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Table 5-1. Common wireline geophysical well measurements (Rider, 1996) Measurement Log Type Parameter Measured Mechanical Caliper Hole diameter Spontaneous Temperature Borehole temperature Self-Potential (SP) Spontaneous electrical currents Gamma Ray (GR) Natural radioactivity Induced Resistivity Resistance to electric current Induction Conductivity of electric current Sonic Velocity of sound propagation Density Reaction to gamma ray bombardment Photoelectric Reaction to gamma ray bombardment Neutron Reaction to neutron bombardment Table 5-2. Principal uses of wireline logs (modified after Rider, 1996)
Photoelectric Temperature Gamma Ray Spectral GR Sonic SP
General Geology Lithology -- general Unusual lithology: Volcanics Evaporites Mineral identification Correlation: stratigraphy Facies, dep. environment Reservoir Geology Fracture identification Over-pressure identification Maturity Petrophysics Porosity Permeability Shale volume Formation water salinity Hydrocarbon saturation Gas identification Seismic Interval velocity
+ + C -
Geochemistry Source rock identification
dip Acoustic impedance Legend: (-) essentially qualitative; (+) qualitative and semi-quantitative; (C) strictly quantitative
- - + + + + - - - - + + - - - - + - + - - - - - - - + + + + + + + + + + + C C C + + C - C dip C C
Tf = formation temperature. with ten division of 0.25 in.1. Track 1 is always linear.5. The overall log width is 8. the common vertical scales used are l:200 and 1:500 but for image logs (microresistivity) it is usually 1:20 and 1:40. 5.25 in. wide separates tracks 1 and 2 where the depths are indicated.1.) x density (ppg) Overpressure – any pressure above the hydrostatic (or normal) pressure Temperature Geothermal gradient G = 100 (Tf − Ts ) / D Formation temperature Tf = Ts + G(D/100) G = geothermal gradient. while tracks 2 and 3 may have a linear scale similar to track1.1 Log Presentation The values of the parameter measured are plotted continuously against depth in the well. it is due to the column of drilling mud and is: Ph (psi) = 0. It shows pertinent information for proper interpretation of the log and in addition.2 The Logging Environment Pressure Formation pressure – the pressure under which the subsurface formation fluids and gases are confined.5 in. a 4-cycle logarithmic scale. some details of the well and the log run.. Hydrostatic pressure – the pressure exerted by a column of fluid. Every log is preceded by a header.75 in. °F Ts = surface temperature (80°F) D = depth of formation. wide each. Hard copies of well logs are in standard API (American Petroleum Institute) log format. . In the borehole. with three tracks of 2. A column 0. For most well logs. ft.052 x height of fluid column (ft. °F/100 ft. or a combination of logarithmic scale in track 2 and linear scale in track 3. Graphical solution of formation temperature is provided by Schlumberger Gen-6 chart.
Also shown are the nomenclature of the corresponding resistivities and saturations in each zone. both caliper larger than bit size.generally due to formation of mud cake Mud cake thickness = (bit size diameter – caliper diameter reading)/2 . Schlumberger Charts) shows invasion by mud filtrate of a permeable bed in a borehole. Invasion Profile Figure 5-1 (Gen-3. . esp. formed by wear against the drill string at points where the borehole inclination changes (doglegs) Breakout – similar to keyseat but not due to doglegs. considerable vertical extent Keyseat – asymmetric oval holes. in shaly zones and dipping beds. small brittle fractures (spalling) due to existing stress regime of the country rock Decreased borehole diameter .Borehole Geometry From caliper Gauged hole – diameter of hole is about equal to the bit size Increased borehole diameter Washout – general drilling wear.mud cake formation indicates permeability and involves loss of mud filtrate into a permeable formation – invasion.
Determine lithology (rock type) of the potential reservoirs. Sxo) using resistivity (Rt. Determine resistivity of formation water (Rw).5.3 Process of Interpretation • • • • • • • Identify potential reservoir intervals. Asquith. Resistivity is measured in ohm-meter2/meter. Resistivity logs do not always measure resistivity directly. more commonly shortened to just ohm-meter. Principal uses of the resistivity and induction logs Used for Knowing Formation water resistivity (Rw) Quantitative Fluid saturation: Mud filtrate resistivity (Rmf) Formation Porosity (φ) [and F] Invaded zone Temperature (detect hydrocarbons) SemiTexture Calibration with cores quantitative Lithology Mineral resistivities and Correlation qualitative Facies. nonreservoir intervals from porous potential intervals. Estimate in-place and movable hydrocarbons. Estimate thickness of the potential reservoirs.1.104-5) 5.2 Resistivity Logs Resistance is the opposition offered by a substance to the passage of electric current. Calculate porosity (Φ). Figure here (Flow chart for log interpretation. overpressure Normal pressure trends and shale porosity Source rock identification Sonic and density log values Source rock maturation Formation temperature . resistivity (ohms m2/m) = 1 × 1000 (millimhos/m) conductivity Induction logs are used in wells drilled with a relatively fresh-water mud (low salinity) to obtain more accurate value of true resistivity. Some resistivity logs (actually induction logs) measures conductivity instead which is the reciprocal of resistivity. Calculate water saturations (Sw. Table 5-3. p. bedding Gross lithologies characteristics Compaction. Rxo). Resistivity is the resistance measured between opposite faces of a unit cube of the substance at specified temperature. distinguish non-permeable.
5. 2.3 Spontaneous Potential and Gamma Ray The SP and GR logs measures naturally occurring physical phenomena in insitu rocks. a porous and permeable bed surrounded by an impermeable formation. 5. . a difference in salinity (or pressure) between the borehole fluid and the formation fluid. and 3.1 Spontaneous Potential The SP log is a measurement of the natural potential difference or self potential between an electrode in the borehole and a reference electrode at the surface (problem with offshore wells. no ground).Figure 5-2. No artificial currents are applied. a conductive fluid in the borehole. Idealized resistivity log.3. Three factors are necessary to produce an SP current: 1.
Figure 5-3. If it has to be used. called shale baseline.) Shale Baseline and SSP SP has no absolute values and thus treated quantitatively and qualitatively in terms of deflection. The definition of the SP zero. currents will spread widely and the SP will deflect slowly: definition is poor. When the resistivities are similar. All values are related to the shale baseline. Principal uses of the SP log Used for Quantitative Formation-water resistivity Qualitative Shale volume Permeability indicator Facies (shaliness) Correlation Knowing Mud filtrate resistivity and formation temperature SSP (static SP) and shale line Shale line Clay/Grain size relationships Bed Boundary Definition and Bed Resolution Sharpness of a bed boundary depends on the shape and extent of the SPO current patterns. Idealized SP log. is made on thick shale intervals where the SP curve does not move. . In general. boundaries are sharper. SP should not be used to determine bed boundaries. When there is considerable difference between mud and formation water resistivity. place the bed boundary at the point of maximum curve slope. which is the amount the curve moves to the left or to the right of a defined zero. (GR defines bed boundaries better. Table 5-3.
0 − PSP ) × 100 SSP PSP (Pseudo-static SP) – the SP value in the water–bearing shaly sand zone read from the SP log. Shale content from SP is subject to complications due to SP noise.The theoretical maximum deflection of the SP opposite permeable beds is called the static SP or SSP.24 x T°C) Shale Volume Vsh (%) = (1. water-bearing formation with no shale. SSP (Static SP)– the maximum SP value in a clean sand zone. Rw/Rmf contrast. This is qualitatively true but quantitatively there is no theoretical basis.133 x T°F) K = 65 + (0. HC content. It is the maximum possible SP opposite a permeable. Formation-water Resistivity (Rw) (S)SP = − K log ( Rmf )e ( Rw)e S(SP) = SP value: this should be the SSP (Rmf)e = equivalent mud filtrate resistivity: closely related to Rmf (Rw)e = equivalent formation water resistivity: closely related to Rw K = temperature-dependent coefficient K = 61+ (0. . The formula simply assumes that the SP deflection between the shale base line (100% shale) and the static SP in a clean sand (0% shale) is proportional to the shale volume. The SSP is used to calculate formation-water resistivity (Rw). and high salinity drilling fluids. It represents the SP value that would be measured in an ideal case with the permeable bed isolated electrically.
3.33 [2(2 x IGR) . Idealized GR and SGR log.2 Gamma Ray Figure 5-4. Volume of Shale from GR Vsh = 0.1.0] I GR = GRlog − GRmin GRmax − GRmin .083 [2(3.0] Vsh = 0.1.7 x IGR) .5.
density. and neutron logs 5.4.4 Porosity Calculations – sonic.1 Sonic Figure 5-5.) ∆tf = transit time for the liquid filling the pore (usually 189 µs/ft.) ∆tma = transit time for the rock type (matrix) comprising the formation Φ= ∆t − ∆t ma ∆t f − ∆t ma . Idealized Sonic log.5.Φ) ∆tma Φ = porosity ∆t = log reading in microseconds/foot (µs/ft. Wyllie’s Time Average Equation ∆t = Φ ∆tf + (1.
2 Density Figure 5-6.) ρ f = transit time for the liquid filling the pore (usually 189 µs/ft.) ρ ma = transit time for the rock type (matrix) comprising the formation Φ= ρ ma − ρ b ρ ma − ρ f . ρb = Φ ρf + (1.4.5. Idealized Density log.Φ) ρma Φ = porosity ρ = log reading in microseconds/foot (µs/ft.
4. Read directly from logs May need matrix correction Φ= φD + φN 2 if no light hydrocarbons Φ= φD + φN 2 if light hydrocarbons as present .5. Idealized Neutron log.3 Neutron Figure 5-7.
F= 0. Formation factor equations have been approximated through the years by various workers and the following are the commonly used.62 φ 2.5.5 Water Saturation (Sw) Calculations Archie’s Equation F = Ro/Rw F = formation resistivity factor or simply formation factor Ro = resistivity of rock when water saturation is 1 (100% saturated) Rw = resistivity of saturating water F= a φm Φ =porosity a = cementation factor m = cementation exponent Figure 5-8.15 F= F= best average for sands (Humble) 0. Schematic illustration of three formations with same porosity but different values of F (formation factor).81 φ2 simplified Humble compacted formations 1 φ2 .
cross-plots. neutron. etc. Sw = Symbol Φ Character Porosity F (formation factor) Formation water resistivity Rock resistivity saturated 100% with water True formation resistivity Water saturation of pores 0.15 Rw Ro Rt Sw Sw Calculations Conventional Quick look Rwa “F” overlay SP Quick Look Clean Formation Shaly . density). cannot be measured with logs) Induction Logs and Laterologs (deep resistivity) Sw hydrocarbons Ro = Sw 100% water Rt 0. Calculated using empirical formulae (e.Swn = Ro/Rt Sw = water saturation Rt = resistivity of rock when Sw < 1 Combining the above equations gives Archie’s equation. Swn = aRw Rw =F m φ Rt Rt Practical average Archie’s Equation – general equation for finding water saturation.g. the most fundamental equation in well logging.62 φ 2.15 × Rt Derived from Porosity logs (sonic.62 × Rw φ 2. Humble formula) and porosity as above SP or laboratory measurements of resistivities of formation water samples Ro = F x Rw (can only be calculated.
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