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But from where could the Romans learn what was the real origin of man and the real meaning of the
star with six points?
The reference to Solomon’s seal turns the attention to Jerusalem, that was stormed and destroyed in
70 A. C. by the Romans, and to its temple and naturally to Salomon’s temple.
Magical properties were attributed to the ring that Solomon received from his father and this symbol,
the shape of which is a star with six points, today is still part of the history of the people of Israel that
enclosed it in own its flag.
It’s obvious August’s period was former to the capture of Jerusalem and so that know ledge had to
derive from other sources. Let’s try to understand what it could be, examining the history of Jerusalem
and its temples.
Solomon made to start the construction of the temple and of the contiguous royal palace about 970
B. C. The works lasted about twenty years: seven for the temple and thirteen for his residence.1
Solomon participated in this project, begun by his father David, bounded himself and all the Jewish
He turned to king Hiram of Tyre who saw to procure also part of the material (cedar and cypress),2
to instruct the man-power and to fabricate the necessary tools for the construction. It seems Hiram
learnt the masonry in Egypt.
The temple that was built was a model of geometrical symbolism: the Holy of Holies, where the Ark
of the Alliance was placed, had a perfect cubic volume.3
This detail, that is the geometrical symbolism,
is put in touch with the configuration of the universe.
Solomon’s temple, as however all the original temples, was a reflection of the divine world and its
architecture represented the idea of the eternal, of the world. Cosmology and theology are united in the
architectonic works consecrated to the divinity by the humanity.4
The Egyptian tradition of the temples has arrived until the Church of Rome passing through Jahvè’s
Temple built for Solomon,5
which the Cistercians and the Templars followed in the twelfth century.
Solomon’s Temple was enriched of many decorations, among which the so-called bronze sea stood
out: twelve bulls, placed as that three of them looked at the north, three looked at the west, three
looked at the south and three at the east, carried the holy water contained in a round vessel that was a
pal in thickness.6
Those twelve bulls, could be a representation of the twelve tribes who gave origin to
It speaks about a possible correlation among Solomon’s Temple and some Egyptian buildings and in
this connection it’s necessary adding that in the geometry of the temple the golden number (1,618) was
included, typical of Egyptian, Grecian, Roman and mediaeval buildings.
Today, where Solomon’s Temple was, there is the Mosque al-Aqsa that dates back to 705-715 thanks
to work of the caliph Ommayade al-Walid.7
Still in the plain there is another religious building: the Dome
of the Rock (Omar’s Mosque) that has the shape of an octagon. This geometric shape, that was
probably the same of Solomon’s Temple, will be attentively analyzed in the following chapters, where its
particular meaning will be pointed out.
But in what did Hebrew believe?
And particularly what is the religion that supports or supported what emerged from the “Sator”?
Reconstructing the story it’s necessary to pay attention to what message we have in front of us :
“THROUGH THE CREATOR THE BULL TRANSFORMS IN MAN”.
It’s obvious the reference to a monotheistic religion like the Jewish one. But it is to underline that the
Old Testament doesn’t contemplate what emerged before like the origin of the man, and however
nobody else religion, basing itself on the interpretations given till now.
So it’s necessary to analyze with attention all the civilizations got in touch with the Hebrew
populations, trying to know which is the one or which are the ones that attributed a particular meaning
to the bull and trying to know its origin. We must also consider if the Romans decided to encode this
message it’s probably that also other civilizations did the same thing or hid it.
Encoding a document means two things: the first one is that the document has a considerable
importance and so it has to keep and hand down; the second one is that the divulgation can’t happen in
an universal way.
This reasoning is valid naturally for the period and the context in which it was decided to encode the
Since most ancient times the populations, then they should have given life to Israel, had some
contacts with the Egyptians, civilization that influenced the history of this nation in a determining way.
Just the Egyptians professed two religions: one for the adepts to the mysteries of the religion and
another one for mostly population.8
We will see later why of this fact.
Abraham was the first man to whom the appellation of Hebrew was attributed, particularly by the
foreigners with whom he was in contact; this appellation is explained with the name of his remote
ancestor, “Eber”. He went to Egypt for some period. His son Ishmael, had from slave Agar, was taken
away by Sarah (Abraham’s wife) and went to the desert where he became progenitor of nomadic
Also Isaac, the legitimate son had from his wife Sarah, stayed for a time in Egypt. His son Jacob gave
life to the nation called Israel and he, progenitor of the twelve tribes, was called Israel too. Israel had
twelve children from two wives and from two concubines: Joseph, the pet, was betrayed by his brothers
and he went to Egypt where, at Pharaoh’s court, became powerful and called to him his father and his
reconciled brothers. So the legitimate breed of Abraham settled in Egypt.9
Under the nineteenth Egyptian dynasty, when Ramses II was to the throne (1290-1224 B. C.)
Abraham’s descendants lost the freedom that they recovered running away to the Promised Land, guided
by Moses. The traditional history thinks so.
Moses, who guided the people to Palestine, is considered the initiator of the Israelite or Mosaic
religion. He is the first great biblical personage to whom it’s possible to attribute a delineated story, at
least in outline.
Descendant from Levi’s caste (Levi was the third son of Jacob, he gave origin to the Levites who were
the ministers and the servants of the temple) and contemporary with the Pharaoh Ramses II, was
salvaged from the river by one of the daughters of Pharaoh and was brought up at court.10
This is the period of which we have mostly reliable information regard to the contact with the
Egyptian civilization and so it will start from here trying to give an explanation of the secrets, before
kept in Solomon’s Temple and after in the Temple of Jerusalem.
Moses was brought up at the court of the Pharaoh and it’s possible he was initiated into the mysteries
which have always wrapped up the Egyptian history.
It asserts also Moses was the son of one of the daughters of Sethi I (father of Ramses II) and of a
Hebrew with whom she fell in love. We will see in the chapter dedicated to Egypt that Sethi I and his
son Ramses II had the same knowledge and so it isn’t very important which was the court where Moses
was brought up, as regards this search.
When the Hebrews settled in Palestine had not developed political regulations in comparison with the
other peoples. They changed last the nomadism into a sedentary life and so they had to face all those
problems coming from the administration of a state. It was necessary to establish a united and strong
state because of the continual conflicts with the populations who wanted to conquer their territory.
The figure of the minister prophet was instituted and a very important role was attributed to him:
interpreting the divine will and giving to the monarch a divine peculiarity by means of the unction.
This role, carried out by Samuel, imitated the figure formerly present among peoples like the
Egyptians and the Babylonians, so that the legitimacy of monarch was dependent of the investiture of
The tensions between the monarch and the minister incited a dispute for the power that
culminated to the separation between Samuel and Saul, who tried to get rid of the priesthood.
During these tensions a warrior of the tribe of Judah made himself conspicuous; people already talked
about him during the war against the Philistines: David, this was his name, with the support of the
priesthood was elected king and successor of Saul and of his dinasty.12
Putting the Jewish people together, who had to clash again with the Philistines and capturing
Jerusalem, he laid the foundations for a prosperous and sound state. Jerusalem became the royal
residence and the religious centre of the nation. There was carried the Holy Ark that, from the
wandering palladium of the times of nomadism, was placed in the Sanctuary of Silo at the time of
David was able to avoid with ability the influence that the ministers had on the power and so could
begin a political expansion.14
To David succeeded his son Solomon who, had from wife Bethsabea, in fact she influenced in a
determining manner his investiture, reigned over Israel more as a Pharaoh that as a king.15
After the death of Solomon the reign was separated in two little states: tothe south the reign of Judah
(926 B. C. – 722 B. C.) with capital Jerusalem, to the north the reign of Israel with capital Sichem, then
Tirzah and Penuel and in the end Samaria.16
During the period from 871 B. C. to 852 B. C. in the northern reign of Israel the Phoenician divinities
were venerated, given the marriage of king Acab with Phoenician princess Gezabele.17
In this period a
movement of Jahvista protest gained ground, that was led by prophet Elijah, who tried to established
again the ancient cult.18
Under the reign of Jehu (845 B. C. –818 B. C Israel began its decline that reached the climax with the
capture and the destruction of Samaria by the Assyrians, who annexed it like a province (722 B. C.).19
In the southern reign of Judah, when queen Atalia reigned (845 B. C. – 839 B. C.), the cult of Baal
was introduced. Then king Giosia (639 B. C. – 609 B. C.) found in the temple an ancient roll of the law
that revived the cult of Jhwh.20
Also the reign with capital Jerusalem was invaded by foreigners.
After about one year of siege Jerusalem was destroyed by the Babylonians who didn’t save even the
Temple of Solomon. So a deportation of the Hebrews towards Babylon started.21
When in 538 B. C.,
with Cyrus’s edict, the Judaic colony from Babylon went back to Palestine found many problems to
facing. First of all they had to confront the invasion of the territory by the other populations who didn’t
want to return it.
After their fitting in, the power was entrusted to a high priest who, with the approval of the Persian
Government, introduced again Moses’ law.
After the downfall of the Persian Empire, Judaea went under the control of Alexander the Great who
guaranteed many years of peace. He died and Judaea was theatre and object of fights for the
attainment of power that passed to Antioco III of Syria (198 B. C.). The following period was
characterized by fights for and against the Hellenic infiltration that started during the reign of Antioco IV
Epifane who tried to introduce it with the force sending armies against Judaea and forbidding the
observance of the Jewish religion. In December 165 B. C., under the guide of the sons of priest Mattatia
of Asmonei family, among whom Judah called Maccabeus, the Judeans succeeded to conquer again the
power taking and consecrating again the temple that the Syrians transformed into a pagan sanctuary.
After the death of Antioco there were other wars between Syrians and Judeans till now, to last ones,
the freedom to keep to their own laws wasn’t guaranteed. After the death of Judah (160 B. C.), who
made alliances with the Romans, his brothers who succeeded him increased the reign but the
peace wasn’t certainly a prerogative of this country. Discords and fights flowed among the various
parties, especially of the Pharisee and of the Sadducees, determined the Roman intervention; the
Romans by means of Pompeius besieged Jerusalem, that, for a certain period, was reduced under the
oppressive control of the Roman procurators and afterwards went under Herod who was elected king of
Judea and vassal of the Romans. At his death (4 A. C.) Judea was for a certain period victim of the
fights for the succession; pillages and violence perpetrated by the Roman procurators, one was Pontius
Pilate, favoured the development of a situation of anarchy because of which Jerusalem was in the power
of bands of malefactors. A violent revolt (65 A. C.) induced Emperor Nero to send against Judea 66 A.
C.) Vespasian, who, seized Galilee and Perea, went in Judea to Jerusalem.22
At the death of Nero, Vespasian came back Rome like an emperor; Jerusalem was taken by siege by
his son Titus who didn’t even save the Temple (70 B. C.).This chronology of events, mostly of military
kind, fundamentally points out the populations who were in contact with Hebrews; these events don’t
reconstruct the history of those par-off times of which there aren’t reliable evidences.
The Bible itself doesn’t supply information in a clear manner. So we will try, for all it’s possible, to
confine ourselves to the interpretation of documents preserved still today.
About the religion of Israel the fundamental stage is the coming from Egypt, when there was the
manifestation of God on Mount Sinai.
His name is Jahvè, that in Hebrew is written only with the consonants (Jhwh).23
Another name of
God is Elohim, plural form of El that is used in some cases with Shaddaj (omnipotent) giving origin to
the denomination El-Shaddaj (Genesis 17,1). Another name used to mean Divinity is Sebaot (in Hebrew
means arrays of armies).24
The representation of God El was practised by a bronze statuette representing a bull; that
simulacrum was fixed at the top of a stick or of a pole to be a portable banner like the one of the
Golden Calf. The prototypes of these religious emblems go back to the beginning of the third millennium
B. C.. The worship of El, practised by the Hebrew patriarchs (Cananei) immigrating in Palestine, was
proscribed by Moses even if it continued to be practised until David’s reign as testify the statuettes of
sacred bull influenced by the Egyptian art which date back to that period.
It’s possible to find evidences of these small statues in some countries: they were drawn on Pharaoh
Namer’s palette (First Dynasty, 3185-3125 B. C.) kept at Cairo Museum; in Anatolia, dating back to the
About the cult of the Golden Calf, assimilable without doubt to the bull, it’s necessary to state that the
Hebrews attributed to it the figure on which the invisible God settled and not the corporeal figure of the
divinity, as show analogies of other cults among which the Egyptian one (Bull Apis). The cult of the
Golden Calf is very indicative as regards the beliefs of the people of Israel. Assimilable to Bull Apis, it
shows clearly the origin of these beliefs.
In the religions of the Mesopotamian populations (Sumerians, Accadi, Assyrians, Babylonians), a
divinatory meaning was attributed to the bull . For the Sumerians the bull was symbol of life. For the
Babylonians the bull figure was the representation of God of the moon Sin. Supreme God of the stars,
Enlil’s son (god of the air and of the earth), from him takes the name Sinai peninsula and the
Goddess Ishtar was put near him, cow-shaped; her symbol was the crescent moon. She was the only
goddess to be not subordinate to the male ones, third figure of the astral triad, goddess of the morning
star and of the evening star (planet Venus).26
Certainly these news, which describe the beliefs of ancient populations, now can be seen from other
angle. I think that whoever has never heard to speak about adoration to the cattle (for example the
“Golden Calf”) has thought that the ancients were not much developed men. Were they really so? Since
most ancient times the Hebrew people had many contacts with the Egyptian civilization. From first
contacts that the patriarchs had, to the stay in Egypt that began about four centuries before the reign in
which there was the Pharaoh Ramses II (1290-1224 B. C.), period during which there was the exodus,
until the contacts were kept by David and his son Solomon, who married just a Pharaoh’s daughter.
The Romans were also in contact with the Egyptian civilization and they were likely to learn that
esoteric knowledge from it.
It is not to forget that Virgil, the author of the Aeneid and probably of the “Sator” too, was in very
close relations with Emperor August, under whose reign Egypt was annexed to the Roman Empire like a
province (31 B. C.). Julius Caesar himself, how it knows, was in contact with Egypt.
So is this the civilization that has handed down the beliefs that now seem less mythological than
But if a particular value was already attributed to the bull, quite near to the veneration, why have any
new about it not arrived to us? And what did the Ark of the Alliance contain with exactness and more
precisely did Moses take possession of it on the Mount Sinai or its origin must be to attribute to Egypt?
And why were Moses and the Hebrews pursued by the Egyptians when the Pharaoh himself bestowed
permission to them to leave Egypt?
And finally, why did the Romans decide to take possession of the Temple of Jerusalem, when could
have gained information from the Egyptians?
We will try to answer all these questions in the next chapters.
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