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Presentation on six months Industrial Training undertaken at

Submitted by:Chanjot Singh Univ Roll No. 6120405841 College Roll No. 606/06

‡ Nokia Siemens Networks is one of the largest telecommunications solutions suppliers in the world. ‡ Nokia Siemens Networks was created as the result of a joint venture between Siemens COM division (minus its Enterprise business unit) and Nokia's Network Business Group. The new company was announced on 19 June 2006. ‡ Nokia Siemens Networks operates in approximately 200 countries worldwide, and has about 60,000 employees. Its major manufacturing sites are in China, Finland, Germany, Poland and India. ‡ About 1 billion people are connected through its networks. ‡ It is foreseen that, at a combined revenue of more than ¼ 15 billion, the new company would be one of the largest telecommunication equipment makers in the world.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ GSM Basics GSM System Architecture Identities used in GSM GSM Channels Mobility management Call management Abis mapping Drive test Troubleshooting

FDD ‡ 2G : Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Digital. Circuit Switched. FDMA and TDMA. FDD ‡ 2G : Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Service (D-AMPS) Digital. Circuit Switched. FDD ‡ 2G : Global System for Mobile (GSM) Digital. Circuit Switched. FDMA.Background to GSM ‡ 1G : Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) Analog. FDMA. SS. FDMA. Circuit Switched. FDD .

GSM System specifications Frequency band Uplink Downlink Duplex Frequency Spacing Carrier separation Frequency Channels Time Slots /Frame(Full Rate) Voice Coder Bit Rate Modulation Air transmission rate Access method Speech Coder 890 .915 MHz 935 .833333 Kbps FDMA/TDMA RPE-LTP-LPC .960MHz 45MHz 200KHz 124 8 13Kbps GMSK 270.

GSM uses paired radio channels 890MHz 915MHz 935MHz 960MHz 0 124 0 124 .


GSM Architecture
It provides an overview of the GSM network architecture. This includes a brief explanation of the different network subsystems and a description of the functionality of the elements within each of the subsystems. ‡ General architecture overview ‡ The Mobile Station (MS) Subsystem and Elements ‡ The Base Station Subsystem (BSS) and Elements ‡ The Network Subsystem (NSS) and Elements

Base Station Subsystem The BSC: ‡ Allocates a channel for the duration of a call ‡ Maintains the call: monitors quality controls the power transmitted by the BTS or MS generates a handover to another cell when required The BTS: ‡ Provide radio access to the mobile stations ‡ Manage the radio access aspects of the system .

BSS Configuration ‡ Collocated BTS ‡ Remote BTS ‡ Daisy Chain BTS ‡ Star Configuration ‡ Loop Configuration .

BTS BSC .Collocated BTS: BTS is situated along with BSC or the MSC and no additional E1 link is required.

Remote BTS : BTS is situated in a stand alone position and additional E1 links are required to connect to BSC. BSC BTS .

Daisy Chain BTS 3 BTS 1 BTS 4 BSC BTS 2 MSC .

Star Configuration BTS 3 BTS 1 BSC BTS 4 BTS 2 MSC .

Loop Configuration BTS 3 BTS 1 BTS 4 BSC BTS 2 MSC .

. Different methods are used to optimize and provide the quality network with the minimum operating cost. charging. ‡ Various kinds of interfaces are used to communicate between the different entities.Network Subsystem ‡ Can be considered as a heart of the GSM Network. ‡ Security functions. ‡ Call handling. ‡ Handover decisions. All the major activities like ‡ Routing. ‡ Operation & maintenance.

Mobile Switching Center (MSC) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Performs call switching Interface of the cellular network to PSTN Routes calls between PLMN and PSTN Queries HLR when calls come from PSTN to mobile user Inter-BSC Handover Paging Billing .

Home Location Register (HLR) ‡ Stores user data of all Subscribers related to the GMSC ± International Mobile Subscriber Identity(IMSI) ± Users telephone number (MS ISDN) ± Subscription information and services ± VLR address ± Reference to Authentication center for key (Ki) ‡ Referred when call comes from public land network .

Visitor Location Register (VLR) ‡ Database that contains Subscriber parameters and location information for all mobile subscribers currently located in the geographical area controlled by that VLR ‡ Identity of Mobile Subscriber ‡ Copy of subscriber data from HLR ‡ Generates and allocates a Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity(TMSI) ‡ Location Area Code ‡ Provides necessary data when mobile originates call .

.RAND. SRES & Kc. to the HLR on request.Authentication Center (AuC) ‡ Stores Subscriber authentication data called Ki. a copy of which is also stored in in the SIM card ‡ Generates security related parameters to authorize a subscriber (SRES-Signed RESponse) ‡ Generates unique data pattern called Cipher key (Kc) for user data encryption ‡ Provides triplets .

For all known. ‡ EIR has three databases.EIR (Equipment Identity Register) ‡ EIR is a database that contains a list of all valid mobile station equipment within the network. where each mobile station is identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity(IMEI).For handsets/IMEI¶s that are on observation ..For all bad or stolen handsets ± Grey list .good IMEI¶s ± Black list . ± White list .

.Transcoder and Rate Adaptor Unit (TRAU) The primary function of the TRAU is to convert 16kps GSM speech channels to 64kbps PCM channels in the uplink direction and the reverse in the downlink direction. The reason this process is necessary is because MSCs only switch at the 64kbps channel level.

TRAU Locations TRAU can be physically located in the BTS. BSC or MSC and hence leads to a variety of installation configurations. .

25 OMC Server X.Interfaces between components MS Um BTS BSC Abis A MS BTS E Abis A E MSC B C GMSC F EIR H VLR HLR AuC MSC BSC Um BTS X.25 VLR PSTN .

the Abis interface also carries the required signaling information in 64 Kbit/s channels. . One signaling channel is normally provided for each transceiver within a BTS for controlling upto 8 subscribers per carrier frequency.Abis Mapping Besides the traffic channels.

Sig TRX 2 0 4 1 5 2 6 3 7 TRX 2 BSC TRX 1 Sig TRX 1 0 4 1 5 2 6 3 7 TS 0 .

TS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 BTS 1 BTS 2 PCM Management Information TRX 1 TRX 1 TRX1 TRX1 TRX 2 TRX 2 TRX 2 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 3 TRX 3 TRX 3 TRX 4 TRX 4 TRX 4 TRX 4 TRX 5 TRX 5 TRX 5 TRX 5 TRX 6 TRX 6 TRX 6 TRX 6 Signalling BTS1. Sector1 Signalling BTS1. Sector3 Signalling BTS2. Sector2 Signalling BTS1. Sector1 Signalling BTS2. Sector2 Signalling BTS2. Sector3 Control Ring .

TS available for carrying the information 30 Therefore total number of TRXs that can be cater on one PCM = 30/3 = 10 .TS Arrangement on PCM Link : 1 Sector occupies 2TS for TCH (64 Kbps) 1TS for signaling Total number of Time slot in one PCM 32 Out of which 1 is used as sync and other for internal signaling.

unique six digit number sp = spare for future use . identifies the manufacturer SNR = Serial Number. IMEI = TAC + FAC + SNR +sp TAC = Type Approval Code by central GSM body FAC = Final Assembly Code.Identities used in GSM IMEI ± International Mobile Equipment Identifier.

IMSI consist of three parts: IMSI = MCC + MNC + MSIN MCC = Mobile Country Code MNC = Mobile Network Code MSIN = Mobile Station Identification Number . An MS can only function fully if it is operated with a valid SIM inserted into an MS with a valid IMEI.IMSI ± International Mobile Subscriber Identifier When a subscriber registers with a network operator. a unique subscriber IMSI identifier is issued and stored in the SIM of the MS as well as in the HLR .

It should not be more than four octets. . the structure may be chosen by the administration. The issued TMSI only has validity within a specific LA. Since TMSI has local significance. It is issued by and stored within a VLR (not in the HLR) when an IMSI attach takes place or a Location Area (LA) update takes place.TMSI ±Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity A TMSI is used to protect the true identity (IMSI) of a subscriber. At the MS it is stored in the MS¶s SIM.

MSISDN ± Mobile Station ISDN Number The MSISDN represents the µtrue¶ or µdialled¶ number associated with the subscriber. It is assigned to the subscriber by the network operator at registration and is stored in the SIM. It is composed in the following way: MSISDN = CC + NDC + SN CC = Country Code NDC = National Destination Code SN = Subscriber Number .

It is stored in the VLR and associated HLR but not in the MS.MSRN ± Mobile Station Roaming Number The MSRN is a temporary. The MSRN is used by the VLR associated MSC for call routing within the MSC/VLR service area. location-dependant ISDN number issued by the parent VLR to all MSs within its area of responsibility. .

thus uniquely identifying each cell with an associated LA. . same as in IMSI LAC = Location Area Code. same as in IMSI MNC = Mobile Network Code. Maximum length of LAC is 16 bits.LAI ± Location Area Identity Each Location Area within the PLMN has an associated internationally unique identifier (LAI). identifies a location area within a GSM PLMN network. The LAI is broadcast regularly by BTSs on the Broadcast Control channel (BCCH). LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC MCC = Mobile Country Code.

8kbps Data 2.8 kbps 9.GSM Channels Half rate 11.4 kbps 4.6 kbps BCH FCCH(Frequency correction) SCH(Synchronization) PCH(Paging) CCCH CCH (control) Dedicated RACH(Random Access) AGCH(Access Grant) SDCCH(Stand Alone) SACCH(Slow-associated) FACCH(Fast-associated) .4kbps TCH (traffic) Speech Full rate 22.




577 ms) 1 2 3 4 155 156 1 bit =36.4 ms ) 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 0 3 4 48 49 50 1 2 24 25 (4.12 S ) LEFT (OR) RIGHT 1 SUPER FRAME = 51 MULTI FRAMES TRAFFIC CHANNELS 0 1 2 3 4 48 49 50 SIGNALLING CHANNELS 1 SUPER FRAME = 26 MULTI FRAMES 0 1 MULTIFRAME = 26 TDMA FRAMES ( 120 ms ) 0 1 2 3 24 25 1 MULTI FRAME = 51 TDMA FRAMES (235 .615 ms) 1 .25 BITS ( 0.HIERARCHY OF FRAMES 1 HYPER FRAME = 2048 SUPERFRAMES = 2 715 648 TDMA FRAMES ( 3 H 28 MIN 53 S 760 MS ) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047 1 SUPER FRAME = 1326 TDMA FRAMES ( 6. 1 0 1 2 3 0 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 TIME SLOT = 156.615ms) 0 TDMA FRAME NO.9 micro sec (4.

normal. .ciphering ‡ Providing roaming facility ‡ MM functionality mainly handled by MS.periodic.authentication ± Maintaining Privacy of users. IMSI attach ‡ Paging ‡ Security Management ± Preventing unauthorized users. HLR. MSC/VLR.Mobility Management ‡ Location updating.

MS Location Update (registration) MS BTS BSC (G)MSC VLR HLR Action Channel Request (RACH) Channel Assignment (AGCH) TMSI + old LAI Location Update Request (SDCCH) Authentication Request (SDCCH) Authentication Response (SDCCH) Comparison of Authentication params Accept LUP and allocTMSI (SDCCH) Ack of LUP and TMSI (SDCCH) Entry of new area and identity into VLR and HLR Channel Release (SDCCH) .

Security .Authentication MS Ki RAND A3 SRES MS BTS AuC RAND SRES SRES Auth Result Authentication center provides RAND to Mobile AuC generates SRES using Ki of subscriber and RAND Mobile generates SRES using Ki and RAND Mobile transmits SRES to BTS BTS compares received SRES with one generated by AuC .

1 1 BTS-5 1 BTS-4 1 1 2 BTS-3 5 3 4 BTS-1 This cell BTS-2 .Cell Selection Purpose: get synchronization with the GSM network prior establishing any communication.


Registration: the Very First Location Update 1 2 IMSI 4 TMSI Release 6 4 TMSI 5 LAI 5 BTS BSC BSS 2 4 TMSI 6 MSC 5 2 HLR IMSI VLR id 3 VLR IMSI TMSI LAI .


Mobile Originating Call MS Dialing 1 BSS CHANNEL REQUEST IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT 2 2 3 3 MSC VLR PSTN 2 CM SERVICE REQUEST CM SERVICE REQUEST Authentication procedure Ciphering procedure 4 Sending Number 4 SETUP (basic) or EMERGENCY CALL PROCEEDING 7 SETUP 5 6 7 IAM CALL PROCEEDING 7 Ring Ringing Assignment procedure ALERTING 9 CONNECT ACM ANM 11 8 10 Ringing Path Established 11 CONNECT ACKnowledge ACM = Address Complete Message ANM = ANswer Message IAM = Initial Address Message .

Mobile Terminating Call 1 .Paging Principle LA1 6 BTS11 BSC1 5 4 3 1 BTS12 6 BTS21 5 MSC/ VLR GMSC PSTN BSC2 2 BTS22 HLR LA2 BTS23 BSC3 BTS31 .

5 9 PAGING REQUEST (TMSI) PAGE (TMSI + LA) Send info to I/C (MSRN) 6 Routing Information (MSRN) Send Routing Information (MSISDN) 1 MSISDN 8 PAGING REQUEST 10 (TMSI + LA) IAM (MSRN) 3 7 PN 11 BSS VMSC GMSC IAM 2 (MSISDN) ISDN IAM MSISDN MSRN : Initial Address Message : Mobile Station Integrated Services Digital network Number : Mobile Station Roaming Number IMSI GMSC VMSC TMSI : : : : International Mobile Subscriber Identity Gateway MSC Visitor MSC Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity .Mobile Terminating Call 2 . Restart your computer. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. If the red x still appears. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. or the image may have been corrupted.Detailed Procedure Visitor PLMN VLR International SS7 Provide Roaming Number (IMSI) Roaming Number (MSRN) Home PLMN HLR 4 The image cannot be displayed. and then open the file again.

Call Release MS 1 2 BSS Call in progress 2 MSC PSTN DISCONNECT DISCONNECT RELEASE RELEASE 4 3 3 RELEASE COMPLETE 5 Release CHANNEL RELEASE 6 7 RELEASE INDICATION RF Channel Release procedure 8 9 Release tone .

which generates a comfort noise ‡ Down Link interference is decreased. ‡ A Silence Indicator Block is transmitted at 500bps. ‡ Up link battery is saved .Discontinuous Transmission ‡ Discontinuous Transmission(DTX) allows the radio transmitter to be switched off most of the time during speech pauses.

the radio parameters and air Interference signal data are collected as a log file. .DRIVE TEST What is Drive Test? Drive test involves setting up a call to best carrier and driving along the roads. While driving.

Drive Test Setup Drive Test system comprises of  A Test mobile phone :Single or Dual Band.1GB HD  Software to control and log data from the phone. 1GB RAM.:Depend on different vendor  Global Positioning System(GPS) receiver for position information  PCMCIA Card/USB Hub: To add more Ports. with BCCH/BSIC values.  Transportation: Car with Charger  External Antenna for Test mobile phone can also be used for drive test Battery Charger Or Inverter .  Local Maps :Indicating all site-mark.  Laptop:Min config. with Netmonitor software  SIM Card : Test SIM.

. Interference etc«  Tune and optimize networks  Perform fault-tracing and troubleshooting .  To investigate network problems related to poor quality.contd. Objective of Drive test Following steps are taken to fulfill the objective of using a drive test tool. signal level.  To verify whether the parameters and configurations are defined correctly or not. To verify whether the network meets the given requirements. on the basis of which network was designed.

Rx Level Plot .contd..

Rx Quality Plot .

4% Bad 6 6.8% Good 3 0. RxQual measurement RXQUAL. Quality BER Comments 0 less than 0. poor quality areas can be found and marked by looking over the quality on the scale of 0 to 7.8% Bad 7 greater than 12. BER = Errors/Total Number of Bits Thus during drive test. Its level characterizes speech quality where 0 indicates the highest quality and 7 the worst.2% Good 5 3.8% to 1. Speech quality is inferred by the RXQUAL measurements during the drive test..contd. is the Bit error rate (BER) derived from the 26 bits Mid amble on TDMA burst.2% Good 1 0.8% Bad .4% Good 2 0.2% to 0.4% to 0. adjacent channel interference or Multipath. Co-channel interference.6% to 3. RXQUAL can be poor due to poor RXLEV.4% to 12.2% to 6.6% Good 4 1.

contd. RX Level Measurement 6 classes for Level dimension (7 levels) -47dBm Class 3 -70dBm Class 40 -80dBm Class 30 -90dBm Class 20 -95dBm Class 15 -100dBm Class 10 -110dBm level 3 level 40 level 30 level 20 level 15 level 10 level 0 ..

r.t the horizon. With appropriate downtilt.  There are two methods of downtilting Mechanical downtilting Electrical downtilting.ANTENNA DOWNTILTING  Antenna downtilting is the downward tilt of the vertical pattern towards the ground by a fixed angle measured w.  Normally the maximum gain is at 0‡ tilt (parallel to the horizon) and never intersects the horizon. .  Downtilting of the antenna changes the position of the half-power beamwidth and the first null relative to the horizon. the received signal strength within the cell improves due to the placement of the main lobe within the cell radius and falls off in regions approaching the cell boundary and towards the reuse cell.








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