow these steps: 1. say 2 4 . say 2 . that is. 1 2 2 3 3 CHANGING IMPROPER FRACTIONS INTO MIXED OR WHOLE NUMBERS It’s easier to add and subtract fractions that are mixed numbers rather than improper fractions. 2×4=8 8 + 3 = 11 11 4 REDUCING FRACTIONS Reducing a fraction means writing it in lowest terms. 24 4 The value of a mixed number is more than 1: it is the sum of the whole number plus the fraction. if you have 50¢ in your pocket. . In fact. Check: Change the mixed number back into an improper fraction (see steps below). To change a mixed number. Reducing a fraction does not change its value. Multiply the whole number (2) by the bottom number (4): 2. Add the result (8) to the top number (3): 3. To change 13 an improper fraction. into a mixed number. If you get back the number you started with. For instance. you say that you have half a dollar. into an improper fraction. follow these steps: 1. 6 2 13 −12 1 62 1 CHANGING MIXED NUMBERS INTO IMPROPER FRACTIONS It’s easier to multiply and divide fractions when you are working with improper fractions rather than 3 mixed numbers.46 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Fractions Mixed number: A fraction written to the right of a whole number: 3 2 . Check: Reverse the process by changing the improper fraction into a mixed number. Divide the bottom number (2) into the top number (13) to get the whole number portion (6) of the mixed number: 2. 4 3 . your answer is right.

Sample Question: The fraction a. For example.Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 47 Follow these steps to reduce a fraction: 1. then 6 ÷ 2 = 3 . choice b is correct. Do the same thing to the bottom number. 8÷8 1 Or we could do it in a single step: 24 ÷ 8 = 3 . Check: Reduce the new fraction to see if you get the original number back: 24 ÷ 3 = 8 2 × 8 = 16 16 24 16 ÷ 8 24 ÷ 8 2 3 = . 2. Multiply the answer (8) by the old top number (2): 3. Whenever you do arithmetic with fractions.000 reduces to 40 when you cross out two zeros in both numbers. c. For example. Find a whole number that divides evenly into both numbers that make up the fraction. Divide the old bottom number (3) into the new one (24): 2. 3. Repeat the ﬁrst three steps until you can’t ﬁnd a number that divides evenly into both numbers of the fraction. you have to know how to raise a fraction to higher terms. reduce your answer. b. We could do it in 2 steps: 24 ÷ 4 = 6 . Put the answer (16) over the new bottom number (24): 4. This is actually the opposite of reducing a fraction. 2 RAISING FRACTIONS TO HIGHER TERMS Before you can add and subtract fractions. cross out the same number of 300 3 zeros in both numbers to begin the reducing process. don’t panic if your answer isn’t listed. d. 4. Try to reduce it and then compare it to the choices. 4 100 2 5 3 4 1 4 80 200 80 200 8 8÷4 2 2÷2 1 is equivalent to which of the following? You can reduce this fraction in steps: ÷ 20 20 = 4 10 ÷ 2 2 = 5 . 4. Divide that number into the top of the fraction. 2 Follow these steps to raise 3 to 24ths: 1. Shortcut: When the top and bottom numbers both end in zeros. let’s reduce 24 . On a multiple-choice test. Thus. and replace the top of the fraction with the quotient (the answer you got when you divided).

Change the improper fraction into a mixed number: 5 = 1 5 3.48 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Fractions ADDING FRACTIONS If the fractions have the same bottom numbers. When all else fails. just add the top numbers together and write the total over the bottom number. Check out the multiplication table of the largest bottom number until you ﬁnd a number that all the other bottom numbers evenly divide into. Add the results of steps 2 and 3: 1 5 + 3 = 4 5 FINDING A COMMON DENOMINATOR If the fractions you want to add don’t have the same bottom number. Example: 3 + 5 1. you will have to raise some or all of the fractions to higher terms so that they all have the same bottom number. Add the whole numbers: 2 + 1 = 3 2 2 4. the common denominator. Raise each fraction to 15ths: 3. Example: +9= 9 =9 Reduce the sum: 5 8 7 12 2 9 4 2+4 6 2 3 Example: +8= 8 4 1 Change the sum to a mixed number: 1 8 . Add as usual: 22 15 2 3 4 5 2 4 = = 10 15 12 15 . then reduce: 1 2 3 4 There are a few extra steps to add mixed numbers with the same bottom numbers. Add the fractions: 5 + 5 = 5 7 2 2. Multiply the bottom numbers: 3 × 5 = 15 2. Find the common denominator. See if all the bottom numbers divide evenly into the biggest bottom number. multiply all the bottom numbers together. say 2 5 + 1 5 : 3 4 7 1.

c. The LCD will contain the prime factorization of both denominators: 4 = 2 × 2 the LCD must have two 2s 6 = 2 × 3 the LCD must have a 2 and a 3 The LCD will be 2 × 2 × 3. b. as described above. Prime numbers are numbers that have only two factors. d. Sample Question: a. 12 = 3 × 4 = 3 × 2 × 2 Thus. This can be done by checking out the multiplication table of the largest bottom number until you ﬁnd a number that all the other bottom numbers evenly divide into. to be sure that you have the least common denominator. Find the least common multiple. the prime factorization of 12 is 3 × 2 × 2. 3 is prime because it’s only factors are 1 and 3. However. Numbers that are not prime can be expressed in terms of prime factors. Note that this LCD contains the prime factorization of 4 and 6. we can use the prime factorization method as follows: 1. For example. you can use one of two methods: 1. Find the prime factorization of both denominators: 4=2×2 6=2×3 2. Sometimes you can ﬁgure this out mentally. you will need to ﬁnd the smallest number that is a multiple of the original denominators present. the number 1 and itself. The least common denominator will encompass every denominator’s prime factorization. Determine the prime factorization of each of the denominators. 3 5 In order to ﬁnd the LCD of 4 and 6 . 5 6 5 11 7 15 29 30 4 5 + 1 6 = . For example.Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 49 FINDING THE LEAST COMMON DENOMINATOR If you are asked to ﬁnd the least common denominator (the LCD). or you will stumble onto the LCD by following the steps above. let’s compute the prime factorization of 12. 2.

Next. you will have to raise some or all of the fractions to higher terms so that they all have the same bottom number. just subtract the top numbers and write the difference over the bottom number. Example: 4 9 − 3 9 = 4−3 9 = 1 9 If the fractions you want to subtract don’t have the same bottom number. we add: 30 + 30 = 30 . we multiply by 5 : 6 × 5 = 30 . Subtract the whole number parts of the two mixed numbers: 6 − 2 = 4 4 4 6. Add the numbers from step 1: 6 5 + 5 = 6 5 8 4 3. Thus. Example: 4 5 − 1 5 3 2 1 1. Example: 6 − 4 1. you have a different version of the original problem: 6 5 − 2 5 8 4 4 4. Add the results of steps 1 and 2: 5 + 3 = 3 5 Sometimes there is an extra borrowing step when you subtract mixed numbers with the same bot3 4 tom numbers. To 5 5 1 5 1 5 24 29 convert 6 into 30ths. the smallest number 9 3 both divide into evenly: 4 = 12 1 2. say 7 5 − 2 5 : 1. the correct answer is d. making it 6. Subtract the fractions: 5 − 5 = 5 2. So you borrow 1 5 3 5 3 from the 7. If you forgot how to ﬁnd the LCD. Subtract as usual: 12 5 3 5 6 = 10 12 that 6 and 4 Subtracting mixed numbers with the same bottom number is similar to adding mixed numbers. we multiply by 6 : 5 × 6 = 30 . Add the results of the last two steps together: 4 + 5 = 4 5 4 3 3 2 . 5 × 4 6 4 6 24 6 = 30. SUBTRACTING FRACTIONS If the fractions have the same bottom numbers.50 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Fractions The quickest way to ﬁnd a common denominator is to multiply the two given denominators. so the new denominator will be 30. You can’t subtract the fractions the way they are because 5 is bigger than 5 . and change that 1 to 5 because 5 is the bottom number: 7 5 = 6 5 + 5 5 3 8 2. Subtract the fractional parts of the two mixed numbers: 5 − 5 = 5 5. just read the section on adding fractions with different bottom numbers. or LCD. To convert 5 into 30ths. Now. Subtract the whole numbers: 4 − 1 = 3 1 1 3. Raise each fraction to 12ths because 12 is the LCD.

it’s easier to change them to improper fractions before multiplying. 2 3 × 5 7 = 2×5 3×7 = 10 21 Sometimes you can cancel before multiplying. Cancelling is a shortcut that makes the multiplication go faster because you are multiplying with smaller numbers. Example: 6 × 20 1. . Cross out the 6 and the 9: 5 6 2 5 9 × 9 20 3 2. It’s very similar to reducing: if there is a number that divides evenly into a top number and bottom number. Cancel and multiply the fractions: 4. you just ﬁnd the product of the two numbers. you will still get the right answer. All you do is multiply the top numbers and then multiply the bottom numbers. Example: 4 3 × 5 2 1. For example. If you forget to cancel. ﬁrst rewrite the whole number as a fraction with a bottom number of 1: Example: 5 × 2 3 = 5 1 × 2 3 = 10 3 (Optional: convert 10 3 to a mixed number: 3 3 ) 1 To multiply with mixed numbers. Convert 4 3 to an improper fraction: 4 3 = 1 1 2 2 4×3+1 3 5×2+1 2 2 1 = 2. Cancel the 5 and the 20 by dividing 5 into both of them: 5 ÷ 5 = 1 and 20 ÷ 5 = 4. Cancel the 6 and the 9 by dividing 3 into both of them: 6 ÷ 3 = 2 and 9 ÷ 3 = 3.Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 51 MULTIPLYING FRACTIONS Multiplying fractions is actually easier than adding them. do that division before multiplying. but you will have to reduce it. Convert 5 2 to an improper fraction: 5 2 = = 3. Optional: convert the improper fraction to a mixed number: 14 3 11 2 77 3 = 25 3 2 Tip: When you ﬁnd a fraction of a number. Cross out the 5 and the 20: 5 2 1 × 3 20 4 3. Multiply across the new top numbers and the new bottom numbers: 1×3 2×4 = 3 8 To multiply a fraction by a whole number.

8 15 c. Flip 11 4 2 = 11 4 11 4 by 6 : 6 1 11 4 ÷ 1 6 = 11 4 × 6 1 1 6 to 1 . 4 5 = = 5 . Change the division sign (÷) to a multiplication sign: (×) 1 3. change ÷ to ×. Note that you can cancel: 5 3 21 5 7 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 × 7 3 1 = 49 5 = 95 4 Thus. ﬂip the top and bottom numbers) and then multiply. 9 5 b. Multiply the ﬁrst fraction by the new second fraction: 2 × 5 3 = 1×5 2×3 = 5 6 To divide a fraction by a whole number. DIVIDING FRACTIONS To divide one fraction by a second fraction. First. Next. Invert the second fraction ( 5 ): 3 2. Divide 3. multiply: 5 × 3 . cancel and multiply: 6 3 × 1= 33 2 . choice a is correct. Convert 2 4 to an improper fraction: 2 4 = 2. convert it to an improper fraction and then divide as usual. Example: 2 4 ÷ 3 1 6 3 3 2×4+3 4 1. ﬁrst change the whole number to a fraction by putting it over 1. Then follow the division steps above. Example: 3 5 ÷2= 3 5 ÷ 2 1 = 3 5 × 1 2 = 3×1 5×2 = 3 10 When the division problem has a mixed number. invert the second fraction (that is. you just ﬁnd the product (multiply).52 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Fractions Sample Problem: What is 4 5 of 2 3 ? a. 8 5 d. That’s all there is to it! Example: 1 2 ÷ 3 5 3 5 1. convert both fractions into improper 1 4×5+1 21 1 2×3+1 7 21 7 fractions. 8 3 To ﬁnd 4 5 of 2 3 . 23 = = 3 .

3 5 is equal to which of the following improper fractions? a. 5 6 = 15 31 15 2 . = PRACTICE QUESTIONS 1. Thus. . 9 . 24 b. c. c. So far you have: 6 ÷ 2 . d. What is the sum of a. choice d is correct. c. you should convert the mixed numbers into improper fractions. 5 6 12 5 17 5 19 5 23 5 1 6 4 5 2 3 1 4 1 8 − = a.656 2. d. Next. rewrite this as a multiplication problem: 62 2 31 this fraction: 90 ÷ 2 = 45 . 4 4 9 7 9 1 3 2 3 2 9 1 4 5 12 . reduce 1 1 1 First. and 1 24 ? and 9 ? 5 3. What is the LCD of a. c.Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 53 Sample Problem: 5 6 ÷ 7 2 = a. 46. 465 12 1 3 1 15 31 45 5×6+1 1 7×2+1 and 7 2 = 2 6 2 31 62 6 × 15 = 90 . 4. d. b. 18 . 216 d. Finally. b. 48 c. d. b. b.

8 b. 9 3 . 8 3 c. What is the sum of 15 4 . 14 c. a. 7 5 . 9 3 b. 55 60 d. Reduce the following fraction to its simplest form: a. and 23 2 ? a. 1 8 1 6 3 18 3 16 154 11 9 54 2 4 4 28 2 2 9. 1 3 8. 32 1 7 to a whole number. 3 14 c. 10. c. 1 45 b. Find the sum of 1 5 and 9 . 9 3 d. b. 11 36 42 36 7 1 36 1 16 4 9 and 4 .54 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Fractions 5. b. d. 6. Change a. 18 d. 1 14 d. 8 3 1 1 2 2 29 3 into a mixed number. 55 30 c. 56 2 1 37 1 2 1 1 . Convert a. 54 15 b. d. c. Find the sum of a. 3 7.

3 4 4 1 15. The mixed number 8 3 is equivalent to which improper fraction below? a. Subtract 13 5 from 22 4 . Express a. 9 4 b. b. 3 21 8 7 8 25 8 5 16 as a whole number. d. b. c. 16 24 95 37 23 90 11 80 1 1 16. 5 c. −1 3 d. 9 5 c. c. 8 b.Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 55 11. 1 1 c. a. a. 9 15 d. 6 3 10 3 16 3 26 3 20 4 2 12. b. Which of the following choices is an improper fraction? a. 13. d. c. d. 3 b. 4 d. The reciprocal of 1 3 is a. Convert 2 8 to an improper fraction. 5 14. 9 20 1 1 2 1 .

192 b. c. c. What is the LCD of a. 5 5 c. 16 3 2 2 3 7 3 18 . b. Express this improper fraction as a mixed number: a. 5 5 21. 48 d. 24 b. 2 5 = 15 14 1 6 6 35 2 7 . d. 630 b. 3 7 1 12 ? 23 5 and × a. d. 640 5 d. 4 5 b. 2 3 5 16 ? 2 20. 637 1 c. 4 . 64 c. What is the product of 18 5 and 35? a. Which of the following has the greatest value? a. b. 7 18 10 16 5 12 3 4 1 18. What is the LCD of 3 . 4 5 d. and a.56 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Fractions 17. 36 c. 4 . 48 d. 72 22. 645 5 19.

c. 5 7 19 40 1 23 15 49 = 5 7 27 49 3 7 1 23 3 8 = 2 3 1 4 1 6 12 81 4 21 21 ÷ a. d. c. 1 2 9 = 7 36 1 3 15 108 1 9 3 2 3 24. 2 27. − 40 b. d. 52 35 28.Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 57 23. c. 13 3 × a. 8 5 − 3 4 + 1 5 − 5 8 = a. d. d. 44 7 d. b. 36 35 c. 5 12 − a. 26. d. 1 40 c. b. 4 9 × a. 1 9 21 × 25 15 49 33 21 76 5 132 21 45 234 441 3 5 2 27 = . 7 310 8 b. b. c. 25. b. 12 5 × 3 7 = a.

How much will 4 boxes of bricks weigh? a. 89 pounds d. 3 5 d. 88 4 pounds c. 7 9 5 9 15 18 10 13 1 30.58 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Fractions 29. 5 16 pounds b. What is the product of a. 8 ÷ a. d. b. d. b. 17 35 10 8 34 87 = 17 1 70 70 87 2 35 2 87 ÷ a. 33. c. b. 20 c. b. b. 92 4 pounds 31. 36 70 13 25 12 7 4 7 1 1 9 and 91 100 ? c. c. . 12 25 d. 34. Which fraction has the greatest value? a. 13 100 32. d. A box of bricks weighs 22 4 pounds. 3 7 4 9 = 4 21 1 1 27 27 28 12 63 2 5 = 16 5 1 ÷ a. c.

39. multiplying by 7 and dividing by 2 b. multiplying by 2 7 . 2 20 b. 12 231 1 13 3 4 21 77 36 231 = 36. d. a. c. 2 3 1 c. d. multiplying by 2 and dividing by 7 c. 38. 37. Divide 2 4 by 1 5 . b. multiplying by 7 and multiplying by 2 d. c. d. 1 18 d.Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 59 35. 13 30 15 26 5 9 is equivalent to 1 4 3 8 23 170 169 225 2 a. b. 2 3 4 9 8 15 7 18 3 1 1 1 is equivalent to 1 a. 1 2 b. 3 77 ÷ a. 2 5 c. Dividing by 7 is the same as a.

60 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Fractions 40. How many gallons are in the barrel now? a.000 c. $6. 20 gallons b.000 b. 2. 29 16 d. $2. how much is it worth now? a.400 before. Derrick added 18 gallons more. 1 16 b.300 × 5 2. 2. $4.300 bill? d. 29 20 c. $5. 360 b. 720 d.500 d. 648 c.250 42. If his portfolio was worth $5. What is 3 of 48. 792 1 1 1 14 1 13 1 2 1 .000 d. 42.300 c. 32.000? a.750 b. 28 gallons 43. If a delivery of screws is 5 2 gross. What is their combined length in inches? a.400 c.300 ÷ 5 1 b. ﬁlling the barrel to its capacity. how many screws are there? Note: 1 gross = 144 units. One plank of wood is 18 16 inches long and another is 11 4 inches long. 2.000 44. 24 gallons d. 36. Which expression can be used to calculate 1 a. 30 16 45.300 1 1 41. 22 gallons c. 40. a. Martin’s stock portfolio increased by 4 and then decreased by 3 . A barrel was ﬁlled 4 of the way with water. 1 5 1 5 1 5 of a $2.

A large bag of pebbles weighs 12 4 pounds. what fraction of a bag did each tree get? a. If she used 3 2 bags of wood chips in all. $8.000 c. Jared had to sort 400 referrals into the appropriate folders. how much did he make freelancing? a.000 b. $180 b. 180 d. In the second hour he sorted 5 of the remainder. $225 d. How many quarter-pound bags of pebbles can be made from this large bag? a. 200 47. How many referrals does he still have to sort? a. If JoAnne initially had $600. d. 2 7 b. Greg earned one-quarter of his annual income by working as a freelancer. exactly 3 bags b. 120 c. how much did JoAnne give 50. $4. $200 c. exactly 49 bags 48. three bags with some pebbles remaining c.000 d. $240 3 8 1 1 of her savings to Karl. 100 b. Candice placed wood chips around each of the 8 trees in her yard. If he made 32. 7 16 3 8 16 7 2 1 . c.000 49.000 dollars this year.Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 61 46. In the ﬁrst hour he sorted 4 of the 2 total. JoAnne gave Karl? a. $16. $12. twenty-four bags with some pebbles remaining d.

. The LCD must have 2 threes. . + 10 45 = 73 45 . . Next. 37 + 40 60 + 12 60 + 60 . Converting. 4 3. a. c. 4. 29 ÷ 3 = 9 with a remainder of 2. You can add all of the whole number parts ﬁrst: 15 + 9 + 7 + 23 = 54. The answer is then 9 3 . To change the improper fraction tional parts: yields 97 60 1 2 1 1 4 + 3 + 5 + 2 . Next. . . . this reduces to 3 . 3 × 3 × 3 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 216. converting. b. Dividing top and bottom by 2. 4 2 5. In this case. 7 5 7 The expression is now get the mixed number 8. . add this to the 54 to to a whole number. 2. . . First. . c. 154 11 9. . Since the original value was represented as thirds. multiply 3 × 5 plus 4 and place this value over 5: (3 × 5) + 4 5 = 15 + 4 5 = 19 5 Note that the whole number is multiplied by the denominator and added to the numerator to make the new numerator. . just divide the top and bottom by 9 to yield 6 . . . divide 154 by 11: 154 ÷ 11 = 14. 6. In this case 7 9 2 5 63 45 2 9 × 5. . 18 = 3 × 3 × 3 . Divide 73 by 45 to 1 to simplest form. b. we will ﬁnd the LCD (least common denominator). The LCD must have 1 three and 2 twos 9 = 3 × 3 . . c. we get ( 9 )( 4 ) + ( 4 )( 9 ) = 36 + 36 = 36 = 1 36 . . it is 9 × 4 = 36. To ﬁnd the LCD you should ﬁrst ﬁnd the prime factorization of each denominator: 12 = 3 × 4 = 3 × 2 × 2 9=3×3 18 = 9 × 3 = 3 × 3 × 3 24 = 6 × 4 = 2 × 3 × 2 × 2 Next. First. The same denominator is kept. To change 3 5 into an improper fraction. . b. . Here the 37 1 60 . To ﬁnd the sum of fractions with common denominators (bottoms). Con4 4 3 9 16 27 43 7 verting.62 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Fractions ANSWERS 1. 7. we have get 55 60 . . adding 30 = . you simply add the two 2 5 7 numerators (tops) and keep the same denominator. we get: ( 5 )( 9 ) + ( 9 )( 5 ) = 28 1 45 . . change 1 5 into an improper fraction. c. 15 60 10. 12 = 3 × 2 × 2 . or 45 is the LCD. consider the prime factorization of the LCD which must have all of the prime numbers in all of the original denominators. the new denominator will be divisible by all of the old denominators. . . The LCD must have 3 twos By multiplying 3 threes and 2 twos. ﬁnd the least common denominator (LCD). 5 6 − 1 6 = 6 . you put 2 the remainder over 3. b. add up the fracLCD is 60. . 9 + 9 = 9 . To reduce 9 54 + 9 . The LCD must have 3 threes 24 = 2 × 3 × 2 × 2 . We multiply 1 × 5 plus 2 and place this value over 5: (1 × 5) + 2 5 2 = 5+2 5 = 5. a.

15. . . 1. b. . d. . . the reciprocal of 3 is 4 . 16. 1 3 = 1 times 3 plus 1 over 3 = 4 4 3 (1 × 3) + 1 3 = 3+1 3 = 4 3 To take the reciprocal of 3 . . . we just switch the numerator with the denominator. To change the improper fraction (8 × 3) + 2 3 24 + 2 26 20 4 to a whole number. ﬁnd the prime factorization of each denominator present: 3=3 4=2×2 16 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 Next. 3 4 = 3×4 4×4 This is greater than choice b. . 10 16 . . Only two of the choices are greater than 2 . Convert 18 5 to an improper 91 91 35 3. . by the denominator and add the numerator. LCD must have 1 three. Then. . . . 5 (2 × 8) + 5 8 13. . First. 19. add 2. 5 can be converted into a mixed number by dividing 23 by 5 and putting the remainder 3 over 5: 23 ÷ 5 = 4 with a remainder of 3 = 4 5 . Thus. 4 = 2 × 2 . LCD must have 2 twos. add the numerator and then put this number over the original denominator. The term improper fraction is used to describe a fraction whose top part (numerator) is larger 2 than its bottom part (denominator). LCD must have 4 twos. the LCD will be 3 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 48. 2. . making sure it contains the prime factorization of all the old denominators. First. 3 = 3 . Thus. = 18. simply divide 20 by 4: 20 ÷ 4 = 5. . 16 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 . . . 14. . write this value over 8 (the initial denominator). by the denominator and adding the numerator. . 17. make the prime factorization of your new denominator. 1 b. 23 . . . 12 16 . a. Thus. choices b and d. a. c. and is thus the largest fraction present. d. ﬁrst calculate 8 × 3. To convert 8 3 to an improper fraction you multiply the whole number part by the denominator. . You can convert the fractions into twentieths in order to perform subtraction. Only choice b ﬁts this description. The term improper fraction is used to describe a fraction whose top part (numerator) is larger than its bottom part (denominator). 5 4 1 1 1 22 4 − 13 5 = 22 20 − 13 20 = 9 20 . d. 20. .Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 63 11. fraction and then multiply by 35. we convert 1 3 to an improper fraction by multiplying the whole number. Here. d. . 3 4 1 into sixteenths by multiplying top and bottom by 4. 2 8 = 2 times 8 plus 5 over 8 = 1 1 = 16 + 5 8 = 21 8. b. So.185 5 × 35 = 5 × 1 = 5 = 637. You can compare the two choices by converting choice d. Multiply the whole number. . and then put this number over 3: = 3 = 3 12.

making sure it contains the prime factorization of all the old denominators. . 18 = 2 × 3 × 3 . 5 8 7 2 15 12 − 9 = 36 − 36 = 36 . converting. you should convert the mixed numbers into improper fractions. we have ber part with the fractional part: 1 − 15 49 8 40 21 40 1 5 − 3 4 + 2 5 − 8 . Note that dividing by is the same as multiplying by plication problem. First of all. c. 22. 8 − 3 + 1 − 5 = 1. First. First. c. reduce. Be careful to take note of the signs: the LCD is 40. . convert these mixed numbers into improper fractions: 12 5 = = 25 7. . choice c is the greatest fraction here. 37 = 3×7+4 7 Next. LCD must have 2 twos. b. Thus the LCD will be 3 × 3 × 2 × 2 = 36. . multiply: × 25 7 5 62 5 × 25 7. So. 62 5 1 = 62 4 5 . all you have to do is compare choices c and d. . 12 = 3 × 2 × 2 and 9 = 3 × 3. and solve as follows: 5 7 Rewrite this question as a multi- ÷ 15 49 = 5 7 1 1 × 49 15 3 7 = 1 1 × 7 3 = 7 3 =2 3 1 26. which is less than choice c. c. . just multiply numerator × numerator and denominator × denom6 3 2 inator: 7 × 5 = 35 . . . 4 = 2 × 2 . . 15 18 = 195 234 and 10 13 = 180 234 . you know that choice a is greater than choice b because 7 2 14 > 9 . ﬁnd the prime factorization of each denominator present: 18 = 6 × 3 = 2 × 3 × 3 4=2×2 12 = 6 × 2 = 2 × 3 × 2 Next. . we will combine the fractional parts. last we combine the whole num49 15 . multiply all three numbers. c.64 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Fractions 21. d. 23. make the prime factorization of your new denominator. Since 195 234 > 180 234 . LCD must have 1 two and 2 threes. 12 = 2 × 3 × 2 . 13 3 = 3 5 2×7+5 19 and 2 7 = = 7 . . . reducing wherever possible: 7 40 3 3 = × 9 21 3 × 19 7 = 40 1 × 3 21 7 1 × 19 7 = 760 49 = 15 49 7 9 25 29. 21 25. so the LCD = 3 × 3 × 2 × 2 = 9 × 4 = 36. Here 3 − = 30 40 40 40 + − 16 40 21 40 − = 15 40 = 19 40 . Next. You can do this by creating a common denominator: just multiply 18 × 13 = 234. . Next. LCD must have 2 twos and a 3. First. a. You can cancel before proceeding: = 310 7 = 44 7 1 13 × 3 + 1 2 40 3 28. You can do some canceling in this multiplication problem: 4 9 3 1 × 3 8 2 1 = 1 3 × 1 2 = 1×1 3×2 = 1 6 2 12 × 5 + 2 5 27. . a. When multiplying fractions. . ﬁnd the LCD. . Next by multi- 5 plying the 9 by 2 you get 18 . . We can ﬁrst combine all of the whole number portions of each term. First. 24. c. − 40 . . . .

2 7 39. b. rewrite this division problem as a multiplication problem by taking the 9 4 reciprocal of the second fraction: 37. c. c. you just multiply: 4 7 1 × 91 100 = × 91 100 25 = 13 25 32. . 18 gallons represents 4 of the whole capacity.400 1 3 + 1. b.300 would be 1 5 × 2. which is 2 . The amount left would be $6. Next. d. c. Four quarters would then add to 24 gallons.750 − $2. Thus. set up the division 1 6 ÷ 5 .500.750 = a $2.750. b. 18 = 6 + 6 + 6. 3 77 3 77 1 1 17 35 ÷ 34 87 = 17 35 × 87 34 = 17 35 1 × 87 34 2 = 87 70 =1 70 . Next. 17 ÷ × 12 231 231 12 4 3 = = 3 77 3 4 × 231 12 . 2. a. 13 30 7 2 1 5 6 2 9 18 1 3 × 4 = 12 . a. The resulting worth would be 5. This can be reduced: 36.350 = $6.250 decrease. b. Flip the second fraction and change the ÷ sign 26 to a ×: × 26 15 = 169 225 . 35. d. 2 4 = problem: 2 3 4 9 9 4 6 1 1 1 9 4 7 and 1 5 = 5 . To rewrite this question as a multiplication problem. When dividing fractions. of 5. you multiply the ﬁrst fraction by the reciprocal of the second fraction. 8 ÷ 5 .Fractions CHAPTER 4 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 65 30. You just multiply the weight of 1 box by 4 to get the weight of 4 boxes: 22 4 × 4 = 1 13 1 89 4 × 4 = 89 pounds. The 2 8 5 4 5 original problem.300 × is equivalent to this.400 = $1.400 would be 1 3. 13 30 13 15 15 is the same as 30 ÷ 26 .300. Finally. 33. First. can be written as 1 × 2 . which equals 1 × 1 = 4 × 5 = 20. Finally. 9 4 × 5 6 = 3 4 × 5 2 = 15 8 4 9 = 18. Thus 1 4 1 5 of 2. convert 2 4 and 1 5 to improper fractions. Multiplying by 1 5 2 7 is the same as multiplying by 7 and dividing by 2. To ﬁnd the product. Change the division problem into a multiplication problem by ﬂipping the second fraction: 3 4 3 9 27 7 ÷ 9 = 7 × 4 = 28 . of a number is 1 4 times a number. An increase of × 5. 41. This is a multiplication problem. dividing by 4 : 38. 4 7 31. A decrease of would be × 6.350. 1 5 is the same as multiplying by the reciprocal of 7 . is the same as multiplying by can be rewritten as 2 3 ÷ 9 . we actually change the problem into a multiplication problem. a. 3 42. Choice b. c. so each quarter is 6 gallons.250 = $4. 34. convert to a mixed number and reduce: 1 12 = 1 2 . Dividing by 40.

000 = 16. You can add the whole numbers ﬁrst: 18 + 4 13 1 1 4 16 and 4 . Jared starts with 400 referrals.000. Since 3 2 = 2 . 3 3 3 c. screws 1 d. During the ﬁrst hour he sorts 4 of the 400: 4 × 400 = 100. First. There are 144 screws per 1 gross. Next.66 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Fractions 43. Therefore. 2 He thus has 400 − 100 = 300 left to sort.000 by 4 : 32. You need to divide the large bag into 4 -pound bags. JoAnne gave Karl 8 of her $600. d. con49 4 4 × 1 = 49. This is a simple addition problem: 18 16 + 11 4 . you need to convert the fourths to sixteenths: 4 × 4 = 16 .000 b.000. you can write the equation as 2 ÷ 1 = 7 7 1 2 × 8 = 16 .000 44.000 × 48. d. Multiply: 5 2 gross × screws 11 144 gross = 2 × 144 = 11 × 72 = 792. Add 4 1 1 1 13 17 the fractions together: 16 + 16 = 16 = 1 16 . 1 1 1 32. Add 1 16 to the 29 to get 30 16 . To ﬁnd 8 of this amount. 1 1 7 7 8 b. you just multiply: 8 × 600 = 225. to sort. 1 1 c. This can be written as 144 gross .000 × 4 = 4 = 8. you divide 12 4 by 4 . 1 1 1 vert 12 4 to the improper fraction 1 49 4. set up your problem: 49 4 ÷ 4 . 49.000 = 32. he now has 300 − 120 = 180 referrals left 11 = 29. 47. In the second hour he sorts 5 of the remaining 300. Convert this division 1 problem into a multiplication problem by ﬂipping the second fraction: 48.000 13 1 16. In order to ﬁnd 2 3 1 2 3 of 48. 2 5 × 300 = 120 sorted in the second hour. Hence. a. you just multiply: 2 3 × 48. . In order to add 45. 50. You just divide the 3 2 bags by 8 trees. 46. To ﬁnd 4 of his income you multiply 32.

01.1 = 1 tenth = 1 10 Decimals WHAT IS A DECIMAL? A decimal is a special kind of fraction.003 = 3 thousandths = . 1¢ is 100 of a dollar. or $.000 . The decimal point separates the dollars from the cents.0004 = 4 ten-thousandths = Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 67 . 1 Because there are 100¢ in one dollar.= 5 CHAPTER Examples: . You use decimals every day when you deal with money—$10.02 = 2 hundredths = 2 100 3 1. Each decimal digit to the right of the decimal point has a name: .35 is a decimal that represents ten dollars and 35¢.000 4 10.

667.00 . CHANGING FRACTIONS TO DECIMALS To change a fraction to a decimal.00 . the number is called a mixed decimal.00: (Be sure to bring the decimal point up into the answer.000. The quotient (result of the division) is the answer: 3 3. In fact. you don’t change the value of the decimal. if possible. when you convert a fraction like 3 to a decimal. 1. For example. the number is called a decimal. If there are digits only to the right of the decimal point (like . divide the bottom number into the top number after you put a decimal point and a few zeros on the right of the top number.75 Some fractions may require you to add many decimal zeroes in order for the division to come out 2 evenly. bring the decimal point up into your answer. Example: Change 4 to a decimal.00. Add a decimal point and 2 zeros to the top number (3): 2. 6. 15. A whole number (like 15) is understood to have a decimal point at its right (15. 15. Divide the bottom number (4) into 3.17 is the same as all of these: 6. You can approximate it as . write the digits of the decimal as the top number of a fraction. and write the decimal’s name as the bottom number of the fraction.67. CHANGING DECIMALS TO FRACTIONS To change a decimal to a fraction. . When you divide. Then. reduce the fraction.6667. .) 3.1700 6.666 .35). you can keep adding decimal zeroes to the top number forever because the division will never come out evenly! As you divide 3 into 2. . and so on. and so on.170 6.6666666666 etc. – This is called a repeating decimal and it can be written as .75 4 3.68 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Decimals When you add zeros after the rightmost decimal place.).0.17000000000000000 If there are digits on both sides of the decimal point (like 10.53). 15 is the same as 15. you will keep getting 6’s: 2 ÷ 3 = . Thus.

1 is larger than . Reduce the top and bottom numbers by 2: Sample Question: 2. 3.000 as the bottom number: 3.08. You may want to tack on zeros at the end of shorter decimals so you can keep all your digits lined up evenly.000 ÷ 2 = 9 500 b. all you have to do is compare the numbers as if the decimal points weren’t there: Example: Compare . 2. if a number doesn’t have a decimal point.47 is equivalent to which fraction below? a.018 1.08 and . 47 100 47 18 18 1. To compare .10. Since 10 is larger than 8. 2 1. tack zeros onto the end of the shorter decimals. then put one at the right end of the number.08. line them up so their decimal points are even. .Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 69 Example: . Tack one zero at the end of . 2 100 2. This is the same as 2 100 .1 1. . Remember. so write 1.000 c. choice d. ADDING AND SUBTRACTING DECIMALS To add or subtract decimals.000 18 ÷ 2 1.10 to . Three places to the right of the decimal means thousandths. 47 47 47 COMPARING DECIMALS Because decimals are easier to compare when they have the same number of digits after the decimal point. Then. 2 50 d.47 is 2 and 47 hundredths. just compare 10 to 8. Write 18 as the top of the fraction: 2.1 to get .

4 1.23 − . Line up the numbers like this: 2.038 1.7 and 2. Example: 215. so tack on 3 zeroes: 3.157 times 24: 2. Then count the total number of decimal digits (the digits to the right of the decimal point) in the numbers you are multiplying. ignore the decimal points and just multiply the numbers. Example: .006 1.768 2.68 3 × 6 = 18 00018 . count off 2 places from the right in 51.7 × 2.038 58.03 × . placing the decimal point to the left of the last 2 digits: If your answer doesn’t have enough digits.192 MULTIPLYING DECIMALS To multiply decimals. You need 5 decimal digits in your answer.00018 .038 1. Line up the numbers like this: 2.230 57. Multiply 2. Put the decimal point at the front of the number (which is 5 digits in from the right): 517.70 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Decimals Example: 1.268 1. Multiply 3 times 6: 2. Add Example: 1.038 1. Count off that number of digits in your answer beginning at the right side and put the decimal point to the left of those digits.157 × 24 51.4. Because there are a total of 2 decimal digits in 215.768.000 + .230 − . tack zeros onto the left of the answer.23 + 57 + . Subtract: 1.

divide as you would normally divide whole numbers: Example: . Because there are 2 decimal digits in . 121. move the decimal point 2 places to the right in both numbers and move the decimal point straight up into the answer: . you have to tack on zeros to the right of the last decimal digit in the number you are dividing into: if there aren’t enough digits for you to move the decimal point to the right. there is an extra step to perform before you can divide. Divide using the new numbers: 20.218 1. In other words. 06.032 8 . Then.8 2.8 − 12 01 −0 18 − 18 0 Under the following conditions.256) and immediately bring the decimal point straight up into the answer. 121.06. if you are dividing a whole number by a decimal.Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 71 DIVIDING DECIMALS To divide a decimal by a whole number. Example: . set up the division (8 . counting the number of places you are moving it. .06 1. Then.256 − 240 16 − 16 0 To divide any number by a decimal. if the answer doesn’t come out evenly when you do the division. ﬁrst change the problem to one in which you are dividing by a whole number.3 06. Move the decimal point to the very right of the number you are dividing by. move the decimal point the same number of places to the right in the number you are dividing into.

25 c. c. 1.7 6. . Which of the following choices has a 3 in the hundredths place? a. 7.17 b.061 2.133 when rounded to the nearest tenth? a. Which of the decimals below has the greatest value? a. 200 b. 25. 234.01 b.01 c. 3.0031 5.03 b.031 d.54301 d. d.54031 c.15 . 60.003 c. .8 c. .06 . . . 3 20 a. .60 .72 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Decimals PRACTICE QUESTIONS 1.682 rounded to the nearest tenth is a.1 c. is equivalent to which of the following decimals? .03514 3. 3.816 when rounded to the nearest hundredth is a. 76.03 . 3. b. 25.82 4.67 d. 234. Which of the following choices has a 6 in the tenths place? a.2 d. 354.68 d. 234.83 d. 234. 3 b. . 26 b. 25. What is 3.13 7.

75.75 7 25 ? .2? a.61 14. 9. .3 b.Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 73 8.00782 b.335 b.8314 c. . 19. What is the sum of 2. 13. 12.28314 d.0023 d.3 b.07 b.821? a. 118. .1 c. 11. 19.3 9.23 ≥ 2. 12. 67.406 = a. What is the sum of 3.00278 c. .76014? a. 9.000782 10. Which number sentence is true? a.523 and 6.35 c.514 and 4. 118.51 d. Which decimal below is the smallest? a.104 + 51. 19.314 13.28 d. 20 b. 1185. . Which decimal is equivalent to the fraction a.335 c. . 12.00 d.2780 d. 0. 928.023 ≤ .023 ≥ 2. and 4. . 13.95 c.235 12.05. . 92. . .851 b.235 d.725 11.23 c. What is the sum of 8.023 ≤ . .

663 = a.152 b. 5. 15.634443 . 0.409 = 1 40 a. 5. 15.152 c.03 in.3136 b.984 d. . 14.197.142 d. 2363.52 in.25 + 1 13 1 8 + . 14. 20.987 + 0. 518.73 d. + .74 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Decimals 15.81 in. and 2. 519. 7 20.25 + 15.08 in.86 b.626. 4. 23. 40. 518. 411.789 c. 324. what will the total thickness be? a. If all four boards are stacked on top of one another.87436 = a. .05. 1. 252.11.007 + .145 = a. . 14.142 16.003? a. 4. 236.7 c.408 in.3 and 9? a.6703 b.13136 c.8 in. 201. What is the sum of −8.786 19. The following is a list of the thickness of four boards: . and 8. d.084 18.02 + . b.659 b.659 + c. 17. 21. 240. 7.443 d. 21.3136 d.008 in. What is the sum of 12.72 in. . c.13136 17. 211. 1. 0.3 b.3443 c.0073 − 87. 1 5 + .685 d.

What is 287.58033 d. 7.575 d.596 d. 8.560 28.585 24.782 when rounded to the nearest hundred? a.99 d. 58. . 0 b.0560 c.06 .725 = a.125 − 3.037 − 27.3 − 1.0168 c. 12. 89. 286.20002 − . .58 26. . 8. 62. 10. . . . 6.0168 25.998 b.785 c.069 = a.618 b.0650 d.168 d.59733 c. .0325 − (-.685 d.0002 − 4. 6. 286.89735 − . 286.685 b. . 8. .90 c. . 300 27.0368 b. .44 = a.667 − (−.02) − .775 c.69733 b.575 b.0235) = a.Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 75 22.669 c. . .02 a. 8.78 − .11733 = a.025 23. 9. 59. . 58.

82 d. 168 b. 22.76 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Decimals 29. 2255 c.11 = a.1936 c. . 24. −8. 1. 1.82 31. 16.8 .168 d.32 = a. .96 34.696 d. 25.5 d.88 × .5 − 8.55 32.2 = a.5 c.22 = a. −6. 8. .0128 c.1 b.6 c.03 × 3.04 = a. 24. . −. . −14.616 33. 16. .32 × .56 × .82 c. .03 = a. 156.1616 d. −12.1 30.82 b. .3 − (−4. .0168 35.128 b.06 b.255 d.2) = a. 8. . . 14. . −16.02255 b. 2.8 c.205 × . 128 d. 12.01936 b.

200 d. c.26 ÷ .03 39. b. d.8 × .32 = a. 16. 11.49 and . . thick. c. 5. 1.5 37.000 c. If each capsule contains . b. 41.51 c. . 512 ÷ . c.2 c.6 grams d.47 d.3 d. 16 cm.15 × a.02? a.03 grams of active ingredients.02 = a.032 cm. 1 10 8 250 32 100 1 5 38. how thick would a stack of 200 such pieces of foil be? a. 5. 1.1098 b. If a piece of foil is . What is the product of 5. . 20 b. 2 . 65. 2. 6.256 = a.2 . = .32 b. 3.4 cm.125 × .4 grams c. 12. .14 grams 40. 274. d. how many grams of active ingredients are in 380 capsules? 2 a. 126 3 grams b. d.02 . 64 cm.3 . 652 42.6 cm.Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 77 36. 163 b.

2 c.4 ÷ 2.4 . 93 3 b.4 ÷ . What is the quotient of 83. 10 d. 375 .6 48.78 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Decimals 43.962 ÷ . each weighing 3. . 39.125 = 5.25 30 a. .005 = a. 41. 3.756 d. c. 30 d.1 when rounded to the nearest tenth? a. 3 b. 75.5 pounds? a. 49. .625 3. 23.023 when rounded to the nearest hundredth? a. A seventy pound bag of cement can be divided into how many smaller bags.0079 b. 179 d.7 d.17 = a.71 c.83 b. 5 . 8.895 ÷ . . 39.000 56. 20 b.8 45. 16 c. What is the quotient of . 20 44. 41. .09 = 1 a.826 c. b.179 c.0107 c. 39. 42 d. d. 1790 46.9 47. 40 b.

31 kilometer intervals.5 b. how many markers will be used? a. 5 . 48. 50 c. If the entire roadway is 1.55 kilometers. Markers will be placed along a roadway at regular .Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 79 50.05 d. 480.

the hundredths place. and so on. Only choice c has a 6 in this place: units (ones) hundredths 7 1. which is the second spot to the right of the decimal point. You are looking for a 3 in the hundredths place. ten thousandths 1 hundredths thousandths units (ones) tenths . which is the ﬁrst spot to the right of the decimal point. Note that choice b has a 6 in the tens place and NOT the tenths place. the hundredths place. 0 3 5 Note that choice a has a 3 in the hundreds place and NOT the hundredths place. Only choice d has a 3 in this place: hundred thousandths 4 tenths 6 0. The places to the left of the decimal point are (in order): the tenths place. and so on. 2. thousandths place. thousandths place. The places to the left of the decimal point are (in order): the tenths place. c. You are looking for a 6 in the tenths place. d.80 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Decimals ANSWERS 1.

hundredths 1 8 thousandths 2 hundredths thousandths 6 units (ones) 4. units (ones) 2 5. c.Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 81 3. the answer is 234. . Thus. you need to truncate (cut short) the number. d. 4. Because the number in the hundredths place (the 8) is greater than 5. leaving the last digit in the hundredths place. . When rounding to the nearest hundredth.682 has a 6 in the tenths place. a.7. d.03 b. so you round the 1 in the hundredths place up to 2.000 3 1. tenths 6 tens tenths 8 tens . 25. hundreds 2 3 6 is higher than 5. 31 1. . Choice c has the greatest value.000 31 10.003 c.000 31 1. choice d. you will round up to 25.0031 3 100 The four choices are compared below: = 30 1.000 5.82.031 d. You round up because 8 ≥ 5. . you would round up. If the number after the hundredths place is a 5 or higher.000 .

23. c. Thus. Line up the decimal points and add: 67. leaving the last digit in the tenths place.406 118.023 ≤ . Sum means add. which equals 23 100 .23.76014 9. b. Sum means add. In order to round to the nearest tenth. can be rewritten as . d.523 + 6. Thus . 10. you need to cut the number short. 100 is the same as 15 hundredths. b.000 782 .821 13.335 12.000. 4 7 25 × 4 4 = 28 100 . or .780 287.82 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Decimals 6.00782 = choice b: .000 278 100. 25 can be translated into hundredths by multiplying by 4 .510 . choice b.000.2780 = choice d: 7 782 100. choice d is the smallest number listed among the choices. The symbol ≤ means less than or equal to.000 = 1. Line up the decimal points and add: 2.000 2. c.000 2. choice c.000 5 3 20 · 5 5 = 15 15 100 . . c. Make sure you line up the decimal points and then add: 8.820 1.104 + 51. Thus. Here you cut the number short without rounding up because the number in the hundredths place is not ≥ 5. 28 hundredths 11. d. 7.000 Thus.1.780 1.000. 1 You don’t round up because 3 is less than 5.000 10.00278 = choice c: .023 equals which is less than .000 = = 7.28314 13. 8. b. 3 20 hundredths 3 tenths can quickly be converted to hundredths by multiplying by 5 : 23 1.000.15.28. 9. choice d. Each answer choice is equivalent to the values listed below: choice a: . the answer is 3.514 + 4. thousandths 3 units (ones) 3.000782 = 1.

152 16.05 0 252.2 0 20. Line up all the decimal points and add: 3. Line up all the decimal points and add: 14. 4. b. convert the fractions to decimals: 5 = .11 0 7.3 is the same as 9 minus 8.20. Note that zeros can be added as place holders: 12.2 00 .7890 19. line all the numbers up by their decimal points and add: 5.007. Then. Next.05 + 4.3.0 and subtract: 9.13136 17. 000 + 8.Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 83 14. b. 9 plus -8.02 0 .0 − 8. d.626 240.25 000 15.02 is equivalent to 14.984 18. a. Line up the decimal points and add.25 0 . First.75 12.125 + . line up all the numbers by their decimal points and add (note that zeros are added as place holders): .2 and 8 = .003 519.2 is equivalent to 4. Rewrite 9 as 9. 14.409 .7 1 1 . c.00 15.145 15.3 . Add zeros as space holders to the numbers 5.007 00 + .987 + . Sum signiﬁes addition.020. b.125.87436 21.25 and 15.

. Subtracting a negative is the same as adding a positive.0235) is the same as . c.069 = . Rewrite 8.0386: (If you chose choice a. Thus.11733 from .) 62. Line up the decimal points and subtract: 12.02 58.0370.02 −.3443 22.0370 − 27.0325 − (−. Adding. .069 = . you must subtract 4.037 as its equivalent 89. b.44 8. Thus.782 = 286.300 − 1.3 as its equivalent 8. a.02 from the 62. First.667 + . d. The question asks you to round to the hundred (not hundredth! ). d.69733 Next. subtract 27.300.08 21. d.0073 − 87. Perform the indicated operations (subtractions) in 2 steps: . b.618. 26. Subtracting a negative is the same as adding a positive.575 23. This equals .69733 to get .81 .58. you get .0235.069.0002: 89. subtract . Line up the decimal points and add: .998.52 .663 236.84 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Decimals 20. you forgot the next step. When this value is rounded to the nearest hundred.667 − (−.0002 62.685 24.78 − .725 6. Line up the decimal points and subtract: 324. you get 300.89735 − . 28.0560.687 − . a. Next.72 + 2.0368 Now. . rewrite 89. d.0325 + . Line up the decimal points and subtract: 8. 27.20002 .02) − .0368 − 4.125 − 3.03 4.0168 25. 287.

30.88 the decimal point is 2 places to the left. First.5 + 8. − 12. but you will still have a negative answer. Next. and insert the decimal point 4 places to the left: . 34. 36.696. a.696. . insert the negative sign to get −14. you need to insert the decimal point in the correct position.49 by .82.3 units away from zero in the negative direction. 33. In the answer.82. Next. or 5 places to the left.5 + −8.3 + +4.696 becomes 25.32 × .56 the decimal point is 2 places to the left. b. you get −8. and insert the decimal point 4 places to the left: . 3. the decimal point should be 4 places to the left.2) = −12.5 − 8.532 the decimal point is 3 places to the left.1. 25.2 from 12. Next. 35. . 2. and insert the decimal point 4 places to the left: 5. 6.89 the decimal point is 2 places to the left.49 × .255.3 − (−4.2 will bring you closer to 0. To ﬁgure out what the answer is. .3 + 4. First. 31. Subtracting a negative number is the same as adding a positive number. choice b. 1. In the answer.0168 when you insert the decimal point 4 places to the left. multiply in the usual fashion (ignoring the decimal points): 803 × 32 = 25. The term product signiﬁes multiplication. b. choice c. −6. a.2 will yield a negative value because you are starting 12. ﬁrst ignore the negative signs and add in the normal fashion. .2 the decimal point is 1 place to the left. First. the decimal point should be 3 places to the left. In the answer.02 = . Multiply in the usual fashion. 56 × 03 = 168 (when ignoring decimal) and becomes .03 the decimal point is 2 places to the left. you need to insert the decimal point in the correct position. so take note of the position of each decimal point in the two factors: . multiply in the usual fashion (ignoring the decimal points): 88 × 22 = 1.936.936 becomes . subtract 4. Thus. c.22 the decimal point is 2 places to the left. Multiply in the usual fashion.2.3 and add a minus sign.1936. Thus.32. Multiply 5. d.02 in the usual fashion.03 the decimal point is 2 places to the left. When adding 2 negative numbers. Adding 4. Thus. so take note of the position of each decimal point in the two factors: 8.Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 85 29. a. In the answer. you need to insert the decimal point in the correct position. d. −12.04 = . choice d. the answer is choice d.1098. the decimal point should be 3 + 2 . Next.32 is the same as −6.255 becomes . or 4 places to the left.0128. multiply in the usual fashion (ignoring the decimal points): 205 × 11 = 2. the decimal point should be 2 + 2 . so take note of the position of each decimal point in the two factors: . 32.02255. choice a.32 = 14.

a. choice a.1. The division problem . or 38. 40.1 by . The division problem 512 ÷ .4 grams. divide as usual to get 163.256 can be solved with long division. First. moving the decimal point in each number 3 places to the right: 0 0 5 8 9 5 Next. 46. c.86 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Decimals 37. Next. First. choice c.03 = 11.2. multiply . moving the decimal point in each number 3 places to the right: 0 2 3 9 6 2 .895 ÷ .03 39.26 ÷ . choice c. 45. just move the decimal point 2 places to the right in each number: 1 7 3 4 0 Next. just move the decimal point 2 places to the right in each number: 0 2 3 2 6 Next. d. to a decimal: = 1 ÷ 5 = . a. b.714286.1 can be solved with long division. This reduces to 1 5 4 125 . b. c.2 = . Multiply the amount of active ingredients in one capsule (. c. d.4 cm. moving the decimal point in each number 1 place to the right: 2 1 8 3 4 Next. divide as usual to get 39.023 can be solved with long division.4 ÷ . 43. This answer is equivalent to 32 thousandths. To solve. choice d. 42. Next.7. The division problem . choice c. 44. 200 × . round to the nearest tenth: 39.032 = 6.4 ÷ 2.8 to get . choice b. The division problem 3.32 to get . divide as usual to get 20. simply multiply the thickness of each piece by the total number of pieces.962 ÷ . The division problem 3. multiply . convert 1 5 32 1000 .000.17 can be solved with long division. First. 41. Finally. The division problem 83. divide as usual to get 2. c. multiply: .02 can be solved with long division.005 can be solved with long division.03) by the number of capsules (380): 380 × . Move the decimal point 3 places to the right in each number: 2 5 6 5 1 2 0 0 0 Next.032. divide to get the answer: 179.15 × . First.125 by .

choice a. 49. 48. moving the decimal point in each number 3 places to the right: 1 2 5 3 7 5 0 0 0 Dividing yields 3.83. . choice b. divide the total 1.09 can be solved with long division. 70 ÷ 3.31 can be solved with long division.5 can be solved with long division. moving the decimal point in each number 1 place to the right: 3 5 7 0 0 Next. The division problem 8.31 km. divide to get the answer: 5. 47. divide to get 41. divide as usual to get 20.55 ÷ . divide 70 by 3. a.55 km distance by the interval.125 can be solved with long division.000. . moving the decimal point in each number 2 places to the right: 0 9 8 4 0 1 Dividing yields an answer of 93.333333 . Rounding this number to the nearest hundredth yields 41.5.Decimals CHAPTER 5 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 87 Next. a. choice a. 1.4 ÷ . To solve. choice a.826087. choice d. b. To solve. or 93 3 . d. . 50. The decimal point in each number is moved two places to the right: 3 1 1 5 5 Next. The division problem 375 ÷ . .

.

Number Series and Analogies CHAPTER 6 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 89 . . Other number series are neither arithmetic or geometric and. Therefore. look at the series: 4. this is an arithmetic series with a common difference of 3. Let’s review the two general number series you will see on the test: Arithmetic series progress by adding (or subtracting) a constant number to each term. 7. Arithmetic Series Number Series and Analogies Some number series can be categorized as arithmetic or geometric. . 13. must be analyzed in search of a pattern.= 6 CHAPTER NUMBER SERIES 1. . For example. 10. thus. Notice that each term is three more than the term that comes before it. 16.

90 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Number Series and Analogies 2. 32. Notice that the ﬁrst triplet of the series is ABC. ___ a. Geometric Series Geometric series progress by multiplying each term by a constant number to get the next term. letter series use the relationship of the letters in the alphabet to generate patterns. LKJ d. 87 b. JKL c. 90 d. . LETTER SERIES Instead of containing numbers. look at the series: 1 2. For example. For example. . the next number will be 86 + 7 = 93. 1. Notice that each term is two times the prior term. . Therefore. IHG The correct answer is d. 4. The correct answer is d. 79. The next triplet contains the same three letters listed in reverse order: CBA. so the missing three letters will be GHI in reverse order. this is a geometric series with a common ratio of 2. 8. 72. Study the series and try to ﬁgure out what the relationship is. 2. . Sample Question: What number comes next in the following series? 65. 86. look at the series: ABC CBA DEF FED GHI ____ Which answer choice below will correctly ﬁll in the blank? a. Next comes GHI. 16. or IHG. IJK b. followed by its inverse FED. 89 c. Thus. The third triplet is DEF. 93 This is an arithmetic series with a common difference of 7.

10 c. 59 d. 62 b. Notice that the position of each arrow can be found by rotating the previous arrow by 45° clockwise. the next arrow will be: . 50 b. What number is missing from the series below? 18 14 ___ 6 2 a. 135 3. 4 2. d. look at the symbol series below: ____ Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below. 12 b. What number is missing from the series below? 5 15 45 ___ 405 a. Carefully analyze this visual series to ﬁnd the pattern. b. choice b. For example. 63 c. 58 . c.Number Series and Analogies CHAPTER 6 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 91 SYMBOL SERIES Symbol series are visual series based on the relationship between images. PRACTICE QUESTIONS 1. Thus. 75 d. What number is missing from the series below? 72 67 ___ 57 52 a. 8 d. 60 c. a.

9. .7 10. What number is missing from the series below? 9. 16 d.9 d. 492. 477 d. 7. 22. 9.1 ___ 10. 517.625 a. 34 b.9 c.7 b. 76 8.5 . 0 b. 8 c. What number is missing from the series below? 567.3 7. 542. 54 c.2 ___ 7. 64 d.9 11.3 7. 10. .25 5.1 b. 11. 483 c.8 5. 467 9. 8. 4 c. 6 b. 499 b.92 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Number Series and Analogies 4.0 a. 12.3 a. What number is missing from the series below? 1 4 6 1 ___ 6 1 a. What number is missing from the series below? 8. What number is missing from the series below? 0 1 8 27 ___ a. 2 6. What number is missing from the series below? 90 45 ___ 11. a. 7. .5 d.6 7.5 c. 1 d.

7 b. a. 4.408 c. 2 . b. 9 d. c.240 ___ a. b. What number is missing from the series below? 0 1 ___ 6 10 15 a. 11 14.34 . . . 3 c. What number is missing from the series below? ___ . . 5 13. What number is missing from the series below? 4 1 5 4 1 7 4 1 9 4 1 ___ a.0136 a. 2 b. d. 1 b. 4 d. What number should come next in the series below? 1 1 2. 1 3 1 8 2 8 1 16 12. 17 11.08 d. d. 4 c. 2 30 1 45 1 90 1 270 . 4 . 1. c. 1.068 . .Number Series and Analogies CHAPTER 6 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 93 10. What number is missing from the series below? 2 1 5 15 1 1 540 3.

8 b. 5. 29 c. 29 2 b.923 d. 5. 40 d.423 5. 334 1 1 1 . What number is missing from the series below? 6 11 16 16 21 26 26 ___ a. What number is missing from the series below? 30 ___ 27 25 2 24 a.823 b. 188 c.848 c. 5. 52 17. 12 d. 30 d. 16 b. What number is missing from the series below? −12 6 4 −13 7 3 −14 ___ 2 a. 268 d.948 19. 5. 33 b. 34 c.94 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Number Series and Analogies 15. 26 c. 28 2 d. 31 20.673 5. 13 18. 18 b. 28 16.548 5. What number is missing from the series below? 10 14 84 88 264 ___ a. What number is missing from the series below? 10 12 16 22 30 40 ___ a.798 ___ a. What number is missing from the series below? 5. 10 c.

7 c. 8 23. 27. 0. 2. What number should ﬁll in the blank in the series below? 53. 14 b. 51 24. 38 c. What number is missing from the series below? 9 8 16 15 ___ 29 58 a.7 d. 0. What number should come next in the series below? 1. −19 22. 4.2 b. 27. 26 d. 40. 25. What number should come next in the series below? 1 2 4 0. . 5 . 23 b. ___. 26. 1.Number Series and Analogies CHAPTER 6 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 95 21. 24 c.5.1 26. a. . 9 d.2. . What number is missing from the series below? 38 20 5 −7 −16 ___ a. . 4.3. . 40 d. 0. 3. a.8. . What number should come next in the series below? 29. 5 . . −20 d. −22 c. 53. −25 b. 3. . 27 . a.9. 27. a. 14 c. . . 5 . 28. 5.1. 30 b. 27. 8 10 b.16 25.6 d. 4.4. . .4 c. 0.

17. 8 . What number should come next in the series below? 1. d. 11. 14 d. 4 . a. 120. 28. What number should come next in the series below? 31. What number should ﬁll in the blank in the series below? 10. . ___. . 15. 8. 3 4 a. 5. 14 c. a. What number should come next in the series below? 7 3 5 1. 18 c. 10 c. What number should come next in the series below? 3. 4. 7 2 b. 12. 8 c. 22 d. 13 d. . a. 8 . 34 29. a. . 24. 15 31. 16. . . 2 3 1 2 3 8 1 4 1 1 1 . 11 4 30. . . 15 b. . 31. 17. 60. 34. ___. c. 30 d.96 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Number Series and Analogies 27. 29. 30. . 10 d. 7. 9. . . . a. 9 4 c. 14 b. 6 b. 4. 22. What is the missing term in the number pattern below? 3 240. 12 28. 7 b. . . 25 32. 12. b.

128 36. 28. 21. 22 c. VI d. 16. 26 34. What two numbers should come next in the series below? 8. a. 42 d. what is the denominator of the tenth term? 35. 42. . What number should come next in the series below? 21. . . VIII. . 22. 56 c. a. 13 b. 27 c. . What number should come next in the series below? XX. 14. 96 d. 18. 20. 17 37. 20. . 64. III . 22. . V c. a. 52 b. 28. is continued. . If the pattern 2 . 24. 46 38. 21 c. a. 212 c. 36. 32 b. 12. 21 b. . 14. 14. 13. 8.Number Series and Analogies CHAPTER 6 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 97 33. 512 d. . a. 17 d. . 22.024 1 1 1 1 16 . 64 b. XVI. 24. . 12. 28 d. 16. . 4 . . 22. 1. What two numbers should come next in the series below? 9. 8 . What number should come next in the series below? 14. . a. 28. . 30. . 11. 15. IV b. 40. XII. 32.

c. . HGF b. KLMA c. S2 40. What number should come next in the series below? VI. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below. GHI 43. CAB c. . PFQ 42. VII b. IV. L11. 13 41. | | ___ a. What number should come next in the series below? J14. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below. JAK KBL LCM MDN _____ a. ELFA GLHA ILJA ______ MLNA a. OLPA b. NEO c. a. R2 d. 12. P5. V. N8. . . d. LLMA d.98 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Number Series and Analogies 39. Q2 b. . KLLA 44. . . Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below. OEP b. III c. QPO NML KJI ____ EDC a. 10. JKL d. Q3 c. MEN d. b. a. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below. IX d. 11.

c. | | ____ # #|# # # # a. E E E E E E E E E | ___ ___ ## # c. # # 48. b. c. d. E E | |E E | __ E a. 46. | | | | ___ a. E c. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below. 49. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.Number Series and Analogies CHAPTER 6 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 99 45. d. b. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below. b. d. c. b. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below. d. | | | ___ a. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below. d. b. # # # | a. 47. .

| | ___ . Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below. | a.100 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Number Series and Analogies 50. c. b. d.

4.5. Consider this series as a triplet. subtract . 8.34 ÷ .34 by . If you look carefully at the numbers. you know you used the correct rule. You can check that this rule works by multiplying 135 by 3.2 times the term that precedes it. In other words. 0 (+ 1) 1 (+2) 3 (+3) 6 (+4) 10 (+5) 10 .25. Thus.5 + .2 = 1. Thus. 2 × 45 = 22. you should notice that each is a cube of a number. the term following 10. a. 33. This is a geometric series. each term is 2 of the 1 1 term that precedes it. 11. You can divide . To check that you used 1 1 the correct rule. In other words.3 = 7. the missing number is 14 − 4 = 10. d. 13. 5. d. each number is 25 less than the previous number. d. It is simply three numbers repeating over and over in order.4 = 10. each number is one-half of the previous number. the next term.7. the missing number is 3. which is in fact the next term. each term is . 7. Thus. the next term. Notice that every third term gets 2 added to it: 4 1 5 4 1 7 4 1 9 4 1 ___ . take 2 of 22. Thus. Using this rule. Thus. the missing number is 9 + 2 = 11. b. d. so the missing term is 7. or 64. 1 1 9. c. This is an arithmetic series with a common difference of . b. and 6 repeat. Next.5 × 2 = 11.1 + . 10.3 from 7. 3. Each term is 5 less than the prior term. c. This is an arithmetic series. This is an arithmetic series.5 should be 10. the missing number is 4. 13. the numbers are increasing.2. and it is. The ﬁrst two terms of the triplet are always 4 followed by 1.3. 2. The missing term is then 45 × 3 = 135. This is an arithmetic series.9.4 = 10. check that the rule is correct by verifying 62 − 5 = 57. This yields 405. Thus. You multiply each term by 3 to get the next term. This is an arithmetic series that decreases by four as the series progresses. the next 1 1 1 number should be 2 × 4 = 8 . Thus. 8. b.9 to get 7. 23.2 − .4 greater than the previous term. b. You can check that you have the correct answer by applying the rule: 1.34.2 to ﬁgure out what the ﬁrst term is. 12. but the amount by which they are increasing is increasing as well.3 less than the term before it.3. 6.5: 22. the missing term is 2 of 45. This is a geometric series with a common ratio of 2 . 4. This is the next term in the series so you know you are right. This simply means that each term is . The numbers 1. Each term is . To ﬁnd the missing term just subtract 5 from 67 to get 62. To check that you found the right rule.9. 27 corresponds to 03. . 10. You can check that this is correct by applying the rule to the 10: 10 − 4 = 6.Number Series and Analogies CHAPTER 6 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 101 ANSWERS 1. the answer is 492 − 25 = 467.7 × .2 = . 8. This is a geometric series. Here.9. This series is neither arithmetic or geometric. . 0. which is the next term. so the next term should equal 43.5. This is a geometric series with a common ratio of . 1. c. a. This series is neither arithmetic or geometric. Thus. In other words.

the missing number is 15 × 2 = 30.8 × 2. or −16 − 6 = −22. the series can be considered as triplets. each number increases by 0. . The amount of increase corresponds more to an addition. +5. Here. c. × 6. This is more evident when looking at the last two terms of the series: 2 5 1 1 (× 6 ) 1 1 1 15 1 1 (× 6 ) __ (× 6 ) 1 540 (× 6 ) 1 1 3. Thus. + 4. the missing number is 40 + 12. The pattern here is +5. or 52. See below: 6 (+5) 11 (+5) 16 (repeat ) 16 (+5) 21 (+5) 26 (repeat ) 26 (+5) __ . The pattern of decrease is: 38 (minus 3 × 6) 20 (minus 3 × 5) 5 (minus 3 × 4) −7 (minus 3 × 3) −16 (minus 3 × 2) __ Thus. 20. +5.4. two numbers are repeated. Thus. This is a multiplication series with repetition. 5 . Thus. choice c. the numbers are decreasing. 25. Thus. See below: 10 (+ 4) 14 (× 6) 84 (+ 4) 88 (× 6) 264 (+ 4) __ Thus. 1 17. In this simple arithmetic series. 19. c. 18.8) is repeated by a 1 2 4 fraction with the same value ( 5 .7. or 5. × 2. 28 2 − 1 2 = 27. then 13 is subtracted to arrive at the next number. 5 ) and is then multiplied by 2. the missing number is −16 minus 3 × 2.8. 23. c.240 . You can check your work by applying the rule to 28 2 . and so forth: 9 (− 1) 8 (× 2) 16 (− 1) 15 (× 2) __ (− 1) 29 (× 2) 58 Thus. The pattern here is 10 (+2) 12 (+4) 16 (+6) 22 (+8) 30 (+10) 40 (+12) __ . This means that each term is the prior term multiplied by 6 . Notice that it is not a steady common difference (arithmetic). You can check that you are right by subtracting 30 − 1 = 29.6. the missing number is 26 + 5 = 31. (Notice also that the 3rd number in each triplet is decreased by 1: −12 6 4 −13 7 3 −14 __ 2 . +5. 24. This is a geometric series with a common ratio of 6 . the pattern is −1. a.798 + 125.102 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Number Series and Analogies 14. repeat. 21. d. The pattern here is + 4.2. c. The second number of each triplet is increased by 1: −12 6 4 −13 7 3 −14 __ 2. 0. 1 15. which is the next number in the series. Here. or 1. though not by a steady amount or by a common ratio. This is an arithmetic series in which each number is increased by 125.8 = 4. Here. Thus. and so forth. a. Thus. the next number will be . c. and each term is increasing by having a larger number added to it. − 1. the missing term is 1 1 1 1 15 × 1 6 = 1 90 . × 6. Thus. The missing number will be 5. d. The missing term is 30 − 1 2 = 28 2 . In this series. This is an arithmetic series with a common difference of 1 2 . The ﬁrst number of each triplet is decreased by 1: −12 6 4 −13 7 3 −14 __ 2. the missing number is 264 + 4 = 268.) c. The decimal (0. the missing number is 53 − 13 = 40.9 + . b. which is the next 16. Here. the numbers are increasing. the next number should be 3. c. the missing number is 7 + 1 = 8. repeat. 22. nor a steady common ratio (geometric). term. × 2. 0.923.

then 1 is added. choice a. 3 is added. each number increases by 1 (10. XX = 20. which is 3 4 . Thus. 4 is written as IV. Thus. 4 . 11. d.024. a. Thus. d. or 26. 37. 1 is added to give 4. Thus. The next number is the random number 21. then 1 is subtracted. 12. d. the number that belongs in the blank is 14. so the next number should be 4. 40. XVI = 16. 3) . 1 1 1 1 34. Thus. the next term will be R2. This is an alternating repetition series. 28). The next number is 8 − 8 . Half of 15 is 7 2 . 4. 30. .Number Series and Analogies CHAPTER 6 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 103 26. The ﬁrst series begins with 10 and adds 2 (10. 5. the seventh term will be 128. . and then subtract 8. 1 subtracted. then 5. This is an alternating addition and subtraction series. N. a. the next term. This is a simple subtraction series. Thus. 13). then 3 is added to give 7. In the Roman numeral pattern. . In the series. 28. 35. 36. notice that the denominators double as the pattern advances. which subtracts 2. then 1 is added. 2 . Thus. and 1 the tenth term will be 1. V. 21. IV. 2 is subtracted. Each number decreases by 8 . In this simple alternating addition and subtraction series. the next two numbers will be 22 (the random number) followed 24 + 4. to arrive at the next number. 5). while the numbers decrease by 3 (14. the second begins with 34 and subtracts 3 (34. introduced as every third number into an otherwise simple addition series. a. each number decreases by 1 (VI. This is an alternating multiplication and subtraction series: First. In the Arabic numeral pattern. Each number in the pattern is one-half of the previous number. You can 1 3 check the pattern by taking half of 7 2 . 16). 38. introduced as every third number. or 2 . each number is 4 less than the previous number. b. c. There are 4 terms so far. In the ﬁrst pattern. 17). with a random number. 33. in the second pattern. 22. The term after that will be 18 − 1 = 17. 5. 14. 6). 1 5 1 32. This is a simple alternating addition and subtraction series. This is a simple subtraction series. Thus. The ﬁfth term will have a denominator of 32. Roman numbers alternate with Arabic numbers. In Roman numerals. Given the pattern. 31. the ninth term will be 512. the next term will be 15 + 3 =18. the letters progress by 2 ( J. This is a simple alternating subtraction series. P). In the addition series.024 . This is a simple alternating addition and subtraction series. Thus. 1 29. L. c. XII = 12. and so on. 4 1 which is 8 . This alternating addition series begins with 3. 1 is added (4. the sixth term will be 64. This is a simple addition series with a random number. the next number should be the Roman numeral for 3. the eighth term will be 256. and so on. choice c. 9. a. 31. b. 6 is added to each number except 21. 11. a. 8 is added (1. c. 4 is added to each number to arrive at the next number. a. In this series. or 28. 8 . multiply by 2. 39. The next term will be 64 − 8 = 56. b. corresponding to 6. First. 16 . the next number will be 12 + 3 = 15. then 3 is added. which is III. the next number will be 6. 12. the next number should be 25 + 1. VIII = 8. This is an alternating series. III. So the tenth term is 1. the next number will be 17 − 2 = 15. 27. 8. and so on.

The second and the fourth should also be upside-down versions of each other. there is a diamond surrounded by 2 circles. 46. so the second missing letter must be L. Finally. It is safe to assume that the pattern here is 1-3-5. a. It should be surrounded by 2 diamonds. look at the third letter in each quadruplet: EL F A GL H A IL J A _____ ML N A. 42. so the ﬁrst missing letter is K. Notice that each group of symbols has three versions of the same shape. look at the last letter in each quadruplet: ELF A GLH A ILJ A _____ MLN A . Notice that the circle is on the right and the black triangle is on the left. the last triplet should be NEO. They swap the inner shape for the outer shape. Thus. Thus. The last triplet ends with 1 dot. The next two shapes will be a large square with the black square on the right: . Then. 5 dots. The ﬁrst and the third sets of ﬁgures are inversions. then one points up and one points down. Third. generating the second image. E # # . First. Notice that the ﬁrst and the third segments are upside-down versions of each other. the middle version being the largest: | | ___. the missing three letters are HGF. If you consider each triplet of letters. Thus. 43. Next. Thus. the ﬁrst letter in each triplet progresses from J→K→L→M→____. b. c. The next triplet has 1 dot. If you look at the ﬁrst letter in each quadruplet. The second letter in each triplet progresses from A→B→C→D→____. 44. The ﬁrst triplet has 5 dots. The second and fourth would then be expected to swap the top and bottom shapes. Thus. the 5 and the 3. the fourth image will be the #. Look at the number of dots on each domino in each triplet: | | __ __ . the second is ﬂipped to form the third. we would expect the missing shape to be a square on top of a circle. This is a symbol series question. and the third letter in each triplet progresses from K→L→M→N→____. the 2 arrows point right. a black and white version of the shape borders this large middle shape. 1-3-5. The last set has a rectangle in the middle. Therefore. b. one letter is skipped. The ﬁrst group contains a square between 2 triangles. the entire missing piece is KLLA. b. c. This is simply an alternating pattern. Looking at the second letter in each quadruplet. 1 dot. so the last missing letter is A. The missing shapes will be squares (thus choice c is wrong). 50. Next. you will notice that the entire sequence is the alphabet (starting at C) written backwards. 45. Also. a.104 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Number Series and Analogies 41. a. d. the next part of the sequence should contain the 2 arrows pointing right. you can see that one letter is skipped: E LFA G LHA I LJA _____ M LNA. The ﬁrst image is reﬂected (ﬂipped). 3 dots. the missing piece of the last segment looks like this: . 5-3-1. Therefore. If you look carefully at this sequence. 3 dots. choice c. The letter A is a constant. so the 2 missing dominos are . reﬂection of # which will look like this: 48. d. there is a circle between 2 squares. you see that the letter L is constant: E L FA G L HA I L JA _____ M L NA. 47. Again. 49. so the missing letter is L.

= 7 CHAPTER out of 100 or 30 100 .30 is 30 hundredths. otherwise known as 30%. For example 30% (30 percent) is equivalent to 30 Thus. For example. Percents WHAT IS A PERCENT? Percents are a way of expressing values out of 100. You can convert a decimal value into an equivalent percent by moving the current decimal point 2 places to the right. so . 2 5 Fractions can be converted to percentages by converting to a denominator of 100.30 = 30 %. This can be done by setting up a simple proportion. we = Percents CHAPTER 7 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 105 . 30% is also equivalent to . You can express a percent as a decimal by moving the current decimal point 2 places to the left. For example. to convert set up this proportion: 2 5 ? 100 into an equivalent percentage. you can express a percent as a fraction by placing the value before the percent symbol over 100.30. For example. or 30 100 . . This makes sense because percents are just hundredths.

100 d. Thus 50% of 40 is 50% × 40. you should be familiar with the following equivalencies: Fraction 1 5 1 4 1 3 1 2 2 3 3 4 Percent 20% 25% Approximately 33% 50% Approximately 66% 75% Sample Question: What is 75% of 400? a. b. is equivalent to 40%.50 and multiply . Divide both sides by 5 to get ? = 40. or 1.106 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Percents 2 5 Cross-multiply to get 2 × 100 = 5 × ?. Divide both sides by 20 to get ? = 85. To save time. 30 . set up a proportion: 17 20 = ? 100 Cross-multiply to get 17 × 100 = 5 × ?. Sample Question: 17 20 is equivalent to what percent? 17% 65% 85% 90% a. 300 b. the answer is 85%. You can convert 50% to .50 × 40 = 20. d. Thus. First. TAKING THE PERCENT OF A NUMBER When you are calculating the percent of a number. choice c. or 200 = 5 × ?. 275 c. Thus. just remember that of means multiply.700 = 20 × ?. c.

75% of 400 is equivalent to 75% × 400. choice a. ? = 5. you get ? × 800 100 = 40. the question. Thus. Because 75% = 4 . AND PERCENT PROFIT OR LOSS When calculating a percent change (such as a percent increase or decrease) you simply express the ratio of the change to the initial as a value over 100.05% b. This equals 300. Is means equals. Solving. when calculating the percent error. 3 UNKNOWN PERCENTS When you do not know the percent of a value. you create a ratio of the net proﬁt (or loss) to the initial cost and set this ratio equal to an unknown out of 100: net proﬁt initial = ? 100 net loss initial = ? 100 . ? 100 × 800 ? ? 100 . ? × PERCENT CHANGE. you can express this percent as 100 . PERCENT ERROR. 5% c. 50% What percent is expressed mathematically as 100 . ? = 40. “What percent of 800 is 40?” can be rewritten as 8 = 40. 3 you write 4 × 400. choice b.Percents CHAPTER 7 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 107 Remember that “of ” means multiply. 15% d. you set a proportion that equates the difference between the calculated value and the actual value to the actual value with an unknown out of 100: Difference in values Actual value = ? 100 When setting up a proportion to calculate percent proﬁt or loss. . the answer is 5%. Thus. Of means multiply. This means that when you see the phrase what percent you can express this mathematically as Sample Question: What percent of 800 is 40? a. The general proportion to use is: Change Initial = ? 100 Similarly.

000 on a shipment of products. and ? = 25. $600 c. The products were sold for only $750—a loss for the company. the answer is b.000 SIMPLE AND COMPOUND INTEREST The formula for simple interest is: I = PRT The amount of money deposited is called the principal. Cross-multiplying yields 250 × 100 = 1.000 − 750 = 250 dollars and the initial amount was 1. What is the percent loss? a. and T represents the time in years. When calculating compound interest. P. You should be familiar with the following ways of compounding interest: Compounded annually: interest is paid each year Compounded semi-annually: interest is paid two times per year Compounded quarterly: interest is paid four times a year Compounded monthly: interest is paid every month Compounded daily: interest is paid every day Sample Question: If Howard puts $30. 20% d. The proportion becomes: ? = 100 .000 in the bank at a 4% rate of interest per year.108 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Percents Sample Question: A business spent $1. Thus. it is easiest to sequentially calculate the interest earned using I = PRT. $400 b. 250 1. $720 d. The interest rate per year is represented by R. or 25.000.200 . $7.000 × ?. 25% c. 50% b.000 × ?. how much interest will he make in 6 months? a.000 = 1. 15% Use the proportion: net loss initial = ? 100 The net loss is 1.

b. 1 and T = 2 a year. c. Note that you must convert the 6 months into years. 73% can be expressed as which of the following fractions? a.0 c. 1.04 × 2 = $600. d. c.73 100 73 100 73 1. d.2 d. The formula becomes: I = PRT 1 = 30. 4. Where P equals $30. .000 × .000.002 3.10 5. 20% is equivalent to which decimal value below? a. R = 4% = .045 b.15 b. Use the formula I = PRT.015 . . 3 20 15 1. b. . 0.45 c. 45% is equivalent to a. .020 b. 1. 45 4.0015 d. When converted to a decimal. .000 1 5 1 15 2. PRACTICE QUESTIONS 1.5 c. .Percents CHAPTER 7 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 109 The correct answer is choice b.73 .5 d.000 .5% is equivalent to which decimal value below? a.04. . 2. 15% is equivalent to which fraction below? a. .

110

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

CHAPTER 7 Percents

**6. When expressed as a percent, a. 62% b. c.
**

31 50 % 3 5%

31 50

is equivalent to

**d. 31% 7. Another way to write 26.5% is a. b. c. d.
**

.265 100 26 80 53 200 26.5 1000

**8. .0037% is equivalent to which of the following fractions? a. b. c. d.
**

37 1,000 37 10,000 37 1,000,000 37 10,000,000

9. Which of the following is 17% of 6,800? a. 200 b. 340 c. 578 d. 1,156 10. Which number sentence below is false? a. 20% ≤ b. 25% = c. 35% > d.

3 4 1 5 2 8 24 50

≤ 80%

11. Express 12 out of 52 to the nearest percent. a. 23% b. 24% c. 25% d. 26%

Percents CHAPTER 7

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

111

12.

4 5%

a. b. c. d.

is equal to 80 8 .08 .008

13. 50% of what number equals 20% of 2000? a. 200 b. 400 c. 600 d. 800 14. 300% of 54.2 equals a. 16.26 b. 162.6 c. 1,626 d. none of the above 15. What percent of 2 is 8 ? a. 25% b. 50% c. 80% d. none of the above 16. To calculate 75% of a dollar amount, you can a. multiply the amount by 75 b. divide the amount by 75 c. multiply the amount by d. divide the amount by

3 4 3 4 1 1

17. 40% of what number is equal to 460? a. 575 b. 640 c. 860 d. 1,150 18. Larry makes a 12% commission on every car he sells. If he sold $40,000 worth of cars over the course of three months, what was his commission on these sales? a. $44,800 b. $35,200 c. $8,000 d. $4,800

112

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

CHAPTER 7 Percents

19. Zip drives cost $100 each. When more than 50 are purchased, an 8% discount is applied. At a store that charges 8% tax, how much money will 62 zip drives cost? (Round to the nearest cent.) a. $6,200 b. $6,160.32 c. $5,704 d. $456.32 20. Mike made $64,000 in 2002, but he had to pay 26% tax on that amount. How much did he make after taxes? a. $80,640 b. $67,640 c. $47,360 d. $42,360 21. What percent of a. 33% b. 66% c. 75% d. 80%

8 9

is 3 ?

2

22. 400 books went on sale this week. So far, 120 were sold. What percent of the books remain? a. 15% b. 30% c. 70% d. 80% 23. What percent of the circle below is shaded?

a. b. c. d.

25% 50% 75% 100%

Percents CHAPTER 7

MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS

113

24. What percent of the square below is shaded?

a. b. c. d.

25% 50% 75% 100%

25. What percent of the square below is shaded?

a. b. c. d.

20% 37.5% 40% 80%

26. What percent of the square below is shaded?

a. b. c. d.

20% 37.5% 40% 80%

27. A dealer buys a car from the manufacturer for $13,000. If the dealer wants to earn a proﬁt of 20% based on the cost, at what price should he sell the car? a. $16,250 b. $15,600 c. $15,200 d. $10,833

how much interest will he make in 8 months? Use the formula I = PRT. Use the formula I = PRT to answer the following question: Gary Otto made $8. $250 32. 2. If there are 400 trees in the park. 272 c. $4. If Kamil puts $10. $3.000 and put half that amount into an account that earned interest at a rate of 6% per year. 312 . how much interest will her money earn? a. 52% b. 128 b. $480 31.000 c.052 30. 278 d. $360. a. After 2 years. .114 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Percents 28.750 29. which choice is not equivalent to the others? a.800 b. and leaves the money in the account for 8 years.960 b. $300 d. At the city park. $350 c. 275 d. what is the dollar amount of the interest earned? a.000 in the bank at a 6% rate of interest per year. $45.600 d. $960 c. Of the numbers listed. 32% of the trees are oaks. $450 33.000 b. $660 d. 13 25 c. 396 c. $400 b. how many trees are NOT oaks? a.000 in an account with a yearly interest rate of 9%. 33 is 12% of which of the following? a. If Veronica deposits $5. 3. 52 × 10−2 d.

50 b. $90 b. A statue was bought at a price of $50 and sold for $38. $125 39. d. how much will they sell it for? a. What is the rate of proﬁt? a. $97. c. $95. 12% b. all items are sold at 15% above cost. If 10% of a number is 45. What is the percent loss? a.00 and will be sold for $2.50 c. 75% b. 900 36. 450 d. 15% c. $117 d. b. 5 200 5 24 5 24 = x 24 = = 24 x x 100 24 5 x 100 = 35. 150% d. 30% 38. The price of a $130 jacket was reduced by 10% and again by 15%. 24% d. $99. 9 b. $98. If the store purchased a printer for $85.Percents CHAPTER 7 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 115 34. $97.45 c.75 d. 100% c.50 . what would 20% of that number be? a. What is the new cost of the jacket? a.50 each. A dozen staplers cost $10. 90 c. Which ratio best expresses the following: ﬁve hours is what percent of a day? a. 200% 37. At an electronics store.

25 d. 33 d.850 c. $1. $15. This price included 8.198. He would like to invest 5 of it at 6% simple interest. $13.000 b. How many twelfths are there in 33 3 %? a.000 is deposited into an account. The remainder would be invested at 8% simple interest.008% d.00 b.405 43. $14.280. how much money is in the account at the end of the year? a.116 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Percents 40. If interest is compounded semiannually at 5% for 1 year. $68 d. $14. $36 c. $8.007% 42.380 for income taxes.000 to invest. 7% c.856. $11. Mark paid $14.91 d.989. How much interest would he have earned after one year? a. If interest is compounded quarterly at 8% for 9 months.60 c.93 41. He must pay $2. $8. $70 45. $14. . Sam has $1. 8% b. What was the price of the car excluding tax? a. 1 b. $8.105 for his new car.175 b. .565.5% for tax. $8. how much money will be in the account at the end of this period? a.000 is deposited into an account.154.200 c. What is the rate of taxation? a. $14.05 44.400 d. 4 c.000 last year. 100 1 3 . $32 b. $13. $8. Steven’s income was $34.

701. $28. How much water is in the resulting mixture? a. 66 3 % 47.Percents CHAPTER 7 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 117 46. $27. what is the percent error? a.601. 4.5 gallons 50. 75% 2 d. 75% 2 d. $29. 25% 49. A ﬁve-gallon tank is completely ﬁlled with a solution of 50% water and 50% alcohol.5 gallons d.25 gallons c. If a crate weighing 600 pounds weighs 540 pounds on a broken scale. 33 3 % c.5 gallons b. 25% 1 b.400 before the raise. If his salary was $27. What is the percent decrease from 200 to 150? a.530. how much was his salary after the raise? a. 66 3 % 48.50 c.50 3 . What is the percent increase from 150 to 200? a.15 b.610. Half of the tank is drained and 2 gallons of water are added. 3. $28. 10% b. 11% c. 15% d. Steve earned a 4 4 % pay raise. 2. 25% 1 b. 33 3 % c.50 d. 3.

000 100 × 10. In order to get a whole 37 . 25% = 100 = 4 . You can easily convert to a fraction with a denominator of 100 by multiplying by 2 . 75 100 .8% = . 1.000 = 1.000 = $4. this rounds to 23%.40 to yield ? = 1. choice d. When expressed to the nearest percent.50 × ? = . 15% equals 15 15 100 .000. First. 0. “12 out of 52” is written as 52 .17 × 6.2 is equivalent to .20.45. 4. sides by 52 yields ? = 23. 5 % = . 3 by 4 . c. Multi- by 10 10 before 26.200 = 52 × ?.20 × 2. When you see a percent symbol (%). 75% = ? 100 300 100 . Thus. b. Now. 10.0037% = 10.2.2 = 162.5 10 reducing: 100 × 10 = 1000 . the statement 35% > 50 is not true. 4 = 75%. The question. Thus. c. 4 4 12.5% can be converted to its equivalent decimal form by moving its decimal point 2 places to the left.2)(2. and 8 = 4 . a. c. divide both sides by . just place the value before the percent symbol of 100. d. Thus.150. d.000. 300% equals expressed as: 16.000 by 10. amount 17.5 will yield ? = 14.5 100 2 31 50 × 2 2 = 62 100 31 50 = 62%. cross-multiplying yields 3 4 15. or 1.000 . the correct answer. b. Dividing both sides by . 20% = . It is easier to change 5 into . c.20. 100 reduces to 3 20 . of 1 2 or 3. This reduces to 4 . Thus. 20% = 20 25 1 1 2 1 100 .12 × $40. To change 20% to its equivalent decimal form. a. a. d. d.40 × ? = 460. choice a. This simpliﬁes 3 is 8 ?” can be 1 8 × ? = 200. just multiply 3 times 54. “50% of what number equals 20% of 2. number in the numerator. The question.0037 100 . 6. d.156. which is in fact less than 80%. move the decimal point two places to the left.0037 10. In choice d.800 = 1. 3. Thus. c. “40% of what number is equal to 460?” can be written mathematically as: . When written as fractions. To change a percent to a fraction. Set up a proportion to see how many hundredths 52 is equiv? 12 alent to: 52 = 100 . We need to ﬁnd 17%. 35% = 100 and 50 = 100 . 45% is equivalent to . 73% is equivalent to 100 . In choice c. 7. He gets 12% of $40.6. you can rewrite the percent as a fraction by placing 73 the value over 100.800. Dividing both . “What percent ? 1 to 200 = 8 . 13. “What percent” can be expressed as · = 8 . Thus. so choice a represents a true statement.000 = 200 . When you see a percent symbol (%). or . 3 Choice c is.8 before dealing with the percent symbol.008.07623. d. 1. Remember that of means multiply: . Taking of a dollar amount means you multiply the dollar . Thus.5 100 .000 . or . 8. Cross-multiplying yields 100 × 12 = 52 × ?.5 over 100 = ply 26. 18.015.2: 3 × 54.5% is equivalent to . divid- ing both sides by 8 yields 25. percents have a denominator of 100. we reduce 1. therefore. 1 2 (. so we need 265 265 53 26. multiply the fraction 11.000?” can be written mathematically as . 1 ? 100 . Next. .000) 5 = 800.800. or 5 .17 of 6. to reduce. 2. To ﬁnd 300% of 54.118 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Percents ANSWERS 1.000. 5. 12 12 a. you just move the decimal point 2 places to the left. This is not an answer choice. so choice 35 48 24 24 b is also true. 9. Choice c. b. put 26.

d.640 = $47. Next. 29.06 and T = 2 years.000 − 16. A 20% mark-up yields a new price that is 120% of the original price.600. c. 6 6 3 26.52.375.32.52. Principal = your original amount of money (in dollars). move the decimal two places to the right: 37. Just divide 33 by 0.000 will equal .000 because Gary put 1 2 of the $8.12 × ?. so 70% remain. Since more than 50 drives are being purchased. 13 25 = 26 50 = 52 100 . 1 2 3 4 3 8 of the circle is shaded.Percents CHAPTER 7 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 119 19. $13. And 52 × 10−2 = 52 × . I = PRT means Interest = principal × rate of interest × time. The question. d. Add the tax to the $5. 300 4 . “What percent of Divide both sides by 8 9 8 9 is 3 ?” can be expressed mathematically as This simpliﬁes to ? 100 2 ? 100 × to get ? 100 = 2 3 ÷ Multiply both sides by 100 to get ? = 22.26 × 64.000 = 400 × ?. b. calculate the tax. b. 3 ÷ 8 = . 75 3 4 = 100 = 75%. 24. Thus. Substituting into I = PRT.000 = $16. move the decimal two places to the right: 37. we get 120 · 100 = 400 × ?.704 × .360. 120 400 ? 8 2 9 9 or 100 = 3 × 8 . 120 out of a total of 400 were sold. you get I = (4.52.000)(. 3 2 = ? 100 Cross-multiplying. = 18 24 . so ? = 75.32. the drives will be $92 each.160. or 8 9 ? 100 = 3. . c. 21. The tax on the $64. c.5%.08 = $456. so your answer is d. Be careful. b.640. 52% is the same as .375. “33 is 12% of what number?” can be expressed mathematically as 33 = . which is the same as 12. 16 reduces to 8 . = 4. So. 20.01 = . 50 100 = 50%. 16 of the square is shaded. Simply set up a proportion to see what this would be equivalent to when expressed out of 100. use the discounted price. 28. c. of the square is shaded.12 (12 percent) to get 275. To express this as a percent. 52 ÷ 100 = . c. Subtract the tax from his earnings: 64. the original amount of money (P) is $4.000 into the account. instead of costing $100 each. b.000 × 1. I = . 1 2 of the square is shaded. 27. Next.52 (drop the % sign and move the decimal point two places to the left).20 = $15.704 to get $6. and dividing both sides by 400 yields ? = 30. Take 8% ($8) off the cost of each drive. and time is in years.704.5%. . = 25. 3 ÷ 8 = . 23. multiply 62 drives by the price of each drive: 62 × 92 = $5. Obviously.052 does not equal .06)(2) = $480. 30. To express this as a percent. 30% were sold. b. $5.

Next. 40.45. we substitute these values into the equation: I = PRT 2 I = ($10. The interest rate must be written as a decimal. Change 68% to a decimal (. the proﬁt is $20. 35. P. Since a dozen staplers cost $10.15 × 117 = $17. Find the net loss: $50 − $38 = $12. a. we were given the time frame of 8 months. 8 months × 1 yr 12 months = 8 12 yr = 2 3 yr. If 10% of a number is 45. $97. When all of the staplers sold. or 1. so we need to convert to years.50 × 12 = $30. set up a proportion: $20 profit initial $10 = ? 100 Cross-multiply to get (100)(20) = (10)(?). If the price of the car is p. Next. c.75. Thus.75 to $85 (the cost) to get $97. Choice a.000 × .085p = 14.09 × 8 = $3. the amount collected is $2. First ﬁgure out what the number is. 34.085p = 14. b. In the formula I = PRT.06)( 3 ) 2 = 600 × 3 = 1. Here P = 5. 115% × $85 = 1.000 and R = 6% or . 37. set up a proportion: $12 loss initial $50 = ? 100 Cross-multiply to get 12 × 100 = 50 × ?. is wrong because this represents a 25% reduction in price. and deduct 25%.085. the amount of money deposited is called the principal. R = 9% = . Next. Add $12.105.06.15 × 85 = 97. and T = 8. d.105. c. Divide both sides by .55 = $99. and T represents the number of years. 39. The printer will sell for 115% of the cost.000.50. p + . then you know that the price of the car plus 8.) Here. The problem can be restated as: 5 hours is to 24 hours as x% is to 100%.55. and time is in years.085 yields p = $13.5% equals .20 × 450 = 90. Dividing both sides by 1. First. determine what percent of the trees are not oaks by subtracting. Divide both sides by 10 to get ? = 200. there is a 24% loss.10 × ? = 45.10 to get ? = 450. 8.68) and multiply: 0. .68 × 400 = 272. c. 100% − 32% = 68%.000. 1. the rate of proﬁt is 200%.600.105. The formula I = PRT means: Interest = principal × rate of interest × time (Where principal = your original amount of money (in dollars).5% of that price added up to $14.000 = (10)(?). 38. Next. Next.09. or 2. 36. a. take 20% of 450: .75. b. b. we can call the number “?” and write .120 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Percents 31. Thus. Divide both sides by 50 to get ? = 24.75 markup. 32. Thus. You cannot add 10% and 15%. $130 − 10% of 130 = 130 − 13 = $117. c.200 3 = $400. take 15% of $117 = . We are given P = $10. 33. The interest rate per year is represented by R.200 = 50 × ?.000)(. This is the same as: 5 24 = x 100 . Deduct this amount: $117 − $17. Substitute these numbers for the respective variables and multiply: I = 5. This question can also be solved in two steps: 15% of 85 = $12.

and the initial value is 200.000.06) = $36. and the initial value is 150. 3 44. Thus. After the next 4 of a year. d.280. Divide both sides by 34.60 × . we have: 50 200 = ? 100 Cross-multiply to get 50 × 100 = 200 × ?. Note that 9 months = 4 of a year. there was a 33 3 % increase.200 × . or 5.000 = (34. Now the account has $8. calculate the interest for the second half of the year with I = PRT = 8. Cross-multiply to get 238. The total interest earned is $36 + $32 = $68. Convert 33 3 % into a fraction. we have: 50 150 = ? 100 Cross-multiply to get 50 × 100 = 150 × ?. Next. $600 is invested at 6% simple interest.000 to get 1 2 7. we add I = PRT = 14.08) = $32.380 is what percent of 34. 1 46.000 ( 5 = $200) and take 3 parts ($600). The new total is $14. there was a 25% decrease.856. after of interest earned I = PRT = 8. Thus.000)(?). Thus. b.380 34.000 ? 100 × 34. Because interest is compounded quarterly (4 times a year). = 205. “2.08 × 1 4 1 4 1 1 4 = $280.60.000 to = ? 100 .91. b. ﬁrst ﬁnd 5 of $1.000 × .000 = 150 × ?. Now.565.000. The remaining $400 is invested at 8% simple interest. Use the proportion: Change Initial ? 100 = Where the change = 200 − 150 = 50. the answer is 7%. Divide both sides by 200 to get ? = 25.312. 45.000 × . Thus.05 × the answer is $8. ? 100 1 1 3 = 4 12 .000 = 200 × ?.200 in it. Use the proportion: Change Initial = Where the change = 200 − 150 = 50. or 5. 42. After another 1 of a year.60.08 × 4 = $291.565. there are 4 twelfths in 33 3 %.Percents CHAPTER 7 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 121 41. after 1 4 3 1 2 a year the amount 1 2 = $200. 33 3 % × 1 100 1 1 1 3 4 = 3 . remembering that the percent sign is equivalent to 100 . Divide both sides by 150 to get 1 1 ? = 33 3 . the amount of interest earned is I = PRT = 14. You can solve this problem by asking yourself. Divide both sides by 34. a. Because the interest is compounded semiannually (twice a year). 47.380 = get 2. . which yields: $400 (8%) = $400 (. Because Sam is making 2 investments.08 × = $285. Divide $1. c. b. The amount in the account after of a year is $14.000?” and then expressing this question mathematically: 2. Thus.000 into 5 equal parts $1. c. the amount of interest earned will be I = PRT = 14. Thus.280 × . which yields: $600 (6%) = $600 (.05 × of a year.405. Therefore. 43. The amount in the account after this time will be $14.

1. Divide both sides by 600 to get ? = 10. we get: 60 600 = ? 100 Cross-multiplying yields 60 × 100 = 600 × ?.50 + 27. add this amount to the original salary. Draining half the 5-gallon tank leaves 2. Then. choice a. there will be 1. the difference in values is 600 lbs − 540 lbs = 60 lbs. Use the proportion: Difference in values Actual value = ? 100 Here. or 3. there must be 1.000 = 600 × ?.122 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Percents 48. First. Thus.5.25 gallons of water in the ﬁnal mixture. After adding 2 gallons of water.701.5 gallons inside. .50.301.25 gallons of water present at this point. The actual value is 600 lbs. Thus. Since you know the solution is a 50-50 mixture. a. 50.301. c. there is a 10% error. to determine the amount of the raise.0475 × 27.400 = 28. or 6.400 = 1. b. 49.25 + 2. change the percent to a decimal and multiply. This problem requires both multiplication and addition. 0.

There are several different ways to write ratios. labor questions. work and salaries. Here are some examples: with the word to: 1 to 2 using a colon (:) to separate the numbers: 1:2 using the term for every: 1 for every 2 1 separated by a division sign or fraction bar: 2 Word Problems CHAPTER 8 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 123 . and percents. decimals. fractions.= 8 CHAPTER Word Problems n addition to dealing with basic operations. tank and pipe questions. and ratio and proportions. common word problems on the Civil Service Exam involve distance. I RATIOS AND PROPORTIONS A ratio is a way of comparing two or more numbers.

Once you know the unknown parts. you can often ﬁnd the whole if you know all the parts. Thus. You should be familiar with the following salary schedules: per hour: amount earned each hour daily: amount earned each day weekly: amount earned each week semi-weekly: amount earned twice a week semi-monthly: amount earned twice a month monthly: amount earned each month annually: amount earned each year . you are given a 2:3 ratio. This is the missing part: the number of union workers. you can easily ﬁnd an unknown part. You ? 2 can set up a proportion in order to calculate the unknown part. You know one part: that there are 360 non-union workers. WORK AND SALARIES Some word problems deal with salaries. how many workers are there in all? a. add the number of union workers to non-union workers to get the whole: 360 + 240 = 600. Cross-multiply to get 360 · 2 = 3 · ?. the correct answer is c. a ratio represents a part over a part: part part But ratios can also represent a part over a whole: part whole When a ratio represents a part over a part. a fraction represents a part over a whole: part whole Often. 600 d. 360 c. 720 Here. A proportion is a way of relating two ratios to one another. If you equate a given ratio to the part that you know. you can calculate the whole. or 720 = 3 · ? Divide both sides by 3 to get ? = 240. 240 b. 3 = 360 . Finally.124 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 8 Word Problems Usually. Sample Question: If the ratio of union workers to non-union workers is 2:3 and there are 360 non-union workers.

c. consider Pipe Y. It will take 4 people 4 as long to complete this amount of work. b. Does it make sense that 4 workers will be able to ﬁnish the job of 14 workers in less than 2 days? This sort of question needs to be broken apart logically. of the tank would get ﬁlled. how long will it take 4 workers to complete the same job? Assume all workers work at the same rate. or 7 days. Pipe X leads into the tank and can ﬁll the entire tank in 4 minutes. Next. First. 6 days d. Sample Question: If 14 workers can complete a job in 2 days. 6 min. At a certain point in time. Thus. choice d is correct. how long will it take for the tank to drain? a. When these valves are opened simultaneously. a. This pipe can empty the tank in 3 minutes. 5 days c. For example. the tank is halfway full. TANK AND PIPE QUESTIONS Tank and pipe questions must also be solved logically. Once you see what the net (overall) effect is. It can ﬁll the tank in 4 minutes. Tank and pipe questions involve the ﬁlling and draining of tanks through various pipes. consider Pipe X. 5 min. it will take one person 14 times as long to complete the same job: 28 days. you are able to solve the question posed to you. This means that for every minute that goes by. If 14 workers can complete the job in 2 1 days. consider the following question. 2 min. d. Sample Question: A tank is partly ﬁlled with water. 7 days Most people try to set up the following proportion when confronted with the above scenario: 14 workers 2 days = 4 workers ? days Notice that the ? in the denominator of the second ratio will necessarily be smaller than the 2 days in the denominator of the ﬁrst ratio. Pipe Y drains the tank and can drain the entire tank in 3 minutes. and the valves leading to pipes X and Y are closed. 4 min.Word Problems CHAPTER 8 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 125 Other problems involving work need to be dissected logically. 1 4 . 4 7 day b.

that your D is in miles. kilometers per hour. Using D = RT. 1 DISTANCE Distance questions can be solved with the formula D = RT. we see that Pipe X ﬁlls 12 per minute and Pipe Y drains 12 per minute. 210 miles c. When we consider 3 4 these fractions as twelfths. It is helpful to draw a diagram to understand this better: Train A DA = RT Train B DB = RT initial distance apart . feet per second. for example. The 1 6 1 net effect is a draining of 12 of the tank every minute. miles per hour. and times. For example. rates can be measured in meters per second. Train B leaves a western station heading east at a constant rate of 70 miles an hour. 405 miles b. and your T is in hours. Since the tank starts out 2 full (or 12 full). and so forth. 195 miles d.126 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 8 Word Problems This means that for every minute that goes by. At the same time. so long as the units you use in the equation match each other. Thus. 3 of the tank would get drained. you have the ﬂexibility to use many different combinations of rates. distances. you know Train A travels a distance of (65)(3) = 195 miles. Sample Question: Train A leaves its station and travels at a constant rate of 65 mph in an eastward direction. it will 6 1 take 6 minutes to drain the 12 of water (at the rate of 12 out per minute). a rate in miles per hour as your R in the equation. The 2 trains initial distance apart equals the sum of the distance each travels in 3 hours. how far apart were they initially? a. If the two trains pass each other after 3 hours. and Train B travels (70)(3) = 210 miles. This means that they were 195 + 210 = 405 miles apart initially. choice d is correct. assuming that a constant rate is maintained. Just be sure that if you use. none of the above The correct answer is choice c. Here.

700 feet 1 1 1 1 .500 b. $3. $30. $4.000 in his savings account.000 in January.500 in February. Of this amount.000 4. She then gave Darlene. 64. 4 into 1 a certiﬁcate of deposit. She gave 8 of this amount to Suzanne. 21. $5. $3. $3. how many feet of cable are in each reel? a.75 d. $80. $6. If the total weight of 3 identical reels of cable is 6. Denise had $120.25 b.600 d. 2. $8. 6 feet 0 inches d. how long will their combined length be? a.2 lbs per foot.00 1 1 4 of the remainder to 3. 5 feet 5 inches b. $78.Word Problems CHAPTER 8 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 127 PRACTICE QUESTIONS Work and Salaries 1. How much money does Denise have left? a. and spent 8 on a computer system.512 feet b. Pete made $4. $26. A shipment of cable weighs 3.000 c. $6. $5.600 b. 6 feet 5 inches 5. Greg had $12. 5 feet 10 inches c.000 feet d.200 c. how much money does he have in his checking account? a. If two pieces of wood measuring 2 2 feet and 3 3 feet are laid end to end.500 in March.720 lbs.00 c. If he put 30% of his total earnings into his checking account and the rest into his saving account. and $4. he transferred 3 into checking.300 d. How much money remains in his savings account? a.400 2.504 feet c.

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6. A school is purchasing 5 monitors at $175 each, 3 printers at $120 each, and 8 surge suppressors at $18 each. If the school receives a 12% discount, what is the ﬁnal cost (excluding tax)? a. $1,379.00 b. $1,313.52 c. $1,213.52 d. $1,200.00 Ratios and Proportions 7. The Huntington Golf Club has a ratio of two women to every three men. A 2:3 ratio is equivalent to which of the following ratios? a. 3:2 b. 4:8 c. 8:12 d. 4:12 8. A map drawn to scale shows that the distance between 2 towns is 3 inches. If the scale is such that 1 inch equals 1 km., how far away are the 2 towns in kilometers? a. 3 miles b. 3 km. c. 30 miles d. 30 km. 9. If it takes 27 nails to build 3 boxes, how many nails will it take to build 7 boxes? a. 64 b. 72 c. 56 d. 63 10. Ralph can hike 1.3 miles in 45 minutes. Which equation could be used to ﬁnd d, the distance in miles that Ralph can hike in 3 hours? a. b. c. d.

d 3

=

0.75 1.3

1.3 0.75 0.75 d 0.75 3

= = =

d 3 3 1.3 d 1.3

11. If Jack always spends $18 on gaming equipment in a week, how much does he spend in 6 weeks? a. $60 b. $48 c. $108 d. $180

Word Problems CHAPTER 8

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129

12. If it takes a machine 5 minutes to build 3 components, how long would it take the same machine to build 18 components? a. 90 min. b. 18 min. c. 15 min. d. 30 min. 13. Dr. Martin sees an average of 2.5 patients per hour. If she takes an hour lunch break, about how many patients does she see during the typical 9 to 5 work day? a. 16 b. 18 c. 20 d. 22 14. A diagram drawn to scale shows a diagonal of 12 cm. If the scale is 1.5 cm. = 1 foot, how long is the actual diagonal? a. 8 ft. b. 7.5 ft. c. 6.8 ft. d. 6 ft. 15. The height of the Statue of Liberty from foundation to torch is 305 feet 1 inch. Webster’s American Mini-Golf has a 1:60 scale model of the statue. Approximately, how tall is the scale model? a. 5 inches b. 5 feet 1 inch c. 6 feet 5 inches d. 18,305 feet Work and Salaries 16. Scott can pot 100 plants in 30 minutes. Henri can do the same job in 60 minutes. If they worked together, how many minutes would it take them to pot 200 plants? a. 20 min. b. 30 min. c. 40 min. d. 60 min. 17. Francine and Lydia are in the same book club, and both are reading the same 350-page novel. 4 Francine has read 5 of the novel. Lydia has read half as much as Francine. What is the ratio of the number of pages Lydia has read to the number of pages in the novel? a. 1:2 b. 2:5 c. 2:3 d. 1:4

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18. A construction job calls for 2 6 tons of sand. Four trucks, each ﬁlled with on the job. Is there enough sand, or is there too much sand for the job? a. There is not enough sand; b. There is not enough sand; c. There is d. There is

1 3 1 6 1 6 1 3

5

3 4

tons of sand, arrive

ton more is needed. ton more is needed.

ton more sand than is needed. ton more sand than is needed.

19. Joseph earns a semi-monthly salary of $1,200. What is his yearly salary? a. $144,000 b. $48,000 c. $28,800 d. $14,400 20. During a normal 40-hour work week, Mitch earns $800. His boss wants him to work this weekend and Mitch will get paid time and a half for these overtime hours. How much will Mitch make for 10 weekend hours? a. $200 b. $240 c. $300 d. $340 21. Gary earns $22 an hour as a lab technician. Monday he worked 5 hours. Tuesday he worked 8 1 hours, and Wednesday he worked 4 2 hours. How much did he earn during those three days? a. $363 b. $374 c. $385 d. $407 22. This month Ron earned $2,300 as his gross pay. Of this amount, $160.45 was deducted for FICA tax, $82.50 was deducted for state tax, $73.25 was deducted for city tax, and $100 was diverted to his 401K. How much was his net paycheck? a. $1,883.80 b. $1,888.30 c. $1,983.80 d. $1,988.33 23. Two men can load a truck in 4 hours. How many trucks can they load in 6 hours? a. 1 b. 1 2 c. 2 d. 2 2

1 1

Word Problems CHAPTER 8

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131

24. A machine can assemble 400 parts in half an hour. Of the 400 parts, 5% will be defective. If 2 such machines are working, how many non-defective parts will be assembled in 5 hours? a. 800 b. 1,600 c. 3,800 d. 7,600 25. Kate’s daily salary is $120. If she worked 24 days this month, how much did she earn? a. $3,600 b. $3,200 c. $3,000 d. $2,880 26. John earns $1,600 a month plus 8% commission on all sales. He sold $825 worth of merchandise during November, $980 worth of merchandise during December, and $600 work of merchandise during January. What was his total earning for these three months? a. $1,792.40 b. $2,597.40 c. $1,924.00 d. $4,992.40 27. Four machines can complete a job in 6 hours. How long will it take 3 machines to complete the same job? a. 4 hours b. 8 hours c. 10 hours d. 12 hours 28. One construction job can be completed by 16 workers in 10 days. How many days would it take 8 workers to complete the job? a. 12 days b. 16 days c. 18 days d. 20 days 29. A job can be completed by 6 workers in 18 days. How many days would it take 9 workers to complete the job? a. 12 days b. 16 days c. 18 days d. 20 days

Tom by $1. Jim by $1. 48 31.) a. 27 b.000 d. If both men work a standard 40-hour work week.400 4 1 . 4 5 hours d. how many workers should be assigned? a. $3.132 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 8 Word Problems 30. The contract for the entire project was $7. 6 hours c.200 33. $4. How much did Marie get? a. Rose and Marie worked on a project together. Jim’s semi-monthly salary is $1. Tom by $400 d. how much will Artie get? a.000.500 34. 6 2 hours b. Nine workers working at the same pace can complete a job in 12 days. Tom’s semi-weekly salary is $400. $4. The contract for the entire project paid $2. $400 b. $1. Al put in 18 hours of work and Artie put in 24 hours of work. When Anthony works alone he can complete the same task in 8 hours.400 b. If this job must be completed in 3 days. If the men decide to split the money according to the ratio of the amount of time each put into the project. which man earns more for the month of February? (Assume that this is NOT a leap year. Jim by $400 c.000. The women decide to split the money according to the ratio of the amount of time each put into the project. $600 c. When Anthony and Dave work together they can complete a task in 3 hours. 4 hours 32. 36 d. $3.800. 30 c.500 c.000 b. Al and Artie worked on a project together.000 d. How long would it take for Dave to complete the task alone? a. $1. Rose put in 40 hours of work and Marie put in 60 hours of work.

Pipe T leads into a tank and Pipe V drains the tank. 12 hours c. 700 grams d.7 gram of a pollutant is removed. 7. a $28. $14. a drain that can How long will it take to empty the tank? a. 4 minutes d. 10 hours d. For every 10. how fast will it take them to type 375 reports? a.Word Problems CHAPTER 8 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 133 35. . Ethan can type 110 reports in 6 hours. 70 grams c. 2 minutes b. 6 minutes 39. How many grams of the pollutant are removed when 106 liters have been ﬁltered? a. A pipe that can ﬁll more ﬂuid in. Pipe T can ﬁll the entire tank in 6 minutes. 7 grams b.000 yearly salary translates into which of the following hourly wages? a. At the same time. 32 minutes 38.000 grams 1 16 of the tank per minute begins letting 1 empty 8 of the tank in one minute is opened. 16 minutes c. 8 minutes b.50 c.46 Tank and Pipe Questions 37. For somebody who works a 30-hour work week. $19. how long will it take for the pipe to drain? a. the valves leading to 1 both pipes are shut and the tank is 4 full. $13.95 d. Working together. 0.000 liters of water that pass through a ﬁltering system. 9 hours 36. Caleb can type 60 reports in 3 hours. If both valves are opened simultaneously. A tank containing ﬂuid is half full. 13 hours b. At a certain point in time. $17. Pipe V can drain the entire tank in 4 minutes. 3 minutes c.46 b. 18 minutes d.

40 mph b. how long will it take him to run 1 kilometer? a. 18 minutes b. 40 minutes c. 2 3 gallons c. 180 kilometers b. Pipe A leads into a tank and Pipe B drains the tank.000 seconds 44. How far did the car travel? a. Pipe B can drain the entire tank in 8 minutes. 18 kilometers d. 6 mph 45. 20 minutes to jog 2 miles. 55 mph c. 22 minutes d. 20 minutes c.J. 4 minutes b. 180 miles c. 50 mph b. What was his average speed in miles per hour? a. 4. Rudy forgot to replace his gas cap the last time he ﬁlled his car with gas. the valves leading to 1 both pipes are shut and the tank is 2 full. 400 seconds d. How much gas does Rudy lose in 1 week? a. 60 mph d.5 meters per second. how long will it take for the pipe to drain? a. Sipora drove to Stephanie’s house at a constant rate of 45 mph. 18 miles 43. 3 3 gallons d. If both valves are opened simultaneously. The gas is evaporating 1 out of his 14-gallon tank at a constant rate of 3 gallon per day. 2 gallons b. 4 3 gallons 41. 65 mph 2 1 1 . 10 mph c. 8 mph d. how fast should she drive? a. If Michael runs at a constant rate of 2. 24 minutes Distance Questions 42.134 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 8 Word Problems 40. At a certain point in time. If Stephanie’s house is 220 miles away and Sipora wants to get home in exactly 4 hours. A car travels at a constant rate of 60 km. per hour for 3 hours. Pipe A can ﬁll the entire tank in 10 minutes. It took T.

M. They both run at the same rate. traveling at a rate of 60 miles per hour. another train heads east on a parallel track. A train leaves a station traveling west at 60 mph. At the same time. 320 miles d. If the westbound train travels at a constant speed of 70 miles per hour and the two stations are 260 miles apart. If the 2 trains pass each other at 8 P. Sharon c. An eastbound train destined for Stony Brook Station leaves Penn Station at 4 P. Who has a faster rate? a. It cannot be determined by the information given. Both trains traveled the same distance. Amy b. then how far apart are the 2 stations? a. It cannot be determined by the information given.M. If the 2 trains are initially 700 miles apart. . 570 miles d. Amy can run 8 miles at a constant rate in 40 minutes. b. d. traveling at a rate of 70 mph. Train B c. traveling east at a constant rate of 70 mph.M. which train would have traveled a greater distance after the time periods speciﬁed? a. 47. d. 5:30 P. 48. 630 miles b. 4:30 P. Train A travels at 60 mph for 20 minutes. At the same time. Sharon can run 12 miles at a constant rate in an hour.M. a westbound train departs the Stony Brook Station on its way to Penn Station. d.M.M. 360 miles 50. how far apart are they after 1 hour? a. Train B travels at 55 mph for 30 minutes. c. at what time will the 2 trains pass each other? a. 5:00 P.Word Problems CHAPTER 8 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 135 46. Train A leaves Station A at 6 P.M.. At the same time.. 610 miles c. 300 miles c.. 560 miles 49. Train B leaves Station B. Train A b. 280 miles b. traveling west at a constant rate of 90 miles per hour. 6:00 P. If both trains are traveling at a constant rate.

5 to get ? = 8 ft. c. so x = 63. this adds up to: $875 + $360 + $144 = $1.661. This means there was 120 − 15 = $105 left. 18 patients is the best answer. 15. If 1 inch on the map denotes 1km. 14.000 + $3. Cross multiply: 60x = 3. Thus. And 8 of $12. and x = x 5 set up a proportion: 3 = 18 . 108. 4 of 12. Thus. calculate the total amount of money: $4. then 3 inches on the map would represent 3 kilometers. or 1. b.2 lbs = 7 . 3 3 feet = 3 feet 4 inches. First.661 .3 d 3 hours .500 = $12. 305 ft. the answer is 5 feet 1 inch. 45 minutes is equal to Then.000 went 1 1 to the CD. less the one hour lunch break yields 7 working hours. 1 1 1 1 3.5 cm 1 ft = 12 cm ? ft . First. the ﬁnal cost will be $1. b. 1 1 4 of the $105 went to Darlene: 4 × 105 = $26. convert the height of the statue to inches.000. for your 12. First.5 · ? = 12.661. b.500 = $3. Cross-multiplying yields 18 × 6 = 1 × x. b. Of the choices. 1 1 4. d. 1 x x is about 61 inches. Next. 3 of 12. 8 2 4 7. Then.000 = 4 × 12. a. set up the second ratio.25.213. 13. d.379 = . 9. choice b. b. c.660 + 1. 12% of $1.000 = 3 × 12.660 in. Before the discount.48.600 into the checking account. Set up a proportion: 1. 10. Five monitors will cost $175 × 5 = $875. or . Just multiply the 3 ratio by 4 to get 12 . A 2:3 ratio is equivalent to an 8:12 ratio. so x = 30 minutes.240 lbs each. Thus. c.5 patients per hour = 17.000 = $3. inches tall.000 − 4.000 = 8 × 12. Divide both sides by 60: x = 3.500 + $4. You can reduce the ﬁrst fraction: x 9 1 = x 7 and then cross- multiply: 1(x) = 9(7).25 = $78. divide the weight of the reel by ft : 2.000 − 3. Set these 2 ratios equal to each other. 2 2 feet = 2 feet 6 inches. Divide the total weight by 3 to ﬁgure out how much each of the 3 reels weigh: 6. a. answer: 3x = 90. cross multiply: 3x = 18 × 5.2 lbs 3. d. 8 of the $120 went to Suzanne: 8 × 120 = $15. Thus.000. To ﬁnd the distance Ralph can hike in 3 hours.48 = $1.3 miles 0. set up a proportion: 27 3 3.5 · ? = 12 · 1 . x 18 set up a proportion: 1 = 6 . First. 5. Eight surge suppressors will cost $18 × 8 = $144. Next. d 1. Three printers will cost $120 × 3 = $360.75. set up a proportion: 60 = 3.75 hours. × 12 in.000 = $4. 6.000 = $1.75 = 3 .136 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 8 Word Problems ANSWERS 1. or 3. = 3. the amount remaining is 105 − 26.000 went to checking.000 − 1. 8. 11. c. the amount left equals 12. solve 3 4 of an hour or . The statue is 3.52. 0. 9 to 5 represents an 8 hour work day.661 60 . ﬁrst set up the ratio of the distance he can walk in a certain amount of time. . Divide both sides by 1.500 went to buy the computer.379 − 165. 1. Convert to feet by dividing by 12: 61 ÷ 12 = 5 with a remainder of 1.240 lbs ÷ ft = 700 feet. 1 1 2.12 × 1. First.5 patients. The sum of these values is 5 feet 10 inches. He puts 30% of the $12.000 = $3.379 = $165. Multiply the 7 hours by 2.75 hours . Cross-multiply to get 1.500.720 ÷ 3 = 2.379.30 × $12. Next. a.

c. or 160 days. First. 10 hours × 21.000 = . c. It would take 1 worker 6 × 18 = 108 days.40 + $4. 25. determine 3 4 12 12 the amount of sand contained in the 4 trucks. If 4 machines can complete the job in 6 hours. Reduce to 5 .Word Problems CHAPTER 8 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 137 16. It would take 36 people 3 days to complete the same job because 108 ÷ 3 = 36. This means he makes 2 × $1. Together. This is a two-step problem involving multiplication and simple subtraction. Lydia has read half of that. Multiply by 12 months per year: 12 months year × $2. 140 2 Lydia has read 140 pages out of 350. They can load 1 truck in the ﬁrst 4 hours and 2 a truck in the next 2 hours. hours.25 − $100 = $1.40 + (3)($1. It would take 8 workers 160 ÷ 8 = 20 days. they are . they would get: 1 30 + 1 60 = 2 60 + 1 60 = 3 60 = 1 20 of the job done in one minute.880. It would take 1 person 9 × 12 = 108 days to complete the job. d.600 parts per hour. 30. 26. d. it will take 1 machine 4 times as long or 24 of 24 hrs = 1 3 × 24 = 8 hours. Add the $192. A daily salary is per day. Next. (Thus.600 = 8.600. 95% of 8. 29.000 parts.8 × 350 = 280. they will assemble 5 × 1. In 5 hours. = $300. it will assemble 800 parts in an hour.883. You know this because he completes the entire task in 8 hours.08 × $2. She makes $120 per day times 24 days: $120 day × 24 days = $2.40. Semi-monthly means twice a month.992. $30 hour 20. c. Therefore. Subtract all of the listed deductions and diversion to yield the net paycheck: $2. or 0.50 − $73. take 8% of the $2. First. It would take 3 machines 1 3 27.000 parts. 19. if one machine assembles 400 parts in a half hour.80. Anthony and Dave complete 1 3 1 of the task in 1 hour. If it takes 16 workers 10 days to complete a job. c. $22 hours he worked by his hourly wage: 17. First. he makes $800 ÷ 40 hours = $20 per hour. so they can load 1 1 2 trucks in 6 hours. Next. Anthony can complete 8 of the task in 1 hour. d.800 a year. Together. 5% will be defective. There is 6 ton more than is needed. It would take 9 workers 108 ÷ 9 = 12 days. or 350 .40 commission to his 3 months of pay: $192.000 = 95% × 8.5 × 20 = $30 for each overtime hour.000 = 7. Also. consider what fraction of the job would get done in 1 1 one minute. c. multiply the number 1 1 First. add up all of his merchandise sales: $825 + $980 + $600 = $2. notice that if the amount of workers is halved. 31. reduce: 4 = 3.600) = $192. a. Of these 8. d. it would take 1 worker 16 times that amount.300 − $160.405. This means he will make 1. 20 minutes would be needed to pot 100 plants.800 = $4. b.40. b. c. and 40 minutes to pot all 200 plants.400 per month. 1 b. subtract: 5 1 1 3 − 2 6 = 6 .400 months = $28. 17.200 = $2. Two such machines working together will assemble 2 × 800 = 1.45 − $82.95 × 8. d.5 hrs × hr = $385. 23. 22. Scott would get 30 th of the job done while Henri would get 60 th of the job done in one minute. or 140. 28. Because this is a rate of work problem. If he typically earns $800 a week. of a. 24. Francine has read 4 5 of 350 pages. so 95% will be non-defective. 4 × 1 = 4 .405: . Finally. add up all the hours he worked: 5 + 8 + 4 2 = 17 2 hours. Next. the amount of time will be doubled.405 = $192. 18.

Marie gets 60% of $2. Jim gets paid $1. c. 1 1 b. Since Marie worked 60 hours. b. when considering the percent of work each did. Tom gets paid $400 semi-weekly (2 times a week) so he gets $800 per week. The combined work time is 18 + 24 = 42 hours. Notice that it doesn’t matter that the tank holds 14 gallons because the amount lost doesn’t come close to 14. 3 hours × 3 = 9 hours. Here 40 hours of work + 60 hours of work = 100 total hours.000 ÷ 1. If 16 drains per minute. 1 1 40.560 hours. d. Pipe V empties 4 of the tank per minute.000 = .000. Use this 3 to 4 ratio in the algebraic equation 3x + 4x = 7x. $20 This is a rate of $20 per hour. or 7 days. Since the tank starts minute. or 60% × $2. Use sixteenths when considering the situation. 37. Multiply this weekly amount by the 4 weeks per month: $800 wk × 4 wk mo = $3.7.000. and 7x is the total amount of money (which we know is $7. This means 3 2 1 1 1 1 the net effect every minute is 4 − 6 = 12 − 12 = 12 of the tank is drained. Next.200 per month. where 3x is the amount of money Al gets. so he must type 55 reports in 3 hours. Now. or 70.138 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 8 Word Problems done in 3 hours). if 7x = $7.000 for $100 of work. 7 of $7. Pipe T ﬁlls 6 of the tank every minute.000).000 = $1.200. it is 16 full.560 = $17. wk × 52 wk yr 1 16 = 1. c. Since 106 liters = 100 times 104.000) = $4. respectively. when combining their efforts. you multiply: 3 gallons per 7 1 day × 7 days = 3 gallons. 3 gallon is lost per day over the course of a week. 33. So.95 per hour. it will take 8 minutes for the 16 to drain. this equals 12 full. compare this value with the 375 reports in the question. The person works a 30-hour work week for 52 weeks 30 hrs year . it would be fair to give Rose 40% of the money and Marie 60% of the money. Thus. This means Jim makes $400 more per month than Tom does. b. choice d. 36. 34. b. Convert both fractions into twenty-fourths. 8 1 8 out full. This means out. Alternatively. .000. it will take them 3 times as long to type 375 reports. If Caleb types 60 reports and Ethan types 55 reports in 3 hours. Ethan can type 110 reports in 6 hours. If they type 125 reports together in 3 hours. or 2 3 gallons are lost. Therefore.000. It will take him hours to complete the entire task. she gets 60 hrs × hr = $1. every minute the net loss of ﬂuid is 1 2 2 16 is coming in as = − 38. = 32. Dave completes of the task per hour.800 twice a month (semi-monthly) so he gets $3.200.000 liters = 104 liters. 4x is the amount of money Artie gets.000. hour (just Anthony) = 24 5 5 24 24 5 4 45 8 24 per hour (both men) − 5 24 3 24 per per hour (just Dave). Thus. This means the fractional part of the job for Al and Artie equals 18 24 24 24 4 4 42 and 42 . choice c.000 = $4. The ratio of time spent is 18:24 which reduces to 3:4.600 per month. the total number equals 125 reports. d. 10. x = $1. a. 35. you can calculate the fractional part of the job that each man worked and then use that fraction to calculate each man’s share of the contracted amount.60 × $2. Artie’s share equals 4x or (4)($1. If 4 of the tank is ini3 3 1 tially full. Alternatively. Thus. So. It will take 3 minutes for these 12 to drain out at a rate of 12 per 1 16 = 1 16 2 16 is going per minute loss. hours. Marie and Rose earned a total of $2. Al worked 18 hours and Artie worked 24 hours.000. 39. 42 reduces to 7 . Artie gets 42 of the total $7. the number of grams of pollutant that is removed is 100 times 0. divide 1 8 the total amount of money by the total amount of hours: $28.

49. 260 = 60T + 70T = 130T. calculate Sharon’s rate in the same units of miles per minute. Penn Station Train 1 D1 = 60T SB Station Train 2 D2 = 70T 48.. Use D = RT with D =1. b. Train A travels east. 43. a total of D = RT = 90 × 2 = 180 miles. It will take 20 minutes for the 40 to drain out at a rate of 40 per minute. Note that T = 2 because the trains pass each other after 2 hours. If 2 of the tank is ini1 20 20 tially full. R = 44. min = min . D = 2 mi 45. Thus. the total initial distance is 140 miles + 180 miles = 320 miles. and T = 2. Rearrange D = RT into R = T . Next. this equals 40 full. Pipe A ﬁlls 10 of the tank every minute. Pipe B empties 8 of the tank per minute.000 Rearrange D = RT to T = = 2.2 mi . c. Thus. 60 km 42. . Next. 1 1 and T is the unknown. a total of D = RT = 70 × 2 = 140 miles. Amy’s rate is then R = 8 mi ÷ 40 min = . The second train will travel D = RT = 70 × 1 = 70 miles east. Rearrange D = RT into R = D ÷ T by dividing both sides of the equation by T. First. Thus. The trains will pass each other after 2 hours. Rearrange D = RT to R = D ÷ T = 220 ÷ 4 = 55 mph. D R 2. c. D d. Here D = hr × 3 hr = 180 km. b. 46. so the time will be 6:00 P.M. This means 1 5 4 1 1 1 the net effect every minute is 8 − 10 = 40 − 40 = 40 of the tank is drained. Train B will 1 travel D = 55 × 2 = 27.5 m sec . choice d. if the initial distance between the 2 trains was 700 miles.5 = 400 seconds. This means you need to convert the 1 hour into 60 min. 1 1 b.000 meters. Train B travels the greater distance. 1. cal1 culate the 2 distances by using D= RT. The ﬁrst train will travel D = RT = 60 × 1 = 60 miles west. now the distance is 700 miles − 60 miles − 70 miles = 700 − 130 = 570 miles. convert minutes to hours: 20 minutes = 3 hour and 30 minutes = 2 hour. Train A will travel D = 60 × 3 = 20 miles.Word Problems CHAPTER 8 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 139 41.000. c. Train B travels west. 1 3 given values: R = 20 min = hour. The total distance covered is equal to the distance that both trains travel.5 miles. c. Sharon’s rate is then R = 12 mi ÷ 60 47. d. a. 1 kilometer = 1. Use the constant rate equation: D= RT. Thus. The total distance will be equal to the distances traveled by both trains throughout the unknown amount of time (T ). initial distance apart = 260 miles = 60T + 70T.2 mi min . Substitute in the D 1 into R = T and R = 2 mi ÷ 3 hr = 6 mph. 50.

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This chapter reviews the common kinds of graphs. A pie chart is a circle divided into slices or wedges. you will often see information presented in a graph. Let’s look at an example of a pie chart on the following page and see what kind of information it provides. we give and receive information visually. More and more. Charts. and Graphs hen you pick up the newspaper or watch a news report on TV. Tables. W PIE CHARTS Pie charts show how the parts of a whole relate to one another. Pie charts are sometimes called circle graphs.= 9 CHAPTER Charts. Tables. Each slice represents a category. and tables you should be able to interpret. That’s one reason you are likely to ﬁnd graphs on math tests. and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 141 . charts. and a good reason to understand how to read them.

5. 2. Health. The data is displayed on a grid and is presented on a scale using a horizontal and a vertical axis for the different categories of information compared on the graph.142 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Charts. which category of spending best matches the voter’s wishes? On which category of spending did the voters want most of the money spent? Which category of spending receives the most federal dollars? To which two categories of spending did voters want the most money to go? Which two categories of spending actually received the most money? Explanations: 1. 3. Usually. Tables. 5. each data point is connected together to form a line so that you can see trends in the data and how the data changes over time. Let’s look at an example of a line graph and see the kind of information it can provide. Defense and health received the most money. Based on the survey. 3. National defense. How Federal Dollars Are Spent Space 2% National Defense 2% Environment Other 4% 6% Energy 11% Space 12% Health 14% Other 8% Energy 10% Health 49% National Defense 53% Environment 29% How Voters Think the Money Should Be Spent How the Money Is Spent Using the “How Federal Dollars Are Spent” pie chart. LINE GRAPHS Line graphs show how two categories of data or information (sometimes called variables) relate to one another. Energy: Voters say they would like about 10% of the budget to be spent on energy. answer the following questions: 1. 4. 2. Often you will see line graphs with time on the horizontal axis. . 4. Voters wanted money to go to health and environment. and Graphs Example: The pie chart below represents data collected from a recent telephone survey. and about 11% is actually spent on energy.

answer the following questions. 4. 3. Find the line that moves down as population density increases. Look at the labels. the percentage of workers using public transportation begins to level off at about 70%. 4. will more or fewer people drive their own cars to work? At about what point in population density does the use of public transportation begin to level off? Which form of transportation becomes less popular as population density increases? Explanations: 1. less people use their own cars to get to work. What variable is shown on the vertical axis? What variable is shown on the horizontal axis? As the population density increases.Charts. The percent of workers using each form of transportation is shown on the vertical axis. bar graphs show how different categories of data relate to one another. BAR GRAPHS Like pie charts. At about 80 to 100 workers per acre. 3. As population density increases. .” This is the form of transportation that decreases as population density increases. Let’s look at an example of a bar graph on the next page and see the kind of information it can provide. Tables. A bar represents each category. and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 143 Example: Consider the following information: How People Get to Work 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percent of workers using each form of transportation 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 Population density (in workers per acre) Using the “How People Get to Work” line graph. 1. 2. The length of the bar represents the relative frequency of the category—compared to the other categories on the graph. 2. Population density is shown on the horizontal axis. It’s the line labeled “own car.

How many more inches of rain fell in January 2002 than on average during the last ﬁve years in January? Explanations: 1. 4 inches of rain fell. and Graphs Example: The following bar graph compares the 2002 rainfall amounts in Cherokee County with the average rainfall in Cherokee County over the last ﬁve years. 4. Rainfall in Cherokee County 7. Compare the height of the white bars for January and April.0 5.0 0. In April. Rainfall in 2002 was greater than the average rainfall during January. In January. 2 more inches of rain fell than in January. and March.144 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Charts. So. Then subtract: 6 − 4 = 2. 6 inches of rain fell. What does each bar represent? What is the difference between the shaded bars and the white bars? 2. February. Look at the labels and the key. May. 2. Rainfall in 2002 is greater than average during the months that the white bar is taller than the shaded bar for that month. 3.0 3. and June. Tables. How many more inches of rain fell in April 2002 than in January 2002? 5. in April. Rainfall in 2002 is less than average during the months that the shaded bar is taller than the white bar for that month.0 1. During which months is the rainfall in 2002 greater than the average rainfall? 3. From the key. Each bar represents the number of inches of rainfall during a particular month.0 2.0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May June Bar labels Scale Months Using the “Rainfall in Cherokee County” bar graph. During which months is the rainfall in 2002 less than the average rainfall? 4. The white bars represent the rainfall in 2002. Rainfall in 2002 was less than the average rainfall during April. Compare the white bars with the shaded bars.0 Title Key Monthly rainfall in 2002 Average monthly rainfall for 1997–2001 Rainfall (in inches) 6. 1.0 4. Compare the white bars with the shaded bars. you know that the shaded bars represent the average monthly rainfall for 1996–2001. answer the following questions. .

two more inches of rain fell in January 2002 than on average during the last ﬁve years in January. The white bar represents 4 inches. F3. how would it be classiﬁed? 2. Subtract: 4 − 2 = 2. Rows go across. When looking for information in tables. that is made where a row and a column meet provides speciﬁc information. the column headings. 1. Let’s look at some examples of tables and the types of information you might expect to learn from them.Charts. So. The shaded bar represents 2 inches. . F6 tornados range from wind speeds of 320–379 miles per hour. If a tornado has a wind speed of 173 miles per hour. and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 145 5. THE FUJITA-PEARSON TORNADO INTENSITY SCALE CLASSIFICATION WIND SPEED (IN MILES PER HOUR) DAMAGE F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 72 73–112 113–157 158–206 207–260 261–319 320–379 Mild Moderate Signiﬁcant Severe Devastating Cataclysmic Overwhelming Example: Using the “Fujita-Pearson Tornado Intensity Scale” table. 3. or cell. answer the following questions. it’s important to read the table title. Cataclysmic: F5 tornados range in wind speed of 261–319 mph and cause cataclysmic damage. and the row labels so you understand all of the information. Columns go up and down. GETTING INFORMATION FROM TABLES Tables present information in rows and columns. The wind speed for F3 tornados ranges from 158–206 mph. or horizontally. Tables. Compare the height of the shaded bar and the white bar for January. What wind speed would you anticipate if a tornado of F6 were reported? Explanations: 1. or vertically. 2. The box. What kind of damage would you expect from a tornado having a wind speed of 300 miles per hour? 3.

88 d. What is the mean score of the people listed? a. 88 d. 89 c. 13 4. What is the median score of the people listed? a. and Graphs PRACTICE QUESTIONS Use the chart below to answer questions 1 through 5. Tables. 24 d. 90 b. What is the range of the scores listed? a. 50 c. 90 b. 88 d. What is the mode of the scores listed? a.146 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Charts. 89 c. NAME SCORE Darin Miguel Anthony Christopher Samuel 95 90 82 90 88 1. 90 b. 85 . 89 c. 90 b. 85 3. 85 2.

What was the average monthly attendance over the course of all the months listed? a. Which swimmer had the fastest time? SWIMMER TIME (SEC) Molly Jeff Asta Risa 38. d. Use this chart to answer questions 7 through 9. and mode will change. 56 . the mean. and range. 6.95 37. 71 b. will change. and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 147 5. range. Tables. c. The chart below gives the times that 4 swimmers had in their race. MONTH # OF MEMBERS September October November December 54 61 70 75 7. b. the mean. b. c. d. which of the following statements would be true when his actual score is used in the calculations? a.89 a. 65 c.51 39. median. the mode will remain the same. none of the above. 61 d. Molly Jeff Asta Risa The chart below lists the number of members present at the monthly meetings for the Environmental Protection Club. median.23 37.Charts. If Anthony’s score was incorrectly reported as an 82 when his actual score on the test was a 90. only the mean and median will change.

54 b. If the data presented in the table were plotted as a bar graph. 70 9.5 d. Members attending 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Sept Oct Nov Dec c. Members attending 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Sept Oct Nov Dec . 65. What was the median value of members in attendance during the course of the four months shown? a. Tables.148 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Charts. Members attending 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Sept Oct Nov Dec b. Members attending 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Sept Oct Nov Dec d. 61 c. which of the following would best represent the data most accurately? a. and Graphs 8.

how much money is spent on housing each month? a. In percent of overall expenses.Charts. 9% b.000 per month. If the Johnson family budget is $4. $4. $48. 13% Food 22% 10. 13% d. $400 d.800 c. $800 b. how much money will they save each year? a. 22% 11. $1. If the Johnson family budget is $4. $1. Tables. Johnson Family Budget Transportation 9% Savings 10% Housing 30% Entertainment 12% Clothing 4% Misc.400 12. $1.000 b. Use this information to answer questions 10 through 12. 11% c. how much more money is spent on food than on transportation and clothing combined? a. and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 149 The pie chart below shows the Johnson family budget for one month.200 d.000 c.000 per month. none of the above .

15% d. $100 d. The Engineering Department showed a steady increase in the dollar amount of electricity used from 2000–2002. over the course of three years for three departments. $50 14. The Customer Service Department showed a steady increase in the dollar amount of electricity used during the 4-year period.000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Dollar amount consumed Sales dept. d. none of the above 15. and Graphs The graph below shows the yearly electricity usage for Finnigan Engineering Inc. How much greater was the electricity cost for Sales during the year 1999 than the electricity cost for Customer Service in 2000? a. $150 c. Which of the following statements is supported by the data? a. b. 1. 1999 2000 Year 2001 2002 13. Use this information to answer questions 13 through 16. Customer Service Engineering Dept. c.150 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Charts. Tables. What was the percent decrease in electricity usage (in dollar amount) from 1999 to 2000 for the Engineering Department? a. 10% . 20% c. $200 b. The Sales Department showed a steady increase in the dollar amount of electricity used during the 4-year period. 25% b.

Dollar amount consumed 1.Charts. Tables. and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 151 16. Customer Service Engineering Dept. which of the following line graphs is correct? a. 1999 2000 Year 2001 2002 c. 1. Customer Service Engineering Dept. 1999 2000 Year 2001 2002 .000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Sales dept. 1999 2000 Year 2001 2002 b.100 1.100 1. If the information in the bar graph associated with question 13 is transcribed and a line graph is generated.000 Dollar amount consumed 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Sales dept. 1.000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Dollar amount consumed Sales dept.100 1. Customer Service Engineering Dept.

29% . Which activity has the lowest ratio of males to females? a. Debate 18. 15% b. ACTIVITY MALE FEMALE Drama Journalism Science Club Debate 11 12 9 12 13 10 11 15 17. Use this information to answer questions 17–19. 27% d. 1999 2000 Year 2001 2002 The table below shows the numbers of male and female students involved in several school activities. For all of the students listed. 1. Science Club d. what percent of the students will be in this club? a. Tables.100 1. If 3 more males and 4 more females join the Science Club. Customer Service Engineering Dept.000 Dollar amount consumed 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Sales dept. what percent of the students are involved in Debate? a. 20% c. 29% 19.152 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Charts. 27% d. and Graphs d. Journalism c. 20% c. Drama b. 15% b.

Yearly Proﬁts Revenue in thousands of dollars 200 150 100 Charge Card interest In-Store Purchases Online Purchases 50 0 1999 2000 Year 2001 2002 20. which of the following tables would correctly display the data (with revenue in thousands of dollars)? a. Charge Card Interest has increased whereas Online Purchases have decreased over the course of the 4 years shown. Charge Card Interest In-Store Purchases Online Purchases 1999 $80 $80 $15 2000 $90 $80 $60 2001 $100 $80 $60 2002 $120 $70 $120 c. Based on the chart above. Charge Card Interest In-Store Purchases Online Purchases 1999 $90 $80 $15 2000 $90 $90 $60 2001 $100 $80 $30 2002 $150 $70 $120 b. In-Store Purchases have increased whereas Charge Card Interest has decreased over the course of the 4 years shown.Charts. Montgomery Inc. Charge Card Interest 1999 $80 2000 $90 2001 $100 2002 $150 . which answer choice represents a true statement? a. Online Purchases have increased whereas In-Store Purchases have decreased over the course of the 4 years shown. b. Tables. d. and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 153 Use the chart below to answer questions 20 through 23. 21. Online Purchases have increased whereas Charge Card Interest has decreased over the course of the 4 years shown. c. If all of the information on the graph above were converted into a table.

154 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Charts. Charge Card Interest In-Store Purchases Online Purchases 1999 $80 $90 $15 2000 $90 $80 $30 2001 $100 $90 $60 2002 $150 $70 $120 . Tables. and Graphs In-Store Purchases Online Purchases $100 $15 $90 $30 $80 $60 $70 $120 d.

b. 1 5 1 10 1 4 1 2 23. 40% c. c. $30. Revenue in thousands of dollars 100 80 60 40 20 0 East West North 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr 24. d. c. b. and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 155 22. Use the information presented to answer questions 24 through 26.000 d. Both b and c are true. In-Store Purchases in 1999 made how much more than In-Store Purchases in 2002? a. $60 c. d.Charts. What is the percent decrease in revenue for the North Division when analyzing dollar amounts from the 3rd and 4th quarters? a. 60% 1 . The North Division consistently brought in more revenue than the West Division. 25. $30 b. Which of the following statements is true? a. The Online Purchases in 1999 were what fraction of the Charge Card Interest in 2002? a. Tables. 50% d. The East Division consistently brought in more revenue than the other 2 divisions.000 The line graph below shows earning for the three divisions of Steinberg Lumber Company throughout the 4 quarters in 2002. $6. The West Division consistently out performed the East Division. 33 3 % b.

b. The percent of employees in Marketing is now 11%. The contract with the Canadian developer was secured in the fourth quarter. b. The contract with the Canadian developer was secured in the third quarter. while the percent of employees in Customer Service is 16%. 76 c. and Graphs 26. If the total number of employees is 400. Customer Service and Marketing have the same number of employees. d. During the year 2002.156 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Charts. Suppose that the Customer Service department is expanded by adding 12 new employees. 220 29. The West Division was angry that the other two divisions supplied the lumber for this contract. c. The pie chart shows the percentage of employees in the various departments of Amelia Computer Consultants Inc. d. Tables. The percent of employees in Tech Support is now 53%. Use the information below to answer questions 27 through 29. Sales and Tech Support d. Marketing and Tech Support b. Which of the following statements is true? a. c. The percent of employees in sales is now 20%. Customer Service and Sales c. The East and North Divisions both supplied lumber for this project. Which of the following statements seems to be supported by the data? a. The next big contract will be covered by the West Division. Steinberg Lumber secured a major contract with a developer in Canada. 13% 13% Customer Service 19% Sales Tech Support Marketing 55% 27. Which two departments account for 32% of the employees? a. 110 d. Marketing and Customer Service 28. how many employees are in the Tech Support department? a. 52 b. .

The chart below shows the composition by percent of the human body with respect to various elements. $3 $250 $275 $300 . and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 157 Use the information below to answer questions 30 and 31. c. 30. b.2 pounds 31. about how much will she spend? PRICE CATEGORY CHARACTERISTICS PER FOOT Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Does not support data transmission Supports data transmission speeds up to 4 megabytes per second Supports data transmission speeds up to 16 megabytes per second Supports data transmission speeds up to 20 megabytes per second Supports data transmission speeds up to 100 megabytes per second $.00 a. d.8 pounds 48. d.00 $ 1.75 $ 2.Charts. The chart below shows the cost for different categories of UTP cabling.6 pounds 52. b. c.50 $ 3. If a man weighs 260 pounds. If Athena’s ofﬁce needs to buy 100 feet of UTP cable that can send data at a speed of 75 megabytes per second.75 $ 1. how much does the carbon in his body weigh? ELEMENT PERCENT BY WEIGHT Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Other Elements 18% 10% 65% 7% a.4 pounds 54. 46. Tables.

67 b.021 $54. Which graph could be the graph of Deluxe’s yearly sales for 2000? 1 East West North 2 East West North 3 East West North 4 East West North a. at Deluxe Vacuum Co.50 .651. $2. Below is their sales chart for May.366. d. and Graphs 32.05 c. $23. 1 2 3 4 Use the following information to answer questions 33 and 34.2% of their sales during the second week of May to the Children’s Hospital. How much did Swimming Pool World donate to the children’s hospital? a. $3.72 d. c. Swimming Pool World pledged to donate 3.510. MAY SALES Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 $5.336. During the year 2000..895 $73. Tables.158 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Charts. b. $36. the East and West divisions had equal sales and the North sold the most.891 33.702 $67.

Charts.88 90.16 79.17 79. 92 c. about $300 more b. STUDENTS REGISTERING FOR ART CLASSES Course Stained Glass Beginning Drawing Sculpture Watercolors TOTAL Number of Students 21 48 13 18 100 If this is a representative sampling.18 79.70 0. over a 5-day period in August for Hilo.86 92. RAINFALL YEAR NORMAL Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 0. how many out of 500 students would be expected to choose stained glass for their art course? a.17 79. and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 159 34. Hawaii. about $300 less c.67 91. The chart below shows registration for art classes for Fall 2003. about $500 less 35. 21 b. Tables. about $500 more d. how much would they have donated? a. If Swimming Pool World pledged 1% of sales for the entire month of May.50 . It also includes the total rainfall for the year and the average rainfall for a typical year. The following table shows the rainfall.32 90.09 0.08 0. 210 Use the following information to answer questions 36 through 37.19 0.97 91. 105 d. in inches.15 79.

1.237 inches 37. Approximately what percent of the total shipment is red? a. a.650 38. The chart below shows the colors of replacement parts for pocket PCs. 0. and Graphs 36. 20% c. d.276 inches c.32 inches d. BOXED SET OF REPLACEMENT PARTS Part Color Green Red Blue Yellow TOTAL Number of Pieces 430 425 345 1. the year-to-date record is what percent of the normal reading? a. 30% .160 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Charts.38 inches b. Find the average rainfall for the 5-day period in August. If a person randomly grabbed a part out of the box. Tables. 1 4 1 9 1 12 3 11 39. 13% b. 15% c. 0. The total number of parts shipped is 1. c. 18% b. 115% Use the following information to answer questions 38 through 40. 87% d. b. what is the probability that the part will be blue? a. Using Monday’s reading and rounding off to the nearest one percent. 26% d. 0.650.

774 Ira Taylor Alexis Funes Ira Taylor Mark Smith Alexis Funes Ira Taylor Ira Taylor 41.900 8. 22 3 % b. There are also development fees of 16.269 6. 75% d. 85% . installation of utilities costs $12. what percent of the new parts is defective? BOXED SET OF REPLACEMENT PARTS Part Color Green Red Blue Yellow Number of Defective Pieces 14 10 8 12 a. and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 161 40.023 6. The table lists the size of building lots in the Orange Grove subdivision and the people who are planning to build on those lots. 18% c. 2 3 % Use the following information to answer questions 41 through 43. If the chart below shows the number of replacement parts that were found to be defective. Tables.699 9.Charts.15 cents per square foot of land. 8 2 % d.301 8.004 8.516. The area of the smallest lot listed is approximately what percent of the area of the largest lot listed? a. The city charges impact fees of $3. For each lot. LOT AREA (SQ.879 per lot. FT. 50% c. 25% b.) BUILDER 1 1 2 A B C D E F G 8.

b. what is the greatest amount of money you could get for 2.06/pound $. b. c.00 $20.08/pound $.550 44. $1. b.162 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Charts. 29. $1. Smith pay in development fees for his lot? a. and 900 pounds of plastic? RECYCLER ALUMINUM CARDBOARD GLASS PLASTIC X Y $. A and B. c. 45. $143. ft. Provider A will be cheaper.00 b.735 d.02/pound $.437.07/pound $. offer different rates as shown in the table below. which of the following statements is true? INTERNET SERVICE RATES Provider A B Free Hours 17. The providers will cost the same per month. 31. Provider B will be cheaper. ft.200 pounds of aluminum. 1. Felipe is planning to get an Internet service in order to have access to the World Wide Web.03/pound $.35 c. How much land does Mr. d. c.00 $15. d. Refer to the table below to answer this question: If you take recyclables to the recycler who will pay the most.400 pounds of cardboard. ft.100 pounds of glass.157. ft.07/pound $. d.950 sq. 32. If Felipe plans on using 25 hours of Internet service per month.00 Hourly Charge $1. The answer cannot be determined from the information given.0 a.03/pound a. and Graphs 42. Two service providers. $274. Tables. 3.04/pound $.5 20 Base Charge $20.066 sq. $409 $440 $447 $485 . How much will Mr.765 sq. Taylor own in the Orange Grove subdivision? a.070 sq. 43. 23.

d.000 6.Charts. A graph can be made of the travel times of these waves. 25 min. b.000 7.000 5.000 km? a. 12 min. c. b. d.000 8.000 2. 25 P wave 20 15 10 5 0 S wave Travel Time (minutes) 1. 3 min. How many minutes does it take the S wave to travel 5.) W X Y Z 0. Tables. some of the energy released travels through the ground as waves.21 0. Approximately how many minutes does it take a P wave to travel 8.000 3. Which of the following brands is the least expensive? BRAND PRICE ($) WEIGHT (OZ. . and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 163 46.500 kilometers? a. d. 48.000 Distance from Epicenter (kilometers) 47.56 0.000 4. One type is called the P wave. Two general types of waves are generated. 15 min. When an earthquake occurs. b.000 10.48 0.96 6 15 20 32 a. and the other is called the S wave. c. 6 min. 15 min.000 9. W X Y Z Use the following information to answer questions 47 through 50. 30 min. 20 min. c.

4. 3. b. d. An earthquake occurs at noon. d.000 km. .000 km. How far away is the earthquake? a. c. How far away is an earthquake if the difference in arrival time between the P and S waves is 5 minutes? a.164 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Charts. and Graphs 49.000 km.000 km.000 km. 2. 3. 50. 1. 7. c. 4.000 km.000 km. b. and the recording station receives the S wave at 12:04 P.M. 1.000 km. Tables.

d. ﬁrst add all the scores: 95 + 90 + 90 + 90 + 88 = 453. the mean = 5 = 89. The formula for calculating the mean (average) is: Mean = sum of all values # of values . 90. Next. That is to say. 3. there are two nineties. The mode is still 90 because 90 is the score that occurs the most. b. 70. The number of members attending for the four months was: 54. list all of the scores in order: 82. we see that the median is the same as it was before. 88. a. Here. Thus. 6. The range is now 95 − 88 = 7. Here. for September. d. The fastest swimmer will have the quickest time. respectively. 90.6 90 90 95 − 88 = 7 Thus. Thus. 90. The range is calculated by subtracting the lowest score from the highest score. Thus.89 (Thirty seven and eighty-nine hundredths is the fastest). 90. November. The average of 61 and 70 is 2 = 65. This is accurately displayed in choice b. 7. Tables. October. so we 131 average the middle 2 numbers. To ﬁnd the new mean. 4. The middle score will be the median. The number of values (scores) 2. thus 90 is the mode. and then divide by 5: 453 ÷ 5 = 90. and December. The formula for calculating the mean (average) is: Mean = sum of all values # of values .6. Here. 95.5. The chart below compares the old and new values: OLD NEW 445 Mean Median Mode Range 89 90 90 13 90. is 5. First. the number of members in attendance increases over time. 61. 90. and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 165 ANSWERS 1. The sum of all the values given is: 95 + 90 + 82 + 90 + 88 = 445. c. The number of values is 4. and range and compare them to the original values. 61. 8. d. b. Calculate the new median. Risa is the fastest swimmer. 75. 75. b. Note that choice b is also the only choice that depicts the ascending trend. a. 5. The sum of all the values given is: 54 + 61 + 70 + 75 = 260. The mode is the score that occurs the most. there is an even number of values. 90. 9. choice d is the correct answer. we can calculate the median and see if it is different: 88. the mean = 260 ÷ 4 = 65.Charts. Thus. 37. 95. List all of the values in order: 54. 70. . mode. thus 90 is the median. the range is 95 − 82 = 13.

The difference in dollar amounts used is $1.000 = x 100 . When we combine transportation (9%) and clothing (4%).000 each month: . The M:F (male to female) ratios are as follows: Drama: Journalism: Science Club: Debate: 11 13 12 10 9 11 12 15 ≈ . c. Claims of steady increase over the course of 4 years would be visually represented as 4 bars. spent $750 − $700 = $50 more.000 = $1. Thus. . Housing consumes 30% of the monthly budget.000 17. The line graph in choice d accurately displays the data that is obtained from the bar graph. Thus.000 800 700 800 750 800 900 900 800 1.30 × $4. When compared with the original $1. b.000 consumed. this can be expressed as a percent by equating 200 1. the amount spent on food is 22% − 13% = 9% greater. x = 20%. Thus. 30% of $4.10 × $4. and Graphs 10. d.000 = . The Customer Service Dept. b. 11.166 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Charts. each with greater height than the prior. d. The Sales Dept. 13.85 = 1. 12. d. 15.000 = $400. the Sales Dept.200. so a ratio is the smallest M:F ratio listed. 14. They save 10% of $4. a. (lightest-colored bar) spent $700 on electricity in 2000. . c.2 ≈ . The usage for the Engineering Department increases by $100 each year from 2000 through 2002. (black bar) spent $750 on electricity in 1999.8 is the least value.000 is calculated by multiplying: 30% × $4. 16. 22% is spent on food. the sum is 13%.82 = .000 − $800 = $200. The data is listed below in table format so that you can easily see the information present on both the bar graph and the correct line graph: 1999 2000 2001 2002 Sales Customer Service Engineering 750 750 1.800.8 12 15 Here. None of the other statements are supported by the data. Tables. Over the course of a year they will save $400 per month × 12 months = $4.

d. The gray bars (Online Purchases) increase from 15 to 30 to 60 to 120.000. Note that all dollar amounts in the chart are expressed as. The white bars (In-Store Purchases) decrease from year to year. All other statements are NOT supported by the data in the graph. This question is easily solved by adding a column and row labeled “TOTAL” onto the side and bottom of the given chart: ACTIVITY MALE FEMALE TOTAL Drama Journalism Science Club Debate TOTAL 11 12 9 12 13 10 11 15 24 22 20 27 93 27 Now. only choice b is true. the answer is 10 . Tables. Looking at the graph. choice b.Charts. the amount is $70. Thus.” In 1999. “Revenue in thousands of dollars.000. Thus. b. 21. . This means that 27 out of 100 students are now in the Science Club. the difference is $30. The black bars (Charge Card Interest) increase from 80 to 90 to 100 to 150. The white bars (In-Store Purchases) decrease from 100 to 90 to 80 to 70. 19. 1 1 Since 15 is 10 of 150. In 2002. To write these values as a percent. choice d. Only choice c presents this data correctly. our chart becomes: ACTIVITY MALE FEMALE TOTAL Drama Journalism Science Club Debate TOTAL 11 12 12 12 13 10 15 15 24 22 27 27 100 27 20. 23. you can easily see that 27 students out of the 93 total are taking debate.000. In 2002.000. we see that the line for North (the line with triangular points) is always higher than the line for West (the line with the square points). In 1999. Charge Card Interest totaled $150. Thus. and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 167 18. c. Thus. 100 = 27%. simply move the decimal point two places to the right and add the percent symbol: 29%. The black bars (Charge Card Interest) increase from year to year. 93 ≈ . $30. The gray bars (Online Purchases) increase from year to year. Using the new information.29. only choice d is correct. Online Purchases were at $15. 24. the In-Store Purchases were at $100. 22.000. d.000. b. c. is correct. d.

c. To ﬁnd 3. 32. Since both Marketing and Customer Service are at 13%. and Graphs 25. As compared with the original 60. Graph 4 shows this situation. just move the decimal point 2 places to the right . so we need a graph where the bars for East and West are the same height.00 = $300. a. Tech Support (white) is 55% of the total.18447 ≈ 18. 33.021. Note that only Customer Service and Sales are listed as a choice.4% ≈ 53% 30. . Before the addition of the 12 new customer service representatives. Since we are told that this was a “major” contract. d.168 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Charts.4% ≈ 18% ≈ . b.6% ≈ 13% ≈ . 31. the difference is 20. d. To express this as a per1 27. Since she needs to support a speed of 75 megabytes per second. Carbon accounts for 18% of body weight. Thus.13 × 400 = 52 Marketing: . which might be indicative of having a large contract for that quarter. Customer Service (black) accounts are 13% of the total. so slightly more that 200. and Sales (dark gray) accounts are 19% of the total. a. Rounded to the nearest cent. a.53398 ≈ 53. . During Week 2 they made $73. Thus. cent.032 × $73.336. You can save time when answering a question like this by noticing that 55% will be slightly 1 more than 2 the total of 400. The new amount of customer service employees is 52 + 12 = 64. Together.” This cable cost $3 per foot. d. Thus. so we need a graph that also shows North as having the largest bar in the graph. Note that Category 5 “Supports data transmission speeds up to 100 megabytes per second. the only choice that is true is choice d.12621 ≈ 12. Only choice d makes sense. North sold the most. the statement best supported by the data is choice c: “The contract with the Canadian developer was secured in the third quarter. just multiply by . d.2% of this amount. Tables. these add to 32%.19 × 400 = 76 Tech Support: .5 % ≈ 16% ≈ . The East and West divisions had equal sales.672. this represents 26. choice d is correct.67.336.” The data supports this statement because both the East and North Divisions had a signiﬁcant revenue increase during the third quarter.55 × 400 = 220 The new total is 400 + 12 = 412. only Category 5 UTP cable can be used.021 = $2. so 100 feet will cost 100 × $3. . 20 60 = .13 × 400 = 52 Sales: .55 × 400 = 220.15534 ≈ 15.032: .18 × 260 = 46.3333 33 3 %. Here.333 . 55% of 400 equals 55% × 400 = . The percentages are as follows: Customer Service: Marketing: Sales: Tech Support: 64 412 52 412 76 412 220 412 ≈. 29. either department could be combined with Sales to total 32% of the company employees. 18% of 260 = . the answer is: $2. the revenue in thousand of dollars decreases from 60 to 40.8 pounds. the number of employees in each department was as follows: Customer Service: . . 28.

the year-to-date record is 90.699 out of 9. First. 75% is the best approximation. and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 169 34. the chance of getting blue is 450 out of 1.38 ÷ 5 = .70 + . . Add up the values for the 5 days shown: .88 inches.38. –– = 425 ÷ 1. 40.004 mal point 2 places to the right and add the percent symbol: 2.015.699 9.276 inches.67 that they actually donated. On Monday. Thus. calculate the total by adding up all the dollar amounts: $5. d. Thus the year-to-date value is obviously above 100% of the normal value. Divide this amount by 5 to get the average: 1.650 . 6.200 parts are accounted for. The normal amount is 79.509 = $2. Since the total is 1.650 − 1.004 equals ≈ . . 44 1.02666 .40% ≈ 74%. To convert to a percent. Thus. c. 425 out of 1. .699 ft2. move the deci2 6. d. simply multiply by 5 to see how many students out of 500 will choose stained glass. When randomly picking a part.18 possible correct answer.Charts. and the largest lot is 9.74400 ≈ 74. take 1% of the total by multiplying by . This equals 2 3 %.) 38.650 = 450 1. (Note that 79. choice c. d.09. To express this as a percent. 35.509 Next.336. The smallest lot is 6.15 ≈ 1. Since the sampling is representative. b.7575 . this means that the same trend will be seen when a larger sample is considered.15.650 are defective.01 × $201.09 + . b.895 $73.650 = . .66666 . 430 + 425 + 345 = 1.702 + $67.650 is red. 37.32 = 1.650 ÷ 150 150 = 3 11 .25757. making choice d the only 90.650.19 + . %. Tables. 36. Add a row for the total at the bottom of the given chart: BOXED SET OF REPLACEMENT PARTS Part Color Green Red Blue Yellow TOTAL DEFECTIVE Number of Defective Pieces 14 10 8 12 44 44 parts out of 1.200 = 450 blue parts. decimal point 2 places to the right and add the percent symbol: 25. . c.891 $201. % ≈ 26%. 41.650 39. 1.004 ft2. Simplify the expression: 450 1. just move the 450 1.021 $54.08 + .650 –– = .82% ≈ 115%. This is about $300 less than the $2.01. .1482 ≈ 114. 5 × 21 = 105. c.

48 15 . “. d.07 × 2.900 8.200 = $154.03 × 900 = $27. You are told.04 × 1. 46.400 = $56.50 (for the hourly charge above the free hours).35 in development fees.035 = .” 16.170 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Charts. b.) for each brand: W: X: Y: Z: .023 + 9. d.774 Ira Taylor Alexis Funes Ira Taylor Mark Smith Alexis Funes Ira Taylor Ira Taylor The total amount of land Mr.269 + 6. Look at the chart to see all of the land Mr.100 = $248. Calculate the price per ounce (oz.004 8. This equals $27. Mr.774 = 32. and Graphs 42. Tables. There are also development fees of 16. Thus.004 + 8.699 9.437. Since Recycler Y pays more per pound for all 4 types of recyclables. The aluminum will yield .15 cents = $0. he must pay $.269 6.08 × 3. FT.56 20 .900 = $1. Smith’s lot is 8.900 ft2. Taylor owns: LOT AREA (SQ. choice c.301 8.028 = .032 = . c. The glass will yield .) BUILDER A B C D E F G 8. . When used for 25 hrs mo . all 4 items should be brought there.15 cents per square foot of land. c. The cardboard will yield . Provider B will cost $20 plus 5 × $1. Taylor owns is 8.5 × $1 (for the hourly charge above the free hours).1615.21 6 .50 as well. . .50 = $27.070 ft2.50. brand Y is the least expensive.1615 × 8. These add to $485.023 6. 45.03 Thus. This equals $20 + $7. The plastic will yield .96 32 = . 44. 43. so choice c is the correct answer. Provider A will cost: $20 plus 7.

000 7. a. Hence.000 6. 25 P wave 20 15 10 5 0 S wave Travel Time (minutes) 1. a time of 12 minutes is the best answer.000 5.000 km at a point above time = 10.000 9. b.000 8.000 5.000 10. 25 P wave 20 15 10 5 0 S wave Travel Time (minutes) 1.000 2.000 3.000 Distance from Epicenter (kilometers) 48.000 10. Look down to the horizontal axis to see that this means the earthquake is 1.000 9.000 7. a.000 9.000 6.000 2. The S wave was received 4 minutes after the earthquake. Tables. It travels 8. The solid line represents the S wave.000 4.000 8. and Graphs CHAPTER 9 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 171 47.Charts.000 Distance from Epicenter (kilometers) . This crosses 5.000 km away.000 3.000 4. 25 P wave 20 15 10 5 0 S wave Travel Time (minutes) 1.000 8.000 3.000 7. but below time = 15.000 5. The P wave is the dashed line.000 6.500 km at time = 15 minutes. Locate 4 minutes on the vertical axis of the graph and then move across until you reach the S wave graph.000 Distance from Epicenter (kilometers) 49.000 2.000 10.000 4.

.

000 1 100 1 10 EXAMPLE milli centi deci deca hecto kilo of 1 milligram is 1 1. and volumes are calculated in liters.000 meters Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 173 . The preﬁx of each unit is very important.000 times 1 decameter is 10 meters 1 hectoliter is 100 liters 1 kilometer is 1.000 1 100 of a gram of a meter of 1 centimeter is 1 decigram is of 1 10 of a gram 10 times 100 times 1.= 10 CHAPTER PREFIX Geometry and Measurement UNITS OF MEASUREMENT Metric System In the metric system lengths are calculated in meters. masses are calculated in grams. You should be familiar with the following preﬁxes: MEANING 1 1.

Suppose you wanted to convert 5 feet = 60 in. and so forth.000 ounces is equal to how many tons? a. 4 d. lengths are measured in inches.000 cubic centimeters CONVERTING UNITS Conversion factors are an easy way to convert units. yards.560 square feet 1 ton = 2. and miles. .174 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 10 Geometry and Measurement Customary Units The relationships between the customary units are not as systematic as the relationships between units in the metric system. and 1 ton = 2. You can use the conversion factor 5 ft. Sample question: 32. Below is a chart of common conversions for customary units. 12 in. The 1 ft. you can generate 2 conversion factors: into inches. = 1 foot. cubic feet. feet. using the knowledge that 12 in. × 12 in. = 16 oz.000 pounds 1 gross = 144 units 1 cup = 8 ﬂuid ounces 1 pint = 2 cups 1 quart = 2 pints 1 gallon = 4 quarts 1 pound = 16 ounces 1 liter = 1. COMMON CONVERSIONS 1 foot = 12 inches 3 feet = 1 yard 1 mile = 5. For example. 1 ft. Weights are measured in pounds and ounces. Here. 1 You know that 1 lb. : and 1 ft. Notice that you crossed out the units you didn’t want (feet) and ended up with the units you did want (inches). 8 c. And volumes are measured in cubic inches.280 feet 1 acre = 43. 12 in. 16 b.000 lbs. . 12 in. 1 ft. conversion factor to use would be 12 in. Having the feet in the denominator of this conversion factor lets us cross-out the “ft. In other instances you may want to cross-out inches and convert to feet. Use this information to make a series of conversion factors and multiply: . 1 ft.” unit in the original 1 ft.

000 lb.000 oz. Volume is a measure of the amount of space inside a three-dimensional shape. 16 oz. =1 ton. Notice that your goal is to cross-out the units you DO NOT want and to end up with the units that CALCULATIONS WITH GEOMETRIC FIGURES Perimeter is the distance around a ﬁgure. You should be familiar with the following formulas. 16 oz. Thus.14 or 22 7) Parallelogram: Area = bh h b . 1 lb. × 1 ton 2. Square: Area = s2 s Rectangle: Area = lw w l Circle: Area = πr2 r Circumference = πd = 2πr (π ≈ 3. The interior angles of a quadrilateral (4-sided polygon) add to 360°.Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 175 32.000 lb. the correct answer is d. The perimeter of a circle is called its circumference. Triangle: Area = 2 bh 1 h b The interior angles of a triangle add to 180°.000 oz. × 1 ton 2. × 1 lb. = 32. × you DO want. Area is a measure of the surface of a two-dimensional ﬁgure.

Convert both the length and the width into yards: 204 ft. A = lw: A = 68 yd × 33 yd = 2. Next. × 99 ft.732 square yards c. 20. . A rectangular swimming pool measures 204 feet long and 99 feet wide. = 68 yd. 6.800 square yards The answer is c. 3 ft. What is the area of the pool in square yards? a. 2.244 square yards. = 33 yd. 3 ft. 1. use the area formula for a rectangle. × 1 yd.244 square yards d.176 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 10 Geometry and Measurement Trapezoid: Area = 2 h(b1 + b2) h 1 b2 b1 Pythagorean theorem: a2 + b2 = c2 c b a Right Circular Cylinder: Volume = πr2h r h Total Surface Area = 2πrh + 2πr2 Rectangular Solid: Volume = lwh w h l Total Surface Area = 2(lw) + 2(hw) + 2(lh) Sample Questions: 1.196 square yards b. 1 yd.

you are told that the weight is 6 grams per cubic centimeter. b. 5 in. 13 in. which is the volume of the 6g cm3 cube. 14 ft. to ﬁnd the weight you multiply 1. 16 ft. b. 600 grams c. One cubic centimeter of wood weighs 6 grams. 5 in. d.. 15 ft. 4. and 2 ft. What is the sum of 3 ft. 8 in. The bigger cube has a side = 10. b. c. so V = 103 = 1. 76 L c. 2 in. 760 L d. You need to ﬁnd out how many cm3 there are in the bigger cube.600 L 1 . Recall that for a cube. 7 in. How much would a cube weigh if it measured 10 cm on each side? a. c.000 cm3. d. What is the combined length of all three pipes? a. Thus. 6. How many inches are there in 3 3 yards? a. 11 in. 15 ft. or 6g cm 3 . 10 in. 160 in. c.000 cm3 × = 6. 3. PRACTICE QUESTIONS 1. V = side3.000 grams d. 7 in.000 grams The answer is c.000 grams. 126 in. 76. d. 7. Then.6 L b. choice c is correct. 2. 2 in. 9 in. 7. 12 ft. 14 in..000 mL is equivalent to how many liters? a.? a. 4 ft. 14 ft.. 120 in. Three pieces of pipe measure 5 ft.. 9 in. For this question. 13 ft. and 3 ft. 60 grams b. 60. 12 ft. 10 ft. 168 in.Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 177 2.

280 d. 1 ft. 1 yard = . 2. 5 in.6 cm. 20 yd. 1 a.? 1 in. 8 yd. 51. a. b.360 Use the chart below to answer questions 8 through 10: CUSTOMARY UNITS—METRIC UNIT CONVERSIONS LENGTH 1 2 ft. How many yards are in a mile? a. 1.808 inches is equivalent to how many yards? a. c. 104.14 cm. 1 ft.950 m. 9. d. 4. and 4 yd.178 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 10 Geometry and Measurement 5.970 m.. into centimeters. 6 in. Convert 3 ft. 5. 234 b.400 c. 8. 7.800 m. 2 ft. 78 d. What is the sum of 5 yd..6 km.14 cm. b. 65. 11.500 yd.760 b. 21 yd. 13. . 5. 2 ft.3 cm. is equivalent to how many meters? a.400 m.. 63.54 cm. 2 ft. = 1. 4. b. 1 mi. = 2. 9. 1 ft.9 m. 110 c. 1 d. 20 yd. 36 6. 3 yd. c. 16. c. 21 yd. d.

3 hr.152 km. b.048 km. 2 hr. what is the total amount of time spent at the contractor’s ofﬁce? a. 142 ft. c.280 miles is equal to how many kilometers? a. 11. = 2 pt. 4 qt. What is the child’s temperature in degrees Fahren9 heit? (F = 5 C + 32) a. Danielle cuts off 2 feet of twine for a project. = 1 gal. 3. 25 min. 13. 36 ft. 104° 12.Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 179 10. A child has a temperature of 40 degrees C. 34 ft. 2 ft. Use the conversion chart below to answer questions 14 through 17: LIQUID MEASURE 8 oz. How many ounces are in 2 pints? a. 44 oz. d. If John was waiting for 45 minutes for an appointment with a contractor that lasted 1 hour and 25 minutes. = 2 c. How many feet of twine are left on the roll? a. 103° d. c. b. 1. c. 800 km. 1 qt. 16 oz. 14. 1. 102° c. 10 min. 10 min. b. 2. 2 2 hr. = 1 c. 1 pt. 2 hr. b. d. d. There are 12 yards of twine on a roll. d. 101° b. 64 oz. 32 oz. . 1 c.200 km.

what angle is section c making with wall 2? d c 1 a b 2 a. How many ounces are in 3 gallons? a. c. 96 oz. 18 ft2 d. c. A square with s = 6 cm. . c. 4 cm. 384 oz. c. 6 cm. 15 degrees 45 degrees 55 degrees 90 degrees 19. 9 cm. d. labeled a. c. 48 oz. 91 qt. 192 oz.375 qt. b. b. 182 qt. If all of the containers are ﬁlled to capacity. has the same area of a rectangle with l = 9 cm. What is the area of the rectangle? a. A rotating door. respectively. 20 ft2 20. 6 ft2 b. how many will be ﬁlled? a. b. If section a is making a 45 degree angle with wall 1. b. 12 ft2 c. pictured below. 250 18. 364 oz. 22.180 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 10 Geometry and Measurement 15. 50 b. and d. What is the width of the rectangle? a. is equivalent to how many quarts? a. b. 11. has 4 sections. 16. A rectangle has 2 sides equaling 6 ft and 1 yd. d. d. 17.75 qt. 8 cm. d. A 25-gallon tub of ﬂuid will be poured into containers that hold half of a quart. 200 d. 100 c.

06 acres 23. 8. 3π cm. What is the area of each tile? a.2 b. 2 35 square inches d. b. 160 yards c. 3π cm. Approximately how many acres is this? (1 acre = 43. 70° 110° 140° 290° . 11.560 square feet. 6π cm. the angle x equals how many degrees? 40° 2 4 8 11 11 3 x° a. A rectangular tract of land measures 860 feet by 560 feet. Marguerite is redoing her bathroom ﬂoor. 22.06 acres c. c.8 acres b. 240 yards d.Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 181 21. 3 35 square inches 24. 6π cm. 1 35 square inches b. d.) a. c. Each imported tile measures 1 7 in. If the area of a circle is 9π cm2. 40 yards b. What is the perimeter of the pool in yards? a. 10. 280 yards 25. what is the circumference? a. In the diagram. 12. 1 35 square inches c.2 d. by 1 5 in. A rectangular swimming pool measures 160 feet long and 80 feet wide.5 acres d.

36 squares 42 squares 70 squares 72 squares 28. 80 square inches b. 24 units . 16 square inches 27. What is the perimeter of the polygon? a. 360 tiles d. what is its surface area? a.182 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 10 Geometry and Measurement 26. d. 24 square inches d. he folds each side up to make the box. 20 units d. To ﬁnish. 12 units c. 40 square inches c. Giorgio is making a box. c. 180 tiles b. b. What is the box’s volume? 10 7 2 a. 8 units b. 720 tiles Refer to the polygon below to answer questions 29 and 30: 2 2 2 2 2 2 29. He starts with a 10 × 7 rectangle. If the volume of a cube is 8 cubic inches. then cuts 2 × 2 squares out of each corner. 225 tiles c. How many six-inch square tiles are needed to tile the ﬂoor in a room that is 12 feet by 15 feet? a.

What is the measure of angle C in the following triangle? C a. d.96 ft.527 70. If the length of a walker’s stride is 1. d.139 32.Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 183 30. 8 square units b. 20 square units d. b. c.96 feet. approximately how many steps does she take to walk a marathon? 1. a. The standard distance of a marathon is 26.336 271. 90° 60° 45° 25° 33. 12 square units c. How much greater is the area of circle B? B A 3 5 a. What is the area of the polygon? a. b.2 miles. c. 23. 24 square units 31.580 138. b. d. 16π square units 9π square units 25π square units 14π square units . c.

75 grams . c. The other two angles show variable expressions. Two angles in quadrilateral ABCD have their measures indicated. 375 grams d. d.184 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 10 Geometry and Measurement 34. One cubic centimeter of clay weighs 3 grams. 12 square units 35. A E B 4 D C –– – ABCD is a square and E is the midpoint of AB. a. 6 square units c. 8 square units d. How much would a cube weigh if it measured 5 cm on each side? a. b. 15 grams b. What is x? A 100° B (2x + 20)° 90° D x° C a. Find the area of the shaded region. 125 grams c. 50° 60° 70° 80° 36. 4 square units b.

40 c. 13 d. The perimeter of ΔABC is how much greater than the perimeter of ΔA′B′C′? a. 10 b. 30 b. The area of ΔABC is how much greater than the area of ΔA′B′C′? a. 37. 45 d. 40 c. What is the value of X in the ﬁgure below? √10 1 X a. 60 d. c. a. 12 c.Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 185 Use the information and diagram below to answer questions 37 through 39: A A′ 5 B 24 C B′ C′ Note: All of the sides of ΔA′B′C′ are half the value of the sides of ΔABC. 26 38. 30 b. d. 90 40. Calculate the length of side A′C′ in triangle ΔA′B′C′. b. 60 39. 3 4 5 6 .

8. 12.186 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 10 Geometry and Measurement 41. 150π . c. c. d. d. What is the surface area of the ﬂattened-out cylinder? (Use 3.) 60° d=6 a.14 for π. b.54 square inches c. Find the area of the shaded portion in the ﬁgure below. how many miles will the point on the outer edge of the wheel travel in one hour? a. A cylindrical can measures 4. What is the area of the shaded part of the circle below if the diameter is 6 inches? (Use 3. 112π d.1 square inches d. 13.640 revolutions per minute. 3. A point on the outer edge of a wheel is 2. 4.26 square inches 60 square inches 36 square inches 1 43.5 feet from the axis of rotation.14 for π) a. 100π c. Its circular bases of 2 inch radii are removed. b.2 inches in height. If the wheel spins at a full rate of 2. and the cylinder ﬂattened out. π π-1 2−π 4−π 42.71 square inches 28.297 square inches b. 75π b. r=1 a.188 square inches 44.

6π + 12 c. 8 inches c. b. c. 6 inches d.Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 187 45. 20 square units 25 square units 40 square units 44 square units 48. A triangle has sides that are consecutive even integers. 10 inches b. The perimeter of the triangle is 24 inches. d. What is the area of the following shaded triangle? 10 5 6 a.5? (Use 22 π= 7) a. c. if the radius of the half-circle is 3 and the height of the triangle is 4? a. What is the total area of the shape. In the diagram. a half-circle is laid adjacent to a triangle. 6(π+ 4) b. 4 inches . 7 units 11 units 22 units 29 units 46. d. What is the length of the shortest side? a. b. 9π 2 + 12 47. 6π + 24 d. What is the perimeter of the shaded area if the shape is a quarter-circle with a radius of 3.

280 feet.188 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 10 Geometry and Measurement 49. and π = a. A bike wheel has a radius of 12 inches. d. In the following diagram. c. b. 70 b.) 50. a circle of area 100π square inches is inscribed in a square. 84 c. 10 inches 20 inches 40 inches 100 inches 22 7 . 840 . 120 d. How many revolutions will it take to cover 1 mile? (Use 1 mile = 5. What is – –– the length of AB? A B D C a.

9. 15 ft. 1 yd. 24 in. 2 ft. 24 in. First. + 5 in. 10 ft. The chart says that 1 yd. b. so you can write the conversion factor as multiply: 1. d. × 1 in. Next. use the conversion factor = 78 yd..280 ft. 7 in.280 feet (memorize this).280 mi. 1 in. 2 in. 8. . 76. Since 1 in. First. × 1 yd. 1. 1 ft. and multiply: 3 3 yd. add up all of the given values: 3 ft. 2. 4 ft. = 16 ft. convert 3 ft. and multiand = 4.500 yd.. choice d. a. a. b. and multiply: 5.6 km. + 2 in. × . 2. × 1 yd. × 1 in. + 1 ft. 1 3 yd. 2. . c. add up all of the given values: 5 ft. Thus.6 km. so 12 ft. 1. 1 mi. Next. note that 14 in.54 cm. 1 ft. First. note that 4 yd. = 1 yd. Since there are 3 feet per yard. = 1.54 cm. Next. into 36 in. 1 L = 1000 mL so you can use the conversion factor liters. 6 in.9 m. 1 yd. use the conversion factor 1 yd. + 2 ft. 8 in. 20 yd. 9 in. and multiply: 5. is the same as 4 yd. 14 in. add up all the values: 5 yd.6 km. = 2 ft. note that 24 in. = 2. a. Since there are 36 inches per yard. 4 ft can be converted to 21 yd.. c. d. 36 in. 2 ft.14 cm. 12 ft. 2 ft. so you can write the conversion factor as ply: 5. as this will help you combine units. 20 yd. 1L 1. = 41 in. 8 yd. = 76 L. = 10 3 yd.048 km. Next.54 cm. = 1. 4 ft.760 yd.. 1 yd.000 mL 4. .Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 189 ANSWERS 1.950 m. 1 yd. 1 6. 1L 1. use the information given in the chart to make a conversion factor. Since there are 36 inches per yard. First. . Next.000 mL × 2.. 5 in. note that 4 ft. × = 2. 1 mile equals 5. multiply: 41 in. 5 in. 36 in.9 m. you make a conversion factor with inches in the denominator: = 104. + 3 ft.808 in. is equivalent to 14 ft. The chart says that 1 mi. 1 yd. 3 ft. use the conversion factor 36 in. 7. 3.000 mL to convert the milliliters into 1 yd. Next. This means 15 ft. = . 10. = 1 ft. and you want to end up with cm. = 360 3 36 in. 3 ft. × 36 in. 1 + 4 yd.. 2 ft. c. 7 in. = 120 in. 14 in. 2 in.9 m. 1 mi.

note that 70 min. Line up the units and add: 45 min. 2 pt. and r = 3. First. 1 c. × up with ounces (oz. The area of the square is A = s2 = 62 = 36 square cm. 14. First. it will then ﬁll 200 18. and 1 5 in.560 ft2 and multiply: 481. + 1 hr. (Note that all of the answer choices are in ft2. 10 min. 2 c. c. × 1 c. you multiply: 2 pt. C = 2πr = 2π × 3 = 6π cm. 36 = 9 × w.600 ft2 × 1 acre 43. so A = lw = 860 ft. you can make conversion factors where you will cross-off ounces and end × 1 pt. 4 qt. = 32 oz.). 1 gal. 9 9 = 36 feet at the start. Substituting this into the area formula. The area of a rectangle is lw. . First. × 1 gal. × 560 ft.) into feet: 1 yd. 23. 1 qt. (F = 5 C + 32) becomes F = 5 (40) + 32 = (9)(8) + 32 = 72 + 32 = 104 degrees Fahrenheit. you can see that the angle section c makes with wall 2 must also be 45°. = 2 hr. d. c.2 = 9 4 7 in. convert the width (1 yd. × 2 pt. Using the chart. Circumference. b. 3 ft. 70 min.560 ft2 in. Remember that perimeters and circumferences are measured in units (like cm. Next. 21. along with l = 9 we get: A = lw. = 384 oz. Thus. If A = πr2. 19.): 364 oz. c. = 364 32 = 11. = 3 ft.) 20.190 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 10 Geometry and Measurement 11. = 481. quart containers. Area = lw. 12. 25 min. convert the gallons into quarts: 25 1 2 -quart 8 oz.06 acres. = 100 qt. convert the 12 yards into feet: 12 yd.375 qt. 1 hr. Next. 1 pt. you can make conversion factors where you will cross-off gallons and end 4 qt. Using the chart. calculate the area in square feet. × 2 c. × up with quarts (qt. 11 2 35 square inches. convert the mixed numbers to improper fractions: 1 7 in. 15. 2 c. Next. you can make conversion factors where you will cross-off pints and end up with ounces (oz. First. You are told that Area = 9π. × If the ﬂuid will ﬁll 100 one- containers. d. a. If you draw a line on the diagram to denote the 45° angle mentioned.) and areas are measured in square units (like cm2). w = 36 ÷ 9 = 4 cm. 10 min. b. a. Recall that opposite angles formed by the intersection of two straight lines are equal: d 45° 1 a 45° b 2 c This means that section c makes a 45° angle with wall 2. gal. b. 16. d. 17. then πr2= 9π.): 3 gal. 1 yd. × 2 feet off. 22. b. Substitute 40 in for C in the given equation. use these fractions in the formula: Area = lw = 9 7 × 9 5 = 81 35 in. 13. 1 hr. so 34 feet are left. so converting to feet is a good idea. Using the chart. = = 9 7 2 1 acre 43. a. Thus. = 1 hr.056 acres ≈ 11. Danielle cuts × 8 oz. 70 min. use A = lw = 6 × 3 = 18 ft2. use the conversion factor ≈ 11. 1 pt. First. Next. Next. 8 oz. 1 c. × 1 qt. The area of the rectangle must then also be 36 cm2. Thus.600 ft2.

y + y + 40° = 180°. by 1 2 ft. by 6 in. 26. Fill in the missing sides: 2 2 6 2 2 2 6 Next. convert to yards by multiplying 480 with the conversion factor 3 ft. 2y + 40° = 180°. Since there are six faces. Angles x and y form a complete circle (360°). you can see that you could get 24 tiles across the ﬂoor. × 3 ft. 12 ft. 28. The volume formula for a cube is V = s3. x = 360° − y° = 360° − 70° = 290°. the total surface area is 6 × 4 square inches = 24 square inches. or 1 2 ft. . Since each tile is 6 in. 2y = 140°. The surface area of one face is s2 = 22 = 4 square inches. Next. 24 tiles across 15 ft. ﬂoor. Thus. 27. add up all the sides: P = 6 + 6 + 6(2) = 12 + 12 = 24 units. Now. : 480 ft. Draw yourself a rectangle to represent the 12 ft. The curved markings indicate that the 2 bottom angles are equal. so here s3 = 8 and s = 2 in. the length of the box is 3. d. and the width is 6.. × 15 ft.. The volume is 3 × 6 × 2. or 36. = 160 yd. you just multiply 24 by 30 to get the total tiles needed: 24 × 30 = 720. c. 25. a. d. We can call these 2 equal angles y. Thus. b. The height is 2: 3 2 6 1 yd. The perimeter of a rectangle is the sum of all its sides: 160 + 160 + 80 + 80 = 480 feet. When the 2 × 2 squares are cut out. and 30 tiles going down. d. y = 70°. 1 yd. 30 tiles going down 29.Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 191 24.

the perimeter of ΔA′B′C′ is 5 + 12 + 13= 30. the 2 equal angles must add to 180° − 90° = 90°. ––– 37. 34. Divide by 3 to get x = 50. or 12. so 26. Divide up the ﬁgure into squares as shown below: 2 2 2 2 2 2 31. c. You can use the Pythagorean theorem to solve for the hypotenuse: a2 + b2 = c2 becomes 52 + 122 = c2. The two lines through the sides of the triangle indicate that they are equal. ΔA′B′C′ is a 5-12-13 right triangle (see answer explanation for question 37) and ΔABC is double that. or 10-24-26. The ﬁgure is composed of 6 squares. d. the difference is 60 − 30 = 30. the difference is 120 − 30 = 90 units. Circle A then is π32 or 9π and circle B is π52 or 25π. and the perimeter of ΔABC is twice that. 33. Set up an equation. (Remember.579. or 60.6. then 25 + 144 = c2. The area of the triangle is 2 bh = 2 (4)(4) = 8 square units. the volume = side3. Subtract 210 from both sides to get 3x = 150. Since the interior angles of a triangle add to 180°. B′C′ will be half that. For this question. Thus. 35. Thus. angle C = 45°. you already know that the weight is cm3 You need to ﬁnd out how many there are in the given cube. For a cube. ΔA′B′C′ is a right triangle with legs equaling 5 and 12. Thus. 1 1 1 1 .280 feet. Convert 26.96 feet per step to get 70. which is 3x + 210 = 360. and its height is 10. so the area of circle B is 16π greater than circle A. The base of ΔA′B′C′ is 24. 38.336 by 1. Remember the formula for ﬁguring out the area of a circle: A = πr2. all the angles added up inside a four-sided ﬁgure equals 360°): 90 + 100 + x + 2x + 20 = 360. 3g The given cube has a side = 5. so V = 53 = 5 × 5 × 5 = 125. a. Divide 138. To ﬁnd the area of the shaded region.192 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 10 Geometry and Measurement 30. The area of each square is s2 = 22 = 4.2 miles = 138. Round to the nearest whole number to get 70. a. Apply the area formula: A = 2 bh = 2 (24)(10) = 120 units2. and its height is 5. a. or 10-24-26. Thus. The base of ΔABC is 12. and the area of the square is s2 = 42 = 16 square units. Apply the area formula: A = 2 bh = 2 (12)(5) = 30 units2. the area of the shaded region is 16 − 8 = 8 square units. Thus. ΔA′B′C′ is a 5-12-13 right triangle (see answer explanation for question 37) and ΔABC is double that. Then. b. to ﬁnd the weight you multiply 125 cm3 × cm3 = 375 grams for the answer. 39.2 miles to feet. c. so c = 13. Thus. and divide by the length of the walker’s stride to ﬁnd how many steps she takes in a marathon: 1 mile = 5. each angle will be equal to 45°. d. then 169 = c2. c. Thus the total area is 6 × 4 = 24 square units. 32. which is the volume of the cube. 3g cm3 .336 feet. c. Thus. simply subtract the area of the triangle from the area 1 1 of the square. The right angle is 90° and the 2 angles opposite the 2 equal sides will be equal. Since BC = 24. 36.580 steps.

a. d. the answer is 4 − π. So.26 by 6 to get 4. 44.640 × 5π feet per minute = 13. b.280 × = 840 revolutions. the width of the rectangle is 3. Thus. You can ﬁnd the outer edge (circumference) by using C =2πr = 2( 7 )(1) = Divide 5. 1 45. Thus. its radius must be 10 inches (because A = πr2 and here A ––– = 100π). h. A = 2 (5)(8) = 20 square units.Geometry and Measurement CHAPTER 10 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 193 40. and h2 = 64. Since the height was 4. Then. The linear (straight) lengths are radii. Multiplying by 60 to ﬁnd the distance traveled in one hour. d.2 × 3. + 12.280 feet by 7 44 44 7 22 44 7 1 1 ft.280 ÷ = 5. a. 47.2 in. 5 is plugged in for the base and 8 for the height in the area equation A = 2 bh. the base must be 6. if it was a whole circle. or 3. a side of the square is 2. the distance that the point travels in one rotation is the length of the circumference of the circle. so X 2 = 9. and s = 6. the point travels 2. notice there are 360° in a circle and 60° is one-sixth that ( 360 = 6 ). which equals 28.280 feet to convert to miles. the area of a half-circle is Adding gives 9π 2 1 1 9π 2. Since the circumference of the bases was C = 2πr = 2 × 3. Then. or 29. Dividing by 5. is πr2. You can use the Pythagorean theorem to solve for the missing leg: a2 + b2 = c2 becomes 12 + X 2 = ( 10)2. c.5) = 5π feet.2 in. ﬁnd the area of the circle: Area = πr2. Because the radius is 1. 46. you would be wise to convert the 12 in. using the Pythagorean theorem: a2 + b2 = c2 becomes 62 + h2 = 102. Therefore.280 feet. An algebraic equation can be used to solve this problem. Since the wheel spins at 2. d. Since you are told to use 1 mile = 5. Therefore. The outer edge of the wheel is in contact with the ground. equals 8.5). Therefore. First.. so the solution is simply 22 + 2(3. you simply divide 28.188 in2.200π feet per minute. The shortest side can be denoted s. The area of the square is s2 = 22 = 4. 22 22 = 2( 7 )(3. Therefore. radius to 1 ft. or 2πr = 2π(2.26 square inches.000π feet per hour. AB is twice the radius. d. Thus.14 = 13. The shaded area is then only one-sixth the area of the total circle. and the area of the circle is πr2 = π12 = π.5 feet. The area of the circle.200π = 792. 49. feet to ﬁnd the number of revolutions in 1 mile: 5. .14 × 1 2 60 1 = 3. If the circle is 100π square inches.14 in. the area of the new rectangular ﬁgure is lw = 4. the area of the triangle is 2 bh = 2 (4 × 6) = 12. d. so it is 20 inches. you are left with a ﬂat rectangle. then 36 + h2 = 100. 48. you get 60 × 13. which equals 9π. so the height. The shaded area is the difference between the area of the square and the circle. The point lies on the circumference of a circle with a radius of 2. d. To get the height of the triangle (h). 41. 50.14 × 9. s + (s + 2) + (s + 4) = 24. 43. and it is the same as half the base of the triangle. Because the radius of the hemisphere is 3.640 revolutions per minute. the length of the rectangle is 4. The curved length of the perimeter is one quarter of the circumference of a full circle: 4 2πr.5) = 7 × 7 = 22.14 in. Therefore. 3s + 6 = 24. each time it revolves it covers 44 7 44 7 ft. a. and X = 3. 42. you get 150π miles per hour. After removing the circular bases.71 square inches. then 1 + X 2 = 10.

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Each test should take one hour to complete.= 11 CHAPTER Practice Test 1 T his chapter contains your ﬁrst practice test. After reviewing the chapters in this book you should be able to put all that you have learned together and take these sample examinations. Then try it again: Take Practice Test 2 in the next chapter. Take Practice Test 1. Be sure to re-evaluate the questions you answered incorrectly by going back and studying the necessary material from earlier chapters. Good luck! Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 11 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 195 .

5 in. 3 in. 2 ft. 1 ft. 175 in. markers will be placed along a roadway at regular . b. 20 d. 14 yd. 2 ft. 72 c.05 in thick.. how many such markers will be used? a.. how thick would a stack of 350 such pieces of foam be? a. 11 in. b. how many nails will it take to build 7 boxes? a. and 4 yd. d. 56 d. 5 in. 100 c. 7.000 b. 1. 5 yd. 30% of what number equals 60% of 9. b. 64 b. d.000 in. When these boards are laid end to end. c. c. 200 6.2-mile intervals.620 3. 63 . During a race. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below. 2. ___ a. If it takes 27 nails to build 3 boxes. 14 yd. 2 ft. c.000? a. what is their combined length? a. 1 ft. 13 yd. 18. 4 in. 2 in. 5. 5. 1 ft.560 feet long. 2. If the entire roadway is 10. Three pieces of wood measure 4 yd. 700 in.196 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 11 Practice Test 1 1. lengthwise. 10 b. d.400 c. 13 yd. 17. 4. If a piece of packaging foam is .400 d.

80 bags d. 2π 4π 2π + 8 4π + 16 12. 25% 1 b. 33 3 % c.Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 11 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 197 7. The average purchase price (arithmetic mean) of four shirts is $9. 154 bags 10. If one shirt was priced at $15. c. 65° 11. ISS d. 16 bags c. $10 and $4 8. GSS c. What percent of a. what might be the prices of the other 2 shirts? a. $9 and $9 d. Use (F = 5 C + 32) to convert 15° C into the equivalent Fahrenheit temperature. 133 3 % 3 8 is 2 ? 1 9. d. 75% 1 d. and another at $7. b. GRR b. under 10 bags b. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below. a. 59° b. A large bag of cement mix weighs 38 2 pounds. $7 and $15 c. $4 and $3 b. CMM EOO GQQ ______ KUU a. ITT . How many quarter-pound bags of mix can be made from this large bag? a. 62° d. 60° c. What is the perimeter of the shaded area if the shape is a quarter circle with a radius of 8? 9 1 a.

400 c. A rod that is 3. 177 17.000 times shorter b. 20. how many will be ﬁlled? a. is how much shorter than a rod that is 7 × 1014 cm. 168 d. 14. How many envelopes does he still have to ﬁll? a. d. 50. c. 144 d. and 208. which could have been the score of her ﬁfth game? a. Jen’s median bowling score is greater than her mean bowling score for ﬁve tournament games. If the scores of the ﬁrst four games were 140. 36 b. he completed 7 of the remainder. 700 16. 130 b. 20. 80 oz. 192. 40 oz. 10 oz. 145 c. he completed 8 of the total.000 times shorter c. 163. 4.000. 20 oz. 288 1 . 500 d.5 × 107 cm.000. How many ounces are in 5 pints? a. b. Joel had to insert form letters into 800 envelopes. 2 In the second hour.000 times shorter d. If all of the containers are ﬁlled to capacity. 72 c.? a. In the ﬁrst hour. An 18-gallon barrel of liquid will be poured into containers that each hold half of a pint of ﬂuid.000 times shorter 15. 300 b.198 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 11 Practice Test 1 13.

$10. When Christian and Henrico work together they can complete a task in 6 hours. $1. Juliet made $12.080 b. 15 d. If the area of a circle is 16π square inches. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below. d. 27 are defective. what is the circumference? a. c. When Christian works alone he can complete the same task in 10 hours. b. none of the above 22. b. 8 and 9 d. 7 and 8 c. 8π inches d. If a nail is chosen at random. 19. After 3 years. 10 21. 2π inches b. 4π inches c.Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 11 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 199 18. what is the dollar amount of the interest earned? a. 27 100 91 100 27 300 91 300 20. what is the probability that it will not be defective? a. In a box of 300 nails. 45 b.800 c. How long would it take for Henrico to complete the task alone? a. The square root of 52 is between which two numbers? a. $10.080 23. 6 and 7 b. c. d.000 and put 4 of that amount into an account that earned yearly interest at a rate of 4%. $1. 30 c.800 d. __ __ a. 12π inches 3 .

48 L 26. then what is the new amount of money in the account? a. 28.240 1 . How many liters are in the container now? a. UAV b. ﬁlling the container to full capacity. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below. Bolts cost $4 per 10 dozen and will be sold for 10¢ each. A container was ﬁlled 3 of the way with ﬂuid. b. 100% d. UAT c.060 c. ____ a. TAS d. 200% b. $240 d. If interest is compounded semiannually at 2% for 6 months. TAT 25. What is the rate of proﬁt? a. $6. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below.200 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 11 Practice Test 1 24. 150% c. 12 L b. 75% 27. 30 L c. $6. $6. 36 L d. QAR RAS SAT TAU ______ a. d.000 is deposited into an account. c. $120 b. Damian added 24 liters more.

Both b and c are true. The fox population doubled every year since 1999. Since then. 30 d. Use this information to answer questions 29 through 32. Which statement might explain the data presented in the graph? a. The owls were able to ﬂy away from the ﬁre. foxes. Factors independent of the ﬁre are causing a steady decline in the owl population. b. c. 50% 3 c. thus. 20 c. A steep decline in the owl population can be attributed to illness. c. 1 3% . and owls were reported during the years following the ﬁre. b. The growth of the deer population from 2001–2002 was how much greater than the growth of the fox population for the same year? a. and. The deer population doubled every year since 2000. Which of the following statements appears to be true for the years shown? a. What was the percent increase in deer from 1999–2000? 1 a.Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 11 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 201 A forest ﬁre engulfed the Wildlife Preserve in Blackhill County in 1998. 10 b. The owl population was greatly reduced by the ﬁre. 40 32. 31. 30. The owl population showed neither a steady increase nor decrease. Below is a graph of how many deer. the trend shows a steady increase in this population during the years of recovery. 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Number of animals deer foxes owls 1999 2000 Year 2001 2002 29. d. d. thus the owl population does not show the pattern of recovery that the deer and fox population exhibit. 4 % d. park rangers have kept track of the number of forest animals living in the forest. 33 3 % b.

) a. b. 8. 8. 9. b. 8. 16 acres c. 9. The largest sector of the pie chart below has a central angle equal to how many degrees? a. 9 a. 9 d. 8 in.5 36. 64 in. 9. has the same area of a rectangle with width = 4 in. 12 in. 7. What is the length of the rectangle? a. c. 5. What is the area in acres? (1 acre = 43. 7 b. 20 acres 35.202 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 11 Practice Test 1 33.560 square feet. What is the mode of the following numbers? 12. d. 14 acres b. 18 acres d. 15 degrees 45 degrees 90 degrees 180 degrees . c. A square with sides = 8 in.375 c. 16 in.782 feet. A rectangular tract of land measures 440 feet by 1. 34. d.

For the ﬁrst 2 miles. b.540 cm3. and 1 ﬁve-dollar bill. For the next 3 miles. 4 twenty-dollar bills. If Martin exchanges 120 quarters. 300 dimes. and 1 ﬁve-dollar bill. 10 cm. his pace was 3 mph. 6. 7. c. 2 ten-dollar bills. and 1 ﬁve-dollar bill.2 mph 2 d. 2 twenty-dollar bills. 1 ﬁfty-dollar bills. 10π cm. For the remainder of his jog.4 cm. Which 2 months had the same number of members attending? 50 40 30 20 10 0 Nov Dec Jan Feb a. 2 3 mph . his pace was 5 mph. c.4π cm. 3 twenty-dollar bills. The chart below shows the monthly attendance for union meetings over the course of 4 months. d. If the radius of a cylindrical tank is 7 cm.Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 11 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 203 37. 15.86 mph c. 2 ﬁfty-dollar bills and 1 twenty-dollar bill. d. 39. 1 ten-dollar bill. 4. 15. b. what is the height in cm? a. Brian jogged 12 miles. his pace was 4 mph. he may get a. c. b. 600 nickels. and 500 pennies for bills. What was his average speed? a. 40.2 mph b. November and December December and February November and February December and January 38. d. and its volume is 1.

a.60 × 9. 4 ft. Next. Divide 38 2 by 4 . 9. $22 is accounted for (one shirt was $15. Substitute 15° C in for the variable C in the given equation. + 4 yd. First. 3.2 miles: 2 ÷ .000) . you get: 38.5. so 13 yd.) Of the $36 total.2 = 10. solve + 8 = 4π + 16. d. and that 3 ft. simply multiply the thickness of each piece of foam by the total number of pieces. 4 ft. 5 in. 4 in. d. divide the total 2 mile distance by the interval. you can rewrite the entire length as 14 yd. 13 yd.30 = 18. You can reduce the ﬁrst fraction: 1 = 7 and then crossmultiply: 1(x) = 9(7). d.000. the total perimeter = 4π + 8 . By expressing 38 2 as its equivalent 38. = 1 2. 2.. a. 11. so x = 63. (Note that the sum of all 4 shirts must equal $36 in order for the average to equal 9: Average = sum ÷ 4 = 36 ÷ 4 = 9. 6. To solve. If the cost of 4 shirts averaged out to $9. Choice d is correct. 8. d. Thus. 12 in. 7.560 feet = 2 miles. Ultimately.204 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 11 Practice Test 1 ANSWERS 1. The perimeter of the curved length is a quarter of the circumference of a whole circle when r = 8. 5. d. you need to ﬁnd the answer that is 4 shaded. (F = 5 C + 32) becomes F = 5 (15) + 32 = (9)(3) + 32 = 27 + 32 = 59 degrees Fahrenheit. 5 yd. Only choice d adds to $14. 3 in. . The amount of the shaded area changes from 1 1 1 2 1 4 1 2 . and another $7).30 × x = . 4. To solve.000?” can be written mathematically as . line up all of the units and add: 4 yd.000.280 feet = 1 mile. leaving $14 unaccounted for. a. Thus. d. is the same as 13 yd. 5 ft. First. a. followed by 2 shaded.60)(9. d. Thus. = 1 ft. 5.5 × 4 1 = 154 10. so 10.. Recall that “What percent” can be expressed as 1 2 ?” x 100 . Dividing both sides by 6 yields x = bags. 27 x 9 x The question.5 ÷ = 38. “30% of what number equals 60% of 9. so 5 ft. “What percent of x 800 3 8 is can be expressed as: 1 1 x 100 · 3 8 = 1 2. This simpliﬁes to 3 · 1 1 133 3 %. 12 in. = 1 yd. . 1 4 9 ×2×π×r= 1 4 ×2×π×8= 4π. Dividing both sides by . Cross-multiplying yields 6 × 1 4 9 x = 800. + 2 ft. 2 ft.. The 2 straight edges are radii and are each 8 units long.30 = 5.05 × 350 = 17.30 will yield x= (. 1 ft. note that 12 in. 2 ft. Since C = 2πr and you want a quarter of this value.5 in. 1 ft. set up a proportion: 3 = 7 .400 . = 1 yd. then the sum of all four shirts was 4 × 9 = $36.

1 15 per hour (both men) − 1 15 3 30 per hour (just Christian) = 2 30 = per hour (just Henrico). a. c. 177 is the only one which has a median greater than the mean: Median = 140 163 177 192 208 Mean = (140 + 163 + 177 + 192 + 208) ÷ 5 = 880 ÷ 5 = 176 17. = 8 oz. you multiply: 5 pt. 1 qt. = 80 oz. Using the knowledge that 1 gal. you must remember that the dividends are ultimately multiplied together in the end. He then had 800 − 100 = 700 left to ﬁll. d. The second segment is simply a reverse of the other two. just divide: 2 c. 1 1 15. Convert both fractions into thirtieths. Hint: Treat their division like two separate division operations.Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 11 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 205 12. × for 1 2 -pints. Thus. = 2 pt. A score of 168 would give a mean of 174 and a median of 168. To ﬁnd the solution. simply subtract the exponents.. The ﬁrst and third segments are repeated. 1 gal. During the ﬁrst hour he ﬁlled 8 of the 800: 8 × 800 = 2 100. the ﬁrst letter in the missing triplet is I. try out each answer choice to see if it works.. × 14. 7 ÷ 3. b. you can use a series of conversion factors to eliminate pints and keep ounces. = 144 pints. BUT. Using the knowledge that 1 pt. In the second hour he ﬁlled 7 of the remaining 2 700. the answer is ISS. Thus. = 2 c. d. A score of 145 would give a mean of 169 and a median of 163. 19. 7× 3. and 1 c. 1014 × 8 oz. . Thus. Christian can complete of the task in 1 hour. Since Henrico completes of the task per hour. After two hours. c. c. The median is found by listing all of the numbers in order and taking the middle value. Joel has 700 − 200 = 500 remaining. then 300 − 27 = 273 are not defective. (You assume this because he completes the 1 5 30 entire task in 10 hours.) and keep the units you do want: 18 gal. The ﬁrst letter of each triplet changes by skipping 1 letter : C E G I K. 4 qt. × 2 pt. Thus. to divide 1014 by 107.) Together. = 4 qt. d. A score of 130 would give a mean of 167 and a median of 163. Also. To ﬁnd how many “times shorter” the ﬁrst rod is. The last 2 letters of each triplet follow the same pattern (skip 1 letter): MM OO QQ UU. Next. 16. the probability of selecting a nail that is not defective will be 273 out of 300: 273 300 = 91 100 . 18. 1 10 20. remember you are looking 144 pints will ﬁll 288 half-pint containers. SS 13. This is an alternating series. Christian and Henrico complete 6 of the task in 1 hour. The mean is found by adding up the numbers and dividing by the number of values.000 times shorter. 1 pt. you can generate a series of conversion factors and multiply them so that you can cross out the units you do not want (gal. If 27 of the 300 are defective.5 × 107 = 2 × 1014−7 = 2 × 107 = 20. Joel starts with 800 envelopes to ﬁll. A score of 177 would give a mean of 176 and a median of 177. 7 × 700 = 200 ﬁlled in the second hour.000. 1 c. d.5 and 1014 ÷ 107. and 1 qt. it will take him 15 hours to complete the entire task when working alone.

“ 3 of what number is 24?” 2 3 2 This can be expressed mathematically as × x = 24. Since the 10 dozen cost $4. 16 = r2 . both b and c are true statements. Use the formula: I = PRT. and time is in years.000)(. showing neither an increase nor decrease. $60 = $6. Here the original amount of money (P) is $9. or 800 = (4)(x). Next. so the next triplet will begin with U. a. c. 31. x = 24 ÷ 2 3 = 24 × 3 2 = 36 L.000 into the account. l = 64 ÷ 4 = 16 in. That is an increase of 10. Because the interest is compounded semiannually (twice a year).04)(3) = $1. Where principal equals your original amount of money (in dollars). d. the amount collected is $. the rate of proﬁt is 200%. Use this r in the circumference formula: Circumference = C = 2πr = 2π × 4 = 8π inches. 22. choice a is wrong. a. Now. Divide both sides by 4 to get x = 200. 24. so the 3rd letter in the next triplet will be V. .000 because she put 3 4 of the $12. The fox population (lightest-colored bars) went up by 10 animals each year.206 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 11 Practice Test 1 21. 26. The third letter of each triplet progresses from R S T U. and r = 4. The deer population (black bar) doubled every year since 2000 20 40 80. 27. Thus. the answer is UAV. 10 dozen bolts = 10 × 12 = 120 bolts.” the correct answer. b. Thus. 33.02 × 29. choice b is the correct answer.000 × . 23. You are told that Area = 16π . The owl population is maintaining a steady rate of growth. You can ask yourself. The fox population (lightest-colored bar) grew from 30 in 2001 to 40 in 2002. set up a proportion: $8 profit initial $4 = x 100 .04 and T = 3 years. That is an increase of 40 deer. a. b.000 + 30. Substituting into I = PRT. The deer (black bar) went from 40 in 2001 to 80 in 2002. The area of the rectangle must then also be 64 in2. As the series progresses. 32. Thus. c. the proﬁt is $12 − $4 = $8. a year (6 months) = $60. 5 x 1 When compared to the initial 15. Cross-multiply to get (100)(8) = (4)(x). the amount of shading changes from 1 2 3 4 whole. 72 = 49 and 82 = 64. d. There is not a steady increase (a is wrong). making choice d: “Both b and c are true. The deer (black bar) increased from 15 in 1999 to 20 in 2000. I = . to ﬁnd the rate of proﬁt. 24 L represents 2 3 of the whole capacity. x = 33 3 %. This is a change of 5 deer. or a steep decline (d is wrong). a steady decline (c is wrong). 64 = l × 4 . b. The ﬁrst letter in each triplet progresses from Q R S T.080. you get: A = lw. 1 2 3 4 whole 1 2 none 1 4 28. Substituting this area and the given width w = 4 into the area formula. which means Interest = principal × rate of interest × time. Thus. The area of the square is A = side2 = s2 = 82 = 64 in2. Since A = πr2. The owl population stayed around 30.060 in it. When they are all sold. c. The second letter of each triplet is a constant: A. after the amount of interest earned I = PRT = 6. the difference in growths is 40 − 10 = 30. Thus. So the square root of 52 will equal a number that is between 7 and 8. So the next 2 terms will be: none 1 2 1 4. 5 out of 15 represents 15 = 100 . 25. you get I = (9.10 × 120 = $12. the account has $6. Thus. a. c.

Making a chart for yourself will help you stay organized: INFO TIME D R D R D R 2 3 3 5 7 4 40 60 36 60 105 60 105 60 36. 38. Since you want R. Dividing both sides by 154 yields h = 10 cm. 22 22 a. 35. 5.Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 11 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 207 34. calculate the area in square feet: Area = lw = 440 ft × 1. 9. . This simpliﬁes to 1. = 1. and the formula V = πr2h.540 = 7 × 72 × h. 2 twenty-dollar bills. @ 3 mph 3 mi.10 = $30 600 nickels = 600 × $.86 mph. Thus. 8. The largest sector takes up a quarter of the pie chart (the gray sector). Multiply the number of coins by the value of the coin: 120 quarters = 120 × $. respectively. you get 1. The interior angles 1 1 of a circle add to 360 degrees and 4 of 360 = 4 × 360 = 90 degrees. The attendance for both November and February was 20 members each. and 1 ﬁve-dollar bill. c. To ﬁnd the average speed. 9.05 = $30 500 pennies = 500 × $. The only choice that represents $95 is d: 1 ﬁfty-dollar bill. You are given: 12. Now. You can tell that this is true because the bars for these months are the same height. You need the total time. If you use π = 7 .75 ≈ 6.560 ft2 and multiply: 784. 9. b. The forD mula D= RT can be rewritten as T = R . 8. @ 4 mph T= T= T= = = = = = = Total time = hr.080 ft2 × 43. you can rearrange this formula to R = D ÷ T. The mode is the number that occurs the most. 7. d. add all of the dollar amounts: $30 + $30 + $30 + $5 = $95. @ 5 mph 7 mi. Next convert 1 acre 1 acre to acres by using the conversion factor 43.75 hr.560 ft2 = 18 acres. 39. This can be found by using the information in the question.01 = $5 Next.25 = $30 300 dimes = 300 × $. You are given the total distance of 12 miles.540 = 154 × h. you can use the total time and total distance in the formula D = RT. 37. 40. First. 2 mi. c. c. Note that 9 occurs the most and is the mode. c. you must use D = RT (Distance = Rate × Time) with the total distance and the total time as D and T.080 ft2. you have R = D ÷ T = 12 ÷ 1.782 ft = 784.

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Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 12 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 209 .= 12 CHAPTER Practice Test 2 T his second practice test will give you another chance to measure your skills. you should see real progress in your math abilities. By this time.

210

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CHAPTER 12 Practice Test 2

1. What is the mode of the following numbers? 12, 9, 8, 7, 7, 2, 9, 5, 7 a. 5 b. 7 c. 8 d. 9 Use the chart below as a reference for questions 2 through 3:

METRIC UNITS TO CUSTOMARY UNITS CONVERSIONS

1 cm. = .39 in. 1 m. = 1.1 yd. 1 km. = .6 mi.

2. 3.5 ft. is equivalent to approximately how many meters? a. 4 m. b. 3.85 m. c. 3.18 m. d. 18 m. 3. 5 yd. 2 ft. is equivalent to approximately how many centimeters? a. 523 cm. b. 79.56 cm. c. 52.3 cm. d. 6.63 cm. 4. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below. VAB WCD XEF ______ ZIJ a. AKL b. UHG c. YGH d. GHW 5. 20% of what number equals 40% of 120? a. 48 b. 96 c. 200 d. 240

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211

6. The ratio of multimedia designers to graphic designers at a production house is 2:1. If the com1 bined number of multimedia designers and graphic designers is 180, and 2 of the multimedia designers are women, how many women multimedia designers are there? a. 60 b. 80 c. 90 d. 120 7. If a map drawn to scale shows 5.2 cm between two points, and the scale is 1 cm. = 1.5 km., how far away are the 2 points in meters? a. 7.8 b. 780 c. 7,800 d. 78,000 8. Use (F = 5 C + 32) to convert 113° F into the equivalent Celsius temperature. a. 38° b. 45° c. 54° d. 63° 9. Damian earns a semimonthly salary of $2,300. What is his yearly salary? a. $55,200 b. $34,000 c. $27,600 d. $24,000 10. It took Amanda 45 minutes to jog 3 miles at a constant rate. Find her rate in mph. a. 3 mph b. 4 mph c. 10 mph d. 15 mph 11. What percent of a. 35% b. 30% c. 20% d. 25%

1 8 9

is

1 32 ?

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CHAPTER 12 Practice Test 2

12. Nicole bought Blue Diamond stock at $15 per share. After 6 months, the stock is worth $20 per share. This represents a percent increase of a. 25% b. 30% 1 c. 33 3 % d. 75% 13. One construction job can be completed by 15 workers in 8 days. How many days would it take 20 workers to complete the job? a. 4 days b. 6 days c. 8 days d. 10 days 14. 3 pieces of wood measure 8 yd. 2 ft. 1 in., 6 yd. 1 ft. 9 in., and 3 yd. 1 ft. 7 in. in length. When these boards are laid end to end, what is their combined length? a. 18 yd. 17 in. b. 18 yd. 5 ft. c. 18 yd. 2 ft. 5 in. d. 18 yd. 5 in. 15. What percent of a. 5% b. 8 3 % c. 33% d. 80 % 1,200 new nursing students were asked to complete a survey in which they were asked which type of nursing they would like to pursue. The data was used to make the pie chart below. Use this information to answer questions 16 through 18 below: Nursing Survey

10% 30%

Pediatrics Surgical Maternity ER

3 16

is

1 64 ?

1

40% 20%

16. How many nursing students would like to pursue pediatrics? a. 360 b. 400 c. 600

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213

d. 800 17. Half of the nurses who indicated that they would like to pursue surgical nursing also noted that they would like to transfer to a sister school across town. How many students indicated that they would like to make such a transfer? a. 240 students b. 120 students c. 60 students d. 10 students 18. If the same color scheme is used, which of the following bar graphs could represent the same data as the pie chart? a.

b.

c.

d.

19. (85 × 34) ÷ (83 × 32) is equivalent to a. 576 b. 420 c. 376 d. 256 20. Pipe A leads into a tank and Pipe B drains the tank. Pipe A can ﬁll the entire tank in 1 hour. Pipe B can drain the entire tank in 45 minutes. At a certain point in time, the valves leading to both 1 pipes are shut and the tank is 2 full. If both valves are opened simultaneously, how long will it take for the pipe to drain? a. 2 hr. b. 1 hr.

1

000. b. How much money will 40 drives cost (excluding tax)? a. FOG b. The empty space will be ﬁlled with shredded paper.214 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 12 Practice Test 2 c. BCD7 22. d.000 b. $10. $250. 23. d. Three cylindrical solids with r = 7m.562.50. 1 4 hr. d. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below. BOC COB DOE EOD ______ a. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below. External hard drives cost $280 each. 86m2 b. are packed into a rectangular crate with l = 10 m. B2C3D d.. $8. What volume will the shredded paper occupy? a. c. $1. 21. 1 2 hr. and h = 1 m. B2C2D b.2 m. BC3D c. __ __ a. 24. $6.200 c..250.250 after a 20% discount is applied. c. 42πm3 d. 42m3 25. $7. $11. B2CD ______ BCD4 B5CD BC6D a. and h = 1. 66πm2 c. The original price was then a. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below. $1. w = 9 m.200 26. DOG 3 1 . The reduced price of a computer is $1. When more than 30 drives are purchased a 10% discount is applied to each drive’s cost.080 d. b.

DOF d. FOE .Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 12 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 215 c.

54 cm2 Use the chart below to answer question 31 through 33. This graph shows the number of inches of rain for 5 towns in Suffolk County during spring 2002. c. 5 b.216 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 12 Practice Test 2 27. = 0. . 6 cm2 c. 1 yard c. 3 14 23 70 32 70 15 7 30. c. what is the probability that a steel washer will be chosen? a. b. d. If the volume of a cube is 27 cubic centimeters. Which of the following rope lengths is longest? (1 cm.04 29. 15 steel washers. 9 cm2 d. 2 5% = 1 250 1 25 a. 1 meter b. 85 centimeters 28. What was the median number of inches for the 5 towns? a. A box contains 23 iron washers. 9 d.39 inches) a. and 32 aluminum washers. 3 cm2 b. . 10 8 6 4 2 0 Shirley Mastic Moriches Manorville Ridge 31. b. 10 .4 d. 32 inches d. what is its surface area? a. If a washer is chosen at random. 8 c.

0053% b.45 b. DEF3 b. How much money is in the register? a. 52 dimes. When expressed as a percent. 14 square inches c. $345. . Kira’s register contains 10 twenty-dollar bills.20 c. 88 quarters. 8 c. 45.2 % c. DEF DEF2 DE2F2 ______ D2E2F3 a. D2E2 F2 .Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 12 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 217 32. 10 33. 52. 9 d. 10 34. $351. 7 square inches b. D2E3F d. Select the answer choice that best completes the sequence below. 5 b. 9 d.9% 9 17 is most accurately approximated as 35. 200 nickels. $351. and 125 pennies. what is the area of the rectangle? a. 18 square inches d. The length of a rectangle is equal to 3 inches more than twice the width. 50% d. What was the average number of inches for the season shown? a. What was the mode? a.51 37. If the width is 2 inches. 5 b. D3EF3 c. 98 one-dollar bills. 21 square inches 36. 8 c. $350 d. a. 3 ﬁve-dollar bills.

A light is placed in the center of her yard. he drove at a rate of 25 mph. 40 − 10π c. he drove at a rate of 50 mph. is NOT lit by the light? a.218 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 12 Practice Test 2 38. 400 − 100π 39. c. Chris drove for 100 miles. he drove at a rate of 75 mph. 400 − 10π d. 55 mph d. 18 units2 36 units2 54 units2 60 units2 . During the ﬁrst 45 miles. What is the area of the shaded ﬁgure inside the rectangle? √1 8 3 12 √1 8 3 a. How much of the yard. in square feet. For the last 10 miles. Hannah’s yard is square. 40 mph b. 400π b. 60 mph 40. What was his approximate average rate for the whole trip? a. d. b. 53 mph c. The light shines a radius of 10 feet on her yard. During the next 45 miles. which is 20 feet on each side.

C = 45 degrees. 7. This is a difference of $20 − $15 = $5. Solving. R = 45 min.. of means × .40 × 120.5 ft. b. and the chart tells you that 1 m. = x km. Y 4. = 15 ft. and D = 3 mi. When compared with the original $15. × 1 km. = . you can create conversion factors that let you cross-off feet and end up with meters: 3. = 1.39 in. (F = 5 C + 32) becomes 113 = 5 C + 32.. To ﬁnd the mode. If it takes 15 workers 8 days to complete a job. This means he makes 2 × $2. R = T becomes R = 3 mi. it would take 1 worker 15 × 8 = 120 days. 9.1 yd. . = 17 ft. Therefore. using the fact that 1 ft. ≈ 523 cm.40)(120) . 9 9 5 113 − 32 = 5 C . 1. $4. 1. x = 1. Recall that semimonthly means twice a month.39 in. × ≈ 3. 1. 5. 1 ft. “20% of what number equals 40% of 120?” can be written mathematically as .000 m. convert kilometers to meters by multiplying by 1 km. Thus. . so 5 yd.300 = $4. First use a proportion to get the real life value: 8. a. a. 5 15 = x 100 . = 12 in. 7 is the mode. Next. It would take 20 workers 120 ÷ 20 = 6 days. 12 in. = 4 hour. × 1 cm.20 × x = . c. 3. and 1 cm. of 180 = × 180 = 120 multi- media designers. 9. 7. Substitute 113 for F in the given equation. 2 3 2 3 6. = $55. The second and third letters of the triplets follow the pattern of skipping one letter. 2. the second term of the missing triplet will be: A G H C E I.800 m. Thus. the answer is YGH. You are told that the ratio of multimedia designers to graphic designers at a production house is 2:1. you should rearrange D = RT into R = T . D b. = 1 yd. × . 8.600 10. 81 = 5 C.18 m. ÷ 4 hr. b. the ﬁrst letter of the missing triplet is Y. Thus.20 yields: x= (. 2 ft. = 7. 81 × 9 = C . First. see which number occurs the most: 12. you get 800 = 32 .2 cm. Dividing both sides by .2 = 7.600 yr. Multiply by 12 months per year: 12. 1 ? 1 1 1 d. Substitute the given values into the formula. 5. 12 mo. 3 D 3 Here. 11. x = 32 = 25%. The question “What percent of 8 is 32 ?” can be written mathematically as 100 × 8 = 32 . Thus. Thus. Next. a. The Blue Diamond stock rose from $15 to $20.: 17 ft. Recall x x 1 800 that what percent is 100 . and is means =. so there are 60 women multimedia designers. 2 3 of the 180 total must be multimedia designers. c.20 = 240. Half of these are woman.200 a year. 1 13. 7. 1. = 4 mph. Thus. c. × mo. per month. Thus. 3 ft. 9 × 5 = C. 1 cm. × 1 m. You should know that 3 ft. 5. 5 yd.000 m.8 km. The ﬁrst term of each triplet represents the alphabet in sequence: V W X Z. c.Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 12 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 219 ANSWERS 1.5 × 5. : 7.5 km. And the third term of the missing triplet will be: B D F I.1 yd. 2. you can create conversion factors that let you cross-off feet and end up with cm. 9 9 b. 1 yd. 9. d. x= 500 15 = 33 3 %.8 km. 7.

The formula for a cylinder is V = πr2h. you have: V = × ( 7) 2 × 1 = 22 7 22 7 . If you use π ≈ this formula. note that 3 ft. 1 hour = 60 minutes. 25. 20% (dark gray) of the nursing students chose surgical nursing.200 nursing students indicated that they would like to pursue pediatrics. 83. c. = 1 yd. 17 yd. 4 ft. You can apply the rules of exponents to the terms that have the same bases.. instead of costing $280 each.250 . 1 in. = hr. use the discounted price. .220 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 12 Practice Test 2 14. 15. Take 10% ($28) off the cost of each drive. line up and add all of the units: 8 yd.80 = $1. Three such cylinders will occupy a volume of 3 × 22m3 = 66m3 inside the rectangular crate. so Pipe A ﬁlls 60 of the tank every minute. 2 ft. If the same color scheme is used (as stated). If a 20% deduction was applied. and substitute the given values into × 7 = 22m3.50. So. + 3 yd. Next.30 × 1. 90 min. 5 in. 22 7 24. 6 yd. the bars should be: white. Thus. 7 in. light gray. so that is 10%. 3 16 is 16. 9 in.250?” This can be written mathematically as . multiply 40 drives by the price of each drive: 40 × 252 = $10.200 = 360 students. d. the drives will be $280 − $28 = $252 each. 2 ft. If 90 180 1 2 − 1 60 = 4 180 − 3 180 = of the tank is initially full.562.200 = . First. 17 in. b.10 × 1.080.600 = 1 64 . a. Half of these want to transfer to the sister school. This question is really asking: “80% of what is $1. this equals 1 180 90 180 full. yd 5 ft. d. Since more than 40 drives are being purchased. Recall that when multiplying and/or dividing exponential numbers. so 17 yd. Recall that “What percent” can be expressed as 1 64 ?” can be expressed as: x 100 × 3 16 = 1 3×x 64 . so you can rewrite the length as 18 yd.250. 23. Thus. c. b. (85 × 34) ÷ (83 × 32) is equivalent to 85−3 × 34−2 = 82 × 32 = 64 × 9 = 576. The empty space (to be ﬁlled with shredded paper) is 108 m3 − 66 m3 = 42 m3. 10% of 1. b. 32) can be either added or subtracted depending on the operation asked to be performed (multiplication add exponents. Next. or 34. c. 17. Pipe B empties is 1 45 1 1 45 1 180 of the tank per minute. x = 1.200 = 120 students.e. 30% (black sector) of the 1. dark gray. the next 2 members of the series will have two sides and then one side. Notice that the number grows by 1 and moves to the letter on the right of its current position: B2CD BC3D BCD4 B5CD BC6D. First. The volume of the crate is lwh = 10 × 9 × 1. note that 12 in.. division subtract exponents). It will take 90 minutes for the 1 12 to drain out (at a rate of per minute). 1 ft. the missing term is BC3D. 21. The question “What percent of 25 3 3 × x = 25. Thus. x 100 . 4 ft. . Next. convert the hour into minutes. is the same as 17. 1. those exponents to numbers with the same base value (i. 5 in. then in decreasing size order. c. This means the net effect—every minute— of the tank is drained. x = = 1 8 3 %. 1 ft. = 1 ft.2 = 108 m3. b.250 represents 80% of the original cost. Only choice b has bars that match this description. black. then $1. 18.80 × x = 1. a. 17 in. 85. Note that the number of line segments increases and then decreases by one: 1 2 3 4 5 4 3. 19. 20. 22.

= 36 in. d. a. a. = 39 in. First.05 = $10 125 pennies = 125 × $. 27. The numbers change as follows (a dash.10 = $5. 5. This can be solved by simply equating the percent to its equivalent fractional form(s): 5 % = . The middle number will be the median: 5. list the numbers in order. 10 32. 32 in. Every other triplet is the inverse of the triplet before it. 37. b. like its predecessors. 85 cm.4 % = . choice a. so the last triplet will begin with F. d.529.Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 12 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 221 26. Next. Next divide by 5 (the number of values): 40 ÷ 5 = 8 inches.39 in. 10 10 occurs three times and is the mode.25 = $351. 10. b. convert 9 17 to a decimal: 9 ÷ 17 ≈ . The surface area of one face is s2 = 32 = 9 cm2. multiply the amount of coins (or bills) by the value of the coin (or bill): 10 twenty-dollar bills = 10 × $20 = $200 3 ﬁve-dollar bills = 3 × $5 = $15 98 one-dollar bills = 98 × $1 = $98 88 quarters = 88 × $.01 = $1. 33. 10. a. The ﬁrst term progresses from B C D E. 5.” can be expressed mathematically as l = 2w + 3. × cm. (choice a) so you need not waste time converting this choice to inches.45.20 200 nickels = 200 × $. so the chance of pulling a steel washer is 15 out of 70: 15 70 = 3 14 . d. Since there are six faces. 35. . First. such as “–” rep222 resents no number): – – – – – 2 – 2 2 2 2 3. To ﬁnd the mode. There are 15 steel washers. So. 29. is the next letter of the alphabet after F. add up all the values: 10 + 10 + 5 + 5 + 10 = 40. Thus. = 100 cm. select the number that occurs the most: 10. “The length of a rectangle is equal to 3 inches more than twice the width. 5. so l = (2)(2) + 3 = 7. d. The volume formula for a cube is V = s3.004 = 4 1. In order to compare the choices. to express this value as a percent. c.000 2 . First. a. d. 36.25 Next. 10. The area is then A = lw = 7 × 2 = 14 square inches. 1 yd. add up all the money: $200 + $15 + $98 + $22 + $5. Note that the second term is always O. 1 m. The letters remain the same: DEF. so here s3 = 27 and s = 3 cm. the third letter of the last triplet. 30. is the longest.20 + $10 + $1.25 = $22 52 dimes = 52 × $. is less than 1 m. b. = 1 250 . note that all the washers together equal: 23 + 15 + 32 = 70. First. 39 inches. 28. the total surface area is 6 × 9 cm2 = 54 cm2. d. First. We know w = 2. = 100 cm. convert them all into inches: a. 31. just move the decimal point over 2 places to the right ≈ 52. 34. a.9%.

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Compounded daily: interest is paid every day. Circumference: the distance around a circle. Constant rate equation: an equation that is used to relate distance. Compounded semi-annually: interest is paid two times per year. Difference: the answer obtained by subtracting. and time when dealing with a constant velocity: D = RT.= APPENDIX Glossary of Math Terms Area: a measure of the space inside a two-dimensional ﬁgure. rate. Diameter: any line segment that goes through the center of a circle and has both endpoints on the circle. Compounded annually: interest is paid each year. Compounded monthly: interest is paid every month. Glossary of Math Terms APPENDIX MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 223 . Area is expressed in square units. Denominator: the bottom number in a fraction. Compounded quarterly: interest is paid four times a year. Arithmetic series: a series which progresses by adding (or subtracting) a constant number to each term.

) Mixed Number: a number that is expressed as a whole number with a fraction to the right. To calculate the median. calculate exponents (or powers). Percent error: is found by converting the ratio between the calculated value and the actual value to a value out of 100: or 30 100 . Step 2—The middle number is the median. Percent change: when calculating the percent increase or decrease. half will be greater than the median and half will be less than the median. where each letter stands for an operation: Parentheses: Always calculate the values inside the parentheses ﬁrst. such as 1 2 . An easy way to remember the Order of Operations is to use the mnemonic PEMDAS. For example 30% is equivalent to 30 per 100. Exponents: Second. Mode: the number in a set of numbers that occurs most frequently. perform any additions or subtractions in order from left to right. you just look for numbers that occur more than once and ﬁnd the one that appears most often. such as 7 . such as 2 . Proper fraction: a fraction where the number in the numerator is less than the number in the denominator. equate the ratio of the amount of change to the initial value with the ratio of a new value. Addition/Subtraction: Last. You can express a percent as a fraction by placing the number before the percent symbol over the number 100. Prime numbers: numbers that have only 2 factors. to 100. Mean: the average of a set of values. You can express a percent as a decimal by moving the current decimal point 2 places to the left. To calculate the mean. Perimeter: the distance around a two-dimensional geometric ﬁgure. Multiplication/Division: Third. In a set of numbers. 1 . Step 3— Divide the sum (the result of step 1) by the number (the result of step 2). Median: the middle number in a group of numbers arranged in sequential order. Step 2— Count the number of numbers in the list. Improper fraction: a fraction whose numerator is greater than the number in the denominator. (If there are two middle numbers. The general proportion to use is: change initial 1 8 = x 100 . Product: the answer obtained by multiplying. To ﬁnd the mode. perform any multiplications or divisions in order from left to right. the number 1 and itself. x. = Percent: a ratio that expresses a value as per 100 parts. follow these steps: Step 1— Add all the numbers in the list. difference in values actual values x 100 . you ﬁnd the mean (or average) of the two middle numbers. follow these steps: Step 1—Put the numbers in sequential order.224 MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS APPENDIX Glossary of Math Terms Geometric series: a series which progresses by multiplying each term by a constant number to get the next term. Least Common Denominator: the smallest number that is a multiple of the original denominators present. Order of Operations: the order in which operations must be performed. Numerator: the top number in a fraction.

Symbol series: a visual series based on the relationship between images.Glossary of Math Terms APPENDIX MATH FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 225 Proportion: a pair of 2 equivalent ratios in the form b = d . 2 + 3 = 3 + 2 and 4 × 2 = 2 × 4 exhibit the Commutative Law. It can be represented as a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c or a × (b × c) = (a × b) × c. For example. The annual interest rate is represented by R. Volume: a measure of the amount of space inside a three-dimensional shape. The Distributive Law: this property applies to multiplication over addition and can be represented as a(b + c) = ab + ac. 10 + (12 + 14) = (10 + 12) + 14. and T represents the time in years. The Commutative Law: this property applies for addition and multiplication and can be represented as a + b = b + a or a × b = b × a. Radius: any line that begins at the center of a circle and ends on a point on the circle. For example. Ratio: a comparison of 2 or more numbers. Simple Interest: interest is calculated with the formula I = PRT. the reciprocal of 5 is 4 . For example. Sum: the answer obtained by adding. P. 4 5 Reciprocal: the multiplicative inverse of a number. for example. 3 (5 + 7) = 3 × 5 + 3 × 7. a c . Volume is expressed in cubic units. The Associative Law: this property applies to grouping of addition or multiplication equations and expressions. The amount of money deposited is called the principal. Quotient: the answer obtained by dividing.

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