Healing with Freshman Medical School Physiology

(How the Body is designed to Work)
Jerry Tennant, MD Tennant Institute for Integrative Medicine



Tennant Institute for Integrative Medicine 5601 N. MacArthur Blvd. Suite 200 Irving, TX 75038 972-580-1156 jtennant@tennantinstitute.com
© Copyright 2005
All Rights Reserved

This book is written for those with chronic disease and those wishing to avoid chronic disease. There are those who just want instructions on what to do to get well and don’t really care why or how it works. This first section is written for those. Others want to know all the details about what they are doing and why. The second part of the book is written for those. If you don’t want/need to know the why and how, you can skip the second part of the book. Another use for the second part of the book is information for those who think you are crazy for doing something other than “traditional medicine”. That includes friends, spouses, relatives, and some of your doctors. The things that we recommend are primary from freshman medical school physiology. For the benefit of your doctors, we have included a bibliography at the back of this booklet with the medical references about the things we are recommending. When we doctors go to medical school, we are taught basic physiology the first year. That teaches us how the body normally works. The second year we are taught what goes wrong with the body. The third and fourth years, we are taught to forget most of the first two years and memorize symptom complexes as “diseases”. We are then taught which drugs cover up the symptoms of those diseases. When that doesn’t work, we are taught to attempt to remove the offending part. After we get into practice, control of the patient is taken from the doctor by the insurance companies. When a doctor makes a diagnosis, he/she must select a code number for whatever diagnosis is made. That code number activates what are called “standards of practice”. That means that a computer programmed by an insurance company is now in control of your medical care. It tells the doctor what drugs must be prescribed and whether you can have surgery. It tells the doctor when you can be hospitalized and how many days you can stay there. Unless your doctor can justify another diagnosis code, you are controlled by the first one. Most HMO’s and PPO’s also set standards for doctors as far as when you can see a specialist and how many patients must be seen by the doctor daily. I know a family



practice doctor that is required to see 60 patients/day or lose his job. Under such circumstances, there is little time to talk to patients about the basics of diet and other things needed to stay well. There is no time to do anything but quickly write you another prescription and get you out the door. We do not accept any insurance. With that policy, the insurance companies cannot dictate the length of time we spend figuring out what is wrong with you. Neither do they dictate what we can do to attempt to make you well. What we do is basic freshman medical school physiology plus oriental medicine combined with modern electronics. There is nothing strange or unusual about what we do except that oriental medicine is not recognized by the FDA and insurance companies and thus is not commonly used or understood. Our clinic and doctor(s) do not replace your personal physician(s). We are simply consultants in Integrative Medicine doing things that your doctor may not have time to do. We are not your primary physician, and you must look to your primary physician as your basic and final advisor for medical care. You must consult with your primary physician for emergencies. We do not treat emergencies.

The Basics
The key to making chronic disease better is making a single cell work. If you give the body the things a single cell needs to work, the body often has the power to heal all of the cells of the body. That means you get well! A cell is made up of a cell membrane and the inside called the cytoplasm. The cell membrane is made of fats. It controls the cell and is consider the “brain” of the cell. That means you must have the proper fats to make those membranes. About 20% of your body is this fat, so if you weigh 200 pounds, you need 40 pounds of perfect fat to be healthy. Since cells replace themselves on an average of about 8 weeks, you would need to absorb about five pounds of fat per week to stay healthy! The cytoplasm of the cell is made up of proteins. There are eight proteins that the body can’t make (ten in children). Thus they are called essential proteins. You must eat enough protein to fill this need. To be used, proteins and fats need vitamins and minerals. To date, I have never seen a patient with a chronic disease that is not mineral deficient, and most are vitamin deficient as well. Cells need the following to be healthy: 1. Water with voltage (alkaline water) 2. Fats to make cell membranes



3. Proteins to make the cytoplasm (the “machinery”) inside cells. 4. Vitamins to allow the body to make the fats and proteins work. 5. Minerals to make the fats and proteins work and as On-Off switches and keep your pH in the operating range. 6. Oxygen 7. Sunshine 8. Voltage is the same as pH. The body must have voltage to function (the same as saying you must have an alkaline pH). The body normally runs at pH of 7.2 which is the same as -22 mV. We will be giving you these things as a part of getting you well. The next important thing to recognize is the importance of your liver/gallbladder. The gallbladder is a storage tank for the bile made by the liver. It often becomes filled with sludge and doesn’t function normally. This sludge becomes a breeding ground for all sorts of infections. They produce poisons called “neurotoxins” that make you sick. However, you need your gallbladder because the liver can’t make bile fast enough to allow you to absorb the fat you need to keep healthy. The key is to clean it---not to remove it. (If you have already had it removed, you will need to take bile supplements the rest of your life). The liver is in charge of: 1. Processing your digested food so that it can be used by the body to make new cells and to keep things working. 2. Getting the toxic things out of your body. 3. Controlling the immune system so you can keep infections under control. If your liver is sick, you lose these processes chronic disease.
http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.bnaiyer.com/health/liver3.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.bnaiyer.com/health/liver2.html&h=324&w=277&sz=24&tbnid=PShU2hJ6LYwJ:&tbnh=114&tbnw=97 &hl=en&start=5&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dliver%2Bcells%26svnum%3D10%2 6hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DG

The liver contains 35,000 square meters (about the surface of seven football fields) of membrane surface used to accomplish these things. These membranes are made of fat. If you don’t eat enough fat of the proper kind or if you eat fats that have been processed so they are similar to plastic, these membranes don’t work correctly. (These “plastic fats” are called “partially hydrogenated” fats and Canola Oil.)



etc. Once the liver cleans itself and repairs itself. You will need to take ox bile and digestive 01. begin to remove toxic chemicals (pesticides. If they make you nauseated.07 5 . Stop smoking. Splenda. The primary exception is anti-cholesterol drugs. You will have to stop eating fried foods and cheese in restaurants because these almost always are made of partially hydrogenated oils.02.S. is reactions to pharmaceuticals. do not do that without guidance. butter and eggs.) and turn on the immune system to get rid of infections.jpg http://www. “Partially hydrogenated” or Canola Oil. you are doomed to chronic diseases of all types. Stopping drugs suddenly often causes the body to have a bad reaction. you must stop using all forms of artificial sweeteners such as aspartame. You should stop them immediately. Eat lots of raw milk. Stop eating soy. The liver will begin to supply the nutrients needed. All of these are severe neurotoxins that the body doesn’t know how to get rid of.ac. Stop MSG as it is also a neurotoxin. They are all liver toxic and prevent the liver from cleaning itself. the rest of the body can begin to heal. To be healthy. saccharine. that means your liver isn’t making enough bile to absorb them. However.gov. pharmaceuticals. If you interfere with that process with drugs and continue to give your body only plastic fats to repair itself. It normally takes eight to sixteen weeks for the liver to replace itself with all new cells. Thus our initial efforts will be to clean up and repair your liver/gall bladder.uk/emunit/emunit/temcells/images/liver.jpg When the liver gets clogged up with debris because the membranes are made of plastic. Your cholesterol level will go to normal as we clean the liver and give it the fat it needs to repair itself.greenhouse.http://www. xylitol and others ending in “–ol”. A high cholesterol means your liver is trying to clean itself---much like you would try to clean the filter from your air conditioner. tea.abdn. Remember that the leading cause of death in the U. You should have the goal of getting off your drugs. it tries to wash itself with cholesterol. you must stop eating anything that says. and alcohol.au/lgmodules/wep/hvac/t raining/components/images/filter. Stop drinking coffee. Just listen to the drug advertisements on TV and you will realize that all drugs have side effects. In addition.

This workbook will be your guide to getting well.enzymes with each meal until your liver can make bile on its own. but they are still there and the rotting goes on. with 1/3 protein. You dream of living in that wonderful house and all the fun you will have in it. and 1/3 carbohydrates with the carbs from fruits and vegetables. sewage. medications are simply paint. and electricity. Let’s assume that you have bought an old house that hasn’t been lived in for several years. You will need water. It won’t happen overnight. but the degeneration in your body continues. You will be given specific instructions in the office according to your findings. So now you own the old house. What must be done before you can move in? First you will want to restore the utilities. Well----your body is that house.07 6 . you love that old house and want to return it to its former glory. If you paint over a board eaten by termites. You will be able to eat fats without trouble when we get your liver working again. the degeneration in your joints continues. So let’s get started on those: WATER 01. So that’s the summary. You just don’t feel the pain while the joints continue to rot. If You Want To Know The Details. If you have arthritis and you take medication. Eat things that don’t have the toxins listed above. In fact.02. Read The Following: So you are sick and tired of being sick and tired. you may not see the holes in the board for awhile. Try to vary your diet. and there are no miracle pills to make it normal. Medications cover up the symptoms. However. Now we have to start the process of returning it to normal. 1/3 fat.

Copper is also a zinc antagonist. it changes how the water reacts in the body. Without stomach acid. When things are put into water to make them into some other drink. it is not. Would you wash your car with coffee? Then consider washing the inside of your body with coffee or tea or sodas. the body can’t repair itself. Drinking water that has been made into carbonated beverages is drinking acid that is so concentrated. For example. In addition. In addition. That means it contains electrons available for your body to use in its metabolism. coffee. you can’t make stomach acid. Without nutrition. Unfortunately. Is it any wonder so much of our population is depressed? Many think it is healthy to drink distilled water. (Alcohol also blocks selenium. You can kill yourself drinking distilled water. if you put one drop of distilled water inside an eye. Thus it is the basis of who you are and how healthy you are. it becomes acidic. the cornea immediately becomes opaque and the cells inside the eye are killed as the minerals are pulled out of them. you can use it to clean the grease off your engine or clean out your toilet! Can that possibly be good for you? Your cells are composed of water. Without zinc. 1 7 Another problem is bottled water. dopamine. you can’t digest your food. if you put chlorine and/or fluoride in it. zinc is one of the most important elements in the body. It is perhaps cleaner than city water. Anything that is acidic is an electron stealer. 7 . Zinc is blocked by alcohol. you have probably been lead to believe that drinking things containing water is the same as drinking water-----not so. Drinking acidic water steals electrons from your cells and damages them. Anything that is alkaline is an electron donor. Bottled water is almost always city water that has been put through a filter. it will be alkaline (finding good water anywhere in the world is getting harder because of chemical contaminations). you can’t make neurochemicals like serotonin. Distilled water pulls minerals out of your cells and into the water.The body is about 70-80% water. and tea. Many cities have tap water that has toxic levels of copper.) Trying to get your fluids by drinking these substances will almost guarantee that you will become depressed. If you take good water from a well or an uncontaminated stream. However. but it is still acidic and contains many other chemicals. norepinephrine and epinephrine. without zinc. but it is also what your body uses to wash the inside of your body to clean away the garbage that gets into the body.

Asthma. Dry eyes. 17. Fat gain around hips. 10. 3. Endometriosis.000 plus installation. 2. 4. You probably have noticed that bottled water left in the sun tastes like plastic. Headaches. 7. Anxiety. What most of us didn’t realize is that that plastic acts like estrogen in our bodies causing hormonal imbalances and blocking zinc. Perhaps the best water system is the one invented by Viktor Schauberger in Switzerland. 6. Hypoglycemia. You should drink your water from a bottle made of glass or from a plastic bottle with at least a number two in the triangle. Breast cancer. you will see a triangle that contains the number one. A number one usually relates to a clear plastic that is not totally polymerized. Fibrocystic breasts. Most sports water bottles have a number seven in the triangle. 19. Fatigue. 11. 14. Aging. Decreased sex drive. 8 . Estrogen Unopposed by Progesterone blocks zinc.If you look on the bottom of bottled water you buy most places. 8. Foggy thinking 16. 15. 12. Hair loss. If you leave such a bottle in the sun. 9. the polymers from the bottle will enter the water and poison it. Gall bladder disease. Cold hands and feet. 20. magnesium and vitamin B6 and leads to: 1. Ask us for detail if you want to get one of these systems. It costs about $2. 5. Cervical cancer. 18. It attaches to the main entering your home and provides good water for the entire house. Increased blood clotting 21. That number relates to the kind of plastic used to manufacture the bottle. Increases in heart attacks and strokes. 13. Allergies. Autoimmune disorders.

If you still feel hungry a few minutes 9 . The water coming out of the system is much better than that going in. If you dehydrate the patient. I recommend the system developed by Nikken. intracellular water. My recommendation is that you avoid drinking anything but water. know that it is toxic to your system and be prepared for the consequences. but I have personally tested the pH. we cause their blood pressure to be too low or the inside of the cells to become too thick to function. One can tell that using a device called the Biological Impedance Analysis device. and extracellular water. The only sure way to know is to measure with the BIA device shown above. soon both glasses of tea will be the same color. they often have decreased minerals in their body. Sometimes I see doctors tell their patients to drink less water because some lab test shows they have too little of something in their blood such as sodium. Then we know if the patient has too much or too little water or too much or too little “stuff” in the water. If we do that to patients. However. a good rule of thumb is to drink water every time you feel hungry. the test might show a “normal” amount of tea in each. Their explanation of how the system works may not be totally accurate. and conductivity of tap water before and after it has gone through the Nikken system. When people are sick. However. How much water to drink is always a question. there might not be enough volume left in the dehydrated glass to do much with. We must correct lab results by looking at total body water. If I ran a lab test on both glasses. It is much cheaper than buying bottled water. The cost of the system is about $300-$400 and you can make gallons and gallons of water before having to replace the filters. Drinking water dilutes the minerals even more  reduction in the voltage  feel worse. One is very dark and the other is very light. Redox potential. the lab test will come back to normal but the patient feels worse. The answer is to restore the minerals and voltage and that allows you to drink the necessary amount of water. If you must drink something else.For those who can’t afford the Shauberger system. Put it in your sports bottle (number two or greater in the triangle on the bottom) if you need to be away from home. If I put the light colored one out in the sun and let some of the water evaporate. Let’s assume you have two glasses of tea each containing eight ounces. rH2.

If you simply take a lot of the above minerals. You will need to purchase this mineral testing/treatment kit. Minerals and vitamins are also important in manufacturing of things you need. Vitamin B6 8. and the necessary vitamins. magnesium zinc. If you don’t have serotonin. iron. To relax the muscle. you can’t make serotonin. Vitamin C If you don’t have calcium. magnesium is necessary. it won’t hold a charge. So in our old house analogy. If you run out of one of them. If it tastes like water or sweet. Magnesium 8. Copper 6.after drinking. you will become depressed. An example is neurochemicals. you may be so out of balance that things don’t work correctly. Vitamin B3 5. Vitamin B6 7. mineral acts as On-Off switches in the body. So it is with your body. Magnesium 5. calcium is necessary. If you think about the battery in your car. Minerals Minerals play an important role in the body. one needs the following: 1. In addition. copper. Iron 4. then eat. Zinc 4. For example. you get stuck in either on or off. The easiest way to tell if you need a particular mineral is to taste that mineral in solution. Vitamin C To make dopamine and norepinephrine from the amino acid L-phenylalanine. 10 . to contract a muscle. Folate 2. Vitamin B3 7. you know that if you put distilled water in it. This is particularly true of calcium and magnesium. Calcium turns things on and magnesium turns things off. Iron 3. you must have: 1. The other problem is that the minerals need to be balanced. Zinc 6. Ten minerals are dropped onto your tongue. Folate 2. To make serotonin from the protein L-tryptophan. The sense of hunger is often the signal the body really wants more water. Calcium 3. you will begin by washing out the debris inside and outside your house.

All three block zinc and alcohol blocks selenium. and alcohol. Place the ones that don’t taste really bad in your morning juice. tea. When one of the minerals starts tasting really bad. you don’t need it anymore. Because our soils are so depleted of minerals.you are deficient in it. If it tastes metallic or bitter. you don’t need it. Some of the most commonly consumed water substitutes are coffee. Recheck every week until each mineral deficiency is corrected. Recheck your mineral level at least once every 3-4 months. Look at the symptoms caused by a deficiency of these minerals: Alcohol intolerance Zinc (30) Asthma Zinc (30) Belching Zinc (30) Bloating Zinc (30) Boils Zinc (30) Brittle nails Zinc (30) Bronchitis Zinc (30) Colds Zinc (30) Conjunctivitis Zinc (30) Delayed healing Zinc (30) Depression Zinc (30) Dermatitis Zinc (30) Disrupted sleep Zinc (30) Dry skin Zinc (30) Ear infections Zinc (30) Early graying hair Zinc (30) Eczema Zinc (30) Fidgeting Zinc (30) Frequent sore throats Zinc (30) Gastric-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) Zinc (30) Gastroenteritis Zinc (30) Hair Loss Zinc (30) Hay fever Zinc (30) Hyperactivity Zinc (30) Increased cholesterol Zinc (30) Infertility Zinc (30) Itchy skin Zinc (30) Joint pain Zinc (30) Joint stiffness Zinc (30) Loss of libido Zinc (30) Low blood sugar (hypoglycemic) Zinc (30) Low white blood cell count Zinc (30) Lung infections Zinc (30) Missed periods Zinc (30) Moodiness Zinc (30) 11 . you will need to replace them periodically.

tea. It is a way of talking about the amount of acid and base in our bodies. and/or alcohol make you susceptible to the misery of all of these things = everything from athlete’s foot to cancer! Now doesn’t drinking water make more sense? It is also important to remember that taking antacids or drugs that block stomach acid production causes you to be deficient in zinc. Water (H2O) ionizes into hydrogen (H+) and hydroxyl (OH-) ions. When these 12 . Zinc (30) Zinc (30) Zinc (30) Zinc (30) Zinc (30) Zinc (30) Zinc (30) Zinc (30) Zinc (30) Zinc (30) Zinc (30) Zinc (30) Zinc (30) Zinc (30) Zinc (30) Selenium (34) Selenium (34) Selenium (34) Selenium (34) Selenium (34) Selenium (34) Selenium (34) Selenium (34) Selenium (34) Selenium (34) Selenium (34) Drinking coffee. pH and Calcium pH stands for “Potential Hydrogen”. pH is measured on a log rhythmic scale where 0 is the most acidic and 14 is the most alkaline.Pimples Pneumonia Poor coping with stress Poor memory Pre-dinner tantrums Prolonged infections Psoriasis Runny nose Sinusitis Stomach ulcers Stretch marks Temper outbursts Thrush (mouth fungus) Tinea (athlete's foot) Warts Arthritis Asthma Autoimmune diseases Cancer Cardiomyopathy Depression Diabetes Heart disease Hypothyroid Increased cholesterol Increased infections Note: zinc has an atomic number of 30 and selenium 34. Seven (7) is considered neutral. This makes you susceptible to all of the above things noted with zinc deficiency. It is also a way of talking about the amount of voltage in our body.

the pH is a neutral 7. If OH. Chronic disease and pain are almost always associated with an acidic pH which is the same as saying that chronic disease and pain are almost always associated with a loss of voltage. The pH scale goes from 0 to 14 and is logarithmic. 100 times more acid than 6. A pH of 0 is the same as +400 mVolts.5.5 is 10 times more acid than 5. In the body. 13 .5.000 times more acid than 7.ions are in equal proportions.ions outnumber the H+ ions then the water is said to be "alkaline". Health is associated with the presence of voltage which is the same as saying that healthy people have an alkaline pH. In other words.2 or -22 mVolts. a pH of 4. being able to hold a charge of voltage is associated with minerals in general and calcium in particular. When there are more H+ ions than OH.ions then the water is said to be "acid". pH is also a measure of voltage. which means that each step is ten times the previous. A pH of 14 is the same as -400 mVolts. Cells normally operate at about pH of 7.5 and 1.

However. you get trace minerals as well.5 after you get rid of your first morning urine. Calcium carbonate is alkaline with a pH of about 10. In addition to the calcium. A good source of calcium carbonate is from coral. 565 mg of coral calcium would contain about 110 mg of calcium carbonate. Calcium citrate is acidic. The carbon dioxide is breathed out through the lungs.When you begin your day. IF YOUR URINE OR YOUR SALIVARY pH FALLS BELOW 6. This is accomplished partly by having the carbonic acid dissociate into carbon dioxide and water. You can think of it as how much voltage is stored in your cellular batteries. However. Measurement of the urinary pH gives you an indication of how much acid is being dumped out by the kidneys. if your daytime urine pH is less than 6. However. 14 . so some of it is removed by combining with ammonia from the liver and intestine to form urea nitrogen. meters are available for about $100. This creates a byproduct of carbonic acid. one cannot breathe fast enough to get rid of all the necessary carbon dioxide.5. Daytime is a time of running the “machinery” and creating acids.5. This acid must be eliminated from the body or the body loses its charge (becomes acidic). Measurement of the salivary pH gives you a good indication of how the cellular pH. YOU NEED MORE CALCIUM. It will cause your system to become more alkaline. Nighttime is a time of replacing worn out cells and eliminating the acids you created through the day that you didn’t get rid of through the day. Here is the color code that tells you your pH: Sometimes it is difficult to decide which color is the correct one on the strip. If you want to have a more accurate way to measure pH. your salivary pH must be tested either the first thing when you wake up before you drink any water or two hours after a meal. Coral calcium is about 1/5 calcium carbonate.5. you are dumping more acid because your tissue has become too acidic. It should also be about 6. you “turn on the body machinery”. Test it with pH strips. It should never be lower than 6. For example. If you take it. you will make yourself more acidic. you can’t just take any calcium. To be accurate. That is eliminated through the kidneys. (The first morning urine represents the acid you got rid of during the night).

5 None Note that this recommendation has you taking some calcium even if your pH is above 6. Neurochemicals and Plankton There are two basic theories of how to get people with chronic disease well and keep them that way.2. the higher the pH reading. None 6. The other is the give the body the things it needs to manufacture new cells and let it heal itself. This is advantageous if you are dealing with serious illness because microorganisms can’t grow in an alkaline pH. A salivary pH of 6. The problem is that we need ALL of them at the same time for things to work.0-6. Thus one has to adjust the cellular pH numbers by about 0. it has been difficult to determine what is actually needed to make new cells. For those wishing to support the latter theory.4 (salivary pH 6.A guide for the amount to take is: pH <6.7) cancer cells become dormant and at pH 8. One is that we must find a drug that will substitute for a broken “gear” in the body or to repair the “gears” mechanically (surgery). .0 Coral calcium Calcium carbonate 7700 mg (fourteen capsules/day) 110 mg x 14 = 1540 mg 110 mg x 10 = 1100 mg. At a pH slightly above 7.5 3300 mg (six capsules/day) >7. My practice is one of Integrative Medicine where we see 15 There are very few products that provide all or even most of the raw materials to make new cells and sustain the existing ones.8) cancer cells will die while healthy cells will live. My feeling has always been that Heavenly Father would not design a body that requires unusual potions from far-away places to make us healthy. the more alkaline and oxygen rich the fluid is.htm Thus it is sometimes advantageous to push the pH above 6.net/~jclark/coral_calcium. Cancer and all diseases hate oxygen / pH balance.0-7. People are always saying things like they have a new herb from Africa or a fruit from China that will magically heal everything. Cancer cells have trouble growing with alkaline pH as well. Again.5 suggests a cellular pH of 7. 110 mg x 6 = 660 mg. http://home.5 5500 mg (ten capsules/day) 7.5 if you are trying to overcome a chronic illness.7.5 (salivary pH 7. Cancer cells cannot survive in an oxygen rich environment. Such findings are often useful for some but not predictable for most. The cancer cell has an acid pH and lack of oxygen.bluegrass. The normal human cell has a lot of molecular oxygen and a slightly alkaline pH.5.

A. 4. Carbohydrates: Needed primarily to provide vitamins and minerals.primarily people who have been sick for years and who “have tried it all”. 5 16 . 3. I personally suffered from viral encephalitis and a bleeding disorder that kept me incapacitated for seven years. Minerals are also used by the body as “On-Off” switches. What I have come to appreciate is that one must provide the raw materials for the body to make new cells. Voltage: Voltage is stored in the cell membrane of every cell to give cells the energy to work. Proteins: Every cell in the body contains “machinery” made up of proteins that do the work of the cell. cells need minerals. Water: The body is about 75% water. Minerals: To use the fats and proteins. B. It needs to be clean water that is alkaline (contains voltage). Fat: Every cell membrane in the body is made of two layers of fats called phospholipids. 2. So what are those raw materials?: 1. If one does that. Vitamins: To use the fats and proteins. even severely and chronically ill patients can heal. cells need vitamins.

B5 (pantothenic acid). It is the result of the heart contracting and pushing blood into the vessels.There are very few products that provide all or even most of the raw materials to make new cells and sustain the existing ones. It is the most important number because a persistently high pressure can damage the vessels. B6 (pyridoxine). B1 (thiamine). you didn’t get them all at the same time! Blood Pressure Blood pressure is related to water. It should be between 80-90. B3 (niacin). It is the minimum operating pressure to make your tires work 1 7 . you will often have symptoms. This is particularly true if one stops putting toxic materials such as artificial sweeteners and Trans fats (partially hydrogenated fats) into our body. one needs a protein You may get a few of the things you need to called tryptophan to make the brain chemical called serotonin. That is not true. It is a measure of the highest pressure in your system. and D (tocopherol) and major and trace minerals are all present in phytoplankton. It is often said that blood pressure cannot be too low unless you have symptoms. The upper number of your blood pressure is called “systolic”. It is a measure of the lowest pressure in the system and is the pressure present when the heart is between beats and is refilling itself with blood for the next pulse. I have also found that one can replace neurochemicals with phytoplankton even when the liver is too sick to allow the person to take products with just the amino acids and vitamins/minerals necessary to make them. it contains almost everything one needs to sustain life. e. B12 (cobalamin). It is exciting to find something that seems to contain most of the things necessary to get well and stay well. Vitamins A (beta-carotene). When the diastolic pressure is below 80. you will not have enough pressure to get enough blood to your brain and you will have symptoms of chronic fatigue. Therefore. The second number is called “diastolic” pressure. Blood pressure is much like tire pressure for your car. C. It is likely that phytoplankton will change the way we think about health. The essential fatty acids are also present (Omega 3 and Omega 6). it contains almost everything one needs to restore health by providing the raw materials to make new cells that function normally. For example. “Cold” pressure is the pressure in your tires when the car has not been moving.g. However. zinc. It contains the ten amino acids that the body cannot make and must be consumed in our diet (essential amino acids).. If the blood pressure is too low. B2 (riboflavin). If you are missing product you are taking one of them. be healthy from a it takes eight vitamins and minerals for this to work. you can’t make serotonin. The problem is that we need ALL of them at the same time for things to work. You may get a few of this month and a few the things you need to be healthy from a product you are taking this from the product you month and a few from the product you take next month but neither works take next month but neither works because because you didn’t get them all at the same time! One of those rare products that contains almost everything you need for life (and the rebuilding of a healthy life) is phytoplankton. Any fluid system needs---fluids! Having a normal pressure inside your vascular system is key to feeling well. In short.

CVD risk doubles for each increment of 20/10 mm Hg  Those who are normotensive at 55 years of age will have a 90% lifetime risk of developing hypertension  Prehypertensive individuals (systolic BP 120-139 mm Hg or diastolic BP 80-89 mm Hg) require health-promoting lifestyle modifications to prevent the progressive rise in blood pressure and CVD. Phone: 301-592-8573 or 240629-3255 (TTY). the heat created increases the pressure in the tires and is called the “hot” pressure. If that is too high. or <130/80 mm hg) for patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease. it will damage the tire walls.  This report delineates specific high-risk conditions that are compelling indications for the use of other antihypertensive drug classes (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. initiation of therapy using two agents.O. It is the maximum pressure experienced by the tires. The key messages of this report are these:  In those older than age 50. MD 20824-0105. thiazide diuretic should be used in drug treatment for most. beta-blockers. Bethesda.correctly.  For patients whose BP is more than 20 mm Hg above the systolic BP goal or more than 10 mm Hg above the diastolic BP goal..)  Two or more antihypertensive medications will be required to achieve goal BP (<140/90 mm hg. When the tire starts rolling. 2003. either alone or combined with drugs from other classes. The National High Blood Pressure Education Program is coordinated by the National Heart. 1 8 . Lung. and Blood Institute (NHLBI) at the National Institutes of Health. and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) is to provide an evidence-based approach to the prevention and management of hypertension.  For uncomplicated hypertension.nih. angiotensin-receptor blockers. So it is with blood pressure. Your tires are designed to operate within these ranges. should be considered. P. Too high or too low means the tires will not function correctly. Think of systolic blood pressure as “hot” pressure and diastolic blood pressure as “cold” pressure. Published Abstract: The purpose of the Seventh Report of the Joint Evaluation. systolic blood pressure (BP) of greater than 140 mm Hg is a more important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor than diastolic BP  Beginning at 115/75 mm Hg.gov or from the NHLBI Health Information Center. calcium channel blockers. A major recommendation from the National Institutes of Health was published in May. Box 30105. one of which usually will be a thiazide diuretic.nhlbi. Copies of the JNC 7 Report are available on the NHLBI Web site at http://www.  Regardless of therapy or care. Fax: 301-592-8563. hypertension will be controlled only if patients are motivated to stay on their treatment plan.

stop smoking. exercise. etc. Cumulative incidence of cardiovascular events in women (panel A) and men (panel B) without hypertension. In that case. the higher of the two categories was used. Optimal BP is defined here as a systolic pressure of <120 mmHg and a diastolic pressure of <80 mmHg. start with a diazide diuretic as first choice medication. treat to <130/80.  For those over 140/90 (or diabetics or kidney disease with >130/80). or prevent hypertension entirely.  For those with BP from 120/80 to 140/90. according to blood pressure category at the base-line examination. 1 9 . If the systolic and diastolic pressure readings for a subject were in different categor ies. Normal BP is a systolic pressure of 120–129 mmHg or a diastolic pressure of 80–84 mmHg. decrease the rate of progression of BP to hypertensive levels with age.” The recommendations from the Committee on Prevention and Treatment of High Blood Pressure are:  Treat to a BP of <140/90 unless you have diabetes or chronic kidney disease. This new designation is intended to identify those individuals in whom early intervention by adoption of healthy lifestyles could reduce BP. High-normal BP is a systolic pressure of 130–139 mmHg or a diastolic pressure of 85–89 mmHg.“Because of the new data on lifetime risk of hypertension and the impressive increase in the risk of cardiovascular complications associated with levels of BP previously considered to be normal. start behavior modifications for dietary choices. Vertical bars indicate 95 percent confidence intervals. the JNC 7 report has introduced a new classification that includes the term “prehypertension” for those with BPs ranging from 120–139 mmHg systolic and/or 80–89 mmHg diastolic.

Several of my family members have been treated this way. they are believed to assist with:  Competition against harmful micro-organisms including Candida. particularly sodium and magnesium. In addition to digestion. preventing colonization of pathogens through the production of inhibitory substances including acids and hydrogen 2 0 . If you don’t have enough fluid in the system. We will give you the instructions in the office. they are told to keep taking the medications. It can also be due to adrenal insufficiency. This is the common practice of physicians treating lab results and not the patient. people seem to fear this simple process. If a patient can’t work because you have lowered their blood pressure too low. you haven’t really served the patient. I find that most patients will have a normal blood pressure in 4-6 months after starting the program of restoring voltage and nutrition. they often choose drugs other than diuretics as the beginning medication. One of the most important systems in the body is the large intestine. For some reason. When they report the symptoms to their physicians. Unstable blood pressure is often due to a lack of magnesium and/or Vitamin B1 = thiamine. Another cause is mineral deficiency. Low blood pressure can be a symptom of a deficiency of Vitamin B5 = pantothenic acid. that is a sign that your adrenals are not working correctly. Very few people find it uncomfortable or distressing. Since most physicians have to see so many patients per day. If your blood pressure drops instead of increasing as you stand up. One of the principle causes of too low blood pressure is dehydration. It has been my experience that many people with diastolic pressures <80 will have mental fog and/or dizziness because there isn’t enough pressure to get adequate blood to the brain. Also. It just means you need to be at home for a few hours. you can’t create enough pressure. it has been my experience that many skip step one of behavior modification and often start drug therapy in all patients whose blood pressure is >120/80. We will start our cleanup by flushing out the large intestine to remove the debris that has accumulated there. Add additional medications as needed to reach goal BP. They are an important part of the digestive process and need to be replaced if they are diminished in numbers by the use of antibiotics. Sewage As we clean up our old house now and in the future we will wash out the debris and need a functional sewage system to get rid of the toxic and waste materials. Probiotics The word “probiotic” refers to bacteria that normally live in our intestines and help with digestion.

including enhanced macrophage activity. we can determine if each organ has enough voltage to work correctly. In infants. Reduction in liver toxicity. If we find a circuit that isn’t working. Enhancement of vitamin status (B. Enhancement of peristalsis. In your house. there is a circuit breaker box that goes to the various circuits throughout the house. We use a device called Meridian Energy Analysis Device (MEAD) to take these measurements. prevention of osteoporosis through increased calcium uptake. you need electricity. When one of those quits working. Reduction in the levels of and deactivation of potential cancer causing chemicals. travelers' diarrhea. you can measure the circuit to see what is happening with the voltage in that circuit. All of the chemical reactions in the body depend upon voltage (movement of electrons). particularly in the colon and direct anti-tumor activity of certain strains. digestion. So it is with our body. fats. When electrons move from one place to another. Immune enhancement. skin problems. It will read voltage. These circuits provide voltage to our organs and move the voltage from place to place. digestion of proteins. we use various electronic devices to place voltage into that circuit and recharge the cells. We have twelve paired circuits on which our organs are attached. Enhancement and balance of estrogen levels. Every cell has its own battery pack---the cell membrane---that stores voltage and provides it to the cell as needed to keep it working. Take a voltmeter that reads in millivolts. allergies. When two hydrogen atoms join with an oxygen atom to form water. the first thing they do is exchange electrons. Protection against food poisoning. Our bodies work much the same way. Different appliances and switches are on each circuit.        peroxide and natural antibiotics. By measuring the voltage or impedance (resistance to flow of electrons) in each circuit. promotion of healthy digestive tract colonization. K). Place one electrode on your right temple and one on your left temple. These circuits are known as acupuncture meridians. Electricity Now that you have the water and sewage working in your old house. Enhancement of digestion of lactose (milk sugar). carbohydrates. Note: The FDA has not yet approved these devices for this purpose nor considered these 2 1 . that is called an electric current. regularity and re-absorption of nutrients.

These partially 2 2 . The summary of this section is as follows: Food suppliers recognized that the major loss of profits was from spoilage. You can tell if this is what you are eating if the label says. you will never get well! Please pay particular attention to this section. They added chemicals to the food to keep it from spoiling. They began to cook the fats in the food. These chemicals not only preserve food. If you don’t stop putting Trans Fats (“Plastic Fats”) into your body. they preserve the person who eats them. In order to stop spoilage and increase their profits. they did two things. and other devices that can carry voltage into the body. One of the devices we use to restore voltage to the body is the Tennant Biomodulator™. 2. We may also use a variety of low-level lasers. COOKING OILS This is one of the most important parts of getting well. Cooking fats at 350-380 degrees for 5-6 hours changes the fats into something that is one carbon atom away from plastic. infra-red. Normal is when all of the bars are between the top and bottom red lines. 1. “Partially Hydrogenated-----“. we look at the total body voltage and then at the voltage in each circuit. In this chart.statements.

blindness. it makes a new cell out of plastic. the glucose can’t get through the “cellophane” and the cell keeps complaining that it’s hungry. strokes. Water with voltage (alkaline water) Fats to make cell membranes Proteins to make the cytoplasm (the “machinery”) inside cells. If all you have given your body is plastic fat. etc. Minerals to make the fats and proteins work and as On-Off switches and keep your pH in the operating range. 2. Thus cheeseburgers and French fries are major sources of plastic fats. chronic fatigue.hydrogenated fats are called “Trans Fats”. it will be strong but won’t work 2 3 . the cell doesn’t work very well. Most cheese is made from plastic fats. Your cell membranes are like your home. The cell sends a message to your brain that it’s hungry. it makes a new one. The body normally runs at a pH of 7. Voltage is the same as pH.2 inside cells which is the same as -22 mV. but not much gets through the cellophane to the cells. etc. It looks around to see what building materials you have provided to make a new cell. The point you must understand is that if you insist on feeding your body plastic fats. Sunshine 8. your body will build a new you that is vibrant and healthy! Cells need the following to work: 1. Your brain keeps you eating to try to solve the hunger. With all that glucose in your blood stream. If you build your house out of concrete blocks with no windows or doors.). Your cells keep complaining that they are hungry. However. Fast food isn’t dangerous because it’s fast---it is dangerous because it’s plastic. Oxygen 7. When a cell in your body is worn out. liver failure. The body keeps sending more insulin and glucose. you are diagnosed with Type II diabetes. The body must have voltage to function (the same as saying a normal body has an alkaline pH). you must stop eating fried food or choose a restaurant that doesn’t use plastic fats. Much of it gets put into fat cells. 4. Most restaurants use plastic fats for frying food. kidney failure. Your body sends the cell some glucose and insulin. Remember that the cell membrane that surrounds every cell is made of fat. you will never get well! However. If you make that out of plastic. Soon they began to wear out and you get symptoms of worn out cells = heart attacks. but your cells are still coping with being made of plastic. They need to be strong enough to be substantial but have doorways and windows to let things in and out. 6. Vitamins to allow the body to make the fats and proteins work. There is a lot of confusion about the type of fat to eat. Soon you are obese and your pancreas is worn out from making so much insulin. It is like wrapping all your cells in cellophane. Drugs lower the levels of sugar in your blood. Many people are becoming toxic from too much Omega-3 fats (from fish oil. 3. 5. If you eat out. if you give your body good fat and the other things it needs.

The liver makes as much or as little cholesterol as it wants. "Why butter is good for you (health aspects of dietary fat). (Why would you want to interfere with the liver’s ability to clean itself by taking cholesterol-lowering drugs?) A very low cholesterol means the liver is too sick to clean itself and you will suffer major illness or death soon. A high cholesterol means your liver filtration system is dirty and filled with toxic materials. In cells. Ph. 800-231-1776.because you can’t get in or out. Enig.D.   The following is reproduced with permission from Sally Fallon with Pat Connolly and Mary G. Eating lots of butter and eggs (a stick of butter and 6-12 eggs per day) will help you get well much faster. 03-01. If you build it with mostly doors and windows. If you weigh 200 pounds. you will need to eat at least 20% of your body weight in good fat. et al 2 4 . the next storm will take it down. Consumers' Research magazine. If you weigh 200 pounds. In fact. Remember that your body should contain about 20% fat since all of your cell membranes and most of your nervous system is fat. you will need to eat at least 40 pounds of good fat to get well! Seventyfive percent of that needs to be saturated fat like animal fat and twenty-five percent needs to be polyunsaturated fat like fish oil. and Sally Fallon. Eating good fat doesn’t affect your cholesterol or make you obese. We will have to treat your liver so it can restore itself before you can get well. The liver uses cholesterol to clean itself. Eating plastic fat (Trans fats) makes you obese and produces a liver and other cells that cannot function.Vol. you will need to give your body 40 pounds of good fat to get healthy! Remember the following:  There is no proven connection between cholesterol and heart disease. those dying      from heart attacks generally have the lowest cholesterol levels and often have low “bad cholesterol (LDL) levels. To get well. saturated fats are strong and unsaturated fats are porous." (Cover Story). it means your liver is too sick to use it. There is a difference between plastic fats and normal saturated fats. ProMotion Publishing. COPYRIGHT 1996 Consumers' Research Inc. Why Butter is Good for You (health aspects of dietary fat) Sally Fallon. The following discussion is for those who don’t understand this problem and insist that eating fat is harmful. Saturated fats have gotten a bad reputation because plastic fats are saturated. If eating fat makes you nauseated. You need saturated fat (animal fat for example) to make strong cells and unsaturated fats (fish oils for example) for doors and windows.79 (1996) pp 10(6). Nourishing Traditions: The Cookbook that Challenges Politically Correct Nutrition and the Diet Dictocrats. That means you need to give your body 24 pounds of good fat to replace the fat in your system if you weigh 120 pounds. The ratio needs to be 4/1 meaning that you need to eat four times as much saturated fat as unsaturated fats = four times as many bricks as doors and windows.

Politically correct nutrition is based on the assumption that we should reduce our intake of fats, particularly saturated fats from animal sources. Fats from animal sources contain cholesterol, presented as the villain of the civilized diet. Yet the textbooks tell us that fats from animal and vegetable sources provide a concentrated source of energy in the diet; they also provide the building blocks for cell membranes, for hormones, and for prostaglandins (substances that mediate important chemical processes in the body). In addition, they act as carriers for the important fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K. Dietary fats are needed for conversion of carotene to vitamin A and for a host of other processes. The theory—and it is only a theory—that there is a direct relationship between the amount of saturated fat in the diet and the incidence of coronary heart disease, as well as certain types of cancer, was proposed by a researcher named Ancel Keys in the late 1950s. Numerous subsequent studies have questioned his data and conclusions. Nevertheless, Keys' articles received far more publicity than those contradicting him. The vegetable oil industry and food processing industries, the main beneficiaries of the saturated fat/heart disease connection, began promoting and funding further research designed to support Keys' theories. The most well-known advocate of the low fat diet was Dr. Nathan Pritikin. Actually, Pritikin advocated eliminating sugar, white flour, and all processed foods from the diet and recommended the use of fresh raw foods, whole grains, and a strenuous exercise program; but it was the low fat aspects of his regimen that received the most attention in the media. Adherents found that they lost weight and that their blood cholesterol levels and blood pressures declined. The success of the Pritikin diet was probably due to a number of factors having nothing to do with a reduction in dietary fat—weight loss alone, for example, will precipitate a reduction in blood cholesterol levels—but Pritikin soon found that the fat-free diet presented many problems, not the least of which was the fact that people just could not stay on it. Those who possessed enough will power to stay fat-free for any length of time developed a variety of health problems including low energy, difficulty in concentration, depression, weight gain, and signs of mineral deficiencies.

After problems with the no-fat regimen became apparent, Pritikin introduced a small amount of fat from vegetable sources into his diet—something like 10 percent of the total caloric intake. Today the "diet dictocrats"—essentially the public health establishment, including primarily the large health charities and the federal government—advise us to limit fats to 25-30 percent of the caloric intake (12-15 percent of the diet by weight). A careful reckoning of daily fat intake, and avoidance of animal fats, is presented as the key to perfect health.

The experts assure us the theory that animal fat consumption causes coronary heart disease is backed by abundant evidence. Most people would be surprised to learn that there is, in fact, very 2 5

little evidence to support the contention that a diet low in cholesterol and saturated fat actually reduces death from heart disease or in any way increases one's life span. Consider the following: Before 1920, coronary heart disease was rare in America, so rare that when a young internist named Paul Dudley White introduced the German electrocardiograph to his colleagues at Harvard University, they advised him to concentrate on a more profitable branch of medicine. The new machine revealed the presence of arterial blockages, thus permitting early diagnosis of coronary heart disease; but in those days clogged arteries were a medical rarity, and White had to search for patients who could benefit from his new technology. During the next forty years, however, the incidence of coronary heart disease rose dramatically, so much so that by the mid'50s, heart disease was the leading cause of death among Americans. Today, heart disease causes 40 percent of all U.S. deaths. If, as we have been told, heart disease results from consumption of saturated fats, one would expect to find a corresponding increase in animal fat in the American diet. Actually the reverse is true. During the sixty-year period from 1910 to 1970, the proportion of traditional animal fat in the American diet declined from 83 to 62 percent, and butter consumption plummeted from eighteen pounds per person per year to four pounds. During the past eighty years, dietary cholesterol intake has increased only one percent. During the same period the percentage of dietary vegetable fat in the form of margarine, shortening, and refined oils increased about 400 percent, and the consumption of sugar and processed foods increased about 60 percent. The Framingham Heart Study is often cited as proof of the cholesterol/animal fat theory. This study began in 1948 and involved about 6,000 people from the town of Framingham, Massachusetts. Two groups were compared at five-year intervals— those who consumed little cholesterol and saturated fat and those who consumed large amounts. Today, after 40 years, the current director of this study admits: "In Framingham, Mass., the more saturated fat one ate, the more cholesterol one ate, the more calories one ate, the lower the person's serum cholesterol. . . . [W]e found that the people who ate the most cholesterol, ate the most saturated fat, and ate the most calories weighed the least and were the most physically active." The study did show that those who weighed more and had higher blood cholesterol levels were more at risk for future coronary heart disease; but weight gain and cholesterol levels had an inverse correlation with fat and cholesterol intake in the diet. The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial (LRC-CPPT), which cost 150 million dollars, is the study most often cited by the experts to justify the low fat diet. Actually, dietary cholesterol and saturated fat were not tested in this study as all subjects were already on a low-cholesterol, low-saturated fat diet. Instead, the study tested the effects of a cholesterol lowering drug. Statistical analysis of the results indicated a 24 percent reduction in the rate of coronary heart disease in the group taking drugs compared with the placebo group; however, nonheart disease deaths in the drug group increased—deaths from cancer, stroke, violence, and suicide. Even the claim that a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol reduced heart disease is 2 6

suspect. Independent researchers who tabulated the results of this study found no significant statistical difference in the coronary heart disease death rate between the two groups. However, both the popular press and medical journals touted the LRC-CPPT survey as the long-sought proof that animal fats are the cause of heart disease, America's number one killer. Mother's milk contains a higher proportion of cholesterol than almost any other food. It also contains over 50 percent of its calories as fat, much of it saturated fat. Both cholesterol and saturated fat are essential for growth in babies and children, especially in development of the brain. (Yet, the American Heart Association is now recommending a low-cholesterol, low fat diet for children.) Most commercial formulas are low in saturated fats and some are almost completely devoid of cholesterol. A recent study linked a low fat diet with failure to thrive in children. As a final example, consider the French. The French diet is loaded with saturated fats in the form of butter, eggs, cheese, cream, liver, meats, and rich pates. Yet the French have a lower rate of coronary heart disease than many other western countries. In the United States, 315 of every 100,000 middle-aged men die of heart attacks each year; in France the rate is 145 per 100,000. In the Gascony region, where goose and duck liver form a staple of the diet, this rate is a remarkably low: 80 per 100,000. This phenomenon has recently gained international attention and has been dubbed the paradox francais. Clearly, something is wrong with the theories we read in the popular press (and used to bolster sales of low fat concoctions and cholesterol-free foods). The notion that saturated fats per se cause heart disease as well as cancer is not only not facile, it is just plain wrong. But it is true that some fats are bad for us. In order to understand which ones, we must know something about the chemistry of fats. Fat Chemistry. Most fat in our bodies and in the food we eat is in the form of triglycerides, that is, three fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol molecule. Elevated triglycerides in the blood have been positively linked to proneness to heart disease but these triglycerides do not come directly from dietary fats; they are made in the liver from any excess sugars that have not been completely burned. The source of these excess sugars is any food containing carbohydrates, but particularly refined sugar and processed carbohydrates. In simple terms, fatty acids are chains of carbon atoms with hydrogen linkages. A fatty acid is called saturated when all available carbon bonds are occupied by a hydrogen atom. Monounsaturated fatty acids have one pair of carbon atoms double bonded to each other and therefore lack two hydrogen atoms. The monounsaturated fatty acid most commonly found in our food is oleic acid, the main component of olive oil. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have two or more pairs of carbon double bonds and therefore lack four or more hydrogen atoms. The two polyunsaturated fatty acids found most frequently in our foods are double unsaturated linoleic acid with two double carbon bonds (also called omega-6) and triple unsaturated linolenic acid with three double bonds (also called omega-3). All fats and oils, whether of vegetable or animal origin, are some combination of saturated fatty 2 7

acids, monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid), and the polyunsaturates linoleic and linolenic acid. In general, animal fats such as butter, lard, and tallow contain about 50 percent saturated fat and are solid at room temperature. Vegetable fats from northern climates contain a preponderance of polyunsaturated fatty acids and are liquid at room temperature. But vegetable oils from the tropics are highly saturated. Coconut oil, for example, is 92 percent saturated. These fats are liquid in the tropics, but hard as butter in northern climes. Highly saturated tropical oils such as coconut and palm oil are not harmful, as the popular press would lead us to believe. These fats and oils have nourished healthy populations, free of heart disease, for millennia. Vegetable oils are more saturated in hot climates because the increased saturation helps maintain stiffness in plant leaves. Olive oil with its preponderance of oleic acid is the product of a temperate climate. It is liquid at warm temperatures but hardens when refrigerated. Researchers classify fatty acids not only according to their degree of saturation but also by their length. 1. Short-chain fatty acids have four to six carbon atoms (butter and coconut) 2. Medium-length fatty acids have eight to twelve (butter and coconut) 3. Long-chain fatty acids have 14 to 18 carbon atoms (beef fat) 4. Very-long-chain fatty acids have 20 to 24 carbon atoms (fish oils, organs) Saturated fats vary in length from short to long. Butter and coconut oil contain a large portion of short- and medium-chain fatty acids, while stearic acid, the main component of beef fat, is a longchain fatty acid with 18 carbons. Oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid also have 18 carbons. Very-long-chain fatty acids, such as those found in fish oils and organ tissues, tend to be highly unsaturated, with four, five, and even six double bonds. Short- and medium-chain fatty acids have several interesting properties. 1. Longer chain fatty acids are absorbed by the lymph system and must be acted on by bile salts. 2. Short-chain fatty acids (butter and coconut) are absorbed directly through the portal vein to the liver. As they do not need to be acted upon by the bile salts, these short-chain fatty acids supply quick energy. In general, the body uses the longer chain fatty acids, including the longer chain saturated fatty acids, to construct membranes and vital hormone-like substances, to create electric potentials, and to move electric currents. It is the longer chain fatty acids that are stored in the adipose tissue, particularly oleic and linoleic acid. Thus butter and coconut oil, which contain a significant portion of short- and medium-chain fatty acids, do not contribute to weight gain as much as olive and vegetable oil. The short- and 2 8

in approximate proportions of 1. Very-long-chain fatty acids have 20 to 24 carbon atoms (fish oils. 2. but recent scientific evidence supports the lower range and has led knowledgeable researchers to recommend limiting our intake of polyunsaturates to 4 percent of the caloric total. particularly oleic and linoleic acid 4. organs) a. Long-chain fatty acids have 14 to 18 carbon atoms (beef fat) a.medium-chain fatty acids also have antimicrobial and antifungal properties in the intestinal tract. Unsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are called essential fatty acids.5 percent and as high as 15 percent. Absorbed by the lymph system and must be acted on by bile salts b. and to move electric currents c. Stored in the adipose tissue. Have antimicrobial and antifungal properties in the intestinal tract c. most of these polyunsaturates are in the form of 2 9 . Have anti-tumor properties and help strengthen the immune system. Researchers vary in their estimates of the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids needed in the diet. Have antimicrobial and antifungal properties in the intestinal tract c. Have anti-tumor properties and help strengthen the immune system. Used to construct membranes and vital hormone-like substances. giving figures as low as 0. Medium-length fatty acids have eight to twelve (butter and coconut) a. Too Many Polyunsaturates.5 percent omega-3 fatty acid and 2. to create electric potentials. or EFAs. Used to construct membranes and vital hormone-like substances. Yehuda et al have proven that the proper ratio is 4:1 of omega-6 to omega-3 of the lower order linoleic and linolenic acids. particularly oleic and linoleic acid. because the body cannot manufacture them. Absorbed by the lymph system and must be acted on by bile salts b. while an excess of polyunsaturated fatty acids stimulate tumor growth. and to move electric currents c. they have anti-tumor properties and help strengthen the immune system. Stored in the adipose tissue. JLT). What we find in the American diet is a high intake of polyunsaturates—something like 10 to 30 percent of the total caloric intake. Do not contribute to weight gain as much as olive and vegetable oil b. an excess of polyunsaturated fatty acids stimulate tumor growth.5 percent omega-6. Summary: (JLT) 1. to create electric potentials. Do not contribute to weight gain as much as olive and vegetable oil b. 3. at least not in the form in which they occur. Worse. (More recently. Short-chain fatty acids have four to six carbon atoms (butter and coconut) a.

Other studies indicate that excessive unsaturated fatty acids in the diet of infants can interfere with brain development and with learning and behavior. Rancid oils are characterized by free radicals in the double bond. beef. JLT) It is important to understand that of all substances ingested by the body. but also because of the important vitamins they carry. dietary saturated fats (e. Alzheimer's. 3 0 . depressed immune function. and particularly omega-3 (fish. blood vessels. cell proliferation. especially unstable omega-3 linolenic acid. During this process the oils are exposed to damaging light and oxygen. and moisture as in cooking and processing. When the production of prostaglandins is compromised by excess omega-6 in the diet. These are localized tissue hormones that direct many processes in the cells. Consider the following processes inflicted upon naturally occurring fats before they appear on our tables: Extraction. thus triggering mutations in tissue. These compounds are extremely reactive chemically. In contrast.omega-6 linoleic acid. Recent research has revealed that too much omega-6 in the diet can interfere with the enzymes that produce longer chain. hypertension. for they attack cell walls and red blood cells and cause damage in DNA/RNA strands. that is. and weight gain. highly saturated fatty acids. Lou Gehrig's disease. coconut. saturated fats are absolutely necessary in the diet. (Note that recent work shows that many sources of omega-3 like cod liver oil are severely contaminated with chemical toxins in the ocean. They have been characterized as "marauders" in the body. is its instability. In the old days this extraction was achieved by a slow-moving stone press. with autoimmune diseases such as arthritis. hemp). eggs) contribute to optimal utilization of essential fatty acids. it is polyunsaturated oils that are most easily rendered dangerous by food processing. and cataracts. flax. coupled with too little omega-3. Use only molecularly-distilled omega-3 supplements. and seeds must first be extracted. oxygen. irritation of the digestive tract. A Serious Problem. not only for the role they play in enhancing EFA utilization. which are the precursors of important prostaglandins. cancer.g. and skin. But oils processed in large factories are obtained by crushing the oil-bearing seeds and heating them to 230 degrees Fahrenheit. bond with each other and bond with other molecules. these fatty acids tend to polymerize. butter. although not called essential. A serious problem with the polyunsaturate family. Is it any wonder that tests and studies have repeatedly shown a high correlation between cancer and the consumption of polyunsaturates? New evidence links exposure to free radicals with premature aging. Oils naturally occurring in fruits. Free radical damage to the skin causes wrinkles and premature aging. Thus. Most health food stores do not sell these as it takes 100 pounds of cod livers to produce 10 pounds of toxin-free oil = more expensive. serious problems result including inflammation. free radical damage to the tissues and organs sets the stage for tumors. sterility. single atoms or clusters with an unpaired electron in an outer orbit. They are also more easily rendered rancid when subjected to heat. and in their immune system enhancing characteristics.. with very little of vital omega-3 linolenic acid. and to Parkinson's disease. palm. that is. It is critical to only buy and use molecularlydistilled omega-3 oils that have removed these carcinogens. thereby generating more heat. With their double carbon bonds. in supplying quick energy. nuts. The oil is then squeezed out at pressures from 10 to 20 tons per inch.

Coal tar dyes and strong flavors must then be added to make it resemble butter. high-temperature reactor. (Nickel is a severe neurotoxin. which protect the body from the ravages of free radicals. ready to be spread on your toast. an unappetizing grey. Under high temperatures. to break apart. To produce them. Extra virgin olive oil is produced by crushing olives between stone or steel rollers. (and make “plastic cell membranes” JLT) Forget Margarine. with minimal exposure to light and oxygen. If the olive oil is packaged in an opaque container. (Until recently. the confusion between hydrogenated fats and naturally saturated fats has persisted not only in the popular press. Nickel oxide is very toxic when absorbed and is impossible to eliminate totally from margarine. (There is a safe modern technique for extraction that drills into the seeds and extracts the oil and its precious cargo of antioxidants under low temperatures. or cottonseed) already rancid from the extraction process. the nickel catalyst causes the hydrogen atoms to change position on the fatty acid chain. one hydrogen atom is moved to the other side so that the molecule straightens. but the fats used were hydrogenated fats. This is called the "cis" formation. These oils are then mixed with tiny metal particles—usually nickel oxide. manufacturers begin with the cheapest oil (soy.High-temperature processing causes the weak carbon bonds of the unsaturated fatty acids. In addition. two hydrogen atoms occur together on the chain. into a fat that is solid at room temperature. thereby creating dangerous free radicals. but in scientific data bases. This is called the "trans" formation. These man-made trans-fats are toxins to the body.) 3 1 . causing the chain to bend slightly and creating an electron cloud at the site of the double bond. Margarine's natural color. increased blood cholesterol. Before hydrogenation. but unfortunately your digestive system does not recognize them as such. In the 1940s. soap-like emulsifiers and starch are squeezed into the mixture to give it a better consistency. Once in place. This removes its horrible odor. rarely found in nature. causing many deleterious effects ranging from sexual dysfunction. Margarine and other partially hydrogenated oils are even worse for you than the highly refined vegetable oils from which they are made because of chemical changes that occur during the hydrogenation process.) Hydrogenation. The oil is yet again subjected to high temperature when it is steam cleaned. JLT) The oil with its nickel catalyst is then subjected to hydrogen gas in a high-pressure. Finally the mixture is compressed and packaged in blocks or tubs. Next. This is the process that turns polyunsaturates (margarine and shortening) normally liquid at room temperature. it will retain its freshness and precious store of antioxidants many months. antioxidants including fat soluble vitamin E. is removed by bleach. These unrefined oils will remain fresh for a long time if stored in the refrigerator in dark bottles. Instead of being eliminated. and paralysis of the immune system. not naturally saturated fats. trans-fatty acids with their misplaced hydrogen atom wreak havoc in cell metabolism. especially triple unsaturated linolenic acid. These altered fats actually block the utilization of essential fatty acids. your cells actually become hydrogenated. are neutralized or destroyed by high temperatures and pressures. This process is a gentle one that preserves the integrity of the fatty acids and the numerous natural preservatives in olive oil. corn. the configuration most commonly found in nature. resulting in much error in study results. With hydrogenation. researchers found a strong correlation between cancer and the consumption of fat. the trans-fats are incorporated into the body's cell membranes as if they were cis-fats.

actually lowers cholesterol.Consumption of hydrogenated fats is associated with a host of other serious diseases. Arachidonic acid is a precursor to important prostaglandins and other vital substances. a medium-chain fatty acid not found in other animal 3 2 . no matter how abundant they may be in our diets. immune system dysfunction. low birth weight babies and birth defects. vitamin A from butter is more easily absorbed and utilized than from other sources. D. Claims that butter causes chronic high cholesterol values have not been substantiated by research. and meat. provokes chronic high levels of protective cholesterol and has been linked to both heart disease and cancer. These fatty acids also have antimicrobial. Yet. The only good source of fat-soluble vitamins in the American diet. as well as all their naturally-occurring constituents needed to obtain maximum effect. Your best defense is to avoid it like the plague. (These fat-soluble vitamins are relatively stable and survive the pasteurization process. especially 12-carbon lauric acid. Butter is America's best source of these essential vitamins. Butter has received so much adverse propaganda that we have lost sight of the fact that it has long been a valuable component of many traditional diets containing the following vital nutrients:  Fat-Soluble Vitamins These include vitamins A (retinol). This type of saturated fat. diabetes. difficulty in lactation. although some studies show that butter consumption causes a small temporary rise. the main component of beef fat. grains. on the other hand. Without them. where it is converted to energy.) These vitamins act as catalysts to mineral absorption. we are not able to utilize properly the minerals we ingest. Butter added to vegetables and spread on bread. Margarine's popularity represents a triumph of advertising over common sense. Go Butter. not only cancer but also atherosclerosis. and problems with bones and tendons.) Margarine. as mentioned. but not in vegetable fats. (Arachidonic acid makes up 17% of cell membranes and there is no vegetable source for it = total vegans cannot have normal cells. and E. is butterfat. anti-tumor.and Medium-Chain Fatty Acids Butter contains about 15 percent short-and medium-chain fatty acids. hydrogenated fats continue to be promoted as health foods. one sure to be eaten. is absorbed directly from the small intestine to the liver. The media's constant attack on saturated fats is extremely suspect. (Other studies have shown that stearic acid.  Arachidonic Acid This is a polyunsaturate containing four double carbon bonds and is found in small amounts in animal fats. JLT)  Short. obesity. and cream added to soups and sauces ensures proper assimilation of the minerals and water-soluble vitamins in vegetables. sterility. In fact. and immune system supportive properties.

 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Butterfat also contains a form of rearranged linoleic acid called CLA that has strong anticancer properties.  Cholesterol Mother's milk is high in cholesterol because it is essential for growth and development. are all but unique to butter. and mental illness.  Omega-6 and Omega-3 Polyunsaturates These occur in butter in small but equal amounts. and iodine.  Lecithin Lecithin is a natural component of butter. zinc. especially infants and growing children. containing more per gram than herring or wheat germ. very-short-chain fatty acids. benefit from more fat in the diet rather than less. Butter is extremely rich in selenium. especially in the very young and the elderly. a vital antioxidant. We must obtain it from one of two dietary sources: butter or tropical oils. For this reason.  Trace Minerals Many trace minerals are incorporated into the fat globule membrane of butterfat. But the fats we eat 3 3 . Cholesterol is also needed to produce a variety of steroids that protect against cancer. iodine in butter protects against goiter and other thyroid problems. heart disease. Propionic acid and butyric acid. It is known to assist in the proper assimilation and metabolization of cholesterol and other fat constituents.fats. Highly protective lauric (coconut and palm oil) should be called a conditionally essential fatty acid because it is one saturated fat that the body does not make itself. chromium. This balance between linoleic and linolenic acid prevents the kind of problems associated with over-consumption associated with omega-6 (or omega-3 JLT) fatty acids. children who drink skim milk have diarrhea at rates three to five times greater than children who drink whole milk. our choice of fats and oils is one of extreme importance. In mountainous areas far from the sea.  Glycosphingolipids This special category of fat protects against gastrointestinal infections. Most people. These have antifungal properties as well as anti-tumor effects. including manganese. In summary.

beef. eggs. cold water fish Fish oil. That report has helped push the government and the food industry to start taking aggressive steps to address this long-neglected threat to public health. palm Coconut. lard. ώ-3 22:6. If one 3 4 . Fallon. Sunflower. says Marion Nestle. butter.S. ώ-9 18:2. Canada instituted such a requirement early this year as part of its mandatory nutrition-labeling system. To add flavor to grains and stir-fry dishes. ώ-3 20:4.. primrose. labels  Find the amount of "Total Fat" on the label. Ph. use extra virgin olive oil or organic coconut butter.must be chosen with care. not margarine. lard. canola. (These are found on the label. mutton. These oils are best used in salad dressings. eggs Cocoa. and dips. canola.  Find the amounts of "Saturated Fat". cold water fish PUFA = 2-3 double bonds HUFA = >3 double bonds Nomenclature 8:00 10:00 10:00 12:00 16:00 18:00 18:1. cocoa. Acquaint yourself with the merits of coconut oil for baking. For high temperature cooking. it will also be "a profound disincentive for manufacturers" to use partially hydrogenated oils. beef. hemp Flax. JLT) Common Name Caprylic Capric Lauric Myristic Palmitic Stearic Oleic (Omega-9) Linoleic (LA) (Omega-6) Gamma-linolenic (GLA) (Omega-6) Alpha-linolenic (ALA) (Omega-3) Arachiodonic (AA) (Omega-6) Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) (Omega-3) Docosahexaenoic (DHA) (Omega-3) Foods Coconut Coconut. olive. and author of "Food Politics: How the Food Industry Influences Nutrition and Health. beef. corn Borage. rice." To figure the amount of Trans-Fatty Acid in packaged food by using the new U. COPYRIGHT 1996 Consumers' Research Inc. an essential— food for you and your whole family. listed directly under "Total Fat" and slightly indented. corn Safflower. so they are not suitable for high-temperature cooking. Labeling not only will help consumers cut back on trans. made official what many researchers have argued for years: Trans fat worsens blood-cholesterol levels and almost surely increases the risk of heart disease. palm Palm. with the happy assurance that it is a wholesome—indeed. oat. soy. mutton. In July 2002. peanut. which advises the government on health policy. Avoid all processed foods containing partially hydrogenated fats and polyunsaturated oils. professor and chair of New York University’s department of nutrition and food studies. black currant. ώ-6 18:3." (Reproduced here with permission of Ms. mutton. the National Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Medicine. ώ-6 18:3. "Polyunsaturated Fat" and "Monosaturated Fat". sprinkle the cooked food with flaxseed oil just before serving. lard Safflower (high oleic). use good old-fashioned butter. Instead use extra virgin olive oil and unrefined flaxseed oil in salad dressings. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) could be close to finalizing a rule that would require trans-fat labeling on packaged foods. soy. And finally. butter. sesame. sauces. The institute concluded that people should consume as little Trans fat as possible. butter. shellfish Fish oil.D. ώ-6 20:5. "Why Butter Is Good For You (Health Aspects of Dietary Fat). palm. ώ-3 Type Saturated (SFA) Saturated (SFA) Saturated (SFA) Saturated (SFA) Saturated (SFA) Saturated (SFA) PUFA PUFA PUFA PUFA HUFA HUFA HUFA Effect on membrane Rigidity Rigidity Rigidity Rigidity Rigidity Rigidity Fluid Fluid Fluid Fluid Fluid Fluid Fluid Polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) are extremely vulnerable to damage from heat. hemp Eggs.

If there are only two listed. you become mostly plastic! Is it any wonder why your cells don’t work well and you don’t feel good when your cells are made of “near-plastic”? http://www.gif Here is a summary of a few facts regarding Canola Oil:  It is genetically engineered rapeseed. Frito-Lay has said that it would eliminate Trans fat from Cheetos. and Tostitos chips. (Source: Young Again and others) 3 5 . Doritos. add them together or use one amount if only one is listed.org/main/detailv2. This “near-plastic” fat ends up in your cell membranes. Jason's Deli has eliminated partially hydrogenated oils from every food item at all of its 137 restaurants nationwide and all 1. is starting to cut back: McDonald’s has said that in late spring of this year.com/images/cigs.com/ Trans fats are one carbon atom away from being plastic.or the other is not listed. Even the fast-food industry. which generally does not have to label its foods.6 million box lunches provided to schools annually. http://www.consumerreports.jsp?CONTENT%3C%3Ecnt_id=300681&FOLDER%3C%3Efolder_id =162689 http://www.  Canada paid the FDA the sum of $50 million to have rape seed registered and recognized as "safe". its French fries would have 48 percent less trans fat--a significant improvement. that particular food does not contain it.)  Add theses three together.bantransfats. The answer is the amount of Trans-fatty Acid in that product.bantransfats. though the fries will apparently still have a fair amount of trans and saturated fat.  Subtract the total amount of #3 from the amount of #1. Thus when you eat Trans fats.

12 years ago in England and Europe. but when the diet contains rapeseed oil erucic acid is found in depot fat. ovaries. These Trans Fatty acids are labeled as hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated oils. pigs and sheep that later went blind and began attacking people. The reduction of respiratory capacity is roughly proportional to the content of erucic acid in the diet. Rats fed a diet with erucic acid or other docosenoic acids showed a lowered tolerance to cold stress (+4 degrees C). Young Again. Erucic acid is metabolized in vivo to oleic acid. and diminishes on continued administration of erucic acid. Source: David Dancu. soybean oil. Here is a review article about Canola Oil (rapeseed oil) and its toxic effects from a Swedish Medical Journal: Physiopathological effects of rapeseed oil: a review. Canola is a Trans Fatty Acid. Erucic acid lowers the respiratory capacity of the heart mitochondria. In Sweden erucic acid constituted 3-4% of the average intake of calories up to 1970 compared with about 0. spleen. rape seed was fed to cows. constipation.  Generally rapeseed has a cumulative effect.htm 3 6 . becomes rancid very quickly. Borg K Acta Med Scand Suppl (1975) 585:5-13 ISSN: 0365-463X Rapeseed oil has a growth retarding effect in animals. anemia. taking almost 10 years before symptoms begin to manifest. Avoid all of them!  According to John Thomas' book. whale oil and rapeseed oil diet.karinya.D. which when processed. The lifespan of rats is the same on corn oil. It has a tendency to inhibit proper metabolism of foods and prohibits normal enzyme function. In long-term experiments in rats erucic acid produces fibrosis of the myocardium. There were no further attacks after the rape seed was eliminated from their diet.com/canola. Fatty infiltration in the heart muscle cells has been observed in the species investigated. organ fat and milk fat. increased incidence of heart disease and cancer. N. blood. heart and skeletal muscles have been investigated. Insects won't eat it. testes. Some investigators claim that the high content of erucic acid in rapeseed oil alone causes this effect. http://www. Rapeseed is lubricating oil used by small industry. which has shown to have a direct link to cancer.4% at present. liver.  It has been shown to cause lung cancer  It is very inexpensive to grow and harvest. kidneys.  It is derived from the mustard family and is considered a toxic and poisonous weed. The effects of rapeseed oil on reproduction and adrenals. Normally erucic acid is not found or occurs in traces in body fat. while others consider the low ratio saturated/monounsaturated fatty acids in rapeseed oil to be a contributory factor. It has never been meant for human consumption. coconut oil. respiratory illness. low birth weights in infants and irritability.  Some typical and possible side effects include loss of vision. disruption of the central nervous system.

Thus pasteurized. no positive correlation in these cases was established and government reports on these cases show strong evidence of bias. “The State of Maryland and other federal and state health agencies have documented a long history of the risks to human health associated with the consumption of raw milk. Office of Food Protection and Consumer Health Services. DEPUTY DIRECTOR. All safety measures had been followed faithfully. Processing. Elkin ’s statements are in green. Storage and Distribution of Milk. our rebuttals are in black. The state of Maryland was considering prohibiting people who own cows from drinking their own milk or from forming cooperatives so people who buy a portion of a cow could consume raw milk. when milk is heated to pasteurize it. RESPONSE TO LETTER FROM TED ELKINS. However. the author of the official report concluded: “The only means available to ensure the public’s health would be proper pasteurization before consumption. The citizens of Maryland deserve accurate information. in 1983.06 under COMAR 10. Clinical and epidemiological studies from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).Production. OFFICE OF FOOD PROTECTION AND CONSUMER HEALTH SERVICES. For example. To summarize. He has ignored many relevant findings concerning the safety and health benefits of raw milk and the increasing evidence of disease caused by pasteurized milk.” While several incidents of food-borne illness in recent years have been attributed to the consumption of raw milk. extensive testing failed to find Campylobacter or any other pathogens in any milk products from the dairy. When it is homogenized. and others have established a direct causal link between gastrointestinal disease and the consumption of raw milk. sent to citizens who submitted comments to oppose the Notice of Proposed Action to amend Regulation . In spite of this lack of evidence. He has not reported on evidence of bias in reports on alleged problems with raw milk and has withheld discussion of the numerous incidents of foodborne illness in many commonly consumed foods.15. the proteins are destroyed. This rebuttal letter written by Sally Fallon puts it all into perspective. However. thus perpetuating the double standard that uninformed health officials have applied to raw milk. state health agencies. it is blown through nozzles to break the long fat chains into short broken pieces of fat. Most people who think they are “lactose intolerant” are really just sensitive to the toxic brew we call milk that is available in grocery stores. Transportation. homogenized milk is no longer milk but instead contains toxic proteins and fat particles. a reported outbreak of Campylobacter in raw milk led to the passage of anti-raw milk legislation in the state of Georgia. Mr. Deputy Director.” 3 7 .06. not unsubstantiated boilerplate allegations. MARYLAND DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND MENTAL HYGIENE The following are comments and clarifications to a letter from Ted Elkins.Milk One of the few total foods capable of supporting life is raw milk. Mr. I reproduce it here with her permission. Elkin has made a series of statements unsupported by references and scientific studies.

pp 559-566). For example. Coli has been shown to survive on coins for 7-11 days at room temperature.000 culture-confirmed cases of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella typhimurium was traced to pasteurized milk from one dairy in Georgia (JAMA 1987 Dec 11 . Ironically.258(22):3269-74).realmilk.5 percent of turkey samples from Washington.” Standard sanitary procedures can completely eliminate the presence of human pathogens in human milk.com). However. others who reported in sick but had not drunk raw milk were sent home without investigation. DC grocery stores was infected with Campylobacter. which seldom if ever contains human pathogens. including soy flour. E. Only 24 of 385 cow-share owners became ill. Maryland law does not require pasteurization of chicken and turkey. including its pH and nutrient content. “Further. The intrinsic safety of raw milk stands in sharp contrast to the dangers inherent in other foods. Milk contains numerous components that fight against pathogens and strengthen the immune system. and Salmonella enteritidis can also survive on glass and Teflon for up to 17 days (Jiang and Doyle. which local health officials and the Centers for Disease Control blamed on raw milk from a cow-share program in Sawyer County. nickels.” This statement reveals the complete ignorance of over 40 years of science indicating that raw milk does not support the survival and growth of pathogenic bacteria.com). in our water and in the food we eat. Mar 1979. For example. According to an official report. soy protein powder and soy milk powder. a 1978 survey found Salmonella in many “health food” products. Most importantly. Salmonella enteritidis can survive 1-9 days on pennies. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. which is highly likely to contain human pathogens. independent investigators determined that the number of afflicted was over 800. These include: 3 8 .7 percent of chicken and 14. The authors of the report concluded that “The occurrence of this pathogen in three types of soybean products should warrant further investigation of soybean derivatives as potentially significant sources of Salmonella (Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 70-75 persons became ill from Campylobacter infection during the 12 weeks following November 10.62(7):805-7).(American Journal of Epidemiology. The dairy and the state have conducted routinely tests for several years and have never found a human pathogen in the raw milk they produce (www.organicpastures. Most had consumed hamburger at a local restaurant. independent lab tests found no Campylobacter in the raw milk (www. dimes and quarters. a massive outbreak of over 16. 2001. Campylobacter is best known for contaminating meats. the intrinsic properties of milk. et al. “The microbial flora of raw milk may include human pathogens present on the cow's udder and teats. To single out raw milk as a source of pathogens shows extreme bias against the only food that is intrinsically safe and that furthermore contains many components that support our immunity to pathogens. While raw milk often gets the blame for food-borne illnesses. a study carried out during 1999-2000 found that 70. posted on the CDC website. Yet health officials still allow the sale of pasteurized milk in Georgia. Journal of Food Protection 1999. This outbreak is one that health officials almost always emphasize when arguing against the consumption of raw milk. Another example concerns a November 2001 outbreak of Campylobacter in Wisconsin. (Zhao C. yet has taken steps to deny access to raw milk. yet the evidence of the case points to the fact that raw milk was not the cause of the outbreak. 2001:67(12):5431-5436). The truth is that humans are exposed to pathogens on a daily basis—on surfaces. perhaps health department officials should take steps to ban the use of coins and cookware. Organic Pastures Dairy in California produces raw milk for retail sales. just 4 years later. There was no illness in the remaining 361 cow-share owners and most of those who became ill did not consume raw milk. Health workers at local hospitals showed a clear evidence of bias by testing only those who said they had consumed raw milk. No 4). If the goal of the state of Maryland is to eliminate our exposure to human pathogens. make it an excellent medium for the survival and growth of pathogenic bacteria. 1983 Vol 114.

 Antibodies that bind to foreign microbes and prevent them from migrating outside the gut. components that engulf foreign proteins and bacteria  Neutrophils. Lactoperoxidase levels are much higher in the milk of animals than humans. This compound also ensures complete assimilation of B12 by the infant. 2000)  Lactoferrin. compounds that kill foreign bacteria and call in other parts of the immune system  Macrophages. preventing those organisms from attaching to the mucosa and causing disease. Vol 66. pp 2433-2439. initiate immune response (British Journal of Nutrition (2000) 84. which stimulate the maturation of gut cells thereby preventing “leaky” gut.  White blood cells that produce antibodies against specific bacteria.  B12 binding protein. such breast milk. mobilize other parts of the immune system  T-lymphocytes.  Bifidus factor is a complex of good bacteria which promotes growth of Lactobacillum bifidis. components that multiply if bad bacteria are present. 84. No 23. So effective is lactoperoxidase in fighting pathogens that other countries are looking into using lactoperoxidase instead of pasteurization to ensure safety of commercial milk (British Journal of Nutrition (2000). 1991 J Dairy Sci 74:783-787. which adhere to bad bacteria and viruses. Suppl. special types of sugars which protect other protective components from being destroyed by stomach acids and enzymes. which harmful bacteria need for growth. S3-S10. which kills bad bacteria by digesting their cell walls. It is found in all mammalian secretions. an enzyme that uses small amounts of H2O2 and free radicals to seek out and destroy bad bacteria.  Enzymes that disrupt bacterial cell walls.  Polysaccharides. they bind to bacteria and prevent them from attaching to the gut lining and have other functions just being discovered. S19-S25. S11-S17). which kill infected cells.  Oligosaccharides. 1. Suppl. August 1998. levels are so high in goat milk that the test for the presence of antibiotics had to be changed. Life Sciences. which helps crowd out dangerous germs  Fibronectin.  Hormones & growth factors. pp 808-810. tears and saliva. special sugars that encourage the growth of good bacteria in the gut.  Lysosyme. special types of fats that disrupt cell walls of bad bacteria. 1.  Mucins. 36. Lactoperoxidase. which increases antimicrobial activity of macrophages and helps to repair damaged 3 9 . Indian Journal Exp Biology Vol. producing immunity for life in the infant. lactoperoxidase levels are 10 times higher in goat milk than in human breast milk. while producing immunestrengthening compounds. a helpful bacteria in baby’s gut. an enzyme that steals iron away from pathogens and carries it through the gut wall into the blood stream and also stimulates the immune system. a component that reduces the levels of vitamin B12 in the colon. For example. Lactoferrin also ensures complete assimilation of iron by the infant. protect the gut wall  Medium-Chain Fatty Acids.  B-lymphocytes.

Neonatal Netw.6(2): 117-27). Elkin’s statement. 1984).000 people.21(3):200-5). December 1995. their numbers rapidly decline.88(5):F434-5). yet these same officials discourage mothers who are unable to breastfeed from giving their infants the most appropriate and immune-building substitute—raw milk from another mammal such as a cow or goat. Cent Afr J Med. Vol 88.2(8412):111-3.74:783-787). the medical profession claimed that breast milk was sterile. Most recently. In the Federal Register notification for the final rule to 21 CFR Part 1240.36:808-1 1).61. Scientific American. 159(11 ):793-7.tissues (J Pediatr 1994 Feb. subsequent testing reveals no pathogens even though they were introduced in large numbers. FDA made a number of findings including the following: ‘Raw milk. The intrinsic safety of raw milk has been proven in several published reports showing that raw milk passes the “challenge test.61. Lactoperoxidase in raw milk has been shown to kill added fungal and bacterial agents (Life Science 2000 66(25):2433-9. Nov 17. including its pH and nutrient content.554: 14554.6(2): 117-27. 2004 Oct. 135(5): 1286-8.2(841 2): 111-3. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 1998. This report cites many incidents reputed to be caused by 4 0 . 1987.000 cells per ml in 48 hours in raw milk at room temperature (37 degrees C) (Diker KS.58(2): 146-50. Mr. 1973-1992 (American Journal Public Health Aug 1998. No 8). A recent outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a neonatal intensive care unit caused by a contaminated milk bank pasteurizer resulted in 31 cases of infection and 4 deaths (Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2003 Sep.com). Researchers found that bovine strains of Campylobacter were decreased by 100 cells per ml and poultry strains decreased by 10. In a challenge test. It is actually beneficial for breast milk to contain pathogens because the bioactive components in milk program the baby to have immunity for life to any pathogens with which he comes in contact (J Appl Microbiol.” That is. 2003. Curr Med Chem 1999 Feb. raw goat milk killed Campylobacter jejuni (Hygiene (London) 1985 Feb. 2005 May. 2000 Oct. The anti-microbial properties of raw milk are even more active when milk is not refrigerated. 2004. pasteurization of human milk for babies carries considerable risk. December 1995. 124(2): 193-8. 1984 Nov 17. may be unsafe. This regulation addresses milk shipped in interstate commerce and became effective September 9.000.95(3):471 -8. For example. et al. 2000 Nov. A 1994 study found that premature infants fed raw human milk had lower rates of infection compared to those fed pasteurized human milk (Lancet November 17. finding that pathogens added to raw milk disappeared completely within 36 hours (www.organicpastures. 1984). Research conducted over the last 20 years indicates that breast milk contains pathogens. make it an excellent medium for the survival and growth of pathogenic bacteria. that “the intrinsic properties of milk. when pathogenic bacteria are introduced to raw milk.000 per ml. no matter how carefully produced. a final regulation mandating the pasteurization of all milk and milk products in final package form for direct human consumption. It is of interest to note that until recently. Eur J Pediatr. not to raw milk. Lancet. Lancet. 1999 Feb. A study carried out over 19 years and posted on the Centers for Disease Control website gives the incidence of food-borne illness from raw milk at 1. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. J Dairy Sci 1991 .94(1):31-44). In fact. Maryland health officials do not require breastfeeding mothers to pasteurize their milk before giving it to their babies. J Hosp Infec.’ ” This statement may be part of the official record but it contradicts other statements published by the US government. Curr Med Chem. “On August 10.. 1987. FDA published 21 CFR Part 1240. 2000 Sep.44(5):1 154-58).” applies only to pasteurized milk. 1984 Nov 1 7. When Campyloba cter was added to raw milk at 4 degrees C at levels of 13. Most of these components are completely inactivated by pasteurization (Scientific American. making pasteurized milk highly susceptible to contamination. The Lancet. Mikrobiyol Bul 1987 Jul. 1982. Adv Exp Med Biol.9 cases per 100. 19(7)21-5.46(9):247-51. levels were less than 10 per ml nine days later (Doyle. often at very high levels. the University of California conducted challenge tests on Organic Pastures raw milk in California. J Nutr.

paratuberculosis has been associated with Crohn’s disease. the incidence of reported food-borne illness from other foods (not including milk) is 6.” then we would have nothing left to eat. It has proven completely possible to eliminate pathogens from dairy premises when cows are raised on pasture and reasonable sanitary protocols are followed. coli O157:H7 that can be carried out on the farm and costs only $8 per test. Pasteurization does not ensure the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms in milk. on a per-consumer basis. In: Marth E. food-borne diseases cause approximately 76 million illnesses. Applied Dairy Microbiology. Yet these foods remain in the food supply. Therefore.000 people. No SS-5).” This statement applies only to large confinement herds. Based on CDC website. raw milk is safer than any other food in the food supply. Marcel Dekker. the incidence of food-borne illness from all foods including pasteurized milk during the period 1993-1997 is 4. and at least 3. According to our government. eggs and meat. may in fact be much lower. eds.5 times lower than the incidence of food-borne illness from consuming pasteurized milk. New York. dublin organisms for many years and demonstrated that S. 325. Thus the statement published in the FDA register is false. the American Academy of Pediatrics and numerous other organizations submitted comments in support of the proposed regulation. Cereus spores. Raw salads. the incidence of food-borne illness from consuming raw milk is at least 2.68(5):2428-35).organicpastures. the actual rate of illness caused by raw milk. there were 1104 reported cases of food-borne illness from salads and 719 from fruits and vegetables while only 23 from milk. fruits.000 people (US Census Bureau 1997 population estimate 267.raw milk but not necessarily proven. Based on the same CDC website. not in the manure and not in the milk (www.607).7 cases per 100. Stelle J. “Opportunities for the introduction and persistence of Salmonella on dairy premises are numerous and varied. and technology does not exist to eliminate Salmonella infection from dairy herds or to preclude reintroduction of Salmonella organisms. soy products. 4 1 . the most common source of these infections is fruits. In deciding upon mandatory pasteurization. Public Health Concerns. vegetables and salads. Today it is completely feasible to perform routine bacteriological tests on raw milk. putting the citizens of Maryland at continued risk. 2001).” This statement is completely false. There is even a test for E. If a food is to be taken out of the food supply because it “may be unsafe. A study published in 2002 found evidence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in many samples of pasteurized cow’s milk (Appl Environ Microbiol 2002 May. “During this rulemaking process. M. baby formula and mayonnaise have all caused proven outbreaks of illness. botulism spores and protozoan parasites survive pasteurization (Elliott Ryser.com). these can be performed at the farm and are very inexpensive. per year from 1993-1997." This statement would not hold up in a court of law. dublin organisms cannot be routinely detected in cows that are 'mammary gland' shedders.5 times lower than the incidence of food-borne illness from consuming other foods.000 deaths per year. not a single human pathogen has been found on the premises of Organic Pastures dairy in California. "It has not been shown to be feasible to perform routine bacteriological tests on the raw milk itself to determine the presence or absence of all pathogens and thereby ensure that it is free of infectious organisms. plus pasteurized milk. in 1997. mostly pasteurized milk (MMWR Vol 45. Over several years of testing. For example.4 cases per 100. Other studies indicate that B. Moreover recent studies show that cattle can carry and shed S.783. vegetables. shellfish. FDA determined that pasteurization was the only means to assure the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms that might be present.000 hospitalizations and 5. It is shameful that health officials of the state of Maryland are unfamiliar with these tests.

” It is obvious that this decision was not science-based and that it contradicts the epidemiological evidence provided by our government agencies. 3 hospitalized due to postpasteurization contamination  1996—2 outbreaks Campylobactor and Salmonella. IL  1984—November. by enumerating the many outbreaks of food-borne illness in pasteurized milk. involving epidemiological evidence.  1945—Several outbreaks. 28 cases Salmonella infection  1994—3 outbreaks. at one plant in Melrose Park. with creamy yellow subcutaneous tissue of high vascularity. typhimurium. These include:  1945—1. The rats on pasteurized milk developed hairless patches due to vitamin B6 deficiency and on autopsy showed poor integrity of internal organs (Annals of Randleigh Farm). approximately 200 cases. Arizona. The heart size of rawmilk fed cats was moderate. 3 cases in California  1995—outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica in 10 children.  1983—1 outbreak. Coli & Listeria in California  1993-1994—outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis in over 200 due to pasteurized ice cream in Minnesota. studies carried out during 1935-1940 at Randleigh Farm. 28 cases Salmonella in California The fact that Mr. 1 outbreak S. with slight fatty atrophy of the liver. Kansas  1976—Outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica in 36 children. For example. in Great Bend. 16. 468 cases of gastroenteritis. Elkins does not present the full story. 9 deaths. 105 cases. “This decision was science-based. “Based on research. including ‘certified raw milk’ and have stated that the risks of consuming raw milk far outweigh any benefits. a research facility in upstate New York.” Mr. provides clear evidence of bias on the part of a Maryland health official. By contrast the internal organs of pasteurized-milk fed cats were inferior.000 cases of Yersinia enterocolitica in Memphis. 1 outbreak.Furthermore. found that rats fed raw milk had better growth and denser bones than those fed pasteurized milk. which has failed to demonstrate a significant difference between the nutritional value of pasteurized and unpasteurized milk. in Northern Illinois  1987—Massive outbreak of over 16. 300 cases in Phoenix. the liver in good condition.492 cases for the year in the US  1945—1 outbreak. Elkins seems to be unaware of numerous studies showing the benefits of raw milk over pasteurized. IL  1985—197.500+ cases. 49 cases of Listeriosis in Massachusetts  1984—August. the US government has documented numerous outbreaks of food-borne illness from pasteurized milk.000 cases of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella infections from one dairy in California  1985—1. 68 cases in Arizona  1982—over 17. the FDA and CDC reiterate that the health risks associated with raw milk consumption far outweigh the benefits. E. 4 2 . These studies confirm the findings of Francis Pottenger who noted that the organs of cats fed raw milk were in excellent condition. due to pasteurized chocolate milk  1978—1 outbreak. South Dakota and Wisconsin  1995—1 outbreak. 16 of whom had appendectomies. at sam e plant in Melrose Park. typhimurium. 1 outbreak S. Salmonella culture confirmed. the intestines firm and the uterus well supported. IL  1985—March. at same plant in Melrose Park. FDA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta have documented illnesses associated with the consumption of raw milk.000 culture-confirmed cases of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella typhimurium traced to pasteurized milk in Georgia  1993—2 outbreaks statewide. TN  1982—172 cases. with over 100 hospitalized from a three-Southern-state area. 48 cases in California  1997—2 outbreaks.284 confirmed cases.

cases of raw milk-associated campylobacteriosis have been reported in the states of Arizona. often showing a tendency to bite when handled (Jersey Bulletin 1931 50:210-21 1. which had been in business for decades without incident. Given the double standard applied to raw milk. An outbreak of salmonellosis. sleek coats and clear eyes. Elkins would provide references so that they could be evaluated for legitimacy and bias. coli O1 57:H7. those fed pasteurized milk had poor growth. bottling or capping process. The scientific literature contains many case histories of recovery from these conditions by eliminating pasteurized milk from the diet. the findings suggest that contamination of milk might have occurred during the milking. Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation). many recent studies document the association of pasteurized milk with diabetes (Br J Nutr 2006 Mar. Public Health Service/FDA Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) as the basis for the regulation of Grade ‘A’ milk production and processing. The skin of the pasteurized-milk fed cats had a purplish discoloration due to congestion and the fur was of poor quality (Pottenger’s Cats. slow growth. Recent cases of E. frequent ear infections (J Pediatr Rio J 2006 mar-Apr.359(9306):623-4). Rosalind Wulzen and Paul N.1 1:59-60). and Pennsylvania. the dairy also operated a petting zoo. caved in to health department pressure and stopped the sale of raw milk. According to the CDC report. Harris. By contrast. muscle stiffness. anemic. Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica infections have also been attributed to raw milk consumption. lack of intestinal tone and moderate distention of the uterus.S. it is likely that many of these cases were merely reported. rats fed whole pasteurized milk had rough coats. Pediatr Pulmonol Suppl 1995. The PMO has been sanctioned by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS) and provides a national standard of uniform measures that is applied to Grade ‘A’ dairy farms and milk processing facilities to assure safe milk and milk products. not proven. Rev Alerg Mex 2001 Sep-Oct. Dr. “The source for contamination was not determined. Autopsy revealed atrophied muscles streaked with calcification and calcium deposits under the skin. Of interest is a 2002 study showing that “farm milk.” It would be helpful if Mr. Kansas. The 2002 Ohio outbreak that he cites was a case in which health officials demonstrated clear evidence of bias. California. By contrast. During 1930-31. There have been several incidences of illness contracted by children visiting a petting zoo.82(2):87-96. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001 Nov. 108(5):720-5.224-226. in the joints. Rats fed whole raw milk had good growth.95(3):603-8. Maine.” that is raw milk. Oregon.89(6 Suppl 1):33-7. New Mexico. They were very irritable. Since the early 1980's.inferior condition of the heart. had a protective effect against this debilitating and even lift-threatening condition (Lancet 2002 Feb 1 6. Ernest Scott and Professor Lowell Erf of Ohio State University carried out rat studies that compared the effects of a diet of whole raw milk with one of whole pasteurized milk.1 19(8):867-73) and asthma (Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2002 Dec. in which raw milk was not proven the culprit. “Numerous documented outbreaks of milk borne disease involving Salmonella and Campylobacter infections have been directly linked to the consumption of raw milk in the past twenty years. Section 9 of the PMO specifies that only Grade ‘A’ pasteurized milk be sold to the consumer.” There were many possible of vectors of illness on the dairy besides raw milk—besides providing raw milk.” 4 3 .18(6):643-54.48(5):141-4. Animals fed whole raw milk had excellent growth and no abnormalities. however.Diabetes 2000 Jun. The growing numbers of Maryland consumers—especially growing children—who cannot tolerate pasteurized milk deserve to have a choice for raw milk. Department of Zoology. West J Nurs Res 1996 Dec. reports of recovery from these and other conditions by consuming raw milk are accumulating.89(10):1 174-80. The rats had excellent dispositions and enjoyed being petted. Oregon State College are particularly revealing. Acta Otolaryngol 1999. “State health and agricultural agencies utilize the U. cases that have nothing to do with raw milk. Based on this one incident. emaciation and weakness and death within one year. the heart and other organs (American Journal of Pathology Vol XX VI. and loss of vitality and weight. Colorado. the dairy. Studies of guinea pigs carried out by Dr. As for pasteurized milk. Meanwhile. Georgia. Acta Paediatr 2000 Oct.49(6):91 2-7). Jul-Nov 1950 pp 595-615). Montana. involving 50 cases was confirmed in Ohio in 2002. 237).

“In summary. Elkins would not hold up in a court of law and are an insult to Maryland consumers. Section 401). but merely insisting that the state of Maryland support the rights of its citizens to enter into contractual agreements guaranteed by Maryland law (title 16. It is represented by the following chemical 44 . But in any event. It must be stressed that neither the federal government nor the individual states prohibit the consumption of raw milk. in good conscience. PMO regulations do not prohibit consumers from drinking raw milk. As the State agency responsible for health of the citizens of Maryland. Furthermore. The PMO is a choice. but only confirmation of the right to drink the raw milk from their own cows. which is a public policy of the state of Maryland.This issue is a red herring. as does Colorado. The FDA has strongly advised against the consumption of raw milk. the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene cannot.” Pasteurization does not guarantee a safe product and the risk of contracting food-borne illness from raw milk is lower that the risk of contracting food-borne illness from pasteurized milk. Maryland consumers are not asking the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene to condone or encourage the sale of raw milk. the only proven. reliable method of reducing the level of human pathogens in milk and milk products to safe levels is pasteurization. Maryland consumers are not asking for legalization of the sale of raw milk. The individual states do not need to follow the PMO. 2-diacyl-: ussn: ue-glycero-3-phosphocholine. The statements made in writing by Mr. not an obligation. PtdCho and lecithin. does not follow the PMO but created its own regulations. California. MDHMH is interfering in areas where it has no jurisdiction whatsoever and is overstepping the bounds of its regulatory authority. the top milk-producing state.” As we have demonstrated in this letter. Even when milk is produced and handled under sanitary conditions. since raw milk may contain infective doses of human pathogens. Such laws would be inherently unconstitutional. 2006 Phosphatidylcholine DESCRIPTION Phosphatidylcholine is a phospholipid that is a major constituent of cell membranes. Price Foundation May 23. condone or encourage the sale of raw milk. President The Weston A. depriving citizens the right to liberty and property without due process of law. raw milk does not contain “infective doses of human pathogens” and its consumption does not “increase the risk of a variety of illnesses. which recognizes the right of an owner of dairy livestock to contract with another for the boarding and care of that livestock. Phosphatidylcholine is also known as 1. the state can accept the PMO but have exceptions in certain areas. its consumption increases the risk of a variety of illnesses. Sally Fallon. In any event.

Soybean is the most common source. Commercially. Most of the commercial lecithin products contain about 20% phosphatidylcholine. and alpha-linolenic acid makes up 6 to 9%. linoleic acid 15 to 18% and alpha-linolenic 0 to 1%. Eggs themselves naturally contain from 68 to 72% phosphatidylcholine. Plant lecithins are considered to be GRAS (generally regarded as safe). but mainly from vegetable sources. The fatty acid makeup of phosphatidylcholine from plant and animal sources differs. 45 .structure: Phosphatidylcholine The term lecithin itself has different meanings when used in chemistry and biochemistry than when used commercially. oleic acid 35 to 38%. lecithin is phosphatidylcholine. make up 19 to 24% of soya lecithin. the monounsaturated oleic acid contributes 9 to 11%. while soya contains from 20 to 22% phosphatidylcholine. make up 41 to 46% of egg lecithin. Phosphatidylcholine. it refers to a natural mixture of neutral and polar lipids. the saturated fatty acids. Lecithins containing phosphatidylcholine are produced from vegetable. (See monograph on Choline. Choline comprises about 15% of the weight of phosphatidylcholine.) ACTIONS AND PHARMACOLOGY ACTIONS Phosphatidylcholine may have hepatoprotective activity. linoleic acid provides 56 to 60%. is present in commercial lecithin in concentrations of 20 to 90%. In egg yolk lecithin. such as palmitic and stearic. animal and microbial sources. Saturated fatty acids. which is a polar lipid. Chemically. Egg yolk lecithin is not a major source of lecithin in nutritional supplements. Soya lecithin is clearly richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids than egg lecithin. Soybean. Unsaturated fatty acids are mainly bound to the second or middle carbon of glycerol. palmitic and stearic. sunflower and rapeseed are the major plant sources of commercial lecithin.

Phosphatidylcholine is also the major delivery form of the essential nutrient choline. Alzheimer’s. has a marked fluidizing effect on cellular membranes. (Recent studies by Kane and Kane have found it critical in most chronic diseases including Lou Gehrig’s disease. JLT) 46 . Phosphatidylcholine is transported in the blood in various lipoprotein particles. Decreased cell-membrane fluidization and breakdown of cellmembrane integrity. mainly in the duodenum and upper jejunum. the formation of cellular energy and intracellular communication or signal transduction. neurological diseases. A possible future role in cancer therapy is also suggested by recent research. fatty acids and glycerol. Reacylation of lysolecithin takes place in the intestinal mucosal cells. which is then transported by the lymphatics in the form of chylomicrons to the blood. Choline is a precursor of acetylcholine. There is some evidence that Phosphatidylcholine may be useful in the management of Alzheimer's disease and some other cognitive disorders. including very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Lyme disease. Serum choline levels peak between 2 to 6 hours after oral intake. MECHANISM OF ACTION Phosphatidylcholine's role in the maintenance of cell-membrane integrity is vital to all of the basic biological processes. including alcoholic fibrosis. Some phosphatidylcholine is incorporated into cell membranes. the methyl donor betaine and phospholipids.Phosphatidylcholine is important for normal cellular membrane composition and repair. Phosphatidylcholine. including liver disease. it is then distributed to the various tissues of the body. The fatty acids and glycerol either get oxidized to produce energy or become involved in lipogenesis. various cancers and cell death. producing lysophosphatidylcholine (lysolecithin). Phosphatidylcholine is also metabolized to choline. INDICATIONS AND USAGE Phosphatidylcholine may be indicated to help restore liver function in a number of disorders. including phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin among others. PHARMACOKINETICS Phosphatidylcholine is absorbed into the mucosal cells of the small intestine. Phosphatidylcholine is involved in the hepatic export of very-low-density lipoproteins. It may also be indicated in some with tardive dyskinesia. etc. These are: information flow that occurs within cells from DNA to RNA to proteins. It may also be indicated for the treatment of some manic conditions. particularly phosphatidylcholine rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. autism. are associated with a number of disorders. Choline itself is a precursor in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. following some digestion by the pancreatic enzyme phospholipase. and possibly viral hepatitis. low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL). as well as impairment of cell-membrane repair mechanisms. reforming phosphatidylcholine.

including protection against various other toxic substances. has striking hepatoprotective effects. Several other mechanisms under investigation may also contribute. that phosphatidylcholine would demonstrate clearcut benefits in cognitive disorders. compared with controls. Both supplemental choline and phosphatidylcholine were found to reduce the muscular hyperactivity of this disorder by about 50% in some studies. The phosphatidylcholine patients had significantly reduced symptoms. All histological evidence of the disease disappeared in some cases. fewer relapses and quicker normalization of liver function tests. individuals suffering from hepatitis type A and B were given 1. Phosphatidylcholine is a better delivery form and is also more tolerable than choline. in addition. Its benefits in viral hepatitis were reported some years ago by several different research groups in Europe and elsewhere. equal in amounts contained in the phosphatidylcholine-rich lecithin they subsequently used. In addition. In one of these studies. some supplemented with a soy-derived polyunsaturated lecithin (60% phosphatidylcholine) and some unsupplemented. they concluded that the polyunsaturated phospholipids themselves may have been responsible for the benefits observed. However. Researchers in Great Britain treated chronic active hepatitis C patients with 3 grams daily of phosphatidylcholine in double-blind fashion. for some time. But. In vitro studies have shown that these phospholipids increase hepatic collagenase activity and may thus help prevent fibrosis and cirrhosis by encouraging collagen breakdown. Phosphatidylcholine may help some with tardive dyskinesia. have hypothesized that phosphatidylcholine's possible antiviral effects are related to the supplement's apparent ability to increase cellular membrane fluidity and repair the membranes of liver cells. Others have reported similarly encouraging results in animal models. phosphatidylcholine has demonstrated other protective effects in nonalcoholic liver disorders. both fibrosis and cirrhosis were largely prevented in the phosphatidylcholine group. research has shown that phosphatidylcholine. like others. which continued for up to eight years. There has been hope. These researchers. In two animal studies using baboons fed diets high in alcohol. developed fibrosis or cirrhosis. Compared with unsupplemented controls.8 grams of phosphatidylcholine daily. Clearly. human trials are warranted. the phosphatidylcholine group enjoyed quicker recoveries. had no comparable protective effects on the liver. one significant trial did not see a beneficial effect. a neurological disorder characterized by defective cholinergic nerve activity. independent of its choline content. Most of the unsupplemented animals in these studies.RESEARCH SUMMARY Clinical studies have demonstrated that choline is essential for normal liver function. such as age-related memory loss and Alzheimer's 47 . Because these researchers had previously found that choline. There is some very preliminary evidence that phosphatidylcholine may help control manic symptoms in some.

There are a few reports that supplemental choline can improve short-term memory skills and enhance the memories of those who are initial poor learners. based on the premise that lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity has an important role in the removal of cholesterol from tissues. PRECAUTIONS. but most have not. OVERDOSAGE 48 . Those with Alzheimer's disease have a diminished ability to synthesize and/or utilize the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ADVERSE REACTIONS CONTRAINDICATIONS There are no reported or known contraindications of phosphatidylcholine supplementation. thus the hope that supplemental choline/phosphatidylcholine might be of benefit. Those with the antiphospholipid-antibody syndrome should exercise caution in the use of phosphatidylcholine supplements. but animal studies indicate that deficiencies in choline and phosphatidylcholine may disrupt cell membrane signal transduction in ways that could lead to various cancers. The results were quite modest. A few studies have suggested some small benefit in memory restoration. A few studies have shown reduction in serum cholesterol with phosphatidylcholine intake. Recently it has been suggested that phosphatidylcholine might eventually have some therapeutic role in some cancers. particularly in those areas of the brain related to memory.disease. Mild side effects have been noted occasionally such as nausea. Phosphatidylcholine has been used to lower serum cholesterol levels. INTERACTIONS There are no known interactions. Research continues. and most studies have not shown any significant cholesterol-lowering activity. There is ample evidence that liver cancer is promoted in various animals by choline-deficient diets. and it has been shown that excess choline can protect against liver cancer in a mouse model. There is no evidence of this to date. ADVERSE REACTIONS No major side effects have been reported. CONTRAINDICATIONS. This holds for all forms of phosphatidylcholine. PRECAUTIONS Those with malabsorption problems may develop diarrhea or steatorrhea when using phosphatidylcholine supplements. diarrhea and increased salivation in some.

Lecithin in the treatment of mania: double-blind. et al. Cohen BM. Metabolism. A crossover study of lecithin treatment of tardive dyskinesia. 1994. Use of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine in HBsAg negative chronic active hepatitis: results of prospective double-blind controlled trial. 1982. 2:7-81. Hirsch MJ. 1987. 1982. Hepatic and pancreatic effects of polyenoylphosphatidylcholine in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. 1978. 27:953960. Wurtman RJ. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION There are several forms of phosphatidylcholine supplements. Nutr Rev. Cell Biochem Funct. Jenkins PJ. 1985. Lukivskaya O. 136:1458-1460. Zeisel SH. Doller J. Liquid concentrates containing 3 grams of phosphatidylcholine per 5 milliliters (one teaspoon) are also available. 49 . Dorer DJ. Relations between dietary choline or lecithin intake. placebo-controlled trials. Nuttall EA. Lecithin can suppress tardive dyskinesia. Growdon JH. Trop Gastroenterol. 1979. Lecithin and choline in human health and disease. Softgel capsules containing 55% and 90% phosphatidylcholine are available. Liver. and various metabolic indices. Am J Psychiatry. LITERATURE Atoba MA. Lecithin. Technological.There are no reports of overdosage. N Engl J Med. Buko V. Nikitin V. Effects of essential phospholipid choline on the course of acute hepatitis-B infection. Portmann BP. 6:96-9. Gelenberg AJ. Ibe IO. J Clin Psychiatry. Jackson IV. Perez-Cruet J. Canty DJ. Lipinski JF. 298:1029-1030. Williams R. et al. 1990. et al. 51:149-153. New York and London: Plenum Press. 1978. Recommended doses range from 3 to 9 grams of phosphatidylcholine daily in divided doses. 52:327-339. Typical commercial lecithin supplements contain 20 to 30% phosphatidylcholine. Altesman RI. Hanin I. 1996. Wojcik JD. Eddleston AL. Ayoola EA. Gelenberg AJ. 14:131-137. Am J Psychiatry. Treatment of tardive dyskinesia with lecithin. Ogunseyinde O. serum choline levels. Biological and Therapeutic Aspects. 139:1162-1164. eds. Ansell GB. Growdon JH.

et al. Attenuation of alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis by polyunsaturated lecithin. 1985.Kosina F. Hefti F. 1977. De Carl LM. Pharmac Rev. One died and five had seizures. it was given to seven monkeys. One of the unsuspected problems with these various toxins is that the body becomes ADDICTED to them. roaches. Hand D. Visco G. 120:957-960. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. NutraSweet and many others show us that isn’t true. 32:315-335. Lieber CS. Food manufactures know this. Budka K. You cannot depend on the government to protect you from things that aren’t healthy. Chuaqui-Kidd P. results of a randomized double-blind clinical study. We live in a toxic society. 1997. we are ready to start cleaning. Clin Ter. That makes you want to use more of their product and have trouble when you try to stop using 50 . Still the government now allows it to be put into most of our food. over 40% developed brain tumors. Precursor control of neurotransmitter synthesis. These things must be removed for us to live happily in our remodeled home. Wurtman RJ. 2(8028):68-69. When aspartame (NutraSweet) was first tested. spiders. There are likely to be bacteria. Bextra. several undesirable things are likely to be present. Hirsch MJ. Kolouch Z. That is why they put known neurotoxins like aspartame and MSG in their products. orange. ants. seasonings. When given to mice. TOXINS Now that we have the utilities turned on. Cas Lek Cesk. Mak KM. 1981. 1981. Now we have a new syndrome where harmless amoebae in our lakes and rivers have turned into meat-eating pathogens that cause chronic fatigue because the apple. etc. et al. Lieber CS. We used DDT as a pesticide for years until finally it killed most of our eagles by poisoning the fish they eat. Aleynik SI. 21:375-379. Hepatol. Polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine in association with vitamin B complex in the treatment of acute viral hepatitis B. et al. Lecithin consumption raises serum-free-choline levels. mice. Little A. 12:1390-1398. 48:736-742. the government allows it to be put into children’s vitamins. potato chips. 1985. Over time. crackers. However. We have been lead to believe that scientists know everything and that the government agencies would not allow companies to do anything that will harm us. Growdon JH. Melamed E. fungus. A double-blind. termites. Levy R. placebo-controlled trial of high-dose lecithin in Alzheimer's disease. Lancet. We have been in the process of poisoning ourselves to death for years. MSG causes monkey to have holes in their brains. etc. Essential cholinephospholipids in the treatment of virus hepatitis. Leo MA. J Neur Neurosurg Psych. You become addicted. 1990. present. 114:183-188. Wurtman RJ. The recent episodes of Vioxx. and tobacco farmers are using pesticides that kill the algae that the amoebae used for a food supply.

http://www. Processed sugar has been separated from the minerals that make it less harmful. Toothpaste. or propylene glycol. tap water (copper pipes). pesticides. 9. Use Stevia if you must have a sweetener. use essential oils. and hydrated silica. Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are clear liquids used in antifreeze and deicing solutions. Copper. etc. You'll see they are loaded with dangerous toxins and chemicals such as sodium fluoride. 5. 10. so you will have to have it shipped to you unless you own an interest in your own cow. That is why so many people have trouble with milk products. use 2/3 baking soda and 1/3 sea salt. sorbitol. Shine. Use real butter instead of margarine. mannitol. Splenda. rodents. you will find giving up these toxic things difficult. All artificial sweeteners. triclosan. Mono Sodium Glutamate (MSG). Just read the label on any major brand toothpaste or mouthwash. Equal). These are often toxic. That includes aspartame (NutraSweet. Here is the list. Copper blocks zinc. Therefore I recommend you eliminate these toxic things one at a time. spices. Copper toxicity is a problem from exhaust fumes. Think of these things as spiders. 4. All of these common ingredients have been found to be harmful to humans. polyethylene glycol. Exposure to large amounts of ethylene glycol can damage the 51 .it. etc. Go through your pantry and throw out anything that contains any artificial sweeteners. Try not to eat in restaurants that use Trans fats.com/hiddendangers. sodium lauryl sulfate. 3. Sugar. etc. 6. You should know that heating milk to pasteurize it changes its proteins to toxic ones. Check them off the list each time you can go for a couple of weeks without craving each item or being tempted to eat them when others are doing so. Stop using aluminum cookware. Homogenization is accomplished by forcing the milk through nozzles under pressure. That is why your toothpaste tube has a poison warning on it! Instead. Drink raw whole milk instead of 2% or skim milk.oramd. In many states you can join a club so you can get raw milk that isn’t pasteurized or homogenized. Aluminum. Antiperspirants that contain aluminum.g. Look for “hydrogenated” or “partially hydrogenated” oil or “Canola Oil” on the label. You will find it in white flour and Extra-dry antiperspirants. aluminum foil. Don’t forget to look at vitamins. Unfortunately. FD&C Blue Dye #1 and 2. 8. only California allows raw milk to be sold. it causes the release of an enzyme that destroys cells (phospholipase A2. a critical element in over 350 metabolic processes. termites and other things you don’t want in your house: 1. and drinking from aluminum cans. It is not likely that many of us would think about being addicted to Diet-sodas or corn chips! Because stopping addictions is difficult and uncomfortable.. In addition. That fractures the fats into abnormal small chains that are water soluble.htm If you don’t like the baking soda. PLA2) 7. Saccharine. 2. Go through your pantry and throw out anything that contains MSG. e. Trans Fats. All forms of tobacco.

Same as coffee. Even decaffeinated coffee blocks zinc depression. Deodorants are preferable because they don’t interfere with sweating. Coffee. Makes 3/4 cup Shelf Life: Indefinite http://www. Just sprinkle a light covering of baking soda onto a damp washcloth. As your liver gets sicker. Use a deodorant instead of an antiperspirant. (Note that aluminum can accumulate in the brain. An example is Roll. especially when traveling. Shake to blend. 11. use ROLL Natural Organic Quench Scented Deodorant and ROCK by Forever Green. or blocking the pores with powerful astringents such as aluminum salts so that they can’t release sweat. This tip—just using baking soda—has saved me on many occasions.  Basic Deodorant Powder 1/2 cup baking soda 1/2 cup cornstarch a few drops essential oils such as lavender or cinnamon Place the ingredients in a glass jar. Same as coffee. and mineral water 1 teaspoon vegetable glycerin a few drops antibacterial essential oils such as lavender (optional) Combine the ingredients in a spray bottle. a natural cooling and detoxifying process.care2. Pat on.000 types of pathogenic organisms in your body just waiting to eat you when you immune system fails. heart. There are always over 1. aloe vera gel.  Basic Liquid Deodorant 1/4 cup each witch hazel extract. Antiperspirants Most people think that antiperspirants and deodorants are the same thing. 13. closing. Pat on. Alcohol. These infectious organisms feed on carbohydrates and must have 52 .com/channels/solutions/consumer_guides/114 If you don’t want to make your own deodorant. Tea.kidneys.) Deodorants work by neutralizing the smell of the sweat and by antiseptic action against bacteria. the immune system becomes weaker.  Baking Soda Simple Solution Baking soda works wonders because it neutralizes the odor of sweat. Deodorants vs. Shake to blend. Antiperspirants work by clogging. Sprinkle a light covering of the powder on a damp washcloth. and nervous system. 12. Don’t rinse. Don’t rinse. but they aren’t.

whfoods. No beans 6. No grains 2. honey. and carcinoma of the liver in a number of animal species. No mustard. no animal species is resistant to the acute toxic effects of aflatoxins. Individuals with already existing and untreated thyroid problems may want to avoid mustard seeds for this reason. 7. 11.an acidic medium (voltage deficient). parasiticus. 10. sugar. No carbonated drinks 9. No pasta 3. Persons with preexisting skin disorders or eye problems. dextrose. See corn. No cashews. Spinach contains oxalic acid. No fast foods 8. If you eat in restaurants. eat ½ the amount of these items you might otherwise eat: REMOVE THESE FROM THE DIET IF YOU ARE DISABLED BY YOUR ILLNESS AND/OR YOU GET NAUSEATED WHEN YOU EAT FAT: 1. you will need to avoid feeding these infections by avoiding carbohydrates until you can get your liver/immune system working again. No MSG 12. The calcium oxalate then obstructs the kidney tubules. radish. corn) 4. sucrose. No corn syrup. When ingested. cirrhosis. No spinach. http://www. Cooking may help to inactivate the goitrogenic compounds found in food. you will need to avoid other possible sources of increased toxins that you body will not be able to manage. parsnip. it is not clear from the research exactly what percent of goitrogenic compounds get inactivated by cooking. No artificial sweeteners. peas. oxalic acid removes calcium from the blood. beet.com/genpage. No peanuts or peanut butter 14. No starchy vegetables (potato. The aflatoxins are a group of structurally related toxic compounds produced by certain strains of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. 16. No fruit or fruit juice 5. or impaired kidney or respiratory function may be more susceptible to the effects of the substance. In addition you will need to avoid carbohydrates (increase destruction of cells). No Canola oil or mayonnaise 13.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=106 15. If you are so sick you are disabled.Absolutely No Corn (Aflatoxicosis is poisoning that results from ingestion of aflatoxins in contaminated food or feed. hence it is logical to assume that 53 . The Intense Detoxification Diet includes the following and must be followed for two months if you are disabled by your illness. Oxalic acid is corrosive to tissue. carrot. Thus if your liver is so sick you get nauseated when you eat fat. 17. Aflatoxins produce acute necrosis. No hydrogenated oils. maltodextrin. or exactly how much risk is involved with the consumption of mustard seeds by individuals with pre-existing and untreated thyroid problems. Kidney damage can be expected as the calcium is removed from the blood in the form of calcium oxalate. However. naturally occurring substances in certain foods that can interfere with the functioning of the thyroid gland. Mustard seeds contain goitrogens.

ants. In the United States. endocrine glands and liver. viruses and fungi then tend to grow in our gall bladder and produce more toxins. http://www. Heavy metals in our tissues and biotoxins (chemicals that damage our cells) will have concentrated in our liver and gall bladder because those organs try to remove these pests from our body---often unsuccessfully. This is particularly true of our cell membranes and our brain. and walnuts. aflatoxins have been identified in corn and corn products. So it is with our body.gov/~mow/chap41. cottonseed. 54 . Most of these toxic things are fatsoluble (dissolved in the fat of our bodies). Since they are fatsoluble. peanuts and peanut products. termites etc. pistachio nuts.cfsan.Cleaning Up the Pests In our house analogy.html 18. it is likely that the rats have built a nest in our old home. they tend to get stored and concentrated in our liver and gall bladder. pecans. Other grains and nuts are susceptible but less prone to contamination. These pests will damage our home and steal our food if we don’t get rid of them.fda. There will be spider webs. mice. our liver and gall bladder become a “rat’s nest” that must be cleaned out for us to start feeling better.humans may be similarly affected. In this manner. Bacteria. crickets. and tree nuts such as Brazil nuts. milk.

Attempting to do it on your own using herbal remedies. More than 500. 3. take calcium. bloating. 100% of those taurine-deficient developed gallstones. will often give you significant pain. the formation of gallstones dropped to zero.000 North Americans have their gall bladder removed every year. loose stools.GALL BLADDER There are many misconceptions about the gall bladder. you can’t repair your cells (heal) without help. Since every cell membrane in the body is made of fat. You will be given an appointment for us to begin the process of cleaning your gallbladder. In those given taurine supplements. antibiotics. estrogen. The gall bladder is a very important organ---not something to be disposed of if it annoys you. If you have had your gallbladder removed. and over Forty (the Five F’s). the gall bladder is necessary to store bile. You will need to take 1000 mg. Gall stones are more common in people who eat a low fat diet. 2. each time you eat. Note the following facts: 1. and symptoms often thought to be from the stomach (heartburn due to gas pushing stomach acid into esophagus). Female. and yellowing of the skin----all due to gall bladder malfunction. you will take: 1. Vitamin C: Take 2000 mg. lemonade. Fat. You should plan on taking vitamin C long term. The liver makes 1 ½ quarts of bile per day to digest fats. 4. 55 . bloating and heartburn occur in 50-100% after you have had your gall bladder removed as before. take oral contraceptives. /day. The same symptoms of pain. nausea and vomiting. You can use Digestabs = contain bile and digestive enzymes. /day. Since the liver can’t make bile fast enough to digest a fatty meal. 2. if you can’t digest the fats. 5. Taurine is an amino acid needed to make bile. Fertile (previous pregnancies). Forty percent of Americans have abdominal pain. Without the gall bladder. fever and chills. you can’t do a good job of digesting fats. and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. obesity. The most likely people to make gallstones are Fair complexion. To help clean the gall bladder. In studies. you will need to take Bile Salts (Ox Bile) 500 mg. etc.

reduction. Conversion of cholesterol into bile is a primary process in the elimination of wastes. When detoxification is occurring. To accomplish this cleanup. toxins.Urea cycle 5. hydrolysis.Bile and cholesterol synthesis 8. acetylation.Bilirubin metabolism 4. Oral butyrate therapy addresses both control of nitrogen in states of increased blood ammonia and interruption of abnormal lipid metabolism. methylation.LIVER CLEANUP: The liver. The liver’s detoxification processes has three distinct phases. glucuronidation. you will be given instructions in our office: 56 . It requires oxygen as toxins are burned or oxidized. It also clears what are called “renegade fats” from the liver. sulfation. Clearance of drugs (pharmaceuticals) 12. and bile acids from the intestine.Hormone metabolism 10. nitrogen may be retained involving albumin.Ammonia detoxification 6. uric acid. The purpose is to change fat-soluble toxins into water-soluble products that can be excreted from the body. the largest solid organ. Elevation of very long chained fatty acids is indicative of interruption of Phase I. Processing of nutrients.Oxidative energy metabolism 9. Phase III: toxins ported from cells for removal via gallbladder and kidneys. Immune function (Kupffer cells) 11.Biliary processes 7.Blood synthesis 3.Lipid/carbohydrate/protein metabolism 2. Phase II: toxins are made more water-soluble using oxidation. BUN or Creatinine. and glutathione conjugation. is the body’s detoxification center and a vast center for metabolic activity including: 1. dehalogenation. Thus a high cholesterol is a symptom of the liver attempting to clear toxins from the body and should not be interrupted with anti-cholesterol drug therapy: Phase I: polarity is increased by a process called oxidation or hydroxylation using enzymes called PP450 oxidases. Ammonia levels rise due to impaired ability to convert ammonia into urea. peptide conjugation.

allow nutrients to enter the cell and waste to exit the cell. lost shingles. These toxins interfere with the function of the cell. drugs and infections due to viral. You must stop eating them and then consume good fats so you can replace all of your cells with membranes that work. pharmaceuticals. The liver cells are completely replaced every two months. Cells normally die and replace themselves.000 square meters of membrane. Since most toxins in the body are fat-soluble. Every cell membrane is made primarily of fatty acids called phospholipids.REBUILDING BEFORE From Extreme Home Makeover AFTER With our old house. we are ready to start rebuilding our old house. The “brain” of every cell is the cell membrane. It protects the liver against damage from alcohol. Nerve cells take months to be replaced. If you are disabled. store voltage for the needs of the cell. large intestine. electricity on (pure water. Some cells replace themselves every 48 hours and some cells only replace themselves every eight months. communicate with other cells. We start removing rotten boards and replacing broken windows. Phosphatidylcholine (PC): This is the most abundant phospholipid (fat) of the cell membrane and protects the liver’s 33. The skin is replaced every six weeks. they are stored in the cell membranes. you may choose to use both IV and oral until you are better and then continue with oral until you are well or at least functional. etc. etc. If you eat Trans Fats (nearly plastic). Generally speaking. Cell membranes interact with the environment. Biomodulator therapy) and have cleaned up the pests (gall bladder and liver cleanse). disabled people will require 5-40 IV injections of PC. bacterial and fungal infections (Lieber). The capsules are 57 . They are usually given daily for at least a week and until you can tolerate oral fats. pollutants. Thus it will take up to eight months to rebuild yourself. sewage. now that we have the water. your cells function as if they were made of plastic. PC is most effective when given intravenously but can also be given orally.

Proteins An essential amino acid for an organism is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized by the organism from other available resources. valine. Two others. A great source of these is Wolf Berries. One molecule of mercury can inhibit 2000 molecules of zinc! The way to determine if you have heavy metal poisoning is with a hair test since only 1-5% remains in the blood and the rest is in your tissue. weight loss and retarded growth as well as reproductive problems. According to the American Heart Association. hair loss. Without tryptophan. The other is plankton. We also use a light (Collins Light) that provides missing electrons to help the metals release from the cells and an infrared sauna to help release the metals from the cells.wikipedia. Eight amino acids are generally regarded as essential for humans: tryptophan. enzyme disorders. Recognized as an essential nutrient. histidine and arginine are essential only in children. we can give you a liquid that contain both phosphatidylcholine and EDTA. etc. you will become severely depressed. Lutein and zeaxanthin are important for maintaining good vision. These metals also accumulate in cell membranes and short-out the systems. leucine. cadmium (auto exhaust. gasoline). Studies have shown that these antioxidants help prevent age-related macular degeneration-the leading cause of blindness in people over 65. choline has been shown to play a strong role in brain development and function. lutein also protects against the progress of early heart disease. lysine. a material that will slowly release the metals from the cells. lack of energy. Heavy Metals Many people have accumulated heavy metals like mercury (silver fillings. The symptoms of lysine deficiency include anemia. 58 . One egg provides half your daily requirement of choline. EGGS Eggs are one of nature's most nutritious foods. threonine. and therefore must be supplied as part of its diet. This is called DetoxMax Plus. zinc-depleted soil). lead (paint. and help decrease the risk of cataracts. are poorly represented in most plant proteins. methionine. If you have heavy metals in your system. phenylalanine (or tyrosine). poor appetite and poor concentration. An egg is one of the few foods that contain everything necessary for life. seafood). lysine and tryptophan. One large egg contains only 70 calories and an incredible amount of nutrition.taken for 6-12 months. http://en.org/wiki/Essential_amino_acid Two of the essential amino acids. bloodshot eyes. isoleucine. Thus strict vegetarians should ensure that their diet contains sufficient amounts of these two amino acids.

hair as well as antibodies. In an effort to get glucose into your plastic cells. If you eat a diet that has no cholesterol in it. It is well known that measurements of inflammation (like C-reactive Protein) is much more related to heart attacks and strokes than cholesterol. Eating Trans fats (almost plastic) makes you fat because “plastic” cell membranes won’t react correctly to insulin. and hormones are all made from protein. Muscles. organs. As noted above. is pure nonsense and was proposed primarily to sell cholesterol-lowering drugs. it is hard to make good cell membranes = you will be sick because you don’t have normal cells. There are 8 essential amino acids that the body cannot make. Ansel Keyes who first proposed that there might be a relationship between cholesterol and heart disease has often said that there is no relationship between what you eat and your blood cholesterol levels unless you are a rabbit or a rat. 59 . Protein is composed of 20 different amino acids. Seventeen percent (17%) of the normal cell membrane is a fat called Arachidonic acid. Remember that eating good fats doesn’t make you fat! It makes you healthy. the body makes more and more insulin (we call that insulin-resistant). You should eat 2-4 eggs per day. enzymes. Eggs are one of the few foods considered to be a complete protein because they provide all eight essential amino acids. whole raw milk. You want free-range eggs. Thus the idea that you should avoid eating eggs. and so they must come from foods. so it is very difficult for total vegetarians to be healthy.Protein is essential for building and repairing body tissue. Thus the relationship of heart disease to cholesterol is simply the presence of toxins that cause inflammation. Thus eating more and more Trans fats makes us obese and diabetic because our cells are “plastic”. Some worry about cholesterol. Insulin locks fat inside of fat cells and it cannot be used as long as insulin is present. Restricting these fat sources in children is particularly harmful since their brain (mostly fat) is developing and needs enormous amounts of fat to develop normally. If you eat buckets of cholesterol. your blood cholesterol won’t change 5%. The primary source of that is eggs. If you don’t eat eggs. not eggs from chickens not allowed to move and fed 24 hours a day until they can no longer produce. the liver makes cholesterol when it is trying to clean itself of toxins. your blood cholesterol won’t change 5%. etc. skin. fatty meats. Thus-----eat eggs along with other fats to get the proteins and fats you need to make neurochemicals and good cells. There is no vegetarian source of Arachidonic acid.

the Vitamin K in the vegetables may thicken your blood. you get nauseated when you eat fat). 4. Another major issue is heating. but run it at very low speed so that heat is not a problem. Getting rid of the fiber means your fragile liver doesn’t have to deal with more toxins right now. When you digest vegetables in their whole form. Bladebased blenders heat up the food. 5. You cannot do this with a machine with a spinning blade. we will supply that with FiberNet. You may need to alter your medication dose when you start juicing and when you stop juicing. It is okay to put your juice from the juicer into a blender to mix in the items mentioned below like nuts. That chops the vegetables into little pieces that include the fiber (pulp). you will need to juice four pounds of vegetables per day. Fiber is good for scraping debris from your intestine.Juicing for Those Who are Disabled If you are disabled (for example. Thus if you are a 200 pound man. protein powder. We have already cleaned out your intestine. Get a real juicer-squeezer if you don’t have one. Juicing is not chopping. as they are the easiest to digest:  Celery 60 . 3. The Omega is a highly rated brand. Juicing means that you squeeze the juice from the vegetables so that the juice is collected and the fiber (pulp) is removed. Most toxins in vegetables stick to the fiber. 2. but you do need the nutrition in the vegetables. I recommend starting out with these vegetables. so you don’t need the fiber while we are getting you feeling better. you need to juice vegetables. You can consume this as a meal or divide it up throughout the day. The water available from inside the vegetables is perfect for getting inside your cells. etc. It has the added benefit of soaking up the toxins that your body is getting rid of. NOTE: If you are taking anticoagulants. you need to know what to juice. Heat destroys many of the nutrients in your food. you have to spend energy (voltage) to digest the fiber. Monitor your INR (coagulation test) weekly until you are sure it is okay. How much do I need? You will need one pound of raw vegetables per 50 pounds of body weight per day. There are several reasons for this: 1. You need the nutrients available in their natural form in vegetables. Now that you're ready for the benefits of vegetable juice. but you don’t have the extra energy it requires to move it along your intestine. If you need fiber to keep you from having your stools too loose.

The reason they taste so good is that they are full of sugar. The term "vitamin U" was coined because the compound is very effective in the medical treatment of gastric ulcers. Herbs also make wonderful combinations. as many cannot tolerate it well. hold off. Vegetables to avoid include carrots and beets. 61 . then go to the next step:    Cabbage Chinese Cabbage Bok Choy An interesting side note: Cabbage juice is one of the most healing nutrients for ulcer repair as it is a huge source of vitamin U. move on to adding herbs to your juicing.co. It is found in raw cabbage leaves and other green vegetables. vegetables into your juice. Step 2: When you've acclimatized yourself to juicing. (Vitamin U is not a vitamin.althealth. These are more challenging vegetables to consume. and there are two that work exceptionally well:   Parsley Cilantro You need to be cautious with cilantro.  Fennel (anise) Cucumbers These aren't as beneficial as the more nutritionally intense dark green vegetables. Once you get used to these. you can add about one pound of carrots or beets per week. but they are highly beneficial. Most people who juice usually use carrots. If you are new to juicing. If you are healthy. you can start adding these vegetables:       Red leaf lettuce Green Leaf lettuce Romaine lettuce Endive Escarole Spinach Step 3: After you're used to these. intense colors of these foods provide additional benefits for many that are just not available in the green vegetables listed above.uk/services/info/supplements/vitamin_u.php Step 4: When you're ready. I would definitely avoid all vegetables that grow underground to avoid an increase in your insulin levels.) http://www. but less palatable. Vitamins are essential nutrients that cannot be synthesized (either at all or in sufficient quantities) by a given organism and therefore must be taken with food for the organism's continued good health. I do believe that the deep. you can start adding the more nutritionally valuable.

are another great addition to the pulp. If they are cut off.  Use chlorella. into the vegetable pulp (not the juicer). purchase organic eggs. Lesson 4: Make your juice a balanced meal. Raw seeds. The reason I advocate this is because once you heat the eggs. Balance your juice with protein and fat. The seeds are full of protein and essential fatty acids that bring a juice into balance beautifully. raw. if you are not sensitive to milk. Binds to heavy metals and pesticides. 62 . as they are very bitter:     Kale Collard Greens Dandelion Greens Mustard Greens (bitter) When purchasing collard greens. it's unlikely you'll have any problems. However. Vegetable juice does not have much protein or fat. The simplest way to grind the seeds is to use an inexpensive coffee grinder. I recommend pumpkin and flax seeds. so if it makes you nauseous you should definitely avoid it. One important note: I prefer to juice my vegetables at room temperature. There is a potential problem with using the entire raw egg if you are pregnant. The normal dose is one teaspoon in the juice. Additionally. Eggs will add a significant amount of beneficial fats and protein to your meal. a common concern in pregnancy. Adds magnesium and protein. you can add some raw milk cheese. many of their nutrients become damaged. Chlorella is an incredibly powerful nutrient from the sea and is a form of algae. o o o Is a useful source of chlorophyll. freshly ground and alternated regularly. find a store that sells the leaves still attached to the main stalk.  Use eggs. It can be helpful for mercury detoxification as it binds very strongly to mercury to eliminate it from the body.  Incorporate seeds.Step 5: The last step: Only use one or two of these leaves. If you have high iron or vitamin D levels you will want to avoid chlorella though as it is loaded with both of these nutrients. could be made worse by consuming whole raw eggs. If you are concerned about salmonella. so it's very important for you to include these fat and protein sources with your meal. Biotin deficiency. as it will improve the flavor. so you can add two to four eggs per meal. An egg has about 8 grams of protein. the vegetable rapidly loses many of its valuable nutrients. I suggest that you add the whole eggs. about 30 percent of people cannot tolerate the chlorella.

Glutamine is an amino acid and the majority of our skeletal muscle is made of it. If you are a protein metabolic type you will not want to use lemons as they will push your pH in the wrong direction. Lemons: You can also add half a lemon (leaving much of the white rind on). You can obtain glutamine powder and add one teaspoon into your drink for a very effective healing addition. they are chock full of phytonutrients and help many women avoid urinary tract infections. It adds a delightful flavor and is an excellent source of fat to balance the meal. Researchers have discovered that cranberries have five times the antioxidant content of broccoli. You can add it to your drink. (JLT) Add some garlic. which have many health benefits. While protein powders are convenient. In addition. The ideal dose is just below the social threshold where people start to notice that you have eaten garlic. Limit the cranberries to about 4 ounces per pint of juice. You can add the BodyBio oil to your juice mixture if you prefer to take it this way. Some people are concerned about my milk avoidance suggestion and taking whey protein. fillers. most people tolerate it quite well as the major protein in milk that causes an allergy is casein. Cranberries: You can also add some cranberries if you enjoy them. stroke and heart disease. two medium cloves or three small cloves is the recommended dose. and other items that give chocolate a bad reputation. (JLT) 63 . It gives your juice a little "kick"  24 carat Chocolate: Dark chocolate has more antioxidants than any other food tested with perhaps the exception of Wolf Berries (Lycium barbarum). I recommend THUNDER from Forever Green. This chocolate from Forever Green does not contain wax. It is already in THUNDER protein powder. Add oil.    Fresh ginger: This is an excellent addition if you can tolerate it. (JLT)  Lesson 5: Make your juice taste great." I like to add one to two cloves of garlic in my juice. I believe them to be far inferior to whole food choices like eggs or chlorella. If you would like to make your juice taste a bit more palatable. which means they may protect against cancer. Although whey protein is from milk. One large clove. You can also use protein powders. Consider a protein powder. I strongly advise you to do this regularly to balance out your bowel flora. Don't worry. Coconut has medium chain triglycerides. you can add these elements:  Coconut: This is one of my favorites! You can purchase the whole coconut or use shredded coconut. as it incorporates the incredible healing potential of fresh garlic. this won't give you "dragon breath. I would strongly advise against the use of soy protein powders. especially in the beginning. caffeine.

or store it very carefully.htm# Vitamin B12 According to John V. However. We all know that if a juicer takes longer than 10 minutes to clean. so you'll probably be thinking to yourself. 2 Domisse expresses the opinion that most cases of so-called "Alzheimer's dementia" ("idiopathic dementia") are actually cases of B12 deficiency. Whatever you do. Most people juice in the morning. There is a well documented association between B12 deficiency and dementia. as vegetable juice should be consumed at room temperature. but if that does not work out well for your schedule please feel the freedom to choose whatever meal works out best for your lifestyle.mercola. the psychiatric conditions most associated with vitamin B12 deficiency include toxic brain syndrome. Store it in the refrigerator until about 30 minutes prior to drinking. as they most often emphasize carrot and fruit combinations. To store your juice: 1. It has more beta-carotene than carrots and nearly as much Vitamin C as oranges and protein as bee pollen. Lesson 7: Clean your juicer properly. I find that using an old toothbrush works well to clean any metal grater. Wolf berries: Wolfberry contains 19 types of amino acids and 21 trace minerals. the whole process takes about 5 minutes. an expert in vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) deficiency and therapy. paranoia. Warning: Don't follow the juicing recommendations that come with the juicer. In an article entitled "Subtle Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Psychiatry: A Largely Unnoticed But Devastating Relationship?" published in Medical Hypotheses. There should be a minimum amount of air in the jar as the oxygen in air (air is about 20 percent oxygen) will "oxidize" and damage the juice. According to Domisse. Vegetable juice is very perishable so it's best to drink all of your juice immediately. B12 deficiency can cause depression and even. "I wonder if I can juice first thing and then drink it later?" This isn't a great idea. Wrap the jar with aluminum foil to block out all light. For the Omega 8003. you need to clean your juicer immediately after you juice to prevent any remnants from contaminating the juicer with mold growth. we'll find excuses not to do it. violence and depression. MD. Dommisse. 3. Light damages the juice. http://www. Lesson 6: Drink your vegetable juice right away. Put your juice in a glass jar with an airtight lid and fill it to the very top. if you're careful you can store it for up to 24 hours with only moderate nutritional decline. 64 . 2. Juicing is a time-consuming process.com/nutritionplan/juicing.

Fatigue is another symptom of vitamin B12 deficiency but the medical community has been slow to recognize the connection.in certain cases. bipolar-2 disorder (cyclothymic personality). domestic violence. like that of Lindenbaum in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1988." The fourth and last major psychiatric effect of this deficiency is paranoid ideation and even paranoid psychosis (but not schizophrenia). Then the treating physician will say. However.org/children/childviolence.000 ug daily have been used in cases of pernicious anemia to maintain these patients' vitamin B12 levels. by the time the deficiency is recognized (serum level below 200 pg/ml). In the long term. B12 treatment does not reverse dementia (or neuropathy)!'" A major point by this author is that the range used to establish serum vitamin B12 deficiency in conventional medicine (less than 200 to 400 pg/ml) is far too low. where the violence ceased after the patient's B12 deficiency was diagnosed and properly treated. Says Domisse: "The third most common psychiatric manifestation of this deficiency is violent behavior. especially when accompanied by fatigue and neuropathy.000 to 2. Any child with violent tendencies. temper outbursts. Oral doses of 1. just as in the case of the dementia. the best protection is a diet rich in animal foods.000 to 2.000 to 5. more commonly. The hydroxy.000 pg/ml may be the optimal range. When peripheral neuropathy occurs in this range. Oral doses of 1. The author suggests that 1. 'See.." says Domisse. etc. "fatigue is still not recognized as a prominent feature of B12 deficiency syndrome. it is often permanent.and methyl. An acute condition can be treated with oral supplements or vitamin B12 injections. http://www.westonaprice. the neuropathy may well have become irreversible. bipolar-1 disorder (manic-depressive illness) and.html Symptoms of B12 deficiency include: Anemia Brown spots over joints Bursitis Dementia Depression Diarrhea Dizziness B12 B12 B12 B12 B12 B12 B12 65 . Peripheral neuropathy is another non-psychiatric condition that can result from this and other B vitamin deficiencies. Cyanocobalamin at high doses has never been shown to be toxic. "Even after major articles.forms of vitamin B12 are generally recommended. should be tested for vitamin B12 deficiency. yet how often is this deficiency ever sought or treated in criminal cases of violent behavior? I have witnessed numerous cases of rage attacks.500 ug after both breakfast and supper seem the best way to maintain very high levels of serum vitamin B12 .

If your digestion is working well enough to absorb good fats and proteins. We have to supply your body with good fats and good proteins so it can make good new cells. One issue is whether your digestive system is working well enough to get the fats from your mouth to your cells so they can make new ones. You get new retinal elements every two days. That membrane is almost completely fat. If all it finds is “plastic” Trans fats. Now we are going to give you the fats you need to start making good cells. It is almost entirely protein. Remember the cell membrane is the “brain” of the cell and determines whether that is a healthy or sick cell. You get an entirely new skin every six weeks. we can give glutathione. 66 . We have started by cleaning up your digestion organs and providing the voltage to get things working again. If you keep doing what you are doing as far as nutrition is concerned. a material that helps the cells use antioxidants to clean up toxic things called free radicals. If you are sick. One can give them intravenously so that we know the fats will get to the cells that are making new ones. the process looks for the proper building materials. The “manufacturing” part of the cell is the cytoplasm. it uses them to build the new cell membranes. you will keep making the same quality of cells you have been making. In addition. DOING MORE OF WHAT ISN’T WORKING DOESN’T MAKE IT WORK BETTER. You will be given a list of things to provide your body with the materials you need to start rebuilding.Irritability Mood swings Nausea Negative thinking Pale smooth tongue Paranoia Poor Memory Psychosis Restlessness Schizophrenia Sore tongue Temper outbursts Tingling Violence Weakness B12 B12 B12 B12 B12 B12 B12 B12 B12 B12 B12 B12 B12 B12 B12 Replacing Your Cells = A Completely New You The process of rebuilding a new and healthy you is based in the fact that your body is constantly replacing itself. You get a new liver every eight weeks. It takes months to get new nerve cells. As each new cell is built. that obviously isn’t very good. you will be able to make good new cells.

67 . As you can see. We will help you decide if you need intravenous therapy for awhile or if oral will work. you will need two months of intensive work to build you a new liver and then several months to finish building the new you from top to bottom. If the digestive system is working.Experience shows that getting the digestive system working well enough to absorb fats is difficult because it needs to make new cells so it can work. In either case. but only you can heal yourself. Remember that fats and proteins require vitamins and minerals to work. we will have to give the fats intravenously until it can rebuild. If the digestive system can’t function well enough to supply the fats needed to rebuild itself. Those of us in our clinic will guide you. We look forward to watching for the new you as you rebuild yourself into renewed health. I can’t control what you put into your mouth----thus the result you will experience is mostly determined by your choices. we can give the necessary fats orally. so replacing them is also important. there is no magic bullet to cure you in a flash. The only way for you to be healthy is to build a new body with good materials.

Cook. J. Pitkeathly. D. Fifty ways to love your lever: myosin motors. E E. Reversible inhibition of Chlamydomonas flagellar surface motility. T. A. Deryagin. A mechanistic view of the non.. and Hazlewood.. 76: 457-458. Acad. and Barra. Roy. Cancer Res.. Microtubule complexes correlated with growth rate and wa ter proton relaxation times in human breast cancer cells... N. 148: 149-187. Molecular Biology of the Cell. ]. M. R. 67:95-118. and Rieder. H. K. (1994). T. Int.. E. (1941).. R. Cell 87: 151-157. ]. D. P. W. B. Raff. Beall. C. P. Cell Sci. (1983). R. Commun. Asakura.. Demarco. Cameron. (1958). H. Bradspies. Cell Movements. A. /.. G. Biochem. Dennerll. 48: 61-76. Origin of life on the shores of the ocean. Biophys. D. S.. Cell. (1984). Int'l. F-actin and microtubule suspensions as indeterminate fluids.. Anisimova.. Quantal length changes in single contracting sarcomeres. Diamond. I. E. Rep. Cooledge. /. Donnan potentials from the A. N. Cell cycle changes in watet p r o p e r ti e s in sea utchin eggs. N. Cell Res. G. C. Casale. S. Ault. L. (1978). Kanal. (1992). Keen. Biophys.. Bloodgood. I. (1967). R (1982). Acad. (1982). R. B. Mol. B. Studies on the ejection properties of asters: astral microtubule turnover influences the osciliatoty behavior and positioning of mono -oriented chromosomes. D. Sci.. 99:701-710. G. J. K. Cameron.. D. S. G. and Zimmerman. C. 41: 1282-1284. Mo 1. Cell BioL 75: 983-989. Schatten. I. G. Contr. S.. Alberts. G. Taniguchi.BIBLIOGRAPHY Abbott. Bell. ]. Biophys. /. The thin filament of vertebrate skeletal muscle co-operatively activates as a unit. G. ]. (1966).. K.. and Smith. Garland. S. Alonso. Chem. Nature 355: 430-432. Nuclear-cytolasmic Interactions in the Cell Cycle. Leung. Unidirectional motility occurring in association with the axopodial membrane of Echinosphaerium nucleophilum. K. Salmon.. and Bushnell. (1991). Leffler.. Blyakhman.V. R.. Hopkins. A. Towards a phenomenological definition of the term'gel. and Heidemann. B. M. Albrecht-Buehler. Raff. Science 235: 1511-1514. R. The biology and medicine of calcium signaling. and Cytoskd. Endicrinol. K... (1979). K.. Cell Biol. Y. 1C. A. C. R. G. Muscle Res. (1980). D. Albin.. Lychnikov. First edition. Oceanography. Berridge. Mol. Is the cytoplasm intelligent too? Cell Motil.. M. R. Zimmerman.. /. Hill. W. Y. and Bojczuk.. and Weinberg. Phys. Influence of cytomatrix proteins on water and on ions in cells. and Ratner. Na. R. E. and Radford. 253: 824-827. (1999). S. Bratton. G. Bernal. Roberts. G... Boden. C. Brand t. 21(2): 99-1 13. Almdal. H.' Polym. (1998). Y. Entine. E. Gels and Ntwks. Cell Physiol. (1987). Hvidt. I. V. F. Physiol. D. Exf.. E. V. (1960).. ]. P. D. A. A.. Prep erati on of structuarally modified water in quartz capillaries. (1997). /. 77(11): 6139 -6643. R.Fullerton. M.-Q. P.. D.. Dyre. A. M. Alderton. Protoplasma 15: 110-173. Block. I. Albrecht-Buehler. A.. B. ]. D. Scanning Microscop. Physiol. M. Fullerton.. and Hall. Med. V. 180: 379-384. Beltramo. M. T. Whitson. A. The intake of radioactive isotopes by living cells. Horbett. Altered drug resisrance of microrubules in cells exposed to infrared light pulses: Are microrubules the "nerves" of cells? Cell Motil. (1963).. Cell Res. Autonomous movements of cytoplas -mic fragments.D. (1932). Garland. J. Cameron. R. and Sackmann. /. Nunez-Fernandez. Sears. O. (1972). G. G. R. N. Calcium -regulated exocytosis is required for cell membrane resealing. D. Brummer.. A.... ed. /. Fullerton. 6: 1 -21. Physiol. G. 68 . I. Proc.(1977).. Albrecht-Buehler. D.. (1985). Brooks. N. Cameron. N... Knowles. NMR. 2: 153-164. Roberts.. J. I. M. Chem. R. S. Multiple phases of polymer gels. Garland. 76: 573-579. 20: 529-538. Lewis. J. and Ftillerton. D. Streaming in cytoplasm dissociated from the giant amoeba. 40:183-192. B. AAAS. (1985). The positive and negative heat production associated with a si ngle impulse. Bausch. and Lingertat. / Cell Biol.739. F. Cell Biol. C. B. Quant. M. G. Reversible compres sion of the cytoplasm. ]. D. Beall. (1940). Die Koazervation und ihre Bedeutung fiir die Biologic. and Oosawa.. S. H. Y..... E. A. Russ. ]. McLeish. W. B. Water-macromelecular interactions during the cell cycle. and Cytoskel. andTanaka. Raff. 43: 1-12. Garland. T. R. U lt ra s t ru c t u ra l observations on the transectioned end of ftog skeletal muscles. Biol. J. B.. B.. Third edition. (1997). 133: 14-24. Biol.. Lewis. 8: 171-180. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. D. B. P. NY. Schatten.. (1961). M. Science 147: 738. Buxbaum.. and Zimmerman. Bray. Bray. C. ed.ideal osmotic and motional behavior of intracellular water. Boyle. M. S. A... M. M. Aggeli.. J. S. (1995). E E. 7: 55. and Watson. and Watson. and Elliott. G.. Exf. 100: 1-63. J. Bray. L. Alberts. 2: 171-176. /. H. ]. Roberts. Edwards. E. and Schachat. Molecular Biology of the Cell... Mechano-chemi-cal behavior of F-actin. Nat'1. Annaka. D... Furthet investigations into membrane potentials in amoebae. (1980). (1985). M. J. Cook.. Res. 20: 221 -225. Chem. (1999). P. T. and Howarth. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of living muscle.. /. (1993). an organic contaminant.. 133(1): 99-113. Simonova. E. NY. M.. Responsive gels formed by the spontaneous self-assembly of peptides into polymeric beta-sheet tapes. Glucose sensitive membranes for controlled delivery of insulin: insulin transport studies. ]. Alien. and Churaev.. V. C. C. Keener.. (1996).. A. (1994). S. ]... CellBiol. 98: 119-124. -Lewis. E. Molecular Biology of the Cell. Zimmerman. Phys. Alberts. M. T. 1: 5-17. Ershova... J. K-ATPase was found to be the membrane component responsible for the hydrophobic behavior of the brain membrane tubulin. Nature 386: 259-262. M. S. 82: 664-674.. Bi. and Kramer. Measurement of local viscoelasticity and forces in living cells by magnetic tweezers. relaxed and in rigor. Bloodgood. Cell. 2(1): 275-288. H. M. B Bartels. chaos chaos. K. Polywater. and Watson. Proc. J. Albrecht-Buehler. A. Soc. Biol. Nature 187: 896899. N. ). M. D. (1998). 42: 4124-4130. A. A. 140:173-189.. Potassium accumulation in muscle and associated changes. E. Motility occurring in association with the surface of the Chlamydomonas flagellum. T. T. V. G. H. Shklyat. Bloodgood. F. and Steinhardt.and I-bands of glycerinated and chemically skinned muscles.C.. J. (1987)... K. (1 9 8 8 ). Rel. Bingley.63. P. (1965). Weiss. (1992). D. Schatten. A. C Ca m eron. Mbller. Second edition. (1989). Schatten. Press.. Brinkiey. Bray.. and Conway. H. G. 131: 1747-1758. and Pollack. (1988). / Phys. (1997). M. .. Cell Mitol. Bungenberg de Jong.. Chang. Edwards. G.

Proc. T.. Symp. (1995). CellBiol. D. Cytoskeletal involvement in neuronal learning: a review. Acta. Miseta. E. M. (1970). Stokar. Science 213: 1523-1525. Edelmann. N.. Curran.. Sakai. D. J. (1995). S. M. A. S. Cs. Scanning Microsc. Y. J." Ann. Phys. Ann. C. and Drost-Hansen. /. Phys.. (1983). H. (1992).. 42: 109-119. A. The quest for water channels. E. 92: 5553 -5557. Natur. (1951). Quant. Biophys... Role of Donnan equilibrium in the testing potentials in glycerol-extracted muscle.. S. (1992). (1994). Theories of electrolyte equilibrium in muscle. Hochachka. M. The interaction of organic and inorganic phosphates with hemoglobin. Nuclear magnetic resonance evidence using D. J. Cussler. K. Frad.. Biochem. /. M. (1980). (Discussion). Collins. Acta.. (1988). Chaudhury. S. J. Gels as size selective exttaction solvents. 46(Pt. and Hermann.. A. D. Structute of thepotassium channel: molecular basis of K conduction and selectivity. Dean. S. Kuo. Chait. P. H.. 223: 509-517. (1998). J. CellBiol. Soc. and Karpati. Biol. Van Hoek. Anat. E.Beltra. Draper. 90(1): 187-200. Acad. J.. S. Vol. and Edwards. Pollack. E. E. N. and Tirosh. W. Actomyosin interaction in striated muscle. Sci. and Pattetson. N. E. Res. R. Actin-filament motion in the in vitro motility assay is periodic. D. Mathias.. Am. De Sci. P. Evidence for organization of soluble cjtoplasmic enzymes. W. Biophys. Physiol.. Clegg. 4: 285-293. Cell Struct.0 for structured water in muscle and brain. How to make watet run uphill. S. (1969).. Proc. Cardiac resting and action potentials recorded with an inttacellulat electrode. C. Endo. (1992). Interrelationships between water and cell metabolism in Attemia cysts. Biochem. B. (1968). 69 . Boca Raton. Physiol. J. IX. (1835).. Biophys. Chou. Neural. Cohn.. Nature 256:1539. 9: 303-319. Physiol. 26: 433-442. 1228(2-3): 99-124. Preferential localized uptake of K and Cs over Na in the A -band of freeze-dried embedded muscle section: de tection by x -ray microanalysis and laser microprobe mass analysis. E. Rev. a n d Matsumoto. and Whitesides. Jacobson. (1992).(1967). 2(2): 851-865. L. Casademont. D..Y. Soc. Stepwise sarcomere shortening: Analysis by high-speed cinemicrography. R.(1941). /. and Moens. 22(4): 1130-1133. Biophysics of Water. S. Edelmann.. A. E. CellMotil. (1994). W. A. G. Biol.. Nature 348: 440-442. M. (1969). and Mol. proteins and water in lens fiber cells before and after treatment with non-ionic detergents. 5(1): 57-69. N. /. Lahoz.-P. Biol. Hameroff. M. (1971). 2d Ser. Suppl. Canny. Wiley Interscience. 12(6): 509-514. M.. R. Collins. and Weidmann. S.Cameton. G. Dayhoff. Acta Biochim et Biophys. Hardman. Cohen. D. K. (1979). J. R. Sparrow. Maintenance of ions. Vacuolation of muscle fibers near sarcolemmal breaks represents T tubule dilatation secondaty to enhanced sodium pump activity. Caldwell. C. E. Transporting water in plants. Sci. Biophys.. Chem. S. Alteration in kinetics caused by mutations in actin. Chanutin.. Choi. E. A. Cooke.. Ionic control of the size of the vesicle matrix of beige mouse mast cells. Sci.1541. W. 131: 180-184. Peckham.. Glycolysis in permeabilized L-929 cells. Mechanism of retraction of the trailing edge during fibroblast movement.. Length dependence of activation of skinned muscle fibers by calcium. S. C. Cheng. Science 280: 69-77.. Physiol.. 99: 167s-171s.. 76: 927-934. Neuropath. S. NMR. (1991). Elsevier. Chen. Tumor detection by nuclear magnetic reso nance. G. N. and Cytoskel. AIChE Journal 30(4): 578-582. (1 984).. Biol. Cold Spring Harbor. Soc. Sci. J. G. Molecular maps of red cell deformation: hidden elasticity and in situ connectiv ity. Effects of lyophilic sutfaces on the properties of boundary liquid films. Biol. and Kellermayer. Hung. Vital Dust. A. J.. J.. L. C. On the internal environment of animal cells.W. (1996). 86: 152-159. G. T. Contraction-induced cell wounding and release of fibroblast growth factor in heart. Discussion on P. Nat'1... A transition in swollen polymer networks induced by intramolecular condensation... 47: 618-628. D Damadian. E. H. K. M. J. NIPS 7: 172-176. 4. Physiol. H. (1981). C. J. and S. Biochem. Discher. (1971). M. 98: 771-790. Studies on the microstructute of the heart. Physiol. Challice. Cell Bio. (1995). Exp. Gulbis. A-2 6: 1209-1216. (1988). Edelmann. The ultrastructute of the rat sino -arrial node. E. Electron probe x-ray microanalysis of K. Derjaguin. and Evans. 46: 339-358. Neuron 1:623-34. 23: 79-93. 20(2): 127-137. E. J. Dujardin. D. Fish glycopeptide and peptide antifreezes: then interaction with ice and water.. Microcompartmentation. (1965). M. 15(4): 337-344. part 2 of "Recherche sur les organismes inferieur. deBeer. J. 2: 166-174. Cope. (1971). J. Kellermayer. (1982). E. /. A fuzzy subsarcolemmal space for intracellular Na in cardiac cells? Cardiovasc. F. Eur. Ishide. On the biochemistry and cell physiology of water. E. (1966).. Symp. (1997). F. Chem. Y. Polymer Sci. Koszegi. 115: 74-94. Drummond. (1998). Circ. Fullerton. E. Basic Books Press. Gen. ed. R. Intracellular water and the cytomatrix: some methods of study and cutrent views. Carpenter. Disc. Dempster. (1988). ed. E. and Cohn. N.. C. Biochim. (1984). 144: 754(1). Franks. Roy. Biol. Edelmann. (1981). R. E. and White. R. Med. Ehrenpries. Doyle. K. L. T. DeVries. 77(3): 671-697. (1990). Microsc. V. Sontrop. (1998). C. Microsc. and Swenberg. and Varberg. M. (1988). Clegg. S. Nippon.]. (1982). Mol. 3: 331-348. B. C. /. F. Stir les pretendus estomacs des animalcules infusoires et sur une sustance appelee satcode. Actin and the acto-myosin intetface: a review. Dos Remedies. Mohandas. /. J. Int. E. The cell water problem posed by election microscopic studies of ion binding in muscle. Cabral.. (1978). Microtubules in squid giant axon. R. K. Vizualization and x -ray microanalysis of p o tassium tracers in freeze-dried and plastic embedded frog muscle. A. (1939). Eudany. ]. A. Science 171: 1151-1153. A. Glutamate neuortoxicity and diseases of the nervous system. T. Acad. J. Clarke. Endo.. R. S. R. Rb. /. G. and Pollack. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Pfuetzner. and MacKinnon. and Van Os. Acta. 1): 23-37. Y. Science 266: 1032-1035. M. Exf. Z.. Sticky ions in biological systems. 38: 341-350. 255:335 -344. M. Res. (1988). (1991). Carmeliet. R. Ernst. DeDuve. Clegg. W. Zool. Clegg. Funct. Clegg. and Brodwick. E. F. E. 41: 445-449. Dusek. H. Energy-optimized structure of antifreeze pro t ei n and its bindin g mechanism. 1.. D. Jr. of Fishes. Bound water in physics and biology. W. Delay. Miyake. (1972). 85: 1-21. and McNeil. Arch. M. S. and Ti in cryosections of striated muscle. A. A. E E. CRC Press. (1995). New York. and Mommsen. W.. Waser: Receptor localization by autoradiographic techniques. G. Am. Permeability of red corpuscles of the dog to sodium ion. N. on Quant. G.. Acad. part. and Jackson. Y.

The diffusion of radioactive sodium into the muscles of potassium-depleted rats. H. Glynn. Fenn. P. /. Hodgkin. Sheppard. Sinauer. On the ot igin of the contractile fotce in skeletal muscle.725. Trans. (1907). Mictotubule disruption modulates Ca2 signaling in rat cardiac myocytes. Mag.. Evidence for the existance of a minimum of two phases of ordered water in a skeletal muscle. Physiol. A. Kerfant. H Hagiwara. Villalon. The cytoplas-mic matrix: its volumes and surface area and the diffusion of molecules through it. USA.. P. Honda. O. H. M. Conformational changes of plasmodium actin polymers formed in the presence of Mg . 86: 30-36. Hennessey. A Quasielectric Neutron Scattering Study of Water Diffusion in Frog Muscle. (1939). 1: 75-80. M. Molecular genetics ofactin function. Myers. (1996). C. Calculation of internal hydrostatic pressure in gels from the distribution coefficients of nonelectrolytes between gels and solutions. and Naka K. S. (1984). Amer. Fernandez. Acta. Fushime. /. F. Garamvolgyi. and Lancet. Acad. B. T. Biophys. B. Singer. (1965). ]. The potassium equilibrium in muscle. TitlePhil. B.. and Matsuno. K. S. Propagation of a signal coordinating force generation along an actin filament in actomyosin complexes... 24: 296-298. (1953). 76(10): 5066-5070. Biophys. Polymerization of plasmodium actin. Totsuka. J. Sci. (1983).. B. Garrigos. Motions and telaxations of confined liquids. and Lindenberg. Res. D. Biophys. Graham. 75:81-85. M. 37:13-55. /. (1964). W. (1998). The effects of vari ous ions on resting and spike potentials ofbarnacle muscle fibers. Sunderland.. B. Nichols. Hatoti. 230: 1-37. (1991). B. Low viscosity in the aque ous domain of cell cytoplasm measured by picosecond polarization microfluorimetry. Biophys. F. Biochim. and Horowicz. USA. Mus. Biophys. W. and Moore. Discuss. R. Gabriel. Trends Biochem. Drummond..Fenn. and Verkman. Chemical Physics of he. (1990). Movements of Na and K in single muscle fibres. Proc. A Monte Carlo simulation study of protein-induced heat capacity changes and lipid-induced protein clustering.. S. Houston.. S. Fishman. Soc. Tewari.. Nature 222: 747-750. 59: 1022-1027. Biophys... B. A limiting law relating the size and shape of protein molecules to their composition. Natl. N. D. C. D. (1940). The struc-tute of whole and fragmented mitochondria after lipid depletion. M. Electron microscope examination of common red cell ghosts: cytoplasmic con tamination. 17:629-656. Ionic Channels of Excitable Membranes. Nature 290: 575-576. Gershon. Gen. J. Cell Motil. Introduction to a symposium on the metabolism of potassium. and Biltonen.351. T. (1991). E. Phil. Proc. Biochim. B. T. Physiol. A. New considerations about the structure of the membrane of the living animal cell. /. (1991). R. Drost-Hansen... Natl. Science 253: 1374-1379. and Katz.. D. Heppel. Hodgkin.. (1985). I. The Kelvin equation and the condensation of water. M. Goodsell. A. and Grant. Physiol. M. Cell Biol. and Matsuno. /. (1987). J.. J. Physiol. B. Gomez. S. /. Biochem. W. Z. Granzier.. R. L. K. Acta. W. 22: 4961-4969. E. F. Stepwise shortening of muscle fiber segments. Chem. 282:657-671. W. R. Gary-Bobo. E. Gen Physiol. 2:175. and Oosawa. R. Fisher. S. A. (1959a). Press. L. D. (1972) Freezing and non-freezing water in cellulose acetate membranes. 20: 330-342.. Frommet. Acta. 60: 185-189. B. H. (1996a). Porter. E. ed. H. Proc. D. A.. Hatori. ATP dependent fluctuations of single actin filaments in vitro. /. P. K.. Fletcher. J. 11(2): 181-184. A. Honda. O. G. M. Heppel. 24: 133-140. Inside a living cell. The behavior of nonelectroytes in gelatin gels. (1998). Acad. Morel. 58: 267-272. Chem. S. PhD Thesis. Kinesin and dynein superfamily proteins and the mechanism of organelle transport. (1994). J. Med. Harrington. P. Sci. G. Hatori. N. Fleischer..269.. E. Faraday Soc. (1979). Structural aspects of ion-solvent interaction in aqueous solutions: a suggested pictrue of water structure. and Matsuno. Science279: 519 -524. 8: 242251. H. (1964). A. L. Cell-Associated Water. The electrolytes of muscle and liver in potassium-depleted tats.. K. Hille. K. (1932). Hatano. Colloid and Interface Sci. (1996b). G. C. and Sparrow. Hille.. and Vassort. H. J. Hatano... B. Chem. Y. Physiol.. Hazlewood. Roy. Natl Acad. H. 48: 163-179. (1975). (1959). Y. Hazlewood. (1967). I. W. P. Amer. W. (2000). Hille. Dielectric properties of ocular tissues at 37 degrees C. H.. A view of the significance and understanding of the physical properties of cell-associated water. Second edition. N. L. (1993). K. 127:385-392. Rev. and J. D. 16(6): 206-210. N. C. 59: 637-658. P. Physiol. Ginzburg. Heidorn. Reversible condensation of mast cell secretory products in vitro. Phys. Physiol. Frank. Trans. Communicative intetaction of myosins along an actin filament in the presence of ATP. 140: 109-122. and Wen. C. Gen. (1969). Honda. (1985). and Cohen. and Cobb. M. 112:719. 82(15): 5030-5034. Lancet 73: 163-166. 29(4): 702-709. Rice University. ]. Appl.. C. 1023: 421-435. Phys.. Am.. 145: 405-432.. Clegg. (1957). H. and Stein. Problems of the boundary state. Gamble. (1934). 26:55-67 Hirokawa. Physiol. (1949). Sci. Sci. S. Sunderland. 128: 449-454. NMR. Fleischer. 108: 37-77.. Physiol. Sci. J. Hillman. London Ser. Sinauer. Mech. N. (1833). and Garcia de la Torre. Polymer Sci. M. MA. Kontraktion isolierter Muskelfibtillen. and Beall. B.. S.. (1973). 28(1): 4349. and Stoeckenius. Physiol. A. /. Granick. Cell Motil. Faraday Soc. K. Hung. and Karlish. Hardy. and Chamberlain. F. F. S. (1979). Injury-induced vesiculation and membrane redistribution in squid giant axon. (1991). Physiol. 70: 84-96. G. Chem. M. D. Ionic Channels of Excitable Membranes. Fed.. M.. J. (1983). Proc. H. On the swelling of fibrin.. 70 . E. K. and Middlehurst. Fischer. (1972).. Circ. R. /. Ann. N. MA. Biol. and Pollack. 16: 139-146. H. K. and Med. (1981). (1992). A. Res. The sodium pump. J. London.. L. Biochem. S. J. H. (1970). Heimburg. S. /. Hazlewood. andTrus. (1979). Chichibu. Rein vestigation of the shape and state of hydration of the skeletal myosin stibfragment 1 monomer in solution. 16: 12951303. Acad. Fisher. G. ]. TX. D. and Verdugo. E. 51: 1285-1291. (1969). The permeability of the sodium channel to metal cations in myelinated nerve. Cambridge. K. The effect of sodium on the electrical conductivity of the giant axon of the squid. Acad. (1964). Shimada.

(1997).Biochim. 37(51): 17801-17809. and Niedergerke. A.. Tilting of the light-chain region of myo-sin during step length changes and active force generation in skeletal muscle. and phase-transition in squid axon membrane under internal per-fusion with dilute salt solutions. Structure of biological membranes. P. Muto.. Cell 84:401 -410. E.. (1963). Riser. J. Acta.. H.. Orlova. E. USA. and proteins from nonionic detergent treated chicken red blood cells. G. K Kamitsubo. Biophys. C. E. Sub-piconewton force fluctuations of actomyosin in vitro. Kamiya. A.. N. A.. Diffu sion coefficients. (1994). (1938).. (1996). K... Katchalsky. A. and Tardent.. E. A... (1955). (1995).. Hutchings. Biophys. H.. and Hanson. Natl. Trombitas. and Zwick. P. Nature 379: 219-225. Sabido-David. Hazlewood. A. A. Force generation by microtubule assembly/disassembly in mitosis andrelated movements. /. J. Nature 394: 459-462.. Direct imaging of reptation for semi-flexible actin filaments. Katayama. 60: 804-811. Serov.. (1994). L. Y. 6: 35-36. and Yanagida. Brandmeler. L. A. G. P. and Milligan. The influence of potas sium and chloride ions on the membrane potential of single muscle Hoenger. /. M. C. J.. 73: 2012-2022 Kolara... E. (1991). Cocompartmentation of proteins and K within the living cell. T. (1954). A personal view of muscle and motility mechanisms. Ann. Z. (1998). Water structure and ion binding: a role in cell physiology? Science 192: 1220-1222. D. A synthetic mimic of the secretory granule for drug delivery. Sci. G. Churchill. Egelman. A. Y. D. Physiol. Jpn.. S. Holstein. (1973). H. E. Kolberg. T. Inhibition of motion and force generation with myosin. Chem. Iwane. (1994). Amer. lipids. K. and Yanagida. (1970). (1976). (1998). Klinger. J..... A. Kobatake. A. Nature 173: 973-976. Ishijima. H. H. and Stossel. E. Kellermayer.J. Biochem. Nature 389: 561-567. Protoplasma 74: 53-70. Res. and Israelachvili. Direct measurement of structural forces between two surfaces in a nonpolar liquid. J. Alien. 1277:107-114. Acad. The nature and origin of chemical shift for intracellular water nuclei in Anemia cysts. 61: 1301-1305. Changes in the cross stria-tions of muscle during contraction and stretch and their structural interpretation. Cell. Miller. M. P. Proc. Rev. R. Kasturi. Strey. Israelachvili. Craik. 144: 403-425. N. Engel. Motile protoplasmic fibrils in cells of the Characeae. Role of hydration and water srructure in biological and colloidal interactions. 83(4): 1011-1015. Nature173: 971-973. S. Morphogenetic properties of microtubules and mitotic s pindle assembly. (1997). Biol. Irving. /.. F... 265(5): 553-564.. Molecular motors: structural adaptations to cel lular functions. Sukharev. K. and Andrade. 58: 1-19. 2: 282-286. Evidence for a phase transition in muscle contraction. C. Intrastrand cross-linked actin between Gin-41 and Cys-374. M. Klenchin. E. J. M. J. Yamanashi. (1958). R.. Mol. Y. (1979). Kas. Muhlrad. Biophys. M. Regulation of water flow by actin-binding protein-induced actin gelation. and Wheatley.(1995).. R. Mater. Biophys.. L. P.. (1972). P. Jhon. Chernomordik. R. and Pollack. (1969). (1999). Huxley. and Goldman. Israelachvili. and Needham. Hyman.. Horn. and Yanagida. Kendrick-Jones. Measurement of the stria-tions of isolated muscle fibres with the interference microscope.. and Niedergerke. in Biomed. H. Biochim. W. Zahn... N. Science 241: 795-800. J. Bogner. /. C.. (1984). (1995). Electrically induced DNA uptake by cells is a fast process involving DNA electrophoresis.. Huxley. T. B. of small biological samples. R. Release of potassium. III. The Chemistry of Proteins. T. /. Acta. and Dennis. Wilson. Caulerpa. J. A. D. D. H. Berta.. Tokanaga. 307: 471-477. Doi. (1966). E. Corrie. 52: 249-256. Science 153: 1491-1498. J. Huxley. An ultrahigh -speed analysis of exocytosis: nematocyst discharge.. H. Ludany. Biophys. R. J Jacobs. Polymer Sci. D. Me chanics of single kinesin molecules measured by optical trapping nanometry. E. London. A. and McGuiggan. R.. M. C. Hoeve. Koszegi. A.Hodgkin. Ladany. W. 71 .. Biochem.. S. Rescue of in vitro actin motility halted at high ionic strength by reduction of ATP to submicromolar levels. C. B. J. K. J. I Inoue. (1981). Huxley. and Karsenti.. T. E.(1996). Mol. M. Hubley. Water and hydrogels. Acad. Biochem. Hoffman. P... Szucs. G. Set. and Nonomura. E. E. 8: 72-78. Howard. 159: 197-204. Korn. Motor domains of kinesin and Ho/interact with microtubule protofilaments with the same binding geometry. B. R.. (1973). Structural changes in muscle during contraction: Interference microscopy of living muscle fibres. R. and Martin.. Jordan-Lloyd. S. E. Nature 4794: 11751178. V. T. 271(6): 100-106. Proc. Mol.. Science 223: 830-833. H. Kojima. and Hazlewood. and Chizmadzhev. G. and Horowicz. (1998).. J. and Frundes. R. (1971). (1959b). P. Conventional and environmentally-sensitive hydrogels for medical and industrial uses: a review paper. T. 86: 1511-1522. Biophys. Inoue. Nature 352: 301-306. Rosanske. A. J. and Catchpole.. Phys. A. 174:734-748. Yu. Kellermayer. (1991). M. Kellermayer. and Wennerstrom. J. (1991). instability. Trentham.3 nanometers. I. (1961). Excitability.. 75(3): 1400-1411... Y. Electron microscopic analysis of tropomyosin paracrystals. Distribu tion of sodium and potassium in certain cells and tissues. Physiol. Binding of ATP to human hemoglobin under simulated in vitro conditions. D. Mechanochemistry and ion exchange /. A.. 18: 171-177. 16: 221-234. (1988). E. I. Joseph. Biol. C. G. Nature 397(6715): 129-134. T. / NIHRes. E. Biochem. Conrractile properties ofthe plasmodial strand. N. of Cell 6:1619-1640. D..(1992).. S. and Reisler. Biochem. S. A. (1986). G. Nature 368: 226-229. Tetracycline transport in Staphylococcus Aureus H. 278: 349-367. Second edition. F. J.-C. (1994).. R. Physiol.. S. Quick-freeze deep -etch electron microscopy of the actin-heavy meromyosin complex during the in vitro motility assay. and Moerland. T. and Sackmann. Katayama. Nature 375: 688-691. Europ. 7: 509-522.. E. H. Higuchi. Cameron. J.. W.. Polymer Gels 268(5): 82-87. G. S. P. L. (1987). D. Sakurada. D.J. and Shore. S. T. A. Willis. M.. Miseta. and Tasaki. Forces between surfaces in liquids. V.. /. A membrane flip for a bacterial ion channel. Suzuki. /. NMR. Biophys ]. A single myosin head moves along an acin filament with regular steps of 5. 46:1026-1031. (1996). L... S.. H. Interaction of the hemoglobin with ions. Biomed. P... Hazlewood. R. M. Kitamura. (1997). of ATP and creatine phosphate in isolated muscle: Pulse gradient P NMR. E. E. E.Jobsr. Bobkova. (1954). Acta. Hegyi. Kim. Ito. (1996). A. B. and Salmon. A. T. A. A.. H. Brox. M. Biol.. St..

Motion of the microtubule bundle and a structural comparison of straight and bent axostyles. Pharmacological study on sodium current by microtubule proteins and 260 K protein. T. Land.-C. H. and G... (1988). A physical theory of the living state: application to water and solute distribution. N. (1993). and Schliwa. (1991). Mujumdat.. Matsumoto. Tasaki.. Appendix III. Maughan. Ling. A. R. E. and Cerdan.. B. H. Taylor. G. A. P. R. Wallimann. Bashford. NMR. P. Biophys. G. (1965).. L. Introduction to Geochemistry. S. Co. Y. Lewis. (1986). T. T. and R. M. McLachlan. and Pasternak. Murofushi. Acad. Ling. Matsumoto. G. (1993). and Recchia. 22: 1-14. (1984). (1997). W... Rostovtseva. G.86:1155-1158. Bio logical Functions of Microtubules and Related Structures. R. Ionic mobility in muscle cells. L Lehninger. and Sakai. F. Sakai. C. M. E. (1973). A. De Bruin. Majumdar. Brodsky. W.. Lieberman. G. M. Lev. and Waggoner. Proc. Biol. Physiol. 107: 649-666. Matsumoto. Y. Ling.. Academic Press. Z.. Lau. /. L. R. MA. M. The Mitochondrion. J. A. and N. II. Soc. Physiol.. D. Plenum Press. ]. Mate.. (1980). Physiol. Physiol 368: 545-563. G. M Maniotis. and Brenner. / Membr. Nature 380: 550-555.. B. Murofushi.. Fl. Leuchtag. Walton. Chang.. New hypothesis. Vibrational spectra indicate unique stable poly meric sttucture. Polywater. H. and Cessac.. R. /. H. An investigation of heavy meromyosin-ADP binding equilibria by proton release measurements.. L. G. F. L. Maintenance of low sodium and highpotassium levels investing muscle cells. Lippincott. Theor... D. Primitive Motile Systems in Biology. A. M. Plenum Publ. Physiol. Probing the structure of cytoplasm. (1973)... Biochem. Ernst. Physics 12: 111-138. (1996). (1977). (1995). G. H. A proposed membrane model for generation of sodium currents in squid giant axons. 56:324-339.for the mechanism of cellular resting potential. McNeil. The role of phosphate in maintenance of the resting potential and selective ionic accumulation in frog muscle cells. M. Messerli. Ling. Malabar. Luby-Phelps..Y. R. A. McGraw-Hill. 137(1): 1-4. 65: 236-242. magnesium. 16: 1738-1742.. Behavior of naked cytoplasmic drops isolated from plant cells. Reduced solubility of polymer-oriented warer for sodium salts. 280: 105-123. (1990). R. Phys. CA. and Grant. G. Structure and Function of Excitable Cells. G.. Blaisdell Publ.Kraft. Ling. D. A. potassium. Polywater .. B. Low paramagnetic-ion content in cancer cells: its significance in cancel detection by magnetic resonance imaging.. (1967). Y. 102(6): 201 5-2022. Ling. Endo. Biophys... L. Murofushi... M. Colloid Interface Sci. What retains water in living cells? Science 191: 293-295. A Physical Theory of the Living State: the Association-Induction Hypothesis. and Walton. L.. and Sakai. New York. Physiol. Kamiya. Matsumoto. J. J. and Karn. A. both living and dead. Cell Biol. R. (1955). Chem. Luck. Debunking the alleged resurrection of the sodium pump hypothesis. Lippincott. and Damadian. T. I. Science 164: 1482-1487.. Kushmerick. Biochem. E. and Podolsky. Stromberg. Borisy. Stromberg. G.'S. (1985). Glass. J. D. S. S. G. Chem. I. In Search of the Physical Basts of Life. H. K. (1 992). Ling. 77: 77-91. (1952). ed. C. ed. (1971). 252: 187-192. D. M. H. G. and Gratzer. Biol. N. R. and maintenance of plasma membrane integrity. and Vale. Ling. J. Proc. 125: 401-417. and B. Axonal microtubules neccessary for generation of sodium current in squid axons: I.. A. 36: 443-460. D. G. N. J. /. S. Microsurgical removal ofcen-trosomes blocks cell reproduction and centriole generation in BSC-1 cells. J. L. N. (1978). ed. Lopez-Beltran. Sablin. Tasaki. /. (1983). S. 64: 113-180. J. R. and Ochsenfeld. K. Scanning Microsc. NMR. N. R. Matsumoto. and Ito. Directly probing rapid membrane protein dynamics with an atomic force microscopic: a study oflight -induced conformational alterations in bacteriorhodopsin.. 14: 6638-6651.. N. L. ed. (1 964). (1997). Nature 299:226-231. 70: 2380-2384. Maughan. M. R. G. Kobayashi.. H. Lowey. Biol. Plenum Press. G.. and Sheves. Molecular Mechanism of Muscle Contraction. (1969). A. W. C. (1990). Baltimore. R. calcium.. (1982). Y.. Khachatryan. J. Korchev. 8: 3195-3199. M. Science 166(910): 1297-1298. Krauskopf. Menlo Park. (1976). /. 2(2): 899-913. Rapid switching of ion current in narrow pores: implications for biological ion channels. S. G. Mohri. Set. Diffusible sodium. and Bersinger T.. G. N. Mclntosh. Co. H. (1979). N.. J. N. Cessac. (1976). C.and Luck. and G. H. H.. & Med.. K. amino acids a n d other solutes normally maintained at low levels in living cells. The physical state of water in living cell and model systems. N. Periodic charge distributions in the myosin rod amino acid sequence match cross-bridge spacings in muscle. R. Biol. Mobility of potassium ion in frog muscle cells. C. J. Protein diffusivities in skinned frog skeletal muscle fibers. S. T. 11: 749-795. S.. L. N. Rousso. W. G. Biochem.a search for alternative explanations. H. T. (1988). Chem... G. P. A novel fluorescence ratiometric method confirms the low solvent viscosity of the cytoplasm. (1984). Cell Biol. and Sakai. Chem. (1982). E. Exrent and mechanism of sealing in transected giant axons of squid and earthworms. M. 29: 123-198. R. 271(18): 10648-10653.. Crystal structure of the kinesin motor domain reveals a structural similarity to myosin. Water in biological systems. Ballinger. Ling... A. H. H. Hopkins Press. (1984). J. W. N. A Revolution in the Physiology of the Living Cell. and phosphorous in frog skeletal muscle. Waltham. Fletterick. 72 . Predictions of polarized multilayer theory of solute distribution confirmed from a study of the equilibrium distribution in frog muscle of twenty-one nonelectrolytes including five cryoprotectants. Biophys.. Dynamics and environment of mitochondrial watet as detected by H NMR. Cell 67: 495-504. A. Perriard. H. restoration. Co. Roy. Pollack. D. W.. G. (1996). How does ouabain control the levels of cell K and Na ? By interference with a Na pump or by allosteric control of K -Na adsorption on cytoplasm protein sites. Molecular traffic through plasma membrane disruptions of cells in vivo. 96: 549-556.. Benjamin.. G. D.. M. Ling.. Tokyo. Topics Current Chem. B. 69: 1246-1258. K.. H.. Science 181: 78-81. G. Kuroda. N. N. K. Marsh. J. and Steinhardt. Grant. C. W. L. A.. Eq ui li b riu m binding of andenosine diphosphate to myosin. 14: 93-94. Kobayashi. (1973). N. Niu. and Sakai. K. Med. and Physics 5: 295-311. Ling... Ling. C. Proc. Neurosci. & Med NMR. Phys. (1969)... Kolebic. ed. Edmonds.. J. The axostyle of Saccinobaculus. J. /. (1996). J. Equilibration and exchange of fluorescently labeled molecules in skinned skeletal muscle fibers visualized by confocal microscopy. Fed. (1964). Adelman. Luby-Phelps. Restoration of the excitibility of squid giant axon by tubulin tyrosine ligase and microtubule proteins. Alien.. (1993). I. (1962). Chem.. and Lanni. and Lord. Endo. Acad. J. Ling. T. N. Phys. McNeil.. Press. Krause. (1969). and Ochsenfeld. Phosphorous Metabolism.. E. (1984). G. Loss. E. D. Cell Sci. T. Ichikawa. N. B. and Bittner.. 25(3): 177-208.J. Sugi. J. Galbraith. Kull. L. Ling. Ling. McElroy. N. N. Cell. Physiol. P. Chem. Rothen-Rurishauser. Krieger Pub. B. Fishman.

J. The adsorption of water by proteins. 25: 209. J. appearance and nature of current oscillation under electric field. and Hill. and fall of the swinging crossbridge dogma. C. H. Am. Ogata. J. Y. Y.. Cell Biol. (1995). T.... Rief. Physiol. Set. Myosin-V is a processive actin -based motor. Cell Biol. Biol. Rev. Routes for the otigin of the first forms of life. (1982). W. Donnan potentials in rabbit psoas muscle in rigor. and Yanagida. I. K. J. J. V. Time-resolved cryo-electron microscopic study of the dissociation of actomyosin induced by photolysis of photolabile nucleotides. J. (1999). (1959a).. Springfield. A. Mooseker. (1938). Catecholamine in the myocardium: a fluorecence histochemical study. Pauling. London. Nature 400(6744): 590-593. Acta. P. Pashley. Biophys Biophys Chem. Physiol. P. K. /. Hoffmann. H.) as disclosed by differential interference microscopy and by electron microscopy. Physiol. 5: 485-496.. M. S. Chem. G. 43:456-479.. Studies of ions and water in human lymphocytes. M. Mimori.. (1985). 2. J. Biochem.. R. (London) 235: 225 -265. H.. Acad. I. /. Reconstructing the heart: a challenge for integrative physiology. Circ. and Lindstrom. S. Localisation of a microelectrode tip in muscle cell: A light and electron microscopic study.. D. Ishiwata. Calculations of bioelectric potentials. Subaxolemmal filamentous network in the giant nerve fiber of the squid (Loligo pealei L. 220: 69-81. S. (1965). Muto. G. ed.. 33: 10171-10177. Schroeder.. Jpn.. J.(1984). E. Pfliiger's Arch. Hadzi. Pauling. Spudich. Pfliiger's Archiv. (1964). (1959b). J. R. The sarcoplasmic reticulum and transverse tubules of the frog's sartorius. Bhar. Oplatka. Menetret. Moriyama. 22: 139-146. M. Crit. H.. Pfliiger's Archiv. J.. G.225. Osterhout. 78: 597-621. Miller. Biol. Jpn. Okada. B. and Miki-Nonumura. E. E. /. Okuzaki.. 45(6): 781-791. Calcium i nward currents in inter nally perfused giant axons.. Sci.. Y. Colloid and Interface Sci. Surface forces in adsorbed mmultilayers of water on quartz. Gen. 73 .. Nickels.. Metuzals. M. Morel. Nickels. and Steinba'ch. Sub-Cell Biochem. C. and Goody. Biophys. S.. C. Yasuda. (2000). D. N.. Physiol. Y. Bridgman. Biochim. decline. Miyagishima. G. 249: 573-578. Jpn. Res: 27: 1701-1712. N. Pergamon Press. (1996)... andAsai. Science 259(5097): 963-965. and Mihashi. (1996). Sackmann. D. Ges. P.231. Mechanism of the single-headed processivity: Diffusional anchoring between the K -loop of kinesin and the C terminus of tubulin. M. W. Biol. Prog. A. Osada.. Nicklas. J. and Cytoskel. The isometric force exerted per myosin head in a muscle fibre is 8 pN. and Ross-Murphy. A method for localisation of the muscle cell and the motor end plate after in vivo registrarion with a microelectrode. J. How cells get the right chromosomes. Mehta. Biol. (1964). E. (1979). Oparin. (1956). (1973). and Amson. Ges. 63: 221. Dy namic property of F-actin and thin filament. K. J.. Macromol. Physiol. Proc. 24: 4755-4761. Peachey. Biophys. 97(2): 640-645. The extracellular patch clamp: a method for resolving currents through individual open channels in biological membranes. Ges. L. Y. Fujime. W. T. (1995). /. 34(4): 271-278. 32(4): 307-360.. A. and Osada. (1971). Y. (1970). Mol. Cell Motil. R. Mentre.. 6: 58-84. 80: 360-369. (1973). E. S. and Vogel. 694: 123-161. (1979). 67: 555-557. (1945). 6: 18-60. Extrusion of rotating microtubules on the dynein-track from a microtubule-dynein gamma-complex. and Bett.. /. Oplatka. S. E. A. and Izzard. and Elliott. Polymer Edn. Some observations on the fine structure and metabolic activity of normal and glycerin -ated ventricular muscle of toad. 72: A62. B. R. Miki. B. and Kitchener. A molecular theory of genetal anesthesia. (1997). Barrels.(1993). Mentre.. (1991). ed. (1975). Noble. Science 275: 632-637. Theor. Naylor. Oparin. Metuzals. G. CSHSymposia on Quant. XXXVII: 277-285. Cell Motil. Overbeek. The electric potential change of internal membrane during propagation of contraction in skinned fibre of toad skel etal muscle. /. Naylor. Pauling. D. Negendank. (1997). Domain motion in actin observed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Hydrodynamic ptoperties of water in myoplasm in resting and acrive states. J. J. D. L'Eau dans la Cellule: Une Interface Dynamique et Heterogene des Macromolecules. R. (1999). Nucleo-cytoplasmic flux and intracellular mobility in single hepatocytes measuted by fluorescence microphotolysis. and Osada. R. Osada. And Cytoskel. M. Mol. /. Neher. and Tasaki. Commun. Stimuli-responsive polymer gels and their application to chemomechanical systems. R. and Hirokawa. Scand. The secretory granule matrix: a fast-acting smart polymer. J. R. M. Soc.Meaves. R. Thomas. G. (1978). Do the bactetial flagellar motor and ATP syn-thase operate as water rurbines? Biochem. (1991).. R. and Debey. (1998). Y. R. S. J. (1928). and Cheney. 375: 219-228. M. PNAS.se. R. (1969). 268: 82-86. O Odelblad. (1975). and Gong. S. L. S. Biol. 39: 357-375. E. 71: 491-500. 48(1): 4759. 330: 45-50. Peters. Mol. Biomater. Sci.. Y. The Chemical Origin of Life. Bioch. Are cardiac muscle cells 'skinned' by EGTA or EDTA? Nature 277: 142-143. (1996).. An unexpected effect of an oua-bain-sensitive ATPase activity on the amount of antigen-antibody complexes formed in situ. P. Ca (2+)-induced tension development in the stalks of glycerinated Vorticella convallaria. Res. (1956). Oplatka. /. Amer. Cell and Mol. L. Proton magnetic resonance of human red blood cells in heavy-water exchange experiments. 18: 187-226. (1994).. Sci. Rapp. Mond. A. A. Uber die lonenpermeabilitaet des quetgestreiften Muskels. Jpn. and Fernandez.. J. 1: 75-81. 25(1): 51-63. J. and Yugari. 30:17-25. Biophys. B 72(6): 137-141. A. Physiol. and Merrillees. Y. G. Biochem. Cooperative binding of kinesin molecules to a microtubule in the presence of ATP. J. L. EMBOJ. (1978).Hydrogen Bonding. Prog. N Nanavati. T.. (1993). (1971). Cell Biol. Polym. Rock. Electro-driven chem omechanical polymer gel as an intelligent soft material. Biol. T. (1993). W. Th. The rise. (1972). 3: 1831-1836. (1994). Cardiova. Critical review of the swinging crossbridge theoryand of the cardinal active role of water in muscle contiaction. L. Spatial patterns of thread-like elements in the axoplasm of the giant nerve fiber of the squid (Loligo pealii L. Noda. R. Cell Biol. I. Ishiwata. PharmacoL 23(6): 839-846. Miyano.. Physiol. Effect of catecholamines in restoring the beating of cultured rat heart cells treated with reserpine. C. Oosawa. 151:285-288. (1991).. N. /. Biophys. (1997). Intelligent gels. (1993). C. Biophys. Masson. Acta. 219(2): 139-144. Electroconductive organogel. Arch.) and its possible role in excitability. Paris. J. and Koyama. Consequence on the validity of the ttaditional concepts of force generation. Biochem. 111. W. Science134: 15-21. 22:533-550. The Donnan equilibrium. F. Chemtntcts. Natori. A.

P. Kojima. Pissis. Lin. T.. P. Bin Beitrag zur Theorie der Zelle. /. Schliwa. K. (1877).. and Gaub. H. M. Heidorn. M. Actin as the generator of tension during muscle contraction. W. Cooperativity in F-actin: binding of gelsolin at the barbed end affects structure and dynamics of the whole filament. C. P.. Berlin. and Lagunoff. R Rabenstein. (1970). Solomon. T. and Patton. Cell Motil. S. Red cell membrane structure and ion transport. C. Pollack. D. G. (1994). Rorschach. (1993). W.. (1991). Nature 312(5993): 403. M. L. Das Protoplasma des Rhizopoden und der Pflanzenzellen. (1999).. E. Schutt. Science 135:1101-1109. E. (1993). Acad. D. Z. and Goldman. Biophys. D. 124(3): 223-233. (1990). (1983). F. Calcium release and ionic charges in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of tetanized muscle: an electron probe study.. K. 4:7-23. Plumb. I l l : 465-470. Sarcomere shortening in striated muscle occurs in stepwise fashion. G. Quantitative study of molecular ttansport due to electroporation: uptake of bovine serum albumin by erythrocyte ghosts. McClellan. Physiol. Katayama. Am. 90(3): 577-594. (1960). Rozycka. Proc. Muscle contractions as a Markov process I: energetics of the process. ]. Spudich. Rief. D. and Lindberg. S. T. E.. Zhang. M. (1984). Physiol. 24: 300-316. H. C. Biochem Rao... Bat. ter Keurs. and Oiwa. (1972). A. M. and Tsong. Soft and wet touch-sensing system made of hydrogel. ]. J. 43: 1-15.. (1985). Pfeffer. M. Leipzig... 1(4): 2043-2049.. D.. E. The sliding filament / ctoss-bridge theory. Diffusion of water in biological rissues. L... N. Schiiltze. L.Jr.. /. Iwazumi.. Science 276: 1109-1112.. and Physics. (1994). FEES. Toyoshima. L.. A. C. Nature 372: 515-518. Engelmann. J. Saundets. (1998). Mechanochem. R. Mailer's Arch.. 325: 59-62. Sachs. P. Muscle dr Molecules-: Uncovering the Principles of Biological Motion. and Lindberg.. /.. Philadelphia. Physics 45(1): 3-11. L. D. Science 281: 389-392. Gonzalez-Serratos. S. Purcell. Kinosita. (1986). M...]. Biochim. (1987). 66(5): 1522-1530. Subtilisin cleavage of actin inhibits in vitro sliding movement of actin filaments over myosin. Brown. D. A. andTirrell. T. and Weaver. W. Sakahibara. G. and Cho. H. G. Rapid Commun. W. U. B. 38(194): 1528-1540. 59:315-328..-B. and Finkelstein. ]. W. G. U. G. Leipzig.. C. Gimm.. M. Y. (1994). and Bridgman. Mol.. H. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies of mast cell histamine. Tasaki. Pruliere. C. Y. Prochniewicz. Physiol. Schiiltze. M. Schwann. Scanning Microsc.. Macromol. Schwister. Rheo-logical properties of living cytoplasm: a preliminary investigation of squid axoplasm (Loligo pealei). Membrane splitting in freeze-ethching. 5: S1-S10.. Rev. and Osada.. H. W. 77:3311-3318. 89(1):319-333. Carbone. and Alien. D. (1973). The Cyto'skeleton: An Introductory Survey. Gautel. Zhu. Acta. (1993).. and Salmon. G. J. Gen. Acta. ed. A.. Porter. Nature 268: 757-759. E. A. Y. Reversible and irreversible modification of erythrocyte membrane permeability by electric field. ]. (1982). and Thomas. CellBiol. Chem. H.. F. D. X-Q. Pfann. (1977). Y.. Motile kinetochores and polar ejection forces dictate chtomosome position on rhe vertebrate mitotic spindle. Schwyter. E. Mus. P. Hazlewood.. and Hallett. Ludowyke. J.. Chemistry. (1965). Ser. Pollack. T. Gong. (1863). M. Somlyo. Inner-arm dynein c of Chlamydomonas flagella is a single-headed processive motor. Bearden. D. Non-homogeneous Ca release in isolated frog skeletal muscle fibres. Rieder. Wong. NATO Adv. D. H. Science 176: 1129-1131. R. Formation and properties of aqueous leaks induced in human erythrocytes by electrical breakdown. A. CellBiol.. A dielectric study of the state of water in plant stems.. P. Robinson. R. D. Scan. World Scientific. Nicolini. Mikroskopische Untersuchungen iiber die Ubereinstimmung in der Struktur und dem Wachstum der Thiere und Pfl/tnzen. S. J. Y. A new perspective on muscle contraction. Gonzalez-Serratos.. C. 812: 779-785. and Reisler. Anagnostopoulou-Konsta. and Apekis. and Nicklow. Sato. Series. M. and Deuticke. Qiu.. G. 2: 259-302. / Cell Biol. 63: 1049-1113. R. Singh. A. Sawahata. Suppl. A. E. Biol. E... E.. (1996). Ebnet and Sons. Langer. C. Y. W. H. A. E.. Wirtz. W. (1987). S. (1 83 9 ) .. G. E. H. E. M. Identification of a translocated protein segment in a voltage-dependent channel. Biophys. /. Pinto da Silva. V. K. C.. (1992).. Cell Biol. D. Schutt. Sci. W. U.. (1996). B. (1997). /. Seattle. Spudich. K. Pollack. Natl. T. T. H. (1996). and Beall. Changes in axon birefringence associated with excitation: implications for rhe structure of the axon membrane. Ascent of sap in trees. Physiology and Biophysics.. (1981).. and Dormann. WA. Oesterhelt. (1990).. Milano. Rorschach. C. McGrath. Biophys. A38: 535-547. Water in Biology. A. Mod. Kron. Microsc. (1987). M. R. (1983). Quasi-elastic scattering studies of watet diffusion. (1999).. Pollack. Acta. and Qin. Study Inst. 74 . (1989). Jakes. Hazlewood. The cytoplas-mic matrix.. D. H. L. Osmotische Untersuchungen: Studien zur Zell -Mechanik. Ruch. G. Benbassat... Phase transitions and the molecular mechanism of contraction.. Beckerle. Schutt. Resealing of the proximal and distal cut ends of transected axons: electrophsiological and ultrastructural analysis. 14: 527-532. K. E. Pollack. A. H.. (1861)./ Neurobiol. Shuman. E. H. F. M. Zone melting.. R.. Q. 260(5): 756-766. D. (1993). P. R. ion-selective channels observed with patch pipettes in the absence of membranes: novel properties of agigaseal. Sakai. Biophys. 34: 311-315. Gated.. (1962). E. J. (1994). T. F. Exptl. /. Nature 400(6744): 586-590. Nature 371: 158-161. Biophys. Reversible hydrogels from self-assembling artificial proteins. H. N. Pollard. /.. 163: 307-324. 816: 332-348. ]. and Lindberg. /. and Somlyo. Cell Growth. 16:713-716. R. Harden. B.. G. K. (1998). Serpersu. 45: 598-605. M.. D. Cell Motil. Prausnitz.. (1977). Cell Motil. Biophs. 2:209-217. C. Actin-binding protein evolution. K. Janmey. and Evans. R. A. H. Scanning. (1985). H. Slatin. Spira. and McNivan. and Hazlewood. fur Anatomie und Physiologic und fur Wissenschaftliche Medicin.. Sato. Fernandez. C. Robinson. F. London. Cardiac pacemaking: an obligatoty tole of catecholamines? Science 196: 731-738.. Biochim. and Shibata. H. P. Cell Biol. Sol-gel processing of actin to obtain homogeneous glasses at low temperartires. E. USA. (1995). Biophys. E. Chem. Covalently bound ferritin as a membrane marker. H. Springer. and Branton. Reversible unfolding of individual titin immunoglobin domains by AFM. J. M. Berlin. (1984). and Dotizou. C.. K. P. H. Life at low Reynolds number. Res. Role of hydration water in protein unfolding. Cell cycle phase-specific changes in relaxation times and water content in HeLa cells. (1977). How molecular motors work.Petka. C. 65(3): 1101-1107.

Carriers. Stucture of microtubules: a study of freeze-etched and negatively stained microtubules from the ovaries of Notonecta. Repetitive mechanical responses of the amphibian skin to adrenergic stimulation. cells and synapses. 61: 96-109.. Nature 210: 568-571. G. Eccleston. (1951). A. Biopolymers 34: 209-215. Tirosh. (1995). R. J. and Byrne.. and Tanaka. Akad. S. Science 253: 1121-1123. Richer. Structural aspects. Polymer Sci. Hazlewood. H. K. Jensen. M. M. T. I. and Pollack. (1957). Sodium and potassium in frog muscle. Bull. W.. /. Tanaka.. 32: 226-232. I. (1982).. Biochem. Gen. Schreuder. Tasaki.. N. B. F. Discontinuous volume transitions in ionic gels and their possible involvement in the nerve excitation process. (1994). Biopolymers 32: 1019-1023. H. Phys. Rev. and Hanrahan. I. Acad. Acad. Kinetic Analysis of ATPase Mechanisms. Tasaki. Mikrosc. A. Tanaka. ]. 194: 406-408. N. G. Biochem. Taylor. 200: 203-208. Tasaki. 133: 695-701. 1: 759-764. Rapid mechanical and thermal changes in the garfish olfactory nerve as sociated with a propagated impulse. F. Detection of thermal responses of the retina by use of polyvinylidene fluoride multilayer detector. J. and Forrest. 49(2): 125-138. Trentham. P. 48: 297-300. Tasaki. I. O. The Living State. K. With Observations on Cancer.. Izv. Y. J. Ferroelectric 220: 305-316. 55: 1033-1040. G.. / Memb. J. D. (1991). I. (1980). Jpn. C.. Kusano. Zellforsch. J. A.. Byrne. W. (1979). I. 27: 785-800. Active streaming against gravity in glass microcapillaries of solutions containing acto -heavy meromyo-sin and native tropomyosin. (1988). (1987). A. D. (1948). Calcium in excitation -contraction coupling of skeletal muscle. (1972). and Takenada. Szent-Gyorgyi. M. The nature of the clear zone around microtubules. van Noon. Press. and Hazlewood. Trombitas. NATO ASI Series Vol H 64. J. Oplatka. (1999b). T.. Tasaki. T. Demonstration of two stable potential states in the squid giant axon under tetraethylammonium chloride. and Oplatka. M. and Hagiwara.. Jpn. Annaka. Zellforsch u. (1963). (1987). Baatsen. R. K. Tasaki. Science 209:451-457. R. R.. J. and Uchizono.. Press. H. E. Tasaki. A.Polym. Chem. and Bagshaw.. Biophys. A. Stebbings. (1987). Press.J. Sugitani. A. J.(1981). H. and Willison. Physiol. (1989).. Biophys. 37:609-619. A. C. Terakawa. Channels... The continuity of thick filaments between sarcomeres in honey -bee flight muscle. and Sorensen. Kobayashi. Akad Nauk SSSR ser biol. Physiol.. Discontinuous'volume transitions induced by calcium-sodium ion exchange in anionic gels and their neurobiological implications. Salt currents in the complex coascervate: gelatine and gum arabic. (1990). Introduction to a Submolecular Biology. Szasz. Physiology and Electrochemistry of Nerve Fibers.. P. Amer. 244:110-113. (1967). Wendt. L. G. Diffusive properties of water in Artemia cysts as determined from quasi-elastic neutron scattering spectra. J. H.Berlin.. Soc... (1993). and Tokita. B. 36: 2876-2878. Z. F. (1975). D.}..101: 172-176.Spyropolous. Physiol. M... Cell and Tissue Res. and Phys. F. Melroy. G. P. Kiado.A. J. Rorschach. 2:279-287. ]. T. and Horigome. Howard. R. S. C. Tokita. Z. 49: 641-709. (1998). Tabcharani. (1961). M. A macromolecular approach to excitation phenomena: mechanical and thermal changes in nerve during excitation. Gels and Ntwks. Polyelectrolyte nature of F-actin and the mechanism of actin bundle formation. Kokufuta. /. NMR.. Suzuki. I. and Wakabayashi. /. Jpn.. Phase transitions of gels. K. I. C. J. Gels. Appl. Am.. H. I. (1940). Steinberg. J. Effects of internal and external ionic environment on excitability of squid giant axon: A mac romolecular appraoach. Scheller. NMR. I. Budapest. (1996). I. 40: 859-885. Suzuki.. Wiesler.. Reversible decrease of gel-solvent friction. (1999a). and Hunt.. I. S. Z. Y. 112(2): 109-122. M. I. Stephenson. A... (1984).. M. Biochem.. Anat. Spectroscopic probes of muscle cross-bridge rotation.. Biophys. J.. 48: 1095-1123. R. (1966). Nature 281(5729): 319-320. T. (1975). Biol. Chem. D. K. Troshin. Rev. (1982). and Masumura.271(15): 85568563. Trantham.. Chemistry of Muscular Contraction. Toney. Nature 368: 444-446. M. San Diego. A. Contraction-induced movements of water in single fibres of frog skeletal muscle. and Katchalsky. Trombitas. P. Res. Bicarbonate permiability of the outwardly rectifying anion channel. D.. Physiol. N. K.. Physiol. J.. (1989). Two distinct mechanisms of actin bundle formation. 14: 573-584. G. R.. Thomas.. Tasaki. & d.R.. Physiol. 26: 299-322. Acad. Physiol. (1960). Quart. 45(5): 927-938. Temperature changes associated with nerve excitation: detection by using polyvinylidene fluoride film. H. Intracellular divalent cations and plateau duration of squid giant axons treated with tetraethylammonium. Polym. Borges. C. I. and Pollack. Ann. Electron microscopic and electrophysiologic study of the pacemaker in the sino-atrial node of the rabbit heart. Steinbach. 75 . Yee. P. D. Ishii. Res. M. Press. N. Trautwein. R. London. Acad. The states of water in cellulose acetate membranes. Transact. and Iwasa. and Byrne. Trombitas. Visualization of the transverse cytoskeletal network in insect-flight muscle by scanning-electron microscopy. (1977). Tigyi... _/. Cell Motil. and Janmey. Mus. Singer. Physiol. Stebbings. L. J. D. /. 19: 2743-2748. Mechanics of Swelling. Nicklow. Tang. Rapid structural changes in nerve fibers and cells associated with their excitation processes. Clegg. Q. Press. and Byrne. 9: 218-281. Non-uniform iondistributions and electrical potentials in sarcoplasmic regions of skeletal muscle fibres. Stein.. Acad.. Mecha-nochemical engines.. I. Tasaki. Biol. A new concept of a hydrophobicity motor based on local hydrophobicity transition of functional polymer substrate for micro/nano machines. Chem.. E. (1994). /. (1973). S. (1991).Jpn. and Cytoskel. Nagano. Preprints Jpn. N. Water states in living systems.. T. (1998). 91: 1435-1440.. Y. Shlevin. Y. Tasaki.. Evidence for phase transition in nerve fibers. A. (1992). (1994). Tasaki. NY. (1994). Franck. 20: 251-268. Commun. J. J. Nature 289(5799): 690-692. Springer-Verlag. and Janmey. G. Chem. (1981). F. H. C. Sci. Tang. and Pumps: An Introduction to Membrane Transport. A. T. M. (1982). Biol.G. P. and Tanaka. Stillinger.]. and Lopez. Szent-Gyorgyi. (1992).W. and Tigyi-Sebes. Szent-Gyorgyi.. Voltage-dependent ordering of water molecules at an electrode -electrolyte interface. M. and Watanabe. The Physical Aspect of the Living Cell.. E. Riordan. Tasaki. 138(3): 387-396. Cell Motil.. M. I. and Douwes. P.. D.. S. 227:609-617. A. I. Biol. Taniguchi. A. M. (1981). Water revisited. J. K. (1965). P. M. Gen. No 4: 180-185. and Med.. Kellermayer. Physiol. Physiol. A. Initiation and abolotion of electric response by thetmal and chemical means. Gordon. Biophys.

. Whittam. P. E. Diffusion of injected mactomolecules within cytoplasm of living cells. and Walliman.. and Hoffman. /.. R. S. L. Bact. (1977). W. Deyrup-Olsen. R. S. N. (1981). 36(1): 5-30. The secretory granule as a biomimetic model for drug delivery. Science 260: 11241127. Verdugo. ed.. Nature 19: 603-604. Kobayashi. A. Symposium on the fine structure and replication of bacteria and their parts. Electron microscope study of the effect of temperature on the length of the tail of the myosin molecule. H. D. M.N. W.. Verdugo. T. Uvnas. Mater. Eur. Nature 254: 696-698. Walker. M. S. S. E. Salmon. Carragher. 22: 25-33. M. T. Nature 347: 780-782. J. and Sweeney . Direct observation of single kinesin molecules moving along microtubules. Subaxolemmal cytoskeleton in squid giant axon. Wojcieszyn. Microbiol. L.. Cell Biol. Verdugo. Krause. M. Myosin VI is an actin-based motor that moves backwards. D. P... Scand. Biol. (1990). E. T. 52: 157-176. K.-Q. arrested with re -serpine and alpha-methyl-tyrosine. Wiggins. Acta. and Dorczak. Press. Lyssarides. (1996). 109(2): 145-150. and Orellana. and N. The effect of dibutyryl 3'5' -cylic AMP on the cardiac pacemaker.. Role of actin in regulated exocytosis and compensatory membrane retrieval: insights from an old acquaintance. A. J. Proc. Physiol. Verdugo. Hasson. (1997). U Urry. S. Sci. Stewart. Translated by W.. D. Sleep. Hybrid hydrogels assembled from synthetic polymers and coiled-coil protein domains. M. M. (1961). R. K. Melting of myosin rod as revealed by electron microscopy. /. R. J. Kamiya. I. Wu. Bioact. Orellana. V. 22:25. K. Martin.. (1992). E. and Block. Eur. D. Biophys. (1981).. Cell Biol.Troshin. A.. Angewandte Chemie Intl. J.. Wang. 58: 585-596. E.. D. L. USA 78(7): 4407-4410. J.and microfilament-asociated domains ofaxolerama. (1999). R. 99: 1527 -1533. Possible involvement of the plasma membrane in saltatory particle movement in heliozoan axopods. Y. Polymer gel-phase transition: the molecular mechanism of product release in mucin secretion? NATO ASI Series Vol. The role of water in cell function. and Matsumoto. (1995). Wells. M. /. Pure lipid vesicles can induce channel-like conductances in planar bilayers. P. D." V Vale. (1964). A. Rev. Rotation and transition of microtubules in vitro induced by dyneins from Terahymena Cilia. K-Y.. 261: 12477-12485. W. Uvnas. H.. Mechanics of Swelling. and Trinick. J. J. Rev.. Bioact. D. S. J. Goblet cells secretion and mucogenesis. P. Neutral salts: the generality of the stability of macromolecular conformation. Biophys. /. L. J. (1993). (1997). Molecular Machines: How motion and other functions of living organisms can result from reversible chemical changes. Weisenberg. Cation exchanger property of isolated rat peritoneal mast cell granules. F.. Biol.. C. M. G.P. (1990). A. Walzthony. M. M.. L. B. H. G. and Toyoshima. D. (1975). Cell Biol. J. and-'Jamieson. Woodbury. J. (1990). and van Ryn. Cain. J. M. Valentijn. R. R. G. (1986). Monovalent ions are spatially bound within the sarcomere. Potentials measured from glycerinated cardiac muscle. A. 54(4): 432-449. Symp. H. K. C. A. Mechanotransduction across the cell surface and through the cytosk -eleton. Memb. Chem.. Acta. W. ATP-induced gelation-contraction of microtubules assembled in vitro. and Collins. and Endow. The secretory granule as a biomimetic model for drug delivery.. O. J. Nat'1. A. W. On the cation exchanger properties of rat mast cell granules and their storage of histamine. 102: 1710-1725. and Jacobson. D. Effects of glycerol and anions on length and stability of myosin rod.. R. D. Proc.. Single kinesin molecules studied with a molecular force clamp. Safer. H. Nature 380: 451-453. A... K. Effects of temperature and pH on length and stability of myosin rod and its fragments. A.. (1991).. and Luchtel. W. /. T. R. The Droso-phila claret segregation protein is a minus-end directed motor molecule. C. 41: 33-37. Pharmakol. Ann. Commun. Nature 400(6740): 184-189. (1956). Symp. Problems of Cell Permeability. P. A. Springer. Cell Bio. Diffetentiations of the ground cytoplasm and their significance for the generation of the motive force of ameboid movement. Washabaugh. The systematic characterization by aqueous column chromatography of solutes which affect protein stability... CellBiol. J. (1965). Von Hippel. K. Engl. C. and Wong. Troyer. Role of water in some biological processes. D. (1999). (1995). Aborg. T.. II. Von Zglinicki. Schlegel. Watterson. T. T. Intern. R (1967).(1993). Biophy. J. (1986). II. Vogler. 100: 309-314. Oxford. and Kopecek.. H64. Biol. (1999). 74:69-117. W. Melting of myosin rod as revealed by electron microscopy. A.. Tuganowski.. D. Chen. T. Wohlfarth-Botterman. Primitive Motile Systems in Cell Biology. and Ingber. A. 32: 819-841.. Eppenberger. Mater. M. W. M. Ed. and Eppenberger. (1966). Oxford. (1996). and Simmons. Weiss. 7: 495-504. Morphological identification of microtubule.. Warner. Nature 215: 1305-1307. Karalis. (1985). M. Harada. Scand. C. D.E. Alien.. T. vanIterson. R. and Desai.-S. Intern. D. Cell 84: 37-47. 89:35-44. Biochem. Science 145: 577-580. Res. 29: 299-325. Nature 397: 417-420. J. Acad. Suppl. (1999). Physiol. and Cianci. Physiol. P. Problems of Cell Permeability. 125: 25-31... B. and Yanagida. Lazarra. Butler. Rev. L. Romberg. (1989). Schnitzer. Nature 387:308-312. Y.. (1986). D. C. ed. B. (1973). Milligan. D. (1988). Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. (1986). Y. (1998)... Pierce. Colloid and Interface Sci. Lin. Widdas.. L. Walzthony.. (1986). Control Rel. Berlin. Walker. Control Rel. Tskhovrebova. Pergamon Press.. Gen. Tsukita. Trinick. R. D. V. L. Mo 1. K.. Changes in ionic selectivity with changes in density of water in gels and cells.. and Mitchell.. Cell 52: 459469. Proc. (1990). J. Watterson. R. Elasticity and unfolding of single molecules of the giant muscle protein titin. P. (1984).. Wang. R. Wiggins. Active cation transport as a pace-maker of respiration. R. 41: 38-43. C. J. Adv. (1964). andThyberg. 266: 652-661. H. Funatsu. English edition: Pergammon Press. Valentijn. Physiol. Tsukita. The pressure pixel-unit of life? BioSytems 41: 141-152. 280: 63-70. XKCM1: a Xenopus kinesin-related protein that regulates microtubule dynamics during mitotic spindle assembly.. Polarity of dynenin-mi-crotubule interactions in vitro: cross-bridging between parallel and antiparallel microtubules. Biofizika. and Freitag. Nature 401: 505-508. F. W Walczak. A. Structure and reactivity of water at biomaterial surfaces. Visscher. (1988). Troshin. Mitchison.. Acad. 192: 661-667. and Aborg.. Y. 76 . B. Vale.

(1997). 74: 1473-1483.Polym Gels and Ntwks 1: 267-274... K. Y Yanagida. T. D. P. H. CENP-E is a putative kinetochore motor that accumulates just before mitosis. H. P. CopperReferences: 1] Aggett P. 4: 303-7. Prentice-Hall International. (1990). S.W. Neurosci. D. Polarized fluorescence from ep-silon-ADP incorporated into F-actin in a myosin-free single fiber: conformation of F-actin and changes induced in it by heavy meromyosin. B. TheEssentialityofCertain Elementsin MinuteQuantityforPlants.H. (1978). Webb. & Mehta B. and Pollack.. (1994). Pollack. S. Mechanisms of Work Production and Work Absorption in Muscle. M. Mater. /. Zhu. N. Brit. J. H.. R C. T..1959 3] Aminoff M..J.. and Oosawa. High molecular weight organic compounds in the xylem sap of mangroves: implications for long -distance water transport. Radiology (United States).1962 71] Nakakoshi T. /. et al. An actomyosin motor. &UvarovO. 18:50-63. Biophys. G. Nishikawa. Parenteral Administration ofCopperCompoundstoCattle with SpecialReferenceto Copper Glycine (Copper Amino-acetate)..1974 7] BaxterJ. R (1984). Studies of the chemo-mechanical conversion in artificially produced streamings. Trace metal Content of maternal and neonate hair. Sci. J.. ed. H.. 1998 10] Boccuzzi G.. Y. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (sixth edition). (1993). Yanagida. 1998 77] Owen C. Acad. spectroscopy. Jap.. 1953 8] Bennets H. &StoutP. Bot. 71: 797-810. Goldstein.V. Yamada.1938 73] Neelakantan V. Soil Sci. 1960 76] Osiecki Henry The Nutrient Bible. et al. J. Yamamoto. (1982). L. Adaptation to High and LowCopper Intakes: Itsrelevanceto Estimated Safe and adequate daily dietary intakes. Press. 107:218-22 Yamada. Symp. and G.1998 2] Allcroft R. Anim.L. T. Schneidet. 58: 13-19. Control Rel. Application of pulsed-gradient 31P NMR on frog muscle to measure the diffusion rates of phosphorous compounds in cells. Long-range electrostatic trapping of single-protein molecules at liquid-solid interface. Aust. (1982). a kinesinrelated protain that associates with centromeres during mitosis. L. 126: 507-524. S. T. London. J.. The Medical Clinics of North America 60. In: Katzung. Rec..67:1017S-21S. Further Studies on Antibiotic and Copper Supplements for Fattening Pigs. Saunders Press. Clinicalconditionsalteringcoppermetabolisminhumans. 14:371-5.R. Bull. Cell Biol.. G. Protective effect of dehydroepiandrosterone against copper -induced lipid peroxidation in Calves. London. W. X Xie.. Effect of ctoss-linking on the molecular motion of water in polymer gel as studied by pulse H NMR and PGSR H NMR. XX. Calcium dependence of membrane sealing at the cut end of the cockroach giant axon.1939 5] Barber R. Y. &HambridgeM. I. Y. R (1978)..Copperdeficiency and toxicity: Acquired and inherited in plants. T. (1995). and Hoffman.Biochemistry of Copper. (1992). (1998). Nutr. Acta.. Park Ridge NJNoyesPub.. A. and Kuno. Int ern. Studies of mechanisms of electric field-induced DNA transfection. Copper Status of Soils in Western India. A. Johns Hopk. Biophys. & Wyk J.I... M. 1170-79. 12:270-282. and Yeung. X. /. (1998).1995 4] ArnonD...associated kinesin.93:1 -23. 419-431. (1995). Nakase. H. Proc... Prod. 4: 33-36. Melcher. R. T. Li. L. etal. Med. H. Nature 299: 557-559. K. T. Bio Concepts Publishing. Nature 359: 536-539. and Tsong. M. Biol. Sugi. Yuan. J. and Morimoto. T. J. Kurosu. and Mitchison. Yoshizaki. B. Sun. U... and Haase.R. Jan. M.. Yen. Cshaar. J. Am J ClinNut.1957 6] Baumslag N. and Cleveland. Yano. and Oosawa. G. Nature 307:58-60. Kobayashi. Tameyasu. Biochem.1983 75] O'Dell B. M.S. Xu. Yawo. Yano. Thyroid as a Factor in the Regulation of Blood Copper Level.2000 72] Narasaka S. J. Seo.67:1061S 63. and Shimizu. Fairweather-Tait. 84: 277283. 214(1) p304 -6. A. H. J Orthomol Psych. F. Yasunaga.. H.Wordeman. Science 281: 16501653. Van ABone Disorder Associated with Copper Deficiency.. Studies in the Biochemistry of Copper. / Mol. E.. G. ]. Synthetic sulfonated microspheres as drug delivery carriers. Benkert.(1985).Studies on Copper Deficiencyin Cattle:the Fatal Termination (Falling Disease). Stepwise shortening in single sarcomeres of single myofibrils. Plant Phvsiol. I. H-NMR spectroscopy of the intracellular water of testing and rigor frog skeletal muscle. J.. Szilak. Arch Environ Health. Thurmer. 5: 1626-1632.-H. 91: 251-6. Bioact. H. 29.. animalsand man. 38: 209-211. Biophys. and Shimizu. in Polymer Science. Identification and partial characterization of mitotic centromere. 22: 26-27.G. Yang. Vet. and Ando.S. 128: 95-104. T. and Ando. Zimmermann. (editor). NMR. H. 1981 77 . 1942 9]Beshgetoor L. S. T. T-D. Meinzer. Copper toxicity syndrome.. with SpecialReference to Copper. Zimmermann. Copper andhepatocellular carcinoma. et al. Pharmacologic management of Parkinsonism and other movement disorders. Yasunaga. Structures and dynamics of polymer gel systems viewed from NMR.1961 74] Nolan K. Nishiyama. H.. AmJClin Nutr. Hosp... (1998). VetJ. Direct observation of motion of single F-actin filaments in the ptesence ofmyosin. Matsukawa.

Copper bioavailability and requirements.1967 97] Van den Berg G. 1975 79] Pirrie R. Gastroenterology (United States). 140:754-757.Dietary ascorbic acid lowers the concentration of soluble copper in the small intestinal lumen of rats.& Masljanaja H. AM J Clin Nut. etal. 41:768-771. 346:44-7. Am J ClinNutr.F. Bookman Press. Mental and Elemental Nutrients.1960 83] Reavley Nicola The New encyclopaedia of Vitamins. Sep. Chem. excretion and retention by young men consuming low dietary copper determined by using stable isotope 65Cu. 35:809814.. Path. et al. J Invest Dermatol. Fd. Chem. 31: 76-80.. Minerals. et al. Shokh Akad. 129: 729-37. Keats New Canaan. 1982 87] Schultze M. 5: 190-3.1959 95] Tumlund et al.The Manganese and Copper contents ofhair as an indication of the feeding condition of cattle regarding manganese and copper. Complex Formation between Copperand some Organic Acids. 83: 229.. 119(3):782-93. RegulToxicol Pharmacol.CSF copper concentrations in chronic schizophrenia.1995 90] Solioz M. 1961 81 ] Pratt W.1939 88] Shore D.R. The Effect of Deficiencies in Copper and Iron on the Cytochrome Oxidase of Rat Tissues. 2000 86]SandsteadHH. The effects of chromium supplementation on serum glucose and lipids in patients with and wi thout non-insulin dependent diabetes.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. s. Tijdschr.. Soc. 2795-8. 205-8. & Broome A. 1983 89] SidhuK.Dairy World.J. et al Cations inhibit specifically type 1 5 alpha-reductase found in human skin.1981 Metals and Glucose Control I] Abraham A. J. 1952 80] Polukhina 1.1998 96] Van Campen D.1957 85] Roelofsen H.N. Elevated haircopperin idiopathic scoliosisand ofnormalindividuals. Copper absorption. (Supp.1953 (Chemical Abstracts. Biol. 91:473.1958 99] Vir et al. S. No. Journal of Nutrition. Zinc interference with copper absorption in rats. Van Luyn M. et alCopper pumping ATPases: common concepts in bacteria and man.1978 82] Ramaswamy M.. Sol.S.1995 93] Takamiya K. 48. Serum and hair concentrations of copper during pregnancy. 82-s. etal. J Clin.K.. Copper in Ceylon Teas. S.E. (English translation). Issue). A. 185:190-1. 32:10-14. Izv. Phenols and Phenolic Acids Occurring in Fruit. 71(5): 701-707. Influence of Nitrogen and Copper on the Anatomical Structure of Oat Stemsin Relation tothe Resistance of Oats on Peat Soils. J. et al.78] Pfeiffer C. Need to revise the national drinking water regulation for copper. American Journal of Psychiatry.1960 94] TimberlakeC. 8. Tea Quart. 1998 84] Robertson H.900) 92] Sugimoto Y. Timir.1994 98] Van Koetsveld E. Nature. Anti-tumour Activities of Copper Chelates. 1994 91] Stine J. FEBS Lett. Copper and Cheddar Flavour.J. 104(5): 775-778. 67: 1219-1225. 24.. et al. Factors Influencing the Blood Copper Level of Sheep: the Effect of change in Basal Metabolic Activity..W. Supplements and Herbs. Wolters H.O.Serum Copper and its Relationship to Serum Iron in Patients with Neoplastic Disease. Clin Chem. 34: 2382-2388. J. Agric. 22(1): 95-100. Metabolism.B. Copper-induced apical trafficking ofATP7B in polarized hepatoma cells provides a mechanism for biliary copper excretion.l.B.1992 78 . Dieregeneesk. BrJNutr. 87.Sci.J. Chicago..

and serum samples from 40. 25] Lee N.et al..665 hair. 17(12):14491452. Federation Proceedings. Int J Biosocial Medical Research..1989 29]MertzW.. 9:109-17..1998 14] Cohen N. Inc.1996 . American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. J Inorg Biochem. W. 54:909-916. Age-related decreases in chromium levels in 51.Effects of vanadyl sulfate on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.2000 24] Leach R. 14:553-557. Magnesium levels in plasma.. Evidence of a relationship between childhood onset type 1 diabetes and low groundwater concentration of zinc.. 33:2275-2280.. hypertension.1988 32] Paolisso G.A. et al. diabetes. Associations of serum and dietary magnesium with cardiovascular disease.B.. Eur J Endocrinol. Clin Lab Med. insulin. Metabolism. erythrocyte. Diabetes Care Aug.1994 26]Mather H.1996 28]MechegianiE.1999 12]Chanetal. 1986 16] Corica F. Clin Chem Acta.1998 13] Chauser A.1990 9] Boden G.1997 34] Pepato M. Hypertension. 5(2):109-132. and Combs S. et al.E. etal.A. The effect of chromium picolinate on insulin controlled parameters in humans. 8] Baly P. et al.. 10:3 346-55. Vol. Improved insulin response and action by chronic magnesium administration in aged NIDDM subjects. 11:163-180. 18(4): 673-85.1998 38] Prout I. 2): 124A/454. Ciirr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. A. molybdenum selenium and zinc in nutrtion and health. 9:471-475. Beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on serum triglyceride levels in NIDDM.. Hyperzincuria of diabetes mellitus and possible genetic implications of this observation. Diabetes.1997 18] Evans G. Metabolism. et al. HormMetabRes. Am J Hypertens. et al.. 45:1130-1135. Chromium picolinate increases membrane fluidity and rate of insulin internalization. 20(3):212-218. Di Benedetto A. Distinct glucose lowering and beta cell protective effects of vanadium and food restriction in streptozotocin-diabetes. Academic Press. 46(4):243-250..1983 5] Anderson R. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with .. Zinc-dependent low thymic hormone level in type I diabetes. glucagon. Present knowledge of the role of chromium.2001 4] Anderson R.. 16(5):404-410.1995 15] Combs G.2] Anderson R. insulin. Enhanced in vivo sensitivity of vanadyl-treated diabetic rats to insulin. J Nutr Biochem. 188(l-2):73-80. Nutritional factors influencing the glucose/insulin system: chromium. Metabolism.1996 22] Jing M.R..1982 21] Haglund et al..1999 35]PidduckH. Mol Cell Biochem.1991 6] Anderson R.. etal. Insulin resistance: lifestyle and nutritional interventions. 46(5):469-473. et al.1995 23]KellyG. Melnick S. 48:927-940.. Oral vanadyl sulfate improves hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Mol Cell Biochem. Zinc Metabolism in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Clinical Investigations.. et al. Insulin and Diabetes. et al. C.G. Effect of oral vanadyl sulfate treatment on serum enzymes and lipids of streptozotocin -diabetic young rats.1970 36]PreussH. 12:932-937. etal.872 patients -implications for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. et al.1997 .1960 39] Pryor K. et al. Diabetes Care. Role of zinc supplementation in type II diabetes mellitus. 7:4347. J Clin Epidemiol.Chromium update: examining recent literature 1997-1998. Diabetes Care. 46:1786-1791. Diabetes. A. 19:8 873-5. Wada M. 14:161-162. The role of copper.G. Chromium supplementation of human subjects: Effects on glucose. diabetes and insulin resistance: the role of intracellular magnesium.. and lipid variables.III. 3] Anderson R.1998 II] Cam M. A. USA.1997 7] Anderson R. et al. 95(6):2501-2509. 12(4):265-269. Vanadium and diabetes. et al. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology.etal. J Am Coll Nutr. A. et al. Nutritional approaches to optimal blood glucose and insulin levels: key factors in longevity and resistance to : 79 .etal.. G.1994 17] Davies S. Supplemental chromium effects on glucose.1996 10] Boyd S. Zinc. Potential antioxidant effects of zinc and chromium supplement in people with type II diabetes mellitus.M. M.1992 20] Fugii S. Metabolism. sweat. Orlando. Allegra A.1974 30]NakamuraT. Hypomagnesemia in diabetes. 68(4):486491. et al. Trace elements in Human Health & Disease.type 2 diabetes.. J Nutr. Takemura T. 63-68. 198(1-2):157-161. and urinary chromium losses in subjects consuming low-chromium diets. 19:240-247. Metabolism & Function of Manganese.. B. W. A.. Magnes Res.S.Beneficial effects of chromium for people with Type II Diabetes. Am J Med....1998 37]Poucheret P. Zouari N. T. 141(5):546-554. J of American College ofNutrition 17(2): 109-115.L. The Role of Selenium in Nutrition. 32:894899.1991 31] Niewoener C.1979 27] McNeillJ. and urine in patients with diabetes mellitus. glucose transport & metabolism in rat adipocytes. 1:509-512. et al.. Alternative Medicine Review.F. et al. et al. Combined dietary chromium picolinate supplementation and an exercise program leads to a reduction of serum cholesterol and insulin in college-aged subjects. 120:1075-1079. Diabetes.etal.. Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on plasma lipid concentrations of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.. Folsom A. and carotid arterial wall thickness: the ARIC study. Diabetes. Roussel A-M. 45(Suppl. Diabetes Care. 95:235-242. Effect of manganese deficiency on insulin binding.. Kinetics of zinc status in children with IDDM. et al. insulin. et al.etal. J Am Coll Nutr.1989 19] Evans G..1989 33] Paolisso et al...Jr..

1989 6] Ames B. S.1997 47] Rubinstein A. Selenium: an insulin-mimetic. Trace metal content of maternal and neonate hair. 9(4):24-28 1999 61] Watts D.E. Oral administration of magnesium hydroxide to subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.F. Diabetic epidemic. Interactions of methylmercury with rat primary astrocyte cultures: inhibition of rubidium and glutamat uptake and induction of swelling.D. Southhamptom: BSAENM Publications..etal. 63:71-73 1984 3] Alexander. 194:188-9. mineral-imbalanced diet. 356(9225): 233-241.I.2000 45]ReavenG. Hlth. et al. 19(2):s057. Journal of the American College of Nutrition.et al. 221:1256-1264.P..1988 53] Singh R. Environmental Medicine in Practice. A nationwide survey of heavy metal absorption in children living near primary copper. Dietary carcinogens and anticarcinogens.R.E.1962 48] Rubenstein A.1983 43]RaoK. 224(5):461-466. Diabetes.L. Cell Mol Life Sci. 206. 1990 50] SeeligM. Insulin-like effect of vanadyl ion on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The effect of dental amalgam restorations on blood mercury levels..1990 5] Altmann P. 23:193-215 1983 10] Aschner M. & Hare M. J Am Coll Nutr.. Role of insulin resistance in human disease.W. Disturbance of cerebral function by aluminum in haemodialysis patients without overt aluminum toxicity Lancet. et al. Nature..1990 11] Ashby J. Low Magnesium: A Common Denominator in Pathologic Process in Diabetes Mellitus. J Clin Biochem Nutr. Overproduction of insulin in the chromium-deficient rat. 204-208.1995 59]UeharaS.S. 121:16-20. The uptake of lead by children in differing environments.. et al. 5:201-207. International Journal of Obesity. Jul. S.1998 54] Stapleton S. The importance of selenium to human health.1998 46] Resnick L. & Sood P. 2:1348-1351.1988 60] Wallace E. 240. Ann Rev Pharmacol Toxicol.1992 51] Sjogren A..B. Brain Res.H.1995 2] Abraham J. lead and zinc smelter.V. JEndocrinol. Magnesium. Studies on the genotoxicity of beryllium sulphate in vitro and in vivo. 47:396-400.L.197 14] Baker E. potassium and zinc deficiency in subjects with type II diabetes mellitus. et al.H. J. Acta Med Scand.1998 57] Striffler J. etal. 57(13-14): 1874-1879. October: 11(5): 608/Abstr39.1983 7] Annest J.1997 9] Aposhian H.P.. Rao P. 17:564-570.J Dent Res.1977 15] Bapu C.1990 Heavy Metal References: 1] Abe T.1962 49] SakuraiH. & Frank C. Zinc.V. 126(3):451-459. The nutritional relationships of manganese.R.1983 8] Anthony H..1995 56] Striffler J. Mutation Res. 4. Science.. etal.. Metabolism. Lancet. W. 44:1314-1320.2000 55] Striffler J.S. et al. Metabolism. et al. The clinical significance of beryllium. Effect of zinc sulfate therapy on control and lipids in type I diabetes.1999 58] Toplack H. 1974 4] Aller A. Orthomol. Addition of chromium picolinate to a very low calorie diet improves the insulin-glucose ratio after weight reduction. 5(4):219-22. The Lancet. Dietary chromium decreases insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fat. et al. Med. Chronological trend in blood lead levels between 1976 and 1980. ArchEnviron. Diabetes Care..etal. 48:1063-1068. B. Cardiovascular Disease and Eclampsia.Vitamin Research News.. etal.Restoration of methylmercury inhibited adenosine triphosphatases during vitamin and monothio 80 .. 29.etal... copper. Effects of chromium and yeast supplements on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic men. An J Epidemiology. 10:368-370. et al.1994 13] Baaumslag N.1. High hair and urinary mercury levels offish eaters in the nonpolluted environment of Papua New Guinea. 530:245-250.4.. Hypoglycemia induced by manganese.DMSA and DMPS-water soluble antidotes for heavy metal poisoning. et al. Clinical significance of selenium level in chronic pancreatitis..J. et al. Manganese-induced hypoglycemia. 35:52.1987 44]RaymanM. etal. 6(4):319-327. et al.. FASEB J. etal. 37:1595-1607.. N. 308.23. et al.M. 50:367-373. Magnesium. Mechanisms of methylmercury-inducedneurotoxicity. iron and lead.N. Metabolism.diabetes and other degenerative diseases. C. Current zinc intake and risk of diabetes and coronary artery disease and factors associated with insulin resistance in rural and urban populations of North India. Magnesium in the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertension and diabetes mellitus: where are we in 1997? Am J Hypertension.3. JAPI.. Energy Times. Chromium improves insulin response to glucose in rats. 8:622-629. April 2000 40] Rabinowitz M.1990 12] Atchison W. J. Environ Hlth Prospectus. Svare C. J Trace Elements and Electrolytes in Health and Dis. Arc Environ Health..1988 52] Sjogren A.

Lancet. A review.M. & Demopoulos H. An approach to free radicals in medicine and biology. Am JIndMed.Lessons from animal models: the scope of mercury-induced autoimmunity.N. Selections from the Journals Arranged by Topic.L. Clin Biochem. Mercury from dental "silver" tooth fillings impairs sheep kidney function.1998 51] Dieter M. J Environ Path Toxicol Oncol. Oct. Leaded gasoline-a cause of cancer. J Of Med Assoc of Alabama.M.1977 32] Cheraskin E. Contribution of lead to hypertension with renal impairment. et al.1983 52] Dirks M. Las Vegas.1982 21] Bigazzi P.. & Ringsdorf W. 26:92-103. 229:142-149.P. Neurotoxic effects of mercury. Aluminum loxicily in senile dementia: Implications for treatment. Lancet. et al. 4:10-20. & Ehmann W.. The Lewis and Clark Expedition..1980 24]BlumerW. et al.. J Toxicol Environ Health. Brit J Nutr. Unpublished research. Aluminum.S. 3:456-471. The "in vivo" disolution of metastatic calcium: An approach to athero-sclerosis. Lead and hyperaclivity.D. & Reich T. et al. Clarke C.F. WA. 221:77. Toxicol Pathol.1993 20] Bhat R.1980 50] Diamond G. N. 347:115. 5:108-115. & Mukkur T.3:l-10. & Jarvholm B. etal..W. Am J Psychiatry. 19:339-346.. Reversible color vision loss in occupational exposure to metallic mercury. 69. Sci Total Environ. Neurotoxicology..ed.. 22(7):512-513.The influence of a low-boron diet and boron supplementation on bone. Abnormal antioxidanl system in erythrocytes of mercury exposed workers. et al. et al. & Chappell J..1998 16] Barregard L. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.1955 40] Coccini T.1998 18] Batuman V. Effects of exposure to elemental mercury on nervous system and the kidneys in workers producing natura gas^Arch Environ Health.1980 25] Bonhomme C. in the war on cancer.D.K. 492(suppl):153-168. & Manalis R. Mercury poisoning by vacuum-cleaner aerosol.R.R. Acta Physiol Scand. J. Hypercalcaemic osteomalacia due to aluminum toxicity.1995 17] Barth G. American Academy of Medical Prevenlics. el al. et al. Am J Phvsiol. The distribution of lead in human hair.receptor binding characteristics in rat brain and lymphocytes: physiologic implication and new opportunities in biological monitoring.1998 44] Crapper-McLaughlin D. tetraethyl lead.1981 34] Cianciola M. Environ Res. 2.P. & Zalups R. ArchEnviron Health. and sodium arsenite on the humora immunity response in mice. Read be fore the Fall Conference..F. Low-level exposure to methylmercury modifies muscarinic cholinergic..1. Nov 8. 309. 52:19-33. Imbalances of Irace elements related to oxidative damage in Alzheimer's disease brain..1996 26] Boogaard P. 15(2):257-260 1982 30] Cavalleri A. Influence of heavy metals on synaptic transmission: a review. Introduction: Determinants of cancer relevant to prevention.H.. &Toxi. Lancet. Hair zinc levels in infants. et al.E. Nov.Trace elements in hair and environmental exposure. & Mosher R.1981 45] Cranlon E.A.1994 53] Dix Y.M. Clin Pediatr.Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. New York: Bedford St.1998 31] Chang L. 1988 23] Blakley B. Metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives to ultimate carcinogens during lipid peroxidation. 68:218-228..E. 4:69-83. J Orthomol Psych.D.J. Science.K. Sisodia C.. Assessment of zinc status by the zinc tolerance test in various groups of patients.. et al. Human & Exp Toxicol. QccupEnviron Med. 49:49-52.J. chemical physiology and Alzheimer's disease.1983 43] Cornell C. 77:173-177. 261 :R1010-R1014. 17:225-230.1980 36] Clarke N. 14:329-373.E.1998 49] Del Maestro R. The effect of methylmercury.S.1983 81 . Ami MedSci.S.D.1996 27] BoyceB.3. el al.1976 48] De Souza Queiroz M. Sallsten G. 52:245-254. Epidemiologic assessment of measures used to indicate low-level exposure to mercury vapor.. Environmental International.J. April. et al. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 52:124-128. Standardization and interpretation of human hair for elemental concentrations. et al. Healing Naturally. 22(2): 169-178. 108:29 33.1997 35] Cimino J. Environ Health Perspect. People with high mercury uptake from their own dental amalgam fillings. Martins 158-162. Kirkland. 133:1155 -1158. Environ Res. Prevalence of possible lead toxicity as determined by hair analysis. 8.R.1982 46] Crinnion W. 17:75-80.M.1983 19] Beattie J. Markesbery W. & Peace H.1.S.2000 41] Collipp P.J. 1999 47] David O.. 65:81-! 1992 22] Birchall J.therapy.5-14. J Environ Path.E. Mercury excretion and inlravenous ascorbic acid. el al. 1979 33] Cheraskin E.R. Immunological and biochemical responses in mice treated wilh mercuric chloride.. behavioral response to chelalion: A pilol study. & Gobba F.199 29] Capel I. NV.B.. & Ringsdorf W.1983 42] Cooper G.K.2. major mineral and sex steroi metabolism in postmenopausal women. 1982 28] BoydN. Understanding renal loxicity of heavy metals.E. J Holistic Med. Neurotoxicology.

C. 113:199-208. Arlington.J. et al... Enviro Heallh Perspect 107:343-347. Environ Res.1976 72] Ganther H..10. Med Toxicol. 48:57-69. Arch Environ Health.1994 67] FiedlerN. 113:751-757. Environ Res.1997 86] Halbach S. 3:2641-2646.. Hum Exp Toxicol.L.3-dimercaptosuccininc acid in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. Minotti S.. 77:115123. & Hultman P.R..1982 76] Goldberg R. 1. Hair lead concentration in children with minimal cerebral dysfunction. Selenium: relation to decreased loxicity of methylmercury in diels conlaining luna. 29:261-270. Christensen L..T.1083 66] Falconer M. FASEB J.. et al. Distributed by: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.L.. Aeromelric and hair trace metal conlenl in learning-disabled children. Science. Tissue mineral levels in victims of Sudden Infanl Deallh Syndrome 1. selenium. Relation of a seafood diet to mercury. 16. Ann Immunol (Inst Pasteur). et al. Sensitivity of platelel microlubles lo disassembly by methylmercury. & Slauber J. Whole body imaging of the distribution of mercury released from dental fillings into monkey tissue. 1988 75] Gibson R.C.J.1978 57] Durham H. & Skare I. The present mercury contents of scalp hair and clinical symptoms in inhabitants of the Minamata area. et al.1998 87] Hansen J. Hennigan C..1990 61] Enestrom S. 175:1122.L. Unpublished. 129C:777 792. Silicon facilitation of copper utilization in the rat J Nutr Biochem. & Caporicci E. Fed Res. 15:109-122. & Tarp U. Sci Tolal Environ. J. 1995 79] Giaziano J. 83] Hahn L.lead and cadmium.. VA. Environ 82 . Lead exposure from lead crystal.Effecl of heavy melals on human rheumatoid synovial cell proliferation and collagen synthesis. Lolacono N. et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 26:33-40. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. Dose-response sludy of oral 2.1999 78] Grandjean P. & Fuller G. et al. Lilley S.Aluminum encephalopalhy: Clinical and immunological features. el al. 1999 68] Florence T. J Toxicol Enviro Health. Compartmental transfer of mercury released from amalgam. Environ Heallh Perspect 15:135-140. 1997 58] Ely J.. Systemic transfer of mercury from amalgam fillings before and after cessation of emisson.D. The molecular basis of microtuble stability in neurons. & Errera J.S.B. 59] Ely D. Neuropsychological and slress evaluation of residential mercury exposure. el al. et al. Free-radical reaction in biological systems. 40:1234-1240. 1984 63] Enestrom S. 1:155 -162. Specialion of mercury excreted in feces from individuals wilh amalgam fillings.1991 82] Gunderson E.54] Dormandy T.. & Gage L. Environ Heallh Perspect 25:71-76. & Hullman P.1978 74] Garrell P. 25(2):325-339.258. J Pediatr. Methylmercury neurotoxicily in Amazonian children downslream from gold mining. 27:259-262. 62:188-194.J.M.J. Environ Pollul Ser A Ecol Biol. el al. et al.1980 55] Dormandy T. Kaplan S. & Meyer P. 16:667-672. 337.. An analysis of subjective complainls in a populalion living in a methylmercury-polluted area. Changes in hair arsenic levels in breast and bottle fedinfanls during Ihe firsl year of infancy. PDA Total Diet Study. Danish Med Bull. & Kayongo-Male H. i:647-650.1981 60] EmerickR. FASEB J.. Lancet Jul.1980 88] Harada M.1992 64] Engqvisl A. selected elements and other chemicals. Mercury in Alaskan Estimo mothers and infants.. et al...H.1972 73] Ganlher H. Lancet. Modification of methylmercury toxicily and melabolism by selenium and vilamin E: possible mechanisms. 81:100-107..E. Toxic melals ..1988 80] Giaziano J.1982 70] Fukuda Y. 17.M. et al.E. Free-radical oxidation and antioxidants. Environ Res. Role of 2.1998 65] Erickson.G. Environ Res. el al.1989 84] Hahn L.1986 81] Grazino J.L. Colmsjo A.Environ Heallh Perspect 107:587591. Immune type glomerulonephrilis induced by HgC 12 in Brown-Norway rat. Dental "silver" tooth fillings: a source of mercury exposure revealed by whole-body image scan and tissue analysis. 32:2763-2766.L.. Neurotoxicology. 69.H.3-dimercaptosuccinic acid in children wilh elevated blood lead concentrations. 53:205-213. el al.1978 56] Druel P.1990 85] Halbach S.1988 69] Foli M.A. Dietary intake of pesticides. Biochem Pharmacol. Skin absorption of lead. Dose-response sludies in murine mercury-induced autoimniunity and immune-complex disease.H. Urine mercury in micromercurialism: a bimodal distribution and its diagnostic implications. 71:29-38. Experientia. Immune-mediate glomerular nephritis induced by mercuric chloride in mice. arsenic and polychlorinated biphenyl and other organochlorine concentrations in human milk. April 1982-April 1986. & Blum C.R.L. A comparison of five toxic melals among rural and urban children.1999 71] GalsterW. Quart J Med. 4:3256-3260.1983 77] Grandjean P. Lancet.

The association of selected hair minerals and anthropometric factors with blood 83 .1993 108] Lebel J. & Gibson R.1997 90] Harrison W.A. platinum and rhodium compounds in cultures mammalian cells. & LucotteM. J Orthomol Psychiatr.Increased lead burdens and trace mineral status in mentally retarted children.The effect of mercury and methylmercury on brain microsomal Na+.J. 4:157-173.5. 50:103-110.1982 116] Marlowe M. oxidant chemicals and therapeutic drugs in the etiology of chemical hypersensitivity disease.1982 121] Medeiros D. J SpecEduc.1970 105] Kolata G.1983 120] Medeiros D. Pellum L.1991 103] Kissel K. copper and manganese status of children with malabsorption syndromes and in -born errors ofmetabolism. levels of methylmercury. EPA600/380-089.S. & Reinhardt J. et al. development of rmtochondrial j membrane permeability transition and loss ofreductive reserve. & Brown B.Biochemical-pathology initiated by free radicals.211-224. The continuing hazard of lead in drinking water. Biological monitoring for mercury within a community with soil and fish contamination. & Mullen L. (EPA)600/4-79-049. 7:179-187. Evidence of early nervous system dysfunction in Amazonian populations exposed to low-. Howard M. ClinChem. et al. Toxicology. body conformation and hair element concentrations. 2:455-466. et al.1980.1983 110] Lichtenberg H.D. Pharmacol Toxicol. et al. Hair as a biopsy material-assessment of copper nutriture. 1979 99]JenkinsD. EnvironmentalMonitoringSystems Laboratory... J Am Diet Assoc.36. et al. Hair aluminum concentration and nonadaptive classroom behavior. 1994 119] Matthews A.. 1. and urinary proteins in young Swedish men.M. Acute high-dose lead exposure from beverage contaminated by traditional Mexican pottery. BiolTraceElement Res.3.J.. Mutagenicity of cadmium.1995 92] Hibberd A.1997 98] Jenkins D.1. & Grein H.A. Mercuric compounds inhibit human monocyte function by reactive oxygen species..1969 91 ] Herrstrom P.D. J orthomolec Med. Diagnosed by hair analysis. Mercury in the hair of crematoria workers.1990 100] Jones R. et al. ClinChimActa. Yurachek J.1990 102] KingN.. 60:184-186. Environ Health Perspect.K. birth weight and hypertension.P. W.19:405-413. Lancet. 91. Mercury content of commercially important fish of the Seychelles and hair mercury levels of a selected part of the population.. The determination of trace elements in human hair by atom ic absorption spectroscopy. Blood pressure in young adults as associated with dietary habits. Phillips C. et al. 30:305-312. 1479-1480. Sept 16.M'. et al.1981 95] Hunt C.M. K+ ATPase after partial delipidisation with Lubrol..23(l):83-91. 12(3):166-183. 124. 77:160-164.Biologicalmonitoringand surveillance. The Seatle Times: January 15.R. playing with mercury. 1..31. Newsuspect in bacterial resistance:amalgam.A. Toxic TraceMetals in Mammalian Hair and Nails. The effect of in ovo boron supplementation on bone mineralization of the vitamin D-deficient chicken embryo.3. Lead and mercury levels in emotionally disturbed children. J.1987 114] Maloney S.1991 96] Hurry V. Dental amalgam.1999 94] Huel G. NutrRes.F. & BorgmanR. The NewYork Times: April24.8929. W.D.1983 113]MagourS. & Ibrabim M.. 209.Res. Symptoms before and after proper amalagam removal in relation to serum-globulin reaction to metals. et al. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. low-dose exposure to mercury..A.1982 97] InSug O.M.2.Teens fall ill after taking. Arch Environ Health. Cadmium and lead content of maternal and newborn hair: Relationship to parity.H. & Mills A..A. BlinderC. & Hunnisett A. &SundqvistK. Mergler D. 16:87-99. & Hershman D. Isaac Newton: mercury poisoning or manic depression. Concentration of boron and other elements in human foods and personal-care products.1998 115] Marlowe M.1998 104] Klevay L. Environ Res. Lancet. 352:1602...2. The zinc. Lancet.R. 17.1996 109] Levine S.MaserH. 12(4):260-267. & Mood C... Shuler T.G.R. & Benson C.G.US Environmental Protection Agencypublication No. 344. Boudene C..11:195-204. 17:157-167.1983 117] Marlowe M.1998 93] Homma-Takeda S. Minoreffects oflowexposuretoinorganic mercuryon thehumanimmunesystem ScanJ Work Environ Health.. 8:219-231. 105:424-429.G.etal. Am J ClinNutr. Gifu Shika Zasshi.A.Biologicalmonitoringoftoxic tracemetals Vol. 23(8): 1194-1202..35(5^):221-227. Biol Trace Element Res. Selective induction of apoptosis of renal tubular cells caused by i norganic mercury in vivo. Neurotoxicology.1989 101] Kanematsu N. Mercury from dental amalgam fillings: studies on oral chelating agents for assessing and reducing mercury burdens in humans. 1988 118] Matte T.J.1998 89] Harnly M.1969 107] Langworth S. Chronic plumbism in children. J of Advancement in Med. J Nutr Environ Med. Lancet. Arch Environ Health. J Orthomol Psychiatr.1993 106] Kopito L.1996 112] Lieb J.

1997 137] OrtegaH. 160:279-288. Nutr Research. 98:291-296.32. Arch Environ Health. A.. In: Friberg L.1983 134] Nordlind K. 18:315-324. Stuttgart: GeorgThieme Verlag.G.E. et al. Effect on short-time cultured non-adherent cell compared to non-separated cells.O. Seasonal arsenic exposure from burning treated wood. 70:47-50.. and the risk of myocardial infarction and coronary..Elevation of cadmium..W. Trace minerals. Recovery from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and from allergy after removal of dental amalgam filling. et al. 91:645-655. 12(4):312-313.1992 131] Niculescu T. 36:297-305.C. 20(3)(Part II)(suppl 10):227-234. 49:782-790.. cardiovascular. Caillard L... & Pleva J.M. Human exposure to elemental mercury in a contaminated residential building..Y. et al. Mercury in human breath from dental amalgam.4..A.. Scrauzer G. Proceedings 4th International Conference on Environmental Toxicology. Inhibition of lymphoid-cell DNA synthesis by metal allergens at various concentrations.1990 150] Redhe O. Lund B. Total and inorganic mercury in breast milk and blood in relation to fish consumption and amalgam fillings in lactating women. et al.98-105. Br J Indust Med.M. 51:234-241.Copper toxicity syndrome.1984 147] Peto R. J Orthomol Psychiatr. et al.1985 141] Pearl D.Chronic neurobehavioral effects of elemental mercury in dentists.1999 126] Moser P.H. Wiley N.. In: Miller MW. Status Quo and Perspectives of Amalgam and other Dental Materials. 34:459-468. 27:7-14.1985 129] Narang A. 1983 152] Salonen J. et al. Toxicol Indust Health. Zinc hair concentrations and estimated zinc intakes of functionally delayed normal sized and small-for-age children.. Arsenic levels in opium eaters in India.25. Neurotoxicity. IntJ Risk Safety Med.1987 130] Ngim C.T. Eur J Pediatr. et al. & Hobson M. & Dennison P. & Fillon G.2393-2396.P.1994 151] Rees E. Toxicol Lett. & Pellum L. et al.1982 128] Nakatsuru S. Arsenic. Pharmacol Toxicol.1982 142] Pendergrass J. eds.1961 145] Peters H. 1973 124] Miller O. et al. et al. Intake of mercury from fish. Circulation.. K+ ATPases and the uptake of 3H-dopamine in rat brain synaptosomes. Brit J Industrial Med. Mercurials and Mercaptans.S. et al. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. Krebs N. Mercury. et al. Hair selenium content during infancy and childhood. Intraneuronal aluminum accumulation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Parkinsonism -Dementia of Guam. et al. et al. 4. Toxicol Appl Phamacol.1985 149] Rajanna B.. Clarkson T. New York: Plenum Press. eds.1997 143] Pendergrass J.1995 144] Peters H. 2:585-590.S. chromium and copper poisoning from burning treated wood. Relationship between the lead concentration in hair and occupational exposure.A..pressure in a normotensive adult population.J.B.K. The involvement of microtubular disruption in methylmercury-induced apoptosis in neuronal and nonneuronal cell lines. Toxicology. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and lymphocyte responsiveness.1996 139] OudarP. et al...L. 70:191-192. Nutr Research. & Blyler E... J Orhtomol Psychiatr. 65:245-248.1984 123] Miettinen J.. 3:51-60.18. Absorption and elimination of dietary mercury (2+) ion and methylmercury in man. and any death in eastern Finnish men. Lead and Lead Poisoning in Antiquity.Reactivity of Hg(II) with superoxide: evidence for the catalytic dismutation of superoxide bv Hg<m J Biochem Toxicol. Neuroimmunological effects of exposure to methylmercury forms in the Sprague -Dawley rat.M.1991 125] Miura K. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. N Engl J Med.Effect of mercurials on lymphocyte functions in vitro.G. Mercury-EDTA complex specifically blocks brain beta-tubulin-GTP interactions: similarity to observations in Alzheimer's disease. 1983 132] Ninomiya T. Arch Int Physiol Biochem. 308(22): 1360-1361. Trace Elements in Med.N. & Haley B.. 290:201. 13:57 -66.1997 138] Oskarsson A.1995 84 . Expansion of methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata: an epidemiological study on chronic methylmercury poisoning outside Minamata.C. Arch Environ Health. et al.K. 1983 136] Orloff K.T.1982 127] Musa-Alzudbaidi L.1983 135] Nriagu J. 40.1989 140] Patterson J. Aluminum poisoning of papua New Guinea natives as shown by hair testing.1983 122] Medeiros D. In vitro effects of organic and inorganic mercury on the serotonergic system. chelating agents and the por-phyrias. J. Bull Environ Toxicol. 52:169-172. 139:295-296.A. 11.67. et al.A. & Woods J. Fed Proc.K. Science. Effects of cadmium and mercury on Na+. Weissberg B. 12(4):270-282. 217.1995 133] Nolan K..1981 148] Rajanna B. Environ Res. Can dietary beta-carotene materially reduce human cancer rates? Nature..P. lipid peroxidation. Influence of mercury on uptake of dopamine and norepinephrine by rat brain synaptosomes.O.1983 146] Peters H. 6:293-298. Mercury vapor inhalation inhibits binding of GTP to tubulin in rat brain: similarity to a molecular lesion in Alzheimer's disease brain.E. 4:299236. lead and zinc in the hair of adult black female hypertensives.R.

1991 85 .J. Choroid plexus protects cerebrospinal fluid against toxic metals. Evaluation of our understanding of methylmercury as health threat. et al.M. Effects of aluminum and other cations on the structure of brain and liver chromatin. 10:271(Abstractonly). Amsterdam. Am J Psychotherapy. 9:1-8. 37(3):159-166. 64:1072 1075.K.1955 154] Seven M. Guo T.2.N.1993 159] Skerfving S. et al.C.K. The relationship between mercury from dental amalgam and mental health. 15:514-520.L.1998 157] SiblerudR. 64:1072-1075.M. Blood.J. Environ Health Perspect.1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) as a rescue agent for the nephropathy induced by mercuric chloride. Tanaka H. Hair as an indicator of excessive aluminum exposure. Nutr Rep Int. Jr. zinc. Serial measurements of intra-oral air mercury: estimation of daily dose from dental amalgams. et al.1988 166] Ting K. 75. & Cernichiari E. The Toxicologist.45. 145-163. et al.1986 168] TrepkaM.1985 171] Vimy M.. Arsenic intoxication as a cause of megaloblastic anemia. diet..P. pathological condition and serum levels.2.L.9. 1990 184] Zalups R. Sci Total Environ. Hlth Freedom News. et al. Metal Binding in Medicine: Proceedings of a Symposium Sponsored by Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital. & Scares J. Metabolic problems in northeastern Thailand: possible role of vanadium. 19.4. Antihypertensive effects of metal binding agents.1989 156] Shenker B.1985 176] Wedeen R. Biochem.1979 177] Welsh S.1.1996 185] Zheng W.1983 180] Wilson R. Mineral and Electrolyte Metabol.1985 172] Walker P. Hair and plasma zinc levels following exclusion of biliopancreatic secretions from functioning gastrointestinal tract in humans. Mercury in women exposed to methylmercury through fish consumption. & Goldwater L. 41:475-482. 1. Mallik D. Chinese Med J. LippincottCo. Regional brain trace-element studies in Alzheimer's disease. & Satho H.W.F. 64:1069-1071. Stockholm: Stortebecker Foundation for Research. Detection and treatment of occupational lead nephropathv. 24:41-49. & Perry H.. Prediagnostic serum selenium and risk of cancer. & Ganapathy S. & Smith A. et al. Potassium-wasting nephropathy in an outbreak of chronic organic mercurial intoxication. 43:575-587. LeBlanc J.1982 164] Thimaya S.K.1982 183] Zalups R. Elevated blood pressure in treated hypertensives with low-level lead accumulation. & Lorsheider F.. in Iron Metabolism. & Batuman V. Arch Intern Med.. et al.M. Interactions between glutathione and mercury in the kidney.. & Cordle F. free radicals and oxygen tissue disorders and cancer control. Environ Health Perspect.A. A. Implications of lead toxicity. Jr. 1960 155] Sharp D. 52:134-138. The protective effect of vitamin E and selenium against methylmercury toxicity in the Japanese quail.1989 158] Sitprija V. Dig Pis Sci. Mercury Poisoning from Dental Amalgam.L.... 1985 175] Watts D. 44.1976 178] Westhoff D. Elsevier. Environ Health Res.3-dimercapto. & Lash L. et al.1977 181] Yamanaka S. & Shapiro I. 5:2188-2189. 2(83431:130-134. & Nishimura M. & Lorsheider F. BocaRaton: CRC Press. Low-level methylmercury exposure causes human T -Cells to undergo apoptosis: evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction. Bull Tokyo Den Coll. Clin Chem. & Johnson L..L. Effects of low levels of cadmium and lead on cognitive functioning in children.. 28(41:300-305. Lancet.L.S. 179] Willett W.. Oct. Methylmercury in fish: a review of residue levels.H.O. 28.241-246. & Sikorska M. Methylmercury in the environment: a review of current understanding.. 331-354. Iron. Exposure of Japanese dental workers to mercury. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 23:15-24.1988 160] Stopford W. J Dent Res.W.1975 161] Stortebecker P. J. (eds).S. Am J Nephrol. 45:416.J. 77:149-159. 12:115-118.J..R.A.1989 173] Watanabe C. Factors affecting internal mercury burdens among East German children. Ciba Foundn Symp 51 (new series). A Hazard to Human Brain. Philadelphia.B. Enviro Res. ed. 1996 174] Watts D. Arch Environ Hlth. et al.43.1982 165] Thompson C. J Lab Clin Med. Philadelphia. 24. J DentRes.A. Chelate stability of sodium dimercaptosuccinate on the intoxication from many metals. 1997 169] Vanderhoff J. 28. Neurotoxicology. and in their newborn babies and breast milk.L. 104:367-378. fish consumption and regulatory action in the United States.H. Selenium in human hair in relation to age..Toxicology of Metals.L.J.1983 170] Vimy M.1965 167] Tollefson L.1.. 139:5357.1985 162] Szylman P.2.H.153] Schroeder H. et al. Intra-oral air mercury released from dental amalgams.D. 13. In: Chang L. 68:203-208.1982 182] Yokel R. Prevalence of lead in environment threatens children. TEI Newsletter. liver and blood. FASEB J. Arch Environ Health.1995 163] Thatcher R. Arch Environ Health.

95 USD 86 .Copyright 2005 Jerry Tennant. MD All Rights Reserved Price $24.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful