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ON
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY,
AS APPLIED TO
GEODESY AND NAVIGATION.
C
I
BY
C.
L.
DOOLITTLE,
i
*
',
Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy Lehigh University
FOURTH AND REVISED EDITION.
THIRD THOUSAND.
NEW YORK JOHN WILEY & SONS
LONDON CHAPMAN & HALL, LTD.
IQIO
BY
C. L.
DGOLITTLE.
ASTRONOMY'' DEFT.
PREFACE.
following work is designed as a textbook for univerand technical schools, and as a manual for the field astronomer. The author has not sought after originality, but has attempted to present in a systematic form the most approved methods in actual use at the present time. Each subject is developed as fully as the necessities of the
sities
THE
case are likely to require but as the work is designed to be a practical one, those methods and developments which have merely a theoretical or historic interest have been ex;
cluded.
Very complete numerical examples are given illustrative These have been prominent subjects treated. selected with care from records of work actually performed, and will show what may be expected in circumstances ordiof all the
narily favorable.
Such auxiliary tables as are applicable only to special problems will be found in the body of the work those which have a wider application are printed at the end of the volume. The universal employment of the method of Least Squares in work of this kind has led to the publication of an introduction to the subject for the benefit of those readers who are not already familiar with it. This introduction develops the method with special reference to the requirements of
M30910
IV
PREFACE.
work, and
it
this particular class of
has not been the design
to
make
it
exhaustive.
For the materials employed original papers and memoirs have been consulted whenever practicable. The illustrative examples have been drawn largely from the reports of the Coast and other government surveys. For most of the examples of sextant work, as well as for many valuable suggestions, the author is indebted to his friend and former col
Much assistance has also been league Prof. Lewis Boss. the excellent works of Chauvenet, Briinnow, derived from and Sawitsch.
Fully appreciating the difficulty of eliminating all mistakes from a work of this character, the author can only hope that this one may not prove to be disfigured by an undue
number
of such blemishes.
C. L. DOOLITTLE.
BETHLEHEM,
PA.,
May
20, 1885.
CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION TO THE METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES.
PAGB
Errors to which observations are liable
I
Axioms. The law of distribution of error
2
3
5
The curve
of probability Determination of the law of error
6
Condition of
maximum
probability
u
12
13 15
The The The The
measure of precision
probable error
mean mean
error
of the errors
17
Precision of the arithmetical
mean
18
Determination of probable error of arithmetical mean Probable error of the sum or difference of two or more quantities
Principle of weights Probable error when observations have different weights
20
22 23 26 2g
32
Comparison
of theory with observation
Indirect observations
Equations of condition Normal equations Observations of unequal weight
35
36 37
41
Arrangement of computation Computation of coefficients by a Solution of normal equations
Proofformulse
table of squares
43
47
54 65
Weights and probable errors of the unknown quantities
Mean
errors of the
unknown
quantities
VI
CONTENTS.
INTERPOLATION.
PAGE
Notation
71
'
General formulae of interpolation Arguments near beginning of table Arguments near end of table
Interpolation into the middle
72 78 82
84
85 86
*
Proof of computation
Differential coefficients
,
The ephemeris
Lunar distances
92
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
CHAPTER
I.
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE TRANSFORMATION OF
Spherical coordinates The horizon Altitude
COORDINATES.
100
Azimuth
Hour angle Latitude
Right ascension
102
103
The equator Declination The ecliptic Longitude
104
107 112
Having altitude and azimuth, to find declination and hourangle Having declination and hourangle, to find altitude and azimuth
To To
find
hourangle of star in the horizon
114
115
find distance
between two
stars
CHAPTER
PARALLAX
Definitions
II.
REFRACTION
DIP OF THE HORIZON.
120
120
121
To
find equatorial horizontal parallax Parallax at any zenith distance
Form and dimensions
of the earth
122
Reduction of the latitude
124
CONTENTS.
Determination of the earth's radius Parallax in zenith distance and azimuth
Parallax in right ascension and declination Refraction
Descartes' laws
Bessel's formula for refraction
Vll PAGE
127
131
142
*53
1
54
155
Refraction in right ascension and declination
Dip of the horizon
157 160
CHAPTER
TIME.
Sidereal time
III.
163
Solar time
Inequality of solar days
164 164 166
168
Equation of time
Sidereal and
To To
mean solar unit mean solar into sidereal time convert sidereal into mean solar time
convert
170
172
CHAPTER
ANGULAR MEASUREMENTS
IV.
THE SEXTANT
CLOCK.
THE CHRONOMETER AND
The vernier The reading microscope
174
The micrometer
: . .
,
Eccentricity of graduated circles The sextant
176 180
183 186
188
The
prismatic sextant Adjustments of the sextant
Method
of observing
190
194 196
Index error
Eccentricity of the sextant
The chronometer
Comparison
of chronometers
t
.
.
207 208 209 211
The clock The chronograph
Viii
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
V.
DETERMINATION OF TIME AND LATITUDE METHODS ADAPTED TO THE USE OF THE SEXTANT.
PAGE
Determination of time
a single altitude of the sun a single altitude of a star Conditions favorable to accuracy
By By
215
i
220
222
223 228
Differential formulae
Equal altitudes of a star Equal altitudes of the sun
Latitude
230
233
By the zenith distance of a star on the meridian By a circumpolar star observed at both upper and lower By the altitude of a star observed in any position By circummeridian altitudes
233
culmination.
.
235
236
238 247
Gauss' method of reducing circummeridian altitudes of the sun Correction for rate of chronometer
Latitude by Polaris Correction of altitudes for second differences in time
250
256 260
265
Probable error of sextant observation
CHAPTER
VI.
THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
Description of instrument
269
f
'. .
.
Value of level
.
.
276
Adjustments of instrument Methods of observing
279
.
.
.
.
283
Theory
of the transit
284
289
291
Diurnal aberration
Equatorial intervals of threads
Reduction of imperfect transits Determination of constants:
294
295
The
level constant
Inequality of pivots The collimation constant
296
302
305
The azimuth constant Personal equation Probable error and weight of transit observations
Application of the method of least squares
316
318
322
CONTENTS.
Correction for flexure The transit instrument out of the meridian
Transits of the sun, moon, and planets
IX
PAGE
335
338
339
Correction to moon's defective limb The transit instrument in the prime vertical
343
348
Mathematical theory
Errors in the data
352
356
358
Reduction to middle or mean thread
Application of least squares to prime vertical transits
372
CHAPTER
VII.
DETERMINATION OF LONGITUDE.
By By By By
transportation of chronometers the electric telegraph the moon
379 388
.
398
lunar distances
400
413
By moon culminations By occultations of stars
Prediction of an occultation
423
435
Graphic process of prediction
Computation of longitude Correction for refraction and elevation above sealevel Observations of different weights
443 444 460
474
CHAPTER
VIII.
THE ZENITH TELESCOPE.
Description of instrument Adjustment of instrument
478 481 484 48"
488
is
The observing
list
Directions for observing
Value of micrometer screw Value of micrometer when level General formulae for latitude
not
known
493
5*
5
The
corrections for micrometer, level, and refraction
2
Reduction to the meridian
Combination of individual values of the latitude Value of micrometer from latitude observations
;
54 57 59
X
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
IX.
DETERMINATION OF AZIMUTH.
PAGE
The The
theodolite
521
signal Selection of stars
523
Errors of
Method of observing collimation and leVel
star near elongation
524
525
Azimuth by a circumpolar
526
Correction for diurnal aberration
530
535
Circumpolar stars at any hourangle Correction for second differences in the time Conditions favorable to accuracy
537
,
542 543
Azimuth when time is unknown Azimuth determined by transit instrument
Circumpolar star at any hourangle
546
552
CHAPTER
PRECESSION
X.
NUTATION
ABERRATION
PROPER MOTION.
559
Secular and periodic changes
Mean, apparent, and true place of a
Precession
star.
560
560
5 63
Struve and Peters' constants
Bessel and Leverrier's constants
564
Precession in longitude and latitude Precession in right ascension and declination
564
57 1
57
Proper motion Expansion into series Star catalogues and mean places of stars Nutation Aberration
Reduction to apparent place The fictitious year The Tabula Regiomontance Conversion of mean solar into sidereal time
53
590
59
603
609 617 620
623 626
LIST OF TABLES
6.
DETERMINATION OF THE LAW OF ERRORS.
we
shall
*J
a,
have the sum of the probabilities for
a,
all
values
of
A between
or
(3)
When we
all
extend the limits of integration so as to include possible values of A, the probability becomes a certainty,
is expressed mathematically by unity. As, however, impossible to fix a finite limit to the value of A which shall be universal in its application, the limits in this case must be'extended to oo, giving us the eguation
it is
which
From
the foregoing
we have
2
= =
for the probability of the error
<p(A^)
for the probability of the error
ym
If
<p(A m) for the probability of the error
Am
.
the probability that all these errors occur multaneously, we have, from the theory of probabilities,
now
P=
si
P=
?(4)<K4MA)


9(4.),
...
(5)
and the most probable value of the unknown quantity x will be that which makes the quantity Pa. maximum. Taking the logarithms of both members of this equation, we have
logP =
log <p(A)
+ log 9<4) +
.
.
.
+ log <?(4n).
8
LEAST SQUARES.
6.
ferential coefficient equal to zero,
Differentiating this with respect to x> and placing the difwhich is the condition of a
maximum, we have
,
<fcr
dA
dx
From
(i)
we have
~
dx
dx
~
dx
Substituting these values in the above equation, also for etc., their values (M, x), etc., it becomes
d log
 x]  x) d(M,
(p(M,
d log
cp(M,
d(M,
 x)  x)
This equation gives the means of determining x as soon form of the function cp is known, and this can best be determined by considering a particular case. As this function is strictly general, if we have once determined its form in a special case the result will be applicable to all cases. We have assumed as an axiom that in the case of direct measurement of the quantity sought the most probable value will be the arithmetical mean of the individual measurements.
as the
This principle will furnish the basis for investigating the form of the function cp. In case of direct measurement we have for the unknown
quantity
*
M + M,+ ...+Mm ~ ,...t
(7)
6.
DETERMINATION OF THE LAW OF ERRORS.
9
which may be written
(Ml
x) + (M,x) + ...+(Mm x) =
may be
written
o.
.
(8)
Equation
(6)

Comparing equations
l
(3)
and
(9),
we
see that since the
are independent of each x\ x), (Mz quantities (M these equations may be satisfied by placing the coeffiother,
etc.,
cients of
to the
(M
l
x),
(M
t
x], etc., in (9), respectively equal
same
(?(]$,
.constant, k.
We
have therefore
x)
dlog
(M,
 x]d(M, x)~ (M  x}d(M^  x)
t
x)
d\og(p(M^
x)
Writing for

(M
x) in general
//,
we have
and, by integration,
c
log (p(A)
= \kA* + log c,
being the constant of integration,
<p(4).= ce**
or
.....
A
.
.'.
(ii)
From axiom
tity
III. it
appears that as
must diminish, and
this requires the
increases this quanexponent of e to be
10
2
LEAST SQUARES.
7.
negative.
be
so.
negative, it follows that k must therefore \k tf, our equation becomes Writing
As J cannot be
=
ce**.
7.
I
.....
(12)
Let us now consider the constant of integration c. This be determined by substituting the value of <p(d) in (4), may giving us
a special form of the integral
known
as the
gamma
function.
For the purpose
of integrating the expression, place /id
=
t.
Then dA
=
>,
and we have
rj /+>/T e~*dt= h^" edt. J
oo
C
r
/*+
t
As
/
in this expression is
involved only in the quadratic
form,
we
evidently have
(in
which we write the integral equal
to
A
for convenience).
will be the
/oo e~*dt the value
if
same
we
write another symbol instead of
t.
Therefore
.
C
I/O
e~*dt
= t/O f
e~*dv.
e
*dt,
we
have
A'= t/o t/o f f
e
8.
CONDITION OF
MAXIMUM
PROBABILITY.
1 1
In the second
member
of this equation write v
=
tu,
dv
tdu.
Then
A*= I/O TduTet/0
/'which between the given
Therefore
limits
becomes
+
x
,
i .
A"
=
 I 2 e/o
;
I [_
U
* 5
=
2
(tan^
x
oo
tan o) }
=
4
it.
Therefore
and we have
and equation
(12)
i
=j
J/TT,
or
r
**
becomes
B
^*.*W
(
I3)
In this equation the constant h will require further consideration but if we assign any arbitrary value, as unity, to h we can readily construct the locus of the equation. It will
;
at
once appear that the general form will be that shown on
5.
page
/
Condition of
8.
Maximum
5)
Probability
',
Substituting in equation
the values of
etc.,
from
(13), it
becomes
P
/_\
/ia(
^ + A22 + +^
2
a)
. .
.
.
(14)
12
LEAST SQUARES.
9.
From this equation we see that will increase in value as will be a maximum when the exponent of e diminishes, or d* \is a minimum, thus A^ 4? giving us the im
P P
+
.
.
.
+
portant principle The most probable value of the unknown quantity is that zvhich 'makes the sum of the squares of the residual errors a minimum. From this principle comes the name Method of Least Squares.
The Measure of Precision.
Let us now consider the constant h. Substituting in equation (3) the value of <p(A\ the probability of an error between the values
9.
we have
a
for
, /+<*
h ~*Wd4
(15)
take another series of observations, a probability of an error between
If
f
we
we have
the
If
these respective probabilities are equal
we
shall
have
which equation
will
be satisfied by making ha =.h'a
h
:
f
,
or
(16)
h'
= a'
:
a
.......
see from this equation that in two different series of observations h will have different values, these values being
We
10.
THE PROBABLE ERROR.
13
to each other inversely as the errors to be ascribed with equal probability to each series. If, for instance, the errors of the first series are twice as great as those of the second, h will
The constant h is therefore the measure of preequal \h' cision of the series of observations and if its value could be determined from the observations themselves, we should by
.
;
this
means be able to know to what degree of confidence the data were entitled. This determination is possible, at least
approximately, but for practical purposes it is more convenient to compare the relative accuracy of different series of observations by means of their respective probable errors, which will now be considered.
The Probable Error.
error of any observation of a given series is a quantity such that if the errors committed be arranged according to their magnitude without reference to the
10.
The probable
algebraic sign, this quantity will occupy the middle place in the series. // may therefore be defined as a quantity of such value that the probability of an error greater than this one is the
same as
the probability
of one
less.
consider both plus and minus errors, we have from equation (i 5) the following expression for the probability of an error between a, remembering that the probability a a is the same as between o and between o and
When we
+
:
Let r
=
The whole number
the probable error. of errors being represented by unity,
14
LEAST SQUARES.
II.
our definition of the probable error gives us the following equation
:
l 
2
=
^Te4/7T^
"M,
or

= ^S*' ^X
give us hr
;
hdA.
(
1
8)
The solution of this equation known r becomes known, and
will
so that
if
h
is
conversely. II. It is evident that the equation for hr can only be solved approximately, as the expression e^^lidA is not
The only method of solution is to comdirectly integrable. a series of numerical values of the integral for different pute
values of the limit, hr, and then by interpolation determine that value whichr satisfies equation (18) with the necessary degree of precision.
Owing to the great importance of this integral, not only in this connection, but also in the theory of refraction, various methods have been developed for computing its numeriThe most elementary of these consists in expande~ h<i ^ = e~ * (hd being written equal to /)into a series ot ing ascending powers of t, by means of Maclaurin's formula, and This series integrating the separate terms of the series. for small values of /, and is therefore well converges rapidly adapted to numerical computation, but for large values of t
cal value.
it
becomes diverging. For this case, as well as for the case where / is small, a series may be obtained by successive apby
parts,
plications of the formula for integration
J
udv
uv
J
vdu,
by which means the expansion may be effected either in terms of ascending or descending powers of /. When an
extensive series of values of the integral is required, as in computing a table of values for different values of the argu
12.
THE MEAN ERROR.
/,
1
5
ment,
as the
the most simple process is to apply what method of Mechanical Quadratures.
is
known
As very complete tables of numerical values of this integral have been many times computed, we shall simply refer to the tabular quantities without entering more fully into the methods Table I. of this volume gives the values of of computation.

VX J
I
o
e* dt
for values of t
from o to
oo
.
We
readily find
from this table that the value of hr which satisfies equation An interpolation readily gives (18) lies between .47 and .48.
hr
0.47694;
.47694
_
47^94 h
The Mean Error.
12.
errors which
The probable error may be used
is
for
not the only function of the comparing the relative ac
curacy of different series of observations. Another quantity which may be used for this purpose, or as a convenient auxiliary for
computing the probable
is
error,
is
the
Mean
is
Error.
The Mean Error
the squares
a quantity whose square
errors.
the
mean of
Let
=
of the individual
the
mean
h,
:
error.
Then
to determine the relation
e
between
f
and
ceed as follows
A'
and consequently between Let
etc. etc.
and
r,
we
pro
,
An
',
A'"
r
,
'\
(p(A"\ (p(A"
),
= the different errors which occur = their respective probabilities.
;
l6
LEAS7" SQUARES.
5
12.
Then m being the whole number of errors there number expressed by the quantity 2mq)(A') (both
,
will be a
f
and
errors included) of the value A' 2mcp(A") of the value
etc.,
A
1
',
and
in all
4 + 4, + A, +
From
.
.
.
Am
=
f
2mcp(A')A
+ 2m<p(A")A"
//
4 2^?>(^
V" +
have
etc.
the definition of the
i
mean error
we
///
shall
///2
2mcp(A')A''
+ 2m 9 (A"}A'"> + 2^(J
m
)^
+ etc.
Expressing this by an integral, by the same method of reasoning as was used in deriving equation (3) we have
/CO
~
If
This equation expresses a relation between
effect the integration, let as before
e
and
h.
To
hA
t.
Then dA
=
^,
and we have
Integrating this by parts by placing u
t
and dv
find
= e
**tdt,
and substituting
in
J
udv
=
uv
J
vdu,
we
which readily gives
a

.........
(20)
13
THE MEAN OF THE ERRORS.
(19),
I?
Substituting the value of h from
we have
.
">
r=
From
versa.
.6745*.)
\
(21)
these r
is
readily
computed when we know
e,
and vice
The Mean of the Errors.
13.
for
Another quantity which is much used as an auxiliary computing r is The Mean of the Errors. This must not
:
be confused with the mean error. It is thus defined The Mean of the Errors is the arithmetical mean of the different errors all taken with the positive sign. Let rj = the mean of the errors. Then to determine the relation between rj and r we proceed in a manner similar to
that followed in the previous section.
As
before, let
A'
,
A"
,
A' n
',
etc.
etc.
<p(A'\
(p(A"},
<p(A'"},
= =
the individual errors.
their respective probabilities.
Then, the whole number of observations being m,
mrj
=
2m <p(A')A'
;
+ 2m <p(A"}A"'+ 2m <p(A'")A"
r
,
etc.,
from definition
and therefore
7;
=
2m<p(A'} 4'+2m<p(4")4"+2m<p(4"y", etc.
=2
^
.
(J)J>
Passing to the integral as before,
large,
m
being supposed very
"
= ^=.
h
.
.
V*
(22)
18
LEAST SQUARES.
(19),
14.
Substituting the value of h from
r,
r
= I.i82 9 = 0.8453'A
r;
)
f
Equations
(20)
?/,
tween
e
and
and (22) give us the following relations which we shall hereafter find convenient
:
be
(24)
Either of the quantities r, or 17 may be used for comparing the relative accuracy of different series of observations, or of the quantities derived from them by computation. shall, however, always use r for this purpose, making use of rj and
,
We
,
when occasion
serves, as convenient auxiliaries for
r.
comput
ing the probable error
Precision of the Arithmetical Mean.
14.
Although the arithmetical mean
is
the best value to be
obtained from a series of equally good direct measurements, It is thereit will only be an approximation to the true value. fore important to determine to what degree of confidence it
is entitled.
Let
.n m
n
nz
,
.
.
A^A V A^
Then
.
.
.A m = the
= m individual measurements of the quantity x\
errors, of each n respectively.
**=(*,* A)
=
(*,
O=
=
(n m
 40
14.
THE ARITHMETICAL MEAN.
x
is
19
the most probable value of maximum value to the expression
Then
that which gives a
=
A*
But
\
h
(
.
V
Vn
\
A*
is

.
.
this
the case
,,
^m must therefore be a minimum. when x is the arithmetical mean of the
.
.
individual values
;;.,,
.
nm
.
If any other value
is
assumed
tf,
for x, as
responding errors will be ^,
(14)
J
2
x f #, #,... J m
the corS,
and
becomes
P!
m / h \ (_ _)
_^2[(^ l _i
~\Vx>
But from
article 12,
24'
1
;^e
3
.
Also,
^A =
o,
Therefore (14) and (I4) become
if
or
/ :/
single
>
>/
=
1 i:*"* "
(25)
i,
For a becomes
observation
m =
and
this
expression
(25),
/*:>/=*
i:r^
m
Therefore // being the measure of precision of the vidual observations, that of the arithmetical mean, of
observations
is
indi
such
h Vm.
Therefore, calling h, the measure of precision, e and r the mean and probable errors of the arithmetical mean, we have,
from formulae
(19), (21), (25),
and
(25),,
20
LEAST SQUARES.
is,
15.
That
is
directly as the square root
the precision of a result obtained by direct measurement of the number of measurements.
Determination of the Probable Error.
15. From the foregoing principles we can now compute from the observations themselves the probable error of a quantity determined directly by observation.
As
before, let n^ n^ n s
x.
,
.
.
.
nm
the individual measure
ments of a quantity
Let
x
=
the arithmetical
mean
of the n's
;
These quantities (v v9t etc.) are known as residuals, and must not be confounded with the true errors (A^ A v etc.), from which they will always differ, unless x^ is absolutely the
lt
true value of x.
Let the error of x, be quently
6.
Then x
=
x
\
tf,
and conse
and we
shall
have
[J J]
r=
[
W
]
a
2\v\8
*
.
in
which and
*
\yv\
*
[>]
= v* + v =^ +v =
+ m& + + m vm +
. .
;
2
z>
.
.
.
~
.
Since jr is the arithmetical mean of the quantities n lt etc., it follows that \v\ o, and consequently
a
,
*
will require
Frequent use will be made hereafter of no further explanation.
this
symbol of summation, and
it
DETERMINATION OF PROBABLE ERROR.
21
d being the error of the arithmetical mean, is unknown. A close approximation will, however, be obtained if we assume * Then it equal to the mean error e referring to (25), we have
m
1
m
and since
\_44~\
=
mf, we have
m? =
Therefore
,t
.
\yv\
= A ./JffiL
V m
i'
and from
(21),
r
= =
.6745
m
(27)
From
(25)
and
(26), e
in(in
=
Combining equations
s
.6745
/
~w
n
\)
(27)
and
(24),
we
readily find
= =
*"*"
1.2533
^L
;
r
= 0.8453 _
= 0.8453
\m(m
(28)
*.
I

2 533
7^
=;
^o
all
In these expressions [+ v\ represents the taken with the positive sign.
sum
of the residuals
These simple formulae
value.
(27)
and
little
(28) are of
When
the
number
of observations
values given by (27) will be a
*
the
great practical not large the more accurate than those
is
From what precedes we see that this assumption would be number of observations were infinite.
rigorously true
if
22
LEAST SQUARES.
l6.
(28), but when the number is large (28) will be sufficiently accurate for practical purposes, and the facility with which they are applied is something in their favor.
by
Probable Error of the
Sum
or Difference of
Two
or
More
Observed Quantities.
16.
Let us next suppose the unknown quantity x, instead
sum or difference of two more quantities whose values are obtained by direct measurement viz. Let x = y^ y in which y and y^ are independent of each other and whose values are directly observed.
of being directly observed, to be the
or
;
:
l
Let the individual errors of observation be
For/,,
J/
f
J/',
.
.
.
A 7;
The
errors of the individual determinations of
x
will then
be
(A
A'},
(A
J
f
"),
.
.
.
(A

4~);
and if have
is
the
mean error
of a determination of x,
we
shall
m? =
(A!
A^J
+ (4"
4,")'
of the
+
.
.
.
+ (4W
for
^D
2
.
Expanding and making use
*
symbol
summation,
* [^^J
2[4, JJ
+ [//,<].
l
Let
,
and
f2
=
the
^
respectively.
mean errors of a measurement of y and Then since, for reasons before explained,
I/
PRINCIPLE OF WEIGHTS.
2$
the middle term ([z^z/J)
may
comparison with
[AA]
an<3
be regarded as vanishing in [4A]> we shall have
or
In a
e
=
of
e>
+& ......
l
.
(29)
we may extend the method number of observed quantiany ties, so that in general if we have x = y y^ JTO> the mean errors being respectively e, e we shall m v
to the
manner precisely sum or difference
similar
.
.
lt
.
.
.
,
have
e
=
Vt*
+
.
*;
+
.'
+
.
.
.
+C=f
l l
.
.
(30)
<* fx ay 2 m ymi Suppose next that we have x <^ m are constants. which or,, or,, If, as before, e,, e e m are the mean errors of y^ yv ym then the mean errors a m ym will be respectively a^ a^, cx m emy of a^, a^y v and the mean error of x
2 jj/
.
. .
in
.
.
a,
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
l9
.
.
.

^[
2f3
].
(so
Principle of Weights.
17. In the foregoing we have assumed all the observations considered to be equally trustworthy, or, as it is expressed As will readily be seen, we technically, of equal weight. shall frequently have occasion to combine observations of It is therefore important to ascertain different weights. how to treat them, so that each shall have its proper influence in determining the result. Confining our discussion for the present to the case of a
directly observed quantity, the
most elementary form of the
24
LEAST SQUARES.
will be that
1
7.
problem
selves the arithmetical
where the quantities combined are themmeans of several observations of the
;
weight unity. Thus, suppose the quantity x to be determined from m' such observations the most probable value of x' will then be
,
_ */
+ */ + < +
.
.
.
+ nj
From a second, third, etc., tions we have respectively
series of m", m"'', etc., observa
_
_
Combining all these individual most probable value of x
values,
we have
for the

w"
f
m"x"
The value
viz.,
be affected if we multiply both numerator and denominator of this fraction by any constant a
of
x
will not
;
_
/
N
am'
+ am" + am"' +
.
.
.
I/
PRINCIPLE OF WEIGHTS.
1
, ,
2$
in
which we may regard am am" etc., as the respective a may be integral or fractional. weights of x x" etc.
1
',
,
From
tities
this
we
and are
in
see that the weights are simply relative quanno case to be regarded as absolute.
:
the foregoing we have the following practical rule observations are to be combined to which different weights are to be ascribed, the most probable value of the unknown quantity
From
When
and dividing
weights.
will be obtained by multiplying each observation by its weight, the sum of the products by the sum of the
It is clear that
the difference of weights may result from a variety of causes other than the simple one considered above as, for instance, one series of observations may be
;
made with a more accurate instrument than another, or by a more skilled observer. Thus, for example, it may be the case that ten measurements made by one observer will have If the weight of as much value as twenty made by another.
an observation of the first series be unity, one of the second would only be entitled to a weight of one half or more gen;
erally,
Letting/
Then
If
2/
=
the weight of an observation of the second series, the weight of an observation of the first series.
then
we have
a series
etc.,
x x x
etc.,
of observations of
the weights /p/,,,/3,
and consequently

x
as the
_ A*i + A*. + A*. +
A
+A+A+

most probable value of x, it is evident that, whatever have been the cause of this difference of weight, we may may consider each value x^ x etc., as derived from/!,/,, etc., individual observations of the weight unity. Let
26
e
LEAST SQUARES.
1
8.
=
the
e lf ea , etc.,
mean error of an observation of the weight unity the mean errors of x x etc.
lt
;
Then from
(25),
s
l
=
^.
,
?a
,
etc.,
*>._
_
k
l
(33)
The whole number
H~
A+
error
e,
mean
W we have
of observations being equal to p observations of the weight unity or of the
+A
for the
mean
error of x, from
(25),
(34)
The Probable Error when Observations have Different Weights.
The mean taken according to weights, as in equation or (32)*, is sometimes called the General Mean. In order (32) to derive the formula for the probable error in this case, let, as before, d be the error of the general mean x viz., x XQ 8. Then, the notation being as before, we have
18.
\
4=
The The
error
v,

d,
A,
= v,
fi,
A,
=
v
z

d,
etc.
error A^ belongs to x^ and therefore appears/, times J a belongs to x^ and therefore appears /a times
;
;
Therefore
>4J]
=
[pvv\
2^pv~\d
+
[p~]d\
as in previous cases [pv] may be disas being inappreciable in comparison with the other regarded terms, when we have
For the same reason
1
8.
OBSERVATIONS OF DIFFERENT WEIGHTS.
mean
error of
'
Substituting for d the
x from
(34),
we have
Now,
as x^
is
equivalent
to/ observations
t
l
of weight, unity,
;
be the equivalent of p errors equal to A^ mean error of x^ we shall have being the
there will
and
el
Whence from
Similarly,
(33),
*?
etc.
And m
tions,
lt
x xv
being the whole number of quantities, or observaetc., we have
Our equation
therefore becomes
m
.
[pvv]
+
2
c
,
from which
/
~~\l
m
C/H
i'
and from
(34),
.
(35)
and from
(21),
r.
=
6745
Vi
/
(*

^
in these formulae is.the number of individual observations, or quantities, x lt xv etc., and must not be mistaken for the sum of the weights. It will be evident upon a careful comparison of these expressions with the formulae (27) that we should have reached
28
f
LEAST SQUARES.
same
result
19.
the
the square root of
by multiplying each quantity x xv etc., by its weight, and then proceeding exactly as we have previously done with observations of equal weight. We have therefore established the following rule which we
may apply
combining observations of different weights First reduce all observations to a common unit of weight by
in
:
multiplying each by the square root of its weight, then combine t/iem precisely as if they had originally been of equal weight.
515
For examples and 516.
of the application of the formulae see
pages
General Remarks.
19.
We
the
unknown quantity
have hitherto considered only those cases where is derived in the simplest manner from
observation, viz., by direct measurement or by the sum or difference of directly measured quantities. Before proceeding to the more complex cases a few general remarks may not be out of place.
error,
Equation (13), which represents the law of distribution of and on which the subsequent discussion is based, rests two hypotheses neither of which is ever fully realized upon
in practice, viz., that the
number
of observations
is infinite,
and that they are entirely free from constant errors, i.e., errors which affect all alike. The formulse deduced when applied to the cases which actually arise can give us only
approximate results, although they will be the best attainable approximations from the given data. This is particularly to be borne in mind when the number of observations is small. The probable errors in such cases are apt to be entirely illusory, and in general are only reliable when the number of
observations is large enough to exhibit approximately the law of distribution of error derived from the hypothesis of an infinite series of observations.
20.
COMPARISON WITH OBSERVATION.
viz.,
29
that conrealized,
The second hypothesis mentioned above,
stant errors
do not exist in our data, can never be fully
and
source of great annoyance and unin combining observations taken under different certainty
this fact is often the
Such errors arise from a variety of causes, some and others not at all so. It is of very occurrence that a result derived from a single series frequent of observations will give a small probable error, and yet differ widely from that derived from a second series to all appearances equally good. It sometimes happens that computers
conditions.
easy to investigate
who
are puzzled by such occurrences attribute the difficulty
to faults in the method, the truth being that they are due to the presence of a class of errors with which the method does
not profess to deal.
The remedy
and
for this difficulty
is
to vary as
much
as pos
sible the conditions
under which the observations are made,
in a manner calculated to eliminate as far as possible those constant errors which cannot be investigated.
Comparison of Theory with Observation.
20.
We
The test of theory is its agreement with observed facts. may in this manner test the truth of the law which we
have derived for the distribution of errors. We have the probability that an error falls betwedn the
limits
a expressed by the equation
h
/+
fraction
r
In accordance with the theory of probabilities, / here is a which expresses the ratio of the number of errors
30
LEAST SQUARES.
a to the whole number.
is
2O.
between
observations
If then the number of a will be m, the number of errors between
m
law expressed by this formula we have only to the probable error of the series of observations under compute consideration by (27) or (28), and then h by (19). The value of the integral will then be obtained from Table I., and we
test the
To
shall be in possession of everything necessary for comparing the number of errors between any two limits as indicated by
this
formula with the number shown by the series of observaMany such comparisons have been made, and always with satisfactory results, when the number of observations compared has been large. A perfect agreement is of course not to be looked for, as our formula has been derived on the theory of an infinite number of observations and further, we
tions.
;
are not in possession of the true errors for comparison with the formula, but the residuals instead, which will always differ from the errors unless we are in possession of the absolutely
true value of the
unknown
quantity.
above the following tabular statement gives the result of a comparison with theory of the errors of the observed right ascensions of Sirius and Altair. The example is given by Bessel in the Fundamenta Astronoillustration of the
mice.
As an
In a series of 470 observations by Bradley the probable error of a single observation was found to be r o".2637, whence h Therefore for the number of errors less 1.80865. than ".i the argument of Table I. will be t hA .180865.
=
With
this
argument we
find for the integral .20188,
which
multiplied by 470, the entire
number
of errors, gives 95 as
20.
COMPARISON WITH OBSERVATION.
errors less than
".i.
:
the
number of
In a
manner
similar to
this the following results
were found
This agreement is very satisfactory, but here, as in other examples, the larger errors occur a little more frequently than theory would indicate. This is probably due to the fact that (unconsciously, perhaps) every observer will occasionally let an observation pass which is not up to the average standard of accuracy. Small mistakes will sometimes occur, also, which are not of sufficient magnitude to attract attention. A consideration of the matter has led to attempts on the part of Peirce of Harvard College and Stone of England to establish criteria for the rejection On the other hand it has been of such doubtful observations. proposed to overcome the difficulty by determining a system of weights which should give those observations which show large discrepancies less influence than those showing small
similar
ones.
This branch of the subject, however, is beyond the scope of the present work. It is an exceedingly delicate matter to deal with, and from its nature is probably incapable of a
mathematical treatment which
shall
Every computer
occasionally feels
be entirely satisfactory. compelled to reject
32
observations.
tion.
LEAST SQUARES.
21.
This should always be done with extreme caufor the criteria for this purpose hitherto proposed, probably the most that can be said in their favor is that their use insures a uniformity in the matter, thus leaving nothing to the individual caprice of the computer.
As
Indirect Observations.
21.
We
have
now
determination of the
that
unknown
investigated the simplest case of the quantity by observation, viz.,
In the
when the quantity to be determined is measured directly. more general form of the problem the unknown
by an
quantities are connected with the observed quantities equation of the form
M being given by observation, and
;
x, y, 2, etc.,
being the un
known quantities. This general form includes the case which we have previously investigated, where there was only one unknown quantity. Each observation furnishes an equation of this form therefore a number of observations equal to that of the unknown quantities will completely determine their
value.
we have four unknown quantities, x,y, z, and w, four observations will give us four equations from which the values of the
This would leave nothing to be desired if the observations were perfect but owing to the errors to which they are liable, the values of x, y, 2, etc., will be more reliable the greater the number of observations on which they depend. If now
;
may be determined. If we have more we may determine values of the unknown quantities by combining any four of them. As the equations depend on observations more or less erroneous, we should
quantities
unknown
than four equations,
thus obtain a variety of values for x, y, probably in error to some extent.
z,
and w,
all of
them
21.
INDIRE CT OB SER VA 7 'IONS.
:
33
of the
The problem then is this Of all possible systems of values unknown quantities, to find that which most accurately
all
represents
of the observations.
We
shall confine ourselves to the consideration of linear
;
equations
and as the problems
in
which we
shall be
more
particularly interested do not give rise to equations of more than four unknown quantities, we shall limit our discussion to that number.
It will be obvious, however, that it can be extended to any number. Suppose we have the following system of equations
:
,y
,
+ c,z + d,w = y+ + djv =
c,z
,;
in
which
x, y, z,
and
w
are
unknown
quantities, a,
b,
c,
d,
are coefficients given by theory, and quantities given by observation.
etc.,
n v n^
etc.,
are
If
now
the data were perfect
z,
we should
obtain the same
of these
values of x, y,
equations. which n lt
and
w
by combining any four
,
Owing, however, to the errors of observation to etc., are subject, it is not probable that a substitu
tion of the true values of x, y, z, and we (if would exactly satisfy any one of the equations.
w
knew them)
in
v etc., be the residuals obtained by substituting equations (36) for x, j, z, and w their approximate values such that the following equations will be rigorously satisfied
:
Let v^ v
=
f
n,
c^z \
djw
?= HI
v^.\
(37)
34
LEAST SQUARES.
21.
Now
will,
the most probable values of our unknown quantities be those which make the sum of the squares of these
residuals a
minimum,
viz.,
etc.
=
(38)
must be a minimum.
In these equations x, y, z, and w are supposed independent, therefore the differential coefficients with reference to each variable must separately be equal to zero to satisfy the
conditions of a
minimum.
That
is,
d\yv\
dx
_ =
d\vv~\ _
o,
=
dy
dz
in full,
o,
d\vv\
dw
o.
Writing out these expressions
dv
l
we have
the following:
dv^
.
dv
z
.
3
+
=oY
(39)
dv.
dv
,y, 2,
and
w being independent, we
dv*
'
have from
(37),
*
dj
=>.,
=
etc.
*:W4*
dw dw
r
dw
_ %

d
.
.
3,
etc.,
21.
INDIRECT OBSERVATIONS.
of
35
by means
which values equations
'
(39)
% * .
become
O**
I
av "'I"!
\
aV "22
\I
av 33
*"
JiI
=
jl
. . .
=
::^....(4o)
o
.
Substituting for ^, va
for the first of these
,
etc., their
values from
(37),
we have
a,a,x
+ a fay + a.c^z + a&w + a,b, y + a,c,z + + a,b, y + ajj + a&w
becomes
a,n,
^
a

s
n,
=
O.
The second
of (40)
and similarly for the remaining equations. symbols of summation, we have therefore
a &\y + \ad~\w = + [W] j + [fc> + [W]w = [*> + \cd\w = [> + \bc\y +
.Using Gauss'
\ad\x
f
\_
\_ac\z f
\ari\
; ^
I
\bn\
;
\cc\z
[,];
f"
These are called Normal Equations, and the values of the unknown quantities obtained by solving them will be the system of values which makes the sum of the squares of the residuals v v etc., a minimum, and therefore the most problt
able system of values.
Equations
(36) are called
Equations oj
36
LEAST SQUARES.
22.
An inspection of (41) Condition, or Observation Equations. us the following rule for solving a series of equations gives
of condition
:
Multiply each equation by the coefficient of x in that equation, then add together the resulting equations for, a new equation, then multiply each equation by the coefficient of y in that equation, Continue and, as before, form the sum of the resulting equations. the process with the coefficients of each of the unknown quantities.
The number of resulting Normal Equations will be equal to tJiat of the unknown quantities, and the values of the unknown quantities deduced therefrom will be the most probable values. It must be borne in mind that this process supposes the number of equations of condition to be greater than that of
the
unknown quantities. If it is less, this process will give us a number of equations equal to that of the quantities to be determined, but they will be indeterminate none the less than the original equations were, as can be easily shown.
v
Observations of Unequal Weight.
22. In deriving the
normal equations from the equations
the latter as of equal weight. will be unequal.
of condition,
we have regarded
In the
more general case the weights
In the equation a,x c,z djv n,, if we suppose, b^y as in (33), that p, represents the weight of an observation, and e the mean error that e, is the mean error of viz., of
of an observation of
+
+
+
weight unity,
we have
Multiplying the above equation by Vp
a,
we have
Vp,w
Vps
+
b,
Vp.y
+
c,
Vp,z
+
d,
=
,
Vp,,
(42)
23.
ARRANGEMENT OF COMPUTATION.
37
an equation in which the mean error of the absolute term n ^A ls f anc tne weight unity. In the same manner we multiply each equation by the square root of its weight, thus
i
>
*
reducing them all to the same unit of weight, when we proceed precisely as before in forming the normal equations.
Computation of the
Coefficients.
23. The method of forming the normal equations is now fully explained; the work of computation, however, is somewhat laborious, especially when the number of equations of
condition
the
is
large.
It will
therefore be important to arrange
work
so that the
numerous multiplications and additions
may
in
that convenient checks
be performed with the least liability to error, and so may be applied for insuring accuracy the results. The multiplications may be performed by
logarithms, in which case a fourplace table will give the
necessary degree of precision, or Crelle's multiplicationtable shall also show may be employed with advantage.* how to perform the multiplications by the use of a table of
We
squares.
Convenient proofformulas
the
may
be derived as follows
:
Let
the coefficients entering into each equation be formed in succession, and represent them by s with the proper
of
all
sum
subscript.
Thus
:
* Dr. A. L. Crelle's " Rechentafeln welche alles multipliciren und dividiren mit Zahlen unter Tausend" (Berlin, 1869).
38
LEAST SQUARES.
24.
Multiplying these sums by their respective a, b, c, etc., in succession, and adding the products, we shall have the following equations for checking the accuracy of the coefficients of
the normal equations
:
[aa]
[off]
+ + + \b6\ + + [ac\ + [(] + [&/] +
[off]
\ac\
\bc\
\cc\
\bc\
[f ]
+ \ad] + \bd\ + \cd} + [<&/]

[an]
[M]
\cn\
[</]
= = = =
[as]
[fo]
[cs]
;
.
;
r
;
This requires the computation of the additional terms [as], and the agreement must come within the limit of [t>s], error of the computation. These additional terms will be
.
.
.
further useful for checking the accuracy of the solution of the normal equations, as will afterwards appear.
24. If
it
quantity in the equations of condition
should happen that the coefficients of one unknown were much larger than
those of another, considerable discrepancies might exist in the agreement of the proofformulas with the sums of the coefficients. It will generally be necessary practically to limit the computation to a certain number of decimals, when the
products of the large quantities may introduce errors into the last places, where the products of the small quantities introduce none. This difficulty is overcome by substituting for the unknown quantities other quantities which will make the coefficients This is conof the same order of magnitude throughout.
veniently accomplished
by
with which an
unknown
selecting the largest coefficient quantity is affected and dividing
.each of the coefficients of this quantity by it. Thus, let a, ft, y, d be the largest coefficients of the quantities x,y, z, w,
respectively, which occur in the equations of condition, and let v be the largest of the series of known quantities n lt n
25.
ARRANGEMENT OF COMPUTATION.
.
.
39
#
3,
.
Then we may
:
place the equations of condition in the
following form
where the unknown quantities are (<*.*), (/#?), and the values obtained in solving the equations will be in terms of
.
.
.
cess before beginning the
, .
be made homogeneous by this prowork of forming the normal equaThe sums slt Ja will be tions. mo^t convenient for the to which they are applied, if they are formed from purpose
v.
The equations
will
.
.
these
shall have occasion to solve in the following pages there will seldom be a systematic difference in the magnitudes of the coefficients of the
homogeneous equations. For the Jdnd of problems which we
different
unknown
quantities of importance
it will be advisable to incur the slight additional labor involved, and in some cases it becomes a matter of considerable importance.
In cases, this operation necessary. a marked difference in this respect
enough to render however, where there is
of the normal equations with the accompanying proofformulae will therefore require the computation of the following quantities
25.
:
The formation
[aa] [a6] [ac] [act] [an] [as];
\bb\
[be}
[bd] [6n] [6s];
[nn] [ns]
.
4
LEAST SQUARES.
latter will
25.
The
tation, as will be
be employed for checking the final compushown hereafter. As will be seen, there are
twenty
tions.
of these quantities required in a series of four equa
In general the
number
will
be*
<>
+2
)
(
+ 3) _
^
where n is the number of unknown quantities. Let a sheet of paper be ruled with a number of vertical columns represented by the above formula. In the first horizontal line will be the symbols of the products written in and in the last line the the columns below, viz., [aa], [ad],
.
.
.
sums
of the products.
equations (44) must be various products will demand special attention, as they form a very fruitful source of error.
If the results are correct the proofThe algebraic signs of the satisfied.
If the application of the proofformulae is postponed until the conclusion of this part of the computation, the position of an error is often shown at once, since each sum, with the
exception of the
sum
If
proofequations. satisfied, while the others prove true, the error
of the squares, is found in two different two of the proofformulas fail to be
is in
the term
common
fied,
to be satisquadratic term. Before proceeding further it is recommended .that the reader refer to the example found on page 329. The num;
to both
is
while
if
only one equation
fails
the error
in the
ber of observation equations is twelve, each of which has been multiplied by the square root of its weight. The number of unknown quantities is three, the coefficients of which have no systematic difference in magnitude of sufficient importance to require the application of the process for The formation of the rendering them homogeneous. normal equations is found on page 330. The. number of
*
It is
the
sum
ber of terms
=
of a series of terms in arithmjtical progression
\ 2);
minus
i;
num
(n
first
term
=
i;
last
term
=
(n
f 2).
26.
ARRANGEMENT OF COMPLICATION.
quantities being three,
4!
we require by the formula fourteen columns. It will be observed that the just given proofformulas are perfectly verified, as they should be in this case, no decimal terms having been neglected.
unknown
Computation of the
26.
Coefficients by
a Table of Squares.
By whatever method
will
squares Terms of the form [#A] may also be comquadratic terms. with such a table, as will appear from the following. puted
a table of
be
the multiplications are performed found very convenient for the
We
have
afr
=
{(*,
+ b^ 
a?

b?}\
(45)
The quadratic terms
\ad\, \bb\,
.
.
.
will
case, so there will only be required in a In case of four unknown quantities the form [(a ) ].
be computed in any addition the terms of
+
we
shall require the following quadratic
\ad\ [(*
terms
:
+
\bU\
3
) ]
[(*
\_(b
+ +
2
^) ] [(a
2
+
</)'] [(a

nf]
;
]
;) ] [_(b
(46)
[ss]
[nn\.
be employed in checking this and the subsequent computation. Thus for the case of four unknown or in quantities we have sixteen terms of the above form,
The
last
two
will
general,
( i
n
_J_
j) ( J
_j_ l
2)
,
I
f i.
LEAST SQUARES.
26.
equations having been multiplied by the square roots of their respective weights, and the coefficients made homogeneous if necessary, the computation will be carried out as
The
shown
in the
following scheme
:
bb
(a
+ bj*
(a
+ c)*
(b
+
6,6,
t(* 4
[]
ra
W
f
[
'
an] an\
a\6c]
[Sc]
In order to derive a convenient proofformula both members of equations (43) and add
[ss]
we
square
+ 3 iM +
+
']
\cc\
[(
+
+ []} =
(47)
]
+ f + [(^ + + +
\.(c

)']
For an example bf the application of the above method the reader will turn to page 334, where the normal equations are computed from the equations of condition before referred
This method possesses some advantages over to. that by direct multiplication: the most important of these is in the fact that the liability to error in algebraic signs is for the most part avoided. Care being taken in forming the sums attention need be given to (a _)_ ), ( a j c \ etc., no further
the algebraic signs until the coefficients of the normal equations are completed.
27.
SOLUTION OF NORMAL EQUATIONS.
43
Solution of the
Normal Equations.
27. In the solution of the normal equations the work should be arranged so that it may be conveniently reviewed for detecting errors in case such exist, and so that proofformulas may be applied at the various stages of progress. The order in which the unknown quantities are determined is generally indifferent except in the case where the nature of the problem is such that one or more of them cannot be determined with accuracy from the equations. may
We
know
in
advance that we have a case of
this kind, or
it
may
be discovered in solving the equations. It will be shown hereafter that the weight of any unknown quantity will be determined by arranging the solution in such a way that this quantity is determined first. The weight will then be represented by its coefficient in the last equation from which the others haVe been eliminated. If now this coefficient is very small it shows that this quantity cannot be well determined without additional data, and the solution must then be arranged so that the uncertainty in this quantity will have the least effect on the others. In case a preliminary
computation shows that the weight of any unknown quantity very small, the elimination will be repeated in such a way that this quantity is first determined. The values of the others will then be expressed in terms of this one. If then at any time additional data become available for determining this quantity, or if it is known from any other source, the
is
other quantities become known also. As such cases will seldom occur in the problems with which we shall have to deal, it will not be necessary to enter more fully into the matter at present. 28. In the elimination it will be convenient to employ the method of substitution, using a form of notation proposed by
44
LEAST SQUARES.
we
shall
28.
Gauss. In developing the formulae,
the
suppose as before
It will be a quantities to be four. simple matter to extend or abridge them in case of a greater
number
of
unknown
or less number.
The equations
\ad\x
\
to be solved are
+ + \_ad~\w = \aS\x + \bb\y + \bc\z + \bd\w == \_ac\x + \bc\y + \cc\* + [cd^w == \_ad]x+ \bd~\y + \cd]z^\dd]w =
\ab~\y
\_ac\z
[an]
\bn\
\cn\
\dn~\
;
.
;
From
the
first of
these
we have
_
\aa\
\aa~Y
[aa]
\_aa]
tions,
which value being substituted in the remaining three equawe shall have x eliminated. The first of the resulting
equations will be
and similarly for the remaining two. Let us now write

[Vi*]
=
\bb i]
;
\M\

f9[rf]
=
\bd I]
;
]
28.
SOLUTION OF NORMAL EQUATIONS.
coefficients of the
45
and for the
second equation,
Similarly for the third,
Our
three equations then
\bb i]y
ca*]
=[*
i].
become
[bn
i] i] i]
;
+ \bc i\z + \bd\~\w = = [fo i]^ + \cc i\z + \cd i\w = \bd\\y + [I> + [^i]w
)
;
[i
\dn
I
)
.
.
.
(SO)
.
In these the same symmetry of notation is preserved as in the normal equations, and it can easily be shown that the terms [bb i], \cc i], and \_dd i], which have the quadratid form,
will
always be positive.
the
first of (50)
From
we have
_ ~
\bb i]
\bb
i
\bb
i
This
is
to be substituted in the second and third, and the
fol
lowing
auxiliary coefficients
computed
:
[te
I]
=^cn 2]
;
(49),
46
LEAST SQUARES.
:
28.
which process gives us the following equations
+ \cd 2]w = [en 2] \cd2\z + \_dd2\w = \_dn2\.\
\cc
2\z
;
)
,
'
.
From
the
first of these,
<>
Substituting this in the second, and writing
z, y,
and x can now readily be found by substituting successively in (53), (51), and (48). The first equation in each of (41), (50), (52), and (54) are
called elimination equations, for convenience of reference
and are here brought together
:
\_ad\x
+ \ad~\w + \ab~\y + = \bb i\y + \bc i> + \bd i]w = \CC2~\Z + \cd2\W
\_ac~\z
[an]
;
\bn
i]
(
6
\CH2]\
This is all that will be strictly necessary in case the weights and probable errors of the unknown quantities are not required.
29.
PROOFFORMULAE.
47
ProofFormula.
Convenient proofformulas for checking the accuracy of the successive auxiliary coefficients may be derived from the summation terms [as], [fa], ... of equations (44).
29.
Referring to these formulae,
let
us write
Substituting for [fa] and [as] their values, this expression may be written in the form
(*"]
=
[M [SKI +

Therefore, writing for the quantities in the brackets their
values,
we have
[bs i]
=
[bb i]
+
[be i]
+
[&/
1]

[bn
i],
a formula by which the accuracy of the coefficients in the second member can be tested, and which requires the additional auxiliary quantity [fa i]. Proceeding in a similar manner,
we shall require for checkthe computation at the end of the first stage of the eliing mination the following auxiliary quantities
:
[6s i]
=
[6s]

E[]
;
[
i]
= [] 
[]
;
48
LEAST SQUARES.
shall
30.
when we
have the following proofequations:
[bs i]
\cs i]
= 
[bb i]
[be i]
+ [be + [bd  [bn + + [cd  [en  [dn + [cdi] +
i] i]
i]
i]
i] i]
;
)
;
[
i]
.
[
.
(57)
[dfc/i]
)
In the same manner
we
have, for checking the next step in
the operation,
[
2]
=
[
I]
=
[fa I]
;
[A 2]
=
\ds I]

[fe I]:
(
}
[ds 2]
and
finally,
[^3]
=
[<& 2]

J[2];
(59)
of these two values of [ds 3] must be within the limits of error of the computation, and it furnishes a very accurate control over the accuracy of the computation up to
this point.
30. After the values of x, y, z, w have been determined, a most thorough proof of the accuracy of the entire computaobtained tion is obtained by means of the residuals, v v
19
. . .
The agreement
by substituting these values
condition, (37), p. 33, viz.
:
of
x
t
y, 2,
w
in the equations of
3O.
PROOFFORMULA.
,
49
3,
.
. .
v9 z> in order, v^ Multiplying these equations by and writing, in accordance with the notation emadding, ployed,
we have
[mi]
V
[av\x
^40),
\bv~\y
\cv~\z
\_dv~\w
=
\yv\
;
but by equations
[av\
o,
\bv\
o,
\cv\
=
o,
[dv\
o.
Therefore
[nv\
=
\vv\
........
(60)
Now
add,
\nn\
multiply equations (37) by n l9 n
:
n s ... in order, and
viz.
\ari\x
\_bri\y
\cri\z
\dri\w =.\nv\
\yv\. (61)
By means
soon as
of this equation \vv\
may
also be
computed
as
x, y, z,
w
become known.
[an] t i
[aa]
But we have

x
Let
this value
=
_
\ab~] t i
_
v
\ac\
_z
[ad] iii)
[aa]
_
(A%}
[aaY
[aa]
be substituted
in (61),
and write
M "'"ra^ = ^
also write [bn
i],
I];
[en
i], etc.,
for their values,
when we have
[nn

i]
[bn
i]
y
[en \\z
[dn i}w
=
[vv\.
Let the same process be carried on for eliminating/,
z,
and
50
LEAST SQUARES.
31.
w in
shall
succession from this and the resulting equations. have in all the following auxiliary quantities to com
We
pute:
\nn
i]
=
[*.]

;
[
3]
\nn2\
[,
\bri\y
[g>]
\nn 2]
=
\nn
i]
 M[fc
[^
i]
;
2 ]i
[. 4] = [3] 
3]
Either of the following equations will then give the value of
[vv]:
[nn]
\ari\x
\_cri\z
\dri\w
=
= =
[vv]',
[nn
i]
[bn \\y
[en i]z
[dn i]w [dn 2\w [a* 3]w [nn 4]
[vv]
;
[nn 2]
[en 2]z
[vv]
[yv~]
;
^
(62)
[nn 3]
;
[vv]
.
Only the
31.
last
The
of these will generally be used. value of [004] [vv] can be derived from the
=
summation
tional labor.
quantities [ns] [ns
t
i], etc.,
with very
little
addi
We
have
[ns]
f
=
[an]
r
+
i
\bn~\
+
n
[en]
+
[dn]

[nn].
Let us write
'A.
[ns i]
=
r
[an] r
j:
,
[ns]
i[as^
and substitute
when
it
may
expression for [ns] and [as] their values, be placed in the following form
in this
:
32.
ARRANGEMENT OF COMPUTATION.
is
JI
or what
the same thing,
[ns i]
=
[bn i]
f
[en i]
+ \dn
l]
\nn
i].
Proceeding in a similar manner to form in succession the following auxiliary quantities, we have the series of equations by which the accuracy of the quantities [bn i], [en i], . . . [nn 4] may be verified
:
Ins ?]

[
2]
[bn i]
\cn 2]
[
2]; [
4] = [
3][*
i]
(49)'
3]
i]
2]
= =
+ [V* + \dn + [^ 2] [iw 2]
i]
\nn
;
i]
;
(63)
Only the
last of these
equations will generally be required.
Form of Computation.
32. In computing the various auxiliary quantities which occur in the solution of a series of normal equations, the work should be arranged so that it may be carried through from beginning to end in a systematic manner in order to keep a
general oversight of the results at the various stages of progThis will ress, and to apply conveniently the proofformulas. be the more important the greater the number of unknown The following scheme will be found to answer quantities.
these requirements.
tion
generally be found expedient to make the computaby the use of logarithms, but in some cases the computer may prefer to perform the multiplications and divisions by the aid of Crelle's table. In the following scheme we have
It will
52
LEAST SQUARES.
32.
supposed logarithms used. A sheet of paper is first ruled with vertical columns, the number of which is greater by two than that of the unknown quantities. In the first horizontal line will be written in order the coefficients which are combined with a, viz., [aa], [ab], [an], [as], and immediately below these their logarithms. Attention is directed to this
.
. .
line
by means
of the letter
E
in the margin, as
it is
the
first
of the elimination equations (56), and will be used for deterbecome known. mining x after y, z, and
w
In the third line are the coefficients [bb~], [be], placed that the letters combined with b fall in the
cal
.
.
.
[bs],
so
same
verti
column with the same letters combined with a, viz., [be] under [ae], [bd] under [ad], etc. In the fourth line of the first column is now written
log
~4,
\aa\
the value of which, as well as those of
all
the quan
tities in this
in this factor
column, must be carefully verified, as an error may not be detected by the proofformula.
The
log
t_J. is
now
written on the lower edge of a card
.
and added in succession to the logarithms of [ab~], [ac\, [as], and as each addition is performed the natural number is taken from the logarithmic table and written in the place indicated in the scheme. With a little practice the computer will be able to make this addition mentally, and take from the table the corresponding number without writing down Thus we shall have this logarithm.
.
.
Wr n written under i[an
*.
,1
P
L
[aa]
f
#ac\ written under
32.
ARRANGEMENT OF COMPUTATION.
[*]
log [a&]
log [ac] log log [aw] log [as]
53
log [aa]
log
[W
i]
log
[<*<?
i]
[6di\ log ^^ i]
log \bn
i]
log
[^
i]
lOg 8
7
^* [aa]

II
[era]
fofft]
log
[^ 2]
III'
log
[f
2]
lOg
[<TJ
2]
Utf]
IV
log
[
log
[^ 3]
log
[
l]
VII
P.
II.
'6s
i
ProofEquations.
tt
dd 2]
dn 2
log *
\cn
?
[

2
CTTTT VIH
IIP. IV.
2] f n 2] i \f
V.
VI'.
2j
IX
VII. VIII. IX. ns 3
which are distinguished by an accent will ordinarily in the margin give the logarithms of the coefficients of the elimination equations. The logarithms marked * must be carefully verified, since an trror in one of these may escape detection by the proofequation. For the application to a numerical example see page 331.
Practically only those proofequations
be employed.
The
lines
marked by an
E
54
LEAST SQUARES.
33.
and by subtraction,
These are the coefficients of the second elimination equation, and will be used for determining y after z and w have become known. The I in the margin refers to the proofformula by which the values of these quantities will be verified.
not be necessary to proceed farther with this explanation, as a reference to the scheme in connection with
It will
the formulae for the auxiliary quantities will show clearly the process. The elimination being completed, the quantities \ns^\ are computed as shown in the scheme, the [**4] and
agreement of which with each other and with \yv\, obtained by substituting the values of x, y, z, iv'm the equations of condition, furnishes a most thorough proof of the accuracy
of the entire computation.
Weights of the Most Probable Values of the Unknown Quantities.
In case of a single unknown quantity determined by direct observation, the computation of the weight of the arithmetical mean was found to be very simple. In the case
33.
under consideration, where the equations to be solved contain
several
unknown
quantities, the
difficulty
is
greatly
augmented. In our equations of condition we have supposed the quantiw etc. We have already shown that ties observed to be
,,
,
s
,
the resulting equations of condition are not of equal weight, they may be made so by multiplying each by the square shall therefore in investiroot of its respective weight.
if
We
gating the weights of the unknown quantities assume the weight of each observation to be unity.
33
WEIGHTS OF UNKNOWN QUANTITIES.
,
.55
;
Let
px /, A, A,, be
x> fy >
z>
the weights of x,y,
z,
and
*w,
their
mean
w respectively
errors.
Let
be the mean error of an observation.
all
As
of
our equations are
linear,
it is
evident that
if
the
elimination of the three
unknown
;/
3
,
quantities x, y,
if
and z be
and
completely carried out, the resulting equation will give
a linear function of n lt n
etc.
Similarly, eliminated, we shall have z expressed as a linear function of the same quantities, and so of each of the others. may therefore write
x, y,
w as w be
We
afa + a^ f a n + etc.; = Ai + A*. + A. + etc.; * = X,, + r^ + r + etc.; w = dfa + ^ + ^8 w + etc.;
x y
3
3
.
'
2
3
3
a
,
s
a', /?,
etc.,
being numerical coefficients and functions of
a, b,
etc.
We
have
now from
Vet?
(31),
remembering the above
V\aa\.
notation,
x
+ a? + a* + etc. =
From
(33),
A '=
.
=
.
.
.
p.
=
.
.
.
(66)
therefore become known when we have the values of \_aa~\ For this purpose we must make use [tftfj. of the normal equations (41), which for convenience of reference are here rewritten
.
. :
The weights
56
\aa~\x
f
LEAST SQUARES.
33
+ \ab~\x + \bb\y + + \bc\y + [ad]x + \bd]y\\_aV\y
\_ac\x
+ + + [cd~\z +
\_ac\e
[bc~]z
\cc\z
= {bd~\w = \_cd~\w = \dd]w =
[ad~\w
[an]
\bn\
;
[,]
\dii\
(41)
;
.
Let us now assume the following system
\aa\Q
\_ac~\Q"
of equations
:
+ \_ad}Q" = o + \_aU\Q + \_aU\Q + \bb\Q + \bc\Q" + \M\Q" = o; =o \_ac\Q + \bc\Q + \cc\Q' + \cd1Q" \af\Q +\bd\Q + \cd\Q' + [dd}Q"' =
;
(67)
;
i
will be possible, as there are four unknown Q, Q', Q' ', and Q", and four equations for determinquantities, ing their values further, as the equations are of the first degree there will only be one system of values for Q, Q', etc.
These equations
;
Now
and Q"j
let
added. equations the coefficients of x, y, and 2 will be zero, and that of w unity. Therefore we shall have
in their respective orders, and the resulting Then in consequence of (67) in the resulting
the normal equations be multiplied by Q, Q', Q", equations
w=
\an~\Q
+
\bn~\Q
+
f
[cn]Q'
[tftf],
+
\dn\Q".
is
.
(68)
We
shall
now show
that
Q" =
and
therefore the
reciprocal of the weight Let us expand the quantities contained in the brackets, equation (68), and compare the results with the last of thus find the following values of d lt $ equations (64).
of w.
We
etc.:
(69)
34
WEIGHTS OF UNKNOWN QUANTITIES.
$f
Multiplying each of these by its a and then adding, then multiplying each by its b, c, and d successively and adding, we have by (67) the following equations
:
A+
.
+ ... = [*]= o + 'A + 'A + = [n =o + 4*. + 4*. + =
.*.
+
.*.
;
;
Now
let
added.
Then by
each of (69) be multiplied by (70) we have
its
$ and the results
*A + *A + *A +
The
=
[**]
= &"
Q E. D.
(71)
solution of equations (67) therefore determines the
weight of w. In a precisely similar manner the weight of each of the unknown quantities may be determined. Thus, to determine the weight of x, we write for the second member of the first of (67) unity instead of zero, and write zero The refor the absolute term of each remaining equation. value of <2 will be the reciprocal of the weight of x. sulting This process is simple enough in theory, but its application
laborious, as we must solve equations (67) separately for the weight of each unknown quantity. This does not involve so great an amount of labor as may at first appear, as much of the computation will already have been performed in the
is
It is easy, however, to solution of the normal equations. derive a process which will generally be much more con
venient.
It is as
follows
:
34. In the solution of equations (41)
by successive
substitu
tions
we found
for the final equations in
w
see (56)
\ddj\w
=
D&3].
We
is
shall
now show
that the coefficient \dd^\
=
^777,
and
therefore the weight of w.
LEAST SQUARES.
For
this
34.
purpose
let
us write equations (41) as follows
\ac~\z
:
\ad\x
\ab~\x
[
+ \_ab\y + + [bb]y + + \bc\y +
t
\ad~\x
+ [ad]w \bc\z + [bd]w \cc\z + \cd\w [&/]>> + [/> + [dd}w
[an]
[bn]
[en]
[dn]
=A = = C\ = D.
;
;
auxiliaries 0,
Let us now suppose the equations solved by means of the Q Q", and Q'", determined from (67), when we have shall
',
w=
\an\Q
+ \bii\Q' +
\cn\Q'
+
\dn\Q"
(72)
This will
we make
Let us
A=B=C=D
now suppose
now be
the same value of
o.
w as
before obtained,
if
Since in this process will introduced, the coefficient of
substitution.
the equations solved, as before, by are no new terms in
D
D
not be changed in the
final
equation for w, and
we
shall
have
f
\dd$\w
from which
= [dn 3] + D w = j^Q + _^_ +
terms in A, B, and C;
terms
in
A, B, and
C.
Now it is evident that the coefficients of A, B, C, and must be the same in this equation as in the value before obtained, equation (72). Therefore
Q" =
.
D
Q. E. D.
We
therefore see that
we can
obtain the values of the un
quantities from equations (41), and at the same time their respective weights, by arranging the elimination so that
known
35
WEIGHTS OF UNKNOWN QUANTITIES.
last.
S9
each in succession shall come out
The
coefficient of the
unknown
be its weight. In solving a system of four equations like the above 35. be determined, as it is best to proceed as follows: Let substitution in the order x, y, 2. then have above, by
quantity in the final equation will
w
We
w
with
its
weight from
\ddj\w =\_dnj\.
Equations (56) then give successively z, y, and x. Let now the elimination be performed in the opposite order, viz., w, z,y, when we have x with its weight from the equation
\aa 3]*
\aa 3] being the weight of x.
=
[an
3],
This value of x must agree with the former value within the limits of error of the computation, thus furnishing a convenient check to the accuracy of the computation.
of y and z we need not repeat the eliminabut proceed as follows Let us suppose the elimination performed in the order x, We shall then have the same auxiliary coefficients y, w, z. as in the first case, as far as those indicated by the numerals i and 2, and equations (52) will be the same as* before; but as the elimination will now be performed in the order w, z^ instead of #, w, we write them
For the weight
tion,
:
\_dd2\w
\cd2\w
+ \cd2\z + 2\z =
\cc
\dn2\
\cn 2]
;
.
From
the
first
of these,
7/
\dn i k 2]
\_dd2]
\cd t
2] J^T
\dd2Y
60
LEAST SQUARES.
35
Substituting this in the second gives us for the coefficient
of 2
But we have
\dd$\
F

\ddz\

From
these
two equations we
\cc<\
find

\cc
And
in a similar
manner,
We
for
tions
therefore have the following precepts and formulae computing the weights in the case of four normal equa:
First,
perform the elimination
then
in the
order
x, y, z,
w,
/
=
[ddj]
;
(73)
Second, perform the elimination in the order w,
then
z,
y
y
x,
px
=
\aa 3]
;
36.
WEIGHTS GF UNKNOWN QUANTITIES.
6l
The formulas for the auxiliary coefficients for the second may be derived from those for the first by simply interchanging the letters a and d and b and c. The process
elimination
is
so simple that
it
will be
unnecessary to write them out
in
full.
Other Expressions for the Weights.
the equations have been solved, as already explained, and the various checks applied, so that the computer is convinced that the results obtained are reliable, it may be undesirable to repeat the elimination merely for determining
36.
When
the weights of the first and second unknown quantities. may derive convenient expressions for computing the weights in this case, as follows
:
We
Suppose four solutions of the equations to be carried through so that each unknown quantity in turn is first determined, the order of the others remaining the same we should then have each unknown quantity with its weight completely determined, as we have already seen. The solution of the equations for which we have given the complete formulae is in the order d, c, b, a, where we have written the coefficients instead of the unknown quantities. If now we substitute the values of w, z, and y in the third, second, and first of equations
:
(56) in order, we have finally the expression for*, which be a fraction with the denominator
will
\aa\\bbi\\cc2\\ddj\.
In the four solutions which
known
quantities last
we have supposed made, the un determined will be in succession x^x^x
62
y,
LEAST SQUARES.
/
36

and the denominators of the expressions for their values will be as follows
:
\_aa\ d \bb
i
\_aa\\bb\\\dd2\ [>
\aa\\cc\\\dd2\
\bb\\cc
i\
\bb
determined
it
where the subscripts show which unknown quantity is first As the elimination is performed in each solution. successive substitutions, no new factors being introduced, by
follows that these expressions are equal to each other reIt is
spectively.
evident that when the order of the elimination is changed so that a different quantity is first determined, the order of the others remaining the same as before, the values of the auxiliary coefficients \bb i], \_cc2~], etc., which do not
contain the coefficient of this quantity will remain as before. Suppose, as above, the unknown quantities to be determined Now let a second solution be made in in the order d, c, b, a.
the order
c,
d,
b,a\ then
all
of the auxiliary coefficients as
far as those designated by the numerals i and 2 will remain In a third solution following the order b, d, c, a, as before. the numeral i will have the the coefficients
designated by
c, b,
same values as
in the first case
tion in the order a, d,
series of values.
while in a fourth determinathey will all differ from the first
;
those coefficients indicating by the subscripts only which have values different from those given by the first
Thus
elimination,
we have
the following equations
:
\aa\ \bb\\ \cc2] \dd$\
[aa] \bb i] [cc2] [_ddf[
\_ad\ \bb\~\
[cc2] \ddi\
= = =
[aa] [bb\\ \dd2\
[aa] \cc i]
\bU\
[or 3],
\dd2
\cci
36.
WEIGHTS OF UNKNOWN QUANTITIES,
have the weight of w.
We already
x
The weights
:
of z, y,
and
are given by these last equations, viz.
"
(74)
In applying these formulae the following additional auxiliary
coefficients
must be computed
:
[cc i],
=
\ee\

[ir]
;
[M]
(75)
=
In case of three
\_ddll
\tci\
unknown
quantities the formulae
become
A=
(76)
where [^
i]
has the value given above.
64
37.
LEAST SQUARES.
37
An
making use
elegant expression for the weights is obtained by of the determinant notation. Thus, referring to
(41),
the normal equations
6S\
[bc
aa\ [at
[*J+
M
ad'
ill
2
is
r//
o and \dri\ = I. Therefore writing A for the complete determinant which forms the denominator of the above expression, D" for the partial determinant formed by dropping the last horizontal
tion by
the reciprocal of the weight of w, given by equations (67), the same as the value of obtained from the above equa,
making
[an]
=
\bn\
w =
[en]
=
f
and last vertical column, D" for the partial determinant formed by dropping the third horizontal line and third vertical column, and similarly D' and fpr the other two, we have
line
D
/
=
D>
A_
~D"''
A
A number
all
=
A
TTM D'
(77)
of
of other forms may be derived for the weights, which involve about the same numerical operations as
In certain special cases different forms
for
the above.
may be
will not
more convenient, but
our immediate purposes
it
be necessary to develop the subject further. It may readily be seen from what precedes that the relative weights of the unknown quantities may be derived, even when the number of observations does not exceed the number of unknown quantities. No probable errors, however, can be determined in this case.
38.
MEAN ERRORS
OF
UNKNOWN
QUANTITIES.
65
Mean Errors of the Unknown Quantities. 38. For determining the mean and probable error of an unknown quantity nothing further is required except the expression for the mean error of an observation. It is supposed
that the equations of condition have been reduced to the common unit of weight by multiplying each equation when
necessary by the square root of its weight. The values of x. j/, z, and w, as deduced above, are the most When probable values as deduced from the given data. substituted in the equations of condition the residuals ^i v v v e tc., will not be the true errors unless the derived values x, y, z, and w are absolutely the true values, a condition not likely to be realized.
Let (x \ dx), (y f
<?/),
(z
\
6z),
(w
+ 6w) be the true values
:
;
A A^ ^
lt
3
,
...
Am
,
the true errors.
We
shall then
have two systems of equations, as follows
(78)
"(79)
Let us multiply each of equations (78) by its v and add the resulting equations. Then by (40) the coefficients of x, y, z, and w will vanish, giving us the relation before derived,
\yn\
=
\yv\
(80)
66
LEAST SQUARES.
in the
38.
Proceeding
same manner with
\vn\
(79),
we
find
(81) (82)
Therefore
\vA~\
= =
\vA}
[vv]
........ ........
sum
In order to obtain an expression for the
of the squares
of the true errors, viz., \_AA\, in terms of the sum of the squares of the residuals [vv], let us first multiply each of
equations (78) by its A and add the resulting equations secondly, let us multiply each of (79) by its A and add in The results are as follows like manner.
:
;
\aA\x
\aA\
+ \bA}y + \cA\z + \dA\w  \nA\ =  \vA\ =  [vv\ (x + dx) + \bA\ (y+6y) + \cA\ (z + d?) + \dA\ (w + dw) [tiA] = {A
first of
;
A"}.
Subtracting the
\AA~\
these from the second,
\bA~\8y
\cA~\dz
we
obtain
=
[vv]
\_aA\Sx
\dA~\8w. (83)
If we could now assume 8x, dy, dz, and Sw to vanish, 2 should obtain, since ms = \AA\ by definition,
we
m
This will give us a close approximation to the true value of
when
m is
large.
For a more accurate determination
of
to find approximate values of [aA~\dx, \_bA\8y, etc.
we must endeavor The true
values are beyond our reach, but principles already established give us a means of approximation.
Multiplying each of equations (79) by
its a,
and adding,
we have
\_ad\x
+
\ad\8x
+ + \_aeT\w + + \aU\$y + \ac\8z + [ad]dw
\_ab~\y
\ac~\z
[an]
j
\
_
__
r
^
38
MEAN ERRORS
this
OF
UNKNOWN
we
QUANTITIES.
is
67
Comparing
to zero.
with
(41),
see that the first line
equal
Multiplying each equation of (79) by its b and adding, then in a similar manner by its c and </and adding, we have
finally
\ad\8x
\ab\8x
\ac\dx
+

\ab\dy
\bb\$y
[^]<5>
+
\_ac~\K z
\ \bc~\8z
+
+
\cc~\8z
+ + +
\ad~\8w
\bd~\8w [^Jdze;
= = = 
\ad]
\bA\
\cA\
;
;
(34)
;
Comparing these with (41), we see that they are of precisely the same form, the unknown quantities being in this case dx, dy, dz, and^ze/, instead of x, y, z, and w, and the absolute
terms having
A
in the place of n.
The
solution will there
fore have the form
see (64)
.
.
(85)
If
we now
j
etc.,
write these values in (83), the following values:
we
shall
have for
\bS\Sy
\cA~\Sz
=
=
= (dA + d,A, + d,A, +
...)
K86)
\_dA\Sw
must necessarily be
In regard to these products it is to be remarked that they positive, as our conditions require \vv]
68
to be a
LEAST SQUARES.
minimum. Any system
38.
fore, differing
(41)
of values of x,y, z* and w, therefrom those derived from the normal equations
must increase the sum of the squares of the residuals. Therefore \AA\ > \yv\, and the terms following \vv\ in (83) must be positive. Let us now perform the indicated multiplication in (86).
Confining ourselves to the last equation, since the form all, we can indicate the result as follows
:
is
the same for

\dA\dw
last
= </AAA+ 4A44+ 4A44+
of all the
+ ^>K4A).
terms formed by
The
term indicates the sum
multiplying together different values of ^, as
AA> ^,A
Now, since positive and negative errors occur ^mi^m* with equal frequency when the number of equations of condition is very large, we may assume this term equal to zero.*
Writing for
(^,^,),
2
,
(^ 2 A)> e tc., the
mean value
its
and placing for [dd] quantities, viz., of (70), viz., [dd] = i, we have
of those value from the last
In a
manner precisely
\aA~\dx
similar
we
find


\bA]6y
(83)
= 
\cA~\S
Therefore equation
becomes
\w\
m? =
From which
f==
+
45*.
In this case there are four
if
the number
of
unknown
=
In general quantities. is //, we shall have quantities
unknown
y J^TT;,
/
M"
. .
(88)
d
t
* Also values of d^ positive and negative
able.
d*
.
,
,
a
.
.
.
are equally pro
3.
MEAN ERRORS
of
finally
OF
UNKNOWN
QUANTITIES.
(73),
69
With the values
have
px ,py ,pzy and pw computed by
we
==; (89)
and the probable errors of
x, y, z,
and
w
will
be obtained by
is
multiplying" these respectively by .6745. have now developed the subject as far as
We
for
our purposes.
A complete
example of the solution
necessary of a
series of equations with three unknown quantities, together with the determination of their respective weights and
probable errors, will be found in connection with article (191) of this volume.
INTERPOLATION.
39. In the Nautical Almanac are given various quantities, such as the right ascension and declination of the sun, moon, and planets, places of fixed stars, etc., which are functions of the time. This is assumed as the independent variable, or argument as it is termed by astronomers. The ephemeris
gives a series of values of the function corresponding to equidistant values of the argument. In case of the moon, which moves rapidly, the position is given at intervals of one
hour; the place of the sun is given at intervals of twenty four hours while the apparent places of the fixed stars vary so
;
When slowly that tenday intervals are sufficiently small. any of these quantities are required for a given time, this time will generally fall between two of the dates of the ephemeris seldom coinciding with one of them the required value must then be found by interpolation.
;
Interpolation in general
is
the process by ivhich,
having given
a series of numerical values of any function of a quantity (or argument], the value of the function for any other value of the drgiiment may be deduced without knowing the analytical form of the
function. shall consider the subject more in detail than will be necessary for the simple purpose of using the ephemeris,
We
on account of its importance in other directions. In what follows we shall suppose the values of the function given for equidistant values of the argument, which will always be the case practically. Also the intervals must be
39
INTERPOLATION, GENERAL FORMULA.
7
I
small enough, so that the function will be continuous between consecutive values of the argument. the interval of the argument. Let w
(T2w\ (Tw\ (T), (T+w), (T+2w\ the values of the argument. (T\$w), The notation for the arguments, functions, and successive differences will be shown by the following scheme :
.....(73H
.
.
.
=
Argument.
Function.
)
ist
Difference.
ad Difference.
3d Difference
4th Difference.
5th Difference.
w}
w)J
~(
7
~^)
f"(T2w)
,
W
) }
''<7t>;,.
f (T
"
,
^f(T
in the
The notation shows at once where each quantity belongs scheme. The first differences are formed by subtract
ing each function from the quantity immediately following it, the argument being the arithmetical mean of the arguments of the two functions. Similarly the second differences are formed by subtracting each quantity in the column of first
differences from the one immediately below it, and so on for the successive orders of differences. It will be observed that
the even orders of differences, f"if iv etc., fall in the same horizontal lines with the functions themselves, and have the
,
same arguments, while the odd orders, /"', f", etc., fall between those lines. The even differences all have integral arguments, and the odd differences fractional arguments. The arithmetical mean of two consecutive differences is
indicated by writing
it
as a function of the intermediate
:
argument.
For example
/"( T) = ![/*( T&) + /( T + i0]
a,)].
;
72
40.
IXTERPOLA TION,
Suppose now we
is
40.
set
out from the function whose argu
ment
T.
Evidently,
f(T+ 310) = /(T+ 2w) +f'(T+
Proceeding
the series;
in this
viz.,
2f'(T+ iX> +f"(T
+
w)
;
=f(T) + 3f'(7+ fr>) +3/"( T+w)+f'"( T+ j
manner, we readily discover the law
coefficients are
of
the
those of the binomial
formula, and each successive function, f',f", etc., is on the horizontal line drawn under the one which immediately precedes*it.
Thus we have the general formula
f(T+ nw) =f(T)
+
(90
If we assign integral values to n we obtain the tabular values, viz.,/(7" w),f(T{ 2w\ etc.; but the formula is not used for this purpose, but for interpolating between the tabular values, in which case n is fractional and must be ex
pressed in terms of the interval of argument w as the unit. 41. A more convenient form may be given to this expreshave sion (91), as follows
:
We
*
(7+ 2w) =/'"(T)+
)= /'"( T+ &) +/'"( T) +/"( T+ * W 2f(T+ *w) +/(T) +/""( T+
)
;
41
INTERPOLATION, GENERAL FORMULA,
73
Substituting these values in (91) and reducing, obtain
we
readily
f(T+ nw} =/(T)
+ nf(T+ fc*) + <* 
/'"( 7+ jw)
The law of the series is obvious viz., a factor is added to the numerator of each succeeding coefficient alternately after and before the other factors, the last factor of the denominator being the same as the order of differences. The successive differences are taken alternately below and above the horizontal line drawn immediately below the function from which we set out. Formula (92) will be used for interpolating forward. For interpolating backward a better form may be derived by their values in terms %w), writing for/ (T+ %i\f"'( T
;
/
oif'(T 
%w),f"\T 
+
.
.
.
.
\w\
.
.
viz.
:
Changing n
at the
same time
into
#,
since the formula
is
to be used for interpolating backwards,
we
readily find
f(Tnw)=f(T}
nj
(n
f i)
n (n
,
1.2.3
(n+i)n(niY,n2)
1.2.3.4
}
74
INTERPOLA TION.
it
42.
42. In applying (92) and (93) to write them as follows
:
will be
more convenient
.
.
(92)l
AT nw) = f(T)  n
.

(93),
In ($2\ and (93)! each difference is used to correct the one of the next lower order immediately preceding it, and the quantities to
be multiplied will generally be small. In interpolating a value of the function corresponding to a value of the argument between Tand (7"+ %w), we use (92), and set out from
If
f(T). we use
the
argument
set out
(93),
and
is between (T from f(T\ w).
+ %w) and
(T }
w),
the interpolation is carried to any given order of differences, as the fifth, it is a little more accurate to take the
When
Arithmetical
mean
of the last differences,
line
which
fall
immedi(92),
ately above and below the horizontal
of the required function.
(93),
drawn
in the vicinity
Thus the
last
term of
and
would be fl(T).
in the American Ephebe necessary to carry the interpolation to meris it will only second differences but for computing ephemerides or tables
43.
For the quantities tabulated
;
44
INTERPOLATION, EXAMPLE.
75
any continuous function, much labor is saved by computing the quantity directly for a comparatively few dates and supplying the intermediate values by interpolation. If the function is of such a character that some order of differences,
of
as the third, fourth, or any other, vanishes, this gives exact values for the interpolated quantities, and in fact the process
may
then be used for computing values of the function for
any value whatever of the argument. It is on this principle that "tabulating engines" are constructed. 44. As an example of the application of (90), (92),, and (93),, we take from the American Ephemeris the following values
of the
1883,
moon's right ascension for intervals of
12 hours:
July
h
/=oh 5.45 15.68
i2 h 6 14 54.73
/'
/"
/'"
/*
/*
3d,
29 39.05
27.08
29 11.97
4th,
6.91
oh 6 44
6.70
33.99
+ 2.01
4.90
.06
28 37.98
I2 h 7 12 44.68

38.89
27 59.09
5th,
 2.95
i.oi
+ 1.95 + 1.94 + 1.78
 .01
.16
o
h
7
40 4377
27 17.25
8
1.02
 4184
42.85
26 34.40
I2 h 8
h
+
42.08
3986
.77
 .33
6th,
o
8 34 35.42
+ 1.45
.33
25 52.32
I2 h
+2.22
9
O 27.74
25
12.46
+
+334
1.
12
7th,
oh 9 25 40.20
24 3594
i2 h 9 50 16.14

36.52
76
INTER POL A TION.
44
Example i. As an example of the application of (92),, let us interpolate the moon's right ascension for 1883, July 5th,
4
h

Since the interval of the argument h in this case nw 4 or n T% = i
w
=
,
here I2 h we have Setting out from July
is
,
5th,
oh we have
,
w]
.01
f\T +
\w)
v
= 
.16
..
f\T) = 
.085
yf f Corrected, /
~,
/
= ~
040
i
4
=+ =+ /*+...= iv iv
L94Q
1.900
f"
Corrected, f"
i.oio
=

1.802
80.
^
{/"'+..=
/"

41.840
42.641
14.214
Corrected,/"
r
^ ]/"+...= +
Corrected,/'
=27
m
8
3i
.
/=
1883, July 5th, 4
h
,
a
a
=
7"4o"'43'77
s
== 7 h 49 ni 54 .26
This value agrees exactly with that found Ephemeris for 1883 (see page 115).
in the
American
44
INTERPOLATION, EXAMPLE.
2.
77
Example
h right ascension, July 5th, 2O v As before, n \,f (T]
Let us now apply (93^ to determine the moon's Here we set out from July 6.
.
.33.
n
\
2
^jr
f Corrected, f n ~ 2 fiv _
4
iv
iv
=+
=+ =
\
.154
1450
1.604
r
66g
/'"
Corrected, /'"
I
=+__77o = f
x
J
r/lf
/
...
7/
.639
/
Corrected,

42.080

f"
42.719
14.240

\f"
...= =;
Corrected,/'
/= =
h 1883, July 5th, 20
a
The
algebraic signs of the various corrections are deter
mined without difficulty, as follows: If a horizontal line be drawn in the table of functions and differences (p. 75) in the vicinity of the given argument (in the first of the above h d examples immediately below 5 o ), the successive differences required will fall alternately below and above this line.
/
8
INTERPOLATION.
,
45.
r iv Beginning with/ we determine the correction tof which
to be applied so as to bring the value nearer to that In this case/' 1 f 1.94; that diately below the line.
is
'
1.78 immediately follows is be subtracted from 1.94, giving the corrected fiv = 1.90. i.oi the value immediately above The value of f" is
;
;
+
immewhich therefore the correction must
=
the line
is
2.95.
The
latter,
first
must be corrected so
in this case the
as to
bring
it
nearer the
1.802,
giving
corrected
f"
That
is,
and so on for each difference
in succession.
When
the
the quantity
is
<
!
the horizontal
line,
apply
the correction so as to bring
it in
the direction of the one in
j
same
vertical
column immediately
Special Cases.
^ e JJ^
it
[
or (93^ can be applied, nothing more will be necessary they require, however, a knowledge of the value of the function for several dates both before and after those between which the interpolation is made. It is
45.
(92),
;
Whenever
sometimes necessary to interpolate between values of the function near the beginning or end of the table as, for in:
stance,
require from the tabular values of the moon's right ascension, given on page 75" to determine the h value between the dates July 3d, o and 3d,^i2 h or between
,
,
we might
h h 7th, o and 7th, I2
,
.
In either of these cases the series of
differences terminates with f'\ so the above formulae will only give the value to first differences inclusive.
We
shall consider the
two cases
separately.
For arguments near the beginning of the table. As before, calling the arguments between which it is required to interpolate the function, T and T \ w, we may apply formula (91), setting out iromf(T).
46. First.
46.
INTERPOLATION, SPECIAL CASES.
79
argument for which the value of the function is renearer T\w than T, it will be a little simpler to quired In this case set out from T\ w and interpolate backwards.
If the
is
the formula requires the following modification: n, we have Changing n into
f(Tnw)=f(T)nf'(T
+
&,)
+
f(T + w)
n(n
+i)(
+ 2)
(
+ 3) Q + 4)
we
1.2.3.4.5
From
have
'
the
manner
of forming the successive functions,
(
T+
7
w
aw)
=/'( r/"'< r+i w)+/^( 7
'"
(
(
+f o =
T+
=
/*( T
+ +
we
Substituting these values in the above and reducing,
have

nf'(T
(
i)n (n
+i)(n
1.2.3.4
+ 2)J
^
I2.345
*
80
*
I
INTERPOL A TION.
in the application, (91)
:
46.
For greater convenience
and
(941
may now be
written as follows
.
.
(95
f(
T  nw)
=A T) + n
/'( T  *w)
+
n
^
I
/"( T)
.

(95),
Example
July 3d, 4
h
.
3.
Required the moon's right ascension,
;
1883,
Referring to the series of values (Art. have for this case nw = 4h .*. n ^.
44),
we
fv =
'r.f
v

.06
=+
44
2.010 2.054
f
\
iv
Corrected,/** n *
.
+ =+
4
.r
6.91

.
f" = 'Corrected, f" =
8.279
46.
INTERPOLATION, SPECIAL CASES.

8l
!/'"...=
+
4599
/"
Corrected,/"
'
= ^_2o8_ = 22.481
.
'
. .
=+
=2 9
=29
h
7.494
f
Corrected, /'
39 .o5o
8
m
46 .544
s
8
/=
1883, July 3d,
a a
4
h
,
= =
we
.
5
45 i5 .68o h m s
m
5 55
n
.i95
Example
July
3d, 8
h
4.
.
Required the moon's right ascension,
In
this
1883,
case
argument
is
nearer I2 h than o h
use formula (95)^ since the n J.
=
 / = +
.06
Corrected, /*
w
= =+
2.01
2.05
 /'"
Corrected, /'"
= +_ 6.910 = + 8.082
/ = /X
27.080
23.488
Corrected,
f"
82
INTERPOLA TION.
n
2
I
47
(/"
=+
= = =
h
7.829
/'=Corrected,/'
m s 29 3i .22i
s
*{/'...==: 9 "'5o. 407
f=
1883, July 3d, 8
h
,
a a
6 i4 54 .730 6h
m
5
m
8
4^.323
table.
47.
Second.
Arguments near
in a
the
end of the
Proceeding
previous
manner precisely
similar to that of the
article,
we
readily obtain the formulae
(_!)(!
l)(
+ 2)
_
}> (
1.2.3.4
(l)(+l)( + 2)(*+3^ (7 ._ 1.2.3.4.5
nw)
}
= AT) 
nf'(T

1.2.3
n(n__J.) (n

2) (n
$
3)
,
_
4}^
.
1.2.3.4
_ (!)( 2
The
st
1
)
(
(K
(
1.2.3.4.5
d
1
of
these applies for interpolating in the
47
INTERPOLATION, SPECIAL CASES.
argument
:
83
direction in which the
j
^^s^s
1
The above
may
be written as follows
f(T + nw) =f(T)
+
f'(T + fr)
+ ^=
f(T
\ \
w)
(98)
f(Tnw)=f(T)\n\ f'(T^w)\v
2
\f"(Tw)
(.
^f*(T2W)
(98.)
Example
July ;th, 4
h
5.
.
Required the moon's right ascension,
iv
/7/
1883,
= $;
/u .33; / + =  36.52 = 24 35.94 f" f
;
i.i2;
;
/= 9 25 m4o .2o.
h
s
/  + 3.34;
Substituting in (98) as above,
we
find
Example
July 7th, 8
h
.
6.
Required the moon's right ascension,
1883,
By
substituting the numerical values in formula (98),
we
find for this case
It will
(95)i
(9^)'
be observed that in the application of formulas (95), an d (98), the algebraic signs of the various correc
&4
tions
INTERPOLA TION.
48.
be determined in a manner entirely similar to that explained in connection with formulae (92) and (93)^ (See Art. 44.).
may
t
Interpolation into the Middle.
48. When the function is to be interpolated for a value of the argument half way between two consecutive dates of the table, this is called interpolation into the middle.
For
this case either (92^ or (93),
is
convenient formula of n in (92)
:
may be used, but a more in place obtained as follows. Write
Then
in (93) let
n
=
\,
and
set
out from
(T \ w)
:
of these equations, observing in the resultthat the coefficients of the odd differences, ing equation /', /'", etc., vanish, and writing
Taking the mean
=f"(T+
49
PROOF OF COMPUTA TION.
85
lw)
(99)
or
*).4W
Example
7.
199),
be required to determine the moon's h We must interpolate into right ascension, 1883, July 5th, 6 h the middle between July 5th, o and July 5th, 12''.
Let
it
.
,
860 /* = + = &f 349 f" =  42.345 Corrected, f" = 42.694 = + 5337 *!/"..i.
iv

Therefore 1883, July 5th,6 h ,tf=7 h 54 m 27
8
.73
Proof of Computation.
very convenient check on the accuracy of a computation, when, for a series of values of an argument succeeding each other at regular intervals, a series of values of any function have been computed. Suppose an erroneous value of one of these quantiThe ties, f(T) f x, has been obtained, x being the error.
49.
The method
of differences furnishes a
functions, with the respective differences,
would then be as
follows
:

4,
86
INTERPOLATION.
the error
50.
6x in the fourth difference, the greatest deviation being in the horizontal line where the erroneous value of the function is found. s Suppose, for example, an error of 5 had been made in computing one of the values of the moon's right ascension
in the function has increased to
Thus
x
given in Art. 44. be as follows:
July
3d,
The scheme
a
s.
of differences
would then
h.
= /m.
f
29 39.05
f"
f"
f
iv
oh
I2 h
5
45 15.68
27.08
6 14 54.73
4th,
oh
I2 h
5th,
oh
6th,
oh
differ
see at once without going further than second ences that the value for July 4th, I2 h is erroneous.
,
We
Differential Coefficients.
50.
When we
have a series of numerical values
of a func
tion,
we
corresponding to equidistant values of the argument, may compute the numerical values of the differential co
efficients
form
of the interpolation ascending powers of n.
from the tabular differences as follows: Either formula is arranged according to
The
function
f(T \ nw) expanded
com
by Taylor's formula, and the
differential coefficients,
pared with the coefficients of the different powers of n in the above expansions, give at once values of these quantities.
5
DIFFERENTIAL COEFFICIENTS.
87
The most rapid convergence, and consequently
formulas, will
the best
be obtained by introducing into formula (92)
the arithmetical
means
of the
and below irom which we
cal
the horizontal line
odd differences situated above drawn through the function
set out, using the notation for the arithmeti
mean given on page 71. From the manner of forming
/' (7+ kw) f'"(T J*0
=
the differences
we
;
readily see
f
(T)
+ if"(T)
we
+
=f
in (92),
These values being substituted
readily derive
AT + nw) =AT) + *f'(T) + /"
.
~
1.2.3
(n
+ 2) (n +
i)
n (n

I) (

12.3.4
2)
1.2.3.4.5
Arranging comes
this
according to ascending powers of
n, it be
+[/'"( T)
.
.
.]
.2.3.4.5.6'
88
INTERPOLATION.
51.
Expanding the function by Taylor's formula,
f(T+ nw) =
df
d'f
d'f n*w>
d'f n'w'
rcV
d'f
Comparing the
series,
we have
:
coefficients of like powers of n in these two the following values for the differential co
efficients
~*
(ioi) will not apply to values of the function obtain formulas near the beginning or end of the table.
51.
Formulae
We
for these special cases by comparing formulas (91) and (97), of n respectively arranged according to ascending powers obtain thus with Taylor's formula.
We
For arguments near the beginning of table :
 */"( T+w
5L
DIFFERENTIAL COEFFICIENTS.
For arguments near end of table :
be required to compute the numerical values of the differential coefficients of the moon's right
Example
8.
Let
it
da
h
.
d*oL
f
ascension with respect to the time, j~ ^Tr^
r
J
883,
July 5th, o In substituting the numerical values in (ioi), w,f',f" must all be expressed in the same unit. It will be convenient
.
,
.
to express
them
in seconds.
From
the numerical values given on page 75
we have
1
.08
jT^rV^;
=

000
453
;
=~
Therefore
,

000
20

=+ ~ ~
.038391
;
97 2

This value of
7=,
may be
regarded as the fractional part of
90
INTERPOLATION.
52.
a second which the moon's right ascension increases in one In the hourly second of time at the instant July 5th, oh of the moon given in the Nautical Almanac there ephemeris is given in connection with the moon's right ascension the " difference for one minute," which is simply the value of the differential coefficient multiplied by 60 i.e., we may sup.
;
pose the a
minutes.
in 7
to be expressed in seconds, and the
for the
S
T
in
Thus we have
ence for one minute"
=
is
example above the
" differ
2 .3O346.
is
solar ephemeris there
So in connection with the given the sun's hourly motion in
60X60. ^multiplied by
expressed in seconds of
right ascension,
which
the value of
The hourly motion
arc.
52.
in declination is
of these differential coefficients as given in the ephemeris, the second differences are taken into account in the interpolation in a very simple manner, for we have to
By means
second differences inclusive
The
difference of these expressions
is
and
f(T + **)
= AT) +
adding to
n
W+

.
(102)
Thus we have only
tial coefficient
to correct the value of the
it
first differen
by
algebraically the product of
53
DIFFERENTIAL COEFFICIENTS.
two consecutive values by one
if
91
half the in
the difference of
terval n. as
We then use the
the
first
9.
corrected differential coefficient,
differences
% were constant. Required the sun's right ascension and declih nation, 1883, July 4th, 4 Bethlehem mean time. As the longitude of Bethlehem from Washington is
we should do
Example
,
6m 4O s .2, the corresponding Washington time is 3 h 53 m i9 .8 h July 4th, 3 .8888 = July 4.162. From the solar ephemeris for the meridian of Washington we then find
s
=
:
Date.
July 4.0
July
5.0
& 6 h 53 ra 33 s 79 6 h 57 m 4i s .o2
Hourly Motion.
o.
Hourly Motion.

io s .3O7
22
52' 51".!
I3".i9
14". 18
10^294
22 47' 22".7
*'
^d^a ~
'
11
=
'
2
13
X
X
Corrected hourly motion
h
10.306
3 889
= = =
m
io s .3o6
Required a
d*d
~
'
=
40
s
.o8
.87.
6 54 i3
h
s
n
2
~
'"
x X
**
~
8
Corrected hourly motion
h
13.27
Required #
=
3 8S9
= 51" 61
I3 .27
22 51' 59".5.
53. If values of the differential coefficients are required for values of the argument between the dates of the table,
we may derive the necessary formulae by differentiating the function developed by Taylor's formula (100), viz.:
df(T) ~
dT
dT~
df
d'f(T)
,
dT
1.2
(103)
dT
 <Tf(T) dr
dT*
92
INTERPOLA TION.
},
.
54.
Substituting in these the values of
we' have the values required.*
j^~
.
(101),
The Ephemeris.
American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac most of the quantities there tabulated may be taken used, from the tables by the method of Art. 52, an example of the The lunar distances application of which has been given. in that part of the ephemeris computed for which are given the meridian of Greenwich form an important exception. These distances are given for threehour intervals, together
54. In case the
is
with the "proportional logarithm of the difference." This proh the interportional logarithm is simply the logarithm of 3 val of the table divided by the difference between the two
consecutive distances. It is convenient to suppose the 3 h reduced to seconds of time, and the tabular distance expressed The proportional logarithm may then be in seconds of arc. denned as the number of seconds of time required for the distance Thus to change one second of arc.
:
1883, July 6th, o
h
,
distance between centres
of sun and
h
moon
= = =
h
24
25
i
2'
55"
1883, July 6th, 3
,
distance between centres
of sun and
moon
32'
Difference
29'
44" 49"
Proportional logarithm of difference
3
log
o
t
2
/
.
~//
io8oo a
*
A very
full
the numerical coefficients,
discussion of this subject, with elaborate tables for computing " may be found in Vol. II. of Oppolzer's Lehrbuch
zur Bahnbestimmung."
54
THE EPHEMERIS,
93
For simple interpolation, disregarding second and higher orders of differences, we proceed as follows
:
Let 7"and T\
h
3
= the two consecutive dates between which
the distance
is
= the time for which the distance is required; D and D = the distances at times T and T\ 3
T \t
/
to be interpolated
;
h
;
D'
distance at time
T \
t.\
4
A'
= D,D; = D'  D.
Then
all
being expressed in seconds,
A'
:
A
t
:
log A'
If
=
10800;
/
log
 PLA.
(104)
we
subtract both
members
of this
equation from log
10800,
we have
10800 
log
or
PLA'
= =
10800
log
+ PLA,
,
PLt
+ PLA
(104),
With formula (104) only the common logarithmic tables are required; with (104), we use the tables of proportional or logistic logarithms given in works on navigation. The latter tables
h
give at once for any angle
t
the logarithm of
for the argu
V or
3
3
or.
Sometimes the
tables are
computed
ment
i 
h
.
The following simple example
(104) and
(104),
10.
:
will illustrate both formulae
Example
Required the distance between the centres
94
of the sun
time.
INTERPOLATION.
and moon,
1883, July 6th,
i
54.
h
15, Greenwich mean
From
t
i
the ephemeris, 1883, July 6th, o h Difference
,
D
.3019
3.6532
24
2'
55"
PL
=
h
15
=
4500
s
log
t
log A'
=3o5i3.
Therefore A'
=
=. 24
37'
D'
40'
25" 20"
For using equation
tional
logarithms
(iO4) we employ the tables of proporgiven in Bowditch's Navigator, Table
t
XXII:
PL PL PL
Difference == .3019
h
i
m
I5
=
.3802
A'
=6821;
A'
=
o
37' 25".
As will be seen, with the proportional logarithms the quantity A' is given at once in degrees, minutes, and seconds, without the necessity of reducing t in the first place from the sexagesimal to the decimal notation, and in the second place reducing A' from the decimal to the sexagesimal. At
the end of the American Ephemeris for 1871 is given a table of " Logarithms of small Arcs in Space or Time" by using
which
this
reduction
is
also avoided.
The foregoing process disregards second and higher
orders of differences. In order to take these into account, we have in the general interpolation formula (92)
nw
=
t,
w
h
3
;
/.
n

T
.
In which A" will be the difference between values of A.
two consecutive
54
THE EPHEMERIS.
95
and formula
I
(92),
t
becomes
U =D+
[<2]
t t

2h
t
\
^J
?g
A").
;
Let
IJ
^
z
^"
\
)
=
\A\
corrected tabular difference
Q = PLA>
Then we may assume
/
=
PL\A\.
^ _
^g
t
\
\Q
in
Q")
=
IQ] with sufficient accuracy,' (105)
which
Q
''
is
the difference between
two consecutive
val
ues of Q. (Q and A are inverse functions one of the other, but the algebraic sign of the correction need give no
trouble.) It will be
a
little
more accurate
if
we
take for
Q' the
arithmetical
between and following values found in the preceding
of the differences
mean
Q
and both the
table.
Example
the
1 1.
moon and Fomalhaut,
July 20th,
I 5
Required the distance between the centre of h m Gh. 1883, Jwty 2Otn I9 2O 5
s
>
,
M. T.
From
h
h July 20th, i8 h July 2oth, 2i i
the ephemeris,
Then
/
=
D 32 D 31
[Q]
log
t
41'.
20"
41'
o"
.4683
h
2om
5"
Mean Q"
= =
i
h
3347
230
log A>
= = =
G=4536 Q = .4747 Q = .4995
A'
"= + 211
&'
o
32
'~
+ 248
5". 5
3.6817
D'
= =
27' 14". 5
14'
32134
If we had neglected the second differences in this example we should have found A' = o 26' 51", which can only be
g6
INTERPOLATION.
55.
considered a rough approximation. If the interpolation be extended to third differences, we find A' = 27' 13".%. This differs from the first value by a quantity which will be of
very
little
importance
in practical cases.
To Find the Greenwich Time Corresponding
Distance.
to
a Given Lunar
interpolate the time directly from the ephemeris, neglecting the second differences; then with the time so found as a first approximation we deduce the cor55. First.
We
may
rected proportional logarithm
tion.
t
[<2],
and repeat the computa(104),
being the required quantity, either (104) or the first approximation, viz.,
log
give
or
= log A + PLA, PLt = PLA'  PLA
1
/
(106)
(106),
this value of t we determine the corrected proportional logarithm [Q] by (105), and repeat the computation.
Then with
Example
12.
1883, July 2Oth:
determine the Gh. M. T.
when
the distance between the moon's centre and Fomal14' 5".5.
.4536
haut was 32
We
find
from the ephemeris that on July 2Oth, i8 h Given value of D'
Therefore A'
D =
32
32
41'
14'
20"
5". 5
PL
.4747
.4995
log^'
= 3.2134 PLA = .4747 log / = 3.6881
27' 14". 5
Approximate
t
i
h
2i m i6 8
By (105), 
^=V= ~ 63
= Repeating computation, PLA = log A' = h = 20m oo t = i log
Therefore [0]
8
.4684 .4684
= PLA
3.2134
3.6818
6*.
/
m h Required Gh. M. T., July 2oth, ig 2O
55#
THE EPHEMERIS.
97
Table I at the end of the American Ephemeris gives the correction required on account of the second differences in the moon's motion in finding the Greenwich time corresponding to a given lunar distance. It is designed to obviate the necessity for the second computation in the case The formula for this correction is derived just considered.
as follows
:
Let
T+
T+
t
= =
the time taken from the table
;
when second
t'
differences are neglected the time taken when second differences are
considered
;
Q and
Then
[<2]
the tabular and corrected proportional logarithms.
(io6)log / log A' log *'= log A'
=
+ Q; +
[<2]
;
log t' log
/
=
[<2]<2

G", from (105).
Then
treat
it
as log t' log t will never be very large, as a differential, viz.,
we may
log
t'

log
/
=
Jlog
/
=
M being the modulus =
Then
.434294.
...
Where
t
is
(107)
supposed given
in
minutes
and
/'
/
is
expressed
in seconds.
The
correction will be applied to
$
INTERPOLA TION.
56.
with th e

.
J^us
)
" j
[
sign
when
the proportional logarithm
j
'
(
diminishing increasing
the table
If
is
not at hand,
t'
t
may very
8i .267;
readily be
computed from
(107).
/
In the last example,
Q"
Therefore
f
t
t
= = =
i
h
2i m i6 s
ra
=
8
m
230.
i
io s .8;
5 .2.
/
I
h
20m
56. In the British Nautical Almanac the differential coefficients are not given in connection with the right ascen
sion and declination of the sun, moon, and other bodies as in the American Ephemeris. If, therefore, it is considered to carry the interpolation to second differences, it necessary
must be done by the interpolation formula.
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY,
CHAPTER
CO ORDINATES.
57.
I.
THE CELESTIAL SPHERE. TRANSFORMATION OF
When we
and other
celestial bodies
view the heavens on a clear night, the stars appear to us to be projected on the
surface of a sphere of indefinite radius, with the centre at the eye of the observer.
few hours' observation would show us that all these bodies are apparently revolving about us from east to west, in such a manner as to make a complete revolution in about
twentyfour hours. This appearance we know from other considerations is due to the diurnal revolution of the earth.
A
motion we should soon recognize which the sun appears to move the stars from west to east, in such a manner as to among complete a revolution in about one year. We know this to be due to the annual revolution of the earth about the sun. There are various other motions recognized, some of which
In addition to this
first
a second, in consequence of
require very long periods for completing their cycle.
Of
IOO
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
58.
these precession and nutation are examples. Some of these motions we shall have occasion to consider hereafter.
For our purposes
it
will frequently be
convenient to speak
of the apparent motions of the heavenly bodies as if they were the true motions. Thus we say that a star passes the
meridian at a given time, when we know in fact that the meridian passes the star; or that the sun rises above the horizon, when in fact the horizon passes below the sun. The reader will never be misled by such expressions, and we are by this means often able to avoid cumbersome circumlocutions in language.
As we view
the celestial sphere
all
the heavenly bodies
appear to be at equal distances, and with few exceptions to can maintain the same positions relative to each other.
We
measure their directions; but
with their distances.
at present are not
concerned
The department of astronomy with which we are now occupied deals for the most part with exact measurements
either of the coordinates of the stars, or of the observer's If we know the latitude and position on the earth's surface.
longitude of our observatory, we can by observation determine the spherical coordinates of any star. If, on the other hand, the positions of the heavenly bodies are known, observation furnishes the data for determining our position in It is with problems of the latter latitude and longitude. class that this book is chiefly concerned.
Spherical Coordinates.
58.
The
mined by means
position of a star on the celestial sphere is deterof two spherical coordinates, measured with
reference to a fixed great circle. Three different systems are in
the circle of reference
is
common
use, according as
the horizon, the equator, or the
58.
SPHERICAL COORDINATES.
For our purposes we
IOI
ecliptic.
shall define these circles as
follows:
THE HORIZON
is a great circle of the celestial sphere formed by a plane passing^ through the eye of the observer and per
pendicular to the plumbline.
is a great circle of the celestial a plane passing through the eye of the obsphere formed by server and perpendicular to the earths axis. THE ECLIPTIC is a great circle of the celestial sphere formed by a plane passing through the eye of the observer and parallel
THE CELESTIAL EQUATOR
to the
plane of the earths
orbit.
of coordinates
Either of these circles considered as the basis of a system is called a primitive circle. The great circles formed by planes perpendicular to the primitive circle are
called secondaries.
is the point where the plumbline produced pierces the celestial sphere above the horizon. THE NADIR is the point where the plumbline produced below the horizon pierces the celestial sphere.
THE ZENITH
THE ZENITH and NADIR
are the poles of the horizon.
Vertical circles are secondaries to the horizon.
Hourcircles, or circles of declination, are secondaries to the equator.
THE MERIDIAN
zenith
is
the hourcircle
which passes through the
and nadir. THE MERIDIAN LINE
is the line in which the plane of the meridian intersects the plane of the horizon. The north and south points of the horizon are the points in which this line
THE PRIME VERTICAL
the zenith.
pierces the celestial sphere. is the great circle whose plane is perto the plane of the meridian, and pendicular passes through
102
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
is the line in
59.
THE EAST AND WEST LINE
which the plane of the
prime vertical intersects the plane of the horizon. The east and west points of the horizon are the points in which this
line pierces the celestial sphere.
The north and south
vertical.
points are the poles of the prime
of the meridian.
The
east
and west points are the poles
The Horizon.
59. The spherical coordinates referred to the horizon as the primitive or fundamental plane are the altitude and azimuth.
THE ALTITUDE
horizon,
body.
of a heavenly body is its distance above the measured on a vertical circle passing through that
THE AZIMUTH of a
heavenly body is the distance from the north or south point of the horizon, measured on the horizon to the foot of the vertical circle passing through the body.
For astronomical purposes it is customary to measure the azimuth from the south point through the entire circumference in the order S., W., N., E. For geodetic purposes it is generally reckoned from the north point. Navigators and is not surveyors frequently use other methods, which
it.
necessary to enlarge on in this place. Instead of the altitude, the zenith distance of a star
is fre
quently used
altitude are
;
this is simply the distance
the star, measured on a great circle.
from the zenith to The zenith distance and
:
We shall use the following notation h = altitude a = azimuth z = zenith distance. z =
;
;
complements
of each other.
90
h.
60.
THE EQUATOR.
103
azi
muth
In consequence of the diurnal motion the altitude and of any star are constantly changing their values.
The Equator.
60. The points in which the meridian intersects the equator are the north and south points of the equator. The points in which the earth's axis pierces the celestial sphere are the
poles of the equator, and are called respectively the north and south pole. This line is also the axis of the heavens.
When
of a star
the equator
may
its
is the fundamental plane, the position be fixed either by its declination and hour
angle or by
declination and right ascension.
THE DECLINATION
of a star
is its
distance north or south of
the equator measured on an hourcircle passing through the When the star is north of the equator the declination star.
is f;
when south,
.
THE HOUR ANGLE
the meridian
of a star
is
the angle at either pole between
or
it
the hourcircle passing through the star ; is the distance measured on the plane of the equator
and
from
circle passing
the south point of the equator to the foot of the hourthrough the star.
is reckoned from the south, in the direction from o to 360, or from o h to 24*. In some S., W., N., E., cases it is convenient to reckon the hourangle towards the The houreast, in which case it must be considered minus.
The hourangle
angle is constantly changing, in consequence of the apparent revolution of the celestial sphere. As this revolution does not affect the position of the equator, the declination is independent of the diurnal motion. The planes of the equator and ecliptic intersect each other
104
at
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
6l.
The line in which these planes 27'. the line of the equinox, and the points where it pierces the celestial sphere are the equinoctial points. They are known respectively as the vernal equinox and the autuman angle of about 23
is
intersect
nal equinox. The points on the equator 90 noctial points are the solstices, known as the
from the equi
summer
is
solstice
and the winter
circle passing
is
solstice.
The
equinoctial colure
the hour
through the equinoxes. The solstitial colure the hourcircle passing through the solstices. The equinoxes are the poles of the solstitial colure, and the
solstices are the poles of the equinoctial colure.
THE RIGHT ASCENSION
of a star is the nrc of the equator inbetween the vernal equinox and the foot of the hourtercepted circle passing through the star. It is reckoned from the vernal equinox, in the order of the signs Aries, Taurus,
etc.,
from o
to
h 360, or from o
to
2$.
The
right ascension
and
declination are both
independent of
the diurnal motion.
distance is
Instead of the declination, the northpolar frequently employed. It is the distance from the
is
north pole to the star measured on a great circle, and shall let complement of the declination.
the
We
= = t = / =
8
a
Declination of a star; Right ascension
;
Hourangle
;
Northpolar distance
=
90
3.
The
Ecliptic.
61. When the ecliptic is the fundamental plane, the coordinates are called latitude and longitude.
62.
THE
ECLIPTIC.
105
THE LATITUDE
ecliptic
of a star is its distance north or south of the measured on a secondary to the ecliptic. When north
of the
tic
ecliptic the latitude is
+; when
south,
.
THE LONGITUDE
of a star
is
the distance
measured on the
eclip
from the vernal equinox to the foot of the secondary passing through the star. It is reckoned in the order of the signs
from o
to
360.
;
Longitude will be designated by A
Latitude will be designated
Ipy
/?.
These coordinates must not be confounded with terrestrial latitude and longitude, with which they have no connection.
The system
Fig.
It
i
computation. preceding definitions. represents the sphere projected on the plane of the horiwill serve to illustrate the
is
much used
in orbit
zon.
zenith, CVTihe ecliptic, of any star. position
Zis the
WVE the
equator,
O
the
OL =
Declination, d
;
VEQ WL = Right ascension, VTCD = Longitude, A OD Latitude, ft OH = Altitude, h SH = Azimuth, a OZ = Zenith distance, z
;
;
=LPQ=
Hourangle,
/;
;
;
PO
N. P. distance,/.
FIG.
i.
62.
The
to the symbols
following diagram will assist in giving definiteness employed in the foregoing. The notation
io6
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
should be thoroughly memorized, as the symbols will be
constantly employed hereafter.
f
Azimuth
Horizon^
Altitude h [Zenith distance
;
=
a,
=
;
z.
f
SphericalCoordinates
Equator
J
[
Hourangle = / Right ascension = Declination = d Northpolar distance
;
;
= /
The obliquity of the ecliptic we shall designate by f. Its mean value for 1881.0 is e = 23 27' 16". 60. (See American
Ephemeris, page
248.)
is
position of the observer on the surface of the earth in latitude and longitude. shall let given
The
We
cp
=
L =
63.
is
when north, Longitude,  when west,
Latitude,
f
when south; when east.
For astronomical purposes longitude in this country reckoned from the meridian of Washington or Greenwich.
tial
In Fig. 2 the large circle represents a section of the celessphere, and the small one a section of the earth, both formed by the intersection of the plane of the meridian.
is
HH'
1 the zenith, Z' the horizon, the equator, the nadir, P the north pole. The latitude of the point 'O will be equal to the arc EZ, which by definition is the declination of the zenith of O. It f the elevation of the north is also equal to the arc , or
RE
Z
PH
pole above the horizon of O.
64
.
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES.
107
The angle between the equator and
will therefore be
90
q>,
y>
the horizon of any place being the latitude of the place.
Transformation of Coordinates.
64.
PROBLEM
I.
Having given
the altitude
and azimuth of
any Let
star, to
find the corresponding declination and hourangle. us refer the star's position to a system of rectangular
coordinates in which the horizon shall be the plane of XY, the positive axis of being directed to the south point, the
X
Z to the zenith.
Then
will x,y,
positive axis of
Y
z
to the west point,
and the positive
axis of
A
the polar coordinates of the star; A, h< a the distance or radius vector. being
= the =
x y
z
rectangular coordinates of the
star;
We
then have*
=A
cos h cos
a\
\
=
A A
cos h sin
sin h.
a\ (
.....
p.
work on
* See Davies' Analytical Geometry, edition of 1869, analytical geometry of three dimensions.
302; or any other
108
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
64.
Let the star now be referred to the equator as the fundamental plane, the positive axis of being directed to the south point of the equator, the positive axis of Fto the west point, and the positive axis of Z to the north pole.
X
Let
now x y,
',
z'
A,
#, t
be the rectangular coordinates; be the polar coordinates.
We
then have
=A y=A
x'
z'
cos $ cos /; cos $ sin *;
sin 8.
\
>
)
(ill)
A
The problem now requires these values of x' y' and z' to observe that the be expressed in terms of x, y, and z. axes of Fare the same in both systems; that the axes of make the angle 90  cp with those of X' and Z'. and therefore require the formulas for transformation of co,
,
We
X
Z
We
ordinates from one rectangular system to another having the
same
origin, viz.:
or
= = y z' = x' = y' = z' =
x'
x cos
/I
:
(90
<p) \
z sin (90 z cos (90
cp);
x
x
y\
sin (90 sin
cp f
cp) f
cp);
z cos z sin
cp\ \
x
cos
\
cp. )
(112)
cp \
Substituting in (112) the values of x, y, and z from (no), and of y, y, and z' from (in), dropping at the same time
the factor
A which
t
/
is
common
to every term,
cp f
we have
99;
\
cos d cos cos # sin
sin
#
= = =
cos h cos a sin cos h sin #; cos h cos # cos
sin
^ cos
//
I cp
('
(113)
sin
sin
<p. )
64.
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES.
1
09
These equations express the required relation, but they are not in convenient form for logarithmic computation; besides, the
required quantities 8 and
t
are given in terms of
their sines
It is
and
cosines.
always best, when practicable, to determine an angle terms of its tangent. The tangent varies rapidly for all angles great or small, and consequently if a small error from any cause exists in the tangent it will have but little effect on the value of the angle.  On the other hand, if the value of the angle is near 90 or 270 and is given in terms of its sine, this function will vary slowly with the angle, and a
in
small error in the sine will produce a large error in the The same is true of the cosine for angles near o or angle. 1 80. If the angle is near 90 or 270 it may be determined
with accuracy from its cosine, or if near o or 180 accurately determined from its sine. In any case determined with accuracy from its tangent.
it
may be
can be
it
For the purpose
(113), let
of effecting the required transformation in
us introduce the auxiliary equations
sin
h
cos h cos a
=
n cos A'; n sin N.
This will be possible, for we have the two arbitrary quantities n and N, and the two equations (114) for determining them. Substituting these values in (113), we have
cos S cos cos d sin
sin
t /
d
= = =
n n
sin
N sin
YVcos
cp \
n cos
N cos
T
cp
=
=
n cos
n
(q>
A
7
"); )
cos h sin a\
sin
<p f
> (115)
/
n cos A sin
cp
sin (<p
TV).
For determining
first,
N we
tan
divide the second of (114) by the
then
we have
N=
cot h cos
a.
.
.
.


116}
HO
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
/
64.
first,
For determining and substitute
we
divide the second of (115) by the
cos h cos a
sin
N
_N
\
from
(114), viz.,
tan
t
=
CO
tan a
.....
(117)
For determining
tf,
divide the third of (115) by the
tan
(<p
first:
tan S
N)
cos
t
.....
(i 18)
We may
now
of the computation first of (115), viz.,
obtain a formula for proving the accuracy by dividing the second of (114) by the
sin
N
N)
cos
((p
cos h cos a cos # cos /'
Formulae
pletely,
(116),
(117),
(119) is consists in this equation being satisfied when we substitute for tf and t the values obtained from equations (117)
and
and (118) solve the problem coma proof of the accuracy of the work.
The proof
If the work has been correctly performed the (118). two logarithms should not differ by more than three or four
and
units in the last place.
This proof
is
not always reliable,
however.
Collecting together
reference,
these formulae for convenience of
we have
tan
N
=
_ ~~
cot h cos
sin
tan d
sin
cos tan
(<p (q>
 N}
N)
N
a\
tan
a;
/;
cos
N
cos
(cpN)
cos h cos a cos d cos f
64.
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES.
to the species of these angles
Ill
it is to be retaken in any quadrant which satisfies the algebraic sign of tan TV; second, 3 is always less than 90 when tan is and is f when tan 3 is ), and third, for
With regard
first,
marked,
Nmay be
/ let
;
the species of
us examine the equation
t
cos 3 sin
cos h sin
a.
*
Cos 3 and cos h will always be +, therefore the species of will be the same as that of a.
t
As an example
the following:
of the application of these formulas, take
Latitude of Sayre Observatory Sun's altitude
Azimuth
Required # and
<p.
= (p = = h= =a=
is
40 36' 25" .g\ 47 15' i8".3; 80 23' 4 /r .47;
as follows
:
/.
The computation
cot h
h
a
= = =
40
47 80
8
36' 23". 9
15'
i8".3
4". 47
23'
cos a
tan
= =
9.9657782 9.2228053
cos h
COS a
= =
9.8317007
9.2228053 9.0545060
N=
<p
/
46' 33". 2
49' 50". 7
N= 9.1885835
W=3i
S
= 464o' = 23 4'
tan a
sin
4". 53
2 4 ".33
sec
((p
N) =
tan
t
N = 9.1834690
.0707805
tan
(q>
= 0.7710501
N]
cos
/
9.7929304
=
.0252996
=
9.8364670
9.6293974
cos
tan $
=
cos d
= =
9.8364670
9.9637894
sin
cos
(<p
 ** = N)
N
_
' 92542495 (proof)
cos h cos a
cos d cos
 =
/
9.8002564
9.2542496
112
65.
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
PROBLEM
II.
Having given
the declination
and hour
This angle of any star, to determine the altitude and azimuth. In this, case we require is the converse of the preceding problem. the values of x, y, z in terms of the values of x' y', z'
',
.
Our
formulae (112) for transformation then become
x
z
=
=
x' sin
cp
z'
cos
sin
cp
\
;
y=y';
x' cos
cp  z' cp
.
I
)
.
.
.
.
(120)
and (in), dropping we have
cos h cos a
Substituting in these the values of x, y, z, x' y' z' from (i 10) at the same time the common factor J,
, ,
,
cos h sin #
sin
h
= = =
cos <5 cos /sin cos 8 sin /;
cp
sin
6 cos # sin
cp
\
;
I cp 
(121)
cos
tf
cos
/
cos
sin
<p
.
)
We may now adapt
tion
by introducing the
these equations to logarithmic computaauxiliaries m and M, such that
sin
d
/
cos d cos
= m sin J/; = m cos J/
:
;
when, by a process
like that used in solving equations (113),
we
find the following formulae
tan
M = tan cos
=
tan
fl
/
tan a
tan h
cosj/
cos
(cp
tf
tan /;
cos
sin (cp
M
M)
cos
~~
cos
/
cos h cos a'
66.
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES.
in reference to the species of the angles in
The remarks
formulae
(I) will
apply equally to
(II).
The following example
these formulae
:
will illustrate the application of
Given
<p
=
40
36'
Required a and
cp
h.
&
t
= = =
40
23
36' 23". 9
4'
24". 3
4". 5
tan d
cos
tan
t
46 40'
31
8
= =
9.6293972
cos d
cos
t
9.9637894
9.8364670
9.8364670
9.8002564
cp
M= M=
a
49' 50". 7
46' 33". 2
23'
15'
t
M = 9.7929302
h
= =
80
47
tan
4". 47
i8".3
cos
cosec
(cp
M = 9.9292195
.8165310
tan
(q>
=
o 0252995
M) =
tan a
=
0.7710500
M) = 9.1885835 cos a = 9.2228053
tan h
cos a
9.2228053
9.8317007
.0342218
cos h
cos
sin (cp
M
M)
9.0545060
=
,.
cos d cos
t
.7457505 (proof)
.7457504
As may readily be seen, the preceding formulae and many more may be derived by applying the equa66.
tions of Spherical Trigonometry to the triangle formed by the zenith, the pole, and the star. Thus
in the figure the sides of the triangle are
90 1 80
d
= p,
90
are
q>,
/,
and 90
q,
h
z.
The angles
the angle at the star, called the When any three of these quanparallactic angle. tities are given, the determination of any other part is merely a question of trigonometry.
#,
and
FlG<
3>
114
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY
when
is
66.
COROLLARY. To find the hourangle oj a star horizon, or at the time of rising or setting. the star is in the horizon the altitude, h, the last of equations (121) becomes
in the
When
zero,
and
cos $ cos
/
cos
sin
cp ~\
sin
cp
8
sin
cp
=
o,
or
cos
/
= 
# sin CQS s CQS
9
= 
tan * tan
9
.
.
.
(122)
From this equation we may determine
marked,
it is
For
t but, as before rebetter to determine the angle from its tangent. this purpose first add both members of (122) to unity,
;
then subtract both members from unity, and
cos 8 cos
(
we have
c
sin
8 sin
cos d cos <p.+ sin d sin ~~ ~~~ cp
~cos
cos
c
2
sm
'
=
cos
cp
Dividing the second of these by the square root,
first
and extracting the
the time of rising the lower sign will be used at the time of setting, the upper. This formula may be used to compute the time of sunrise and sunset at any place whose
At
;
latitude
For example, let it be required to comis known. the apparent time of sunrise at Bethlehem on the mornpute ing of July 4th, 1 88 1.
67.
ANGULAR DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO
STARS,
115
the Nautical Almanac, page 329, // 8 22 52 oi sun's decimation
From
The
we
find for the
latitude
= = <p
/
.
40
36' 2^'.g.
cp
cp f
d d
= =

17
63
44' 22".9 28' 24".9
COS
cos
tan" \t
\t
t
/
= =
55 iii 7 24
h
35' 52^.5
tan \t
= = = =
9.9788425
9.6499288
.3289137
.1644569*
ii'45".o s m 47
.
being sunrise, t is minus. If we subtract this quantity from I2 h the time when the sun is on the meridian we have for the apparent time of sunrise
It
4 35
This
differs
h
m
13
s

from the ordinary or mean time by an amount
equal to the equation of time, as will be explained hereafter.
(See Art. 92.)
Required the distance between two stars 67. PROBLEM III. whose rig!tt ascensions and declinations are known. The two stars and the pole will form the vertices of a tritf, 90 tf', and d, the angle of which the sides will be 90
required distance.
The angle opposite d
will
be
a'
a.
OL'
a and
d and
$'
are the right ascensions of the stars. are the declinations.
9
In the triangle two sides and the included angle are given; the third side is required.
PR A C TICA L AS TRONOM Y.
67.
We
can apply equations (121) to this case by writing
3
(compare Figs.
and
4)
h
t
= = =
90
a'
d\
a;
a
180
 B.
Thus we have
sin
d cos B d sin B cos d
sin
If
= sin 3 cos cos 3 sin 3' cos (a' = cos # sin a) = sin d sin + cos 3 cos cos (a'
tf'
a)
;
j
(<*'
;
L
(124)
tf'
tf'
<x).)
cision
d can be determined with sufficient prefrom its cosine, the last of these gives the required solution, and we may adapt it to logarithmic computation as
the quantity
:
follows
Write
COS d cos (a'
sin
d
a)
= =
k sin K\ k cos K.
Then
tan
K = COS tan
f
'
(a
of)
.
.
cos d =
sin
d cos
sin
($'
K
K}
(IV)
If this
does not give
d with
it
cy,
we may determine
(121).
in
the required degree of accuraterms of the tangent in a manner
in solving equations (113)
precisely similar to that
employed
and
Thus,
let
sin d
cos d cos (a'
a)
= =
n cos N\ n sin N.
6/.
ANGULAR DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO
readily find
STARS.
llj
When we
tan
N
==
f cot 3 cos (a
a);
tan^
sin
JV
*
' TV
cos
tan
('
);
cos
sin
/>
f
N
+
<?')
cos
cos (^V
cos (a sin d cos
Example.
Required the distance between the sun and moon, h July 4th, o Bethlehem mean time.
,
1881,
From
the Nautical
Almanac
for 1881, p. 114,
we find, for
the moon,
a!
V= From
p.
i2 h 39 m
S
3 .22;
9 23' I6"./.
329 of the same, for the sun,
d
=
22
50' 2 1 ".9.
The computation then
a'
a'
is
as follows, using equations (IV):
a a
d
= = =
h 5
43
50
ra
85 22
52'
7
3o'.4 9 1 37". 35 cos (a
2i".9
a) tan d
= =
8.8567115
9.6244585
sin
8
=
9.5889992
.0062374
8'
=K 5'
K'=
d
80 9
89 89
18' 45". 19
=
.7677470
cos
cosecA'=
(3'
23'
i6". 7
42'
52'
i".89
55". 5
K} =
cos
7.7182360
</= 7.3134726
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
67.
lem,
Applying formulae (IV), to the solution of the same probwe have the following:
cos cos
= =
8.8567115
9.9645407 8.8212522
tan (a'
sin
N = 9.2260154
d')
a)
=
=
1.1421632
cos (N\
9.9999940 cot 9.2260214 0.3681846
cos
=
2.2817621
factor
tan
= B=
B = 9.5952317 tan d = 2.6865304
cos
sin
=
9.5952317
9.9999991
9 5952308
=
sin
N
proof 9.2260214
=
9 2260214
'
CHAPTER
PARALLAX. REFRACTION.
II.
DIP OF
THE HORIZON.
68. The same star may be observed from points on the surface of the earth separated from each other by several thousand miles. If the distance to the star is so great that
the diameter of the earth
will
is
appear
in the
same part
inappreciable in comparison, it of the heavens from whatever
part of the earth it is seen. If, however, the diameter of the earth bears an appreciable ratio to the distance of the object, then when the observer's position changes there will be an
apparent change in the place of the
position
It is
is
star.
This difference in
called parallax.
in dealing
customary
with bodies which have an ap
preciable parallax to reduce all positions to the earth's centre. Thus the places of the sun, moon, and planets, which we find given in the ephemeris, are the places as they would
appear to an observer at the centre of the earth.
This which
subject
we
are considering
is
the diurnal parallax.
With the
which depends upon the position of the in its orbit, we have at present earth nothing to do. It may be remarked that on account of the great distances of the
of annual parallax,
fixed stars their diurnal parallax is in all cases inappreciable. It is only necessary to consider it in connection with the
bodies of the solar system.
I2O
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
7O.
Definitions.
69.
THE GEOCENTRIC
seen
POSITION of a body
is its
position as
from
the earth's centre.
THE APPARENT*
THE PARALLAX
It
or
OBSERVED POSITION
is its
place as seen
from a point on the earth's surface.
is
the difference between the geocentric
and
the
observed place.
may
lines
two
also be defined as the angle at the drawn to the centre of the earth
body formed by
and the place
of
observation respectively.
THE HORIZONTAL PARALLAX
seen in the horizon.
is
the parallax
when
the star
is
THE EQUATORIAL HORIZONTAL PARALLAX
when
seen in the horizon
is the parallax a point on the eartlis equator. from It may also be defined as the angle at the body subtended the equatorial radius of the earth. by
To find the equatorial horizontal parallax of a star at a given distance from the earths centre.
70.
I.
PROBLEM
Let n a
= = A =
the equatorial horizontal parallax the equatorial radius of the earth
PC', star's distance from the earth's centre SC.
= =
PSC;
=
a
\
Then from
the figure
we have
IG
FIG.
5.
sin7T=~;
(125)
relative terms.
* The terms apparent place and true place are to be considered simply as When dealing with parallax we speak of the true place as the
So when speaking of refraction the apparplace when corrected for parallax. ent place is the place affected by refraction, and the true place is the place corrected for refraction, but it may still require corrections for parallax and a variety of other things.
When
dealing with the places of the fixed stars
still
we use
the term apparent place in a
different sense, as
we
shall see hereafter.
71
PARALLAX.
121
being the place of the star, / a point on the surface of the and c being the centre. For astronomical purposes the mean distance of the earth from the sun is regarded as the unit of measure. Then for the sun we have
s
earth,
A
7i.
=
i;
sin
n
=
a
.
(126)
PROBLEM
II.
To find the parallax of a star at any
zenith distance, the earth being regarded as a sphere. In the figure, s represents the place of the star, z the zenith, the centre of the earth, p a point on the surface.
E
Let
z'
the
observed
zenith
distance;
z
geocentric zenith distance;
p
a
A =
PSE\ parallax =. radius of earth PE\ SE. distance of star
=
= =
From we have
the triangle
SEP
A
:
a
sin z'
:
sin /.
FIG.
6.
From which
or,
sin
p
/
from
it
(125),
sin
= ^ sin = sin n sin z'
z'\
;
(128)
/ and
poses
will generally
be very small
hence for most pur
we may
write
=
n sn
z
122
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
72.
The foregoing solution is only an approximation, the earth not being a sphere as we have there regarded it. For many purposes this is sufficiently exact, while for others, particularly where the moon is considered, it is not so. A more rigorous solution requires us to consider the true form of the
earth.
Form and Dimensions of the Earth.
72.
The
earth
is in
form approximately an
ellipsoid of rev
olution, the deviations from the exact geometrical figure being so small as to be inappreciable for our purposes. The dimensions of the ellipsoid as given by Bessel are as
follows:
Equatorial radius A Polar radius B Eccentricity of meridian e
= = =
3962.8025 miles;
3949.5557 miles;
.08169683;
8.9122052.
Many
still
made, differing more or
other determinations of these quantities have been less from the a*bove, but these are in more general use than any others.
Definitions.
73.
THE GEOGRAPHICAL LATITUDE
surface
is
of a point on the earth's
normal
the angle made wit/t the plane of the equator by a to the surface at this point.
is the angle formed with the the equator by a line joining t/ie point with the
THE GEOCENTRIC LATITUDE
plane of
earth's centre.
THE ASTRONOMICAL LATITUDE
is
the angle formed with the
plane of the equator by a plumbline at the given point.
73
THE REDUCTION OF THE LATITUDE.
I2 3
If the earth were a true ellipsoid and perfectly homogeneous, the geographical and astronomical latitude would always be the same. Practically, however, the plumbline frequently deviates from the normal by very appreciable
This deviation is always small, but in mountainous countries, as the Alps and Caucasus, deviations have been observed as great as 29". Unless otherwise stated, when speaking of latitude the astronomical latitude is to be under
amounts.
stood.
it
shall also assume for present purposes that coincides in value with the geographical latitude. Let the annexed figure
We
represent a section cut from the earth's surface
by a plane passing through
its axis.
be an
ellipse.
This section will Let be
K
any point on the surface, E) the north and P and
P
south poles
respectively.
will represent the horizon of the point K.
Then
HH'
Let p
<p
= CK = radius of the earth for latitude KO'E'\ = KO'E' = geographical latitude of point K\ = KCE' = geocentric latitude of point K\ A = semimajor axis of ellipse = CE'\ B semiconjugate axis of ellipse = CP.
<p'
The angle
latitude.
CKO =
f
f
q>
q>
is
called the reduction of the
For determining the parallax with precision we require (<p cp ) and p, the determination of which for any
<p
latitude
we
shall
now
investigate.
124
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
To Determine
(cp
cp').
74.
74.
We
have for the equation
of the ellipse (Fig. 7)
A*&,
;
..... .......
(130)
(131)
<p being the angle which the normal forms with the transverse axis of the ellipse. Also,
tan?/
=
........
(132)
By
differentiating (130)
we
find
dx
Therefore from (132) and (133)
tan
<p'
=
1
7?
2

tan
cp
........
(134)
equation (134) cp may be readily computed for any given value of cp. It will greatly facilitate this computation, in the form of a series. For however, to develop (cp cp'] tfiis purpose we make use of Moivre's formulae, viz.:*
* As some readers
give their derivation.
From
may
not be familiar with these very useful formulae,
we
Developing n
=
e*
by Maclaurin's formula, we have
~ H**=!+ + f I.2.3~I.2.3.4 I~1.2
jf 3
x
x1
x*
'

,
etc.;.
.
.
(a)
also,
cos
*
=I~
=.r
 1
,
etc
1.2.3
1.2.3.45
.......
(c)
74.
THE REDUCTION OF THE LATITUDE.
2 COS 2
12$
V^
I
sin
X x x
 e
=
e
(135)
V
i
tan
=
where /
Writing tan
tan
q>'
f
<p
= / tan
<p
<p
=
V
7,,
substituting for
and tan
the value given by the last of (135),
i,
and dropping the common factor
we have
from which
Substituting in (^)and
s
(<r)^
=
z*,
whence
x
z
V
i,
z
=
x
V
we have
cos
x
,
i ]
1.2
f
1.2.3.4
./ r
.
i
sin
#
= zA
.
3 \
1.2.3
1.2.3.4.5
adding, cos
x
V^~i
sin
jr
=
i
A
'
~
1
I
1.2
1
r
I
{
etc.
1.2.3
1.2.34
Writing
x
for
f #>
we have
cos
cos
x
V x \ V
i i
sin
= e~ x ^ sin x = * ^
x
1
J
;
1
;
adding and subtracting,
2
cos*
sin*
~i
= ^r^ 4 f~ xV ~ = ^^V^T_ gxV
Q.E.D.
126
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
,
,
74
Writing q
this
becomes
whence
,
^(*' 
*)
=
I
^7='.
both members of equation
(136)
Taking the logarithms we have
2
of
(136),
V
f
i(<p
cp)
=
log(l
ge
2*
v
J
)
log(i
qe^^~*
).
Expanding the logarithms
formula
log
(i
in the
second
member by
X*
the

x) =

*
X* 
X*


 
,
etc.,
we have
6
*,
etc.
This becomes by the second of (135)
2
V^i (q>
cp
f
<p)
=2V
i
^ sin 2cp
+2 +2
i/
i i
.
^ sin 49?
3
2
I/
fe sin
6cp, etc.,
or
f
cp
In .this equation
= q sin2^?4fe si" 4^+ fe &  A* ^ _ ==
2
3
si n
6^, etc.
(137)
!
^
'
z r
T~TTf
^
i
^
Substituting for
A and B
their values given in Art. 72,
75
THE EARTH'S RADIUS.
I2/
and dividing by sin \" in order to express the result in seconds of arc, we readily find
q
tf
3
te
=  690^.65;  + I".i6;  "003.
Therefore we have the very convenient and practically rigorous formula
cp
cp'
=
69o".65 sin 2cp
i".i6 sin 4<p.
.
(138)
To Determine
75.
p.
x and /
being the coordinates of the point K,
we have
.
tan
y
<?/
= i
==
....... B? tan ......
^^
2

(139)
2
;
(130)
(134)
2
cp
Combining
(130)
and
(134),
eliminating^,
we have
or
^
this
1
+ tan 9
we
find
Combining
P
with (139) and (134) to eliminate x,
=A
Vi
sec qj
+ tan
cp
tan
^=A
f
\
/cos
cos
cp
y
^
r
cos (P
r
cp
T. W
(140)
The computation of p from (140) is very simple, but it may be rendered much more so by developing p, or log p
128
into a series.
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
For
this
;6.
purpose
we
shall
regard
A
the
equatorial radius
as unity,
when we have
see <'
5
l
+ A*
+

tan
cp
tan
cp'
i
a
tan
2
<p
cos
2
9+
&
.
sm>
D4
Let us write
=
=
I
Then we have
Taking the logarithms
2
of both
sin
members,
2
log p
=
log
(i
g*
9>)
log
(i
e*
sinV).
Developing the second member by the logarithmic formula,
2 loo
0=
~
e
*
sin
~*
4
sin
^ g<)
g
sin
~
etc
'
or
ogp=
^ sn^)
e
sn
sin>,
etc.
their values, J/being the modSubstituting for e, g, and ulus of the common system of logarithms .43429448,
M
=
we
readily find
log
p
=
.00143968
sinV
.00001438 sin*(p
6 .00000015 sin (p.
(141)
76. From this the computation of log p is very simple. better series is, however, obtained by expressing it in terms of functions of the multiple angles, instead of powers of the
A
sine as here.
76.
THE EARTH'S RADIUS.
let
For effecting the required transformation,
log p
also
sin
<p
us write (142)
=
=
a sin>
2 r
+
ft
sin>
+ y sin>;
7=
I
and
v for convenience write e*
~
x
=
x\
e <t><^
=

Then
sin in>
=
^[f"
2
+ ]?J
;

20
Therefore log p
=
3 + 1^+^+
etc
']
;
[
_L
.
=
^2<
__ e ~
2
_
=
2 cos
^
2 cos

=
e^ v^~
l
\
e~
w*^ =
2 cos 6cp.
130
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
78.
Substituting these values with the numerical values of
/?,
,
and y as given
in (141),
and we
find
\
log p = 9.9992747 + .0007271
77.
cos 2cp
.0000018 cos4?>. (142)
f
We therefore
<p
have for computing
<p>
(cp
cp )
and log
p,
=
log
p
=
[2.839258] sin 2<p
{
[o.o6446 n] sin
9.999 2747
+ [6.861594] cos 2g> + [425527*1] cos
w,
4<p.
)
'
)
^
In which the quantities in brackets are logarithms of the coefficients.
Let us apply formulae (V) to the determination of and log p for latitude 40 36' 23 /x .9.
cp
cp'
We
have
2cp
4cp
[2.839258] sin 2<p
]
= =
81
12'
48";
162
25' 36".
[6.861594] cos 29) [4.25527,1] cos 4<p
= + 682". 54 ".35 [o.o6446 n sin 4<p = = n' 22". 19 Therefore g>
q>'
= =
9.9992747
ino.6
17.2
log
p
9.9993875
78.
We
are
now prepared
problem of parallax. The following method
(see Bode's Jahrbuch, 1811, p. 95). shall consider four cases, viz.:
for the complete solution of the is that of Olbers
We
First
To determine the parallax in zenith distance and azimuth, having given the geocentric zenith distance and azimuth.
the observed zenith distance
Second
Third
Parallax in zenith distance and azimuth, having given and azimuth.
Parallax in declination and right ascension, having
1
Fourth
given the geocentric declination and right ascension. Parallax in declination and right ascension^ having
given the observed declination
and right
ascension.
'
79
PARALLAX IN AZIMUTH AND ZENITH DISTANCE.
Case First.
1
3i
79.
Let the star be referred to a system of rectangular
axes, the horizon of the observer being the plane of XY, the being directed to the south point, the positive axis of
X
Z
positive axis of to the zenith.
Y to
the west point, and the positive axis of
Let
',
?/,
% =
a'
A
Then
f t
z
',
=
the rectangular coordinates; the polar coordinates.
A' sin A' sin
z'
&=
rf
cos
a'\
\
z' sin a'\
*'.
>
%=
Next
let
(143)
A' cos
)
the star be referred to a system of coordinate axes parallel to the first, the origin being at the centre of the earth.
Let
,
?;,
A,a,z
= =
the rectangular coordinates; the polar coordinates;
and we have
g
rf
%
= A sin z cos a\ = A sin z sin a\ = A cos z.
first
j
>
}
( r 44)
Let the coordinates of the second be
^o ^o ^o
p, (cp
cp'\
origin referred to the
a
rectangular coordinates; polar coordinates.
With
# will be zero. We shall write a = a a, as this form will be found convenient in a future transformation.
the coordinate planes situated as in the present case,
I$2
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
have
o
79
We then
rj.
<2
=
p p
sin (cp
sin (tp
(91
cp'}
f
cos (a
sin (a
a),
\
(p )
a); V
)
.
.
.
(145)
p cos
?/).
The formulas
for passing
from the
first
system (143) to the
second (144) will be
'
=
g

;
T/
=
n

T, O ;
$'
= $
2..
(146)
Substituting for these quantities their values (143), (144),
and
(145),
z'
we have
a'=A sin # cos p sin #'= J sin s sin a p sin
rt
A' sin J' sin
cos
(cpcp') cos
(00);
z' sin
(cptp') sin
();
)
>
1
(147)
p COS((p(p').
These equations express the required relation between the quantities given, viz., a and z, and those required, a' and z' It remains to transform them so as to render their application
.
convenient.
Let us divide the equations through by A and write from
sin
n
=
,
(a
being unity in this
case.)
also
f* =
/sin /sin
z'
r;
viz.:
cos
a'
z1 sin
z'
a1
/cos
= sin z cos a = sin 2 sin a = cos z
let all
p p p
sin
sin sin
TT
7t
?r
sin (cp
cp') <p')
1
cos (a
sin (a
a);\
a);
>
sin (cp
(148)
cos
(cp
cp
).
In these equations
*
horizontal angles be diminished
its
As/" is eliminated from our formulae, we are not concerned with
value.
79
PARALLAX IN AZIMUTH AND ZENITH DISTANCE.
I
33
the resulting equations will be what we should have had been directed obtained if our original axes of ', and
by
a\
,
to a point whose azimuth was a, instead of zero as in the thus obtain present case.
We
a)
/sin /sin
z'
cos
(a!
'
z' sin (a
= sin z = a)
w=
p
p
sin
sin
n sin n sin
(cp
(cp
(cp
cp')
cp')
cos<z;
)
/
x
sin a.
\
Let us write
p sin n sin
/n'\
sm
#
Then
(149)
become
/sin
^
f
cos ('
sin (#
r
a)
/
and by
sin z
= sin # (i m cos = m sin ^ sin #; a)
division,
tan (a
,
,
a)
=
i
m
sin
a
m cos a
(150)
A
and (151) determine the parallax in azimuth. determine (z' z) we proceed as follows the first of (149) by cos \(a! Multiply a), and the second sin \(a' add, and divide the result by cos %(a a) by a).
To
:
'
;
simple reduction then gives
/sin
z'
=
sin z
 p sin
n
sin (<p

+
<p')
r
(152)
Let us write
sin (9>
tan
^
y
w)
tan
,
=
,,
cos
(9>
~
9>} tan
n
.
or
=
(o>
cp'} ;
cos \(a! ^f cos \(a'
+ ^)
(.
.
(153)
a)
134
(152) then
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
becomes
y
80.
/ sin z'
and the
last
sin z
p
sin
/r
cos
f
"
(cp
cp )
tan
7
;
of (148),
(154)
/ cos z' =
cos z
p
sin
n cos
(cp
<p').
Multiplying the first of (154) by cos z and the second by sin z, and subtracting, then multiplying the first by sin z and the second by cos z and adding, we find
t
/sin 0'
 *) =
*)
p
sin
n cos
(cp

.
cp')
/cos (y
TTT
=
I
psi
n cos
c
r
Writing now
.
.
= p sn = =
.
(155)
and we have
/sin (X
z)
8")
n sin
(s
x) y) y] ^;
/cos (X
z)=.
i
i
n cos (^
(z
T
w sin
,
...
n cos
(156)
(z
y)
(155) and (156) now determine the parallax in zenith distance, and the problem is completely solved. 80. Formulae (150), (151), (155), and (156) may be placed in a form more convenient for logarithmic computation, as follows Write
:
= mcosa =
p 
sin
n
sin (cp
^
cp'\
cos a
.
f
.
sin z
(157)
80.
PARALLAX IN AZIMUTH AND ZENITH DISTANCE.
\
3$
Then
.
tan (ft
,
 a) = =
= =
j^
S
sin
tan a
sin
3
tan
cos %$
sin
2
2 sin
3"
cos
3 + sin
2
5 3
sin
2
tan a
sin
tan
cos
2
3i

cos iS + p cosj^ '
sin
sin
+ tan
3
'itanty
But
therefore
'
+ tanf *
,
tan (^
7
a)
= tan ^ tan 5 tan
(45
+ JS).
cos (# "^
.
(158)
In a similar manner writing
sin
p & = n cos (^  r) =  sin
find
TT
cos
f
(a)
q> )
cosy

v)
'
,
(l59)
we
tan (z
l
2)
v) = sin 5 tan 3 rj sm ~, = tan 3' tan (45 + JS') tan (^  7).
r (,sr
.
i
r
(160)
For computing y we have
tan
v=
7
..cos \(a'
\
a)
a)
cos \(a'
^)
/N
cos
cos
^/
_
136
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
80.
Therefore
tan
y
=
tan
f
(cp
cp )
[cos a
sin a tan \(a!
a)~\.
By
Maclaurin's formula
tan
we have
x
x
=
+
3
lar
,
etc.
Therefore
in y, (cp
if
we neglect terms of the third and higher orders a\ all of which are small quantities, p'\ and (of
f
we have
y
(q>
cp )
[cos a
sin
a \(a! a
a)].
.
(161)
From we
tan (a
a]
=
i
m
sin
m
cos a
have, by neglecting terms of the higher orders,
1
(a
a]
= m sin
a
p 
sin 7t(cp
.
cp')
sin
a
.
sin z
Substituting this in (161),
we have
p sin n sin
2
y
This
is
(cp
<p'\
cos a
#O
.
2
<p')
sin i"
.
,
,
2 sin z
!
(162)
accurate to terms of the second order of
(cp
(p'}
in
clusive.
It will
(<p
(p'}
readily appear that for any value of z not less than
is
When
cable.
z
the second term will always be inappreciable. very near zero the formula is apparently inappliAs we shall not have occasion to apply it to such
cases, it will not be necessary for our purposes to discuss it further. may therefore compute y from the practically
We
rigorous formula
Y
=
(9
<?')
cos a
(163)
8
1.
PARALLAX IN AZIMUTH AND ZENITH DISTANCE.
137
for
have therefore the following complete formulae computing the parallax in zenith distance and azimuth, having given the geocentric zenith distance and azimuth.
81.
Sill ~J
We
_
p sin n cos a sin
'
r
(tp
(p )
:
sin z
3
tan (45 + a) = tan a tan = (<p cos a; (VI) y p sin n cos (z y) cos (cp = sin cos y = tan (g y) tan 5 tan (45 + %$'). tan (z z] Therefore for this case (VI) o. In the meridian, a = a'
tan
(a!
(p'}
cp'}
7
;
r
r

become
sin
tan (^
 *) =
y=
r =<p
p sin
tan [>
t tp'>
\
TT
 9  9')]
(
cos [*

(<p

9')]
7
(VI),
tan
S
tan (45
As an example
following:
of the application of (VI) let us take the
h
1881, July 4th, Q , position of the moon
mean Bethlehem
was as
follows:
time, the geocentric
Zen4th distance
Azimuth
=z= =a
;
65
4O 46". 5; /x 48 19' 49 .8.
Required the parallax in azimuth and zenith distance for Bethlehem. We have found for the latitude of Bethlehem (Art. 77)
f
cp
cp
log p
= = =
ii'
22". 19;
9.9993875
From
the Nautical Almanac, page 113,
TT
56' 2o".4.
Our computation
is
now
as follows:
IJ8
a
<p
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
81
9.8227125
qJ
z
= = =
48
65
19' 49". 8
cos a
sin
n'
7'
22". 19
40' 46". 5
cosec
= = = = =
7.5194794
.0403593
y
it
33". 54
logp
56'
2o".4
I2".g6
cos
(<p
sin
it
9.9993875 8.2145238
2
y =
65
33'
cos
<p')
= 9.6168344 = 9. 9999976
.0000009
*
5'
= =
=45
8". 145
2 3 ' I6".Q2 oo'
sin
3
sin 3'
= =
=
=
5.5964625
7.8307442
45+
iS
4".<>7
cos a
log(<p

<?')
= =
9.8227125 2.8339053
tan (45
tan a
0.0506037
5.5964625
.0000171
tan
3 =
log
y=
+
1
J3)
2.6566178
tan (a
(a
1

a)
a)
5.6470833
=
9". 152
tan 3'
7.8307540
tan (45
tan
+ i2') =
(z
(z'
(*'
0029412
.3423734
tan
a'
z'
y)= z) =
8.1760686
/
g)=5i
33 .58
//
We
thus have for the apparent place
= =
48* 19' 59". o 66 32' 20". I
Take the following example of application of (VI),:
log
sin
p
it
= = = = =
9.9993875
8.2138035 9.7995903
Zenith distance of at culmination,
moon
\
z=
51
06' 45".$
cos rz
_^ _ ^)]
sin S'
!
f
Equatorialhorizontalparallax,
cp
\
)
n=
(p'
*&
14". 8
8.0127813
=
n'
35
/
22". 19
tan
[0
(cp
g> )]
0.0904399
8.0128043
0044727
<y __
24". 29
tan
tan (45
3
r
45
+ IS' = 45
17',
42". 15
+ 1^')
(a/
tan
z)
=
8.1077169
82.
PARALLAX IN AZIMUTH AND ZENITH DISTANCE.
Case Second.
1
39
the parallax in azimuth and zenith distance, having given the observed azimuth and zenith distance. To obtain the expression for (z z) we multiply the first of (154) by cos z' and the second by sin z', and subtract. We
82.
r
To compute
thus have
sin
""
cos
>
~
">
sin (z
'

A
.
(,64 )
a) we multiply the first of (148) by sin a the second by cos a' and subtract, recollecting that cos (a a)= i,
For
f
(a
',
sin (a
a)
,
,
=
o.
sm
.
.
(a'
a)
=
p
sin
7t
We
thus find
sin (cp Ysin z
^cp'}
t
sin a'
.
.
.
.
(165)
have for the parallax in zenith distance and azimuth, having given the apparent zenith distance and azimuth,
We thus
r
sin (z
z)
,
= =
(9 9') cos a\ p sin n cos (cp J
cos
<z/) 1 L
sin (z'
y]
;
I
y
cp'\
/____,
\
(VII)
sm
,
(a
a]
=
p
sin
n
sin (cp
sin z
a' for
^
sin a'
.
To compute y we may substitute
ciable error.
a without appre
To compute
the correction
1
(a
(z'
a)
we must
first
obtain z by applying
cp
cp' ,
In the meridian, a
= a'= o,
=
z) to the observed zenith distance.
whence y
sin [z
f
a'
a
= o,
and (VII) become
sin (z
r
z}
p sin n
(cp
cp')~\
.
(VII),
For
all
bodies except the
moon
(VII)
may
be greatly sim
plified, as follows:
140
r
PRA C TICA L ASTR ONOM Y.
z\
(a! a),
82.
(z
and n being very
small,
we may
write
the arcs in place of their sines. (<p we may write for their cosines unity.
g>')
and y being small, We then have
\
z'

y
z a
a'
= =
(cp
cp')
cos
a,
np
sin
(*'
7);
<p')
(
(VIII)
Trp sin (<p
sin a'
cosec
z.
}
In
computing these we may use a and z or
second terms.
It will
a'
and
z' in
differently in the
often be sufficiently
accurate to use
= 7r
a'
a
o.
These
last are
what we obtained when we treated the
earth as a sphere.
Application of Formula (VII).
Latitude of Bethlehem Apparent azimuth of moon Apparent zenith distance of moon
Equatorial horizontal parallax
cp
= cp = = a' = = = =
z' it
40
48 66
36' 23". 9
19'
59"o
20". 4
32' 20". I
5 6'
<pf
II'
22". 19
\og(cp

cp'}
cos
a'
= =
2.8339053
cos
(<p
(z'
cp')
=
=
9.9999976
9.9621103
.0000009
9.8226904
sin
y)
sec
= 2.6565957 r = 453"52  y = 66 24' 46". 58
sin (cp
log/3
sin
Tt
= =
=
9.9993875 8.2145238
1
(p
)
7.5194794
98733333
.0403593
sin a'
cosec z
a,'
z'z= 2 = 65 a =
a
5i'33".58
40' 46".52
,
sin
1
(z
z)
= =
=
8.1760201
9". 152
19'
sin
(a!
a)
5.6470833
48
49". 85
82.
PARALLAX IN AZIMUTH AND ZENITH DISTANCE.
141
Application o
Apparent zenith distance of the moon
at meridian
J
_ = =
,
_
<>
,/
A
passage
<p
f
Equatorial horizontal parallax
TT
<p'
= =
56' 14". 8
logp
sin
7t
sin ['
(<p
q>')]
= = = = =
9,9993875
8.2138035
9.8944903 8.1076813
44' 3". 13
sin
(2'
a'
z)
2
Application of (VIII).
as seen
a
Find the parallax in azimuth and zenith distance of Venus from Bethlehem, having given the following:
it
43'
= z= =
271 66
56'
21" 35"
13". 61
log
(<p
<?')
cos
= =
2.83390
8.
sin (z
y}
log p
=
= = = = = =
9.96312
52941
7
=
log^
=
9.99939
1,13386
1.36331
sin (<p
log
it
y=
66 43' 12"
(p')
751947
9 99975n
sin a
cosec z
z1
a'
.03686
z
=
+ 12". 48
".05
1
log
log
(z (a!
z)
1.09637
8.68933,,
a
a)
For
this case
formula (VIIIj) gives
log
7t
sin z
= = =
I.I3386
9.96314
1.09700
z'
log
(z'
z)
z
=
f
12". 50
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
83.
Application of (VII),.
Zenith distance of Venus at time of transit
Equatorial horizontal parallax
q>
= =
z
it
=
=
24
15'
35"
13". 57
q><
u' 22"
log
log
sin [z
(<p
7T
p
tp')]
= = = =
1.13258
9.99939
9.61051
.74248
z'
log
(*'

z)
z
=
5". 53
Third.
83.
tion,
Required the parallax in right ascension and declinahaving given the geocentric right ascension and declina
tion.
Let the equator of the observer be taken as the plane of
x, y, the positive axis of x being directed to the vernal equinox, the positive axis of y to that point on the equator whose
right ascension is 90, pole of the heavens.
and the positive axis of z to the north
Let
x'
,
y,
z'
A'
i
a', $'
= =
x'
the rectangular coordinates the polar coordinates.
A' cos 8' cos a' A' cos tf' sin of A' sin <*'.
;
;
We then
have
= y= *' =
\
;
V
)
.
.
.
.
.
(166)
In the second system let the origin be at the centre of the earth, the axes being respectively parallel to those of the
first
system.
x, y, z
Let
J,
OL,
be the rectangular coordinates d be the polar coordinates.
;
83.
PARALLAX IN
XT.
ASCENSION AND DECLINATION.
143
Then
x y
z
= =
4 A A
cos 3 cos a COS 8 sin a
sin
<?.
;
\
;
>
( l &7)
)
Let
now
*..7o*o
</,
= rectangular coordinates =
polar coordinates
j
r
/o,
of the observer's position referred to the eaith's
centre.
Here p is, as before, the line joining the observer's position are respectively with the centre of the earth, and <p' and the declination and right ascension of the point where this or in other words, line produced pierces the celestial sphere
;
of the geocentric zenith.
we have
case.
seen (Art.
63), is
declination of the zenith, as to the latitude <p' in this equal
The
The right ascension of the zenith, 0, equals the right ascension of the observer's meridian all points on the same meridian having the same right ascension. This we shall see
hereafter
is
equal to the observer's sidereal time.
We
have then
X
#
Q
=
=
y^
p cos <p cos 6 p cos (p sin 8 p sin cp
f
f
;
\
;
v
)
068)
f
;
and
for passing **
from system
x,
;
(166) to (167),
=
x

y'
= y  y,
;
*>
=
*
*,.
(169)
Therefore
A' cos 8' cos a' A' cos $' sin a' A' sin '
= A cos 3 cos a = A cos 8 sin a
J
sin
p cos
p cos p sin
q>'
<p'
?>'.
cos &
sin
;
)
;
V
)
(170)
144
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
before, let us divide through
84.
As
by A and write
y
A'
/=;
Then
sin*=.
cos 6
sin
i
f cos
/cos
6'
'
cos
'
=
=
sin a'
/
sin 6'
cos d cos a cos tf sin a sin $
p p p
sin
TT
TT
sin sin
cos cos
sin
<p'
cp'
>'.
;
j
6?;
v
)
(171)
n
Let us diminish all horizontal angles by <*, which will be equivalent to transforming our rectilinear systems to others in which the axes of x and x make respectively the angle a with the original axes. We thus derive
1
/cos d cos (a /cos d' sin (^
Let us write
r
a)
cos d
= )
'
p sin n cos p sin ?r cos
cp'
cos (0
sin (0

or);
)
,
.
^
,
(
a).
}
=
p
sin  n cos .....
<z/
^
(t/3)
which substituted
first,
in (172)
and the second divided by the
we
find
,
tan
'

=
m __
sin (a
7
_.
0)
.
.
(174)
84.
As
in case first,
we may
give this a form better adapted
to logarithmic computation, as follows:
Write
f
sin
5
=m
1
cos (a

0)
p   sin
TT
cos
q>
cos
 (or
0) 
(i/5)
Then
(174)
becomes
tan (a' <x)
=
tan (a

0)
~_
sin
84.
PARALLAX IN
RT.
ASCENSION AND DECLINA TION.
14$
But
sin
i
S
 sin 5 "~ cos' 1$
2
_
__
2 sin
sin
5
$$ cos
__
(cos
sin
$
psin
sii
sin
5(cos f9 f sin
(cos
J3+
sin
3) (cos
JS
sin^S) (cos
sin ^3
2 sin p)
3"
cos JS" cos JS"
 sin
=
Therefore
tan (a'
tan
3
tan (45
+
0) tan

a)
=
(
tan
7
(or
3
tan (45
+ JS),

(176)
6)
which determines
or).
For determining ('

we
(172) by cos (<*' a), the second by multiply the add the products, and divide the result by sin (' a); cos ^(V By this process we obtain or).
first of
/ cos
The
o'
cos
tf
p
sin
n cos
,
cos
\Ma
f
+
'<*)
\
<p
COSTTTEJ (V
01 or)
J
last of (171) is
77)
f sin
Let us write
tan
#'
=
sin
8
p sin
TT
sin
f
(p
.
y
=
tan
f
cp
.T..
cos
,
.
('
x
cos [(<* f a)
~ ....
ex)
(178)
0]
Then
(177)
become
sin
tf'
j
=
sin
d

p sin
it
sin sin
^
<?/
)
;
,
,
y
cos
tf'
cos
p
sin
n
cot 7.
f
146
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
.
84.
subtract
Multiply the first of these by cos #, the second by sin #, and then multiply the first by sin #, the second by cos #, and add. We thus obtain
;
/sin
(6'

d)
=
p
I
sin
n
sin
<p'
sin
y
/cos
(#'

d)
=
p
p
sin
n
sin
<p'
~
g in
Y\
Let us write
n'
=
sin
n
sin
<p
,
(181)
Introducing this value and dividing the
second,
first
equation by the
we
find
Then writing
sin
y
tf'cos (d

y)
=
p
sin
n
sin
f
<p
cos (S
y)
gm ^
H
(182)
this equation
becomes
tan <*'

5)
=
Sln
f ^"inV
^ = ta "
(
^
"
X) ta
^ ta " (45 + ^'
(183) give the
(l83)
Equations
(175), (176), (178), (182),
and
com
plete solution of the problem.
thus have for computing the parallax in right ascension and declination, having given the geocentric right ascension and declination, the following formulas:
We
g 84.
PARALLAX IN RT. ASCENSION AND DECLINATION.
sin
3
147
=
=
p
sin
n cos
q>'
cos (8
a)
cos
tan (8
tan
<p'
tan (a
a')
a) tan
3
tan (45
+
tan y
cos \(a
a'}
cos
+
TT
a')
x
sin sr
=
sin
sin
<p
cos (y
sn
tan (7
tan
(tf

<?')
=
=
d) tan 3' tan (45
+ JS').
=
(p',
.
In the meridian,
a:
=
sin
a'
6.
Therefore y
and the
above become
sin
tan (d

= = (T)
3'
p
n cos (^
tan
(^

tf);
tf)
tan
5
r
tan (45
+
K
(IX),
Application of Formula (IX).
Required the parallax of the moon in right ascension and h declination, 1881, July 4th, Q Bethlehem mean time, as seen
,
from Bethlehem.
h Converting 9 mean time into sidereal time by the method to be explained hereafter (p. 170), we have
Bethlehem sidereal time
From
the Nautical Almanac, p. 114,
we
find
= = a =
S
(p
I5
52 i2 h 57
h
5O .2 io 8 .s6
48". 4
8
n =
40
3'
Astronomical latitude of Bethlehem
<p
=
36' 23". 9
qj
<p'
n'
40
25'
22". 2
i'
Geocentric latitude of Bethlehem
Nautical Almanac,
p.
= = = 113, equatorial horizontal parallax = 6 a = =
it
.7
56' 20". 4
2 h 55 m 39 8 .64
43
54' 54". 6
148
cos
(0
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
84.
sec
or)
=
8
=
9.8575542
.0081471
a
therefore a'
'
= 193 i(a+') = 194 = 238 + a)B = 315
194
17'
38".4
5". 5
47'
2'2i". 9
12'
33".o
49' 4 8". 9
We
therefore have for the position of the
1881,
moon
as seen
from Bethlehem,
July 4th, 9
h
,
mean
8 S .36;
time,
= 
11
;
45
Application of (IX,).
At the time
of meridian passage at Bethlehem, 1881, July
g 85.
PARALLAX IN
RT.
ASCENSION AND DECLINA TION. 149
and equatorial horizontal paralRequired (6
4th, the moon's declination lax were as follows:
d
n
<p'
= = =
10
30' 21". 6
56' I4".8
#=
sin
40
50
log p
Tt
25'
i".;
55' 2 3 ".3
9.9993875 8.2138035
=
cos
(9?'
d)
=
9.
799593
tan
(<?'
d)
=
= =
.0904399
8.0128043 .0044726
8.1077168
44' 3". 13
sin 3' = 3' = 45+**' =
8.0127813
35' 24".
tan 3'
29
tan (45
+ 3)
d')
45
17' 42". i
tan (d
=
S
d' =
Case Fourth.
85.
tion,
tion.
Required the parallax in right ascension and declinahaving given the apparent right ascension and declinafirst
Multiply the
subtract and reduce.
of (171) by sin <*', the second The result is
by cos
oc';
Sm
""=
d'
',
p
sin
7t
cos
~
q>'
sin (0
a')
'
'
To
first
obtain d
we make
use of
d';
(179).
Multiply the
by cos 8 the second by sin
subtract and reduce.
sin fr
sin
We
thus have
sn
_
=
P
sin
*
sin

.T)
(
We
in right ascension
have therefore the following formulae for the parallax and declination, having given the appar
ent coordinates:
ISO
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
85.
sm
.
,
(a
a'}
=
:
p sm n cos 
cp
sin (9 i
a'\
;
a'}
'
cos 6
tan a/ cos 4(a
tan
r
=cos[K
+
sin
')e]
<z/
(X)
d'\
sm
(tf
<?')
=
p  sin
TT
sin (v
sn
of these we require which will we have computed the last, which
tf,
To compute
the
first
be unknown until after
in turn requires a
knowledge of a obtained from the first. must therefore proceed indirectly as follows: Compute (a a'\ using in the denominator 8' instead of #. With the ap$') this gives proximate value of a so obtained compute (tf which we recompute (a It will never be us tf, with a').
We
d' with this new necessary to repeat the computation of d value of a. and Therefore y a' 6. In the meridian, a (p
=
',
formulae (X)
become
#')
sin (d
=
p sin n sin
r
(cp
6').
.
.
.
(X)
t
For
all
bodies except the
moon we may
write, without
appreciable error,
sn sn
TT
cos
cos
=
=
=
cos
giving the following approximate formulae:
np "<*= cos
f
q>'
sin (0
a'}
cos<r
"'
(XI)
tan
O
y
O
=
tan
cos
y
(?>'
;
o
sin (^
=
7
sm y
85.
PARALLAX IN
RT.
ASCENSION AND DECLINATION.
1
51
In these formulae we may use either the geocentric coordinates (a and #) or the observed (a and d') indifferently. a In the meridian, where 6 a', y <p and (XI) become
= =
=
r
8
 6' =
np
sin (<p
f

<T).
.
.
.
.
(XI),
Application of (X).
Required the geocentric place of the moon, having given the apparent place as seen from Bethlehem, 1881, July 4th, h 9 Bethlehem mean time, as follows:
,
Apparent right ascension Apparent declination
= =
OL
d'
= =
it
cp'
I2 h 55 m
11
45'
8 s 36;
.
46". 79.
56'
From
Nautical Almanac, p. 113,
Geocentric latitude,
Sidereal time,
a'
= = =
20". 4
40
I5
h
25'
i".7
52
25'
so
8
.2
44
27". 6
sec d'
*sec d
cos
sin
(9

q>
a')
= = = =
.009 2176 .008 1471
9.881 5812
Approx. sin (a Approx. (a
9.845 0774
log p
sin
TT
= =
9.999 3875
8.214 5238
9.811 8080
sin sin (y
cp'
8')
= =
=
= = a' = Approx. a = (a a') = 6] = [i(a j a') Ka  a') =
a'}
a')
j
7.9497875
30' 37". 5
193
47'
17'
2'
s". 4
194
43
24". 2
194
315
49' 5i".2
15'
i8".8
cosec
Y
d')
9.944 5358 II ^ 4320
8.086 6871
41' 58". 39
tan
cos^(or
cp'
=
9.9302268
.1443074
.0745299
sin (d

sec >(a:
+ a')  =
6]
a') =. 9.9999957
6
8'
8
= =
tan
11
3'
4 8". 4
Corrected sin (a
a')
a')
y= ^=
8'
True (a
= = a = _
y
=
49
61
53'
32 ".5
39' 19".$
7.9487170
30' 32". 94
194 17' 38".34 I2 h 57 m io 8 .55
This value
is
inserted after the computation of the parallax in declination.
152
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
8$.
Application of (X),.
1 88 1, July 4th, at meridian passage, Bethlehem, the moon's apparent declination and equatorial horizontal parallax were
as follows
'
:
=
u
14'
24".7
Required the parallax
in declination.
= = 9/cT
log
sin
40
51
25'
&'
26".
p
TT
=
99993875
8.2138035
sin (<p sin (d
d')
= 9.8944903 d') = 8.1076813
5
d'
=
44' 3". 13
Application of (XI).
88 1, July 4th, i6h Bethlehem mean time, the right ascension, declination, and equatorial horizontal parallax of Venus were as follows:
1
,
From Nautical Almanac, p.
355,
a
d
it
= =

h
3
46
12 s .25
16
18' 2 3 ". 3
13' '.61
From Nautical Almanac, p.
Sidereal time,*
388,
8
See
=
22 h 53 m 59
s
.2
p. 170.
86.
REFRACTION.
is
The computation
then as follows
:
= = = y = y d =
a
tp'
i9
h
7
m
47
s
286
56' 25'
6'
45"
i".7
cos
(0
cz')
40
71
tan
0>'
= =
9.46459 9.93027
.46568
cos
sin (6
<p'
9.88156
a)
sec 5
27"
=
=.
9.98072,1
.01783
54 48'
4"
tan
y=
log log
sin (y
p
7C
9.99939
I
13386
d)
q>'
sin
cosec
JK
= = =
9 91231
9 81183
02405
i.oi336
a
d
a'
= =

=  '.69
d'
io".3i
log (r
log (d

a')
5')
= =
.88144
+
7".6i
Application of
To compute
the parallax of
:
Venus
in declination at the
time of meridian passage, Bethlehem, 1881, July 4th. The data are as follows
=
1
6
20'
7T
i3"57
sin (cp
r
log p
6)
= =
=
I.I3258
9.99939 9.61051
.74248
5"53
log (d

V)
Refraction.
into a denser
a ray of light passes obliquely from a rarer medium, it is bent or refracted out of its original course towards the normal drawn to the surface separating the two media, at the point where the ray pierces this surface.
86.
When
The angle which
this
the original direction of the ray
makes with
normal is the angle of incidence, and the angle formed with the normal by the bent or refracted ray is the angle of refraction.
154
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
86.
According to Descartes, refraction takes place
:
in accord
ance with the following laws I. Whatever the obliquity of the incident ray, the ratio which the sine of the angle of incidence bears to the sine of the angle of refraction is always constant for the same two media, but varies with different media. II. The incident and refracted ray are in the same plane, which is perpendicular to the surface separating the two media. If the density of the air were uniform and constant, the determination of the effect of refraction would be a comparatively easy matter in accordance with these laws. Neither condition is realized, however. The density of the air is a maximum at the surface of the earth, and it continually decreases as we ascend above the surface, until it practically disappears at an altitude of 45 or
50 miles. It is also continually varying in density, as shown by the readings of the barometer and thermometer. In consequence of the decrease in density of the air as we
ascend above, the surface of the earth,
it
follows that the
path of a ray of light through the atmosphere is not a straight line, but a curve, as shown in see a star in the figure. the direction of a tangent * drawn to the curve at the
We
point where it enters the eye. In consequence, the altitudes of all celestial bodies appear to us greater than they really
are
;
but in accordance with
Descartes' second law, the azimuths are not affected at all. FlG 8 It sometimes happens that there are lateral deviations of an anomalous character, but these are beyond the scope of
86.
REFRACTION.
155
theory, and when they exist are generally to be counted among the accidental errors to which observations are liable. The complete investigation of the laws of astronomical refraction
is a very complex and difficult problem, and one which has never been solved with entire satisfaction. We
shall not enter into the
theory here, but confine ourselves to
the explanation of the use of our refraction tables based on those of Bessel.
Bessel's formula for the
amount
of refraction at
any zenith
distance z
is
r
A a./3 y* tan z
(186)
In which r
distance
differ
;
is
A
the refraction a varies slowly with the zenith and A also vary with the zenith distance, and
; :
but little from unity. This difference is never appreciable except for large zenith distances for our purposes it will generally be sufficiently accurate to regard them as
unity.
/3
As
this
a factor depending on the barometer reading. reading depends on the pres'sure of the air and the
is
it is
temperature of the mercury,
ft
tabulated in the form
B.
=
t
X
In which B depends on the reading of the barometer, and / upon the attached thermometer. y depends upon the temperature of the air as shown by the detached thermometer.
We
may
therefore use the formula
r
=RX BX
t
XT.
(187)
In which
R=a
.5
tan z
is
given in table II A;
II
depends upon the barometer and is given in table II B; t depends upon the attached thermometer and is given in table T depends upon the detached thermometer and is given in table
II
C; D.
I
56
PRA C TICA L A S Tit ONOM Y.
take the following:
86.
As an example
Apparent altitude = h Barometer reading Attached thermometer Detached thermometer
Table
II
II
=
31 49' 48" 2 9S l inches
78.2 82. i
A, B,
R= B=
95". 6
.983
log
log
II C, t
II
=
D,
T=
.997
.941
log
log
= = = =
1.9713
9.9928
9.9990
r
=
i'
26". 4
\ogr=
1.9367
For many purposes, especially
it
for small zenith distances,
will be sufficiently accurate to use the mean refraction without correcting for barometer and thermometer.
R
An
approximate value may be obtained by the formula
r
=
57".7 tan z
.....
.
.
(188)
This will be accurate enough for many purposes, and may be of service in cases where tables are not available. This would give for our example above
r
=
i'
3 2".95
When the greatest precision is demanded, table III must be employed. For the above example we have
<
Table III A,
111
log
a
ft
=
1.76021
lo
B
'[ )
A.
A.
.
III C, III D,
log
=
.00306
.02757
log log y = tan z =
log r =
^= =
/
A =
i.oo

A
127
=
1.004
.00179
log
Y =
.02746
.20709
1.93667
r =
i'
26". 43
87.
REFRACTION.
157
In the volume of astronomical observations of the Washington Observatory for 1845 may be found refraction tables
carried out
convenient
precision.
much farther than those given here. They are when many computations are to made with great
Refraction in Right Ascension
87.
and Declination.
altitude,
As our tables give the refraction in zenith distance or if we require the effect in right ascension and decliit
nation
quantities in
be necessary to express the increments of these terms of the increment of the zenith distance. Differential formulas will be accurate enough for any case
will
which is likely to arise. Such formulae are given in works on Trigonometry. Those required for this particular purpose are derived as follows Let us assume the general formulae of spherical trigonome:
try, viz.:
cos a sin a cos B sin a sin B
=
cos b cos c cos b sin c

sin b sin c cos A; cose sin b cos A\ sin b sin A.
\
(
)
.
(189)
Applying these formulas to the triangle formed by the zenith, the pole, and the star, we have
sin tf=sin cos 8 cos ^=sin cos # sin ^
q>
cos z
cos
<p
9>
<p sin ^4~ cos
sin z cos a; cos z cos a
\
cos
9
sin a.
Also,
cos
2= sin
q> <p
sin tfcos <p
sin z cos <7=sin sin 2 sin ^
cos d
cos 8 cos cos q> sin d cos cos <> sin
/;
/;
t.
FIG.
9.
158.
PRA C TICA LAS TRONOM Y.
differentiating the first of (190), regarding 6
S/.
Now
and zonly
as variables,
cos ddd
=
(sin q> sin z
j
cos
q>
cos z cos a)dz.
Combining
this
with the second of
(190),
we have
(r
dd
Differentiating the
variables,
sin
&:=: (sin cp
first
=
cos qdz
.......
z, 6,
92)
as
of (191), regarding
and
t
cos #
cos
cp
sin
d cos t)dd
cos
9 cos
tf
sin
tefr.
Combining
(192),
this with the
second and third of (191) and with
we
readily derive
cos ddt
In (192) and (193),
= + sin qdz ......
(193)
dz
*t
= the = @
refraction in zenith distance
a\
=
r\
therefore
dt
=
da.
Our
formulae then
become
dd
cos
= = I: *
sn :;?
r
q,
For applying these formulas we must compute ^, and we require z for taking from the table the refraction in zenith
distance.
Equations (191) give these quantities, the solution of which
is as
follows
:
Let
n sin ^V n cos
=
cos
sin
N=
q>
(p.
cos
t\
87
REFRACTION.
cos z ^ cos q
*59
Then
sin
= =
sin # sin ^
n sin (d fn cos (A f A7"); cos 9? sin /;
<p
and
finally,
tan
N=
= =
cot
cos
sin
tan a
tan z
sin
N
+
.
/;
N
\
cot ($ cos ^ cos <p cos
sin
(XII)
cos (d
N)
^ cos q
As an example
the following:
of the application of formulae (194), take
Given the
sun's right ascension
a
tf
Declination Latitude
Sidereal time
q>
= = =
2i h 47 m 59 S .Q2
13
if
36'
'*$".']
40 oh
65
24"
om
.i
o
s
Barometer reading Attached thermometer Detached thermometer
29.5 inches
;o.o
From
z
(XII)
61
we
find
=
58'.o;
cos ^
=
9.94620;
sin q
=
9.67068.
From
table II A,
II
R=
i'
49". o
log
=
2.0374 9.9927
B,
983
.998
IIC,
II
9.9994
D,
.962
9.9834
log r cos q sin q
= = = = =
2.0129 9.9462
9.6707
1.9591
dd cos 6 da
= 
9 i.o
8",
log log
1.6836
i6o
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
88.
Dip
88.
of the Horizon.
At
sea, altitudes of the
heavenly bodies are measured from the visible horizon, which
is
line.
H'
generally a clearly defined As the eye of the observer
is elevated above the surface of the water, this visible horizon, owing to the curvature of the earth, will be below the true
horizon.
Thus, in the figure, let the circle represent a section of the earth made by a vertical plane
FIG.
zon;
observer at A. Then AC will be a section of the visible horizon; the dip will be the angle AOC.
AH
passing through the eye of the will be a section of the true hori
HAC
Let
D=
a
the dip; the radius of the earth in feet
;
x
=
AB, the height
the triangle
of the eye
above the water
in feet.
Then from
A CO,
CO*
=
or
tan
D
As
x* will
it
neglect
angle,
be very small in comparison with 2ax, we may without appreciable error. Also, being a small
D
we may
write
tan
D = D tan
i"'.
88.
DIP OF THE HORIZON.
l6l
Therefore
we have
D=
>
or
=
63".82
Vx
in feet
(195)
This formula would give us the true value of
tion
if
tjie
correc
there were no refraction, the effect of which is to diminish D. The refraction very near the horizon is always a somewhat uncertain quantity, but for a mean state of the
air the dip corrected for refraction will be found plying the value given by (195) by the factor .9216,
by multi
or
D"
=
58".82
Vx
in feet
(196)
An approximate value sometimes used by navigators is obtained by taking the square root of the number of feet above the water and calling the result minutes. Thus if the eye is 25 feet above the water, this process would give for
the dip
5';
formula (196) gives
4' 54".
The dip must be subtracted from
obtain the true altitude.
the observed altitude to
CHAPTER
TIME.
89.
III.
For astronomical purposes the day is considered as beginning at noon instead of at midnight; the hours are reckoned from zero to twentyfour, instead of from zero to
twelve as in civil time. Thus, July 4th, 9h A.M., civil reckonh ing, would be July 3, 2i astronomically. In all operations of practical astronomy the time when an observation is made is a very important element. There are
,
various methods of reckoning time, of which three are in common use, viz., mean solar, apparent solar, and sidereal time. Before entering upon the relations between these different kinds of time, some preliminary considerations are necessary.
90.
The
at
transit, culmination,
ly
body
any place
is
is its
or meridian passage of a heavenpassage across the meridian of
;
that place.
Every meridian
the course of
its
bisected at the poles and as a star in apparent diurnal revolution crosses both
branches, it is necessary to distinguish between the upper culmination and lower culmination. The Upper Culmination of a heavenly body is its passage over that branch of the meridian which contains the observer's zenith.
The Lower Culmination is the passage over that branch which contains the observer's nadir. Any star whose northpolar distance does not exceed the
90.
TIME,
163
north latitude of the place of observation is constantly above the horizon, and may be observed at both upper and lower culmination. Any star whose southpolar distance does not exceed the north latitude of the place of observation is alat all.*
ways below the horizon, and therefore cannot be observed Stars between these limits can be observed at upper
culmination only.
its axis being uniform, it the intervals of time between the successive follows that transits of a point on the equator over either branch of the meridian will be of equal length. Such an interval is a si
The
rotation of the earth on
dereal day, and the point with the transit of which the sidereal day is regarded as beginning is the vernal equinox.
A
SIDEREAL DAY
is
the interval between
two successive transits
of the vernal equinox over the upper branch of the meridian. THE SIDEREAL TIME at any meridian is the hourangle of the vernal equinox at that meridian.
The
nox,
it
right ascensions being reckoned from the vernal equifollows that a star whose right ascension is a will
culminate at a hours, sidereal time.
Therefore the sidereal time at any meridian is equal to the right ascension
of that meridian.
Pthe
5,
In the figure let EE' be the equator, the meridian of any pole,
PM
place,
PN the
hourcircle of any star
f the vernal equinox.
Then from our
definitions,
MPN =.
NPp =
*
If
t hourangle of star S a ascension of star 5 right the sidereal time at the meridian
;
=
=
;
PM =
.
the latitude of the place of the observer
is
south, obviously these con
ditions will be reversed.
164
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
91.
Theref jre
Thus,
if
@
star, this
=
a
+
/.
......
;
(
I97 )
the hourequation gives the sidereal time a, the right ascension, being taken from the ephemeris, or from a star catalogue.
we have by any method determined
angle of a
The interval between two successive transits of the sun over the upper branch of the meridian is an APPARENT SOLAR DAY. The hourangle of the sun at any meridian is the APPARENT
TIME
at that meridian.
to the annual revolution of the earth, the sun's
;
Owing
right ascension is constantly increasing therefore it follows that the solar day will be longer than the sidereal day. Thus in one year the sun moves through 24 hours of right
ascension.
one year there are, according to Bessel, 365.24222 mean solar days; therefore in one day the sun's
In
right ascension increases ^
?4
h

m
3
8
.
$6*.$$$.
In one
hour
one twentyfourth of this amount = 9 These figures represent the mean or average rate of change. The actual change, however, is not uniform, and in consequence the apparent solar days are not of equal length. This want of uniformity results from two causes, which will now
be explained.
First Inequality of the Solar Day.
91.
The apparent
orbit, of
the sun about the earth
is
an
el
lipse with the earth in one of the foci. Let the ellipse, Fig. 12, represent this apparent orbit. When the sun is at A the right ascension is increasing more rapidly than when it is at A' therefore in the first case it will have a larger arc to pass over between two successive meridian passages than This inequality alone being considered, the in the second.
'
9 2.
INEQUALITY OF SOLAR DAYS.
I6 5
length of the solar day will be a
maximum when
apogee.
the sun
is
in perigee, and a minimum when it is in imagine a fictitious sun to move in
We
may
the ecliptic in such a way that the angular distances AEP, PEP,, PEP,',
described in equal times, shall be equal. Let both start together from A on January ist, moving in the direction of the arrow. On January 2d the true sun will be in advance of the fictitious sun, and will FIG. 12. continue so until June 3Oth, when they will be together at A Therefore from January ist to June 3oth the fictitious sun, having the smaller right ascension, will always pass the meridian in advance of the true sun. From A' to A the fictitious sun will be in advance of the true sun, and will consequently pass the meridian later, until they both reach A, when they will again be together, January ist.
etc.,
'.
Second Inequality of the Solar Day.
92. The figure represents a projection of the sphere on the plane of the equinoctial colure. is the north pole, the south pole, T 0=^ the equa
P
P
r
tor,
TSB^v3the
ecliptic.
Now
the fictitious sun before considered moves in the ecliptic describing the equal arcs pA,
AB, BCy
Let
etc., in
equal times.
the hourcircles
etc.,
PAP.
PBP',
be drawn; then
the distances
intercepted on the equator, will not be equal, but the
distance T
= TO, both being
quadrants.
1
66
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
9\
We may
now suppose
a second fictitious sun to
move
in
the equator in such a way as to complete the circuit of the equator in the same time that the first completes the circuit
of the ecliptic.
from the vernal equinox <? together on on March 2ist the second fictitious sun will be March 2Oth in advance of the first, and will continue so until June 2Oth, when they will both have completed a quadrant and will be on the solstitial colure at the same instant, the first at and the second at o. Therefore from March 2ist until June
Let both
start
;
t
2Oth the right ascension of the first fictitious sun will be less than that of the second, and it will always pass the meridian
first.
2Oth to September 22d the first fictitious sun advance of the second, at which time they will From September 22d until Decemboth be together at ber 2 ist the second will be in advance of the first, at which time they will both again be on the solstitial colure at the same instant, the first at V3 and the second at o. From this until March 2Oth the first will again be in advance of the
will be in
.
From June
when finally they will again be together at P, having completed an entire revolution. As the second fictitious sun describes equal arcs of the equator in equal times, it follows that the intervals of time between each two successive transits over the same branch of the meridian will be equal.
second,
A MEAN
SOLAR DAY
is
the interval between two successive
THE MEAN
of the second fictitious sun, or the mean sun over the branch of the meridian. upper SOLAR TIME at any meridian is the hourangle of
transits
THE EQUATION OF TIME
the second fictitious sun or the mean sun at that meridian. is the quantity which must be added
algebraically to the apparent time to produce the
mean
time.
92

EQUATION OF TIME.
1
67
of time is given in the Nautical Almanac, p. and following, for Washington apparent noon of each 326 day in the year. If we require its value for any other time, we must interpolate between the values there given. It is
The equation
the algebraic sum of the two inequalities explained above. From the foregoing we readily see that the equation of time will be zero four times in the course of the year also that
;
there will be
two maxima and two minima
values.
By referring to the ephemeris for 1881, we find the value to be zero on April I4th, June I3th, August 3ist, and De6 m 15 s cember 23d. The maxima values f I4m 28 s and occur February loth and July 25th respectively the minim ma values i6 m i8 s on May I4th and Novem3 51" and ber 2d.
+
;
We
have the following simple precepts To convert a given instant apparent time at any meridian
:
into
the corresponding mean time, add algebraically to the apparent time the equation of time taken from the ephemeris.
To convert the mean time at any meridian into the corresponding apparent time, subtract the value of the equation of time
taken from the ephemeris.
h
Example
time
;
i.
1881, July 4th,
5
7
i6 s
,
Bethlehem apparent
find the
corresponding mean time.
S  6m 4O .3 h m i6 8 7 5 h m s apparent time 5 o 35 7
.
Longitude of Bethlehem Bethlehem apparent time
Washington
.
=
July 4.21
From
the Nautical
Almanac
(p.
329)
we
m
find
s
Eq. of time July 4
July
5
= =
f\
4 ii .3o m s 4 2i .69
io s .39
Difference
168
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
.21
93.
X
Eq. of time July
= 4 July 4.21 = Apparent time =
Mean time
IO S .39
=
1U
2S  18
s
4
4
h
i i
.3O
S
I3 .48
5
h
7'"
i6 s
.
=
5
i i
m
29*48
i2th, io
h
Example
2.
1881,
November
15^
7",
Bethlehem
mean
time; find the apparent time. From the Nautical Almanac we find
Equation of time Mean time

15
15
=
34
s
7i
io
h
s 7 .oo
Apparent time
io h 30
41 \J\
Comparative Length of the Sidereal and
93.
Mean
Solar Unit.
Owing
to the annual revolution of the earth about the
number of sidereal days in a year will be greater by one than the number of mean solar days. According to
sun, the
Bessel the year contains
365.24222
mean solar days;* 366.24222 sidereal days.
Therefore
One mean
solar
day
One
sidereal
day
= 366.24222 sidereal days ^ jg = 1.00273791 sidereal days; = ^j~^ mean S lar dayS = 0.99726957 mean solar days.
.
,
.
,
year
* These values of the given for 1800 are not absolutely constant; the length is diminishing at the rate of o .595 in 100 years.
93
SIDEREAL AND
MEAN
SOLAR TIME.
169
Let
/ /#
= = M =
mean solar interval; sidereal interval;
1.00273791.
Then
7*
70
= =
lop
= 70 + /O  i) == 70 + .002737917; 4 = 7*  7 ~ M 7* .002730434. r 7 r * 7^1 /=
(
)
I
)
By
It
is
the use of these formulas the process is very simple. rendered still more so by the use of tables II and III
of the
appendix to the Nautical Almanac.
(^
,
Table
II
gives
the quantity
with the argument 7^, and table III J7#
gives
(/*
One
i)70, with the argument 70. or two examples will illustrate their use.
i.
Example
Given the mean
solar interval
70
=
4 40
h
30".
Find the corresponding sidereal
interval.
7
Table III gives for 4 40 Table lit gives for 3o
h
s
=
4 4o
h
m
s 30 .ooo s
f
45 997
.082
+
=
4
h
Example
2.
Given the sidereal interval 7^ = 4h 4i m i6 .o79 Find the corresponding mean solar interval.
s
Table Table
II gives for II gives for
4
h
4i i6 8 .o79
m
46
m
S
.O35
44
7
4 40
h
s 30 .ooo
17
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
g 94. into the Cor
70 Convert the Mean Solar Time at any Meridian
responding Sidereal Time.
94.
.S
Referring to Fig
n
and formula
(197),
we
see that
if
represents the
mean
sun, then
MPN =
=
the
mean time
=
a
T;
the right ascension of the
f
mean sun
.
=
.
.
.
Then we have
T.
.
.
,
.
(199)
is given in the The right ascension of the mean sun, solar ephemeris of the Nautical Almanac, for Washington mean noon of each day. It is there called the sidereal time
a,
of mean
of the
is
noon,
mean
readily seen is the right ascension sun at noon, since at mean noon the mean sun
it
which
is
on the meridian when
itl
right ascension
is
equal to the
sidereal time.
If L the longitude of the meridian from which T is reck. the time past Washington mean noon. oned, then (T\ L) Let VQ sidereal time of mean noon at Washington.
=
=
=
Then
and
aQ
= VQ + (T + L)(n  i), 9 = T + Vo + (T + L)(j* 
i).
.
.
(200)
The last term may be taken from table III before used, or we may compute it by the method given in Art. 90. We there found the hourly change in right ascension of the mean sun If we express (T \ L) in hours, we have to be 9 .8565.
S
this operation has frequently to be performed at meridian other than Washington, it is a little more conany venient to use the sidereal time of mean noon at the merid
When
ian "itself.
Let
V=
the sidereal time of
mean noon
at meridian
whose
94
SIDEREAL
AND MEAN SOLAR
TIME.
I/I
longitude is L. Then if we consider L as reckoned towards the west, the Washington time of mean noon at the given
meridian will be L, and
we
shall
have
V=
or
V=
Fo FO
+ O+ 9 .8s65Z;
s
i),
L
being expressed in hours.
Formula
(200) then
becomes
7\n
&= y+ T+
Example
i.
=
i).
.
.
.
.
(201)
h
Longitude of Bethlehem
6m 4o s .3
h
.ni2;
m s 1881, July 4th, 9 oo oo Required the corresponding sidereal time. From the Nautical Almanac, p. 329, we find
Mean solar time,
.
FO

=
6h 5i m 22 8 .6io

.1112
x
9 .8s65, or from table
i)L
s
III,
N. A.,
O
V
Mean
Table
solar time
III,
(JJL
'
6 h 5i m 2
oo'.ooo

T'= 9h oom
i)T
6)
h
+
=
m
~26
h
i
m
28*708
s 5o .222
Sidereal time
1881, July 4th, 2 i 7 Example 2. T time. 6). Required Longitude of Ann Arbor =
i5
52
m
3
s
.2,
Ann Arbor mean
^
s
.
i
=
h
.
4453
X
9 8 565> or table

s
III,
(p

VQ
i)Z
'
=
6 h 5l m 22 s .6lO
+
V=
T=
Table
III,
(/i
6h 5i m 2
2i h
i)T
=
+3
7
m
rn
3 .2oo
s
28 s 145
.
Sidereal time
=
h m 4 oi
5
8 344
.
s
I/ 2
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
To Convert Sidereal
into
95.
Mean
Solar Time.
95. This process, the converse of the preceding,
may
be
briefly stated as follows: Subtract from the given sidereal time the sidereal First.
time of mean noon; we then have the sidereal interval past V. noon, viz., Convert the sidereal interval (0 Second. V) into the corresponding mean time interval, by subtracting the quantity
(0

F)(i
is
)
found
in table II,
N. A.
The formula
as follows:
T=(Q
Example
i.
V)

(0

F)(l
h
)...
(202)
Given
1881, July 4th, i$
52
s 5o .222 Bethlehem
sidereal time.
Required the corresponding mean solar time.
h
I5
52
m
S 50 .222
4s before,
V v
6 h 5i m 21^514
9"
O i m 28 .;o8
s
Table
II,
(0
 F)(i i)
T
4
h
i
i
m
28*708
.
Mean time
Example
2.
m s 9 oo oo
h
Given
1881, July 4th, sidereal time.
m
S
58 .344
Ann Arbor
Required the mean solar time.
=
As
before,
V V=
4 6h
2i
h
h
i
m
ln
S
58 .344
26^.999
8 i
.
5i
iom
3
Table
II,
(0

F)(i i)
m 28 s 145
.
Meantime
T=
2i h
7
m
O3
8
.2
95It is
SIDEREAL AND
MEAN
SOLAR TIME.
173
sometimes necessary to cortvert mean solar time into
sidereal, or vice versa, in reducing old observations made before the publication of the solar ephemeris in the form now
employed.
Bessel's
Tabula Regiomontance furnish the data
necessary for solving the problem for any date between 1750 and 1850. The method of using these tables for this purpose
is
fully explained in Art. 362 of this
work.
CHAPTER
IV.
ANGULAR MEASUREMENTS. THE SEXTANT. THE CHRONOMETER AND CLOCK.
96. The circles of astronomical instruments are graduated continuously from zero to 360. With ordinary fieldinstruments the smallest division is commonly 10', though sometimes less. The large circles of fixed observatories are graduated much finer. Fractional parts of a division are read by means
of the vernier, or reading microscope. The edge of the circle on which the division is marked is The circle or arm which carries the index called the limb.
is
called the alidade.
vernier, also called the nonius, is an arc carried by the alidade, and graduated in the manner described below, for
The
measuring fractional parts of a division. Let AB (Fig. 14) be a portion of the limb of a
division
is
circle.
Each
arc
supposed to be one
circle.
degree of the
The
CD, carried by the alidade and graduated as shown, forms a
vernier.
In this case there are ten divisions on the vernier, covering a space equal to nine .divisions of the limb. Each space
is therefore shorter by ^ of one degree (equals than a space on the limb. In the figure the index coin6') cides with the zeropoint of the limb; division one of the vernier falls behind division one of the limb, 6'; division two of
on the vernier
96.
THE VERNIER.
falls
1/5
the vernier
etc., etc.
behind division two of the limb, 2
X
6'
=
12',
of using the vernier will In this ferring to Fig. 15. ^
The method
now
be clear by
re
case the index falls between 42 and 43 on the limb. The reading of the circle is therefore 42 plus a fractional part
^
c
*r~^
44
n
:
of a degree.
This fraction
is
given by the vernier as follows
Looking along the scale until we find a line of the vernier which coincides with a line of the limb, we find this to be the
case with the one marked 4. Therefore, following down the vernier scale towards the zeropoint, it is evident that
6' to the right of 45 Line 3 of the vernier is Line 2 of the vernier is 2x6' =i2 to the right of 44 Line i of the vernier is 3 X 6'= 1 8' to the right of 43 Line o of the vernier is 4X 6^24' to the right of 42
f
of the limb;
of the limb; of the limb;
of the limb.
The reading
is therefore 42 24' or 42.4, the number on the vernier where the line of the latter coincides with a line of
the limb, giving the tenths of a degree at once. In general let
d
d'
n
= = =
the value of one division of the limb; the value of one division of the vernier the number of divisions of the vernier corresponding to n i of the limb.
;
Then
and
(n
i)d
=
nd'
,
dd'
:
d.
......
We
(203)
d
d' is the least reading of the vernier. the following very simple rule
have therefore
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
To find the
least
9/.
Divide the length of one division of the limb by the number of spaces of the vernier. For example, suppose the limb graduated to 10', and the number of divisions of the vernierscale to be 60. Then the least reading of the vernier will be
:
reading of a vernier
10'
60
This
is
" 600" 60
a very
common
arrangement.
In the vernier just described n divisions of the vernier I of the limb. Verniers are sometimes were equal to n
made
in
which n divisions are equal
(n
to n
+
d
I
of the limb.
Then
It is to
+ i)d
nd and d
d,
as before.
be observed that in this case the reading of the ver
nier proceeds in a direction opposite to that of the limb. Many different forms of division and arrangement are
in verniers, but they all follow the same general princia practical familiarity with which makes the reading of ple, any form of vernier very simple.
found
The Reading Microscope.
97. Instead of the vernier, in very fine instruments the alidade carries a microscope the optical axis of which is perpendicular to the plane of the circle. This is a compound
microscope with a positive eyepiece. In the common focus of the objectlens and eyepiece are the micrometerthreads for reading the circle. The micrometer (Fig. 160) consists of a frame of brass, across which are stretched two spiderlines.
Sometimes these lines make an acute angle with each other, as shown in the figure sometimes they are made parallel and
;
quite close together.
The plane
of the
frame
is
parallel to
97
THE READING MICROSCOPE.
and it is moved parallel to a tanthe plane of the circle to the circle by the screw G. Attached to the screw and gent revolving with it is the cylinder FE, graduated, as shown in the figure, for recording the fractional parts of a revolution of
t
MN
the screw.
The cylinder
is
60 or loo parts.
Suppose
'generally graduated into either now the distance between two
5',
five revolutions of tae screw are just sufficient to move the crossthreads over this distance then evidently one revolution moves the threads
:
ui visions of the circle to
be
and that
is divided into 60 parts, then each division of the head corresponds to a motion of the crossthreads over i". By making
over
i'.
If
the head
the screw sufficiently fine and increasing the number of divisions of the head, at
the
same time increasing the power
of
FIG. i6a.THE MICROMETER.
FIG.
16.
THE READING
MICROSCOPE.
the microscope, this division of space may be carried to an almost unlimited extent. For the purpose under considera
however, we should soon reach a limit beyond which nothing would be gained by increasing the delicacy of the microscope. For reading the entire number of revolutions of the screw there is sometimes a scale attached to the outside of the box in which the slide moves. More frequently the scale is inside the box, placed at one side of the field of view. When so placed it consists of a strip of metal in the edge of which
tion,
178
;
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
98.
notches are cut the distance between two consecutive notches being equal to one revolution of the screw. Every fifth notch is made deeper than the others for facility in counting. Suppose now the crossthreads to stand opposite the centre notch (which is generally distinguished in some manner), and the zero point of the head to be exactly at the indexmark.
The point in the field now occupied by the crossthreads is the fixed point to which all angular measurements are referred it corresponds exactly to the zeropoint of the ver;
nier.
Suppose, further, the zeropoint of the circle to be exactly under the intersection of the threads. Now let the instrument be revolved on its axis through any angle the
:
number
of divisions of the circle
of reference will
which pass by then be the measure of the angle.
this point
For the purpose
that described above,
of fixing the idea, let the arrangement be viz., the circle graduated to 5', and the
micrometer reading to single seconds. If now the revolution of the instrument has brought the scale into the position
in Fig. 17, we see from the position of the threads that the entire angle passed over is between 45 15' and 45 20'. By means of the screw let the crossthreads be
shown
moved
'
so as to coincide with division
15'.
Then
the entire
screw will give the number of minutes to be added to 45 15', and the fractional part of a revolution given by the head will be expressed in seconds. Thus if the whole number of revolutions were two, and the reading of the head In making the bisection, 53, the angle would be 45 if 53". the screw should always be turned in the same direction, to guard against the effect of slip or lost motion in the screw. If the thread is to be moved in a negative direction it should be moved back beyond the line, and the final bisection made by bringing it up from the other side. number 98. When everything is in perfect order a whole
of revolutions of the
number
I
98.
THE READING MICROSCOPE.
179
screw is exactly equal to the distance between two consecutive lines on the circle. This is provided for by an arrangement for changing the focal length of the microscope, and for moving the objectlens nearer to or farther from the plane of the circle. This adjustment is subject to small disturbances, on account of changes of temperature and other causes. The error caused by an imof revolutions of the
perfect adjustment is called the error of runs. The correction for runs is found by reading the microscope on two con
secutive divisions of the circle.
to the exact
to
If this
does not correspond
number
of revolutions of the screw, the excess
or deficiency
is to be distributed in the proper proportion measurements made with the screw. For determining the correction a number of readings
should be
made in different parts of the circle in order to eliminate from the result the accidental errors of graduation. Some observers in certain kinds of work always read the
micrometer on both divisions of the limb between which the falls. For example, in Fig. 17 the micrometerthread would be set on both division 15' and 20', thus eliminating from the resulting reading the effect of runs, and to some extent the accidental errors of graduation and of bisection. For insuring greater accuracy two or more microscopes
zeropoint
When there are two they are placed each other, or 180 apart. When there are three opposite or more they are placed at uniform distances around the circle. If the probable error of the reading of one microor verniers are used.
scope be \" that of the mean of two will be*
,
i/>

V2
l"
".71
;
that of four will be
~ =
".5.
V4
The
is
principal value of
two or more microscopes, however,
14,
for eliminating the error of eccentricity.
* See Introduction, Art.
Eq.
(25).
I8o
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Eccentricity of Graduated Circles.
99
99. The centre of the alidade seldom coincides exactly with the centre of the graduated circle. This deviation from exact coincidence is called eccentricity.
In order to understand the effect
of eccentricity, let
C C
a,
be the centre of the
',
circle
;
;
the centre of the alidade
O, the zeropoint of the limb
;
the point on the limb where it intersected by a line joining
is
C
is.
and C'
;
C'n, the direction of the line drawn from the centre of the alidade to the zeropoint of the vernier when the telescope is directed to any object.
The true position of the object is given by the direction of the line C'n, while the reading of the circle gives the
direction Cn, differing from the former by the small angle
n'Cn
=
CnC'.
Let now
CnC = p
;
CC = e Cn = r Cn = r';
;
Angle OCn
;
Then
have
r
= n\ OCa = a. CCn = n
a.
From
the triangle
r
CCn we
r sin / = r' cos/ =
e sin (n a); e cos (n
a);
a)
. .
 sin
(
from which
tan/
=
(204)
IOO.
ECCENTRICITY OF GRADUATED CIRCLES.
will
l8l
The angle /
(204) differs
but
little
always be small, and the denominator of from unity. We may therefore write,
without appreciable error,
/
IOO. It
is
=

sin (n
a)
......
series in
(205)
terms
more elegant
powers of
.
to
expand
the
above expression into a
is
of ascending
Equation (204)
of the
form
sin/ _ cos/
from which we readily find
a sin x
i
a cos
x
'
sin/
=
a sin (/

x)
.........

(206)
Now
add
sin (/
;
f
x) to both
members
of (206)
;
then subtract sin (/
x)
from
both members
finally, divide the first
expression by the second:
sin
/
f
sin (/ f x)
_ (a ~
(a
\ i)
sin (p f x)
t '
sin
/
sin (/
f
x)
i)
sin (/
j
x)
from which
tan (/
this the
+ \x) =
tan \x
........
(207)
Applying to
process of development
made use
of in Art. 74, Eq. (137),
we
find
/
=
a sin
x
f
$a? sin
2x
f
a 3 sin $x,
etc.
Writing for a and x their values and dividing by sin seconds of arc, we find
i", in
order to express/ in
sn M
The
first
~
V'
sin 2(B
 a) +
T'
sin 3(
" tt)
'
(208)
term
is
identical with (205),
and
will
always give the necessary accu
racy without using the following terms.
101. Besides the eccentricity
similar effect
above considered there is a due to the play of the axis of the instrument in
1
82
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
IOI.
its
This is not a determinate quantity like that we socket. have been considering, but when two verniers or microscopes 1 80 apart are used, the effect of both will be eliminated, as appears from the following
:
,
Let
ri
#,
and n" be the readings
of the
two microscopes
;
the true value of the angle.
Then from
the
first
microscope
n'
Similarly,
n n
=
n"
+ e" sin + e" sin (n" (ri
a).
a).
In which e" has been written for
r sin i"'
Now
n"
differs
very
little
from 180
ciable error will be introduced
so that no apprethe second of the by writing
ri
,
+
above equations
n
=
e
"
s in
[180
\(ri
+
(ri
a]~\
=
n"
e" sin (ri
a).
from which the correction for manner it may be eccentricity shown that the mean of three microscopes will be free from
Therefore n
is
f
=
n"),
eliminated.
In a similar
the effect of eccentricity. In case of four, as the mean of each pair 180 apart is free from this error, it follows that
the
mean of the four will be. The constants e" and a may be determined very
;
readily
by
taking readings in different parts of the circle but with a complete circle they will not be required. It is only in the case of the sextant, where we have a limited arc of the circle read by a single vernier, that this becomes a matter of importance. The application to this case will be considered
in the
proper place.
102.
THE SEXTANT.
The Sextant.
determination of time and latitude when extreme accuracy is not required, the sextant is one of the most It is convenient and useful of astronomical instruments.
102. In the
light
and easy of transportation in observing it is simply held in the hand, and consequently entails no loss of time in
;
FIG.
19.
THE SEXTANT.
mounting and adjusting it is therefore especially adapted to the requirements of navigation and exploration. For use on land the sextant is sometimes mounted on a tripod, which adds something to its accuracy. When the instrument" is used by a skilful observer, however, the advantage is not
;
great.
In most cases
made use
of the sextant will not
where such an arrangement could be be employed at all, but will
give place to an instrument of greater precision.
J
84
.
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
103.
principal features of the sextant may be seen from The graduated arc is about 60 in extent, hence the Fig. 19. name, sextant. This arc of 60 is divided into 120 parts,
called degrees for reasons which will soon appear. The arc reads directly to io and by means of the vernier commonly
r
,
The
to 10".
A mirror,
C, called the indexglass, is
attached to the
it
arm carrying the
at the centre.
A second mirror, N
is
vernier, and revolves with
y
is
about a pivot attached to the frame of
called the horizonglass. Only half of this glass is silvered, viz., that next the plane of the instrument an arrangement which makes it possible to see an object directly
the instrument, and
through the unsilvered part by means
of the
telescope, and at the same time the image of the same object, or of a second one, reflected from the silvered part of the
mirror.
In order to
is
adjustingscrew which the telescope can be moved nearer to the plane of the instrument or farther from it. Attached to the frame are several colored glasses, and F, which may be brought into a
these images equally distinct an provided (not shown in the figure), by
make
E
These position to protect the eye when observing the sun. are sometimes attached to an axis so that they can be at once
reversed, the object being to eliminate any error due to want of parallelism of the surfaces by taking half of a series of
measurements in each position. There is also a revolving disk attached to the eyepiece of some instruments containing a number of colored glasses of different shades. Other minor features can best be learned by the inspection of the instru
ment
itself.
The principle which lies at the foundation of the sextant and instruments of like character is the following If a ray of light suffers two successive reflections in the same
103.
:
plane by
two plane
and
last direction of
mirrors, then the angle between the first the ray is double the angle of the mir
rors.
In Fig. 20 let
M and
m
be the two mirrors supposed
103
THE SEXTANT.
;
185
be the first perpendicular to the plane of the paper let direction of a ray of light falling on the mirror M\ it will be reflected in the direction Mm, and finally from m in the direction
AM
Mp
parallel to mE, The angle to m. perpendicular
mE.
Draw MB
MP perpendicular to M,
between the
first
and
FIG. 20.
last direction of
angle between the mirrors is equal to PMp. We have now to show that A 2PMp. makes Consider first the mirror m. The incident ray with the normal the angle
the ray
is
equal to the angle
AMB. The
MB
Mm
.
Mmp = mMp = pMB = pMP + PMB.
f
.
(a)
Consider
now M.
The angle
(V)
mMP = PMA = AMB + PMB
1
86
(a)
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
from (),
1O 4.
Subtracting
mMP
from which
If
mMp
AMB  pMP,
Q. E. D.
2pMP = ^ MB.
the angle between two objects is to be measured, is held so that the plane of the graduated arc both. The telescope is then directed to one passes through of the objects, which is seen through the unsilvered part of the horizonglass, and the indexarm is revolved until the rethe instrument
flected image of the second object is brought in contact with the direct image of the first. The reading of the limb will then be the required angle the graduation before explained, viz., each degree being divided into two, gives the angle between the objects, which is twice that of the mirrors. 104. In the prismatic sextant of Pistor & Martins (Fig. 21) the horizonglass is replaced by a totally reflecting prism. The arrangement has this advantage, viz., that by its use
;
now
angles of
all sizes from o to 180, and even larger, can be measured, while the common form of sextant is not adapted to the measurement of angles much greater than 120. In using the instrument the prism B interferes with the rays of light which should reach the indexglass, A, when the angle is about 140 but angles of this magnitude may be measured by turning the instrument over and holding it in the reverse position. If, for instance, the double altitude of the sun is being measured, the instrument will ordinarily be held in the right hand, with the arc below and the telescope above. If, however, the double altitude is about 140, the instrument must be held in the left hand, with the telescope below and the arc above. In case the head of the observer interferes, as will be the case when the angle is near
;
1
80, the
difficulty is
overcome by means
of the prism
E
105.
PRISMATIC SEXTANT. REFLECTING CIRCLE.
l8/
placed back of the eyepiece so as to reflect the rays of light coming through the telescope in a direction at right angles
to
its axis.
The arc of the sextant may be extended to an entire circumference, and the indexarm produced so as to carry a
105.
FIG. 2i.
THE
PRISMATIC SEXTANT.
vernier at each extremity. The instrument then becomes the simple reflecting circle. As previously shown, this arrangement possesses the advantage of eliminating the eccentricity,
and to some extent the errors of graduation. ment is used precisely like the sextant.
This instru
1
88
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
circles
IO;.
Other forms of reflecting
to have
ing advantages met with great favor, although they are theoretically much more perfect instruments than the sextant practically, however, this superiority is not so great. This is no doubt due in part to the fact that, except in the hands of an observer of more than usual skill, the errors of observation are so
;
in certain directions, but they
have been made possessdo not seem
great as practically to neutralize their greater theoretical advantages.
Adjustments of the Sextant.
1 06.
tlie
First Adjustment.
THE
INDEXGLASS.
The plane of
reflecting surface must be perpendicular to the plane of the
sextant.
To ascertain whether this is the case, place the index near the middle of the arc, then look into the glass so as to see the image of the arc reflected. If the adjustment is perfect,
the arc seen directly will be continuous with
its
reflected
image. This adjustment
liable to
is
derangement
;
attended to by the maker and is not for this reason no provision is com
It for correcting a want of perpendicularity. be corrected when necessary by removing the glass from its frame and filing down one of the points against which it rests, or by loosening the screws holding the frame to the indexarm and inserting a piece of paper or other thin
monly made
may
substance under one side. The plane 107. Second Adjustment. THE HORIZONGLASS. this mirror must also be perpendicular to the plane of the of
sextant.
indexglass must first be in adjustment; if then it is possible to place it in a position parallel to the horizonglass
The
by moving the indexarm, then the
latter will also
be per
pendicular to the plane of the sextant.
To
test this adjust
108.
ADJUSTMENT OF THE SEXTANT.
:
'
189
as follows Bring the index near the zeroand direct the telescope to a welldefined point a star point If then the indexarm be moved slightly one way is best. and then the other the plane of the instrument being vertical the reflected image of the object will move up and down
ment proceed
through the
perfect,
field.
If
the two images may be made
reflected
the adjustment of the two glasses is to coincide exactly,
image, instead of passing over the direct, will pass to one side or the other of it. Two small capstanheaded screws are provided for making this adjustment when necessary. A pair of adjustingscrews is also provided for correcting the position of the glass in the opposite direction, viz., to make it parallel to the indexglass when the vernier is at zero. If the direct and reflected image of the star are brought into exact coincidence by otherwise the
means of the tangentscrew, the reading of the vernier, if not zero, is called the index error. The screws just mentioned are for correcting this error. It will be found better in practice not to attempt this adjustment, but to determine
the error and apply the necessary correction to the angles
measured, as will be explained hereafter. 1 08. Third Adjustment. The axis of the
parallel to the
telescope
must
be
plane of the instrument. Two parallel threads are placed in the eyepiece to mark approximately the middle of the field: they should be made parallel to the plane of the instrument by revolving the eyeThe axis of the telescope will now be the line drawn piece.
through the optical centre of the objectglass and a point midway between these lines. To determine whether this
plane .of the instrument, select two or more apart, and bring the reflected image of one in contact with the direct image of the other, making the contact on one of the threads then move the instrument so as to bring the images on the other thread.
line is parallel to the
welldefined objects 100
;
1
90
the contact
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
still
1
09.
If
if
remains perfect, the
line is in
adjustment
;
any correction is required, there will be found a pair of screws for the purpose on opposite sides of the ring which holds the telescope.
The above
if
test will
be found
difficult to apply, especially
the observer has not a considerable
amount
of experience
in the use of the instrument.
ing
:
Place the
One less difficult is the followinstrument face upward on a table, then lay
on the arc two strips of metal or wood, the width of which must be the same and equal to the distance of the axis of the telescope from the plane of the instrument. Now sight across the upper edges of these strips, and have an assistant mark with a pencil on the wall of the room (which should be
or 20 feet distant) the place where the sightline interit; then, without disturbing anything, look through the telescope, which has been previously directed to this part of the wall and properly focused, and see whether this mark if so, then the is found in the middle of the field adjustment
15
sects
;
is
satisfactory.
Method of Observing with
109.
the Sextant.
To Measure the Distance between Two Stars.
Direct
the telescope to one of the stars, then revolve the instrument about the axis of the telescope until its plane passes through the other (taking care to have the indexglass on the right
side),
then
move
the indexarm until the image of the second
brought into the field, clamp the instrument and bring the two images into perfect contact by means of the tangentstar
is
screw. The reading of the vernier corrected for index error Unless the two stars are quite will be the required distance. near each other it will be expedient to compute the distance approximately before attempting the observation. The index may then be set at the approximate distance, which will
1
10.
METHOD OF OBSERVING WITH SEXTANT.
IQI
common obsergreatly facilitate finding the two images. vation of this character is that of observing the distance of the moon from the sun or a star for determining longitude.
In the Nautical Almanac will be found given for every day throughout the year the distance of the moon from the sun, and certain stars and planets, which may be used for this purpose. The index may at once be set at the approximate
A
angle without any preliminary computation. If the distance of the moon from a star is measured, the image of the star is brought into contact with the bright limb of the moon, the contact being made at the point where the great circle joining the star with the centre of the moon intersects the limb. To ascertain this point the instrument must be revolved through a small arc back and forth about the axis of the telescope (supposed to be directed to the star); the image of
the moon's limb will then pass back and forth across the field, and should appear to pass exactly through the centre of the star's image, which will in general not be reduced to
a simple point by the feeble telescope of the sextant. This distance is to be corrected for the moon's semidiameter in order to give the distance between the star and the centre of the moon. In measuring the distance between the moon and sun, the bright limb of the moon is brought in contact with the nearest limb of the sun. The measured distance must then be
moon and sun. no. Measurement of Altitudes. At sea altitudes are measured by bringing the reflected image of the body in contact
corrected for the semidiameters of both
horizon as seen directly through the result may be correct the telescope. of the instrument must be held plane exactly vertical. To accomplish this the instrument is revolved or vibrated slightly about the axis of the telescope, at the same time moving it so as to keep the image in the centre of the field.
In order that the
with the
line of the
1
92
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
g
U
The image will appear to describe an arc of a circle, the lowest point of which must be made tangent to the horizon by moving the indexarm. If the sun is observed, the lower limb must be made tangent to the horizon. As the altitude of the sun's centre is required, the reading of the vernier must be corrected for index error, refraction, parallax, and semidiameter. If a star is observed, there will be no correction for semidiameter or parallax.
in. For observing altitudes on land the artificial horizon must be used. This is a shallow basin, about 3 inches by 5, It is provided with a roof formed of for holding mercury. two pieces of plate glass set at right angles to each other in
a metal frame, for protecting the mercury from agitation by the wind. The surface of the mercury forms a mirror from which the image of the sun or star is reflected and as it is perfectly horizontal the reflected image will appear at an angular distance below the horizon equal to the altitude of the body itself above the horizon. If now the image of a star reflected from the mirrors of the sextant is brought into
;
contact with the image reflected from the mercury, the angle which will be measured is evidently twice the altitude of the
star.
The opposite sides of the glass plates forming the roof to the horizon should be exactly parallel, otherwise the prismatic form introduces an error into the measured angle. It
possible to derive a formula for the correction necessary to free an observation from this source of error, but it will
is
be better in practice to observe half of a series of altitudes with one side of the roof next the observer and then reverse
it,
The mercury must be
face.
taking the remaining half in the opposite position. freed from the particles of dust and
impurities which will generally be found floating on its surIt may be strained through a piece of chamoisskin
or through a funnel of paper brought
down
to a fine point
113
METHOD OF OBSERVING WITH SEXTANT.
Another method
is
1
93
at the end.
foil to the
to
add a small amount of
tin
mercury, when the amalgam which will be formed will rise to the top and may be drawn to one side with a card, leaving the surface entirely free from specks of any
kind.
112. In measuring altitudes for any purpose, a in quick succession and the mean taken.
number
In this
of
measures should
the accidental
be made
way
Thus, in taking the altitude of the sun for determining tne time, a series of not less than three altitudes should be measured on each limb. Suppose the observations made when
is east of the meridian, and the altitudes therefore to be increasing; the readings on the upper limb will be made first, as follows: Set the index on an even division of the limb at a reading 10' or 15' greater than the double altitude
errors of contact
and reading
will be greatly diminished.
the sun
of the upper limb.
will
When the two images are then brought into the field they appear separated, but will be approaching each other. The observer watches until they become tangent, when the time is carefully noted by the chronometer. The index is then moved ahead 10', 15', or 20', and the same process repeated.
this
A
little
practice will enable the observer to take the altitudes in
in which case five readings be taken which will correspond to an increase of 40' in the double altitude As the sun's diameter is about 32' of arc, the index or 20' in the actual altitude.
manner
at intervals of 10' without difficulty,
may
may now
and five readings on the lower In this case the images will overlap and will gradually separate, the time to be noted being that when the two disks
be
to the first reading,
moved back
limb taken at the same altitudes as before.
are tangent. If the sun
will
observed west of the meridian, the readings on the lower limb of course be decreasing. find difficulty in bringing the two images 113. into the field together. A convenient way of accomplishing this is as follows: Bring the index near the zeropoint and direct the telescope to the sun, when
is
be
made first. The altitudes will The beginner will sometimes
two images will be seen; then bring the instrument down towards the mercury horizon, at the same time moving the arm so as to keep the reflected image in the field until the image reflected from the mercury is found, when both will be
A little practice will make this process very easy. In observing stars care must be taken to avoid bringing the direct image of one star in contact with the reflected image of another. Sometimes a small
in the field together.
indexarm to facilitate finding the reflected image, and same time for preventing mistakes of the kind just mentioned. It may be shown geometrically that when the two images of any star are brought in contact in the manner we have been describing, the angle formed with the
level is attached to the
at the
194
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
I
14.
horizon by the indexglass will be equal to that formed with the horizonglass by the axis of the telescope. As both telescope and horizonglass are fixed to
If then the level the frame of the instrument, it is therefore a constant angle. above mentioned is adjusted so that the bubble will play (the plane of the instrument being vertical) when the indexglass makes this constant angle with The method of finding the horizon, it may be used for the purpose mentioned. the reflected image will then be as follows: Look through the telescope at the image reflected from the mercury; then, holding the instrument in the same If the reflected image is position, move the indexarm until the bubble plays.
not then in the not vertical.
field also,
It will
be brought into the
the reason will be that the plane of the instrument is field by revolving the instrument back
and forth about the axis of the telescope. To adjust this level, bring the two images of the sun or a known star into the centre of the field and move the tube until the bubble plays.
Errors of the Sextant.
114.
Among
the various theoretical errors to which sex
tant observations are liable there are
two which
call for
a
index error and eccentricity. To Determine the Index Error. The arc is graduated a short distance backward from the zeropoint when the reading falls on this side of the zeropoint the reading is said to be
detailed investigation,
viz.,
;
off arc ; a direct reading being on arc. First Method of Determining the Index Error.
By a Star. Direct the telescope to a star, and by means of the tangentscrew bring the direct and reflected images into exact coincidence. The reading of the vernier will then be the index o error, and it must be applied as a correction to all angles measured with the instrument.
The correction The correction
will
will
be be
f
when when
the reading
is off
is
arc;
the reading
on arc.
The mean
of several readings should
always be taken so as
to diminish the effect of errors of observation.
11$.
INDEX ERROR.
1
95
&
Example. The following readings were made with a Pistor Martins sextant for determining the index correction
:
On
arc.
45" 60"
70" 70" 75" 60" 30" 75"
7o" 65"
Mean
of ten readings,
/,
i'
2
//
.o.
The index correction being
/==
we have
therefore
 l'2".Q.
115. Second Method. By the Sun. Measure the apparent diameter of the sun by bringing the direct and reflected images tangent to each other and read the vernier then bring the opposite limbs into the position of tangency and again read the vernier. If the first reading is on arc, the second will be off arc, and vice versa.
;
Let
r
r'
the reading off arc / == the index correction
;
= = =
the reading on arc
;
;
5
Then
from which
the true diameter of the sun.
5 S
= =
r
r'
+ /;
/
r)
/=
4 ;>'
(209)
196
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
observations are
1 1
6.
When
made on
the sun for any purpose,
the gradual heating up of the instrument sometimes changes the value of the index correction. For this reason some ob
servers determine its value both at the beginning and end of such a series of observations. The following example taken from the Astronomische Nachrichten, Band 23, No. 548, will illustrate this, and at the same time the application of for
mula
(209)
:
FIRST DETERMINATION.
SECOND DETERMINATION.
On
arc.
Off arc.
On
arc.
Off arc.
32' 20"
30'
20
25
60" 60"
50"
32' 5"
31'
O"
15" 10"
20
10
20
50"
r'
r=32
/
2i".2
=
i
30' 55
=
32' i".2
r'
/=* 43".
/
=
31' i3".S
23".;
Eccentricity of the Sextant.
is limited and is read by a the effect of eccentricity is not eliminated it single vernier, should therefore be investigated. This can only be done by
Il6.
As
the arc of the sextant
;
known
comparing the values of angles measured by it with their values determined in some other way. The angles between terrestrial objects may be measured with a good theodolite, and the same angles measured with the sextant, or, what is better, stars may be used.
In using stars for the purpose \ve
may proceed
in either
of
two ways.
First, by
measuring the distances between known
stars.
The
right ascensions and declinations of the stars tvill be taken from the Nautical Almanac (it will be best to use none
except Nautical Almanac stars for the purpose).
The
posi
Il6.
ECCENTRICITY OF SEXTANT.
197
tions of the stars as they seem to us will differ from those given in the Nautical Almanac by the amount of refraction
in
a and
(194),
by
The necessary corrections must be computed 8. and the apparent distances of the stars by (IV) or
(IV), Art. 67. The latiSecond, by measuring the altitudes of known stars. of the place of observation must be known and the true tude Then from (II), Art. 65, the true altitude of the time.
may be computed, or, if it is very near, the meridian formula (244) may be used. This altitude must be corrected
star
for refraction to
the sextant.
make it comparable with that measured by Whatever plan is adopted, the angles chosen
should be such that the measurements will be distributed with some approach to uniformity over the entire arc of the
sextant.
Let
n'
n z
= =
the value of the angle given by the instrument the true value of the same angle
;
;
the correction of zeropoint for eccentricity.
Then since in the sextant the reading of the arc is double the actual angle passed over by the indexarm, we shall have,
from formula
208,
[
/
=

(n'
*)]
= =
2e" sin
(fan
a)
;
and for the zeropoint,
Subtracting,
z
2e" sin a.
at) f
n
;/
n'
irom which
n'
= =
2/
x
[sin (fan
sin
a).
ai]
.
;
4*" sin
\n cos (J
.
(210)
When
the constants e" and
servation, equation (210)
Expanding cos
cos
at)
(^n
a are to be determined from obmust be transformed as follows: a), the equation becomes
sin
\n cos \n
+ (\e" sin
a) sin
2
\n
=
n
n'.
198
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
1 1
6.
Let 4e" cos a = x Ae" sin a = y
sin
\n cos
sin
2
n
= the sum of any outstanding constant errors = A, a known coefficient \n = B, a known coefficient ri = N, the quantity given by observation.
z
;
n
;
;
Then each measured angle gives us one equation for mining the unknown quantities x, y, and 2, viz.,
deter
(212)
If everything were perfect, three such, equations would completely solve the problem. In order to obtain a result of practical value, however, a considerable number of angles must be measured and the resulting equations combined by
the method of least squares.
Having determined x and/, we have e" and a from (211). With these values a table of corrections is then to be computed by (210). These corrections may be computed for intervals of 10, from zero up to the largest angles ever measured with the
instrument.
The
correction for any intermediate point
may
then be taken out by interpolation.
Example*
Stackthe investigation of the eccentricity of sextant The pole 4152," made by Prof. Boss of the U. S. Northern Boundary Survey. observations were made 1873, August 20, at the U. S. Astronomical Station
We give as an example
"
No.
8.
Latitude
Longitude
= <p = =L
49
i
i' 2''.
4
;
determined by zenith telescope. f
h
4i
m
18'
west of Washington.
this
* For a
full
understanding of the details of
example a knowledge
It will
is
re
quired of some principles which are explained read Chapter V. before attempting it. f See Chapter VIII.
later.
be advisable to
I 1
6.
ECCENTRICITY OF SEXTANT.
199
readings.
Eleven angles were carefully measured, each measurement consisting of ten All All except two were measurements of double altitudes of stars.
were north stars except one, viz., a Aquila, observed on the meridian. The north stars were in most cases observed both before and after meridian passage by this arrangement any small undetermined error of the time is practi;
cally eliminated.
The chronometer
correction was determined by measuring the altitudes of
a
Bootis west of the meridian and
a Andromeda
east,
both being observed at
exactly the
same
altitude.*
The two angles which form the exception above referred to were measurements of the distances between a. Andromeda and a Pegasi, and a Ursce Minoris and y Cephei respectively. The index correction, determined both at the beginning and end of the series, was as follows
:
Beginning,
End,
/ /
= =
3'
3'
43". 42".
5.
reduction.
The following The
will serve as a
series of ten readings
specimen of the form of record and method of is divided into two parts so that one may
serve as a check on the other.
Double Altitude of
a Ursa
Majoris.
Means
Chron. correction
63
6'
45"
ig
h
14
2i 8 .6
62 21' 33"
ig
h
AT
10
7
h
22
50
.o
AT
T
19 22
i5 .4
8
50.0
25 .4 52 .o
8
True time
From
= 9= ephemeris, a. =
Hourangle
/
t
i8 h 51 55 55
8 3i .6
i8 h 56
52 .o
10 55
8h
= =
m
8 39 .6
o m 33 8 .4
8'
118
54'
54"
120
21"
The
true altitude of the star at the instant of observation
(II),
is
then computed by
formulae
Art. 65
:
* See Articles 125, 126,
and
127.
200
(p

PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
* 3
t
:
49 Ol' 2 62 26' II
54'
50'
tan d cos tan
/
:Il8

M
h
Refraction r
2ti
54
7". 4
= 0.282349 = 9.684407
tan
cos
75
C
J/=o.597942 n
M
/
=
=. 9.388649
51'
;
g'
I5I
31
38' 15 29' 58
tan
M} = 0.085856 = 9. 7322 74n
9.474505
= =
31
31'
i'30 28
Proof
cos d cos
/
63
2' 57' 3'
9.665329
Index Cor. / Computed n Measured n
43
40'
=9
9349736n
6'
=
63
6' 45'
Ca.n((pAf)=
n
n'
0.157152,1
9.944463,^
=
.6
'
cos a
tan h
cos a
=
9.787311
cos h
= 9.944463^ = 9.930768
9.474505
Proof
q>= 49oi'o2".
*8
/
=
62 26'
1
1". 3
M 75i8'5o".i <pM= 124
a
120
8'
2i".o
= = tanAf =
tan
6"
0.282349
9.700792^
>
cos
/
tan
t
cos
M = 9.404017
M) =
o.236i28 n
19' 52". 5
7'
0.083130
g.'j232'jSn
152
31
51". 6
tan a
=
h
r
//'
7'
i'
i6".5
31". 7
= =
Proof
cos d
9.487147
31
8'
48". 2
Index Cor. I
3'
43" o
cos
/
= 9.665329 = 9.700792,1
Computed
Measured n
= =
62 21' 19". 4 62 21' 33". o
tan
=
9.946462
9.780853
cos a
n
n'
=
I3".6
cos a
tan h
cos h
= =
9.932512
Mean
The computation
*
=
N=
the
Proof
g".i.
9.487147
for
determining
8, is
true
angular
distance
between
The
declination,
taken from the ephemeris.
I 1
6.
ECCENTRICITY OF SEXTANT.
and a Pegasi August 20
is
2OI
a Andromeda
for 1873,
also given in
full.
We
take from the ephemeris
a Andromeda : a
8
= oh = 28
i
m
51".
78
a Pegasi
:
a
d
23'
30". 8
20". 5 3
s
.
= =
22 h s8 m 14
31'
28".
50
33".2
The observed
distance was 20 15' Chronometer time 2O h 26 m
6.
Refraction factor
BXtX T
z (194).
.960.
[See Eq. (187).]
in right
We
first
determine q and
by equations (XII); then the refraction
ascension and declination by
T= A 7^ = = a =
20 h 26 m
22
a ANDROMED^E.
s 3 6
.
50
.
20
3
i
13 .6 51 .8
8 38 .2
o
t/
3" 58
= = N= d =
<p
59
39'
i
33"
2 .4
cos
tan
49
23 28
cot<>
41
39
31
= = N=
/
j
9 70341
tan
t
=
o.23262 n
cos
t
9.93890
9.64231
sin
cos
N = 9.60407
cot
cp
= =
9.70341
9.81679
9.52020
23
5
j./V=52
q
10
21
sec (d
=
N) =
.21150
48
10
25
tan q
=
z
49
46
.O48ig n cosy tan z
= = =
9.89147 9.82405 cos q
.06742
sin z
= =
9.82405
9.88059
9.
70464
981557
Proof
i
9.81556
From
table,
mean
refraction
Factor
= =
68".
.960
Therefore r
=
65". 4
T=
20 h 26 m
22
a PEGASI.
3
s
.
6
AT = =
a
* '
50
.
20
3
= 22 =  2h
43
58
55
13 .6 28 .5
m
i4 9
8
48'
i
= N= d =
q>
44"
2
cos
tan
49
32 14
2 .4 cot <p
7
5
A =
"
/= 9.85830 = 9.93890
9.
tan
/=
g.gSigg n
cos cos
79720
sin
N = 9.72523
cot
q>
t= =
9.85830
9.51679
9.67509
31
33
46
36
36 34
35sec(S+AO=
5
tan ^
=
.16307
49
39
o
9.87O29 n cos tan z
= 9.97558 = 9.90479 = .07079
Proof
cos q
sin z
=
9.90479
9.882(,i
9.78680
9.88830
202
Mean
PRA CTICAL A S TRONOM Y.
refraction
=
68". 6
Factor =. .960
Therefore r
65". 9
By
(194)
a.
ANDROMED/E.
a.
cos q
= 9.82405 log r = 1.81558 sin q = 9.87225^
i.63963 n
1.68783 1.12043
tid
PEGASI.
log,/ cos dda
= 15 cos d = log da =
d
= =
8=
da
43" 6 28 23 30 .8
282414.4
\
.56740
= C( = a =
Q
3 69
i
= = sin q = log dd = cos dda = 15 cos S = log da =
cos q log r
9.90479
1.81889
9.77508,1
i
dd
1.59397
1.16198
= =
$2".g 14 31 33 .2
.43199
da
o
O
51 .78
o h i'"48 8 .09
= f 2 = 22 58 28 a = 22 58 '25
h
143226.1
.70
.50
8
n
.8o
These values
to be
of the right ascensions
in
employed
t
.
and declinations of the stars are the ones computing the apparent distance between the two stars by
equations (IV)
is employed no importance here. For the coefficients A = sin %n, is now the absolute term of equation (212). cos n, and B = sin 2 %n we must employ for n not the above angles, but the angle corresponding to the point on the limb which coincides with the vernierscale. For example, the first measured angle of the first series is 63 25' 50". The limb
The value
of
N obtained by the original computation, and which
is
in
N
our equations,
2". 2.
The
difference
is
of
1 1
6.
ECCENTRICITY OF SEXTANT.
203
was graduated directly to 10'; these intervals were subdivided by the vernier to The zeropoint of the vernier falls between 63 20' and 63 30'; then read10". ing along the vernier to the point where coincidence takes place, we find this to
It is therefore the eccentricity of be at the reading 69 10' of the limb. point by which our angle is affected, and not that of the point 63 25' 4~.
this
In this follows
:
way we
find the point of contact for each reading of our series as
63' 25' 50"
6'
Point of contact
=
69
10'
45"
10"
62
57'
48' 10"
39'
29'
45"
5o"
2l' 10"
13'
5"
62
3'
55"
=
Mean
65
55'
Z?
=
0.0874
log
B=
8.94150
=
n
=
we
68
47'
Therefore from
this series
derive the equation
z
0.2824* 4~ 0.08747 4~
~~
9".!.
By proceeding
in
a similar manner with each of the eleven angles measured,
:
the following equations of condition are obtained
.0703* 4 .00507 f .1104* 4 .012374.2341* 4 .05827 4.2824* 4 087474.3295* 4 .1239^
+
z z
=f
5.5;
2.2;
.2019* 4 .04257 4 z
z z z
7.3;
=
17.5;
9.1;
= .3586*4 .151574 z = 3933* + I9I3/ 4 = .3997* j .19967 4 z = .4244* 4 .23577 + z = .4423* 4 .26687 + * =
It will
18.5; 10.5;
140;
24.0;
46.2;
28

than those of
fore be a
be seen that the coefficients of * and 7 are much smaller throughout It would therez, while the absolute terms are relatively large.
little
more systematic
to render the equations
homogeneous, as ex
204
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
116.
This has not been plained in Art. 24, before forming the normal equations. done, however. The details of the formation of the normal equations (Articles 21 arfd 25) are
as follows
into
:
As
the
number
i
of
unknown
quantities
is
three,
we
rule our sheet
~
the
=
14 vertical
columns
and
(Art. 25), to
(vz>).
which we have
added two columns
filled in after
for the residuals (v)
their squares
These
will
be
unknown
quantities have been determined.
The
in
correctness of the
work up
to this point is
now
verified
by substitution
proofformula (44). Therefore the normal equations are as follows
:
1.1197*+ .5168}'+ 3.24692=
.5i68*.25447 f
1.37422
3.2469*
j
1.37427
}
n.ooooz
= =
65.5013;
3L9958;
179.0000.
1 1
6.
ECCENTRICITY OF SEXTANT.
2O$
in Art. 32.
For the solution of these equations we make use of the form given
The
elimination equations (56) are here rewritten for convenience:
\aa~\x f [aH]
y
f"
[ar]0
[be
i]ar
[^ i]j+
= =
[;/]
[*
;
i].
By substituting in these the coefficients, the logarithms of which are in the horizontal lines marked E in the foregoing scheme, we find
y
= 
I47"47I
=
f 23".I2.
These values substituted in the equations of condition give the residuals v. For the final proof of the accuracy of the entire computation we have, Eq. (62),
[nn
3]
is
=
[vv\.
The agreement, though not
exact,
sufficiently close for
our purpose, and as
close as could be expected when the magnitude of tities involved in the equations is considered.
some
of the numerical quan
2O6
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
we
find
116.
For determining the weights of x,y, and zwe employ equations (76), by means
of which
pf
=
.6114;
py
=
we
.006135;
px
=
.01196.
(88), viz.,
The mean
error of an observation
obtain by formula
e
mand
z are
l
=
8". 7 72 5 .
3
The mean
errors of x, y,
then given by equations
(89):
e
=
=.
=
e
80 .21;
= H2
.00;
ez
=
=
Ii".22.
These quantities multiplied by .6745 give the probable errors. Collecting our results, we have the following values of x, y
probable errors:
t
z,
with their
x
y
z
=
+
23".!
52".9; 75"5;
7"6.
i47"5
4"7
We next compute a table of corrections, by formulae (211) and (210), viz.
:
to be
employed with
this instrument,
n
n'
=
4e" cos 4/' sin 4f" sin
a a a
= x; = y\
($n
81
or).
n cos
We
find
4<r"
=
149". 3;
=
6'.
Substituting for corrections :
n successively 10, 20,
etc.,
we have
the following table of
I I
/.
OTHER ERRORS OF SEXTANT.
Other Theoretical Errors.
2O/
sextant there are several 117. In a complete theoretical discussion of the The more important of other sources of error which require consideration.
form of the indexglass, of the colored glass and of the horizonroof; want of perpendicularity of the planes of the index and horizon glass to the plane of the instrument; inclination of line of collimathese are the following: prismatic
shades\
of telescope to plane of instrument; errors of graduation of the limb. With a good instrument well adjusted the effect of any one of these will be small, although they may combine together in such a way as to produce a very Not much can be gained, appreciable effect on the value of a measured angle. however, practically by investigating in detail the forms of the corrections retion
quired.
The experienced observer
will avoid these errors as far as can
be
done by careful adjustment, and then will arrange his observations with a view to eliminating from the results such of them as remain undetermined. See
Art. 127.
The Chronometer.
118.
The chronometer
in
care,
and
is simply a watch made with special which the balancewheel is so constructed that
changes of temperature will produce the least possible effect on its time of oscillation. The test of a good chronometer is the uniformity of its rate from day to day. It is impossible to make an instrument so perfect that 24 h as shown by it shall exactly correspond to one day, but its excellence is indicated by the uniformity with which it gains or loses. The daily rate of a chronometer is the amount which it
gains or loses in 24 hours. The error of the chronometer
time.
\
the difference between the
time as shown by the face of the instrument and the true
^
is
The chronometer correction
the
amount which must be
added
to give the true time;
to the reading of the chronometerface at any instant it is equal to the error with its sign
it
changed.
It is
a convenience to have the error and rate small, but
208
is
PRAC7^ICAL ASTRONOMY.
I 1
8.
not essential.
forms, viz., boxchronometers The first form of instrument
Chronometers are made in two different and pocketchronometers.
is
means of gimbals
generally suspended by box, in such a manner that, whatever the position of the box, the face of the instrument will maintain a horizontal position. This arrangement is
in a
wooden
useful at sea, but for transportation on land the instrument must be securely fastened, as otherwise the violent agitation
produced by sudden shocks would be injurious. The balancewheel of this form of instrument oscillates at halfsecond
intervals.
The pocketchronometer is generally somewhat largei than an ordinary watch. The oscillation or beat is a little more rapid than with the boxchronometer; thus the pocketinstruments of T. S. and J. D. Negus beat live times in two
seconds.
ient for observation
A* chronometer regulated to sidereal time is more convenon stars. With the sun a mean time
is
chronometer
preferable.
The
error and rate will be considered
more
fully in con
nection with the subject of determining time. Most chronometers require winding every 24 hours. This should be done at about the same time each day, as if they are allowed to run much longer than the usual time a different part of the spring comes into action, which may affect the Such instruments will run for 48 h or more before rate. stopping, so that in case the winding should be neglected for one day they will be found running the next; but for
the reason just stated this should not occur.
Comparison of Chronometers.
chronometers are to be 119. When the errors of several determined at the same time, the error of one of them is ob
119
THE CHRONOMETER.
2OQ
this.
tained by observation, and of the others by comparison with When two sidereal or two mean solar chronometers
are
compared together the beats will be sensibly of the same length, but generally the two will not beat exactly together; the fraction of a second by which the beat of one falls behind that of the other must therefore be estimated. With some practice this can be done so that the error in the estis
mation will not much exceed o .i. When a sidereal is to be compared with a mean time chronometer the error of comparison will be much smaller. Since I s of sidereal time is equal to o".9972/ mean solar time, it follows that the sidereal gains o .oo273 on the mean time chronometer in one second; this gain will amount to one Therefore entire beat, or o .5, in 183*, or approximately 3. once every three minutes the beat of the two will practically It is found that with a little practice the ear can coincide. a discordance in the beats as long as they differ by detect o .O2 or o .O3, and therefore the comparison can be made
s s s s
within this limit of error. When a number of chronometers are to be compared with a standard clock, it may be done very conveniently by means
chronograph.* The clock being connected with the chronograph, the observer taps the signalkey in coincidence with one or more even beats of the chronometer, and thus the time by both clock and chronometer are recorded on
of the
the same sheet.
\
i
The Astronomical
120. In a fixed
Clock.
,
observatory the clock is an instrument of It is generally regulated for sidereal great importance. time. The only part of the mechanism which requires notice
* See Art. 121.
2IO
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
I2O.
here is the pendulum, which is made of the necessary length to beat seconds. The rate of the clock depends upon the length of the pendulum; and since a rod of metal changes its length with
every change of temperature, some method of compensation is necessary in order to keep the centre of oscillation at a constant distance from the point of suspension. For accomplishing this two different forms are used, viz., the gridiron
and the mercurial pendulum. In the gridiron pendulum the rod
is
composed of
a
num
ber of parallel bars, alternately of brass and steel. These are so arranged that the expansion of the steel bars tends to increase the length, while that of the brass bars tends to diminish it. As these metals expand and contract by different
amounts when subjected to changes
of
temperature, the
relative lengths of the two may be so adjusted as to maintain a constant length for the system.
With the mercurial pendulum the rod consists of a single bar of steel. The " bob" is a cylindrical vessel of glass or metal filled with mercury. The expansion of the rod depresses the centre of oscillation, while that of the mercury
raises
it.
tions, as
Thus by making compared with the
is
the cylinder of proper proporrod, the necessary compensation
is effected.
With a clock which
exposed to sudden changes of tem
perature the gridiron pendulum will give a more uniform rate than the mercurial, as the comparatively thin bars of metal will accommodate themselves to the temperature of
the air
much sooner than
the comparatively large mass of
mercury.
density of the air as indicated /by the barometer also affects the rate of the clock by its variable resistance to the motion of the pendulum. Struve found for the standard
The
s clock of the Poulkova observatory a change of o 32 in rate
121.
THE CHRONOGRAPH.
It is
211
for a variation of one inch in the barometer.
therefore
very important to protect the standard clock from sudden and extreme atmospheric changes. In some observatories
this is
done by placing it in an the surface of the ground.
airtight
compartment below
The Chronograph.
121.
The chronograph
is
used
in
connection with the clock
for registering graphically on a strip or sheet of paper the beats of the latter. Fig. 22 shows a common form of this
instrument.
be made strument
is is
sheet of paper on which the record is to wrapped around the cylinder, which in this in14 inches long and 6 or 7 inches in diameter.
is
The
The
inder
cylinder
is
given one revolution per minute by means
of the clockwork.
The pen which
is
supplied with aniline ink, and being
shown above the cylmoved slowly
along in the direction of the axis of the cylinder it traces a continuous spiral on the surface. The apparatus is placed in an electric circuit passing through the clock, and so arranged that the pendulum breaks the circuit for an instant at the beginning of each second.*
By means
of a spring
which acts
in the direction
contrary
to that of the electromagnet
thus given
producing
in the figure, the pen is a slight lateral motion at each beat of the clock, instead of a continuous line a line graduated as
shown
shown
in the folding plate, Fig. 220.
* The arrangement may be such that the circuit will be closed for an instant at the beginning of each second, remaining open during the remainder. The breakcircuit plan is the one more commonly employed. Various mechanical devices are employed by different makers for causing the clock to open or close
the circuit.
212
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Fi
121.
THE CHRONOGRAPH.
21$
Each of these spaces is the graphic record of one second of time as shown by the clock. The beginning of the minute is marked by the omission of one of the points. The instrument here shown will run 2J hours. When the paper is removed from the cylinder and spread out it is marked with parallel lines, each line being the record of one minute of
clock time.
In order to make use of this apparatus for recording the time of the occurrence of any phenomenon, the wire which forms the circuit, passing from the battery through the clock and chronograph, is made to pass through a signalkey held in the hand of the observer, and by means of which the circuit can be instantly broken. In Fig. 23, aa' is the wire through which the circuit passes. When the point b touches the metallic plate c the circuit is closed. A key is so arranged that by tapping it with the finger this point
r>
is
raised and
duces a mark
the circuit broken; this proFIG. 93. on the chronographsheet similar to that made
a *
by the
instant
clock,
when
Fig. 22a is transits of the stars 6 Aquarii
and the position of which is the record of the the key was pressed. a reduced copy of the chronograph record of
Aquarii, 6 Aquarii, Aquarii observed with the transitcircle of
,
y Aquarii)
7t
Lacerta, and ri the Washington observatory, 1884, December 7. Each star is observed over eleven threads.*
a
The record
begins by striking the signalkey several times in quick succession before the star reaches the first thread, in order to mark the beginning of the series; then it is tapped in exact
coincidence with the star's passage over each thread in succession.
* See Art. 170.
214
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
first of
121.
Taking the
the above stars, 6 Aquarii, our chrono:
graphsheet gives the following record
22 h iom 33 s 4
22 h iom 47 s 9
36
37
s
.o
5o
54
8
.o
.
S
.6
.7
s
i
,
4i 43
22
h
s
8
55 7
S
.8 .8
22 h iom 58 8 .3
io
ra
S
45
For reading the record a
scale long
enough
to reach the
entire length of the sheet is used, the spaces of the same as those of the sheet. These spaces are
which are numbered
continuously from o up to 60; each space being divided to tenths, the fractional parts of these subdivisions may be estimated. While the paper is on the cylinder it is necessary to mark somewhere on the sheet the hour and minute shown by the clock this serves as a startingpoint for reading the record. For the purpose of determining longitude, chronometers
;
are
when they can be used with
ner as a clock.
sometimes provided with a breakcircuit attachment, a chronograph in the same man
The main advantages which the chronograph possesses over the methods employed before its introduction are, first, a comparatively inexperienced observer can record astronomical phenomena by its use with a degree of accuracy which it would take months or perhaps years of practice to acquire without it and second, the record is made by simply pressing a key with the finger thus many more observations can be made in a given time than is possible when everything must be written down with a pencil
;
:
CHAPTER
V.
DETERMINATION OF TIME AND LATITUDE. METHODS ADAPTED TO THE USE OF THE SEXTANT.*
122. In a spherical triangle,
when three parts are known any
Let us consider the triangle
other part
may
be determined.
is the pole of the heavens, PZS, where the observer's zenith, and 5 a known star
P
Z
p
(the
word
star here including the sun,
moon,
or a planet).
If
we measure
SZ of our triangle is
the altitude of 5, the side known. The declination
d is taken from the Nautical Almanac. If then we know the hourangle /, we have the data for determining the latitude (p. If (p is known, we have the hourangle t by computation,
(197).
and therefore the true
local time,
from
have then simply to give the solutions of this triangle best adapted to the different cases which will be considered, and to determine what conditions will be most favorable to
accuracy.
Determination of Time.
123.
We
By a
single altitude
of the sun.
Let
h'
the observed altitude of the sun's limb, corrected for index error
;
* The methods of this chapter are of course equally adapted to the use of any instrument for measuring altitudes.
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
h
z
the true altitude of the sun's centre the true zenith distance of the sun's centre
;
124
= p = s =
r
= 90
h\
the correction for refraction the correction for parallax
;
;
the correction for semidiameter.
Then
s is
k
=
h'  r
+p
is
s
......
(213)
when
the
j
^JI^.
limb
[
observed.
The required
from the
last of
solution of the triangle
may now be deduced
cos d cos
t
equations
(121), viz.,
cos 2
=
sin
cp
sin
d
f
cos
(p
;
from which
cos
In
/
=
cos z

sin
cp
(p
sin
d 
cos
cos 6
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
(214)
may be conveniently employed the same star is observed on several successive days at the same place, sin cp sin d and cos (p cos d may then be considered constant for a week or more in
this equation
some cases
for
computing
*,
as
when
ordinary sextant work. The numerator will be computed with addition and subtraction logarithms. As t is given in terms of the cosine, this equation should not be used when the angle is less than 45.
124.
first
To place (214) in a form more generally applicable, subtract both members from unity, then add both memviz.:
bers to unity,
I
cos
cos
t

cp
cos d 4 sin cos
cp
cp
sin
d
cos z
cos
cp
I
\
COS
/
=
cos
cp
cos #  sin
cos
cp
sin
S
f
cos z
cos d
124.
DETERMINATION OF TIME.
easily obtain
sin j[>
21 J
from which we
V
_
:
+
(y
<?)]
sin
>
(<p
6)\
*
cos
<z>
cos 6
^ 2I
5>
cos
g
cos
*)]'
sn
y
i>+ (^

c)
sn
^
y>
V
COS
+ 0)] COS fa (9+
For most purposes equation (215) will give the necessary degree of precision. When the extremest accuracy is required (217) should be
used.
These equations give arc. For our purposes
ing by
15.
t
in
degrees, minutes, and seconds of
divid
it
must be reduced to time by
Then
let
T
AT = E=
the chronometer time of observation; the chronometer correction
;
the equation of time.
of observation is t (Art. 90).
Then the apparent time
Mean
time of observation
from which
=t E= T + AT = t + T
\.
AT\
\
}
,
^
AT is
the quantity required.
In the above, where the object observed was the sun, we have supposed the chronometer to be regulated to mean time. If a sidereal chronometer has been used, the mean time  E} must be converted into sidereal time by (200) or (201) (/ and the resulting value compared with the chronometer time.
218
Example
I.
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
124.
West Las Animas.
Sextant.
Observation of sun for time.
88
89
00" o 10 o
50'
Chronometer. h s 3 35'" 12
.
20
89
30
50'
o o
35 36 36 36
3
h
39
.5
3 .5
30.5
56
.5
088
89
o"
O O o o
O
10
20
89
30
10'
37 38 38 39 39 37
m
55'.5
22
.
48 14 .5 41 .o
.
Means /
Eccentricity
89
o"
ii
3
h
26". 3
45
9'
zA = 89 A = 44 Refraction r = Parallax/ =
h
z
4'
34 32 49
6
33'
= =
44 45
49"
ii
26
=
zenith distance of sun's centre.
We
have now
the data for applying formulae (215)
<p = d = d = z =
and
(218).
.
38
18
4'
o"
17
42
21
sec sec
= =
A*
9.9 43
0.10386 .02357
cp
19 45
43
ii
26
z { ((p s (q>
d)
i[z [*
+
(<p

d)
<5)]
(<p
S)\
= = =
64 26
32
13
47 54 4 28 23 57 2 14
44'
= S =D
.
.
sin 9.72901 sin =' 9.35331
=
= 23 = 47 /= / = E = f
it
/
28"
56 m 9 55" 7 50 4.3 6 13 .o 56 17 .3 37 26 .3 41
sin 2 it sin it
= =
19.9 54.6
9.20975 9.60487
28.7
28
3
h
20
/}"=
4T=
T=
20
3
6
9 .o
= = =
mean
solar time.
observed time.
chron. correction [Eq. (218)].
This value differs but little from the value assumed above. If the difference had been large it would have been necessary to take from the ephemeris the value of d for this more correct time, and to repeat the computation for a more correct value of A T. Or, if the difference were not too great, the necessary correction could be determined by a differential formula.
*
These values are written down
it is
case
thought desirable.
for the purpose of computing the differential formulae See Articles 128131.
in
124.
TIME BY ALTITUDE OF THE SUN.
219
Colorado, 1878, July 28.9.
Mean
solar chronometer.
Observer B.
Negus
1326.
Thermometer 78.
q>
Longitude L = Assumed A T =
Latitude
38
i
44 6 41
4' h
o"
41" 7
Barometer w. of Washington.
INDEX CORRECTION.
26.05
On
31'
Arc.
50" 31 30 31 40
31'
359
Off Arc. 28' 45"
28 40 28 40
Index correction
=
40"
I
=
359
28'
n"
42"
From
the refraction table
we
find
Mean
refraction
Barometer factor
Thermometer
Therefore
= .880 = .946 r = 49". 2
=59".!
From
the
American Ephemeris we
p. 248, eq. hor.
p. 327,
find
it
parallax
$
equation of time
s
p. 327,
p.
327, semidiameter
= = = =
+ i842' i6".7 6 m I2
8
8". 72 .99
j
15'
47". 7
in Art. 52.
d
is
interpolated from the ephemeris by the
method explained
The ephemeris
the
Washington
given for the meridian of time of our observation.
is
Washington; therefore
3
h
we
require
Time
of observation
Approximate correction Approximate local time
Longitude
AT=
T
Washington time, July 28
= = = _
=
6
20
i
37 41 56
26". 3
7
44
41
s
19 41
22
jh
o
jgm o before noon of July 29
At noon, July
29,
d
18
41' 29". 6
Hourly change July 28 Hourly change July 29
= =
35". oo 35". 77
Therefore the correction to d
=
18
i
h
.3i7[
3577H77X
i
d
.O55]
At time of observation At noon July 29. eq. of time
Correction for
d
.
d
+ 47"= = =
42' i6".7
+ 6m
6m
12".
89
055
.10
12". 99
In taking E from the ephemeris, second differences need not be considered for this purpose, though it has been done in this case.
220
If
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
125.
a sidereal chronometer had been used we should have had into sidereal time, when only to convert the mean time t \
E
we should have had A T by comparing with the observed time It may be remarked also that in using a sidereal as now.
into
chronometer the observed sidereal time must be converted mean solar time for the purpose of taking d and E from
the ephemeris, since these are given' for mean solar time. In reducing such a series as this it is perhaps a little better
to reduce the readings on the two limbs separately; the two reductions will then mutually check each other. Of course the altitudes must be corrected for semidiameter. If a con
siderable
number
of series
have been reduced
in this
way
the observer can see, by comparing results, whether his personal equation is the same for both limbs.
125.
By a
single altitude
of a
star.
It will
be convenient to use a sidereal chronometer when
practicable.
Let
& =
<9
the true sidereal time of observation
;
= =
the chronometer time of observation
the chronometer correction.
;
Then t is computed the same as above recollecting that for a star the semidiameter and parallax will be inappreciable,
;
we have
,
@ =
= go(*'r); ...... (/ + )= + ^@;  @ ....... (/ + a)
(219)
(220)
125
TIME BY ALTITUDE OF A STAR,
2.
221
1878, July 29.3.
Example
West Las Aniraas, Colorado.
Observation of Arcturus for time.
Observer B.
Sidereal chronometer.
Negus
1590.
t = 49 t= 3" a = 14 6=17 Observed 9 = 18
7 29 I756.5 10 8 .2 28 4.7
= =
sidereal time
12
20.9
s
chron. reading
chron. cor. [Eq. (220)].
40
It will
=
44"'i6 .2
be seen that the numerical
work
is
somewhat
less
in case of a star than of the sun.
chronometer has been used, the sidereal time (t ] a) must be converted into mean solar time by (202), and the resulting value compared with the chronomesolar
In case a
mean
ter time.
222
Example
3.
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
a
West Las Animas, Colorado.
Coronce Borealis for time.
126.
1878, July 27.3.
Observation of
Observer B.
Mean
solar chronometer.
Negus
1326.
126. Conditions most favorable
altitude.
to
accuracy in determining time by a single
As our data will always be liable to more or less uncertainty, it becomes a matter of great practical importance to so arrange our observations that small
errors in the quantities regarded as computed value of /.
*
tial
known
shall
have the
least effect
on the
These quantities are written down so that we may employ them
formulae
in
when
computing the
differen
desirable.
(See Articles 128131.)
128.
DIFFERENTIAL FORMULAE.
require equations (121),
22$
As we
erence.
we
rewrite
/
/;
them here
sin
6"
for convenience of ref
cos h cos a
cos h sin a
sin h
=
cos 6 cos
sin <p
cog
sin
<p;
(<?)
}
>
.
.
cos
6"
sin
=
(f)
(121)
cos d cos
t
/
cos
cp \ sin
6"
(p.
(g) }
To determine
find
the effect
upon
entiating (g) with respect to h
of a small error in the measured altitude. Differand t and reducing by means of (f), we readily
dh
a
cp
dt
=
cos
.
<p sin
(221)
From
will
is
this
we
see that for a given latitude
effect
vertical.
a small error dh in the altitude
produce the least
on the prime
when sin a has its greatest value, viz., when the star Also, that for a constant positive error dh the error
the star
is
j r
produced
in / will
be
T when
of the meridian,
and may
therefore be eliminated by observing both east and west stars. (221) also shows that dt will be least when cos q> is greatest, that is, when favorable part of the earth's surface for this kind of deter<p is small; the most
mination being the equator. Effect of a small error in the assumed latitude
spect to
q>
(p.
Differentiating (g) with re(/),
and
t
and reducing by means
dt
of
(e)
and
we
find
=
tan a cos
dq>\
<p
is
(222)
is is
from which
tively small.
infinite.
it
appears that when the star
If
the star
is
near the prime vertical dt on the prime vertical, dt is zero, as tan a
rela
then
is not observed on the prime vertical, dt will disappear from the two observations at the same distance east and west of the meridian. Also, we see that an error dq> will have the least effect on / when the latitude is
If
the star
of
mean
near zero.
In the
same way we may
discuss the effect of a small error in
6";
but as no
is
stars will ever be likely to be used for this tain to
purpose whose declination
uncer
not practically a source of error. 127. From this discussion we see that a determination of time should always depend on observations of stars both east and west of the meridian; the observations should be made at as nearly the same azimuth as possible east and west,
any appreciable amount,
this is
and if two stars are employed it will be better if the declinations are nearly equal. dh may be regarded as including all of the undetermined errors of the instrument see Articles 115, 116, and 117 as well as constant errors of observation and refraction. Differential Formula,
128.
(p,
The numerical
values of the differential coefficients of ^with respect to
in tfie
d,
and zh are often convenient where the time has been determined
224
manner
just explained.
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Sometimes values
of
cp,
129.
are
d,
or
2/1
employed
in the
computation which are afterwards found to require small corrections. If these are so small that the second and higher powers may be neglected, the necessary correction of the hourangle may be found by the differential formula. Otherwise the computation must be repeated.
Let Acp, AS,
Alh
At
= =
small corrections to the values of the latitude, declination,
and double
altitude
employed;
the resulting correction to the hourangle.
Then, neglecting terms of the second and higher orders,
The
article,
differential coefficients
may be computed by the formulae of the previous but they are not convenient since they require a knowledge of the azi
muth.
129. For practical purposes a more convenient process is the following, where the numerical values of these coefficients are expressed in terms of the
differences of the logarithms employed.
Taking logarithms
of both
members
(224)
.
of (215),
we have
2 log sin \t
where
= S= Z> =
log sin
i> f
i>
S \(<p (0,
log sin
S)J = d)] =
D
J
log sec
cp \
log sec
5);
d).
)
<5;
.
_
S
'
 9o
 9o
 &A + i(<p  *2A  i(<? %t.
}
}
First differentiate (224) with respect to 2k
and
~r
We
find
2dl sin \t
'
~
_
dl sin
dS_
dih
'
dl sin
D
'
(W
'
dzh
dt
dS
d2h
~d\t
dD
i
.
d2h
dtf
From
(225),
^^ dl sin
t
dS
dD
Therefore we nave, writing
dt
^7_ ~
=
sin
Z//sm \t and
,
^//sin

S
ds
= A... Ism
S.
.
.
,
Al
S+
.
^?/sin
D
Hhh
4 Al sin \t
are the rates of change of the logaemployed. It requires, therefore, very little time to take these from the tables while computing t, as we have done in the
The
quantities
Al
sin S,
S,
Al sin
etc.,
D
.
.
rithms for the values of
D,
examples in the foregoing pages. Thus, in example i we have found Alsin
19 9, which is the change expressed in units of the last decimal place of log sin S produced by a change of i' in S. In practice the / sin of the angle 5' less than S is subtracted from that of the This is a little more accuangle 5' greater, and the difference divided by 10. rate than to take the difference between consecutive logarithms.
S=
131.
In our example
DIFFERENTIAL FORMULA.
S
22$
=
32
24'
= 9.72803 = 9.73002 Difference for 10' = 199 =A = ig.g Difference for Als\nD = 54.6 In like manner we have found AI i/ = 28.7
/sin 32 /sin 32
19'
29'
i'
sin.
Theref o re by(22 6),
,
=
A correction to the assumed value of 2/1 may result from*a variety of causes, such as the employment of values of the refraction, parallax, index error, or eccentricity, which are only approximately correct, or from errors in the preliminary computation. Suppose the value of
rection
2,h
Azh
i'.
Then
employed in example I was found to require the corthe resulting correction to the hourangle would be
At
130. For the value of
zdl sin $t
=
we
.649
X
60" 
=
2".
596.
^
'
differentiate (224) with respect to
t
and
d, viz.,
_
.
dl sec
d8_
dl sin
"T
i
S dS
' '
dd
dl sin
D dD
'
'
d$
~d\?
~~d\t
and from
,
dS
7\t
dS
7<5
1# ~r
~~d~D
~d8
,
(225),
^=dt
dS
;
dD =
^
.
Therefore
^
=
2 Al sec
d

Al sin S
J/sec
S,
^^T^Ti^
dt
8.6
+ Al sin D.....
J/sin
6",
~
'
+
.
i
.
( 22 7>
Substituting the numerical values of
ple
i,
etc.,
given in exam
we
find
_ ^=
If


19.9 4 54.6
574
754
'
require the correction
now, for example, the S with which the reduction Ad = i', we should have
is
made were found
to
131. For
d <p
we
differentiate with respect to <p
and
t.
viz.,
2dl sin \t
_
<//sin
S
dS
d<p
dl sin
d\t
dS
~
D dD
d
'
dtp
dl sec
~dl>
<p
dcp
'~d^'~d\t^
dD
~dt~\
'7i'
226
ds
Also,
dq>
dt_
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
132.
_ ~
_
x
.
~d(p
2'
2'
iAl sec
Therefore
<p
f
J/
sin
S
sin
D
(228)
sn
I
For our example
we have by
dt_
this
formula
_
19.8
4 19.9
574

54.6
__
26o
cor
d<?
and a correction of i to the assumed latitude produces a corresponding rection to the time of
At
=
60"
.260
=
i
8
.
04.
4
Probable Error.
132. By means of formula (226) we may reduce the time of each altitude to the time of the mean altitude for the purpose of comparing the individual meas
urements and computing the probable
will sufficiently explain the process.
error.
The
application to
example
i
The mean value of 2h is 89 10', so that each time will be reduced to the time Further, as one half the readings were made on corresponding to this altitude. the lower limb and one half on the upper limb, we must add to the latter and subtract from the former the time required for the sun to move in altitude over
an arc equal to the sun's semidiameter, or
the diameter.
in
double altitude a space equal to
Thus we have
see example
i
Semidiameter of sun Diameter of sun
From
dt
previous
article,
d2h
= S = 15' 47". 7; = 31'. 590. = .649. =
.649
Therefore reduction for semidiameter
X
31'.
590
15
X
60
=
82 8 .oi.
The
reduction
is
now
as follows:
Mean
=
404
134
DIFFERENTIAL FORMULAE.
formulae
(27),
22 7
Then by
probable error of single observation probable error of mean
=r = =r =
'.43;
8
.i4.
The reader must not fall into the error of supposing that this quantity represents the actual probable error of a determination of time by this method, since no account is here taken of the relatively large constant errors to which observations of this kind are liable.
hereafter.
The
subject will be considered
more
at length
(See Art. 156.)
Corrections for Refraction
and Motion
in Declination.
atmosphere and the sun's motion in declination 133. affect the computed value of At by small quantities, which it may be considered
refraction of the
The
desirable to take into account in a
Correction
more
refined discussion.
for Refraction.
lows that when as measured with the instrument, the actual space passed over
10'
Since refraction decreases with the altitude, it folthe sun's altitude increases by a given quantity 10' for example
is
greater than
by the difference of refraction for the first and last position. Thus, instead of simply Azh as used in our formula, we should employ Azh \ zAr, Ar being the difference between the refraction for altitude h and that for h f Ah. For our example we find for the mean altitude of the sun, viz., 44 34',
Change
in refraction
corresponding to
10' altitude
=
o".3O
=
zAr.
Therefore the correction to At corresponding to
Aih
=
10' is
.649
X
viz.,
=
= A't =
At
'.013
This must be added to the computed interval,
25^.96
25 .973
8
not constant, but
altitude to
134. Correction far Sun's Motion in Declination. Since the sun's declination is is ever increasing or diminishing, the time required for the
change by a given amount will be slightly modified by this cause. For our example with Aih = 10' we find At = 25". 97. Referring to the example, we have found the hourly motion in declination to be 35". 7; there.
fore in the interval 25 s 97 the change
is
".26.
By formula
(227)
we have found
for this
example do ^
"
=
".013.
.754.
Therefore correction to At
Therefore the
final
.754
X
26

=+
Azh
value of
At corresponding
to
=
10' is 25 9 .986.
228
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
'US
If both limbs are reduced together, as in our example, the reduction for semidiameter should be corrected 'for motion in declination, but not for refraction since both limbs are observed at the same altitude.
Determination of Time by Equal Altitudes.
135.
By a
star observed at equal altitudes east
and west of the
meridian.
the star is at some distance nearer the prime vertical the better), measure with the sextant a series of five or more altitudes in the manner already explained (Arts, in, 112, and 113); then, a short time before the star reaches the
Method of
observing.
When
east of the meridian (the
altitude in the west, set the vernier at the reading of the last altitude and observe the same number of alti
same
Some observers tudes as before at the same readings. prefer to take only one reading east and then lay the instrument where nothing will disturb it until it is time for In this way both observations are the west observation. secured at absolutely the same altitude so far as it depends on the reading of the instrument but there is the objection that only one reading can be made, which more than neutralizes the advantage. No correction for index error, refracor parallax is required. tion, Now, as the declination is constant and the altitudes the same, the numerical values of the hourangle measured east and west of the meridian will be equal. Suppose a sidereal chronometer used. Let
;
= = AS =
0'
"
the chronometer time of the first observation; the chronometer time of the second observation; the chronometer correction.
Then
its
the sidereal time of the star's meridian passage equals right ascension a.
136.
EQUAL ALTITUDES OF A STAR.
a For the first observation For the second observation a
22$
f
= =
@'

J<9
t\
t.
"\
A
From which
east
J
=
a
 (' +
")
.....
m
5i
s
(229)
Example i. 1856, March igth, equal altitudes of Arcturus and west of the meridian were observed as follows
:
West of
East of meridian, meridian,
&
@"
a
n
h
=
4
21
13
.5
17
30.0
io.75
From
ephemeris,
Therefore
J
= = =
14
14
9
7.11
8
4
m
3 .64
136. If a mean time chronometer is employed, the sidereal time of the star's culmination (which is equal to the right ascension) must be converted into mean time, and this compared with the mean of the observed times as before.
Example 2. 1856, March I5th, equal altitudes of Spica were observed as below, the time being noted by a mean time chronometer:
Latitude
cp
=
33
i
56'
8 13" s6 from Greenwich.
Longitude
CHRONOMETER.
East.
L
h
SEXTANT.
CHRONOMETER.
West.
2 h 40"" 38".
Double
s
.
Alt.
I0
h
20
ra
5
104
O'
20 20
28
55
10
40
39
10.5
42
20
T'
= "} =
io h 20
12
27 .83
8
T"
ephemeris,
=
2h
40
17
m
ioM7
37 .92
30
19.0
From
Then
Art. 95
a =
=
V
13
from ephemeris
23
13
32
53.22
9 V=
Table
II,
44
2
44.70
15 .12
ephemeris,
Mean
time
i(T' f T") Therefore A T
= = =
13 12
\i
42
30
12
29.58 19.00
10 .58
230
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
137.
137. By equal altitudes of the sun. This method is less simple when applied to the sun, for the reason that the sun's declination cannot be considered constant for the interval of time between the morning and afternoon observations. The mean of th& observed times will not therefore be the time of meridian passage as in case of a star. The correction due to this cause is called the equation of equal altitudes. To determine its value we proceed as follows
:
Let
Ad
=
Then tAd
dt
= =
t
the hourly change in declination taken from the Nautical Almanac. the total change in d in the time /
;
change produced
in /
by the increment tAd of
#.
Then
since
=
first,
and neglecting terms of higher order than the
dt
(230)
To
determine
/
^ we
and
d
q>
differentiate the last of equations (121)
viz.,
with respect to
dt
tf,
dd
_ ~
sin cp cos
cos
cos cp sin 8 cos cos d sin t
t
_ tan ~
<p
tan d
'
sin /
tan
/
Therefore substituting
15, as 8t
is
required in
this value in (230), and dividing by seconds of time, we find
tan
<T1
Ad
used, and let
Now suppose a
T"
mean time chronometer
= chronometer times of east and west observation,
138.
EQUAL ALTITUDES OF THE SUN.
will
231
Then
/
dt
=
t f
dt
E
Then
the hourangle of the A.M. observation the hourangle of the P.M. observation equation of time.
;
;
E=
E
T'
T"
+ AT+ dt) from A.M. observation 4T + df) from P.M. observation. +
(t (t
;
From which
T")*f] .....
(232)
Example 3. 1856, March 5th, at the U. S. Naval Academy the sun was observed east and west of the meridian as
follows
:
East,
T'
West,
T"
T')
= ih =8
= = =
3
h
8 m 26 8 .6
45 48
41 .7
B
Latitude
<p
=
=
%(T"
m
37
.5
2 m i6 8 Longitude from Washington
L=
38
59'
57
9'
b 3 .8io
From ephemeris, d Equation of time
}(^'+ r")4
dt
h
57
ii
m
= E= AS =
5

46'
35*.
nm
= =
= =
n
4
*8".io
=
4M5
15.18
35 .11
E
+
\
tan
sin
<p
t
=
9.9081
tan d
tan
/
9.oo42 n
.1900
8.8i42 n
AT
4 45
h
m
9.9243
9.9838
1.1696
13".
86
*A
=
*B
log
/
1.1980
.5809
1.7642
log
AS log^ =
log 8t
8.8239
1.
=
1812
138. Equal altitudes of the sun observed in the afternoon of one day and the morning of the day following. In this case the mean of the observed times plus the neces* See tables of addition and subtraction logarithms.
232
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY,
138.
sary corrections will be the time of the sun's passing the lower branch of the meridian, or midnight.
Let
t'
=
the sun's hourangle, reckoned from the lower branch of the meridian.
180
sin t
Then
*'
=*+
;
=
sin t
f
;
tan
/
=
tan
f
t
.
Therefore for this case (231) becomes
n
c
tan
and the clock correction
except that for
will
E we
write I2 h
f
be given by E.
(232), as before,
Example 4. 1856, May 3d. The altitude of the sun being observed on the afternoon of the 3d and the morning of the 4th as follows, required the correction of the chronometer
at midnight.
T =
1
6 h 54m io8 .3
Latitude south
T" =21
"
T')
917 5
h
Longitude
W.
of
Wash.
= <p = 43 = L = j gh =
15
21'
i
ra
40*
=
/'
= =
7
m 7 34V
53'
From ephemeris, S
Equation of time
15'
t'
=106
JS =
/'
h 7 .i26
E=
tan
+ 43".76 m
3
i8 8 .67
i(T"
= I2 h + ^ = II
dt
+
T =
1
)
I4
h
i
m
43 9
9
tan
<P
22.2
56
sin t r
= 99750 = 9.9809
1.0764
tan S
/'
= =
9.4356
.5I79
41 .33
AT'=
2h
4
m
40
8
.4
A =
B
log
1.1114
.8528
1.6411
AS = log TV =
6V)
log
t
8.8239
1.3469^
log
(
=
140.
LATITUDE,
233
139. The chief advantages possessed by the method oi determining time by equal altitudes are the following: the computation is very simple, and no corrections are required for parallax, refraction, semidiameter, or instrumental errors, nor is a knowledge of the latitude required, except very roughThe disadvantages are the di ffily, when the sun is employed.
culty and often impossibility of obtaining the observations at exactly the same altitude, owing to clouds or other hinder
changes which often take place in the rebetween the morning and afternoon. A correction for this last mentioned source of error may be computed by means of a differential formula, but it has not been thought
ances
;
also, the
fraction
necessary to develop
it
here.
Latitude.
have seen (Art. 63) that the astronomical latitude 140. of any place is equal to the declination of the zenith of that The place, or to the elevation of the pole above the horizon. distinctions between the different kinds of latitude, as defined
We
must be borne in mind. We are at present only with the astronomical latitude as there defined. It is dealing perhaps unnecessary to state that all formulas derived will be applicable to either north or south latitude, care being
in Art. 73,
taken to use the proper algebraic signs:
and declinations being
j
^^s.
First Method.
141. By the zenith distance of a star observed on Resuming the last of equations (121),
the meridian.
2 34
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
cos z
141.
=
sin cp sin
d
is
[
cos
cp
cos d cos
/,
we know
that
when
t
the star
on the meridian,
cos
t
i.
=
o;
Therefore
we have
cos z
#
=
d
cos
=
(<p
<p
tf)
;
<p
and
=
tf
<s.
.
.
(234)
By
see
#, zS z, and we readily referring to the figure, ES that in the above formula the sign will be for a
=
=
The same formula applies to a star S" observed below the If we reckon the declination on that branch of the mepole.
ridian
which contains the observer's
zenith, or,
what
is
the
142.
LATITUDE.
thing,
if
235
#), it
same
we
replace 8 in formula (234) by (180
then becomes
9=
(180

*)

*
(235)
Second Method.
142.
By a
circumpolar star observed at both upper
and lower
culmination.
From
(234)
we have
cp cp
For upper culmination For lower culmination
= =
=
180
$ $
z 1 z
;
.
The mean
of
which gives
cp
.90
\(z
\
z'\
(236)
has this advantage, viz., that the latitude way does not require a knowledge of the of the star; it is therefore especially adapted to the place determination of the latitude of a fixed observatory, where it
The method
determined
in this
is
desirable to
make
the results independent of
done at other places.
what has been As will appear hereafter, when extreme
accuracy is required there will be a small correction necessary for the change in d between the first and second observaThe result is also affected by whatever error there tion. may be in the tabular value of the refraction used.
The
1875,
following example will
:
illustrate
both the above
methods
November nth,
at the
zenith distance of Polaris
Washington observatory the was observed as follows
:
Upper culmination z Lower culmination z'
= =
49 45' 22". 2
52
27' 2o".o
;
.
236
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
the Nautical
143.
From
Almanac we
6
z
Polaris at the time of
find for the declination of culmination at Washington upper
:
Nov.
ii. 4,
= = = = =
88
39'
2". 8
49 45
38 88
52
22
.2
Therefore, formula (234), Also for lower culmination,
<p
=
S
11.9,
z
53' 40". 6
Nov.
39
27
3 .o
Z
1
20 .0
d Then formula (236) gives (p = 180 The mean of these values gives us By the second method we have
cp
z'
cp
= 38 = 38
=
38
53' 37". o
53' 38". 8
=
90

i(z
+
*>)
53' 38".
9
Third Method.
By an altitude of a star observed known. being
143.
,
;
in
any position, the time
the right ascension, and the sidereal time, is known the declination, are taken from the Nautical Almanac. 6,
,
We then have
This will be given
to reduce
it
t
=&
a.
in time,
to arc.
We
cp
and must be multiplied by
cos
15
then have
sin d
f
sin
h
=
sin
(p
cos
tf
cos
/
;
in
which q> is the only unknown quantity. For solving the equation introduce two auxiliaries, <a?and D, determined by the equations
d sin
D
=
sin
d
;
d cos D
cos 6 cos
....... ......
/
(a)
(a')
The above equation then becomes, by
of
substituting the value
d from
(a\
cos
((p
D)
sin
h
sin
D cosec $.
143
ALTITUDE OBSERVED AT ANY HOURANGLE.
(a)
Dividing
by
(a'}
to determine D,
cp
:
we have
the following
formulae for determining
tan
D
D)
tan d sec
sin
/
;
)
cos
(<p
h sin
D cosec
d.
}
D
is
taken less than 90,
+ or +
which
according to the algebraic
.
sign of the tangent. (y> the cosine, may be either
D), being determined in terms of There will therefore be or
will satisfy the
above condian approximate value of the latitude will Practically always be known with accuracy sufficient for deciding this ambiguity.
of the latitude
tions.
two values
Example. On March 4th, 1882, I observed the following double altitudes of Polaris with a Pistor & Martins prismatic
sextant and artificial horizon
:
From
Nautical
ih
Almanac
m
6."o
:
=
i5
88
41' 6".2
cosec S
=
.0001144
D
h
<?
88
=
=
57 23 .6
.8
tan
D=
1.7396021*
sin
S in
D
h
39 33 38
I2 9
= =
9.9999279*
9.8040688
D=
<p
33 55 4
.8
cos
(cp
D)
9.8041111*
40 36 31
238
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
:
H5
In this example there is no ambiguity cos (9 D) being negative, the angle must be in the second or third quadrant. If we had taken it in the third quadrant we should have
found
is
cp
141
+.
As
<p is
never greater than 90, this value
in
any case excluded.
144. Effect of Errors in the Data upon the Latitude determined by an Altitude
of a
Star.
Differentiating equation
(),
Art. 126, regarding h
and
q>
as variable, and
reducing by equation
(e),
we
readily find
From
effect
this
we
on the
latitude
see that a small error in the measured altitude will have the least when the star is on the meridian.
q>
Again, differentiating the same equation with respect to
ing,
and
/,
and reduc(239)
we
readily find
d<p
=
tan a cos tpdt
<p of
;
.......
dt, in
from which
it appears that the effect upon angle will be least when a is zero or 180.
a small error,
the hour.
It appears, therefore, that the latitude will be determined with greater accuWhen the star is very near the racy the nearer the star is to the meridian. meridian the method which follows will be preferable.
Fourth Method.
145.
By
circummer idian
altitudes.
When
the latitude
is
determined by the altitude of a star observed on the meridian, the accuracy is greater than in any other position, and at the same time the computation is extremely simple. We can, however, only measure one altitude when the star is on the meridian; and frequently at the time when the observation is made we shall not know the chronometer correction with
this observation should be taken.
accuracy for determining the exact instant when If, however, altitudes are measured near the meridian (how near we shall discuss later), the observed altitudes may be reduced to the meridian altitude by a simple computation. It will thus be possible to
sufficient
145
LATITUDE BY CIRCUMMERID1AN ALTITUDES.
239
make a considerable number of measurements instead
ing on one alone.
of rely
applied observation is begun if possible a few minutes before culmination, and a series of altitudes measured in quick succession so as to have about the same number on each side of the meridian. Altitudes measured in this manner are called circummethis
is
When
method
ridian altitudes.
not essential, however, that the series should be symmetrical with respect to the meridian the method is equally applicable to the reduction of one or more altitudes taken on either side of the meridian if sufficiently near.
It
is
;
Let h h
ZQ
= = =
any altitude
angle / the altitude
;
of a star corresponding to the houris
when the star the zenith distance 90
=
on the meridian d k = <p
Q
;
Then
sin
h
=
sin
cp
sin d

cos
g>
cos # cos
sin
2
t.
Let us write for cos
t its
value,
12
2
/.
Then
the above equation becomes
sin
h
=
cos z
=
cos
(p
(<p
6)
cos
/
cp
cos d 2
sin'J/.
(a)
(b)
Let us write
cos
cos d 2 sin
=y
y,
Then
or
(a)
becomes
cos z
cos z9
z
= f(y\
(c)
This expression
of ascending
may now be expanded into a series in terms powers of y, and when / is small the series will
is
converge rapidly if # is not too small. Maclaurin's formula applied to this case
as follows
:
24O
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
146.
we
z o, z Differentiating (c) and observing that when y find the following values of the differential coefficients
:
=
ldz\ _ ~~
i
\d] y
sm
;
Substituting these values in (d) and restoring the value of
y,
we
find
cos
<
cos
.
cos
<
cos
cot * 2
tz?
c*os
(y
\
^
(r*o^ sln~o
2
j
l(i+3
4
cot ^ )2 sin
2
6
i/.
.
.
.
(240)
In this equation 2 sin ^/, 2 sin ^/, etc., are expressed in terms of the radius. The equation must be made homogeneous by introducing the divisor sin i" where necessary.
1x84
cos 
cp
cos d
.
(24 I)
+^
/>
f+f^T \^\JL
ty
\
&Qj
I O
_
*
"
xi
j
ft
Then we have
<p
=
3
z
=F
^^
^
=F 6^.
.
.
.
(242)
146. This computation is made very simple by the use of and n are given with the argument / extable VIII, where
m
pressed in
As A
have,
If
time (the last term, Co, is seldom used). and B will be constant for the entire series,
we
shall
z^ zv
lt
<sr
3,
etc., z^,
etc.,
m m M
a,
m^
are the observed zenith distances, the corresponding values of taken
m
from the
table,
148.
LATITUDE BY CIRCUMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES.
n,, etc.,
24!
n^ the corresponding values
of
,
<p
<?
= =
=
#
.
j^ =F
<?
*a
=F
^*, 4,
^*0 M
#
9?
tf
2^ =F
The mean
of these equations will then be
=
*
<*
L 
147. It will be observed that an approximate value of the When the observalatitude is required for computing A.
tions extend on both sides of the meridian a sufficiently close
approximation
may always be obtained by taking the largest measured altitude and calling this the meridian altitude or, better, take the mean of this in connection with that immediately preceding and following it. If the altitudes are all measured on one side of the meridian, or if for any reason a value of (p has been used which proves to be considerably in error, it may be necessary to repeat the computation of A, using for cp the value found from the first computation. In that case only the correction Am need be computed in the first approximation, and only three or four altitudes reduced.
;
148. Let us now examine separately the terms of equation (240) in order to see how far from the meridian the observations may be extended without intro
ducing into the resulting latitude inadmissible errors.
Taking the
last term, viz.,
/cos
I
.
cp
.
\sin (q>
cos
3
<5\ o/
jrl d)f
d,
K! f
2 3 C0t 2
x
2sinH/
)
r ftsin i"
=
Co,
for
any given values of
(p
and
we can compute
the value of
/,
for
which
this
242
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
I
4 8.
readily see that when quantity will have any value, as, for instance, i". the zenith distance of the star is large the observations may be extended much The following table gives the further from the meridian than when it is small.
We
hourangle, for which this term has the value i" for different values of o, then 40 and d Thus, referring to the table, we see that if cp
=
=
<p
t
and
40
d.
;
=
committed in neglecting this term amounts to i" only when the star is 40 from the meridian. If <p = 40 and d = 23 about the maximum declination of the sun, then / = 2Om
or, in this case, the error
.
LIMITING HOURANGLE AT WHICH THE THIRD REDUCTION AMOUNTS TO ONE SECOND.
Let us
now
consider the term
/cos cp cos
\sin (q>

^1 cot
z
=
Bb.
_,
sin
i
In a precisely similar manner we can compute the limiting values of /, within which this term is less than i". The table is computed in this way from it we find that in the first of the above cases / = i6 m in the second, / = 9.
; ;
LIMITING HOURANGLE AT WHICH THE SECOND REDUCTION AMOUNTS TO ONE SECOND.
149
LATITUDE BY CIRCUMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES.
*
243
If we are able to choose our own times for observing, we can always make our measurements so near the meridian that these terms may be neglected.
As
limits
error.
will
i"
is much within the error of an ordinary sextant measurement, the may be extended somewhat beyond those of the table without serious /
We may, in a similar manner, determine for what values of have the values o".i, o".oi, or any other value.
Lower Culmination.
Co or Bn.
the star is observed near the meridian at lower the hourangles should be reckoned from the culmination, lower branch of the meridian. This is equivalent to substithen have ^ in the formula in place of /. tuting 180
149.
When
+
We
cos z
=
sin q> sin
t
d
i
cos
g>
9
cos d cos
/.
Writing, as before, cos
this
=
2 sin ^/,
,
becomes
cos z
cos
(<p
+
tf) f
cos
9 cos
# 2 sin 2 J/.
Expanding
this as before,
and remembering that for lower
(235),
culmination we
have, from
and therefore
* cos 2Q
=
=
180
cos
(<?
+
),
((p f 6),
we
readily obtain
,
cos
<p
cos
#2 sin
2
!/
,
/cos
(p
cos
tf
or
z
cp
9
z
and
=
180
<$
+ Am + Bn, ..... (z + Am + Bn).
.
(245)
(246)
.
as (235)
This formula might have been obtained from (240) exactly is from (234), viz., by d. simply changing into 180 The hourangle is obtained by simply taking the difference
244
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
#
149.
between the chronometer time
nation.*
of observation
and of culmi
= star's right ascension = sidereal time of culmination JO = chronometer correction, + when chronometer is slow. Then (a A) = chronometer time of culmination.
Let a
;
If
then
'
is
the chronometer time of any observation,
/='_(*_ J0)
Formula for Latitude by Circummeridian Altitudes of a
(247)
Star.
=@ COS A_
t
(a
q>

COS $
2 sin
.
sin z9
4
n
9?
cp
=
= =
d
180
(<sr
d
(z }
^M ^), upper culmination Am\ Bn\ lower culmination.
+
;
J
Example of Latitude by Circummeridian
1873,
Altitudes.
Observer Boss.
August
20.
a
AquilcB observed for Latitude.
Instruments: Sextant and Sidereal Chronometer.
Therefore
= = Chronometer correction A = From ephemeris, right ascension of star a = A = chronometer time of culmination = a Star's declination 8 =
Assumed latitude q> Assumed longitude L
the chronometer
1
49 01'
j
ih
4i 22
m
i8 8
50
37". 5
ig
h
44
7
32'
20
8
27
.5
n".5
account
*
If the rate of
is
appreciable
it
must be taken
into
For the simplest manner of doing
this see Art. 152.
149
LATITUDE BY CIRCUMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES.
245
B=
1.169
The observations and method of reduction are shown in the following tabular statement, which will be sufficiently explained by reference to formulae (XIII).
Mean h
Index error
Eccentricity
= =
49 33' 59". 8
i
\yv\
=$/=
r
=^=
51 .5
r
r
10
.1
= =
343.35
3".9
I
.3
Refraction
473
*
It is
Jt is
easy to see in advance than the term introduced here to illustrate the method.
Bn
is
inappreciable in this case.
246
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Corrected altitude Zenith distance
Declination
z
150.
d
Resuking
latitude q>
= 49 = 40 = 8 = 49
31' io".9
28 49
.1
32
i
n
o
.4
.5
i".3
tion separately, the
not considered necessary to reduce each observawork is abridged somewhat by the following process [see Art. (146)]
If it is
:
Mean
of
m=
22". 6
=
m'
Am'
=
22".6
150. In the formulae
meridian altitudes
tically
which we have derived for circumwe have supposed the declination prac;
constant during the interval of observation. this is not the case but the same method may be used if we take for d the mean of the declinations corresponding to each time of observation, or, what is practically the same, the declination corresponding to the mean of the It is, however, better to reduce each altitude sepatimes. rately for the purpose of estimating the accuracy of the final
With the sun
and as a partial check against error of computation. formulae (XIII) are used, the declination must be interpolated for the time of each altitude this considerably augments the labor of reduction. This additional labor may be
result
If
;
avoided by the method which follows.
151
CIRCUMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES OF THE SUN.
247
Gauss
Method of Reducing Circummer idian Observations of
the Sun.
method the hourangle is reckoned from the where the sun reaches his maximum altitude instead of point from the meridian. The meridian declination may then be
151. In this
used in reducing
all of
the observations.
Let # d
= = Ad m
t
the sun's meridian declination; the declination corresponding to hourangle t\ hourly change in tf given in the Nautical Al
manac,
\
when
the sun
is
moving
N.;
the hourangle given in seconds of time.

Then
and
Ad
=
the change in
tf
in
one second,
d
=
+
Ad
t
.......
(248)
Also, since 8
= f(t\
by neglecting terms
of higher order than the
first.
Then
(250)
9
The
=*+
$o
+ tfi
I PL
.
dd
~
cos
(p
cos #
^T
is in

2
sm
i* et c.
peculiarity of the process
t
the
method by which
For
this pur
the small term
j
is
taken into account.
t
pose
we determine
the value of
,
corresponding to the maxit.
mum
value of h by placing
equal to zero and solving for
Take the equation
sin
h
=
sin
cp
sin
d
f
cos
(p
cos d cos
t.
248
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
and
I
5 I.
Differentiating with respect to k,
d,
t,
and placing ^=
o,
we have
.
cos h
dh 
(sm
cp
cos 3
dd
cos
9?
sin
tf
cos
/)
77
 cos (p cos
tf
sin /
= o.
(251)
As / will be very small, no appreciable error will be introduced by making cos t = i, when the above equation readily
gives
dd
77
<afr
cos =^ sin
cp
cos d
^r d)
sm
t.
...
(252)
((p
In this
of
t is
maximum
t
altitude.
the hourangle of the sun corresponding to the To distinguish it from the general value
it is
call it /,
and as
small
we may
cp
write
d$
'*
cos
cos 8
^n^r~^
7
PL
.....
it
(253)
Substituting
this
value of

in
equation (250),
becomes
.
sin ^
s n5
_
is
Since write
^
will
always be small when
this
method
used, let us
sin J/
=
9
%t,
whence
ty
2 sin
2
\t
Then
2 sin \t

=
%(f

2ty
+ /)
= %t\  J/
Passing back from the angles to the sines and making the
151.
CIRCUMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES OF THE SUN.
\'
',
249
equa
terms homogeneous by introducing the divisor sin
tion (254)
becomes
cos
<p
cos
tf
2 sin
2
\y
^ (/
y)
cos
q>
cos d
2 sin*
sin
sin i"
The term
cos
cp
cos
sin #
 s
.
2 sin ^ j/
.
sm rr
I
is
always very small, and
in
the solution of the problem as given by Gauss it was negIts computation only requires one additional logalected.
rithm, and
work
but in reducing sextant is therefore very simple perhaps an excess of refinement to retain it. We now require a convenient formula for computing y. Equation (253) may be written
;
it is
y
since
If
15
sm
" i"
sn
cos
cp
Q
3. =, cos d dt
.
.
.
(256)
y will be required in seconds of time. we replace dd by the number of seconds
we have
dd
'
of arc
in
which d
seconds
increases in one hour, and dt
of arc,
by one hour expressed
Ad
54000*
dt
Then from
(256)
sin ^
206265
sin
(257)
y=
[9.40594]
Ad 
................
(258)
25O
It will
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
frequently be accurate enough to take
152.
y
=
^j.
A
y
is
added algebraically
is
to the
chronometer time of
this
cul
mination; the result
altitude.
the chronometer time of
maximum
The
difference
is (t
between
y].
and the chronometer
time of observation
Formula for Latitude by Circummeridian Altitudes of the Sun.
=
[940594] ~A\
/ Z?
/I
T
\
.A.
,
(XIV)
2 sin"
Ut
sin
\
sin i"
<p
=z+
#
+ x*
Am + Bn.
of Chronometer.
Correction for Rate
152. If the times are recorded by a chronometer which has a large rate, the hourangle used in formulae (XIII) and (XIV) may require a correction. This correction can be applied in a very simple manner, as follows Suppose first a star to be observed by a sidereal chro:
nometer which has a daily rate
is losing.
#, f when the chronometer Then 24 actual sidereal hours correspond to 24h tf@,
all
as
shown by the chronometer, and
Let
/
/'
hourangles given in
units of chronometer time will be in error in a like ratio.
= =
any hourangle as shown by the chronometer;
true value of the hourangle.
neglected without serious error
*x
may always be
when
2o is
not too small.
152.
CORRECTION FOR RATE OF CHRONOMETER.
~~
t
251
2 4h
24
h

d
~~
86400
s
86400
s

n
""
86400J
Then in formula (XIII) we
If
shall
have with practical accuracy
sin \t'
2
:
sin i*
=
/':*;
2
sin \t'
=
k sin
.
\t.
factor k or log k may be conveniently tabulated with the argument rate ; and as it will be constant in any series
of observations, it may be combined with the factor^, will then be computed by the formula
The
which
A =
k
is
.
k
COS 
cp
r
sin #
cp
f
COS d
'
.
.....
(260)
VIII, C. observed with a mean time chronometer whose rate is <5T, the factor Vk will convert the chronometer intervals into mean time intervals we then require the factor [A* 1.00273791 to convert these mean time intervals into sidereal intervals. The formula for computing A will then be
given
in table
is
If
a star
;
A
where log
If
//
,
k}
  .....
cos
cos 8 z9
sin
,
(261)
.0011874.
is
observed with a mean time chronometer the intervals of the chronometer corrected for rate will not correspond exactly to the solar intervals, as these will be apparent time intervals.
the sun
* See Art.
93.
252
If
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
152.
the increase of the equation of time in then (one apparent solar day) = (one mean solar one day, the chronometer rate on apSE, and $T  $E day) parent time, k will then be given by the formula
let tiE

we
=
=
k>
=
6 T
86400
Finally,
if
the sun
is
observed with a sidereal chronometer,
to convert the sidereal inter
we must
vals into
introduce the factor
mean time
intervals.
The log 
9.9988126.
'the
The
formulas for
four cases are then as follows
:
k
=
86400J
r
86400
_ Star with sidereal chronometer, Star with
A =
.
k
cos
q> r
cos
6"
;
sin ZQ
mean time chronometer, A
=
n
_
cos
<p
r
cos d
;
(XV)
[0.002375]^
sin ZQ
;
Sun with mean time chronometer, Sun with
sidereal chronometer,
A =
k
,,
cos
<z>
cos 8
sin z
A =
'
[9.997625]^'
sin.
.
#o
k and
k'
are taken from table VIII, C.
Determination of latitude by circummeridian altitudes of the sun.
Example.
1869, July 24th.
Des Moines, Iowa.
Sextant and
Observer Harkness.
Instruments:
Mean Time Chronometer.
from the ephemeris for the
The
declination, equation of time, etc., are taken
152.
CIRCUMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES OF SUN.
Des Moines
253
instant of the sun's meridian passage at
=
i
h
6 m 16* apparent
time at Washington.
Assumed
Latitude
_
<p
=
41
35'.$
h
Longitude
L=
Chronometer correction
From ephemeris,
Equation of time Semidiameter
Equatorial hor. parallax
4 7^ = S = 4$ = E= S=
TT
+
i
6 m i6
18
46'
6
19
8.9
i6".i
31 .94
j~
m I2 8 .o
15'
=
and B.
47". 2
8 .44
Computation of
<?
A
S
zQ
,4
= = = =
4i355
19 46.3 21 49.2
1.893
cos cos
= 9.8738 = 9.9736
.4298
cosec
log
log cot z
A
1
= 0.5544 = .3975
.9519
,4=
.2772
log
B=
B=
8.95
Computation of y.
Constant log
i
Computation of x*.
INDEX ERROR.
On
arc.
Off arc.
33'
= log A8 =
log log y
9 4059
i.5043 n
2 sin'2 \y sin i"
_
=
.02
29'
5"
60"
10
TO
29'
8". 3
40
50 J
33'
=9.7228
x
50"
i
y
= =
.6330,1
/
=
f 2'
20".
4
8
3
For the chronometer time of culmination we have
Equation of time
AT = 
E=
y=Chronometer time of max.
alt.
oh 6 m I2 8 .o 6 18 8.9 43
6 h 24 m i6*.6
=
The
difference
between
this quantity
and the observed time
T is
the quantity
(ty).
* In
reducing sextant observations
x may always
be disregarded.
254
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
reductions are
152
The observations and
now
as follows
:
Upper limb
Lower
limb
Mean
h
Semidiameter
Refraction
Parallax
Index
cor.
= = r = / = \I =
Q
S
68
25' 2i".2

67
53'
45"6
15
47
.2
+ +
f
!5
47
2
21 .6
ff
21 .8
3 i
i
32
i
10 .4
14
.8
10 .4 14
.8
Eccentricity
\E
A
j
+
68
10'
Corrected
Mean
Resulting
= = z = 5 = latitude cp =
h
68 68
21
10' 40". 7 10' 40". o
39".4
49 20
35'
19 46 16
41
36"
The observations of the above series, it will be noticed, were all taken before the sun reached the meridian, and so far from the meridian that the term Bn has a very appreciable value.
It is
a
little
better to take the observations near
the meridian
will
144.)
produce
practicable, as then small errors in less effect on the resulting latitude. (See Art.
when
AT
The above
observations
may be reduced by
the
method
of Art. 146 if it is not considered necessary to compare the individual results. The labor is considerably less, as will be
seen by the following
Mean
of
:
chronometer times
=
6h 6
23
AT = True mean time Longitude from Washington
9 18 51 6
47*. 8
8.9
38 .9 16
L =
i
Washington mean time
=
o 57
549
I$2.
CIRCUMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES OF SUN.
2 $5
this
The declination of the sun is now to be taken from the ephemeris for mean time of observation, instead of the instant of meridian passage as in
previous method.
the
Thus
S = E=
19
46' 23". 8;
6 ra i2 s .o.
This value of
E
is
the chronometer time
now the mean we have
time of the sun's meridian passage.
For
E=
oh
6 6
JT=
'Chronometer time of the sun's meridian passage
6 m I2.o;
18
24
8.9; 20 .9.
Am =794
.7
Bn
=
3". 9
The number of observations on the two limbs being the same, the sermdiameter will be eliminated by taking the mean of the individual values.
Mean
of sextant readings
Index correction
Eccentricity
= ih = = /= E=
135
f
53'
oo".8
2
20
29
.8
.7
+
= 135 Corrected reading k = 67 r = Refraction Parallax / = + f Am = +  Bn = = 68 Corrected altitude z = 21 d = 19 41 q> = Resulting latitude
55' 51". 3
57 55 .6 21 .7
32
13
14 .7
3 .9
10'
47".9
49 12 46 24
35'
36"
2 $6
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
The rate of the chronometer was The daily increase of the equation
153.
'.47
8T
of time
dE = j5 r  SE = 
.63
i
.
10
Therefore the log k (See Art. 152.) 9.999989. The correction for rate is therefore absolutely inappreciable.
=
Fifth Method.
have alBy Polaris observed at any hourangle. seen (method third) how the latitude may be obtained ready have by an altitude of a star, observed in any position.
J 53
We
We
also applied the formulae Polaris.
deduced to a
series of altitudes of
A more convenient formula than the one there used is obtained by expanding the expression for the latitude into a series in terms of ascending powers of the polar distance. The
latter, in case of Polaris, being at present only about i 20', the series will converge rapidly, and a very few terms give an approximation sufficiently accurate for every practical
purpose.
Let
/
q>
= =
90 h

d
x.
=
the polar distance;
Then x is the correction which is to be applied to the measured altitude corrected for refraction to produce the latitude, x can never be greater than /.
Substituting these values in
sin
it
h
=
sin cp sin
d

cos
cp
cos 8 cos
tt
becomes
sin
h
sin (h
sin (h
x)
cos/
+ cos (h
x)
x) sin/ cos
t.
(a)
Expanding
x) and cos (h
by Taylor's, and
153
LATITUDE BY POLARIS.
4
257
far as
/ and cos / by Maclaurin's formula, we have, as terms of the order/ and x\
sin
sin
(Jix)
sin
= sin h
2
cos (h
;r)=cos h\i
x cos // x sin h
^x* sin h \x* cos h
+ \x* cos h
\x* sin
\ fax*
sin h\
cos/
p=pW*\ =  i/ +
(a),
Substituting these values in
we
readily obtain
Jl
3
x
p
cos
/
i(V
2xp cos
3
/ 
/') tan
2
+
Which
(b)
3
K*"
3*> cos ^ + 3r/ / cos /) 4* / cos ^+6^ / 4^> cos ^+/
2
3
(
4
)
tan
>^.
contains
all
terms in/ and
^r,
from the
first
first
to the
fourth orders inclusive,
tion let
x must now be determined from
For the
approxima
by successive approximations.
x
= p cos t .........
,
(c)
Substituting this value in the second term of (b) and retain2 ing terms of the order/ we find for the second approximation
x
p
cos
t
i/
8
sin t tan
2
h
.....
(d)
Substituting this value in the second and third terms of (&) 3 of the order/ we find the third approximation, viz.,
and retaining terms
,
x
=/
cos
/
J/ sin
2
2
/
tan h
3
f
J/
cos
/ sin
3
1.
.
(e)
Similarly for the fourth and final approximation,
x
=p
cos
t
^/ i/
2
sin
2
/
4
4
sin /
+ i/ cos sin tanYz + ^/ (4 Qsin
tan h
3
2
t
/
2
4
/)
sin
2
/tan
/*.(
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
153.
As x and / will be expressed in seconds of arc, the series must be made homogeneous by multiplying/ by sin i",/ by sin i", and/ by sin \"
2 3
2
3
.
Then
cp
the expression for the latitude
is
hp
cos
t
+ i/

2
sin
2
"
i
sin
2
/
tan
2
7z
\p* sin i" cos
/
sin 1
+ J/
2
4
sin
3
77
!
2
sin
4
/
tan h
3
^/ sin
3
\" (4
9 sin
/)
sin / tan h. (263)
Let us now examine separately the last three terms of (263) in order to see when they may be neglected. Let us write the last term equal to u, viz.,
u
=
4
^V/
sin
8
"
l
(4
~~
9 sm2
*)
sm2
^
tan ^*
Forming the
placing
/
it
differential coefficient of u with respect to /, equal to zero in order to determine what value of
will
make u
a
maximum, we
sin t cos / (2
find
9 sin
2
/)
=
2
o;
from which
sin
/
=
o
;
cos
t
=
o
;
sin /
=
f
.
corresponds to a maximum, as will be found by substituting this value in the second differential
last of these
The
coefficient.
The maximum value
(/ being
i
of this term
is
then found to be
20')
u!
=
c/'.ooii tan h.
It will
The next term, when sin / = i.
Its greatest
therefore always be inappreciable. 4 3 3 viz., \p" sin \" sin / tan h,
is
a
maximum
value
is
therefore o .oo76 tan
//
3
h,
153
LATITUDE BY POLARIS.
259
in latitude
This term will then be only o".oi in latitude 48, and o".i 67. It may therefore always be neglected when the instrument used is the sextant.
Writing
dv
v
\p* sin i" cos
2
/
sin
2
/,
forming
is
^,
placing
it
equal to zero,
2
we
readily find that v
term
The maximum value of this then we drop this term with those which follow, the error introduced in this way will seldom amount to half a second, and will generally be much smaller as the maxima values of the different terms occur for
a
maximum when
will
sin
t
=
f.
then be o".333.
If
different values of
t.
Therefore for determining the latitude by Polaris by sextant observation,
t
cp
=&h
(a p cos
t
J&);
1
+
[4.384S4]/ sin
2
2
t
tan
k.
)
We
Let us apply this method to the example solved in Art. have given
From
Nautical Almanac.
i
143.
a=
= Therefore/ =
By Observation.
h
i5
m 6 s .o
h=
'
88 41' 6". 2
=
39 33' 38". 8 ioh 45 m 7".4
f 1 .5
4733". 8
A
Therefore
/
=
142 30' 43". 5
constant log
4.38454
7.35042 9.56866
log/ cos/
First correction
i
= 3675210 = 9.899537 n
log/
sin
2
2
/
tan h
2'
9.91704
36". 2
log
=
=
3574747n
log 2d cor.
Second correction f
16 .6
= 1.22066
Therefore
cp
40
36' 31". 6
260
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
find the third correction to be o".24,
<p
154.
We
143)
which makes the
value of
agree exactly with the value before found (Art.
Tables have been prepared with the design of abridging this computation, but the direct application of the formula
is
if
so simple that tables are of no great advantage, especially the third and fourth corrections are not required.
Correction for Second Differences.
154. When a series of, say, ten altitudes is observed, if the measurements are made in quick succession, so that the arc of the circle in which the apparent
motion of the
then the
the
mean
star takes place does not differ appreciably from a straight line, of the observed altitudes will be the altitude corresponding to
If,
mean
of the times.
preciable, this follows:
mean
altitude will require a correction
however, the deviation from a straight line is apwhich may be obtained as
Let
/i,
ti,
/3 ,
/z 3
,
.
.
.
/n
.
be the times of observation;
hi, hi,
.
.
h^ be the observed altitudes;
hQ
At
l
= the altitude =
A,
t ti,
corresponding to the time A>; from which ^^ /i /<,
t
At*
/2 ,
= =
/a
+ + 4t
,
,
At^
=
A,
;
/n ,
/
=
ta
+ Atv
;
Then
from 0),
h
hi
= /(A,) = /(/ 
hi
= /(6)
.
Ati\
.
.
hn
= /('n) = /(/  At^) .......
;
/&n
(c)
Expanding these expressions by Taylor's formula, we
find
154
CORRECTION FOR SECOND DIFFERENCES.
of these values will be
26 1
The mean
Ai
f
A3
+
+
An
,
dho At\
+ At? +
i
.
.
.
+ Atn
r
a 2 Aj
dt<
2^
2
From
the values
At^
At*, etc.,
Zf^ 2
by
,
(^),
the term multiplied by will be zero; at

but as the quantities At\
,*
etc., will all
be plus, the term multiplied by
d*h
f
to
will not
be zero.
It
should always be taken into account
when
large
enough
be appreciable.
To determine
^
we
differentiate the equation
sin
h
=
sin q> sin
d
j
cos
<p
cos d cos
/;
when we
readily find
cos q> cos
s/0
+
/cos
G)
cos
6"
2
\
.
sin'/otanA.
.
(265)
And
since cos
A
=
sin
z,
this equation
becomes
^ =
A
cos
A,
+ A*
sin 2 /
tan A
(266)
The quantities Jh, Ati, etc., will be expressed in seconds of time they must be reduced to arc by multiplying by 15. Also, i$At*, etc., must be multiplied by sin i" in order to make formula (264) homogeneous. The last term will there;
fore be multiplied by i(i5) sin Therefore formula (264) becomes
2
i",
the logarithm of which
is
6.73673
10.
(267)
262
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
1
55
As an example, we may apply formula (267) to the observations of Polaris given in Art. 143, where we have
Mean
By formula
(265),
=
with the data given
= in Art. 143, log ^ = constant logarithm =
9401.5
log
Ji
i.
3.9732
8.2898
6.7367
8.9997
Correction
=
o".io
log
=
We may
the
mean
in a manner precisely similar derive the correction to be applied to of the times, to obtain the time corresponding to the mean of the
zenith distances: this
may
be more convenient in certain cases.
The necessity
be avoided by neither of which shall embrace an interval of time long enough to require such This proceeding has the advantage that in reducing the two halves correction.
of the series separately they will mutually check each other.
for applying a correction for second differences may generally dividing a long series of observations into two or more parts,
155. The methods of determining time and latitude which have been given in this chapter are especially adapted to the requirements of the explorer. The observations can generally be obtained more conveniently at night, and both time and latitude will be required. From the observed time the longitude will be obtained, as will be explained more As we have already shown, the time will be fully hereafter. best determined by observing two stars, one east and one west of the meridian, both as near the prime vertical as practicable.
The
mined
latitude will generally be
in
most conveniently deterobserving Polaris
.
the northern hemisphere by
155
GENERAL REMARKS.
263
north, and another star south, by circummeridian altitudes. Then, with the best attainable approximation to the latitude,
the time can be computed by the method of Art. 125. With this value of the time the correct value of the latitude may
then be determined by (XIII) and (XVI), and if this differs much from the assumed latitude the time must be recomputed. In extreme cases it may be necessary to recompute the latitude, but with proper care this need not often occur.
As
a survey of the line of travel
is
generally
made by
means of a compass and odometer (which is a little instrument for recording the number of revolutions of a cartwheel), the observer always knows his position approximately. The same process, essentially, is followed at sea, where the approximate place of the vessel is always known from the " dead reckoning," which is the course as indicated
by the compass and log. The methods of this chapter are those which are most convenient and useful in practice. On land, where the observer
has a certain degree of choice as to time of observation and methods, and where the results must have a considerable
degree of accuracy to be of any value, it will seldom be desirable to employ others. At sea, however, the case is somewhat different. It sometimes happens that the determination of the place of the vessel is of the greatest importance
when, from cloudy weather or other causes, observations cannot be obtained which are suitable for the employment of the methods of this chapter. Further, a high degree of
accuracy is not required for purposes of navigation. Various methods of determining the place of a vessel are therefore given in works on navigation, in order that the mariner may be in a position to utilize any data which he mav obtain. It can readily be seen that by varying the conditions a of solutions of the problem may be obtained. great variety Some of these are exceedingly elegant from a mathematical
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
point of view.
155.
Such, for instance, is the method given by for determining both the time and latitude from observation of three stars at the same altitude. Thus if // is the
Gauss
common
altitude,
tf,
',
d" the declinations,
t,
t \ A, t {
A'
the hourangles of the three stars respectively,
sin
we have
)
sin
sin
h h ^
= = =
sin cp sin tf sin cp sin $'
f
\
cos cos cos
cp cp cp
cos # cos cos
tf'
cos
/
(/
;
cos cos
sin
^
sin tf"
+
+A
A
7
);
v
(268)
tf"
(t j
). )
t and cp may be found. Further there are three equations, we can also determine h from them, so that the altitude need not be measured at
Three equations from which
than
this, as
all,
but only the instant of time observed when each star reaches the altitude //. If, however, the altitude is measured by the instrument, this process shows the error of the instrument, thus giving us one equation for determining the eccen
tricity
If
by Art.
116.
three altitudes of the same star are measured, a similar process gives us three equations for determining the latitude,
hourangle, and declination of the star. Also, it is evident that two measured altitudes either of the same star or of different stars will give two equations of the
form of (268), from which the latitude and hourangle may be determined.* A variety of cases may also be considered in which the measured quantity is the azimuth of a star, or three different altitudes of the same star and the differences of the azimuths, or the data may be varied in many ways but these solu;
tions are of
little
practical value.
Method
* For a solution of this problem graphically, see Captain Sumner's of Determining the Place of a Ship at Sea.
New
156
PROBABLE ERROR OF SEXTANT OBSERVATION.
Probable Error of Sextant Observations.
265
sists of
all instrumental measurements the error of the result obtained contwo parts: first, that due to the observer; and second, that due to instrumental and other sources with which the observer has nothing to do. When the instrument employed is the sextant, the latter consists for the most part of the
156. In
In any given series various undetermined errors noticed in Articles 114117. of observations these affect all alike, and therefore nothing is gained in this
direction by increasing the
number
of individual
measurements.
however, the case is different. These form the accidental errors of observation, and, as they occur in accordance with the law of least squares, their effect diminishes with an increase in the number of measure
With the
first class,
ments.
Let
A'o
A>i
A" 2
= the probable error of the mean of a series of observed altitudes; = the error due to the observer, not including personal equation; = the error due to instrument and causes other than the observer.
16,
Then, by Art.
A> ft
= VAY+ AY
2
.........
(269)
Thus
if
the observer could
do
his part perfectly,
he could never diminish the
probable error of a single series below AV The values of .R Q AY and R* for a given instrument and observer may be determined by methods which we have already employed. Thus (Art. 132) we have found for the probable error of the time determined
,
by a
series of ten double altitudes of the sun,
is
error in the double altitude zh
AY M4. The corresponding found by the differential formula, viz.,
A2.fi
=
d2h
.
j4t, dt
and
for this case
we have found
=
dzk
A<2.h
.640.
8
Therefore
=
.649
From
the latitude observations (Art. 149)
we have found 2"
.
6
=
RI"
.
By
Boss
a discussion of the ninety individual measurements of altitude employee
finds the probable error of a single measurement of double altitude to be and of the mean of ten measurements From the solu4". 4 == AY
in the investigation of the eccentricity of the sextant (example, Art. 116), Prof.
14",
tion of the equations of condition of the
same example we found
for the probable
266
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
156.
3". 93.
error of a single equation R Q 5". 9. Thus the instrumental probable error
error of a
If
=
Therefore by equation (269) R*
is
nearly equal to the observer's probable
mean of ten measurements. now we assume the probable error of a single measurement to be 14" as above, we have for the observer's probable error of the mean of m measurements, by equation
(25),
and the
total
probable error R*
<y
\
15 .45.
If
m = m
i,
5,
Ro RV
= =
14". 5;
7
.4;
m = m =
10,
20,
R = A' =
Q
5.9; 5.0;
m = m=
50,
100,
R* R$
4.4;
=
4.2.
Thus it appears that with a skilled observer almost nothing is gained by ex Instead, tending the number of observations of a given series beyond ten. therefore, of multiplying observations in the same circumstances, when accuracy
is
desired, the circumstances
must be varied with a view
to eliminating the in
strumental errors.
Thus for good results a determination of time or latitude should never depend tn a single series, no matter how carefully made or how elaborately the instrumental errors have been investigated. Latitude should be determined by both Jiorth and south observations, giving both equal weight, no matter whether determined from an equal number of measurements or not. In like manner time should be determined from observations both east and west combined with
equal weights. (See also Harkness, Washington Observations, 1869, Appendix
I,
page
*i.)
CHAPTER
VI.
THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
is required accuracy, 157. When the time as in a careful determination of longitude, the methods of the chapter are not adapted to the purpose. The
with extreme
preceding instrument used will then be the transit. The common form of transit instrument consists essentially As it of a telescope attached to an axis perpendicularly.
revolves with the axis the line of collimation produced to the celestial sphere describes a great circle. The instrument is generally mounted so that this great circle is the meridian,
and it is used in connection with the sidereal clock or chronometer for determining^the instant of a star's transit over the meridian. If our clock is accurately regulated to show sidereal time, such an observed transit gives us at once the star's right ascension, the latter being, as we have seen, the same
as the sidereal time of culmination.
If,
however, we observe
a star whose right ascension is already known, this process gives us the error of the clock. The fieldtransit mounted in the meridian, with which we are at present more particularly concerned,
always used for this latter purpose. Theoretically the instrument may be used in any vertical It is sometimes used in the plane of the prime verplane. tical for finding the latitude, or in a fixed observatory for When speaking of the finding the declinations of stars.
is
transit instrument simply
in the meridian.
we understand
it
to be
mounted
208
PRA C TICA L AS TRONOM Y.
158.
FIG.
6.
$158.
THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
269
Description of the Instrument.
158.
The
ransit instrument designed for a fixed observa
tory, where it is permanently mounted, is much larger and more complete than one designed for use in the field, where The transitit must be transported from place to place.
circle of
the Washington observatory, for instance, has a
telescope of twelve feet focal length, the aperture being eight and one half inches it is mounted on massive piers of marble,
;
which rest on a foundation of masonry extending ten feet below the surface of the ground. Figs. 26, 27, 28, and 29 show different forms of the fieldtransit used by the coast and other government surveys.
The telescope is 26 inches Fig. 26 is a very common form. It is provided with a focal length and 2 inches aperture.
zenith, the
diagonal eyepiece for observing transits of stars near the magnifying power being about 40 diameters. As be seen from the figure, the frame folds up so that the may entire 'instrument may be packed in a single box of comparatively small dimensions. The frame rests on three footscrews by means of which it is levelled, the final adjustment
being made by a fine screw at the right end in the figure. At the opposite end is a screw, or pair of screws acting against each other, by means of which the final adjustment in azimuth is made. The two at opposite ends of the axis are for illuminating the lamps
in this direction
of the axis, as
shown
field.
The
axis being perforated, the light enters
it,
falling
on a small mirror at the intersection with the telescope, by which it is reflected down the tube to the eyepiece. The threads of the reticule then appear as dark lines in a bright field. With some instruments there is only one lamp: with two the unequal heating and consequent expansion of the
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
159
FIG. 27.
l6o.
THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
is
2/1
two pivots
instrument
of changing" the
is
to a great extent avoided, also the inconvenience lamp from one side to the other when the
reversed.
'
small circles attached to the telescope below the axis are called findingcircles ; they are used for setting the telescope at the proper elevation. They are about 6 inches The alidade carries a level, as shown in the in diameter.
The two
generally adjusted so as to read zero when the telescope is horizontal. If then the vernier is set at the meridian altitude of a star and the telescope revolved until the bubble stands in the middle of the tube, the star will be seen in the middle of the field when it passes the
figure.
is
The index
One circle could be made to answer every purbut it would read differently in the two positions of pose, the axis, and this would be likely to prove a fruitful source The instrument is reversed by lifting the of annoyance.
meridian.
axis
up out
of the supports
it.
by hand, turning
it
around and
instru
carefully replacing
159. Fig. 27
shows a larger and more complete
for longitude
ment designed
telescope
is
work.
The
powers varying from 80
is
46 inches, aperture 2f to 120 diameters are used.
focal length of the inches. Magnifying
A
special apparatus provided for reversing the instrument, which will be understood by reference to the figure. The
cam worked by the crank below the frame raises the axis out of its supports, when it is turned around and again lowered into its place. One of the finders has two levels attached, one the ordinary findinglevel, the other a much finer one for use in determining latitude, as will be explained
hereafter.
160. Fig. 28 is a somewhat common form of transit, one end of the axis being made to take the place of the lower A reflecting prism is placed at the half of the telescope. intersection of the telescope with the axis, which bends the
272
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
160.
FIG. 28.
l6l.
7W
TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
2?$
rays of light at an angle of 90, the eyepiece being at the end of the axis. The instrument shown in the figure may be used as a transit, zenith telescope, or azimuth instrument, and is very
convenient for use in positions where it have two or three separate instruments.
advantage
that, lor stars of all
not practicable to the zenith distances, the observer
is
It has, besides,
occupies the same position: with the^ common form of instrument the position of the observer is sometimes uncomfortprejudicial to accuracy. shows another form of instrument, made for the Coast Survey by Fauth & Co. of Washington. This
able,
is
which
161. Fig. 29
proposed by Steinheil (Astronomische Nachpage 177). Here a separate tube for the telescope is dispensed with entirely, the axis being made to serve this purpose by placing the objectglass at one end and
first
form was
richten, vol. xxix.
the eyepiece at the other.
The
reflecting prism
is
in front of the objective, as shown in the figure, and The tube is placed horizontally in contact with it.
placed almost
and
in
the prime vertical. When the reflecting surface of the prism is adjusted at the proper angle, the image of any star may be
made
to transit across the threads of the reticule, precisely
in the figure has a focal length of 25 It is fitted with the appliances
It is
as in the other forms of instruments.
The instrument shown
inches, and
2 inches aperture.
it
necessary to adapt
to use as a zenith telescope.
very
compact and portable, and is therefore particularly adapted for use in a rough country where transportation is difficult. The portable transit instrument is mounted when practicable on a pier of brick or stone, set into the ground deep
enough
to insure stability.
Where such
a foundation
is
not
available a log
sawed
off
square and firmly planted
tent.
in the
ground answers a very good purpose.
be a shed made of boards or a canvas
The observatory may
274
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
161.
i6 3
.
THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
The Reticule.
2/5
This consists of a number of spiderlines arranged as The middle line is as nearly as may be so that a line placed joining it with the optical centre of the objectglass shall be perpendicular to the
162.
shown
in the figure.
axis.
In fieldinstruments a very thin piece
of glass ruled with fine lines is often used, and is found more satisfactory in some
FIG. 30
.
respects than the spiderthreads. In the larger instruments intended to be used with the chronograph there are some
many as twentyfive lines in the smaller instruments there are usually five or seven always an odd number. The two horizontal lines are for marking the centre of the field.
;
times as
The instrument should always be set so that pass across the field midway between them.
The Level.
163.
the star will
Every
transit instrument
It is
is
provided with a delicate
supported by two legs, the bottoms of stridinglevel. which are Vshaped. The length is such that these V's rest on the pivots of the axis when the level is placed in the posiThe tube which is tion shown in Figs. 27, 28, and 29.
nearly
filled
with alcohol or sulphuric ether
is
apparently
cylindrical, but in reality has a curvature of large radius. The bubble of air which is allowed to remain in the tube will
always occupy the highest point, and so any change in the relative elevation of the two ends will cause a change in the It may therefore be used not only position of the bubble.
for determining
when the axis is horizontal, but, by ascertainthe angle corresponding to a motion over one division of ing
2/6
PRAC7"ICAL ASTRONOMY.
164.
the graduated scale, we may by reading the t.wo ends of the bubble determine the small outstanding deviation from per
The level when so us'ed is a fect adjustment. instrument for angular measurement.
164.
very delicate
level.
To find the value of one division of the
This
is
most easily accomplished by the use of a little instrument called a leveltrier, which is simply a bar of wood one end of which rests on two pivots, while the other is supported by a
micrometerscrew.
Let
d
=
thp distance between the screw
;
two consecutive threads
of
L=
r
=
the length of the bar between the points of support the angle corresponding to one revolution of the screw.
;
Then
Suppose the
r
=L
.
d
. .
sin
i
(270)
from the middle in and W. The readings in the direction W. may be considered fLet the level be placed on the those in the direction E., bar of the trier, and both ends of the bubble read then let the micrometerscrew be turned so as to cause the bubble to move from its first position, and the two ends read again.
scale of the level to read
both directions.
Call the
two ends
.
of the level E.
;
;
Let
e
and
w
be the readings of the bubble
position
;
in the first
e'
and w' be the readings of the bubble
;
in the
second
d, v,
position the value of one division of the level the true angle through which the bar has
;
been moved, as given by the micrometerscrew.
164.
VALUE OF ONE DIVISION OF LEVEL.
e)
2 77
Then \(w
i(z/
_e
'}
be the reading for the middle of the bubble in the first position w ill be the reading for the middle Of the bubble in the second position.
will
;
V
=
[(a,'
e')
/)
(w(w
,)]
;
2V
from which
(w'
^
e)
(270
in different
The operation should be repeated many times
parts of the tube to insure greater accuracy in the final result, and to test the tube for irregularities. The following example of determining the value of one
given by Schott, of the Coast Survey for brevity only one is given here
division of a level
is
;
half of the series
1868.
:
Coast Survey
Office,
December 8,
of level B, belonging to Transit
No.
6.
Determination of value of one division Value of one division of leveltrier
=
o".gg.
278
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
165.
in the last column but one show that the not uniform, but there appears to be a gradual change of curvature from one end towards the other. With such a If we level the extreme divisions ought never to be used. take the mean of the quantities in this column we find
The numbers
is
level
10 divisions of leveltrier
Therefore
i
division
= =
g".g
=
9.875 divisions of level.
i".oc>3.
The determination should be repeated
at different
tempera
tures to ascertain whether change of temperature affects the curvature of the tube.
All fine
levels
are furnished with an airchamber for
regulating the length of the bubble. When using the level this should be kept at about the length which it had when
the value of the scale was being determined. The value of the level may also be determined by placing it on a finelygraduated circle and reading the circle with the
bubble in different parts of the tube. Thus by means of the mural circle of the Washington observatory I found the value of one division of the level of a zenith telescope to be i".o59, with a probable error of o".oi8.
Adjustment of the Level of the Transit Instrument. is used for testing the horizontality of the axis therefore when it is placed on the axis the tube should be If such is the case parallel to the latter. The bubble must be in the middle of the tube when the First. Place the level on the axis, and bring the axis is horizontal. latter approximately horizontal, read the scale, reverse the If this adjustment is perfect level and again read the scale. the reading will be the same in both positions, otherwise one half the difference of the two readings must be corrected by The screws for this raising or lowering one end of the tube.
165.
The
level
;
purpose are shown on the right in Fig. 27. cess until the adjustment is satisfactory.
Repeat the
pro
167.
ADJUSTMENT OF THE INSTRUMENT.
to that
279
The vertical plane passed through the axis must be* passed through the tube. Let the level be reparallel volved or rocked in both directions around the pivots of the
Second.
axis.
If
the adjustment
the reading changes in consequence of this motion The direction in which the is not perfect.
adjustingscrews must be moved will readily appear from the motion of the bubble. The first adjustment should afterwards be examined, as it may have been disturbed by this
operation.
Adjustment of the Instrument.
1 66.
First.
The threads of the
reticule
must be
in the
common
focus of the objectglass
and eyepiece.
First adj ust the eyepiece
by sliding it in and out of the tube until the position is found where the threads are most distinctly seen. (A mark should
then be made on the tube of the eyepiece so that it may be at once set to the proper focus, or a collar may be fitted to it so that when it is pushed " home" it will be in focus.) The
instrument should then be turned to a distant terrestrial object, or a star, and the tube carrying the threads set so that the image will remain constantly on one of the threads when the eye is moved to one side or the other of the eyepiece. In some small instruments the threads are fixed at the principal focus of the objective by the maker, with no provision for
further adjustment.
The threads must be parallel to a plane perpen167. Second. dicular to the axis of the instrument. Direct the telescope to a distant welldefined point, and bisect it with the middle
thread
;
move
the telescope
up and down through a small
angle (the axis having been previously levelled). If the thread is vertical it will bisect the object throughout its entire extent.
With some instruments there
is
an arrangement for revolv
280
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
1
68.
ing the reticule and consequently for perfecting this adjustment; with others there is none. In any case care should be taken to observe all transits over the same part of the field
when
1 68.
a small deviation from true verticality will not be a
Third.
source of error.
To adjust the line of collimation. Direct the to a distant terrestrial point, and bisect it with the telescope
.
middle thread then carefully reverse the telescope, and if the thread does not then bisect the object, bring it half way by means of the adjustingscrews found on each side of the tube which contains the reticule. The operation must be
;
repeated until the adjustment is satisfactory. Instead of a distant terrestrial point various instrumental devices have been used, particularly in fixed observatories. One of these is the collimating telescope, or collimator as it is This is a small telescope placed north or south of called.
the transit instrument, so that when the telescope of the latter is horizontal the observer may look through the eyepiece
thread in the prininto the object glass of the collimator. focus of the latter will then appear precisely as if seen cipal from an infinite distance, since the rays of light coming from the thread through the objectglass will all emerge in parallel
lines.
A
A sharplydefined
image
of this thread will therefore
be found at the principal focus of the transit telescope, and as the thread itself is only a few feet distant, this image will not be disturbed by atmospheric undulations as in the case of a distant mark. By using two collimators, one north and one south, the adjustment may be made without reversing the instrument this process, however, cannot be conven;
iently applied to a fieldinstrument. The mercury collimator is also much used
with the fixed
instruments of observatories.
tne latter
is
This
is
simply a basin of
mercury placed directly under the telescope, so that when
placed vertical with the objective
down
the
169.
ADJUSTMENT IN THE MERIDIAN.
28 1
observer can look through the eyepiece into the mercury. The threads will then be seen in the field, together with their images reflected from the mercury. The axis having been carefully levelled, the thread and its reflected image will coIf the collimation if there is no error of collimation. has been previously adjusted by the collimating telescope, this process may be employed for measuring the inclination of the axis; it is not, however, a suitable method to employ
incide
with the portable instrument. To adjust the instrument in the plane of the 169. Fourth. The transit is used in connection with the sidereal meridian. chronometer. The observations will be made for determining
the error of the chronometer; this
is,
therefore,
presumably
not
it
known with any degree of accuracy. If nothing whatever is known of the chronometer error, may in certain cases be advisable to determine it approxi1
mately by the sextant, or by the altitude of a star measured with the vertical circle of an engineer's theodolite. Such a preliminary determination will very seldom be necessary. As the approximate time may therefore be known by some
Suppose, for approximate simplicity, the chronometer time or, in other words, that to the best of our knowledge the time shown by the chronometer is correct. We then take from the Nautical Almanac the right ascension of a close circumpolar star, and as this is equal to the sidereal time of
process,
first
we
take the best value available.
to be set for this
and
culmination, we direct the telescope to the star, level the axis, at the instant when the time shown by the chronometer
equals this right ascension bring the middle thread of the reticule on the star, using the finemotion screw at the end of the axis for the final adjustment. The instrument will now
be approximately
ment
axis,
next level the instrucarefully by the finemotion screw at the end of the and select "from the almanac a star which culminates
in
the meridian.
We
282
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
169.
near the zenith for determining a more correct value of the time, or of the chronometer correction. As all vertical circles pass through the zenith, by selecting a star which passes as near as possible to this point we determine a very close
approximation to the true chronometer correction, even when the instrument has a large azimuth error. It is better to use two stars for this purpose, one culminating north of the zenith, and one south (as it will very seldom be possible If the to find a star culminating exactly in the zenith). operations already described have been carefully attended to we shall now know our chronometer correction within a second, which will be accurate enough for perfecting the adjustment in the meridian by another circumpolar star.
Let
A
a
= =
the value of the chronometer correction just
determined
;
the right ascension of any star. the chronometer time of culmination.
Then a
dQ
When the chronometer indicates this time, the star must be carefully bisected by the middle thread, the axis having been previously levelled. If the observer does not yet feel sufficient confidence in the adjustment, the operation repeated for a closer approximation.
must be
The circumpolar
stars
most suitable
for this adjustment
are the four standard stars of the Nautical Almanac, viz., Besides these the a, d, and A, Ursas Minoris and 51 Cephei. for 1885 and following years gives a number of ephemeris
other stars near the pole reduced to apparent place for intervals of ten days.
1
70.
METHODS OF OBSERVING.
Methods of Observing.
283
is to obtain as accurately as possible the instant of time, as shown by the clock or chronometer, when the star crosses each thread of the reticule. These times may then be reduced by a method
170.
The immediate aim
of the observer
to be explained hereafter to the time over the middle thread. If then r is the probable error of a transit observed over a
single thread,
and n the number
of threads observed, the
. \/n
probable error of the mean will be
There are two methods of observing transits, viz., the eye and ear method and the chronographic method. The latter method is more accurate except with an observer of long
experience, an^i
vatories.
is
now used
almost universally
in the field
in fixed
obseris
It is also
employed
when
the time
required with great accuracy for longitude work. In other cases, when the portable instrument is used, the observations will be made by the eye and ear method, which is as follows: A few seconds before the star to be observed reaches the thread the observer takes the time from the chronometer and watches the star as it approaches the thread, at the same time counting .the beats of the chronometer.
When the star crosses the thread the exact instant is noted
crossed between two beats, the fractional part of a second is estithe thread
is
;
if
mated
mation
to the nearest tenth.
is
This
esti
made more by the eye than the ear; thus, suppose when the observer counts io the star is at a, and when
s
~
a
.
from a to the FIG 32. thread will be compared with the distance from a to b, and the ratio will be expressed in tenths. In this case the time will be io s .4. skilful observer will seldom
ii
3
at b\ the distance
A
2 84
PRA CTICA L AS TRONOM Y.
'
1
7
I
.
be in error by so much as T2T of a second in estimating the time over a single thread for a star near the equator. By the chronographic method the observer registers the instant when the star is on the thread by simply pressing the key which closes or breaks, as the case may be, the galvanic This instant is recorded by a mark on the cylinder circuit.* As the of the chronograph, and may be read off at leisure. observer is not obliged to count the seconds as in the other method, the threads may be placed much closer together
and a larger number of readings taken. A practical limit will, however, soon be reached beyond which nothing will be gained in accuracy by increasing the number of threads. Formerly the large transits of the Coast Survey were provided with twentyfive threads arranged in five groups, or
of five threads each. Of late this number has been reduced to thirteen, the central tally containing five threads, the two on each side three each, and the two extreme tallies only one each. The middle threads of the tallies are at equal distances and may be used for eye and ear observation, while the
tallies
middle tally is convenient for observing close circumpolar stars, which may be best observed by the eye and ear method.
Mathematical Theory of the Transit Instrument.
in the plane of the meridian. place these adjustments are made, there will
it
have shown how to adjust the instrument and With whatever care always remain small errors, the existence of which will affect the outstanding observed time of a star's transit. The amount of these errors must then be determined, and the necessary corrections applied to the observed time to reduce it to the true time of meridian passage.
171.
We
*See
Art. 121.
171
THEORY OF THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
shall call a line passing
285
through the centres of the and produced indefinitely the rotation axis. x^lso, pivots the line drawn through the optical centre of the objectglass and perpendicular to the rotation axis is the collimation axis.
We
When
the instrument
is
revolved this line describes a great
circle of the celestial sphere, the.poles of which are the points these where the rotation axis pierces the sphere.
When
poles are
known
a
b
the position of the circle
itself is
known.
Let
90
=
the azimuth of the point where the west end of the axis pierces the sphere
;
the altitude of the same
poinii.
will be the deviation of the axis from the true east and west position, plus when the west end deviates to the south and b is the deviation from the true horizontal position, plus when the west end is high.
Then a
,
Let
90

m =
n
the hourangle of this point; the declination.
Let
x, y, 2 be the
4
rectangular coordinates of this point
referred to the horizon.
Then A, 90 we have *
x
a,
and
b will
be the polar coordinates,
and
=
y
z
A A
cos b cos (90 cos b sin (90

a)
= =
A
cos b sin a
sin
b.
;
\

a)
4 cos b cos a
;
>
)
(272)
A
Let x
r
,y' z'
,
be the rectangular coordinates referred to the
equator.
*See equations (no).
286
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
J, (90
x'
I/ 1.
Then
m),
and n are the polar coordinates, and

=
A
y'
z'
A
cos n cos (90 cos # sin (90
m) m)
=.
A
^/
cos n sin #2
;
cos
sin n.
cos
w
j
;
>
)
=A
(273)
The
formulae for transformation of coordinates will be *
x'
x
sin <p
\
z cos
<?>
;
)
.
/ =/;
<sr'
.
.
=
;tr
cos
(p \
z sin
[.
cp.
}
(274)
Substituting for x, y, z and *', y, the common factor A, we have
cos n sin cos n cos
;
s'
their values,
and dropping
/
= =
cos b sin # sin
q> f
sin ^ cos
(p
;
i
cos b cos #
;
>
(275)
sin n
cos b sin # cos
(p
+ sin
sin
<>.
)
Equations (275) give m and # when # and b are known. placed to the values of a, b, m, and n, which may therefore be of any magnitude, and consequently the instrument in any position. By careful adjustment, however, these quantities may always be made very small, and there will therefore be no appreciable error in writing the quantities themselves for their sines, and writing for the cosines unity. Therefore For the transit instrument in the meridian,
No limit has been
m
n
=
a sin q> a cos
+ b cos
y> f
tp
;
]
'
,
$,
b sin
q>.
\
From
these
we
readily derive
a
b
m sin cp = m cos (p +
*See equations
n cos n sin
(112.)
(p
(p.
;
)
^
}
/
x
1/2.
THEORY OF THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
287
172.
Now
let r
= =
the east hourangle of a star on the middle thread
;
when seen
when
the
c
the error of collimation
;
plus
star reaches the thread too soon.*
Now
let
the star
when on
the middle thread be referred to
a system of rectangular coordinates, the plane of x, y being the plane of the equator, the axis of x being perpendicular
to the rotation axis.
Then 8
T
;.
m=
is the angle formed with the plane of x, y, by the radius vector the angle formed with the axis of x by the projection of the radius vector on the plane of x, j.
the star's declination
;
Then
x y
z
=A
=
A A
cos # cos (r cos d sin (r
sin
m) m]
;
)
;
I
)
.
.
.
.
(278)
$
;
y being reckoned towards the
Let the star be
tem, the axis of
east.
now
referred to a
nates in which the axis of
new system of x coincides with that of the
coordilast sys
y being
the rotation axis of the instrument.
Then
c
= =
the angle formed with the plane of x, radius vector
;
z,
by the
&i
the angle formed with the axis of x by the projection of the radius vector on the plane of x, z.
x'
Then
y'
z
*
1
= A cos c cos = Jsin^; = A cos c sin
to
d,
;
\
V
tf,.
)
(279)
The
star
is
supposed
be observed at upper culmination.
288
In these
y' and
z'
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
172.
two systems the axes of x coincide, tne axes of make the angle n with those of y and z. Therefore
y'
z' =.
y y
cos n
sin
2 sin
\
;>..
n.
)
.
.
.
(280)
n
z cos
i
Combining
cos
c
(278), (279),
and
(280),
we have
)
cos
tfj
sin c
cos c sin
tf,
= cos d cos (r = cos & sin (r = cos d sin (r
m);
;#)
;/z)
cos n
sin n
sin
tf
sin n;
n.
>
}
(281)
+ sin
# cos
With these equations, as with (275), no restrictions have been placed on the quantities involved, and they will serve for computing r when m, n, and c are known. When these are small, as with the instrument adjusted in the quantities meridian, the second of (281) becomes
c
from which
This
is
r
= (r =m+
//
m) cos d tan 3 f~
n sin
c sec
d;
.
#
(282)
BesseV s formula for computing the hourangle of the it passes the middle thread of the reticule. star In applying it, the unit in which m, n, and c are expressed must be the second of time.
when
If
we
substitute in (282) the value of
m
from the second
of
(277), viz.,
m=
we have
This
that
is
b sec
(p
n tan
g>,
r
=
b sec
cp f
n (tan d
tan
<p) f
c sec 3.
(283)
when d
c
and
Hanseris formula for computing r. We see from it r depends on b. gj, the term in n vanishes and From this it follows that those stars are best alone.
=
173
CORRECTION FOR DIURNAL ABERRATION.
289
suited for determining r
and therefore the clock correction
zenith.
which culminate near the
Substituting in Bessel's from (276), we readily find
sin
c
formula the values of
m
and n
d
cos
>
6
c
is Mayer' s formula, and is the one best adapted for with the portable transit. use We adapt these formulae to the case of lower culmination tf. by changing 6 into 180
Which
Now
let
a
=
& =
A
Then
the apparent right ascension of any star; the observed clock time of the stars passing
the middle thread;
=
the clock correction.
A
a=9 + Je +
=
T.,)
(+
T).
j
V
In which r may be computed by either (282), (283), or (284). If the star is observed at lower culmination, a becomes
I2 h
+ a.
Correction for
Diurnal Aberration.
173.
Aberration
is
the apparent change in a star's posi
tion caused
by the progressive motion of light combined with the motion of the earth itself. The displacement is in
the direction of the earth's motion, and the tangent of the angle of displacement is equal to the component of the velocity of the earth perpendicular to the line of sight divided
by
the velocity of light. Aberration is considered under two heads, viz., annual and diurnal aberration, the former resulting from the earth's an
290
nual motion in
its axis.
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
its orbit,
173.
and the
The subject will be
latter from the revolution on treated in a subsequent chapter as
fully as will be necessary for our purposes. shall only consider the diurnal aberration.
At present we
Let k time of
aberration of an equatorial star at the velocity of light is 186,380 miles per second. point on the earth's equator has a linear motion of 0.2882 mile per second, in consequence of the diurnal revolution of the earth. Therefore the linear velocity of a point
=. the diurnal transit.
The
A
whose
latitude
is q>
will be 0.2882 cos
q>.
Then
If
the star's declination
',
is
tf,
the effect
upon the
star's
. 33.
have, by applying Napier's first rule for rightangle triangles to the triangle shown in the figure,
hourangle being
we
sin
k
k'
=
sin k' cos #;
or
k sec 8
=
S
.O2
1
cos
q>
sec
d.
.
.
(287)
As this will cause the star to appear too far east, the observed time of culmination will be too late and the correction must be subtracted. The correction for diurnal aberration may be combined with the collimation constant by making
c
f
=
c
6
.02i cos
(p.
......
(288)
is
made in both positions of the axis, it This may be done to distinguish between them. necessary the position of the clamp, whether it is east or west. by noting
As
observations are
If
then the sign of
c is
determined for clamp west, the alge
!74
EQUATORIAL INTERVALS OF THREADS.
29 1
braic sign must be changed when the position is clamp east. It must be remembered that the algebraic sign of the aberration does not change when the instrument is reversed; so if this correction has been combined with c, c' will in one case
be the
sum
of the two,
and
in the other case the difference.
Equatorial Intervals of the Threads.
174.
is
When
observed, the collimation axis as its error of collimation, and proceed with the reduction precisely as in case of the middle thread. It is simpler in practice, however, to determine the angular distances of the side threads from the middle thread, when the times may all be reduced to the time over this thread.
we may regard
the transit of a star over one of the side threads the distance of this thread from
This angular distance when expressed in time is evidently the time required for an equatorial star to pass from the side thread to the middle thread.
Let
i
=
/
Then /[
= = r +
/
the equatorial interval for any thread; the interval for a star whose declination is $. the collimation error for this thread; the hourangle of a star when seen on this thread.
The second
sin (r
of equations (281)
may be
\
written
m)
=
sin c sec n sec 3
tan n tan
#,
and for the side thread
sin (r
f
/
m)
= sin(z
) c)
sec n sec d
+ tan n tan
tf.
292
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
subtraction,
174.
By
sin (r
+/
*)
sin (r
/) = [sin(*
+
^)
sin c\ sec # sec
;
which becomes
2 cos
(J7
+r
m
w)
sin
7
=
2 cos (%i
+
<:)
sin
z
sec n sec
tf.
and # are very small quantities, the above Since r be written may
sin
7
=
sin i sec
tf
(289)
For
all stars
not nearer the pole than 10,
I
i
sec $
(289),
When 7 is
observed and
i is
required, the equations
sin
become
(290)
(
sin i
i
=
7 cos
#;
I cos
2 9o) t
is nearer the pole than 10, formulas which exact are obtained as follows: /may always are practically 7 3 ) for sin 7. Therefore be written for sin i, and (7
When
the star
i
=
2
7(i
fT) cos
and
d.
But
cos 7
=
i

J7
(cos /)*
=
i

2
^7
;
therefore
we have
i =?
7 cos
*'
tf
V cos7.
Vsec7.
(291)
(291),
/
=
sec
(J
175
EQUATORIAL INTERVALS OF THREADS.
293
The following table gives log the argument / in time
:
V cos /and log V sec /with
175.
Suppose the
reticule to contain five threads.
Let
A* t
*'i
T=
*4>
/3 , / 4 , / B
*B>*
*
h
= =
the time of a star's passing the middle thread; the times of passing the separate threads tne equatorial intervals.
;
The star is supposed to pass the threads in the above order when the clamp is west. When the position is clamp east, the order will be reversed, becoming iv iv ir At lower
z*
5
,
z' , 4
culmination the order will be the reverse of that of upper culmination.
We
shall
have
T=
t,
+ ^ sec 3
z*
=
=
*
/, f
3
sec d* sec
d.
t*
+
i
When
the reduction
is
to the
middle thread,
z' 3
=
o.
294
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
is
177.
The mean
* T = ^*. + *+j*. + L+
+
*
*.

hV+J.
sec j;
( 292 )
or
T'
=
7*0 f
T= T
^z sec tf for clamp west; Ai sec # for clamp east.
Instead of reducing the observed times to the time over the middle thread, we may reduce them to the time over an imaginary thread, the time over which is the mean of the
times over the five threads, or T of the above formula. The equatorial intervals and error of collimation are then determined with reference to this mean thread instead of the middle thread. This method is more convenient than the
preceding, as Ai then vanishes and the equatorial intervals are not required when all of the threads are observed.
Reduction of Imperfect Transits.
176.
A transit is imperfect when the time over one or more
Formula
(292) applies
of the threads has not been observed.
equally to such a transit, by simply dropping the terms corresponding to the threads which were not observed. Thus suppose the first two threads were not observed; the formula
will then be
r^i+Aii + id^hi.*,.
Correction for Rate.
177. If the rate of the chronometer necessary to take it into account in
transits.
*
is
large,
it
may
be
reducing imperfect
When
the reduction
is
to the
middle thread,
z' 3
= o.
1/8
DETERMINATION OF THE CONSTANTS.
295
Let
$T =
if i is
the hourly rate of the chronometer.
Then
given in seconds,
we
shall
have
Thus
if
a star
is
observed with a mean time chronometer,
6T =
or
S 9 .83O and
(293)
becomes
,
.
T= T=
t
t
+ +
i
i
sec d
x 0.99727; sec d [9.99881].
\
\
'
Determination of the Constants.
178.
We may
determine the time of the stars passing the
meridian, and consequently the clock correction, from formulas (284) and (285) when we know the values of a, b, and c, or from formulas (282) and (285) when we know m, n, and c.
The determination of these quantities will therefore be considered.
The Level Constant,
b.
now
Place the stridiriglevel on the axis and read both ends of the bubble, reverse the level and read again.
Let
w and e be
w' and
*',
the readings of the west and east end in
first position;
the readings of the west and east end in sec
position; d, the value of
ond
one division of the level expressed in
time;
x, the error of the level
due to any want of perfect ad
justment.
2 96
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
if
179
Then
there were no error the inclination would be equal
b b
to the reading of the middle point of the bubble, or
= =
\d(w
%d(w'

e)
e'}
+x\
*;
the
mean
of
which
is
(295)
The level is often reversed two or more times for greater accuracy. Whatever the number of reversals, the inclination is given by the formula
d~
where

];
.
(296)
W and E are
respectively the means of the east and
west readings.
Inequality of Pivots.
179. The above expression for b is obtained by applying the level to the outer suri .ce of the pivots; it therefore gives the true inclination of the rotation axis only when the diam
eters of the pivots are eq jal.
If
they are unequal this value
of b requires a correction determined as follows: Fig 34^ is a crosssection of one of the pivots, with the V of the level B,
and of the instrument A.
Suppose the clamp
EC
FIG.
34.
FIG. 34$.
Formula (295) gives the inclination of the line B'B; that of ^'^is required. Suppose the V of the level to have the same angle as the V of the instrument.
west.
179
INEQUALITY OF PIVOTS.
297
Let
B and
b
B' be the inclinations as shown by the level for
clamp west and east respectively; and b', the true inclinations of C'C',
the constant inclination of A'A\ C'CF. p, the angle ECC'
/?,
=
For clamp west, For clamp east,
b
b'
=
B + /; B'  /; B
b
b'
= P p\ = /3 f/.'
2/;
)
/
N
j
By
subtraction,
b'
b
B'
B'
2p
=
B
(297)
Which determines
in
the value of/.
In order to be reliable
it
must be derived from a large number of readings
of the level
both positions of the axis. It will then be a correction to be added algebraically to the inclination as given by the level for the position clamp west, or
b
V
If the
= B + / for clamp west; B'  p for clamp east.
is
)
*
)
angle of the level V
not equal to that of instrument
V, the
angle
E CC
1
will not be equal to
C'CF and we
2*
2t!
proceed as follows:
Let
r and
= =
r'
= jBCin the figure; = AC in the figure; L = length of level = p  angle ECC pi = angle C'CF;
d
d\
1
the angle of the level V; the angle of the instrument V; =. the radii of the pivots;
C'C;
\
the notation in other respects remaining as before.
298
Then
for
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
end next the clamp
1
79
d
=
=
^.;
r.
sin
i
;
</i
=
Then
for
end remote from clamp
d'
d
'
d
r
r
sin
i'
L

L
L
~
sin
i
sin 15
sin/i
Zsinti'
Zsin
i
sin 15'
Dividing
(</)
by
(r)
we have
^
/
= ^ +/;
b
=
ihi^
b
W
ft
Then
=
 p^
;
b'
= B'
2
B
2/
= 2/1
^"T/ !7
Substituting the value of /i from
(e)
and reducing, we readily
find
=
2
\sin
i \
sin
..
Zi/
of the level were made Example. The following readings the transit for determining the inequalities of the pivots of instrument of the Sayre observatory.
Clamp
E.
East.
Clamp West.
E.
w.
l
w.
Direct,
144
'
$ 1
I2 8
'
l6 2
'
Reversed,
(,
12.7
16.7
146
149
31.1
+
*')
=
B'
27.1
31.8
=w+
/
27.4
By formula (295),
.#
=+
i.i;5;
B=
+ 925;
and
5'
of one division of the being expressed in terms
level.
i8i.
INEQUALITY OF PIVOTS.
of the level V
(297),
299
of the transit;
The angle
therefore,
was equal to that
by
p
=
B'

B =+
062.
By a considerable number of readings made at different times the following values of / were obtained. The first and third columns show the angle of elevation of the telescope, the second and fourth the corresponding values of/.
Mean
The value
of .3 values/
= T
is
.062

of one division of the level
d
=
".174; therefore p*
=
".oil.
180. The diameters of the pivots may not only be unequal, but the forms may be irregular. This is tested by reading the level with the telescope placed at different zenith disIf inequalities are found to exist, a table of correctances. for different zenith distances from zero to 90 on each tions side of the zenith may be formed in case it is necessary to use the instrument in this condition. If the corrections are large enough to be appreciable, however, the instrument should be put into the hands of an instrumentmaker for repairs. 181. A little instrument designed by Prof. Harkness, and " called by him the spherometercaliper," is very conven
ient for
measuring the inequalities and irregularities of pivots. Fig. 35# is a front and 35^ a side elevation. The same
300
letters refer to
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
both figures.
e.
181.
The
foundationplate b carries
at their
two
cylindrical guides, dd,
which are connected
lower
Into the foundationplate is screwed the brass piece m, to which is cemented the thick circular glass The two V's, aa, are also firmly screwed to the founplate c. The brass plate /slides freely up and down dationplate.
end by the bar
FIG.
350;.
FIG. 35$.
THE SPHEROMETERCALIPER.
between the guides dd, being kept in place by three loops, two of which pass around the righthand guide and one around the left, as shown in the figure. The brass rod g, which passes through the piece m and the plate c without touching either of them, is firmly attached to the upper end of the plate/, and moves with it, while to the lower end of
l8l.
INEQUALITY OF PIVOTS.
3 O1
f is
attached a second short brass rod which passes freely through the bar e and carries the nut h. In using the instrument, the plate /is depressed by means of the nut h until one of the pivots whose irregularity is to ?5e measured passes freely under the V's aa. Then the V's having been properly adjusted upon the pivot, h is loosened and
the
flat
edge of the aperture in /is pressed against the under The elevation of the rod side of the pivot by the spring i. then measured by means of the g above the glass plate is spherometer. This consists of the micrometerscrew shown in the figure, which is supported by the small tripod s, the By means of this screw legs of which rest on the glass plate. small differences in the elevation of the rod g, and consequently of the size of the pivots, may be readily measured.
Let 2v
n
= =
R=
L=
/
r
the angle of the V's aa\ the difference between the readings of the screw on the two pivots;
the linear distance between threads of the screw;
two consecutive
the distance between the V's of the transit instru
ment;
= =
the inequality of the pivots expressed in seconds
of time;
Then
the radius of the pivot to be measured; C the distance from the upper surface of the glass plate to the angle of the V's. the vertical distance from the upper surface of the
glass plate to the flat surface of the aperture in
/will be
(298)
sin v
sin
v
Similarly for the other pivot
1
+ sin J
v
v\
.
,
. .
.
sin
v
i
(299)
3O2
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
difference
,s
1
82.
The
(r

O
L+. ......
(
30o)
This
first;
of the rod
evidently the difference in the elevation of the end g when the second pivot is substituted for the that is, the difference between the two micrometer
is
readings.
Therefore
sin
v
nR
sin
v
< 30I >
on*
Then from
c,
Art. 179.
nR
(302)
especially to be recommended in examining pivots for irregularities, as by measuring different diameters of the pivot the exact form may be
This instrument
the
is
determined.
If
by the
level,
but
irregularities exist they may be detected it will not show which pivot is irregular.
The Collimation Constant,
c.
182. transit instrument of the better class is provided with a micrometer,* the movable thread of which is parallel to the threads of the reticule and so nearly in the same plane that both are in the focus of the eyepiece at the same time.
* For description of micrometer see Art. 97.
A
184.
THE COLLIMATION CONSTANT.
303
this arrangement the error of collimation may be measured directly as follows By means of a distant terrestrial object. The position being
With
:
clamp west
suppose direct the telescope to a distant terand by means of the micrometer measure the distance of its image as seen in the field from the middle thread, then reverse the instrument and measure the distance If the object appears on the same side of the thread again. in both positions, the error of collimation will be half the difference of the measured distances if on opposite sides, half their sum.
restrial point,
;
In determining c in this
way
care must be taken not to
mistake
its
algebraic sign.
This sign
may be determined
practically by remembering from which side of the field a star at upper culmination appears to enter. If then for clamp west the thread appears nearer that side of the field
than for clamp
for clamp east.
east, c will
be plus for clamp west, and minus
The thread or cross183. By the collimating telescope* threads of a collimating telescope may be used in the same way as a distant terrestrial object for measuring the collimation constant, and with the advantage that there will be no appreciable atmospheric disturbance, the mark being only a few
With two collimating telescopes, one north and one south of the instrument, the error may be determined without reversing the instrument. As this method is only of practical value with the large instruments of an observatory, it will not be explained further here.
feet distant.
If the telescope is 184. By the mercury collimator* directed vertically downwards, the middle thread may be seen directly, together with its image reflected from the
mercury.
If
the axis
is
horizontal the constant
* Art. 168.
c will
be one
304
half the distance
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
185.
between the direct and reflected images, which may be measured as before.
If
the axis
is
not horizontal,
the west end
Let b
= the elevation of
M
;
the micrometer distance of the thread from its image, positive when the thread itself is on the side from which a star at upper culmination
appears to enter.
Then
\M =
c
b\
........
(303)
By reversing the instrument and again measuring the distance of the thread from the reflected image we can determine both b and c, or if c has been determined by the
collimating telescopes the instrument.
185.
we can determine
b
without reversing
in
By a
it
close
circumpolar star.
With the portable
strument
will be
found more
:
convenient to determine the
collimation constant by observation of a star in both positions of the axis, as follows Observe the transit of a slowmoving star over one or
more threads including, the middle thread or not then reverse the instrument and observe the transit over the same With one of the threads, now on the other side of the field. four circumpolar stars of the Nautical Almanac there will be plenty of time to reverse the instrument during the interval over two consecutive threads. It is advisable to read the
level for each thread.
The times observed are then to be reduced to the times over the middle thread (or the mean thread, as the case may be well be) by means of the equatorial intervals, which must
determined.
1
86.
THE AZIMUTH CONSTANT.
305
Let
T
T=
and b A T and AT
b
1
the clock time over the middle (or mean) thread for clamp west
;
the clock time over the middle (or mean) thread for clamp east;
the level constants in the
two
positions
;
the clock corrections at times
T and
;
T
;
AT
=
the clock correction at time
T
hourly rate of clock.
Then
AT =
AT = AT + dT(T
Q
AT.
+ $T(T 
T T
9 );
).
Then applying Mayer's formula,
Cl.W. a
)
(284)
and
(285),
+
Ci. E.
= T + 4T + ST(TT + asin (<p  tf)sec <H
(<p
b cos
#) sec
o
#
f
c
sec
tf
S
.o2i cos cp sec
d
;
I
a
+V
= r+ 4 r + 8T(T T + a sin (<p )
6} sec
d
f
'
cos
(9?
tf)
sec
(^
c
sec #
S
.O2
1
cos
cp
sec
d. J
Subtracting the
c
first
of these
from the second, we readily find
tf
= KT 
T) cos
tf
+ \(T  T) dTcos + K^  cos
^)
(<p

d).
(305)
This formula is applicable to lower culmination by chang8 as usual. In most cases the term in 6T ing d into 1 80 will be inappreciable.
The Azimuth Constant,
a.
186. This can only be determined by observation of stars. Let two stars be observed which differ as widely as possible
in declination.
306
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
1
86.
Let
Tand T'
d and a and
d',
',
be the times of observation reduced to the middle (or mean) thread;
the declinations of the stars;
their right ascensions.
Then equations (304) will apply to these stars, except that in the second we shall have a' and 8' in place of a and #, and the sign of c is not changed. Let us write
/
= T
f
8T(T
f
T)
)
f
b cos
(<p
8
)
sec &
S
{
c sec
(p
#
;
t'
= T + 6T(T  T +
is,
.O2
1
b'
cos
(cp

cos
sec d
cT)
sec
S
d'+
c sec
V
.o2i cos cp sec (T.
That
we
place
t
and
/'
equal to the
sum
of the
known
Equa
quantities in the
tions (304) then
second members of the equations.
become
=/} AT.
'
=
t'
+ a sin + 4T + a sin

(9? (<p
tf
)
7
sec sec
d
)
From which
~
sin (<p
6')
sec $'
  sin (^ 
,
,,
6) sec
'
tf
which reduces to
~
(a'
g)
(f
t)
cos^tantftand')"
greater the denominator of this fraction the smaller be the effect upon a of errors of observation. If two circumpolar stars are observed, one at upper and one at lower culmination, the denominator of (307) becomes
will
The
cos
cp
[tan d
tan (180
#')]
=
cos
cp
(tan 8
+ tan
$').
l8/.
TO DETERMINE n DIRECTLY.
is
3O/
This combination
pose.
If the rate of the clock
therefore most favorable for the purand the stability of the instru
ment can be
relied
be observed both at not be practicable, however, with a portable instrument. If two stars are observed at upper culmination, one should be near the pole and the other near the equator. If m and n are required, they may now be computed by
(276),
on for twelve hours, the same star may upper and lower culmination. This will
or
we may proceed
as follows.
To Determine n Directly.
187. Using the same notation as in the determination of and applying Bessel's formula, (282),
a,
a
a
f
= T + AT, + 8T(T
f f
T
)
= T + AT, + 6T(T  T
known terms
viz.,
Q)
+ m + n tan d + c sec 8 sec .O2i cos m + n tan & + c sec +
s
cp
#,
<*'
8
.o2i cos
cp
sec
<?',
placing the
/
of the second
members equal
to
and
t
*t'
/'
respectively,
+ <5T(T = T + $T(T
T
a
a'
r ) + c sec r ) + c sec
o
o
tf <?'
8 S
.o2i cos cp sec $, .o2i cos cp sec <?',
the above equations become
= =
t
t'
+ AT,
From
these
we
derive
'
_
\
_' _
/)

(308)
308
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
187
Then
m
is
given by the second of
(277), viz.,
m
b sec
g>
n tan
cp
(39)
The conditions favorable for an accurate determination of n are evidently the same as in the case of a.
Recapitulation
of Formulas for
Transit
Instrument in the
Meridian.
Equatorial intervals,
Reduction to middle
(or
mean) thread,
Level constant,
Collimation constant,
= I cos d V cos /; = / cos d. / = i sec d t'sec /; / = i sec d. d b =  [W E\. c = $(T' T) cos
i
*
'
T)8Tcos S
J)
'
cos (?>*.)
(XVII)
Azimuth constant,
Clock correction,
cos <p(tan ^
tan
d')'
sin(^)
d)
cos d
c
,
cos(<p cos
<p~
<
6"
s
.O2i cos
cos
6"
cos d
For reduction by
(a'
Bessel's formula
f
we have
the following
:
a)
(t
/)
tan
6' 
tan

^= =
# sec
or
cp
n tan
s
(XVIII)
.O2i cos
Transit Observations.
To
tions,
illustrate the application of
made
at the
(XVII) let us reduce the following observaSayre observatory, 1883, October 16. The transit is a small;
sized
instrument of 26 inches focal length, aperture 2 inches
magnifying
TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS.
309
power 40 diameters. The reticule contains five threads, numbered consecutively from i to 5 for clamp east. As will be seen, the level was generally read two
or
more times
in each position.
Instrument reversed for the purpose of determining the value of
c.
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
values of the apparent right ascensions and declinations are taken from American Ephemeris, and are written down in connection with the observed a must be taken from the ephemeris with extreme accutransit of each star,
the
racy, but generally of arc.
6"
The
will
be sufficiently accurate
if
given to the nearest minute
Let us
the
first
The
first compute the values of the equatorial intervals of the threads by of formulae (XVII), taking for this purpose the observations on 47 Cephei. numbers in the first column of the following table are obtained by subtract
REDUCTION OF TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS.
ing the observed time of transit over each thread from the mean of the times over all the threads. The quantities in the following columns will require no
further explanation.
cos d
=
9.28235.
From
a considerable
number
of transits the following values of the equatorial
intervals
were
finally obtained:
Clamp
east
ii
+ 32

s
.
628
log
=
1.5.1359
ii j*8 j
16 .226
I.2I02I
.080
16 .357
8.90309
I.2I370
it
*.
32 588
We
5
can
now
use these values for reducing the incomplete transits of Polaris,
Ursce Minoris,
and
y
Ceti.
is
In cases where the transit
observed over the
five
threads the arithmetical
mean
is
taken.
full.
Let us compute the reduction of Polaris in
cos S
log sec d
= =
8.35913;
1.64087.
Clamp Clamp
west,
east,
mean mean
i
h
17
23". 4;
2.
1177
174.
*
See table, Art.
312
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
The vame of / used in taking Vsec I frAn the table is obtained by subtracting the times of transit over threads Fand //^respectively from the time over Thus we have from the observation the middle thread.
Iv
The quantity marked
ft

23
in
= nm
54
s
.
or
ft' ,
connection with the observations,
is
the
inclination of the axis in terms of one division of the level, uncorrected for in* equality of pivots.
From
the
first
levelreading
we have
*/
Corrected,
fi
Therefore
b
= = =
062.
900;
.157.
=
".174.
The value
directly read
of b used for those stars in connection with which the level
is
is
not
obtained by interpolating between the observed values.
Thus
we have
For computing the error of collimation
of Polaris,
c
we
have, from the observed transits
*
Example, Art.
179.
187.
REDUCTION OF TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS.
log
313
K7"  T) =
cos #
0.90849*
8.35913
log \(b' cos (<p

b)
d)
= =
774036*
9.82481
75 6 5i7*
sum
Nat. No.
=
9.26762*
.1852
Nat. No.
.0037
Therefore
c
= T
.1889
clamp
j
^
I
.
cos 8 has been In applying the formula of (XVII), the term i(T' T) It is convenient to combine the disregarded, as in this case it is inappreciable. correction for diurnal aberration with c.
8T
Thus,
if
we
write
c
c'
c
8
s
.O2i cos
(p,
we have
The
in this case
}
c
=
173 clamp east, ".205 clamp west.
.
last but one of (XVII) will now give us the azimuth constant a. have seen that the best result is to be expected when we use the observed transits of two circumpolar stars, one at upper and the other at lower culmination. We therefore determine this constant from 5 Ursce Minoris and 47 Cephei. Referring to the derivation of the formula for a (Art. 186), we have for / and t'
We
t
t'
= T
T'
+b
f b'
cos
(cp (cp
d) sec
d')
8
f c
cos
sec d'
+
f'
sec 8; sec d';
the term in
8T the rate being inappreciable. The computation is then as follows:
5
URS^E MINORIS,
s.p.
d
q>
103
47'
8"
q>
d
b
f'
= = = = = =
log sec == 0.62290* log cos r= 9.65438
=
log
C
40 36 24
63
10 44
Sum
O 8 .252
log b
lo g
f'
+
2
h

1 '73
Bb
Cc
.477
log
Bb
.726
log Cc'
s
.
= = = = 
.27728*
=
log
B
9.40140
9.23805
9.67868*
9.86095*
T= Bb+ Cc' = / =
#'
(p <p
27
27
m
46 85
i
.20
2
45 .65
47 CEPHEI.
= =
78
57'
18"
log sec
= = =
0.71765
=
=
log
C
d'
40 36 24 38 20 54
log cos
Sum
9.89446 .61211
log
B
314
b
c'
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
l8/.
Bb
Gr'
+ =+
= =
= o 157 = + '*73
8
.
log b
lo S
.643
.903
^
log
^
*'
log Cc
= = 
9.19590
923805
9.80801
9.95570
T'
2 h som 52* 06
a'
=
2h
Bb
\
Cc
/'
+
2
i
.55
a=2
a'
/'
5o
27 23 23
m
5O .4i
8
Nat tan 8' Nat tan 8 tan 5' tan 5
= = =
50
53 .61
f
a
t
t)
=
40.14
10 .27
5.1231
40758
(a!
a)
(('
9.1989
log cos (f)
log denominator
log [(a'

a)

(/'

/)]
a
=
8
.33i
log a
= 2 f= 0.96373;* = 9.88036 = 0.84409;* = .36361 = 9.51952^
last of
7.96
.31
We may now
compute the clock correction
AT
from the
formulae
(XVII), using for this purpose the observed transits of the zenith and. equatorial We require first the values of the coefficients. stars.
=
If
sin
(y

S)
cos d
B=
much used
it
(>i.
cos d
at
and
c=
'
cos S'
any one place, as in an observatory be very convenient to tabulate these On pages 220227 f tne U. S. Coast Survey Report for 1880, Schott gives tables of these factors to two decimal places, with the double arguments d and z S, by means of which the factors may be <p found for any latitude and declination within the limits of the table. If such
the instrument
is
to be
for determining the local time, quantities with the argument d.
will
1
tables are not at hand, a computation with fourplace logarithms will give the The work may be arranged as follows: necessary degree of accuracy
, t
Star
ft
Arietis.
Y Andromedae.
cp
A+ B=+
C= +
= 20i4'.5 = 4036.4 (^ d = 20 21 .9
S
.371
sin(<p d) = 9.5416 cos d = 9 9723 cos (<p d) = 9.9720
d=
<p
(p
4i46'.i
i
sin (<p
d)
log
A= 9.5693
= 9.9997
.999 1.066
log .5
logC=
.0277
= 4036.4 d = 9.7 A= .027 ^ = + 1.341 C = + 1.341
cos d
cos(<p
<5)
= 8.3o7 = 9.8726 = 9.9999
=8.434*
.1273
log
log
,4
B=
logC=
.1274
187.
REDUCTION OF TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS.
of
315
The determination
AT'\s then as follows:
Mean A!T =
4*744
.022
The column headed v contains
is
the residuals from which the probable error
found by formula
(27) or (28).
Application of Formula (XVIII).
These formulae will not often be used for reducing observations made with an instrument of this class, but for illustration we may apply them to the above
observations.
Computation of n.
t
t'
We
use the transits of
5
Ursce Minoris
".73
and 47
103
78
Cepkei.
47'
= T f  T' +
c'
sec d sec d'
a'
a.
=
2
h
m 27
46*.
85
d
=
8"
c'
=250
2 h so01 so8 41
.
52.06+
.90
8'=
5718
= =
tan 5' tan d
2
27
a'
t'
a
(/'
t= _4= =
23
23
40 14 10.27
.
= =
=
5.1231
4.0758
7 .96
tan d
tan
d'
f 9.1989
+2.31
Therefore w
=
J
".373.
For
ft
Arietis b
f .167.
Therefore
m =
8
sec
tan
<
=
8
.
100.
Then we
have,
Arietis,
7*
=
i
h
48
m
n tan S
I9 .78 .10
+
i
14
/seed a
+.18
48
15.35
AT
4".65.
3*6
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
1
88.
Personal Equation.
188.
When
the results of transit observations
made by
dif
ferent observers are compared, it is found that they differ One generally by small but nearly constant quantities.
observer perhaps acquires a habit of noting the transit too early by a fraction of a second, while another will note it uniformly too late. This difference is called the personal
It is customary to speak of the relative and the equation. absolute personal equation, the former being the constant
between the right ascensions, or clock corrections deduced from observations made by two different observers, and the latter the difference between the absolute value of the quantity and that obtained by an observer who notes the
difference
time uniformly too early or too
late.
When results obtained
of two different observers are to be compared, as in the determination of longitude, the personal equation should always be determined and the necessary
from observations
correction applied. The existence of a large personal equation is not an indiThus cation of a poor observer, but perhaps the contrary.
the noted observers Bessel and Struve found that in 1814
O 8 .8, while
personal equation was zero; in 1821 it was it amounted to an entire second: thus indithe gradual formation of a fixed habit of observing on cating the part of both. Also in 1823 the relative personal equas tion between Bessel and Argelander was i .2, a surprisingly
their relative
in 1823
large quantity.
The personal equation
also
depends to some extent on the
instruments employed and the method of observation. It is generally much smaller when the chronograph is used than when the eye and ear method is employed. Bessel found that when he used a chronometer beating halfseconds he
188.
PERSONAL EQUATION.
317
observed transits o s 49 later than when he employed a clock
beating seconds. There are various methods of determining the personal equation, those mosl commonly employed being the following:
Let one observer note the transit of the star First Method. over the first two or three threads, 'and the other observer its The observed times are transit over the remaining threads. reduced to the middle (or mean) thread by means of the equatorial intervals, and the difference of the reduced times will be the relative personal equation. A considerable number of stars should be observed in this way, each observer leading alternately. Among the various methods used, this is considered one of the most reliable. Second Method. The two observers may each use a different instrument and determine the clock correction separately, observing the same list of stars. When the instruments which the observers are accustomed to use differ considerably in the arrangement of the threads or in other respects, this method may be superior to the former, as each observer may use his own instrument and make his observations deliberately and in his usual manner. Third Method. By a personalequation apparatus. Various mechanical devices have been constructed for measuring both the relative and absolute personal equation. Prof. Hilgard describes two machines of this kind in Appendix 17, Coast Survey Report 1874. An instrument designed by Prof. Eastman has been in use at the Naval Observatory for
a
number of
years, for a description
I,
see
Appendix
and drawing of which Washington Observations, 1875. These all
consist of a mechanical device for causing an artificial star to pass across a field of view arranged to appear as nearly
may be like that of the transit instrument. The observer notes the time of transit across the threads either by the
as
3 l8
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
189.
chronographic or the eye and ear method, while the machine by an electric arrangement records the time automatically, constant differences between the actual time of transit and that recorded by the machine being eliminated by causing
the star to cross the field in both directions. The difference between the automatic record and that of the observer is his absolute personal equation.
Eastman gives the following examples of the relative personal equation deduced on the same night by this instrument and by method first:
Prof.
By
btars.
By Apparatus.
October
25, 1875,
5,
Professor Eastman
Assistant Skinner. ..o .25i
s
o 9 .227
.173
.052
November December December March March
6,
1875, Professor Eastman 1876, Professor Eastman
Assistant Paul Assistant Paul
Assistant Frisby Assistant Frisby
174
035
31, 1877, Professor
13, 1878,
23, 1878,
Eastman Professor Eastman Professor Eastman
052 052
107
.044
.054
.092
Assistant Paul
This close agreement between the results obtained by two methods so entirely different must be regarded as exceedis sometimes found to exert a marked influence upon his personal equaIt is therefore very desirable that while prosecuting tion. observations where great accuracy is essential he should maintain as far as possible his ordinary habits of mind and body. In the more accurate longitude work of the Coast Survey
ingly satisfactory. The observer's physical and mental condition
the effect of personal equation exchanging stations when the
Probable Error
189.
is
eliminated by the observers
is
work
about half finished.
and Weight of
Transit Observations.
error of an observed transit consists parts: first, the probable error of the observer in noting the time of the stars passing the threads, independent of his personal equation; and secondly, the varipractically of
The probable
two
'.89.
PROBABLE ERROR OF TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS.
is
319
ous errors which together form what
nation error.
known
as the culmi
Among
these latter are those due to atmos
pheric displacement, outstanding instrumental errors, irregularities of the clock rate, and changes in the personal equaThe culmination error is not diminished by increasing tion.
the
number of threads of the reticule. The first part of the probable error, which for present purposes we may call the personal error, may be determined
by comparing together the individual values of the equadeduced from a large number of observations, for the purpose the formula using
torial intervals
=
.6745
m being the whole number of determinations. Let e = the probable error of the observed
time of an one thread. equatorial star over Then, since the equatorial interval is the difference of two observed quantities, each of which has the probable error et we shall have (Eq. 29)
from which
As
vations
the result of the discussion of a large number of obsermade with the different instruments of the Coast
Survey, Schott gives,* for the larger instruments,
+
(.036)'
tan
2
tf;
.
.
.
.
(311)
Coast Survey Report for 1880,
p. 236.
320
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
190.
and for the smaller instruments,
e
=
V(.oSoy
+
(.063)'
tan
2
(312)
these equations the probable error for a star of any declination may be computed, and consequently the weight, The following table is from the Coast Survey by (33).
From
Report, the weight of an equatorial star being unity
:
In the application of the multiplier
to
Vp
it
generally suffices
employ but one significant figure.
Relative Weights of Incomplete Transits.
190.
Let
s
f,
r
= =
the probable error of the transit of an equatorial star over a single thread
;
the probable culmination error the probable error of the transit observed over n threads, both sources of error being
;
considered
p IQO.
WEIGHTS OF INCOMPLETE TRANSITS.
$21
Then
r*=e? + ~
........
(313)
Coast Survey r = o s .o5i, and for the smaller instruments r = O 8 .o6o. When assigning to the values o s .o63 and o .o8o from (311) and (312), it is found that e, ".049 and
the
s
Schott concludes, from the examination of 558 individual values of the right ascensions of 36 stars observed at the U. S. Naval Observatory, that for the larger instruments of
=
S
.os6 respectively.
Then
let
N = the whole number of threads
p
;
= the weight of an observation over n threads = the weight of an observation over all of the ^threads. Unity
;
Then,
(33),
p=  ......
and
(314)
Substituting the above values for
s
lt
we have
For the larger instruments p
^;
.....
(315)
2.0
,
For the smaller instruments p
I+AT =
(31 6)
322
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Let
N
25 in (315)
and 9
the following values
of/
in (316) respectively; we find for the values of n indicated.
It appears, therefore, that the gain in accuracy obtained by increasing the number of threads soon becomes practically Bessel thought that no practical advantage insignificant.
resulted from the use of
more than
five threads.
Reduction of Transit Observations by Least Squares.
191. When the time is to be determined by a series of observations with the portable transit instrument, the method of least squares may be applied with advantage in case the This will be results are required with extreme accuracy. the case particularly where the time is required for longitude determination, and where the clock correction, the azimuth and collimation constants, and sometimes the rate, are all to
be determined from the same series of observations. An observing list should be prepared beforehand, embracing stars adapted to the determination of these quantities. have seen that stars which culminate near the zenith are best adapted to the determination of AT\ also that circum
We
191.
REDUCTION OF TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS.
323
polar stars observed at upper and lower culmination are One half the stars should best for the determination of a. be observed in each position of the axis for the purpose of
determining c. It is a very good arrangement to divide the stars into groups of about five or six stars, each group to contain two circumpolar stars, one at upper and one at lower culmination, the remaining three or four stars being near the It is not adviszenith or between the zenith and equator. able to include the close circumpolar stars in such a group. The instrument having been carefully adjusted, the observations will be conducted as follows
:
ist.
Read
the level.
first
2d.
3d.
Observe the
group of five or
six stars.
Read
Read Read
the level.
the level.
five
4th.
5th.
6th.,
Reverse the instrument.
Observe the second group of
the level.
or six
stars.
;th.
complete series, as it contains determining all of the unknown If considered desirable, a third and fourth quantities. group may be observed in the same manner. If there is time between the stars of the group, more leveLreadings may be
everything necessary for
taken but if the mounting is reasonably firm, the level corrections for the individual stars may be interpolated from those at the beginning and end. If there are no imperfect transits, a knowledge of the equatorial intervals will not be required otherwise they may be determined from the suitable stars of the series just observed. It must be remembered that in transporting the instrument from one station to another the relative position
; ;
This
may be regarded
as a
324
of the threads
PRACTICAL AS7^RONOMY.
191.
This difficulty is is liable to be disturbed. avoided by the use of the glass reticule, the distances of the lines of which may be determined once for all. The reduction is then as follows
:
Let
A = B=
C=
AT
a
sin (<p
d) sec
= =
dT =
cos (q> sec d the clock correction at time the hourly rate
;
;
6 6) sec d
;
T
;
;
the stars' .apparent right ascension.
can always infer from our observations a value of A T which will be very near the true one, and as the labor of computation will be diminished by making the numerical
values of the
We
unknown
quantities as small as possible,
we may
assume an approximate value of this quantity, and determine a correction to this assumed value.
Let
5
=
the assumed value of the clock correction
;
Then x
is
a small
unknown
correction to 5.
Introducing
this notation into
Mayer's formula,
it
becomes
In which x, 6T,
tities.
a,
and
c
may
be considered
s
unknown quan<p
Writing
viz.,
/= T +
of the
$
+ Bb
.O2i
C cos
a,
the
sum
known
quantities,
we have
.
Aa+Cc+ST(T
r.)
+ * + / = o.
(317)
IQI.
REDUCTION OF TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS.
325
Every*observed transit furnishes one equation of this form unknown quantities a, c, $T, and x. Four perfect observations would be sufficient. As a much larger number will be taken, the most probable values must be determined by the method of least squares (Art. 21). If 8T is known, the number of unknown quantities will be reduced to three. If in addition c has been determined by some other method, there will only be two. If there is a suspicion that the azimuth has changed during the progress of the observations, an additional azimuth constant may be introduced as another unknown quantity. The reduction will be facilitated by tabulating the factors A, B, and C. Such a table has been published by the U. S. Coast Survey, in which A and B are given with the double C is of course given with the argument d and z (cp #).
for determining the four
argument
or
in the
tf.
observations are to be reduced at one place, latitude, a special table is more conveniently for the latitude of the place. The only argument computed will then be S. It will be convenient to make the computation of / directly in the book used for recording the transits. The means of the times over the threads being taken, this will be T, which
When many
same
written below. In case of incomplete transits, the time over the mean thread is computed as already illustrated, a and $ are taken from the Nautical Almanac and written in thesamebook. The small corrections^.^ and S .o2i cosp.C are applied directly to T. Subtracting a from the algebraic sum, we have / 5, in which 3 will be assumed of such value
is
as to
make
/ small.
An example
follows.
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Reduction of Transit Observations made at the Sayre Observatory, 1883, October n.
An
observing
list
was
first
prepared, of which the following
is
a specimen
:
The two groups are intended to be observed one in each position of the axis. The right ascension and declination are taken from the mean values of the Nautical Almanac. The column headed Setting" gives the setting of the finding In this case the circle reads zero when the telescope is directed to the circle.
' '
north point of the horizon, the latitude being 40 36' 24"; the circle will read 130 36' 24" when the line of collimation of the telescope lies in the equator. d. Therefore the setting for any star will be 130 36'. 4
Below
is
the copy of the recorded transits of the above stars as observed on
the night of October
n, 1883
:
Level.
E.
W.
v Cygni.
I
12.0
92 12.0 96
9.9 I3I 9.9 13.0
II III
144 36.3 575
19.
IV
V
20 53 40.4
10.70
11.475
T=
a
=
20 46 30.14 20 46 24.07
Cygni.
I
j
.02
T
a
I
=
20 52 57.52 .o6 20 52 51.77
a 2 Ursse Majoris,
V
s.p.
T Cygni.
IV
Ill
II
I
49.9 31.2
14.8
28.9
48. 6.8
II
III
II III
56
16.1
IV
21
I
40. .01
V T=
a
25.8 21 8 44.1
21 8 21 8
IV
V
.05
36.9 21 10 57.6
21 10 16.36 21 10 10.56
T
a
=
21 o 14.62 9 o 7.86
6.72 0.69
T= a =
+ .06
I
9I
REDUCTION OF TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS.
Level.
327
Cephei.
I
E.
w.
II III
IV
V
46.1 21.7 559 30.9 21 17 59
T=
a
9.8 137 93 12.9 95 12.8
13.3 9.9 I4.I 10.8
14.1
II. 2
=
21 15 56.10 21 15 50.57
+
.
ii
11.333
12.233
Level.
r*
V
IV
Ill
II
I
Cygni;
48.9
13.3 38.1 27 21 43 27.5
n55
12.30
.05
T
a
=
21 42 38. 10 21 42 31.96
+
.11
79 Draconis.
E.
Level.
w.
V
IV
III
II
I
a Aquarii.
239
40.
10.2 12.6
10.5 12.8
13.9
11. 2
56.8
I2. 9
13.7 11. 3
o
29.
a
T= =
21 51 35.56 21 51 29.26
+.23
11.525
12.525
T=
a
=
21 59 56.52}. 06 21 59 50.21
32 Ursse Majoris, s.p.
I
TT
19.
V
IV
III II
I
Aquarii.
Level.
II
595
III
22
9 38.5
18.5 575
555 11.9 28.2
12.6
10. 1
II. 2
14.0
IV
V
22 20
44.1 0.3
.
12. 1
n.8
136
10.6
T= 22
a
=
10
9 38.60 9 32.66
.04
T
a
22 19 28.00 22 19 21.93
08
H35
12.65
The small quantities added to above include the corrections for level and 8 diurnal aberration; viz., Bb .o2i C, cos <p. b is computed from the levelreadings as already explained, the value of one division of the level being '.174,
and the correction for inequality of pivots being
in
T
T
(
.062 Cl.
\
F ^ K expressed
)
terms of one division of the
level.
328
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
take from the tables the values of the coefficients A, B, and C, or,
if
We now
tables of these quantities are not at hand, we compute them by the formulae. For illustrating the application of the proper weights to the equations of con.
dition, the value of
Vp
is
taken from the table of Art. 189 for the smaller instru
ments.
All these quantities are conveniently tabulated as follows:
Assumed d
=
6.
5 is obtained by adding algebraically The quantity in the column headed / of the above observations the sum of the corrections, viz., to the quantity 8 Bb now have all the .02i C cos q>, and subtracting from the result a. quantities entering into the equations of condition, each of which has the form
T
We
191.
REDUCTION OF TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS.
is
329
The
rate
here inappreciable, and the term
dT(TT
)
has accordingly been
dropped.
The coefficient f, as will be seen, has its sign changed Our twelve equations, written out in full, will then be
1. 2.
for clamp west.
as follows
:
.780 + i.oic i.o&c .000
+
3.
4.
5.
1.150 ,2oa
+ + i.2i* +
i.
OOP
=:
.09.
.82.*:
.46^
j 1.05*: 
igir
.060
6.
7
+ 20* + .44^ + ~~
 1.07*:
1.
.85*
.56*
53#
i. oic } i.
oar
= 35= .07. = + .12. = + .20. = .09.
.19.
.19.
f
.16.
8.
9.
.i6a .6ja
.660
10.
+ 1.24* + i.oor +
1.
12*
.74*=
.36*
i
oar
= =
.37.
f
11. 12.
i.ida
{
i.2ic
\
.640
i. oo* {
.$ox ioox
.05.
.15.
(36), viz.,
=
These now have the general form of the equations of condition
<*ix
f erf
+ d\w
i,
there being in this case the three unknown quantities a, c, and x, correspondThe term corresponding to y has ing to the x, z, and w of the general form.
disappeared here, as we have assumed the rate of the clock to be inappreciable for the short time over which the observations extend.
We
have now
to
confusion
equations
may
is
arise
form the normal equations (see Eq. 41). In order that no from the difference of notation, the general form of these
full, viz.:
here given in
[aa]a
Ma + [> + M*
[ad]a
f
[ac\c
f
W];r
= =
+ [cd]c
M
[aw]
;
;
of these equations in full with the various checks on the accuracy of the computation, as an illustration of the method. Practically, however, this part of the work will generally be more or less abridged by ex
We shall give the solution
perienced computers when the number of unknown quantities does not exceed that of the above equations. We shall require, besides the quantities already indicated, the sums of the coefficients of each equation, viz.:
33
Also,
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
we compute
the quantities
[as], [cs], [ds], [nn], [ns].
IQI.
The computation
will first
be
made by
the use of Crelle's table.
therefore prepare the scheme for computation given below, containing TO) columns, 5 for the quantities a, c, d, n, s, etc. which we rewrite for the sake of
,
We
convenience, and 14 for the squares and products.
[vv]
=
0887.
The agreement of the values of [as], [cs], part of the computation. The normal equations are then
5.11433
.2792^
and
[ds] proves the accuracy of this
4
.'2792^
+ 3.3460*
f
73971
14.6142*:
.1958^=
1.9201;
7635.
3.34600
+
.1958^
+ 7.6754*
=
191.
REDUCTION OF TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS.
33!
These equations are now to be solved, following the method and notation exWe shall therefore require the following auxiliary coeffiplained in Art. 28.
cients, viz.,
[!], \cd\\ >i],
\cs\\ \ddL\
t
[dni]
[dsi],
[
i],
\ns
ij,
[dd2\, [dn2\, [tts2],
[2],
[ns2\:
[dsi], \ns
i], etc.,
being computed for checks or the accuracy of the work.
will then
The computation
be made according
to the
following scheme:
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
19 1.
the
the
The accuracy of the work at different stages of progress is shown by manner in which the proof equations are satisfied. Those referred to by numbers in the last column above are as follows:
(1) (2)
(>]
[
i] i]
(3)
(4) (5)
(6)
[*
[ds2]
[J
i]
[ns2]
[ns 3]
(7)
= = = =
=[*] +[*] +
[
[ad]
i]; i];
[</
[an];
i]
[^ i]
+ [/!][. + \fd i]
[
[dd2][dn 2 ]; [* i] + [</ i] jy2]  [2];
i];

[
3]
= [H
We now
determine
c
and a by the equations
\cc i\c f \cd
i\x
f
[en i];
\ad\a
[en i]
J
[ar]c
\ad^\x
=
[an].
.
\cdi\x
= = _
i
.
8797
[a]
\ad\x
[ac]
c
.0227
+
1.9024
I4 5990

= = = +
h
7397
.2005
.0364
1303
a
=
5H43
.0983
7"!^
Weights and Probable Errors.
or
The weights
of a,
f,
and
will
be given by formulae
(76), viz.
:
px
=
\dd2\{
In which
\dd
i]
Therefore
/
=
547;
log [^ i]
log
[^2]
= =
=
1.16432
.73850
=
14.573;
\0gpo
I.I6354
1
9 1..
REDUCTION OF TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS.
log
333
O/]
2
log
= =
8.58362
8.83522
p^j
Nat. No. \dd}
.0026
7.41884
*
\dd
i] a
= =
7.6754
76728
log
=
=
\aa ij a
9.11504
8.83522
.70879
log
p
log \aa\ log
\cc i]
= =
1.16432
log [dd 2}
.73850
56187
/a
=
3646.
log /a
The mean
error of a single observation of weight unity
is
see equation (88)
In
this case
m
12
;
>u
=
3
;
[w]
=
.0887.
Therefore e
= .loa
=
%E C
=
.017
;
Ec
=
r
=
.026
;
= 4= =
We now have
052.
AT =z
3 +
x.
Therefore
6". 060
AT
c
a
= =
.029
f
.130
.098
.017
.035
Formation of the Normal Equations by a Table of Squares.
We have seen in Art. 26 that all of the multiplications necessary for deriving the normal equations from the equations of condition can be performed by
*
See equations
(27).
t See equations (89).
334
means
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
of a table of squares, with little, if any, more labor than by the use ol For the purpose of illustrating the method it will be applied to
Crelle's table.
the present example. By referring to the formulae
computation which follow
will
and explanations of Art. 26 the details of the be sufficiently clear.
The proofformula becomes
in this case
\ss\
+
2\[aa]
+
[cc]
+
{_dd}
+
[nn]\
=
[(a
+
ef\
+
[(a
+ d?} +
[(a

a
) ]
which
is
completely verified, as
may be
Of course the
resulting normal equations are the
seen by substituting the above values. same as those obtained before.
192.
CORRECTION FOR FLEXURE.
335
Correction for Flexure.
of transit instrument, that in which the eyepiece is at one end of the axis (see Fig. 28), requires The a special correction for flexure of the horizontal axis. be the same amount of this flexure or bending is assumed to
192.
The second form
in all positions of
the telescope, as
is
it
will
be
if
the material
homogeneous. The effect composed will be to bring the reflecting prism lower down than it would be otherwise without changing the direction of the
of which the axis
is
When the eyepiece is east this will reflecting surface. cause the star to reach the collimation axis too late by a small quantity, which is a maximum in the zenith and nothing to in the horizon. Suppose represent the rotation axis bent as
WE
shown
in the figure,
CO
being the
w
collimation axis of the telescope, be the eye end of the axis. Let
E
o
Fi<T
v
The
effect
on the observed time of
3 6.
a star's transit will evidently be the
same as that produced the end marked E, and when the proper coby elevating efficient is found it may be combined with the level correc
tion.
the coefficient of flexure. / will be the maximum displacement of the transit thread, and will be the value of this displacement when the tele
Lety =
scope
piece,
is
directed to the zenith.
the end of the axis opposite the eyeto Mayer's formula the
(<p
The clamp being on
we must add
term
)
3) / '~55iT~~l clamp clamp
(
cos

west
east
i"
336
If
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
192.
we
write
(g>
,tf)
=
z,
the terms of Mayer's formula,
of the observed time of a star's
which give the correction
be written as follows
:
transit for collimation, flexure,
and inequality of
z
pivots,
may
(319)
(p cos 2
in
is
/cos
+
c)
sec
tf;
.
.
.
which/
is
determined by (297) or
(297),,
and which we see
involved in the same manner as /. These instruments are generally provided with micrometers, which may be used for determining / and c at the
:
time, as follows In order to make a satisfactory determination, and at the same time to test the accuracy of the assumed law of change expressed by the formula /cos z, a collimating telescope is
same
frame in such a manner that it may be placed vertically over the transit telescope and at difThe collimation ferent zenith distances from zero to 90. error is then measured, as explained in Articles 182184, with the telescope pointed at various zenith distances. This measured value will include the term /cos z, which will be It will o. zero when z 90, and a maximum when z
necessary,
mounted
in a
therefore be possible to separate c from/. It will be advisable to make a considerable number of measurements, from which c and /can then be derived by the method of least squares. If the resulting values satisfy the equations within the limit of the probable error of measurement, the assumed law of change expressed by the for
mula/cos
In
z will be verified.
cases there
is
some
found to be a correction required
depending on the temperature. This may be detected by making the measurements for collimation and flexure at If then different values are found different temperatures.
varying with the temperature according to any law, the necessary correction may be determined.
CORRECTION FOR FLEXURE.
In
337
Society,
Vol.
XXXVII,
Memoirs Royal Astronomical
Captain Clarke, R.E., gives an example of the investigation of the flexure coefficient with an apparatus of the kind just In addition to the movable collimator, another described.
was used which was fixed in the horizon. The collimation measured on this was free from the effect of flexure, so that I y taking the difference between the quantity (/ cos z f c\ measured at a zenith distance z by means of the movable collimator, and the quantity c, measured at the same time with the fixed collimator, a direct measurement of the quantity /cos z was obtained. Twelve measurements made at zenith distances from o to 55 gave the following results:
z gives the zenith distance of the upper the next column gives the difference between the collimation determined on the upper and Iqwer collimators;
The column headed
;
collimator
and the column headed v gives the residuals. Referring to equation (319), we see that the quantity called
" difference" is equal to (f p) cos z. From the measured values of this quantity it was found that
twelve
(//) =
From
3
2
J

5
expressed in divisions of the micrometer.
levelreadings,
.779 .026 expressed in divisions of the micrometer;
p
therefore
,
/=
3.800.
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
194.
One
division of the micrometer
=
o".8345
;
therefore
/=
3". 171
o s .2ii.
193. The use of such an apparatus as we will not generally be practicable in the field.
have described
The
coefficient
then be determined from the observed transits by adding to the equations of condition (317) the term
/ may
*"
7
cos(?> cos d

<?)
The complete equation
will then
be
Aa
,
+ Bf+Cc+*T(Tit
T
)
+x+I=
o.
.
(320)
and x being unknown quantities.
t
If
tiTis known, as
known
ordinarily will be, the will be four. quantities
number
of un
The Transit Instrument out of the Meridian.
Equations (275) and (281) are strictly general, and are applicable to the reduction of transits with the instrument We have seen that when the inin any position whatever. strument is so near the meridian that the squares and higher powers of a, b, m, and n may be neglected* these formulae become very simple. Bessel, Hansen, and others have given more general methods of solving the equations intended for use in those cases where the observer in the field cannot afford the time for adjusting his instrument accurately in the meridian. When, however, the observer is provided with a good list of stars reduced to apparent place, like that given
194.
* That
cos
a,
is,
we may
write a; b m,
t
and n
for sin a, sin
b, etc.,
and unity
for
cos
b, etc.
IQ5
TRANSITS OF THE SUN, MOON, AND PLANETS.
American Ephemeris,
this
339
so
in the
adjustment
is
made
readily, and the labor of reduction is so much less than with the more general methods, that the latter have not found
much favor, especially in this country. Therefore, however interesting some of these may be from a mathematical point of view, we shall not give their development here.
Transits of the Sun, Moon,
and Planets.
195. In the field, transits of the moon will be observed for the determination of longitude when no better method is available. The sun and occasionally a planet will be observed
for time.
In case of the sun and
is
moon
the
is
method
of observing
to note the instant
when
the limb
tangent to the thread.
;
both limbs may be observed be practicable except when the' with the moon In transit is observed very near the instant of full moon. observing a planet, the transits of each limb may be observed alternately, or when a chronograph is used both limbs may be observed, as in case of the sun. With any of these bodies, when both limbs are observed, the time of transit of the centre will be the mean of that of the two limbs. It may, however, be desirable to reduce the limbs sepatransit of
this will not
With the sun the
rately for the purpose of comparison.
observed on a side thread, the hourangle by parallax the time required to pass from the thread to the meridian is affected by the moon's motion in right ascension. The reduction is as follows:
the moon's limb
is
When
is
affected
:
Let
d'
and
of the
# and t, z and z'
,
be the apparent declination and east hourangle moon's limb when observed on a side thread the geocentric declination and hourangle the geocentric and apparent zenith distance.
; ;
340
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
19$.
can reduce the observation by either of the equations Taking the latter, viz., Mayer's for(282), (283), or (284). we have mula, ^^
J
We
~~~
sin
(
9
*>)
cos
(cp

(T)
c
f
+i "
(32I)
i
being the equatorial interval of the thread. Having /', / may be determined as follows: the zenith, O the geocentric In Fig. 37, let P be the pole,
Z
place of the
moon
at the instant of observation, O the ap
parent place.
Angle
MPO = t MPO' =
sin
=
;
ZO =
z
;
/';
ZO =
M'ZO',
=
z'.
From
the triangles
sin
MZO and
sin z
MZO =
MPO,
M'PO',
MO = sin M'O' sm*'
/
.
.
(322)
J
VFrom
From
triangle
triangle
sin sin
J/0
7
FIG. 37.
J/'^
= sin t cos = sin cos
t'
;
)
/
x
r
tf
.
I
Substituting these values in (322),
sin / cos
we have
cos 8'
3
sin
t'
~~sin
sr
sin ^'
As /is
small,
/
=/
.
cos
r
<^

sin z
.
.
x
r,
.
.
.
(324)
the required value of t in terms of t'. the increase of the moon's right ascension in one Let A
=
TRANSITS OF THE MOON.
sidereal second
;
341
then
/
being expressed
in
seconds, the time
required for the
moon
to pass over this interval will be
ii
A'
(325)
A representing the velocity with which the moon ap* proaches the meridian. There remains the correction for the moon's semidiameter.
Let
5
S'
= =
the geocentric semidiameter of the moon at the time of transit, taken from the ephemeris; the hourangle of the centre when the limb is on
the meridian.
p
Then, from Fig.
38,
sin S'
=
sin_5
cos~<T
Writing 5 and S for their sines and dividing by to reduce to time,
f
15
15 cos <r
FIG. 38.
The time required
will
for the
moon
to pass over this space
be
S'
l

A
15(1
A) cos
(326),
(326)
From
(321), (324), (325),
and
we have
the limb
for the right
is
ascension of the moon's centre
when
observed on
any thread
of the transit instrument,
~,
.
I5 (iA)cos5
(327)
34 2
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
195.
geocentric declination, #, and the equatorial horizontal parallax, n, are taken from the ephemeris. Then from (XI) Art. 85, we have with sufficient accuracy for this purpose
X,
The
d
f
=
d
np
sin (<p
f
<T);
....
f
(328)
<p',
where generally d may be substituted the second member. %
for d
,
and
cp
for
in
Then/
being the parallax in zenith distance,
we have
and the factor
sin z
.
sin
z
,
in
equation (327) becomes
sin
z7
=
sin z
;
:
sin z
cos/
)
cos z sin/
=
cos /
cot z sin /
approximately. And from (VII),, Art. 82 with sufficient accuracy for this purpose,
sin z

sins'
If
=
l
i
p
i i
sin
n cos
.
(or
tf).
then
we
write
A =
p sin n cos
r
(cp
(5),
(329)
F = ^4^
^j
sec
tf,
may be
tabulated with the argument log p sin
TT
/
cos(^>
tf)
as in table
of Bessel's Tabttlce Regiomontance ; B, may be tabulated with the argument Act moon's change in right
XIII
ascension in one minute,
Aa
being given in the ephemeris.
taken from the table of
The term 15 (i
A) cos
^ d
may be
"
Moon Culminations" of the ephemeris where it is given under the heading " Sidereal time of semidiameter passing
196.
MOON'S DEFECTIVE LIMB.
343
the meridian." The complete formulae for the moon's right ascension are then as follows
:
= A =
d'
l
d
I
np
p
sin (<p sin n cos
r
tf);
(<p'
tf);
=AB
l
l
sec
')
tf;
c'
5')
.
_cos(<f>
<?
\
r. \ .T
f
cos
T7 6'
COS O
+
15(1
S
X) cos
<
cosS'J
The use which will be made of this value of a in the determination of longitude will be explained hereafter. series of stars will be observed in connection with the moon for determining the clock correction A T and the constants a and c. Sometimes the clock correction is made to depend
A
exclusively on about four stars whose declination is nearly the same as that of the moon two of these precede the moon
;
and two follow.
Correction to the Moon's Defective Limb.
196. The transit of both limbs of the moon can only be observed when the culmination occurs very near the time of full moon. If one limb is defective it may still be used if it
is
sharply defined, and a correction applied for defective
illumination.
purpose we may regard the moon as a sphere, and consider the rays of light from the sun to the moon The curve of as parallel to those from the sun to the earth. contact of the surface of the moon with the cone of rays tan
For
this
we may
its surface will separate the light from the dark part When the defective limb is observed, the moon. point whose contact with the thread of the reticule is noted is a point on this curve; and instead of the semidiameter 5,
gent to
of the
344
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY,
196.
we shah
require for this limb the perpendicular from the centre of the disk upon the hourcircle, of
which the
transit thread
may
be regarded
as forming a small arc. Thus aa' being the position of the thread at the instant of the
observed transit of the defective limb Z,
we shall require the distance CL S instead of S. Fig. 40 may be regarded as a section formed by the plane passing FIG. 39 through the rotation and collimation axes of the instrument, and Fig. 39 a section formed by the plane perpendicular to the collimation axis.
1
.
=
E is
the point on the earth's surface from which the observation is made. are the projections on the E~2 and
K2
coming from the
Let x
plane of the instrument of rays of light sun. .These lines are
practically parallel.
= the
angle formed with the plane meridian by the line drawn from the sun to the
of the
moon.
This will be practically the same angle formed by lines joining the sun and
as that
earth.
CK
Also, the meridian.
KN
will be perpendicular to this line. is perpendicular to the plane of
Therefore
S
FlG 40
l
S
cos x.
(330)
the angle which a line drawn from the sun to the earth forms with the lower branch of the
x
is
now
meridian.
196.
TRANSIT OF THE MOON.
a
a'
a'
345
Let
=
the moon's right ascension at the time of culmination
;
= a=
the sun's right ascension angle formed by the hourcircles
;
drawn
1
80
(of
a)
=
through the
moon and sun
;
angle formed by sun's hourcircle with the lower branch of the meridian.
sun's declination.
6
f
is the earth, Pihe pole of the heavens, and In Fig. 41, of the sun on the celestial the projection
E
5
sphere. PR is the lower branch of the meridian. SR is the arc of a great circle
perpendicular to the meridian.
Therefore
SER = x =
arc SR.
The rightangle triangle fore gives
sin
SPR
<$'
thereFlG
4I *
x
=
cos
sin (a'
ex)
(33 1)
(330) and (331) therefore give the required value of S', and the correction to be applied will be of the same form as in
case of 5,
is
viz.,
"
7
15 (i
YT A)
= v cos #
(
>
j
when
<
(
jl second
j
limb
defective.
Example. 1883. October 15, the moon was observed with the portable transit instrument of the Sayre observatory as follows:
Cl. east.
T\
15
55.32
i
18
16.98
12.15
13.60
346
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
we
196.
find, for
From the table of moon culminations (page 379 of the ephemeris) the time of the moon's transit at Bethlehem:
Apparent declination
Equatorial horizontal parallax
= =
S
it
= =
9
14'
18"
3681"
.0425
A
Sidereal time of semidiameter passing the meridian
=
40
7o .76
25'
8
We
also have
q>'
2"
log/o=
Correction for inequality of pivots
=p
is
999939
.062
The computation by formulae (XIX),
<p'
Art. 195,
now
cos
as follows:
d)
d
=
31
10'
44"
sin (q>
6)
= =
9.7141
(<p'
log
7t
=. 3.5660
sin
7t
log p
9.9994
3.2795
log
p
= = =
=
9.9323
8.2515
9.9994
8.1832 .01525
Sum
S'
=
Sum
Nat No. 1903"
=
8
42' 35"
i
A
A.
l
.98475

log(i
A)
log B! cos d'
= = = =
0.9575 9.9811
.0189
9.9950
".0179
log log /^cos
F
d'
=
.0129
F cos S'
with/ give
b
c'
=. 1.030
The above
We
have derived from
levelreadings in connection transits of stars
f
".115.
I 54'
a
= f~ = 
ATWe now
apply the last of formulae (XIX):
.065;
5'.47.
cos<F=
sum
(Sum) .Fcos
d'
^' 56
}
= =
.220
f '.227
197.
TRANSIT OF THE SUN AND PLANETS.
347
T=
First h i
Limb.
I5
Second Limb.
8
m
ATCorrections

55 .32
i
h
i8 m i6 8 .98
5.47


547

Right ascension of limb
i
h
I5
+ m
23
i
9 5O .o8
h i8
+ m
23
n*.74
The
right ascension of the centre will be obtained
from either of these by
applying the correction for semidiameter, which is the same as the sidereal time of the semidiameter passing the meridian. The illumination of the second limb, however, was defective, and therefore the correction given by formulae (330) and
(331)
should be applied.
the ephemeris
From
we have*
Sun's right ascension Sun's declination
Moon's
Applying formula
right ascension
a'
= = =
a'
d'
a
= = = =
I3
8
i
h
23
I7
m io8
45' 18"
h
m
i8
(331),
a
i2 h
6m
9"
181
32' 15"
sin (a'
a)
cos
sin
d'
= =
=
8.4286
9.9949
8.4235
cos
log
70".
x x
9.999 8 5
76
Corrected value
=
70^.74
log
=
1.84979
1.84964
Therefore
Right ascension moon's centre from observation of first limb Right ascension moon's centre from observation of second limb
= =
i I
h
I7 17
m o8 .84.
1 .00.
Transits of the
197.
Sun and Planets.
Formulas (XIX) derived for the moon apply equally
to the sun and planets. As, however, the parallax in these cases will always be small, we can write without appreciable error z z' and S 8'.
=
Then
A,
=
i;
B =
l
I
^\ A
F=
B, sec
X) cos S
(33.)
5(1
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
198.
term can be taken directly from the ephemeris, " where given under the heading Sidereal time of semimeridian." The object of such an obdiameter passing the servation will be to determine the clock correction AT. If the sun is observed with a mean time chronometer, the rate of which is small, A may be neglected, as then the motion of the sun will practically correspond with that of the chronometer. If the chronometer has a large rate on apparent time, this rate may be placed equal to A, f when the chrowhen losing. nometer is gaining,
last
it is
The
Let
E=
S"
the equation of time for the instant of
transit
;
=
the
mean time
;
of semidiameter passing the
meridian
T=
AT =
Then
Therefore
I2 h
chronometer time of observation reduced to middle (or mean) thread the chronometer correction on mean time.
;
+ E =.
mean time
of sun's transit.
S"
is
f
when both
will then
for preceding limb, and for following limb are observed it vanishes from the mean.
(333).
;
AT
be given by
The 'Transit Instrument
198.
in the
Prime
Vertical.
The
transit
may be employed
for determining the in
stant of a star's passing the prime vertical, in a manner similar to that already explained for determining its passage over Such observations furnish a very accurate the meridian.
method
of
determining the latitude of the place of observa
198.
tion, or, in
PRIME VERTICAL TRANSITS.
a fixed observatory where the latitude
is
349
known,
The for determining the declinations of the stars observed. of the transit to these purposes is due practical application to Bessel, although a prime vertical transit was used by
a hundred years earlier. This method of determining latitude has been considerably used by the astronomers of Europe, arid to a less extent in
It is now almost ensuperseded by the use of tirely the zenith telescope, so that a
Roemer more than
America.
P
complete presentation of the theory is relatively much less important now than it was thirty or
forty years ago.
P be
The principle is as
the pole,
Z
Let the zenith, and .S
follows
:
.
~
FIG. 42 the prime vertical at 5 and S' Suppose the instant of the star's passing the prime vertical to be observed with a transit instrument
.
a star which crosses
is
perfectly adjusted in this plane then if the rate of the clock known, the difference between the two times of transit
;
will
be the angle SPS', one half of which
the rightangle triangle
tan
cp
Then from
is equal to SPZ = SPZ or S PZ we have
f
t.
=
tan # sec
(334)
from which either cp or d may be determined when the other is known. In the field it will of course be cp which is to be
determined.
The process is then analogous to that employed with the instrument mounted in the meridian viz., the adjustments are made as accurately as may be, and the corrections to the final result determined for outstanding deviations. As we shall see, the value of the method consists largely in the
;
350
facility
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
199.
with which the effect of instrumental errors may be It is evident that only those stars can be obeliminated. served on the prime vertical which culminate between the
equator and the zenith, that tween o and <p.
is,
whose declinations are
be
Adjustments.
199. It is only necessary to explain the method of placing the instrument in the prime vertical, all the remaining adjustments being the same as when the instrument is in the meridian. For this purpose a star is selected whose declina
tion
is small, and the clock time computed when the star will be on the prime vertical. Triangle PSZ of Fig. 42 gives
tan 6
The
clock time of the star's passing the prime vertical will
then be
(336)
When the clock time is that given by this formula, the middle thread of the reticule must be brought on the star by the finemotion azimuth screw. It will be observed that a knowledge of the latitude is necessary for computing /, but from (335) it appears that when a star is chosen whose declination is nearly o, a small error in the assumed value of <p may exist without mateThe adjustment should be rially affecting the value of /. tested by stars both east and west of the meridian, as an error in the assumed value of <p will affect the computed times for east and west stars with opposite signs.
2OO.
PRIME VERTICAL TRANSITS.
351
instruments are provided with azimuth circles like that shown in Fig. 28, in which case the simplest method of in the plane proceeding will be to first adjust the instrument
Some
of the meridian and then turn
it
in
azimuth 90 by the
circle.
Method of Observing.
first be prethe prime vertical, both pared, for which the time of passing east and west, must be computed, also the zenith distance or
200.
A
list
of stars to be
observed should
Formulas (335) and (336) give setting of the finding circle. the required time. The zenith distance is given by
cos 2
=
sin
.
8
.
t
\
sin cp
(337)
If the star is near the zenith, the time required to pass the thread intervals will be comparatively large, so that it will be convenient to compute approximately the time of passing
the
first
thread.
Let
i
/
the equatorial interval of the first thread the corresponding star interval.
;
Then /
=
sin
cp
^^ cos d sin
=
t
sin (p sin z
:
approximately. (338)
J
The proof of this formula will be given hereafter. / will be subtracted from the time given by (336) for a star either east or west. As the star moves obliquely across the field, it will be
necessary to change the zenith distance of the telescope for every thread in order to have the transits take place between the two horizontal threads.
352
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Mathematical Theory.
2OI.
201. The equations (275) and (281) apply to the transit instrument in any position whatever, and consequently may be used in this case. It will perhaps be better to derive the
formulae directly. Let us consider the point where the north end of the axis produced pierces the celestial sphere. This we shall call the
north end of axis. Let this point be referred to a system of rectangular axes, the horizon being the plane of xy, the positive axis of x being directed north, the positive axis of y east, and the positive axis of z to the zenith.
Let a
b
= =
the azimuth of the north end of axis, reckoned from the north point towards the east
;
the altitude.
Then x
=
cos b cos
a\
y
= cos b sin a
;
z
sin
b.
(339)
In the second system let the equator be the plane of xy, the positive axis of z being parallel to the earth's axis, the
positive axis of x being directed to the point where the lower branch of the meridian intersects the equator, and the axis of y coinciding with that in the first system.
Let n and 180
+^=
cos m\
tne declination and hourangle of the north end of axis.
y'
Then
x'
= cos n
m
=
cos n sin m]
z'
sin n. (340)
The formulae
cos n cos cos n sin
sin
for transformation of coordinates give
m =
n
cos b cos a sin cos b sin a
;
cp
sin b cos y,
)
>
=
(341)
cos b cos a cos
q>
+
sin b sin
cp.
)
202.
If the
PRIME VERTICAL TRANSITS.
instrument
is
353
in the
carefully levelled
and adjusted
prime
vertical,
we way
cos a
write
i
cos b
=
i
;
;
sin b
=
b
;
sin
a
=
a
;
when
the above equations
may
be written
sin (q>
b)
;
cos n cos cos w sin
m= = sin ^ =
;/z
j
# cos
;
V
....
(34 2 )
(<p
b).
}
We
shall find these formulae useful in
,
subsequent transfor
mations.
202. Let
90
f
c
=
the angle between the clamp end of the rotation axis and the object end of the collimation axis
;
t
and d
=
the hourangle and declination of .a star observed on the middle thread.
be referred to a system of rectangular axes, the equator being the plane of xy, the'axis of x being directed to the point where the hour circle through the north end of the rotation axis intersects the equator. Then the angle formed by the radius vector with the plane of xy will be d, and the angle between the projection of the radius on the plane of xy and the axis of x will be
Let the
star
1
80
+ (/.cos
tf
m).
sin
x=
cos tfcos(/
m)\
y
(tm)\
x
z
=
sin
rf.
(343)
In the second system, let the axis of
coincide with the
rotation axis, the axis of y coinciding with that of the former system. Then the position of the instrument being clamp
north,
c will
be the angle formed by the radius vector and
354
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
203.
the plane of yz. Let ^ be the angle formed with the axis of y by the projection of the radius vector on the plane of yz.
Then
x'
=
sin c
;
y'
cos c cos
#,
;
<sr'
= cos
sin
,.
(344)
The
angles between the axis of
x and
^ being n,
n
f
we have
.'=: xcosn{
^sin;
y=^;
#'1=
.rsin
#costf. (345)
We
therefore have
sin
= =
cos
cos
c
cos
tf,
cos $ cos cos # sin
cos d cos
(V
(/
m) cos #
m)\
sin
d sin
(J
;
j
V
(346)
sin #,
(t
m)
sin n
f
sin
cos
.
)
Equations (341) and (346) express in the most general form the relations between the quantities which determine the position of the instrument and the quantities <p, 6", and /. 203. The adjustments may always be made accurately enough so that the first" of (346) may be written
.
c
= cos d
COS tri
sin
(
9 b)
sin
d cos
(<p
 t);
(347)
where the values
substituted.
of sin n
and cos n given by
(342)
have been
Let
h
sin
f
cp
'
=
sin
d
tf
;
cos
cos
(t
m)
.....
.
,
(343)
Then
(347)
becomes
c
h
f
sin (<p
cp
b).
2O4
PRIME VERTICAL TRANSITS.
the
first
355
From
of (348), h
= ^
<p
7,
and therefore when
tf
is
not too small
we may
write
sin
O<p
<p'
 b) =

<p'
 b = ~
or
= 9 + + c sn #/ g^.
....
.
(349)
Dividing the
first of (348)
by the second, we obtain
(t
tan
cp'
tan d sec
are
m) cos m.
.
.
(350)
When
star,
c,
m, and
known
tf
quantities, (349)
and
(350)
will give the latitude, as
is
the
known
declination of the
and
/ is
obtained by observation.
determined as in previous discussions by the stridinglevel. This should be done with care, as we see from (349) that an error in b will affect the latitude by its full amount, t and m are determined as follows:
204. b
is
Let
/'
and
t
=
hourangles of the star at east and west transit
T and T =
A T and A T
23
respectively respectively
;
observed clock times at east and west transit
;
= = =
corresponding clock corrections elapsed time between east and west ob;
servation
;
a Then
star's right
ascension mination.
a,
=
sidereal
time of cul
t'
t
= T + AT = T + A T  a;
=
m=
(f
a.
.
(351)
Therefore
3
/
m}.
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
205.
For determining 3 we see that the clock rate must be known, but neither the clock correction nor the star's right ascension is required. For determining m a knowledge of
both these quantities will be essential. With the portable instrument c may most readily be determined by observation in the meridian, as already explained,* but on account of the facility with which an error in this quantity may be eliminated its exact determination is not very important.
Effects
of Errors
in the Data.
Let us now investigate the effect upon the latitude of t m. uncorrected errors in the quantities b, c, tf, and $ Suppose the same star observed both east and west on two different nights, first with the instrument in the position
205.
clamp north;
second, clamp south.
Let b and
b'
the inclination given by the level for clamp north and south ;
p
=
=
the (unknown) correction for inequality of
pivots f r damp north ; collimation constant, the unknown error in determining c.
;
c =.
+
q
Then
(b
+/)
and
(b'
p)
the true inclination of axis for
clamp north and south respecc
+q
=
tively
stant.
;
true value of collimation con
See equation
(305).
205
PRIME VERTICAL TRANSITS.
f
357
Let
(p
and
q>"
=
the latitude given by (350) from transits of the same star clamp north and south
respectively.
Then
(349) gives
9
cp
=
=
is
<P'
+ b +/ + + 4) gjfg clamp north;
(c
cp"
f
b'
p
(c f q)
s
south. Q clamp
The mean
n
'
*". (352)
term of
Unless the errors of adjustment are very large the last this equation will be inappreciable, so that practiconstant errors of collimation and level are eliminated cally by combining observations on the same star in different
positions of the axis.
Errors
or they
in
5 may
may
cp
from errors in the clock rate be simply the unavoidable errors of observation.
result either
To
ascertain their effect
upon
cp
we
differentiate (350) with
respect to
and
dtp
S*,
by which means we derive
isin
it
=
2cp tan
3 d$
(nearly).
in
.
.
.
(353)
From
this equation
appears that an error
the smaller
is
3
will
produce
the less effect
braic sign west.
upon
cp
3
when
the star
east
is
Also, that the algethe opposite of that when
is.
it is
Therefore
The
effect of a small error in
3
will be eliminated
by ob
serving the star both east and west of the meridian.
Differentiating (350) with respect to
cp
and
tf,
we
find
^=
sin 2cp
(354)
35$
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
2o6.
As the declination cannot be greater than <p, we when cp is less than 45 an error in # will produce
error in whose d
<p.
see that
a larger
is
For g> greater than 45, dq> < dd for all stars between q> and 90  q>. In any case the effect

upon <p will be less the nearer the star is to the zenith. The best result will therefore be obtained by observing at both the east and west transit a star which culminates near
tions
the zenith and in both positions of the axis. The observamay be made on the same star on two different nights,
the clamp being north in one case and south in the other. Or they may all be made on the same night if the star passes First, observe the east quite near the zenith, as follows transit over the first half of the threads of the reticule;
:
second, reverse the
instrument and observe the transit over
;
the same threads, now in the reverse position third, observe the west transit over the same threads then, fourth,
;
reverse the instrument again and finish the observation of the west transit over the threads, now in the same position This method is due to Struve. It will not generas at first. be followed in the field owing to the danger of disturbally
ing the instrument in reversing so frequently.
Reduction
to the
Middle or Mean Thread.
206. In formula (349), c is the error of collimation of the middle or mean thread. In reducing the observations over a side thread we may replace c by c f i (i being the equatorial interval of the thread), and reduce each thread sepaIt will, however, be simpler to first reduce all obserrately. vations to the times over the middle or mean threads. This process is less simple than in case of meridian observations, since the mean of the times over the several threads will not in this case be the time over the mean thread.
The reduction may be made
in either of
two ways
:
first,
206.
REDUCTION TO MIDDLE THREAD.
359
by reducing each thread separately to the middle (or mean) thread second, by applying a correction to the mean of the times over the different threads to reduce it to the time over the mean thread. First. The thread intervals should be determined by meriv dian transits as already explained.*
;
Let
i
the equatorial interval of any thread from the middle thread
;
/
t
t
I
f i
=
the corresponding star interval =. the hourangle of the star when on the middle (or mean) thread
;
=
;
the hourangle
thread.
c
may
the side thread be regarded as the collimation error of the side
;
when on
Then, from the
sin (c f
sin c
z
first of (346),
)
=:
sin n sin sin n sin
=
we
c)
$ 8
+ cos n cos 8 cos
\
(t
(t
I
m).
m)
;
cos n cos 8 cos
Subtracting,
2 cos
(J* j
readily find
sin \i
=
cos n cos $2 sin
\t
m
7) sin f/.
Since
c will
i
ten sin
be very small, the first term of this without appreciable error. Then
.
may be
writ
j_ _ ~
cos n cos
fi
sin i
sin (/
From
(/
m)
=
(342) we S. sin i
2 sin
may may
write cos n
m= sin (cp
7(cos /)*.
b}.
Also,
be written
7(i
i.
\I
=
 ^7) =
* Art. 174.
360
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
207.
Therefore (355)
~
may
be written without appreciable error,
sin (cp
b)
cos 8 sin
(3
/) (cos 7)
cases,
and with accuracy
sufficient for
most
==
sin <p cos
tf
sin
(
(cos 7) so rarely that
Log
A might be
it
will hardly
tabulated, but it will be required repay the labor. The value of
7 required in the second member of the above formulae may be found directly from the observations themselves, by taking the difference of the observed time over the side thread and middle thread. * Care must be taken to give the proper algebraic signs to i and 7 being plus for north threads and minus i, 7, and $, for south ones 5, plus for west, minus for east transits. This method of reduction is due to Bessel, 207. Second. and is more convenient when many stars are to be reduced. i instead of sin c Resuming the first of (346), and writing c I for /, and t
;
+
c
+
i
sin
n sin d
f
cos n cos d cos
(t
I
m).
(358)
Such an equation is given by each thread observed. If ^ threads are observed, the mean of the resulting equations
will
be
z'
c
+ =
t
sin n sin
d
\
cos n cos d
2
cos
(/
m),
(359)
where
is
the
/
mean
of the equatorial intervals,
2
is
the sum
mation
sign,
represents the hourangle corresponding to
any thread.
207
VESSEL'S
METHOD OF REDUCTION.
361
Let
T=
I
T
Then
and
=
the arithmetical mean of the times observed on the individual threads (supposed corrected for clock error and rate)
;
the time over any thread.
(t
m)
=
(T
a
m)
I,
2 cos (t
m)
= cos (T
f
a a
m)
2 cos /
2 sin /.
.
sin
(
T
m)
(360)
Now
let
k cos K k
sin K
= 2 cos /;
=
2 sin
I.
Then
(359) then
c
\ t
2 cos (/
m)
=
k cos (T
a
K
m).
(362)
becomes
sin
=
let
n sin
tf
+ k cos ^ cos
y cos d y sin ^
l
tf
cos
(T
;
a
u
m).
Now
Then
c \ i 
=.
k cos d
sin 6.
=
(363)
becomes
sin n sin
=
tfjj
cos # cos
tf,cos
(T
a
H
Thus, by computing the auxiliary quantities y, ^, and K, the form of the equation for the mean of the threads is the same as that for the middle thread.
Practically
y
will
seldom
differ
appreciably from unity.
362
,
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
2O/.
and H may very readily be computed by the aid of tables A and B, page 365. These tables are computed as follows: Since 21 = o (T being the mean of the observed times, .and /the difference between Tand the time on any thread),
(361)
may
be written
k cos H k sin H
= =
I
2 sin
2(1
3
/;
(366)
sin /).
3
these it appears that k sin n is of the order 7 and that k cos H only differs from unity by a quantity of the order 7 a There will then be no appreciable error in writing
From
,
.
*=
And
since,

2(I
sin/).
from
(364),
we have
l
tan d
=
\ K
tan
8,
......
k
sin
(368)
the method of Art. 74 for expanding a function of this
form gives

k
sin 2<?
.
I
i
4^
(369)
This becomes, by substituting for k
its
value,
^
=d
l 5 S5Li
*
Sinl//
sin2^
.....
(370)
For computing ^,
Sill
X
table A,
page
of 365, gives the value
^;
*
the argument being
th'e
difference
between each ob
207
BESSEL'S
METHOD OF REDUCTION.
363
served time respectively and the mean of all, expressed in minutes and seconds of time for convenience. The arithmetical mean of these quantities will be the numerator of the coefficient of sin 28 in (370). The denominator differs very
When desirable, this small difference may little from unity. be corrected by table B, the argument of which is the numer' ator, viz.,
i ^
sin 2 sin
.
2
^/
/7 .
I
The
If
fourth
column of
the arithmetical
y
is
mean required, we
sin /), gives the quantity (/ these quantities being equal to n. o{
table
A
readily find, from (364),
_
i
(i
k)
2 cos #
cos(^The denominator does not
differ
tf)~~'
appreciably from unity, and
Therefore
y
=
i

cos'tf
2 sin
8
/.
.
.
.
.
(371)
Since this only appears as the divisor of the small quanit will very rarely be required. tity c The quantity * will vanish when the star is observed over all of the threads, and the equatorial intervals reckoned from the mean of the threads.
+
z' ,
Having shown how our fundamental equation which applies to the time over the middle thread may be reduced to a like form when the time is the mean of the times over the we may now solve this different threads see equation (365)
equation for
(p
as before.
Formulae
(349)
(p'
and
(350) will then
have the form
tan
=. tan
d sec (T
1
a
)
cos m^
\
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
208.
208.
Formula for Latitude by Prime
Preliminary Computation.
Vertical Transits.
COS Z
=
=
=
sm sn q?
tan d
tan c' ^
COS
t
7
sm
^
cp
(XX)
;
sin
Clock time of passing
first
thread
Reduction to Middle or Mean Thread.
j
sin ((p
b)
_*
cos d sin ($
tan
w= =
>'
^ [7"
tan
(J
T+
sec
(XXa)
S
cos
Bessel's
Method
of Reduction.
~

I
~
sin
/;
sn
sin
\
sm
(XXb)
tan
^ =
r
tan
d,
sec
(
7"
<*
K) cos m\
209.
EXAMPLE OF PRIME VERTICAL TRANSITS.
TABLE
A.
365
For reducing
transits
over several threads to a
common
instant.
TABLE
B.
For correcting the
coefficient of sin 26.
209. As an example of the determination of latitude by this method, the following observations have been selected from Pierce's Memoir on the Latitude of Cambridge, Mass. (Memoirs of American Academy of Sciences, vol. ii. p. 183);
366
PRA CTICAL A S TRONOM Y.
209
.
The
*i
equatorial intervals of the threads from the middle thread are
i*
5iMi;
=
33 98;
.
s
** 8
=
1
7
s
.
02;
^^
=
o 8 .oo;
i&
=
it
=
I7 .io;
8
34 14;
.
s
i,
=
5IM6.
The
clock correction and rate:
Apparent places of the
stars
observed
:
a a
ft
Lyrae,
Lyrae,
Persei,
ft
Persei,
December December December December
23d,
2gth,
a a
i8 h 3i m 4O 8 .32;
S
6"
=
18
31
40.36;
25th,
26th,
d
d
= = = =
38
38
38' 39". 76.
38 38 .08.
.83. .86.
40 21 25 40 21 25
is assumed equal to zero. Assumed <p = 42 22' 48". compute the latitude by formulae (XXa). The transits over the several threads must first be reduced to the middle thread by the formula
The
collimation error c
We
shall first
7=
sin (<p
b)
cos 8 sin (5
i/)'
The complete reduction
in
is
given for the observations of
a
Lyrae,
December
23d,
order to illustrate the process.
2O9
EXAMPLE OF PRIME VERTICAL
TRANSITS.
367
In the above the quantity 5 is computed from the second of (XXa)^ using for the time over the middle thread, and neglecting the rate, which will be less than the probable error of the observation. The "observed /" is
T' and
T
found tiy subtracting the observed time over each thread from the time over The quantities headed " log denominator" are computed the middle thread.
368
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
20 9
.
by writing the quantity log (sin (p cos 8) on the lower edge of a slip of paper and adding it in succession to each of the quantities in the previous column, b The quantities log ii, log 2 etc., are is neglected in the quantity sin (q> b). then written in order on the lower edge of another slip of paper and the " log denominator" subtracted, giving log /. It would be sufficient to compute the intervals / for one transit only, as they are the same for both; but in a case like
z'
,
the above
it is
well to
figure logarithms
compute both as a check on the work. would have been sufficiently accurate.
In the above, four
In the same manner the other observations are reduced, T' being those given in the following computation:
the quantities
T and
Dec. 23.
Dec. 29.
210.
In a
EXAMPLE OF PRIME VERTICAL TRANSITS.
manner
precisely similar, from the observations of
ft
369
Decem
Persei on
ber 25th and 26th
we
find
Dec. 25, Dec. 26,
(f>
q>'
= =
Mean Mean
of the four levelreadings
<p
22' 48". 50 42 22 48 .56 42 22 48 .53
42
(
53
42
22 49 .06
ft
The mean
of these
two determinations from a Lyra and
q>
Persei
is
therefore
42
22' 48". 73.
The value given
42
22' 48". 60.
in the
is
memoir from which these observations
are taken
is
This
the result of a long series of observations.
Application of Bessel's
210.
Method.
As an example
of Bessel's
method
of reduction, let us apply formulae
(XXb)
to the foregoing observations of
a
Lyr<z.
370
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
0* tx
210.
2 N
w
0V
vo"
INI
II
II
O
N
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
0*7 8
s '<
^*
o,




G
^7 S
:
e
e
CO
SJ83:o.
".
OO
VO
ONVO
vq"
"V
5?
(S
2
^t
%
'
II
II
II
I
I
c3
II
II
60
"
si
co
II
II
*
u
*S
5f5p

aooc^oo^o
e
T
H
V
"^H
00
O
OO 00 ^
O
I!
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
*
s
s
^
CO tx
t>. t~.
q
e
N O co q
"">
*oo
00 00 VO O IO ^
^
M
^^j M ^^
lO OV
Vs. as
.
M VO M
10
IO
VO
M
"^000
u u
u u u
M>
HII
II
II
II
II
u
S
i i
1
ff
^S ON N
8
"
++
O
q
I
!
^
ONO>
VO vo
O
M
* o
I
i
I++++
H+I
i
i
i
1
1+
N
00
+
00
1^1
ft
2IO.
EXAMPLE OF PRIME VERTICAL TRANSITS.
371
In this computation the quantities
V and
z'
n
are taken from table A.
the values of the equatorial intervals already given, we find for the ob".621. The west transit of servations over all of the threads
From
=
z'
December 2gth being observed only on threads = 318". 787. c is assumed equal to zero.
I,
II,
III,
and V, we have
The
correction
(c \ *
)
:
~ is
appreciably the same for the two transits of
December 23d and
the west transit of
for the east transit of
December
291*1,
viz.,
is
".67.
For
December 2gth
the computation of this term
as follows:
log (f+io)
sin
(fl
cosec 6\
log correction correction
= = = = =
2.5035oo6
9.8295232
.2044758
2.5374996,* 344". 746
Then we have, December
E.
tp
23d,
=
42
22' 33". 12
W.
(f>
=
42
23'
3".64
.02
b
+ .41
42
22' 32". 86 22' 47". 90
+'>^f =
cp =.
42
23'
2".g5
Mean
q>,
Dec. 23d, clamp south,
42
Dec. 2gth, E.
sin
<p'
b
('
= =
42
22' 34". 40
i
W.
<p'
=
42
28' 50". 35
i
.25
.32
+
.
.
<p'
' o)
shTs;=
<p
54475
42
22' 33". 82
=
42
23'
4". 28
Mean
,
Dec. 2gth, clamp north,
of the
42
22' 49". 05
The mean
It will
two values
is
tp
=
42
22' 48". 47
be observed that the corrections given in table B are here inappreciy, computed from formula (371) for the west observation of December ) by this factor 2gth, is found to be 0.99998433; dividing the quantity (c (365). we find for the correction 344". 752, instead of 344". 746 found by neglectable,
+
ing this factor.
The
difference
is
inappreciable in this case.
3/2
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
211.
Application of the
Method of Least Squares
Transits.
to
Prime Vertical
211. In the preceding discussion we have supposed the observed at both the east and west transits, and in both positions of the axis. The method is very simple theoretistars
In the tield, time cally, and the results very satisfactory. will sometimes be wanting for applying it in the manner
there explained. Besides this, many observations would ordinarily be lost by the interference of clouds at the time of one transit or the other. For meeting these difficulties the following modification will be useful
:
A number of
stars
must be observed, some
east
and some
west, the axis being reversed about the middle of the series. Care must be taken to observe about an equal number in both positions of the axis, and about the same number of
The declinations of stars observed east east and west stars. should be as nearly as may be the same as those observed
west.
We shall suppose the observations reduced to the middle or mean thread by the method of Bessel (Art. 207); then in
equation (365)
let
us write r^=
Tanand ?+
becomes
i
c'.
Then
expanding cos
c
f
(r
m), the equation
tf
a
=
sin n sin
+ cos n cos m cos ^ cos r
\
l
cos n sin
m cos
tf,
sin
r,.
.
(373)
substituting for sin n, cos n cos ;, their values from (342), this becomes
c
f
Now
and cos
>n sin
m,
cos
(cp
b) sin
d
l
j
sin (cp
l
b)
cos d cos r
l .
. .
l
+ a cos d
sin r r
(374)
211.
REDUCTION BY LEAST SQUARES.
<p,
373
Let the auxiliaries
tions
and z be determined by the equacp l q> l
cos z sin COS ^ cos
=
sin
<S\;
l
\
cos 6 cos
sin z
= cos
r,; v
r,. )
.
.
.
.
(375)
tf,
sin
Then
(374)
becomes
c'
=
sin (cp
cp 1
cp^
b)
cos ,0

# sin z.
Since sin
c' ,
(cp
b) is
here of the same order as a and
we may
write this equation
cp cp l
b{a tan s
dtp, in
c'
sec s ==
is
Q
o.
.
.
(376)
Now
let (p
=
cp
\
which
q>
an assumed approxil
Then writing f= <p <p (p. sum of the known terms, we have gebraic
mate value
of
b, viz.,
the
al
Acp \a tan^
c sec^r
_y
o.
.
.
.
(377)
Each
star observed furnishes
for determining the
unknown
of stars
considerable
number
this form and c. A should be observed, and the re
one equation of
a,
quantities Acp,
sulting equations solved by the method of least squares. The formulae for this method are then as follows
.
r
l
= T
s
)
a
cp l <p t
H
;
cos z sin cos z cos
= =
sin (^
;
sn
cos cos
c'
tfj
<J
1
cos T
sin
I
;
(XXI)
a tan z
sec #
9
H and
#j
=
<Po
are determined as explained in Art. 207.
374
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Example.
211.
The following observations were made at Munich by Bessel, 1827, June 28th, with a small transit instrument mounted on a tripod and approximately adjusted
in the
prime vertical:*
Th<
,
i6b 34 ni
,
^r nt places of the stars for the date of observation, Munich sidereal time, I find to be as follows:
1827,
June
28th,
Thevalues of the equatorial
are as follows
:
intervals of the threads from the
mean
thread
.
19
;
*4
=
*6
=
612". 46.
The
circle north.
correction for inequality of pivots is 0.294! divisions of level for The value of one division of the level is 4". 49.
* See Astronontiscke NacnrtcMen, vol. Astronomische Nachrichten, t Bessel uses as the correction > B> ~ B
ix. p. 415. 415
formula
/=
(
2
NCOS
f~
^A
COS *!/
.42 divisions,
which
is
evidently computed by the erroneous
instead of (297).
See Ast. Nach.,
vi. p. 236.
211.
EXAMPLE OF REDUCTION BY LEAST SQUARES.
375
j
time chronometer was used, the hourly rate on sidereal time being h s 9 19 the correction at 12 hours chronometer time being 5 4 44". 61. Bessel gives the approximate values of the latitude and the azimuth of the instrument as follows
.
A mean
;
:
<p
aQ
= =
48 o
8'
7'
40"
48".
;
If these quantities are not known with accuracy sufficient for forming the equations of condition, a preliminary reduction of a few of the observations will give them.
The values
this series of
of T, H,
and
di are
observations
u
in
computed precisely as shown in Art. 210. With no case exceeds .oi it has accordingly been
;
neglected.
The computation
follows:
of TI for each star
may now
be conveniently arranged as
As we have an approximate value
tion 376)
of the azimuth error,
we may
write (equa
cp
\
A(p
<P!
b } (a
+ do) tan z
(t
f
sec *
=
o.
to is
zero for
Tt
all
tion of
star
Lyra the
the above stars except ft Lyra and y Cygni. In the observatransit over the second thread was lost. Therefore for this
z'
,
z is the mean of the equatorial intervals *i, 3 i Similarly for y Cygni, the fifth thread being missed, Writing the sum of the known terms, viz.,
6
*
;
viz.,
=+
75". 775
153".
1
125.
<po
\_<p\
+b
j
a
tan z
f
*
sec z\
=
our equation of condition becomes
Aq>
da
tan z
c sec z =.
f.
3/6
The computation
of
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
q>i,
211,
tan
z,
sec
z,
and f is now arranged as follows
:
of i Herculis
Since the azimuth of the instrument was disturbed between the observation and it Lyrae, it will be necessary to introduce into the equations a
211.
EXAMPLE OF REDUCTION BY LEAST SQUARES.
azimuth correction for these stars observed after the
be *
c
377
dis
different value of the
turbance took place.
The equations
will therefore
o
.50.
.08.
A
Bootis,
Lyrse,
316,
Acp^ .2045^0
a
i
Acp
.6479^/0
XIII
it
2/9>+ .3517^0
Acp Acp Acp Acp Acp Acp
.2594^0
\
Herculis,
Lyrae,
v Herculis,
y
cp
Cygni,
Herculis,
\
d Cygni,
= i".78 1.1915*: = f~ i^.gS + 1.0600* = f 4". 48 + 1.0331^ = f 8". 80 .4003/^0' f 1.0771* = +'9 .o8 i".2i .2335^/0' ~~ 1.0269* = .59494 a' + 1.1636* = f 5 O4 1.0468* = 5". 75 .3095/70' 2". 86 .3452^0' 1.0579*: =
1.0207*:
//
2.35.
3.44.
1.78.
~ 3j
28

//
4.05.
} 2.01.
\
1.33.
From
these nine equations of
:
condition the following normal equations are
formed
9.ooooAcp
.
.3511^/0
.
7974^0'
{'f
1.0438*:
.668i<r
.8424*
351 1 Acp{ .6526^/0
f
.7974Z/^>
i. 0438^/9? j
.7836^/0'
.6681^/0
.8424^0'
{
10.4360*
= = = =
23.5000;.
2.3539;
9.6825;
30.6933.
:
Solving these equations
by the usual methods,
we
;
find the following values
= + i". 3 8 =  5 ". 4 Ad =  8".o7
Acp
Aa
i
5
;
Therefore the latitude as given by
<p
this series of transits is
48
08' 41". 38.
Bessel gives as the true value of cp found from other sources 48 8 ; 39". 50, from which the above value would be only i".88 in error, an agreement which is very satisfactory when it is remembered that the instrument used was a very small one, mounted quite imperfectly, and used in the open air. The residuals given in connection with the equations of condition result from the above values. The weights and probable errors may be computed from these in the
usual
*
manner
if
thought desirable.
These equations are not the same as those given by Bessel for these observations, the differences being due to the erroneous value of the correction for inequality of pivots, before referred to, and to slightly different values of a and S for some of the stars.
CHAPTER
VII.
DETERMINATION OF LONGITUDE.
212.
The
difference
is
in
longitude of two points on the
earth's surface
equal to the angle at the pole
formed by
the meridian curves passing through the two points. As the earth revolves uniformly on its axis, it will be equal to the difference between the times of transit of the same star
over the two meridians, and may be expressed either in degrees, minutes, and seconds of arc, or in hours, minutes, and seconds of time for astronomical purposes the latter desig;
nation
generally preferred. Any meridian may be assumed as the prime meridian from which to reckon longitudes. At the meridian conference
is
which assembled in Washington, October 1884, Greenwich was chosen as the universal prime meridian. Heretofore most of the leading nations of the world have reckoned longitude from the meridian of their own capital. In conformity with this custom, longitudes within the limits of the United States have been reckoned from the meridian passing through the centre of the dome of the U. S. Naval Observatory at Washington. For local purposes the meridian of Washington will no doubt continue to be employed, but for general
purposes longitudes in this country will hereafter be reckoned from Greenwich. As an astronomical problem, the determination of the difference of longitude between two places consists in an accurate determination of the local time at each place and the
scientific
213.
LONGITUDE BY CHRONOMETERS.
;
379
comparison of the times so determined the difference between the times being the difference of longitude. The local time will generally be determined with the tranin the resulting lonsit; and when great accuracy is required and precautions to which atgitude, all of the refinements tention has been called in treating of this subject must be observed. For rough determinations, especially at sea, the time is determined with the sextant or any suitable instrument. Nothing need be added on this point to what has
fine
been already said. We shall therefore in this chapter conour attention to the practical methods of comparing
the local time.
There are various methods which may be employed for comparing the local time at two meridians, some of these
admitting of a much higher degree of accuracy than others. The most important are the following:
First.
Second.
By By
transportation of chronometers the electric telegraph
;
;
Third.
Methods depending on the motion of the moon, such as by occultations of stars, eclipses of the
sun, lunar culminations,
and lunar distances.
Also, some use has been made of terrestrial signals, eclipses of Jupiter's satellites, and eclipses of the moon. The most accurate of all these methods, when it can be
employed,
is
the telegraphic.
Longitude Determined by Transportation of Chronometers.
shall designate the two stations whose difference 213. of longitude is to be determined by E and W, E being east of W. Let the error and rate of the chronometer be deter
We
mined
at
;
E
of time
then
by any of the methods given for determination let the chronometer be carried to and its
W
380
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
213.
error on local time determined at this place^ The difference between the time at given by observation and the time at E which will be given by the chronometer is the differ
W
ence of longitude. The chronometer may be regulated to either mean or sidereal time. To express the difference of
longitude algebraically,
Let
AT
St
=
chronometer correction
time
at
E
at
chronometer
T
>
= A Tw =
A
day as shown by chronometer ;* chronometer correction on local time at chronometer time Tw
rate per
\
W
at
=
difference of longitude.
Then
(Tw
f
f
4TW =
)
true time at
ter time
W
\
at
chronome
Tw
Tw f A T
Therefore
#*
(
Tw
TO)
=
the corresponding time at E.
dt
1
= A Tw 
(J
T +
(Tw 
T,)]
.
.
.
(378)
rection to a
Example. At Bethlehem, Pa., 1881, August 7.75, the cormean time chronometer was found to be j 6m
50 '.90.
At Wilkesbarre,
Pa.,
August
io d 9 h 9 m i7 s 92, chro
nometer time, the correction on local time was 4'" 54 u. The daily rate of the chronometer was i .64; i.e., the chronometer was losing.
s
.
+
+
s
Therefore
dt
'
AT,
s
+ 6m 5o 9O
s
i
.6
* Unless the rate
is
uncommonly
large
it
will
make no
difference whether
we
take chronometer days or true days in applying the correction for rate.
214
LONGITUDE BY CHRONOMETERS.
381
214. The rate is determined at the first station by comparing the results of observations separated by an interval of several days, but it is found that the rate of the chronometer during transportation (called the travelling rate) is seldom
the same as
its
rate
when
at rest.
The
travelling rate
may
be determined, or
its effect
may
be eliminated by transport
ing the chronometer in both directions.
Let
T Tw Tw T =
'
e,
,
',
e
the time of leaving
W, leaving W and
E and
arriving at arriving at E,
Ae A w A w A e
f
,
,
f
,
=
respectively; the corresponding chronometer cor
m=
Then
(Tw
(A f
rections found by observation
;
the daily travelling rate.
T )\(T
e
'
e
TJ)
'
=
time during which the chronometer
was
in transit
;
'A^(A w
A w]
=
the
corresponding change chronometer correction
;
in
the
(Tw T )+(T 'Tw J
e e
(A e 'A e }(A w 'A w )
Previous to the application of the telegraph to the determination of longitude, the construction of chronometers had been brought to such a degree of perfection that the chronometric method was the most accurate one available.
Where
great accuracy was required, large numbers of chronometers were transported many times in both directions. A most elaborate expedition of this kind was carried out in
1843, by Struve, for determining the difference of longitude between Pulkova and Altona. Sixtyeight chronometers were carried nine times from Pulkova to Altona and eight times from Altona to Pulkova. A similar expedition,* or
*See Report U.
S.
Coast Survey, 1853,
p. 88;
1854. p. 139; 1856, p
182.
382
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
214.
was conducted by the U. S. Coast Surthe years 1849, '5> '5 r an<^ '55> which fifty vey during were transported many times between Boston chronometers and Liverpool. The results of the expeditions in the years '49,
series of expeditions,
>
m
'50,
and
'51
showed
the necessity of introducing a correc
change of temperature. The expedition of '55 was therefore planned and carried out under the direction of Mr. W. C. Bond, with special reference to this correction. In this year fiftytwo chronometers were transported three times in each direction, giving as the difference of longitude between the Cambridge observatory and the observatory at
tion for
Liverpool
h Voyages from Liverpool to Cambridge, 4 32 Voyages from Cambridge to Liverpool, 4 32
8
3i 92
31 .75.
;
Such expeditions are enormously expensive, and the
sults are not
re
is now or will soon be supchronometric expeditions on telegraphic facilities, the scale of those mentioned may be reckoned as things Nevertheless the chronometric method is very of the past. useful where extreme precision is not required, or where the telegraph cannot be used, as at sea. The method of conducting a chronometric expedition is The chronometers at the first station, briefly as follows which we may suppose to be E, are first carefully compared with the standard clock then they are placed in the vessel, near the middle where the motion will be the least possible, and in a position where they will be accessible for winding and comparing during the voyage. They should be compared daily as a check on the regularity of their rates. A record of the temperature must be kept.
by on the habitable part
plied w.ith
comparable for accuracy with those obtained the telegraph. As almost every point of much importance
of the earth
:
;
215.
LONGITUDE ^BY CHRONOMETERS.
383
the chronometers are immediately comarriving at with the standard clock as before at E. pared 215. The errors to which the chronometers are liable are
On
W
two kinds: first, accidental irregularities which follow no law and are therefore equally liable to affect the result with the plus or minus sign the larger the number of chronometers the more effectually these will be eliminated; and secondly, errors resulting from acceleration or retardation of rate. When the chronometer has been transported a number of times in both directions the effect of a constant acceleration or retardation may be eliminated by reckoning the longitude alternately from each station E and W.
of
Experiments show the acceleration or retardation of rate due to two causes, viz., Changes of temperature and the gradual thickening of the lubricating oil. This latter diminishes the amplitude of the vibration and therefore causes an acceleration of rate. Its effect is sensibly proporto be
tional to the time.
Although great care
is
given by the makers to compensat
ing the balance for temperature, it is seldom possible to accomplish this perfectly. It has been found that the effect of
changes of temperature may be represented by a term of the form k(% 3 ) in which $ is the temperature of rngst perfect compensation and 3" that of actual exposure, and k is a constant which with rare exceptions is positive; that is, exposure to a temperature above or below that of most perfect compensation causes the chronometer to run slower. The rate of any chronometer may therefore be expressed by the formula
2
,
9
$y't;
f
....
(380)
k being a constant depending on the thickening of the oil, or any other causes which may be assumed to vary directly
with the time.
384
PRA CTICAL A STRONOM Y.
2 1 6.
The constants k, k', and peculiar to each chronometer can only be determined experimentally. 2 216. The term depending on the temperature, k($ 5) having always the same sign, will never vanish; therefore in order to find the total effect of such changes during any interval a strict theory requires the total sum of all these terms for all changes of temperature. We may proceed as follows
,
:
Let r
=
the interval during which the effect of rate
;
is re
quired Let u of formula (380) be taken at the middle of
terval
;
this in
Let r be supposed divided into n equal parts, so small
that the temperature
during the interval
may
be con
sidered constant
;
Let
3^,
3,
.
.
.
S*n
be the values of
3"
for each interval in
succession.
Then
follows
:
the accumulated rate for each interval will be as

(38i)
2l6.
LONGITUDE BY CHRONOMETERS.
38$
;
The sum
and as the sum of the
of all these quantities is the total effect of rate coefficients of k is zero, the value is
f
u r
+ tsfc 
*.)'
.
....
(382)
For rigorous accuracy the intervals should be
infinitesimal
;
would then be
*/r,
and the above expression would be
3 ) cannot be expressed as a function of r, As, however, (3 the integration is not possible. 3 ) 2 we write the mean of the obFor determining ^"(3
served temperatures (supposed to be the quantities represented above by 3,, 3 2 etc.) equal to 6.
,
Then
= X;(^3 )'+ %: 2(6  *.)($  6)
Since 6 and S are both constant,
we have
2lB 2; 2(6  S.) (S since #
is
S.)'
=
n(6

.);
....
6)
(383)
(384)
6)
=
2(6
 S )^(5 
=
o,
mean of the individual values Therefore (382) becomes
the
of 3.
ue r
+ k(9 
S.)'r
+ ^"(5 / (X
.
.
6>)'J
(385)
The value
since S
is
of the quantity
^n 
_
/J\2

is
computed
directly,
all
any observed temperature, and 8 the mean of
336
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
2
1
8.
This will approach more nearly the exact value the more frequently the theoretically temperatures are observed.
the values observed.
Writing
*

ay
=
*>
......
(386)
we have
for the accumulated rate during the interval r
sjM**F .....
The quantity
interval
r.
(387)
in the brackets is the
mean
rate during the
Survey expedition of 1855 tne mean was indicated by a chronometer constructed temperature expressly for this purpose. It was in all respects like one of the ordinary chronometers, except that the arms and rim of the balance were of brass and uncompensated. Its indications of the mean temperature of exposure were found to be
217, In the Coast
much more
reliable than could be obtained
its
ordinary thermometers; change of i in the temperature produced a change of 6 .5 in the daily rate. Experiments made for determining the time required for a chronometer to adapt itself to the temS
by the use of sensitiveness was such that a
perature of the surrounding air when exposed to a sudden change showed that this was not fully accomplished until five or six hours had elapsed, so that in case of sudden changes the temperature shown by the thermometer might
differ
widely from the actual temperature of the chronome
ter balance.
218. In applying (387) to any subsequent interval, T', u must be replaced by u k't, in which / is the time from the middle of the interval r to the middle of T' Now suppose the chronometer used for determining the
'.
.
2 1 8.
LONGITUDE BY CHRONOMETERS.
387
difference of longitude of two stations and ^ 2 determined at the corrections
the times 7^ times 7*3 and T^ suppose E.
E and W. Suppose E before starting, at ^ and Tv and 4 and J after reaching W, at
9 4
all
being reckoned from the same meridian,
Let
r
l
7;
3
=
T;

T I;
T;

7;

r, ;
T;

T;
=
*,.
and r are shore
Let U
Q
intervals,
and r 2 a sea
interval.
the rate at the middle of the sea interval
the difference of longitude.
;
A
Then from what precedes we have

(388)
and 6 are the mean temperatures for the intervals, and f having the values given by (386). Then from lt the three equations (388) k and A may be determined.
0j,
a
,
Z
fa ,
s
,
',
Let us write
/ =

(389)
We
then
find,
from the
first
and third of
(388),
^
(390)
388
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
in the
2I 9
These values substituted
value of the longitude
cation at sea,
tant.
A.
second of (388) give the
The chronometric method
When
finds its most important appliwhere a high degree of precision is not importhe time from port is not very great, this will
all practical requirements. When the voyage is very the result may be rendered much more accurate by long, applying the corrections for acceleration of rate, the con
answer
stants k, k\
and
3
having been carefully determined pre
viously.
Determination of Longitude by the Electric Telegraph.
219. The local time at one meridian may be compared with that at another most conveniently and accurately by tele
graphic signals. The most simple method of making this comparison is as follows The operator at one station taps the signal key in coincidence with the beat of the chronometer; the instant when the signal is received at the other station is noted by the chronometer at that place. A number of arbitrary sig:
nals are sent in this
way, when the process is reversed, second station sending the signals to The errors of the chronometers will generally first. determined by observing transits both before and after
operator at the
the the
be
ex
changing the
Let
signals.
T
e
and
AT =
e
the chronometer time and correction at station E at the instant of sending
a signal
;
Tw
and
ATW
=. the
chronometer time and correction
at station
W at the instant of
;
receiv
ing this signal
219
LONGITUDE BY THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.
389
TV and A TV
f
=
the chronometer time and correction
at the instant of sending at station a return signal the chronometer time and correction
;
W
E
TV and
AT =
e
at station
at the instant of receiv;
A
=
ing this signal the difference of longitude
effect,
;
p
the transmission time of the electric
or the small interval of time which elapses between the instant of pressing the key at one station and the click of the magnet at the other.
Then
A

p
=
(Te
+ AT e )
(Tw
+ ATW =
]
\
A e;
Therefore
A u
= =
J(A W
f
AY
(*
AY
(39I)
Thus by eliminating
the time required for transmission of
signals we have the longitude, or by eliminating the longitude we have the transmission time. For many purposes the above process will give a sufficient
degree of accuracy.
there are a
For
firstclass
longitudes,
:
number
of small errors involved
however, which will de
mand
I.
attention.
They
are as follows
The
relative personal equation of the observers in determining the chronometer corrections at the two stations.
II.
The
personal equations involved in sending and receiving the signals.
at the sending station to
III.
The time required
complete
the circuit after the finger touches the key. IV. The time required at the receiving station for the arma
ture to
move through
give the click
the space in which called the armature time.
it
plays and
39O
If the
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
222.
stations, the
could be assumed to be the same at both above errors would be reduced simply to personal errors. We shall describe some of the methods of
latter
two
dealing with these quantities in firstclass longitudes. They may be modified when a less degree of accuracy is demanded. This may be determined by any 220. I. Personal equation. of the methods given in Art. 188, and the necessary correction
If the relative personal equation is used, it should be determined both before and after the longitude work in order to guard against the effect of its gradual change. The plan followed by the Coast Survey is to exchange signals on five nights, then let the observers exchange stations, when
applied.
exchanged on five more nights. The personal thus eliminated, provided it has remained constant 7 during the time emplo} ed. As this changes with the physical condition of the observer, its variation is probably the
signals are
equation
is
chief cause of discrepancy in firstclass longitudes. 221. Errors II and III are avoided by using the chrono
For fieldwork breakcircuit chronometers will graph. generally be used, as they are much more convenient to carry than clocks. Such a chronometer being placed in the circuit may be made to record its beats on the chronographs Each chronograph will then contain a at both stations. record of the beats of both chronometers, the mean of which will be free from the transmission time, but will be affected by any constant difference in the armature time, viz., IV above.
of sending the signals is the followarranged that a tap made on the signal key at either station is recorded on the chronographs at both The observer at E then gives a number of taps at stations. intervals of two or three seconds, which are recorded at both places in connection with the beats of the respective chronometers, when the operation is repeated by the observer at
222.
:
Another method
circuit is so
ing
The
223.
LONGITUDE BY THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.
1
39!
W.
For identifying the hour and minute
of difference of
longitude, the observer at each station informs the one at the other by a telegraphic message what was the hour, minute, and second by his chronometer when the first signal was
The hour and minute of one signal being identified, sent. only the seconds and fractional parts of the same need be read for the remaining signals. 223. IV. The armature time will be practically the same at both stations, and consequently the effect will be eliminated if the resistance of the line is kept at the same value at
purpose a rheostat and galvanometer means of which the resistance may be maintained at any required value. The chronometer is placed in a local circuit acting on a
both points.
For
this
are provided at both stations, by
relay, the intensity of the current in the main line being too great for the delicate mechanism of these instruments.
The details will be understood by reference to the following diagrams, taken from a paper by Mr. C. A. Schott.*
I shows a simple circuit for observing transits. The chronometer breaks the circuit B, causing the pen on the arma
ture of the chronograph magnet to record. The observer breaks the circuit with the observing key, also making a record on the chronograph.
II and III show the arrangement of the circuit for chronometer signals: II being at the sending station, III at the When the chronometer at the sending receiving station. station breaks the circuit B, the armature of the chronograph magnet breaks the main circuit at X (II), and the armature
of the signal relay at the receiving station
breaks the circuit
the chronograph. For sending arbitrary signals the arrangement is the same at both stations, viz., that shown in III. At the sending
(III) r
*
B
causing a record to be
made on
Appendix No.
14,
U.
S.
Coast Survey Report 1880.
392
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
223,
Chronometer
Chronograph Magnet with pen on armature
I.
Observing Key at Transit
Chronometer
II.
X
Talking and Signal Rela
Observing
Key
I
ht Transit
j
Main
/
Talking
__y
V,___^2l
Key
III.
Chronometer
Chronograph Magnet with pen on armature
Observing
Key at
Transit
Line
Talking and Signal
FIG.
Key
224.
LONGITUDE BY THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.
main
circuit
is
393
broken by the signal key, when the armature of the signal relay breaks the circuit B at both stations, causing a record to be made on the chronograph. In these cases the chronometer is placed directly in the circuit passing to the chronograph, and no provision is made
station the
smal/ for equalizing the resistance at the two stations.' difference in the armature time is therefore likely to exist.
Chronometer
A
IV.
Battery
1C ell
Magnet pen on armature
Observing Key at Transit
FIG.
44.
224. IV, VII, and VIII show a more complete arrange ment of circuits. The chronometer is placed in a local circuit A with a weak battery, in order to avoid the injurious
serving transits the o
stronger current on the mechanism. When obarrangement is as shown in IV. The o chronometer breaks the circuit A, the chronometer relay breaks the circuit B, making a record on the chronograph. The observer breaks circuit B with the observing key,
effect of a
also
producing record on chronograph. for exchanging chronometer The chronometer being alike at both stations. signals, breaks circuit A, when the armature of the chronometer relay breaks the main circuit, the armature of relay D breaking circuit B at both stations. VIII is arranged for arbitrary signals, both stations being the same. The chronometer breaks circuit A, the armature of chronometer relay breaks circuit B, making record on the chronograph. At the sending station the main circuit is broken bv the signal key, when relay D breaks circuit B at both stations.
VII shows the arrangement
394
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
22 4
.
Main
Circuit
Local Circuit
.Arrangement during
FIG. 45.
1881
22$.
LONGITUDE BY THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.
of the rheostat
395
electric
By means
and galvanometer the
resistance is kept practically the .same at both stations, and therefore a constant difference of armature time avoided. In order to eliminate any small outstanding difference in the
action of the two sets of electric apparatus, each set may be used at both stations alternately, the instruments being exchanged with the observers at the middle of the series. This method of exchanging 225. Method of Star Signals. was formerly employed by the Coast Surlongitude signals
vey.
A very full description of the method is given by Chauvenet (Spherical and Practical Astronomy). It is briefly
:
as follows
difference of longitude between two points, being the time required for a star to pass from the meridian simply of the east to that of the west station, may be measured by a
The
produce a record on the chronographs at both points. This clock may be at either point, or in fact anywhere in the circuit. When a star enters the field of the transit instrument at E, the observer records the transit by tapping his signal key in the usual manner, producing a record on both chronographs. When this star reaches the meridian of W, the observer in like manner taps its passage over the threads of his transit instrument, also producing a record at both
single clock placed in the electric circuit so as to
points.
This method is theoretically very perfect; but as it requires a monopoly of the telegraph lines for several hours every night when signals are exchanged, it has proved somewhat
impracticable.
Example.
For the purpose of illustrating this subject I give below the record of a series of longitude signals between Washington, D. C., and Wilkes Barre, Penn., 1881, October 6th.
39 6
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
the instruments
225.
At Washington
sit circle,
sidereal clock,
employed were the tranand chronograph of the U.S. Naval
Observatory.
At Wilkes Barre the instruments were a portable transit and mean time chronometer. At the latter place the following programme was followed: Transits of 16 stars were observed, the instrument being twice reversed the chronometer was then taken to the 200 feet distant, and the longitude signals telegraph office, exchanged, after which 13 stars were observed with the tran;
instrument, the axis being reversed once. The 29 equations furnished by the observed transits gave the values of the chronometer correction and rate, also the azimuth and
sit
collimation constants of the transit instrument.
The
nals
:
following
is
the
method adopted
in
exchanging
sig
of
At Washington the telegraph ke,y was tapped at intervals about 15 seconds, making a record on the Washington
chronograph, and through the telegraph line a click of the sounder at Wilkes Barre. The observer at the latter place, having his eye on the chronometer, noted the instant of this After 10 or 15 such signals had click and recorded the same. been sent from Washington to Wilkes Barre, a similar series was sent in the opposite direction, the operator at Wilkes Barre tapping the key, producing a click of the sounder at that place and a record on the Washington chronograph. This constitutes a complete series. Two such were exchanged each night when observations were made. It is obvious that with* a chronograph at Wilkes Barre nothing need be changed in the above programme. The record would then be made on the chronograph instead of by the observer, and if thought desirable the intervals between the signals could be much shortened. The chronometer at Wilkes Barre being regulated to mean
225.
LONGITUDE BY THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.
The
:
397
solar time, its correction
and rate on sidereal time are some
what
large.
values obtained from the observed transits
are as follo\*s
At 9h 39 m chronometer time, Hourly rate,
AT
+
h
S
!3
9
38
.9<D3
.024
+
\
9 .952
.1659
Rate per minute,
Similarly for the
Washington
clock,
At
22 h 30
sidereal time,
AT
rate,

21 ".891
.019
Hourly
+
:
.0360
The record
of the signals
with the individual values of the
longitude immediately follows
Washington
to
Wilkes Barre.
Mean
Wilkes Barre
to
=
4
40 .253
=
Af
Washingtc
Alean
=
4
40 .219
=
Ae
398
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
referring to formulae (391),
A e)
226.
Then
A.
we have
V
= \(\ w + = ^w 
=
4 40^.236 Wilkes B. east of
0.017.
Wn.
**)=
In the above the reduction of each signal has been carried out separately, in order to show the precision of the individual values. Practically the labor of reduction may be economized by reducing the means of the recorded times. Thus from the above we have
A
JJl
= =
4 40
.24
.02
Wilkes B. east of
Wn.
This value of A
is
affected
tion of the observers at
by the relative personal equaWashington and Wilkes Barre, by
the personal equation of the observer at Wilkes Barre in recording the signals, and by the difference in armature time
at the
two
stations.
(See Articles 220223.)
Longitude Determined by the Moon.
circumstances where they are available, leave little to be desired in facility of application or in accuracv of results. Before the invention of the electric
226.
in
The preceding methods,
227
LONGITUDE DETERMINED BY THE MOON.
399
telegraph the most valuable methods for determining longitude were those depending on the moon's motion, chronometric expeditions being generally impracticable. Though
the necessity for resorting to these methods is constantly diminishing as the telegraph lines become more widely extended, it will probably never entirely disappear. There are various methods of utilizing the moon's motion
for this purpose, the
most important
of
which are the follow
ing:
By eclipses of the sun and occultations of stars. By moon culminations. By lunar distances. By measurements of the moon's altitude or azimuth. Some use has also been made of lunar eclipses.
%
All of these methods depend upon the same general prinThe moon has a comparatively rapid motion of ciple, viz.
:
own, in consequence of which it makes a revolution about the earth in 27^ days. The elements of its orbit,
its
together with the effects of the various perturbing forces, being known, it is possible to determine the position of the moon at any given instant of time thus in the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac will be found the right ascension and declination of the moon computed several
;
years in advance for every hour of Greenwich time. Suppose now at a point whose longitude is required the position of the moon to be determined in any convenient manner by
observation the local time being carefully noted, the ephemeris above mentioned gives, either directly or through the
;
of a more or less extended computation, the Greenwich time corresponding to this position. A .comparison of this Greenwich time with the observed local time gives the
medium
difference of longitude required.
227. Some of the applications of this principle are capable of giving very good results but there is one difficulty inhei;
400
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
228.
ent in the principle itself which precludes the attainment of an accuracy commensurate with that obtained with the telegraph. The angular velocity of the earth on its axis, which is the measure of time, is twentyseven times greater than the
angular velocity of the moon in its orbit it follows, therefore, that errors of observation in determining the moon's position, or of the ephemeris, will produce errors in the So if the resulting longitude twentyseven times as great. errors to be anticipated in determining the place of the moon are of the same order as those of determining and comparing the errors of , the clocks by the electric telegraph, we might expect to attain to an ultimate degree of precision bv the latter method twentyseven times greater than by the former.
;
Longitude by Lunar Distances.
228. This method is chiefly useful on long seavoyages, where, in consequence of accumulating errors, the indications
of the chronometers
become
unreliable.
measuring with a sextant, or other suitable instrument, the distance of the moon's limb from that of the sun, or from a neighboring star, the time being noted by the chronometer. After this measured distance has received the necessary corrections (to be :onsidconsists in
The observation
ered hereafter), the Greenwich time corresponding is taken from the tables of lunar distances of the ephemeris by the methods of Art. 55. The difference between this time and the recorded chronometer time is the error of the chronometer on Greenwich time. An altitude of the sun or a star gives the difference between the two the error on local time
;
errors
is
The
the difference of longitude. ephemeris gives the distance, as seen from the centre
of the earth, of the
moon's centre from the centre
of the sun,
22Q.
LONGITUDE BY LUNAR DISTANCES.
40!
from the four larger planets, and from certain fixed stars situated approximately in the path of the moon. They are given at intervals of three hours Greenwich mean time. By a series of carefully observed lunar distances on both sides of the moon the chronometer error may generally be
ascertained within twenty or thirty seconds.
A longitude should be considered as liable to an way error of five miles, a degree of accuracy which answers the requirements of navigation. 229. We shall consider first the distance of the sun and
determined
in this
moon.
This distance having been measured and corrected for instrumental errors, such as index error and eccentricity, the result is the apparent distance between the limbs of the sun and moon as seen from the point of observation. In order to have this comparable with the distances of the ephemeris it must be corrected for the semidiameters, parallaxes, and
refraction of the
two
bodies.
In order to apply the necessary corrections a knowledge of the altitudes at the time of observation is necessary. When there are instruments and observers enough, which
will frequently be the case at sea, all of the quantities may be observed simultaneously the altitude of the sun so ob:
served, body sufficiently far from the meridian, be further utilized for determining the local time.
if
that
is
may
When
at
it is not expedient to make all these measurements once the observer may measure the altitudes of the sun
and moon immediately
after measuring the distance between these bodies, the altitudes at the time of that observation being computed by assuming the change in altitude to be
proportional to the change of time, an assumption which will not be much in error if the time is short. Finally, the altitudes may be computed by formulae (II), Art. 65, the right ascensions and declinations being taken
402
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
230.
from the Nautical Almanac. The apparent altitudes will be derived from these computed values by applying the correction for refraction, table II, and parallax formulas (VI) and This supposes the longitude to be approxi(VI),, Art. 8 1. known otherwise we lack the means of determining mately
;
the hourangle /, required in formulas (II): but we shall always be in possession of a value sufficiently accurate for this purpose. If in an extreme case this be not true, we may repeat the computation, using the value of the longitude obtained from the first computation as the assumed approximate
value.
The
tance
corrections necessary to apply to the measured dis
may
be computed as follows.
Correction for Semidiameter of
230.
Sun and Moon.
The following
quantities are taken from the epheme
ns:
/= 5= n =
Tl
the geocentric semidiameter of the moon the geocentric semidiameter of the sun the equatorial horizontal parallax of the moon the equatorial horizontal parallax of the sun.
; ;
;
The moon being comparatively near the earth, the semidiameter will vary appreciably with the altitude there will The be no appreciable variation in the case of the sun. semidiameter varies inversely as the distance. moon's
;
In Fig. 46,
Call
MOB = MA C s
s.
f
apparent semidiameter.
\
s'
Then
s
_ A _ sin MAZ _ sin (Z == jr=s\nMOZ ~sIn~Z
LONGITUDE BY LUNAR DISTANCES.
403
Z being the geocentric zenith distance of the moon, and / the
parallax in zenith distance.
sin
(Z+/)=sinZcos/+cosZsin/=sinZ]sin/cosZ, nearly
(128),
;
from
sin/
s'
=
sin
n
sin Z,
approximately.
(392)
Therefore
s(i
+ sin n cos Z)
The eccentricity of the meridian has been neglected, but the error is inappreciable for this purpose. The correction for semidiameter will be still further modified
by
refraction.
of the sun and
in turn is less
Owing to this cause the apparent disks moon are approximately ellipses, the refrac
tion being less for the upper limb than for the centre, which than for the lower limb. therefore require the radius of the ellipse drawn to the point where the curve
We
is
intersected by the great circle joining the centres of the
sun and moon.
404
PR A C TICA L AS TRONOM Y.
230.
Regarding the figure
gate
axis
will
of the disk as an ellipse, the conjucoincide with the vertical circle passing through the centre, the semitransverse axis will be equal to s' in case of the
;
moon b, the semiconjugate axis, is found directly from the refraction table by taking out the refraction for the x altitude of the upper and lower limbs and subtracting one half respectively The angle q the difference from s FIG. formed by the radius sq with the conjugate axis is the angle formed with the vertical circle by the great circle joining the centres of the sun and moon sq being the required semidiameter.
'.
;
To
find the angle
q.
In the triangle, Fig. 48,
Z
is
the
zenith;
J/and
S, the
moon and
sun.
/
VOH
Then
sin
cos q
H
sin
//
cos
D
sin
(D
h
+ H) cos
at the sun,
h
 H)


(693)
For computing the angle
changed.
h and
H will be
inter
Then
jn the ellipse (Fig. 47)
we have
'
x y =
sq sin q
'
;
sq
cos q
;
/y
231.
LONGITUDE BY L UNAR DISTANCES.
s'
405
Therefore
=
1/Y*
'

cosV
+ P sin ?
2
(394)
The values of sq computed by (394) for both sun And moon are then to be applied to the measured distance
231.
of the limbs of those bodies.
distance of the centres as seen
We thus have the measured from the place o4" observation.
now
be
To obtain the required geocentric distance this must corrected for refraction and parallax.
Let
D
',
H', and
h'
the apparent distance and altitudes of the sun and moon
;
D, H, and h
=
the true geocentric distance and tudes.
alti
H and h are obtained by applying to H' and
tions for refraction, table II or III, (VI) and (VI),, Art. 81.
h'
the correc
and for parallax formulae
Referring to Fig. 48,
cosD'=s'\nff 'sink' \cosfi' cosh' cosE=cos(ff' = sin sink l~ cos cos ^ cos'=cos(^'
cosD
H
^
h')
cos/f'cosA^sin 9
^;
)
/
,
k)coslf cosh
2sin'*$E.
)
Multiplying the first of the preceding equations by cos cos h, and the second by cos H' cos h', then subtracting to
eliminate sin \E,
2
H
we
find
cos
D=cos (Hh) +
_
/*/\c

r

[cos ZTcos (H'k')}. (396)
D is therefore expressed
equation
is
in
not,
however,
in
terms of known quantities. The convenient form for numerical
406
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
;
232.
computation
tion:
therefore
we make
the following transforma
cos
Let
cos
H
H' cos
TJ,
cos h = 77 h'
i
7=.
cos
;
C
^ C
D =
cos
D
;
*
(397)
H
It
h =<*;
may
readily be
shown
to give impossible values to (396) then reduces to
that C will D" and d"
never be so small as
.
cos
D
cos
D" =
cos
d
cos
d"
;
from which
sin
\(D

D")
=
45M
sin
rf

O
;
.
(398)
and with accuracy
sufficient for practical purposes,
As
the
unknown
quantity Z?
is
involved in the second
member, this equation must be solved for Writing in the denominator D'
a value of
true one.
D
+ D"
by approximation. D D", we obtain
+
will generally be sufficiently near the In case the value found in this way differs very
which
widely from D', the computation may be repeated, using this value just found in the denominator of (399). 232. In the above we have assumed the angle E (the difference between the azimuth of the sun and moon) to bt the
232.
LONGITUDE BY LUNAR DISTANCES.
407
same
earth.
for the point of observation as for the centre of the have seen, however, that the moon has an ap
We
D and E,
of which is given by preciable parallax in azimuth the value formulae (VI), Art. 81, or (VII), Art. 82. due to this In order to determine' the correction to we differentiate the second of (395) with respect to quantity,
D
viz.,
dD =
remembering
that
cos

H cos h sin E da r 
,
>
'
'
(400)
dE
=
da.
da is the parallax in azimuth computed by the formulae above referred to. now give the Formulae (392), (393), (394), (397) (399); (400) distance D, corresponding to the measured true geocentric
method explained in Art, 55 we take from the ephemeris the Greenwich time corresponding the difference between this time and the to this distance observed time will then be the chronometer correction on Greenwich time. If a planet has been used instead of the sun, the same
distance D'.
Then by
;
the
formulae will be used but if, as is generally the case, the disk of the planet is bisected by the lirnb of the moon in making the observation, there will be no correction for semidiameter of planet. The effect of parallax in case of the
;
outer planets will be very small. If the distance of the moon from a star is measured, there will be no correction for semidiameter or parallax of the star.
408
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
233
233.
Formula for Reducing an Observed Lunar Distance
the Geocentric Distance.
to
(XXII)
These formulae have been written down rigorously, but in practice many abridgments may generally be made in the
application.
Example.
1856,
March
and
of the nearest limbs
gth, 5 I4 6 local mean time, the following distance altitudes of the lower limbs of the sun and moon were
s
h
m
measured:
D'
=
44
36' 58".6;
H'
8
56' 23'';
h'
=
52
34 o".
These values are corrected
Barometer 29.5 inches;
Latitude
cp
for instrumental errors.
Attached thermometer 60;
longitude
Detached
ther.
58;
35;
Assumed
L
=
150
=
io h west of Greenwich.
233
From
LONGITUDE BY L UNAR DISTA NCES.
the Nautical
409
Almanac we
take the following quantities:
Sun.
Moon.
'
Right ascension,
Declination,
a
d
= =
23
h
4
22 m 27" 6" 3'
16
8 .o 8 .6
s
2h
n m 47*
18'
14
41"
23.1
I
Semidiameter, Horizontal parallax, II
Sidereal time,
S=
=
23'*
=
=.
16
n
60
.9
mean noon, we
nm
s
5
From
the refraction table
find, for the altitudes
above given,
43
52
49'
Refraction, lower limb, Approx. altitude of centre,
5
6'
42 9
48"
40
We now
the
first
compute the apparent or augmented semidiameter of the moon by of (XXII). and then the oblique semidiameter of both sun and moon
z
by the second and third of these formulae.
n
= =
=
37
i
10
o'
cos z
i".9
9.9014
8.2419
8.1433
log (i
s
j'
f
sin
it
=
=
983.1 996.8
= Sum = cos z) = log = log =
sin
it
.0060
2.9926
2.9986
Measured D'
44
36' 58". 6
16 36 .8
Then
for
computing
=
q\
Moon.
45
10'
/y=
9
52
12
h=
O=
$(D &{&)=
44
53
25
36 o 45 26
cos =9. 7734 sec
47
1.5014
.7507
Sum
=
Then from
the refraction table
79
56'
52
we
find
Refraction
upper limb
centre
b
=
5
15'
lower limb
33
centre
.2
= =
43".
i
42
.7
Therefore
59
b
16' 36". 4
4io
log b
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
233
log
2
= 2.9819
log
2
sin 2 q
= =
5.9638
log b
2.9984
8.6476
sin 2 q
= = = =
5.9968
9.0736
4.6114
log
S
2.9859
= log S = = cos*
A*
1
<?
5.0704
.8720
1.3407
A*
log
s'
5.9718
=
2.9986
log/
2
5.9972 9.9452
9.9803
5.9521
COS 2 q *
B*
ac log den.
= =
1.3601
.9267
5.97I5
=7.0143
logd.
2.9857
log
Sq Sq
= 2.9821 = 15' 59".6
58.
ac log den.
log Sq
sq
'
= = =
7.0014 2.9984
16' 36". 4
logd.
=
59971
2.9986
Obs.
Zy=4436'
"6
True D'
= 45
9 34. 6
An approximate value of the azimuth of the moon is required for computing the parallax; also of the sun for computing the small correction dD given by The formulae for this computation are f the last of (XXII).
tan
M
tan d
cos
'
tan a
=
cos
sin (<p
M
M)
tan
/
Converting the mean time of observation into sidereal time (Art.
94),
we
find
Sun a
/
=
(9
= = = t =
or)
4
23
5
h
26 m
22
3
54'
3
8
27 36
Moon a
75
= = t =
/
2h
nm
14
34'
47"
2
16
33
Sun.
Moon.
*=t=
4
75
3'
.
= 14
005=9.3867
<P=3S
19
tan =9.4067
54
12
'=33 34
o
59'
M=
<7>r"T
16
*35
O
12 cosec(p
<pM=
a=
51
M)=
tana=
.1083
>
M=i"7
cosec((?>^/)= .5104
cos M=q.<)8o6
cos ^7=9.9824 tan /= .6000
78
29'
.6907
^=64
3'
tan
a=
.3129
* Addition logarithms.
t (II), Art. 65.
233For
parallax,
LONGITUDE B Y LUNAR DISTANCES.
(VIII)i, Art. 82,
e'
411
(VII), Art. 82,
z
II sin
z)
z'\
y =
cos
(q>
(<p
cp")
1
cos
a.
sin
(z
=
=
p
sin
TT
<p")

sin (z
y)
~
sin
p
sin
it
sin (<p
(a'
a)
sn
n".4
log
(q>
/
log
sin
it
0'
=
= =
80
53'
0.9345
9.9945
log
(z
s'
z)
0.9290
8". 5
= = log Y =
cp')
2.81158
cos a
9.64106 2.45264
4'
z
Therefore
//
= = = =
= =
9
6'
57".!
z'
= r=
z'
Y
44"
6". 3
37
10'
5
37
22
log
sin
p
7t
999952
8.24208 o
sin (q>
log
sin
p
it
cos
sin
(q>
(z
(p'}
<p)
= = = = = =
999952
8.24208
7.49715
y)
sec
y =
z)
9.78036 o
8.02196
36'
sin a
9.95384
.22494
cosec z
sin ('
9". 6
a!
sin
(z'
a)
5.91753
17".!
z
z
a
h
53
26'
3".3
We now
compute
(397)
ana
v399):
cos D' cos
D"
=
9.8482718
9.8424091
D'
D"
= d=
45
45
9'34"6
55
7 o
44
44
45
19
6.2
cos d'
eos</"
= =
9.8595724
98537097
d"
(</+</")
+ />")
d
===
26 13 .7 32 21 .8
44 22 40 .0
d"
427.5
412
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
First Approximation.
2 33
sin \(d
= 2.63094 cosec \(D' f /?") = .14647  D") = 2.622i3 n log (D D  D" =  418.9 D = 45 48' >") = 45 5137.5 i(Z? +
log (d
+d =
")
Second Approximation.
sin (</
9.
84472 n
+
f
</
")
=
9.
84472^
d")
log (d
cosec %(D
log
(D
D  D" =
</")= 2.63094 D") = .14409 D"} = 2.61975,,

6'
56". 6
8''.
D dD= D=
A'
a
45
48' io".4
3.5
45
48 13
.9
Correction for parallax in azimuth:
E=
cos
cos h
sin ,"
=
H = 9.9945
9.7751 9.3966
.1445
14
26'
cosec
log (a
= D=
a]
1.2330
log</>
=
0.5437
3" 5
dD=
We
gth,
have now
find
sponding
to this distance
we
from the Nautical Almanac the Greenwich time correby the method explained in Art. 55. For 1856, March the following distances of the sun and moon
to take
:
I2 h
15
D=
43 45
59'
3i"
53
PL =
.2493
r
40 54
21
.2510
.2527
.
18
47
I7
We
have therefore to interpolate between is h and i8 h
(106),
Referring to formula
we have
J'
=
7'
19". 9
t
_
Therefore * Correction for 2d difference Resulting Greenwich time Local time of observation
Resulting longitude
T=
i3
15" 13
m
4 4
i
s
log = PLA = log / =
2.6433
.2510
2.8943
s
15
5
13
3
14 58
6
57
re
9
ceived
The above solution of this problem is only one among many, as it has much attention from mathematicians on account of its importance
*
to
Taken from
table
I
at the
end of the Nautical Almanac.
235navigators.
LONGITUDE BY MOON CULMINATIONS.
413
The majority of the solutions are only approximate, the design being to reduce the numerical work to a minimum without at the same time Such methods may be found in sacrificing too much in the way of accuracy.
any work on navigation, and
lution
is
will
be preferred where only an approximate so
required.
As may be seen, the solution which we have given may be considerably abridged without a great sacrifice of accuracy. The differences between the oblique and vertical semidiameters of the sun and moon are very small, and the
correction for parallax in azimuth
least reading of the sextant is 10",
difficult,
it
is
not large.
When we remember
this
that the
and that measurements of
little will
kind are quite
this part of
will
be seen that often
be
lost
by neglecting
the computation.
Longitude by
234.
Moon
Culminations.
right ascension of the moon may be determined transit instrument, mounted at the place whose is required, and the local time of observation comlongitude pared with the Greenwich time corresponding to this right
The
by means of a
ascension, either by taking this time from the ephcmeris of the moon, or by means of similar observations made at
Greenwich, or some place whose longitude from Greenwich is known.
Comparison by means of the Ephemeris.
having been adjusted as acthe transit of the moon's bright limb is may be, observed, together with a number of stars suitable for determining the errors of the instrument and the clock coro
235.
transit instrument
The
curatelv as
corrections necessary to give the moon's right ascension, from the observed time of transit of the limb, are then applied according to formulae (XIX), Art. 195. The last
rection.
The
term of the formula may be taken from the table of moon " culminations where it is given under the heading Sidereal time of semidiameter passing meridian."
4^4
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY
237.
236. To insure greater accuracy, the moon's right ascension may be derived by comparing the observed time of
about four stars differing but little from two culminating before the moon A list of stars suitable for this purpose was and two after. " formerly given in the ephemeris, under the heading Moon culminating stars," but it has been discontinued since 1882.' It is an easy matter for the observer to select suitable stars from the general list of the ephemeris.
transit with that of
the
moon
in declination,
Let
A =
the right ascension of the moon's bright limb at the instant of culmination
;
A =
a
6
the right ascension of the moon's centre clock time of observed transit of limb, corrected
;
for
.
all
known
instrumental errors and for rate;
=
right ascension and time of transit respectively of a star, the time being corrected for instrumental errors and rate of clock
;
Sj
=
sidereal time of semidiameter passing the meridian, taken
from ephemeris.
Then
(401)
This quantity A is then the local sidereal time of transit of the moon's centre. 237. We have now to take from the ephemeris of the moon the Greenwich mean time T corresponding to this value A of the moon's right ascension; the mean time T must then be converted into the corresponding Greenwich sidereal time O8 Then A being the difference of longitude, we have
.
*
=
o
 A .......
(402)
237
LONGITUDE BY MOON CULMINATIONS.
415
The time T may be interpolated to second differences from the ephemeris, as follows
:
Let
A = T =
l t
the ephemeris value nearest to A\ the corresponding time. the required time corresponding to A.
Then
T
l
f t

A
4.'4.*i 2' * ~f
I
Let
AA
dA
=
=
the difference of right ascension for taken from the ephemeris
;
minute,
of
difference
between two consecutive values
A A.
equals the change in A A in one hour. Then if supposed expressed in seconds, we shall have to second ferences inclusive
dA then
/ is
dif
<M
dT
_ From which
~_
AA
6o"
;
,
:
^A. dT*
~=
8A_
(6of
~
,
A = A,+ r 6oL AA
t
+

.. 2
.
3600J
6o[A
AA
and with
sufficient accuracy,
+ dA
7200
dA
*
Writing
*
60 [A
L~^,
A,]
/

then (403) becomes
=
x
f
x"
.......
(404)
41 6
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
238.
Example.
Among
I
the observations of the
moon made
at
Washington
find the following:
Observed right ascension 1877, May 23d. of the moon's centre,
From ephemeris
of the
moon,
AA = 2.0996 dA =.+ .0029
7i
=
h
I4
,
A
6o(A
A = A = A =
l
h
i3
13
28 m
S
5
.O2
27
i
3 .91
i
1
.11
A^ =
29
m 63 .4
 .6
3666.6
log
=
= = = =
3.56426
.32213
log
AA x
JIT'
x
;r"
/
= = =
log
log
3.24213
6.48426
746240,
29
5 .8
log
( dA) ac log A A
log x"
9.67787 6.14267
9.76720,,
7;+
/
=
is
I4 29
h
m
aclog 7200
5 .8
8
=
This
now
the Greenwich
mean time corresponding
to
the Washington sidereal time A. In order to compare the two, T^\ t must be converted into sidereal time.
T,
+ =H
/
h
29
2
5 .8
S
Table
III,
Appendix N.
A.,
22 .77
.56
Sidereal time Greenwich M. N.
Greenwich sidereal time
A
= =
m
4
18
4 48
36
17.1
= @
A =
h
5
8
I2M,
the^equired difference of longitude. 238. If the ephemeris were perfect, very little could be done further in the way of perfecting this method. The errors of the ephemeris, however, are not inconsiderable, and in consequence it cannot be used directly as above, except when an approximate value of the longitude is sufficient.
For the year 1877 tne average correction
to the right ascen
239
LONGITUDE BY MOON CULMINATIONS.
417
sions of the ephemeris, as derived from 66 observations at
Washington, was
of 8 in
s
which would have produced an error the longitude if the observations had been used for
s
.3i,
methods may be used for eliminatfrom the result these errors of the ephemeris. ing This method is due to First. Correction of the ephemeris. The ephemeris is compared with all available Prof. Peirce.* observations of the moon made at Greenwich, Washington, and other fixed observatories during the lunation, and in this way a series of corrections to the ephemeris obtained which, as they depend on all available data, are much more reliable than simply the place of the moon observed at any one observatory. Peirce found that lor each semilunation the corrections to the right ascension of the ephemeris could be represented by the formula
that purpose. Either of two different
X=
A
+ Bt +
t
Cf\
(405)
X being
the time reckoned from any assumed epoch (which should be chosen near the middle of the period under consideration for greater convenience), and A, B, and C being constants determined from the
the correction required,
made at Washington, Greenwich, etc. The when so corrected is used as already explained. ephemeris The difference in 239. Second. Corresponding observations the longitude of any two points mav be found by comobservations
paring the values of the right ascension of the moon observed on the same night at both places. The times of transit of the moon's bright limb and of the comparison stars are observed at both places and the corrections applied as already explained to find the right ascen*
Report of U.
S.
Coast Survey 1854,
p.
115 of Appendix.
41 8
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
239.
sion of the centre at the instant of transit.
tle
better
if
It will be a litthe same comparison stars are used at both
stations.
Let L, and
Z =
a
the assumed longitudes of the tions *
;
two
sta
A
A
l
and A^
= =
H
Then
the true difference of longitude right ascensions of moon's centre from observations at L and Z 2
;
l ;
variation of right ascension for one hour of longitude, while passing from meri
dian of Zj to that of
L
z
.
A,

A,
=
\H\
taken from the table of moon culminations, where it given for the instant of transit of the moon's centre over the meridian of Washington. When used as in (406) its value must be interpolated for a longitude midway between
is
H
is
L
l
and
Z
2
.
Example. As an example of the determination of longitude by corresponding let us take the transit of the moon, the observations and reduction of which are given in Art. 196. We have there found for 1883, October 15
observations,
:
Right ascension of moon's
first
limb,
i i
h
I5
m
5O*.o8.
Second
f limb,
18
11.76.
:
At Washington the
right ascensions of the limbs
First limb,
i h
were observed as follows
i6 m
18
7 .38.
8
Second limb,
i
28
.69.
ris
* Reckoned from Washington or Greenwich according as we use the ephemecomputed for Washington or Greenwich. One of the longitudes, LI or Z,
f
must be known with some accuracy.
This
is
corrected for defective illumination.
239
LONGITUDE BY MOON CULMINATIONS.
in
419
Taking the mean
each case as the observed right ascension of the centre,
we have
A*
=
i
17
l
18 .035.
A^A
From
ephemeris,
=
I7MI5I53 .88;
8
H=
A.
=
^77
H

=
oh .ni2
= 6m
40
s
.
3.
difference of longitude between Washington m This close agreement telegraphically is 6 40*. 2.
The
and Bethlehem determined
is
of course accidental
;
a
deviation of four or five seconds from the true value would not have been surprising.
If
we reduce
the observations of the
First limb,
two limbs separately, we
find
:
A
A.
Second limb,
= =
6 m 44'. 7. 6 36 .o.
is
The mean being
employing
the
same
as above.
This
an illustration of the necessity of
Frequently the difference of longitude determined separately from transits of each limb will show much wider deviations than this, even when all possible care is taken to avoid error.
transits of both limbs.
To illustrate the method of Art. 236 for deriving the moon's right ascension by means of comparison stars, take the following transits of the moon f Piscium and v Piscium observed at the Sayre observatory, 1883, October 15.
:
for instrumental errors,
These times are corrected and
that of the second limb of
the
moon
for defective illu
mination.
is
The
clockrate
inappreciable.
420
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
240.
This method of deriving the moon's right ascension is employed with most advantage when the same comparison stars are used at both places whose difference of longitude
will
is
required, as then uncertainties in the places of the stars
produce no appreciable effect on the result. In our example we have preferred to use the value of the moon's right ascension derived in Art. 196, since the value of A T there used was obtained from transits of a number of stars, and thus a result obtained more likely to be reliable than the one above, which depends only on two stars. 240. If the difference in longitude between the two places is more than two
ences
hours, the above method requires some modification, as then the third differwill be appreciable. in the hourly motion The right ascensions AI and A* are obtained from observation precisely as before then the right ascensions are taken from the ephemeris for the time of
H
;
culmination at the two meridians, using for this purpose the assumed values of
the longitude.
Let
a.1
and
aa
=
values of the right ascension taken from the ephemeris for the assumed longitudes LI and Z a
;
Aa =
Then
If
<*! f
correction to the ephemeris.
Aa
and a*
f
Aa =
true values of the right ascension.
(
a
then
Z a and
a
t
=
a?
Let Li
will be equal to
LI are the true values of the longitude, Az AI.
f
^a
)
(<*i+ Act)
Li
f
AL =
tion to the
assumed difference
true difference of longitude. of longitude.
Then
AL
is
the correc
Let
K
=
(At
AI)
(a*
i).
Then
AL
~J{ ....... "...
(407)
H being, as above, the
hourly change in the moon's right ascension, AL will here be expressed in hours. To reduce to seconds we multiply by 3600, viz.,
(
4 oS)
This process
tions
fifth
is
is
sufficiently
simple
in theory,
but
if
the table of
moon culmina
to fourth or
employed the moon's
right ascension
must be interpolated
ephemeris
ences.
By using the hourly differences, which will involve considerable labor. of the moon the interpolation need only be carried to second differIn any case
in the
we must assume
to be correct.
the
moon's motion
in right
ascension
given
ephemeris
241.
LONGITUDE BY MOON CULMINATIONS.
421
tion at the meridian
The hourly motion, //", is taken from the ephemeris for whose longitude is to be determined.
the time of observa
Example. 1883, October 16, the moon's right ascension was determined by The meridian observation at Greenwich and Bethlehem as given below. transit of the second limb was observed, the Bethlehem observations being
made and reduced
precisely as in the
example
of Art. 196.
At Greenwich, At Bethlehem,
AI A*
= =
2h 2
6 m 17". 46.
19
32 .18.
From
Greenwich mean time, we must 'convert the above values of the right ascension, which are equal to the sidereal times of observation, into the corresponding Greenwich mean solar time, using for the longitude of Bethlehem the best approximation to the true value which we possess. Thus
the moon's centre.
:
the houriy ephemeris of the moon we Since the argument is the
now
take the right ascension of
Local sidereal time ...............
A*
2h
=
2 h 19
5
i
32M8
31 .9
Assumed longitude from Greenwich.
Greenwich sidereal time ........... Sidereal time, mean noon .......... Sidereal interval past noon ........ Table II, Appendix of Ephemeris. Greenwich mean time .............
.
6 m 17 s 46
.
7
21
4.08
38.61 25.47
54 .05
13
38 27
2
38.61
13
17
38
12
38.85
2 .48
42
2
12
25
36.37
17
39
31.42
32 .38
find for
S
For these times we
find ..........
a
x
=
2h
6 m I7 s .6i
aa
=
2 h 19
From
the table of
moon
culminations
page 379 of Ephemeris
we
the hourly motion in right ascension at the time of the Bethlehem observation,
Then by formula
(408),
AL =
L =
".05
X
~
15050
5
i
We
have assumed
Final value of longitude,
30
.8.
t
241.
The determination
of the
moon's
right ascension
by the difference
be
a neighboring star does not do away with the necessity for correcting the observed times for all known errors of the transit instrument as explained in Articles 195 and 196. What we require is
tween the time of
transit of the
moon and
the right ascension of the moon's centre at the instant of transit over the meridian of the place of observation. Since this right ascension is constantly
changing,
if
there
is
an uncorrected error of T seconds
in the
reduced time,
it
422
is
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
same as though mounted in a meridian
the
241.
with an instrument
precisely the
moon were observed
perfectly
an amount.
Thus differing from this one by r seconds. uncorrected instrumental error affects the resulting longitude by its full
In order to obtain the best result from the method of moon culminations the observations should be arranged so as to include about an equal number of each limb that is, the moon should be observed about the same number of times In this way uncertainties in the value of the semibefore and after full moon.
;
diameter will be eliminated, and to some extent the personal equation of the observer in estimating the instant of transit of the limb. As the difference between the values of the longitude, determined from the first and second limbs
respectively, from observations embracing an entire year, frequently io 8 the importance of this will be obvious.
,
amounts
to
In a discussion of the limit of accuracy attainable in the determination of 8 longitude by moon culminations, Prof. Peirce gives* 101 as the probable error of a single determination of the right ascension of the moon. The probable
.
error of the difference between two observed right ascensions would then be the probable error of the resulting longitude is twentyseven times this, .142
;
or 3 8 .83. By using an ephemeris corrected as before explained, this probable error of a single determination is somewhat reduced. If now the law of distribution of error, which forms the basis of the method
were the only thing to be considered in making and combining could by a sufficient accumulation of individual determinations In this case, however, as in reduce this probable error to an unlimited extent. all cases where quantities are determined by observation, the errors of a purely accidental character are so combined with others of a constant character that
of least squares,
observations,
we
accumulation of observation beyond a certain limit adds but
little to
the accu
racy of the final result. Prof. Peirce estimates the ultimate limit of accuracy which we can hope to reach in determining a quantity by observation at about four times the accuracy If then we assume that it of the most carefully executed single determination.
8 1 possible to determine the difference in the moon's right ascension within a single observed transit at each place, this would give a value of the longiby The ultimate degree of accuracy which could be tude accurate to within 2 8 .7.
is
.
attained would then be within ".67 of the truth. Owing, however, to the unexplained discrepancies in the results from the two limbs of the moon, this ultis is probably too small. Prof. Peirce places the limit at i .oo, a limit which might be reached by observing all available culminations for two or three years, but which would not be much reduced by a further accumulation of
mate error
observations.
*
Report of U.
S.
Coast Survey 1854,
p. 112 of
Appendix.
243
LONGITUDE BY OCCULTATIONS OF STARS.
423
Determination of Longitude by Occult at ions of Stars.
*
242. The observation of occultations of stars by the moon and of eclipses of the sun furnishes, next to the telegraphic method, the most accurate means of determining the differ
ence of longitude between two places.* Prof. Peirce estimates the ultimate accuracy attainable by this method as within one tenth of a second of time. The mathematical theory of eclipses and occultations of
and of planets by the moon, and of fixed stars by It planets, may all be embraced in one general discussion. is not proposed to enter here into the general of problem eclipse prediction, as it would lead us beyond what is designed to be the scope of this work. We shall therefore constars
fine ourselves to so
much
of the
problem as
relates to the oc
cultation of fixed stars
by the moon.
General Theory.
243. The distance of a fixed star is so great in comparison with the distance of the moon that the rays of light from the star enveloping the moon may be regarded as forming a
the radius of the moon.
cylindrical surface, the radius of the cylinder being equal to If this cylinder intersects the earth,
the star will be hidden from all parts of the earth's surface within the cylinder. Let a line be supposed drawn from the star through the centre of the moon this line will form the axis of the cylinder, and the point where it pierces the celes:
tial
sphere coincides with the place of the
star.
*
that
When
method may be
the places are favorably situated for a chronometric determination preferable, but a high degree of precision is not possible
when
the chronometers are transported
by land.
424
PR A C 7 '1CA L AS TRONOM Y.
let
244
a plane be passed through the centre of the earth perpendicular to this line: this plane is called the funda
Now
mental plane, and is taken as the plane of considering the rectangular coordinates of the points entering into the The axis of is the line in which the fundaproblem.
XY m
X
mental plane intersects the plane of the equator, the positive axis of Fis directed towards the north, and the axis of Z is
parallel to the axis of the cylinder; the origin of coordinates being the centre of the earth.
244. To find the distance of from the axis of the cylinder.
any point on the earth's surface
Let
a,
d
A,D, r
= =
the right ascension and declination of the star; the right ascension, declination, and distance from the centre of the earth, of the moon's centre
;
x, y, 2
\\\Q
rectangular
coordinates of the moon's
in
centre.
Let the axis of
X
be positive
the direction of the end
is
whose right ascension
90
equal to
+
a.
Fig. 49, being the centre the the moon, and of the earth,
Then E,
M
= = =
P
pole,
we have
x y
z
r cos r cos
r cos
MX',
MY\
MZ.
Y
FIG. 49.
From
90;
cos
the triangle
MPX
90
%
MP =
90
D
;
PX =
cos
MPX =

(A

a}.
Therefore
D sin (A a). find Similarly from triangles MPZ and MPY we
MX
the values
245
LONGITUDE BY OCCULTATIONS OF STARS.
425
of cos
MZ
:
and cos
MY, from which
result the following
equations
x y
s
D sin (A D cos 3 r[sin = r[sin D sin +
r cos
tf
=
a)\
\
D sin cos D cos
cos
d cos (A tf cos (A
)]; I
or)].
)
(409)
and the axis of the cylinder is parallel to the axis of the centre of the moon, x and y will be the passes through
As
Z
coordinates of the point
where
this axis pierces the funda
mental plane. For our purposes z will not be required. For computing x and y with extreme accuracy it is convenient to transform
(409) as follows:
Let
TT
=
the equatorial horizontal parallax of the moon.
Then
r


,
expressed in terms of the equatorial radius
of the earth,
and x
cos
D 
sin
.
(A
a)
;
sin
n
y
245.
sin ~
(D3)cos^(A<x)+s'm(D+d)sm^(Aa)
=
sin
n
of
,
.(410)
Let
,
77,
and
<2
=
the rectangular coordinates of a point on the earth's surface
;
p
q>
=
= = =
the line
joining this point with the centre of the earth
;
the
geographical
;
latitude
this
cp'
*
point the geocentric latitude; the local sidereal time.
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
2 45
Then in Fig. 49, if we suppose to be a point on the surface of the earth whose coordinates are , 77, and 8 we have
M
=
p cos JO";
77
=
p cos
MY;
2
=
p cos
In the triangle
MP =
90

q>'\
MPX MPX =
90
q>'
Osin
(//
);
/^ =
90.
Therefore
cos
MX
cos
a).
In the triangle J//>F
PY =
Therefore
cos
6;
MPY =
cos #
180
Of
a).
J/F
=
sin
<p'
cos
<p
sin
(J
cos
(/^
a),
and similarly for cos J/Z, so that
finally
g
T;
<?
= = =
p cos
p[sin
<??'
sin
(/w
tf
tf
a)
;
(f)'
cos
cos
f
f
j
<p
(p'
sin
(J
cos
(/<
(j*
a)]
or)].
;
v
)
(41 1)
p[sin ^' sin
cos
cos d cos
These formulae may be computed in this form, or they may be adapted to logarithmic computation, as follows
:
p sin p cos
tp'
f
(p
cos (p
sin
a)
= =
b sin ^ cos
B;
^
(412)
g
?;
2
(//
or)
= ~ =
p cos </
^ sin (^
b
(yw
or)
;
d)
;
cos(B
d).
the hourangle of the star as seen from the given the earth's surface at the instant for which 77, point on and 3 are computed.
is
,
246.
LONGITUDE BY OCCULTATIONS OF STARS.
427
Let
H
h^
the
A
= =
Washington hourangle of the
star
;
the local hourangle ^ the west longitude of the point
=
a
,
T;,
.
Then
Let
h
=
H A
(413)
A
the distance of the point from the axis of the
shadow.
Then
A
=
\/(x

3
)
+ (y ,
rff
(414)
the instant of the beginning or ending of an occultawill be in the surface evident that the point v> of the cylinder, and the distance from the centre A is equal to the radius of the cylinder, which in turn is equal to the
tion, it is
At
radius of the moon, or .2723, expressed in terms of the earth's equatorial radius. Therefore The condition for the beginning or ending of an occupation at
any place
is
k
=
.2723
=
V(*

*)
+ (j>
'/Y
(415)
Prediction of the Principal Phases of an Occultation.
.
246. The instant of beginning and ending of an occultation are called respectively the time of immersion and emersion. shall at first suppose it to be known that an occultation of the star under consideration will be visible from the given
We
place on a given day, and shall develop the formulas for determining these two phases viz., of immersion and emersion.
purpose we require the solution of equation (415) T, of which x, y, 5, and /; are functionsThe equation is transcendental and of such a form that a direct solution is not possible. In fact it will readily appear an infinite number of values of T must satisfy this equathat
For
this
for the local time
428
tion, since the
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
same
star
247.
may
suffer occultation an indefinite
number
of times.
Equation (415) must therefore be solved by approximation, the most convenient method being as follows x and y are computed for a time T^as near as may be to that of the required phase. For the first approximation the time chosen
:
is
commonly
that of the geocentric conjunction of the
moon
and
This time is readily found from star in right ascension. the hourly ephemeris of the moon by finding the Greenis equal to the ascension of the star. If, as will commonly be the case right in the United States, the meridian from which the longitude is reckoned is that of Washington, the above time will be
wich time when the moon's right ascension
converted into Washington time by subtracting the difference of longitude between Washington and Greenwich, viz.,
h
5
8
m I2 S .09.
The object of this computation will generally be to determine the time of immersion and emersion, to assist in observing the occultation. For this purpose great accuracy will not be necessary in fact an error of a whole minute in the computed time would not, ordinarily, be a serious matter. The general formulas may therefore be much abridged. In
;
any case
247.
it
would be superfluous
approximation.
to use the rigorous formulas
in the first
and 77 for the instant of x, y, of the moon and star in right ascengeocentric conjunction a. For this instant (410) may be writsion, viz., when
We first
compute
,
A =
x
ten
=
o;
y
=
Dd
;
sin
n
(416)
For the short interval between conjunction and immersion or emersion we may then assume the change in x and y to be proportional to the time.
248.
LONGITUDE BY OCCULTATIONS OF STARS.
429
Let x' and y'
=
the changes in solar time.
x and y
in
one hour, mean
Differentiating the expression for x in (410), and for instant of conjunction (416), we have for the
y
in
dx
Let
= dA cos//;
s
sin
TT
ay
= dD
sin
TT
AA
and
AD =
the hourly changes in the moon's right ascension and declination taken from
the ephemeris.
Then
x, y, ;r'and
*'
= AA
cos
^
AD
:s

"''
(4I7)
y, being independent of the place of observation, may be computed for any future time, and will be available for all parts of the earth from which the occultation is visiTheir values are given in the American Ephemeris ble.
for all
When required
248.
the principal stars occulted throughout the year. for this purpose they may therefore be taken
'
directly from that publication.
and 77' the latter bemust next compute 77, and 77 for one hour mean solar time. the change in ing B, and 77 are given by formulas (411) or (412). and 77' we differentiate the first and secFor computing ond of (411) with respect to (// or), viz.:
,
We
'
d%
drj
= =
p cos p cos
cp'
cos
(fit
a)
(/w
{/(fit
or);
q>'
sin d sin
a) d(^L
a).
Let us now substitute (p a) is the hourangle of the star. for d(n a) the change which takes place in the value of this houranele in one mean solar hour. a
i
h
o m o s mean solar time
_
Th
I
o m 9 .856 sidereal time
s
=
54148".
43
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
d(p
a)
248.
Therefore
=
54148" sin i"
<p' <p'
(418)
a);
)
'
2= rf =
Let k
[9.4I9I57] P cos [9.419157]
cos
sin
(/
(/*

,
p cos
a) sin d.
)
the moon's radius expressed in terms of the earth's radius .2723
=
;
T
T
*"
\
r
=
approximate time of immersion or emersion;*
true time of phase.
correction to Tto be determined. been computed for the time J", their y> having true values will be
T will then be an
unknown
and
?;
x
+ X'T,
:
y
+y
r;
+ Z'r;
n,
??
+ ^r.
(420)
Let the auxiliary quantities Q, m, M,
as follows
N be
determined
sinG
= (*) +
);
17);
(*'')';!
n sin 7^ n cos
m sin M (x m cos M = y
(
= (x N = (y
1
')
1
;
)
*
/
,
V4
rf\
\
Then
(421)
become
k sin k cos
Q = m sin J/ fQ = m cos J/ fderive
r
T;Z
sin A';
cos
A
7
".
From
these
we
sin
k
(Q ^ cos (Q
 N) = m sin
N)
=m cos (J/ N +
)
(J/

JV);
r.
* For the first approximation the time of conjunction in right ascension be used as before explained. are identical with (415). f It will be observed that these two equations
may
249
LONGITUDE BY OCCULTATIONS OF STARS.
431
Let us write
Q
sin
N = $.
^
Then
= m sin (M
,
N}
';
(423)
_
T \
k cos $
m
cos
(M
N)
for f and consequently Since the algebraic sign of cos $ is not determined, the last equation gives two values of r, that value corresponding to the minus sign of cos $> giving the time of immersion, that given by the plus sign being the time of emersion. The resulting times will only be approximations to the for
T.
Thus we have our equation solved
them we have neglected the second and higher orders of differences in the variation of and 17. x, y, If we require the time more accurately, we may now assume these approximate values of 7"and recompute formulae (41 1), (419), (422), and (423), thus obtaining a second approximation to the values of T for immersion and emersion.
true values, since in deriving
,
Position
A ngle
of the Star.
249. The accurate observation of the star's emersion will be greatly facilitated if we know in advance the exact point on the moon's limb where its appearance may be expected. This point is determined by its position angle, which is the angle measured from the north point of the moon's limb
around towards the east to the point in question. We may perhaps define this angle more clearly as follows Suppose two great circles drawn from the moon's centre respectively through the pole and the star: the position angle will then be the angle between these circles, measured from that drawn through the pole around towards the east.
:
432
PRA. C TICA L AS TR ONOM Y.
249
In equations (421) x,y,, and ?; being the rectangular coordinates of the moon's centre, and of the place of observation on the earth's surface, let us suppose a system of rect
angular axes drawn through the latter point and parallel to will be the rectangular and (y the old axes, (x ) //) of the moon's centre in reference to this new coordinates
is the moon's radius, equations (421) require Q to be the position angle of the moon's centre, measured from Now it is evident that when the star is in the axis of Y contact with the moon's limb, which is the condition ex
system. Since k
pressed by equations (421), the position angle of the star measured from the north point of the moon's limb will differ from the position angle of the moon's centre measured from
the axis of
Fby
180.

Thus,
is
in Fig. 50, the star at
immersion being atA,JVMA
Calling this angle P,
the position angle required.
we
have
P=
Q
180.
250.
LONGITUDE BY OCCULTATIONS OF STARS.
433
At emersion, as shown in Fig. 51, the position angle Pwill Therefore be the angle NES WA
.
P=
Then
since, equations (423),
0f
N we have For immersion P = N + 180; For emersion P = N + $ + 180.
Q=
\ ip,
fy
)
,
^

If the telescope used is mounted equatorially and provided with a position micrometer,* this point may be kept in view very readily by placing the micrometerthread tangent to the moon's limb at the point. If the telescope is not provided with a micrometer, a single thread may be placed in the focus of a common eyepiece, and a rough graduation marked around the rim. This thread may then be set in the direction of the tangent to the
moon's limb as before.
the telescope has only an altitude and azimuth motion, it will be convenient to measure the angle from the vertex, or highest point of the moon's limb, instead of the north
250.
Ii
point.
Consider the triangle formed by the zenith,
the pole, and the moon's centre.
Let
V
the position angle measured from the moon's vertex.
52,
/
Then, referring to Fig.
V= P
C.
* In a position micrometer the reticule revolves in a plane perpendicular to the line of colhmation of the telescope, and the threads may be placed at any angle with the meridian by means of a graduated circle. On the other hand,
by the same
joining
it
circle the angle formed with the hourcircle of a star by the line with any other star in the field of the telescope may be measured.
434
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
C,
2$ I.
apply to the triangle the formulae of spherical trigonometry, viz.:
sin
sin
To determine
Z sin C = Z cos (7 =
C will
cos
q>
sin
(/*
tf
sin cp cos
A)\ cos
\
,
^.
(p
sin
tf
cos
(nA).
\
at the time for
not be required with extreme precision, and which C is required the right ascension of the star differs but little from that of the moon, we may
Since
write, bearing in
mind the values given by equations
sin
(411),
, ,
Z sin C =
;}
sin
ZcosC =?;)'
of contact the values of
'r
and since at the instant
and
tj
are,
by equations
(420),
4;
+
and
TJ
+ rfr,
251. In connection with the elements for predicting the occultation of a given star, found in the American Ephemeris, there are given the limiting parallels of latitude within which the star will be occulted. It does not necessarily fol
low, however, that because a place is within the limits there given the star will be occulted at that place. The limiting
curves do not coincide with parallels of latitude, as we might show by investigating the theory farther, or as may be seen
by referring
to the charts of solar eclipses to be found in
falls
any
it
number
will be
of the ephemeris.
In case the point
outside the limit of occultation,
r
shown
in
computing
sin
from equations
k,
(423),
ty
when
I,
we
should find
m
(M
N) >
thus making sin
>
an
impossible value. As the observation of occultations near this limit
is
not of
252.
PREDICTION OF
AN
OCCULTATION.
435
great value for the determination of longitude, it will not be worth while to make a very close computation to ascertain whether the occultation actually does occur when it is found
to be near the limit.
252. The successive steps in preparing to observe the occultation of a Nautical Almanac star at a given place, assuming it to be visible at that place,* are therefore as follows
:
take from the "Elements for the Prediction of Occultations" of the American Ephemeris the Washington mean
I.
We
time of geocentric conjunction T the Washington hourangle H, also F, x ',y, and the star's apparent declination 8. are reduced to the local time and hour, II. T and angle by applying the correction for longitude, A. p sin g> and p cos <p' are to be found by the use of table A.
,
H
f
TABLE
A.
This table
is
and p
sin
<p',
for computing p cos <p' which will be given by
the formulae
p p
cos
<p
sin <p
= F cos = sin <p
<p\
* We shall subsequently show how to select from the list of stars of the American Ephemeris those whose occultation is likely to be visible from a given place on a given day.
43 6
III.
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
252.
We
solar time,
then compute ', and ?/, the formulae (T A), by
,
//'
for the local
mean
?;
= = =
pcos
p
<p'sin// sin </ cos 3
;

, '
.
p cos 9' sin
(p' q>'
tf
cos h^
\
&>'
T/
p cos [9.4192] p cos
[9.4192]
/^
cos
sin
//
;
//
sin
d
a.
In which
=
H
A
=
/<
IV.
w, J/,
n,
and ^Vare computed by
m cos M
y
rj\
n cos
N = y'
;
^;
)
then ^ and r by sin ^ *
= w sin (M N) ;k
~~
I
&cosif> ~~
m cos (MN) ~~~~~*
Calling the value corresponding to the plus sign r lf and that corresponding to the minus sign r 2 we have
,
Time Time
V.
of
immersion
of emersion
= T + r = Tj = T r = T
l
\
a
9
.
repeat the com. putation for a second approximation to the true values of the time of immersion and emersion. h Q in (411) and (419) will T 2 ) f r emersion. r ) for immersion, and (h Q become (h Q
these values
With
T^and
T^
we now
+
t
+
give us two values of r; one a small value giving a more accurate time for immersion, the other a large value giving an inaccurate time of emersion. In the same way T9
T, will
253
PREDICTION OF
AN
OCCULTATION.
437
r for emersion and a gives a small and accurate value of inaccurate value for immersion. large The values of x and y to be used in this second approxima
tion will be given by the formulae
and
x x
=
X'TV
x'r^
y y
Y\y'r^
for immersion,
Y \ y'r v
for emersion.
values of r given above will be expressed in hours. If it is considered desirable to express them in minutes we a quantity n viz., 'may use, instead of
'
The
,
,
'
=
So
=
[822i8].
As a check upon the values of the times finally obtained, If and we compute for these times the values of x, y,
,
rj.
the times are correct these quantities will satisfy the equation
.
(x

)*
+ (y 
rff
=
0.07413.
253. Instead of carrying
through the computation of num
bers III and
junction, of immersion and emersion, as follows: first require the interval of time
IV with the hourangle h of geocentric conwe may obtain a rough approximation to the time
between geocentric
We
and apparent conjunction
of apparent conjunction
in right ascension.
x
=
;
or writing for
At the x and
instant
their
values,
r^x'
p cos
f
cp
sin
(//

r
).
is the interval required and h is, as before, the at the station at the time of geocentric conjunchourangle
In which r
tion.
438
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
have
253.
We
sin (h
+r
o)
si*1
^o
cos r o
(i
=
+ cos ^o sm T
2
o
sin
^
2 sin
^r
) 
cos
/i
2 sin
r cos
r
;
and
finally,
sin (h
+ r = sin h. + 2 sin ^r
)
cos
(>&
+ Jr
write
).
r will
never be very large, so we
r
may
2 sin
=
r 54I48 77 sin
.
/r
i
=
[9.4192] r of
is
since the unit in
which
r
is
expressed
the
mean
solar hour.
Therefore
rX =
Write
p cos
<p'
sin
^
+ [9.4192] p cos 9' cos (^ +ir
p cos
<p'
(
)
.
r
,
.
sin
//
^"
;
)
'
.
[9.4192] p cos
^ cos
r
Then
In the
first
;
^
. .......
'
,
(430)
may be approximation the r in the value of or we may assume it equal to J^ which will genneglected erally be a little more accurate. As the average duration of an occultation is about one hour, we may therefore, in ordinary cases, assume as the hourangle in equations (411) and (419)
For immersion, For emersion,
h,
+r h, + r
3o m f 3o
m
;
)
'
/
N
.
)
value of r may be taken from Downes's table, given in connection with the subject of occultations in the Ameri
The
can Ephemeris.
253
PREDICTION OF
AN
OCCULTATION.
439
Example.
dl Libra at Beth* Required the time of immersion and emersion of the star = 40 36' 24"; oh 6 m 4O'.2. A = 6th. lehem, 1883, September cp
From
p.
424 of the American Ephemeris we find
Washington mean time
From
log
table A,
q>
<p'
T =
8
H= +
A
6 h i8 m .4
2 15
Y=
x
A
>^o
36 .9
33'4
252.
log p sin
pcos
= =
9.8112
r
= =
=+
= =
+ .6374
.5332
/=,
"73
2 h 43 m .6
6 h 25.!
9.8810
40
54'
.<&.
with this value of Instead of computing at once the values of ', and rf 77, let us first determine the times of immersion and emersion roughly by
,
(42 9 )(43i).
r
=
The computation
is
now
as follows:
=
We now 'compute
*
52
55'
=67
77',
55'
, 77, ',
and
as follows:
We
t Strictly T O should here that it is not important.
might have used Downes's table above referred to, where we find r e = 7 4. be reduced to sidereal interval, but the approximation is so rough
440
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Immersion.
255
d cos d
sin
pcos
sin ho d <f> sin
cos
ho'
9.4284* 9.9838 9.9018 93094 9.7803
Check.*
=  ^)' = Sum =
)
2
.0320 0414 .0734
log 
p cos
q>
p
sin sin
d cos h
<p'
'
cos 5
= = = = = =
9.7828
9 0897* 9 7950
p
log p cos <p' cos ho cos <p' sin 5 sin //</
'
9.6613 9.2112*
9.0805
8.6304,,
M= m M= m cos M =
sin sin
log log 9.8197*
TJ'
= +0.6064 Nat. No. = .1229 Nat. No. = 4 .6238 ? = 4 .7467 = *'r = 4 .4276 = 4 .5433  g)=  .1788 = .2034
g
77)
.
tan
log
J/
m =
=
9.9441 9.4327
=
221
ig'.2 I
rf *'
=
= 9 9930 = 9.6158 = 8.8727* wcos AT tanJV = .7431* log w = 9.6228
w
sin yv sin A'
in
x
y
;V=
100
121
= y== =
.1204 .0427 .5332 .1173
.4128 .0746
14.5
4'.
(M
N) = log m
log
sin
i
log'
rr 7.8446
M N=
cos (J/
7
9.9328 9.4327
if;
^
= .5650 = 9 9305 = 58 26'. 2
= logw = log =
Af)
9.7128* 9.4327
2.1554
1.3009* 9.7189 94350
cos
^
log k
log, n
= =
Nat. No.
=
20m .oo
2.1554
13093
Nat. No. Immersion T\
Emersion (inaccurate) r 2
A.
= 20m 39 = o .39 = \ 40 .39
.
30
m
ri
= 6 h 25 m .i = 4 48 .1 =  o .39
2
,
The comparison with
the true value of
viz., .0741,
shows the adopted value
of h
'
for
253
PREDICTION OF
AN
OCCULTATION.
441
Emersion.
cos
<ff
p
cos
<p'
p p p cos
sin sin
'
= 9.4284* = 9.9838 sin Ao' = 9.9669 sin 5 = 9. 3094,2 cos hj = 9.5751 = 9.8479 log cos ^ = 8.8845 cos d = 9 7950
d cos 5
sin
'
Check.*
cos
sin
<
<p'
cos h sin h
m sin m cos
M= M= M= tan M 9.9703 =
sin
log r log rf 9.8341 9.4087
= 9.7561 = 9.2763;^ = 8.8753 = 8.6955
= + 0.7045 Nat. No. = .0766 Nat. No. = .6238 = + .7004 X = XT = .9608
rf
\
y
Y\y'r=\ .4260
(7
= (*) =
*/)

.2563 2 744
log
m
M= 136
57'6
9.5746
sin
= 8.83o6 tan N = .83O5 log n = 9.6658 log n = 7.8876 (M A = 9.7946
7
sin Af n sin A^ n cos A^
=
= = x' = / F '
rj'
.0750 .0496 .5332
"73
.4582 0677
99953
=: 9.6611
yV= A =
'
*''=
7
98
24'.3
MNcos
3833'3
9.8932 9.5746
Jog
m
")
(M
9.5746
.5650
N) log m =
log
log=r
sin
iff if)
=
n
ty
2.1124
1.5802
= =
9.9342 59 is'o
Nat. No.
cos
= =
+ 38 m
.o
9.7087
9 4350
log k
log
2.1124
1.2561
Nat. No.
Emersion r a
Immersion (inaccurate)
r o 4" 3o m r2
TI
= =
i8 m .o
20 56
.o
.0
T
A.
= 6 h 25 m .i = 48 .1 = 20 .01
i
7=
immersion to be nearly correct.
7
is
That
for emersion, however,
considerably in error.
44 2
As a check on when we find
(
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY,
the accuracy of these values
254.
x, y,
we now recompute
,
and
77,
X
 ft + (y ^ =
i
.07426;
(X

^ + (y  7^ = .07447.
sion, the time for
have therefore a very close approximation to the true time of immeremersion being a little less accurate. A partial recomputation of the latter gives a correction of o m .i6, making the final value of T = 7 h 53 m 3 This latter computation is altogether unnecessary for practi
We
cal purposes.
For computing the position angle at emersion,* formula (424), we obtain a value which will generally be sufficiently exact by using the last values of and T$) obtained in computing T. In this case we have
P
N
N
P = N+TJJ+
If
98
24'
;
^=
180
=
59
15
;
337 39.
(428)
the angle at the vertex
V is required,
;
we have,
and
(425),
tan
C=All +
7? 77
V=P _ C
=
V=
ra
u'.
7/r'
Using the values
just derived, viz.,
.0750,
=
we
'
.7045,
=
=
f .7004,
Therefore
77'
.0496,
=
o h .3335,
find
C
=
43
28'.
294
254. In predicting the occultations which will be visible at a given place within a given time, the first operation will be to go over the list of occultations of the ephemeris and select those which may be visible. The conditions of
possible visibility are:
1.
The
limiting parallels of the last
column must include the
latitude of the
place.
2.
The hourangle
H
X,
the semidiurnal arc of the star; in other words, the star horizon.
3.
taken without regard to sign, must be less than must be above the
local
The sun must be below the horizon, or at least not much above it, at the mean time (T A), unless the star is bright enough to be seen in the dayI.
time.
Remark
cultation
If the place is
may
or
may
not occur.
*This angle
near one of the limiting parallels of latitude an ocIf it is desirable to observe such stars as are
is
not required for immersion.
255
GRAPHIC PROCESS OF PREDICTION.
443
occulted near the north or south limbs of the moon, such doubtful ones may be included in our list, and the occurrence or non occurrence of an occultation will
be shown in the computation of the time of immersion and emersion. As before shown, if the occultation is not visible at the place under consideration it will
be indicated by sin
ip
becoming
>I
in the
formula sin
i(>
.
2. In most cases we may see by inspection whether condition 2 is For those stars near the limit it may be necessary to compute roughly the hourangle of the star when in the horizon, for which we have
Remark
fulfilled.
cos
t
=
tan d tan
<p
(122)
(H A) is numerically less than / this condition is fulfilled. small table computed for the latitude of the place, giving / with the argument d, is convenient in examining this condition and the next.
If
then
A
Remark
3.
we may compute roughly
For determining whether the sun is above or below the horizon, the times of sunrise and sunset by the method given
above for the star, or, since it is not required with great accuracy, we may take it from a common almanac. In going over the list of the ephemeris, the computer will write the value of A on the lower edge of a piece of paper, and pausing over each star for which condition i is fulfilled, he will see whether 2 and 3 are also fulfilled. If either fails the computer passes on. In those cases where he is unable to decide by inspection whether either of the two fail, the star will be marked for further examination after the list has been gone over. Where many predictions are to be made for a given place the work may be much reduced by computing tables for the given latitude by means of which the The necessary directions for ', computation of rf, and r is facilitated. 77, forming and using such tables are given in the American Ephemeris, to which
,
the reader
is
referred.
Graphic Process.
255.
If
Qccultation
the observer possesses a celestial chart containing the stars whose is to be predicted, the necessary computation may be made by a
very simple graphic process. The scale of the chart must be large, and the method will be principally useful in case of clusters like the Pleiades, where a considerable number of stars undergo occultation within a short time.
The
right ascension
for intervals of half
and declination of the moon are taken from the ephemeris an hour throughout the time covered by the occultations;
of the
the correction for parallax must then be applied. The resulting apparent places moon are then laid down on the chart, and a curve being drawn through
444
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
2 57
the points we have the apparent path of the moon's centre; this line being then properly subdivided between the halfhour points furnishes a graphic timeEach star whose distance from this line is less table of the moon's centre.
than the augmented semidiameter* of the moon will suffer occultation. From such a star as a centre, with the moon's augmented semidiameter as a radius, let a circle be drawn; this circle cuts the path of the moon's centre in two
emersion of the
points the position of which on the curve will give the time of immersion and star, and the direction of the star from the point of intersection
gives the position angle on the moon's limb.
Computation of Longitude.
predict the time beginning and ending of an occultation, as seen from a point on the earth's surface whose longitude is known. The fundamental equation which expresses the condition necessary for such an occurrence is
256. It has
of
now been shown how we may
(415)
If
now all of the
if
and
data of the problem were perfectly known, no error entered into the observed time of the occul
equation would be completely satisfied. Since, however, such perfection is not attainable, we may employ the observed time of an occultation for determining the cortation, this
rections to the values of the constants used.
The
correction which
is
discussion to consider
it is the immediate object of this In that of the longitude assumed.
order, however, that this
precision,
may
we must endeavor
be obtained with all possible to obtain or eliminate as far as
possible the corrections to the other quantities which enter into the equation if the values employed are at all uncertain.
257. Before
making the transformation which
it
(415) re
our purpose, let us examine the quantities entering into each term separately, in order to see
quires in order to adapt
to
* Formula
(392).
257
LONGITUDE BY OCCULTATIONS.
as definitively corrections. require
445
what may be regarded
quantities
k.
known and what
may The moon's semidiameter may be determined from ocA corcultations more accurately than in any other way. rection Ak to the value employed may therefore be introduced as one of the unknown quantities of our equation.
,
Referring to the expressions for the value of these we see that they depend upon a and tf, the right ascension and declination of the star //, the local sidereal time p, the earth's radius; and cp', the geocena and tf should be so well determined that they tric latitude, be regarded as absolute, that is, no stars should be used may for this purpose whose places are not so well determined as
//.
quantities, equations (411),
;
;
to require
no further consideration.
>u,
the local time, must
be accurately determined by the transit instrument (see Chap. VI). The time determined by observation will genThe ephemeris of the moon given in the erally be sidereal. Nautical Almanac is arranged for mean solar intervals, so that when this is employed it may be necessary to convert the sidereal time into mean solar time, or the reverse in some It will be remembered that this conversion supposes cases. the longitude known. We shall therefore require an apvalue of the longitude, which we shall suppose to proximate be accurate enough so that no appreciable error will result from employing it for the above reduction. If a case should ever occur, which is not likely, where this preliminary value was so erroneous that appreciable errors in the subsequent computation resulted from its employment, then it would be
necessary to repeat that part of the computation which was affected by it, using the value of the longitude obtained from the first reduction. In this way we should obtain a second approximation to the true value. (p. The latitude must be well determined by the zenith telescope or other suitable instrument.
44 6
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
258.
p depends upon the eccentricity
of the earth's meridian
passing through the place of observation. satisfactory determination of this quantity from occultations is not possible, but Bessel introduces a term into the equation depending on the correction to the assumed eccentricity, in order
to
A
show
its effect
on the
final result.
This term
will
be
re
tained for the sake of completeness, though in the practical application of the formulas it will generally be disregarded. x and y. Equations (409). Besides quantities already considered these contain^, D, and r, the right ascension, declination,
and distance of the moon.
all
Corrections to the assumed
values of
equations. be well determined from an occultation observed at any place whose position is known. In order, however, to determine
these quantities will* be introduced into the Those to the right ascension and declination can
or the moon's parallax on which r depends, observations must be combined which are made at widely different points on the earth's surface, whose difference of longitude has been
r,
previously well determined. The correction to the parallax will be retained for completeness. 258. Let us now suppose a series of occultations observed
one of which is well deterto determine the longitude object If one star only is observed at the of the second point. second point, we must assume all the quantities entering into the equation to be known with one exception. If we assume the longitude to be the unknown quantity, we obtain from our data a value of that quantity which is affected by all of the errors of the data. If the star is also observed at the first point, this observation may be employed to correct the tabular right ascension and declination of the moon, and the longitude of the second point determined by the aid of these corrected values. If more stars are observed sufficiently near together so that the errors may be regarded as constant
at
points, the longitude of
two
mined.
The immediate
is
,259
LONGITUDE BY OCCULTATIONS.
447
during the time elapsed, then the correction to the semidiameter can be included as an unknown quantity. As we have remarked before, the errors of the parallax cannot be well separated from the longitude. If then the number of occultations observed is greater than that of the unknown quantities which can be well determined, a solution of the resulting equations by the method of least squares will give the most probable values of the quantities, expressed in
terms of the constants, and of those quantities which cannot be separated from the constants. 259. We now proceed to develop the equation in the form The meridian required. The method is that of Bessel. from which the longitude is reckoned will be called the first
meridian.
Let
t
=
the local time of an observed occultation
mean or
sidereal
;
w=
Then
Let
t \
the west longitude of the place of observation.
first meridian. an arbitrary time at the first meridian sufficiently near (/  w) so that the change in x and y during the interval (t \ w r) may be assumed to be proportional to the
w=
r
the time at the
=
time.
and are the values of x and y at the time r. Let Ax, Ay^ Ak, be the corrections required to reduce the values of x, y, and k employed to the true .values. These corrections depend on the various outstanding errors above
*
jj/o
considered.
The true values of these quantities, corresponding to the instant of observation, will then be
k
+
Ak',
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
259.
x and y'
1
mean or
sidereal according as
are as before the changes in x and y in one hour, one or the other is employed.
Let Aee
=
the correction to the assumed value of ing the eccentricity of the meridian.
e*
;
e be
Then
and
rj
will require the corrections y
dee
Aee and
rAee. dee
and 77, do not depend upon the these quantities, will be correctly given by equations (41 longitude, they 1), and require no other corrections.
As
Using the corrected values (415) becomes
of x, y, %,
?/,
and
k,
equation
w

ee

(430
w is supposed known with precision enough so that the values of x' and y, which change with the time, will be known with sufficient accuracy.
Let
m sin M = m cos M=
may
(x
);
r /);
(j
n sin n cos
N= N = y'
x'\
.
Equation (431)
r~
\
then be written
ms
~4ee
,
(433)
259
LONGITUDE BY OCCULTATIONS.
in the
449
which may be placed
form
*
intff JTHA* cosN A, sin
N
N
*
(434)
Let us write
A
Ax sin AT+4^ cos N
__
d($ sin ^V+T; cos N) ~ ^
'

.
A
r
= Ax cosN4y sin ^[k

+[**
=

dee
Aee.
,
Then
+ AkJ = [n(t+w  r)+m cos (MN) + A]
sin
2
(Jf_^)_A ]
/
2
.
(436)
Let
msin(M
N)
=
fcsimp
.....
:
(437)
Then neglecting terms
A/
and Ak,
(436)
may
$
of the second and higher orders in be written as follows
t\w
t
k  cos
m  cos
'
(M
N)\
Ak  sec
.
k have  cos
n
A.
(438)
TT _
We
m ,,.  cos (M n
a
little
msm(M N} = n sin
^
ip
a form which
is
more convenient when
sin
is
not
very small.
450
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
261.
Equation (438) then gives
w=

sn
is
and the equation
solved for w.
termined from (437) in terms of the
i/,\
//?
ambiguous, ^ being dewith nothing to fix As before, however, equation the algebraic sign of cos in case of immersion and will be cos (423), the sign of This will always be the case except when the for emersion.
will
sine,
As
be
seen, this value of
w is
+
occultation takes place very near the north or south limb of the moon, when there will sometimes be exceptions to the
rule.
Such occupations, however, are worth very
will
little
for
longitude purposes, and therefore
consideration here.
260. x'
not require further
vary so slowly that the above equation will give a very close approximation to the true result, even w r) is some hours in duration. It will, howwhen (/
and
j/'
+
ever, be best to arrange the computation so that (/ T) is a small quantity, as the labor is less in dealing with small
+w
quantities than with large ones, and there is less liability to error. The unit of time in the small terms of (438) and (439) is one and (t hour. If then r) are expressed in the usual way
w
and seconds, it will be convenient to exthese small terms in seconds. If then the time of the press ephemeris and of observation are both sidereal or both mean
in hours, minutes,
terms should be multiplied by 3600. If, however, the ephemeris time is mean solar, and that of observation
solar, these
sidereal,
261.
we must
multiply by 3609.856.
Let us now consider more fully the quantities A and A/. These depend upon the corrections to the moon's coordinates, viz., d& and Ay, and upon the correction to the eccenThese will be considered separately. tricity, Aee.
26 1
c
LONGITUDE BY OCCULTATIONS.
coordinates
45 1
The
x and y
are variable quantities, and the
corrections which they require on account of the inaccuracy of the data, viz., Ax and Ay, will also be variables. It will be
more convenient for present purposes to express these in terms of quantities which remain constant throughout the
entire occultation.
We
have
x
X
Q
+ n sin N(t + w
r);
from which we have
x sin N\y cos N= x cos N\y sin
N
x sin N\y cos N\n(t\w X cos N\y sin N.
Q 9
T);
)
',
f
The
last of these is practically
and therefore may
entire occultation.
be regarded as constant
independent of the time, throughout the
Let H
=
x
cos
N
f j/
sin
N=
x cos N f y
(441),
sin
N.
Then squaring and adding equations
2
r)]
.
(442)
This expression is a minimum when the last term is zero. Let the value of (/ \ w) corresponding to this minimum be T. Then
X
Q
sin
N\ j cos
N
\
n(T
?}
= o\
H
=
x
2
cos
Q
Nis
sin
N.
distance of the
Therefore K
i/^: jj/
the
minimum
axis of the cylinder from the centre of the earth, and is the time at the first meridian corresponding to this minimum.
T
452
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
have x
262.
We now
sin
,>
N\y cos
A7
I
.
N
7"
n(t
.
~:
~ A
+w
T)\
)
I**
VI II )
Referring now to the values of A and A/, equation (435), we have for the part of these quantities depending on x and y
For A, For A',
Ax sin N \ Ay cos N\ Ax cos N\ Ay sin TV.
we have
for these quantities
Differentiating equations (444),
=
Ax cos N
\
Ay
sin
N =. An.
nAT+(t + w
r
Therefore that part of the terms (A tan ^
A)
due to
Ax
.
and
nA T\ AH tan $
(/
+w
T)An.
.
(445)
The
in
corrections Ax and Ay are by this formula expressed terms of AT, AH, and An, which will be constant for the
occultation.
same
262. It remains to consider the effect of an error in the here for the sake eccentricity, viz., Aee, which is considered of completeness, though it might be neglected without seriously impairing the practical value of the theory.
From
p cos
<p'
(134)
and
(140)
<p
we have
P
sin (p
f
=
V
f
cos
.
I
^sm
=,
q>
=
sin <p(\
=
I
ee]
VI
eesin
==. (446)
cp
dp cos ^q>
dee
=
2
I  63 p cos
dp
<p'\
sin
j dee
<p'
=
ftp p sin
,
cp'
ft.
In which
p
p sin
i
q>'
ee
262.
LONGITUDE BY OCCULTATIONS.
I
rt
Af
_ _ __ ~
.

_____
dee
dp
sin
_
dee
dee
453
f
.
_
I
_
dp cos
f
(
'
q>'
f
dp cos ip cos
y>
dee
d
v
~
dp
</?7
dee
sin cp
'
f
q>
dee
Referring we have
.
now
to the values of
and
?/,
equations (41
7 '
=
Sin dcOS(yW
Of);
d
Therefore
c,
7
=
i
d
;
77
/fyff
7
= /?/?
I
?;
ft
cos
#.
(447)
Referring now to the values of A and the terms depending on Aee
For A.,
d(i
A',
(435),
we have
for
s'm
*
N
{
ri
cos
N) bee =
bee
r
i
dee

L
I
2
pp(f sin Jvt
,,,,,
.
,,.
.
j
cos
N
,_.
)
+
,
p cos
o
cos
N J\&et:
,_i
(448)
For A',
3j3(
^ cos j^+ij sin
^V)((3
cos 8 sin
A
"
7
A*i.
Let us write ^
= x^
(x^
4")
=^
^ sin J/;
we
Substituting these values in (448) and reducing by (443),
find
For
A,
A/,
j
For
lP3nrTmcosMW K + w sin (^/
/?/?[
3cosdcosWJee;
)
*
(
}
We
have from (437) and
(438),
neglecting the small terms of
the latter,
m cos (M m sin (M
N) = N) =
(t \
w
t]n
k cos k sin
^;
i/>;
454
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
will give us for (449)
263.
which substitution
 \ftft\n(f + w 
T)
H

cos
]+ ft cos d
yS
k sin
(/V
cos N\Aer, \Aer, cos d sin Aee.
}
\
f
W
,
.
;
Therefore that part of
is
tan
ip
A)
which depends upon

T)

*
tan
*
* sec

^,
.
(
45I )
Therefore by (445) and (451) the (438) or (439) will be as follows:
last
three terms of equation
Ak
n
4sec
,
A'
ib \ '
n
tan
w
n
(t
A n
4
= ATA
, '
h tan n
ID
AH
 sec ^ Ak n
w
T)
_ ft cos
8 cos
COS
;
(vV4^)~
IP
m
J
Each term is expressed in seconds of time, and h is the number of seconds in one hour of the kind of time employed in the ephemeris of the moon. If the times employed in the ephemeris and in observation are both sidereal or both mean If the ephemeris time is mean solar and the solar, h = 3600. time of observation sidereal, h = 3609.86. 263. We have now obtained an expression for the small terms of our equation, in which the quantities depending on the corrections to the moon's place are expressed in terms of quantities which are constant during the time of the occultation. It will be advantageous, however, to express them directly in terms of the corrections to the quantities given in the ephemeris, viz., to the moon's right ascension, declination,
and horizontal
parallax.
263
.
LONGITUDE B Y OCCUL TA TIONS.
d)
45 5
Let A(A
the correction to the
assumed difference
A(D
_
tf)
of right ascension of the moon and star; the correction to the assumed difference of declination
;
An
the correction to the assumed parallax.
We
_
have, equation (409),
cos
D sin
(A
a)
_
sin
D cos
8
cos
D sin
8 cos (A
a)
Writing for brevity x
= X
sin
7i
,
y
=
Y
sin
n
1 ,
and
differentiating,
we have
~
AX
sin
An
tan
Tt'
n
" _AY_
sin
n
A* Aan
TT*
These equations in connection with
(444) give the following:
sin
Tt
n(t+wT}^it =  nAT + tan
Ait
tan
Tt
An(t
+w
T)\
sin
n
It will
presently be J
shown
that
tan
Tt
n
y ,
and therefore
 nAT =
AH
sin
_:
._
=
L
TT


_
tan
sin
n
.
456
264.
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
264.
The value
of
An
will
now be more
fully considered.
We have,
From
these,
equations (432), n sin n cos
n*
N= N = y.
y' Ay
x'\
= =
x'*
+ y'\
\
Differentiating,
x'
nAn
x' Ax
......
in
(455)
andy,
it
will
be remembered, are the changes
x and y
respectively in one hour. Regarding them as the differential coefficients of x and y with respect to the time, we have
x
dt
</Asin
~~
n
\
7i
~'
dt
sin
i
n
~
?
x
'
;
dy
dt
d(
Y
_ dY
~
"
~~
.it
afrVsin
1
dt sin
77
and
~77
depend upon the hourly change
of the
moon
in
right ascension and declination, which changes are given with accuracy by the ephemeris. Any correction to the val
ues of x' artd
y
r
will therefore
We
depend upon
TT.
may
therefore write
sin
n
tan n
Ay'
<r
=
b
A.
cir n sm TT
= it
An
y' tan ' <r
n
Substituting in equation (455),
becomes
Therefore
n
7
tan
n
tan
,
n
.
the value assumed above.
265.
LONGITUDE BY OCCULTATIONS.
Returning now to equations
(454),
457
265.
we
7t
see that
An
tan
TC
J
AX
sm
TT'
and
AY
sin
be regarded as constant throughout the duration of the and occultation, since they are expressed in terms of and An and A which are practically so. JK, which are constant,
may
AT
7
The
values of
.
sin
n
,
and
.
 will then result from the differn
sin
entiation of equations (453), viz.:
X=
Y
cos
sm
D sin (A D cos 6
);
cos Z> sin d cos
(/2
AX = AY=
cos /} cos (A [cos Z? cos tf
a)A(A
a)
sin
D sin (^4
a)]AD
a)]^tf.
or);
) J/7;
+
At
6 cos (^ A (A Z? sin tf sin (^ cos a) a) cos Z> cos d cos (^4 [sin Z>sin d
>
+ sin
sin
+
the time of conjunction of the sun and
to a.
.
moon A
be
comes equal
T
Therefore
a)
sm
AX = cos D  A(A
.
AY sin
7t
sin
n
n
cos +  (Dd) A(D sin n
^.(456)
and n for the instant of conjunction of Therefore taking moon and star in right ascension, and regarding A(A ot) and A(D as the corrections to the assumed differences tf)
the
of right ascension and declination at this instant, also writing n for sin n and tan TT, we have, from unity for cos (D tf),
(454),
D
AT=
An
n
cos
DA (A a)
rnt
.
A(Dd}
A(Dd~) L
n
smNJi
,
A*
;

ft
(457)
An
n
*
458
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
266.
Substituting these values in (452), and writing for brevity
"
= ^ ........
NA(D
(453)
we have
VH tan ^  = v[sin A^cos DA(A \v[ cos NCOS DA(A  a) + sin NA(D sec
f
a)j cos
d)]
8)]
v
sec
if>
7T/U
f
y[(/ j w
7
1
)
tan ^]//?r
(459)
This equation gives the expression for the
last
three terras
of (438) or (439), in which An and Aee are completely separated from the other corrections.
266. Let us
now
ib
write
I
n
cos
n
cos
(M
N)
(/
y 3
= =
sin TV cos
cos
n(t
E
+w
DA(A a) \ cos NA(D tf); NCOS DA(A a) + sin NA(D
T)
H tan ^;
tan
(J);
^(460)
= r

T 
w
_2
7^)
^ ^sec^J
/T
^/^
COS
(5
COS

l
COS
\7t.
Then equation (438) becomes 1 iv = vy f v tan $5 { v sec tyTtAk \ vEAit f vFAee.
This equation
in
,
(461)
is
now
in a
form which
is
well adapted to
view. the purpose TtAkj An, and /W may in certain cases be treated w, y, as unknown quantities, but they can never all be determined at the same time from the same series of equations.
vy is a constant, and its value is independent of the longitude of the place of observation. In order to make its de
267.
LONGITUDE BY OCCULTATIONS.
459
termination possible, therefore, the occultation should be observed at one place at least whose longitude is known. In case such an observation is not available, y may be determined from meridian observations of the moon, if such are
available, made on the same night or sufficiently near the same time that AA and AD may be well determined from them. Of course if the ephemeris of the moon were perfect this would be unnecessary, as then A A and AD would be
zero.
267. In case simply the immersion or emersion of a star has been observed at two places, the longitude of one of which is well determined, the power of the data will be exhausted with the determination of w and y. If both the immersions and emersions have been observed, we may also determine nAk and 5 as unknown quantities, but in no case can An be determined from occultations unless w has been previously well determined. Still less can a satisfactory determination oidee be obtained in this manner. The two last terms may, however, be retained in the solution of the equations in order to show the effect on the resulting longitude of an error in n or in ee. At the same time it will make it possible to apply the necessary correction to the longitude, if from
any source values
of these quantities
become known more
accurate than those assumed in the computation. For the determination of Ak from single occultations both immersion and emersion must be observed, but contacts at the bright limb can be observed much less satisfactorily than at the dark limb.
The
groups
best results are obtained from the occultations of
of stars like the Pleiades, in which the relative positions of the stars are well determined. The passage of the
moon through such a group furnishes
ot condition of the
a
number
of equations
(461), equal to that of the observed or reappearances of the stars occulted. As disappearances
form
4^0
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
268.
before remarked, observations at the dark limb can be made with much greater accuracy than at the bright limb (except If it is perhaps in case of a few of the brighter stars).
thought desirable, therefore, only observations made at the dark limb need be used in the equations, especially so if stars are observed both north and south of the moon's equator. On account of the advantages offered by the Pleiades for this purpose, Prof. Peirce developed the equations in a form
especially adapted to this group, for use in the longitude work of the U. S. Coast Survey. The reader who is sufficiently interested in the subject
may refer to the reports of the U. S. Coast Survey, 1855565761, in the latter of which is given a numerical example of the application of the method.
Correction for Refraction
and for Elevation above Mean Sea
Level.
equation which has been used as the our analysis expresses the condition that the point from which the immersion or emersion is observed is situ268.
basis of
The fundamental
ated in the surface of a right cylinder enveloping the moon and star. At the same time it has been supposed to be in
the spheroidal surface of the earth. The refraction which the ray suffers in passing through the atmosphere causes the elements of this cylinder to be curved lines instead of right lines or, more correctly, the
;
not that of a cylinder. Further, it follows from the irregularities of the earth's surface that the point from which the observation is made will not in general be in the surface of the mean ellipsoid. Neither of our surfaces theresurface
is
fore conforms exactly to the mathematical form assumed. The effect upon the observed time of an occultation will
268.
LONGITUDE BY OCCULTATIONS.
461
always be small, but in extreme cases must be taKen into account in an accurate investigation.
instant
consider a ray of light as it comes to the eye at the the star is apparently in contact with the moon's this ray will form a curved line, the asymptote of which limb, will cut the vertical line of the observer at a point where the contact would be seen at the same instant as that observed
If
we
when
no refraction existed. The effect of refraction will then be taken into account if we substitute this point for the point occupied by the observer.
if
Let
ti
=
=.
the altitude of this fictitious point above the observer's position
;
h
the altitude of the observer's position above the mean sea level.
Then h
+ h'
the altitude of the fictitious point above the mean sea level.
Let us then suppose the observation to be made from a point at this elevation above the surface of the mean ellipsoid. The necessary transformation will be accomplished by changing p cos cp' and p sin cp' into p cos <p' f (h h') cos cp and p sin cp \ (h  h'} sin cp or, by formulae 446,
+
f
;
p cos
cp' [i
+ (h +
h')
1/1
ee sin
2
cp]
and
prin
h and
h' will
always be very small fractions when ex;
pressed in parts of the earth's radius therefore no appreciable error will result from neglecting the products of these
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
quantities by to (i ti) (i
ee.
268.
Also (\\h\
k'} will
+
+ h'\ the small term hh' being of no account.
be practically equal
correction for elevation above the mean sea level will therefore be obtained by adding to log p log (i +^), and the correction for refraction by adding
The necessary
log
(i
+ h'\
(i f ft),
Expanding log
we have
log
(i+A) =
M(h
J+etc.)
M = .43429448
given in feet
is
the modulus of the
common system
logarithms. h is here expressed in terms of the earth's radius.
we
shall have, instead of the above,
20923597
//,
.
of
If it is
.
Therefore, neglecting squares and higher powers of
+ ^)
^(.ooo ooo 02076).
.
.
(462)
If, for instance, the elevation is 1000 feet, the correction to be applied to log and log rj will be .0000208. will now be considered. The factor (i ^')
+
In the general theory of refraction the atmosphere is regarded as composed of concentric strata the thickness of
which
is
uniform and
may be regarded
as infinitesimal.
If
the distance of any point in a ray of light from the earth's centre be r, i the angle between the tangent and normal at the point to which r
is
drawn, then
it is
shown by
the theory
of refraction that pr sin i is a constant, ^ being the index of refraction for the infinitesimal stratum at the point under consideration.
268.
LONGITUDE BY OCCULTATIONS.
,
,
463
z'
For the point where the ray enters the eye let r yw and be the special values of r, /*, and i. Then z will be the apparent zenith distance of the star, and from the foregoing
f
sin z'
=
sn
.
(463)
If
the
is
first
point
//
is
taken so far
away
as to be
z
beyond the
limit of the earth's atmosphere, then the refraction at this
point
becomes unity. The above equation then becomes
// O
zero and
r sin 2
=
r sin
i.
.
(464)
In the figure,
OP =
Or
r
r\
;
PQ =
OrQ
h'\
i.
=
=
z is the true zenith ZQr tance of the star observed.
=
dis
Then from
the triangle
rQO
(rc
j h')
sin z
=
r sin
i
;
and from equation (464)
(r. \
h
f
)
sin
2
=
un

/v
r sin
z' ,
from which
h'
=
sin
z'
sm z
r will not differ appreciably for this purpose from the
464
PR A C TICA LAS TR ONOM Y.
if we regard we have quantity
;
268.
h' as ex
equatorial radius of the earth
so that
pressed
in
terms of
this
log
(i
Sin ^r log sin z
i
+ log
/I Q .
.
(465)
The mean value
of
//
is
i.ooo 2800.
A
table
#,
ment
readily arranged for log (i the zenith distance of the star.
is
+ h'\ with the arguBy
referring to the
value of 8, equations (41 1) For this purpose to cos 2.
we see that is very nearly equal we may consider it the same.
(i
The following
tion to the
is
Bessel's table for log
+
z,
h').
In addi
argument z we have given cos
<?
for
which we
may
use log
without appreciable error.
TABLE
B.
268.
LONGITUDE BY OCCULTATIONS.
465
Example. The following occultations of stars of the Pleiades group were observed at Washington and Greenwich on September 26, 1839:
AT GREENWICH.
Star.
AT WASHINGTON.
Sidereal Time.
Sidereal Time.
h
^Ceheno ^Taygeta c Maja
5
23""
53 85
8
22 h 5i m ig'.gg 23 23
i
5 5
56
58
50.63 1743
0.68
46.52
17
These are
Hill,
The observations
emersions observed at the dark limb of the moon. at Washington were made at Gilliss's observatory on Capitol the position of which is assumed to be Latitude (p = 38 53' 32". 8 h 8m i 8 West
all
longitude
5
.75
The
latitude of
Greenwich
q>
51
28' 38''.4
We now take from Bessel's catalogue of the Pleiades the right ascensions and declinations of the stars for 1839.0 and reduce them to apparent place for h h 1839, September 26, Greenwich 3 and 6 sidereal time, viz.:
a
3
h
a 6h
5 3"
8 6h
g Celaeno.
c
.
.
53
49' 34"68
53 53
49' 34". 72
23 23 23
46' 56". 47
23 23
46' s6".48
^Taygeta... 53 55 27 .47
55
27 .51
57 40 .96
51
Maja
54
4 47 .27
54
4 47 .31
50 .01
23
51
57 40 .97 50 .02
The right ascension, declination, and horizontal parallax of the moon for four consecutive hours viz., 3 h 4'', 5 h and 6 h Greenwich sidereal time are as
, ,
follows:
We now
(410), viz.,
compute x and y
for these dates for each of the stars
from formulae
_ cos D sin (A a)
sin
p
_ sin (Z>8) cos
2
j(Aa) f sin (D f 8} sin 2 \(A
sin
it
 a\
n
* These values are given by Peirce, Coast Survey Report 1861, pp. 204, 205. They were computed directly from Hansen's tables. When the Nautical Almanac is used the intervals will be
mean
solar hours.
466
The computation
is
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
given in
full for
268.
g
Celaeno.
* This
is
the quantity taken from Zech's addition and subtraction logarithmic table.
268.
LONGITUDE BY OCCULTATIONS.
467
We thus have values of x and y computed for four consecutive hours, from which we can now compute the values of x' and y' to the third order of differences inclusive by means of formulae (101), (101)1, and (ioi) 2 viz.
,
:
For the other
stars observed
we
find
Taygeta.
Maja,
Computation of
(C is
j,
rf,
and C.
only required for determining the correction due to refraction.)
Formulae (412) are as follows:
p
sin q>
=
b sin /?;
=
p cos
<p'
cos
(JJL
a)
b cos
B;
= b sin (B  5); = b cos (B  8}.
p cos
q> sin (//
or);
With the known values of and cf) by the use of formulae
(p
for
Greenwich and Washington, we obtain p
(V), Art. 77.
.
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
is
268.
The computation
then as follows:
z
refraction.
has been computed for the purpose of taking into account the correction for With this value we find from table B, Art. 268, log (i f A')
=
.0000001 and .0000005 respectively, which values are to be added to log  and log 77. As they are so small as to be practically inappreciable, they have been neglected. Also, we have for the above times of observation
TAYGKTA.
Greenwich. Washington.
Greenwich.
MAJA. Washington.
+.360523 7/+. 504728
.725974
+.455553
4302353 +.506584
.704226
+.436040
268.
LONGITUDE BY OCCULTATIONS.
the
8m
469
With
viz., 5
h
assumed value
I
s
.
75,
we reduce
of the longitude of the observatory at Washington, the Washington times to Greenwich time, and as
suming
the values of T sufficiently near these times that
to vary uniformly during the interval,
x and/ may be assumed we compute M, m, N, n, and by the
if)
formulae
m
sin
m cos M =
M = XQ
jj/o
n sin JV n cos
is
=
x'
\
N = y'
=
sin
(M
N\
;
The computation
for Celaeno
then as follows:
4/o
PRA C TICA L AS TJRONOM Y.
ip is
268.
plus; therefore
Since the emersions were the phases observed, cos
Greenwich.
Washington.
2
54' 35"5.
ip=
299
i8'
4 3".7
We now
compute fl from the formula
1
=
h\
k 
cos
V

^
cos (A/
log h

710

(/

where
=
3600;

3.5563025.
In a similar
manner we
find for the other stars
ForTaygeta, For Maja,
fl fl
9".
30
79

9*.
+5 h +5 h
7 7
m
m
55 67;
8 53 o8.
8
We
next compute T, H, and v by formulae (443) and
(458), viz.:
T= H = v =
* It
is
r
(x
sin
N f jo cos N);
sin
x cos
h
N
\ }'
N\
mi
.
the correction
not necessary for this purpose to know the value of k with extreme accuracy, since A to the assumed value appears as one of the terms of our equation.
268.
LONGITUDE BY OCCULTATIONS.
471
For Celaeno we have
* 54
sin
^9.98428
log
*<>
cos
N 8.97073
N 9.86149
n 9.80171 * 6334
loglog^
6.44270
.21793
Iogx 9.54871
cos tf 9 42202
log jo 9.87721
Zech .83098
log jo sin
log^ 3.55630
log
log log
sin
^9.53299
.43345
v v
.21693
1.6479
Zech
log jo cos
Iog(jf sin A^fjo cos
^9.29923
A
7
")
9 73268
log
l
.21793
9 95061
Nat. No.
.8925
^4.5075
We now compute
v
tan
i(>,
the coefficients for the final equations of the form (461), viz.:
vE =
v\n(t
\w T)
H tan
ifi\
t
and
v
sec ^.
47 2
Computing
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
the coefficients for the other
268.
two
stars in the
same way, we
ob
tain the following six equations:
Celaeno: G.
w = w = /
o h o m i3 8 .42
5 7
W. w' =
Taygeta: G.
55 55
o o
9 .30
55 67
9 .79
Maja:
= G. w = W. TV' =
W.
57
o o

1.6487 1648?
1.6487
2.9351? f
+
16487
1.6487
 .5981? + i.7537rA f iso/Aw; + 1.048* + 9 53**  i.o8 4 Air.
i.
^.^66rr^ .0841?+ i.6soirAA
+ 2.748A7T;
.
[i]
57 oAr. [4]
[2]
(A)
[5]
2.328*
\
2.8527rA/t
i.6so7rA/&
f
2.492A?r; [3]
.442A7T.
[6]
57
53 .08
1.6487
.062*+
If we assume y, 3, Ait, and itAk to be the same in all of these equations an assumption which involves no appreciable error we shall have six equations between those quantities and w w, the longitude of Greenwich, will
1
'.
be zero.
evident, however, that for various reasons a direct solution of these In the first place, the large terms involved equations will not be expedient.
It is
would render the operation very laborious, and further it will not be possible to separate Ait from the remaining quantities without assuming both w and iv to be known.
1
We
third
weight,
therefore proceed as follows: Assuming the equations to be of equal we subtract the first from the third, the first from the fifth, and the
from the fifth; then we subtract the second from the fourth, the second from the sixth, and the fourth from the sixth. We then have the following six
equations:
.
(B)
By means of these six equations of condition we now determine the most probable values of 3 and itAk. The value oiArc, however, cannot be well deIf it were not known a/writhat such termined, as we have before remarked. was the case, it would be shown from the normal equations, which would be We shall therefore determine 3 practically indeterminate for this quantity.
and TtAk
in
terms of Ait
in
order to show what effect an error
in
7t
win have
1
upon the longitude. By the method of Art. two normal equations:
11.00563
21
we
derive from the above equations the following
5.35457TZ//&
16.0306
53545^ f 4.25747rJ/&
=
+ 5.9864^77;
2.8656^^.
)
^
8.2287
f
^
268.
LONGITUDE BY OCCULTATION&.
itAk
473
From which
$
= =
".2588
+ .0289^/^1
.
)
,^
fifth of
i"330i 4first,

)
We now
substitute these values in the
third,
and
equations (A),
writing zero for w, the longitude of Greenwich, values for 1.6487:
when we
find the following
1.6487
=
8.645 4~ I2O9//7T;
8.055 4 i.226^jr;
\
!
1.6487 1.6487
= =
........
y y
in the
(E)
5955
+ I276//7T.
1.237^;
)
Mean 1.6487
7.552 4

4". 582
+ .751^.
We now substitute
sixth of (A),
these values of itAk, 3, and
second, fourth, and
when we
find the following values for the difference of longitude
Hill,
between Greenwich and the observatory on Capitol
Celaeno w' = 5 Taygeta w =5
h
Washington:
8m
8
3 .42 2 .33
i
8
Maja
w' w'
5
8 8
.14
1.665^.
I.686/47T.
Mean
The Capitol
=
is
5
2 .30
Hill observatory
io 8 .25 east of the Naval Observatory.
The
h m 8 longitude of the latter, determined telegraphically, Is 5 8 I2 .O9 west of Greenh m is is 5 8 wich. Therefore the true value of .84, corresponding very closely with the above value if we neglect ATI altogether.
w
With these values of y and 5 we may now determine the correction assumed right ascension and declination of the moon.
to the
We
have
sin
A^cos

cos
N cos DA(A  a)
DA(A
a)
+ cos NA(D  5) = y;

)
.
sin
NA(D
6)
=
(
5
.
f
Substituting for the coefficients of A(A a) and values for the three stars, we have the equations
A(D
d) the
mean
of the
From which we
find
a) 4a)
j
2^A(D d) =  4582;
965^/00
a)

d)
=
1330.
A(A
4". 46;
.49.
J(/>) = _2
Assuming the errors of the star places to be inappreciable, these will represent the errors in the computed right ascension and declination of the moon at a time corresponding to the mean of the times of observation. These corrections
4/4
it
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
269.
will be seen are affected by any small outstanding error in the parallax, as o. they have been derived by assuming ATI o and taking for it the mean of the values 'In the same way, assuming Ait given above, viz., 3608", we rind from the above value of TtAk
=
Ak =
have assumed Therefore
f .0000717. .272270.
.272342,
We
k k
= =
as
shown from these observations.
This result from so small a number of
occultations
diarneter.
has no value, however, as a determination of the moon's semi
Observations of Different Weights.
269. In the solution of our equations we have supposed all Such will not in general be the to be of the same weight.
case.
Other things bejng equal, those occultations will be best for longitude determination, which are most nearly central in reference to the moon's disk. When both immer
sion and emersion oi the same star are observed, the observation at the dark limb of the moon is entitled to greater weight than that at the bright limb, except, perhaps, in case of the brighter stars. In order to determine the proper manner of treating the equations when different weights are assigned, let us suppose, as in our example, three observations to have been made at
one place whose true longitude is w, then for the present, considering only terms in y and 5, we shall have three equations of this form
:
Vpw
Vp'w

Vpa$

VpO
Vp'O'
Vp^w

Vp'a'5
= =
o;
o; o.
['
:
.
Vp^a"^

(4.66)
^0"=
269.
LONGITUDE BY OCCULTATIONS.
4?$
/1 Where O From these we
vy, and/,/',/" are the respective weights. derive the normal equations
= =
The
o;l
o.
)
solution of these equations in the usual
manner gives
[paai\ $
=
[paOi].
Which
gives
$ with
But, as
we have
seen, this
the weight [paai]. form of solution
is
inconvenient
on account of the large quantities involved. Let us write out in full the values of \_paai~] and [paOi]:
[paai\
=p
_ pp'(a  aj
+pp"(a

a'J
\p'p"(a'

a"
'
P+P' +P"
Comparing these expressions with our equations
tion
(466),
J
of condi
we
see
that the
final
obtained as follows:
Before
equation for multiplying the
5 may be
equations
through by Vp, Vp\ and Vp", subtract the second from the first, the third from the first, and the third from the
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
second, then give to the three resulting equations the
269.
fol
lowing weights respectively:
pp' PP
pp" PP
p'p" PP
(4;o)
We
all
it
of to
may apply the same reasoning to the equation in which the unknown quantities are retained, and may extend
any number of equations of condition. Thus if the number of equations of condition were four, we find by combining them in a like manner, two and two, six equations
wifh weights
PP'
PP"
/ +/ +/' +/""/ +/ +/'
It is
+/"
'
P +/' +>" +P""
_ _
/
not possible to give a rule by which the proper can be assigned in every case, as it will depend upon weight a variety of circumstances, such as the skill and experience
of the observer, the
magnitude of the star, condition of the and various other causes. Evidently, if weights atmosphere, are to be assigned depending upon these circumstances, much must be left to the judgment of the observer and comIf the conditions are otherwise the same in case of puter. two stars, the weights may be assumed proportional to the numerical values of cos ip that is, proportional to the chord a central occultaof the moon's disk traversed by the stars
;
tion having the weight unity. If we assign weights to our six equations (A) in accordance with this principle, we shall have for the weights, taken in order,/ = .49; /i = i.oo; /' =.94;
pi
=
.84;
p"
=
.58;
pi"
i.oo.
The weights
of equations (B) will then be in accordance with formulae (470).
[2]
[3]
[3]
~
[I]
.229
.141
[5 ]
[i] [2]
[6]
[6]
271

[4 ]
[
.2 9 6
41
.352
[5]
296
269.
LONGITUDE BY OCC ULTATIONS.
477
proceeding
Multiplying the equations by the square roots of the respective weights and in the usual way, we obtain the following normal equations:
2.7630^
1.23913
i.239i7rJ>
j i
=
3.7605
1.6907
\

1.5129^/7?;
.6678//7T.
oi747T^^
f
.00931
From these^we
find
TtAk
3
mean by
we
=
.0232^;
1.3570
+ .5579^*[3] of
Substituting these values in [i], [2],
weights,
find
and
equations (A), and taking the
1.6487
Finally,
=
'
8.l6l
f
I.22I^7T.
substituting these values of 3,
TtAk,
and
y
in [4], [5],
and
[6],
we
find the following values for
w
8
:
[4]
[5] [6]
w =
w'
h
5 $ 5
8 m 3 s 61
.
1.706^/71:;
wt. wt.
= w =
2 .43
i
1.675^;
i.
8
.34
66oJit; wt.
= = =
i.oo.
.84^
i.oo.
From
these
we have
w =
s
h
8 m 2 8 .46
CHAPTER
VIII.
THE ZENITH TELESCOPE.
270. This instrument is used in determining latitude, and is particularly useful when a high degree of accuracy is re
quired, the precision being not inferior to that of the most refined instruments of a fixed observatory, while on account of its great simplicity it is especially adapted to use in the
field.
*
ing latitude
have already developed several methods for determinthose of Chapter V. are very useful, but will not be employed in the field except in cases where an error of five or six seconds in the result is not considered objec:
We
The prime vertical transit gives results of high but not without the expenditure of much labor. precision, The method by the zenith telescope is superior to the first of these in accuracy, and to the second in facility of application. On account of these advantages it has superseded all other methods on the Coast and other government surveys
tionable.
in cases
where extreme accuracy is required. The most common form of instrument is shown
in Fig. 54.
In general appearance, as will be seen, it is a telescope with an altitude and azimuth mounting. The essential characteristics are a very delicate level attached to the tube, like the
level of the findingcircles in the transit instrument, and the eyepiece micrometer. The vertical axis is made very long
to insure steadiness of motion in azimuth.
is
The instrument
used
in the
meridian like the
transit.
2/0.
THE ZENITH TELESCOPE.
479
FIG.
54.
THE ZENITH TELESCOPE.
4^0
In the Coast
is
l^RACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
2 70.
Survey instrument the aperture of the tele3^ inches, focal length 45 inches, length of horizontal axis 7 inches, vertical axis 24 inches, diameter of horizontal circle 12 inches, vertical circle 6 inches (sometimes this is only a semicircle, the radius being 6 inches). The instruscope
ment
rests
on three footscrews.
The lamp
at the
end of the
;
horizontal axis opposite the telescope illuminates the field the weight seen at the same end of the axis acts as a counter
poise to the telescope. This weight is connected with the telescope by a bent metallic bar, shown in the figure, in such
a
way as to prevent to some extent the flexure of the axis. The horizontal circle is read by means of two verniers. The level attached to the vertical circle is generally gradu
ated so that the motion of the bubble over one millimetre
corresponds to an angle of one second of arc. The accuracy of the instrument depends in a great degree on the delicacy of this level. In testing an instrument it may generally be assumed that if the level is a good one the performance of the instrument as a whole will be satisfactory. The stridinglevel shown on the horizontal axis is used for adjusting the instrument, and is not necessarily of so great accuracy. The micrometer* is provided with one or more movable threads, the value of one revolution of the screw being from 45" to 60". The head of the screw is divided into 100 parts,
which tenths may be estimated; thus by estimation T oVo f one revolution may be read, or about o".o$. The entire revolutions are read by means of a comb at one side of the field of view, the distance between two consecutive notches corresponding to one revolution. There are three, and sometimes five, vertical threads which may be used for observing transits. A rack and pinion is provided for slidof
the ing the eyepiece in the direction of the vertical so that star may always be observed in the middle of the field.
* For description of the micrometer see Art. 97.
2/1.
.ZENITH TELESCOPE. ADJUSTMENTS.
is
481
of
in
The instrument
masonry, or simply a solid the ground.
strument;
if
mounted like the transit on a pier wooden post planted three feet
The dimensions given above are those of a largesized inmuch smaller ones are often used. The transit instrument may be used as a zenith telescope
it is
provided with the
fine level
is
and micrometer.
A
special appliance for reversing
As we
convenient, but not essential. have seen in the descriptions of the different forms of
portable transit instruments, the
two are often combined.
This arrangement
economy
nothing
of first cost
lost in
is
very advantageous on the ground of and of transportation; at the same time accuracy and little in convenience.
is
Adjustments.
271. First. The vertical axis must be made truly vertical. In setting up the instrument it will be found advisable to place two of the footscrews in an east and west direction,
otherwise if it is found necessary to move the screws after the instrument has been brought into the plane of the meridian this last adjustment will be disturbed. The axis is brought into the vertical position by the use of the strid inglev el, which should read the same while the instrument is turned completely around in azimuth. This adjustment will also be tested by means of the more delicate level attached to the telescope. Second. The horizontal axis should be perpendicular to the This may be tested by reversing the stridingvertical axis. level after the vertical axis has been properly adjusted. The line of collimation may be adjusted by directThird. the telescope to some distant terrestrial mark, then turning ing the instrument 180 in azimuth by means of the horizontal
4^2
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
271.
Allowance must be made for the parallax of the incircle. strument, unless the mark is so far away that it is not appreThis is necessary, since the line of collimation is not ciable.
in the
same
vertical plane as the axis.
Let
d
=
distance of the line of collimation from vertical
axis;
D=
p
Then
distance of
mark
;
=
correction for parallax.
f=
TOT*
(470
This method of adjustment depends entirely on the reading of the circle, and is therefore not capable of extreme accuracy. If considered desirable, a more accurate adjustment
be made by means of a pair of collimating telescopes* or by the mercury collimator.* The error may also be determined by transits of stars observed in both positions of the axis, as explained in connection with the transit instrument. If stars are chosen which culminate near the zenith, an error of azimuth will have but little influence on the re
may
sult.
When used as a transit instrument a meridian mark is recommended, consisting of two lamps placed side by side and at a distance apart equal to twice the distance of the vertical from the collimation axis. It is perhaps unnecessary to say that the instrument must
be focused and the threads placed truly vertical and horizontal respectively, precisely as in the transit instrument. Fourth. The instrument must be brought into the plane of
the meridian.
local time, a
For this and other purposes we require the chronometer or clock being an essential part of
* See Art. 168.
2/1.
ZENITH TELESCOPE. ADJUSTMENTS.
The clock
correction
483
the outfit.
A T may
be determined by
the sextant, transit instrument, or by transits observed with In the latter case the process of the zenith telescope itself. the instrument into the meridian will be the same bringing
as that already described for the transit.
If
A T is known
within one second of
its
true value,' that
will be sufficient.
AT being supposed known, = the right ascension of a star near the pole. Let AT = the chronometer time of culmination. Then a
OL
At this instant, as shown by the chronometer, the middle thread is placed on the star, the horizontal circle being provided with a clamp and tangentscrew for this and similar purposes. The reading of the verniers now shows the true Two stops arranged for the purdirection of the meridian. are now clamped to the horizontal circle so that the inpose strument may be turned freely in azimuth, but brought to a stop when it reaches the meridian. Care must be taken in turning the instrument in azimuth not to bring it up against these stops with a shock, as this will disturb the adjustment. South stars may be used for adjusting in the meridian, provided they are sufficiently far from the zenith. In any case the adjustment should be tested by trying whether a south star crosses the middle thread at the proper time. The stops should be placed so that in reversing the instrument in azimuth the object end of the telescope always turns towards the east. The observer can then turn it in azimuth a little, so as to find a star a moment before it enters
then knowing exactly where to look for the star, the eyepiece can be brought to the right place by the rack and pinion, and the micrometerthread moved to nearly the
the field
;
proper place, so that when the star finally comes into view the bisection can be made with all necessary deliberation.
484
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
272
in
strument
All of the above matters having been attended to, the is ready for regular latitude observation.
The Observing
272.
List.
observed in pairs, one star culminating north of the zenith and the other south. The difference of zenith distance should not exceed 15' or 20'.
stars are
The
Let
<p, tf,
and
6'
=
respectively the latitude of station and declination of south and north star
;
z and
z'
the zenith distances.
Then
cp
= 3 + z\ = 6' *> = *(* + *') + *(**')
cp
z',
(472)
Thus the latitude
is
equal to one half the
sum of
the declina
tions plus one half the difference of zenith distance, which latter must be small enough to be capable of measurement
by the micrometer.
The difference of right ascension of the two stars forming m the pair should not exceed I5 m or 2O as changes may take If care is place in the instrument if a longer time elapses. it will seldom be necessary to use a used in the selection, pair with so long an ^interval as 15 minutes. The interval
,
should not be less than one minute, as the instrument must be read and reversed in azimuth for the second star, which
will require at least that
amount
of time.
Stars smaller than the /th magnitude cannot be well observed with the instrument which has been described. With
smaller instruments the 6th magnitude will be about the
limit.
2/2.
OBSERVING
LIST.
485
Stars at any zenith distance
erally
it
will not
may be observed, but genbe necessary or advisable to go beyond 30
or 35.
The catalogues most suitable for the selection of stars are the Coast Survey catalogue,* the various Greenwich cataThe declinalogues, and the British Association catalogue. tions of the latter are not sufficiently reliable for a good latitude determination; but as
to the 6th
it
contains nearly
it
all
the stars
down
magnitude
inclusive,
list,
used
in selecting the
may very conveniently be the final declinations being after
reliable catalogues. In selecting the stars we require an approximate value of the latitude, which may often be taken from a map with suf
wards taken from more
accuracy, or if suitable maps are not available it may be determined by a single altitude of the sun or a star at culmination measured with the sextant. An error of i or 2' in the assumed value will cause no inconvenience.
ficient
f
In selecting the list of stars we proceed as follows First we must know with what right ascension to begin. If, for inh stance, we intend beginning our observations at 7 P.M., this mean solar time converted into sidereal time will give the
:
right ascension of a star which culminates at that instant. Starting with this right ascension, we take the first star
does not exceed 35 and whether there is another star which differs from this in right ascension between i m and 15, and which will unite with this to form a suitable pair. From (472) we have
at culmination
whose zenith distance
look
down the
list
to find
=
Thus
if d' is
2?
V
(**>);)
we can
7.
the declination of the star,
if
find another
* Coast Survey Report 1876, Appendix No.
486
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
272,
d' more than whose declination d does not differ from 2cp 15' or 20', the two stars will form a pair suitable for our purWith the great majority of trials we shall find no pose. second star fulfilling the above conditions. If we use the
British Association catalogue we can generally find from one to three dozen pairs suitable for observation for any
night in the year.
down
that
Having gone over the catalogue in this manner, writing the catalogue numbers of the stars, the right ascenand magnitudes,
it
sions, declinations,
will often be
found
some
of the pairs interfere with others in reference to
time of culmination. We may, if we choose, make out two lists for observation on alternate nights, or we may drop those pairs which are less suitable when they interfere with
others.
The places of the stars must then be reduced to the date of observation by applying the corrections for precession,
nutation, and aberration.* The declinations need only be reduced to the mean place for the year, but the apparent right ascensions for the date of observation will be required
The necessary reduction may be obtained very readily by comparing the stars with those of approximately the same right ascension and declination of the Nautical Almanac. The following is an example of an observing list prepared for determining the latitude along the northern boundary of
within the nearest second.
the United States. The first column contains the number of the star in the British Association catalogue, the second column the magnitude, the third and fourth the right ascenThe letsion and declination, the fifth the zenith distance.
ter
N. or S. in the next column shows whether the star culminates north or south of the zenith the stars with the large
:
*For a
full
explanation of this subject see Art. 354 and following.
2/3.
OBSERVING
LIST.
487
.
tion south.
declinations culminate north, those with the small declinaThe setting, given in the last column, is the mean
t
of the zenith distances.
U.
S.
Northern Boundary Survey. Observing List for Zenith Telescope.
Astronomical Station No.
1873,
4.
cp
June
27.
Approx.
49
o'.
As will be seen, the selection of a good list of stars involves Where great accuracy is required considerable labor. care should be exercised in selecting the stars, and especial none should be employed whose declinations are not well This part of the subject will be considered determined.
more
in detail hereafter.
Directions for Observing.
273. A suitable list of stars having been prepared, the instrument adjusted, and the chronometer error determined, the observer sets the vertical circle at the proper reading, the telescope is directed towards that side of the zenith
4S8
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
274.
where the first star will culminate, and the bubble brought to the middle of the leveltube by means of the tangentscrew connected with the horizontal axis. At the time
of culmination, as shown by the chronometer, the star is bisected by the micrometerthread, and the micrometer and
level are read
;
the instrument
is
then reversed in azimuth
and the second star observed
complete observation.
in the
same way
:
this
forms a
During the operations described the tangentscrew of the vertical circle must not be touched, but the tangentscrew which moves the telescope, and consequently the level,
may be turned after reversing, in the exceptional case where the vertical axis is not well adjusted.
If
for
any reason the bisection
is
not obtained at the
in
stant of culmination, the star may be observed off the meridian and the time of observation recorded, when a correction may
be computed to reduce it to the meridian. Several bisections might be made while the star is crossing the field, and the observations reduced to the meridian in a similar manner but experience shows that little or nothing is gained in this way. The accuracy with which a bisection can be made by
;
a skilled observer being greater than that of the average declinations which will be employed, it is advisable to increase
the
vations on the
number of stars observed rather than to multiply obsersame star under the same circumstances.
Determination of Value of Micrometerscrew.
274. This value may be determined most advantageously of a circumpolar star observed near elongation. One of the four close circumpolar stars whose places are
by means
given
in the
American Ephemeris
viz., 51
will generally
for the purpose,
Cephei,
$, a,
be selected or A Ursae Minoris.
2/4
DETERMINATION OF MICROMETER VALUE.
489
The observations are made as follows: From 15 to 30 minutes before the star reaches elongation the telescope is pointed to the star, the micrometerthread being near that
end of the screw from which the star is moving. The telescope is set at such an elevation that the thread is a little in advance of the star, and the bubble of the level brought into the middle of the tube, without disturbing the position of The time of transit of the star over the thread the telescope. The thread is then is then observed and the level read. moved forward one revolution (or sometimes only half a revolution) and the transit of the star observed in the new position, and so on throughout the entire length of the
screw.
It is well to time the work $o that the elongation will occur near the middle of the series, though this is not essenWith this in view it may be borne in mind that the tial. time required for Polaris to pass over a space equal to the range of an ordinary zenith telescope micrometer will be about 5o m for A. Ursas Minoris 70, for 51 Cephei 30. The record of the observations will be kept according to the following or a similar schedule
,
:
prepare for the observation, the chronometer time of elongation must be computed. It will facilitate setting the instrument on the star if the azimuth and zenith distance are
also
To
computed.
49
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
2 75
In the triangle formed by the arcs of great circles joining the zenith, the pole, and the star, the angle at the P 9o&
s
star
tion.
'
5
will
be a right angle at the time of elongarules,
Then by Napier's
sin
z
a
=
cos d
cos
sin
<
cos z
cos
/
= sm = tan
'
(474)
'
6
(p
cot
Let
T=
the chronometer time of elongation.
Then
T=
'a
t
dT\
T
>
elongation.
.
.
(474^
Method of Reduction.
275. ing to
We have by observation a series of times correspondobserved transits of the star over the thread at succesnow
the star
If sive equal distances. circle the intervals great
moved uniformly
in a
between these observed times would aside from errors of observation and the effect be .uniform, The star, however, moves in a small of change of level. circle which is tangent to the vertical circle at the point of We may, however, compute the correction elongation. necessary to convert this motion in the small circle to uniform motion in a great circle, as follows: For any one of our observed transits let
t
=
=
the interval of time between ob
z"
the
servation and elongation number of seconds of arc from
;
elongation
vertical circle
measured = SK.
*"
on
the
FIG.
5 e.
Then
the angle
SPK =15^
sin
or
*"
= =
expressed in arc, and cos 8 sin (IJT)
.
(475)
cos d ..: ,,/
sin (157)
2/5
DETERMINATION OF MICROMETER VALUE.
491
By
expansion,
sin(isr)
If
= (isr)sin
is
i"(i5rsiii
falls
sn
anywhere within the
series
shall
the time of elongation
the last term
never likely to be appreciable, so we have with sufficient accuracy
z"
In which
=
15
cos d [r
2
log
(15 sin i")
 (15 sin = 0.94518
i")V].
10.
(475\
be readily computed from the formula, but is more convenient, where its value is for every minute of time from elongation to 65. It given will seldom be advisable to extend the observations farther from elongation than this. For this interval, viz., 65 m the term in r is o s .2i, and may very well be neglected, but it would soon become appreciable.
This term
may
the following table
,
b
49 2
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
2/6.
Instead of applying this correction to r (the difference between the time of elongation and observation) it is more conIt will be venient to apply it directly to the observed time. We thus before and minus after either elongation. plus reduce the observed times to what they would have been if the star had moved uniformly in a vertical circle.
276. Correction for Change of Level Reading. the level reading indicates a change in the angle
A
change in which the
The correction line of collimation forms with the horizon. necessary to apply to the observed times will be derived as follows
:
.
Let
n, s
o,
s
= =
any level reading an assumed level reading to which reduced.
;
all
are to be
Then
/
=
d\&n

s)

i(

j
)].
This quantity will be an increment to z" and since it will always be very small it may be treated as a differential. To find the necessary correction to r we differentiate equation
,
(475):
cos z" dz" =. cos S cos (157) ^(15 r).
Writing dz"
this gives
/,
cos z"
I,
cos i^r
I,
'
(476)
Applying
this
and the correction taken from the table Art.
275 to the observed times, we shall have in one column the readings of the micrometer, and in another the times reduced to what they would have been if the star had moved
uniformly
in vertical circle,
and
if
in the position of the instrument.
no change had taken place These may now be com
2/7
DETERMINATION OF MICROMETER VALUE.
493
bined by subtracting the first from the middle one, the second from the middle plus one, and so on.
the
number of revolutions of the micrometer between and middle observations, we thus have a series of values for the time required for the star to pass over this space; if all errors could be avoided, these times would consequently be the same. The mean of these values multiplied
If
n
is
the
first
by
^
,
in
accordance with formula(475) then gives the
1,
value of one revolution expressed in seconds of arc. 277 Micrometer Value when Level Value is not knoivn. There is no more convenient or satisfactory method for determining the value of the micrometerscrew than that just explained, when the value of the level has been previously determined. This may be done by a leveltrier, or by a finely graduated
circle, as
already explained in Art. 164.
Circumstances sometimes make it necessary to determine the values of both micrometer and level when no special appliances are at hand for the latter.
of the level must'first be
eter, as follows
:
In such a case the value
in
determined
terms of the microm
The telescope is directed to a sharplydefined mark, as the threads of a collimating telescope, and the bubble brought near one end of the tube the mark is carefully bisected by
;
the thread of the micrometer, and both micrometer and level are read. The instrument is then moved through a small vertical angle so as to bring the bubble towards the other
end of the tube, and the mark again bisected by the micrometer.
The
eter
is
difference between the
two readings
of the
microm
the measure of the angle through which the instrument has been moved in terms of the micrometer, and the differis
ence between the two level readings same angle in terms of the level.
the measure of the
494
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
277.
Let M, M'
L, L'
=
the
the
two micrometer readings two level readings
;
;
R,
d
value of micrometer and level respectively.
f
 L = R(M  M'} ..... (477) The value of both d and R may now be determined by a The value of R is deterseries of approximations, as follows
Then
d(L
)
:
mined by the method just explained, neglecting the level correction then with this value of R, </is computed by (477), and the value used in a recomputation of R. This more
;
accurate value of
R gives
a
more accurate approximation
to
the value of </, and the operation may be again repeated if necessary. If the instrument is'mounted on a good foundation, the
change of level during the time of observation will generally be so small that a very close approximation to the
is obtained by neglecting the level correcseldom happen that the change will be great enough to render more than one repetition of the computa
true value of
tion.
R
It will
tion necessary.
A method
Let
theoretically
more rigorous
of
is
as follows
:
p=j
=7=Z>:=the value
T
OJ
one division of the
level expressed in terms of the
ZM
M
micrometer
,
;
L =
zenith distance, time, micrometer, and level of a circumpolar star
2,
T,
M, L
RD
Then
z
d
observed at elongation the same quantities at time T. value of one division of the level
;
=
*
+ (M  M )R  (L  L^RD, 
M )R
f
(L
for a second observation.
2/8.
DETERMINATION OF MICROMETER VALUE.
these,
49$
From
z
R=
(
j/_ M] _
(//
_~J^
'
'
*
(477)l
z9t
z'
have called z" in the previous formula,
# are the same as the quantity which we and may be com
sin i")V may of course puted by (475). The correction (15 from the table and applied directly to the time of be taken observation as before. We shall then have in one column the readings of the micrometer, and in another the times re
duced
to the vertical circle.
We
combine
as before
by sub
tracting the first from the middle, the second from the middle plus one, and so on; then divide each by its value of
L')D. This gives the time required for (L (M M') the star to pass oyer a space equal to one revolution of the micrometer, which multiplied by 15 cos d gives the value in
seconds of arc.
# directly for each observation This will involve a little more labor than the by (475). method outlined above, as each term must be multiplied by 1 5 cos # while in the other case only one such multiplication
We
might compute z
,
is
necessary.
Example.
278. Polaris was observed at eastern elongation, 1874, June 18, for determining the value of one revolution of the micrometer of zenith telescope
Wiirdemann, No.
20.
Station: Fort Buford, Dakota.
Observer: Captain
J. F.
Gregory.
The preliminary computation necessary
to prepare for the observation is
first given, viz., the computation of the azimuth, zenith distance, and time of elongation by formulae (474). For this purpose the right ascension and declination of Polaris are taken from
the Nautical Almanac, viz.
:
a.
S
The
latitude of station
was
q>
= h = 88 = 47
i
i2 m 6 s 4;
.
38' 3". 3.
59' 7".
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
The computation
cos d
is
278.
as follows:
sin
cos
q>
sin a
= = =
8.37721
d
9.82563
8.55158
2
2'
sin q>
cos z
= 9.99988 = 9.87097 = 9.87109 =
41
59' 50"
<.ot
=
cp
t
8.37733
tan
.04534
8.42267
cos
a
=
27
2
t
/
a
a
Chronometer time of elongation
t
= = =
88
h 5
i
29'
i"
53
12
m
56
s
06
10
2
AT=
=a
t
19
h
18

/I
T=
i9
i8 m 12*
The
transit of Polaris
was observed over the micrometerthread
at every half
turn, beginning with revolution 35 and ending with 5.5 sixty transits in all. In the example I have only used those observed at the even revolutions, as this
will
be sufficient for illustrating the method of reduction.
2/8.
DETERMINATION OF MICROMETER VALUE.
497
first five columns require no explanation. The sixth contains the quanti" which we have called T. The "reduction to vertical is taken from the table The "reduction to mean state of level" is (n Art. 275. (n s) Jo), = o in this case. The "correction for level" is this quantity where ( SQ)
The
ties
multiplied by

5.
The value
1.25.
of
one division of the
level,
d
=
".893.
Therefore this factor equals
The elongation being east, the sign of the level reduction is minus. The " reduction to vertical" and "correction for level" being applied
observed time,
to the
we have
the
"
reduced times" of the last column.
these quantities by subtracting No. i from 16, No. 2 from 17, 30, thus obtaining a series of values for the time required for the star to pass over a space equal to 15 revolutions of the screw. The mean of these quantities multiplied
combine ... No. 15 from
We
by
is
=
cos d then will give the value of one revolution
in
seconds of arc.
The numerical work
as follows:
\yv\
= = = =
146*. 1 9
Mean
43
=
24'. 93
2604". 93
log cos S
3.4157961
8.3772074
1.7930035
62". 0874
log one revolution
One
revolution
Correction for refraction
.0315
Corrected value
62".os6
49^
The
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
correction for differential refraction
is
2/Q.
last of
computed by the
formula
(481), viz.,
r
r
=
2 [6.44676] sec z(z
z)
z)
sec 2 z
6.4468
log
(z
log (r
r'}
= = =
1.7930
.2578
8.4976
r
r'
".0315
The probable
in the last
error is computed from the sum column by formula (27), viz.,
of the squares of the residuals
=
m
in this case
6745
,
111
(ni
being
15.
Substituting in this formula,
we
find
r
=
".563.
This
is
now
star to pass over 15 revolutions of the screw.
the probable error of the determination of the time required for the The probable error of the above
determination of the value of one revolution of the screw will be obtained from
this quantity
by multiplying by the factor
=
cos d,
viz.,
".013.
From
this series
we
therefore conclude the most probable value of one revo
lution of the screw to be
J?
=
62". 056
".013.
Value of One Division of Level.
279. An example has been given (Art. 164) of the determination of the level value by means of the leveltrier. Opposite is given an example of the deterter.
mination of the level value of the above instrument by means of the micromeSee equation (477).
280.
DETERMINATION OF MICROMETER VALUE.
June
15.
499
1873,
Observer, L. Boss.
Mark
crossthreads of transit telescope.
\yv\
=
.027127
Mean
The above value
Therefore
If
value of
Kr
=
1.4396
.0071.
of R'
is
".62056.
d
=
".893
.004.
both the level and micrometer values were unknown, the above series of
observations of Polaris would give for one division of the micrometer, by neglecting the level readings, R' ".6209, which gives practically the same value
=
of
d as above.
With
this value of
d
the level corrections
would then be computed and the
final
value of the micrometer determined, no second approximation to the value
let
of
d being required. 280. For the purpose of illustrating the method of Art. 277
example already solved.
us apply
it
to
part of the computation will be precisely .the same as before except the correction for level. Applying to the observed chronometer times the "reduction to. vertical" already found, we have the
the
first
The
"
reduced times" of the following table
:
500
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
280.
If the chronometer employed has an appreciable rate the interval of time corresponding to one revolution of the screw will require a correction which may be determined as follows
:
Let
8T = /i = /=
the daily rate of the micrometer, j when losing any interval expressed in terms of chronometer
true value of interval.
;
;
Then
/
:
/i
=
24'*
:
24*' i
8T
=
86400"
:
86400"
dT
;
/=/!
I
dT
dT
86400
86400
nearly.
If,
for example, the
chronometer, for d
T
above observations had been made with a mean time we should have 3 m 56" = 236 s Therefore
.
/=/!+/!
*
236"
=
/i
86400
is
+ /. 002735 =
173". 666
f .474
be
=
I74M40.
for
When
the reduction
made
in this
manner the term (L
1
L)D will
elonga
tion.
28 1.
FORMULAE FOR LATITUDE.
General Formula for
tJie
$01
Latitude.
281. Let
m=
m* =
/
the micrometer reading for the south star, expressed in seconds of arc
;
the micrometer reading for the zeropoint of the micrometer
;
= =
z, 2.
the correction for level, plus
;
when
the north
r
reading is large the correction for refraction.
Then
z
Similarly^'
= 
+ (m + (m'
(


m.)
m
')
)
+/ +r +
I'
for south star.
r'
for north star.
z
z
>
= m
+ +
(/
/')
+ (r
r').
Substituting this value in equation (472),
+ K' 
>*')
(478)
It has been assumed in the foregoing that the readings of the micrometer increase with the zenith distance; but, whether they increase or diminish, practically a case wilt very seldom
occur where the algebraic sign of the term %(m m'*) will to the numerical be in doubt, as may be seen by referring
example. Equation (478) shows that the value of the latitude is found by adding to the mean of the declinations of the two stars
three
corrections:
first,
the
;
correction
for
micrometer;
second, the correction for level
third, for refraction.
Any point may be assumed arbitrarily as the zeropoint, for by referring to equations (478) and (479) it will be seen that only the difference of micrometer readings on the two stars is required, and this will be the same wherever we assume the zero to be. It will be convenient to assume this point so far to one
end of the scale that the readings
will all
*
be plus.
$02
282.
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
The Correction for Micrometer.
284.
Let
M and M' = the
R=
micrometer readings for the south and north stars respectively the value of one revolution of the screw expressed in seconds of arc.
;
Then
If
#m 
m')
= %R(M 
M').
....
(479)
the micrometer reads towards the zenith the algebraic
sign will simply be reversed.
The Correction for Level. If the mean of the north readings in both positions of the instrument is greater than
283.
readings, it shows that the vertical axis the celestial sphere south of the zenith; produced pierces therefore the instrumental zenith distance of a south star is
the
mean of the south
too small, and of a north star too large.
Let n and
n'
*
and
s'
=
=
y d
readings of north and south ends of bubble for south star readings of north and south ends of bubble for north star; the error of the level the value of one division of the level in seconds of arc.
;
;
Then
/
l>
=
\d(n
f
=%d(n
 s) + x\ s  x',
f
)
+ n')(s + s%
284. Correction for Refraction.
is
.
.
(480)
The difference of zenith so small that nothing is gained by applying to the correction for refraction the terms depending on the badistance
rometer and thermometer.
284.
FORMULA FOR LATITUDE.
mean
r
refraction
is
503
Bessel's formula for
=
a tan z
.
(a)
a
for present purposes
is
considered constant and equal to
57"7.
The
correction r
r'
being very small,
we may
use a
dif
ferential formula, viz.,
df
,
X
v
j
and from
If
(a),
^
$?".7 sec*z.
z
z' is
given in minutes
r'
r'
we may write
2
f
(b)
as follows:
r
=
57". 7 sec z.s\n
2
i
.(z
#'),
or
If (z
r
z') is
[8.22491] sec z .(z
z'\
expressed in seconds,
r')
(r
=
[6.44676} sec z.(z
2
z'\
As usual the numerical quantities in brackets are logarithms. The computation by either of these formulas is quite
simple, but as this correction must be applied to every pair of stars observed the following table has been added, being
the same as that given by Schott, of the U. S. Coast Survey. The vertical argument is one half the difference of zenith
which we may use %(m The horizontal m'). the zenith distance, the table being extended to argument 35. In the exceptional cases where stars are observed at
distance, for
is
greater zenith distances the correction must be computed by the formula (481). The algebraic sign will always be the
same
as that of the
micrometer correction.
504
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
28 5
,
TABLE B DIFFERENTIAL REFRACTION.
If the observation has been 285. Reduction to the Meridian. missed at the instant of the star's meridian passage, it may be observed off the meridian in either of two ways First. The instrument may be revolved in azimuth so as to bisect the star in the middle of the field; or Second. The instrument may be allowed to remain in the meridian, and the star may be bisected off the line of collimation before it passes out of the field.
:
In the first case the correction to the zenith distance will be precisely the same as that already derived for reducing
286.
REDUCTION TO MERIDIAN.
viz.
505
circummeridian altitudes,
149 cos
see equations (XIII),
Art.
2 cos d 2 sin \t sm z sm i'
tp
where
tion.
t is
the hourangle of the star at the instant of observa
quantity given by this formula is to be subtracted from the zenith distance at the instant of observation therefore by referring to (472) we see that the correction to the latitude
The
;
will
be
'
^=a
i
cos
cp
2 cos $ 2 sin \t
'
.
.
^ElilEF
'
'
(482)
will
be plus for a north and minus for a south
taken from table VIII
the star
is
star.
sm
=
^r is
i
A at the end of this volume.
286.
When
observed off the line of collimation, the
instrument remaining in the meridian. In the is the meridian, PS the hourfigure, If the star circle passing through the star.
PK
observed on the meridian, SAT will be the If obposition of the micrometerthread. served off the meridian at S', this thread will have the position S'K'.
is
Let
KK =
1
x.
Then
PK =
=
90

(6
+ x\ + x].
and, by Napier's second rule,
cos
t
tan $ cot
(tf
506
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
286.
This
may be
placed
in the
form
.
tan d
=
,
(i

2 sin
8
tan # 4 tan
I
~the
;r
.
tan a tan
.r
Clearing
of
2
fractions
and
neglecting
small
term
tan x.2 sin
^/,
we
readily find
tan
x
sin
d cos d 2 sin 2 ^/,
or,
with sufficient accuracy,
x
As
star
.
==
ism
2#
2 sin \t
2
sin
,
t/
......
(483),
the apparent zenith distance
is
diminished for a south
in this
and increased for a north star when observed
man
ner, the correction to the latitude will always be plus and
will be equal to %x.
That
is,
A9
=
2
i
sin
26
**f ......
(483)
This method of proceeding will generally be preferred the observation on the meridian is lost, as when the other method is used the stop must be undamped, and where other stars follow in quick succession a pair may be lost in consequence. If the star cannot be observed before it gets beyond the field of view, the observer will generally prefer
when
to let
it
go altogether.
of Ay by the above formula is very but a table is added from which the value of x = 2Acp simple, may be taken at once. The horizontal argument is the hour
The computation
angle of the
star,
and the vertical argument the declination.
288.
COMBINATION OF RESULTS.
TABLE C REDUCTION TO MERIDIAN.
507
287. Formula for Computation of Latitude from Observations with the Zenith Telescope.
r')
=
[8.22491] sec z \(z
2
z
c
Reduction to Meridian.
(XXIII)
N.
star;
A<p
f dcp
= =
41
1  cos 
(p
a cos 8 2 sin
:
\
2
i .
smz
.
sin
2
.
^
i
sin 2(^
2 sin \t
4
sin i"
77.
Combination of the Individual Values of the Latitude.
288.
will be given
For many purposes a sufficient degree of accuracy by simply taking the arithmetical mean of the
all
individual values, giving
See table,
p. 504.
equal weight.
f
See table above.
508
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
288.
When a more rigorous procedure is demanded we must consider the weights of the separate values. This weight on the probable errors of the declinations of the depends
stars observed,
and on the probable error of observation.
Let
nv
n
#a
/
#3
np
~\~
= =
=
the
number
in
of separate pairs determining a latitude
employed
on each
;
the
number
of observations
;
#!++
np
e
pair respectively the whole number of observations
tion.
;
the probable error of a single observa
Then, from
(35),
= = (n, i)ee
(n,

\)ee
(
(.6745)^1J;
(.
(np
i)ee
=
The sum
of these equations gives
(n
)ee=
e
(.
therefore
=
.6.745\/
;rir7
(44)
of the squares of the residuals formed by [z/,^j] is the sum taking the differences between the mean of the observations on the first pair and each individual value; and similarly for
289.
COMBINATION OF RESULTS.
509
tions
The determination of the probable errors of the decimaFor a discussion is a much more complicated problem.
of this subject the reader will refer to Articles 346 and 347. In order to obtain the expression for the weight of the value of cp derived from a single pair,
Let
f
fi ,
e#
=
the probable errors of the declinations;
Then
if
n
l
is
the
number
of observations
t>e A / ,
on
this pair the
probable error of the mean will
/?
and
^
E+ being the probable error
of the resulting latitude.
relative weights are proportional to the reciprocals of the squares of the probable errors; or, since the unit of weight
is
The
arbitrary,
we may
write
(485)
Value of Micrometer from the Latitude Observations.
no special observations have been made for deterthe value of the micrometerscrew, it maybe derived mining from the latitude observations themselves.
289. If
*
Equation
(29).
510
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
290.
Let
R=
an assumed value of one revolution as near
the true value as possible;
the correction required. the true value of one revolution; the latitude
AR = Then R\ AR =
r
<p
=
computed with the assumed
all of
value of
f
R from
<p f
Ay =
(478),
the observations;
true value of the latitude.
Then from
Let n
=
n
the
sum
f
of the
known
quantities of this equation;
that
is,
=
<p
%(d+d')R(MM')%(l+r)l(rr').
Then
A 9  \(M  M')AR =
n
.....
(486)
Each pair of stars observed will give an equation of this form for determining A<p and AR. This process is sometimes employed when there is reason
R is erroneous; but if the value has been carefully determined by the transits of circumpolar stars the result will generally be accepted as abto suspect that the adopted value of
solute.
290. The of the U. S.
example which follows is taken from the report Northern Boundary Survey. The station is 47 miles west of Pembina, the approximate position being
Latitude 49
oo',
Longitude
i
h
24
m
52"
west of Washington.
2QO.
EXAMPLE OF LATITUDE DETERMINATION.
it
511
five
Twentynine pairs of stars were observed from two to
times each, in
all 81
observations.
The form in which the example is given will be found a convenient one for the record and preliminary reduction. For this purpose a book will be required with a page of about It will be ruled or printed in blank form 7 inches in width.
as shown.
Example,
Astronomical Station No.
4.
West
side of
Pembina Mountain.
Observer, Lewis Boss. Zenith Telescope, Wurdemann No. 20. Chronometer, Negus Sidereal No. 1513.
512
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
2 90.
The above probably requires no further explanation than a reference to formula (XXIII), Art. 287. The values of the micrometerscrew and level which we have employed are those derived in Articles 278 and 279, viz.,
^= d=
6 2 ".o 5 6;
o
.893.
illustrate the
In order to This will be sufficient for illustrating the method of reduction. combination of the individual values to determine the most prob
able value, the weights and probable errors, the results of the entire 81 observations will be employed. They are as follows:
290.
LA TITUDE DE TERMINA TION.
513
PRA CTICAL A STKONOM Y.
If
we
take the arithmetical
all,
mean
of the 81
determinations, giving equal
weights to
we
find as the result
cp
=
48
59' 51". 60
.048.
291. If we desire the highest degree of precision, we must combine the values obtained from the individual pairs of stars according to their respective The probable error of observation is determined from the quantity weights.
[vv\
above by means of formula
(484), viz.
,
e
.6745'
np
therefore
e
In this case
n
=
81,
/
=
29;
=
".363.
shall assume e o".4 in computing the weights by formula (486). This computation immediately follows. The values of g are those given by Boss in his Catalogue of 500 Stars. In case of a few stars where Boss assigns no value to the probable error, it has been assumed to be o".75. Referring to formula (485), the following computation will be clearly under
We
=
stood
291
LATITUDE DETERMINATION.
515
[/<f>]
=
115.39
=
159920
* In this
column only the
last three figures of /<
are given.
5l6
The probable
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
error of
q> is
292.
r
=
=
.6745 1/
.
.
_

(35)
Substituting in this formula, r
.059.
The smaller value
tions
is
of the probable error
is
when
it
the
mean
of the 81 determina
on the assumption that these If each value were derived from a 81 values are independently determined. separate pair of stars this would be correct, but since the 81 values depend on
formed
directly
fallacious, since
rests
only 29 separate pairs the error of the assumption is obvious. It might be a question whether No. 26 should not be rejected, this value differing from the mean by a quantity so much larger than any of the others. There
appears to be no reason for
If
we
reject
it
we
find
its rejection aside from from the remaining 28 pairs
this rather large discrepancy.
V=
48
59' 51". 54
.056.
292. For an illustration of the method of Art. 289, let us form the equations and to the above for determining the correction to the adopted value of shall have 29 equations of the form (486); the above values of value of (p.
R
We
v will be the absolute terms.
If
we
we have
equation
for the
first
pair
%(M
A(p
M')
refer to the observations given in Art. 290, have from this pair the 8.99.
=
We
j
8.99
AR
n.
\(M
This star was observed on two nights, so taking the mean of the values of M'} and multiplying the resulting equation through by the square root of the weight determined for this star, we have the following equation:
T..$2A(p\ 13.
tfAR =
1.46.
Proceeding
in
tion for determining
a similar manner, we derive the following 29 equations of condiAcp and AR, for which we shall write x and 7:
.52*+ .58*+
.90.*
13.577
7367
4.227
11.567 18.037
.38*+
.84* .77*
= = = = f
f
1.46;
49;
.38;
.69;
9 8
;
= .43* + 4.457 =  11.977 = + .95* ~ .88r 10.887 = 18.537

51; 49;
.82;
I
3;
293
LATITUDE AND MICROMETER.
517
Proceeding in the usual manner, we derive from these the two normal equations
73.98*+
17.65*
17.657
From
these,
+ 2732.357 * = + .007
7
= =
004;
85.80.
.054;
.009.
=
.031
The most probable values
by
this series of
of the latitude
and micrometerscrew as indicated
observations are therefore 48
59' 51". 567
(f>
R=
In order to have the value of
.054;
.009.
62". 025
R determined
in this
way
of
any value
in
com
parison with that determined by transits of circumpolar stars, the declinations of the stars employed must be well determined.
293.
There are various ways
in
which the observation of
stars in pairs at equal or nearly equal altitudes
by means of
the zenith telescope
may
be employed for the determination
$18
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
2 93
of latitude and time.
As may be seen, the instrument is to the solution of any problem of Spherical Astronadapted omy which depends upon the observation of two or more
bodies at the same altitude. The most favorable condition for latitude determination is when the two stars are on the meridian, one north, the other south, while time is best determined by observing two stars on the prime vertical, one
east, the
facility with which the latitude is determined in the manner already explained, and the ease with which the instrument may be converted into a transit when
it is
On
other west. account of the
necessary to employ
it
for determining the
time, other solutions of the problem tions out of the meridian have never
approximate depending on observa
Some
of these
met with much favor. methods are interesting from a theoretical
point of view, but for the reasons stated the subject will not be developed further in this connection.
CHAPTER
IX.
DETERMINATION OF A'ZIMUTH.
The Azimuth of a point on the earth's surface is the angle between the plane of the meridian and the vertical plane which passes through this point and the eye of the
294.
observer.
Since the vertical plane is determined by the direction ot true the plumbline, and this 4ine may deviate from th normal to the earth's surface, a corresponding deviation in
must therefore distinguish bethe Astronomical Azimuth and the Geodetic Azimuth. tween
the azimuth must exist.
We
The Astronomical Azimuth of a point is the angle between two planes drawn through the plumbline at the point of
observation, the first plane parallel to the earth's axis, and the second passing through the point. The Geodetic Azimuth is the angle between two planes drawn through the normal to the. earth's surface at the point
through the earth's and the second through the point. axis, It is with the Astronomical Azimuth only that we are at The azimuth may be reckoned from present concerned. north or south point of the horizon. For astroeither the nomical purposes it is usually reckoned from the south point towards the west from zero to 360. In determining the azimuth of a point on the earth's surface it is more convenof observation, the first plane passing
ient to use stars near the north pole of the heavens; consequently for geodetic purposes the azimuth is generally
520
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
295
FIG. 580.
295
DETERMINATION OF AZIMUTH.
$21
reckoned from the north point. For the sake of uniformity we shall in this chapter always suppose the azimuth reckoned A minus azifrom the north in the direction N., E., S., W. will be reckoned from north towards west. muth Extreme accuracy in the determination of azimuth is required in connection with the geodetic operations of primary The principal methods employed in such triangulation. cases will be given, when it will be shown how they may be
abridged where a less degree of accuracy is demanded. There is a variety of these methods, depending on the form of instrument employed and the position of the stars obThe instrument will be either the theodolite, used served. for measuring horizontal angles, or the astronomical transit. In any case the azimuth of the point is determined by measuring instrumentality the difference between the azimuth of the point and a star. The azimuth of the star is computed by its known right ascension and declination, and the local time and latitude, which have been previously determined from these data we have the azimuth of the point. 295. The Theodolite. Figures $8a and 58^ show two forms The older of instruments used on the U. S. Coast Survey. has a horizontal circle from 20 to 30 inches form, Fig. 58^,
1
;
With the newer instruments, circles from 12 to 20 inches are considered sufficiently large, as such circles can now be graduated much more accurately than formerly the instrument can therefore be made more compact and portable, a matter of some importance in the field.
in diameter.
;
The
these
horizontal circle
is
commonly divided
by
reading
directly to
5',
spaces
being subdivided
microscopes
directly to single seconds,
and by estimation to tenths of a
microscopes are used. The essential features of the instruments will be understood from the plates without further description. For secondary azimuths a less perfect instrument will often
second.
Two or three
522
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
295
FIG. 58*.
2 9 6.
DE TERMINA TION OS A ZIM u Til.
523
be used.
For magnetic work or ordinary landsurveying a
surveyor's transit with 5 or 6inch circle will frebe employed. It is perhaps unnecessary to say that quently the instrument must be carefully adjusted in every particular. For observing at night an illuminated 296. The Signal. convenient mark is a square wooden mark is required. box firmly mounted on a post or other support, the light of
common
A
FIG.
a bull'seye lantern being thrown through a small hole in the The box itself may be painted so as to form a confront.
venient target for day observation. This mark must be far enough from the station so that no change will be placed required in the sidereal focus of the telescope about one mile will generally be 'sufficient. When from any cause a
:
distant
mark
;
be used
is not practicable a colli mating telescope may but the greatest care must be exercised in mount
524
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
298.
ing both the instrument and collimator firmly, piers of solid masonry being used for both. For firstclass azimuths only close 297. Choice of Stars. stars will be used. Preference will be given to circumpolar the four circumpolar stars whose places are given in the ephemeris, viz., **, tf, and A Ursae Minoris, and 51 Cephei.
Fig.
59
shows
their relative
positions,
and
will
assist
in
finding the smaller ones which are not readily distinguished with the naked eye unless the position is previously known. 298. Method of Observing. complete series of observa
A
on one star will consist of ten or twelve readings on the mark and about the same number on the star, the instrument being reversed about the middle of the series. The following order of observation is recommended
tions
:
i
st.
2d.
6 readings on the mark. 6 readings on the star.
3d.
Read Read
the level.
level.
4th. Reverse.
5th.
6th.
/th.
6 readings on the star. 6 readings on the mark.
If more than one series is taken it is advisable to change the position of the horizontal circle so as to bring the readto some extent ings in another place, in order to eliminate
the errors of graduation. Readings are sometimes taken on the star directly, and on When this is its image reflected from a basin of mercury.
done reading the
level
may be
dispensed with.
By the process above described we have a carefullyexecuted measurement of the difference in azimuth between the
star
and mark.
star,
It
the
when we
shall
only remains to compute the azimuth of have the azimuth of the mark.
ERRORS OF COLLIMATION AND LEVEL.
Let
525
m
s
A
a
reading of circle on mark reading of circle on star azimuth of mark measured from north towards
;
;
east
;
=
azimuth of star measured from north towards
east.
Then
Different
A =
methods
of
a f (m
s).
(487)
computing a
will
be employed, de
pending on the position of the star
when observed.
Errors of Collimation and Level.
299.
The mark and
star being at different altitudes
above
the horizon, the measured difference of azimuth will be affected by an error of collimation, also by a want of parallel
ism between the horizontal axis and the horizon. Other theoretical errors of the instrument we need not consider, since their effect may be made inappreciable by
careful adjustment. In the figure let
zenith, s
any
star,
represent the horizon, z the w' the point
axis procelestial
NWSE
where the horizontal duced pierces the
sphere.
*b
is
the inclination,
f
when
;
west end of axis
*c,
is
high
error of collimation, f when thread is east of collimation axis
;
x, error in
reading of horizon
tal circle
due to
b
and
c.
* This designation is sufficiently general for our purpose, since have occasion to apply it to stars observed near the pole.
we
shall only
526
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
in the triangle sw'z, sz
3OO.
Then
= z = zenith distance of star;
90
zw
90
b
;
w's
=
+c
;
w'zs
90
+ x.
Therefore
sin c
= sin b cos z
will
cos b sin # sin x.
Or, since written
<:,
,
and x
be very small, the above
may be
from which
= *=
c
b cos z
x
sin z
;
~
+
(487)
'
seldom be necessary to apply the correction for collimation, since it may be eliminated by observing in both positions of the axis.
It
will
If the mark is not in the horizon a similar correction to readings on mark will be required, where, of course, for z we shall have the zenith distance of the mark.
Azimuth by a Circumpolar Star near Elongation.
300. When the star is within a short distance of elongation, either east or west, the position is especially favorable, since the motion in azimuth then is very slow. Only one rending
can be taken at elongation, but we may apply a correction to the readings near elongation to reduce them to the reading at elongation.
The azimuth and hourangle
of the star at elongation are
3 01

AZIMUTH BY A CIRCUMPOLAR
STAR.
527
computed by considering the rightangle this instant by the zenith, pole, and star.
Let
triangle
P
formed
at
a* and
a, d,
te
be the azimuth and hourangle at elongation
;
and
6,
the right ascension, declination, and sidereal time.
Thenf
sin a e
cos
t
= =
cos 8 sec
<p\
cot 3 tan <;
Chronometer time
of elongation
=
6
The chronometer correction should be known within about one second, and may be determined by any of the methods previously given or the theodolite itself may be used for
;
the purpose, either as a transit or by measuring altitudes as with the sextant, provided it has a good vertical circle.
301. The formulae for will now be developed.
reducing the readings to elongation
/
// and a in terms of 3 and Recollecting that we now measure the azimuth from the north instead of the south
Formulae
(121) give the values of
for a star at any hourangle.
point, these equations are
(a)
(b)
cos h cos a
cos h sin a
= =
sin
d cos
cp
/.
cos d sin
<p
cos
/;
cos d sin
*
f If
many
a e since a plus value of the hourangle te corresponds to a minus azimuth. observations of the same star are to be made, it will be convenient
,
to prepare in
advance a table of the values of a e and
it is
extending over the time
during which
intended to observe.
528
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
3OI.
At elongation we have
(c\
sin
ae
=
cos 8 cos
sin
cp
=
sin
sin
d cos
te
=;
sm
te .
=
(p
(d)
cos ae
=
#
Multiplying together
'have
(e)
first (a)
and
(c),
then
(b)
and
(d),
we
te \
.
cos h cos # sin a e cos ^ sin a cos <z e
sin
tf
cos d
sin
d cos d cos d cos
tf
/
cos
(f)
=
cos tf # cos d
7
sin
sin / sin te
Add
(/) to
cos
//
(e),
sin (a e
a)
From this, sm (ae
= = a)
sin'tf
sin 2 sin
tf
cos
J
tf
cos
/).
(te
t).
sin
(/.
The computation
substitute
its
will be more convenient value in terms of a e and #, viz.,
if
for cos h
we
cos h
and therefore
sin (ae
a)
=
cot ae cot tf; 2 2 tan #e sin d 2 sin J(/e
/).
(489)
We now have an equation which gives the difference between the azimuth at elongation and at any hourangle t. As this will only be used for stars near elongation, and
consequently
to expand
ae a
it
te /, a small quantity, into a series, viz.,
.
it
will be convenient
= tan a
2 sin
2
e
sin o
sin
(te
i
f)
i
.
h
6
(tan a v
2 sm , Or
.
..
.
2 [2 sin ^
(te
:
/)]*
, .
,
sm
(490)
I
In this case
(a
a)
=
sin"
x
2 [tan a e sin
S 2
sin 8
(/e
/)].
302.
AZIMUTH BY A CIRCUMPOLAR
this
STAR.
When
stars, sin*
formula d differs but
is
little
applied to the close circumpolar from unity, and the last term
will in all practical cases be inappreciable.
We
have therefore the simple formula
ae
a =
tan ae 
2 sin \(te
~~ 
8
f) '
.
(490
302. Correction for Inclination of Axis. When the west end of the axis is high the reading of the horizontal circle will
be small; therefore the correction will be //#.$. The inclination will be given by the formula derived for
transit instrument, (289)
:
.
.
.
(492)
Or
if
the level
is
reversed more than once,
(493)
Where JFand E are the means of the readings of the east and west ends respectively.
The
effect
upon the reading
(487)!, viz.,
of the horizontal circle
we
have by equation
Where h
is the altitude of the star. a correction must also be applied to the reading on Such mark when appreciable.
530
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
stars
303.
With the circumpolar
write tan
cp
observed at elongation
we may
for tan h.
Then we have
Correction for level
=
6a
=
[
W
E\ tan
q>.
.
.
.
(494)
303. Correction for Diurnal Aberration. Suppose at the instant of obser
vation the point from which observation is made to be moving in the direction AB.
Let
in
SA
ray of light
will
be the true direction of a coming from a star; then
consequence of aberration the star appear in the direction AS'.
Let
AC
be drawn equal to the
tance traversed
dis
by the
ray of light in
FIG.
62.
one second

F;
AD,
the distance traversed by the point on the earth's surface in one second
Let angle
SAB=^ S'AB=$
v
or
f
.
Then
Then
sin z/5
sinS
=
77
sin 3:
We
have found, equation
(286),
p=
q>
o".3i9 cos
(p.
Therefore
4$
=
".319 cos
sin
3
(495)
303
AZIMUTH BY CIRCUMPOLAR
STARS.
531
This gives the displacement in the plane determined by the direction of the ray of light and the direction of motion
of the point of observation. mains to determine its effect
star's
It re
on the
azimuth. In Fig. 63 let s be any star, the horizon. the meridian, sA is drawn perpendicular to the
NS
NESW
horizon, and
altitude.
therefore equals the
The
NA equals the azimuth. angle at E is called y.
Since the point occupied by the observer is moving directly towards the east point of the horizon at the instant of observation,^ will be equal to 3". Then the right triangle sEA gives the equations
cos h cos a cos h sin a
(a)
= =
sin
3 cos
y\
cos 3.
require the effect produced on a by a small change in therefore we differentiate with respect to h, a, and 3. 3;
We
cos h sin a da cos h cos a da
sin
sin
h cos a dh h sin a dh
= =
cos
3
cos
yd$
;
sin
3
d$.
of these by sin a, the second by cos a, subtract to eliminate dh, and reduce by (a) and (&); we readily
Multiply the
first
find
da
= 
cos a ^sin 3 cos h
532
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
304.
Substitute for
lect that the
d$ the value
is
azimuth
of AS given by (495), and recolreckoned from the north; we have
3a=  319
For a close circumpolar ciably from
cos
cp
cos a
.
cos h
(496)
star this will not differ appre
da=
".319 cos #.
(497)
This will be added algebraically to the computed azimuth
of the star.
304.
gation.
sin
Formula for Azimuth by a Circumpolar Star near Elon
ae
te
cos d sec
cp\
?>;
cos
Chron. time
= =
cot d tan
a
te
A6
2 sin %(t
2
western
eastern
ae
a
tan ae
'
 t]
(XXIV)
q>\
sin~F"
tan
= \W  E\ Aberration = ".319 cos a\ A = a {(ms)*
Level
e
level
+ aberration.
=
reading on
star.
m=
reading of circle on mark; s
304
AZIMUTH BY CIRCUMPOLAR
STARS.
533
Example.
1847, October I7th, Polaris was observed near western elongation at Agamenticus, York County, Maine, with one of the 30 inch theodolites of the Coast Survey, as follows:*
The
A, B,
C
horizontal circle was read by means of three microscopes designated respectively; the value of one division of the micrometerhead cor
responding to one second of arc, subject to the correction for run. The circle being graduated directly to 5', if five revolutions of the screw exactly cover this space there is no correction for run; otherwise it represents the excess or
deficiency.
For reducing these observations we have:
Right ascension of Polaris
Declination of Polaris
Latitude of station
a
Chronometer correction
= = =
S
(p
/70
= h 5 32 96 = 88 29' 54". 27 = 43 13 25 .o m = 51". 8
i
s
.
i
534
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
first
304
We
compute the azimuth and time
cos 6
of elongation:
(a e is
minus,
= = sin a COS t = 8.5558388 a 2 3' 39". 21 t = since elongation is west.) t = a = = 4Q = Chronometer time of elongation =
8.4183795
cot
cos
cp
e
e
= = = =
d
e
8.4185287
9.9730531
9.8625407
tan
<p
e
8.3915818 88 35' i7".8
5" 54
i
e
2l 8 .2
5
6
h
59
i
i
33 o 54 .2
51 .8
7
m
46
8
.o
In the table which follows, the column marked corrected readings is the mean of the readings of the three microscopes corrected for run when necessary; the remaining columns will be explained by referring to formulae (XXIV).
Mean Mean
of readings
of readings of star
of
on mark on star
Azimuth Azimuth
mark
=m= = s = s = m =a A =
e
243
127 116
2
55' 24".
86
42 48 .03
12 36 .83 3 39 2I

114
114
8
57 62
Diurnal aberration
Final value of azimuth,
8'
+ .32
57" 94
305.
STAR
the level readings
AT ANY
HOURANGLE.
535
From
we have
Direct.
Reverse.
E=
5350
53.50
53.50
^=5300
\\WE\ =.24
Azimuth by a Circumpolar Star observed at any Hourangle.
305. This method differs from the preceding in the manner of computing the azimuth of the star, which may be conveniently done by either of three methods.
First.
By
the fundamental equations (a) and (b\ Art. (301),
we
readily find
tan a
=
sin /
,
:
cos
q>
tan o
s
.
.
.
sin
cp
cos
t
(498)
Second.
We may
apply Napier's analogies to the triangle
formed by the
zenith, pole,
and
star, viz.,
(499)
Third. By expansion into series. In equation (498) write / 90
tf.
Then
~
cos
<p
sin t sin
p
cp
cos p
sin
cos
t sin
/'
a and p being
small,
we may expand
tan a, sin /, cos p into
53 6
series,
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
when the equation becomes,
is =
"
inclusive,
cos
__
(p(i
Or
to terms of the third order
sin /(/ j/ ) sin cp cos t(p i/)

3
or
_
3 3
305.
/ )'
a cos cp
p sin t\ap sin (p cos /+J#/ cos <p
2
J^'cos <p+J/ sin /.
the
Solving this equation for a by approximations, first approximation
sin /
~~~
we have
for
COS
This value substituted in the second term of the second member of the above equation gives for a second approximation
sn
This value substituted in the second, third, and fourth terms
of the above gives finally
a
=
For
3
/4/
cos<p_
2
sin i"tan
<pcos/+^
3
sin 2 i"[(i44tan 2 <p)cos 2 /
tan 9
]
J
.(500)
Polaris within the limits of the United States the term
,
in/
exceed 2" while the terms neglected will not be greater than o".i. For a close circumpolar star observed near culmination this formula may be written
will not
sin /
F
I
a
2
cosq>\
/4/
sini'
/
tan(pcos/+/ sinV (i+3 tanV)
3
/
l
\'(S
)
The
corrections for level reading and aberration will be computed by the same formulae as in the previous case.
306.
CORRECTION FOR SECOND DIFFERENCES.
537
Correction of the
Mean Azimuth for Second Differences.
306. In applying the foregoing method to a series of ten or more readings on a star we may proceed in either of two ways first, we may reduce each reading separately, computing the azimuth of the star for each time of observation or second, we may take the mean of the readings and compute the azimuth for the mean of the corresponding times, applying to this computed azimuth a small correction for
: ;
second differences.
The first method involves considerable labor, but at the same time the individual values furnish a rough check on the accuracy of the work. When the second method is preferred
we may
:
derive the expression for the correction as
follows
Let
/j,
/a , /3 ,
,
a lt a # 3
~^
Let At,
= the observed times = the corresponding azimuths of the star;  = / = the mean of the observed times a = the azimuth corresponding to t / = Atn = tn  / At, =
.
.
.
tn
;
.
.
.
an
;
.
t,
/.
;
t,
;
.
.
.
.
Then
\ye
have
At,
+ At^
f
.
.
.
f
Atn
=
o.
We may
now
write
da
d*a
=A*,) =A*.
~
538
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
of these expressions will be
306.
The mean
_ n
*^
df
2
n
:
The
by
of the
will
quantities At will be expressed in time multiplying 15 to reduce to arc, and also multiplying each quantity
form (15^)" by
sin
f>
i
',
the term multiplied by TT
be
.
(
502 )
Or,
if
for, since
preferred, this term may be computed by table VIII A, the quantities At will be small, we shall have prac
tically
and the above
tertn
becomes
_ \At 2.sin \" ...... n sin
I
2
3
77
:
(503)
It
remains to determine a convenient expression for
^
. 2
and
Differentiating equation (), Art. 301, with respect to # /, we find a d*a _ tan a /cos*/ cos <2\
=
"3?~
+^77^
^o7^
2
'
'
'
/'
(5
4)
close circumpolar star cos ^ differs but little so that we shall have very nearly unity,
For a
from
d*a
jf
=
~
tan a
.......
(505)
* It will be seen that the expression which we have derived for reducing the reading taken near elongation to the reading at elongation is a special case of this same form.
307.
CORRECTION FOR SECOND DIFFERENCES.
have for the mean of the azimuths
539
We therefore
= a  tan *
[6.73672]
(506)
where, as usual, the quantity in brackets is a logarithm, and the quantities At are expressed in seconds of time.
Example.
307. 1848, April 5. Observations on Polaris at Dollar Point, Galveston Bay, Texas. Instrument, 1 8inch Troughton & Simms theodolite.
One
division of level
cp
= o''.82.
;
= 29
26'
2". 6
AT
i .8.
8
The
reduction
is
now
as follows
:
540
Formula
(506):
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
307.
=
129470
log
ft
log
Constant log
tan a
= 5.1122 = 9.2218 = 6.7367 = 8.4092*
Mean
of times
=
g
h
7
m
3".
7
ATa
t
i
i.8
4 4
.7
8h 2
=
I2044'i8".o
log correction Correction
= =
the
9.48oo
o".3
The azimuth
(499),
of
star
may now
it
or (500).
We
shall
compute
be computed either by equation by each method for illustration.
(498),
Formula
(498) is
tan a
=
cos
q>
sin
/
tan S
sin q> cos
/'
<p
d
= =
29 26' 2". 6 88 29 57 .83
cos
<p
tan d
Sumi
* Zech
sin /
= 9.9399792 = 1.5817575 = 1.5217367
.0032688
sin <p
= = =
9.6914542 9.7o852i2
cos
t
Sum a
s\
93999754*
2.1217613
J
log denom. =. 1.5250055
a
=
i
28'
n".5
tan a
= =
9.9342512 8.4092457
Formulae (499)
:
tan \(q
\
a)
=
sn
cot*/;
d
cp
= = =
88
29' 57".83
29
59
26
3
2 .6
 <P=
<p)=
55 23
sin
117
29 31 57 .61 56 o .43
=
9.6927762
cos
=
99395566
* Addition
and subtraction logarithms.
307.
AZIMUTH BY STAR AT ANY HOURANGLE.
(500):
541
Formula
sin t r
[/{/
sin
i
tan tpcos
tan 9 ?) cos 2 /

2d term
3d term
Sum
log
sum
sin t
<p
= = = =
= =
40". 80
+
34
5361 .71
3.72930
9 93425 .06002
log sec
log a
3.72357
=
i
28'
n".4
For computing a single azimuth, as in the present case, formula (498) will be For other cases, where a larger number of values are required, (499) and (500) will sometimes be found more convenient. For the level correction
preferred.
d
[
W
Mean Mean
"
]
tan
q>
=
82
102.44] tan
^[97.56
=
2.00
X
tan
<p
=
l".l3.
reading on star
of star
of

level correction
reading on mark
Azimuth Azimuth
+ correction for 2 At*
=
a
\
\
aberration
mark
(m
s)
= = = =
337
158
i
19' 25". 3
4 .6 28 10 .9
51 3 28 .4
180
= =m = a. = A.
s.
1
The
aberration, as before,
is
given by the formula ".32 cos
a.
54 2
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Conditions favorable
to
308.
Accuracy.
308. Reckoning the azimuth from the north point equations (121) become,
(a)
(b)
(c)
cos h cos a cos h sin a
sin
//
= = =
sin
<5
cos cp
/
;
cos 8 sin
q>
cos
/
;
cos d sin
sin d sin <p
+
cos 8 cos <p cos
polfj
/.
Also from the triangle whose vertices are the zenith,
(d) sin
(<?)
and
;
star,
q sin
d 5
=
=:
cos a sin
sin
t
sin a cos / sin <p
<p
/
;
sin q cos
a cos
(/) cos q
^ being the angle at the star.
Dividing
(a)
=
cos a cos
sin a sin / sin <p
;
by
(b)
we
find
(g) sin / cot a
=
da
tan 8 cos
t,
q>
+
cos
/
sin
cp.
Differentiating with respect to a and
and reducing by (/),
sin/
(5
7)
sin a cos
declination
This reduces to zero when q is greater than (p.
=
90
;
a condition possible with any star whose
With a close circumpolar star at elongation, / will at the same time be near 90" or 270, and sin a will be small this will therefore give the most favorable condition when small errors in t are to be apprehended.
;
Differentiating (g) with re&pect to a
and d and reducing by
a
(b}
and
(e),
da d8
_ ~
cos
cp
sin
_ ~~
sin q
cos h cos 8
cos~^
'
(5 9}
Differentiating with respect to (a)
and
/^
(q>),
=
maxima values
signs on
tan
sin
a
........
'.
.
(510)
Both (509) and (510) vanish when the
star is
on the meridian approaching near
for a circumpolar star at elongation, but as they have different opposite sides of the meridian they will vanish from the mean of two
determinations arranged symmetrically with respect to the meridian. It therefore appears that the azimuth will be practically free from the effects of
small errors in 5,
/,
and
(p if
it is
equal
number
of times at both eastern
determined from circumpolar and western elongation.
stars
observed an
For a more elaborate treatment of
be consulted.
this subject Craig's Treatise
on Azimuth
may
309.
AZIMUTH WHEN THE TIME
the
IS
NOT KNOWN.
Time
543
not
Azimuth by
Sun
or a Star at any Hourangle, the
being
Known.
309. In determining azimuths for the ordinary purposes of landsurveying or for magnetic work extreme accuracy is
not required.
In such cases
knowledge
of the local time
be derived without a a theodolite and readby using
it
may
ing both horizontal and vertical circles. Either a star or the sun may be employed in the latter case the threads are placed tangent to the limbs and a correcThe vertical thread is placed tion for semidiameter applied.
;
alternately tangent to the first horizontal thread tangent to the
and second limbs, and the upper and lower limbs. If
the observations are arranged symmetrically with respect to the limbs the semidiameter will disappear from the mean.
The azimuth of the star is computed as follows The last of equations (113), substituting 90
and recollecting that the azimuth
point,
is
:
z for
h,
is
reckoned from the north
cp
sin
d
=
cos z sin
;
(p +
sin z cos
cos
a.
d and
(p
are
known
z
is
the zenith distance measured as
in
and corrected for refraction, and, when the sun is employed, for parallax. We therefore solve the equation
dicated,
a.
for
2 I 2 sin \a, then cos a Writing cos a we find by a familiar reduction
=
i 
2 cos \a,
3
iin sin
\a
=A
COS

*
>
sn
sn z
cos
cp
cosia=
~
/ sin }(
cp \3)
cos %(z
<p
cp
d)
y
/cos
sin z cos
ip
+

cp fcp
V
cos \(z

6} sin %(z d) sin 40
+

<p
*5
cp
544
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
of the star
310.
The azimuth
will not be
these formulae, the last being most accurate.
this consideration will
may be computed by either of As this method
is
employed when extreme accuracy
have
:
required
less
weight than
in other cases.
When
ter
is
the sun is employed the correction for semidiameobtained as follows
Let 5
=
the sun's semidiameter taken from the ephemeris.
Then from the rightangle triangle formed by the great circles joining the zenith, centre, and limb of the sun we have, calling the
angle at the zenith da,
sin
5
or
*
= =
sin z
.
sin da,
<
si
5I2 >
the proper algebraic sign being obvious. also required, we derive it from the measured altitudes by the method of Articles (124) and (125).
If
the time
is
Conditions favorable
to
Accuracy.
310. In order to investigate the effect upon the azimuth of small errors in assumed latitude and zenith distance we resume the fundamental equation
sin
8
=
cos z sin
tp \ sin z
z,
cos
cp
cos
a.
Differentiating
first
with respect to a and
then with respect to a and
)
;
cp,
we
.
have
dz a
d$a
= =
[
[
tan tan
tp tp
cosec a
cot a
j
f
cot z cot a\dz
,
cot z cosec
a~\dcp.
;
both dz and dtp diminish as a and z approach 90; also the have opposite signs for a 90 and a = 270. Therefore by selectstars which cross the prime vertical at as low altitudes as may be consistent ing with good definition, and observing at about the same distance from the meridian east and west, the best results will be obtained. When the sun is used it should be observed as near the prime vertical as possible, east and west. When an ordinary surveyor's theodolite is used there will be no provision for
The
coefficients of
coefficients
3H. AZIMUTH
;
WHEN THE TIME
IS
NOT KNOWN.
545
illuminating the field this may, however, be done front and a little to one side of the objectglass.
by a
bull'seye lantern held in
311.
Station, Capital,
vertical,
Example. Washington, D. C.
Longitude
Observer, Charles A. Schott. h 8 m I s west of Greenwich.
Sun near prime
August
15, A.M., 1856.
Instrument, 5inch theodolite.
5
Thermometer 73.
Barometer 30 inches
We
also
have
<p
d
Sun's eq. parallax
^
it
= = =
38
13
53'
18"
Mean chronometer
55 33
8". 5
Horizontal circle
= 5h = 25 Vertical circle = 61 Refraction = r =
time*

7
m
48*.!
1702 141
Parallax

7
7 4
Corrected zenith
dist.
=
61 i8'36"
We
compute azimuth of
i(*
star
3
8
:
by the
44"
ii
last of (511)
:
+ +
<P
(p
S) 8} 8)
i(z } cp %(z
(
<p j 5)
= = = =
= = =
57
cos
sin
43 4
18
14 53 10 26
sec
cosec
= = = =
9.73538 9.83489 .00120
.50598
\*
47
95
25
33'
3"o
7
tan
=
07745
.03872.5
6
Hor.
circle
56 40
290
*
eris
50 33
=
Reading of
circle for north point.
A
chronometer was used. The time is only required for taking 8 from the ephemand need not be very exact. When a star is used no record of the time is required.
sidereal
546
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
313
Azimuth by
the Transit Instrument.
312. It has already been shown, in connection with the general theory of the transit instrument, how the azimuth of the line of collimation is determined, either by special obser
vations made for this purpose or from a series of transits reduced by least squares. If now the direction of this line is fixed by a meridian mark, we have the azimuth of the mark. Such a determination, though not of the highest order of acsufficient for many purposes. the greatest precision is required, the telescope must be provided with an eyepiece micrometer moving a vertical thread. The instrument will generally be mounted either in the meridian or in the vertical plane of a circum
curacy,
is
When
polar star at elongation. 313. Azimuth by a Close Circumpolar Star near Culmination.
The instrument
is
set
up and adjusted
in Articles 1669.
The mark whose azimuth
as already explained is to be deter
mined must be placed so near the meridian that it may be well observed without changing the azimuttuof the instrument. In positions where a distant meridian mark is not available a collimating telescope may be used, in which case
the firmest possible mounting will be required for both transit
and collimator.
:
The observations will be made as follows short time before the star's culmination the telescope is directed to the mark and a series of readings taken with the micrometer, both in direct and reverse position of the instrument. The
level is then read and a series of transits observed over the micrometerthread, which is moved forward successively one turn or less. The instrument may be reversed or not at the middle of the series. The level is again read and a series
A
31$
AZIMUTH BY THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
547
Transits of zenith and equaof readings on the mark taken. torial stars will also be observed for determining the clock
correction.
314.
this
Method of Reduction.
is
The value
If
of
one revolution of
known required. previously be derived from the observed transits of the star, may by, the same method used for determining the equatorial intervals of the transitthreads, viz.:
the micrometerscrew
not
Let /
=
the interval of time required for the star to pass over the space corresponding to one revolution
of the screw.
Then, eq.
(291),
R=
i5/cos 3 Vcos
/.
.....
(514)'
Vcos / being taken from table Art. 174 when it differs appreciably from unity. R, the value of one revolution, will be expressed in seconds of arc. The collimation constant may be derived either from the transits of the star, the instrument being reversed at the middle of the series, or by means of the readings on the mark in the two positions as explained in Art. 182. When the transits of the star are used for the purpose the
formula for
c is (see Art. 185)
c
= $(TT) cos 8+%(T f
T)6Tcos 3 + \(V 
b)
cos (>#).
well to derive c from both the star and mark, the two determinations mutually checking each other. 315. The mean of the observed times must next be reIt is
duced to the time over the
line of coliimation of the telescope.
548
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
, .
315.
Let rlt ra
/
.
.
rm
tm /c
= = =
/a ,
.
.
.
the successive readings of the micrometer; chronometer times of observation;
rc and
micrometer reading and time for
collimation.
line of
' o
m
(291),, tc
m
 t, =
(tc /
Then, from
7?^=^ sec * Vsec
(/
*
).
(515)
taken from the table Art. 174 thus have T, the if it differs appreciably from unity. chronometer time of transit over the line of collimation.
factor
)
The
Vsec
is
We
Then, equations
(284), (285), (287),
s
a
in
=
T+ AT + Aa + Bb +
sin (cp
C(c
.O2i cos <?);*
which
Let
A =
r
#)sec
tf,
#=cos
(cp
(^)sec^,
C=sec
$.
=
<x
[T+4T +
sum
of the
l>+C(c*.02icos<p)']', (516)
that
is,
the algebraic
known
terms.
Then
is
a
It will,
the expression for the azimuth of the star in seconds of arc. however, be remembered that in the theory of the
* If the
mean
of the times has been reduced to the line of collimation as
c will
supposed above,
be zero;
if
not, c
=
tc
to.
315.
AZIMUTH BY THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
when
549
transit instrument
considered plus
ates to the east.
where the above formula is derived, a is the south end of the telescope deviFor present purposes, therefore, the algeof star
braic sign
must be reversed, giving for azimuth
a'
=
at
(5i8)
once from the di ference between the micrometer readings on the mark and
of the
star.
The azimuth
mark then follows
By observing the same star at both upper and lower culmination the effect of any constant error in the right ascension or clock correction will be eliminated from the mean.
EXAMPLE.
S Ursa Minoris at Lower Culmination. 51 Cephei at Upper Culmination. Instrument, Simms Transit C. S. No. 8. 1882, March 20.
Means
18.754 12.670
15.72
6 b 20m 58 8 .46 42.98 55.58
1572
6 h 3om 2i i .64 46.00 56.12
S Ursae Minoris.
51 Cephei.
cp
=
29
7'
30"
d
= a=
93 24' 24" 8 6 h 20 5 .6i
S
a
= =
87 15' 33" 6 h 29 m 33 8 .i5
550
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
the foregoing formulae
5
3I5.
By
we compute
Ursae Minoris.
A =
B=b
+ 15.16
730 16.83
f
A = 
51 Cephei.
C= =
B=
C
17.76
ii 04
}J
6".30=o 8 .42
=
20 .91
5". 06
f
= o".337
We now
sits of
derive the value of the micrometerscrew from the observed tran
star, as follows: Subtracting in each case the first time from the seventh, the second from the eighth, etc., we have the following values:
each
6
Ursae Minoris.
5f
Cephei.
log/
log 15 cos d
log
1.73078
= =
log
/
1.17609
8.77395
log 15 cos d
= = =
1.82607
1.17609 8.67961
1.68177
R= R=
1.68082
47.95
3 turns
i
log
R R
48.06
3turns I turn
=2 m
41". 4
=
53 .80
=
I
turn
= =
3
m
21"
67 .o
=
7 Mean
R=
48".oo
The mean
fore,
of the readings
(515), (516),
by formulae
on the mark E. and W. gives rc and (518)
=
15.712.
There
* c is
= o, since we have reduced
the times to the axis of collimation.
C1
8
Therefore
.02I
COS
<f>
= 
.018.
316.
AZIMUTH BY THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT,
Mark west of collimation Mean value of a' Azimuth of mark
axis 3.042 revolutions
551
= = =
2'
26". 02
.39
2
25
.63
316.
If
muth screw
ment, Art.
the telescope is not provided with an eyepiece micrometer, the azi' at the end of the axis may be employed (see description of instru158).
The mark
is
in this case'
must be
range of the screw
small.
The method
quite near the meridian, as the of observing is the same as that de
scribed in the last article.
Determination of the Value of the Screw.
For
this
purpose a series of transits
of a circumpolar star near culmination will be observed, extending over the entire available range of the screw. It will be as well not to extend it to the ex
treme Let
limit in either direction.
M
1?
Ms =
the micrometer reading at any observed time /; the micrometer reading at time of culmination. A>;
the value of one revolution of screw.
Then
*
since the screw
moves
the instrument in azimuth,
we
have, by (517),
R(M where r
This
is /
to.
M
)
=
a
little
more accurately written
R(M  M$ sin i" = A
or
sin (isr),
R(M 
M,)
=
~[i$r 
2 $(IST? sin 1"];
Where
KIS
sin
i")r]
.....
(15
(519;
may
will
the log (15 sin i") 2 0.94518 be taken from the table Art. 275.
=
10,
and the quantity
sin i") 8 r 8
it
When
this correction is appreciable
be convenient to apply it directly to the observed times, when we shall have these times reduced to what they would have been if the star had moved uniformly in a great circle. The method of combining these reduced times is
the
same
as that illustrated in the preceding article.
552
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
EXAMPLE. 8 Ursa Minoris near lower culmination, February 5, li Chronometer time of lower culmination, 6 h is in 48*
317.
Time of three revolutions, =r= One revolution
597 07
.
s
199". o
log
log 15 log
A
= = =
2.29885
1.17609
8.82216
log
R=
48"
2.29710
=
Star's declination
198". 2
Latitude
= =
d
q>
= =
93
23'
30 13 54
The computation
of the
azimuth of the star
at the
mean
of the observed times,
of the
and the determination of the azimuth of the mark from the combination readings on star and on mark, will require no further illustration.
Azimuth by Circumpolar Star at any Hourangle.
317.
When
extreme accuracy
is
required the instrument
must be provided with an eyepiece micrometer. The mark, The method of course, must be near the line of collimation. of observing will be the same as with the theodolite, Art.
298, except that the readings are
If
made with
the micrometer.
there
is
no eyepiece micrometer the azimuthscrew may
3I/
AZIMUTH BY THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
553
be used, in which case the reduction will be precisely the same as that given for the theodolite, formulae (XXIV), Art.
304.
When
:
the
micrometer
is
em
ployed the reduction will be as follows In the figure represents the horizon, P the pole, s the the zenith, ^ the mark, CZ star, the direction of the line of collimation, w' the point where the west
NESW
Z
end
of axis pierces
the
celestial
FIG.
65.
sphere.
Let
M M
M'
b
=
= R =
micrometer reading on line of collimation micrometer reading on star; micrometer reading on mark value of one revolution of screw elevation of west end of axis.
; ;
;
Then from the micrometer and level readings we require the expression for the difference in azimuth of s and /*.
Let
R(MR(M'
figure,

M,)
=m
r .
Then from
Then
a
if
a
a'
azimuth of
a,
star,
a'
azimuth of mark,
=
#/
=
required difference of azimuth.
554
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
triangle w'zs,
sin
3lS.
From
m = sin b cos z
cos b sin z sin a
t
.
From
triangle
ze/,sr;w,
sin
m'
=
sin # cos z'
cos
sin z' sin #/.
m, m', b, a lt and 0/'will always be small quantities the above equations may be written
;
therefore
m = m' =
From
these equations
,
b cos z b co&
z'
a
1
sin z
;
a{ sin
z'.
we
obtain
a.
a,
= m
m'
sin z
7
sin z
, 4 b 
sin
(z' :
z)
7.
.
sin z sin z
(1520)
The micrometer reading is supposed to increase with the azimuth if the opposite is the case the signs of m and m' will be changed.
;
flexure,
b includes the correction for inequality of pivots also for if the instrument is of the form shown in Fig. 28. (See Art. 192.) Thus the complete expression for b is
;
b
=d (W E)+p+f.
#
....
(521)
p
the correction for inequality of pivots, and /"the flexure. The azimuth of the star being computed by any of the methods before given, we have by (520) the required azimuth
is
of the mark.
318.
when
It will be best Circumpolar Star near Elongation. to observe the stars near the time of elonpracticable
A
319
AZIMUTH BY THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
555
The readings on the star may then be reduced to gation. the reading at elongation as follows: In the figure let
se
= =
position
of
the star
;
at
time
'
T =
e
elongation
s
position of the star at time T.
s
Then se a = x is the correction required to reduce the reading at s to the reading at elongation.
From
the rightangle triangle sPa,
we have
cos
(te
t)
=
tan 3 cot (3
+ x).
t)
From
this,
by the process given for deriving equation (483)
x
=
, i sin 23
2 sin
2
^77^
Ute
(522)
account of the rapidity and accuracy with which the micrometer readings may be made several sets may be taken at one elongation if thought desirable.
Example.
319. In Vol. XXXVII, Memoirs Royal Astronomical Society, Captain Clarke gives among others the following observation of Polaris
:
On
Position
W E M M M M'
E
Station Findlay Seat, 1868, October 23.

1.30
Latitude
g>
= = =
Q
Sidereal time
= = =
580.19
77.01 i8 h 4i m 30.
Declination 5
57 88
i
34' 50". o
36 34 .4
h
Right ascension
a
/
nm
29
2
57". 46
n
Zenith
Hourangle
dist.
17
32 .65
t
262
93
23' 9". 75
of
mark
z
We
also have
One One
division of level
division of microm. screw
Inequality of pivots
=d= =R= p =
i".8io
".8345
".650
I
Flexure
y=3"
7i
556
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
are the
319
The observations given
order
:
means
of a series taken in the following
ist.
Level.
2d. 3d.
4th.
5th.
Mark.
Direct telescope to star and read level.
Three readings on
Level.
star.
6th.
7th.
Mark.
Level.
order.
The instrument is then reversed and another series taken in the same The level reading given is the mean of the four above indicated.
We
shall first reduce the observation
by computing the azimuth of the
star at
the instant of observation.
As both zenith distance and azimuth are required, equations (II), Art. may be employed. These equations are rewritten here for convenience.
tan 8
(65),
tan
t\
Proof:
sin (<p
M)
we
a
cos h cos a
readily find
33' 23".s8
By means
of these formulae
h
2
= 2 = 57 = 32
22
13 .38
37 47
By formula
(521),
b
=
.65
X
i".8i f 3". 171
m
*'
+ ".650 = 2".645
.8345 log .8345 log
=
580.19
7701
X X
= =
2.68500
1.80798*
m =
+ 14
57' .9*
b
.
,
sin (zf
.
.
sin z sin

z)
/
=416
4 .27 6 .55
z'
a
a'
Azimuth of star = a Azimuth of mark a'
=
2 2
33 23 .58
17' 17". 03
This still requires the correction for diurnal aberration, viz.,  o".32 cos a.
32O.
AZIMUTH BY THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT.
557
320. The observations of the foregoing example are taken too far from elongation for reduction by formula (522), but they will serve to illustrate the method. We compute the azimuth and time of elongation by the formulae
We
readily find
Then by
= = Time of elongation T = a = T = Time of observation T = T  T =  t= 2 sin \(t  /)
sin a e
cos S sec
cot
<p <p
cos
te
d tan
te
e
a
2
35'
h
e
e
IQ 18
39".!! 20 m 43 s 1 3
.
41
30 .11
'3 02
e
te
39
2
e
(522),
log 177
13' 8".8
'
sini"
sin
347892 8.68589
9 6 9 8 97
26
=
= gi =
log x
1.86378
Reduction to elongation = x Micrometer reading on star m
Reading
at elongation
=m
\
x
= 73". 08 = 484 .18 = 557 .26
of m in equation (520). When the observation is _j_ x now takes the place the zenith distance at time of within a few minutes of elongation we take for Using for elongation but in the present example this will not be admissible.
m
;
2 the
value derived in the previous reduction,
we have
sin z sin
z'
a
a'
a
Aberration
Azimuth
of
mark
= = = = =
18 22 .II
2
35 39
17
.
2
17 .00
o
2
17'
.32
i7"32
CHAPTER
PRECESSION.
321.
X.
NUTATION.
ABERRATION.
PROPER MOTION.
The heavenly bodies which
we have most cases supposed the position of the object observed The coordinates which we have to be accurately known. in most cases employed are the right ascension and declinain
tion.
the purposes treated of in the foregoing pages are, sun, moon, and planets; and. second, the fixed stars. In solving the problems of practical astronomy,
are employed for any of first, the
moon, and planets are of a comand the prediction of their places for any plicated character, given instant belongs to another department of astronomy. When their coordinates are required for any of the foregoing purposes they will simply be taken from the American
of the sun,
The motions
Ephemeris or a similar publication. With the fixed stars the case is different their relative In most positions change very slightly from age to age. cases no change at all has been discovered. O
;
coordinates of all stars, however, are varybut continuously, owing to two causes which are ing slowly independent of the star's motion, viz.: first, a shifting of the planes of reference, giving rise to precession and nutation and second, an apparent motion of the star, due to the earth's motion combined with the progressive motion of light, called
;
The apparent
aberration.
322.
SECULAR AND PERIODIC CHANGES.
559
Secular
322.
and Periodic Changes.
The
viz., secular and periodic. Secular changes are those which are progressive in the same direction from year to year, requiring long periods of time
into
employed two classes,
in
small changes to which many of the quantities astronomical operations are subject are divided
sccnla
to
complete a cycle, so that during short periods the
considered as proportional to the time.
changes
may 'be
which complete their cycle in a short time, and where the motion from maxicomparatively mum to minimum, or the reverse, is so rapid that the change cannot be considered proportional to the time, except for
Periodic changes are those
very short intervals. T\& precession of the equinoxes produces a secular change in the coordinates of all stars referred either to the equator or It will be remembered that this is the name given ecliptic. to the slow motion which takes place in the line of intersection of the ecliptic and equator, causing the pole of the equator to describe a circle about the pole of the ecliptic in a period of about 25,000 years. This motion is due to the spheroidal form of the earth, in consequence of which one component of the attractive force of the sun and moon tends to draw the equator into coincidence with the ecliptic. This component of the attraction is not uniform. It is* a maximum when the sun and moon are farthest from the
plane of the equator, and a equator.
minimum when they
are in the
Nutation. The want of uniformity in the forces producing precession gives rise to small changes of short period which together are called nutation. There are a number of small
changes embraced under "this head, but the principal one causes the actual pole of the earth's equator to describe a
560
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
;
324.
small ellipse about the mean pole the major axis of this ellipse is directed to the pole of the ecliptic and embraces about 1 8" of arc. The length of the conjugate axis is about
14".
The period
is
about 18 years.
Mean, Apparent, and True Place of a Star.
323. Suppose the right ascension and declination of a star to be accurately observed with a suitable instrument the place of the star so determined will be the apparent place.
:
The apparent direction of the star is affected by aberration, the effect of which will be considered more fully hereafter.
If we apply to the apparent right ascension and declination the corrections necessary to free them from the effect of aberration, we have the *true place. If now we apply to this true place the small periodic cor
rections called nutation, we have as the result the mean place. In catalogues of stars the right ascensions and declinations are given, referred to the mean equator and equinox for the
beginning of the year of the catalogue. If then the apparent place of the star is required for any given date, the precession must be applied to reduce the mean place of the catalogue to the mean place at the given date; the nutation and aberration must then be applied to reduce the mean place to apparent place. The determination of these reductions will be the immediate object of the present chapter.
Precession.
324.
The change
in the position of the
equinoxes
is
due
to
two causes:
first,
the action of the sun and
moon; and
second, that of the planets. The first gives rise to lunisolar precession, and the second to planetary precession.
325.
PRECESSION.
561
By the processes of physical astronomy it is shown that the attractions of the sun and moon upon the matter accumulated
about the earth's equator, which gives it its spheroidal form, produce a slow retrograde motion in the line of intersection of the equator and ecliptic, without changing the angle between these planes. As the celestial longitudes are measured from this line, or rather from one of the points where it
pierces the celestial sphere, the effect
is
a constant increase
in the longitudes, with no change in the latitudes. This is lunisolar precession, and is due simply to a
motion
of the equator. The attractions exerted
of the solar
upon the earth by the other planets
system tend to change the plane in which it revolves about the sun, without changing the position of the equator; this change is relatively small and tends to diminish
the right ascensions without affecting the declinations. The latter is called planetary precession and is due to a motion of the ecliptic.
effect of the lunisolar and planetary preproduce small secular changes in the right ascensions and declinations, also of the longitudes and latitudes of all stars, and in the obliquity of the ecliptic. 325. In order to be able to determine the position of the
The combined
is
cession
to
equator or the ecliptic at any given instant
it
will
be neces
sary to select the positions of those circles at some given epoch as fixed circles to which all motions may be referred.
Let these fundamental
tic for 1800.0.
circles
be the mean equator and
eclip
In Fig. 67,
let
AA
be the mean equator for 1800.0;
A'A", the mean equator for 1800
Let
1800
EE
+
/.
and EE' be the mean
ecliptic for 1800.0
and
f t
respectively.
Then BD, the
part of the fixed ecliptic over which the
562
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
is
325.
point of intersection has moved,
sion in
t
the
i/>. years Let D' be the point on the movable ecliptic which coinwhen the ecliptic had the position cided with Q Then CD' is the general precession for t years ^,. Since B is the point of the equator which at the instant 1800.0 was at D, BC is the arc of the equator over which
=
lumsolar preces
D
EE =
.
FIG. 67.
the intersection with the ecliptic has
direction.
moved
in a
forward
BC
t
is
therefore the planetary precession in the interval
3.
years
Let
GOQ
=
=
the
mean
GO,
A.DE, the obliquity of the fixed ecliptic for 1800
=
obliquity of the ecliptic for 1800.0
co
= =
n
A"BE\ the mean obliquity of the movable ecliptic for 1800 + * = A"CE\ the inclination of the mean ecliptic for 1800 f / BEC. to the fixed ecliptic
of 1800;
=
+
*
D is
1800
the
*.
mean equinox
C
is
the
mean equinox
of
+
326.
PRECESSION CONSTANTS.
563
Since longitudes are reckoned in the direction DE^ E will be the descending node of the movable on the fixed ecliptic.
Let II
the longitude of the ascending node of the movable on the fixed ecliptic, reckoned from the 180
Then
326.
stants,
H=
mean equinox  DE.
of 1800.
The determination of by means of which the
at
the values of the above conposition of the mean ecliptic
and equator
any time 1800
+
*
can be determined in
reference to the fixed ecliptic and equator of 1800.0, belongs Three different to the department of physical astronomy.
series of values have been quite extensively employed, viz., those of Bessel, Struve and Peters, and Leverrier. Bessel's values are given for the mean ecliptic and equinox of 1750, those of Struve and Peters for 1800, and Leverrier's for 1850.0.
The
values which
Peters,
employ are those of Struve and being those which are more extensively used at
shall
we
present thaneither of the others. If, however, it is preferred to use other values, it will be a simple matter to make the necessary changes in the formulas which will be derived.
The
values are as follows:*
<
= 50". 3798^ o.opo io84/ ~ 50". 24 it + o.ooo fa = 23 27' 54".22; = <0+ 00 00735*
tp
1
2
;
1
n=
c=
,
/
&9
(523)
i2
o".i5ii9*
.ooo 003 5/;
.000 241 86*
2
.
* Dr. C. A. F. Peters' Numerus Constans Nutationis, p. 66 et 71. f In the American Ephemeris the value of the annual diminution employed /; is o".4645, instead of The difference is so small as to be practically .4738. almost inappreciable.
564
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
327.
Bessel gives the following values for the epoch 1750:*
fa
fc^
<tf
= 50 .21129* + 000 I22I483/ = 23 28' i8".o + ooo 00984233*' = 23 28 8 .o .48368* .00000272295*'; n = 171 36' 10"  5".2i*; = o .48892/ .000 0030719*';
2
; ;
".000 12 17945 /
2
;
1
^(524)
7/
TT
3
o
.
1
7926*
.
.000 2660394*'.
The
folio wing are Leverrier's values, the
epoch being 1850
:
".oooioSSi*
2
;
^
GO,
50 .23465*
f
.000
H288*
2
;
GO
n=
7t
=
23
27' 3i".83
+
/
<
.000 00719^
;
2
3"
= =
27 31 .83 47593^ "OOOOOI49/  8 / .6 173 o' 12" 94 / // o .4795<D/ .000 003 1 2 f
23
;
^
;
(525)
;
o .14672*
.00024174^.
of the above quantities to be known, solve the following problems. To find the precession in longitude 327. Problem First. and latitude for any star between 1800.0 and 1800 t. Let the star be referred to a system of rectangular axes,
Assuming the values
we may now
+
the fixed ecliptic for 1800 being the plane of XY, the positive axis of being directed to the ascending node of the ecliptic
of 1800
t on the fixed ecliptic, the positive axis of directed to the pole of the fixed ecliptic. Let L and B the longitude and latitude for 1800.
X +
Z being
Then
x
cos
B cos (L
let
II)
;
y
= cos B sin (L
the
77)
;
z
sin B.(a)
Next,
the plane of
JFFbe
mean
ecliptic of 1800
+
t,
* Tabulae Regiomontanae,
p. v, Introduction.
327.
PRECESSION.
axis of
565
axis
the
new
X coinciding with the old, and the new
/.
directed to the pole of the ecliptic of 1800 fof the longitude and latitude for Let A and ft
Z
=
1800
+
/.
Then
II
is
the same in both (a) and
of
(d),
being the value for 1800.0.
the old.
The new axes
Therefore
Y
7t
and
Z
make the angle n with
x'x\
From
(d) cos
(i)
y'=y
(a), (b),
cos
\
z sin n\
z'=y sin
77);
n
\
z cos n.
(c)
and
77
(c),
ft
cos (A
sin
(/I

n  ^) = cos B cos (L
^0
sin /?
cos
fi
(f)
= =
cos
^ sin (Z cos B sin (L
II) cos
?r
[
sin n^sin sin
II) sin
TT
>in  sin
B ?r; 7T; ^ cos n.
they
[
V (526)
)
These equations are rigorous, but
in practice
may
be
much
n
abridged. so small that no appreciable error will be involved in i, even when the interval / is several cenwriting cos n
is
=
turies.
Making cos (e) by cos (L
cos
fi
TT
=
7T),
i, and multiplying (d) by and subtracting, we have
sin
(L
H),
sin
(A.
L
^,)
=
sin
n
sin
B cos
(L
II).
ing,
Then multiplying by cos (L we find
ft
77)
and
sin (Z
77),
and add
cos
cos (A
L
^j)
=
cos
5 { sin
?r
sin
B sin
(Z'
71);
and by
division,
.
sin
n
tan
tan
B cos
(Z
77) ;
566
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
this into a series
327.
sin
Developing have*
A
and writing
n
TT,
we
L
$1
=
n
tan
B
cos (L
II)
^
tan 8
B sin
z(L
II)
etc., (527)
where
the.
term
in n*
The
last of (526)
may always be may be written
omitted.
sin
/? is
ft
=
sin
B
sin
n cos
B
sin (L
II).
a function of n.
Developing by Maclaurin's formula,
we have
/?
B=
n sin (L
H) + %n*
tan
B sin
2
(L
77), etc.
(528)
fore remarked, the terms in
* This expansion, which
is
Formulae (527) and (528) solve the problem, where, as be2 7r may always be dropped.
of frequent application,
is
obtained as follows:
Writing
(A
L
^)
=
x,
it
tan
B=
m,
the above formula becomes tan
x
x
m

sin y.
I f
m cos y
=
x).
,
sn x
cos
x
.
From
this
we have"
to
sin
=m
sin (y
Adding both members and dividing,
m
sin x, then subtracting
both members from
m
sin
x
m m
N9W
write
f i
_ ~~
sin
r
sin
x x
j
sin (y sin (y
x} x)
_
tan
tan (x
\y
iy)
tan w
~
^
'
=/;
.*

j
=
w;
^
=
.
=/ tan
v\
and by Moivre's formula, equation
2u
(135),
V^l
2u
V^l
328.
PRECESSION.
$6?
328. Problem Second.
To
find the precession in longitude
and latitude between two given dates 1800
Let A and A/ and
ft
ft'
+
/
and 1800
+
/;
/'.
be the longitude and latitude for 1800 fbe the longitude and latitude for 1800
+
'/'.
Then by
(527),
A
\'
..==
L=
t/,\'
+ +
n tan
n' tan
B cos B cos
(L
(L
 H

);
II').
Subtracting,
This
may be placed
a sin A a cos A
in a better
form by assuming the
auxiliary equations
= =
(*'
1
+ T) sin i(77' 
(n

a) cos J(/T
V
^);
77).
I
'
I
_ From
.
.
this
we

,
~=~
e

f~=
2V
I
_
find
2 (u
+ v) V
l
1.
\
me
I j
me
Taking the logarithms
I
of both
2"
members
of the above
*r
and expanding,
3
A/
~
v
_
V '~^~l
_
1
2
^^
I
1
6u
^^^
Or
Writing for
u
,
\
=m
w
sin
2v
\ni* sin
\v
\
\m*
sin 6v, etc.
.
v,
and
their values,
we have
\rP
A
z_
1
pl
=
n
tan
B cos
(Z
77)
tan 2
^7r
3
tan 3
^ sin B sin
z(L 3(Z
77)
77), etc.
5^8
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
(529),
328.
Combining these with
find
and eliminating n and
TT',
we
_
\
=
fa'

^)
_[.
a cos \L
i^
for 1800
7
t
.
(531)
Similarly from (528)
we have
n
sin
+
and 1800 f
t'
ft
fl'>
B= = find
(Z
ar'sin(

77
);
7
/I
).
Subtracting and eliminating n and
tions (530),
TT'
by the auxiliary equa
we
ft'

ft
=
a sin
(L

~~
A we

A).
.
(532)
For the auxiliary quantities a and
find,
from
($30),
tan
^ =
TT
~
and
tan  (ZI 7

77).
If
we
substitute for
TT'
their values
from
(523),
neg
lecting the term in f, and recollecting that i(7I' small, this equation may be written
71)
is
very
/
.
(533)
being therefore very small even for large values i in and /', we may write cos A (530), when
a
of
=n'
n =
(t'

f)
".4776

(*"

f) ".0000035. (534)
329.
PRECESSION.
569
In equations (531) and (532) we may write A and fi for B. Introducing the auxiliary angle
M such that
^
x
for Z,
Land substituting in (531), Struve and Peters' values
(53 2 )>
and (534) for #/,
#'
?r,
77,
equation (523) we have finally the following practical formulae for computing the precession in longitude and latitude between any two intervals 1800 4 /and 1800 /':
+
/
M = 172
A'A.=
/$' (/'
45' 3i"
/)
[50". 241 1
ft =
f (f
(?
/) [
+ + o".4776 +
(/'
(/'
+
5o".2 4 i

(/'
/) /)
f t) 8". 505; o".ooo 1134]
o".ooo 0035] cos o".ooo 0035] sin
(A.
M) tan /?;
M).
M536)
*)[ o".4776
(t'
j /)
(A.
329. If
we
/),
by
of
(t'
divide the expressions for (A/ fi) A) and (/?' and then make / t', we shall have the values
=
j
and
jj
or the expressions for the precession in longi/,
tude and latitude respectively at the instant
viz.
:
/x
jr
5o .24i
i
4~ o.ooo 2268/;
o.ooo 0070/1 cos (\
o.ooo 0070?] sin (X
+ [o
//?
//
4776
M}
M).
tan
(537)
/?;
77
[o"4776
cession between
These formulas may be used to compute the entire pretwo dates 1800 / and 1800 f /', if we
+
compute the values
of the differential coefficients for the
middle interval, viz., 1800 The result will be %(t /'). accurate to terms of the second order inclusive.
.
+
+
5/0
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
329.
We have
developed these formulae (536) and (537) (which
are those of Bessel, except that we have employed other constants) for the sake of completeness, although they will
not be used in connection with the problems of the present treatise, the coordinates commonly employed being the right ascension and declination.
Example.
lows:
The mean longitude and A
ft
latitude of
a.
Lyra
for 1850.0 are as fol
=s 283
12'
48". 12;
.45.
=
61
44 25
Required the mean longitude and latitude for 1884.0.
Here
t
=
50;
f
=
84;
/'
/
=
34;
t
1
f
t
=
134.
Therefore we
find,
by
8'
(536),
A
 X so".256'3 + (f  t} X .4771 cos (A M) tan ft; ftTft=(ft)X .4771 sin (A  JIf  ft = A'  A = 28' i8". 3 6 15". 24 = 61 44' 25". 45 A = 283 12' 48".i2 ft
=" (f
t}
).
XA
M= M= no
173
23";
4 25;
ft'
A'
=
283 41'
6". 4 8
ftf
= 6i44
'
io".2i
If we wish to employ (537), we shall have for t the middle of the interval between 1850 and 1884, viz., t = 67. For A in the second member we require the longitude for 1867, which we shall have with all necessary accuracy by adding to the longitude for 1850 the general precession for 17 years and neglecting the smaller terms. Calling this value A we have
,
AO
M= 172 M
Ao
=
283
12'
48"
+ 50". 24
+33
231
45 3i
X X
17
67
= =
283
173
27'
2";
37;
22
no
4 25;
~=
=
d&
50". 2563 f .4771 cos (A
 M) tan
ft
= =
4 9 ". 9 5i7;
~
4771 sin (A
 M)
".4481.
330.
PRECESSION.
A'
5/1
Therefore

\

(i>

t)
=
28' i8". 3 6j
agreeing with the values obtained by the other formulae.
330. Problem Third.
Given the mean right ascension and
declination of a star for the date 1800 /', ascension and declination for 1800
+
+
t,
required the right
require the values of certain auxiliary constants similar to those employed in solving the corresponding problem for the ecliptic.

We first
FIG. 68.
In Fig. 68
let
Vy{
^
S
V V{
l
= = =
the fixed ecliptic for 1800; the equator for i8oo /;
the equator for 1800 /'; the lunisolar precession in the in
terval
f
+ +
(t
t).
Therefore
V^' =
QV,
is
$'
^.
Let
z, z' ,
90^; QV;=cp+z';
V&V^V.
in
and 6
/)
will be quite small quantities,
even when the
180
terval (/
considerable.
In accordance with our notation, angle
gFjF/
<
Then
in the
triangle
QVyf
the quantities
o?/,
572
$'
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
$ are given by
(9.
331
z, z'
(523);
we can
therefore determine
,
and
By
Napier's analogies,
we
readily find
(538)
The second
of these
may be
written
In the
first
and third the denominator may be written equal
to unity.
can now solve our problem, viz., to determine 331. the right ascension and declination for 1800 /', having given those quantities for 1800 f /.
We
+
In Fig. 68,
If
5 being any
star,
Sa
=
#,
Sa'
=
tf'.
F
3
for 1800
and F/ represent the position of the mean equinox / and 1800 1' respectively, then
+
+
The The The
planetary precession in the interval planetary precession in the interval
right ascension
/
t'
= F/F/=
z
J7 J^
5;
5
r .
= =
a;
a'
VJQ = 90 + z'  $'
star,
V^Q
90
5;
Considering
now
the rectangular coordinates of the
33
1

PRECESSION.
f 1
573
the
mean equator of 1800
tive axis of
X being directed to the point Q, we have
x= y =
#
being the plane of
XY,
the posi
= sin #.
cos d sin (a COS d COS (tf
f
z

$);
+ * + ^);
+
f
Similarly for the equator of 1800
/',
/ = cos *' cos (a
*'
= sin <T.
x', y',
7
z' + S')J
terms of
x, y,
The
formulae for
and
*',
in
and
z,
are
= z sin #; y' = y cos 8 #' = y sin * cos 6. +
AT
X',
Therefore
cos 6' sin (a *'{ 5') 2' cos d' cos (a' 3')
1
+
sin d'
= cos = cos = cos
S sin (a 4d cos (a
z f 5);
+ z f 5) cos 6
j
sin
& COS (a
* f 3) sin 6 f sin
5 sin d cos
j
0;
j
.
(539)
0.
)
might have derived these equations by applying the formulae of spherical trigonometry to the triangle P/ formed by joining the place of the star with the pole of the equator in the two positions. Thus in Fig. 69, 5 being the star, and and the of the equator at the time i8oof* and 1800+*' pole
We
P
P
and angles
the star C,
respectively, we have the following for the sides of the triangle. Calling the angle at
F IG
.
^
PP =
SPP =
6;
SPP = i8oa'*'S'
a\z\
$
PS= 90 tf; /*S=90<T; = A, say, for convenience; = 180 A'.
574
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
of the
332.
Another solution
problem
is
obtained by applying
Gauss' equations to this triangle,
cos
viz.:
cos 4(90+*') sin $(A'+C)=cos i( 9o+(?#) sin %A\
sin sin
4(90+$') cos4(4'Q=sm 4(90 =sin o 490+* sin
+3+0) cos %A\
tf6> sin
(540)
4^
A
auxiliary quantities z z' and 6 being computed by either (539) or (540) give the required solution of our (538), problem; these equations being solved in the usual manner.
y t
The
332. Practically
f
it is
more convenient
(#' d).
to
formula for (a conveniently derived from the first and second 6f
ferences, (a
a)
and
A
compute the
1
difis
a)
(539),
which we write
as follows:
cos $' sin A'
= cos # sin A',
cos
<$
cos <$' cos
A =
'
cos A cos 6
sin
<5
sin 6.
Multiply the first of these by cos A, the second by sin A, and subtract; then multiply the first by sin A, the second by cos A, and add. readily find
We
cos 8' sin (A cos 5' cos 04'
1
A) A)
cos 8 sin
cos 5
A
sin
cos 8 cos
^
tan $0]; [tan 8 f cos tan $0] , sin 0[tan 8 f cos
A
)
/
,
A
f
Let
/
=
sin ^[tan
8
+ cos A tan 40],
B ^
I
(542)
By
the
first
of Napier's analogies,
tan KiT

J)'=
.
cos \(A
A)
332.
It will
PRECESSION.
,575
be necessary to make the computation in this com/) is plete form for circumpoiar stars when the interval (/' is not too near the pole the computaWhen the star large. tion will be much simpler, as we shall see.
Example.
The mean
jflace of Polaris for 1825.0 is
as follows:
Right ascension
Declination
a.
ou 58
15'. 32;
d
= =
14 33' 49"8. 88 22' 3*".47.
Required the precession
1900.
in right
ascension and declination between 1825 and
We
have here
/
25,
t'
=
100.
We
therefore find, from formulae (523),
<!
f
K>!
= =
23
27' 54". 22459;
23
27
'
54 .29350;
^=
^=
i259"43;
5
$'
5036 .90;
= =
3"628;
12
.700.
Then by
formulae (538), which
we may
write
tan
*(*'
+ = cos l(ftV + coO tan (^'  ^),
z) *)
i(s'
=
KCO/

ooO cot i(^'

^) cosec K^i'
+
i),
tan
=
sin \(z' f 2) tan
i((/
+ o^).
cot
(^
_
^,)
31' 28".
74
tan
f a?/)
z f \ z)
= = =
23
27' 54". 26
cos
o 28 52
0^.03446
9.45
.55
= 7.9617592 = 9.9625128 tan = 7.9242720
cosec
= =
=
2.03824
.39991
.
<,)
log log
tan i(o>j
8.53732

HZ'
 4= =
0.97547
2'
z
= =
o
29' 2".oo o 28 43 .10
+ <')'= 96375775
j z)
sin $(s'
7.9242567
7.5618342
25
tan
J0
=
6
=oi2'32".o7
=o
4 ,14
576
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
compute
<*
333.
:
We now
(a'
a) and
(6"
S)
by formulae
(542), viz.
2
S
= = =
14
33' 49"8 28 43 .10
tan $0 cos A
= =
= = = = =
7.56183
9.98486
7.54669
3 63
Sum
A =
15
2'
36". 53
Zech tan 5
sin
.434
1.5472620
7.8628593
sin
A =
log/
g. 4142243
9.4101647
log/
cos
=
A =
9.4101647
9.9848553
i(A'A) =
i(A'\A)
2
32' 13". 06
sec
=
= = =
0.0004259
9.9792268
7
/
cos
A =
Zech
log denominator log numerator
tan (A
1
= = = =
9.3950200
.1239697
= = =
17
34 49 .60
cos
tan0
>'
5618342
9.8760303
8.8243890
8.9483587
5
4'

d)
d
o ii 57 .65 o 23 55 .30
tan
7.5414869
A)
A'
A =
26".I3
A =
A'
15
2 36 .53
2". 66
=
20
7'
'A) =
5
4'26".I 3
57 45 .10
_
($>

*)
3)
= =6
9 .07
2'
a'
a
= =
2".i6
8".
o h 24m
144
333.
By means
of the foregoing formulae
we
readily find
viz.,
the precession in right ascension and declination,
^
and
dd
T, at
any given instant 1800
1
+
/.
We
have (A
 A) =
(a'
a) (z + *) + (V  5).
1
(543)
333If
PRECESSION.
(541),
6, sin
5/7
6'
=
now we make /' = / in the first of  A] = A'  A, sin 6 = tf, sin (A'
6 tan
will vanish, being
A=
we may make
sin (or+S);
also, sin
an infinitesimal of the
second order. Therefore this equation becomes
+ $).
From
(538), the
.
.
.
(544)
same condition
existing, viz.,
t
t ',
we have
= =
Combining
for (a'
(543), (544)
#
'
*
cos
sin
a), etc.,
and (545), writing da, d$, and and dividing by dt,
da
=  d$
dfy
cos
^
.
dfi
sm ^
.
tan d
*
sm
The
last of (542)
by a similar process gives
^ = ^8111^ cos (a + 3)
Writing
(547)
m=
*
jr
+ jr cos &
Y
=
W
^
*(548)
sin
''
* If we draw in the plane of the equator lines to the mean equinox o and (1800 f t j i) years, it will be observed that m represents the angle between them, assuming the rate of change to be uniform during one year. Also, n will be the angle between the two lines drawn to the poles of the equator in the two positions.
$,8
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
the values of 4\
<*>!>
334.
From
an ^
^
equation (523)
we have
m= =
n
46". 0623
s
3
.o/o82
//
+ ".ooo 2849/5 + .ooo 01899/5
s
2o .o6o7  '".ooo 0863/5
m

>{
n sin
<*
tan
(549)
6;
n cos
at
have written a in place of (or  5), no appreciable error resulting from neglecting 3. These formulae may be employed for computing the pre/ and 1800 f /'. cession between any two dates 1800 If the
J
We
+
i OL
values of
r
and
/'),
=
are
computed
inclusive.
for the
middle date,
viz.,
1800
+ \(t
\
the result will be accurate to terms o( the
t)
second order
in
(/'
We
shall return to these
formulae hereafter.
Proper Motion.
334.
When
the coordinates of a star observed at different
dates are reduced to the same epoch by means of the precession formulae, a considerable difference in the values is often found, indicating a motion of the star itself. This
change is called proper motion, and may be due either to an actual motion of the star in space or to the motion of the solar system, producing an apparent motion of the star. The
observed proper motion is in fact the resultant of the two. For our purposes it is not necessary to attempt to separate these components. The proper motions in most cases are very small, requiring many years to produce an appreciable change in the star's place; but there are a few important exceptions to this rule.
334
PROPER MOTION,
5/9
In investigating the subject, the path of the star is assumed to coincide with a great circle, and the motion to be uniform.
not probable that either assumption is true, but such deviations as may exist will be very small. In order to determine a star's proper motion, its place must be 'observed on at least two dates which we may call
It is
1800
+
t
and 1800
the
more
the interval (f  t) accurate will be the results, other things being
+
/'.
The greater
equal.
Let
<*
and S
=
the observed
mean right ascension and declination for
1800
+
+
/;
a
+
AOL
and d
\
Ad
the
values
given by reduc
ing the values observed at t' to the first date by 1800 the application ol the precession only.
Then
Act
and Ad
will
be the changes
(t'
t).
in
a and 6 due
to proper
motion
Let
yw
in the interval
and
//
=
the annual proper motion in right ascension and declination respectively.
Then
These values
I
p
= Act
/=
AS 
.....
(550)
3 OO
__ t m
to'iSoo
+
be referred to the mean equator of had reduced the coordinates for this date *''we should have obtained the proper motions
will
If
We
referred to the equator of the latter date
:
*
=
Act' 
and
Ad'
'
=
580
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
differ
336.
These values for stars near the pole may siderably from the first.
very con
To reduce the right ascension 335. Problem I. / to 1800 lination of a star from the epoch 1800
and dec
+
+
t',
the
proper motion being known. First. Suppose the proper motion given in reference to the mean equator of 1800 /, the solution is as follows: Add to the right ascension for 1800 1 the effect of proper motion for the interval (/' /); similarly add t\ viz., jw(/'
+
+
to the declination
//(*'

*)
With
these values of the right
is
ascension and
Second.
declination the
precession
computed
for the
as
before by formulae (542).
The proper motion being given
mean
and
equator of 1800
+
/'.
Reduce
add to the
the star's place to 1800
results p(t'

+
t'
by formulas
t)
(542),
f)
and
p'(t'
respectively.
336. Problem II. Having given the proper motion in right ascension and declination, referred to the mean equator of the values in reference to the equator of I 8 00 __ t, to derive
1800
+
d,
t'.
Equations
(539),
giving the values of a' and
:
&
in
terms of
a and
cos
are as follows
1
d' sin (a cos d' cos (a'

z f 5')
z'
=
cos d sin (a
cos d cos (a
f z
j z
+ *') = cos d cos (a
=
f 5);
\
+ 5) cos  sin d sin
3) sin
f
0;
j
(552)
)
sin d'
J z f
sin
d cos
0.
We also have
cos 8 sin (a cos 5 cos (a
sin
\}
z f 3) *
= =
cos
d' sin (a'
z' jz' \
S')
;
+ 3) =
} <5'
cos8'cos(a'
cos
8'
$')cos 6fsin
sin
fl;
!
'
(553)
d
cos
('
z f 3') sin
+ sin
^'
cos
e

The proper motion which changes
itself
the position of the star
,
produces no change in the quantities z, z' S", $' or 0, as these quantities merely serve to fix the positions of the
',
337
PROPER MOTION.
58 1
reference planes. Therefore, proper motion alone being considered, these quantities will be constants, a, a', S, 6
f
being variable.
Differentiating the
first
two
of (552)
on
this hypothesis,
we have
cos
d'
cos (a
d' sin
1
z \ 5')
da'
=
('

cos

cos 8 cos (a
<ta'
z'
_ cos d sin (a+z+3) cos Qda
Multiply the
first
+ 3')
+ dd' + + 3) ata  sin S sin (a f * + 3)  sin cos (a'  + 3')
1
sin d' sin (a
z
z'
')
</S
;
5'
'
z'
atf
sin
S cos (07+2+3) cos Qdd
f
cos 5 sin Qdd.
z' f 3'), the second by cos (a and reducing by (552) and z' f S'), subtracting by sin (V  z' f 3'), the sec(553); then multiply the first by sin (a' We find z' ond by cos (a' 3'), add, and reduce.
of these
+
Aa'
AS'
= Aa
[cos
+ sin
sin (a'
tan
8'
cos
(a'

z'
+ d')] + ^ sin COS
~
*'" (a '
COS
5'
i^^;
'(554)
(a'
=  Aa sin
z'
+
AS
#0 H
cos
6'
[cos
+ sin d tan
cos
da, dS,
all
is
dd' have been changed to Aa, AS, etc. These equations solve the problem above enunciated with
, ;
da and
f
necessary precision Aa, Ad, etc., being so small that it unnecessary to consider terms of the higher orders. They may be used 'for the entire proper motion between the two dates t and /' or for the annual proper motion. The proper motion being given in 337. Problem III.
reference to the
mean equator
of 1800
values of
Aa and Ad
+
/'
to derive the
of
in reference to the
mean equator
1800
+
/.
Differentiating equations (553) and reducing by (552) and (553) i Q a manner similar to that explained above, we have
Aa =
A8
Aa' [cos

sin
tan 5 cos (a
+ z + *)]
l

~
sin 9
=
Aa' sin 9 sin (a
+ z + #) +
A3'
K5S5)
cos s t cos
sin
tan S cos (a 4 z
+ #)].
582
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
337.
Example.
In the example Art. 332 we have found by applying the precession to the catalogue place of Polaris the mean position for 1900.0, as follows:
a'

Aa'
= =
Act'
h
i
22 m 23*46;
d'

Ad'
=
88
46' 26". 77.
From Newcomb's catalogue we
a
Therefore
t'
1
find for
6'
1900*
88
46' 26".66.
i
h
22 m 33 s 76;
.
=
=+ =+
io s .3o
;
Ad'
=
".n.
t
75 years.
8
Therefore
i373;
/*
X= "
."00147.
These values are referred to the mean equator of 1900. we wish to reduce them to the equator of 1825 we employ From the values of (a  z formulae (555). 3) and 0,
If
+
Art. 332,
we
find
sin
da.' [cos 6
tan d cos (ttfH^)]
= = =
=
7 742
8
48'
15
sin
f z 4 3) cos o cos o
(or
sin
f

02 3
765
s

7

Therefore ju=\*.io3$
Also,
r,
f
J5
^a
'
sin 6 sin
(or
+ + 5) = +".2924
2
.
cos 5 [cos
sin
tan d cos (afz+3)]
1096
The above treatment
* This
is,
of the
problem
is
due to Bessel.
answers equally well
for
of course, not an observed place, but
it
illustrating the
f
method.
in
Aa' being given
time and AS' in arc.
339
EXPANSION INTO
SERIES.
583
Proper Motion on the Arc of a Great Circle.
338. Let
p X
= =
the annual motion on the arc of a great circle; the angle which this great circle forms
with the hourcircle of the star. When the star is on the meridian, X will be measured from the* north towards the east.
In the figure
P
is
the pole,
5 and
S' the first
and
second positions of the star respectively.
SS'
=
p;
S'A =
4acosd
PSS' = K = p sin X;
SA
p*
=
Ad
=
Jtf*
+
= p cos X Jo* cos
;
Expansion
into Series.
339. The foregoing problem of reducing the mean place of a star from one epoch to another is treated in a very convenient and elegant manner by expansion into series in terms
of the time.
If
we
let
of
and #
tf
= =
the right ascension and declination
for
any time
any time
T,
a and
the right ascension and declination
for
T f~
t,
we have by
Maclaurin's formula
i
<t*
a
eta
2
r
L
J'
+
i
^
etc

When
precession and proper motion are both considered,
584
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
339.
the changes in a and d are functions of these
two independ
ent variables, and
coefficients
f"jjr
I
~ji L etc
>
are the total differential
with respect to both
precession
and proper
motion.
If
we
cession,
tion,
write d a, d p to indicate a variation due to prep and d^a, d^d to indicate changes due to proper mofiave
we
rda~}
_^a
_ dp
~^/
<*
,
d^
~
\_dt\~dt~ "dt\
rd a ~\ V df J
* 2
pttl VdtA
,
_ dp 3
~~dt
. '
d d a
2
d* a
"^
^//
"^ ^/a
and
similarly for the other coefficients.
Equations (549) give us
~
\
and
J,
viz.,
dp a ~
=m
n sin
ex
tan
o;
(559)
at Differentiating these,
n cos
a.
we have
"
^
dt*
=
at
+
sin 2 2
a+ \~ sin a f mn cos a "Itan 5 + at
I
sin za tan"
5;
d*& 
= _ mn sm
a
+
,
dn 
cos a
3 \z
,
w 2 sin 2 a tan
**
5;
= mn*
^_
j~(
 mn* 22
.
3 
\
cos
a
za.
n
at
 sin
2a
2 *a
w2 + 3
3
cos 2a) n sin a
 sin 2a
f
^2W
(
d" ~
~ + n ~ jcos a J tan 5
(560)
f
J3i
cos 2a
+3
tan 8 8
2*
sin a (i
+ 2 cos 20) tan* &
=
(^ +
^
^)sin
(*,
sin
+
'
sin
a)
cos a
m
sin za
+3
a
tan 8

3
sin
a cos o tan"
8.
340
EXPANSION INTO
SERIES.
585
340. Let us
p, Xy V,
now
and
6'
//
consider proper motion. have the same significance as before, Articles
334 and 338.
a'
the right ascension and declination at end of proper motion alone being considered. In the triangle formed by the pole and the two positions p of the star we have
and
/,
=
time
PS =
90

tf;
S'PS=a'a;
Therefore
sin
<$'
PS = 90 S'SP=Xf
tf';
SS'
=
tp\
= sin
<5
cos p^+cos d sin pt cos #;
x
cos^
cos
tf
/
/
)
s
cos(rtr
7 /
<*)=:costf
cosp/
sin
dsinp/cosj; M56i)
sin p/ sin j.
)
sin(of v
a)= '
FIG. 71.
Also, p sin *
=
;i
cos
tf;
p cos ^
= X;
P
a
= (>
9
cos
2
Differentiating the first of (561) with respect to
find
r
tf
and
/,
we
cos
$'

=
p
sin
d
sin pt
+ cos S cos pt.p cos ^.
t
Substituting for p cos *
its
value X, and making
= o,
we
have
Differentiating a second and third time
and reducing
in
a
586
similar manner,
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
341.
we have
the following partial differential
/*'.
coefficients with respect to
.
(5 6 2 ,
In a similar manner, by differentiating the third of (561), making t = o, and reducing, we find
]
(563)
341.
For the terms
D *

u.
.
and
^u
,
,
we
r
differentiate (559)
with respect to ^ and //
viz.,
Substituting for

and

the values given above,
we
have
p *
cos
a tan
(564)
=
n p sin a.
Therefore, from (558), (560), (562), (563), and (564),

=m
=

f
n sin tan d
f
p
;

.
.
(565)
n cos a\ X;
341.
EXPANSION INTO
i'
SERIES.
cos a
tan 2
6;
587
sin a
sin a+(z + a/) + + aw sin a(w cos a
+
2ja
M
tan
6
 p.')
P^l
=_ m+
{
2lji)n
sin a
+
cos a

^
sin 28

2
sm a
tan
5.
Also we have
^?r
"
df
+3
8
Differentiating the first of (560) with respect to
d*dp.oL p
//,
we
find
dt
,
3
=
2
cos 2
d^a 4ydt
\~dn 7 cos
\_dt
d^a a~ dt
mn
.
sin
~\
d^oT\ tan Tdt J
^
+
f
Vdn
I
v/
sm
.
+^
a
cos a sec
d,d
d^^77.
2# cos
s
2<*
tan <J^r
2
+2
sin 2
2 tan d sec
In like manner, differentiating the respect to yw, we find
first
of (559) twice with
a ~
n
sino'
tan tfljr \ at
Jd
a \*
I
+
,
cos
or
sec dr^r ^r at at
sec
^ ar ~
2
XM^
d^a.
n cos <*tan
sin
^~r
+ n cos
2
a?
a tan 8 sec ^ry)
+ n sin
etc.,
~ sec ^~4r~'
2
Substituting in these equations for ~~,
(562)

their values
from
and
(563),
then substituting in (566) these values, also
r and ~r from (560) and (563),
we have
the required
588
PRA C TICA L ASTR ONOM Y.
is
342.
value of the third differential coefficient,
a similar manner.
found in
They
^' Sin
are as follows:
~dfl
+3
a
,n\t.'(m
+
2/it)
cos a
+
(/
+
2/n)
9
COS za
+
f


sin
a
2<x
2M S sin* &
a
6ju.
I
(2
nfl
f 6/u.'
2
3*ttju. (
3
a
cos 2a)
sin
a
2
+ (" ^+
/a
f
^
+ 3 ^V) cos a + 6V sin
;
aJ
tan 8
_6/HM
+3
j*n'
sin a f (12^
+ 3/)M
sin 2a
COS a
(567)
4"3 w ~r s ' n 2a a*
 [(2
~l~
(3
W
~f 6/a)
2
cos 2a
a
 6/u.
/a
)w sin a
s?*i
\
6
V
J
tan 2 8
(
4
3
sin a cos 2a] tan 3 8;
~*j
:
SA
"i
J
= 
M
V  (a* + 3^
na
I
sin a

(m*
+
2
2
+ 3//n)
2
/u.
cos a
wat
sin
a
sin 2 a cos
sin a
a
3*
V
sin 2 a
ju.'
sin 2 6

6n/jifji'
+ (w 2
j 2/u.)
sin 2a
8.
+3
sin 3
a
a/
J
tan 8
~
3
2
(w cos a f n') sin 2 a tan 2
342. These expressions for the third differential coefficients are too complicated for use in practical computation.
series of tables
is
A
given by Argelander* by means of which that part may be readily derived which depends on precesThese tables are convenient when the proper sion only. motion is so small that it may be disregarded. They are given for the epoch 1850, and Bessel's constants are employed.
If the third differential coefficients are required, they may be obtained very conveniently by computing the values of the second differential coefficients for two dates fifty years before and after the given one and proceeding according to
the method of Art.
If
50.
we make/(T)
=
iiber die
,
then/(7^ w) and
f(T+w)
will
*See Untersuchungen
Eigenbewegungen von 250 Sternen,
p. 145.
343
EXPANSION INTO
fifty
SERIES.
589
be the values for dates
T.
Then
the
first of
years before and after the date (101) gives
(568
the notation being that of formula (101), and the unit of time
being one year.
343. If
now we
given date, as 1875.0,
require the precession formulae for any we obtain them by substituting for m
and n the values given by (549). m will generally be expressed in time and n in arc. It will be convenient to give the formulae for the second differential coefficients the following form:
\dm
m
dn\ 1
dn
f
I
I
(da
JU
\
I
jV
n
sin i
(da
I
\
fIJL
I
cos
a
tan o
(*<\ hu'fsin
</ 2

a
sec 2 d
j
2//X sin i" tan
;
~
1
_
</
!/<*#
_
A
.
,,lda
^*^
,
^,
and
/^
will be expressed in time; n, r
,
and
// in arc.
We
7/~
then have the following formulae for 1875.0:
3 07225
.
s
l~
+ [0.126115]
sin
a
tan d
} ju;
I

\ju\
cos
a
tan
+[481 169]
!^jXj
sin
a
sec 2 5[4.9866]////'tan #;
^(569)
~
\=
[1.302206] co