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Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300
Candidates should attempt Question 1 and 5 which are compulsory, and any THREE of the remaining
question selecting at least ONE question from each Section. All question carry equal marks.
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N A A
1. Answer any three of the following:
(a) In the circuit show in Fig. Q.1. (a), the switch S is opened for a long time and is closed at t =
0 with the capacitor initially uncharged. Calculate the output voltage V
0
at t = 0, at t = 25 m
sec and at t = ·. Also sketch the corresponding transient.
(b) For the circuit show in Fig. Q. 1(b), find out the magnitude of the supply voltage V. The
resistor in series with the battery absorbs a power of 1 watt.
Fig. Q.l (b)
(c) Consider a thick hemispherical shell of inner radius and outer radius b, show in crosssection
in Fig. Q.1. (c). If the shell is uniformly magnetizen along the axis of symmetry (zaxis),
show that a small compass needle placed at the origin P will swing freely.
(d) Prove by considering the axial point in a disk that the electric potential undergoes no sudden
change from one side to the other of a charge layer
2. (a) R making use of matrix algebra, calculate the voltages at nodes N
1
and N
2
Ajar the network
show in Fig. Q2. (a).
C C. .S S. .E E. . ( (M Ma ai in ns s) ) 1 19 99 92 2
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
(b) Using Laplace transforms find the current i
1
(t) that enters the network of Fig. Q2.(b) when
the switch is closed at t=0 with zero initial current in the inductor. Numerical values of the
circuit elements areas shown.
(c) Synthesize the following driving point impedance in FosterI and CauerI froms:
( )
( )( )
( )( )( )
2 4
1 3 5
s s
z s
s s s
+ +
=
+ + +
3. (a) The core (radius a) of a coaxial cylindrical cable is surround by an insulating sheath of
conductivity o
1
and outer radius b, and a second layer of conductivity o
2
extending to the
outer metallic conductor of radius c. Find the resistance per unit length of the cable between
the core and the outer conductor.
(b) Plane monochromatic waves are propagated parallel to the axis in both the positive and
negative directions. At the origin, the field strengths are given by
Ex = A cos (et); Ey = 0
Hx = 0 ; Hy = Bcos(et)
Calculate the mean intensity of the radiation in each of the two directions in terms of A, B
and the constants of the medium.
(c) A parallel plate capacitor is made with a composite dielectric. A sheet of dielectric of
permittivity c
1
, thickness d
1
is placed on top of a second dielectric sheet (permittivity c
2
thickness d
2
). The combination is placed between parallel conducting plates which are
separated by the distance (d
1
+d
2
). What is the capacitance per unit plate area of the capacitor?
4. (a) Give an account of the construction of a cathoderay oscilloscope and explain the functions of
various constituents. The horizontal deflection sensitivity of a CRO is 0.02 mm/V. Wan
unknown voltage is applied to the horizontal plates, the spot shifts 4.0 mm horizontally. Find
the value of the unknown voltage.
(b) As shown in Fig.Q. 4. (b), an uncompensated electrodynamic wattmeter has its voltage coil
connected directly across the load. Show that the reading of the instrument is approximately
(P
1
+P
2
±P
3
), where P
1
is the power dissipation in the voltage coil circuit, P
2
is that in the load
and P
3
is an error term due to the presence of inductance in the voltage coil circuit.
(a) A voltmeter has a sensitivity of 100O/V and three scales; 50 V, 150 V and 300 V. When
connected in the circuit of Fig. Q. 4(c), the voltmeter reads 4.65 V on its lowest (0–50V)
scale. Calculate R
z
.
5. Answer any three of the following:
(a) A waveform produced by an electronic circuit is to be attenuated with minimum waveform
distortion (maximum bandwidth). Using the high impedance attenuation circuit shown in Fig.
Q. 5(a), draw in any additional components required to fulfill the above requirements and
determine dies values of the required components.
(b) A silicon pn junction diode is fabricated from a 0. 1O m pmaterial and 0.02Om n
material. Calculate the value of potential barrier for the unbiased diode at 300
0
K. For silicon,
u
n
=0.14m
2
/V sec. u
p
= 0.048 m
2
/Vsec, and n
i
=1.4x10
16
/m
3
.
(Electronic charge e = 1.6x10
–19
C; Boltzmann’s constant K = 1.38x10
–23
JK
–1
)
(c) Using NAND gates, implement the equation:
K = (AB + CD)(F+G)
(d) A 100 kW, 250 V shunt generator has a field circuit resistance, including a rheostat of 60O
and a total armature circuit resistance of 0.065O. Calculate (i) field circuit current, (ii) full
load line current flowing to the load, (iii) armature circuit current and (iv) fullload generated
voltage that is required to deliver rated voltage to the load, Ignore armature reaction.
6. (a) A transistor is connected in commonemitter (CE) configuration in which collector supply is
8 V and voltage drop across resistance R
0
(=800O) connected in the collector circuit is 0.5V.
If · = 0.96, determine (i) collectoremitter voltage and (ii) basecurrent.
(b) A transistor in commonemitter configuration employs a 4 kO load and V
cc
= 13 V. Estimate
the maximum peak to peak value of the input signal for linear operation if  = 100. Given:
V
knee
= 1V and a change of 1 V in V
BE
causes a change of 5 mA in collector current.
(c) In a CE transistor amplifier, when the signal changes by 0.02 V. the base current changes by
10 uA and collector current changes by 1 mA. If the collector resistance RC = 5kO and load
resistor R
L
= 10O, find
(i) current gain (ii) input impedance, (iii) ac. load resistance, (iv) voltage gain and (v) power
gain.
7. (a) The primary of a transformer consists of 1000 turns of wire and produces a maximum flux of
0.03 Wb alternating at 50Hz in the iron core. The secondary winding has 40 turns. Calculate
the r.p.m. values of primary and secondary e.m.f’s on the assumption that the flux change us
sinusoidal.
(b) A d.c. series motor supplied from 230 V source draws an armature current of 16 A and drives
a load at 1600 r.p.m. The resistance of armature and field is 1O. The torque required to drive
the load varies as N
1.8
, where N is the speed. What should be applied voltage to the motor if
the speed is to be raised to 1750 r.p.m.? Assume that the field is unsaturated.
(c) Calculate the suitable autotransformation ratio for starling a 3phase induction motor with
line current not exceeding three times the fullload current. The shortcircuit current with
rated applied voltage is 5 times the fullload current and fullload slip is 5%. Find also the
starting torque in terms of the fullload torque, when the autotransformer is employed.
8. (a) Find the percentage voltage drop for a transformer with a percentage resistance of 2% and a
percentage reactance of 4%, of rating 550 kVA, when it is delivering 450 kVa and 0.6 p.f.
lagging.
(b) A 3300 V, 24 pole, 50 Hz 3phase starconnected induction motor has a slipring rotor
resistance of 0.016O and standstill reactance of 0.265O per phase. Calculate (i) speed at
maximum torque and (ii) ratio of fullload torque to maximum torque if fillload torque is
obtained at 247 r.p.m.
(c) A 3phase synchronous motor, when working on constant voltage mains at constant load,
takes a current which varies with the excitation. Explain this result. How is the power factor
affected?
P PA AP PE ER R   I I I I
Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum marks: 300
Candidates should attempt FIVE questions only selecting at last TWO questions including the
compulsory question from each of Section A and B or Section A and C. The Number of marks carried
by each question is indicated at the end of the question.
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N A A
1. Select any three of the following statements, read them carefully and identify the correct and
incorrect ones. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case:
(20x3=60)
(a) In order to increase the margin of stability for type2 or higher order system, phase lag
compensation is desirable. (b) For a second order system and a tolerance band of 2% the
setting time is given by 3/c where c is the damping factor. (c) A semiconverter system
provides better performance to d.c. series motors as compared to the full converter system.
(d) An invertor in the rotor circuit of a woundrotor induction motor can serve as a means of a
speed control.
2. (a) Explain what you mean by relative stability of a closedloop system and how it is assessed.
(15)
(b) A turntable with a moment of inertia of 10kg rn1 is used with a proportional error controller
in a unity negative feedback system. The controller develops a torque of 60 Nm per radian of
misalignment. The viscous friction is such that the damping factor is 0.3.
(i) Draw a signal flow graph of the system and determine u
0
(s)/u
1
(s) and u
e
(s)/u(s) Where
u
1
(s), uo(s) and u
e
(s) are the Laplace transforms of input, output and error signals.
(ii) Determine the steady state tracking error for a constant velocity input of 0.03 rad/sec.
(25)
(c) The openloop transfer function of a unity feedback control system is given by
( )( )
( )
1 0.1 1 0.05
K
G s
s s s
=
+ +
(i) Determine the value of K so that the gain margin of the system is 20 dB. (ii)
Determine the value of K so that the phase margin of the system is 60
0
.
(20)
3. (a) What are generalised error coefficients? Discuss their advantages. Explain various classical
error constants and discuss their disadvantages.
Determine the position, velocity and acceleration error coefficients for a feedback control
system with unity feedback, and the following openloop transfer function.
( )
( )( )
( )
2 2
1 2 1 4
2 10
K s s
G s
s s s
+ +
=
+ +
C C. .S S. .E E. . ( (m ma ai in ns s) ) 1 19 99 92 2
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
(30)
(b) Discuss the disadvantages of harmonics and suggest methods for reducing a.c. harmonics in a
converter circuit.
(20)
(c) Explain the working of time delay circuit which may be used to apply power to an industrial
load at a predetermined time after the initiating singal.
(10)
4. (a) Describe with a neat diagram a step up chopper and discuss its merits and demerits.
(15)
(b) Describe with a neat diagram a static version of the WordLonard system of speed control of a
d.c. drive.
(20)
(c) A single phase full converter is used to control the speed of a 220 volt, 1500 r.p.m. separately
excited d.c. motor. The armature resistance is 0.3 ohm and the rated armature current is 20 A.
The a.c. supply voltage is 250 volt. The motor voltage constant is K
a
o = 0.03 volt/
rafdian/min. For a firng angle · = 30° and rated motor current, determine (i) the speed of the
motor and (ii) motor torque, assuming continuous and ripple free armature current. Derive
any formula used.
(25)
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N B B
5. Comment with justification on the correctness of any three of the following statements, restricting
your answer to within 200 words for each:
(20x3=60)
(a) With V/f speed control of 3phase induction motor the maximum torque and slip at which
maximum torque occurs, respectively, increases and decreased with increase in frequency.
(b) The higher the SCR of a machine, the heavier is the rotor of the machine.
(c) For economic operation, the generator with highest positive incremental transmission loss
will operate at the lowest positive incremental cost of production.
(d) For an existing transmission line the string efficiency is 70%. Now if d.c. voltage is supplied
for the same setup, the string efficiency will be 90%,
6. (a) Explain the principle of operation and applications of an induction generator.
(10)
(b) Describe with neat sketches the construction and principle of operation of a fast breeder
reactor.
(15)
(c) A 3phase 50 Hz induction motor has equivalent stator and rotor resistance of 0.05 ohm each
and reactances of 0.3 ohm each. The motor is to be operated at one half of its rated frequency.
Determine (i) the maximum torque at the reduced value of supply as the a fraction of its
normal value (ii) the starting torque at the reduced value of supply as a fraction of its normal
value.
(20)
(d) A synchronous motor is connected to an infinite bus and draws 1.0 p.u. current at 0.9 p.f.
leading. Its synchronous reactance is 1.0 p.u. and resistance is negligible. Determine E, Q, o
and P. If with the same excitation the loading on the motor is increased by 10%, determine
the new values of E,Q,I, o, P and cos o.
(15)
7. (a) Explain with the help of Flowchart the procedure for solution of Coordination Equations.
(10)
(b) Explain with neat diagrams the process of current chopping in circuit breakers and suggest a
suitable method to minimise its effect on power systems.
(10)
(c) Explain the carrier system of protection in power systems. With a block diagram and neat
sketches discuss how the phase comparison scheme can be used for protecting a feeder fed
from (i) one end and (ii) both the ends.
(d) Differentiate between a current transformer and a power transform. Discuss various errors
associated with a current transformer and the methods to minimise these errors.
(15)
8. (a) Explain clearly ‘Pinch effect’ and ‘Skin effect’. Compare the performance of Ajax Wyatt and
coreless induction furnaces. State the applications of the two types of furnaces.
(15)
(b) What is regenserative braking? Explain the operation of (i) d.c. shunt motor (ii) d.c. series
motor and (iii) induction motor when subjected to regenerative braking.
(15)
(c) A motor works on 2 mm load cycle constituted as follows: (i) 0 to 15 secload rising from 0
to 1050kW; (ii) 15 to 85 secconstant load of 600 kW; (iii) 85 to 95 secregenerative braking
with power returned falling uniformly from 200 to 0 kW; (iv) 95 to 20 secmotor is at rest.
Determine the continuous rating of the motor, assuming the rating to depend upon (1) r.m.s.
value of loading and (2) average value of loading.
(20)
(d) The tractive effort exerted by a locomotive while hauling a train on level track at 50 kmph is
35000 newtons. If the locomotive has to haul the same train on a gradient and the tractive
effort required is 55000 newtons, determine the power required by the locomotive when the
motors used art (i) d.c. series motors (ii) induction motors.
(10)
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N C C
Question No.9 is compulsory
9. Comment with justification on the correctness of any three of the following statements restricting
your answer to within 200 words for each:
20x3=60
(a) For transmission line load matching over a range of frequencies, it is best to use a balun.
(b) The standard reference antenna for the directive gain is the isotropic antenna.
(c) A disadvantage of microstrip compared with stripline is that microstrip is more likely to
radiate.
(d) A parametric amplifier is used for low noise high frequency amplification.
10. (a) Explain the basic theory of reactance modulator. Also explain and compare the performance
of some of the reactance modulators for generation of frequency modulation.
(15)
(b) Define signal to noise ratio, noise figure and equivalent noise temperature of a receiver.
Under what conditions is equivalent noise temperature a more useful quantity than noise
figure?
(15)
(c) Define and describe pulseposition modulation. Explain with waveforms how it is derived
from pulse width modulation. Compare the types of modulation.
(15)
(d) Differentiate between telex and telegraphy. Describe briefly the system and machines used in
telegraphy.
(15)
11. (a) Explain with the help of neat diagrams the principle or operation of the twoCavity Klystron
amplifier.
(20)
(b) Describe with a neat diagram the principle of operation and application of Gunneffect diode.
(15)
(c) Explain with a neat diagram the construction principle of operation and application of
Surface Acoustic Wave devices.
(15)
(d) Discuss and compare various methods of tuning a cavity resonator.
(10)
12. (a) Derive the impedanceinversion property of a quarter wave transformer and explain some of
its applications.
(15)
(b) Explain how you would measure coupling factor and directivity for a twohole directional
coupler.
(10)
(c) Explain how you would measure the common mode rejection ratio of a differential amplifier.
(10)
(d) Show the simulation of the following equation on analogue computer after using suitable
time scaling:
(25)
2
2
2 30 200 0
d x dx
x
dt dt
+ + =
x(0) = 5
x(0) = 9.
P PA AP PE ER R   I I
Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300
Candidates should attempt Question 1 and 5 which are compulsory, and any THREE of the
remaining question selecting at least ONE question from each Section.
Assume suitable data if considered necessary and indicate the same clearly. All question carry
equal marks.
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N A A
1. Answer any three of the following:
(a) Consider a circuit shown in Fig. Q. 1(a). The capacitor, initially charged to 10 V, is suddenly
discharged. Obtain an expression for the resultant transient current.
(b) In the circuit shown in Fig. Q. 1(b), determine the potential difference between the points A
and B in the steady state.
(c) Fig. Q. 1(c) shows two identical parallel plate capacitors connected to a battery with a switch
S closed. The switch is now opened and the free space between the plates of the capacitors is
filled with a dielectric of dielectric constant K = 2. Find the ratio of the total electrostatic
energy stored in both capacitors before and after the introduction of the dielectric.
(d) A square wave of amplitude 1 V and period 2 sec is connected in series with a resistance of 1
O and an inductance of 1 H at t = 0. Find the current in the circuit.
2. (a) State and prove Thevenin’s theorem. Determine Thevenin’s equivalent circuit which may be
used to represent the network shown in Fig. Q. 2(a) at the terminals CD.
C C. .S S. .E E. . ( (M Ma ai in ns s) ) 1 19 99 93 3
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
(b) In the network shown in Fig. Q.2 (b), the switch is closed at t=0. At t=t>0, it is found that
i(t)=1.0A and
( ) dv t
10 / sec
dt
V = . Find C.
(c) A circuit consists of two parallel branches, one having a coil of inductance 0.5 H and
resistance 20 O and the other, capacitance C in series with resistance It. Determine C and R
so that the combined impedance shall be independent of frequency and have zero phase
angle.
3. (a) A uniform plane wave is described by the phasor H = 2e
–j 0.1 t
Z
ây, A/m. If the velocity of the
wave is 2 x 10
8
m/s and the relative permeability is 1.8, determine the frequency, relative
permittivity, wavelength and electric intensity.
(b) A point charge q is situated at a distance d from a grounded conducting plane of infinite
extent. Obtain the total charge induced on the plane by direct integration of the surface charge
density.
(c) Two parallel conducting plates are separated by the distance d and maintained at the potential
difference AU. A dielectric slab, of dielectric constant K and of uniform thickness t<d, is
inserted between the plates. Determine the field vectors E
and D
in the dielectric and also in
the vacuum between dielectric and one plate. Neglect edge effects due to the finite size of the
plates.
4. (a) A car battery has an opencircuit p.d. of 13.4 V and would supply 2000 A when short
circuited. By drawing equivalent circuits in terms of (i) a voltage source and (ii) a current
source, determine the current and power in each case in an external load of 0.1 O.
(b) What is the function of timebased voltage in a cathoderay oscilloscope? A cathoderay
oscilloscope has an accelerating anode voltage of 5 kV and length of plates 4 cm. If the
maximum error due to the time taken for the electrons to pass the plates is to be limited to
3%, what is the maximum frequency of sine waves that can be displayed?
(c) Explain the construction and working of an electrodynamic type wattmeter. Give an account
of its merits and limitations.
SECTI ON B
5. Answer any three of the following:
(a) In an inverting voltage amplifier circuit using an operational amplifier, the operational
amplifier gain is 10,000, the input series resistance R
f
is 100O and the feedback resistance R
f
is 500O. If the input voltage is 1 V, find the exact output voltage and the percentage error that
would be committed by considering an infinite gain for the operational amplifier.
(b) Design a logic circuit whose output is given by the Boolean expression: ( ) A+B .AB.
(c) Discuss the advantages of a junction fieldeffect transistor over a conventional bipolar
transistor. Calculate the value of drain load resistance, R
L
required in the circuit shown in Fig.
Q.5(c) at audio frequencies to obtain a voltage gain of 60. The PET used has g
m
= 5 x 10
–3
S
and r
ds
= 100 kO.
(d) What are the functions of a commutator in a d.c. machine? Explain the various methods of
obtain effective commutation.
6. (a) In the circuit shown in Fig. Q. 6(a), there are two identical transistors T
1
and T
2
with current
gain ÷. Another transistor T
3
has current gain 
3
. Establish a relation between I
2
and I
0
.
(b) A transistor used in commonemitter (CE) configuration has the following set of h
parameters when the d.c. operating point is V
ce
= 10 V and I
C
= 1 mA.
h
ie
= 2000 O; h
oe
= 10
–4
S
h
re
= 10
–3
; h
fe
= 50
If the a.c. load line seen by the transistor is
r
L
= 600 O, determine input impedance, current gain and voltage gain.
(c) In a singlesupply bistable multivibrator, emitter biasing resistance R
E
= 100O, R
L
= 1,000 O.
R
1
= 100 kO, R
2
= 50 kO, and V
cc
= 18 V. Find (i) the output voltages E
1
and E
2
and (ii) the
collector and base currents for each transistor. Make necessary assumptions and state them.
7. (a) Explain how a 2winding transformer can be converted into an autotransformer. Two single
phase transformers T
1
and T
2
rated at 250 kVA each are operated in parallel on both sides.
Percentage impedances for T
1
and T
2
are (1 + j6) and (1.2 + j4.8) respectively. Calculate the
load shared by each when the total load is 500 kVA at 0.8 p.f. lagging.
(b) Explain the principle of operation of a polyphase induction motor. A 4pole, 50 Hz polyphase
induction motor has a fullload speed of 1440 r.p.m. Estimate the fullload slip.
(c) Two transformers connected in open delta supply a 400 WA balanced load operating at 0.866
p.f. lagging. The load voltage is 440 V. Calculate the values of kVA and kW supplied by
each transformer.
8. (a) A 4pole, 50 Hz, 3phase induction motor has motor resistance and standstill rotor reactance
of 0.04 O and 0.16 O per phase respectively. Calculate the value of the external rotor
resistance per phase to be inserted to obtain 70% of maximum torque at starting.
(b) Two identical 30 kW, 500 V, 1200 r.p.m. d.c. series motors A and 13 are connected in series
across a 500 V d.c. supply. They drive a common load through reduction gearing of a : 1 and
b : 1 respectively. When the load shaft has a speed of 120 r.p.m., motor A has 225 V across it
and runs at 1080 r.p.m. Find for this condition the speed of the second motor, the current
taken from the mains and total load torque on the shaft. Neglect all losses and saturation
effects.
(c) Explain the principle of operation of a synchronous motor. Discuss the various methods of
starting the motor. What is a synchronous capacitor?
Some useful data:
Mass of electron, M = 9.1 x 10
–31
kg
Electronic charge, e = 1.6 x 10
–19
C
Velocity of light, c = 3 x 10
8
, m/s
Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 x 10
–23
J/K
Permittivity of free space, c
0
= 8.85 x 10
–12
F/m
Permeability of free space, u
0
= 4 t x 10
–7
H/m
P PA AP PE ER R   I I I I
Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300
Candidates should attempt five questions only selecting at least two Questions including the
compulsory question from each of Section A and B or Section A and C.
Assume suitable data if considered necessary and indicate the same clearly.
The number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the question.
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N A A
Question 1 is compulsory.
1. Select any three of the following statements, read them carefully and identify the correct and
incorrect ones. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case:
(20 x 3 = 60)
(a) The performance of a contort system is affected by the characteristics of the measuring
element.
(b) In a system which uses a gear train to couple a load to the motor, the equivalent moment of
inertia referred to the motor shaft and that referred to the load shaft is independent of gear
ratio.
(c) In the operation of a threephase fullbridge rectifier both in the invertermode and converter
mode, the direction of current and polarity of voltage must remain same at different points of
the circuit.
(d) In spite of rapid technological advancement, electrical engineers have not been able to apply
solidstate devices in the variablesspeed motor drives.
2. (a) Enumerate the major qualities of a good adjustablespeed drive system.
(10)
(b) A halfwave rectifier circuit using thyristors feeds a d.c. series motor from a threephase
source.
(10x2=20)
(i) Draw the circuit diagram and the waveforms showing motor voltage and armature
currents for firing (delay) angles of 0* and 90*.
(ii) Explain how to find the firing (delay) angle for a particular operating condition of the
motor, assuming continuous conduction, when the a.c. source voltage is given. All the
drops on d.c. side ace to be considered.
(c) Describe the variablevoltage variablefrequency method of speed control of a.c. motors.
(20)
(d) Explain what is meant by the turn off time of a thyristor and the factors on which it depends
(10)
3. You are given the following components of a position control System:
 Two potentiometers including one for yielding the error signal,
 One armature controlled d.c. motor,
C C. .S S. .E E. . ( (M Ma ai in ns s) ) 1 19 99 93 3
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
 One amplifier,
 Gear train having gear ratio of 1:10.
The field of the d.c. motor is excited from a constant voltage source while the error signal is
amplified and applied to the armature circuit.
Assume appropriate numerical values for the system constants and answer (a) to (e).
(a) Draw a diagram showing the scheme of connection to form a positional servomechanism
with the above components, indicating the load on the motor.
(10)
(b) Write down the equations describing the operation of (i) the error detector and (ii) the
amplifier.
(10)
(c) Obtain the transfer function relating armature voltage and angular displacement of the motor
shaft.
(10)
(d) Draw the block diagram of the system (including the simplified one showing a single block
for the forward transfer function).
(15)
(e) Obtain the transfer function relating the angular displacement of the output shaft and angular
displacement of the reference input shaft.
(15)
4. (a) Explain why a.c. drive systems are becoming increasingly popular.
(15)
(b) In connection with d.c. motor drives explain what is a chopper and how it controls the speed
of the drive.
(15)
(c) Give the simplified circuit diagram for a chopper controlled drive scheme using a d.c. series
motor and sketch the voltage and current waveforms. Define “pulse ratio’ and “pulse
frequency”. Explain how the limits of current pulsation are determined.
(30)
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N B B
Question 5 is compulsory.
5. Comment with justification on the correctness or otherwise of any three of the following statements,
restricting your answer to within 200 words for each:
(20x3=60)
(a) Induction motors, whether threephase or singlephase, must always run at a slip.
(b) The excitation e.m.f. of a loaded synchronous motor working at lagging power factor must be
greater than the terminal voltage.
(c) Protection techniques have failed to devise means for protection of alternators against inter
turn faults.
(d) The limitations of the concept of ABCD constants in transmission line calculation is that it
may be applied only to the line itself.
6. (a) What are the specific fields of application of twophase induction motors? State the special
requirements for such uses and discuss the design considerations making the motor suitable
for those uses.
(15)
(b) Explain why starters are to be used for starting threephase induction motors. Mention the
factors to be considered before selecting a method for starting a threephase squirrelcage
induction motor. Compare the available starting torque in the case of autotransformer
starting with that in the case of statorreactor starting for the same value of line current in
both.
(15)
(c) Based on the concept of sudden symmetrical shortcircuit statorcurrent wave of a three
phase synchronous generator obtain the expression for the transient reactance (i) in terms of
steadystate reactance, magnetizing reactance and field reactance, as well as (ii) in terms of
armature leakage reactance, magnetizing reactance and field reactance.
(15)
(d) Draw the transformer type equivalent circuit for a synchronous machine and write down the
expression for short circuit tim constant.
(15)
7. (a) Show that with induction heating, the heat generated in the charge in case of magnetic
material is more than that in case of nonmagnetic material. Enumerate the advantages of
induction heating. State why its use is restricted.
(20)
(b) A highvoltage alternator supplies a group of four synchronous motors through a transformer
bank connected in star with solidly grounded neutral on the alternator side and in delta on the
low voltage side. Each motor is grounded through a reactance (current limiting). The
alternator neutral is solidly grounded. A single linetoground fault occurs on the lowtension
side of the transformer bank.
(i) Draw a singleline diagram of the system showing the point of fault.
(ii) Specify completely the sequence network showing the proper connections when the
reactances computed on the selected base are given as:
Alternator : Subtransient reactance = 15%
Zerosequence reactance = 6%
Transformer Bank: Leakage reactance = 12%
Motor group : Subtransient reactance = 20%
Zerosequence reactance = 9%
Current limiting reactance per each motor = 12%
(iii) Neglecting the prefault current determine the subtransient fault current if the p.u.
voltage behind the subtransient reactance for the alternator is 1 + j 0. Make
appropriate assumptions regarding negative sequence reactances of the machines.
(25)
(c) Name a d.c. machine in which the troublesome armature reaction has been put to advantage.
Draw a schematic representation of the machine. Describe its constructional features with
necessary sketches and draw curves to show the nature of its external characteristics.
(15)
8. (a) Explain the functions of:
(i) Pumped Storage Plant (ii) Lightning Arrestor (iii) Phase Advancer (iv) Peterson Coil
(20)
(b) Draw the speedtime curve for the following traction service on level track without any free
running period, and estimate the maximum power input to the traction motors:
The train having a dead weight of 400 tonnes accelerates for 30 seconds attaining a maximum
speed of 70 km per hour. It takes 20 secs to bring it at dead stop, the brake being applied at
the speed of 55 km ph when the coasting ends. Before starting again it is allowed to deck for
20 secs. Assume the train resistance to be 40 Nw/tonne and allow 10% of dead weight for
rotational inertia.
Given: efficiency of the transmission gear is 90% and efficiency of motors is 85%.
(20)
(c) Give brief answers to the following:
(i) What is the data used in loadflow studies? (ii) What is meant by a Swing Bus? (iii) How
is an AC Calculating Board set up? (iv) What information is obtained from loadflow
studies?
(20)
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N C C
Question 9 is compulsory.
9. Select any three of the following statements and indicate with justification whether they are correct
or wrong. Your answer must not exceed 200 worth for each statement:
(20x3=60)
(a) There will be no harmonics problem in an amplifier if its input can be made harmonics free.
(b) The characteristics of all Antennas, whether of resonant type or of nonresonant type, are
practically same.
(c) In designing choppers for d.c. amplifiers it is necessary to ensure proper damping.
(d) Fillers are to be used in a Visual Modulator, a component of TV transmitter.
10. (a) Give a brief account of the sampling theorem.
(10)
(b) Define the term ‘noise figure’ as applied to an amplifier and explain how it is related with the
available power gain.
(10)
(c) Describe the Noisegenerator Method for the measurement of Noise Figure. Explain why this
method is most desirable.
(20)
(d) In connection with a twoconductor transmission line defines ‘characteristic (surge)
impedance’ and ‘propagation constant’. Express the values of the characteristic impedance
for coaxial lines, and for parallelwire lines in terms of line dimensions, as well as for a
usual radiofrequency line in terms of line parameters.
(20)
11. (a) What is a Radar? Draw a block diagram showing the components on which radar systems are
based. Explain function of radar as a navigational aid.
(25)
(b) A standing wave indicator used with a square law detector the wave guides having internal
dimensions of width 3.75 cm and depth 1.25 cm (the electrical field being parallel to depth)
shows adjacent minima at a distance of 2.5 cm horn each other.
Assuming that the guide walls are perfectly conducting calculate (i) the free space
wavelength of the singal in the wave guide and (ii) the reflection coefficient and normalized
load impedance when the load impedance is 75 + j 0 ohm and the guide impedance is 5.53 +
j 23.7 ohm.
(25)
(c) “The magnitude of the radiation resistance of a transmitting antenna depends upon the
antenna configuration.” –Discuss.
(10)
12. (a) A pentode operating as an amplifier has a grid leak resistance of 150 kO. A signal source of
e.m.f. 125 uv and internal resistance 100 kO is connected across the input. The signal to
noise powerratio is found as 25 db at the input of the amplifier. Calculate the value of the
equivalent input noise voltage.
(20)
(b) Explain how the use of an RF amplifier improves the performance of a super heterodyne
receiver.
(15)
(c) Explain what is meant by ‘Excess or flicker noise’ in a transistor.
(10)
(d) Explain how automatic frequency control is achieved in a receiving system.
(15)
P PA AP PE ER R   I I
Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300
Candidates should attempt Question 1 and 5 which are compulsory, and any THREE of the remaining
question selecting at least ONE question from each Section.
Assume suitable data if considered necessary and indicate the same clearly. All question carry equal
marks.
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N A A
1. Answer any three of the following:
(a) In the d.c. circuit shown in Fig 1 (a), it is desired that V
0
= R
0
(oI
1
+ o
2
I
2
) where R
0
is some
resistance, 0 < o < 1 and I
1
and I
2
are two current sources. Find the required values of R
1
and
R
2
in terms of R
0
and o.
(b) In the ac. circuit shown in Fig 1 (b), find the power delivered by each source. The figure
gives the ratios of the ideal transformers, the values of the resistances and the phases of the
two voltage sources. Points A and A’ in Fig 1(b) are in phase. The points B and B’ are also in
the same phase.
Fig. 1(b)
(c) Give brief explanations in support of the following statements:
(i) The potential function V (x, y, z) gets uniquely fixed in the interior of a chargefree
region of an electrostatic field, if V is specified on all the boundaries of the region.
(ii) An infinitely long lossless transmission line draws input current and power from a
source just like a resistor, even though the line itself is lossfree.
(d) Give brief explanations in support of the following statements :
(i) The dualslope, integration method of A to D conversion is the preferred choice for a
digital voltmeter.
(ii) Wherever feasible, it is an advantage to use two identical transducers in pushpull
fashion for the measurement of a nonelectrical quantity.
C C. .S S. .E E. . ( (M Ma ai in n) ) 1 19 99 94 4
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
2. (a) In the two circuits shown in Fig 2 (a), N is the same 2port network containing linear
resistors. From the terminal conditions given in the first figure, deduce the current I in the
second figure. If N is symmetrical, find also the power dissipated in it in the second case.
(b) The switch S is opened at t = 0 in the circuit of Fig 2 (b) after steady state has previously
been reached with S closed. Deduce the values of
c
dv
dt
and
L
dv
dt
at t = 0
+
i.e., immediately
after opening of the switch.
(c) A linear 1port network with zero initial stored energy draws a current of 5 + 6t – e
–2t
amperes when connected to a voltage source of 4 V d.c. at t = 0, What would be the rms
value of current and the power taken by the same network under steady state when excited by
a sinusoidal voltage source of 8 V rms value and radian frequency e of rad/sec. ?
3. (a) Four infinitely long parallel cylindrical conductors of radius r oriented in the zcoordinate
direction, have their axes passing through xy plane at the points indicated n the table below
and carry currents as specified (current in the positive zdirection being considered positive).
Calculate the magnetic field at the origin and discuss its nature. r << o.
(b) A capacitor is formed by two parallel circular plates of A m
2
area with a separation of d m.
The dielectric employed is lossy, with a conductivity o and dielectric constant c
r
. The
capacitor is charged to a potential of V
0
and isolated from the source at t = 0. Find
expressions for the conduction and displacement current densities in the dielectric for t > 0.
What will be the magnetic field in the dielectric during this period ?
(c) A Plane sinusoidal electromagnetic wave travels in free space in the zdirection. Given that
H= 0.8 cos (e t –  z) i + 0.8 sin (et –  z) j .
where i and j are unit vectors in x and y directions, find the corresponding electric field
vector E and the Poynting vector. What type of polarization does this wave have ?
4. (a) Fig 4 (a) shows a limit bridge which is employed to test if a given resistor Rx has a value
within ± 5% of its nominal value of 1000 W. In the test, the signs of the deflection of the
centrezero galvanometer G are observed for the two positions of the switch S. Based on the
information given, explain the working of the scheme and deduce the required values of R
1
and R
2
.
(b) A periodic voltage having the waveform shown in Fig 4 (b) is applied to the following types
of voltmeters. Assuming the meters to function ideally, deduce the reading in each case. If the
connections to the meter terminals are interchanged, state for each case if there would be a
change in the reading.
(i) Permanent magnet moving coil type meter with centre zero
(ii) Full wave rectifier type a.c. voltmeter
(iii) Moving iron voltmeter
(iv) Shuntdiode type rectifieramplifier ac. voltmeter
(c) Describe the essential constructional features and properties of metallic strain gauges.
Indicate how strain gauges may be used to easure the axial force transmitted by a rod of
square cross section.
SECTI ON B
5. Answer any three of the following:
(a) Give brief explanation in support of the following statements:
(i) The ‘NAND’ gate is one of the mast widely used logic gates.
(ii) Oscillators requiring high frequency stability employ crystals.
(b) A 100 V/400 V, 2 kVA single phase transformer has 5% impedance. If it is connected as a
500 V1400 V autotransformer, deduce from fundamentals its kVA rating and percentage
impedance as an autotransformer.
(c) Find an expression for the maximum steady state power output of a d.c. shunt motor with an
armature resistance R
a
, if the applied voltage V’ and the shunt field current ace kept constant.
Neglect rotational losses and assume that the theoretical maximum power output will not
overload the motor.
(d) Give brief explanations of the following statements
(i) Semiconductor devices made of silicon can be operated at higher temperatures than
those made of germanium.
(ii) From a knowledge of the variation of dielectric constant at different temperatures, for
static field conditions, the contribution of the orientational polarizability to the total
static polarizability of a dielectric can be deduced.
6. (a) Find the common mode rejection ratio of the simple differential amplifier shown in Fig 6(a).
Assume that the JFET’s are identical and have g
m
= 3 mS and r
d
= 40 kO. Take R
D
= 10 kO
and R
S
= 20 kO.
(b) Assume that the OPAMPS in the circuit of Fig 6 (b) are ideal, show that
2
2
d v
i M
dt
=
.Compute the value of M in terms of the component values in the circuit and justify the name
“frequency dependent negative resistor’’ given to this circuit.
(c) Draw an astable multivibrator circuit employing two BJT’s in the common emitter
configuration and derives an expression for the frequency of its oscillation, taking the
mark/space ratio of the waveform to be 1.
7. (a) Sketch on the same pair of axes, the torquespeed characteristics of a typical 3phase
induction motor under the following operating conditions. Neglect stator impedance. Mark
the torque and speed values of salient points on the characteristics. Explain your answer
briefly.
(i) Normal operation
(ii) Rotor resistance doubled, other quantities remaining the same as under normal
operation
(iii) Applied voltage and frequency halved, all other quantities remaining the same as
under normal operation.
(b) A 220 V d.c. shunt motor has an armature resistance of 0.5 O and field circuit resistance of
220 O. It takes a line current of 41 A when delivering full load torque. If it is desired to raise
the speed by 60 percent with the load torque remaining constant, find the additional
resistance to be inserted in the field circuit. Assume linear magnetisation characteristic.
(c) A 3phase synchronous motor has 80% synchronous reactance and negligible resistance,
When connected to busbars at rated voltage and the excitation adjusted for an e.m.f. of 120%,
the machine draws an input kVA of 100%. Find the mechanical power delivered by the
motor, neglecting all losses. If for the same load on the motor, the excitation is reduced to
generate an e.m.f. of 100%, what would be the input kVA ?
8. (a) A 3phase turboalternator with a synchronous reactance of 10O per phase and negligible
armature resistance is connected to 11 kV constantvoltage, constantfrequency busbars and
supplies 100 A at unity p.f. to the system. If the turbine power is kept constant and the
excitation of the alternator is increased by 25%, what would be the new current and p.f. ?
Make appropriate assumptions.
(b) A 100 kVA 11 kV/ 400 V, 3phase transformer has its maximum possible efficiency of 98%,
when it delivers 80 kVA at unity p.f. and rated voltage. The maximum possible voltage
regulation 61 the transformer is 4%. Find the efficiency and voltage regulation of the
transformer for rated kVA output at 0.8 p.f. lagging.
(c) A rectangular metal strip carries a current of 50 A in the xdirection and is subjected to a
magnetic field of 1 tesla in the zdirection. The thickness of the strip in the zdirection is 0.5
mm. What would be the direction of tile Hall voltage? If the latter has a magnitude of 125
uV, find the number of conduction electrons per m
3
in the metal.
P PA AP PE ER R   I I I I
Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum marks: 300
Candidates should attempt FIVE questions only selecting at last TWO questions including the
compulsory question from each of Section A and B or Section A and C.
Assume suitable data if considered necessary and indicate the same clearly.
The Number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the question.
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N A A
Questions No. 1 is compulsory.
1. Select any three of the following statements, read them carefully and identify the correct and
incorrect ones. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case:
(2x3=60)
(a) If mathematical and functional relationships of all the system components are known a block
diagram can be constructed as a reference for analytical or the computer solution of the
system.
(b) Knowing the transfer function of a linear time invariant system, it is possible to obtain the
state diagram and dynamic equations of the system
(c) The closed loop stability of a system is determined by the properties of the Nyquist plot of
the openloop transfer function of the system.
(d) A cycloconverter is a unit for obtaining variablevoltage and variablefrequency power
directly from, fixed frequency supply, but has not gained popularity because of certain
disadvantages.
2. (a) Fig 1 shows the circuit of a field controlled d.c. motor. The equivalent moment of inertia of
the motor is 3 in kgm
2
the equivalent friction coefficient of the motor is f in Nm/rad/sec.
‘The motor torque per unit of field current is K
m
in Nm/A. Derive the transfer function of the
motor,
( )
( )
f
s
E s
u
. Find
( )
( )
f
s
E s
u
, if J = 0.5, f = 0.25 , K
m
= 25, R
c
= 100 O, L
f
= 15 H and i
a
= 10
A(constant).
(20)
(b) Fig 2 shows a nonunity feedback control system.
C C. .S S. .E E. . ( (M Ma ai in n) ) 1 19 99 94 4
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
Find the steady state error due to (i) step input and (ii) ramp input.
(20)
(c) Give a schematic diagram and explain the operation of a synchroerror detector.
(20)
3. (a) Give the significance of state transition matrix. A lineartimeinvariant system is described by
X= AX + BU
Where
1 0 1
,
1 1 0
A B
= =
and u(t) is a unit step function at t = 0 and X(0) = [1 0]
T
. Find X (t).
(20)
(b) A system has
( ) ( )
( )( ) 2 4
K
G s H s
s s s
=
+ +
What value of K makes the system unstable? Find the intersection of the rootloci with the
imaginary axis.
(20)
(c) Explain with the help of a block diagram the principle of state feedback control. Discuss
poleplacement design of a system through state variable feedback.
(20)
4. (a) What is a chopper ? Give various configurations of chopper for operation in different
quadrants. Explain the operation of each configuration.
(20)
(b) A 3phase fully controlled bridge convener with 415 V supply, 0.04 O resistance/ phase and
0.25 O reactance per phase is operating in the inverting mode at a firing advance angle of
35°. Calculate the mean generator voltage when the current is level at 80 A. The thyristor
voltage drop is 1.5 V.
(20)
(c) Draw and explain vacuum tube oscillator and SCR inverter circuits for converting electrical
energy at low frequency to energy at high frequency suitable for induction heating. Why are
vacuum tube oscillators less efficient as compared to SCR?
(20)
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N B B
Question 5 is compulsory.
5. Comment with justification on the correctness or otherwise of any three of the following statements,
restricting your answer to within 200 words for each
(20x3=60)
(a) Oscillations take place in a synchronous machine if there is a sudden change in load, which
can be minimized by damper windings.
(b) A crossfield machine may behave as a constant voltage or a constant current generator
depending upon the degree of compensation.
(c) Transient stability of a synchronous generator may be improved by using autoreclose circuit
breakers.
(d) WardLeonard method of speed control of a d.c. motor, provides a smooth control in both the
directions.
6. (a) Distinguish between singlyexcited and doublyexcited magnetic system.
In a doublyexcited rotary machine, the inductance coefficients are
L
11
= (1.1 + 0.4 cos 2u)
L
22
= (0.03 + 0.005 cos 2u)
L
12
= 0.2 cos u
The exciting currents are i
1
 8 A and i
2
= 50 A. Obtain the torque/angular displacement
relation. Derive the expression used, if any.
(20)
(b) Discuss speed control of wound rotor induction motor by injecting voltage info its rotor
circuit. Draw and explain the complete phasor diagram of the motor with injected e.m.f.
(20)
(c) Give the constructional features, principle of operation and applications of a variable
reluctance stepper motor.
(20)
7. (a) Draw and explain a 3phase bridge rectifier circuit for converting a.c. into d.c. for HVDC
transmission.
A bridge connected rectifier is fed from 220 kV/110 kV transformer with primary connected
to 220 kV. Determine the d.c. output voltage when the commutation angle is 20° and the
delay angle is
(i) 0
0
, (ii) 30°, and (iii) 45°
(20)
(b) Explain what you understand by positive, negative and zero sequence voltage or current.
A generator is subjected to a sustained fault with phases B and C short circuited and
connected to neutral. Show that the zerosequence impedance may be determined by
a
o
n
V
Z
I
= , where V
a
is the voltage from the unfaulted conductor to neutral and I
a
is the neutral
current.
(20)
(c) Differentiate between type tests and routine tests. Briefly explain the different tests to be
carried out to prove the ability of a circuit breaker.
(20)
8. (a) Explain the effect of change of (i) excitation, and (ii) primemover input of a synchronous
generator connected to an infinite bus.
A turboalternator having a reactance of 10 ohms has an armature current of 200 A at unity
power factor, when running on 11000 V, constant frequency busbars, If the primemover
input is not changed but the e.m.f. is raised by 20%, find the value of armature current and
power factor.
(20)
(b) What do you understand by steady state and transient state characteristics of an electric drive?
Derive expressions for acceleration time of an electric drive under conditions of (i) constant
motor anti load torque, (ii) constant load torque and variable motor torque.
(20)
(c) Discuss the characteristics and limitations of different motors suitable for electric traction.
(20)
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N C C
Question 9 is compulsory.
9. Select any three of the following statements and with justification whether they are correct or
incorrect; your answer must not exceed 200 words for each statement:
(20x3=60)
(a) Broadcast systems do not employ SSB and DSBSC signals though these signals offer
bandwidth and power advantages.
(b) Gunn diode amplifiers are not used nearly as much as Gunn oscillators.
(c) Each cavity resonator has an infinite number of resonant frequencies,
(d) PCM is more noiseresistant than other forms of pulse modulation.
10. (a) Distinguish between amplitude modulation, frequency modulation and phase modulation.
Give the advantages of frequency modulation over both amplitude and phase modulation.
(15)
(b) The antenna current of an AM transmitter is 12 A when only carrier is sent but it increases to
13.5 A when carrier is modulated by a single sine wave. Find the percentage modulation.
Also determine the antenna current when the depth of modulation is 0.8. Derive the relation
used.
(15)
(c) Explain the concept of the noise triangle. What is preemphasis? Why is it used?
(15)
(d) What is a directional coupler? Define directivity and directional coupling and give their
significance.
(15)
11. (a) Describe with the help of a block diagram, the arrangement of a typical high power pulsed
radar set. Give the function of each block.
(20)
(b) Explain ISDN and LAN. What is X25 interface protocol? Explain its function and use.
(20)
(c) An aerial array consists of 12 vertical aerials in a straight line spaced half a wavelength apart
and equally energised in phase. Deduce the angular width of the forward beam in the
horizontal plane.
(20)
12. (a) A TE
11
mode is propagating through a circular waveguide. The guide contains an air
dielectric. Given that X’
11
= 1.841 and cutoff frequency f
c
is 1.758 x 10
9
Hz, determine:
(i) the diameter of the guide
(ii) the wavelength in the guide for an operating frequency of 3 GHz
(iii) wave impedance
(b) Give the major differences between TWT and Klystron. Explain, with the help of a schematic
and simplified diagram, the operation of a helix travelling wave tube.
(20)
(c) Describe an optical communication system with the help of a suitable block diagram. Discuss
the advantages of optical communication using optical fibres.
(20)
P PA AP PE ER R   I I
Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300
Instructions:
Candidates should attempt Questions 1 and 5 which are compulsory, and any three of the
remaining question selecting at least one question from each Section.
Some useful data is given at the end of the question paper. Assume any other data if considered
necessary and indicate the same clearly.
All questions carry equal marks.
Parts of the same question must be answered together and must not be interposed between
answers to other questions.
_______________________________________________________________________________________
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N A A
1. Answer any three of the following
(a) Consider the electric fluid due to an infinitely long uniform line charge. Show that the
divergence of this field is zero.
(b) Fig. Q. 1(b) shows the details of a portion of a d.c. network. Evaluate the voltage V.
(c) In the a.c. circuit of Fig. Q.1(c), the rms values of different voltages under steady state are:
V
S
= 16V; V
R
= 10V; V
1
= 10V; V
2
= 7V.
Find the value of R
L
(d) Justify the following statements:
(i) It is advisable to measure a small quantity directly and not to deduce it as the
difference of two individually measured large values.
(ii) The plain Wheatstone bridge method is not suitable measurement of lowvalued
resistors.
2. (a) Find the rms value of current through the switch S when it is closed in the 3phase circuit
shown in Fig. Q. 2(a). Hence find the rms value of voltage across it when S is opened.
C C. .S S. .E E. . ( (M Ma ai in n) ) 1 19 99 95 5
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
1 2
Z 40 j0 , Z j80 ohms ohms = + =
(b) The two figures show a lineal reciprocal 2port network N under two different terminal
conditions. The switches are closed at t = 0 in both the circuits with zero initial conditions in
N. Given that the currents in (i) for t > 0 are :
i
1
= 0.5 (e
–t
+ e
–3t
) amps;
i
2
= 0.1 (3e
–3t
– e
–t
) amps, find v
1
(t) for t > 0 in (ii).
(c) A digital filter is characterised by the following recursive relation, where x(n) and y(n) are
the input and output samples at the n
th
sampling instant. The sampling frequency is 100 Hz.
y(n) = 0.8y (n – 1) – 0.64 y (n – 2) + x (n)
–x(n – 1) + x(n – 2)
Find the poles and zeros of the discretetime transfer function of the filter. Hence deduce and
sketch the magnitude response characteristic of the filter from f = 0 to f = · . Mark the values
at f = 0, 50 and 100 Hz.
3. (a) Consider an electric displacement vector
2
0 0
ˆ ˆ
15exp /
r z
r z
D i i c m
x x
  ÷
= ÷

\ .
in cylindrical coordinates r, o, z. Calculate the outward flux crossing a right circular cylinder
of radius 2x
0
, its axis coinciding with the zaxis and with the two plant faces at z = 0 and z =
5x
0
, where x
0
= 1 cm.
(b) Derive an expression for the inductance per unit length of a coaxial cable with radii a and b.
Also calculate the value when a = 0.5 cm and b = 2.0 cm.
(c) A 2 m long current carrying conductor is aligned in ydirection, its xand zcoordinates being
5 m each. The current is 8 A in the negative ydirection. The conductor is subjected to a
uniform magnetic field and the resulting force on the conductor is 4 x 10
–3
( )
ˆ ˆ
x z
i i N ÷ + . Find
the magnetic flux density (of the applied field).
4. (a) A 20 kO standard resistor R
s
and a test resistor R
x
are connected in series across a d.c.
voltage source of negligible internal resistance. The voltages across R
s
, R
x
and the source are
measured in turn by an accurate 0 – 120 V d.c. voltmeter. The readings obtained are 75 V, 21
V and 100 V respectively. Find the sensitivity of the d.c. voltmeter.
(b) Give the block diagram of a typical modem digital counter and show how it is used to
measure the frequency of a given lest signal. What other categories of measurement can be
performed using a digital counter ?
(c) A thermoelectric sensor with a time constant of 50 ms is used to record the temperature of a
furnace. Assuming that the furnace temperature varies sinusoidally between the two limits
300°C and 500°C with a frequency of 2 Hz, determine the limits of the temperature as
recorded from the sensor. Indicate a method of reducing the resultant error.
SECTI ON B
5. Answer any three of the following :
(a) Explain how the input current changes in a three phase synchronous motor with constant load
when the field current is varied. Draw phasor diagrams.
(b) In the circuit of Fig. Q 5(b), the diodes are ideal. Determine and sketch v
0
(t) for 0 < t < 8 ms
when v
1
(t) is a square waveform of ± 1 V amplitude, 8 ms period with a positive going zero
crossing at t = 0, the input v
2
(t) 2 sin tt/3 volt with t in ms and v
3
(t) is a 3 V amplitude
rectangular pulse existing over 1 ms < t < 3 ms.
(c) Calculate the conductivity of silicon when it is doped by an ntype impurity to the extent of 1
in 10
6
. The atomic density of silicon is 5 x 10
22
atoms/cm
3
, the intrinsic carrier density is 1.48
x 10
10
pair/cm
3
and the mobilities are 500 cm
2
/Vs and 1300 cm
2
/Vs. Compare the
conductivity with that of intrinsic silicon.
(d) The circuit shown in Fig. Q. 5(d) is using masterslave flipflops. V
CC
is high and can be
taken to be 1. Find B
0
and B
1
for the first seven clock cycles after these are initially cleared.
Give precise explanations for your answers.
6. (a) Two & series motors with different airgaps, but otherwise identical, run at 700 and 750 rpm
respectively, when taking 50 A at 500 V. The resistance of each motor including the series
field is 0.36 O. If the two motors are mechanically coupled and connected in series to 500 V
supply taking a current of 50 A, determine the speed and the voltage across each machine.
(b) Two single phase transformers, T
1
and T
2
are operated in parallel on both sides. The
transformer, T
1
is rated at 100 kVA having a percentage impedance of (1 + j5), The
transformer, T
2
is rated at 200 kVA having a percentage impedance of (1.5 + j4). Calculate
the load shared by each, when the total load is 250 kVA at 0.8 power factor tagging. Also
calculate the total load at the same power factor that the two transformers in parallel can
supply such that neither of the transformers gets overloaded.
(c) Explain the following in relation to a plain single phase induction motor:
(i) It fails to start when connected to ac supply.
(ii) If it is started in either direction, it continues to rotate in the same direction.
7. (a) A 3phase, 6600 V, 100 kVA, synchronous generator delivers rated current at 0.8 pf lagging,
the load voltage being 6 kV. The resistance and synchronous reactance per phase are 1 O and
30 O respectively. Calculate the load voltage when the load current remains same at rated
value, but the power factor changes to 0.8 leading. The field current is the same as before.
(b) The rotor of a 3phase, 6pole, 50 Hz, slipring induction motor has resistance of 0.2 O per
phase and runs at 960 rpm on hill load. Calculate the resistance to be inserted in the rotor
circuit so that the speed reduces to 800 rpm, with torque (i) remaining constant, and (ii)
varying as square of speed. Neglect stator impedance. Make assumptions as needed.
(c) A 400 V, 15 kW, dc shunt motor takes 42 A and runs at 1200 rpm. The resistances of
armature and field are 0.8 O and 200 O respectively. Neglect armature reaction. (i) Find the
field current required to reduce the speed to 1000 rpm with load torque at half of previous
value. (ii) Find also the initial armature current, when the field current is changed to that
found in (i), with the speed not changing instantaneously.
8. (a) Find the CB hparameters of a transistor in terms of its rparameters and o.
(b) A silicon transistor has a independent bias using an emitter resistor potential divider
combination. The emitter circuit resistance is 300 O, the collector circuit resistance is 500 O,
collector supply voltage is 15 V and  = 100. Find the potential divider resistances so that
maximum symmetrical swing is permitted at the collector. Take V
CE, sat
= 0.
(c) Describe a successive approximation type of an A to D converter and give its merits. Find the
conversion time and the resolution of an 8bit ADC of this type when the clock period is
1.25us.
Some useful data:
Electronic charge : e = 1.6 x 10
–19
C
Permeability of free space : u
o
= 4t x 10
–7
H/m
Permittivity of free space : c
o
= 8.85 x 10
–12
F/m
P PA AP PE ER R   I I I I
Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum marks: 300
Instructions:
Candidates should attempt five questions in all selecting at least two questions including the
compulsory question from each of Section A and B or Section A and C.
Assume suitable data if considered necessary and indicate the same clearly.
The number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the question.
Parts of the same question must be answered together and must not be interposed between
answers to other questions.
.
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N A A
1. Select any three of the following statements, read them carefully and identify the correct and
incorrect ones. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case.
(20x3=60)
(a) Real parts of the Eigen values of a stable system are always positive.
(b) Knowing the step response of a system the response to a ramp input cannot be deduced.
(c) Use of a free wheeling diode improves the quality of speedtorque characteristics of a
thyristor controlled d.c. motor.
(d) State variable method of analysis can be applied both to linear and nonlinear systems.
2. (a) Sketch and explain the frequencyresponse characteristics of a secondorder control system.
What is the effect of damping ratio on the amplitude and phase of the steady state output ?
(20)
(b) The forward path transfer function of a position control system with velocity feedback is
given by
( )
( )
K
G s
s s p
=
+
Determine the sensitivity of the transfer function of the closedloop system to changes in K, p
and a for transfer function of the feedback path (i) H(s) = 1, and (ii) H(s) = (1 + os). The
nominal values of the parameters are K = 12, p = 3 and o = 0.14.
(20)
(c) A linear feedback control system has an openloop transfer function
( )
( )
2
2
1
s
A
s s
u o
o
3
+
=
+
where u and o are adjustable parameters. Find the relation between u and o so that the
system is stable with unity feedback.
C C. .S S. .E E. . ( (M Ma ai in n) ) 1 19 99 95 5
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
3. (a) What are Tachogenerators ? Discuss with block diagram, their application to dosedloop
control systems.
(20)
(b) The block diagram of an electronic pacemaker is given in Fig 1, where K = 400.
(i) Calculate the output c(t) for a unit step input.
(ii) Calculate the integral of the square of the error between input and the output.
(iii) Determine the steadystate error for a unit ramp input.
(iv) Determine the value of K for which the steadystate error to a unit ramp will be 0.02.
(20)
(c) A linear control system is described by the following equations in statespace domain:
( )
1 1
2 2
2 0 0
1 1 1
x x
u t
x x
÷
= +
÷
    ( )
1
2
1 2 1
x
y u t
x
= ÷ +
Find the transfer function of the system.
(20)
4. (a) What are the important ratings that specify an SCR? Compare the performance characteristics
of a rectifier circuit using ordinary diodes with that of one using SCR’s.
(20)
(b) A chopper circuit as shown in Fig 2 is inserted between a battery, V
dc
= 150 V and a load
resistance R
L
= 10 O. The mmoff time for the main thyristor Th
1
is 110 us and the maximum
permissible current through it is 30A.Calculate the values of the commutating components L
and C.
(20)
(c) A slab of material 2.5 cm thick and 200 sq. cm in area, having relative permittivity 5 and 0.05
is to be heated using dielectric heating. The power required is 200 watts at a frequency of 30
MHz. Determine the voltage required and the current that will flow through the material. If
the voltage were to be limited to 600 V, what should be the frequency for the same power
requirement?
(20)
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N B B
Question no. 5 is compulsory.
5. Comment with justification on the correctness or otherwise of any three of the following statements,
restricting your answer to within 200 words for each:
(20x3=60)
(a) Lightning arrestor should be located as close to the transformer being protected as is
physically possible.
(b) Tap changing transformers are used in power systems primarily to control reactive volt
amperes.
(c) The main purpose for which the damper bars are located in the rotor faces of a synchronous
motor is to prevent hunting of the machines.
(d) Economic operation of a power system requires that the incremental fuel cost of each plant
multiplied by its penalty factor is the same for all plants of the system.
6. (a) Explain the concept of self GMD and mutual GMD in respect of 3phase transmission lines.
Indicate how these concepts are used in estimating the inductance and capacitance of 3phase
overhead lines.
(15)
(b) Discuss briefly the various methods adopted for improving the transient stability of a power
system.
(15)
(c) A 3phase, 50 Hz, transmission line is 400 km long. The voltage at the sendingend is 220
kV. The line parameters are:
R = 0.125 O/km, X = 0.4 O/km, and Y = 2.8 x 10
–6
S/km. Find, using approximate
expressions for A, B, C, D constants of long lines, the following:
(i) The sendingend current and receiving end voltage when there is noload on the line.
(ii) The minimum permissible line length if the receiving noload voltage is not to exceed
235 kV.
(30)
(iii) For part (i), the maximum permissible line frequency, if the noload voltage is not to
exceed 250 kV.
7. (a) Explain the various reactances associated with a salientpole synchronous machine when it is
subjected to sudden short circuit at its armature terminals. How can these reactances be
determined from the short circuit oscillograms of the machine?
(15)
(b) Briefly explain the various controls in a.c. drives. Why are such drives becoming increasingly
more pou1ar as compared to d.c. drives ?
(15)
(c) A 4pole, 3phase, 400 V, 50 Hz, induction motor has the following per phase parameters for
its circuit model (referred to the stator side):
r
1
= 1.2 O x
1
= 1.16 O
r
2
’
= 0.4 O x
2
’
= 1.16 O
Find the slip and corresponding torque when the machine develops
(i) maximum torque, and (ii) maximum power. The machine is Yconnected.
(30)
8. (a) Discuss various types of electric traction used in India. Explain the characteristics of the
motor used in any one such system.
(15)
(b) Explain clearly with a flowchart, the computational procedure for load flow solution using
GaussSeidel method when the power system contains all types of buses.
(15)
(c) A 40 MVA, 3phase, 345/34.5 kV transformer is star/delta connected. Select standard CT
ratios on the two sides of the transformer for percentage differential protection of the
transformer. Would an autotransformer be required? If so, what should be its current ratio?
(30)
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N C C
Question no. 9 is compulsory.
9. Select any three of the following statement and indicate with justification whether they are correct or
incorrect. Your answer must not exceed 200 worth for each statement.
(20 x 3=60)
(a) In PM, the frequency deviation is proportional to instantaneous amplitude of modulating
voltage but not to the modulating frequency.
(b) An ideal directional coupler must have infinite directivity.
(c) Telecommunication carriers can increase the utilization of their existing cable ducts
significantly if fibreoptic cables are substituted for copper.
(d) Digital processing is used widely because it provides economic and rapid manipulation of
data.
10. (a) Explain what you understand by shot noise, signaltonoise ratio and noise figure. When
might the noisefigure be a more suitable piece of information than the equivalent noise
resistance?
The first stage of a 2stage amplifier has a voltage gain of 10, a 500 O input resistor, a 1500
O equivalent noise resistance and a 30 k ohm output resistance. For the 2nd stage these
values are 20, 80 kO, 10 kO and 1 MO respectively. Calculate the equivalent inputnoise
résistance of the twostage amplifier.
(20)
(b) Give the differences between FM and AM receivers. How can the overall limiting
performance of an FM receiver be improved? Explain the operation of AGC in addition to a
limiter.
(20)
(c) Explain, with the help of block diagram, the principle of operation of an ISB transmitter.
(20)
11. (a) What is resonator? Define and obtain expression for the Qfactor of a parallel plate resonator.
The parallel plates of a resonator are 1.5 cm apart and have free space in between them. Find
Q of the resonator for fundamental frequency of oscillations. For copper o = 5.8 x 10
7
S/m,
u
0
= 4t x 10
–7
H/m.
(20)
(b) What is MESFET? Give its characteristics. What are intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of a
MESFET? What is the effect of increasing the channel doping to a value as high as possible?
(20)
(c) Discuss the advantages and list applications of parametric amplifiers. Draw the circuit
diagram of a TW parametric amplifier and explain briefly how it works.
(20)
12. (a) Compare and contrast the performance and advantages of coaxial cable and microwave links
as broad band ‘continental’ transmission media. Draw and explain block diagram of a
microwave link carrier chain.
(20)
(b) What is a Modem? Draw and explain a Communication system using Modems. What is RS
232 interface? Explain its use for data transmission.
(20)
(c) With the help of a block diagram, explain a Radiotelemetery transmitter using frequency
division multiplex with TDM for subcommunication.
(20)
P PA AP PE ER R   I I
Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300
INSTRUCTION
Candidates should attempt Question 1 and 5 which are compulsory, and any three of the remaining
questions selecting at least one question from each Section.
Some useful data is given at the end of the question paper. Assume, any other data if considered
necessary and indicate the same clearly.
All questions carry equal marks.
Parts of the same question must be answered together and must not be interposed between answers
to other questions.
.
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N A A
1. Answer any three of the following:
(a) The hparameters of a 2port network used in the circuit of Fig. 1a are h
11
= 100 O, h
12
=
0.0025, h
21
= 20 and h
22
= 1 mS. Find the ratio V
2
/V
1
.
(20)
(b) A hollow cylindrical conductor of length L and radius R and carrying a surface current of
density J
b
= J
z
iz A/m is placed in a Bfield given by
ˆ ˆ
r
a
B i bi T
r
o
= +
Find the magnitude and direction of torque on the conductor.
(20)
(c) Using Thevenin’s theorem, determine the current in the 2 O resistor in the circuit of Fig. 1c.
(20)
(d) (i) Give the schematic of two synchro pairs, one pair being useful for remote control and
the other pair functioning as a transducer for converting angular position into an
electrical signal.
C C. .S S. .E E. . ( (M Ma ai in n) ) 1 19 99 96 6
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
(10)
(ii) Give a typical set up for measuring the stain of a cantilever beam, with temperature
compensation.
(10)
2. (a) A series RL circuit with R = 50 O and L = 0.2 H has a sinusoidal voltage v(t) = 75 sin (500 t
+ 0.785) applied at t = 0, t being taken in sec. Find the complete current for t > 0. What is the
current at t = 0 + ? Why?
(20)
(b) Show that an nmesh, passive, threeterminal network may be replaced by a deltaconnection
of three impedances. Here n can be arbitrarily large.
(20)
(c) A 300 kW, 0.65 lagging power factor load is shunted by a capacitor so that the power factor
improves to 0.90 lagging. Find the kVAr that the capacitor must furnish and the reduction in
apparent power.
(20)
3. (a) An aeroplane flies over the surface of the ocean and sends a 1 MHz plane wave vertically
downwards with a field intensity of 1000 V/m just at the ocean surface. If a submarine
requires a 10 uV/m field, how deep can it be submerged and still be contacted by the
aeroplane. The ocean water constants are o = 4 S/m, u
r
= 1 and c
r
= 81.
(20)
(b) A 2 uC charge is located at (0, 3, 0) m and a 4 uC charge at (4, 0, 0)m. Find the electric field
at (0, 0, 5) m due to both these charges.
(20)
(c) The phase velocity v
p
of a wave of frequency f and wavelength ì is given by v
p
= c(ì
0
/ì)
2
where c and ì
0
are constants. Derive an expression for the group velocity v
g
in terms of v
p
and v
p
.
(20)
4. (a) Using an RTD with 0.00251/°C coefficient and R (25°C) as 1000 O, design a Wheatstone
bridge with an OPAMP arrangement to provide a 0 to 10 V signal for a temperature span of
25°C to 125°C.
(20)
(b) (i) Define the terms ‘Dynamic error’ and ‘Resolution’ of an instrument. Explain how
these can be determined in the laboratory.
(10)
(ii) Give two examples each of active and passive transducers. Suggest suitable signal
conditioning circuits for the same.
(10)
(c) For the R2R type of digitaltoanalog converter shown in Fig. 4c, find the output voltage
when S
4
is closed and S
3
, S
2
and S
1
are grounded.
(20)
SECTI ON B
5. Answer any three of the following:
(a) In the circuit of Fig. 5a, the diode is ideal, R = 1.2 kO and I = 5 mA. Draw the v – i
characteristics of the circuit (i) with S open and –10 volt <v < 15 volt and (ii) with S closed
and 0 <v < 15 volt What happens when v <0 with S closed ?
(20)
(b) Show that the NMOS circuit of Fig. 5b is a NAND gate for positive logic. Write down the
various combinations of inputs and output in a tabular form and clearly state the meanings of
any symbols or parameters used therein.
(20)
(c) Describe different methods for starting of synchronous motors.
(20)
(d) (i) Explain the following terms as referred to an operational amplifier:
(a) Input offset voltage and
(b) Input offset current
(10)
(ii) The input v
i
(t) in the circuit of Fig. 5d is v
i
(t) = 1.5 sin 2t × 10
3
t volt with t in sec,
Sketch v
0
(t) and label important points.
(10)
6. (a) Two singlephase transformers T
1
and T
2
, rated at 300 kVA and 400 WA respectively, when
operated in parallel share a 500 WA, 0.8 lagging power factor as follows:
T
1
: 192 + j 117 kVA
T
2
: 210 + j 184 kVA
Find the regulation of T
2
for rated kVA output at 0.8 lagging power factor when the
percentage impedance of T
1
is 1.5 + j 6.
Also find the total load that the two transformers can share without any of these getting
overloaded at 0.9 lagging p.f.
(20)
(b) Two shunt generators rated at 150 kW and 250 kW when running at rated speeds have rated
open circuit voltages of 245 V and 243 V respectively. Their external characteristics are
linear. The regulation of the 150 kW machine is 5% and that of the 250 kW machine is 4%,
both in terms of their full Load terminal voltages, If these machines are connected in parallel,
how much load will be carried by each machine when supplying a connected load of 360
kW? What will be the common terminal voltage?
(20)
(c) (i) Name different types of single phase induction motors. ‘Draw a comparison of their
performance features.
(5)
(ii) ‘The range of stable operation of a threephase induction motor can be extended by
connecting a larger resistance in the rotor.’ Justify the statement.
(5)
(iii) Show that the reactive power drawn by a three phase induction motor is maximum at
standstill and decreases as the slip increases, the motor being operated at constant
voltage.
(10)
7. (a) A 6pole, 400 V, 50 Hz, 3phase induction motor has a rotor resistance such that the
maximum torque occurs at a sup of 0.2. An additional resistance of 0.5 O has to be inserted to
obtain 75% of the maximum torque at starting. Find the rotor resistance and reactance.
(20)
(b) A 6600 V, 3phase starconnected alternator has a resistance of 0.4 O and a synchronous
reactance of 6.0 O per phase. If the regulation at fill load 0.8 power factors leading is 7.5%,
find the kVA rating of the alternator.
(20)
(c) (i) What do you understand by the terms ‘shortcircuit ratio and ‘synchronizing torque’
as applied to a synchronous generator ?
(10)
(ii) A 1500 kVA, 4–pole, 3phase, 50 Hz nonsalient pole synchronous motor of
negligible armature resistance having a synchronous reactance of 45 O is operating on
an infinite bus with its voltage at 6.6 kV 50 Hz. Find the synchronising torque per
mechanical degree of rotor displacement (a) at no load and (b) when the motor is
operating at full load with 0.85 leading power factor.
8. (a) Find the relation between v
o
and v
s
for the circuit of Fig. 8a and show that, with proper
adjustments, the voltage v
0
can be made proportional to the logarithm of the input voltage v
s
.
(20)
(b) Find the midfrequency gain of the amplifier shown in Fig. 8b. Neglect the loading effect of
R
1
and R
2
. The transistor parameters with usual notations are gm = 0.015 S, r
b’e
= 1 Ok, r
bb’
=
90 O, C
b’e
= 20 pF and C
b’e
= 3 pF while R
E
= 1 kO.
(c) Design a combinational logic circuit to generate the 2’s complement of a 2bit number. You
may use two flail adders and other gates as required but keeping the number of other gates to
a minimum.
(20)
Some useful data:
Electronic charge : e = 1.6 x 10
–19
C
Permeability of free space : u
o
= 4t x 10
–7
H/m
Permittivity of free space : c
o
= 8.85 x 10
–12
F/m
P PA AP PE ER R   I I I I
Time Allowed: 3 Hours Maximum marks: 300
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N A A
Question no. 1 is compulsory.
1. Select any three of the following statements, read them carefully and identify the correct and
incorrect ones. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case.
(20 x 1 = 60)
(a) State equations are first order differential equations that can be applied to portray only the
linear timeinvariant systems.
(b) By adding a pole to the closed loop transfer function, the maximum overshoot increases and
the effect is opposite to that of adding a pole to the open loop transfer function.
(c) For a closedloop system to be asymptotically stable, there is no restriction on the location of
the poles and zeros of the loop transfer function F(s), but the poles of the closed loop transfer
function must all be located in the left half of Splane.
(d) A vacuum tube oscillator has small power outputs high at frequencies and is less efficient
compared to SCR.
2. (a) Describe a simple position control system.
A certain position control system is driven by 100 : 1 gear by a motor whose torque
characteristics is of the form (10 V
m
– 0.3 N) 10
–4
Nm, where N is the speed in R.P.M. and is
the voltage supplied by the amplifier. If the synchros produce 1 V/ degree error and if the
steady state error should be 5
o
for a speed input of 20 RPM, calculate the required amplifier
gain. Viscous friction at the motor shaft is 60 x 10
–6
Nmsec.
(b) Distinguish between openloop and closedloop system. Convert the system of Fig. 1 into a
unity feedback system.
(20)
(c) Obtain the state equations in (i) the controller form, and (ii) and observer form for the transfer
function G(s) given by
( )
3 2
3 5 7
4 5 18 29 35
s s
G s
s s s s
2
+ +
=
+ + + +
C C. .S S. .E E. . ( (M Ma ai in n) ) 1 19 99 96 6
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
(20)
3. (a) What do you mean by Rootlocus of a system ? Give properties of the rootlocus.
A unity feedback system has a forward path transfer function
( )
( )( ) 4 5
K
G s
s s s
=
+ +
Sketch the locus of the poles of the transfer function of the closedloop system as ‘K’ varies
from zero to infinity, explaining all the steps involved.
(20)
(b) What is a servomotor ? Give the characteristics of a 2phase servomotor and obtain its
transfer function.
A 50 Hz, 2phase, ac. servomotor has the following parameters:
Starting torque = 0.186 Nm
Rotor inertia = 1 x 10
–5
kg m
2
Supply voltage = 120 V
Noload angular velocity = 304 rad/sec
Assuming straight line torqueangular speed characteristics of the motor and zero viscous
friction derive the transfer function.
(20)
(c) A system is described by
X = AX+BU
Y = CX
where
0 1 –8 2
A = 1 0 –5; B = 1
0 2 –6 0
and C = [1 2 1]
Determine whether the system is stable.
(20)
4. (a) Describe with a neat sketch a step up chopper and discuss its merits and demerits.
(20)
(b) Explain the principle of electric welding. Describe with the help of a neat diagram the
principle of operation of a timer circuit used for electric welding.
(20)
(c) Fig. 2 shows a circuit used for selfcommutation by resonance.
(i) With the thyristor in blocking state, what is steady state capacitor voltage and load
current ?
(ii) Derive an expression for the load current, thyristor current and V
c
(t) after a thyristor
is triggered at t = 0.
(iii) Calculate the time when the thyristor would stop conducting.
(20)
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N B B
Question no. 5 is compulsory.
5. Comment with justification on the correctness or otherwise of any three of the following statements,
restricting your answer to within 200 worth for each.
(20x3=60)
(a) Single phase induction motors with auxiliary winding neither develop starting torque nor the
running torque.
(b) For EHV transmission lines, it is dangerous to use bundle conductors from the viewpoint of
subsynchronous resonance.
(c) Sudden loss of load may cause severe disturbance in the operation of a power system.
(d) Selfexcitation of an induction generator requires the machine to be run at super synchronous
speed.
6. (a) Derive an expression for the charge (complex) value per meter length of conductor ‘A’ of
untransposed 3phase line shown in Fig. 3. The applied voltage is balanced 3phase, 50 Hz.
Take the voltage of phase ‘A’ as reference phasor. All conductors have the same radii. Also
find the charging current of phase A’. Neglect the effect of ground.
(b) Discuss briefly different methods used for LoadFlow studies. Give their merits and demerits.
(20)
(c) A singlephase, 50 Hz generator supplies an inductive load of 5 MW at a p.f. of 0.707 lagging
by means of an overhead line 20 km long. The line R and L are 0.0195 O/km and 0.63
mH/km. The voltage at the receiving end is required to be kept constant at 10 kV. Find
(i) the sending end voltage regulation of the line,
(ii) the value of the capacitors to be placed in parallel with the load such that the
regulation is reduced to 50% of that obtained in part (i),
(iii) transmission efficiencies in both the cases.
(20)
7. (a) Discuss the behaviour of a 3phase induction motor on singlephasing. Compare its
characteristics, rating and efficiency with that under balanced 3phase supply.
(20)
(b) Give the constructional features, principle of operation and applications of a variable
reluctance stepper motor.
(20)
(c) A salientpole synchronous motor has x
d
= 0.85 p.u and x
q
= 0.55 pu. It is connected to bus
bars of 10 p.u. voltage, whileits excitation is adjusted to 1.2 p.u. Calculate the maximum
power output that the motor can supply without loss of synchronism. Compute the minimum
p.u. excitation that is necessary for the machine to stay in synchronism while supplying the
fullload torque.
(20)
8. (a) Explain the principle and applications of (i) induction heating, and (ii) dielectric heating.
Discuss the range of frequencies used in these systems of heating.
(20)
(b) Discuss the electrical, mechanical and economic characteristics to be considered in selecting
a motor for a given drive. What are the special features required for selecting electrical
equipment for mines with fire hazard ?
(20)
(c) An 11 kV, 1MVA, Yconnected generator has a reactance of 4.2 ohms/phase. The generator
neutral is grounded through a resistance of 22 ohms. Determine what percent of the generator
winding remains unprotected by the percentage differential relaying. Assume for simplicity
that the percentage differential relay operates when outofbalance current exceeds 25% of
the fullload current.
(20)
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N C C
Question no. 9 is compulsory.
9. Select any three of the following statements and indicate with justification whether they are correct
or incorrect. Your answer must not exceed 200 words for each statement.
(20x3=60)
(a) Modem communication system is concerned with development of transmission and not with
the sorting, processing and storing of information.
(b) AM is more likely to be affected by noise than is FM.
(c) In comparison with waveguides and coaxial lines, strip line has reduced bulk, lower
bandwidth, higher powerhandling capability and components made of it are readily
adjustable.
(d) The conical scanning method of tracking an acquired target is an improvement over lobe
switching.
10. (a) (i) What are the three main systems of SSB generation ? Give the salient characteristics
of each system.
(ii) Prove that the balanced modulator produces an output consisting of side bands only,
with the carriers removed.
(20)
(b) What is an RF amplifier ? Give its advantages. What do you understand by image frequency
and its rejection ratio?
In a broadcast superheterodyne receiver having no RF amplifier, the loaded Q of the antenna
coupling circuit (at the input to the mixer) is 100. If the intermediate frequency is 555 KHz,
calculate
(i) the image frequency and its rejection ratio at 1000 KHz, and
(ii) the image frequency and its rejection ratio at 25 MHz.
(20)
(c) Give the properties of paraboloid reflectors. Explain why an antenna using a paraboloid
reflector is likely to be a highly directive receiving antenna.
Describe the Cassegrain method of feeding a paraboloid reflector. Give some shortcomings
and difficulties associated with the method.
(20)
11. (a) What is the importance of impedance matching in RF transmission lines ? Explain single
stubmatching and double stubmatching.
A lossless line has a characteristic impedance of 75 ohms and is terminated in a load of 300
ohms. The line is energised by a generator which has an open circuit voltage of 20 V (r.m.s)
and output impedance of 75 ohms. The line is assumed to be 2¼ wavelengths long.
Determine :
(i) the input impedance
(ii) the magnitude of instantaneous load voltage, and
(iii) the instantaneous power delivered to the load. 20
(b) (i) What is meant by saying that colour TV must be compatible ?
(ii) Explain what is meant by the Y, I and Q signals in colour TV, and why they are
generated. With the help of circuit diagram of a simplex matrix, explain how the I, Q
and Y signals are generated in a colour TV transmitter.
(20)
(c) Give the advantages and disadvantages of submarine cables and communication satellites for
intercontinental telephone and television. Show how the two media may be complementary.
Explain what is done to ensure that intercontinental telephone calls are not misrouted.
(20)
12. (a) What do you understand by Sparameters of a 2port network ? Why are these parameters
preferred to H, Y and Z parameters for operation in microwave range of frequencies ? Show
that the Smatrix of a directional coupler may be reduced to the form
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
p jq
p jq
S
jq p
jq p
=
(20)
(b) With the help of a schematic diagram, explain a fourcavity klystron amplifier.
A fourcavity klystron amplifier has the following parameters:
Beam voltage : V
0
= 20 kV
Beam current : I
0
= 2 A
Operating frequency : f = 10 GHz
d.c. charge density : p
0
= 10
–6
C/m
2
RF charge density : p = 10
–8
C/m
2
Velocity perturbation : v = 10
5
m/s
Determine
(i) The d.c. electron velocity
(ii) The d.c. phase constant
(iii) The plasma frequency
(iv) The reduced plasma frequency for R = 0.5
(v) The d.c. beam current density
(vi) The instantaneous beam current density
(20)
(c) Explain what you understand by:
(i) MMIC
(ii) MOSFET
(iii) NMOS Growth
(iv) CMOS Development
(v) RAM Device
(vi) SRAM Cell
(vii) DRAM Cell
(20)
P PA AP PE ER R   I I
Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300
Candidates should attempt Questions 1 and 5 which are compulsory, and any three of the remaining
questions selecting at least one question from each Section.
Some useful data is given at the end of the question paper. Assume any other data if considered
necessary and indicate the same clearly
All questions carry equal marks.
Marks assigned to each part of the question is indicated at the end of the respective part.
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N A A
1. Answer any three of the following
(a) Fig. 1 (a) shows a network of resistors each os R ohms. Find the resistance between the
terminals P and Q.
(20)
(b) A charge Q is distributed over two concentric hollow spheres of radii r and R (R > r) such
that their surface densities are equal. Find the potential at the common centre of spheres.
(20)
(c) Two sinusoidal signals of equal amplitude and frequencies f
v
and i
h
(Hz) are applied
simultaneously to vertical and horizontal deflecting plates respectively of a CRO. Sketch the
Lissajous patterns that appear on the CRT screen, when.
(i) f
V
: f
h
= 3 : 1
(ii) f
v
: f
h
= 1 : 2; and
(iii) f
v
= f
h
= 1kHz with a phase difference of 90° between the two signals.
If now, the control grid electrode is subjected to an additional sinusoidal signal of 10 kHz and
of such amplitude that the grid is driven into cutoff state for part of its signal cycle what will
be the change in the pattern displayed for part (iii)?
(20)
C C. .S S. .E E. . ( (M Ma ai in n) ) 1 19 99 97 7
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
(d) For the voltageseriesfeedback amplifier circuit shown in Fig. 1(d), the openloop gain A of
the OPAMP varies from 15000 to 20000 as the temperature changes from 25°C to 35°C
Calculate the closedloop gain at both the extreme temperatures, assuming R
1
= 470 O and R
f
= 47 kO. Calculate the percentage change in openloop and closedloop gains and explain the
results. Assume the source impedance to be zero.
(20)
2. (a) A 10 kV is applied across an airfilled capacitor formed by two parallel plates with a
separation of 1.2 cm. A glass sheet of 2mm thickness and of 6.5 relative permittivity is
inserted in the air dielectric and kept on one plate. Find the capacitance per unit area of the
parallel plates along with the glass, the electric field intensities in air glass dielectric, and the
charge density on the plates.
(20)
(b) Calculate the power fed to the 15O resistor by using Thevenin’s equivalent circuit for the
portion to the left of points A and B in the circuit of Fig. 2 (b).
(20)
(c) In the circuit of Fig. 2 (c), when the switch is closed t = 0, it is noticed that i (0
+
) = 10 mA
and v
ab
(t) = 0, t > 0 sec. Assuming zero initial current for inductor and zero initial charge for
capacitor, find the values of and R
1
and L.
(20)
3. (a) Define the attenuation coefficient and phase coefficient in the context of a transmission line.
A correctly terminated transmission line has Z
0
= 600 O, o = 1.2 dB/m and  = 18°/m (with
usual notations). The line is 5 m long and is fed from a 600 O source of e.m.f. 3V. Find the
magnitude of the received current at the output and its phase relative to the input voltage.
(20)
(b) The Fig. 3(b) shows the Wien’s bridge for measurement of frequency. Drive suitable
expressions under balanced bridge condition. What should then be the relation between R and
R
1
and between C and C
1
so that the excitation frequency is expressed as 1/(2t RC)?
(20)
(c) The output of an LVDT is connected to a 10 V voltmeter through an amplifier with a gain of
500. An output of 2.5 mV appears on the terminals of LVDT, when the core moves through a
distance of 0.5 mm. Calculate the sensitivity of LVDT and that of the whole setup. The
voltmeter scale has 100 divisions and the scale can be read to 1/5 of a division. Calculate the
resolution of the instrument in mm.
(20)
4. (a) The JFET used in the circuit of Fig. 4 (a) has the following data :
R
D
= 2 kO, R
S
= 8 kO V
DD
= 15V, V
G
= 10 V and V
SS
= –8 V.
(20)
Assuming I
DSS
= 5 A and V
PO
= –3 V for the JFET calculate V
GS
and V
O
.
(20)
(b) For fullwave rectification, what circuit configuration would be preferred and why?
A bridge rectifier fed through a transformer from a 230 V, 50 Hz supply is used to deliver
power to a transistor radio at 9V dc. Assuming ideal dides and load resistance of 90O,
specify the turnsratio and current rating of transformer. Also find the dc and ac (rms)
values of Load current and PeakInverseVoltage.
(20)
(c) The midband equivalent circuit of a common emitter transistor amplifier is shown in Fig.
4(c). The hparameters of the transistor used are
h
ie
= 1500 O, h
re
= 10
–3
, h
fe
= 100,
h
oe
= 50 x 10
–6
O
Find the midband gain
2
/
S be
i i where
2
S
i where is the current in 5 kO resister.
(20)
SECTI ON B
5. Answer any three of the following:
(a) Minimize the following logic functions using Karnaugh maps and realize them using NAND
gates.
(i) f(A,B,C,D)=
Em (2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,)
(ii) f(A, B, C, D) =
H M (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,12,13)
(20)
(b) It is desired to add two onebit binary words and produce the result as Sum and Carry.
Prepare a truth table, Karnaugh map and Boolean expressions to design a HalfAdder using
minimum number of NAND gates.
(20)
(c) What do you understand by the forbidden gap in energy bands?
Electrons are excited across the forbidden energy gap E
0
in Germanium by bombarding of
photons. Calculate the maximum wavelength for a photon which will produce electronhole
pairs in Germanium, if E
0
= 0.71 eV.
(20)
(d) A 10kW, 1440rpm dc shunt generator has resistance Loss of 400 watts in its field winding
under normal operating conditions. The timeconstant of the field winding is 0.2 second.
Calculate the energy stored in the magnetic field produced by the field winding.
(20)
6. (a) Draw the circuit diagram of a NOR gate using MOS transistors (nchannel) and verify the
NOR operation with. The description of the functioning of this gate.
(15)
(b) Name the different types of Read OnlyMemories and briefly discuss their attributes in terms
of programmability volatility, erasability, technology used and utility.
(20)
(c) A 3phase starconnected alternator, rated at 11kV, 1600k VA, has negligible armature
resistance and a synchronous reactance of 30O per phase. When delivering fullload current
at a certain power factor, the voltage regulation of the machine is zero. Estimate the power
factor of the load and the power delivered by the machine.
(25)
7. (a) Two similar 200 k VA, singlephase transformers gave the following results when tested by
the backtoback method:
(i) Wattmeter W
1
in the supply line reads 4kW; and (ii) Wattmeter W
2
in the secondary sends
circuit reads 6 kW, when the fullload current is circulated through the secondaries. Show the
diagram of connections and calculate the fullload efficiency of each transformer.
(15)
(b) A 4pole DC Series motor runs normally at 800 rpm taking 22 A on 260 V supply, when all
the four field coils are connected in series. If now the field coils are reconnected in two
parallel groups of two coils in series, estimate the speed and current taken by the motor.
Assume that, (i) the load torque is proportional to square of speed, (ii) the field flux is
directly proportional to the current, and (iii) the tosses are negligible.
(25)
(c) A 3phase, starconnected, 1200 kW. 3.3 kV, 20pole, 50 Hz synchronous motor has a
synchronous reactance of 4O per phase and negligible resistance. The motor is fed from
infinite busbar at 3.3 kV and is operated at unity power factor by so adjusting its excitation,
Calculate the maximum power and torque that the motor can deliver for the same excitation.
(20)
8. (a) The normal fullload slip and shaft torque of a 373 kW, 50 Hz, 3phase induction motor are
respectively 1.9% and 2400 Nm. The rotor winding has a resistance of 0.25O and a standstill
reactance of 1.5O per phase Estimate the slip and power output for the same fullload stator
current when external resistors of 2 O per phase are inserted in the rotor circuit Neglect no
load current.
(20)
(b) Two 100 kVa, 1phase transformers are connected in parallel on both primary and secondary
sides. One transformer has an ohmic drop of 0.5% and reactive drop of 8% of the voltage on
full load. The other has the corresponding drops of 0.75% and 4% respectively. How will the
total load of 200 kW at unity power factor be shared?
(20)
(c) The bulk ntype region of a particular Germanium junction has conductivity of 10
4
S/m at
300 K and that the for the pregion is 10
2
S/m. Find the voltage drop across the junction in
equilibrium at 300K, assuming intrinsic carrier concentration as 2.5 x 10
19
m
3
mobility of
electron and holes as 0.36m
2
/vs and 0.17 m
2
/vs respectively.
(20)
Some Useful Data:
Electron charge : 1.6 x 10
–19
Coulomb
Permeability of free space : 4t x 10
–7
H/m
Permittivity of free space : 8.85 x 10
–12
F/m
Planck’s constant : 6.625 x 10
–34
Jsec
Velocity of light in free space : 3 x 10
8
m/sec
Boltzmann constant : 1.38 x 10
–23
J/K
P PA AP PE ER R   I I I I
Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum marks: 300
Candidates should attempt five questions in all selecting at least two questions including the
compulsory question from each of Section A and B or Section A and C.
Assume suitable data if considered necessary and indicate the same clearly.
The number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the questions.
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N A A
Question no. 1 is compulsory.
1. Select any three of the following statements, read them carefully and identify the correct and the
incorrect ones. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case.
(20x3 = 60)
(a) If a system is stable with unity feedback, the open loop system is also stable.
(b) A twophase a.c. Servomotor is similar in all respects to a conventional induction motor.
(c) If in the state variable description of a system, A matrix is singular, then the system is
unstable.
(d) Commutation has to be specially taken care of, While using ThyristorChopper for motor
speed control.
2. (a) Sketch the underdamped time response of a second order control system to a step input.
Define clearly the “Delay time”, “Rise time”, Peak time”, Peakovershoot”, “Settling time”
and “Steady state error” and also show them in the sketch.
(20)
(b) A system is represented by the following equations:
(20)
x = x
1
+ 3u
x
1
= –3x
1
+ x
2
+ 2u
x
2
= –2x
1
+ u
Find the transfer function
( )
( )
X s
U s
by signal flow technique.
(c) State Nyquist Stability Criteria and investigate the stability of the closed loop system with the
following open loop transfer function.
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2 3
1
s
G s H s
s s
+
=
÷
by drawing Nyquist plot
Wherever the Nyquist plot crosses the real or imaginary axis determine the frequency and the
intercept value.
(20)
C C. .S S. .E E. . ( (M Ma ai in n) ) 1 19 99 97 7
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
3. (a) The response of an initially relaxed time invariant constant parameter system to a unit
impulse applied at t = 0 is 4 e
–2t
u (t).
(i) Find through time domain analysis the response to the same system to an input e–tu(t)
(ii) Find the time function which when applied to the system would yield a response sin
2t. u(t).
(20)
(b) An open loop transfer function of unity feedback system is given by
( )
( )
25
2
G s
s s
=
+
.Determine the damping factor, undamped natural frequency, damped natural
frequency and time response for a unit step input.
(20)
(c) What do you understand by the term controllability of a system? State the necessary and
sufficient conditions to be satisfied by the coefficient matrices of a system, so that the system
is completely controllable. Hence check the controllability of a system having for its state
description, the matrices:
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
1 0.5 2 1
A B
= =
÷ ÷
(20)
4. (a) Discuss the voltampere characteristic of a Triac. Explain its usefulness in speed control
applications.
(20)
(b)
The above figure shows a chopper circuit of perating at 100 Hz with a K
d
= 0.5. The load
current at steady state is continuous but varies between 3 amps and 10 amps. Sketch the wave
shape of
(i) the load current, i
L
(ii) the current i
f
through the free wheeling diode D
f
(iii) the current i
C
through the commutating capacitor
(20)
(c) The load connected at the output of a single phase bridge inverter is a series combination of R
= 10 O and L = 0.05H. Determine the load voltage and current waveforms for the first two
half cycles with rectangular wave output at 50 Hz. The input of the inverter is V
dc
= 250 V.
Also find the expression for the steady state current in each half cycle.
(20)
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N B B
Question no.5 is compulsory.
5. Comment with justification on the correctness or otherwise of any three of the following statements,
restricting your answer to within 200 words for each.
(20 x 3 = 60)
(a) Load frequency control is used to control the reactive power flow in a power system.
(b) Ground wires protect transmission lines against direct lightning strokes.
(c) Sequence networks are connected in parallel to represent a single linetoground fault.
(d) The secondary of a current transformer should never be kept open circuited.
6. (a) Distinguish between Restriking voltage and Recovery voltage as applied in case of a circuit
breaker. On what factors the Active Recovery voltage depends? What is the maximum value
of the peak Restriking voltage transient?
(20)
(b) With a neat sketch explain the working principle of an Axial blast circuit to breaker Explain
why such a circuit breaker is prone to current chopping. What is the voltage expected across
the contacts of the circuit breaker under such a condition?
(20)
(c) A generator operating at 50Hz delivers 1 P.U. power to an infinite bus through a transmission
circuit in which the resistance is ignored. A fault place reducing the maximum power
transferable to 0.5 P.U., whereas before the fault this power was 2.0 P.U. and after the
clearance of the fault it is 1.5 P.U. By the use of Equal Area criteria determine the critical
clearing angle.
(20)
7. (a) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of HVDC transmission over a.c. transmission.
Explain with suitable circuit diagram how power flow in an HVDC transmission system
neither direction facilitated.
(20)
(b) A 2000 WA, 11 kV, 3phase starconnected alternator has a resistance of 0.3 ohm and a
reactance of 5 ohms per phase. It delivers full load current at a power factor of 0.8 lagging
and normal rated voltage. Compute the terminal Voltage for the same excitation and load
current at 0.8 p.f. leading.
(20)
(c) What is a synchronous condenser? Distinguish between a synchronous condenser and a static
var compensator. Why is static var compensation necessary in a power system?
8. (a) An electric train has an average speed of 42 kmph on a level track between stops 1400 m
apart. It is accelerated at 1.7 kmphps and is broken at 3.3 kmphps. Draw the speedtime curve
for the run. Estimate the energy consumption at the axle of the train per ton km. Take tractive
resistance constant at 50 N/ton and allow 10 per cent for rotational inertia.
(20)
(b) Explain the working principle of a time graded protective scheme for radial feeders. Explain
further with a sketch of a ring main feeder, why the time graded protective scheme as to be
supplemented by directional control.
(20)
(c) An 11 kV, 3phase radial feeder is equipped with two current transformers along with their
associated I.D.M.T.L. relays at two different locations. The c.t. ratios are 600/5 and 200/5
respectively and the relay associated with each c.t. has the following characteristic,
Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM) Times in secs
2 10
3 6
5 4.1
10 3.0
15 2.5
20 2.2
The relay on 200/5 ct. has a 150% plug setting and 0.2 time multiplier setting. Determine the
time of operation of this relay, if the fault current through the feeder is 3000amps. Also
calculate the time setting and time of operation of the other relay connected to 600/5 c.t.
assuming a plug setting of 200% and taking into consideration the adequate discrimination
margin of 0.5 sec.
(20)
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N B B
Question no. 9 is compulsory.
9. Select any three of the following statements and indicate with justification whether they are correct
or incorrect. Your answer must not exceed 200 words for each statement.
(20 x 3 = 60)
(a) VHF band is most suited for communication between a ship and a submarine.
(b) Round trip propagation time with geostationary satellites is very large and poses a peculiar
problem for telephone service.
(c) Colour, television transmitter has to transmit more information than black and white but has
to mange within the same bandwidth.
(d) FM broadcast systems use wideband FM.
10. (a) An MTI radar operating at 6GHz is having a PEW of 900 pps. Find the two lowest blind
speeds for this redar.
(20)
(b) Why is companding used in PCM Systems? Describe any one companding law.
(20)
(c) A silica fibre has a large core diameter. The refractive indices of core and cladding are 1.49
and 1.46 respectively. Find the NA of the fibre, the acceptance angle in air and the critical
angle at the corecladding interface.
(20)
11. (a) How is stereophonic FM broadcast made compatible with a monophonic system?
(20)
(b) What is a threeport circulator? Write its Smatrix. One of the ports of such a circulator is
terminated in a load having a reflection coefficient p. If the system is now viewed as a two
part at the other pair of ports, find the scattering matrix of the twoport.
(20)
(c) A deep space probe radar operating at 3 GHz is using a 64 m dish and peak pulse power of
20MW. The receiver noise figure is 1.0 dB, the target cross section is 1.5 m
2
and the receiver
bandwidth 8kHz. Find the maximum range under threshold detection conditions. Take
antenna noise temperature to be 290K.
(20)
12. (a) Find the required size of a cubic cavity resonator to have a dominant mode at 8 GHz. Name
the dominant modes for this cavity.
(20)
(b) Describe a balanced offresonant (slope) discriminator for FM signals.
(20)
(c) A broadside antenna array has 20 identical radiators, equally fed and spaced 1/2 apart. Find
the directivity of the array and express it in decibels.
(20)
P PA AP PE ER R   I I
Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300
Candidates should attempt Question 1 and 5 which are compulsory, and any THREE of the
remaining question selecting at least ONE question from each Section.
Some useful data is given at the end of the questions. Assume any other data if considered necessary
and indicate the same clearly. All questions carry equal marks.
Marks assigned to each part of the question is indicated at the end of the respective part.
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N A A
1. Answer any three of the following:
(a) There are three concentric conducting spherical surfaces of radii a, b and c (a < b < c). The
sphere of radius b carries a charge Q and the surfaces of spheres of radii a and d c are
grounded. Find the potential of the sphere of radius b.
(20)
(b) Find the output voltage in steady state condition for the operational amplifier shown in the
figure below when (i) switch S is open, (ii) switch S is closed.
(20)
(c) Fig. (a) below shows a singly excited electromagnetic system consisting of a winding of N
turns on a core carrying a flux o. (N = 1000). For the flux waveform of Fig. (b) below draw
the waveform of induced e.m.f.e e = 314 rad/s.
C C. .S S. .E E. . ( (M Ma ai in n) ) 1 19 99 98 8
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
(20)
(d) Draw a simple experimental set up to measure the Hall effect and show that the Hall field can
be written as E
y
= V
X
B
Z
where V
X
and B
Z
are the applied voltage and magnetic fields
respectively. What are the typical applications of Hall effect ?
(20)
2. (a) Briefly explain the following statements on 3phase induction motors:
(i) Crawling is observed in squirrel cage motors.
(ii) Rotor resistance method of speed control is employed only in wound rotor (slip ring)
motors.
(iii) Pole changing method is used in squirrel cage motors.
(iv) Variable frequency method of speed control is used below base speed keeping the
ratio of supply voltage to frequency constant.
(b) A half wave rectifier which prevents current flowing in one direction is connected in series
with A.C. ammeter and a permanent magnet moving coil ammeter. The supply is sinusoidal.
The reading on the A.C. ammeter is 10 A. Find the reading of the other ammeter. What
would be the reading on the ammeters if the other half wave were rectified instead of being
cut off?
(20)
(c) Reduce the following four variable function using Karnaugh map and implement it in NAND
logic, F = Em (0, 4, 12, 8, 13, 7, 15)
(20)
3. (a) Two coils A (R
1
= 100 ohm, L
1
= 0.2 H) and B (R
2
= 100 ohm, L
2
= 0.4 H) are coupled by an
inductance of 0.2 H. Find the voltage V at a frequency of 1000 rad/s to be applied across coil
A to cause a current 0f 10 milliamperes through coil B across whose terminals a resistance of
100 ohms is connected.
(20)
(b) Two identical 7.5 KW, 230 V 36 A d.c. shunt wound machines are used for speed control
using Ward Leonard arrangement. One of them used as a generator is driven by a 6pole, 50
Hz synchronous motor. Armature resistance of each d.c. machine is 0.22 ohm. Data for
magnetisation curve of each machine is given below at 1000 r.p.m.:
Field current (A) 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8
Armature voltage (V) 108 183 230 254 267 276
Compute the maximum and minimum values of generator field current to give the motor a
speed range from 250 to 1500 r.p.m. at full load armature current (36 A) with the field current
held at 0.80 A.
(25)
(c) State Faraday’s Law of induction. A rectangular loop of sides a, b has its plane normal to a
magnetic flux density of strength B
0
, sin e t. What is the voltage induced in the loop?
(15)
4. (a) Explain the concept of Fermilevel. Sketch the Fermienergy level for an ntype semi
conductor as a function of temperature beginning at T = 0°K and going to a very “high” temp.
Qualitatively discuss the nature of the characteristic.
(20)
(b) The figure below shows a full wave rectifier circuit. For a sinusoidal imput voltage, plot the
voltage wave forms across R and D
1
.
(20)
(c) The circuit arrangement of an Owen Bridge for the measurement of the effective self
inductance and resistance of an iron cored coil is shown in the figure below. Determine the
balance conditions for the bridge and calculate the effective inductance and resistance of the
coil if, for a frequency of 1000 Hz, the values of the circuit elements at balance are as
follows:
R
1
= 10O, R
2
= 842 O
C
1
= 1uF, C
2
= 0.135 uF
(20)
SECTI ON B
5. Answer any three of the following:
(a) a single element rectifying device is connected in series with a moving coil ammeter and a
thermal ammeter and it is found that the circuit has a resistance of 100O to
current in one direction and infinitely large resistance to current in the opposite direction. If a
sinusoidal e.m.f. of 10 V (r.m.s.) is applied to this circuit, what will be the reading of each
instrument and what will be the power taken from the supply?
(20)
(b) Find X and; in terms of R and R2 to give maximum power dissipation in R2 shown in the
figure.
(20)
(c) A 3phase delta connected squirrel cage induction motor has certain equivalent circuit
parameters. With the same stator core, the motor is rewound with star connected windings of
same poles for operation at the same supply voltage and frequency to give same rated power
output at the same rated slip. By what factors each of the equivalent circuit parameters would
be charged?
(20)
(d) An infinitesimal dipole (Hertzian) antenna of 1 cm length radiates a power of 1 mW at 100
MHz. Calculate (i) the current in the dipole, (ii) E and H fields at 100 meters. o=90°, o = 0
o
(20)
6. (a) 415 V star connected 3phase, 4pole synchronous generator has 36 stator slots carrying
double layer 3phase windings formed through uniformly distributed coils each short chorded
by one slot. The diameter at the airgap is 20 cm and the effective axial length is 60 cm. The
rotor driven at 1500 r.p.m is excited to result in a sinusoidally varying airgap flux density
distribution in space with a peak value of 0.5 T. Calculate the number of series turns per
phase to generate rated no load voltage.
(20)
(b) What are the starting methods used for 1phase induction motors. Draw typical torquespeed
characteristics in each case both under starting and running conditions.
(20)
(c) Two perfectly insulated condensers are connected in series. One is an air condenser with a
plate area of 100 cm
2
and the plates being 1 mm apart; the other has a plate area of 10 cm
2
,
the plates being separated by dielectric of 0.1 mm thick with a permittivity of 5. Find the
voltage across the combination if the potential gradient in the air condenser is 20 KV per cm.
(20)
7. (a) 11 MV, 415 V, 3phase 50 Hz distribution transformer has its NV and LV windings
connected in delta and star respectively. It is delivering 100 KVA load at 0.8 PP (lag).
Calculate all HV and LV currents. Draw a phasor diagram showing all voltages and currents.
(20)
(b) For the circuit shown in the figure below, draw the ac. equivalent circuit and find the voltage
gain of the amplifier.
(20)
(c) Draw the circuit diagram of an RC phase shift oscillator using a transistor with CE
configuration and derive an expression for its frequency of oscillation. Prove that
1
23 29 4
L
fe
L
R R
H
R R
= + +
(20)
8. (a) Consider the set up shown in the figure below for measuring Hall effect.
Assume that L = 10
–1
cm, W = 10
–2
cm. The following parameters are measured:
I
X
= 1.0 mA, V
X
= 12.5V
B
Z
= 5 x 10
–2
T, V
H
= –6.2 mV
Find the type of the semiconductor, majority carrier concentration and the mobility.
(20)
(b) Determine the condition under which the input impedance of the network shown in the figure
below will be equal to R.
(20)
(c) A 250 V, d.c. shunt motor has R
f
= 150 O and R
a
= 0.6 O. The motor operates on no load
with a full field flux at its base speed of 1000 r.p.m. with I
a
= 5A. If the machine drives a load
requiring a torque of 100 Nm. Calculate the armature Current and speed of the motor if the
motor is required to develop 10KW at 1200 r.p.m. What is the required value of the external
series resistance in the field circuit? Neglect saturation and armature reaction.
(20)
P PA AP PE ER R   I I I I
Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum marks: 300
Candidates should attempt five questions in all selecting at east two questions including the
compulsory question from each of Sections A and B or Sections A and C.
Assume suitable data if considered necessary and indicate the same clearly.
The number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the question.
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N A A
Question No. 1 is compulsory.
1. Select any Three of the following statements, read them carefully and identify correct and incorrect
ones. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case:
(20 x 3 = 60)
(a) In analog simulation of physical system, Integrators are used rather than Differentiators.
(b) Phase lead compensation decreases the band width of a system.
(c) Synchro error detectors are used in dc servo system.
(d) The required PIV capacity of diodes in single phase bridge rectifier is one half than that
required in rectifier using centre tap transformer.
2. (a) The roots of a second order system are located at –1+j2 and –1–j2. Determine the followings
if the system is excited by unit step input:
(i) Damping ratio
(ii) Maximum % overshoot
(iii) Natural frequency of oscillation
(iv) Damped frequency of oscillation.
(20)
(b) Discuss briefly the speedtorque characteristics of a 2o ac servomotor and compare it with
that of ordinary 3o induction motor. Hence describe the laboratory method to obtain its
speedtorque characteristic.
(20)
(c) The unity feedback system has forward path transfer function
( )
( )( ) 1 2
K
G s
s s s
=
+ +
Sketch the Nyquist diagram. If K = 4, determine whether the given system is stable or not. If
the system is stable, determine its gain margin. What is the maximum value of K that will
make its gain margin zero ?
(20)
3. (a) Obtain the transfer function of phase lead network. Show that
C C. .S S. .E E. . ( (M Ma ai in n) ) 1 19 99 98 8
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
1
sin
1
m
a
a
o
÷
=
+
and
1
m
aT
e =
where o
m
, w, a and T have usual meanings.
(20)
(b) The unity feedback system has forward path transfer function
( )
( )( )
2
1
2 4
S
G s
s s s
+
=
+ +
Determine steady state error coefficients K
p
, K
v
and K
a
.
Hence find the steady state error in output if
(i) unit step input,
(ii) nit ramp input and
(iii) nit parabolic input are given.
(20)
(c) The state equations for a system are given by
X AX Bu = +
Y CX Du = +
where
1 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 3
A
÷
= ÷
÷
,
1
2
1
B
= ÷
,   1 1 1 C = and
0
0
0
D
=
Determine the output response of a system to unit step input.
(20)
4. (a) Explain the working of a timer using general purpose OP AMP IC 741. Design such a timer
for a time period of 60 seconds.
(20)
(b) Obtain
(i) average load voltage and
(ii) rms load voltage in case of 3o full wave rectifier. Hence calculate ripple factor.
(c) A simple voltage regulator circuit is shown in Fig. 4(c). The zener voltage is given by V
z
=
(10 + 0.20i
z
) volts where i
z
is in mA. For a given transistor, assume  = 100 and V
BE
= 0.3 V
(constant). Determine % load regulation if maximum load current of 500 mA is switched off.
(20)
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N B B
Question No. 5 is compulsory
5. Select any three of the following statements and justify the correctness or otherwise of them,
restricting your answer to within 200 words for each.
(3 x 20 = 60)
(a) An amplidyne is an alternating current machine with a low gain.
(b) Impedance relays used for transmission line protection work in conjunction with directional
relays.
(c) The power transfer capability of a transmission system can be enhanced by seriescapacitor
compensation.
(d) An axial blast circuit breaker is not prone to current chopping.
6. (a) Explain the term ‘Critical clearing time” in the context of transient stability of a power
system, as a sequel to a fault. A synchronous generator with an induced emf of E volts per
phase is operating on constantvoltage, constant frequency bus bars, the busbar voltage being
V volts per phase. If the impedance of the generator is Zohms, obtain an expression for the
maximum power generated.
(20)
(b) What are the factors affecting corona power loss in a transmission line ?
An inductance L connects two sections of a transmission line with surge impedances Z
1
, and
Z
2
. A rectangular surge with a crest value ‘V” and of “t” microseconds travels along the line
section 1 towards the inductance. What is the maximum value of the transmitted wave?
(20)
(c) Explain the need for time = grading in the protective scheme for radial feeders. Explain how
the multiplier setting, plugsetting affect the time of operation of the relay.
(20)
7. (a) What are the most important requirements of a lightning arrester ?
A thyrite lightning arrester has a characteristic RI
0.7
= 72000.
Draw the Voltampere characteristic of the arrester.
What is the ratio of the voltage appearing at the end of a line with a surge impedance of 500
ohms, due to a 500 kV surge when the line is open circuited to that when the line is
terminated by the arrester?
(20)
(b) Explain with the help of a neat phasor diagram, the manner in which a synchronous
condenser located at the receiving end of a short transmission line improves the power factor
and maintains the voltages at both ends at the same level.
(20)
(c) Distinguish the characteristic features of alternators employed in Hydel and thermal power
stations. A threePhase 400 V, 6pole, 50 Hz starconnected synchronous motor has a
resistance and synchronous reactance of 0.5O and 5O per phase respectively. It takes a
current of 15 A at Unity Power factor with a certain excitation. If the load torque is increased
until the line current increases to 60A, with the excitation maintained constant, find the gross
torque developed and the new power factor.
(20)
8. (a) What are the essential requirements of motors employed in electric traction ?
A threephase induction motor has a 4pole, star connected stator winding and runs on a 400
V 50 Hz supply. The rotor resistance is 0.1 O and reactance 0.9O. The stator to rotor turns
ratio is 1.75 and the full load slip is 5%. Calculate the fullload HorsePower output.
Determine also the maximum torque and the corresponding speed.
(20)
(b) Describe with the help of a neat diagram the operation of a reluctancetype stepper motor
along with its characteristics. What are its possible applications ?
(20)
(c) What re the limitations on the application of the “Equal area criterion” for examining
transient stability ? The maximum power that can be transmitted by a Synchronous Generator
operating on to an infinite bus is 1.00 pu. The Generator initially was delivering under stable
steadystate 0.4pu. What is the extra load that can be suddenly thrown on the generator for it
to become critically stable ? Ignore active resistance.
(20)
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N B B
Q. No 9 is compulsory.
9. Select any Three of the following statements and indicate with justification whether they are correct
or incorrect. Your answer must not exceed 200 words for each statement:
(20 x 3 = 60)
(a) Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) systems for voice communication employ companding,
(b) With a sinusoidal modulating signal and modulation indices of 0.1 each, the spectra of AM,
FM and PM signals are identical.
(c) The dominant mode of propagation in a rectangular waveguide is TEM.
(d) For a given data rate, QPSK signals and BPSK signals require equal bandwidths.
10. (a) An antenna having a 10°K noise temperature feeds a low noise amplifier of 4
o
K noise
temperature and 20 dB gain. This is followed by another amplifier of 4 dB noise figure and
30 dB gain. Find the overall noise figure and noise temperature of the system.
(20)
(b) Discuss the relative merits and shortcomings of BPSK and BFSK signals.
(20)
(c) Explain a scheme for demodulation of PPM signals.
(20)
11. (a) Consider a DSBSC signal corresponding to a modulating signal x(t) of bandwidth B and a
carrier signal A cos 2tf
c
t, This DSBSC signal forms the input in Fig. 11(a). Find the output
and comment on the result.
Fig. 11(a)
(20)
(b) Draw the input impedance variation of an o.c. lossless line of characteristic impedance R
0
(purely resistive) when the length varies from zero to ì. Indicate the nature of the impedance
at every 0.2ì separation.
(20)
(c) Describe a method of measuring impedance at microwave frequencies.
(20)
12. (a) Discuss the significance of G/T ratio of an earth station.
(20)
(b) Give the frequency range of a gunn diode and order of available power. How many junctions
does it have?
(20)
(c) Describe a DME system for measurement of distance.
(20)
P PA AP PE ER R   I I
Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300
Candidates should attempt Question 1 and 5 which are compulsory, and any THREE of the remaining
question selecting at least ONE question from each Section.
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N A A
1. Answer any three of the following:
(a) Explain the concept of complex frequency. Discuss its usefulness in specifying network
functions.
(20)
(b)
Determine the current in the 5 ohm resistor using Thevenin’s theorem.
(20)
(c)
Determine the electric field in the overlap region cit two spheres A and B shown in the above
figure. Sphere A carries a charge –p c/m
3
and the sphere B, a charge of –p c/m
3
.
(20)
(d) Discuss the merits and demerits of using counters in digital measuring instruments.
(20)
2. (a)
C C. .S S. .E E. . ( (M Ma ai in n) ) 1 19 99 99 9
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
A lossless transmission of length m and characteristic impedance Z
0
ohm is excited at
both the ends as shown in the above figure. Determine the currents delivered by the two
sources. Determine also the current at the midpoint of the line.
(20)
(b)
Determine
(i)
( )
( )
V s
I s
and
(ii)
( )
( )
AB
V s
V s
for the network shown in the above figure.
(10 + 10)
(c)
The bridge circuit, shown in the above figure, is balanced when S = 10 milli ohm, P = 1100
ohm, Q = 1000 ohm, q = 500 ohm and r = 0.1 ohm. Find the value of R
x
.
(20)
3. (a)
Determine V Zu so that the circuits (i) and (ii) shown in the above figure are equivalent.
(20)
(b)
Determine the emf induced in the triangular loop ABC due to the flux set up by a sinusoidal
current I
m
sin et flowing in an infinitely long wire shown in the above figure.
(20)
(c) Two conductors have a potential coefficient matrix
2 1
1 2
Each conductor is given a charge
1 C. One of the conductors is then momentarily grounded. Thereafter it is connected to the
other conductor. Determine the final potential of the composite conductor.
(20)
4. (a) (i) Why does an induction type energy meter creep? How is the creep prevented?
(10)
(ii) The calibration constant of a 3phase energy meter is 0.14 revolutions of disc per
kwh. It is used with a potential transformer of ratio 11 KV/110 V and a current
transformer of ratio 500 A/5A. The test results are:
Line voltage = 100
Line current = 5.25 A,
Power Factor = 0.9 lagging,
Time to complete 30 revolutions of discs =0 sec.
Determine the percentage error in the meter in terms of the actual energy consumed.
(10)
(b) The output of a LVDT transducer is 0.5 V at a frequency of
50
2t
10
3
rad./sec. Determine the
output if the frequency deviates by 10%. The time constants of primary and secondary
circuits are 5 ms and 2 ms respectively.
(20)
(c)
Determine the resistance across the terminals A and B of the network shown in the above
figure.
(20)
SECTI ON B
5. Answer any three of the following:
(a)
The above figure shows the circuit of a voltage follower. Calculate its closed loop voltage
gain, input impedance and output impedance. Determine also the output offset voltage. The
parameters of 741 C are:
Open loop gain A
OL
= 10
5
,
r
in
= 2MO, r
out
= 75O, V
in
(off) 2mV,
I
in
(bias) = 80 nA and I
m
(off) = 20 nA.
(20)
(b) (i) Simplify the Boolean function
( )
( )
. . Z A B B A C = + +
and realise it using NAND gates.
(10)
(ii) What is a race condition ? How is it prevented?
(10)
(c) A 400 V, 3phase, star connected synchronous motor has x
d
= 8 ohm and x
q
= 6 O. It is
running on infinite bus. If its field current is reduced to zero, determine the maximum load
that the synchronous motor can carry. Determine also the corresponding armature current.
(20)
(d) A d.c. shunt motor draws an armature current of 50 A from 250 V mains. It is required to
increase its speed by 40% by weakening of the field flux. If the torque at the increased speed
is also increased by 40%, find the per cent change in the field flux. The armature resistance is
0.2 ohm.
(20)
6. (a)
For the class C tuned amplifier shown in the above figure, calculate the maximum load power
and the transistor power rating if V
CE(sat)
= 0.75 V.
(20)
(b)
The transistor shown in the above figure has following h parameters:
h
ie
= 1000 O, h
fe
= 50, h
re
= 3 x 10
–4
and h
oe
= 5 x 10
–5
Find the voltage gain aid ac. input impedance of the amplifier. Neglect capacitor impedances.
(20)
(c) Describe any two types of A to D converters. Discuss their merits and demerits.
(20)
7. (a) A 500 KVA, 11 K 3phase, star connected alternator has the following data:
Friction and windage loss = 1500 W
Open circuit core loss = 2500 W
Effective armature resistance per phase 4 ohm
Field copper loss = 1000 W
Find
(i) alternator efficiency at halffull load and 0.8 power factor lagging
(ii) maximum efficiency of the alternator.
(10 + 10)
(b) Describe, giving reasons, the choice of materials for the following applications:
(i) Magnetic tapes
(ii) Recording heads
(iii) Super conductors
(iv) Insulation for 11 KV cable
(5 + 5 + 5 + 5)
(c) Three 600 KVA, 33000/11000 V, 50Hz, 3phase, Delta/Star transformers are connected in
parallel. These transformers give the following test results when operated at the rated full
load current with their low voltage windings shortcircuited:
Transformer A–300 V, 3000 W
Transformer B–400V, 3500 W
Transformer C–450 V, 4000 W
Determine the maximum load at unity power factor which can be supplied by the parallel
combination without overloading any of them.
(20)
8. (a)
Describe the constructional features of EMOSFET.
Calculate the voltage gain from gate to drain of the circuit shown in the above figure.
(10 + 10)
(b)
Explain the operation of colpitts oscillator. A colpitts oscillator has a tank circuit as shown in
the above figure. Calculate its frequency of oscillation. What should be the minimum gain of
the amplifier for the oscillations to start ?
(20)
(c) (i) Show that the use of a synchronous condenser improves the efficiency and regulation
of a system.
(10)
(ii) A consumer has a total load of 2000 KW at a p.f. of 0.8 lagging. If it is required to
improve the power factor to 0.95 lagging, determine the KVA rating of the
synchronous condenser required for the purpose.
(10)
P PA AP PE ER R   I I I I
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N A A
Question No. 1 is compulsory
1. Select any three of the following statements, read them carefully and identify correct and incorrect
ones. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case:
(20 x 3 = 60)
Case
(a) For a stable system, the gain margin and phase margin should be positive.
(b) Shaft encoders are extremely useful for the measurement of singular displacement.
(c) An SCR is derated when it handles pulsed anode current.
(d) An operation amplifier has features suitable for radio frequency timers.
2. (a) What is Bodeplot? Discuss how a Bodeplot can be drawn.
Derive the step response of a second order system expressed by:
( )
2
d d
a b c F i
dt dt
u u
u + + = .
(20)
(b) (i) Enumerate the salient features of phaselead and phase lag networks.
(10)
(ii) Design an astable multivibrator with LM 555. Calculate also the duty cycle and
frequency of oscillation.
(10)
(c) (i) The polezero configuration of a closedloop control system is given by (s
1
, s
2
) = –2 ±
j2. Calculate the undamped resonance frequency and the damping ratio.
(10)
(ii) Explain Hurwitz stability criteria.
The characteristic equation of a system is represented by
4s
3
+ 3s
2
+ 2s + 3 = 0.
Verify the stability of the system through expansion by confined fraction.
(10)
3. (a) Fig. 3(a) shows a circuit employing classC commutation. The circuit is initially relaxed.
Sketch the waveform for V
T1
, V
T2
, i
c
i
T1
, v
c
and i
T2
for one cycle for explaining the
commutation process of both the thyristors.
C C. .S S. .E E. . ( (M Ma ai in n) ) 1 19 99 99 9
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
(20)
(b) Describe the working of a 3phase full converter when connected to a resistive load. The
firing angle is approximately 70°.
Derive an expression for its average output voltage in terms of firing angle, input supply
voltage.
(c) A fixed frequency chopper feeds a separatelyexcited dc motor supplied from 80 V dc source.
The rated speed is 900 rpm and the rated armature current is 40 A. Armature circuit
resistance is 0.25O. Find the duty cycle of the chopper at half the rated motor torque for a
speed of 300 rpm ignoring the current pulsations.
(20)
4. (a) Enumerate states and state variable representation of a dynamic system.
Determine, by Routh array, whether a system represented by characteristic equation.
s
3
+ 4s
2
+ 8s + 11 = 0
is stable or not.
(20)
(b) Discuss the principle of working of a 3phase bridge inverter with an appropriate circuit
Draw phase and line voltage waveforms on the assumption that each thyristor conducts for
180° and the resistive load is star connected. Indicate the sequence of firing for thyristors as
well.
(25)
(c) Explain the mechanism for the dissipation of stored energy in a SCR during its commutation
process.
(15)
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N B B
Question No. 5 is compulsory
5. Select any three of the following statements and justify the correctness or otherwise of them,
restricting your answer to within 200 words for each:
(3 x 20 = 60)
(a) Restriking transients can be damped by connecting a resistance across the contracts of a
circuit breaker.
(20)
(b) GaussSiedel method is preferred for load flow studies of large power system due to its
quadratic convergence.
(20)
(c) An electrical machine has cylindrical stator and salient pole rotor. Reluctance torque is
produced when exciting winding is on the rotor.
(20)
(d) If the rotor of a 3phase induction motor is assumed purely inductive, the electromagnetic
torque would be optimum with load angle equal to 90°.
(20)
6. (a) Which type of distance relay is preferred for EHV transmission lines ? Discuss its principle
of operation with its salient features.
(20)
(b) Develop necessary equations and explain the NewtonRaphson method in polar coordinates
for solving the load flow problem when both load and voltagecontrolled buses are present in
the system.
(20)
(c) A 3phase, 4pole, 50 Hz, starconnected induction motor, during short circuit test, took 100
A and 30 kW. In case stator resistance is equal to equivalent standstill rotor resistance,
calculate the starting torque.
(20)
7. (a) An overhead transmission line, with a surge impedance of 500 O, has a load comprising of a
10 kiloohm resistor is parallel with a 0.005 uF capacitor connected across the far end. A
surge voltage of 10 kV magnitude and unit step travels along the line. Determine an
expression for the time variation of the voltage across the load and calculate this voltage 5 us
after the arrival of the wave front of the surge.
State any assumptions made.
(20)
(b) A 3phase generator, an open circuit, is excited to give a voltage of 2200 V between lines.
The absolute values of fault currents for various types of faults are:
(i) 3phase fault : 127.0 Amps
(ii) L–L fault : 129.5 Amps
(iii) L–G fault : 190.0 Amps
Find the positive, negative and zerosequence reactances of the generator. Assume the
resistance to be negligible.
(20)
(c) Explain how the power factor of a 3phase induction motor is controlled by static capacitors.
Show that for a constant capacitance, the degree of power factor correction is not the same at
different loads.
(20)
8. (a) Describe the constructional features and working of a 2phase, 4/6 pole hybrid stepping
motor.
Discuss its torquedisplacement characteristics also.
(20)
(b) A salientpole synchronous motor; with r
a
= 0, X
d
= 1.0 pu and X
q
= 0.5 pu, is operated on
infinite busbar of 1.00 pu voltage. Show that for one perunit synchronous power, the
excitation voltage is given by E
1
= cosec o – cos o.
Also derive the condition for load angle when synchronous power is maximum.
(20)
(c) The generalized constants A and B of a transmission line are 0.96 Z1° and 100 Z80°
respectively. If the line to line voltages at the sending and receiving ends are both 110 kV and
phase angle between them is 30°, find the receiving end power factor and current. With the
sending end voltage maintained at 110 kV, if the load is suddenly thrown off, find the
corresponding receiving end voltage.
(20)
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N C C
Question No. 9 is compulsory.
9. Select any three of the following statements and indicate with justification whether they are correct
or incorrect. Your answer must not exceed 200 words for each statements:
(20 x 3 = 60)
(a) The characteristic of a twin–T network is similar to that of a notch filter in audio frequency
range.
(b) The transposition of telephone lines is desirable.
(c) Magnetrons are capable of delivering low pulsed power output.
(d) Only one kind of dielectric substrate is used in microwave integrated circuits (MlCs).
10. (a) Define spectral density and autocorrelation function for the measurement of noise.
Find out the spectral density and autocorrelation function of the output when white noise
with spectral density n is applied to a low pass RC filter. Derive the expressions used.
(30)
(b) Discuss the microwave spectrum in satellite communication.
(c) Describe the technique of making stereophonic FM broadcast compatible with monophonic
system.
(20)
11. (a) Discuss the realization techniques, with circuit diagrams, for inductor and capacitor in
microwave communication.
(20)
(b) Derive the equivalent circuits and find out ‘Q’ factor of the inductor and capacitor. State any
assumptions made.
(20)
(c) Enumerate the salient features of wave guides with diagrams based on band width and power
handling capabilities.
(20)
12. (a) Describe the relative merits of single mode and multimode fibres used in communication
system.
(20)
(b) Describe the schematic arrangement of pulsecode modulation by using optical fibre.
(20)
(c) Draw a schematic diagram and discuss how the thickness of foil can be measured by
microwave sensors.
(20)
PAPER – I
Candidates should attempt questions 1 and 5 which are compulsory and any three of the remaining
questions selection at least one question selecting at least one question from each Section.
SECTI ON A
1. Answer any three of the following
(a) Determine the relationship between R
1
, R
2
, L and C of the circuit shown below so that the
poles of the function V(s)/I(s) are complex.
20
(b) (i) Justify that a thin sheet of a conducting material acts as a lowpass filter for
electromagnetic waves.
10
(ii) A radio signal at a frequency of 20 MHz is transmitted through seawater having o =
4 /m and c
r
= 100. Find the distance at which 80% of the wave amplitude is
attenuated.
10
(c) Justify the statement Commentator in a d.c. machine keeps the armature mmf stationary in
space along the interpolar axis even though the armature rotates.
20
(d) (i) What factors influence the performance of Yagi—Uda antenna? Explain it clearly
with the help of a neat sketch showing the direction of e.m.w.
10
(ii) Determine field strength at a distance of 50 kin of a short vertical monopole radiating
power of 20 kW at a frequency 1 MHz over ground with mean conductivity of 10
mS/metre
10
2. (a) The clock frequency of 1000 ns is connected to a 3bit asynchronous counter with each flip
flip having 50 ns propagating delay. Which slate will never occur in it, if the clock frequency
is decreased to 100 ns? Explain it by drawing wave shapes for 1000 ns and 100 ns clock
frequencies separately.
20
(b) A 230 V D.c. source feeds a separatelyexcited d.c. motor through a chopper operating at 400
Hz. The load torque at 1200 r.p.m. is 32.5 Nm. The motor has r
a
= 0, L
a
= 3 mH and K
m
= 1.3
Vs/rad. All motor and chopper losses are neglected.
C.S.EMains 2000
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
Calculate (i) the armature current excursion and (ii) the armature current expressions during
on and off periods.
20
(c) Draw the equivalent circuit of a 1phase induction motor based on tworevolving field theory.
Identify the various parameters involved in it. Prove, there from, that the forward flux wave is
several times greater than the backward flux wave o
b
at normal rotor speed, hut at standstill.
o
f
= o
b
.
20
3. (a) Describe the principle of working of linearized model of phase lock loop shown in the figure
given below and show that the output voltage is proportional to the change in frequency in
the FM signal
20
(b) Two transformers A and B, operating in parallel have equal voltage ratios and leakage
impedances. Their reactance to resistance ratios are 10 and 4 respectively. Determine the
ratio of the fullload kVA delivered by the parallel combination to the sum of their individual
kVA ratings. Comment on the result.
20
(c)
For the, circuit shown above, thyristor T is turned on at a triggering angle greater than that
given by sin
1
(E/V
m
). Draw waveforms for u u
s
, i
0
and u
T
. Derive an expression for the
average charging current I
0
.
For supply voltage of 30 V, 50 Hz and constant battery e.m.f. of 6 V find the resistance to he
inserted in series with the battery to limit the average charging current to 3 A in case thyristor
T is turned on at a firing angle of 20°.
20
4. (a) Why do the maximum voltages across the inductance and capacitance in a series R  L  C
resonant circuit occur at different values of frequencies? Explain.
20
(b) (i) Calculate the quiescent collector current I
CQ
or room temperature for the amplifier
circuit shown in the figure given below.
10
(ii) Describe the applications of clipping and clamping circuits.
10
(c) What is the difference between TWT and Klystron? How TWT operates as microwave
oscillator?
Determine (i) the gain parameter; (ii) the power gain, and (iii) any two propagation constants
in a traveling wave tube having the following parameters
Beam voltage V
0
= 2 kV
Beam current I
0
= 20 mA
Frequency f = 10 GH
Characteristic impedance of helix Z
0
= 10O
Circuit length = 50 (wavelength)
20
SECTI ON B
5. (a) Answer any three of the following
A nonsinusoidal current i(t) as shown in the above figure is passed through a capacitance C
= 100 uF. Determine the voltage across the capacitance when e = 1000 rad/sec.
20
(b) (i) Design a combinational circuit having 3 inputs and 6 outputs with the condition that
the output number is square of the input number.
10
(ii) A computer uses RAM chips of capacity 1024 × 1. How many chips are required and
how their address and data bus be connected to provide a memory capacity of 1024
bytes? How chips would be connected to provide memory of 16 K bytes?
10
(c) For a singlephase onepulse controlled converter system, sketch waveforms for load voltage
and load current for (i) RL load and (ii) RL load with freewheeling diode across RL.
Compare these waveforms and discuss the advantages of using a freewheeling diode. State
the assumptions made.
20
(d) Justify the statement pulse modulation is not digital whereas pulse code modulation is digital
Obtain the bandwidth for 128 quantization levels and 8 kHz sampling frequency of a practical
PCM system consisting of 24 telephone channels, each band limited to 3.4 kHz in time
division multiplexing. Deduce formulae used.
20
6. (a) (i) Explain the phenomenon of attenuation in TE and TEM waves.
10
(ii) Determine the guide wavelength to propagate a 20 GHz signal through a parallel plate
waveguide having a plate separation of 5 cm.
10
(b) (i) Which type of communication system will you prefer for speech processing? Why?
10
(ii) With the help of a suitable schematic diagram describe the working of a delta
modulation system. Discuss its limitation.
10
(c) (i) Derive relationship between critical frequency and the maximum density of a layer N.
10
(ii) Calculate skip distance for a wave of frequency 4.5 MHz when the maximum
ionization in the E  region has value of 10
10
electrons/m
3
at a height of 105 km.
10
7. (a)
Obtain Zparameters of the 2port network given above and deduce Yparameters from the
result.
20
(b) (i) A ntype Gats Gunn diode of length 10 um, doping concentration 2 × 10
14
/m
3
and
threshold field 3 kV/cm operates at a frequency of 10 GH with applied voltage of 3.5
kV/cm. Calculate electron drift velocity, current density and negative mobility of
electron.
10
(ii) A circular loop of 20 cm radius made of 3 mm dia. of copper wire is used as an
antenna. Calculate its radiation resistance. ohmic resistance, input resistance and
radiation efficiency at 1 MHz.
10
(c) A signal u
i
(t) = k{1 + m f(t)} cos e
c
t is applied to the input of an average (diode) detector
with load resistance R. The diode is characterized as
i
b
= 0 for u
b
s 0
i
b
= u
b
/r
d
for u
b
> 0
Obtain an expression or low frequency component of the output voltage of the detector for
m f (t) < 1
20
Determine the output c(t) at t = 2 sec for the system shown in the above figure.
20
(b) A star  connected synchronous machine with Z
S
= 1 + j 10 ohm per phase, is synchronized
with an infinite bus of 11 kV. The machine is made to operate at a leading power factor of 0.8
with an armature current of 50 A and with terminal voltage ahead of the excitation e.m.f.
Calculate the magnitude of excitation e.m.f.
How can this machine be made to operate at unity p1? Under this condition, find the armature
current and load angle,
20
(c) A singlephase full bridge inverter feeds a load that allows load commutation. Explain how
load commutation is achieved. Describe the conduction of various elements of the inverter
circuit.
20
PAPER – I I
SECTI ON A
1. Select any three of the following statements, read them carefully and identify the correct and the
incorrect ones. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case.
20 × 3 = 60
(a) State variable approach for analysis is applicable only to linear time invariant systems.
(b) The problem of drift may assume very serious problems in electronic instrumentation system.
(c) Power carrying capability of transmission lines decreases with increase in the length of
transmission, and can be improved by providing shunt reactors.
(d) Optical fibre is the best choice for heavy demand long line telephone communication
systems.
2. (a) The open hop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by
( )
( )( )
1 2
1 1
k
G s
s st st
=
+ +
(i) Using the Routh—Hutwitz method, determine the necessary conditions for the system
to be stable.
(ii) Sketch the root locus diagram for the system described for positive values of k, t
1
and
t
2
. Show how the root locus gets modified with addition of a zero.
20
(b) Incremental cost characteristics of two thermal plants is given by
( )
1
1
1
60 0.2 . /
G
G
dC
P Rs MW hr
dP
= + ÷
( )
2
2
2
40 0.3 . /
G
G
dC
P Rs MW hr
dP
= + ÷
Evaluate the sharing of a load of 200 MW for most economic operation. If the plants are rated
150 MW and 250 NW. what will be the saving in cost in Rs./hour in comparison to loading in
the same proportion to rating?
20
(c) Describe the construction and principle of working of a solidstate and overcurrent relay.
20
3. (a) Boron is doped in ntype Si wafer having 2 × 10
22
phosphorus atoms m
3
through a circular
window of 0.1 um diameter for 10 minutes at 1100° C The gaseous atmosphere of BH
3
used
for doping provides the B concentration of 1 × 10
23
atoms m
3
at the surface of the wafer
Estimate the location of the pn junction beneath the surface. Given the diffusivity of B in Si
at 1100°C is 4 × 10
17
m
2
s
1
.
20
C.S.EMains 2000
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
(b) What is load flow solution? What is its significance in power system Classify various types
of buses in a power system for load flow studies. Explain, with a flowchart, the
computational procedure for loadflow solution using GaussSiedel method.
20
(c) What are solar concentrators? Describe various components of a solar concentrator giving
their functions.
20
4. (a) One method of measuring a small capacitance C
x
is shown in fig. 1. C
1
and C
2
are equal high
quality variable air capacitors. C
3
is a fixed high quality capacitance of much smaller value
than maximum value of C
2
(about 1/10 of C
2
). The following two balances are obtained
(i) With switch S open, C
2
at its maximum value and C
1
is adjusted for balance.
(ii) With switch S closed, C
1
left unaltered and C
2
is adjusted to C
2
to get a new balance
Prove that
( )
( )
2
3 2 2
2 2 2 3 2 3
' '
C C C
Cx
C C C C C C
÷
=
+ ÷
If R = 1000O, C
1
and C
2
are 1000 pF and C
3
= 50 pF and assuming the variable capacitors
are readable to ± 5 pF with what accuracy could a capacitance of 1 pF be measured?
20
(b) Discuss three kinds of errordetection codes and explain how they detect errors.
20
(c) Explain with the help of block diagram a CW Doppler radar using an intermediate frequency
in the receiver. Give its advantages applications and limitations.
20
SECTI ON B
5. Select any three of the following statements, read them carefully and identify the correct and the
incorrect ones. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case.
20 × 3 = 60
(a) Feedback provides same control on the steady state error to standard inputs by adjustment of
openloop gain.
(b) One disadvantage of magnetic tape recorder is that its characteristics limit its use at higher
frequencies.
(c) The cost of fabrication and installation of system for utilizing solar energy is too high to be
viable.
(d) ICs, although cheaper, axe less reliable as compared to discrete components interconnected
by conventional techniques.
6. (a) A system is described by the following state and output equations
0 1 0
2 3 1
X X U
= +
÷ ÷
And Y = [1 0]X
where u(t) is a unit step input and the initial conditions X
1
(0) = 0, X
2
(0) = 0. Obtain the time
response of the system.
20
(b) Briefly explain the principle of PCM, differential PCM and delta modulation.
20
(c) Discuss salient features of a fibre optic communication system. List some of the optical
components used to interconnect a digital voice or data systems.
20
7. (a) Discuss the functions of various Registers and ALU of 8085.
20
(b) Discuss multiple access techniques for satellite communications. Explain the meaning of the
following
FDMA, TOMA, COMA and SOMA
20
(c) Briefly describe two different types of phase array radars. How can phased arrays overcome
the difficulties occasioned by the use of moving radar antennae?
20
8. (a) Give the construction, principle of working and apperceptions of an LVDT.
20
(b) Develop receiver end power circle diagram of a transmission tine. Explain, how from the
power circle diagram, capacity of a synchronous phase modifier be determined.
20
(c) Establish block diagram for loadfrequency control of an isolated power system.
(d) 20
PAPER – I
Candidates should attempt questions 1 and 5 which are compulsory and any three of the remaining
questions selection at least one question selecting at least one question from each Section.
SECTI ON A
1. Answer any THREE of the following
(a) Prove that an ideal transformer shown below for which v
1
/v
2
= n can be identical with a
perfectly coupled transformer
if n =
1 2
/ L L , where L
1
and L
2
are the self inductances of the primary and secondary
windings of the transformer and M is the mutual inductance.
Discuss about the current ratio. Obtain the expression for i
1
(t) and conditions that the perfect
transformer will be an ideal transformer.
20
(b) A farmer (F) has two sheds (N
1
& S
1
) in his farm to keep his farm produce and belongings.
He keeps vegetables (V) as farm produce, a goat (G) which can eat the vegetables and a dog
(D) that can bite the goat in the absence of the farmer.
The farmer along has to manage both sheds without loosing either vegetables or the
goat. Suggest a logic circuit that can alarm him under any catastrophic condition by means of
a buzzer.
20
(c) A 3phase induction motor has an efficiency of 0.9 when the load is 37 kW. At this load, the
stator copper and rotor copper loss each equals the iron loss. The mechanical losses are one
third of the no load loss. Calculate the slip.
20
(d) A twotone modulating signal e
m
(t) = 5 cos 2.10
3
(t) + 4 cos 4.10
3
t modulates a carrier
voltage e(t) = 10 cos 2.10
6
t. Find various frequency components present and corresponding
modulation indices. Also obtain the amplitude of the signals present in each sideband and the
bandwidths.
20
2. (a) Show that the multiplication of a sinusoidal signal by a signal f(t) translates the whole
frequency spectrum. Can we retranslate the spectrum to its original position? If yes how?
20
(b) A separately excited d.c. motor supplied with rated voltage and rated field current is driving a
fan delivering rated torque. The load torque of the fan is proportional to square of speed. The
motor exhibited linear load characteristics such that the speed dropped by 10% from no load
C.S.EMains 2001
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
to full load torque at rated voltage and field current. If the supply voltage is halved at the
same field current develops an expression for the new speed in terms of no Load speed (at
rated voltage), full load torque and other constants.
20
(c) While the Thyristors is used in Power Electronic convertors it is being replaced by other
devices recently. Mention any two of these devices and explain how they differ from the
Thyristors. Name typical convertors in which the Thyristors are being replaced.
20
3. (a) (i) Draw the truth table of an octaltobinary encoder with the condition that the output F
= 1 when at least one of the inputs is a 1. The octal input with highest number has the
highest priority. What is the condition of binary outputs and F output, if the inputs D
5
= D
3
= 1?
10
(ii) Design a combinational circuit using AND gates and half adders that can multiply two
2bit numbers a
1
a
0
and b
1
b
0
to produce 4bit number S
3
, S
2
, S
1
and S
0
.
10
(b) Figure below shows a singly excited electro mechanical system with a stationary member and
a rotating member. The stationary member is an electromagnet excited by a coil of N turns
carrying a current i wound on a ferromagnetic core of infinite permeability. The rotating
member is an unwound ferromagnetic core of infinite permeability causing variable
permeance at changing rotor position from a maximum permeance of P
1
at = 0 to a
minimum permeance of P
2
at = 90°. Assuming this variation of permeance to be sinusoidal
develop an expression for the developed torque on the rotating member as a function of .
20
(c) In an electric traction d.c. series motor has been used with singlephase a.c. overhead lines.
Gradually it is being replaced by another motor along with suitable speed control mechanism.
Explain this new system comprising the motor and its control from the same overhead supply
system and compare with the one using d.c. series motor.
20
4. (a) Define a uniform plane wave, Show that a uniform plane wave progressing in xdirection
does not have the xcomponent of E. Explain what does this mean physically.
20
(b)
Obtain the voltage gain and output resistance of the composite amplifier shown in Fig. above.
20
(c) A rectangular wave guide has crosssectional area a = 7 cm and b = 4 cm. Obtain all TE
modes that will propagate frequency less than 5 GHz. How these modes are designated and
what are the corresponding cutoff frequencies.
20
SECTI ON B
5. Answer any THREE of the following
(a) How do you determine the Laplace transform of a function f(t)? Are there any restrictions on
f(t) for this ? State them.
Determine the Laplace transforms of
(i) signal in the form of a triangular pulse and
(ii) impulse train as shown below.
The strength of each impulse is unity.
20
(b) Figure below shows a coil of N turns placed in a time varying flux (t), The coil direction is such
that for the direction of current i (as shown) in the flux direction is an indicated in the figure. Assume
infinite conductivity of the conductor of the coil. Using relevant Maxwell’s equation obtains an
expression for e. Indicate how this expression will be in conformity with Lenz’s law.
20
(c) A 3phase induction motor is driving a constant torque load. If one of the supply lines to the
motor is disconnected discuss the changes you would observe in supply current, speed and
efficiency.
20
(d) (i) Differentiate between FDM and TDM pictorially. Enumerate the advantages of one
over the other.
10
(ii) 24telephones, each band limited to 3.4 kHz, are to be time division multiplexed using
PCM. Calculate the bandwidth of the PCM system for 128 quantization levels with 8
kHz sampling frequency
10
6. (a) What is the order of magnitude of velocity of an electromagnetic wave in a good conductor as
compared to sound wave in air ? Discuss.
Calculate the depth of penetration of a MHz wave into copper which has = 5.8 × 10
7
/m
and permeability equal to that of free space.
20
(b)
The simplified circuit of a radio oscillator is shown in Fig. above. Draw its equivalent circuit
and obtain the condition of oscillation. Obtain the frequency of oscillation and the value of h
fe
required for the oscillation in the case of Hartley oscillator
20
(c) A transmitting antenna at a height of h
2
above a smooth perfectly flatearth surface sends a
signal to a receiving antenna of height h
1
with ground range between them equal to a. Obtain
the path difference between the direct and reflected signals reaching the receiving antenna.
Assume h
2
> h
1
.
20
7. (a) What is cutset in linear graph theory? Explain with an example.
In the graph
check if the sets of branches {1, 3, 4, 6} {1, 2, 3}, {1, 2, 3, 5} constitute cutsets.
20
(b) Show that the output of a balanced modulator using semiconductor diode is DSBSC.
20
(c) Obtain relationship between the skip distance and maximum usable frequency over the flat
earth surface.
20
8. (a) For the polezero configuration of an impedance function shown below draw the schematic
diagrams of the two Foster and two Cauer networks without determining element values.
What more information do you need to determine the element values?
20
(b) Measurements on a small permanent magnet d.c. motor indicate that it has an armature
resistance of 7.5 ohm. With an applied armature voltage of 6 V. the motor is observed to
achieve a no load speed to 10570 r/min while drawing an armature current of 13 mA.
(i) Calculate the motor torque constant
(ii) Find the no load rotational losses of the motor.
(iii) Find the stall current and torque of the motor at an applied armature voltage of 6 V.
20
(c) How are the Power Semiconductor devices specified?
What do these specifications signify?
20
1.
PAPER  I I
SECTI ON A
1. Select any THREE of the following statements, read them carefully and identify the correct and the
incorrect ones. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case.
20 × 3 = 60
(a) While a lead compensator reduces system bandwidth, a lag compensator on the other hand
increases the system bandwidth.
(b) It is necessary to use preamplification and filtering before data processing.
(c) Tap changing transformers arc used in power systems, especially to control reactive volt
amperes.
(d) For the correct reproduction of the picture on the screen of a television, it is desired that the
scanning at the receiver and transmitter are synchronized.
2. (a) What is the fundamental difference between a subroutine call and an interrupt request ? Is it
possible to employ a common memory stack for both?
20
(b) For the network shown in Fig. 2 (b), obtain the complex bus bar voltage at bus 2 at the end of
the first iteration. Use the Gauss Seidel method. Line impedances are in pu. Given
20
Bus 1 is slack bus with V
1
= 1.00°.
P
2
+ j Q
2
= 5.96 + j 1.46; V
3
 = 1.2
Assume V
0
3
1.02 0 V and
0
2
1 0 V
(c) Explain how a Buchholz relay protects a transformer.
20
3. (a) What is the proportion in which ntype and ptype Si both having conductivity of 10 ohm
1
m

1
be mixed so as to produce a fully compensated semiconductor at room temperature?
Mobility of electrons and holes in Si are 0.14 and 0.05 m
2
V
1
s
1
respectively at room
temperature.
20
(b) Explain the following in connection with power systems:
Ferranti effects, infinite line, Peterson coil, load bus.
20
(c) Calculate the maximum power by a solar cell at an intensity of 200 W/m
2
. Given V
max
= 0.14
V and I
max
= 6 mA. Also calculate the cell efficiency if the area is 4 cm
2
.
20
C.S.EMains 2001
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
4. (a) While manufacturing IC, the Si wafer is oxidized time and again. What functions can an
oxide layer perform during and after the manufacture? What role is played by dislocations
which get generated during the growth of the single crystal and during processing of the
wafer? 20
(b) Explain, what is meant by the term Blind Speed in MTI (Moving Target Indicator) radar.
What is the method of overcoming the problems of blind speed in radar?
20
(c) What do you understand by the term Satellite Communication Package? Explain in brief the
working of satellite repeaters in use.
20
SECTI ON B
5. Select any THREE of the following statements, read them carefully and identify the correct and the
incorrect ones. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case. .
20 × 3 = 60
(a) In order to increase the distance between poles, carrying long distance transmission line,
aluminum conductors should be strengthened by strainhardening.
(b) RouthHurwitz and continuous fraction stability criteria tell whether the system is stable or
unstable. They do not tell anything about the relative stability of the system.
(c) Using energy audit and energy management techniques, one avoid or postpone the
installation of costly peaky generation.
(d) In pulse compression radar, one gets a higher maximum range capability and a better range
resolution.
6. (a) The conductivity of intrinsic Si at room temperature is 3.3 × 10
4
ohm
1
m
1
. A bridge is
available which can measure 1 in 10
4
changes in resistance. With what accuracy can this Si
be used to measure the temperature in the range from 0°C to 100°C? The energy band gap in
Si is 1.1 eV. The Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 × 10
23
J K
1
and the electronic charge, e = 1.6
× 10
19
C.
20
(b) Great a block diagram for a differential encoding and decoding system. Explain how it works
by showing the encoding and decoding for the sequence 001111010001. Assume that the
reference digit is a binary 1. Show that error proportion cannot occur.
20
(c) With reference to the colour television transmission and reception, explain (i) hue and
saturation, and (ii) colour subscriber.
20
7. (a) Discuss the effect of temperature on the relative dielectric constant of a material.
20
(b) The semimajor axis and the semiminor axis of an elliptical satellite orbit are 25000 km and
20000 km respectively.
Determine the apogee and perigee distances.
20
(c) Explain; how energy is lost at a sharp bend in a fibre. What do you understand by the term
Dispersion, as applied to optical fibre?
20
8. (a) (i) If the program counter is always one count ahead of the memory location from which
the machine code is being fetched, how does the microprocessor change the sequence
of program execution with a jump instruction ?
(ii) List the sequence of memory transfers required to process an indirectaddressing
mode instruction, when the instruction is a control type (for example Jump
Unconditionally). How many memory cycles are needed?
20
(b) Explain with the help of flow chart procedure for solution of exact coordination equations.
20
(c) Discuss the basic principles involved in distance protection and describe how it is applied to
transformer feeders.
20
PAPER – I
Candidates should attempt questions 1 and 5 which are compulsory and any three of the remaining
questions selection at least one question selecting at least one question from each Section.
SECTI ON A
1. Answer any three of the following
(a) The figure shows an equivalent circuit of a small two winding transformer in terms of the
primary.
If the self inductance L
2
of the secondary is 16 H, estimate the following
(i) The actual winding resistance of the secondary.
(ii) The secondary open circuit voltage with primary supplied with 220 V a.c.
(iii) The mutual inductance M. between the primary and the secondary.
6 + 6 + 8
(b) Write the integral form of Maxwell’s equations and identify each equation with the proper
experimental law.
20
(c) A synchronous motor is running idle on an infinite bus at its rated voltage and frequency. It is
excited to have an inducted voltage of 125% and its synchronous impedance is
(1 + j 20)%. Calculate
(i) the stator current, and
(ii) its phase with respect to the bus voltage.
Where would such idle runs be useful?
15 + 5
(d) A super heterodyne receiver uses an IF frequency of 455 kHz. The receiver is tuned to a
transmitter having a carrier frequency of 1350 kHz. Give two permissible frequencies of the
local oscillator and the image frequency for each.
20
2. (a) A filter has transfer function H(f) = rect(f/2B).
Where
( )
1 1/ 2
0
x
rect x
elsewhere
¦ <
=
´
¹
C.S.EMains 2002
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
An input x(t) 2 W sinc (2Wt) is applied to this filter, where
( )
sin
sin
x
c x
x
t
t
=
(i) Find the output y(t) for W < B.
(i) Find the output y(t) for W > B.
(iii) In which case does the output suffer distortion? Justify your answer
7 + 7 + 6
(b) A d.c. shunt generator supplies the full load current of 50 A at 500 V Assume its field is
drawing 2A, and the armature voltage drop is 5%. The generator is being driven at the rated
speed of 1500 rpm, and is working at an efficiency of 80%.
Estimate (i) the speed at which it will run and (ii) the efficiency when the machine is working
as a motor, drawing 50 A from a 500 V d.c. source
Assume the rotational losses, (the iron, friction and windage losses) vary as the square of the
speed.
10 + 10
(c) (i) Germanium and silicon are both semi—conducting materials and we have both diodes
and triodes with germanium as well as silicon. However, in respect of controlled
rectifiers, we have only siliconcontrolled rectifiers hut no germaniumcontrolled
rectifiers. Explain why.
(ii) Use the two transistor equivalent circuit of the SCR and show that when reverse biased the
SCR cannot contact even if it is triggered.
10 + 10
3. (a) A locker can be opened by A and B when they are both there, as the locker has 2 keys, one of
which is with A and the other with B. C has both the keys, but he is permitted to open the
locker only when B is not there. Show that the locker can be opened always if both A and C
are there. Give the Boolean identity that symbolisms this situation.
20
(b) With respect to full load current why does an induction motor take higher noload current
than a transformer?
A 3phase induction motor draws 25 A from 460 V 3 phase line at a p.f. of 085 lagging. The
stator copper loss is 1 kW, and the rotor copper loss is 500 W. The rotational losses due to
windage and friction are 250 W, core loss is 800 W, and stray load loss is 200W. Calculate (i)
the air gap power P
g
, (ii) the developed mechanical power, (iii) the output horse power, and
(iv) the efficiency.
5 + 15
(c) Explain the principle of pulse with modulated inverters for induction motor control. What is
the purpose of using pulse width modulation in this context?
4. (a) Obtain the conditions under which the circuit below produced oscillations
What is the frequency of oscillations?
20
(b) Define directive gain and directivity of an antenna. The radiation intensity of a certain
antenna is
( )
3
4sin sin 0 , 0
,
0
U
elsewhere
u o ut o t
u o
s s s
=
Determine the directivity of the antenna.
5 + 15
(c) (i) An AM modulator has output
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 30cos 2 200 6 cos 2 180 6cos 2 220 x t t t t t t t = + + +
Determine the modulation index and efficiency.
(ii) An upper sideband SSB modulator has the message signal m(t) = A
m
cos e
m
t. The
unmodulated carrier is given by
c(t) = A
c
sin e t. Sketch the modulator output x(t).
10 + 10
SECTI ON B
5. Answer any three of the following:
(a) Consider the opamp circuit shown.
In the circuit make the usual assumption that (i) the inverting and noninverting terminals are
virtually at the same potential and (ii) the op  amp does not take any input current at its
terminals. You would arrive at the normal conclusion that
0 2
1
.
i
v
v R
R
= ÷ . Is this conclusion
valid? If yes give reasons why operational amplifiers are never used in this manner with
inverting input grounded and input to be amplified given to the noninverting terminal.
20
(b) Use the properties of the unit impulse function o(t) to evaluate the following integrals
10 + 10
(i) ( )
2
cos 5 t t t dt t o
·
÷·
+ ÷
í
(ii) ( ) ( ) 10cos 2 1
t
e t t dt
t
t o
·
÷
÷·
+ +
í
(c) Describe any brushless excitation system for large alter nators. Explain the working.
20
(d) What is a Hertzian dipole? Find the radiation resistance of a Hertzian dipole.
20
6. (a) A standard airfilled rectangular waveguide with dimensions a = 8.6 cm and b 4.3 cm is fed
by 4 GHz carrier from a coaxial cable. Determine if a TE
10
mode will be propagated. If so,
calculate the phase velocity and the group velocity.
20
(b) An FM modulator has input m(t) = 4 cos 10 tt. The peak frequency deviation is 25 Hz. The
modulator is followed by an ideal band pass filter with a center frequency given by the carrier
frequency and a bandwidth of 54 Hz. Determine the power at the filter output assuming that
the modulator output power is 100 W. Express the answer in terms of appropriate Bessel
function values.
20
(c) In a certain region with o = 0, u = u
0
and c = 6.25 c
0
, the magnetic field of an EM wave is
8
0.6cos cos10 /
z
H x ta A m  =
Find the phase constant  and the corresponding E (electric field) using Maxwell’s
equations.
20
7. (a) Devise a 4bit odd parity generator function using 3level NOTNORNOR logic.
(b) A delta modulator has the message signal
m(t) = 6 sin 2t (10)t + 4 sin 2t (20) t.
Determine the minimum sampling frequency required to prevent slope overload, assuming
the step size to be 0.1 m.
20
(c) In a nonmagnetic medium
( )
7
5sin 2 10 0.8 /
z
E t x a V m t = × ÷
Find
(i) relative permittivity and intrinsic impedance.
(ii) the time average power carried by the wave.
10 + 10
N
1
and N
2
are two 2port networks connected in parallel on both input port side as well as
output port side, to form a composite 2  port network N as indicated
N
1
and N
2
are defined by the Zparameters as below
   
1 2
4 3 3 2
,
3 5 2 4
n n
Z Z
= O = O
Obtain the Zparameters for the composite 2port network N.
20
(b) What is all day efficiency of a transformer? Why is it necessary to calculate such efficiency?
A 300 KVA transformer has a core loss of 1.5 kW and a full load copper loss of 4.5 kW.
Calculate the efficiency at 75% of full load output at a p.f. of 0.8 lag. Calculate the maximum
efficiency and the load at which it occurs.
5 + 15
(c) (i) Explain the main advantage of power MOSPETs over SCRs
(ii) A fully controlled bridge rectifier has a voltage of 200 V d.c applied to its input
terminals as shown.
Identify the forwarded and reverse biased SCRs in the circuit. Assume the forward biased SCRs have
a leakage resistance of 100 MO and the reverse biased SCRs have 200 MO. Show that each of the
devices is blocking a voltage of approximately 100 V in the circuit, irrespective of whether it is
forward biased or reverse biased
5 + 15
PAPER  I I
SECTI ON A
1. Select any three of the following statements read them carefully and identify the correct and the
incorrect ones. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case
20 × 3 = 60
(a) The magnitude of a transfer function whose poles are only in the left half of ‘s’ plane and
whose zeros are mirror images of the poles about the ‘jw’ axis increases with increase in
frequency.
(b) For measurement of 3o power using two wattmeters one of the wattmeters reads negative
when the power factor angle is more than 60°
(c) In a large interconnected power system, consider three buses having short circuit capacities
1600 MVA (1), 1200 MVA (2) and 1000 MVA (3) respectively, the voltages of all the buses
are 1 p.u. If a 3o fault takes place on bus 2, the change in bus voltage is described as AV
1
>
AV
2
> AV
3
.
(d) A satellite earth station must have as many receive chains as there are carriers transmitted to
it.
2. (a) A system is represented by state equation X = AX.
If for ( )
1
0
3
2
X
=
÷
the response is
( )
2
2
3
2
t
t
e
X t
e
÷
÷
=
÷
And for ( )
1
0
1
X
=
÷
( )
t
t
e
X t
e
÷
÷
=
÷
Determine the state transition matrix.
20
(b) Station ‘A’ transmits 50 MW power to station ‘B’ through a tieline. Maximum steady state
capacity of the line is 100 MW. Determine the allowable sudden load that can be switched on
without loss of stability. Derive any formulae used.
20
(c) Explain clearly the construction of a pn junction and its use to convert sunlight directly into
electricity. What distinguishes a solar cell from a conventional pn junction diode?
20
3. (a) Discuss briefly the microprocessor architecture with special reference to the following
components
C.S.EMains 2002
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
(i) Data bus, (ii) Address bus and (iii) Control bus.
20
(b) Explain briefly various abnormal operating conditions in a large alternator against which
protection is necessary. Explain clearly with neat diagram the protection of altemator against
failure of excitation.
20
(c) What is wave power? Describe some of the devices used for converting wave power into
electrical power. Discuss briefly its feasibility with reference to Indian subcontinent.
20
4. (a) Differentiate between paramagnetic, diamagnetic and ferromagnetic materials. Discuss
various factors which affect permeability and hysteresis loss
20
(b) Explain how television is capable of displaying complete moving pictures, despite the fact
that at any instant of time, only a tiny portion of the picture tube screen is active.
20
(c) How do the functions of a communication satellite compare with those of a microwave link
repeater? What is the most significant difference in their functions?
20
SECTI ON B
5. Select any three of the following statements, read them carefully and identify the correct and the
incorrect ones. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case
20 × 3 = 60
(a) The steady  state errors for unit step input to type0, type1 and type2, unity feedback
systems are finite nonzero, zero and infinite respectively.
(b) “Tan o” of an insulating material is an indication of its health
(c) For the same rupturing capacity the actual current to be interrupted by an HRC fuse is much
greater than that of any circuit breaker.
(d) PCM is considered very well, but other modulation systems are also used
6. (a) Explain with suitable diagrams, how one single phase wattmeter can be used to measure 3o
active and reactive power. Discuss the limitation of this method.
20
(b) Find the signaltoquantization noise ratio in a binary PCM system, if the number of
quantization levels is 64:
20
(c) In a TV reveiving system the pieamplifier (mounted on the aerial) has a gain of 20 dB and a
noise factor of 6 dB and the cable between the preamplifier and the receiver has an
attenuation factor of 3 dB. While the RF and IF stages or the receiver have a total gain of 90
dB and a noise figures of 3 dB
(RF stage) and 13 dB (IF stage) Determine the system overall noise figure.
20
7. (a) Show that the feedback reduces the effect of parameter variation on the performance of the
control system, but adversely affects the gain of the systems Also discuss briefly the effect of
feedback on the transient performance of the control system. .
20
(b) Derive a simple expression for the orbital period of & satellite in terms of the mechanical
constants of the satellite and the earth.
20
(c) A multimode fiber has a core refractive index 1.5 and the relative refractive index difference
is 3 per cent and the operating wavelength is 0.8 in. Calculate the critical radius of curvature
at which large bending losses occur.
20
8. (a) First manually place OOs in the accumulator and all general purpose registers.
Then write a programme which will
(i) place the hex number FE in the accumulator.
(ii) copy the contents of the accumulator ‘A’ into resister ‘B’
(iii) copy the contents of the accumulator ‘A’ into register ‘C’
(iv) stop.
Show the programme in 8085 mnemonics.
20
(b) Derive swing equation and discuss its application in the study of power system stability.
20
(c) Discuss one scheme each of (i) constant speed constant frequency (CSCF) (ii) variable speed
constant frequency (VSCF) of a windelectrical energy conversion system.
20
PAPER – I
Candidates should attempt questions 1 and 5 which are compulsory and any three of the remaining
questions selection at least one question selecting at least one question from each Section.
SECTI ON A
1. Attempt any THREE of the following
(a) For the circuit given below,
(i) Find the frequency w0 at which the impedance across X, Y reaches a maximum.
10
(ii) Find the impedance across X, Y at frequency w0 and the current through the network
at that condition.
5 + 5
(b) (i) Solve the difference function given by
y(K + 2)  5y(K + 1) + 6y(K) = 3x(K + 1) + 5x(K)
If the initial conditions are
( )
11
1
6
y ÷ = and ( )
37
2
36
y ÷ =
and the input function is x(K) = 2. u(K).
10
(ii) Enumerate different properties of the ROC for Laplace
transform and find out the I.L.T of ( )
( )( )
1
1 2
X s
s s
=
+ +
for
the different ROC’s Re(s) > 1, Re(s) < 2, 2 < Re(s) < 1
10
(c) (i) A fullpitched coil having N turns rotates with an angular velocity of w
r
rad/sec with
respect of field flux. Obtain an expression for the flux Linkages with the coil as a
function of time t. Derive there from an expression for the emf generated in the coil.
Discuss about the two components of the emf expression so obtained.
10
C.S.EMains 2003
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
(ii) Show that, in case the field flux is timeinvariant, the generated emf lags by 90° the
flux that generates it.
10
(d) (i) Can you detect a DSBSC signal using an envelope detector? By a suitable analysis,
compare the same with coherent detection
(ii) A modulating signal, m(t) is given by cos 100t + 2 cos 300t. Determine the LSB and
USB relations + LSB and oUSB if the carrier frequency is 1000 rad.
15+ 5
2. (a) (i) The following two amplifier circuit is a generalized immitance converter (GIC).
Analyze the above circuit to get an expression for Z
in
. Assume the two opamps to be
ideal.
(ii) With Z
1
= R
1
, Z
3
= R
3
, Z
2
= 1/C2s, Z
4
= R
4
and Z
5
= R
5
, what does the GIC circuit
above realize?
(iii) Z
1
and Z
5
are capacitors, Z
2
, Z
3
and Z
4
are resistors. How does the input impedance
Z
in
, behave?
(iv) What are energy and power signals? Compute the energy and power contents of the
following signals and indicate whether they are energy or power signals
x
T
(n) = {(0.5)n u(n) 0.01s}
y
T
(n) = {2e
3jn
u(n) 0.2s}.
10 + 2 + 2 + 6
(b) (i) Discuss why forward break over in a thyristor occurs at a lower anodecathode
voltage if its gate current is increased.
(ii) What are the advantages of IGST over BJT, MOSFET and thyristor?
(iii) Discuss why the speed control with constant supply voltage and reduced supply
frequency is rarely used in practice in a threephase induction motor.
(iv) A dc machine has total armature ampere conductors of 4500 and total flux in the
machine is 0.14 Wb. Calculate the torque developed in the machine.
5 + 5 + 5 + 5
(c) A threephase fullconverter feeds a resistive load of 150. For a firingangle delay of 75°, the
load takes 6 RW. Find the magnitude of per phase input supply voltage to the threephase
killconverter.
Derive the relevant expression used if any.
20
3. (a) (i) A rectangular pulse g(t) exists between T =  (T/2) and t = + (T/2). Sketch the pulse
obtained by convoluting g(t) with itself. The Fourier transform of g(t) is a sine
function Write down the Fourier transform of the pulse obtained by the above
convolution.
(ii) Find the Laplace transform L(t) of the following function
f(t) = t cos wt.
Given L(sin wt) =
2 2
w
s w +
Using the result of L(t cos wt), find
( )
1
2
2 2
1
L
s w
÷
 


+
\ .
10 + 10
(b) Explain the development of electromagnetic torque in a threephase squirrelcage induction
motor through the interaction of stator and rotor mmf waves. Hence introduce the concept of
load angle.
Show that rotor must rotate in the direction of rotating field. Discuss the conditions under
which optimum torque is developed in a 3phase induction motor.
20
(c) A 12V battery feeds a singlephase fullbridge inverter whose output is connected to an ideal
1phase transformer. Its primary has 10 turns and the load voltage is 230 V. For a load
resistance of 100O, calculate
(i) the number of turns in the transformer secondary winding,
(ii) rms value of primary current, and
(iii) rms value of thyristor current.
Consider only the fundamental component of inverter output voltage.
20
4. (a) In the circuit shown below the switch ‘S’ closes at t = 0, and open after 10 ms. What will be
the currents in R, and L
1
and L
2
, and voltage across C
1
8 ms after switch ‘S’ opens? Assume
D, to be an ideal diode and a 0.7 V drop across D
2
whenever it conducts.
(b) Show that the field strength at a point close to the antenna (at distances of unto 200300 miles
from the transmitting antenna) in terms of the power is given by
9.49
/
P
volts m
r
c =
Where:
c is the field strength in volts/m
P is the power radiated in watts
r is the distance in meters.
Calculate the field strength at 20 km away from a transmit ting station of 50 kW power
20
(c) (i) A sine wave carrier is frequency modulated by a triangular modulating signal m(t) as
shown in figure below. If the carrier frequency is 100 MHz and modulating signal
frequency is 5 kHz, determine the bandwidth of the FM signal. Assume frequency
deviation constant, K
f
= 10
5
Hz/r.
(ii) In a commercial FM broadcast system, the modulation index is 5, the 3 dB frequency
of the preemphasis/deemphasis filter is 2100 Hz and message signal frequency is 15
kHz. If the average to peak power ratio of the message signal is 05, what is the
improvement in output SNR of FM with preemphasis and deemphasis filtering
compared to a baseband system?
10 + 10
SECTI ON B
5. Attempt any THREE of the following:
(a) (i) What are the criteria for a material to be an imperfect dielectric or a good conductor?
Write Maxwell’s equations in terms of phasors for sinusoidally varying
electromagnetic fields. Consider a uniform plane wave in an isotropic and
homogeneous medium, and show that the electric and magnetic field are not in time
phase.
15
(ii) A uniform plane wave is traveling at a velocity of 3.0 10 m/s in a nonmagnetic good
conductor and its wavelength is 0.35 mm. Find the frequency of the wave, and the
conductivity and the intrinsic impedance of the conductor.
5
(b) A series resonant circuit has its impedance
( )
( )( ) 20 1 10 1 10 s j s j
Z s
s
+ + + ÷
=
Find
(i) Resonant frequency
(ii) Q factor
(iii) A and width
(iv) Impedance under resonance condition.
5+5+5+5
(c) Two singlephase full converters are used for control ling the speed of a separatelyexcited dc
motor. One fullconverter in the field circuit has zero degree firingangle delay. Both the
converters are connected to 1phase, 220 V, 50 Hz source. DC motor armature resistance is
0.6O and field circuit resistance is 150O and its constant is 0.6 Vs/Arad. Armature and
field currents are ripple free. For a firing angle delay of 40° and armature current of 40 A,
determine
(i) The motor speed in rpm,
6
(ii) Power factor of the armature converter, and
6
(iii) Power factor of the drive scheme.
6
(d) (i) Define sensitivity, selectivity and fidelity with reference to a radio receiver. What is
double spotting and its effects on a receiver?
(ii) A superhet receiver having no RF amplifier, the loaded Q of the antenna coupling
circuit is 100. If the superhet is to be improved for HF reception so that its image
rejection at 25 MHz is as good as at 1100 kHz, determine the loaded Q which an RF
amplifier for this receiver would have to have and the new IF that would be needed in
the absence of the RF amplifier. (Assume IF of 455 kHz).
8 + 12
6. (a) Discuss the criteria for a circuit to oscillate. Explain the operation of a phase shift oscillator
and derive an expression for the frequency of oscillation of an RC phase shift oscillator.
20
(b) (i) A rectangular hollow metal waveguide of internal crosssection 7366 cm × 3.556 cm
carries a 3 GHz signal in the TE
10
mode. Calculate the maximum power handling
capability of the waveguide assuming the maximum permissible electric field inside
the waveguide to be 30 kV/cm.
10
(ii) Explain how a PLL can be used for demodulation of FM signals. Define capture range
and lock range of a PLL.
10
(c) (i) White Gaussian noise of two sided spectral density 10
12
V
2
/Hz is applied to a low
pass (RC) filter having a 3 dB cutoff frequency of 1 kHz. Find the output noise
power.
(ii) The received signal is r(t) = s(t) + n(t) where s(t) is the signal and n(t) is the noise
signal. The signal process is random with an autocorrelation R
s
(t) = 2e
t
. The noise is
a sample function of a random process with autocorrelation P
n
(t) e
2t
. If the two
processes are having zero mean value and are independent of each other determine the
autocorrelation and total power of r(t).
5 + 15
7. (a) What is uniform plane wave? Define all the parameters associated with it. What is meant by
group velocity?
A uniform plane electromagnetic wave travelling in region 1(c
1
, u
1
, o
1
) is incident normally
on a plane boundary separating the region 2(c
2
, u
2
, o
2
), How are the reflected and the
transmitted waves at the interface related to the incident wave?
10 + 10
(b) Distinguish AM and NBFM signals. Obtain an expression for NBFM and WBFM signals.
Determine the approximate band of frequencies occupied by an FM wave with carrier
frequency of 5 kHz, K
f
= 10 Hz/V and f(t) 100 cos 200 tt volts.
(c) Distinguish between envelope detection and synchronous detection. Explain a Costas loop
receiver for demodulating a DSBSC signal. Explain how the squaring circuit can also be used
for synchronous detection.
20
8. (a) (i) Using multiplexers, implement a full adder circuit.
(ii) It is desired to generate the following three Boolean functions
1
F abc abc bc = + +
2
F abc ab abc = + +
3
F abc abc ac = + +
By using an OR gate array as shown in Figure, where P
1
to P
5
are the product terms in one or
more of the variables, , , , , a a b b c and c . Write down the terms P
1
, P
2
, P
3
, P
4
and P
5
.
10 + 10
(b) A 50 kW, 440 V, 50 Hz, starconnected synchronous generator with per phase impedance of
0.8 + j 4.5O is working with rated terminal voltage. It is required to supply a power of 25 kW
to the bus. Estimate the minimum excitation emf. Find out the corresponding stator current.
20
(c) Consider the circuit shown below. Main thyristor T1 and auxiliary thyristor TA are off and
capacitor is charged to voltage V
s
with upper plate positive. Sketch the waveforms for i
o
, i
c
,
i
T1
, v
c
and v
T1
(assuming constant toad current), after
(i) thyristor T1is turned on
(ii) steady slate is reached in part (i) and then thynistor TA is turned on
From these waveforms, obtain the expressions for circuit turnoff time for both SCRs.
In case V
s
= 220 V, R = 10 O and maximum value of current through main SCR is 3
times the load current, calculate the value of commutating inductance L for C = 20uF and the
circuit turnoff time for the auxiliary SCR.
20
PAPER  I I
SECTI ON A
1. Select any three of the following statements, read them carefully and identity the correct and the
incorrect ones. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case:
20 × 3 = 60
(a) RouthHurwitz criterion is an algebraic method that provides information on the absolute
stability of linear time invariant system that has a characteristic equation with constant co
efficient.
(b) If a polyphase, load is supplied through ‘m’ conductors, the total power consumed is
measured by adding the readings of ‘m’ wattmeters so arranged that current coil of a
wattmeter is in each line and the corresponding pressure coil is connected between that line
and a common point. If the common point is located on one of the lines, then the power may
be measured by (m  1) wattmeters only, irrespective of balanced/unbalanced load.
(c) For economic operation, the generator with highest positive incremental transmission loss
will operate at the highest positive incremental cost of production.
(d) Considering state of the art, the communication links of satellites for weather forecasting are
at present very effective.
2. (a) Explain the effects of negative feedback in control systems on the following
20
(i) Stability (ii) External disturbances
(b) Define surge impedance of a line and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of operating
an overhead line corresponding to surge impedance loading. Also explain the terms infinite
line, flat line.
20
(c) Describe a few features of a wind wheel for efficient generation of electrical energy and
discuss economic viability of this form of energy visavis conventional method. Which
generator do you recommend and why?
20
3. (a) Discuss briefly the architecture of 8086 microprocessor with special reference to the
following
20
(i) Memory organization
(ii) Register structure
(iii) Addressing modes
(b) Explain with reasons the connection of C.T.s for protecting a detta/star transformer Justify
your scheme of protection for (i) internal fault and (ii) external fault, using MerzPrice
protection.
20
(c) What is solar power? Describe very briefly with neat diagram the scheme for (i) residential
cooling and heating and (ii) solar power plant, using solar energy.
C.S.EMains 2003
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
20
4. (a) Describe the factors on which the conductivity of intrinsic semiconductor depends.
A semiconductor is made of ‘n’type germanium. From the following data, calculate the
conductivity of ‘n’type germanium:
(i) Density of Ge = 5.32 × 10
3
kg/m
3
(ii) At. wt. of Ge = 72.6 kg/k.mol
(iii) Charge of electron = 1.6 × 10
9
C
(iv) Mobility of holes = 0.18 m
2
/V.s
(v) Mobility of electrons = 3.8 m
2
/V.s
(Assume one donor atom in each 10
8
atoms)
20
(b) Describe the basic modulation schemes in digital data transmission.
20
(c) Explain what is meant by saying that a satellite is stationary. Why are such satellites used for
worldwide communications in preference to any other kind?
20
SECTI ON B
5. Select any three of the following statements, read them carefully and identify the correct and the
incorrect ones. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each casa
20 × 3 = 60
(a) If the roots of characteristic equation of a linear digital control system lie within unity circle
in zplane, the system is stable.
(b) The magnetic property of a material is completely lost above its characteristic Curie
temperature.
(c) The chances of arc interruption in subsequent current zero increase in case of air blast CS. but
decrease in oil C.B.
(d) The bandwidth of a PCM signal is much larger than that of original base band.
6. (a) Explain how frequency can be measured using four arm bridge arrangement. Derive balance
condition for such a bridge. Mention the range of frequency measurement and accuracy of
such measurement. If applied voltage is non sinusoidal, will it be possible to balance this
bridge?
20
(b) Describe a communication circuit using modem and explain how modems are classified,
20
(c) Explain the significance of blind speed in moving target indicator (MTI) by radar.
A MTI operates at 5 GHz with a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 400 pps. Calculate the
lowest blind speed of radar.
20
7. (a) Discuss the performances of proportional plus derivative and proportional plus integral
controllers.
20
(b) Describe radar beacons and their application.
20
(c) What do you mean by bandwidth of single mode fibre and describe the factors on which it
depends?
20
8. (a) Explain the following
(i) Gain margin (ii) Phase margin
How are they determined from Nyquist plot and Bode plot?
20
(b) A generator is connected to a motor through a Y/A transformer. The generator is connected
to the star side of the transformer. A fault occurs between the motor terminal and the
transformer. The symmetrical components of the subtransient current in motor flowing
towards the fault are
1
a
I :  0.8  j2.6 p.u.,
2
a
I : j2.0 p.u. and
0
a
I j3.0. From the transformer
towards fault
1
a
I : 0.8 – j0.4 p.u.,
2
a
I j1.0 p.u. and
0
: 0
a
I . Assume X” = X
2
for both the motor
and the generator. Describe (i) the type of fault, (ii) the prefault current, if any, in line ‘a’.
20
(c) Explain the terms energy management, energy audit and energy economics. Explain how
these techniques can be used to improve the performance of an energy starved inter
connected power system.
20
PAPER – I
Candidates should attempt questions 1 and 5 which are compulsory and any three of the remaining
questions selection at least one question selecting at least one question from each Section.
SECTI ON A
1. Answer any three of the following
(a) (i) What will be the impedance of a parallel connected LCR network at resonance
frequency?
4
(ii) If an impedance Z
L
is connected across a voltage source V with source impedance Z
s
then for maximum power transfer, what will be the load impedance?
4
(iii) The voltage across an impedance in a network is V(s) = Z(s) . I(s) where V(s), Z(s)
and I(s) are the Laplace transforms of the corresponding time functions v(t), z(t) and
i(t). What will be the relation among them in the time domain of v(t), z(t) and i(t)?
4
(iv) Develop the relation between unit step sequence and unit sample sequence.
4
(v) How can you express a discrete signal as a sequence of a sum of scaled delayed unit
sample sequence?
4
(b) (i) Determine Laplace transform of the waveform f(t) as shown in the figure below:
4
(ii) Draw the block diagram of the system represented by the following constant
coefficient difference equation
y(n) = b
0
x (n) + b
1
x (n 1) + a
1
y (n1)
where x(n) input sequence and y(n) = output sequence.
10
(c) (i) What is the principle of operation of a repulsion motor? What are its main features,
advantages and applications?
15
C.S.EMains 2004
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
(ii) Describe the working of a stepper motor.
5
(d) (i) A cable transmission system with a loss of (L) 240 dB and has m = 6 equallength
repeater sections and the SNR at the destination (S/N)
D
30 dB. Find the new value of
(S/N)
D
if (a) m is increased to 12 and (b) m is decreased to 4. Express your answer
both in ratio and in dB.
10
(ii) A helix travelling wave tube operates at 4 GHz with a beam voltage of 10 kV and a
beam current of 500 mA. The helix impedance is 25 ohm and interaction length is 15
cm. Determine the output power gain in dB.
10
2. (a) (i) Use final value theorem to find f(·) for the function (1  e
t
) u(t), where  > 0.
(ii) Find the current i(t) through the 8 O resistor of the circuit diagram shown below with
initial current i(0

) = 5 Amp.
6
(iii) Obtain the frequency response of the firstorder recursive system represented by
constant coefficient difference equation
y(n) ay(n  1) + x(n).
Consider the system is initially relaxed.
10
(b) What are commutation circuits? Design a commutation circuit for an inverter.
5 + 15 = 20
(c) (i) Discuss transformer noise and means adopted to reduce it.
5
(ii) A 30kVA, single phase transformer has an iron loss of 457 Wand copper loss of
125W, when delivering half the full load. At what percent of the full load will the
transformer have maximum efficiency?
15
3. (a) (i) Consider the function of complex frequency s of the following expression
( )
2
3
4 5
s
X s
s s
+
=
+ +
Find the Laplace inverse function of the above expression.
8
(ii) What do you understand by the mathematical relation between continuous and discrete
system as given below?
( )
1 2
j T
A
m
X e X m
T T
e
t
e
·
=÷·
 
= +

\ .
¯
where X(e
jeT
) is the frequency response of the sequence x(nT), T is the sampling period and
X
A
(j O0) is the Fourier transform of the continuoustime waveform. If the analog frequency
response is band limited to the range  O  s t/T what will the new relation be?
2 × 8 = 12
(b) (i) Illustrate and compare speedcurrent and torquecurrent characteristics of a compound
wound d.c. motor with that of series and shunt motor.
5
(ii) A 3phase, 50 Hz, 16 pole generators with connected windings has 144 slots with 10
conductor’s star slot. The flux/pole of 24.8 mWb is sinusoidally distributed. The coil
is full pitched. Find the line emf. 15
(d) The speed of a 20 HP 460 V, 1000 rpm separately excited d.c. motor is controlled by a
singlephase full wave bridge circuit as shown in the figure:
The rated motor armature current is 35 A and the armature resistance is 0.15 0. The a.c.
supply voltage is 480V. The motor back emf constant is k
b
o = 0.45 V/rpm. The motor
current is continuous and ripples free. For rectifier operation (d.c. machine running as a
motor) and for a firing angle o = 60° and rate armature current, calculate (i) torque, (ii) speed
and (iii) supply power factor.
20
4. (a) (i) A sinusoidal voltage source is applied to the parallel RC network as shown in the
figure below. Find the energy stored and energy dissipated in the resistor over the
interval 0 < t < 0.5 sec.
10
(ii) Find the output response to an input x(n) = u(n)  u(n  p) for the system whose unit
sample response is as follows
( )
0
0 0
n
a for n
h n
for n
¦ >
=
´
<
¹
10
(b) The joint probability density of the random variables X and Y is f(x, y) = K e
(x+y)
in the range
0 s x s · and 0 s y s · and f(x, y) = 0 otherwise.
(i) Find the value of the constant K.
(ii) Find the probability density f(x), the probability density of X independently of Y.
(iii) Find the probability P
0 2;
2 3
X
Y
s s  

s s
\ .
(iv) Are the random variables dependent or independent? Justify.
20
(c) What is troposphere? State the parameters that characterize troposphere. Write empirical formulae
for the variation of these parameters within the first 1  2 km of the troposphere. Write expressions
for the permittivity (c
r
) and refractive index (n) of the tropospheric medium. What is the value of n at
an altitude of 1 km?
20
SECTI ON B
5. Answer any three of the following
(a) (i) Circuit diagram shown below s initially under steadystate condition, the switch is
moved from position I to position 2 at t = 0. Find the current after switching.
8
(ii) Find the ztransform of cos (nt/2). u(n).
12
(b) (i) For plane waves in free space, show that the intrinsic impedance of free space is given
by 120t O.
10
(ii) An EM wave travels in free space with the electic field component
( ) 0.866 0.5
100 /
j y z
s
x
E e a V m
+
=
Determine e and ì.
5 + 5 = 10
(c) (i) In the circuit of the figure shown below, the source voltage F = 120 V and the current
through loads R
1
and R
2
is 20 A. The turnoff time of both the SCRs is 60 u sec. find
the value of C for successful commutation.
10
(ii) Give interpretation of negative, unity and > unit slips of induction motor.
10
(d) A paraboloidal reflector antenna of crosssectional area of 8000 cm2 works at 3 GHz.
Calculate the (i) beam width between first nulls, (ii) half power beam width, and (iii) gain of
the antenna.
20
6. (a) (i) Design a secondorder Butterworth low pass filter with cut off frequency of 1 kHz.
Use only Sallen and Key network configuration as shown below:
8
(ii) Find the impulse response of the system whose transfer function is given as follows
( )
1 2 2
1
1 2 cos .
H z
r z r z u
÷ ÷
=
÷ +
Which converges z > r, it has a pair of poles at z = r.e
±j0
and a double zero at z = 0.
12
(b) It is desired to transmit an audio signal which has a bandwidth of 10 kHz with an output SNR
of 40 dB. The channel introduces a 30 dB power loss and channel noise is AWON with
power spectral density n/2 = 10
9
W/Hz. Assume = u
2
S
x
= 0.5 for AM.
Calculate the (i) transmission bandwidth (ii) required transmitter power S
T
for DSB, SSB and
AM systems.
20
(c) A microstrip line is to be designed on alumina substrate having relative dielectric constant
c
r
= 8.2. The W/h ratio 0.95.
Compute
(i) effective relative dielectric constant
(ii) characteristic impedance Z
0
(iii) phase velocity
(iv) guide wavelength
20
7. (a) Draw the circuit diagram of a half wave rectifier with a reservoir capacitor that smooths the
output. Draw its output waveform. Determine the reservoir capacitor value for a HWR and
smoothing circuit to supply 20 V to a load of 500 O. Maximum ripple amplitude is to be 10%
of the average output voltage, and the input signal frequency is 50 Hz.
20
(b) In an Armstrong modulator, the crystal oscillator frequency is 200 kHz. The angular
deviation is set to 0.2. The system is to accommodate modulation frequencies between 50 Hz
and 15 kHz. The carrier frequency at the output is 108 MHz and the maximum frequency
deviation is 80 kHz. Draw the block diagram of the modulator showing the details and select
multiplier and mixer oscillator frequencies to accomplish this end.
20
(c) Find the field strength at distances of 500 m and 2,500 m from a dipole centre fed with I
m
=
0.1 A. Dipole has a length of 200 cm and the frequency of operation is 3 GHz. Consider E
u
only in the maximum direction.
20
8. (a) The discrete time system is described by the constant coefficient difference equation
y(n) = x(n) + a y(n  1) with initial condition y(1) = K. If the input x(n) = e
jen
. u(n) is applied
to the system, what will be the output response?
[Solve the problem using ztransform and its inverse transform operation only]
20
(b) (i) Derive conditions for maximum starting torque to be obtained in case of an induction
motor.
5
(ii) A 4pole, 50 Hz, 7.46 kW motor at rated voltage and frequency has a starting torque
of 160% and a maximum torque of 200% of fullload torque. Determine (a) full load
speed and (ii) speed at maximum torque.
15
(c) A 6 MW, 3phase, 11 kV, Yconnected, 6pole, 50 Hz, 0.9 (leading) power factor
synchronous motor has X
s
= 9 O and R
s
= 0. Rated field current is 50 amperes. Machine is
controlled by variable frequency control at constant (V/f) ratio upto the base speed and at
constant V above base speed. Determine the torque and field current for the rated armature
current, 750 rpm and 0.8 leading power factors.
20
PAPER  I I
SECTI ON A
1. Select any THREE of the following statements, read them carefully and identify the correct and the
incorrect ones. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case
(a) At any point on the root locus with angle condition satisfied, the value of Kvariable
parameter (for this point to be a root) is obtained as
product of lengths of vectors from poles
product of lengths of vectors from zero
K =
(b) Bridges are used to measure inductance of coils having different values of Q and capacitances
are used therein to obtain the balance.
(c) Is voltage control necessary in power systems? Various current control methods are used.
Permissible voltage variations are known. Any advantage of current control?
(d) Digital transmission has more advantages than disadvantages as compared to analog
transmission.
20 × 3 = 60
2. (a) What do you understand by lead compensator? Draw the approximate Bode plot for a typical
lead compensator. Design a suitable control system for a missile to introduce a lead of 35°
and gain of 6.5 db at 2.8 rad/s. What will be the transfer function of this lead compensator
that will satisfy the above requirement?
20
(b) A 25 MVA, 11 kV generator with X”
d
= 20% is connected through a transformer, line and a
transformer to a bus that supplies three identical motors as shown in fig. below. Each motor
has X”
d
25% and X’
d
= 30% on a lease of 5 MVA, 6.6 kV The threephase rating of the step
up transformer is 25 MVA, 11/66 kV with a leakage reactance of 10% and that of the step
down transformer is 25 MVA, 66/6.6 kV with a leakage reactance of 10%. The bus voltage at
the motor is 6.6 kV when a three phase fault occurs at the point F For the specific fault,
calculate
(a) the subtransient current in the fault
(b) the subtransient current in the breaker B
(c) the momentary current in breaker B
Given Reactance of the transmission line = 15% on a base of 25 MVA, 66 kV Assume that
the system is operating on no load when the fault occurs.
20
C.S.EMains 2004
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
(c) What is wave energy? Explain the difficulties facing wavepower development. Give a list of
devices developed for converting wave energy into electrical energy and fully describe one of
these.
20
3. (a) Describe the various steps involved in the fabrication of a monolithic circuit shown below
20
(b) Draw a block diagram of Remote Terminal Unit (RTU), having different
components/subsystems, communication bus etc. Write the functions it generally carries out.
Briefly explain the distributed control system. Bring out the features of Data Highway.
20
(c) State and explain the basic requirements (i.e. essential qualities) of protective relaying.
20
4. (a) Justify that the stack and subroutine offer a great deal of flexibility in writing programs. Point
out the differences between stack pointer and program counter, PUSH and POP, CALL and
RET. Give examples for each. Write a program to add two numbers which generate the carry
over, store the carry over in memory locations XX50 and sum XX60 in 8085 microprocessor.
20
(b) A CW radar operates at a frequency of 10 GHz. What is the doppler frequency produced by
(i) an air plane flying at a speed of 250 kms per hour
(ii) a man crawling at a speed of 2.5 cms per second?
20
(c) The guided missile tracking radar operates at 5 GHz and a 1.0 MW peak power output. If the
antenna diameter is 4 meters, the receiver bandwidth 1.6 MHz and the receiver has a 10 dB
noise figure, what is its maximum detection range for 1 m
2
targets?
20
SECTI ON B
5. Select any THREE of the following statements, read them carefully and identify the correct and the
incorrect ones. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case
(a) Latch is used at input and tristate is used for output purposes in the microprocessor based
system.
(b) Capacitors in integrated circuits are obtained by using the transition capacitance of a reverse
biased pn junction.
(c) An HVAC circuit breaker of a given voltage, current and MVA rating can be used as an
HVDC circuit breaker of the same voltage, current and MVA rating.
(d) Do we have a system which makes a fuller utilization of the transmission capacity of an
optical fibre and needs multiplexing?
20 × 3 = 60
6. (a) (i) Explain the construction of singlephase inductiontype energy meter.
(ii) A 230 V singlephase watt hour meter has a constant load of 4 A passing through it
for 6 hours at unity p.f. If the meter disc makes 2208 revolutions during this period,
what is the meter constant in revolutions per kWh? Calculate the power factor of the
load if the number of revolutions made by the meter are 1472 when operating at 230
V, and 5 A for 4 hours.
20
(b) How is digital data converted into analog signals for telephone lines? Compare them with
respect to
(i) Waveforms
(ii) Bit rate
(iii) Baud rate.
20
(c) State Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion. Illustrate in each case their relevance to
artificial satellites orbiting the earth.
20
7. (a) Describe the band structure of an opencircuited PN junction.
20
(b) How I, Q and Y signals are generated in a colour TV transmitter? Explain with tube and
matrix arrangement.
20
(c) What is meant by carrier to noise ratio? How is it related to SNR? An FM system has
modulation index of 10. Given that C/N is 25 dB, calculate the receiver processing gain and
the S/N.
20
8. (a) Write the discrete forms of P, PI and PID controllers. What are various methods of tuning
them?
Discuss in brief.
20
(b) Explain briefly the technoeconomic advantages and disadvantages of HVDC transmission
system.
20
(c) Explain online realtime computer system for protection of a line. Draw a sample fault
program flow diagram.
20
PAPER – I
Candidates should attempt questions 1 and 5 which are compulsory and any three of the remaining
questions selection at least one question selecting at least one question from each Section.
SECTI ON A
1. Answer any three of the following:
(a) (i) A continuous time LTI system is described by
( ) ( )
/ 2
/ 2
1
t T
t T
y t x d
T
t t
+
÷
=
í
Find the impulse response of the system. Is the system casual?
5
(ii) For the circuit shown below, find i
1
, i
2
, i
3
and i
4
.
5
(iii) A transmission line of characteristics impedance Z
0
= 50 O is terminated by load
impedance R
L
= Z
L
= 100 O. Find voltage standing wave ratio VSWR, minimum
impedance Z
min
and maximum impedance Z
max
.
5
(iv) Find the qualifactor Q
p
at resonance for the circuit shown below:
5
(b) (i) Design a combinational circuit that accepts a threebit number and generates an output
binary number equal to the square of the input number.
10
C.S.EMains 2005
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
(ii) Design a secondorder active RC bandpass filter with a midband voltage gain –A
0
=
34 dB, carrier frequency 160 Hz and 3 dB bandwidth 16 Hz. Assume C
1
= C
2
= 0.1
uF.
10
(c) (i) Explain the principle of splitphase, singlephase induction motor. Discuss resistance
splitphase motors and capacitor splitphase motors.
3 + 6 + 6
(ii) Explain why an induction motor is not run under conditions of maximum load.
5
(d) (i) Calculate the depth of penetration for copper at 1 MHz. The conductivity for copper is
58M /m and permeability is 1.26 uH/m
5
(ii) Discuss the merits of delayed AGC as compared with simple ACC.
5
(iii) Show that the first minor lobe is 13.5 dB to principal maxima for broadside array for
large n.
10
2. (a) (i) Find
( ) ( )
( )
0 , ,
c
L C
dV O
i V O
dt
+
+ +
and
( )
L
di O
dt
+
for the circuit shown below. Use
( )
C
dV O
dt
+
to denote
( )
0
C
t
dV t
dt
+
=
Assume the switch 1 has been opened for switch 2 has been closed for along time and
steadystate condition prevails at t = 0

.
(ii) A parallel plate waveguide consists of two parallel perfectly conducting infinite
planes situated 8 cm apart. Determine the propagating TE
mo
for a wave of 6000 MHz,
assuming free space between the plates. Find also the cutoff frequency f
c
, waveguide
wavelength ì
g
, waveguide intrinsic impedance n
g
.
9
(iii) List the three sources of instability of collector current Define the three stability
factors. Which biasing arrangement gives you better stability?
5
(b) (i) Define voltage regulation of a transformer. Derive the expression for voltage
regulation at lagging power factor. Draw phasor diagram.
2+5+3
(ii) A singlephase transformer working at unity power factor as an efficiency of 90% at
both half full load and full load. Full load is 500 W. Determine the efficiency at 60%
of full load condition.
10
(c) (i) What is a TRIAC? Explain its characteristic. Discuss its applications, advantages and
disadvantages.
3 + 6 + 2 + 2 + 2
(ii) A voltage across SCR is 1 V when it is conducting. It has a holding current of 2 mA
when gate current (I
G
) = 0. If the SCR is triggered on by momentary pulse of gate
current to what value must V
A
be reduced in order to turn the SCR off? The figure is
shown below.
5
3. (a) (i) Using the difference equation design method with a backward difference, design a
digital filter to simulate the analog filter whose transfer function is
( )
2 5
400 2 10
s
H s
s s
=
+ + ×
using the sampling rate f
s
= 1 kHz
10
(ii) Find the poles and zeros of the networks shown below.
5
(iii) Implement the Boolean function
F(A, B, C, D) E(0, 1, 3, 4, 8, 9, 15)
with an 8 × 1 multiplexer with A, B and D connected to selection lines s
2
, s
1
, s
0
,
respectively.
5
(b) (i) Explain speedcurrent and torquecurrent characteristics of d.c. series motor.
4 + 4
(ii) A 4pole d.c. generator has 1200 armature conductors and generates 250 volts on
open circuit when running at a speed of 600 r.p.m. The diameter of the poleshoe
circle is 035 m and the ratio of pole arc to pole pitch is 0.7 while the length of pole
shoes is 02 m. find the mean flux density in the air gap. Assume lapconnected
armature winding.
12
(c) (i) What are the steps involved for the generation of gating signals for thyristors of ac. to
d.c. converters? Draw a block diagram incorporating various stages of firing circuits
for a singlephase fully controlled rectifier.
3 + 9
(ii) If the SCR in the following figure is continuously fired by a d.c. signal, what is
average value of the current i(t)?
8
4. (a) (i) For the network shown below, Find the current ratio transfer function given by
o = I
2
/I
1
.
10
(ii) Explain boundary conditions for timevarying fields.
5
(iii) Draw the small signal model of FET. Define u, g
m
and r
d
, and obtain relationship
between them.
5
(b) (i) When a super heterodyne receiver is turned to 555 kHz, its local oscillator provides
the mixer with an input at 1010 kHz. What is the image frequency? The antenna of
this receiver is connected to the mixer via a tuned circuit whose loaded Q is 40. What
will be the rejection ratio for the calculated image frequency?
10
(ii) Show that power contained in one sideband is 1/6 to the total power of amplitude
modulated signal at 100% modulation index.
10
(c) (i) Explain Faraday rotation isolator.
A matched isolator has insertion loss of 05 dB and isolation 25 dB, Calculate the
scattering coefficient.
5 + 10
(ii) Explain construction of Ionosphere.
5
SECTI ON B
5. Answer any three of the following
(a) (i) Determine v (t) for the circuit shown below when v
s
= 10 cos 30t V
5
(ii) Find the Fourier transform of the signal
( )
( ) ( )
2
sin sin / 2 t t
x t
t t
=
(iii) Find the Laplace transform of the stepped waveform shown below.
(iv) An airfilled rectangular waveguide of dimension a = 4 cm, b = 2 cm, transports
energy in the dominant mode at a rate of 2 mW if the frequency of operation is 10
GHz. Determine the peak value of electric field in the waveguide.
(b) (i) The 741C opamp having the following parameters is connected as shown in the
figure.
A = 20000, R
i
. = 2 MO, R
0
= 75O, f
0
= 5Hz, supply voltage = ± 15 V, output voltage
swing ± 13V. Identify the circuit.
Compute the values of A
F
, R
IF
, R
OF
, f
F
& V
OUT
10
(ii) How much noise voltage is generated in a 1 MO resistance at 27°C over a 10 kHz
bandwidth? List the sources of noise in an amplifier.
2+3
(iii) What are the conditions for distortion less transmission in continuous time LTI
systems and discrete time LTI systems?
5
(c) (i) A threephase starconnected synchronous generator is rated at 1.5 MVA and 11 kV.
The armature effective resistance and synchronous reactance are 1.2 ohms and 25
ohms respectively per phase. Calculate the percentage voltage regulation for a load of
1.4375 MVA at (1) 0.8 power factor lagging and (2) 0.8 power factor leading. 10
(ii) Explain qualitatively with sketches as to how armature reaction effect in a
synchronous machine can be modeled as an inductive reactance.
10
(d) (i) In a trapezoidal pattern displaying modulation, the length of the long vertical side is 5
cm, and of the short vertical side, 2cm. Determine the modulation depth.
5
(ii) Explain FosterSeeley discriminator circuit with the help of phasor diagram.
10
(iii) Describe transmission & radiation modes of helix.
5
6. (a) (i) Find the inverse ztransform of
( )
( )
( )( )
2
2
2
2
e z
x z
z e z
÷
÷
÷
=
÷ ÷
Where z > 2 and e
2
< z < 2.
7
(ii) Obtain the threedimensional wave equation for an absorbing medium, assumed to be
both magnetically and electrically homogenous and isotropic. The charge density in
the field may be assumed to be zero. Hence, determine the wave equation if the field
is varying harmonically with time.
8
(iii) A sequential circuit has one input and one output. The state diagram is shown in the
figure. Design the sequential circuit using D flipflop.
5
(b) (i) Three regular dice are thrown. Assign probabilities to the following events. The sum
of the points appearing on three dice is 4; 9; and 15.
10
(ii) Explain central limit theorem.
10
(c) (i) Explain the term ‘virtual height’ with respect to ionospheric transmission.
Calculate the transmissionpath distance for an ionospheric transmission that utilizes a
layer of virtual height 200 km. The angle of elevation of the antenna beam is 20°.
Consider flat earth.
6+4
(ii) Explain varactor diode. Give its equivalent circuit. Give its application.
10
7. (a) (i) Explain the different input statements in SPICE.
5
(ii) Design an mderived tsection highpass filter having characteristic impedance 600
O, cutoff frequency 5 kHz and infinite attenuation at 4 kHz.
10
(iii) Using a bipolar 32 × 8 PROM, implement the following equations simultaneously:
5
F
1
= E m(0, 1,3,5,7,21)
F
2
= E m(2, 3,4,7, 11, 12, 15, 26)
F
3
= E m(8, 9,11,13,20,23)
(b) (i) Describe ‘third method’ of generating an SSBSC signal.
10
(ii) Explain envelop detector circuit with input and output waveforms.
10
(c) (i) Draw and explain construction details of reflex klystron.
Explain electronic tuning.
10
(ii) Explain test setup for VSWR measurement.
10
8. (a) (i) Find the CTFS harmonic function for the signal
x(t) = 4 + 2 cos (20tt) 3 sin (40 tt)
by sampling above the Nyquist rate over exactly one fundamental period and finding
the DTFS harmonic function of the samples.
10
(ii) Find the input impedance Z of the circuit shown below, e = 1000 rad/s.
5
(iii) Draw the circuit diagram of voltagetocurrent converter with floating load using op
amp. Derive the necessary equation.
5
(b) (i) Describe the effect on the speedtorque characteristic of a 3phase induction motor by
(1) reducing the applied voltage to half the normal voltage but normal frequency and
(2) reducing both applied voltage and frequency to half the normal value.
10
(ii) A 4pole, 50 Hz, 3phase induction motor has a rotor resistance of 4.5 ohms per phase
and a standstill reactance of 8.5 ohms per phase. With no external resistance in the
circuit, the starting torque of the motor is 85 Nm. Calculate (1) the rotor voltage at
standstill, (2) starting torque if a resistance of 2 ohms is added in each rotor phase.
10
(c) (i) Describe singlephase d.c. drive considering a phasecontrolled converter supplying a
d.c. motor load. With the help of a circuit diagram, explain the operation of a single
phase full converter circuit feeding a separately excited motor.
12
(ii) A d.c. drive runs at 900 r.p.m. on no load when fed at 200V d.c. from a full converter.
Calculate the triggering angle of the converter thyristors if the motor has to run at 600
r.p.m. on no load. Input to the converter is 230 V a.c. Neglect I
a
R
a
drop.
8
1. (ii) Find the Fourier transform of the signal
PAPER  I I
SECTI ON A
1. Select any three of the following statements, read them carefully and identify the correct and the
incorrect ones. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case.
3 × 20 = 60
(a) Jury stability test states that if the first element of descending order polynomial, viz, a
0
> 0,
then all roots of the polynomial Q(z) are inside the unit circle if and only if the first element
in each oddnumbered row is positive in the derived array.
(b) Transducers are sensors having many classifications, advantages and applications.
(c) Very efficient operation and control of an interconnected power system is necessary and
various levels of planning, and load control centers are required.
(d) 2 : 1 interlace ratio is used for interlaced scanning in television systems.
2. (a) State and explain the Mason’s Gain formula. Determine all inputoutput relationships of the
system represented by the set of following linear equations using the Mason’s Gain formula:
x
1
= a
11
x
1
+ a
12
x
2
+ b
1
u
1
, and
x
2
= a
21
x
1
+ a
22
x
2
+ b
2
u
2
where u
1
and u
2
are the inputs and x
1
and x
2
are the states of the system.
20
3. (a) Sketch and discuss the fabrication of a planar transistor made for monolithic integrated
circuits using epitaxy and diffusion with that of a discrete planar epitaxial transistor.
20
(b) Explain how the SCADA systems are techno economically feasible for Indian power
systems. Point out the differences between loosecoupled SCADA system and tightcoupled
SCADA system. Draw the diagrams of direct digital control system for power systems.
20
(c) The timecurrent characteristic of an inductiontype over current relay is
C.S.EMains 2005
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
It is desired to determine the time of operation of a 5 ampere relay having a current setting of
125 per cent and give timemultiplier setting of 06 connected to a supply circuit through a
C.T. ratio of 400/5 amperes when the circuit carries a fault current of 4000 amperes.
20
4. (a) What minimum functions are required in a programmable device? Point out the difference
between control logic and control word with examples. Write the steps to compute the control
word, say of 8255.
20
(b) The relevant data for closedcircuit TV system is given below. Calculate the highest
modulating frequency that will be generated while scanning alternate black and white dots for
equal vertical and horizontal resolution.
20
Data: Number of lines = 250,
Interlace ratio = 1:1
Aspect ratio = 4:3,
Picture repetition ratio = 50 per second,
Resolution factor = 0.8,
Vertical retrace time = 10% of picture frame time,
Horizontal retrace time = 20% of total line time.
(c) With the aid of a block diagram, explain the operation of FMCW radar altimeter.
20
SECTI ON B
5. Select any three of the following statements, read them carefully and identify the correct and the
incorrect ones. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case.
3 × 20 = 60
(a) The memory mapping for the circuit shown below is 2000H to 2OFPH, assuming A
8
, A
9
, and
A
10
to be zero.
(b) Electrical isolation different elements of a monolithic integrated circuit is obtained by
creating isolation islands.
(c) In a long transmission line, the sendingend voltage is always greater than the receivingend
voltage and this effect is known as Ferranti effect.
(d) Transmission links using optical fibres need components with specific characteristics to
fulfill the system requirements.
6. (a) (i) With a simple block diagram, explain basic swept receiver spectrum analyzer. List the
spectra of different signals applied to the spectrum analyzer for analysis.
20
(ii) Draw basic elements of a function generator and its output waveforms.
20
(b) Describe the basic elements of a PCM system.
20
(c) Calculate the apogee and perigee heights for the orbital parameters given Eccentricity = 0002,
Mean Earth’s radius = 6378 km, Mean distance to the semimajor axis = 7100 km.
20
7. (a) Distinguish between (i) spontaneous and stimulated emission, (ii) step index and graded
index optical fibre.
20
(b) Bring cut the concept of TDM with a block schematic.
20
(c) A signal having a range of 300 to 3400 kHz is transmitted using binary PCM on a channel
whose bit rate is 40,000 bits per second. Design the PCM system and draw the block
diagram.
20
8. (a) Point out the advantages of frequency response studies of a system. Explain the Bode plots
for the log magnitude versus frequency and phase angle versus frequency for the complex
conjugate poles or zeros.
20
(b) Draw and briefly describe a neat diagram schematic diagram showing the components of a
bipolar point topoint HVDC transmission system. Explain how the control of power transfer
and of powerflow direction is achieved.
20
(c) Describe microprocessor  based inverse  time over current (ITOC) relay with a neat
schematic block diagram.
20
P PA AP PE ER R   I I
Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300
Candidates should attempt Questions 1 and 5 winch are compulsory and three of the remaining
questions selecting at least one question from each Section.
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N A A
1. Answer any three of the following:
(a) (i) Determine the power delivered by 6 A source.
(10)
(ii) For the circuit shown in the figure determine V
0
/I
5
using nodal analysis.
(10)
(b) (i) A partially filled truth table of a sequence generator (3D flipflops in cascade) is
given below. Find the sequence generated. Q
0
is LSB and Q
2
is MSB.
State Q
2
Q
1
Q
0
1 1 0
2 0
3
4 1
5 0 1
6
C C. .S S. .E E. . M Ma ai in n 2 20 00 07 7
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
7 1 1
1 0 0
(ii) A D/A converter has the lowest and the highest values of resistances 1 kO and 4 kO,
respectively. If the bitlength of the converter is to be increased by 2, what would be
the number of resistors required and their values ? Draw the complete circuit of the
new converter.
(10)
(c) A 250 V, 50 hp, 1000rpm d.c. shunt motor drives a load that requires a constant torque
regardless of the speed of operation. The armature circuit resistance is 0.04 O. When this
motor delivers rated power, the armature current is 160 A.
(i) If the flux is reduced to 70°/o of its original value, find the new value of the armature
current.
(10)
(ii) What is the new speed ?
(10)
(d) (i) List the sources of noise in bipolar transistor
(10)
(ii) A 100 kc resistor is connected in parallel with a 100 pE capacitor Determine the
effective noise bandwidth and the noise voltage appearing at the terminals of the
combination at 27° C.
(10)
2. (a) (i) Solve the following difference equation by use of the z transform method:
(10)
x(k+2)+3x(k+1)+2x(k)=0, x(0) = 0, x(1) = 1
(ii) Obtain the inverse z transform of:
( ) ( )
3
2
2
( )
2 1
z z
X z
z z
+
=
÷ ÷
(b) (i) For a threephase induction motor, establish the ratio of maximum torque to fullload
torque in the form:
2
1
,
2
m T FL
FL FL
T S
T S


= where
'
2
'
2
r
x
 =
(10)
(ii) An induction motor of squirrel cage type has starting current 5 times of fullload
current and fullload slip, of 4%.
Evaluate maximum torque and corresponding slip and relation of starting torque to
fullload torque.
Assume the stator impedance and magnetising current negligible.
(10)
(c) (i) What is the essential difference in commutation performance of triac and two
thyristors connected in antiparallel ?
(8)
(ii) A battery is charged through a resistor R as shown:
If F is 220 V (rms), E
b
= 100 V (dc) and R = 20 O, calculate the battery charging
current and power supplied to the battery.
(12)
3. (a) (i) Write the Maxwell’s equation in a lossy dielectric and explain that the electric field
leads the magnetic field in time phase.
(10)
(ii) Explain the term intrinsic impedance and its value in free space.
(5)
(ii) From Maxwell’s equation state the significance of the term c/eo. What will be its
value for a good conductor and a good dielectric ?
(5)
(b) A threephase 440 V, 60 Hz, starconnected eightpole, 100hp induction motor has the
following parameters expressed per phase:
r
1
= 0.06 O, x
1
= x
2
’ = 0.26 O
r
2
’ = 0.048 O, r
c
= 107.5 O
x
o
= 8.47 O, s = 0.03
The rotational losses are 1600 W. Using the approximate equivalent circuit, determine
(i) the input me current and power factor,
(ii) the efficiency.
(12 + 8)
(c) (i) What are the advantages of halfcontrolled converters over fullycontrolled
converters?
Show the output voltage waveforms for controlled and uncontrolled halves of the
converter and the resultant voltage.
(10)
(ii) The speed of a 20hp, 220 V, 1000 rpm dc series motor is controlled by a single phase
halfcontrolled full wave ideal converter Series field winding and armature winding
have resistances 0.05 O and 0.12 O respectively. Input to converter is 230 V, 50 Hz
supply.
Calculate the motor torque, current and supply power factor at rated load and speed
for firing delay angle o = 30°. Assume motor current to be continuous and ripple free.
Residual back emf constant is 0.08 V/ rad/sec and armature current, dependent back
emf (or torque) constant is 0.04 Nm/A
2
.
(10)
4. (a) (i) Derive the condition of oscillation and the expression for the frequency of oscillations
for the circuit shown. (Use mesh analysis and Barkhausen’s criteria). Draw actual
oscillator circuit with one operational amplifier and minimum number of RC
elements.
(15)
(ii) The ac equivalent circuit of an NPN transistor circuit is shown below. Draw the
actual circuit with biasing and coupling capacitors.
(5)
(b) (i) Show that at 100% modulation index, power contained in one side band of AM
system is 1/6
th
of total power transmitted.
(10)
(ii) A standard AM transmission, sinusoidally modulated to a depth of 30°/n, produces
side frequencies of 4.928 and 4.914 MHz. The amplitude of each side frequency is 75
V. Determine the amplitude and frequency of the carrier
(5)
(iii) Define conditional probability and random variable.
(5)
(c) (i) Explain tropospheric scatter propagation.
(10)
(ii) A reflex klystron operates at the peak of the n = 2 mode. The dc power input is 40mW
and V
1
/V
0
= 0.278. If 20% of the power delivered by the beam is dissipated in the
cavity walls, find the power delivered to the load. Assume 
1
= 1 and J
1
= (1.53)
0.562.
(10)
SECTI ON B
5. Answer any Three of the following:
(a) (i) State and prove the frequencyshift theorem.
(3)
Determine the Laplace transform of f(t) shown in the figure, using the frequencyshift
theorem.
(7)
(ii) A system has impulse response e
–at
. What would be the response of the system, if it is
excited by a delayed unit step function (delay = T) ?
(10)
(b) (i)
The above circuit is intended for NOT operation for input levels 0 and 10 V. Calculate
the minimum value of R for which this operation is possible. Assume h
FE
= 30, V
BE
(sat)
= 0.8, V
CE (sat)
= 0.2 in respect of above silicon transistor.
(10)
(ii) Implement an OR gate with AND and NOT gates.
(5)
(iii) Draw a positive logic OR gate with two diodes and explain its operation.
(5)
(c) (i) Draw arid explain the speed, torque and powertime curves for a typical electrical
traction drive.
Differentiate clearly between dynamic and regenerative braking.
(10)
(ii) A 3phase, 400 V, sixpole, 50 Hz induction motor with parameters R
S
= R
r
’ = 1O, X
S
= X
r
’ = 2O (referred to stator) is under regenerative braking action. Calculate (i) the
maximum overhauling torque that it can hold and the range of speed for safe
operation and (U) the speed at which it will hold the overhauling load with torque of
160 Nm.
(10)
(d) (i) List the differences between microwave transistors and transferred electron devices.
(10)
(ii) Explain the structure of IMPATT diode.
(5)
(iii) List the properties of Sparameters.
(5)
6. (a) (i) Use Thevenin’s theorem to replace the threeloop circuits of figure by a singleloop
equivalent circuit in which the identity of R
L
is preserved.
(10)
(ii) Find the value of R
L
so that the maximum power is consumed in it.
(10)
(b) (i) Explain principle of superheterodyning. List the advantages of superheterodyne
receiver over TRF receiver.
(10)
(ii) Explain PLL FM demodulator
(10)
(c) (i) A certain microstrip line has the following parameters:
c
r
= 5.23, h = 8 mils
t = 2.8 mils, W = 10 mils.
Calculate the characteristic impedance Z
0
of the line.
(10)
(ii) Compare linear broadside arrays having uniform, binomial and Dolph – Tchebyscheff
distributions.
(10)
7. (a) (i) Draw the field lines and equipotential surface when a point charge is placed near an
infinite grounded conducting plane.
(10)
(ii) Derive the expression for the force between the point charge and the conductor with
the help of the above concept.
(5)
(iii) Explain the cause of polarisation in a dielectric.
(5)
(b) (i) Explain the difference between coherent and non coherent detection of ON/OFF
keying signals.
(10)
(ii) State the Carson’s rule, Given that the peak deviation is 75 kHz, determine, using
Carson’s rule, the bandwidths required for sinusoidal EM indexes of 0.25, 2.4, 5.5 and
7.
(10)
(c) Show that the radiation resistance of a small loop antenna is 31200 (A/ì
2
)
2
ohm.
(20)
8. (a) (i) Explain with the help of neat diagram, the operation of a Schmitt trigger employing
OPAMP.
(10)
(ii) With OPAMP draw a circuit of a unity gain amplifier having no phase shift and give
its one practical application.
(5)
(iii) Draw the circuit of a two input adder with OPAMP and explain its operation.
(5)
(b) (i) ‘Transformer is a constantflux machine’. Justify.
(10)
(ii) Explain logically why primary current increases when secondary side is loaded.
(5)
(iii) Derive a condition for maximum efficiency of a transformer
(5)
(c) An ideal chopper operating with a chopping period of 2 m sec is supplying a load of 5 O
resistance with inductance of 10 mHenry, from a battery of 100 volts. Assume the shunt
diode to provide perfect commutation. Determine the load current waveform for the ratio
T
OFF/ON
= 1/4 and average value of load voltage.
(20)
P PA AP PE ER R   I I I I
Time Allowed: 3 Hours Maximum marks: 300
Candidates should attempt Questions 1 and 5 which are compulsory, and any three of the remaining
questions selecting at least one question from each Section.
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N A A
1. Answer any THREE of the following:
(3 x 20 = 60)
(a) Hicks clinical thermometer measures human body temperature. The instruction is to wait for
halfaminute before taking the reading. Is it because the measuring system is a:
(i) zero order system with a pure time delay of halla minute ?
(ii) first order system with a time constant greater than halfaminute ?
(iii) first order system with a time constant equal to halfaminute ?
(iv) first order system with a time constant less than halfaminute ?
Justify your answer.
(20)
(b) Enumerate the different kinds of head type flow meters used in the industry. What kinds of
restrictions are placed in the flow path for flow measurement? Develop the relationship
between flow and pressure differential from physical principles.
Why is it that a rotameter is considered a standard in flow measurement ?
(20)
(c) Give a brief account of application of computers in the study, analysis and control of power
systems.
(20)
(d) Colour subcarrier (3.58 MHz tar FCC standard and 4.43 MHz for CUR standard) is chosen
as some odd multiple of onehalf of line frequency. Justify the statement.
(20)
2. (a) What is the difference between a microcomputer and a microprocess ? What type of data is
stored in the memory of a microcomputer ? How much memories can a typical 8bit micro
process access? What are the condition flags and why are they important ? Write the
advantage of the indexed address mode compared to the direct addressing mode. Draw the
time diagram of out instruction for 8085 microprocess.
(20)
(b) A constant load of 330 MW is supplied by two 250 MW generators, 1 and 2, for which the
respective incremental fuel costs are:
C C. .S S. .E E. . M Ma ai in n 2 20 00 07 7
E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G
1
1
1
0.12 22,
dF
P
dP
= + and
2
2
2
0.10 16
dF
P
dP
= +
with powers P n MW and costs F in Rs./hr Determine:
(i) most economic operating schedule of the generators, and
(ii) the saving in Rs./hr. thereby obtained compared to equal load sharing between them.
(20)
(c) Explain the sea waves phenomena and vortex motion of waves. Discuss the principles of two
possible devices used for generating electrical energy from the wave energy. Draw the block
diagram from wave energy device to utility grid. Write the relation for the potential power in
terms of height of wave and its time period. If the time period of a wave is 10 secs having
height 7 meters, estimate the power that can be generated.
(20)
3. (a) How is the surface layer of silicon dioxide formed ? How thick is this layer ? What are the
reasons for forming the silicon dioxide layer?
(20)
(b) A 25 MVA, 11 kV generator has
1 2
0.2 Z Z j pu = = and
0
0.05 Z j pu = . For a linetoground
fault on the generator terminals, find:
(i) the fault current and
(ii) the linetoline voltages during the fault condition.
Assume that the generator neutral is solidly grounded and that the generator is operating at no
load and at rated voltage at the time of occurrence of fault. Compare this fault current with
the line current for a threephase fault at the terminals.
(20)
(c) (i) A power transformer is connected in /A fashion. Draw the arrangement of the
current transformers (CTs) on either side of the transformer for MerzPrice circulating
current protection.
(ii) A distribution transformer is to be protected by over current relays against all kinds
of fault. List the different kinds of fault and suggest the minimum number of over
current relays required. How would those overcurrent relays be placed in the circuit ?
(iii) How would one protect a directonline (DOL) start induction motor against
overload? Explain your choice.
(20)
4. (a) Discuss the physics of piezoelectric phenomena. Draw the equivalent circuit of a piezo
electric transducer and derive the output voltage, V
out
of transducer with applied force F.
Point out the four materials which exhibit the piezoelectric phenomena. Also write its
applications.
A piezoelectric pressure transducer having a charge sensitivity of 2 x 10
–12
C/N is connected
to a charge amplifier, the gain being set to 5 mV/pC. The amplifier output is connected to an
ultraviolet chart recorder whose sensitivity is set to 25 mm/volt. Determine the overall
sensitivity.
(20)
(b) With the aid of a block schematic, describe the functioning of the receiving unit of a DBS
TV/FM receiving system intended for home reception.
(c) Consider an optical fiber with refractive index of the core 1.8 and of cladding 1.7; calculate:
(i) Critical angle
(ii) Acceptance angle
(iii) Brewster angle
(iv) Numerical aperture.
(20)
S SE EC CT TI I O ON N B B
5. Answer any THREE of the following:
(3x20=60)
(a) What do you understand by dielectric films? State any two dielectric film material and point
out their important properties and applications. Explain
(i) the orientation polarization,
(ii) electronic polarization; and
(iii) ionic polarization referred to polyatomic gas.
Discuss the effect of frequency on electronic polarization and ionic polarization. What is
electronegative gases? State the important features of SF6 and its applications.
(20)
(b) Find the gain and approximate input impedance of the accompanying circuit. What is its
bandwidth? What is this circuit called and for what purpose it is used as instrumentation ?
Analyze the following three OpAmp based instrumentations amplifier and find its gain.
What is its approximate input impedance ?
Assume that the OpAmps are ideal.
(20)
(c) Explain why it is more difficult to interrupt shortcircuit current in an HVDC circuit than that
in an HVAC circuit.
(20)
(d) In a certain communication system, the message is coded into binary digits 0 and 1. After
coding, the probability of a 0 being sent is 0.45, while the probability of a 1 being sent is
0.55. In the communication channel, the probability of a transmitted 0 being converted into a
1 at the receiver is 0.1, while the probability of a 1 being distorted into a 0 is 0.2. Find:
(i) the probability that a received 0 was transmitted as a 0, and
(ii) the probability that a received I was transmitted as a 1.
(20)
6. (a)
1 0 0.375 0
0 1 0.375 0
1 1 1 1
x x u
÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ +
÷
Given that the above is a linear timeinvariant (LTI) system, how would you check the
stability of the system ? If there is an unstable mode in the system, is it controllable? If the
unstable mode is controllable shift it to a stable position, say ì= –0.5, by state feedback.
(20)
(b) What are the design considerations for layering in data networks ? Discuss a sevenlayer
network architecture with a diagram.
(23)
(c) Why and to what degree do optical signals get degraded as they propagate along a fiber ?
Discuss in detail.
(23)
7. (a) Which I/O technique provides the highest data transfer rate ? Explain the function of DMA.
Draw the block diagram of a DMA controller with memory interfacing. What is meant by
simultaneous DMA ? List three different DMA modes for transferring data. How is the DMA
controller is programmed ? Are special buffers required when interfaces a DMA controller ?
(20)
(b) A radar receiver has a low noise RF amplifier of noise figure 6 dB and gain 20 dB followed
by a mixer of noise figure 6 dB and conversion loss of 6 dB. If the noise figure of IF pre
amplifier is 3 dB with a gain of 26 dB and that of IF main amplifier is 10 dB, obtain the noise
figure of the receiver and its noise temperature.
(20)
(c) Draw the waveform at the end of one of the vertical fields, showing a horizontal and a
vertical blanking pulse. Indicate the duration and relative amplitudes of two pulses and
explain their functions. Where are synchronizing pulses placed? Does it matter that there are
no horizontal blanking purses during vertical blanking period ?
(23)
8. (a) A Wheatstone bridge has resistances R
1
, R
2
, R
3
, and R
4
in its four arms. The bridge is excited
by E volts dc. Assuming that the ratio of arms R
1
and R
2
are equal, the bridge is initially
balanced with R
3
equal to R
4
. A slight unbalance (R
3
± AR
3
) is created by R
3
. Show that the
unbalance voltage, V
0
, is directly proportional to (AR
3
/R
3
) as long (AR
3
/R
3
) << 1.
What is the condition for maximizing the sensitivity ?
(20)
(b) The figure below shows a generatortransformer unit feeding 1.0 pu power to the infinite bus
through a doublecircuit transmission line with the generator terminal voltage of V
1
= 1.0 pu.
Compute the generator e.m.f. behind transient reactance. Also find the maximum power that
can be transferred when
(i) the system is operating under healthy condition,
(ii) one line is shorted (threephase) in the middle, and
(iii) one line is open.
(20)
(c) What do you understand by energy conservation ? What is the economics of energy
conservation ? Point out the strategic measures for energy conservation.
Show that for a given load current I, if power factor is improved from 0.7 to 0.9, the useful
power can be enhanced by 28.6% of the existing system. Comment on the losses due to
power factor improvement.
(20)
(b)
Using Laplace transforms find the current i1 (t) that enters the network of Fig. Q2.(b) when the switch is closed at t=0 with zero initial current in the inductor. Numerical values of the circuit elements areas shown.
(c)
Synthesize the following driving point impedance in FosterI and CauerI froms:
z s 3. (a)
s 2 s 4 s 1 s 3 s 5
The core (radius a) of a coaxial cylindrical cable is surround by an insulating sheath of conductivity 1 and outer radius b, and a second layer of conductivity 2 extending to the outer metallic conductor of radius c. Find the resistance per unit length of the cable between the core and the outer conductor. Plane monochromatic waves are propagated parallel to the axis in both the positive and negative directions. At the origin, the field strengths are given by Ex = A cos (t); Hx = 0 ; Ey = 0 Hy = Bcos(t)
(b)
Calculate the mean intensity of the radiation in each of the two directions in terms of A, B and the constants of the medium. (c) A parallel plate capacitor is made with a composite dielectric. A sheet of dielectric of permittivity 1, thickness d1 is placed on top of a second dielectric sheet (permittivity 2 thickness d2). The combination is placed between parallel conducting plates which are separated by the distance (d1+d2). What is the capacitance per unit plate area of the capacitor? Give an account of the construction of a cathoderay oscilloscope and explain the functions of various constituents. The horizontal deflection sensitivity of a CRO is 0.02 mm/V. Wan unknown voltage is applied to the horizontal plates, the spot shifts 4.0 mm horizontally. Find the value of the unknown voltage. As shown in Fig.Q. 4. (b), an uncompensated electrodynamic wattmeter has its voltage coil connected directly across the load. Show that the reading of the instrument is approximately (P1+P2 P3), where P1 is the power dissipation in the voltage coil circuit, P2 is that in the load and P3 is an error term due to the presence of inductance in the voltage coil circuit.
4.
(a)
(b)
(a)
A voltmeter has a sensitivity of 100/V and three scales; 50 V, 150 V and 300 V. When connected in the circuit of Fig. Q. 4(c), the voltmeter reads 4.65 V on its lowest (0–50V) scale. Calculate Rz .
5. (a)
Answer any three of the following: A waveform produced by an electronic circuit is to be attenuated with minimum waveform distortion (maximum bandwidth). Using the high impedance attenuation circuit shown in Fig. Q. 5(a), draw in any additional components required to fulfill the above requirements and determine dies values of the required components.
(b)
A silicon pn junction diode is fabricated from a 0. 1 m pmaterial and 0.02m nmaterial. Calculate the value of potential barrier for the unbiased diode at 3000 K. For silicon, n=0.14m2/V sec. p = 0.048 m2/Vsec, and ni=1.4x1016/m3. (Electronic charge e = 1.6x10–19C; Boltzmann’s constant K = 1.38x10–23 JK–1) Using NAND gates, implement the equation: K = (AB + CD)(F+G) A 100 kW, 250 V shunt generator has a field circuit resistance, including a rheostat of 60 and a total armature circuit resistance of 0.065. Calculate (i) field circuit current, (ii) fullload line current flowing to the load, (iii) armature circuit current and (iv) fullload generated voltage that is required to deliver rated voltage to the load, Ignore armature reaction. A transistor is connected in commonemitter (CE) configuration in which collector supply is 8 V and voltage drop across resistance R0(=800) connected in the collector circuit is 0.5V. If = 0.96, determine (i) collectoremitter voltage and (ii) basecurrent. A transistor in commonemitter configuration employs a 4 k load and Vcc = 13 V. Estimate the maximum peak to peak value of the input signal for linear operation if = 100. Given: Vknee = 1V and a change of 1 V in VBE causes a change of 5 mA in collector current. In a CE transistor amplifier, when the signal changes by 0.02 V. the base current changes by 10 A and collector current changes by 1 mA. If the collector resistance RC = 5k and load resistor RL = 10, find (i) current gain (ii) input impedance, (iii) ac. load resistance, (iv) voltage gain and (v) power gain.
(c) (d)
6.
(a)
(b)
(c)
7.
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The primary of a transformer consists of 1000 turns of wire and produces a maximum flux of 0.03 Wb alternating at 50Hz in the iron core. The secondary winding has 40 turns. Calculate
24 pole. Calculate (i) speed at maximum torque and (ii) ratio of fullload torque to maximum torque if fillload torque is obtained at 247 r.? Assume that the field is unsaturated. 50 Hz 3phase starconnected induction motor has a slipring rotor resistance of 0. (a) (b) (c) .m. A 3phase synchronous motor. takes a current which varies with the excitation.m. Calculate the suitable autotransformation ratio for starling a 3phase induction motor with line current not exceeding three times the fullload current. (b) A d. How is the power factor affected? (c) 8. series motor supplied from 230 V source draws an armature current of 16 A and drives a load at 1600 r.f. when it is delivering 450 kVa and 0.the r.6 p. The torque required to drive the load varies as N1. when working on constant voltage mains at constant load.f’s on the assumption that the flux change us sinusoidal. The shortcircuit current with rated applied voltage is 5 times the fullload current and fullload slip is 5%.016 and standstill reactance of 0. Find the percentage voltage drop for a transformer with a percentage resistance of 2% and a percentage reactance of 4%. Explain this result. lagging.p.p.c.m. What should be applied voltage to the motor if the speed is to be raised to 1750 r.m. of rating 550 kVA.265 per phase. Find also the starting torque in terms of the fullload torque. values of primary and secondary e. The resistance of armature and field is 1. where N is the speed.8.p. when the autotransformer is employed.p. A 3300 V.m.
The controller develops a torque of 60 Nm per radian of misalignment. (a) What are generalised error coefficients? Discuss their advantages. SECTION A 1. (b) For a second order system and a tolerance band of 2% the setting time is given by 3/ where is the damping factor.1s 1 0.03 rad/sec.E.S. (a) (i) Determine the value of K so that the gain margin of the system is 20 dB. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case: (20x3=60) (a) In order to increase the margin of stability for type2 or higher order system. Explain what you mean by relative stability of a closedloop system and how it is assessed. read them carefully and identify the correct and incorrect ones. and the following openloop transfer function. (25) The openloop transfer function of a unity feedback control system is given by G(s) s 1 0. The Number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the question. (c) A semiconverter system provides better performance to d. Select any three of the following statements. Determine the position.(mains)1992 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER . Determine the steady state tracking error for a constant velocity input of 0. (ii) Determine the value of K so that the phase margin of the system is 600. (i) (ii) (c) Draw a signal flow graph of the system and determine 0(s)/1(s) and e(s)/(s) Where 1(s). G s K 1 2 s 1 4 s s 2 s 2 2 s 10 . o(s) and e(s) are the Laplace transforms of input. The viscous friction is such that the damping factor is 0.c.05s K 2.II Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum marks: 300 Candidates should attempt FIVE questions only selecting at last TWO questions including the compulsory question from each of Section A and B or Section A and C.C. series motors as compared to the full converter system. (20) 3. Explain various classical error constants and discuss their disadvantages. output and error signals. phase lag compensation is desirable.3. (d) An invertor in the rotor circuit of a woundrotor induction motor can serve as a means of a speed control. (15) (b) A turntable with a moment of inertia of 10kg rn1 is used with a proportional error controller in a unity negative feedback system. velocity and acceleration error coefficients for a feedback control system with unity feedback.
(a) (b) With V/f speed control of 3phase induction motor the maximum torque and slip at which maximum torque occurs. (a) (b) Describe with a neat diagram a step up chopper and discuss its merits and demerits. For an existing transmission line the string efficiency is 70%. The motor is to be operated at one half of its rated frequency.c. the generator with highest positive incremental transmission loss will operate at the lowest positive incremental cost of production. determine (i) the speed of the motor and (ii) motor torque. Comment with justification on the correctness of any three of the following statements. (20) (c) A single phase full converter is used to control the speed of a 220 volt. the string efficiency will be 90%.3 ohm each. restricting your answer to within 200 words for each: (20x3=60) (a) (b) (c) (d) 6. voltage is supplied for the same setup.p. Explain the principle of operation and applications of an induction generator. The armature resistance is 0. drive.c. increases and decreased with increase in frequency.m. harmonics in a converter circuit. (10) 4. The a. motor. The motor voltage constant is Ka = 0.c. 1500 r. (25) SECTION B 5. The higher the SCR of a machine. separately excited d. Now if d. For economic operation.03 volt/ rafdian/min. Derive any formula used.(30) (b) Discuss the disadvantages of harmonics and suggest methods for reducing a. For a firng angle = 30° and rated motor current.c.c. supply voltage is 250 volt. (20) (c) Explain the working of time delay circuit which may be used to apply power to an industrial load at a predetermined time after the initiating singal. (15) Describe with a neat diagram a static version of the WordLonard system of speed control of a d. assuming continuous and ripple free armature current.3 ohm and the rated armature current is 20 A. (15) (c) A 3phase 50 Hz induction motor has equivalent stator and rotor resistance of 0.05 ohm each and reactances of 0. the heavier is the rotor of the machine. (20) . Determine (i) the maximum torque at the reduced value of supply as the a fraction of its normal value (ii) the starting torque at the reduced value of supply as a fraction of its normal value. respectively. (10) Describe with neat sketches the construction and principle of operation of a fast breeder reactor.
u. series motors (ii) induction motors. series motor and (iii) induction motor when subjected to regenerative braking.f. Compare the performance of Ajax Wyatt and coreless induction furnaces.u. Determine the continuous rating of the motor. (15) Explain with the help of Flowchart the procedure for solution of Coordination Equations.(d) A synchronous motor is connected to an infinite bus and draws 1.c. The standard reference antenna for the directive gain is the isotropic antenna. If the locomotive has to haul the same train on a gradient and the tractive effort required is 55000 newtons. State the applications of the two types of furnaces. (20) The tractive effort exerted by a locomotive while hauling a train on level track at 50 kmph is 35000 newtons. assuming the rating to depend upon (1) r.c. (15) Explain clearly ‘Pinch effect’ and ‘Skin effect’. (ii) 15 to 85 secconstant load of 600 kW. leading.c. Its synchronous reactance is 1. Discuss various errors associated with a current transformer and the methods to minimise these errors. determine the new values of E. and P. With a block diagram and neat sketches discuss how the phase comparison scheme can be used for protecting a feeder fed from (i) one end and (ii) both the ends.I.0 p.s.9 is compulsory 9. and resistance is negligible. (15) What is regenserative braking? Explain the operation of (i) d. current at 0. it is best to use a balun. .0 p. (a) (b) (c) (d) SECTION C Question No.9 p. (10) 7. (iv) 95 to 20 secmotor is at rest. Differentiate between a current transformer and a power transform.m. (a) (b) (c) (d) 8. (iii) 85 to 95 secregenerative braking with power returned falling uniformly from 200 to 0 kW. value of loading and (2) average value of loading. Determine E. (10) Explain the carrier system of protection in power systems. P and cos . . Q.Q. shunt motor (ii) d. determine the power required by the locomotive when the motors used art (i) d. A disadvantage of microstrip compared with stripline is that microstrip is more likely to radiate. If with the same excitation the loading on the motor is increased by 10%. Comment with justification on the correctness of any three of the following statements restricting your answer to within 200 words for each: 20x3=60 (a) (b) (c) For transmission line load matching over a range of frequencies. (15) A motor works on 2 mm load cycle constituted as follows: (i) 0 to 15 secload rising from 0 to 1050kW. (10) Explain with neat diagrams the process of current chopping in circuit breakers and suggest a suitable method to minimise its effect on power systems.
. (10) Show the simulation of the following equation on analogue computer after using suitable time scaling: (25) (b) (c) (d) 11. (15) Explain how you would measure coupling factor and directivity for a twohole directional coupler. Explain the basic theory of reactance modulator. (15) Explain with the help of neat diagrams the principle or operation of the twoCavity Klystron amplifier. (15) Differentiate between telex and telegraphy. (15) Explain with a neat diagram the construction principle of operation and application of Surface Acoustic Wave devices. Also explain and compare the performance of some of the reactance modulators for generation of frequency modulation. (10) Explain how you would measure the common mode rejection ratio of a differential amplifier. (a) (b) (c) (d) 12.(d) 10. (10) Derive the impedanceinversion property of a quarter wave transformer and explain some of its applications. (15) Define signal to noise ratio. Compare the types of modulation. noise figure and equivalent noise temperature of a receiver. (20) Describe with a neat diagram the principle of operation and application of Gunneffect diode. Under what conditions is equivalent noise temperature a more useful quantity than noise figure? (15) Define and describe pulseposition modulation. Explain with waveforms how it is derived from pulse width modulation. (15) Discuss and compare various methods of tuning a cavity resonator. (a) (b) (c) (d) 2 d 2x dx 30 200 x 0 2 dt dt x(0) = 5 x(0) = 9. (a) A parametric amplifier is used for low noise high frequency amplification. Describe briefly the system and machines used in telegraphy.
Q. 1(c) shows two identical parallel plate capacitors connected to a battery with a switch S closed. 1(a). is suddenly discharged.E. 1(b). All question carry equal marks. The capacitor. Find the current in the circuit. (d) 2. Answer any three of the following: (a) Consider a circuit shown in Fig. State and prove Thevenin’s theorem. Determine Thevenin’s equivalent circuit which may be used to represent the network shown in Fig.I Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300 Candidates should attempt Question 1 and 5 which are compulsory. . initially charged to 10 V. Assume suitable data if considered necessary and indicate the same clearly. (c) Fig. Q. SECTION A 1. (a) A square wave of amplitude 1 V and period 2 sec is connected in series with a resistance of 1 and an inductance of 1 H at t = 0. 2(a) at the terminals CD. Find the ratio of the total electrostatic energy stored in both capacitors before and after the introduction of the dielectric.S. determine the potential difference between the points A and B in the steady state. Q. The switch is now opened and the free space between the plates of the capacitors is filled with a dielectric of dielectric constant K = 2. Obtain an expression for the resultant transient current. (b) In the circuit shown in Fig.(Mains)1993 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER . and any THREE of the remaining question selecting at least ONE question from each Section. Q.C.
the switch is closed at t=0. 3. relative permittivity. it is found that dv t i(t)=1. A point charge q is situated at a distance d from a grounded conducting plane of infinite extent. determine the frequency. (a) (b) (c) 4. At t=t>0. A dielectric slab. A uniform plane wave is described by the phasor H = 2e–j 0.d.8. dt (c) A circuit consists of two parallel branches. Obtain the total charge induced on the plane by direct integration of the surface charge density. If the velocity of the wave is 2 x 108 m/s and the relative permeability is 1. Determine C and R so that the combined impedance shall be independent of frequency and have zero phase angle.2 (b). A car battery has an opencircuit p. capacitance C in series with resistance It. Find C. what is the maximum frequency of sine waves that can be displayed? Explain the construction and working of an electrodynamic type wattmeter. the input series resistance Rf is 100 and the feedback resistance Rf is 500.(b) In the network shown in Fig.1 . What is the function of timebased voltage in a cathoderay oscilloscope? A cathoderay oscilloscope has an accelerating anode voltage of 5 kV and length of plates 4 cm. A/m. Determine the field vectors E and D in the dielectric and also in the vacuum between dielectric and one plate. If the input voltage is 1 V. Q. Answer any three of the following: (a) In an inverting voltage amplifier circuit using an operational amplifier. of 13. is inserted between the plates. wavelength and electric intensity. Give an account of its merits and limitations. the operational amplifier gain is 10. determine the current and power in each case in an external load of 0.000. By drawing equivalent circuits in terms of (i) a voltage source and (ii) a current source. of dielectric constant K and of uniform thickness t<d.0A and 10 V / sec .4 V and would supply 2000 A when shortcircuited. . one having a coil of inductance 0. Two parallel conducting plates are separated by the distance d and maintained at the potential difference U. find the exact output voltage and the percentage error that would be committed by considering an infinite gain for the operational amplifier. If the maximum error due to the time taken for the electrons to pass the plates is to be limited to 3%.1 Z ây. (a) (b) (c) SECTION B 5.5 H and resistance 20 and the other. Neglect edge effects due to the finite size of the plates.
lagging. A 4pole. (a) Explain how a 2winding transformer can be converted into an autotransformer.2 + j4.16 per phase respectively. Q. there are two identical transistors T1 and T2 with current gain . (a) What are the functions of a commutator in a d. hre = 10–3. Calculate the values of kVA and kW supplied by each transformer.000 . R2 = 50 k. Q. (b) A transistor used in commonemitter (CE) configuration has the following set of hparameters when the d. 50 Hz polyphase induction motor has a fullload speed of 1440 r.c. Establish a relation between I2 and I0. 50 Hz. machine? Explain the various methods of obtain effective commutation.m. Another transistor T3 has current gain 3. determine input impedance. and Vcc = 18 V. Discuss the advantages of a junction fieldeffect transistor over a conventional bipolar transistor. (b) (c) 8. Make necessary assumptions and state them. Calculate the value of drain load resistance. load line seen by the transistor is rL = 600 .5(c) at audio frequencies to obtain a voltage gain of 60.866 p. The load voltage is 440 V. Calculate the load shared by each when the total load is 500 kVA at 0. (a) . lagging.AB .8) respectively. Calculate the value of the external rotor resistance per phase to be inserted to obtain 70% of maximum torque at starting.f.(b) (c) Design a logic circuit whose output is given by the Boolean expression: A+B . RL required in the circuit shown in Fig. 7. RL = 1. 3phase induction motor has motor resistance and standstill rotor reactance of 0.8 p. R1 = 100 k.f. In the circuit shown in Fig. operating point is Vce = 10 V and IC = 1 mA. Two singlephase transformers T1 and T2 rated at 250 kVA each are operated in parallel on both sides. (c) In a singlesupply bistable multivibrator. Two transformers connected in open delta supply a 400 WA balanced load operating at 0. (d) 6.c.c.04 and 0.p. hoe = 10–4 S hfe = 50 If the a. hie = 2000 . Percentage impedances for T1 and T2 are (1 + j6) and (1. Find (i) the output voltages E1 and E2 and (ii) the collector and base currents for each transistor. The PET used has gm = 5 x 10–3 S and rds = 100 k. emitter biasing resistance RE = 100. Estimate the fullload slip. A 4pole. 6(a). Explain the principle of operation of a polyphase induction motor. current gain and voltage gain.
d. What is a synchronous capacitor? Some useful data: (c) Mass of electron.m. supply. m/s Boltzmann constant.m. motor A has 225 V across it and runs at 1080 r.1 x 10–31 kg Electronic charge.6 x 10–19 C Velocity of light. e = 1.85 x 10–12 F/m Permeability of free space. Neglect all losses and saturation effects. Find for this condition the speed of the second motor. the current taken from the mains and total load torque on the shaft.c. 0 = 4 x 10–7 H/m . 500 V..c. 1200 r.p. series motors A and 13 are connected in series across a 500 V d. Discuss the various methods of starting the motor. k = 1. M = 9. When the load shaft has a speed of 120 r.p. Explain the principle of operation of a synchronous motor.(b) Two identical 30 kW.m. They drive a common load through reduction gearing of a : 1 and b : 1 respectively.38 x 10–23 J/K Permittivity of free space. 0 = 8. c = 3 x 108.p.
c. The number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the question. series motor from a threephase source. side ace to be considered.C. motor.c. the equivalent moment of inertia referred to the motor shaft and that referred to the load shaft is independent of gear ratio. Select any three of the following statements. In a system which uses a gear train to couple a load to the motor. electrical engineers have not been able to apply solidstate devices in the variablesspeed motor drives. Assume suitable data if considered necessary and indicate the same clearly.E.S. read them carefully and identify the correct and incorrect ones. (10) (b) A halfwave rectifier circuit using thyristors feeds a d. source voltage is given. SECTION A Question 1 is compulsory.c. (20) (d) Explain what is meant by the turn off time of a thyristor and the factors on which it depends (10) (c) (d) 2. Explain how to find the firing (delay) angle for a particular operating condition of the motor. (a) (c) Describe the variablevoltage variablefrequency method of speed control of a.II Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300 Candidates should attempt five questions only selecting at least two Questions including the compulsory question from each of Section A and B or Section A and C. the direction of current and polarity of voltage must remain same at different points of the circuit. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case: (20 x 3 = 60) (a) (b) The performance of a contort system is affected by the characteristics of the measuring element. when the a. One armature controlled d. Enumerate the major qualities of a good adjustablespeed drive system. assuming continuous conduction.c. . All the drops on d.(Mains)1993 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER .c. motors. In spite of rapid technological advancement. In the operation of a threephase fullbridge rectifier both in the invertermode and convertermode. (10x2=20) (i) (ii) Draw the circuit diagram and the waveforms showing motor voltage and armature currents for firing (delay) angles of 0* and 90*. You are given the following components of a position control System: Two potentiometers including one for yielding the error signal. 1. 3.
(a) (b) Explain why a. motor is excited from a constant voltage source while the error signal is amplified and applied to the armature circuit. (30) SECTION B Question 5 is compulsory. must always run at a slip. Gear train having gear ratio of 1:10. series motor and sketch the voltage and current waveforms. of a loaded synchronous motor working at lagging power factor must be greater than the terminal voltage. (15) (e) Obtain the transfer function relating the angular displacement of the output shaft and angular displacement of the reference input shaft. 5.c. (15) (c) Give the simplified circuit diagram for a chopper controlled drive scheme using a d. (a) Draw a diagram showing the scheme of connection to form a positional servomechanism with the above components. (10) (b) Write down the equations describing the operation of (i) the error detector and (ii) the amplifier. (10) (d) Draw the block diagram of the system (including the simplified one showing a single block for the forward transfer function). The field of the d. indicating the load on the motor.m.c. Explain how the limits of current pulsation are determined. Define “pulse ratio’ and “pulse frequency”. (15) 4. (10) (c) Obtain the transfer function relating armature voltage and angular displacement of the motor shaft. Comment with justification on the correctness or otherwise of any three of the following statements. restricting your answer to within 200 words for each: (20x3=60) (a) (b) (c) Induction motors. motor drives explain what is a chopper and how it controls the speed of the drive. (15) In connection with d.c. drive systems are becoming increasingly popular.f. Protection techniques have failed to devise means for protection of alternators against interturn faults. The excitation e.c. Assume appropriate numerical values for the system constants and answer (a) to (e). whether threephase or singlephase. One amplifier. .
. (i) (ii) Draw a singleline diagram of the system showing the point of fault. (15) Show that with induction heating. (15) Based on the concept of sudden symmetrical shortcircuit statorcurrent wave of a threephase synchronous generator obtain the expression for the transient reactance (i) in terms of steadystate reactance. (20) A highvoltage alternator supplies a group of four synchronous motors through a transformer bank connected in star with solidly grounded neutral on the alternator side and in delta on the low. the heat generated in the charge in case of magnetic material is more than that in case of nonmagnetic material. State why its use is restricted. The alternator neutral is solidly grounded. voltage behind the subtransient reactance for the alternator is 1 + j 0. Each motor is grounded through a reactance (current limiting). Compare the available starting torque in the case of autotransformer starting with that in the case of statorreactor starting for the same value of line current in both. (a) The limitations of the concept of ABCD constants in transmission line calculation is that it may be applied only to the line itself. Draw a schematic representation of the machine. Enumerate the advantages of induction heating. (25) (b) (c) (d) 7. Describe its constructional features with necessary sketches and draw curves to show the nature of its external characteristics. machine in which the troublesome armature reaction has been put to advantage. (15) Explain why starters are to be used for starting threephase induction motors. Make appropriate assumptions regarding negative sequence reactances of the machines.u. (a) (b) (c) Name a d. What are the specific fields of application of twophase induction motors? State the special requirements for such uses and discuss the design considerations making the motor suitable for those uses. Specify completely the sequence network showing the proper connections when the reactances computed on the selected base are given as: Alternator : Subtransient reactance = 15% Zerosequence reactance = 6% Transformer Bank: Leakage reactance = 12% Motor group : Subtransient reactance = 20% Zerosequence reactance = 9% Current limiting reactance per each motor = 12% (iii) Neglecting the prefault current determine the subtransient fault current if the p.(d) 6.c. as well as (ii) in terms of armature leakage reactance. magnetizing reactance and field reactance. magnetizing reactance and field reactance.voltage side. A single linetoground fault occurs on the lowtension side of the transformer bank. Mention the factors to be considered before selecting a method for starting a threephase squirrelcage induction motor. (15) Draw the transformer type equivalent circuit for a synchronous machine and write down the expression for short circuit tim constant.
9. and estimate the maximum power input to the traction motors: The train having a dead weight of 400 tonnes accelerates for 30 seconds attaining a maximum speed of 70 km per hour. In designing choppers for d. The characteristics of all Antennas. Assume the train resistance to be 40 Nw/tonne and allow 10% of dead weight for rotational inertia. Before starting again it is allowed to deck for 20 secs. Express the values of the characteristic impedance for coaxial lines. a component of TV transmitter. the brake being applied at the speed of 55 km ph when the coasting ends. and for parallelwire lines in terms of line dimensions. (10) (b) Define the term ‘noise figure’ as applied to an amplifier and explain how it is related with the available power gain. (a) Explain the functions of: (i) Pumped Storage Plant (ii) Lightning Arrestor (iii) Phase Advancer (iv) Peterson Coil (20) (b) Draw the speedtime curve for the following traction service on level track without any freerunning period.c. Select any three of the following statements and indicate with justification whether they are correct or wrong. (20) (d) In connection with a twoconductor transmission line defines ‘characteristic (surge) impedance’ and ‘propagation constant’. (a) .(15) 8. amplifiers it is necessary to ensure proper damping. are practically same. Explain why this method is most desirable. Give a brief account of the sampling theorem. (10) (c) Describe the Noisegenerator Method for the measurement of Noise Figure. as well as for a usual radiofrequency line in terms of line parameters. Fillers are to be used in a Visual Modulator. It takes 20 secs to bring it at dead stop. Your answer must not exceed 200 worth for each statement: (20x3=60) (a) (b) (c) (d) There will be no harmonics problem in an amplifier if its input can be made harmonics free. (20) (c) Give brief answers to the following: (i) What is the data used in loadflow studies? (ii) What is meant by a Swing Bus? (iii) How is an AC Calculating Board set up? (iv) What information is obtained from loadflow studies? (20) SECTION C Question 9 is compulsory. (20) 10. whether of resonant type or of nonresonant type. Given: efficiency of the transmission gear is 90% and efficiency of motors is 85%.
Explain function of radar as a navigational aid.5 cm horn each other. (20) Explain how the use of an RF amplifier improves the performance of a super heterodyne receiver. (10) Explain how automatic frequency control is achieved in a receiving system. (15) Explain what is meant by ‘Excess or flicker noise’ in a transistor.75 cm and depth 1.7 ohm.f.m. (a) What is a Radar? Draw a block diagram showing the components on which radar systems are based. (10) A pentode operating as an amplifier has a grid leak resistance of 150 k. (15) 12. The signal to noise powerratio is found as 25 db at the input of the amplifier. Assuming that the guide walls are perfectly conducting calculate (i) the free space wavelength of the singal in the wave guide and (ii) the reflection coefficient and normalized load impedance when the load impedance is 75 + j 0 ohm and the guide impedance is 5. (a) (b) (c) (d) . 125 v and internal resistance 100 k is connected across the input. A signal source of e. Calculate the value of the equivalent input noise voltage.25 cm (the electrical field being parallel to depth) shows adjacent minima at a distance of 2. (25) (b) (c) “The magnitude of the radiation resistance of a transmitting antenna depends upon the antenna configuration.53 + j 23.” –Discuss. (25) A standing wave indicator used with a square law detector the wave guides having internal dimensions of width 3.11.
the values of the resistances and the phases of the two voltage sources. An infinitely long lossless transmission line draws input current and power from a source just like a resistor. The dualslope. even though the line itself is lossfree. it is desired that V0 = R0 (I1 + 2 I2) where R0 is some resistance. 0 < < 1 and I1 and I2 are two current sources.C. Assume suitable data if considered necessary and indicate the same clearly. if V is specified on all the boundaries of the region. it is an advantage to use two identical transducers in pushpull fashion for the measurement of a nonelectrical quantity. find the power delivered by each source. y. (b) In the ac. and any THREE of the remaining question selecting at least ONE question from each Section. integration method of A to D conversion is the preferred choice for a digital voltmeter. 1(b) (c) Give brief explanations in support of the following statements: (i) (ii) The potential function V (x. All question carry equal marks. The figure gives the ratios of the ideal transformers. SECTION A 1. circuit shown in Fig 1 (a).I Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300 Candidates should attempt Question 1 and 5 which are compulsory. Find the required values of R1 and R2 in terms of R0 and . The points B and B’ are also in the same phase. Points A and A’ in Fig 1(b) are in phase.E.c.S. (d) Give brief explanations in support of the following statements : (i) (ii) . Wherever feasible.(Main)1994 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER . circuit shown in Fig 1 (b). Fig. Answer any three of the following: (a) In the d. z) gets uniquely fixed in the interior of a chargefree region of an electrostatic field.
r << .e. (a) Fig 4 (a) shows a limit bridge which is employed to test if a given resistor Rx has a value within ± 5% of its nominal value of 1000 W. Given that H = 0. find also the power dissipated in it in the second case. have their axes passing through xy plane at the points indicated n the table below and carry currents as specified (current in the positive zdirection being considered positive). What will be the magnetic field in the dielectric during this period ? A Plane sinusoidal electromagnetic wave travels in free space in the zdirection. What type of polarization does this wave have ? (c) 4. . explain the working of the scheme and deduce the required values of R1 and R2. The capacitor is charged to a potential of V0 and isolated from the source at t = 0. Based on the information given. with a conductivity and dielectric constant r. (a) In the two circuits shown in Fig 2 (a). immediately dt dt after opening of the switch. find the corresponding electric field vector E and the Poynting vector.. deduce the current I in the second figure.8 cos ( t – z) i + 0. In the test. If N is symmetrical.2. at t = 0. Calculate the magnetic field at the origin and discuss its nature. What would be the rms value of current and the power taken by the same network under steady state when excited by a sinusoidal voltage source of 8 V rms value and radian frequency of rad/sec.c. (a) (b) A capacitor is formed by two parallel circular plates of A m2 area with a separation of d m.8 sin (t – z) j . N is the same 2port network containing linear resistors. where i and j are unit vectors in x and y directions. (b) The switch S is opened at t = 0 in the circuit of Fig 2 (b) after steady state has previously dvc dvL been reached with S closed. the signs of the deflection of the centrezero galvanometer G are observed for the two positions of the switch S. 3. The dielectric employed is lossy. ? Four infinitely long parallel cylindrical conductors of radius r oriented in the zcoordinate direction. Deduce the values of and at t = 0+ i. (c) A linear 1port network with zero initial stored energy draws a current of 5 + 6t – e–2t amperes when connected to a voltage source of 4 V d. Find expressions for the conduction and displacement current densities in the dielectric for t 0. From the terminal conditions given in the first figure.
Find an expression for the maximum steady state power output of a d. If the connections to the meter terminals are interchanged. Assuming the meters to function ideally. SECTION B 5. 2 kVA single phase transformer has 5% impedance. voltmeter (c) Describe the essential constructional features and properties of metallic strain gauges. voltmeter Moving iron voltmeter Shuntdiode type rectifieramplifier ac.c. From a knowledge of the variation of dielectric constant at different temperatures. the contribution of the orientational polarizability to the total static polarizability of a dielectric can be deduced. Answer any three of the following: (a) Give brief explanation in support of the following statements: (i) (ii) (b) The ‘NAND’ gate is one of the mast widely used logic gates.c. A 100 V/400 V. for static field conditions. Oscillators requiring high frequency stability employ crystals.(b) A periodic voltage having the waveform shown in Fig 4 (b) is applied to the following types of voltmeters. state for each case if there would be a change in the reading. deduce from fundamentals its kVA rating and percentage impedance as an autotransformer. shunt motor with an armature resistance Ra. Indicate how strain gauges may be used to easure the axial force transmitted by a rod of square cross section. Neglect rotational losses and assume that the theoretical maximum power output will not overload the motor. Give brief explanations of the following statements (i) (ii) Semiconductor devices made of silicon can be operated at higher temperatures than those made of germanium. If it is connected as a 500 V1400 V autotransformer. if the applied voltage V’ and the shunt field current ace kept constant. deduce the reading in each case. (c) (d) . (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Permanent magnet moving coil type meter with centre zero Full wave rectifier type a.
Compute the value of M in terms of the component values in the circuit and justify the name “frequency dependent negative resistor’’ given to this circuit. Explain your answer briefly. If for the same load on the motor.5 and field circuit resistance of 220 . When connected to busbars at rated voltage and the excitation adjusted for an e. (b) d 2v dt 2 . Take RD = 10 k and RS = 20 k.c. find the additional resistance to be inserted in the field circuit. It takes a line current of 41 A when delivering full load torque. taking the mark/space ratio of the waveform to be 1. of 120%. all other quantities remaining the same as under normal operation. the excitation is reduced to generate an e. Assume that the JFET’s are identical and have gm = 3 mS and rd = 40 k.f. other quantities remaining the same as under normal operation Applied voltage and frequency halved. Find the mechanical power delivered by the motor.6. Sketch on the same pair of axes.m. (a) Find the common mode rejection ratio of the simple differential amplifier shown in Fig 6(a). show that i M (c) Draw an astable multivibrator circuit employing two BJT’s in the common emitter configuration and derives an expression for the frequency of its oscillation. the machine draws an input kVA of 100%. of 100%.f. shunt motor has an armature resistance of 0.m. the torquespeed characteristics of a typical 3phase induction motor under the following operating conditions. (i) (ii) (iii) Normal operation Rotor resistance doubled. what would be the input kVA ? (c) . If it is desired to raise the speed by 60 percent with the load torque remaining constant. neglecting all losses. Assume that the OPAMPS in the circuit of Fig 6 (b) are ideal. Assume linear magnetisation characteristic. Mark the torque and speed values of salient points on the characteristics. A 3phase synchronous motor has 80% synchronous reactance and negligible resistance. (a) (b) A 220 V d. Neglect stator impedance. 7.
constantfrequency busbars and supplies 100 A at unity p.8 p.f. Find the efficiency and voltage regulation of the transformer for rated kVA output at 0. find the number of conduction electrons per m3 in the metal.5 mm.f. 3phase transformer has its maximum possible efficiency of 98%. A 100 kVA 11 kV/ 400 V. ? Make appropriate assumptions. to the system. The maximum possible voltage regulation 61 the transformer is 4%. If the turbine power is kept constant and the excitation of the alternator is increased by 25%. The thickness of the strip in the zdirection is 0. when it delivers 80 kVA at unity p. what would be the new current and p. (a) A 3phase turboalternator with a synchronous reactance of 10 per phase and negligible armature resistance is connected to 11 kV constantvoltage. lagging.8.f. A rectangular metal strip carries a current of 50 A in the xdirection and is subjected to a magnetic field of 1 tesla in the zdirection.f. What would be the direction of tile Hall voltage? If the latter has a magnitude of 125 V. and rated voltage. (b) (c) .
fixed frequency supply. (b) (c) (d) 2. Knowing the transfer function of a linear time invariant system. ‘The motor torque per unit of field current is Km in Nm/A. 1 is compulsory. Rc = 100 . but has not gained popularity because of certain disadvantages. A cycloconverter is a unit for obtaining variablevoltage and variablefrequency power directly from. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case: (2x3=60) (a) If mathematical and functional relationships of all the system components are known a block diagram can be constructed as a reference for analytical or the computer solution of the system.(Main)1994 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER .5. Select any three of the following statements. read them carefully and identify the correct and incorrect ones. Ef s Ef s A(constant).S.E. Fig 1 shows the circuit of a field controlled d. if J = 0. SECTION A Questions No. 1.C. Assume suitable data if considered necessary and indicate the same clearly. (a) (20) (b) Fig 2 shows a nonunity feedback control system. Km = 25. it is possible to obtain the state diagram and dynamic equations of the system The closed loop stability of a system is determined by the properties of the Nyquist plot of the openloop transfer function of the system. The equivalent moment of inertia of the motor is 3 in kgm2 the equivalent friction coefficient of the motor is f in Nm/rad/sec. f = 0. Find . Derive the transfer function of the s s .II Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum marks: 300 Candidates should attempt FIVE questions only selecting at last TWO questions including the compulsory question from each of Section A and B or Section A and C.c. Lf = 15 H and ia = 10 motor. motor. . The Number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the question.25 .
Why are vacuum tube oscillators less efficient as compared to SCR? (20) . (a) What is a chopper ? Give various configurations of chopper for operation in different quadrants. (20) Give the significance of state transition matrix. (20) (c) Explain with the help of a block diagram the principle of state feedback control. The thyristor voltage drop is 1.5 V. (20) (c) 3. 0.Find the steady state error due to (i) step input and (ii) ramp input. Explain the operation of each configuration. Calculate the mean generator voltage when the current is level at 80 A. Find X (t). A lineartimeinvariant system is described by X= AX + BU Where 1 0 1 A .04 resistance/ phase and 0. Discuss poleplacement design of a system through state variable feedback. B 0 1 1 and u(t) is a unit step function at t = 0 and X(0) = [1 0]T. (20) 4. (20) (c) Draw and explain vacuum tube oscillator and SCR inverter circuits for converting electrical energy at low frequency to energy at high frequency suitable for induction heating. (a) Give a schematic diagram and explain the operation of a synchroerror detector. (20) (b) A 3phase fully controlled bridge convener with 415 V supply. (20) (b) A system has G s H s K s s 2 s 4 What value of K makes the system unstable? Find the intersection of the rootloci with the imaginary axis.25 reactance per phase is operating in the inverting mode at a firing advance angle of 35°.
In a doublyexcited rotary machine.005 cos 2) L12 = 0. (20) (c) Give the constructional features. if any.m.f. provides a smooth control in both the directions. 5.03 + 0. principle of operation and applications of a variable reluctance stepper motor. Transient stability of a synchronous generator may be improved by using autoreclose circuit breakers.SECTION B Question 5 is compulsory. WardLeonard method of speed control of a d. (a) .c. Draw and explain the complete phasor diagram of the motor with injected e. A crossfield machine may behave as a constant voltage or a constant current generator depending upon the degree of compensation. A generator is subjected to a sustained fault with phases B and C short circuited and connected to neutral. Show that the zerosequence impedance may be determined by V Z o a . output voltage when the commutation angle is 20° and the delay angle is (i) 00. Comment with justification on the correctness or otherwise of any three of the following statements. (20) Draw and explain a 3phase bridge rectifier circuit for converting a. Derive the expression used. motor. the inductance coefficients are L11 = (1. (ii) 30°. Distinguish between singlyexcited and doublyexcited magnetic system.c. restricting your answer to within 200 words for each (20x3=60) (a) (b) (c) (d) Oscillations take place in a synchronous machine if there is a sudden change in load. negative and zero sequence voltage or current. where Va is the voltage from the unfaulted conductor to neutral and Ia is the neutral In current. which can be minimized by damper windings. Obtain the torque/angular displacement relation.4 cos 2) L22 = (0. and (iii) 45° (20) (b) Explain what you understand by positive.c.8 A and i2 = 50 A. (20) (b) Discuss speed control of wound rotor induction motor by injecting voltage info its rotor circuit. into d.c. A bridge connected rectifier is fed from 220 kV/110 kV transformer with primary connected to 220 kV. (20) 6.2 cos The exciting currents are i1 .1 + 0. for HVDC transmission. Determine the d. (a) 7.
(ii) constant load torque and variable motor torque. your answer must not exceed 200 words for each statement: (20x3=60) (a) (b) (c) (d) Broadcast systems do not employ SSB and DSBSC signals though these signals offer bandwidth and power advantages. Briefly explain the different tests to be carried out to prove the ability of a circuit breaker.(c) Differentiate between type tests and routine tests. and (ii) primemover input of a synchronous generator connected to an infinite bus. What is preemphasis? Why is it used? (15) What is a directional coupler? Define directivity and directional coupling and give their significance.8. 9. (20) SECTION C Question 9 is compulsory. constant frequency busbars. A turboalternator having a reactance of 10 ohms has an armature current of 200 A at unity power factor. Select any three of the following statements and with justification whether they are correct or incorrect. Give the function of each block. PCM is more noiseresistant than other forms of pulse modulation. (20) (c) Discuss the characteristics and limitations of different motors suitable for electric traction. (15) Describe with the help of a block diagram. (a) . Each cavity resonator has an infinite number of resonant frequencies. Also determine the antenna current when the depth of modulation is 0. is raised by 20%.5 A when carrier is modulated by a single sine wave. Find the percentage modulation. Derive the relation used. (20) Explain the effect of change of (i) excitation. Gunn diode amplifiers are not used nearly as much as Gunn oscillators. If the primemover input is not changed but the e. (20) 8. when running on 11000 V. Distinguish between amplitude modulation. the arrangement of a typical high power pulsed radar set. (a) (b) What do you understand by steady state and transient state characteristics of an electric drive? Derive expressions for acceleration time of an electric drive under conditions of (i) constant motor anti load torque. Give the advantages of frequency modulation over both amplitude and phase modulation. (a) 11. 10. find the value of armature current and power factor.f.m. frequency modulation and phase modulation. (15) (b) The antenna current of an AM transmitter is 12 A when only carrier is sent but it increases to 13. (15) (c) (d) Explain the concept of the noise triangle.
(20) (b) (c) Explain ISDN and LAN. What is X25 interface protocol? Explain its function and use. (20) An aerial array consists of 12 vertical aerials in a straight line spaced half a wavelength apart and equally energised in phase. Deduce the angular width of the forward beam in the horizontal plane. (20) 12. (a) A TE11 mode is propagating through a circular waveguide. The guide contains an air dielectric. Given that X’11 = 1.841 and cutoff frequency fc is 1.758 x 109 Hz, determine: (i) (ii) (iii) (b) the diameter of the guide the wavelength in the guide for an operating frequency of 3 GHz wave impedance
Give the major differences between TWT and Klystron. Explain, with the help of a schematic and simplified diagram, the operation of a helix travelling wave tube. (20) Describe an optical communication system with the help of a suitable block diagram. Discuss the advantages of optical communication using optical fibres. (20)
(c)
C.S.E.(Main)1995
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
PAPER  I
Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300 Instructions: Candidates should attempt Questions 1 and 5 which are compulsory, and any three of the remaining question selecting at least one question from each Section. Some useful data is given at the end of the question paper. Assume any other data if considered necessary and indicate the same clearly. All questions carry equal marks. Parts of the same question must be answered together and must not be interposed between answers to other questions. _______________________________________________________________________________________
SECTION A
1. Answer any three of the following (a) (b) Consider the electric fluid due to an infinitely long uniform line charge. Show that the divergence of this field is zero. Fig. Q. 1(b) shows the details of a portion of a d.c. network. Evaluate the voltage V.
(c)
In the a.c. circuit of Fig. Q.1(c), the rms values of different voltages under steady state are: VS = 16V; VR = 10V; V1 = 10V; V2 = 7V. Find the value of RL
(d)
Justify the following statements: (i) (ii) It is advisable to measure a small quantity directly and not to deduce it as the difference of two individually measured large values. The plain Wheatstone bridge method is not suitable measurement of lowvalued resistors.
2.
(a)
Find the rms value of current through the switch S when it is closed in the 3phase circuit shown in Fig. Q. 2(a). Hence find the rms value of voltage across it when S is opened.
Z1 40 j0 ohms, Z2 j80 ohms
(b)
The two figures show a lineal reciprocal 2port network N under two different terminal conditions. The switches are closed at t = 0 in both the circuits with zero initial conditions in N. Given that the currents in (i) for t > 0 are : i1 = 0.5 (e–t + e–3t) amps; i2 = 0.1 (3e–3t – e–t) amps, find v1(t) for t > 0 in (ii).
(c)
A digital filter is characterised by the following recursive relation, where x(n) and y(n) are the input and output samples at the nth sampling instant. The sampling frequency is 100 Hz. y(n) = 0.8y (n – 1) – 0.64 y (n – 2) + x (n) –x(n – 1) + x(n – 2) Find the poles and zeros of the discretetime transfer function of the filter. Hence deduce and sketch the magnitude response characteristic of the filter from f = 0 to f = . Mark the values at f = 0, 50 and 100 Hz.
3.
(a)
Consider an electric displacement vector
r ˆ z ˆ D 15exp ir iz c /m 2 x0 x0
in cylindrical coordinates r, , z. Calculate the outward flux crossing a right circular cylinder of radius 2x0, its axis coinciding with the zaxis and with the two plant faces at z = 0 and z = 5x0, where x0 = 1 cm. (b) (c) Derive an expression for the inductance per unit length of a coaxial cable with radii a and b. Also calculate the value when a = 0.5 cm and b = 2.0 cm. A 2 m long current carrying conductor is aligned in ydirection, its xand zcoordinates being 5 m each. The current is 8 A in the negative ydirection. The conductor is subjected to a
Find B0 and B1 for the first seven clock cycles after these are initially cleared. Compare the conductivity with that of intrinsic silicon.c. (d) .ˆ ˆ uniform magnetic field and the resulting force on the conductor is 4 x 10–3 ix iz N . the intrinsic carrier density is 1. Answer any three of the following : (a) (b) Explain how the input current changes in a three phase synchronous motor with constant load when the field current is varied. voltage source of negligible internal resistance. In the circuit of Fig. Q. 8 ms period with a positive going zero crossing at t = 0. (c) Calculate the conductivity of silicon when it is doped by an ntype impurity to the extent of 1 in 106. Determine and sketch v0(t) for 0 < t < 8 ms when v1(t) is a square waveform of ± 1 V amplitude. Give precise explanations for your answers. 21 V and 100 V respectively.c. What other categories of measurement can be performed using a digital counter ? A thermoelectric sensor with a time constant of 50 ms is used to record the temperature of a furnace. Give the block diagram of a typical modem digital counter and show how it is used to measure the frequency of a given lest signal. 5(d) is using masterslave flipflops. Assuming that the furnace temperature varies sinusoidally between the two limits 300°C and 500°C with a frequency of 2 Hz. 4. The atomic density of silicon is 5 x 1022 atoms/cm3. Indicate a method of reducing the resultant error. the diodes are ideal. determine the limits of the temperature as recorded from the sensor. The readings obtained are 75 V. Q 5(b).48 x 1010 pair/cm3 and the mobilities are 500 cm2/Vs and 1300 cm2/Vs. the input v2(t) 2 sin t/3 volt with t in ms and v3(t) is a 3 V amplitude rectangular pulse existing over 1 ms < t < 3 ms. (b) (c) SECTION B 5. Find the sensitivity of the d. voltmeter. voltmeter. The voltages across Rs. VCC is high and can be taken to be 1.c. Draw phasor diagrams. The circuit shown in Fig. (a) A 20 k standard resistor Rs and a test resistor Rx are connected in series across a d. Find the magnetic flux density (of the applied field). Rx and the source are measured in turn by an accurate 0 – 120 V d.
Calculate the load voltage when the load current remains same at rated value.8 and 200 respectively. Also calculate the total load at the same power factor that the two transformers in parallel can supply such that neither of the transformers gets overloaded. with the speed not changing instantaneously. but the power factor changes to 0. Make assumptions as needed. The resistances of armature and field are 0. Take VCE. synchronous generator delivers rated current at 0. collector supply voltage is 15 V and = 100. determine the speed and the voltage across each machine. Calculate the resistance to be inserted in the rotor circuit so that the speed reduces to 800 rpm. with torque (i) remaining constant. run at 700 and 750 rpm respectively. 6pole. The field current is the same as before.25s. Neglect stator impedance. slipring induction motor has resistance of 0. Calculate the load shared by each. Describe a successive approximation type of an A to D converter and give its merits. T1 and T2 are operated in parallel on both sides. The resistance and synchronous reactance per phase are 1 and 30 respectively. The transformer. 50 Hz. The transformer. T2 is rated at 200 kVA having a percentage impedance of (1. 6600 V. (i) Find the field current required to reduce the speed to 1000 rpm with load torque at half of previous value.6. If the two motors are mechanically coupled and connected in series to 500 V supply taking a current of 50 A. (b) (c) 7. when the total load is 250 kVA at 0. T1 is rated at 100 kVA having a percentage impedance of (1 + j5). Find the conversion time and the resolution of an 8bit ADC of this type when the clock period is 1. Find the potential divider resistances so that maximum symmetrical swing is permitted at the collector. Neglect armature reaction. 100 kVA. The resistance of each motor including the series field is 0. Some useful data: (b) (c) 8. when the field current is changed to that found in (i). The rotor of a 3phase. (a) A 3phase. when taking 50 A at 500 V. sat = 0. it continues to rotate in the same direction. A silicon transistor has a independent bias using an emitter resistor potential divider combination. 15 kW. The emitter circuit resistance is 300 .8 power factor tagging. but otherwise identical. Find the CB hparameters of a transistor in terms of its rparameters and .2 per phase and runs at 960 rpm on hill load. Two single phase transformers. (ii) Find also the initial armature current. (a) Two & series motors with different airgaps. A 400 V. the collector circuit resistance is 500 . dc shunt motor takes 42 A and runs at 1200 rpm. (a) (b) (c) . and (ii) varying as square of speed.8 leading.36 . If it is started in either direction. the load voltage being 6 kV.5 + j4).8 pf lagging. Explain the following in relation to a plain single phase induction motor: (i) (ii) It fails to start when connected to ac supply.
6 x 10–19 C : o = 4 x 10–7 H/m : o = 8.Electronic charge Permeability of free space Permittivity of free space : e = 1.85 x 10–12 F/m .
Use of a free wheeling diode improves the quality of speedtorque characteristics of a thyristor controlled d. (20x3=60) (a) (b) (c) (d) 2. and (ii) H(s) = (1 + s). The number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the question.C.S. What is the effect of damping ratio on the amplitude and phase of the steady state output ? (20) (b) The forward path transfer function of a position control system with velocity feedback is given by G s K s s p Determine the sensitivity of the transfer function of the closedloop system to changes in K.E. Parts of the same question must be answered together and must not be interposed between answers to other questions.(Main)1995 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER . . State variable method of analysis can be applied both to linear and nonlinear systems. p = 3 and = 0. read them carefully and identify the correct and incorrect ones. motor. Find the relation between and so that the system is stable with unity feedback. The nominal values of the parameters are K = 12. Select any three of the following statements.14. (a) Real parts of the Eigen values of a stable system are always positive. Maximum marks: 300 SECTION A 1. Sketch and explain the frequencyresponse characteristics of a secondorder control system.II Time Allowed: Three Hours Instructions: Candidates should attempt five questions in all selecting at least two questions including the compulsory question from each of Section A and B or Section A and C. Knowing the step response of a system the response to a ramp input cannot be deduced. p and a for transfer function of the feedback path (i) H(s) = 1. (20) (c) A linear feedback control system has an openloop transfer function A s 2 1 s s 2 where and are adjustable parameters.c. . Assume suitable data if considered necessary and indicate the same clearly. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case.
3.
(a)
What are Tachogenerators ? Discuss with block diagram, their application to dosedloop control systems. (20) The block diagram of an electronic pacemaker is given in Fig 1, where K = 400.
(b)
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (c)
Calculate the output c(t) for a unit step input. Calculate the integral of the square of the error between input and the output. Determine the steadystate error for a unit ramp input. Determine the value of K for which the steadystate error to a unit ramp will be 0.02. (20)
A linear control system is described by the following equations in statespace domain:
x1 2 0 x1 0 x 1 1 x 1 u t 2 2
x y 1 2 1 1 u t x2 Find the transfer function of the system. (20) 4. (a) What are the important ratings that specify an SCR? Compare the performance characteristics of a rectifier circuit using ordinary diodes with that of one using SCR’s. (20) (b) A chopper circuit as shown in Fig 2 is inserted between a battery, Vdc = 150 V and a load resistance RL = 10 . The mmoff time for the main thyristor Th1 is 110 s and the maximum permissible current through it is 30A.Calculate the values of the commutating components L and C.
(20) (c) A slab of material 2.5 cm thick and 200 sq. cm in area, having relative permittivity 5 and 0.05 is to be heated using dielectric heating. The power required is 200 watts at a frequency of 30 MHz. Determine the voltage required and the current that will flow through the material. If the voltage were to be limited to 600 V, what should be the frequency for the same power requirement?
(20)
SECTION B
Question no. 5 is compulsory.
5.
Comment with justification on the correctness or otherwise of any three of the following statements, restricting your answer to within 200 words for each: (20x3=60) (a) (b) (c) (d) Lightning arrestor should be located as close to the transformer being protected as is physically possible. Tap changing transformers are used in power systems primarily to control reactive voltamperes. The main purpose for which the damper bars are located in the rotor faces of a synchronous motor is to prevent hunting of the machines. Economic operation of a power system requires that the incremental fuel cost of each plant multiplied by its penalty factor is the same for all plants of the system. Explain the concept of self GMD and mutual GMD in respect of 3phase transmission lines. Indicate how these concepts are used in estimating the inductance and capacitance of 3phase overhead lines. (15) (b) Discuss briefly the various methods adopted for improving the transient stability of a power system. (15) (c) A 3phase, 50 Hz, transmission line is 400 km long. The voltage at the sendingend is 220 kV. The line parameters are: R = 0.125 /km, X = 0.4 /km, and Y = 2.8 x 10–6 S/km. Find, using approximate expressions for A, B, C, D constants of long lines, the following: (i) (ii) The sendingend current and receiving end voltage when there is noload on the line. The minimum permissible line length if the receiving noload voltage is not to exceed 235 kV. (30) (iii) For part (i), the maximum permissible line frequency, if the noload voltage is not to exceed 250 kV.
6.
(a)
7.
(a)
Explain the various reactances associated with a salientpole synchronous machine when it is subjected to sudden short circuit at its armature terminals. How can these reactances be determined from the short circuit oscillograms of the machine? (15) Briefly explain the various controls in a.c. drives. Why are such drives becoming increasingly more pou1ar as compared to d.c. drives ? (15) A 4pole, 3phase, 400 V, 50 Hz, induction motor has the following per phase parameters for its circuit model (referred to the stator side): r1 = 1.2 x1 = 1.16
(b)
(c)
r2’ = 0.4
x2’ = 1.16
Find the slip and corresponding torque when the machine develops (i) maximum torque, and (ii) maximum power. The machine is Yconnected. (30) 8. (a) Discuss various types of electric traction used in India. Explain the characteristics of the motor used in any one such system. (15) (b) Explain clearly with a flowchart, the computational procedure for load flow solution using GaussSeidel method when the power system contains all types of buses. (15) (c) A 40 MVA, 3phase, 345/34.5 kV transformer is star/delta connected. Select standard CT ratios on the two sides of the transformer for percentage differential protection of the transformer. Would an autotransformer be required? If so, what should be its current ratio? (30)
SECTION C
Question no. 9 is compulsory.
9.
Select any three of the following statement and indicate with justification whether they are correct or incorrect. Your answer must not exceed 200 worth for each statement. (20 x 3=60) (a) (b) (c) (d) In PM, the frequency deviation is proportional to instantaneous amplitude of modulating voltage but not to the modulating frequency. An ideal directional coupler must have infinite directivity. Telecommunication carriers can increase the utilization of their existing cable ducts significantly if fibreoptic cables are substituted for copper. Digital processing is used widely because it provides economic and rapid manipulation of data. Explain what you understand by shot noise, signaltonoise ratio and noise figure. When might the noisefigure be a more suitable piece of information than the equivalent noise resistance? The first stage of a 2stage amplifier has a voltage gain of 10, a 500 input resistor, a 1500 equivalent noise resistance and a 30 k ohm output resistance. For the 2nd stage these values are 20, 80 k, 10 k and 1 M respectively. Calculate the equivalent inputnoise résistance of the twostage amplifier. (20) (b) Give the differences between FM and AM receivers. How can the overall limiting performance of an FM receiver be improved? Explain the operation of AGC in addition to a limiter. (20) (c) Explain, with the help of block diagram, the principle of operation of an ISB transmitter. (20)
10.
(a)
(20) Compare and contrast the performance and advantages of coaxial cable and microwave links as broad band ‘continental’ transmission media. Find Q of the resonator for fundamental frequency of oscillations. What are intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of a MESFET? What is the effect of increasing the channel doping to a value as high as possible? (20) Discuss the advantages and list applications of parametric amplifiers. (20) (c) 12. Draw the circuit diagram of a TW parametric amplifier and explain briefly how it works.5 cm apart and have free space in between them.8 x 107 S/m. (20) (b) What is MESFET? Give its characteristics. Draw and explain block diagram of a microwave link carrier chain. explain a Radiotelemetery transmitter using frequencydivision multiplex with TDM for subcommunication. 0 = 4 x 10–7 H/m. (a) What is resonator? Define and obtain expression for the Qfactor of a parallel plate resonator. (a) (b) (c) .11. What is RS232 interface? Explain its use for data transmission. For copper = 5. The parallel plates of a resonator are 1. (20) With the help of a block diagram. (20) What is a Modem? Draw and explain a Communication system using Modems.
E.S. (c) Using Thevenin’s theorem.(Main)1996 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER . h12 = 0.C. Answer any three of the following: (a) The hparameters of a 2port network used in the circuit of Fig. Parts of the same question must be answered together and must not be interposed between answers to other questions. and any three of the remaining questions selecting at least one question from each Section.I Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300 INSTRUCTION Candidates should attempt Question 1 and 5 which are compulsory. any other data if considered necessary and indicate the same clearly. Find the ratio V2/V1. h21 = 20 and h22 = 1 mS. Assume. one pair being useful for remote control and the other pair functioning as a transducer for converting angular position into an electrical signal. determine the current in the 2 resistor in the circuit of Fig. 1c. All questions carry equal marks. 1a are h11 = 100 . SECTION A 1. (20) (d) (i) Give the schematic of two synchro pairs. . (20) (b) A hollow cylindrical conductor of length L and radius R and carrying a surface current of density Jb = Jz iz A/m is placed in a Bfield given by B aˆ ˆ ir bi T r (20) Find the magnitude and direction of torque on the conductor. Some useful data is given at the end of the question paper. .0025.
(10) (ii) Give a typical set up for measuring the stain of a cantilever beam. 4c. (20) (b) A 2 C charge is located at (0.90 lagging. (20) 3. (a) A series RL circuit with R = 50 and L = 0.785) applied at t = 0. 0. 0) m and a 4 C charge at (4. design a Wheatstone bridge with an OPAMP arrangement to provide a 0 to 10 V signal for a temperature span of 25°C to 125°C. (10) 2. find the output voltage when S4 is closed and S3. passive.2 H has a sinusoidal voltage v(t) = 75 sin (500 t + 0. (10) (ii) Give two examples each of active and passive transducers.65 lagging power factor load is shunted by a capacitor so that the power factor improves to 0. 0. (a) An aeroplane flies over the surface of the ocean and sends a 1 MHz plane wave vertically downwards with a field intensity of 1000 V/m just at the ocean surface. (20) (c) A 300 kW. 3. The ocean water constants are = 4 S/m. Derive an expression for the group velocity vg in terms of vp and vp. 5) m due to both these charges. (a) Using an RTD with 0. (10) (c) For the R2R type of digitaltoanalog converter shown in Fig. (20) (b) (i) Define the terms ‘Dynamic error’ and ‘Resolution’ of an instrument. (20) 4. 0. Find the electric field at (0. threeterminal network may be replaced by a deltaconnection of three impedances. Find the kVAr that the capacitor must furnish and the reduction in apparent power. What is the current at t = 0 + ? Why? (20) (b) Show that an nmesh. with temperature compensation. Suggest suitable signal conditioning circuits for the same. Here n can be arbitrarily large. (20) (c) The phase velocity vp of a wave of frequency f and wavelength is given by vp = c(0/)2 where c and 0 are constants. r = 1 and r = 81. Explain how these can be determined in the laboratory. 0)m. (20) . If a submarine requires a 10 V/m field. Find the complete current for t > 0. S2 and S1 are grounded. t being taken in sec.00251/°C coefficient and R (25°C) as 1000 . how deep can it be submerged and still be contacted by the aeroplane.
Draw the v – i characteristics of the circuit (i) with S open and –10 volt <v < 15 volt and (ii) with S closed and 0 <v < 15 volt What happens when v <0 with S closed ? (20) (b) Show that the NMOS circuit of Fig.2 k and I = 5 mA. R = 1. Answer any three of the following: (a) In the circuit of Fig. (20) (i) (a) (b) (ii) Explain the following terms as referred to an operational amplifier: Input offset voltage and Input offset current (10) The input vi (t) in the circuit of Fig. Sketch v0 (t) and label important points. 5b is a NAND gate for positive logic.5 sin 2 10 t volt with t in sec. the diode is ideal. 5a. (20) (c) (d) Describe different methods for starting of synchronous motors. 5d is vi (t) = 1. Write down the various combinations of inputs and output in a tabular form and clearly state the meanings of any symbols or parameters used therein.SECTION B 5. 3 (10) .
400 V. An additional resistance of 0.2. Find the rotor resistance and reactance. (20) A 6600 V. Their external characteristics are linear.4 and a synchronous reactance of 6. (a) A 6pole. both in terms of their full Load terminal voltages.5%.8 power factors leading is 7.’ Justify the statement. how much load will be carried by each machine when supplying a connected load of 360 kW? What will be the common terminal voltage? (20) (i) Name different types of single phase induction motors. (a) Two singlephase transformers T1 and T2.5 + j 6. (5) (iii) Show that the reactive power drawn by a three. 0. The regulation of the 150 kW machine is 5% and that of the 250 kW machine is 4%. If the regulation at fill load 0. 3phase starconnected alternator has a resistance of 0.0 per phase. If these machines are connected in parallel. (20) (i) What do you understand by the terms ‘shortcircuit ratio and ‘synchronizing torque’ as applied to a synchronous generator ? (10) (b) (c) . 3phase induction motor has a rotor resistance such that the maximum torque occurs at a sup of 0.8 lagging power factor as follows: T1 : 192 + j 117 kVA T2 : 210 + j 184 kVA Find the regulation of T2 for rated kVA output at 0. (20) (b) Two shunt generators rated at 150 kW and 250 kW when running at rated speeds have rated open circuit voltages of 245 V and 243 V respectively. (5) (ii) ‘The range of stable operation of a threephase induction motor can be extended by connecting a larger resistance in the rotor.6. Also find the total load that the two transformers can share without any of these getting overloaded at 0. rated at 300 kVA and 400 WA respectively.f.5 has to be inserted to obtain 75% of the maximum torque at starting.8 lagging power factor when the percentage impedance of T1 is 1. (10) (c) 7. find the kVA rating of the alternator. 50 Hz.phase induction motor is maximum at standstill and decreases as the slip increases. the motor being operated at constant voltage. when operated in parallel share a 500 WA.9 lagging p. ‘Draw a comparison of their performance features.
rbb’ = 90 . 8a and show that.015 S. (20) (b) Find the midfrequency gain of the amplifier shown in Fig. rb’e = 1 k. The transistor parameters with usual notations are gm = 0. 50 Hz nonsalient pole synchronous motor of negligible armature resistance having a synchronous reactance of 45 is operating on an infinite bus with its voltage at 6.6 kV 50 Hz. 4–pole. the voltage v0 can be made proportional to the logarithm of the input voltage vs.85 leading power factor. (a) Find the relation between vo and vs for the circuit of Fig. You may use two flail adders and other gates as required but keeping the number of other gates to a minimum. (20) Some useful data: Electronic charge Permeability of free space Permittivity of free space : e = 1.(ii) A 1500 kVA. Cb’e = 20 pF and Cb’e = 3 pF while RE = 1 k.6 x 10–19 C : o = 4 x 10–7 H/m : o = 8.85 x 10–12 F/m . (c) Design a combinational logic circuit to generate the 2’s complement of a 2bit number. 3phase. Find the synchronising torque per mechanical degree of rotor displacement (a) at no load and (b) when the motor is operating at full load with 0. 8b. 8. Neglect the loading effect of R1 and R2. with proper adjustments.
(a) (20) (c) Obtain the state equations in (i) the controller form. (20 x 1 = 60) (a) (b) (c) State equations are first order differential equations that can be applied to portray only the linear timeinvariant systems.M. 1 is compulsory. For a closedloop system to be asymptotically stable. A vacuum tube oscillator has small power outputs high at frequencies and is less efficient compared to SCR.E. If the synchros produce 1 V/ degree error and if the steady state error should be 5o for a speed input of 20 RPM.P. 1. but the poles of the closed loop transfer function must all be located in the left half of Splane.S. A certain position control system is driven by 100 : 1 gear by a motor whose torque characteristics is of the form (10 Vm – 0. Describe a simple position control system. calculate the required amplifier gain. (b) Distinguish between openloop and closedloop system. and is the voltage supplied by the amplifier. Convert the system of Fig.II Time Allowed: 3 Hours Maximum marks: 300 SECTION A Question no. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case. and (ii) and observer form for the transfer function G(s) given by G s 3s 5s 7 s 4 5s 3 18s 2 29 s 35 . the maximum overshoot increases and the effect is opposite to that of adding a pole to the open loop transfer function. there is no restriction on the location of the poles and zeros of the loop transfer function F(s). where N is the speed in R. Select any three of the following statements. Viscous friction at the motor shaft is 60 x 10–6 Nmsec. By adding a pole to the closed loop transfer function. 1 into a unity feedback system.(Main)1996 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER . (d) 2.3 N) 10–4 Nm. read them carefully and identify the correct and incorrect ones.C.
Describe with the help of a neat diagram the principle of operation of a timer circuit used for electric welding. A 50 Hz. (a) What do you mean by Rootlocus of a system ? Give properties of the rootlocus. 2phase. (20) (c) A system is described by X = AX+BU Y = CX where 0 A= and 1 0 1 0 2 –8 –5. (20) Explain the principle of electric welding. (i) (ii) (iii) With the thyristor in blocking state. . –6 B= 2 1 0 C = [1 2 1] (20) Determine whether the system is stable. Calculate the time when the thyristor would stop conducting.(20) 3. (a) (b) Describe with a neat sketch a step up chopper and discuss its merits and demerits. A unity feedback system has a forward path transfer function G s K s s 4 s 5 Sketch the locus of the poles of the transfer function of the closedloop system as ‘K’ varies from zero to infinity. what is steady state capacitor voltage and load current ? Derive an expression for the load current. explaining all the steps involved.186 Nm = 1 x 10–5 kg m2 = 120 V = 304 rad/sec Assuming straight line torqueangular speed characteristics of the motor and zero viscous friction derive the transfer function. ac. thyristor current and Vc (t) after a thyristor is triggered at t = 0. (20) (c) Fig. 4. (20) (b) What is a servomotor ? Give the characteristics of a 2phase servomotor and obtain its transfer function. 2 shows a circuit used for selfcommutation by resonance. servomotor has the following parameters: Starting torque Rotor inertia Supply voltage Noload angular velocity = 0.
50 Hz generator supplies an inductive load of 5 MW at a p. Selfexcitation of an induction generator requires the machine to be run at super synchronous speed. The applied voltage is balanced 3phase.63 mH/km. Neglect the effect of ground. Find (i) (ii) (iii) the sending end voltage regulation of the line. Take the voltage of phase ‘A’ as reference phasor. 5. (20x3=60) (a) (b) (c) (d) Single phase induction motors with auxiliary winding neither develop starting torque nor the running torque. the value of the capacitors to be placed in parallel with the load such that the regulation is reduced to 50% of that obtained in part (i). Give their merits and demerits. transmission efficiencies in both the cases. Sudden loss of load may cause severe disturbance in the operation of a power system. Also find the charging current of phase A’. The line R and L are 0. (a) (b) (c) Discuss briefly different methods used for LoadFlow studies. (20) A singlephase. 6. it is dangerous to use bundle conductors from the viewpoint of subsynchronous resonance. 3. The voltage at the receiving end is required to be kept constant at 10 kV. All conductors have the same radii. For EHV transmission lines.707 lagging by means of an overhead line 20 km long.(20) SECTION B Question no. . Comment with justification on the correctness or otherwise of any three of the following statements. 5 is compulsory. 50 Hz. of 0.f.0195 /km and 0. restricting your answer to within 200 worth for each. Derive an expression for the charge (complex) value per meter length of conductor ‘A’ of untransposed 3phase line shown in Fig.
AM is more likely to be affected by noise than is FM. strip line has reduced bulk. The conical scanning method of tracking an acquired target is an improvement over lobe switching.u. In comparison with waveguides and coaxial lines. (20) (b) Give the constructional features. (20) SECTION C Question no.2 ohms/phase. and (ii) dielectric heating.55 pu. (i) What are the three main systems of SSB generation ? Give the salient characteristics of each system.u.u and xq = 0. (20) 8. rating and efficiency with that under balanced 3phase supply. Determine what percent of the generator winding remains unprotected by the percentage differential relaying.2 p. Select any three of the following statements and indicate with justification whether they are correct or incorrect. (d) 10. 1MVA. whileits excitation is adjusted to 1. The generator neutral is grounded through a resistance of 22 ohms. 9 is compulsory. 9. What are the special features required for selecting electrical equipment for mines with fire hazard ? (20) (c) An 11 kV. voltage. higher powerhandling capability and components made of it are readily adjustable. (20x3=60) (a) (b) (c) Modem communication system is concerned with development of transmission and not with the sorting. Calculate the maximum power output that the motor can supply without loss of synchronism. (a) . (a) Discuss the behaviour of a 3phase induction motor on singlephasing.(20) 7. (20) (c) A salientpole synchronous motor has xd = 0.u. excitation that is necessary for the machine to stay in synchronism while supplying the fullload torque. mechanical and economic characteristics to be considered in selecting a motor for a given drive. Discuss the range of frequencies used in these systems of heating. processing and storing of information. (a) Explain the principle and applications of (i) induction heating.85 p. Yconnected generator has a reactance of 4. lower bandwidth. Compare its characteristics. It is connected to busbars of 10 p. Assume for simplicity that the percentage differential relay operates when outofbalance current exceeds 25% of the fullload current. (20) (b) Discuss the electrical. Compute the minimum p. principle of operation and applications of a variable reluctance stepper motor. Your answer must not exceed 200 words for each statement.
(20) (b) (i) (ii) (c) Give the advantages and disadvantages of submarine cables and communication satellites for intercontinental telephone and television. the loaded Q of the antenna coupling circuit (at the input to the mixer) is 100. Explain why an antenna using a paraboloid reflector is likely to be a highly directive receiving antenna. Y and Z parameters for operation in microwave range of frequencies ? Show that the Smatrix of a directional coupler may be reduced to the form 0 p S 0 jq p 0 jq 0 0 jq 0 p jq 0 p 0 (20) (b) With the help of a schematic diagram. A lossless line has a characteristic impedance of 75 ohms and is terminated in a load of 300 ohms. . Describe the Cassegrain method of feeding a paraboloid reflector.s) and output impedance of 75 ohms. The line is assumed to be 2¼ wavelengths long. I and Q signals in colour TV. (a) What do you understand by Sparameters of a 2port network ? Why are these parameters preferred to H. The line is energised by a generator which has an open circuit voltage of 20 V (r. calculate (i) (ii) the image frequency and its rejection ratio at 1000 KHz. Give some shortcomings and difficulties associated with the method. Show how the two media may be complementary. (20) (c) Give the properties of paraboloid reflectors. (a) What is the importance of impedance matching in RF transmission lines ? Explain single stubmatching and double stubmatching. If the intermediate frequency is 555 KHz. What do you understand by image frequency and its rejection ratio? In a broadcast superheterodyne receiver having no RF amplifier. (20) (b) What is an RF amplifier ? Give its advantages. Determine : (i) (ii) (iii) the input impedance the magnitude of instantaneous load voltage.m. (20) 11. and the image frequency and its rejection ratio at 25 MHz. With the help of circuit diagram of a simplex matrix. explain how the I. with the carriers removed.(ii) Prove that the balanced modulator produces an output consisting of side bands only. Q and Y signals are generated in a colour TV transmitter. and why they are generated. (20) 12. and the instantaneous power delivered to the load. Explain what is done to ensure that intercontinental telephone calls are not misrouted. 20 What is meant by saying that colour TV must be compatible ? Explain what is meant by the Y. explain a fourcavity klystron amplifier.
c. phase constant The plasma frequency The reduced plasma frequency for R = 0. beam current density The instantaneous beam current density (20) Explain what you understand by: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) MMIC MOSFET NMOS Growth CMOS Development RAM Device SRAM Cell DRAM Cell (20) : V0 = 20 kV : I0 = 2 A : 0 = 10–6 C/m2 : = 10–8 C/m2 Operating frequency : f = 10 GHz Velocity perturbation : v = 105 m/s .A fourcavity klystron amplifier has the following parameters: Beam voltage Beam current d.c. electron velocity The d.5 The d. charge density RF charge density Determine (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (c) The d.c.c.
SECTION A 1. Find the potential at the common centre of spheres. (i) (ii) (iii) fV : fh = 3 : 1 fv : fh = 1 : 2.C. Some useful data is given at the end of the question paper. and any three of the remaining questions selecting at least one question from each Section.E. the control grid electrode is subjected to an additional sinusoidal signal of 10 kHz and of such amplitude that the grid is driven into cutoff state for part of its signal cycle what will be the change in the pattern displayed for part (iii)? (20) . Sketch the Lissajous patterns that appear on the CRT screen.(Main)1997 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER . and fv = fh = 1kHz with a phase difference of 90° between the two signals. Answer any three of the following (a) Fig. when.I Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300 Candidates should attempt Questions 1 and 5 which are compulsory. If now.S. Assume any other data if considered necessary and indicate the same clearly All questions carry equal marks. 1 (a) shows a network of resistors each os R ohms. Find the resistance between the terminals P and Q. Marks assigned to each part of the question is indicated at the end of the respective part. (20) (b) A charge Q is distributed over two concentric hollow spheres of radii r and R (R > r) such that their surface densities are equal. (20) (c) Two sinusoidal signals of equal amplitude and frequencies fv and ih (Hz) are applied simultaneously to vertical and horizontal deflecting plates respectively of a CRO.
f. and the charge density on the plates. 3V. A correctly terminated transmission line has Z0 = 600 . (20) Calculate the power fed to the 15 resistor by using Thevenin’s equivalent circuit for the portion to the left of points A and B in the circuit of Fig. A glass sheet of 2mm thickness and of 6. it is noticed that i (0 ) = 10 mA and vab (t) = 0. The line is 5 m long and is fed from a 600 source of e.2 dB/m and = 18°/m (with usual notations). find the values of and R1 and L. the openloop gain A of the OPAMP varies from 15000 to 20000 as the temperature changes from 25°C to 35°C Calculate the closedloop gain at both the extreme temperatures. (20) 2. . Assume the source impedance to be zero. 2 (c). = 1. Find the magnitude of the received current at the output and its phase relative to the input voltage.(d) For the voltageseriesfeedback amplifier circuit shown in Fig. (a) Define the attenuation coefficient and phase coefficient in the context of a transmission line.m. assuming R1 = 470 and Rf = 47 k. the electric field intensities in air glass dielectric. 2 (b).2 cm. (20) + 3. (b) (20) (c) In the circuit of Fig. 1(d). t 0 sec. when the switch is closed t = 0.5 relative permittivity is inserted in the air dielectric and kept on one plate. (a) A 10 kV is applied across an airfilled capacitor formed by two parallel plates with a separation of 1. Calculate the percentage change in openloop and closedloop gains and explain the results. Assuming zero initial current for inductor and zero initial charge for capacitor. Find the capacitance per unit area of the parallel plates along with the glass.
The hparameters of the transistor used are hie = 1500 . 3(b) shows the Wien’s bridge for measurement of frequency. The voltmeter scale has 100 divisions and the scale can be read to 1/5 of a division. Drive suitable expressions under balanced bridge condition. (a) The JFET used in the circuit of Fig. 4 (a) has the following data : RD = 2 k. VG = 10 V and VSS = –8 V. An output of 2. when the core moves through a distance of 0. specify the turnsratio and current rating of transformer. what circuit configuration would be preferred and why? A bridge rectifier fed through a transformer from a 230 V. (20) (b) For fullwave rectification. (20) Assuming IDSS = 5 A and VPO = –3 V for the JFET calculate VGS and VO.(20) (b) The Fig. hre = 10–3 . RS = 8 k VDD = 15V. (20) 4. Calculate the sensitivity of LVDT and that of the whole setup.5 mm. 4(c). Calculate the resolution of the instrument in mm. What should then be the relation between R and R1 and between C and C1 so that the excitation frequency is expressed as 1/(2 RC)? (20) (c) The output of an LVDT is connected to a 10 V voltmeter through an amplifier with a gain of 500.5 mV appears on the terminals of LVDT. hfe = 100. hoe = 50 x 10–6 Find the midband gain iS2 / ibe where iS2 where is the current in 5 k resister. 50 Hz supply is used to deliver power to a transistor radio at 9V dc. (20) (c) The midband equivalent circuit of a common emitter transistor amplifier is shown in Fig. Assuming ideal dides and load resistance of 90. Also find the dc and ac (rms) values of Load current and PeakInverseVoltage. (20) .
3. Calculate the energy stored in the magnetic field produced by the field winding.5. 1600k VA. (20) (c) What do you understand by the forbidden gap in energy bands? Electrons are excited across the forbidden energy gap E0 in Germanium by bombarding of photons. (i) (ii) f(A. 1440rpm dc shunt generator has resistance Loss of 400 watts in its field winding under normal operating conditions. Prepare a truth table. 7. 15. Answer any three of the following: (a) Minimize the following logic functions using Karnaugh maps and realize them using NAND gates.71 eV.SECTION B 5. (25) . the voltage regulation of the machine is zero. 9. has negligible armature resistance and a synchronous reactance of 30 per phase. 13.8.2 second. (20) 6.4. erasability.10. The description of the functioning of this gate. 8. Karnaugh map and Boolean expressions to design a HalfAdder using minimum number of NAND gates. (20) (c) A 3phase starconnected alternator. 12. (a) Draw the circuit diagram of a NOR gate using MOS transistors (nchannel) and verify the NOR operation with.13) (20) (b) It is desired to add two onebit binary words and produce the result as Sum and Carry.9. The timeconstant of the field winding is 0.D)= m (2. 10. (15) (b) Name the different types of Read.OnlyMemories and briefly discuss their attributes in terms of programmability volatility. Estimate the power factor of the load and the power delivered by the machine.6. Calculate the maximum wavelength for a photon which will produce electronhole pairs in Germanium.1.C. if E0 = 0. 6. technology used and utility.7. rated at 11kV.2. C.12. (20) (d) A 10kW. 14.B. 11. When delivering fullload current at a certain power factor.) f(A. B. D) = M (0.3.
5% and reactive drop of 8% of the voltage on full load. (25) A 3phase. 3. (i) the load torque is proportional to square of speed. How will the total load of 200 kW at unity power factor be shared? (20) The bulk ntype region of a particular Germanium junction has conductivity of 104 S/m at 300 K and that the for the pregion is 102 S/m. The rotor winding has a resistance of 0.5 x 1019 m3 mobility of electron and holes as 0. The other has the corresponding drops of 0.7. estimate the speed and current taken by the motor.25 and a standstill reactance of 1. 3phase induction motor are respectively 1.17 m2/vs respectively.625 x 10–34 Jsec : 1.5 per phase Estimate the slip and power output for the same fullload stator current when external resistors of 2 per phase are inserted in the rotor circuit Neglect noload current. and (iii) the tosses are negligible. Assume that. singlephase transformers gave the following results when tested by the backtoback method: (i) Wattmeter W1 in the supply line reads 4kW. when all the four field coils are connected in series. when the fullload current is circulated through the secondaries. (20) Two 100 kVa. 50 Hz. assuming intrinsic carrier concentration as 2. Calculate the maximum power and torque that the motor can deliver for the same excitation. (a) (b) (c) Electron charge Permeability of free space Permittivity of free space Planck’s constant Boltzmann constant : 1. starconnected. 20pole. One transformer has an ohmic drop of 0. The motor is fed from infinite busbar at 3. Show the diagram of connections and calculate the fullload efficiency of each transformer.75% and 4% respectively.85 x 10–12 F/m : 6. (ii) the field flux is directly proportional to the current.38 x 10–23 J/K Velocity of light in free space : 3 x 108 m/sec . 1200 kW. Find the voltage drop across the junction in equilibrium at 300K. 50 Hz synchronous motor has a synchronous reactance of 4 per phase and negligible resistance. 1phase transformers are connected in parallel on both primary and secondary sides. (20) Some Useful Data: (c) 8. (15) (b) A 4pole DC Series motor runs normally at 800 rpm taking 22 A on 260 V supply.3 kV and is operated at unity power factor by so adjusting its excitation.9% and 2400 Nm. and (ii) Wattmeter W2 in the secondary sends circuit reads 6 kW.6 x 10–19 Coulomb : 4 x 10–7 H/m : 8. (a) Two similar 200 k VA. If now the field coils are reconnected in two parallel groups of two coils in series.36m2/vs and 0. (20) The normal fullload slip and shaft torque of a 373 kW.3 kV.
Sketch the underdamped time response of a second order control system to a step input. Select any three of the following statements. Peakovershoot”. Commutation has to be specially taken care of.(Main)1997 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER . Peak time”. U s 2. While using ThyristorChopper for motor speed control. read them carefully and identify the correct and the incorrect ones. the open loop system is also stable.S. Define clearly the “Delay time”. “Settling time” and “Steady state error” and also show them in the sketch.C. then the system is unstable. (20x3 = 60) (a) (b) (c) (d) If a system is stable with unity feedback. “Rise time”. If in the state variable description of a system.E. SECTION A Question no. Assume suitable data if considered necessary and indicate the same clearly. (20) . Servomotor is similar in all respects to a conventional induction motor. G s H s 2 s 3 by drawing Nyquist plot s s 1 Wherever the Nyquist plot crosses the real or imaginary axis determine the frequency and the intercept value.c.II Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum marks: 300 Candidates should attempt five questions in all selecting at least two questions including the compulsory question from each of Section A and B or Section A and C. The number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the questions. (20) (b) A system is represented by the following equations: (20) x = x1 + 3u x1 = –3x1 + x2 + 2u x2 = –2x1 + u Find the transfer function (c) X s by signal flow technique. A twophase a. 1. (a) State Nyquist Stability Criteria and investigate the stability of the closed loop system with the following open loop transfer function. 1 is compulsory. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case. A matrix is singular.
(a) Discuss the voltampere characteristic of a Triac. (20) open (b) An loop transfer function of unity feedback system is given by 25 . The input of the inverter is Vdc = 250 V. Determine the load voltage and current waveforms for the first two half cycles with rectangular wave output at 50 Hz.5. u(t). undamped natural frequency. the matrices: 1 0 0 0 0 B 0 A 0 1 1 0. Hence check the controllability of a system having for its state description.3.5 2 1 (20) 4. iL the current if through the free wheeling diode Df the current iC through the commutating capacitor (20) The load connected at the output of a single phase bridge inverter is a series combination of R = 10 and L = 0. (a) The response of an initially relaxed time invariant constant parameter system to a unit impulse applied at t = 0 is 4 e–2t u (t). (20) . (20) (b) The above figure shows a chopper circuit of perating at 100 Hz with a Kd = 0.05H.Determine the damping factor. damped natural G s s s 2 frequency and time response for a unit step input. so that the system is completely controllable. The load current at steady state is continuous but varies between 3 amps and 10 amps. Explain its usefulness in speed control applications. (i) (ii) Find through time domain analysis the response to the same system to an input e–tu(t) Find the time function which when applied to the system would yield a response sin 2t. Sketch the wave shape of (i) (ii) (iii) (c) the load current. Also find the expression for the steady state current in each half cycle. (20) (c) What do you understand by the term controllability of a system? State the necessary and sufficient conditions to be satisfied by the coefficient matrices of a system.
(a) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of HVDC transmission over a.3 ohm and a reactance of 5 ohms per phase.0 P. (20 x 3 = 60) (a) (b) (c) (d) 6. leading. Ground wires protect transmission lines against direct lightning strokes.U. (20) (b) A 2000 WA. restricting your answer to within 200 words for each. (20) 7. By the use of Equal Area criteria determine the critical clearing angle. Draw the speedtime curve for the run. (20) (c) 8.3 kmphps. Explain with suitable circuit diagram how power flow in an HVDC transmission system neither direction facilitated.c. The secondary of a current transformer should never be kept open circuited. (20) .SECTION B Question no.. Take tractive resistance constant at 50 N/ton and allow 10 per cent for rotational inertia. Comment with justification on the correctness or otherwise of any three of the following statements. (a) Load frequency control is used to control the reactive power flow in a power system. 11 kV. Sequence networks are connected in parallel to represent a single linetoground fault.8 lagging and normal rated voltage. A fault place reducing the maximum power transferable to 0.U. power to an infinite bus through a transmission circuit in which the resistance is ignored. Why is static var compensation necessary in a power system? An electric train has an average speed of 42 kmph on a level track between stops 1400 m apart.U.f. whereas before the fault this power was 2. Compute the terminal Voltage for the same excitation and load current at 0. 5.5 P.U. What is the voltage expected across the contacts of the circuit breaker under such a condition? (20) (c) A generator operating at 50Hz delivers 1 P. and after the clearance of the fault it is 1. 3phase starconnected alternator has a resistance of 0. It delivers full load current at a power factor of 0.8 p. transmission. (20) (b) Explain the working principle of a time graded protective scheme for radial feeders.5 P.5 is compulsory. Explain further with a sketch of a ring main feeder. It is accelerated at 1. On what factors the Active Recovery voltage depends? What is the maximum value of the peak Restriking voltage transient? (20) (b) With a neat sketch explain the working principle of an Axial blast circuit to breaker Explain why such a circuit breaker is prone to current chopping. why the time graded protective scheme as to be supplemented by directional control. Estimate the energy consumption at the axle of the train per ton km.7 kmphps and is broken at 3. (a) What is a synchronous condenser? Distinguish between a synchronous condenser and a static var compensator. Distinguish between Restriking voltage and Recovery voltage as applied in case of a circuit breaker.
9. assuming a plug setting of 200% and taking into consideration the adequate discrimination margin of 0.L.1 3.0 2.49 and 1. The c. Also calculate the time setting and time of operation of the other relay connected to 600/5 c. (20) 11. (a) VHF band is most suited for communication between a ship and a submarine.t. (20) (b) (c) Why is companding used in PCM Systems? Describe any one companding law. Select any three of the following statements and indicate with justification whether they are correct or incorrect.(c) An 11 kV. FM broadcast systems use wideband FM. Find the NA of the fibre. ratios are 600/5 and 200/5 respectively and the relay associated with each c.2 time multiplier setting. Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM) 2 3 5 10 15 20 Times in secs 10 6 4. the acceptance angle in air and the critical angle at the corecladding interface. 9 is compulsory. has a 150% plug setting and 0.D. relays at two different locations. (20) A silica fibre has a large core diameter. Round trip propagation time with geostationary satellites is very large and poses a peculiar problem for telephone service.5 sec. television transmitter has to transmit more information than black and white but has to mange within the same bandwidth. (a) How is stereophonic FM broadcast made compatible with a monophonic system? (20) . if the fault current through the feeder is 3000amps. Colour. Your answer must not exceed 200 words for each statement. has the following characteristic.5 2. (20 x 3 = 60) (a) (b) (c) (d) 10. Find the two lowest blind speeds for this redar. Determine the time of operation of this relay.T.t. 3phase radial feeder is equipped with two current transformers along with their associated I. An MTI radar operating at 6GHz is having a PEW of 900 pps. (20) SECTION B Question no.2 The relay on 200/5 ct.M. The refractive indices of core and cladding are 1.46 respectively.t.
Take antenna noise temperature to be 290K. One of the ports of such a circulator is terminated in a load having a reflection coefficient p.0 dB. (20) Find the required size of a cubic cavity resonator to have a dominant mode at 8 GHz.(b) What is a threeport circulator? Write its Smatrix. Name the dominant modes for this cavity. The receiver noise figure is 1. Find the maximum range under threshold detection conditions. If the system is now viewed as a twopart at the other pair of ports. (20) A deep space probe radar operating at 3 GHz is using a 64 m dish and peak pulse power of 20MW. Find the directivity of the array and express it in decibels. (20) A broadside antenna array has 20 identical radiators. (a) (b) (c) . (20) Describe a balanced offresonant (slope) discriminator for FM signals.5 m2 and the receiver bandwidth 8kHz. (20) (c) 12. the target cross section is 1. equally fed and spaced 1/2 apart. find the scattering matrix of the twoport.
m. (20) (c) Fig. (b) below draw the waveform of induced e.e = 314 rad/s. Answer any three of the following: (a) There are three concentric conducting spherical surfaces of radii a.C. Find the potential of the sphere of radius b. b and c (a < b < c). (ii) switch S is closed. and any THREE of the remaining question selecting at least ONE question from each Section. All questions carry equal marks. SECTION A 1. For the flux waveform of Fig. (N = 1000).I Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300 Candidates should attempt Question 1 and 5 which are compulsory. Some useful data is given at the end of the questions. (20) (b) Find the output voltage in steady state condition for the operational amplifier shown in the figure below when (i) switch S is open. .f. Assume any other data if considered necessary and indicate the same clearly. (a) below shows a singly excited electromagnetic system consisting of a winding of N turns on a core carrying a flux . The sphere of radius b carries a charge Q and the surfaces of spheres of radii a and d c are grounded. Marks assigned to each part of the question is indicated at the end of the respective part.E.S.(Main)1998 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER .
(25) (c) State Faraday’s Law of induction. 7. Pole changing method is used in squirrel cage motors. What are the typical applications of Hall effect ? (20) 2. F = m (0.5 267 1. 50 Hz synchronous motor. The reading on the A. at full load armature current (36 A) with the field current held at 0.m.c. (20) (c) 3. Variable frequency method of speed control is used below base speed keeping the ratio of supply voltage to frequency constant. 15) (20) Two coils A (R1 = 100 ohm. 12.2 254 1.80 A. (a) Briefly explain the following statements on 3phase induction motors: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (b) Crawling is observed in squirrel cage motors.: Field current (A) Armature voltage (V) 0. L2 = 0.2 H) and B (R2 = 100 ohm. b has its plane normal to a magnetic flux density of strength B0.3 108 0.2 H. ammeter is 10 A.C. What is the voltage induced in the loop? . What would be the reading on the ammeters if the other half wave were rectified instead of being cut off? (20) Reduce the following four variable function using Karnaugh map and implement it in NAND logic. A rectangular loop of sides a. 13.m. A half wave rectifier which prevents current flowing in one direction is connected in series with A. 8.22 ohm. Find the voltage V at a frequency of 1000 rad/s to be applied across coil A to cause a current 0f 10 milliamperes through coil B across whose terminals a resistance of 100 ohms is connected.p. 4. Armature resistance of each d. Data for magnetisation curve of each machine is given below at 1000 r.4 H) are coupled by an inductance of 0.6 183 0.c. sin t. shunt wound machines are used for speed control using Ward Leonard arrangement. The supply is sinusoidal. L1 = 0. machine is 0. ammeter and a permanent magnet moving coil ammeter. 230 V 36 A d. (a) (b) Two identical 7.(20) (d) Draw a simple experimental set up to measure the Hall effect and show that the Hall field can be written as Ey = VXBZ where VX and BZ are the applied voltage and magnetic fields respectively. Rotor resistance method of speed control is employed only in wound rotor (slip ring) motors.C.5 KW.p.9 230 1. Find the reading of the other ammeter. One of them used as a generator is driven by a 6pole.8 276 Compute the maximum and minimum values of generator field current to give the motor a speed range from 250 to 1500 r.
the values of the circuit elements at balance are as follows: R1 = 10. (20) . Answer any three of the following: (a) a single element rectifying device is connected in series with a moving coil ammeter and a thermal ammeter and it is found that the circuit has a resistance of 100 to current in one direction and infinitely large resistance to current in the opposite direction. Sketch the Fermienergy level for an ntype semi conductor as a function of temperature beginning at T = 0°K and going to a very “high” temp. Determine the balance conditions for the bridge and calculate the effective inductance and resistance of the coil if. C2 = 0. For a sinusoidal imput voltage.m.135 F (20) SECTION B 5. what will be the reading of each instrument and what will be the power taken from the supply? (20) (b) Find X and. for a frequency of 1000 Hz. R2 = 842 C1 = 1F. (20) (b) The figure below shows a full wave rectifier circuit.(15) 4. (a) Explain the concept of Fermilevel.m.s.) is applied to this circuit. Qualitatively discuss the nature of the characteristic. of 10 V (r. If a sinusoidal e. in terms of R and R2 to give maximum power dissipation in R2 shown in the figure. (20) (c) The circuit arrangement of an Owen Bridge for the measurement of the effective self inductance and resistance of an iron cored coil is shown in the figure below. plot the voltage wave forms across R and D1.f.
(c) A 3phase delta connected squirrel cage induction motor has certain equivalent circuit parameters. the plates being separated by dielectric of 0.1 mm thick with a permittivity of 5. Prove that H fe 23 29 R R 4 L RL R1 (20) 8. =90°. 4pole synchronous generator has 36 stator slots carrying double layer 3phase windings formed through uniformly distributed coils each short chorded by one slot.5 T. One is an air condenser with a plate area of 100 cm2 and the plates being 1 mm apart. The rotor driven at 1500 r. (20) For the circuit shown in the figure below. (a) (b) (c) Draw the circuit diagram of an RC phase shift oscillator using a transistor with CE configuration and derive an expression for its frequency of oscillation. It is delivering 100 KVA load at 0. (a) (b) (c) 7. (a) Consider the set up shown in the figure below for measuring Hall effect. (20) (d) 6. draw the ac. Find the voltage across the combination if the potential gradient in the air condenser is 20 KV per cm. By what factors each of the equivalent circuit parameters would be charged? (20) An infinitesimal dipole (Hertzian) antenna of 1 cm length radiates a power of 1 mW at 100 MHz. (ii) E and H fields at 100 meters.p. (20) 11 MV. (20) What are the starting methods used for 1phase induction motors. Calculate (i) the current in the dipole. the other has a plate area of 10 cm2. 3phase 50 Hz distribution transformer has its NV and LV windings connected in delta and star respectively. Draw typical torquespeed characteristics in each case both under starting and running conditions. Calculate all HV and LV currents. the motor is rewound with star connected windings of same poles for operation at the same supply voltage and frequency to give same rated power output at the same rated slip. . (20) Two perfectly insulated condensers are connected in series. 415 V. = 0o (20) 415 V star connected 3phase. Draw a phasor diagram showing all voltages and currents.8 PP (lag). With the same stator core. equivalent circuit and find the voltage gain of the amplifier. Calculate the number of series turns per phase to generate rated no load voltage.m is excited to result in a sinusoidally varying airgap flux density distribution in space with a peak value of 0. The diameter at the airgap is 20 cm and the effective axial length is 60 cm.
(20) (b) Determine the condition under which the input impedance of the network shown in the figure below will be equal to R. VX = 12. What is the required value of the external series resistance in the field circuit? Neglect saturation and armature reaction.p.2 mV Find the type of the semiconductor. VH = –6. W = 10–2 cm.m. majority carrier concentration and the mobility. Calculate the armature Current and speed of the motor if the motor is required to develop 10KW at 1200 r. If the machine drives a load requiring a torque of 100 Nm.6 .c. (20) (c) A 250 V.0 mA. d.5V BZ = 5 x 10–2 T. with Ia = 5A. shunt motor has Rf = 150 and Ra = 0. The motor operates on no load with a full field flux at its base speed of 1000 r. The following parameters are measured: IX = 1. (20) .p.m.Assume that L = 10–1 cm.
(a) Obtain the transfer function of phase lead network. The required PIV capacity of diodes in single phase bridge rectifier is one half than that required in rectifier using centre tap transformer.C. determine its gain margin. (20) Discuss briefly the speedtorque characteristics of a 2 ac servomotor and compare it with that of ordinary 3 induction motor. Synchro error detectors are used in dc servo system. Hence describe the laboratory method to obtain its speedtorque characteristic. If the system is stable.E. 1. read them carefully and identify correct and incorrect ones. Determine the followings if the system is excited by unit step input: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (b) Damping ratio Maximum % overshoot Natural frequency of oscillation Damped frequency of oscillation.S. Phase lead compensation decreases the band width of a system. The number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the question.II Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum marks: 300 Candidates should attempt five questions in all selecting at east two questions including the compulsory question from each of Sections A and B or Sections A and C. The roots of a second order system are located at –1+j2 and –1–j2. (20) (c) The unity feedback system has forward path transfer function G s K s s 1 s 2 2. 1 is compulsory. If K = 4. Assume suitable data if considered necessary and indicate the same clearly. What is the maximum value of K that will make its gain margin zero ? (20) 3.(Main)1998 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER . Select any Three of the following statements. Integrators are used rather than Differentiators. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case: (20 x 3 = 60) (a) (b) (c) (d) In analog simulation of physical system. determine whether the given system is stable or not. Show that . SECTION A Question No. (a) Sketch the Nyquist diagram.
For a given transistor. Determine % load regulation if maximum load current of 500 mA is switched off. nit ramp input and nit parabolic input are given. . assume = 100 and VBE = 0. (20) The state equations for a system are given by X AX Bu Y CX Du where 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 0 . C 1 1 1 and D 0 A 0 0 0 3 1 Determine the output response of a system to unit step input.3 V (constant). a and T have usual meanings. Hence calculate ripple factor. The zener voltage is given by Vz = (10 + 0. w. (20) 4. B 2 . A simple voltage regulator circuit is shown in Fig.20iz) volts where iz is in mA.sin m a 1 1 and m a 1 aT where m. 4(c). (20) (b) Obtain (i) (ii) (c) average load voltage and rms load voltage in case of 3 full wave rectifier. Design such a timer for a time period of 60 seconds. Kv and Ka. (20) (b) The unity feedback system has forward path transfer function G s S 1 s s 2 s 4 2 Determine steady state error coefficients Kp. Hence find the steady state error in output if (i) (ii) (iii) (c) unit step input. (a) Explain the working of a timer using general purpose OP AMP IC 741.
What is the maximum value of the transmitted wave? (20) (c) Explain the need for time = grading in the protective scheme for radial feeders. 50 Hz starconnected synchronous motor has a resistance and synchronous reactance of 0. The power transfer capability of a transmission system can be enhanced by seriescapacitor compensation. plugsetting affect the time of operation of the relay. If the impedance of the generator is Zohms. Impedance relays used for transmission line protection work in conjunction with directional relays. (a) What are the most important requirements of a lightning arrester ? A thyrite lightning arrester has a characteristic RI0. It takes a current of 15 A at Unity Power factor with a certain excitation. (20) (b) What are the factors affecting corona power loss in a transmission line ? An inductance L connects two sections of a transmission line with surge impedances Z1. obtain an expression for the maximum power generated. If the load torque is increased . Explain the term ‘Critical clearing time” in the context of transient stability of a power system. the busbar voltage being V volts per phase. 6pole.(20) SECTION B Question No. Select any three of the following statements and justify the correctness or otherwise of them.5 and 5 per phase respectively. constant frequency bus bars. What is the ratio of the voltage appearing at the end of a line with a surge impedance of 500 ohms. 5 is compulsory 5. Explain how the multiplier setting. the manner in which a synchronous condenser located at the receiving end of a short transmission line improves the power factor and maintains the voltages at both ends at the same level. (20) (c) Distinguish the characteristic features of alternators employed in Hydel and thermal power stations. due to a 500 kV surge when the line is open circuited to that when the line is terminated by the arrester? (20) (b) Explain with the help of a neat phasor diagram. An axial blast circuit breaker is not prone to current chopping. A synchronous generator with an induced emf of E volts per phase is operating on constantvoltage. (a) An amplidyne is an alternating current machine with a low gain. Draw the Voltampere characteristic of the arrester. A rectangular surge with a crest value ‘V” and of “t” microseconds travels along the linesection 1 towards the inductance. A threePhase 400 V. (20) 7.7 = 72000. as a sequel to a fault. restricting your answer to within 200 words for each. and Z2. (3 x 20 = 60) (a) (b) (c) (d) 6.
9. No 9 is compulsory. FM and PM signals are identical. (20) (b) Describe with the help of a neat diagram the operation of a reluctancetype stepper motor along with its characteristics.75 and the full load slip is 5%. (a) Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) systems for voice communication employ companding. The Generator initially was delivering under stable steadystate 0. The stator to rotor turns ratio is 1. Select any Three of the following statements and indicate with justification whether they are correct or incorrect. (20) SECTION B Q. What is the extra load that can be suddenly thrown on the generator for it to become critically stable ? Ignore active resistance. (20) (b) (c) 11. Determine also the maximum torque and the corresponding speed. Find the overall noise figure and noise temperature of the system. Find the output and comment on the result.1 each. An antenna having a 10°K noise temperature feeds a low noise amplifier of 4oK noise temperature and 20 dB gain.connected stator winding and runs on a 400 V 50 Hz supply. the spectra of AM. (a) Discuss the relative merits and shortcomings of BPSK and BFSK signals. The rotor resistance is 0.until the line current increases to 60A. With a sinusoidal modulating signal and modulation indices of 0. What are its possible applications ? (20) (c) What re the limitations on the application of the “Equal area criterion” for examining transient stability ? The maximum power that can be transmitted by a Synchronous Generator operating on to an infinite bus is 1. The dominant mode of propagation in a rectangular waveguide is TEM. (a) What are the essential requirements of motors employed in electric traction ? A threephase induction motor has a 4pole.1 and reactance 0. QPSK signals and BPSK signals require equal bandwidths. This DSBSC signal forms the input in Fig. (20) 8. Your answer must not exceed 200 words for each statement: (20 x 3 = 60) (a) (b) (c) (d) 10. . Calculate the fullload HorsePower output. This is followed by another amplifier of 4 dB noise figure and 30 dB gain.4pu. (20) Consider a DSBSC signal corresponding to a modulating signal x(t) of bandwidth B and a carrier signal A cos 2fct. (20) Explain a scheme for demodulation of PPM signals. star.00 pu. with the excitation maintained constant. find the gross torque developed and the new power factor.9. 11(a). For a given data rate.
(20) Discuss the significance of G/T ratio of an earth station.c. Indicate the nature of the impedance at every 0. (20) Give the frequency range of a gunn diode and order of available power. 11(a) (20) (b) Draw the input impedance variation of an o.2 separation.Fig. (20) . (20) (c) 12. (a) (b) Describe a method of measuring impedance at microwave frequencies. How many junctions does it have? (20) (c) Describe a DME system for measurement of distance. lossless line of characteristic impedance R0 (purely resistive) when the length varies from zero to .
a charge of – c/m3.E. (20) .I Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300 Candidates should attempt Question 1 and 5 which are compulsory. (a) Discuss the merits and demerits of using counters in digital measuring instruments. SECTION A 1. (20) (c) Determine the electric field in the overlap region cit two spheres A and B shown in the above figure. Answer any three of the following: (a) Explain the concept of complex frequency.(Main)1999 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER .C. (20) (b) Determine the current in the 5 ohm resistor using Thevenin’s theorem. Sphere A carries a charge – c/m3 and the sphere B. and any THREE of the remaining question selecting at least ONE question from each Section. Discuss its usefulness in specifying network functions. (20) (d) 2.S.
V s (ii) (10 + 10) (c) The bridge circuit. Q = 1000 ohm. is balanced when S = 10 milli ohm. P = 1100 ohm.A lossless transmission of length m and characteristic impedance Z0 ohm is excited at both the ends as shown in the above figure. Find the value of Rx. q = 500 ohm and r = 0. (20) 3. Determine also the current at the midpoint of the line.1 ohm. (a) Determine V so that the circuits (i) and (ii) shown in the above figure are equivalent. (20) (b) . Determine the currents delivered by the two sources. shown in the above figure. (20) (b) Determine (i) V s and I s VAB s for the network shown in the above figure.
(20) 4. Determine the final potential of the composite conductor.25 A. Thereafter it is connected to the other conductor. Time to complete 30 revolutions of discs =0 sec. (20) (c) Determine the resistance across the terminals A and B of the network shown in the above figure.9 lagging. Determine the percentage error in the meter in terms of the actual energy consumed. (20) (c) 2 1 Two conductors have a potential coefficient matrix Each conductor is given a charge 1 2 1 C. The test results are: Line voltage = 100 Line current = 5. (10) (b) The output of a LVDT transducer is 0.5 V at a frequency of 50 103 rad. It is used with a potential transformer of ratio 11 KV/110 V and a current transformer of ratio 500 A/5A./sec.Determine the emf induced in the triangular loop ABC due to the flux set up by a sinusoidal current Im sin t flowing in an infinitely long wire shown in the above figure. The time constants of primary and secondary circuits are 5 ms and 2 ms respectively. Power Factor = 0. Determine the 2 output if the frequency deviates by 10%. (20) SECTION B 5.14 revolutions of disc per kwh. One of the conductors is then momentarily grounded. Answer any three of the following: (a) . (a) (i) (ii) Why does an induction type energy meter creep? How is the creep prevented? (10) The calibration constant of a 3phase energy meter is 0.
It is running on infinite bus. determine the maximum load that the synchronous motor can carry.75 V. find the per cent change in the field flux. (10) (ii) (c) What is a race condition ? How is it prevented? (10) A 400 V. (a) For the class C tuned amplifier shown in the above figure. A C and realise it using NAND gates. The armature resistance is 0.B. (20) (b) . shunt motor draws an armature current of 50 A from 250 V mains.c. rout = 75. 3phase. Calculate its closed loop voltage gain. If its field current is reduced to zero. (20) 6. calculate the maximum load power and the transistor power rating if VCE(sat) = 0. star connected synchronous motor has xd = 8 ohm and xq = 6 . If the torque at the increased speed is also increased by 40%. It is required to increase its speed by 40% by weakening of the field flux. Determine also the corresponding armature current. rin = 2M. Iin (bias) = 80 nA and Im(off) = 20 nA. Determine also the output offset voltage. input impedance and output impedance. Vin(off) 2mV. The parameters of 741 C are: Open loop gain AOL = 105 . (20) (d) A d.2 ohm. (20) (b) (i) Simplify the Boolean function Z A B .The above figure shows the circuit of a voltage follower.
star connected alternator has the following data: Friction and windage loss = 1500 W Open circuit core loss = 2500 W Effective armature resistance per phase 4 ohm Field copper loss = 1000 W Find (i) (ii) (b) alternator efficiency at halffull load and 0. (a) Describe any two types of A to D converters. 11 K 3phase. giving reasons. 3000 W Transformer B–400V. (20) 8.8 power factor lagging maximum efficiency of the alternator. (20) (c) 7. hfe = 50. hre = 3 x 10–4 and hoe = 5 x 10–5 Find the voltage gain aid ac. 50Hz. 4000 W Determine the maximum load at unity power factor which can be supplied by the parallel combination without overloading any of them. Discuss their merits and demerits. (a) . (10 + 10) Describe. input impedance of the amplifier. (20) A 500 KVA. the choice of materials for the following applications: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (c) Magnetic tapes Recording heads Super conductors Insulation for 11 KV cable (5 + 5 + 5 + 5) Three 600 KVA.The transistor shown in the above figure has following h parameters: hie = 1000 . 3phase. 33000/11000 V. Neglect capacitor impedances. 3500 W Transformer C–450 V. These transformers give the following test results when operated at the rated full load current with their low voltage windings shortcircuited: Transformer A–300 V. Delta/Star transformers are connected in parallel.
What should be the minimum gain of the amplifier for the oscillations to start ? (20) (c) (i) Show that the use of a synchronous condenser improves the efficiency and regulation of a system.95 lagging. (10) . A colpitts oscillator has a tank circuit as shown in the above figure. (10 + 10) (b) Explain the operation of colpitts oscillator. Calculate the voltage gain from gate to drain of the circuit shown in the above figure.Describe the constructional features of EMOSFET. determine the KVA rating of the synchronous condenser required for the purpose. of 0.8 lagging. If it is required to improve the power factor to 0. (10) (ii) A consumer has a total load of 2000 KW at a p.f. Calculate its frequency of oscillation.
vc and iT2 for one cycle for explaining the commutation process of both the thyristors. (10) 3. (b) (i) (ii) (c) (i) (ii) The characteristic equation of a system is represented by Verify the stability of the system through expansion by confined fraction. Derive the step response of a second order system expressed by: 2. VT2. The circuit is initially relaxed. (10) Design an astable multivibrator with LM 555. An SCR is derated when it handles pulsed anode current.E. . (a) a d 2 d b c F i . Calculate also the duty cycle and frequency of oscillation. 3(a) shows a circuit employing classC commutation. What is Bodeplot? Discuss how a Bodeplot can be drawn. Select any three of the following statements. 1 is compulsory 1. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case: (20 x 3 = 60) Case (a) (b) (c) (d) For a stable system. (10) Explain Hurwitz stability criteria. read them carefully and identify correct and incorrect ones.(Main)1999 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER . Sketch the waveform for VT1. dt dt (20) Enumerate the salient features of phaselead and phase lag networks. Calculate the undamped resonance frequency and the damping ratio.C. (10) The polezero configuration of a closedloop control system is given by (s1. s2) = –2 ± j2. ic iT1. 4s3 + 3s2 + 2s + 3 = 0. the gain margin and phase margin should be positive. Shaft encoders are extremely useful for the measurement of singular displacement.S.II SECTION A Question No. (a) Fig. An operation amplifier has features suitable for radio frequency timers.
input supply voltage. s3 + 4s2 + 8s + 11 = 0 is stable or not. The firing angle is approximately 70°. Determine. Derive an expression for its average output voltage in terms of firing angle. (15) SECTION B Question No. (25) (c) Explain the mechanism for the dissipation of stored energy in a SCR during its commutation process. . The rated speed is 900 rpm and the rated armature current is 40 A. (a) Enumerate states and state variable representation of a dynamic system. Indicate the sequence of firing for thyristors as well. Find the duty cycle of the chopper at half the rated motor torque for a speed of 300 rpm ignoring the current pulsations. restricting your answer to within 200 words for each: (3 x 20 = 60) (a) Restriking transients can be damped by connecting a resistance across the contracts of a circuit breaker.(20) (b) Describe the working of a 3phase full converter when connected to a resistive load. Select any three of the following statements and justify the correctness or otherwise of them. (20) 4. whether a system represented by characteristic equation. (c) A fixed frequency chopper feeds a separatelyexcited dc motor supplied from 80 V dc source. (20) (b) GaussSiedel method is preferred for load flow studies of large power system due to its quadratic convergence. (20) (b) Discuss the principle of working of a 3phase bridge inverter with an appropriate circuit Draw phase and line voltage waveforms on the assumption that each thyristor conducts for 180° and the resistive load is star connected. 5 is compulsory 5. Armature circuit resistance is 0. by Routh array.25.
(20) (c) An electrical machine has cylindrical stator and salient pole rotor. Reluctance torque is produced when exciting winding is on the rotor. (20) (d) If the rotor of a 3phase induction motor is assumed purely inductive, the electromagnetic torque would be optimum with load angle equal to 90°. (20) 6. (a) Which type of distance relay is preferred for EHV transmission lines ? Discuss its principle of operation with its salient features. (20) (b) Develop necessary equations and explain the NewtonRaphson method in polar coordinates for solving the load flow problem when both load and voltagecontrolled buses are present in the system. (20) (c) A 3phase, 4pole, 50 Hz, starconnected induction motor, during short circuit test, took 100 A and 30 kW. In case stator resistance is equal to equivalent standstill rotor resistance, calculate the starting torque. (20) 7. (a) An overhead transmission line, with a surge impedance of 500 , has a load comprising of a 10 kiloohm resistor is parallel with a 0.005 F capacitor connected across the far end. A surge voltage of 10 kV magnitude and unit step travels along the line. Determine an expression for the time variation of the voltage across the load and calculate this voltage 5 s after the arrival of the wave front of the surge. State any assumptions made. (20) (b) A 3phase generator, an open circuit, is excited to give a voltage of 2200 V between lines. The absolute values of fault currents for various types of faults are: (i) (ii) (iii) 3phase fault L–L fault L–G fault : : : 127.0 Amps 129.5 Amps 190.0 Amps
Find the positive, negative and zerosequence reactances of the generator. Assume the resistance to be negligible. (20) (c) Explain how the power factor of a 3phase induction motor is controlled by static capacitors. Show that for a constant capacitance, the degree of power factor correction is not the same at different loads. (20) 8. (a) Describe the constructional features and working of a 2phase, 4/6 pole hybrid stepping motor. Discuss its torquedisplacement characteristics also. (20)
(b)
A salientpole synchronous motor; with ra = 0, Xd = 1.0 pu and Xq = 0.5 pu, is operated on infinite busbar of 1.00 pu voltage. Show that for one perunit synchronous power, the excitation voltage is given by E1 = cosec – cos . Also derive the condition for load angle when synchronous power is maximum. (20)
(c)
The generalized constants A and B of a transmission line are 0.96 1° and 100 80° respectively. If the line to line voltages at the sending and receiving ends are both 110 kV and phase angle between them is 30°, find the receiving end power factor and current. With the sending end voltage maintained at 110 kV, if the load is suddenly thrown off, find the corresponding receiving end voltage. (20)
SECTION C
Question No. 9 is compulsory.
9. Select any three of the following statements and indicate with justification whether they are correct or incorrect. Your answer must not exceed 200 words for each statements: (20 x 3 = 60) (a) (b) (c) (d) 10. (a) The characteristic of a twin–T network is similar to that of a notch filter in audio frequency range. The transposition of telephone lines is desirable. Magnetrons are capable of delivering low pulsed power output. Only one kind of dielectric substrate is used in microwave integrated circuits (MlCs). Define spectral density and autocorrelation function for the measurement of noise. Find out the spectral density and autocorrelation function of the output when white noise with spectral density is applied to a low pass RC filter. Derive the expressions used. (30) (b) (c) Discuss the microwave spectrum in satellite communication. Describe the technique of making stereophonic FM broadcast compatible with monophonic system. (20) 11. (a) Discuss the realization techniques, with circuit diagrams, for inductor and capacitor in microwave communication. (20) (b) Derive the equivalent circuits and find out ‘Q’ factor of the inductor and capacitor. State any assumptions made. (20) (c) Enumerate the salient features of wave guides with diagrams based on band width and power handling capabilities. (20) 12. (a) Describe the relative merits of single mode and multimode fibres used in communication system. (20)
(b) (c)
Describe the schematic arrangement of pulsecode modulation by using optical fibre. (20) Draw a schematic diagram and discuss how the thickness of foil can be measured by microwave sensors. (20)
if the clock frequency is decreased to 100 ns? Explain it by drawing wave.C.shapes for 1000 ns and 100 ns clock frequencies separately.5 Nm.m. All motor and chopper losses are neglected. Answer any three of the following (a) Determine the relationship between R1. machine keeps the armature mmf stationary in space along the interpolar axis even though the armature rotates.p. 20 (i) What factors influence the performance of Yagi—Uda antenna? Explain it clearly with the help of a neat sketch showing the direction of e.3 Vs/rad.EMains 2000 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER – I Candidates should attempt questions 1 and 5 which are compulsory and any three of the remaining questions selection at least one question selecting at least one question from each Section. 20 A 230 V D.c.w. R2. L and C of the circuit shown below so that the poles of the function V(s)/I(s) are complex. The motor has ra = 0.m.c. 10 (ii) (c) Justify the statement Commentator in a d. source feeds a separatelyexcited d. La = 3 mH and Km = 1. 10 A radio signal at a frequency of 20 MHz is transmitted through seawater having = 4 /m and r = 100. Find the distance at which 80% of the wave amplitude is attenuated. is 32. Which slate will never occur in it. (a) The clock frequency of 1000 ns is connected to a 3bit asynchronous counter with each flipflip having 50 ns propagating delay.S. The load torque at 1200 r. motor through a chopper operating at 400 Hz.c. (b) . 10 (ii) Determine field strength at a distance of 50 kin of a short vertical monopole radiating power of 20 kW at a frequency 1 MHz over ground with mean conductivity of 10 mS/metre 10 (d) 2. SECTION A 1. 20 (b) (i) Justify that a thin sheet of a conducting material acts as a lowpass filter for electromagnetic waves.
C resonant circuit occur at different values of frequencies? Explain.f. Their reactance to resistance ratios are 10 and 4 respectively. Prove. Comment on the result. hut at standstill. 20 3. 20 4. Draw waveforms for u s. (a) Why do the maximum voltages across the inductance and capacitance in a series R . that the forward flux wave is several times greater than the backward flux wave b at normal rotor speed. i0 and T. 20 (c) For the. For supply voltage of 30 V. (a) Describe the principle of working of linearized model of phase lock loop shown in the figure given below and show that the output voltage is proportional to the change in frequency in the FM signal 20 (b) Two transformers A and B. thyristor T is turned on at a triggering angle greater than that given by sin1 (E/Vm). 20 (c) Draw the equivalent circuit of a 1phase induction motor based on tworevolving field theory. Identify the various parameters involved in it.m. there from. 50 Hz and constant battery e. Determine the ratio of the fullload kVA delivered by the parallel combination to the sum of their individual kVA ratings. circuit shown above.Calculate (i) the armature current excursion and (ii) the armature current expressions during on and off periods.L . Derive an expression for the average charging current I0. 20 (b) (i) Calculate the quiescent collector current ICQ or room temperature for the amplifier circuit shown in the figure given below. of 6 V find the resistance to he inserted in series with the battery to limit the average charging current to 3 A in case thyristor T is turned on at a firing angle of 20°. operating in parallel have equal voltage ratios and leakage impedances. 10 . f = b.
. sketch waveforms for load voltage and load current for (i) RL load and (ii) RL load with freewheeling diode across RL. How many chips are required and how their address and data bus be connected to provide a memory capacity of 1024 bytes? How chips would be connected to provide memory of 16 K bytes? 10 (c) For a singlephase onepulse controlled converter system. Determine the voltage across the capacitance when = 1000 rad/sec. Compare these waveforms and discuss the advantages of using a freewheeling diode. 10 (ii) A computer uses RAM chips of capacity 1024 × 1.(ii) (c) Describe the applications of clipping and clamping circuits. (ii) the power gain. 20 (b) (i) Design a combinational circuit having 3 inputs and 6 outputs with the condition that the output number is square of the input number. (a) Answer any three of the following A nonsinusoidal current i(t) as shown in the above figure is passed through a capacitance C = 100 F. State the assumptions made. and (iii) any two propagation constants in a traveling wave tube having the following parameters Beam voltage V0 = 2 kV Beam current I0 = 20 mA Frequency f = 10 GH Characteristic impedance of helix Z0 = 10 Circuit length = 50 (wavelength) 20 SECTION B 5. 10 What is the difference between TWT and Klystron? How TWT operates as microwave oscillator? Determine (i) the gain parameter.
of copper wire is used as an antenna. 10 (ii) A circular loop of 20 cm radius made of 3 mm dia. input resistance and radiation efficiency at 1 MHz. 10 (b) (i) (ii) Which type of communication system will you prefer for speech processing? Why? 10 With the help of a suitable schematic diagram describe the working of a delta modulation system. 10 Calculate skip distance for a wave of frequency 4. 10 Determine the guide wavelength to propagate a 20 GHz signal through a parallel plate waveguide having a plate separation of 5 cm. 20 6. 10 (c) A signal i(t) = k{1 + m f(t)} cos ct is applied to the input of an average (diode) detector with load resistance R.4 kHz in time division multiplexing.5 kV/cm.5 MHz when the maximum ionization in the E . 10 (c) (i) (ii) Derive relationship between critical frequency and the maximum density of a layer N. Discuss its limitation. (a) (i) (ii) Explain the phenomenon of attenuation in TE and TEM waves. (a) Obtain Zparameters of the 2port network given above and deduce Yparameters from the result. current density and negative mobility of electron.20 (d) Justify the statement pulse modulation is not digital whereas pulse code modulation is digital Obtain the bandwidth for 128 quantization levels and 8 kHz sampling frequency of a practical PCM system consisting of 24 telephone channels. ohmic resistance. 10 7. Calculate its radiation resistance. Calculate electron drift velocity. 20 (b) (i) A ntype Gats Gunn diode of length 10 m. The diode is characterized as ib = 0 for b 0 . Deduce formulae used. doping concentration 2 × 1014/m3 and threshold field 3 kV/cm operates at a frequency of 10 GH with applied voltage of 3.region has value of 1010 electrons/m3 at a height of 105 km. each band limited to 3.
connected synchronous machine with ZS = 1 + j 10 ohm per phase.ib = b/rd for b > 0 Obtain an expression or low frequency component of the output voltage of the detector for m f (t) < 1 20 Determine the output c(t) at t = 2 sec for the system shown in the above figure. 20 .8 with an armature current of 50 A and with terminal voltage ahead of the excitation e. How can this machine be made to operate at unity p1? Under this condition.f.f. is synchronized with an infinite bus of 11 kV. Explain how load commutation is achieved. find the armature current and load angle. 20 (b) A star . Calculate the magnitude of excitation e.m. 20 (c) A singlephase full bridge inverter feeds a load that allows load commutation.m. Describe the conduction of various elements of the inverter circuit. The machine is made to operate at a leading power factor of 0.
read them carefully and identify the correct and the incorrect ones. The problem of drift may assume very serious problems in electronic instrumentation system. Select any three of the following statements. what will be the saving in cost in Rs. determine the necessary conditions for the system to be stable. Show how the root locus gets modified with addition of a zero.2 PG1 Rs.C./hour in comparison to loading in the same proportion to rating? 20 (c) 3. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case.3PG 2 Rs. 20 Boron is doped in ntype Si wafer having 2 × 10 phosphorus atoms m through a circular window of 0. If the plants are rated 150 MW and 250 NW. (a) Describe the construction and principle of working of a solidstate and overcurrent relay. 20 (b) Incremental cost characteristics of two thermal plants is given by dC1 60 0. 20 × 3 = 60 (a) (b) (c) (d) 2. (a) State variable approach for analysis is applicable only to linear time invariant systems. 20 22 3 . / MW hr dPG1 dC2 40 0. Given the diffusivity of B in Si at 1100°C is 4 × 1017 m2 s1.EMains 2000 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER – II SECTION A 1. The open hop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by G s s 1 st1 1 st2 k (i) (ii) Using the Routh—Hutwitz method. and can be improved by providing shunt reactors.S.1 m diameter for 10 minutes at 1100° C The gaseous atmosphere of BH3 used for doping provides the B concentration of 1 × 1023 atoms m3 at the surface of the wafer Estimate the location of the pn junction beneath the surface. Optical fibre is the best choice for heavy demand long line telephone communication systems. Power carrying capability of transmission lines decreases with increase in the length of transmission. / MW hr dPG 2 Evaluate the sharing of a load of 200 MW for most economic operation. Sketch the root locus diagram for the system described for positive values of k. t1 and t2.
C1 and C2 are 1000 pF and C3 = 50 pF and assuming the variable capacitors are readable to ± 5 pF with what accuracy could a capacitance of 1 pF be measured? 20 (b) (c) Discuss three kinds of errordetection codes and explain how they detect errors. read them carefully and identify the correct and the incorrect ones. C3 is a fixed high quality capacitance of much smaller value than maximum value of C2 (about 1/10 of C2). 20 × 3 = 60 (a) (b) (c) Feedback provides same control on the steady state error to standard inputs by adjustment of openloop gain. 20 What are solar concentrators? Describe various components of a solar concentrator giving their functions. (a) Prove that Cx If R = 1000. 20 Explain with the help of block diagram a CW Doppler radar using an intermediate frequency in the receiver.(b) What is load flow solution? What is its significance in power system Classify various types of buses in a power system for load flow studies. One disadvantage of magnetic tape recorder is that its characteristics limit its use at higher frequencies. 20 SECTION B 5. Give its advantages applications and limitations. The cost of fabrication and installation of system for utilizing solar energy is too high to be viable. Explain. The following two balances are obtained (i) (ii) With switch S open. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case. . C2 at its maximum value and C1 is adjusted for balance. C1 and C2 are equal highquality variable air capacitors. 1. 20 One method of measuring a small capacitance Cx is shown in fig. Select any three of the following statements. C1 left unaltered and C2 is adjusted to C2 to get a new balance C32 C2 C2 C '2 C2 C '2 C3 C2C3 (c) 4. With switch S closed. the computational procedure for loadflow solution using GaussSiedel method. with a flowchart.
Explain. (d) 20 . 20 Discuss multiple access techniques for satellite communications. how from the power circle diagram. Explain the meaning of the following FDMA. although cheaper. (a) ICs. X2(0) = 0. A system is described by the following state and output equations 0 1 X 0 U X 1 2 3 And Y = [1 0]X where u(t) is a unit step input and the initial conditions X1(0) = 0. TOMA. 20 (b) (c) Briefly explain the principle of PCM. 20 Develop receiver end power circle diagram of a transmission tine. (a) (b) Discuss the functions of various Registers and ALU of 8085. capacity of a synchronous phase modifier be determined. differential PCM and delta modulation. Obtain the time response of the system. COMA and SOMA 20 (c) Briefly describe two different types of phase array radars. List some of the optical components used to interconnect a digital voice or data systems. 20 Discuss salient features of a fibre optic communication system. (a) (b) Give the construction. axe less reliable as compared to discrete components interconnected by conventional techniques.(d) 6. principle of working and apperceptions of an LVDT. How can phased arrays overcome the difficulties occasioned by the use of moving radar antennae? 20 8. 20 7. 20 (c) Establish block diagram for loadfrequency control of an isolated power system.
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Can we retranslate the spectrum to its original position? If yes how? 20 (b) A separately excited d.C. the stator copper and rotor copper loss each equals the iron loss. SECTION A 1.103 (t) + 4 cos 4.9 when the load is 37 kW. The motor exhibited linear load characteristics such that the speed dropped by 10% from no load . 20 (c) A 3phase induction motor has an efficiency of 0. Find various frequency components present and corresponding modulation indices. 20 (b) A farmer (F) has two sheds (N1 & S1) in his farm to keep his farm produce and belongings. He keeps vegetables (V) as farm produce. Calculate the slip. 20 2. Obtain the expression for i1 (t) and conditions that the perfect transformer will be an ideal transformer. Discuss about the current ratio. (a) Show that the multiplication of a sinusoidal signal by a signal f(t) translates the whole frequency spectrum. The farmer along has to manage both sheds without loosing either vegetables or the goat.S. Suggest a logic circuit that can alarm him under any catastrophic condition by means of a buzzer. Also obtain the amplitude of the signals present in each sideband and the bandwidths. The load torque of the fan is proportional to square of speed. where L1 and L2 are the self inductances of the primary and secondary windings of the transformer and M is the mutual inductance. motor supplied with rated voltage and rated field current is driving a fan delivering rated torque. At this load. Answer any THREE of the following (a) Prove that an ideal transformer shown below for which v1/v2 = n can be identical with a perfectly coupled transformer if n = L1 / L2 .106t.EMains 2001 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER – I Candidates should attempt questions 1 and 5 which are compulsory and any three of the remaining questions selection at least one question selecting at least one question from each Section.103t modulates a carrier voltage e(t) = 10 cos 2. 20 (d) A twotone modulating signal em(t) = 5 cos 2.c. a goat (G) which can eat the vegetables and a dog (D) that can bite the goat in the absence of the farmer. The mechanical losses are onethird of the no load loss.
If the supply voltage is halved at the same field current develops an expression for the new speed in terms of no Load speed (at rated voltage). Gradually it is being replaced by another motor along with suitable speed control mechanism. Assuming this variation of permeance to be sinusoidal develop an expression for the developed torque on the rotating member as a function of . Explain this new system comprising the motor and its control from the same overhead supply system and compare with the one using d. What is the condition of binary outputs and F output. S2. series motor. 10 (b) Figure below shows a singly excited electro mechanical system with a stationary member and a rotating member. The stationary member is an electromagnet excited by a coil of N turns carrying a current i wound on a ferromagnetic core of infinite permeability. if the inputs D5 = D3 = 1? 10 (ii) Design a combinational circuit using AND gates and half adders that can multiply two 2bit numbers a1a0 and b1b0 to produce 4bit number S3. Name typical convertors in which the Thyristors are being replaced. The rotating member is an unwound ferromagnetic core of infinite permeability causing variable permeance at changing rotor position from a maximum permeance of P1 at = 0 to a minimum permeance of P2 at = 90°. overhead lines. Mention any two of these devices and explain how they differ from the Thyristors. 20 4.c. series motor has been used with singlephase a.c.c. 20 3. 20 Define a uniform plane wave. The octal input with highest number has the highest priority. S1 and S0. 20 (c) While the Thyristors is used in Power Electronic convertors it is being replaced by other devices recently. (a) (b) . Explain what does this mean physically. (a) (i) Draw the truth table of an octaltobinary encoder with the condition that the output F = 1 when at least one of the inputs is a 1. Show that a uniform plane wave progressing in xdirection does not have the xcomponent of E.to full load torque at rated voltage and field current. 20 (c) In an electric traction d. full load torque and other constants.
20 SECTION B 5. above.Obtain the voltage gain and output resistance of the composite amplifier shown in Fig. Determine the Laplace transforms of (i) (ii) signal in the form of a triangular pulse and impulse train as shown below. 20 . The coil direction is such that for the direction of current i (as shown) in the flux direction is an indicated in the figure. 20 The strength of each impulse is unity. Indicate how this expression will be in conformity with Lenz’s law. How these modes are designated and what are the corresponding cutoff frequencies. 20 (c) A rectangular wave guide has crosssectional area a = 7 cm and b = 4 cm. Using relevant Maxwell’s equation obtains an expression for e. (b) Figure below shows a coil of N turns placed in a time varying flux (t). Answer any THREE of the following (a) How do you determine the Laplace transform of a function f(t)? Are there any restrictions on f(t) for this ? State them. Assume infinite conductivity of the conductor of the coil. Obtain all TE modes that will propagate frequency less than 5 GHz.
8 × 107 /m and permeability equal to that of free space. 3. are to be time division multiplexed using PCM. 3}. Calculate the depth of penetration of a MHz wave into copper which has = 5. 20 7. Enumerate the advantages of one over the other. Assume h2 > h1. 2. Draw its equivalent circuit and obtain the condition of oscillation. 2.4 kHz. 6} {1.(c) A 3phase induction motor is driving a constant torque load. In the graph check if the sets of branches {1. Obtain the frequency of oscillation and the value of hfe required for the oscillation in the case of Hartley oscillator 20 (c) A transmitting antenna at a height of h2 above a smooth perfectly flatearth surface sends a signal to a receiving antenna of height h1 with ground range between them equal to a. 10 (ii) 24telephones. . 4. (a) What is the order of magnitude of velocity of an electromagnetic wave in a good conductor as compared to sound wave in air ? Discuss. {1. 20 (i) Differentiate between FDM and TDM pictorially. 3. 5} constitute cutsets. each band limited to 3. above. 20 (b) The simplified circuit of a radio oscillator is shown in Fig. Obtain the path difference between the direct and reflected signals reaching the receiving antenna. speed and efficiency. If one of the supply lines to the motor is disconnected discuss the changes you would observe in supply current. (a) What is cutset in linear graph theory? Explain with an example. Calculate the bandwidth of the PCM system for 128 quantization levels with 8 kHz sampling frequency 10 (d) 6.
(a) For the polezero configuration of an impedance function shown below draw the schematic diagrams of the two Foster and two Cauer networks without determining element values. the motor is observed to achieve a no load speed to 10570 r/min while drawing an armature current of 13 mA. 20 How are the Power Semiconductor devices specified? What do these specifications signify? 20 .c. What more information do you need to determine the element values? 20 (b) Measurements on a small permanent magnet d. motor indicate that it has an armature resistance of 7. (i) (ii) (iii) (c) Calculate the motor torque constant Find the no load rotational losses of the motor. 20 Obtain relationship between the skip distance and maximum usable frequency over the flat earth surface.20 (b) (c) Show that the output of a balanced modulator using semiconductor diode is DSBSC. Find the stall current and torque of the motor at an applied armature voltage of 6 V. 20 8. With an applied armature voltage of 6 V.5 ohm.
14 and 0. Use the Gauss Seidel method. 20 Explain the following in connection with power systems: Ferranti effects. Given 20 Bus 1 is slack bus with V1 = 1.00°. 20 × 3 = 60 (a) (b) (c) (d) While a lead compensator reduces system bandwidth. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case.S. Given Vmax = 0. Tap changing transformers arc used in power systems. Line impedances are in pu. obtain the complex bus bar voltage at bus 2 at the end of the first iteration. (a) Explain how a Buchholz relay protects a transformer. It is necessary to use preamplification and filtering before data processing.96 + j 1.05 m2V1s1 respectively at room temperature.020 and V20 10 2.II SECTION A 1. 2 (b). V3 = 1.14 V and Imax = 6 mA. infinite line. read them carefully and identify the correct and the incorrect ones.2 Assume V V30 1. (a) (c) 3. 20 2 . Also calculate the cell efficiency if the area is 4 cm2. For the correct reproduction of the picture on the screen of a television.46. P2 + j Q2 = 5. it is desired that the scanning at the receiver and transmitter are synchronized.EMains 2001 1. 20 What is the proportion in which ntype and ptype Si both having conductivity of 10 ohm1 m1 be mixed so as to produce a fully compensated semiconductor at room temperature? Mobility of electrons and holes in Si are 0. load bus. especially to control reactive voltamperes.C. What is the fundamental difference between a subroutine call and an interrupt request ? Is it possible to employ a common memory stack for both? 20 (b) For the network shown in Fig. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER . Peterson coil. 20 (b) (c) Calculate the maximum power by a solar cell at an intensity of 200 W/m . Select any THREE of the following statements. a lag compensator on the other hand increases the system bandwidth.
A bridge is available which can measure 1 in 104 changes in resistance.38 × 1023 J K1 and the electronic charge. how energy is lost at a sharp bend in a fibre. With what accuracy can this Si be used to measure the temperature in the range from 0°C to 100°C? The energy band gap in Si is 1. 20 × 3 = 60 (a) (b) (c) (d) 6. What is the method of overcoming the problems of blind speed in radar? 20 What do you understand by the term Satellite Communication Package? Explain in brief the working of satellite repeaters in use.1 eV. Explain how it works by showing the encoding and decoding for the sequence 001111010001. What functions can an oxide layer perform during and after the manufacture? What role is played by dislocations which get generated during the growth of the single crystal and during processing of the wafer? 20 Explain. They do not tell anything about the relative stability of the system. 20 (b) (c) SECTION B 5.6 × 1019C. Show that error proportion cannot occur. e = 1. one avoid or postpone the installation of costly peaky generation. (a) In order to increase the distance between poles. one gets a higher maximum range capability and a better range resolution. the Si wafer is oxidized time and again. k = 1. In pulse compression radar. Using energy audit and energy management techniques. (a) (b) Discuss the effect of temperature on the relative dielectric constant of a material. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case. Select any THREE of the following statements. The Boltzmann constant. . read them carefully and identify the correct and the incorrect ones. 20 (c) Explain. Determine the apogee and perigee distances. 20 7.4. what is meant by the term Blind Speed in MTI (Moving Target Indicator) radar. The conductivity of intrinsic Si at room temperature is 3. Assume that the reference digit is a binary 1. RouthHurwitz and continuous fraction stability criteria tell whether the system is stable or unstable. aluminum conductors should be strengthened by strainhardening. (a) While manufacturing IC. explain (i) hue and saturation.3 × 104 ohm1 m1. and (ii) colour subscriber. carrying long distance transmission line. What do you understand by the term Dispersion. 20 (b) Great a block diagram for a differential encoding and decoding system. 20 (c) With reference to the colour television transmission and reception. 20 The semimajor axis and the semiminor axis of an elliptical satellite orbit are 25000 km and 20000 km respectively. as applied to optical fibre? .
20 8. 20 (ii) . 20 Discuss the basic principles involved in distance protection and describe how it is applied to transformer feeders. when the instruction is a control type (for example Jump Unconditionally). how does the microprocessor change the sequence of program execution with a jump instruction ? List the sequence of memory transfers required to process an indirectaddressing mode instruction. (a) (i) If the program counter is always one count ahead of the memory location from which the machine code is being fetched. How many memory cycles are needed? 20 (b) (c) Explain with the help of flow chart procedure for solution of exact coordination equations.
Answer any three of the following (a) The figure shows an equivalent circuit of a small two winding transformer in terms of the primary. The mutual inductance M.S. The receiver is tuned to a transmitter having a carrier frequency of 1350 kHz.EMains 2002 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER – I Candidates should attempt questions 1 and 5 which are compulsory and any three of the remaining questions selection at least one question selecting at least one question from each Section. between the primary and the secondary. estimate the following (i) (ii) (iii) (b) The actual winding resistance of the secondary.c. (a) A filter has transfer function H(f) = rect(f/2B). 20 (c) A synchronous motor is running idle on an infinite bus at its rated voltage and frequency. Where 1 x 1/ 2 rect x 0 elsewhere Where would such idle runs be useful? . and its phase with respect to the bus voltage. Give two permissible frequencies of the local oscillator and the image frequency for each. 20 2. If the self inductance L2 of the secondary is 16 H. The secondary open circuit voltage with primary supplied with 220 V a. 6+6+8 Write the integral form of Maxwell’s equations and identify each equation with the proper experimental law.C. It is excited to have an inducted voltage of 125% and its synchronous impedance is (1 + j 20)%. 15 + 5 (d) A super heterodyne receiver uses an IF frequency of 455 kHz. Calculate (i) (ii) the stator current. SECTION A 1.
but he is permitted to open the locker only when B is not there.An input x(t) 2 W sinc (2Wt) is applied to this filter. 20 With respect to full load current why does an induction motor take higher noload current than a transformer? A 3phase induction motor draws 25 A from 460 V 3. and stray load loss is 200W. Explain why.f. The stator copper loss is 1 kW. Show that the locker can be opened always if both A and C are there. However. 10 + 10 (c) (i) Germanium and silicon are both semi—conducting materials and we have both diodes and triodes with germanium as well as silicon. (a) (b) (c) 4. 5 + 15 3. and the rotor copper loss is 500 W. and (iv) the efficiency. (ii) the developed mechanical power. where sin c x (i) (i) (iii) (b) sin x x Find the output y(t) for W < B. The rotational losses due to windage and friction are 250 W. drawing 50 A from a 500 V d. Give the Boolean identity that symbolisms this situation. (iii) the output horse power. friction and windage losses) vary as the square of the speed.c. In which case does the output suffer distortion? Justify your answer 7+7+6 A d. (ii) Use the two transistor equivalent circuit of the SCR and show that when reverse biased the SCR cannot contact even if it is triggered. C has both the keys. of 085 lagging. source Assume the rotational losses. 10 + 10 A locker can be opened by A and B when they are both there. in respect of controlled rectifiers. and is working at an efficiency of 80%. we have only siliconcontrolled rectifiers hut no germaniumcontrolled rectifiers.c. Calculate (i) the air gap power Pg. as the locker has 2 keys. Find the output y(t) for W > B. one of which is with A and the other with B. (a) Explain the principle of pulse with modulated inverters for induction motor control. The generator is being driven at the rated speed of 1500 rpm. Estimate (i) the speed at which it will run and (ii) the efficiency when the machine is working as a motor. (the iron. shunt generator supplies the full load current of 50 A at 500 V Assume its field is drawing 2A.phase line at a p. core loss is 800 W. What is the purpose of using pulse width modulation in this context? Obtain the conditions under which the circuit below produced oscillations . and the armature voltage drop is 5%.
Sketch the modulator output x(t). In the circuit make the usual assumption that (i) the inverting and noninverting terminals are virtually at the same potential and (ii) the op . 20 (b) Use the properties of the unit impulse function (t) to evaluate the following integrals 10 + 10 (i) t 2 cos t t 5 dt 10 cos t 2t 1 dt (ii) (c) e t Describe any brushless excitation system for large alter nators. The radiation intensity of a certain antenna is 4sin sin 3 U . Is this conclusion R1 valid? If yes give reasons why operational amplifiers are never used in this manner with inverting input grounded and input to be amplified given to the noninverting terminal. . Answer any three of the following: (a) Consider the opamp circuit shown. 0 elsewhere 5 + 15 Determine the directivity of the antenna. The unmodulated carrier is given by c(t) = Ac sin t. (ii) An upper sideband SSB modulator has the message signal m(t) = Am cos mt.R2 . 0 0 .What is the frequency of oscillations? 20 (b) Define directive gain and directivity of an antenna. You would arrive at the normal conclusion that v0 i . Explain the working.amp does not take any input current at its v terminals. 10 + 10 SECTION B 5. (c) (i) An AM modulator has output x t 30 cos 2 200 t 6 cos 2 180 t 6 cos 2 220 t Determine the modulation index and efficiency.
Determine if a TE10 mode will be propagated. = 0 and = 6. the time average power carried by the wave. the magnetic field of an EM wave is H 0. assuming the step size to be 0. 20 (c) In a certain region with = 0. 20 (c) In a nonmagnetic medium E 5sin 2 107 t 0.6 cm and b 4. to form a composite 2 .20 (d) 6.3 cm is fed by 4 GHz carrier from a coaxial cable. 20 7. Determine the power at the filter output assuming that the modulator output power is 100 W. 20 (b) An FM modulator has input m(t) = 4 cos 10 t.1 m. (a) What is a Hertzian dipole? Find the radiation resistance of a Hertzian dipole.8 x azV / m Find (i) (ii) relative permittivity and intrinsic impedance. Express the answer in terms of appropriate Bessel function values. If so. calculate the phase velocity and the group velocity.port network N as indicated . A delta modulator has the message signal m(t) = 6 sin 2 (10)t + 4 sin 2 (20) t. Determine the minimum sampling frequency required to prevent slope overload. 20 A standard airfilled rectangular waveguide with dimensions a = 8.25 0. The peak frequency deviation is 25 Hz. The modulator is followed by an ideal band pass filter with a center frequency given by the carrier frequency and a bandwidth of 54 Hz. (a) (b) Devise a 4bit odd parity generator function using 3level NOTNORNOR logic. 10 + 10 N1 and N2 are two 2port networks connected in parallel on both input port side as well as output port side.6 cos x cos108 taz A / m Find the phase constant and the corresponding E (electric field) using Maxwell’s equations.
3 5 Zn2 3 2 2 4 Obtain the Zparameters for the composite 2port network N. Calculate the efficiency at 75% of full load output at a p.c applied to its input terminals as shown. Identify the forwarded and reverse biased SCRs in the circuit. 5 + 15 (c) (i) (ii) Explain the main advantage of power MOSPETs over SCRs A fully controlled bridge rectifier has a voltage of 200 V d.f. 20 (b) What is all day efficiency of a transformer? Why is it necessary to calculate such efficiency? A 300 KVA transformer has a core loss of 1. Show that each of the devices is blocking a voltage of approximately 100 V in the circuit. Calculate the maximum efficiency and the load at which it occurs.5 kW and a full load copper loss of 4.N1 and N2 are defined by the Zparameters as below Z n1 4 3 .5 kW. Assume the forward biased SCRs have a leakage resistance of 100 M and the reverse biased SCRs have 200 M. of 0.8 lag. irrespective of whether it is forward biased or reverse biased 5 + 15 .
C. A satellite earth station must have as many receive chains as there are carriers transmitted to it. Determine the allowable sudden load that can be switched on without loss of stability. (a) e 2 t X t 3 2 t e 2 1 And for X 0 1 et X t t e Determine the state transition matrix. If a 3 fault takes place on bus 2. If for 1 X 0 3 the response is 2 (b) (c) (d) 2.S. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case 20 × 3 = 60 (a) The magnitude of a transfer function whose poles are only in the left half of ‘s’ plane and whose zeros are mirror images of the poles about the ‘jw’ axis increases with increase in frequency.II SECTION A 1. 20 (b) Station ‘A’ transmits 50 MW power to station ‘B’ through a tieline. For measurement of 3 power using two wattmeters one of the wattmeters reads negative when the power factor angle is more than 60° In a large interconnected power system. Select any three of the following statements read them carefully and identify the correct and the incorrect ones. 20 (c) Explain clearly the construction of a pn junction and its use to convert sunlight directly into electricity. Derive any formulae used. What distinguishes a solar cell from a conventional pn junction diode? 20 3.u. the voltages of all the buses are 1 p. the change in bus voltage is described as V1 > V2 > V3. Maximum steady state capacity of the line is 100 MW.EMains 2002 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER . consider three buses having short circuit capacities 1600 MVA (1). (a) Discuss briefly the microprocessor architecture with special reference to the following components . A system is represented by state equation X = AX. 1200 MVA (2) and 1000 MVA (3) respectively.
but other modulation systems are also used Explain with suitable diagrams. PCM is considered very well. Discuss briefly its feasibility with reference to Indian subcontinent. diamagnetic and ferromagnetic materials. (ii) Address bus and (iii) Control bus. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case 20 × 3 = 60 (a) (b) (c) (d) 6. only a tiny portion of the picture tube screen is active. 20 (c) What is wave power? Describe some of the devices used for converting wave power into electrical power. (a) The steady . type1 and type2. Discuss various factors which affect permeability and hysteresis loss 20 (b) Explain how television is capable of displaying complete moving pictures. unity feedback systems are finite nonzero.state errors for unit step input to type0. While the RF and IF stages or the receiver have a total gain of 90 dB and a noise figures of 3 dB (RF stage) and 13 dB (IF stage) Determine the system overall noise figure. “Tan ” of an insulating material is an indication of its health For the same rupturing capacity the actual current to be interrupted by an HRC fuse is much greater than that of any circuit breaker. how one single phase wattmeter can be used to measure 3 active and reactive power. 20 4. read them carefully and identify the correct and the incorrect ones. Select any three of the following statements. 20 (b) Find the signaltoquantization noise ratio in a binary PCM system. 20 (c) How do the functions of a communication satellite compare with those of a microwave link repeater? What is the most significant difference in their functions? 20 SECTION B 5. Explain clearly with neat diagram the protection of altemator against failure of excitation. 20 . despite the fact that at any instant of time. if the number of quantization levels is 64: 20 (c) In a TV reveiving system the pieamplifier (mounted on the aerial) has a gain of 20 dB and a noise factor of 6 dB and the cable between the preamplifier and the receiver has an attenuation factor of 3 dB. (a) Differentiate between paramagnetic. Discuss the limitation of this method. 20 (b) Explain briefly various abnormal operating conditions in a large alternator against which protection is necessary.(i) Data bus. zero and infinite respectively.
20 (b) (c) 8. 20 First manually place OOs in the accumulator and all general purpose registers. (a) Show the programme in 8085 mnemonics. (a) Show that the feedback reduces the effect of parameter variation on the performance of the control system. but adversely affects the gain of the systems Also discuss briefly the effect of feedback on the transient performance of the control system. 20 . Calculate the critical radius of curvature at which large bending losses occur. (b) (c) Derive swing equation and discuss its application in the study of power system stability. 20 Discuss one scheme each of (i) constant speed constant frequency (CSCF) (ii) variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) of a windelectrical energy conversion system. 20 Derive a simple expression for the orbital period of & satellite in terms of the mechanical constants of the satellite and the earth. 20 A multimode fiber has a core refractive index 1.8 in.5 and the relative refractive index difference is 3 per cent and the operating wavelength is 0. Then write a programme which will (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) place the hex number FE in the accumulator. copy the contents of the accumulator ‘A’ into resister ‘B’ copy the contents of the accumulator ‘A’ into register ‘C’ stop.7. .
Obtain an expression for the flux Linkages with the coil as a function of time t.EMains 2003 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER – I Candidates should attempt questions 1 and 5 which are compulsory and any three of the remaining questions selection at least one question selecting at least one question from each Section. Y at frequency w0 and the current through the network at that condition.5y(K + 1) + 6y(K) = 3x(K + 1) + 5x(K) If the initial conditions are y 1 11 37 and y 2 6 36 10 and the input function is x(K) = 2. Attempt any THREE of the following (a) For the circuit given below. Y reaches a maximum. (i) (ii) Find the frequency w0 at which the impedance across X. (ii) Enumerate different properties of the ROC for Laplace transform and find out the I. 5+5 (b) (i) Solve the difference function given by y(K + 2) . Derive there from an expression for the emf generated in the coil.S.T of X s s 1 s 2 1 for the different ROC’s Re(s) > 1. u(K). SECTION A 1.L.C. Discuss about the two components of the emf expression so obtained. 10 Find the impedance across X. 10 . 2 < Re(s) < 1 10 (c) (i) A fullpitched coil having N turns rotates with an angular velocity of wr rad/sec with respect of field flux. Re(s) < 2.
A dc machine has total armature ampere conductors of 4500 and total flux in the machine is 0. Assume the two opamps to be ideal. what does the GIC circuit above realize? Z1 and Z5 are capacitors. 10 + 2 + 2 + 6 (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Discuss why forward break over in a thyristor occurs at a lower anodecathode voltage if its gate current is increased. (d) (i) (ii) 2. 20 . in case the field flux is timeinvariant. the generated emf lags by 90° the flux that generates it. For a firingangle delay of 75°. (a) (i) Analyze the above circuit to get an expression for Zin.5)n u(n) 0. Z2 = 1/C2s. the load takes 6 RW. Z3 and Z4 are resistors. Derive the relevant expression used if any.2s}.01s} yT(n) = {2e3jn u(n) 0. m(t) is given by cos 100t + 2 cos 300t. 10 Can you detect a DSBSC signal using an envelope detector? By a suitable analysis.14 Wb. What are the advantages of IGST over BJT. compare the same with coherent detection A modulating signal. MOSFET and thyristor? Discuss why the speed control with constant supply voltage and reduced supply frequency is rarely used in practice in a threephase induction motor. (ii) (iii) (iv) With Z1 = R1. Determine the LSB and USB relations + LSB and USB if the carrier frequency is 1000 rad. How does the input impedance Zin. Z3 = R3. behave? What are energy and power signals? Compute the energy and power contents of the following signals and indicate whether they are energy or power signals xT(n) = {(0. Z4 = R4 and Z5 = R5. 5+5+5+5 (c) A threephase fullconverter feeds a resistive load of 150. 15+ 5 The following two amplifier circuit is a generalized immitance converter (GIC).(ii) Show that. Calculate the torque developed in the machine. Z2. Find the magnitude of per phase input supply voltage to the threephase killconverter.
Its primary has 10 turns and the load voltage is 230 V. What will be the currents in R. and open after 10 ms. (b) Show that the field strength at a point close to the antenna (at distances of unto 200300 miles from the transmitting antenna) in terms of the power is given by . Hence introduce the concept of load angle. calculate (i) (ii) (iii) the number of turns in the transformer secondary winding. Consider only the fundamental component of inverter output voltage. to be an ideal diode and a 0. and voltage across C1 8 ms after switch ‘S’ opens? Assume D. 20 4. find 1 L1 s 2 w2 2 10 + 10 (b) Explain the development of electromagnetic torque in a threephase squirrelcage induction motor through the interaction of stator and rotor mmf waves. Find the Laplace transform L(t) of the following function f(t) = t cos wt. and rms value of thyristor current. The Fourier transform of g(t) is a sine function Write down the Fourier transform of the pulse obtained by the above convolution.7 V drop across D2 whenever it conducts. (a) In the circuit shown below the switch ‘S’ closes at t = 0. Discuss the conditions under which optimum torque is developed in a 3phase induction motor. Sketch the pulse obtained by convoluting g(t) with itself. Given L(sin wt) = w s w2 2 (ii) Using the result of L(t cos wt). Show that rotor must rotate in the direction of rotating field. For a load resistance of 100.(T/2) and t = + (T/2).3. 20 (c) A 12V battery feeds a singlephase fullbridge inverter whose output is connected to an ideal 1phase transformer. (a) (i) A rectangular pulse g(t) exists between T = . rms value of primary current. and L1 and L2.
Attempt any THREE of the following: (a) (i) What are the criteria for a material to be an imperfect dielectric or a good conductor? Write Maxwell’s equations in terms of phasors for sinusoidally varying electromagnetic fields. If the carrier frequency is 100 MHz and modulating signal frequency is 5 kHz. what is the improvement in output SNR of FM with preemphasis and deemphasis filtering compared to a baseband system? 10 + 10 SECTION B 5.49 P volts / m r Where: is the field strength in volts/m P is the power radiated in watts r is the distance in meters. Find the frequency of the wave.35 mm. Consider a uniform plane wave in an isotropic and homogeneous medium. Kf = 105 Hz/r. 9. determine the bandwidth of the FM signal. 15 (ii) A uniform plane wave is traveling at a velocity of 3. Calculate the field strength at 20 km away from a transmit. 5 (b) A series resonant circuit has its impedance Z s Find (i) (ii) Resonant frequency Q factor 20 s 1 j10 s 1 j10 s . Assume frequency deviation constant.0 10 m/s in a nonmagnetic good conductor and its wavelength is 0. the 3 dB frequency of the preemphasis/deemphasis filter is 2100 Hz and message signal frequency is 15 kHz. and show that the electric and magnetic field are not in time phase.ting station of 50 kW power 20 (c) (i) A sine wave carrier is frequency modulated by a triangular modulating signal m(t) as shown in figure below. and the conductivity and the intrinsic impedance of the conductor. If the average to peak power ratio of the message signal is 05. the modulation index is 5. (ii) In a commercial FM broadcast system.
The received signal is r(t) = s(t) + n(t) where s(t) is the signal and n(t) is the noise signal. selectivity and fidelity with reference to a radio receiver. Calculate the maximum power handling capability of the waveguide assuming the maximum permissible electric field inside the waveguide to be 30 kV/cm. (Assume IF of 455 kHz). and 6 Power factor of the drive scheme. The signal process is random with an autocorrelation Rs() = 2e. Both the converters are connected to 1phase. If the superhet is to be improved for HF reception so that its image rejection at 25 MHz is as good as at 1100 kHz. determine (i) (ii) (iii) The motor speed in rpm. 8 + 12 (d) (i) (ii) 6. determine the loaded Q which an RF amplifier for this receiver would have to have and the new IF that would be needed in the absence of the RF amplifier.6 Vs/Arad. DC motor armature resistance is 0. the loaded Q of the antenna coupling circuit is 100. Find the output noise power. Define capture range and lock range of a PLL. Armature and field currents are ripple free.6 and field circuit resistance is 150 and its constant is 0.556 cm carries a 3 GHz signal in the TE10 mode. 50 Hz source. For a firing angle delay of 40° and armature current of 40 A. 5 + 15 12 2 (b) (c) (i) (ii) 7. 6 Define sensitivity.(iii) (iv) (c) A and width Impedance under resonance condition. What is double spotting and its effects on a receiver? A superhet receiver having no RF amplifier. 6 Power factor of the armature converter. One fullconverter in the field circuit has zero degree firingangle delay. Explain the operation of a phase shift oscillator and derive an expression for the frequency of oscillation of an RC phase shift oscillator. What is meant by group velocity? . 220 V. The noise is a sample function of a random process with autocorrelation Pn() e2. 20 (i) A rectangular hollow metal waveguide of internal crosssection 7366 cm × 3. (a) Discuss the criteria for a circuit to oscillate. If the two processes are having zero mean value and are independent of each other determine the autocorrelation and total power of r(t). 10 (ii) Explain how a PLL can be used for demodulation of FM signals. 5+5+5+5 Two singlephase full converters are used for control ling the speed of a separatelyexcited dc motor. (a) What is uniform plane wave? Define all the parameters associated with it. 10 White Gaussian noise of two sided spectral density 10 V /Hz is applied to a low pass (RC) filter having a 3 dB cutoff frequency of 1 kHz.
Explain a Costas loop receiver for demodulating a DSBSC signal. ic. Write down the terms P1. after (i) (ii) thyristor T1is turned on steady slate is reached in part (i) and then thynistor TA is turned on .5 is working with rated terminal voltage. 10 + 10 (b) A 50 kW. implement a full adder circuit.A uniform plane electromagnetic wave travelling in region 1(1.8 + j 4. where P1 to P5 are the product terms in one or more of the variables. 440 V. Explain how the squaring circuit can also be used for synchronous detection. Sketch the waveforms for io. (a) (i) (ii) Using multiplexers. b. 20 8. 2). starconnected synchronous generator with per phase impedance of 0. It is desired to generate the following three Boolean functions (c) F1 abc abc bc F2 abc ab abc F3 abc abc ac By using an OR gate array as shown in Figure. Find out the corresponding stator current. Main thyristor T1 and auxiliary thyristor TA are off and capacitor is charged to voltage Vs with upper plate positive. iT1. 2. vc and vT1 (assuming constant toad current). c and c . Estimate the minimum excitation emf. It is required to supply a power of 25 kW to the bus. a. a . b . 20 (c) Consider the circuit shown below. Determine the approximate band of frequencies occupied by an FM wave with carrier frequency of 5 kHz. P4 and P5. 50 Hz. P2. 1) is incident normally on a plane boundary separating the region 2(2. P3. Obtain an expression for NBFM and WBFM signals. How are the reflected and the transmitted waves at the interface related to the incident wave? 10 + 10 (b) Distinguish AM and NBFM signals. Kf = 10 Hz/V and f(t) 100 cos 200 t volts. Distinguish between envelope detection and synchronous detection. 1.
obtain the expressions for circuit turnoff time for both SCRs. R = 10 and maximum value of current through main SCR is 3 times the load current. In case Vs = 220 V. 20 . calculate the value of commutating inductance L for C = 20F and the circuit turnoff time for the auxiliary SCR.From these waveforms.
II SECTION A 1. the communication links of satellites for weather forecasting are at present very effective. read them carefully and identity the correct and the incorrect ones. Considering state of the art.S. Which generator do you recommend and why? 20 3. Explain the effects of negative feedback in control systems on the following 20 (i) Stability (ii) External disturbances (b) Define surge impedance of a line and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of operating an overhead line corresponding to surge impedance loading.C. If a polyphase. using solar energy. the total power consumed is measured by adding the readings of ‘m’ wattmeters so arranged that current coil of a wattmeter is in each line and the corresponding pressure coil is connected between that line and a common point. irrespective of balanced/unbalanced load.s for protecting a detta/star transformer Justify your scheme of protection for (i) internal fault and (ii) external fault. (c) . load is supplied through ‘m’ conductors. (a) Explain with reasons the connection of C. For economic operation. using MerzPrice protection. If the common point is located on one of the lines. flat line.EMains 2003 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER .1) wattmeters only. Also explain the terms infinite line.T. 20 (c) Describe a few features of a wind wheel for efficient generation of electrical energy and discuss economic viability of this form of energy visavis conventional method. 20 What is solar power? Describe very briefly with neat diagram the scheme for (i) residential cooling and heating and (ii) solar power plant. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case: 20 × 3 = 60 (a) RouthHurwitz criterion is an algebraic method that provides information on the absolute stability of linear time invariant system that has a characteristic equation with constant coefficient. the generator with highest positive incremental transmission loss will operate at the highest positive incremental cost of production. (a) Discuss briefly the architecture of 8086 microprocessor with special reference to the following 20 (i) (ii) (iii) (b) Memory organization Register structure Addressing modes (b) (c) (d) 2. Select any three of the following statements. then the power may be measured by (m .
6 kg/k. but decrease in oil C. the system is stable. (a) Describe the factors on which the conductivity of intrinsic semiconductor depends. If applied voltage is non. of Ge = 72. The chances of arc interruption in subsequent current zero increase in case of air blast CS.mol Charge of electron = 1.8 m2/V. wt. 20 Explain what is meant by saying that a satellite is stationary. 20 7.sinusoidal. 20 Explain the significance of blind speed in moving target indicator (MTI) by radar. Calculate the lowest blind speed of radar.B. Select any three of the following statements. (a) If the roots of characteristic equation of a linear digital control system lie within unity circle in zplane. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each casa 20 × 3 = 60 (a) (b) (c) (d) 6. The magnetic property of a material is completely lost above its characteristic Curie temperature. will it be possible to balance this bridge? 20 (b) (c) Describe a communication circuit using modem and explain how modems are classified. From the following data.s Mobility of electrons = 3. 20 . read them carefully and identify the correct and the incorrect ones.32 × 103 kg/m3 At. (a) Discuss the performances of proportional plus derivative and proportional plus integral controllers. A semiconductor is made of ‘n’type germanium. A MTI operates at 5 GHz with a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 400 pps. Why are such satellites used for worldwide communications in preference to any other kind? 20 (Assume one donor atom in each 108 atoms) SECTION B 5. Mention the range of frequency measurement and accuracy of such measurement. calculate the conductivity of ‘n’type germanium: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Density of Ge = 5. Explain how frequency can be measured using four arm bridge arrangement. Derive balance condition for such a bridge.18 m2/V.s 20 (b) (c) Describe the basic modulation schemes in digital data transmission.20 4. The bandwidth of a PCM signal is much larger than that of original base band.6 × 109 C Mobility of holes = 0.
u..j2.u.8 . 20 (c) Explain the terms energy management. Describe (i) the type of fault. I a2 j1. if any.0.0 p. 20 . (ii) the prefault current. and I a0 : 0 .4 p. I a2 : j2..0 p. Explain how these techniques can be used to improve the performance of an energy starved inter connected power system. energy audit and energy economics. in line ‘a’. and I a0 j3. The symmetrical components of the subtransient current in motor flowing towards the fault are I a1 : .u. Assume X” = X2 for both the motor and the generator.u. From the transformer towards fault I a1 : 0.0.8 – j0. A fault occurs between the motor terminal and the transformer.(b) (c) Describe radar beacons and their application. 20 What do you mean by bandwidth of single mode fibre and describe the factors on which it depends? 20 Explain the following (i) Gain margin (ii) Phase margin How are they determined from Nyquist plot and Bode plot? 20 8.6 p. The generator is connected to the star side of the transformer. (a) (b) A generator is connected to a motor through a Y/ transformer.
advantages and applications? 15 . Answer any three of the following (a) (i) What will be the impedance of a parallel connected LCR network at resonance frequency? 4 (ii) If an impedance ZL is connected across a voltage source V with source impedance Zs then for maximum power transfer. SECTION A 1. I(s) where V(s).S.C.EMains 2004 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER – I Candidates should attempt questions 1 and 5 which are compulsory and any three of the remaining questions selection at least one question selecting at least one question from each Section. z(t) and i(t)? 4 (iv) (v) Develop the relation between unit step sequence and unit sample sequence. 10 (c) (i) What is the principle of operation of a repulsion motor? What are its main features. what will be the load impedance? 4 (iii) The voltage across an impedance in a network is V(s) = Z(s) . 4 How can you express a discrete signal as a sequence of a sum of scaled delayed unit sample sequence? 4 (b) (i) Determine Laplace transform of the waveform f(t) as shown in the figure below: 4 (ii) Draw the block diagram of the system represented by the following constant coefficient difference equation y(n) = b0x (n) + b1x (n 1) + a1y (n1) where x(n) input sequence and y(n) = output sequence. What will be the relation among them in the time domain of v(t). z(t) and i(t). Z(s) and I(s) are the Laplace transforms of the corresponding time functions v(t).
(a) (i) Find the Laplace inverse function of the above expression. 5 A 30kVA. Find the new value of (S/N)D if (a) m is increased to 12 and (b) m is decreased to 4. 6 (ii) 2. when delivering half the full load. The helix impedance is 25 ohm and interaction length is 15 cm. Consider the system is initially relaxed. 10 A helix travelling wave tube operates at 4 GHz with a beam voltage of 10 kV and a beam current of 500 mA.1) + x(n).et) u(t). 5 + 15 = 20 (i) (ii) Discuss transformer noise and means adopted to reduce it. Express your answer both in ratio and in dB.(ii) (d) (i) Describe the working of a stepper motor. 10 Use final value theorem to find f() for the function (1 . single phase transformer has an iron loss of 457 Wand copper loss of 125W. 5 A cable transmission system with a loss of (L) 240 dB and has m = 6 equallength repeater sections and the SNR at the destination (S/N)D 30 dB. where > 0. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) Obtain the frequency response of the firstorder recursive system represented by constant coefficient difference equation y(n) ay(n . Determine the output power gain in dB. Find the current i(t) through the 8 resistor of the circuit diagram shown below with initial current i(0) = 5 Amp. At what percent of the full load will the transformer have maximum efficiency? 15 Consider the function of complex frequency s of the following expression X s s3 s 4s 5 2 3. 10 (b) (c) What are commutation circuits? Design a commutation circuit for an inverter. 8 .
Find the line emf.8 mWb is sinusoidally distributed. 20 4.c. For rectifier operation (d. The motor back emf constant is kb = 0. If the analog frequency response is band limited to the range   /T what will the new relation be? 2 × 8 = 12 (b) (i) Illustrate and compare speedcurrent and torquecurrent characteristics of a compound wound d. 50 Hz. calculate (i) torque. 1000 rpm separately excited d.p) for the system whose unit sample response is as follows . 10 (ii) Find the output response to an input x(n) = u(n) .u(n . (ii) speed and (iii) supply power factor. motor is controlled by a singlephase full.(ii) What do you understand by the mathematical relation between continuous and discrete system as given below? X e jT 1 2 X A T m T m where X(ejT) is the frequency response of the sequence x(nT).c. 16 pole generators with connected windings has 144 slots with 10 conductor’s star slot. T is the sampling period and XA (j 0) is the Fourier transform of the continuoustime waveform. (a) (i) A sinusoidal voltage source is applied to the parallel RC network as shown in the figure below.5 sec. motor with that of series and shunt motor. 5 (ii) A 3phase.15 0. The motor current is continuous and ripples free. supply voltage is 480V. Find the energy stored and energy dissipated in the resistor over the interval 0 < t < 0.45 V/rpm. The a. 15 (d) The speed of a 20 HP 460 V.c. machine running as a motor) and for a firing angle = 60° and rate armature current. The coil is full pitched.wave bridge circuit as shown in the figure: The rated motor armature current is 35 A and the armature resistance is 0. The flux/pole of 24.c.
8 (ii) (b) (i) Find the ztransform of cos (n/2).866 y 0. What is the value of n at an altitude of 1 km? 20 SECTION B 5. 12 For plane waves in free space. Find the probability P 2Y 3 Are the random variables dependent or independent? Justify.a n h n 0 (b) for n 0 for n 0 10 The joint probability density of the random variables X and Y is f(x. Find the current after switching.2 km of the troposphere. y) = 0 otherwise. (i) (ii) (iii) Find the value of the constant K. 0 X 2. y) = K e(x+y) in the range 0 x and 0 y and f(x.5 z E s 100e axV / m Determine and . u(n). the switch is moved from position I to position 2 at t = 0. the probability density of X independently of Y. 20 (iv) (c) What is troposphere? State the parameters that characterize troposphere. 5 + 5 = 10 (ii) . 10 An EM wave travels in free space with the electic field component j 0. Write empirical formulae for the variation of these parameters within the first 1 . show that the intrinsic impedance of free space is given by 120 . Answer any three of the following (a) (i) Circuit diagram shown below s initially under steadystate condition. Find the probability density f(x). Write expressions for the permittivity (r) and refractive index (n) of the tropospheric medium.
e±j0 and a double zero at z = 0. 20 (c) A microstrip line is to be designed on alumina substrate having relative dielectric constant r = 8. Use only Sallen and Key network configuration as shown below: 8 6. 10 (ii) (d) Give interpretation of negative. Calculate the (i) beam width between first nulls.2. The W/h ratio 0. it has a pair of poles at z = r. (b) It is desired to transmit an audio signal which has a bandwidth of 10 kHz with an output SNR of 40 dB. find the value of C for successful commutation.pass filter with cut off frequency of 1 kHz.5 for AM.z 1 r 2 z 2 12 Which converges z > r.95. Calculate the (i) transmission bandwidth (ii) required transmitter power ST for DSB. 20 (i) Design a secondorder Butterworth low. (a) (ii) Find the impulse response of the system whose transfer function is given as follows H z 1 1 2r cos . 10 A paraboloidal reflector antenna of crosssectional area of 8000 cm2 works at 3 GHz. (ii) half power beam width.(c) (i) In the circuit of the figure shown below. Assume = 2Sx = 0. The turnoff time of both the SCRs is 60 sec. the source voltage F = 120 V and the current through loads R1 and R2 is 20 A. The channel introduces a 30 dB power loss and channel noise is AWON with power spectral density /2 = 109 W/Hz. SSB and AM systems. and (iii) gain of the antenna. Compute . unity and > unit slips of induction motor.
Machine is controlled by variable frequency control at constant (V/f) ratio upto the base speed and at constant V above base speed.8 leading power factors. and the input signal frequency is 50 Hz. (a) effective relative dielectric constant characteristic impedance Z0 phase velocity guide wavelength 20 Draw the circuit diagram of a half wave rectifier with a reservoir capacitor that smooths the output. Draw the block diagram of the modulator showing the details and select multiplier and mixer oscillator frequencies to accomplish this end. 7. If the input x(n) = ejn.(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 7. 6pole. Consider E only in the maximum direction. 15 (ii) (c) A 6 MW.9 (leading) power factor synchronous motor has Xs = 9 and Rs = 0.2. Determine the reservoir capacitor value for a HWR and smoothing circuit to supply 20 V to a load of 500 . 20 Find the field strength at distances of 500 m and 2. 50 Hz. u(n) is applied to the system. 20 In an Armstrong modulator. 3phase. 50 Hz.46 kW motor at rated voltage and frequency has a starting torque of 160% and a maximum torque of 200% of fullload torque. Determine the torque and field current for the rated armature current. Rated field current is 50 amperes.500 m from a dipole centre fed with Im = 0.1) with initial condition y(1) = K. Maximum ripple amplitude is to be 10% of the average output voltage. The system is to accommodate modulation frequencies between 50 Hz and 15 kHz. The carrier frequency at the output is 108 MHz and the maximum frequency deviation is 80 kHz. 0. Determine (a) full load speed and (ii) speed at maximum torque. the crystal oscillator frequency is 200 kHz. 20 The discrete time system is described by the constant coefficient difference equation y(n) = x(n) + a y(n . 20 .1 A. 750 rpm and 0. Dipole has a length of 200 cm and the frequency of operation is 3 GHz. 11 kV. Draw its output waveform. what will be the output response? [Solve the problem using ztransform and its inverse transform operation only] 20 (b) (c) 8. Yconnected. 5 A 4pole. The angular deviation is set to 0. (a) (b) (i) Derive conditions for maximum starting torque to be obtained in case of an induction motor.
11 kV generator with X”d = 20% is connected through a transformer.8 rad/s. calculate (a) (b) (c) the subtransient current in the fault the subtransient current in the breaker B the momentary current in breaker B 2.EMains 2004 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER . 66 kV Assume that the system is operating on no load when the fault occurs. Any advantage of current control? Digital transmission has more advantages than disadvantages as compared to analog transmission. What will be the transfer function of this lead compensator that will satisfy the above requirement? 20 A 25 MVA.6 kV with a leakage reactance of 10%.6 kV The threephase rating of the stepup transformer is 25 MVA. 20 . line and a transformer to a bus that supplies three identical motors as shown in fig. Is voltage control necessary in power systems? Various current control methods are used.6 kV when a three. 6.II SECTION A 1.S.phase fault occurs at the point F For the specific fault. Permissible voltage variations are known. 11/66 kV with a leakage reactance of 10% and that of the stepdown transformer is 25 MVA.C. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case (a) At any point on the root locus with angle condition satisfied. the value of Kvariable parameter (for this point to be a root) is obtained as K (b) (c) (d) product of lengths of vectors from poles product of lengths of vectors from zero Bridges are used to measure inductance of coils having different values of Q and capacitances are used therein to obtain the balance. 66/6. read them carefully and identify the correct and the incorrect ones. Design a suitable control system for a missile to introduce a lead of 35° and gain of 6. (a) (b) Given Reactance of the transmission line = 15% on a base of 25 MVA.5 db at 2. Select any THREE of the following statements. Each motor has X”d 25% and X’d = 30% on a lease of 5 MVA. 20 × 3 = 60 What do you understand by lead compensator? Draw the approximate Bode plot for a typical lead compensator. The bus voltage at the motor is 6. below.
read them carefully and identify the correct and the incorrect ones. Capacitors in integrated circuits are obtained by using the transition capacitance of a reversebiased pn junction. . (a) (b) Draw a block diagram of Remote Terminal Unit (RTU). what is its maximum detection range for 1 m2 targets? 20 SECTION B 5. 20 A CW radar operates at a frequency of 10 GHz. 20 State and explain the basic requirements (i.6 MHz and the receiver has a 10 dB noise figure.0 MW peak power output.e. PUSH and POP. An HVAC circuit breaker of a given voltage. 20 Describe the various steps involved in the fabrication of a monolithic circuit shown below 20 3. essential qualities) of protective relaying. Write a program to add two numbers which generate the carry over. CALL and RET. Select any THREE of the following statements. Give examples for each. communication bus etc.(c) What is wave energy? Explain the difficulties facing wavepower development. current and MVA rating. 20 Justify that the stack and subroutine offer a great deal of flexibility in writing programs. If the antenna diameter is 4 meters. store the carry over in memory locations XX50 and sum XX60 in 8085 microprocessor. Give a list of devices developed for converting wave energy into electrical energy and fully describe one of these. the receiver bandwidth 1.5 cms per second? 20 (c) 4. What is the doppler frequency produced by (i) (ii) an air plane flying at a speed of 250 kms per hour a man crawling at a speed of 2. Briefly explain the distributed control system. Point out the differences between stack pointer and program counter. having different components/subsystems. Write the functions it generally carries out. Bring out the features of Data Highway. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case (a) (b) (c) Latch is used at input and tristate is used for output purposes in the microprocessor based system. current and MVA rating can be used as an HVDC circuit breaker of the same voltage. (a) (b) (c) The guided missile tracking radar operates at 5 GHz and a 1.
20 How I. 20 Write the discrete forms of P. 20 6.(d) Do we have a system which makes a fuller utilization of the transmission capacity of an optical fibre and needs multiplexing? 20 × 3 = 60 (i) Explain the construction of singlephase inductiontype energy meter. 20 (c) State Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion. Illustrate in each case their relevance to artificial satellites orbiting the earth. 20 What is meant by carrier to noise ratio? How is it related to SNR? An FM system has modulation index of 10. What are various methods of tuning them? Discuss in brief. calculate the receiver processing gain and the S/N. 20 Describe the band structure of an opencircuited PN junction. and 5 A for 4 hours. 20 Explain online realtime computer system for protection of a line. If the meter disc makes 2208 revolutions during this period.f. Draw a sample fault program flow diagram. (a) (b) Explain briefly the technoeconomic advantages and disadvantages of HVDC transmission system. (ii) A 230 V singlephase watt hour meter has a constant load of 4 A passing through it for 6 hours at unity p. (a) (b) (c) 8. Q and Y signals are generated in a colour TV transmitter? Explain with tube and matrix arrangement. what is the meter constant in revolutions per kWh? Calculate the power factor of the load if the number of revolutions made by the meter are 1472 when operating at 230 V. (a) (b) How is digital data converted into analog signals for telephone lines? Compare them with respect to (i) (ii) (iii) Waveforms Bit rate Baud rate. PI and PID controllers. 20 (c) . Given that C/N is 25 dB. 20 7.
i3 and i4.S. 5 Find the qualifactor Qp at resonance for the circuit shown below: 5 (iv) (b) (i) Design a combinational circuit that accepts a threebit number and generates an output binary number equal to the square of the input number. find i1. Answer any three of the following: (a) (i) A continuous time LTI system is described by y t 1 t T /2 x d T t T /2 5 Find the impulse response of the system.C. i2. minimum impedance Zmin and maximum impedance Zmax. Find voltage standing wave ratio VSWR. Is the system casual? (ii) For the circuit shown below. 5 (iii) A transmission line of characteristics impedance Z0 = 50 is terminated by load impedance RL = ZL = 100 . 10 .EMains 2005 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER – I Candidates should attempt questions 1 and 5 which are compulsory and any three of the remaining questions selection at least one question selecting at least one question from each Section. SECTION A 1.
waveguide intrinsic impedance g. 5 Calculate the depth of penetration for copper at 1 MHz.1 F. carrier frequency 160 Hz and 3 dB bandwidth 16 Hz. Assume C1 = C2 = 0. Which biasing arrangement gives you better stability? 5 (iii) . assuming free space between the plates. Discuss resistance splitphase motors and capacitor splitphase motors. (a) (i) Find iL 0 . Use dVC t dt t 0 Assume the switch 1 has been opened for switch 2 has been closed for along time and steadystate condition prevails at t = 0. dVC O dt to denote and for the circuit shown below. Determine the propagating TEmo for a wave of 6000 MHz. VC O .(ii) Design a secondorder active RC bandpass filter with a midband voltage gain –A0 = 34 dB. Find also the cutoff frequency fc. (ii) A parallel plate waveguide consists of two parallel perfectly conducting infinite planes situated 8 cm apart. 5 Show that the first minor lobe is 13. 10 dVc O dt diL O dt (c) (i) (ii) (d) (i) (ii) (iii) 2. 10 Explain the principle of splitphase. waveguide wavelength g. 3+6+6 Explain why an induction motor is not run under conditions of maximum load.5 dB to principal maxima for broadside array for large n. singlephase induction motor. 9 List the three sources of instability of collector current Define the three stability factors. The conductivity for copper is 58M /m and permeability is 1.26 H/m 5 Discuss the merits of delayed AGC as compared with simple ACC.
p.c. (a) (i) Using the difference equation design method with a backward difference. B. Derive the expression for voltage regulation at lagging power factor. If the SCR is triggered on by momentary pulse of gate current to what value must VA be reduced in order to turn the SCR off? The figure is shown below. Discuss its applications.(b) (i) Define voltage regulation of a transformer. respectively. 5 (ii) (c) (i) (ii) 3. 3+6+2+2+2 A voltage across SCR is 1 V when it is conducting. 10 What is a TRIAC? Explain its characteristic.m. 2+5+3 A singlephase transformer working at unity power factor as an efficiency of 90% at both half full load and full load. It has a holding current of 2 mA when gate current (IG) = 0. s0. The diameter of the poleshoe circle is 035 m and the ratio of pole arc to pole pitch is 0. B and D connected to selection lines s2. design a digital filter to simulate the analog filter whose transfer function is H s s s 400 s 2 105 2 using the sampling rate fs = 1 kHz 10 (ii) Find the poles and zeros of the networks shown below. 4+4 A 4pole d. 1. advantages and disadvantages. s1. Draw phasor diagram. 3. 5 (b) (i) (ii) Explain speedcurrent and torquecurrent characteristics of d. Full load is 500 W. 15) with an 8 × 1 multiplexer with A.c. 4. series motor. 5 (iii) Implement the Boolean function F(A. Determine the efficiency at 60% of full load condition. D) (0. 8. C.7 while the length of pole . 9. generator has 1200 armature conductors and generates 250 volts on open circuit when running at a speed of 600 r.
its local oscillator provides the mixer with an input at 1010 kHz. 5 + 10 (b) (i) (ii) (c) (i) .c. 5 Draw the small signal model of FET. 12 (c) (i) What are the steps involved for the generation of gating signals for thyristors of ac. find the mean flux density in the air gap. (a) (i) For the network shown below. 10 (ii) (iii) Explain boundary conditions for timevarying fields. What is the image frequency? The antenna of this receiver is connected to the mixer via a tuned circuit whose loaded Q is 40. Calculate the scattering coefficient. what is average value of the current i(t)? 8 4. Define .c. Find the current ratio transfer function given by = I2/I1. 10 Explain Faraday rotation isolator. gm and rd. A matched isolator has insertion loss of 05 dB and isolation 25 dB. 5 When a super heterodyne receiver is turned to 555 kHz. Assume lapconnected armature winding. converters? Draw a block diagram incorporating various stages of firing circuits for a singlephase fully controlled rectifier. signal. 3+9 (ii) If the SCR in the following figure is continuously fired by a d.shoes is 02 m. What will be the rejection ratio for the calculated image frequency? 10 Show that power contained in one sideband is 1/6 to the total power of amplitudemodulated signal at 100% modulation index. and obtain relationship between them. to d.
(ii) Explain construction of Ionosphere. (b) (i) . Answer any three of the following (a) (i) Determine v (t) for the circuit shown below when vs = 10 cos 30t V 5 (ii) Find the Fourier transform of the signal x t (iii) sin t sin t / 2 t2 Find the Laplace transform of the stepped waveform shown below. The 741C opamp having the following parameters is connected as shown in the figure. 5 SECTION B 5. (iv) An airfilled rectangular waveguide of dimension a = 4 cm. b = 2 cm. Determine the peak value of electric field in the waveguide. transports energy in the dominant mode at a rate of 2 mW if the frequency of operation is 10 GHz.
output voltage swing ± 13V. 10 (iii) Describe transmission & radiation modes of helix. 2cm. fF & VOUT 10 (ii) How much noise voltage is generated in a 1 M resistance at 27°C over a 10 kHz bandwidth? List the sources of noise in an amplifier. and of the short vertical side. supply voltage = ± 15 V. 5 6.8 power factor lagging and (2) 0. Identify the circuit. f0 = 5Hz. determine the wave equation if the field is varying harmonically with time. RIF.8 power factor leading. assumed to be both magnetically and electrically homogenous and isotropic. Determine the modulation depth. The armature effective resistance and synchronous reactance are 1. ROF.5 MVA and 11 kV. The charge density in the field may be assumed to be zero. (a) (i) Find the inverse ztransform of (ii) x z z e z 2 2 e 2 2 z Where z > 2 and e2 < z < 2. Ri. 10 Explain qualitatively with sketches as to how armature reaction effect in a synchronous machine can be modeled as an inductive reactance. 7 (ii) Obtain the threedimensional wave equation for an absorbing medium. 8 .2 ohms and 25 ohms respectively per phase. 10 (d) (i) In a trapezoidal pattern displaying modulation.4375 MVA at (1) 0. 5 (ii) Explain FosterSeeley discriminator circuit with the help of phasor diagram. R0 = 75. the length of the long vertical side is 5 cm. = 2 M. Compute the values of AF. 2+3 (iii) What are the conditions for distortion less transmission in continuous time LTI systems and discrete time LTI systems? 5 (c) (i) A threephase starconnected synchronous generator is rated at 1.A = 20000. Hence. Calculate the percentage voltage regulation for a load of 1.
Calculate the transmissionpath distance for an ionospheric transmission that utilizes a layer of virtual height 200 km. Give its application. 5 (ii) Design an mderived section highpass filter having characteristic impedance 600 . implement the following equations simultaneously: 5 . 10 7. 10 (ii) Explain central limit theorem. Give its equivalent circuit. (a) (i) Explain the different input statements in SPICE. Design the sequential circuit using D flipflop. The sum of the points appearing on three dice is 4. 9. The angle of elevation of the antenna beam is 20°. Consider flat earth. 5 (b) (i) Three regular dice are thrown. The state diagram is shown in the figure. Assign probabilities to the following events. 10 (c) (i) Explain the term ‘virtual height’ with respect to ionospheric transmission. and 15. 10 (iii) Using a bipolar 32 × 8 PROM.(iii) A sequential circuit has one input and one output. 6+4 (ii) Explain varactor diode. cutoff frequency 5 kHz and infinite attenuation at 4 kHz.
9.4.21) F2 = m(2. (a) (i) Find the CTFS harmonic function for the signal x(t) = 4 + 2 cos (20t) 3 sin (40 t) by sampling above the Nyquist rate over exactly one fundamental period and finding the DTFS harmonic function of the samples.7. 11.3. 10 . 10 (ii) Explain test setup for VSWR measurement.5.13. = 1000 rad/s. 10 8.23) (b) (i) Describe ‘third method’ of generating an SSBSC signal.F1 = m(0. 12. 5 (b) (i) Describe the effect on the speedtorque characteristic of a 3phase induction motor by (1) reducing the applied voltage to half the normal voltage but normal frequency and (2) reducing both applied voltage and frequency to half the normal value. 10 (c) (i) Draw and explain construction details of reflex klystron. 5 (iii) Draw the circuit diagram of voltagetocurrent converter with floating load using opamp.7.11.20. Explain electronic tuning. 26) F3 = m(8. 10 (ii) Explain envelop detector circuit with input and output waveforms. 15. 10 (ii) Find the input impedance Z of the circuit shown below. 1. Derive the necessary equation. 3.
12 (ii) A d. explain the operation of a singlephase full converter circuit feeding a separately excited motor. the starting torque of the motor is 85 Nm.p. 3phase induction motor has a rotor resistance of 4.5 ohms per phase.p.(ii) A 4pole. Calculate (1) the rotor voltage at standstill. from a full converter. Input to the converter is 230 V a.c. 8 . (2) starting torque if a resistance of 2 ohms is added in each rotor phase.c. With no external resistance in the circuit. motor load. drive runs at 900 r. Calculate the triggering angle of the converter thyristors if the motor has to run at 600 r.m.c.m. 10 (c) (i) Describe singlephase d. on no load when fed at 200V d.c. on no load.5 ohms per phase and a standstill reactance of 8. Neglect IaRa drop. drive considering a phasecontrolled converter supplying a d.c. 50 Hz. With the help of a circuit diagram.
Point out the differences between loosecoupled SCADA system and tightcoupled SCADA system. 2 : 1 interlace ratio is used for interlaced scanning in television systems. and x2 = a21 x1 + a22 x2 + b2u2 where u1 and u2 are the inputs and x1 and x2 are the states of the system. (a) 3. Determine all inputoutput relationships of the system represented by the set of following linear equations using the Mason’s Gain formula: x1 = a11 x1 + a12x2 + b1u1. Very efficient operation and control of an interconnected power system is necessary and various levels of planning. 3 × 20 = 60 (a) Jury stability test states that if the first element of descending order polynomial.II SECTION A the signal 1. State and explain the Mason’s Gain formula. (ii) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Find the Fourier transform of PAPER . Draw the diagrams of direct digital control system for power systems.C. 20 (b) (c) (d) 2. then all roots of the polynomial Q(z) are inside the unit circle if and only if the first element in each oddnumbered row is positive in the derived array. 20 Explain how the SCADA systems are techno economically feasible for Indian power systems.EMains 2005 1. viz. a0 > 0. 20 The timecurrent characteristic of an inductiontype over current relay is (b) (c) . and load control centers are required. (a) Sketch and discuss the fabrication of a planar transistor made for monolithic integrated circuits using epitaxy and diffusion with that of a discrete planar epitaxial transistor. advantages and applications. Transducers are sensors having many classifications.S. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case. read them carefully and identify the correct and the incorrect ones. Select any three of the following statements.
A9. Vertical retrace time = 10% of picture frame time. Write the steps to compute the control word. Resolution factor = 0. ratio of 400/5 amperes when the circuit carries a fault current of 4000 amperes. explain the operation of FMCW radar altimeter. assuming A8. Select any three of the following statements. say of 8255. 20 Data: Number of lines = 250. 20 (b) The relevant data for closedcircuit TV system is given below. 20 SECTION B 5. Interlace ratio = 1:1 Aspect ratio = 4:3.8. 3 × 20 = 60 (a) The memory mapping for the circuit shown below is 2000H to 2OFPH. 20 4. (a) What minimum functions are required in a programmable device? Point out the difference between control logic and control word with examples. and A10 to be zero.ampere relay having a current setting of 125 per cent and give timemultiplier setting of 06 connected to a supply circuit through a C. . (c) With the aid of a block diagram.It is desired to determine the time of operation of a 5. read them carefully and identify the correct and the incorrect ones. Horizontal retrace time = 20% of total line time.T. Picture repetition ratio = 50 per second. Calculate the highest modulating frequency that will be generated while scanning alternate black and white dots for equal vertical and horizontal resolution. Justify your answer using not more than 200 words in each case.
(a) (b) (c) . 20 Draw and briefly describe a neat diagram schematic diagram showing the components of a bipolar point.topoint HVDC transmission system. Explain how the control of power transfer and of powerflow direction is achieved. Mean distance to the semimajor axis = 7100 km. 20 (ii) Draw basic elements of a function generator and its output waveforms.(b) (c) (d) 6. Design the PCM system and draw the block diagram. List the spectra of different signals applied to the spectrum analyzer for analysis. (a) Electrical isolation different elements of a monolithic integrated circuit is obtained by creating isolation islands.time over current (ITOC) relay with a neat schematic block diagram. Mean Earth’s radius = 6378 km.based inverse . 20 Distinguish between (i) spontaneous and stimulated emission. explain basic swept receiver spectrum analyzer. 20 Calculate the apogee and perigee heights for the orbital parameters given Eccentricity = 0002. 20 A signal having a range of 300 to 3400 kHz is transmitted using binary PCM on a channel whose bit rate is 40. the sendingend voltage is always greater than the receivingend voltage and this effect is known as Ferranti effect. 20 Describe microprocessor . (ii) step index and graded index optical fibre. 20 (b) (c) Describe the basic elements of a PCM system. 20 Point out the advantages of frequency response studies of a system. In a long transmission line. (a) (b) (c) 8. 20 7. Explain the Bode plots for the log magnitude versus frequency and phase angle versus frequency for the complex conjugate poles or zeros.000 bits per second. (i) With a simple block diagram. 20 Bring cut the concept of TDM with a block schematic. Transmission links using optical fibres need components with specific characteristics to fulfill the system requirements.
(10) (b) (i) A partially filled truth table of a sequence generator (3D flipflops in cascade) is given below. Find the sequence generated.Main2007 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER . (10) (ii) For the circuit shown in the figure determine V0/I5 using nodal analysis.E. Answer any three of the following: (a) (i) Determine the power delivered by 6 A source. Q0 is LSB and Q2 is MSB.I Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum Marks: 300 Candidates should attempt Questions 1 and 5 winch are compulsory and three of the remaining questions selecting at least one question from each Section. State 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 0 1 Q2 1 0 Q1 Q 0 0 .S. SECTION A 1.C.
what would be the number of resistors required and their values ? Draw the complete circuit of the new converter. Evaluate maximum torque and corresponding slip and relation of starting torque to fullload torque. shunt motor drives a load that requires a constant torque regardless of the speed of operation. The armature circuit resistance is 0. x(1) = 1 (ii) Obtain the inverse z transform of: X ( z) 2z3 z (d) (i) 2. 50 hp. (10) (c) A 250 V. the armature current is 160 A. of 4%.04 . respectively. (10) (ii) What is the new speed ? (10) List the sources of noise in bipolar transistor (10) (ii) A 100 kc resistor is connected in parallel with a 100 pE capacitor Determine the effective noise bandwidth and the noise voltage appearing at the terminals of the combination at 27° C. (i) If the flux is reduced to 70°/o of its original value. x(0) = 0. When this motor delivers rated power. (10) (c) (i) What is the essential difference in commutation performance of triac and two thyristors connected in antiparallel ? .c.7 1 (ii) 1 1 0 0 A D/A converter has the lowest and the highest values of resistances 1 k and 4 k. (a) (i) z 2 z 1 2 (b) (i) For a threephase induction motor. where 2' TFL 2 S FL x2 (10) (ii) An induction motor of squirrel cage type has starting current 5 times of fullload current and fullload slip. establish the ratio of maximum torque to fullload torque in the form: Tm 1 T2 S FL r' . If the bitlength of the converter is to be increased by 2. Assume the stator impedance and magnetising current negligible. 1000rpm d. (10) Solve the following difference equation by use of the z transform method: (10) x(k+2)+3x(k+1)+2x(k)=0. find the new value of the armature current.
(5) From Maxwell’s equation state the significance of the term /.05 and 0. (12) 3.03 The rotational losses are 1600 W.06 .12 respectively. 1000 rpm dc series motor is controlled by a single phase halfcontrolled full wave ideal converter Series field winding and armature winding have resistances 0. Using the approximate equivalent circuit.47 .5 x = 8. 100hp induction motor has the following parameters expressed per phase: r1 = 0. 220 V.26 r2’ = 0. starconnected eightpole. Input to converter is 230 V. (10) . x1 = x2’ = 0.04 Nm/A2. Calculate the motor torque. 50 Hz supply. s = 0. determine (i) (ii) (c) (i) the input me current and power factor. Eb = 100 V (dc) and R = 20 . dependent back emf (or torque) constant is 0. What will be its value for a good conductor and a good dielectric ? (5) (b) A threephase 440 V. (12 + 8) What are the advantages of halfcontrolled converters over fullycontrolled converters? Show the output voltage waveforms for controlled and uncontrolled halves of the converter and the resultant voltage.(8) (ii) A battery is charged through a resistor R as shown: If F is 220 V (rms). (10) (ii) (ii) Explain the term intrinsic impedance and its value in free space.08 V/ rad/sec and armature current. 60 Hz. rc = 107. calculate the battery charging current and power supplied to the battery.048 . current and supply power factor at rated load and speed for firing delay angle = 30°. Residual back emf constant is 0. Assume motor current to be continuous and ripple free. (10) (ii) The speed of a 20hp. the efficiency. (a) (i) Write the Maxwell’s equation in a lossy dielectric and explain that the electric field leads the magnetic field in time phase.
53) 0.4. (10) (ii) A standard AM transmission. Assume 1 = 1 and J1 = (1. (10) SECTION B 5. Draw the actual circuit with biasing and coupling capacitors. (a) (i) Derive the condition of oscillation and the expression for the frequency of oscillations for the circuit shown. (10) A reflex klystron operates at the peak of the n = 2 mode. The dc power input is 40mW and V1/V0 = 0. The amplitude of each side frequency is 75 V. If 20% of the power delivered by the beam is dissipated in the cavity walls. . sinusoidally modulated to a depth of 30°/n. produces side frequencies of 4. power contained in one side band of AM system is 1/6th of total power transmitted. (Use mesh analysis and Barkhausen’s criteria).562.928 and 4. Answer any Three of the following: (a) (i) State and prove the frequencyshift theorem. (5) Explain tropospheric scatter propagation.278. Determine the amplitude and frequency of the carrier (5) (iii) (c) (i) (ii) Define conditional probability and random variable. (15) (ii) The ac equivalent circuit of an NPN transistor circuit is shown below. Draw actual oscillator circuit with one operational amplifier and minimum number of RC elements. (5) (b) (i) Show that at 100% modulation index.914 MHz. find the power delivered to the load.
sixpole. (7) (ii) A system has impulse response e–at. VBE (sat) = 0.2 in respect of above silicon transistor.(3) Determine the Laplace transform of f(t) shown in the figure. (5) Draw a positive logic OR gate with two diodes and explain its operation. (10) (ii) (iii) (c) (i) Implement an OR gate with AND and NOT gates. Differentiate clearly between dynamic and regenerative braking. Calculate the minimum value of R for which this operation is possible. (10) (ii) A 3phase.8. VCE (sat) = 0. (10) . torque and powertime curves for a typical electrical traction drive. 50 Hz induction motor with parameters RS = Rr’ = 1. 400 V. using the frequencyshift theorem. Assume hFE = 30. What would be the response of the system. (5) Draw arid explain the speed. if it is excited by a delayed unit step function (delay = T) ? (10) (b) (i) The above circuit is intended for NOT operation for input levels 0 and 10 V. XS = Xr’ = 2 (referred to stator) is under regenerative braking action. Calculate (i) the maximum overhauling torque that it can hold and the range of speed for safe operation and (U) the speed at which it will hold the overhauling load with torque of 160 Nm.
23. (10) 7. (10) Draw the field lines and equipotential surface when a point charge is placed near an infinite grounded conducting plane. (5) List the properties of Sparameters. (10) 6.(d) (i) (ii) (iii) List the differences between microwave transistors and transferred electron devices. (5) Explain the cause of polarisation in a dielectric. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) (i) . (10) (ii) (c) (i) (ii) Compare linear broadside arrays having uniform. (10) Derive the expression for the force between the point charge and the conductor with the help of the above concept. (5) Explain the difference between coherent and non coherent detection of ON/OFF keying signals. (10) Find the value of RL so that the maximum power is consumed in it.8 mils. List the advantages of superheterodyne receiver over TRF receiver. binomial and Dolph – Tchebyscheff distributions. W = 10 mils. Calculate the characteristic impedance Z0 of the line. (a) (i) (ii) (b) (i) Explain principle of superheterodyning. (10) Explain PLL FM demodulator (10) A certain microstrip line has the following parameters: r = 5. (5) Use Thevenin’s theorem to replace the threeloop circuits of figure by a singleloop equivalent circuit in which the identity of RL is preserved. h = 8 mils t = 2. (10) Explain the structure of IMPATT diode.
the bandwidths required for sinusoidal EM indexes of 0. from a battery of 100 volts. Assume the shunt diode to provide perfect commutation. (20) (i) Explain with the help of neat diagram.25. Determine the load current waveform for the ratio TOFF/ON = 1/4 and average value of load voltage. Justify. (10) (ii) With OPAMP draw a circuit of a unity gain amplifier having no phase shift and give its one practical application. (a) Show that the radiation resistance of a small loop antenna is 31200 (A/2)2 ohm. (10) (c) 8. (20) . (5) (iii) Draw the circuit of a two input adder with OPAMP and explain its operation. 2. (10) (ii) (iii) Explain logically why primary current increases when secondary side is loaded. (5) Derive a condition for maximum efficiency of a transformer (5) (b) (i) (c) An ideal chopper operating with a chopping period of 2 m sec is supplying a load of 5 resistance with inductance of 10 mHenry. the operation of a Schmitt trigger employing OPAMP. 5.4.(ii) State the Carson’s rule.5 and 7. determine. Given that the peak deviation is 75 kHz. using Carson’s rule. (5) ‘Transformer is a constantflux machine’.
S.58 MHz tar FCC standard and 4.Main2007 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER .E. Why is it that a rotameter is considered a standard in flow measurement ? (20) (c) Give a brief account of application of computers in the study. The instruction is to wait for halfaminute before taking the reading. (20) (d) Colour subcarrier (3. (20) (b) Enumerate the different kinds of head type flow meters used in the industry.C. and any three of the remaining questions selecting at least one question from each Section.II Time Allowed: 3 Hours Maximum marks: 300 Candidates should attempt Questions 1 and 5 which are compulsory. analysis and control of power systems. SECTION A 1.43 MHz for CUR standard) is chosen as some odd multiple of onehalf of line frequency. for which the respective incremental fuel costs are: . (20) (b) A constant load of 330 MW is supplied by two 250 MW generators. Is it because the measuring system is a: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) zero order system with a pure time delay of halla. Draw the time diagram of out instruction for 8085 microprocess. What kinds of restrictions are placed in the flow path for flow measurement? Develop the relationship between flow and pressure differential from physical principles. Justify the statement.minute ? first order system with a time constant greater than halfaminute ? first order system with a time constant equal to halfaminute ? first order system with a time constant less than halfaminute ? Justify your answer. Answer any THREE of the following: (3 x 20 = 60) (a) Hicks clinical thermometer measures human body temperature. (a) What is the difference between a microcomputer and a microprocess ? What type of data is stored in the memory of a microcomputer ? How much memories can a typical 8bit microprocess access? What are the condition flags and why are they important ? Write the advantage of the indexed address mode compared to the direct addressing mode. (20) 2. 1 and 2.
7.10 P2 16 1 dP dP2 1 with powers P n MW and costs F in Rs. estimate the power that can be generated.12 P 22. Consider an optical fiber with refractive index of the core 1. (a) Discuss the physics of piezoelectric phenomena. How would those overcurrent relays be placed in the circuit ? How would one protect a directonline (DOL) start induction motor against overload? Explain your choice. and the saving in Rs. For a linetoground fault on the generator terminals./hr Determine: (i) (ii) (c) most economic operating schedule of the generators.05 pu . Write the relation for the potential power in terms of height of wave and its time period. Draw the equivalent circuit of a piezoelectric transducer and derive the output voltage. Vout of transducer with applied force F. Also write its applications. the gain being set to 5 mV/pC. Compare this fault current with the line current for a threephase fault at the terminals.2 pu and Z 0 j 0. (20) (c) (i) A power transformer is connected in / fashion. 11 kV generator has Z1 Z 2 j 0. (a) How is the surface layer of silicon dioxide formed ? How thick is this layer ? What are the reasons for forming the silicon dioxide layer? (20) (b) A 25 MVA. The amplifier output is connected to an ultraviolet chart recorder whose sensitivity is set to 25 mm/volt. If the time period of a wave is 10 secs having height 7 meters. Draw the block diagram from wave energy device to utility grid. describe the functioning of the receiving unit of a DBS TV/FM receiving system intended for home reception. find: (i) (ii) the fault current and the linetoline voltages during the fault condition. calculate: (ii) (iii) . Assume that the generator neutral is solidly grounded and that the generator is operating at no load and at rated voltage at the time of occurrence of fault.8 and of cladding 1. A piezoelectric pressure transducer having a charge sensitivity of 2 x 10–12 C/N is connected to a charge amplifier. Discuss the principles of two possible devices used for generating electrical energy from the wave energy. Point out the four materials which exhibit the piezoelectric phenomena. (20) 3. (20) Explain the sea waves phenomena and vortex motion of waves.dF1 dF2 0. and 0. (20) (b) (c) With the aid of a block schematic. (20) 4. Determine the overall sensitivity. thereby obtained compared to equal load sharing between them. Draw the arrangement of the current transformers (CTs) on either side of the transformer for MerzPrice circulating current protection./hr.current relays against all kinds of fault. List the different kinds of fault and suggest the minimum number of overcurrent relays required. A distribution transformer is to be protected by over.
electronic polarization. (20) SECTION B 5. What is its bandwidth? What is this circuit called and for what purpose it is used as instrumentation ? Analyze the following three OpAmp based instrumentations amplifier and find its gain. Answer any THREE of the following: (3x20=60) (a) What do you understand by dielectric films? State any two dielectric film material and point out their important properties and applications. (20) (b) Find the gain and approximate input impedance of the accompanying circuit. What is electronegative gases? State the important features of SF6 and its applications. What is its approximate input impedance ? Assume that the OpAmps are ideal. Discuss the effect of frequency on electronic polarization and ionic polarization. (20) . Explain (i) (ii) (iii) the orientation polarization. and ionic polarization referred to polyatomic gas.(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Critical angle Acceptance angle Brewster angle Numerical aperture.
the probability of a 0 being sent is 0.375 0 0 1 0. A slight unbalance (R3 ± R3) is created by R3. Show that the unbalance voltage. Where are synchronizing pulses placed? Does it matter that there are no horizontal blanking purses during vertical blanking period ? (23) A Wheatstone bridge has resistances R1. Draw the block diagram of a DMA controller with memory interfacing.1. (a) (b) (c) 8. is it controllable? If the unstable mode is controllable shift it to a stable position. How is the DMA controller is programmed ? Are special buffers required when interfaces a DMA controller ? (20) A radar receiver has a low noise RF amplifier of noise figure 6 dB and gain 20 dB followed by a mixer of noise figure 6 dB and conversion loss of 6 dB. What is meant by simultaneous DMA ? List three different DMA modes for transferring data. R2. obtain the noise figure of the receiver and its noise temperature. how would you check the stability of the system ? If there is an unstable mode in the system. the message is coded into binary digits 0 and 1. and R4 in its four arms. (23) Why and to what degree do optical signals get degraded as they propagate along a fiber ? Discuss in detail. the bridge is initially balanced with R3 equal to R4.(c) Explain why it is more difficult to interrupt shortcircuit current in an HVDC circuit than that in an HVAC circuit. the probability of a transmitted 0 being converted into a 1 at the receiver is 0. Find: (i) (ii) the probability that a received 0 was transmitted as a 0. After coding. If the noise figure of IF preamplifier is 3 dB with a gain of 26 dB and that of IF main amplifier is 10 dB. (a) 1 0 0. while the probability of a 1 being sent is 0. showing a horizontal and a vertical blanking pulse. (20) Draw the waveform at the end of one of the vertical fields. R3. while the probability of a 1 being distorted into a 0 is 0. In the communication channel.45. (a) . by state feedback. What is the condition for maximizing the sensitivity ? (20) (c) 7. and the probability that a received I was transmitted as a 1. The bridge is excited by E volts dc.55. (20) (b) What are the design considerations for layering in data networks ? Discuss a sevenlayer network architecture with a diagram. (20) (d) 6. V0. (23) Which I/O technique provides the highest data transfer rate ? Explain the function of DMA. Indicate the duration and relative amplitudes of two pulses and explain their functions. say = –0. Assuming that the ratio of arms R1 and R2 are equal.375 x 0 u x 1 1 1 1 Given that the above is a linear timeinvariant (LTI) system. is directly proportional to (R3/R3) as long (R3/R3) << 1.2. (20) In a certain communication system.5.
Also find the maximum power that can be transferred when (i) (ii) (iii) the system is operating under healthy condition.(b) The figure below shows a generatortransformer unit feeding 1. Compute the generator e. Comment on the losses due to power factor improvement.9. (20) (c) What do you understand by energy conservation ? What is the economics of energy conservation ? Point out the strategic measures for energy conservation.f. (20) .6% of the existing system.0 pu power to the infinite bus through a doublecircuit transmission line with the generator terminal voltage of V1 = 1.m. if power factor is improved from 0. one line is shorted (threephase) in the middle. the useful power can be enhanced by 28. and one line is open. Show that for a given load current I. behind transient reactance.0 pu.7 to 0.
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