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Department of Management
Project Report On
Stress Management Among Bank Employees
During The Academic Session 2008-2010 In partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of the degree Of
Masters Of Business Administration
Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar
Submitted To: Lt. Col. (Retd.) Kuldeep Mallick Director Academic
Submitted By: AKANKSHA SETH
M.B.A. (H.R. & Marketing)
The City college, Gwalior LC Code: 504
Roll No: 820504075
THE CITY COLLEGE, GWALIOR (M.P.)
Department of Management
This is to certify that the project report entitled of
“Stress Management Among Bank Employees”
Submitted by Akanksha Seth In partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of the degree Of
Masters Of Business Administration conferred by
Punjab Technical University of Jalandhar
During The Academic Session 2008-2010 is the presentation of the work done by her under my guidance and supervision Under the Guidance of Mrs. Monika Saxena (Dept. of Management) Submitted To: Lt. Col. (Retd.) Kuldeep Mallick Director Academic The City college, Gwalior
Mr. Bharat Jhavar
To carry out this research work I have got the help from my parents who have given full support to carry out this research work. They are the one who motivated and helped for the completion of this project report. Further, I would like to thank Mr. Kaushal Sharma (Branch Manager, HDFC Bank, City Centre, Gwalior) and their employees who have given full supported and co operated with me to carry out this research work. Branch Manager of AXIS bank and their employees who have helped me for the project work by filling the questionnaire. Then I would like to thank Mrs. Monika Saxena Lecturer Department of Management, The City College who guided me in the completion of the project successfully.
The study of human resource management is one of the major criteria in the Health care and corporate sector. Human resource is the heart of the organization. By this research project we will be able to know to reduce the stress level of the employees working in the bank. By this way the performance of the employee increases. Now a day the corporate sector is booming in a high speed that the people have to work for prolonged hours to maintain the standard of living and achieve their basic needs. So is the condition in the hospitals, colleges, BPO’s and lots of other places. In spit of having the modern technologies and facilities, people are feeling themselves to be work loaded and stressed. Stress arises because of many reasons which are discussed in the following project. The project report also contain techniques how to reduce the stress and overcome such problems. To identify the level of stress among the people who work I have tried to survey the people working in hospitals, banks and other industries as well as institutes. Stress arises because of unfulfilled wants, lack of job satisfaction etc. before starting the topic of stress; let’s first understand the importance of human resource.
This project gives us a detailed idea of what is stress and also the definition of stress is been defined. For more detailed study the types of the stress is also defined. By looking at the starting of the project you will find: o Introduction to Human resource o Introduction and Definition of stress o Stress in biological terms o What is stress? o Coping with stress at work place. o Stress management o Workplace stress o Reducing of stress. After the theoretical part I have included the research part. My research work includes one questionnaire. o Stress analysis Questionnaire My research includes the research methodology which contains the information as follows: o Research objectives o Sampling (types and methods of sampling) o Research instrument o Data analysis and interpretation o Employee’s opinion to reduce stress. o Research flowchart o Time consideration o Limitation of survey o Advantages and disadvantages of written questionnaire o Finding
1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.2.6 1.2.7
Content Conceptual Framework
Introduction to HR Concept of stress Introduction to stress Stress in Biological terms What is stress Coping with stress at workplace Stress Management Reduce your stress Workplace stress
Page no 7
7 9 9 12 12 14 16 20 22
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.8.1 2.8.2 2.9
Research objective Sampling Research instrument Data analysis and interpretation Employees opinion about how to reduce stress Research flowchart Time consideration Limitation of the survey Advantages of Written Questionnaires Disadvantages of Written Questionnaires Findings
25 26 28 29 39 40 41 42 42 43 45
1. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
(1.1) INTRODUCTION TO HR
Human Resource Management is an art of managing people at work in such a manner that they give their best to the organization. In simple word human resource management refers to the quantitative aspects of employees working in an organization. Human Resource Management is also a management function concerned with hiring, motivating, and maintains people in an organization. It focuses on people in organization. Organizations are not mere bricks, mortar, machineries or inventories. They are people. It is the staff who manages organizations. HRM involves the application of management functions and principles. The functions and principles are applied to acquisitioning, developing, maintain, and remunerating employees in organizations. Decisions relating to employees must be integrated. Decision on different aspect of employees must be consistent with other human resource decisions. Decision made must influence the effectiveness of organization. Effectiveness of an organization must result in betterment of services to customers in the form of high-quality product supplied at reasonable costs. HRM function s is not confined to business establishment only. They are applicable to non-business organizations, too such as education, health care, recreation etc. The scope of HRM is indeed vast. All major activities in the working life of his or her entry into an organization until he or she leaves-come under the previews of HRM.specifically, the activities included are HR planning, job analysis and be sign, recruitment and selection, orientation and placement, training and development, performance appraisal and job evaluation, employee and executive remuneration, motivation and communication, welfare, safety and health, industrial relations and the like. HRM is a broad concept Personnel management and human resource development is a part of HRM.
Before we define “Human Resource Management”, it seems good to first define heterogeneous in the sense that they differ in personality, perception, emotions, values, attitudes, motives, and modes of thoughts. Human resource management plays an important role in the development process of modern economy. In fact it is said that all the development comes from the human mind. “ Human goals.” Resource Management is a process of producing development,
maintaining and controlling human resources for effective achievement of organization
(1.2) CONCEPT OF STRESS
(1.2.1) INTRODUCTION TO STRESS
A lot of research has been conducted into stress over the last hundred years. Some of the theories behind it are now settled and accepted; others are still being researched and debated. During this time, there seems to have been something approaching open warfare between competing theories and definitions: Views have been passionately held and aggressively defended. What complicates this is that intuitively we all feel that we know what stress is, as it is something we have all experienced.
Hans Selye was one of the founding fathers of stress research. His view in 1956 was that “stress is not necessarily something bad – it all depends on how you take it. The stress of exhilarating, creative successful work is beneficial, while that of failure, humiliation or infection is detrimental.” Selye believed that the biochemical effects of stress would be experienced irrespective of whether the situation was positive or negative. Since then, a great deal of further research has been conducted, and ideas have moved on. Stress is now viewed as a "bad thing", with a range of harmful biochemical and long-term effects. These effects have rarely been observed in positive situations. The most commonly accepted definition of stress (mainly attributed to Richard S Lazarus) is that stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives that “demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize.” In short, it's what we feel when we think we've lost control of events. This is the main definition used by this section of Mind Tools, although we also recognize that there is an intertwined instinctive stress response to unexpected events. The stress response inside us is therefore part instinct and part to do with the way we think. The types of stress are as follows Mechanical
• • •
Stress (physics), the average amount of force exerted per unit area. Yield stress, the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically. Compressive stress, the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction.
Stress (biological), physiological or psychological stress; some types include:
o o o
Chronic stress, persistent stress which can lead to illness and mental disorder Eustress, positive stress that can lead to improved long-term functioning Workplace stress, stress caused by employment
• • • • •
Accent (music). Stress (band), an early '80s melodic rock band from San Diego. Stress (punk band), an early '80s punk rock band from Athens. Stress (Neo-Psychedelic band), from the late 1980's. Stress, a song by the French band Justice on their debut album
Stress (game), card game Stress (linguistics), phonological use of prominence in language
Stress (physics), the average amount of force exerted per unit area. Stress is a measure of the average amount of force exerted per unit area. It is a measure of the intensity of the total internal forces acting within a body across imaginary internal surfaces, as a reaction to external applied forces and body forces. It was introduced into the theory of elasticity by Cauchy around 1822. Stress is a concept that is based on the concept of continuum. In general, stress is expressed as
Where Is the average stress, also called engineering or nominal stress, and Is the force acting over the area .
Chronic stress is stress that lasts a long time or occurs frequently. Chronic stress is potentially damaging. Symptoms of chronic stress can be:
• • • • • • •
upset stomach headache backache insomnia anxiety depression anger
In the most severe cases it can lead to panic attacks or a panic disorder. There are a variety of methods to control chronic stress, including exercise, healthy diet, stress management, relaxation techniques, adequate rest, and relaxing hobbies. Ensuring a healthy diet containing magnesium may help control or eliminate stress, in those individuals with lower levels of magnesium or those who have a magnesium deficiency. Chronic stress can also lead to a magnesium deficiency, which can be a factor in continued chronic stress, and a whole host of other negative medical conditions caused by a magnesium deficiency. It has been discovered that there is a huge upsurge in the number of people who suffer from this condition. A very large number of these new cases suffer from insomnia. In a review of the scientific literature on the relationship between stress and disease, the authors found that stress plays a role in triggering or worsening depression and cardiovascular disease and in speeding the progression of HIV/AIDS.
(1.2.2) Stress in Biological terms:
Stress is a biological term which refers to the consequences of the failure of a human or animal body to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats to the organism, whether actual or imagined. It includes a state of alarm and adrenaline production, short-term resistance as a coping mechanism, and exhaustion. It refers to the inability of a human or animal body to respond. Common stress symptoms include irritability, muscular tension, inability to concentrate and a variety of physical reactions, such as headaches and accelerated heart rate. The term "stress" was first used by the endocrinologist Hans Selye in the 1930s to identify physiological responses in laboratory animals. He later broadened and popularized the concept to include the perceptions and responses of humans trying to adapt to the challenges of everyday life. In Selye's terminology, "stress" refers to the reaction of the organism, and "stressor" to the perceived threat. Stress in certain circumstances may be experienced positively. Eustress, for example, can be an adaptive response prompting the activation of internal resources to meet challenges and achieve goals. The term is commonly used by laypersons in a metaphorical rather than literal or biological sense, as a catch-all for any perceived difficulties in life. It also became a euphemism, a way of referring to problems and eliciting sympathy without being explicitly confessional, just "stressed out". It covers a huge range of phenomena from mild irritation to the kind of severe problems that might result in a real breakdown of health. In popular usage almost any event or situation between these extremes could be described as stressful.
(1.2.3) what is Stress?
Stress refers to the strain from the conflict between our external environment and us, leading to emotional and physical pressure. In our fast paced world, it is impossible to live without stress, whether you are a student or a working adult. There is both positive and negative stress, depending on each individual’s unique perception of the tension between the two forces. Not all stress is bad. For example, positive stress, also known as eustress, can help an individual to function at optimal effectiveness and efficiency. Hence, it is evident that some form of positive stress can add more color and vibrancy to our lives. The presence of a deadline, for example, can push us to make the most of our time and produce greater efficiency. It is important to keep this in mind, as stress management refers to using stress to our advantage, and not on eradicating the presence of stress in our lives. On the other hand, negative stress can result in mental and physical strain. The individual will experience symptoms such as tensions, headaches, irritability and in extreme cases, heart palpitations. Hence, whilst some stress may be seen as a motivating force, it is important to manage stress levels so that it does not have an adverse impact on your health and relationships. Part of managing your stress levels include learning about how stress can affect you emotionally and physically, as well as how to identify if you are performing at your optimal stress level (OSL) or if you are experiencing negative stress. This knowledge will help you to identify when you need 12
to take a break, or perhaps seek professional help. It is also your first step towards developing techniques to managing your stress levels. Modern day stresses can take the form of monetary needs, or emotional frictions. Competition at work and an increased workload can also cause greater levels of stress. How do you identify if you are suffering from excessive stress? Psychological symptoms commonly experienced include insomnia, headaches and an inability to focus. Physical symptoms take the form of heart palpitations, breathlessness, excessive sweating and stomachaches. What causes stress? There are many different causes of stress, and that which causes stress is also known as a stressor. Common lifestyle stressors include performance, threat, and bereavement stressors, to name a few. Performance stressors are triggered when an individual is placed in a situation where he feels a need to excel. This could be during performance appraisals, lunch with the boss, or giving a speech. Threat stressors are usually when the current situation poses a dangerous threat, such as an economic downturn, or from an accident. Lastly, bereavement stressors occur when there is a sense of loss such as the death of a loved one, or a prized possession. Thus, there are various stressors, and even more varied methods and techniques of dealing with stress and turning it to our advantages. In order to do so, we must learn to tell when we have crossed the line from positive to negative stress.
Good stress v/s Bad stress:
Stress has often been misunderstood to be negative, with few people acknowledging the importance and usefulness of positive stress. In our everyday lives, stress is everywhere and definitely unavoidable; hence our emphasis should be on differentiating between what is good stress, and what is bad. This will help us to learn to cope with negative stress, and harness the power of positive stress to help us achieve more. There are 4 main categories of stress, namely eustress, distress, hyper stress and hypo stress. Negative stress can cause many physical and psychological problems, whilst positive stress can be very helpful for us. Here’s how we differentiate between them. Eustress: this is a positive form of stress, which prepares your mind and body for the imminent challenges that it has perceived. Eustress is a natural physical reaction by your body which increases blood flow to your muscles, resulting in a higher heart rate. Athletes before a competition or perhaps a manager before a major presentation would do well with eustress, allowing them to derive the inspiration and strength that is needed.
Distress We are familiar with this word, and know that it is a negative form of stress. This occurs when the mind and body is unable to cope with changes, and usually occurs when there are deviations from
the norm. They can be categorized into acute stress and chronic stress. Acute stress is intense, but does not last for long. On the other hand, chronic stress persists over a long period of time. Trigger events for distress can be a change in job scope or routine that the person is unable to handle or cope with.
Hyper stress This is another form of negative stress that occurs when the individual is unable to cope with the workload. Examples include highly stressful jobs, which require longer working hours than the individual can handle. If you suspect that you are suffering from hyper stress, you are likely to have sudden emotional breakdowns over insignificant issues, the proverbial straws that broke the camel’s back. It is important for you to recognize that your body needs a break, or you may end up with severe and chronic physical and psychological reactions.
Hypo stress Lastly, hypo stress occurs when a person has nothing to do with his time and feels constantly bored and unmotivated. This is due to an insufficient amount of stress; hence some stress is inevitable and helpful to us. Companies should avoid having workers who experience hypo stress as this will cause productivity and mindfulness to fall. If the job scope is boring and repetitive, it would be a good idea to implement some form of job rotation so that there is always something new to learn. The types of stress are named as eustress and distress. Distress is the most commonlyreferred to type of stress, having negative implications, whereas eustress is a positive form of stress, usually related to desirable events in person's life. Both can be equally taxing on the body, and are cumulative in nature, depending on a person's way of adapting to a change that has caused it.
(1.2.4) Coping with Stress at Work place
With the rapid advancement of technology, the stresses faced at work have also increased. Many people dread going to work, hence the term “Monday Blues”. What is the reason for this? There is partly the fear from being retrenched in bad times, leading to greater job insecurity on the part of those who remain. Undoubtedly, occupational stress is one of the most commonly cited stressors faced by people all over the world. Stress refers to the pressure and reactions to our environment which results in psychological and physical reactions. Whilst some stress is good for motivation and increasing efficiency, too much stress can result in negative impacts such as reduced effectiveness and efficiency. More and more people are feeling isolated and disrespected at work, and this has led to greater occupational stress. Many companies have taken to consulting experts and professionals on ways to increase connectedness and motivation of their employees.
Some companies organize parties and make their employees feel valued at work. These are measures to motivate employees and help them to feel secure at their jobs, translating into greater productivity. However, not all companies have such measures in place, and some have not gotten it quite right. Hence, it is up to you to make sure that you can cope with stress at your workplace, and use it to help you work better. Here are 3 simple steps to help you with coping with stress in the workplace. Step 1: Raising Awareness Help yourself to identify when you are facing rising levels of stress, tipping the scales from positive to negative. This is important, as being able to identify signs of being stressed can help you to take steps to ensure that your overall quality of life does not drop. If left unacknowledged, the problem will only snowball, leading to disastrous consequences to your health and overall wellbeing. You can identify if you are feeling stressed by checking if you have any physical or psychological reactions, such as excessive sweating or heart palpitations, or the onset of headaches, irritability or the need to escape. If you experience any of these reactions, identify if you are feeling any overwhelming negative emotions, and if you are constantly worried. Step 2: Identify the Cause You need to be able to analyze the situation and identify what is causing the rise in stress. These stressors can be external and internal. External stressors refer to things beyond your control, such as the environment or your colleagues at work. Internal stressors refer to your own thinking and attitude. Often, we only start reacting to stress when a combination of stressors working together exceeds our ability to cope. Keep a diary or a list of events that have caused you to feel strong negative emotions, or that are likely stressors. This will help you to identify the causes of your stress. Whilst it is not always possible to eradicate them, we can change the way that we cope with it. Step 3: Coping with Stress In order to deal with the situation that is causing you stress, you need to calm your mind and body so as to stave off the reactions and cope with it in a positive way. This can be through different methods, such as taking time off. If a situation is triggering your stress and you are unable to calm down, remove yourself from it. Go outside and take a walk to calm down. Alternatively, you can try implementing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing. If it is an internal stressor, stop your thought process until you are able to deal with it logically. The key to making these 3 steps work for you is to practice them. These are not instantaneous solutions, and you need to condition your mind and practice them so that you can implement it when you are feeling stressed.
(1.2.5) Stress Management
Stress management is the need of the hour. However hard we try to go beyond a stress situation, life seems to find new ways of stressing us out and plaguing us with anxiety attacks. Moreover, be it our anxiety, mind-body exhaustion or our erring attitudes, we tend to overlook causes of stress and the conditions triggered by those. In such unsettling moments we often forget that stressors, if not escapable, are fairly manageable and treatable. Stress, either quick or constant, can induce risky body-mind disorders. Immediate disorders such as dizzy spells, anxiety attacks, tension, sleeplessness, nervousness and muscle cramps can all result in chronic health problems. They may also affect our immune, cardiovascular and nervous systems and lead individuals to habitual addictions, which are inter-linked with stress. Like "stress reactions", "relaxation responses" and stress management techniques are some of the body's important built-in response systems. As a relaxation response the body tries to get back balance in its homeostasis. Some hormones released during the 'fight or flight' situation prompt the body to replace the lost carbohydrates and fats, and restore the energy level. The knotted nerves, tightened muscles and an exhausted mind crave for looseness. Unfortunately, today, we don't get relaxing and soothing situations without asking. To be relaxed we have to strive to create such situations.
Recognizing a stressor:
It is important to recognize whether you are under stress or out of it. Many times, even if we are under the influence of a stressful condition and our body reacts to it internally as well as externally, we fail to realize that we are reacting under stress. This also happens when the causes of stress are there long enough for us to get habituated to them. The body constantly tries to tell us through symptoms such as rapid palpitation, dizzy spells, tight muscles or various body aches that something is wrong. It is important to remain attentive to such symptoms and to learn to cope with the situations. We cope better with stressful situation, when we encounter them voluntarily. In cases of relocation, promotion or layoff, adventurous sports or having a baby, we tend to respond positively under stress. But, when we are compelled into such situations against our will or knowledge, more often than not, we wilt at the face of unknown and imagined threats. For instance, stress may mount when one is coerced into undertaking some work against one's will.
Adopting a humorous view towards life's situations can take the edge off everyday stressors. Not being too serious or in a constant alert mode helps maintain the equanimity of mind and promote clear thinking. Being able to laugh stress away is the smartest way to ward off its effects. A sense of humor also allows us to perceive and appreciate the incongruities of life and provides moments of delight. The emotions we experience directly affect our immune system. The positive emotions can create neurochemical changes that buffer the immunosuppressive effects of stress.
During stress, the adrenal gland releases corticosteroids, which are converted to cortical in the blood stream. These have an immunosuppressive effect. Dr. Lee Berk and fellow researcher Dr. Stanley Tan at Loma Linda University School of Medicine have produced carefully controlled studies showing that the experience of laughter lowers serum cortical levels, increases the amount and activity of T lymphocytes—the natural killer cells. Laughter also increases the number of T cells that have suppresser receptors.
What Laughter Can Do Against Stress And Its Effects?
• Laughter lowers blood pressure and reduces hypertension. • It provides good cardiac conditioning especially for those who are unable to perform physical exercise. • Reduces stress hormones (studies shows, laughter induces reduction of at least four of neuroendocrine hormones—epinephrine, cortical, dopac, and growth hormone, associated with stress response). • Laughter cleanses the lungs and body tissues of accumulated stale air as it empties more air than it takes in. It is beneficial for patients suffering from emphysema and other respiratory ailments. • It increases muscle flexion, relaxation and fluent blood circulation in body. • Boosts immune function by raising levels of infection-fighting T-cells, disease-fighting proteins called Gamma-interferon and disease-destroying antibodies called B-cells. • Laughter triggers the release of endorphins—body's natural painkillers. • Produces a general sense of well-being.
Decrease or Discontinue Caffeine:
Most people do not realize that caffeine (coffee, tea, chocolate and cola) is a drug, a strong stimulant that actually generates a stress reaction in the body. The best way to observe the effect of caffeine is to get it out of the system long enough to see if there is a difference in how they feel. 17
75% to 80% of people feel more relaxed, less jittery or nervous, sleep better, have more energy (a paradox, since you are removing a stimulant), less heartburn and fewer muscle aches. Many patients feel dramatically better and cannot believe the difference. One warning, however, people must wean them gradually or they will get migraine type withdrawal headaches. It is suggested to decrease by one drink per day until they are down to zero, then they should abstain for three weeks.
Aerobic exercise is a best way of draining off stress energy. To understand why, we need to review what stress is, stress is the state of increased arousal necessary for an organism to defend itself at a time of danger. The stress reaction is in us, not "out there." It provides us with the strength and energy to either fight or run away from danger and is therefore self-protective. Exercise is the most logical way to dissipate this excess energy. It is what our bodies are trying to do when we pace around or tap our legs and fingers. It is much better to channel it into a more complete form of exercise like a brisk walk, a run, a bike ride or a game of squash. During times of high stress, we could benefit from an immediate physical outlet - but this often is not possible. However, regular exercise can drain off ongoing stress and keep things under control. At the very least, it is important to exercise three times per week for a minimum of 30 minutes each time. Aerobic activities like walking, jogging, swimming, bicycling, racquet sports, skiing, aerobics classes and dancing are suitable. It is also beneficial to have a variety of exercise outlets. For chronic or acute stress, exercise is an essential ingredient in any stress reduction program.
Another way to reduce stress in the body is through certain disciplines which fall under the heading of relaxation techniques. Just as we are all capable of mounting and sustaining a stress reaction, we have also inherited the ability to put our bodies into a state of deep relaxation which Dr. Herbert Benson of Harvard University has named "the relaxation response." In this state, all the physiologic events in the stress reaction are reversed: pulse slows, blood pressure falls, breathing slows and muscles relax. Where the stress reaction is automatic, however, the relaxation response needs to be brought forth by intention. Fortunately, there are many ways of doing this. Sitting quietly by a lake or fireplace, gently petting the family cat, lying on a hammock and other restful activities can generate this state. There also are specific skills that can be learned which are efficient and beneficial. A state of deep relaxation achieved through meditation or self-hypnosis is actually more physiologically restful than sleep. These techniques are best learned through formal training courses which are taught in a variety of places. Books and relaxation tapes can be used. On days when exercise is not possible, relaxation techniques are an excellent way to bring down the body's stress level. Whereas exercise dissipates stress energy, relaxation techniques
neutralize it, producing a calming effect. As little as 20 minutes once or twice per day confers significant benefit.
Sleep is an important way of reducing stress. Chronically stressed patients almost all suffer from fatigue (in some cases resulting from stress-induced insomnia), and people who are tired do not cope well with stressful situations. These dynamics can create a vicious cycle. When distressed people get more sleep, they feel better and are more resilient and adaptable in dealing with dayto-day events. Most people know what their usual sleep requirement is (the range is five to 10 hours per night; the average being seven to eight), but a surprisingly large percentage of the population is chronically sleep deprived. The three criteria of success are waking refreshed, good daytime energy and waking naturally before the alarm goes off in the morning. Sleeping-in is fine but if you sleep too long, it throws off your body rhythms during the following day. It is better to go to bed earlier. Daytime naps are an interesting phenomenon. They can be valuable if they are short and timed properly (i.e., not in the evening). The "power nap" or catnap is a short sleep (five to 20 minutes) that can be rejuvenating. A nap lasting more than 30 minutes can make you feel groggy. Beyond these cautionary notes, sleep can be key in reducing stress and helping person cope and function better.
Many people go to their work place upset, talking incessantly about a problem, and feeling better when they are finished. They have told their story, cried or made some admission, and the act of doing so in the presence of a trusted and empathic listener has been therapeutic. Listener often does not have to say much. They just have to be there, listen attentively and show their concern and caring. On other occasions we might offer validation, encouragement or advice. But the combination of the patient being able to ventilate and their support can be profoundly beneficial. There is an old saying that "a problem shared is a problem halved." People who keep things to themselves carry a considerable and unnecessary burden. We can do much for person under stress by allowing them to ventilate or encouraging them to do so. We can also help by urging them to develop a support system (a few trusted relatives, co-workers or friends to talk to when they are upset or worried). Another form of ventilation that many patients find helpful is writing. When a person is angry, and under stress, Psychologist often suggest them to write a letter to the person at whom they are vexed. These letters are not for sending; they should be destroyed once they are written - unread. The value is in expressing the feelings and getting them out. Rereading the letter just reinforces the upset and fans the flames of anger all over again. One of the most important things we can do for person under stress is teach them about stress management. Even better, we can learn these lessons ourselves and then model them for that person.
(1.2.6) Reduce your stress
1. Job analysis: We have all experienced that appalling sense of having far too much work to do and too little time to do it in. We can choose to ignore this, and work unreasonably long hours to stay on top of our workload. The risks here are that we become exhausted, that we have so much to do that we do a poor quality job and that we neglect other areas of our life. Each of these can lead to intense stress. The alternative is to work more intelligently, by focusing on the things that are important for job success and reducing the time we spend on low priority tasks. Job Analysis is the first step in doing this. The first of the action-oriented skills that we look at is Job Analysis. Job Analysis is a key technique for managing job overload – an important source of stress. To do an excellent job, you need to fully understand what is expected of you. While this may seem obvious, in the hurly-burly of a new, fast-moving, high-pressure role, it is oftentimes something that is easy to overlook. By understanding the priorities in your job, and what constitutes success within it, you can focus on these activities and minimize work on other tasks as much as possible. This helps you get the greatest return from the work you do, and keep your workload under control. Job Analysis is a useful technique for getting a firm grip on what really is important in your job so that you are able to perform excellently. It helps you to cut through clutter and distraction to get to the heart of what you need to do. 2. Rational & positive thinking: You are thinking negatively when you fear the future, put yourself down, criticize yourself for errors, doubt your abilities, or expect failure. Negative thinking damages confidence, harms performance and paralyzes mental skills. Unfortunately, negative thoughts tend to flit into our consciousness, do their damage and flit back out again, with their significance having barely been noticed. Since we barely realize that they were there, we do not challenge them properly, which means that they can be completely incorrect and wrong. Thought Awareness is the process by which you observe your thoughts and become aware of what is going through your head. One approach to it is to observe your "stream of consciousness" as you think about the thing you're trying to achieve which is stressful. Do not suppress any thoughts. Instead, just let them run their course while you watch them, and write them down on our free worksheet as they occur. Then let them go. Another more general approach to Thought Awareness comes with logging stress in your Stress Diary. When you analyze your diary at the end of the period, you should be able to see the most common and the most damaging thoughts. Tackle these as a priority using the techniques below.
Here are some typical negative thoughts you might experience when preparing to give a major presentation:
Fear about the quality of your performance or of problems that may interfere with it; Worry about how the audience (especially important people in it like your boss) or the press may react to you;
Dwelling on the negative consequences of a poor performance; or Self-criticism over a less-than-perfect rehearsal.
Thought awareness is the first step in the process of managing negative thoughts, as you cannot manage thoughts that you are unaware of.
The next step in dealing with negative thinking is to challenge the negative thoughts that you identified using the Thought Awareness technique. Look at every thought you wrote down and challenge it rationally. Ask yourself whether the thought is reasonable. What evidence is there for and against the thought? Would your colleagues and mentors agree or disagree with it? Looking at the examples, the following challenges could be made to the negative thoughts we identified earlier:
Feelings of inadequacy: Have you trained yourself as well as you reasonably should have? Do you have the experience and resources you need to make the presentation? Have you planned, prepared and rehearsed enough? If you have done all of these, you've done as much as you can to give a good performance. Worries about performance during rehearsal: If some of your practice was less than perfect, then remind yourself that the purpose of the practice is to identify areas for improvement, so that these can be sorted out before the performance. Problems with issues outside your control: Have you identified the risks of these things happening, and have you taken steps to reduce the likelihood of them happening or their impact if they do? What will you do if they occur? And what do you need others to do for you? Worry about other people's reactions: If you have prepared well, and you do the best you can, then you should be satisfied. If you perform as well as you reasonably can, then fair people are likely to respond well. If people are not fair, the best thing to do is ignore their comments and rise above them.
When you challenge negative thoughts rationally, you should be able to see quickly whether the thoughts are wrong or whether they have some substance to them. Where there is some substance, take appropriate action. However, make sure that your negative thoughts are 21
genuinely important to achieving your goals, and don't just reflect a lack of experience, which everyone has to go through at some stage. Positive Thinking & Opportunity Seeking The final step is to prepare rational, positive thoughts and affirmations to counter any remaining negativity. It can also be useful to look at the situation and see if there are any useful opportunities that are offered by it. By basing your affirmations on the clear, rational assessments of facts that you made using Rational Thinking, you can use them to undo the damage that negative thinking may have done to your self-confidence. Continuing the examples above, positive affirmations might be:
Problems during practice: "I have learned from my rehearsals. This has put me in a position where I can deliver a great performance. I am going to perform well and enjoy the event."
Worries about performance: "I have prepared well and rehearsed thoroughly. I am well positioned to give an excellent performance."
Problems issues outside your control: "I have thought through everything that might reasonably happen and have planned how I can handle all likely contingencies. I am very well placed to react flexibly to events."
Worry about other people's reaction: "Fair people will react well to a good performance. I will rise above any unfair criticism in a mature and professional way."
In the examples above, successfully overcoming the situations causing the original negative thinking will open up opportunities. You will acquire new skills, you will be seen as someone who can handle difficult challenges, and you may open up new career opportunities. Make sure that identifying these opportunities and focusing on them is part of your positive thinking.
(1.2.7) Workplace Stress
Workplace stress is the harmful physical and emotional response that occurs when there is a poor match between job demands and the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. Stressrelated disorders encompass a broad array of conditions, including psychological disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder) and other types of emotional strain (e.g., 22
dissatisfaction, fatigue, tension, etc.), maladaptive behaviors (e.g., aggression, substance abuse), and cognitive impairment (e.g., concentration and memory problems). In turn, these conditions may lead to poor work performance or even injury. Job stress is also associated with various biological reactions that may lead ultimately to compromised health, such as cardiovascular disease. Stress is a prevalent and costly problem in today's workplace. About one-third of workers report high levels of stress. One-quarter of employees view their jobs as the number one stressor in their lives. Three-quarters of employees believe the worker has more on-the-job stress than a generation ago. Evidence also suggests that stress is the major cause of turnover in organizations.
Health and Healthcare Utilization
Problems at work are more strongly associated with health complaints than are any other life stressor-more so than even financial problems or family problems. Many studies suggest that psychologically demanding jobs that allow employees little control over the work process increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. On the basis of research by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and many other organizations, it is widely believed that job stress increases the risk for development of back and upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders. High levels of stress are associated with substantial increases in health service utilization. Workers who report experiencing stress at work also show excessive health care utilization. In a 1998 study of 46,000 workers, health care costs were nearly 50% greater for workers reporting high levels of stress in comparison to “low risk” workers. The increment rose to nearly 150%, an increase of more than $1,700 per person annually, for workers reporting high levels of both stress and depression. Additionally, periods of disability due to job stress tend to be much longer than disability periods for other occupational injuries and illnesses.
Causes of Workplace Stress
Job stress results from the interaction of the worker and the conditions of work. Views differ on the importance of worker characteristics versus working conditions as the primary cause of job stress. The differing viewpoints suggest different ways to prevent stress at work. According to one school of thought, differences in individual characteristics such as personality and coping skills are most important in predicting whether certain job conditions will result in stress-in other words, what is stressful for one person may not be a problem for someone else. This viewpoint leads to prevention strategies that focus on workers and ways to help them cope with demanding job conditions. Although the importance of individual differences cannot be ignored, scientific evidence suggests that certain working conditions are stressful to most people. Such evidence argues for a greater emphasis on working conditions as the key source of job stress, and for job redesign as a primary prevention strategy. Personal interview surveys of working conditions, including conditions recognized as risk factors for job stress, were conducted in Member States of the European Union in 1990, 1995, and 2000. Results showed a trend across these periods suggestive of increasing work intensity. In 1990, the percentage of workers reporting that they worked at high speeds at least one-fourth of their working time was 48%, increasing to 54% in 1995 and to 56% in 2000. Similarly, 50% of workers reported they work against tight deadlines at least one-fourth of their working time in 1990, increasing to 56% in 1995 and 60 % in 2000.
However, no change was noted in the period 1995–2000 (data not collected in 1990) in the percentage of workers reporting sufficient time to complete tasks. A substantial percentage of Americans work very long hours. By one estimate, more than 26% of men and more than 11% of women worked 50 hours per week or more in 2000. These figures represent a considerable increase over the previous three decades, especially for women. According to the Department of Labor, there has been an upward trend in hours worked among employed women, an increase in extended work weeks (>40 hours) by men, and a considerable increase in combined working hours among working couples, particularly couples with young children.
Signs of Workplace Stress
Mood and sleep disturbances, upset stomach and headache, and disturbed relationships with family; friends and girlfriends or boyfriends are examples of stress-related problems. The effects of job stress on chronic diseases are more difficult to see because chronic diseases take a long time to develop and can be influenced by many factors other than stress. Nonetheless, evidence is rapidly accumulating to suggest that stress plays an important role in several types of chronic health problems-especially cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, and psychological disorders.
A combination of organizational change and stress management is often the most useful approach for preventing stress at work. How to Change the Organization to Prevent Job Stress
Ensure that the workload is in line with workers' capabilities and resources. Design jobs to provide meaning, stimulation, and opportunities for workers to use their skills. Clearly define workers' roles and responsibilities. Give workers opportunities to participate in decisions and actions affecting their jobs. Improve communications-reduce uncertainty about career development and future employment prospects. Provide opportunities for social interaction among workers. Establish work schedules that are compatible with demands and responsibilities outside the job. Discrimination inside the workplace. (e.g. nationality and language )
• • •
2. Research Methodology
(2.1) Research Objective: Stress is a dynamic condition in witch an individual is confronted with an opportunity, demand or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. This is a complicated definition. Stress is not necessarily bad in and of itself. Although stress is typically discussed in a negative context, it also has a positive value. It’s an opportunity when it offers potential gain. Consider for example, the superior performance that an athlete or stage performer gives in “clutch” situations. Such individuals often use stress positively to rise to the occasion and perform at or near their maximum. Similarly, many professionals see the pressures of heavy workloads and deadlines as positive challenges that enhance the quality of their work and the satisfaction the get from their job. But it is different in the case of bank employees. The bank employees are the people who also have to achieve the certain target and so for the non achievement of target the employees remain stressed and tensed. The employees who have the simple table work also have to face the problem of stress. Due to recession the banking sector is also facing the problem of employee cutoffs and so the work load of the existing employees increases and the feel stressed. The types of stress are named as eustress and distress. Distress is the most commonlyreferred to type of stress, having negative implications, whereas eustress is a positive form of stress, usually related to desirable events in person's life. Both can be equally taxing on the body, and are cumulative in nature, depending on a person's way of adapting to a change that has caused it. Stress management is the need of the hour. However hard we try to go beyond a stress situation, life seems to find new ways of stressing us out and plaguing us with anxiety attacks. Moreover, be it our anxiety, mind-body exhaustion or our erring attitudes, we tend to overlook causes of stress and the conditions triggered by those. In such unsettling moments we often forget that stressors, if not escapable, are fairly manageable and treatable. Stress, either quick or constant, can induce risky body-mind disorders. Immediate disorders such as dizzy spells, anxiety attacks, tension, sleeplessness, nervousness and muscle cramps can all result in chronic health problems. They may also affect our immune, cardiovascular and nervous systems and lead individuals to habitual addictions, which are inter-linked with stress. Like "stress reactions", "relaxation responses" and stress management techniques are some of the body's important built-in response systems. As a relaxation response the body tries to get back balance in its homeostasis. Some hormones released during the 'fight or flight' situation prompt the body to replace the lost carbohydrates and fats, and restore the energy level. The knotted nerves, tightened muscles and an exhausted mind crave for looseness. Unfortunately, today, we don't get relaxing and soothing situations without asking. To be relaxed we have to strive to create such situations.
This research is to carry out the study that how much stressed the employees of the banks are and how do their stress affect their work life, social life, output etc. so a sample of 14 to 15 employees are selected from all the three banks for the research of stress among them.
Sample: I have taken the sample of 35 employees from three different banks of Gwalior. All the employees were of the same designations. Reason: As we find the employees of the bank to be more stressful as more and more employees are taking VRS and are dismissed because of inflation. I have selected only those three banks which are affiliated to the public and are specialized in consumer needs fulfillment. It is incumbent on the researcher to clearly define the target population. There are no strict rules to follow, and the researcher must rely on logic and judgment. The population is defined in keeping with the objectives of the study. Sometimes, the entire population will be sufficiently small, and the researcher can include the entire population in the study. This type of research is called a census study because data is gathered on every member of the population. Usually, the population is too large for the researcher to attempt to survey all of its members. A small, but carefully chosen sample can be used to represent the population. The sample reflects the characteristics of the population from which it is drawn. Sampling methods are classified as either probability or non probability. In probability samples, each member of the population has a known non-zero probability of being selected. Probability methods include random sampling, systematic sampling, and stratified sampling. In non probability sampling, members are selected from the population in some nonrandom manner. These include convenience sampling, judgment sampling, quota sampling, and snowball sampling. The advantage of probability sampling is that sampling error can be calculated. Sampling error is the degree to which a sample might differ from the population. When inferring to the population, results are reported plus or minus the sampling error. In non probability sampling, the degree to which the sample differs from the population remains unknown. Random sampling is the purest form of probability sampling. Each member of the population has an equal and known chance of being selected. When there are very large populations, it is often difficult or impossible to identify every member of the population, so the pool of available subjects becomes biased.
Systematic sampling is often used instead of random sampling. It is also called an Nth name selection technique. After the required sample size has been calculated, every Nth record is selected from a list of population members. As long as the list does not contain any hidden order, this sampling method is as good as the random sampling method. Its only advantage over the random sampling technique is simplicity. Systematic sampling is frequently used to select a specified number of records from a computer file. Stratified sampling is commonly used probability method that is superior to random sampling because it reduces sampling error. A stratum is a subset of the population that shares at least one common characteristic. The researcher first identifies the relevant stratums and their actual representation in the population. Random sampling is then used to select subjects from each stratum until the number of subjects in that stratum is proportional to its frequency in the population. Stratified sampling is often used when one or more of the stratums in the population have a low incidence relative to the other stratums. Convenience sampling is used in exploratory research where the researcher is interested in getting an inexpensive approximation of the truth. As the name implies, the sample is selected because they are convenient. This nonprobability method is often used during preliminary research efforts to get a gross estimate of the results, without incurring the cost or time required to select a random sample. Judgment sampling is a common non-probability method. The researcher selects the sample based on judgment. This is usually and extension of convenience sampling. For example, a researcher may decide to draw the entire sample from one "representative" city, even though the population includes all cities. When using this method, the researcher must be confident that the chosen sample is truly representative of the entire population. Quota sampling is the non-probability equivalent of stratified sampling. Like stratified sampling, the researcher first identifies the stratums and their proportions as they are represented in the population. Then convenience or judgment sampling is used to select the required number of subjects from each stratum. This differs from stratified sampling, where the stratums are filled by random sampling. Snowball sampling is a special non-probability method used when the desired sample characteristic is rare. It may be extremely difficult or cost prohibitive to locate respondents in these situations. Snowball sampling relies on referrals from initial subjects to generate additional subjects. While this technique can dramatically lower search costs, it comes at the expense of introducing bias because the technique itself reduces the likelihood that the sample will represent a good cross section from the population. 27
(2.3) Research Instrument: Stress Analysis Questionnaire
N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Questions Are you satisfied with the performance you give at your work? Do you think that you are suffering from depression? Do you worry about your colleague's opinion about you? Do you discuss your problem with your spouse or friend or any other close to you? Do you work more than 8 hours? You have an important function at your home and your boss asks to give a 4 hour over time, what will be your response? Do you regularly spend time for entertainment? Is your social life balanced? Do you plan your work before doing? Do you fear about the quality of your performance? Are you a heart patient? Do you get tensed at your non achievement of your target? Do you feeling stress some times? If the answer of the above question is Yes then answer the following: a) b) c) d) e) Is the reason of your stress your work load? Are you stressed because of your family problems? Do you get stressed when your boss scolds You? Do you try to find any solution for the problem of your stress? (IF YES) Do you practice yoga or any other ayurvedic therapy for reducing stress? To make the survey report more clear the above questionnaire was also filled. As a result the employees have given proper response and the report of the questionnaire is presented in the project. Yes No
(2.4) Data analysis and Interpretation
The project report shows the information of the level of stress which the employees are facing as the period of recession is going the employee cut-off and turnover ratios are found to be high so the workload for the existing employees are high. So they are facing the problem of work overload and thus they get stressed. Let’s have a watch on the basic data of the survey:
1. Are you satisfied with the performance you give at your work?
Yes 27 8
No response 0
Yes No No response
From the diagram it is clear that 77 % of the employees are satisfied with the performance they give in the work while 23 % of the employees are not satisfied.
2. Do you think that you are suffering from depression? Yes 7 28 No No response 0
Yes No No response
20 % of the employee feel that they are suffering from depression while 80 % of the employee feel that that they are free from the depression
3. Do you worry about your colleague's opinion about you? Yes 9 26 No No response 0
Yes No No response
26% of the employees worry about their colleague’s opinion about them while 74% of the employees are not concern with the opinion about their colleague. 4. Do you discuss your problem with your spouse or friend or any other close to you?
Yes 32 3
No response 0
Yes No No response
91% of the employees of the bank discuss their problem and share their feelings with their spouse or friends or others while 9 % of the employee is not concerned with it. 5. Do you work more than 8 hours?
Yes 31 4
No response 0
Yes No No response
89% of the employees work for more than 8 hours which is the starting point of the stress while 11 % of the employees don’t work for more than 8 hours. 6. You have an important function at your home and your boss asks to give a 4 hour over time, what will be your response? Yes 14 19 No No response 2
Yes No No response
40 % of the employees are proved to be work dedicated and they are ready to miss the important function at their house while 54 % of the employees said no and 6 % of the employee did not gave any answer.
7. Do you regularly spend time for entertainment?
Yes 20 15
No response 0
Yes No No response
57% of the employee spent regular time on entertainment which helps us to remain stress free while 43 % of the employees don’t do that. 8. Is your social life balanced?
Yes 19 14
No response 2
Yes No No response
54 % of the employees find their social life to be balanced while 40 % of the employees don’t have their social life balanced. 6% of the employees remain silent. 9. Do you plan your work before doing? Yes 31 4 No No response 0
Yes No No response
It is a good habit to plan the work you do. 89 % of the employees plan their work before doing while 11 % of the employees don’t plan their work. 10. Do you fear about the quality of your performance? Yes 1 34 No No response 0
Yes No No response
63% of the employees fear the quality of performance which they give while 37 % of the employees don’t fear the quality of their work. 11. Are you a heart patient? Yes 22 13 No No response 0
Yes No No response
Here 3 % of the employees are heart patient which is partially the result of stress.
12. Do you get tensed at your non achievement of your target? Yes 25 10 No No response 0
Yes No No response
71% of the employees get tensed at the non achievement of the target while 29 % of the employees work casually. 13. Do you feeling stress some times? Yes 28 6 No No response 1
Yes No No response
80% of the employees feel stressed sometimes while 17 % of the employees are not feeling stressed. 3 % of the employees did not respond.
If the answer of the above question is ‘Yes’ then answer the following: a) Is the reason of your stress your work load? Yes 20 9 No No response 6
Yes No No response
57% of the employees find themselves to be stressed by their work over load. 26 % of the employees are not stressed because of the work overload. 17 % of the employees did not answer. b) Are you stressed because of your family problems?
Yes 14 14
No response 7
Yes No No response
40 % of the employees are stressed because of their family problems 40% by other problems while 20% of the employees did not responded.
c) Do you get stressed when your boss scolds you?
Yes 10 18
No response 7
Yes No No response
20% of the employee did not responded when they were asked weather their get stressed because of the scolding of their boss. 51% of the employees don’t get stress because of the scolding of their boss. 29 % of the employees get stressed because of the scolding of their boss. d) Do you try to find any solution for the problem of your stress? Yes 24 6 No No response 5
Yes No No response
69 % of the employees try to find the solution of their stress. e) (IF YES) Do you practice yoga or any other ayurvedic therapy for reducing stress?
Yes 11 18
No response 6
Yes No No response
31% of the employees try the yoga and other ayurvedic techniques to reduce their stress while 51 % of the employees use other techniques to reduce stress.
(2.5) Employee’s opinion about how to reduce stress
This project consist of the information about the employees undergoing from stress who working in the banks. So considering this factor this topic becomes one of the most important part of the project as it consists of the opinion of the employees who work in the banks. In short it was a direct interview of the employees who gave their opinion about how to reduce stress. The response of employees in the major banks of Gwalior like, The AXIS Bank, and The HDFC bank was marvelous and they have given their valuable opinion about reducing stress as a result of the last question included in the questionnaire 2. So the opinion if the employees were as follows: “Just smile away” An employee- HDFC Bank “Just believe in your self and just do what your heart wants” An employee-“Talking to family members, - Watching TV or listening good music, - Going for “Believe in God” An employee- HDFC Bank “Respect yourself and give time to yourself” An employee- HDFC Bank “Working in environment welfares, lot of positive attitude. Positive attitude is
HDFC Bank a walk or long drive” An employee- HDFC Bank
only that reduces stress and achieves success. Most of the people frustrate due to lack of positivity and stress level climbs up due to that. So get positive attitude about work, about life, and forget the stress” An employee- AXIS Bank Bank “Play and watch cricket” An employee- AXIS Bank “Listen music and spend time with family” An employee- AXIS Bank “Get adjusted with others, Find and spend time for prayer, Study the scriptures, “We should do such activities from which we get happiness and also make others happy. Pass your time with your close friends and relatives.” An employee- AXIS
See oneness in all, All are manifested of the supreme GOD” An employee- AXIS Bank These opinions are seemed to be valuable and effective as one of the effective things has been noticed that the employees who have got less than 18 marks in the Burnout test have given their opinions about reducing the stress.
It is also noticed that in the AXIS bank Gwalior in the time of afternoon slow instrumental music are been played so that the employees can work stress free. This is one of the positive things which are seen in the organization who is caring for their employees. This will help the organization to boost up the productivity. From the certain sample of employees selected for the research, only 10 employees have given their opinion how to reduce stress. So we can understand that how overloaded the employees of the bank are.
(2.6) Research Flowchart
Questionnaire research design proceeds in an orderly and specific manner. Each item in the flow chart depends upon the successful completion of all the previous items. Therefore, it is important not to skip a single step. Notice that there are two feedback loops in the flow chart to allow revisions to the methodology and instruments. Design Methodology Determine Feasibility Develop Instruments Select Sample Revise Instruments Conduct Research Analyze Data Prepare Report
(2.7) Time Considerations
Many researchers underestimate the time required to complete a research project. The following form may be used as an initial checklist in developing time estimates. The best advice is to be generous with your time estimates. Things almost always take longer than we think they should. This checklist contains two time estimates for each task. The first one (Hours) is your best estimate of the actual number of hours required to complete the task. The second one (Duration) is the amount of time that will pass until the task is completed. Sometimes these are the same and sometimes they are different. Most researchers and business-people have to divide their time among many projects. They simply cannot give all their time to any one project. For example, my estimate of goal clarification may be four hours, but other commitments allow me to spend only two hours a day on this study. My "hours" estimate is four hours, and my "duration" estimate is two days. To arrive at your final time estimates, add the individual estimates. The hours estimate is used for budget planning and the duration estimate is used to develop a project time line.
(2.8) Limitation of the survey
Bank . So the scope of sample findings was less.
The questionnaires were
filled be 35 employees working in the two major Banks of Gwalior i.e. Axis Bank, and HDFC
The questionnaire was filled
by 35 employees of different designations. So the point of view of employees differs as per their
employees who are in stress cannot be called reasonable.
The employees from whom
the questionnaires are filled are in a heavy workload so some of the questionnaires filled by the
problems are not in all cases.)
The responses of the
employees cannot be accurate as the problem of language and understanding arises. (These
result may not be reasonable.
One of the other problems of
questionnaire is the cost. Some times it may be possible that even by spending so much the
problem in the research.
Many a times the employees
may not be really conscious or may not be bothered about the questionnaire. This may create a
(2.8.1) Advantages of Written Questionnaires
Questionnaires are very cost effective when compared to face-to-face interviews. This is especially true for studies involving large sample sizes and large geographic areas. Written questionnaires become even more cost effective as the number of research questions increases.
Questionnaires are easy to analyze. Data entry and tabulation for nearly all surveys can be easily done with many computer software packages. Questionnaires are familiar to most people. Nearly everyone has had some experience completing questionnaires and they generally do not make people apprehensive. Questionnaires reduce bias. There is uniform question presentation and no middleman bias. The researcher's own opinions will not influence the respondent to answer questions in a certain manner. There are no verbal or visual clues to influence the respondent. Questionnaires are less intrusive than telephone or face-to-face surveys. When a respondent receives a questionnaire in the mail, he is free to complete the questionnaire on his own time-table. Unlike other research methods, the respondent is not interrupted by the research instrument.
(2.8.2) Disadvantages of Written Questionnaires
One major disadvantage of written questionnaires is the possibility of low response rates. Low response is the curse of statistical analysis. It can dramatically lower our confidence in the results. Response rates vary widely from one questionnaire to another (10% - 90%), however, well-designed studies consistently produce high response rates. Another disadvantage of questionnaires is the inability to probe responses. Questionnaires are structured instruments. They allow little flexibility to the respondent with respect to response format. In essence, they often lose the "flavor of the response" (i.e., respondents often want to qualify their answers). By allowing frequent space for comments, the researcher can partially overcome this disadvantage. Comments are among the most helpful of all the information on the
questionnaire, and they usually provide insightful information that would have otherwise been lost. Nearly ninety percent of all communication is visual. Gestures and other visual cues are not available with written questionnaires. The lack of personal contact will have different effects depending on the type of information being requested. A questionnaire requesting factual information will probably not be affected by the lack of personal contact. A questionnaire probing sensitive issues or attitudes may be severely affected. When returned questionnaires arrive in the mail, it's natural to assume that the respondent is the same person you sent the questionnaire to. This may not actually be the case. Many times business questionnaires get handed to other employees for completion. Housewives sometimes respond for their husbands. Kids respond as a prank. For a variety of reasons, the respondent may not be who you think it is. It is a confounding error inherent in questionnaires. Finally, questionnaires are simply not suited for some people. For example, a written survey to a group of poorly educated people might not work because of reading skill problems. More frequently, people are turned off by written questionnaires because of misuse.
It is analyzed from the questionnaire filled by the employees that from the sample of 35 bank employees who have been surveyed, one is found to be a heart patient. This can be because of high level of stress. In the stress analysis questionnaire one of the question was “You have an important function at your home and your boss asks to give a 4 hour over time what will be your response ‘Yes or No’?” the employees have given their opinion as per their mood. While considering the point of view of entertainment it depends upon the mood of the employees. The entertainment is considered one of the most ultimate solutions to reduce stress. Most of the employees do not spend regular time in entertainment. This may be because they may not be getting time for entertainment or they may not be interested in the same. One of the questions was asked that were their social life balanced? It is observed that the employees who have scored above 20 marks in the burnout test did not have their social life balanced. Thus we can conclude that the employees who are above 20 don’t have their social life balanced. Thus it is proved that stress may affect our social life also. The employees were asked weather they plan their work or not, moderate answers were given. The employees scoring more than 25 marks were not found their work planned. Thus the employees who plan their work have scored below 25 marks in the burnout test except some cases as there are always some drawbacks in making plan. Failure of a plan may also lead a person to stress. Thus we can conclude that planning of the work may help to reduce stress level.
Most of the employees who have scored more than 20 marks fear about their quality of work they give. This aspect is not dependent of the burnout level. This aspect depends upon the dedication of work. So it is meaningless to compare this question with the burnout test. A question was asked that weather you get stressed at the non-achievement of their target? All the employees have responded positively. But this is not concern with the burnout score. From this we can conclude that all the employees are given achievable target and naturally by the non-achievement of the target all the employees may get stressed. One of the other possibilities is that the employees have responded positively to show themselves to be good. The employees having more than 10 marks in the burnout test says that they are under stress. Out of 35 employees of the sample 20 of the employees accepted that the reason for their stress is workload. 10 employees are not stressed because of the workload but because of their family problem. 5 of the employees are not suffering from stress. 14 employees out of 30 employees who are stressed feel stressful when their boss scolds them while 16 employees refused that they are not stressed because their boss scolds them. All the 30 employees have accepted that they try to find the solution of their stress. 10 employees out of 30 employees practice yoga to reduce their stress and the other 20 employees don’t practice yoga. The burnout scores of the employees who practice yoga are either more than 25 or less than 20. Thus we can conclude that the employees have reduced their stress by yoga therapy and other employees have just started the yoga because of high level of burnout The above analysis is done by the data received from the questionnaire. So the accuracy of data depends upon the response of the employees.
o o o
www.mindtool.com www.citehr.com http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stress_management Research Methodology: Methods And Techniques “Dr. C.R.
Organizational Behavior “Stephen P. Robbins” Self analysis of questionnaire
N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Questions Are you satisfied with the performance you give at your work? Do you think that you are suffering from depression? Do you worry about your colleague's opinion about you? Do you discuss your problem with your spouse or friend or any other close to you? Do you work more than 8 hours? You have an important function at your home and your boss asks to give a 4 hour over time, what will be your response? Do you regularly spend time for entertainment? Is your social life balanced? Do you plan your work before doing? Do you fear about the quality of your performance? Are you a heart patient? Do you get tensed at your non achievement of your target? Do you feeling stress some times? If the answer of the above question is Yes then answer the following: a) b) c) d) e) Is the reason of your stress your work load? Are you stressed because of your family problems? Do you get stressed when your boss scolds You? Do you try to find any solution for the problem of your stress? (IF YES) Do you practice yoga or any other ayurvedic therapy for reducing stress? Yes No
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