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A categorical syllogism must only be composed of three terms (the major, the minor and the middle term) Violation: Fallacy of More than 3 Terms Fallacy of Less than 3 Terms Fallacy of Equivocation

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Valid:

Some poor people are kind persons. All kind persons are likable individuals. Some likable individuals are poor people. Philosophers are wise. Scientists are intelligent. Scientists and philosophers are wise and intelligent.

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Invalid:

*Fallacy of more than 3 terms / fallacy of four terms

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Invalid:

Toddlers are highly active individuals. Highly active individuals are like toddlers. What could you possibly conclude?

*Fallacy of Less than 3 terms
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Invalid:

Vegetables are good for the body My sick neighbor is already a vegetable. My sick neighbor is good for the body.

*Fallacy of Equivocation

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No term in the conclusion can have a greater extension than in the premises. (terms which are particular in the premise cannot be universal in the conclusion) Violation: Fallacy of Illicit Minor Fallacy of Illicit Major

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Valid:

All satellites are man-made. No typhoons are man-made. No typhoons are satellites.
All Abu Sayaff members are terrorists. Not all Abu Sayaff members are anti-Christians. Not all anti- Christians are terrorists.

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Invalid:

*fallacy of Illicit major

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Invalid:

Scientists are wise people. Scientists are men. Men are wise people.

*fallacy of Illicit minor Plants are organisms. All Iraqi soldiers are Muslims. Animals are not plants. All Muslims are vegetarians. Animals are not organisms. All vegetarians are Iraqi soldiers

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The middle term should not be found in the conclusion. Violation: Fallacy of misplaced middle term Valid:
No lazy person is resourceful. Some resourceful individuals are students. Some students are not lazy persons.

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Invalid:

All television commercials are made for public viewing. Some materials for public viewing are harmful to children. therefore, some materials made for public viewing that are harmful to children are television commercials.

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The middle term must be distributed universally, at least once, in the premises. Violation: Fallacy of undistributed middle term.
Valid: All musicians are emotional. All musicians are artists. Some artists are emotional.

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Invalid:

Monkeys are banana lovers Filipino American PBA players are bananalovers Filipino American PBA players are monkeys. Some scientists are atheists. Physicists are scientists. Physicists are atheists.

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Two affirmative premises cannot give a negative conclusion. Violation: Invalid: Fallacy of negative conclusion

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All mammals are animals All animals are mortal beings Some mortal beings are not mammals.

All heroes are patriots Some patriots are martyrs Not all martyrs are heroes

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No conclusion can be inferred from two negative premises.

Violation: Fallacy of concluding from 2 negative premises Invalid:
All students are not old Some old people are not Filipino citizens Therefore ?

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No conclusion can be inferred from two particular premises Violation: Fallacy of concluding from two particular premises. Invalid: Some illiterate persons are non-Catholics
Some Filipino senators are non-Catholics Therefore; Some Filipino senators are illiterate

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The conclusion must follow the weaker premise. (negative, particular) Violation: Fallacy of not following the weaker premise Invalid:
Some lawyers are not judges. All lawyers are professionals. Therefore, some professionals are judges.

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