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The Magic Square, this is the name with which it’s known, is a palindrome formed by five words of five letters that can be read in the same way from the four directions of the sides of the square itself. This formula (rotas opera tenet arepo sator) was very widespread in the places of the Roman Empire, probably propagandised by the legionaries of garrison (see: Baldi Agnello, La Pompei giudaico-cristiana, Di Mauro Editore 1964, pp. 42,43). In 1937 it was found five times in Mesopotamia and there are some specimens of it in Egypt, in Cappadocia, in Britain and in Hungary. There are most recent specimens, I refer to the ones aren’t proper to the epoch of the Roman Empire, but it’s necessary to make a reference to the Middle Ages and especially to the sacred buildings which are attributed to the Order of the Templars and to buildings which are connected to them. The most ancient and easy datable specimens, with reference to the period, were found in Pompeii, that was buried by the eruption of Vesuvius at 79 A. C., and so they certainly belong to a former period of the eruption. The two Pompeian evidences have been very important for the development of this search because it wouldn’t have the foundations to support two thousand years of history without the information obtained from them. About the two Pompeian evidences, there is only a graphic reproduction of the one found on a column of the Big Palestra; the other specimen of the “Magic Square”, that I will call “Sator”, was found during the archaeological excavations from 1925 to 1936 in Paquio Proculo’s house, duumvir around 74 A. C.; scholar Della Corte found the two palindromes during the period of the excavations of Pompeii. I did a travel over the history, the mythology and the beliefs of the ancient civilizations, reading the enigma in a particular way and taking Pompeii as starting point and reference. Then I continued over the Middle Ages up to arrive today, where the science, perhaps, could confirm an incredible and extraordinary story. This my search, besides bases itself on a particular and original interpretation of the “Sator”, puts former known things in another light. For this reason many information and news, drawn from the works of well-known authors and it’s possible to read them in the following chapters, will be accurately reported and sometimes integrated with other ones. It will be a real discussion, based on questions, to which it will try to give an answer. My interpretation of the “Sator” wants to be the reinforcement, that there isn’t, and that makes to result beliefs and customs of ancient times and of all other times as inexplicable and incomprehensible. It will be very interesting to know that this formula is very widespread. Europe, especially Italy and France, has numerous specimens that it’s possible to see in the original square formula or in a classical text or making up a circle. About my solution it will be necessary to make a reference to the classical arrangement, that is the square one. I devoted a particular interest to the religious beliefs of the ancient civilizations interpreting, always with a subjective and original way, some works of art. Very interesting are some Pompeian paintings which I connected to the representations of the ceilings of the great Pharaohs’ tombs. The big buildings of the cathedrals, attributed to the period of the crusades and so of the Templars, will find also them an interesting reference to Ancient Egypt, as far as arrive to the Plain of Giza. Then the Charterhouse of Trisulti , with the enigmatic paintings of Neapolitan painter Filippo Balbi, will be, I like to define it so, a kind of “out the nines” of the information coming out of the “Sator”.
It’s necessary to start from the solution to reconstruct the history of the “Sator”. It’s obligatory deriving from it the information that makes possible an historical-religious way that has a fairly good reliability. The first text that proves the existence of the “Sator” is proper to the first century. Reference to this square was made in Pliny the Elder’s “Naturalis Historia” (28,20), his only work arrived in full to us. In the twenty-eighth book, that the author dedicated to the animals, reference was made to incomprehensible formulas which traced on the walls should have to keep the fires away. Another document that describes the “Sator” is the ancient text called “Key of King Solomon”. “Clavicola Salomonis” is considered the most famous and feared among the texts of ritual magic. The most ancient specimens, found on monuments or on buildings, are the ones which were discovered in the ancient town of Pompeii thanks to the archaeological excavations effected from 1925 to 1936. The particularity of the “Sator” found in Pompeii pic.1 is that the formula doesn’t appear alone: there are a triangle upon and the writing “ANO” under. The “Sator” is composed by Latin characters and it’s obvious that is to attribute to persons who spoke Latin language, but it is to consider in its all shades that were present at that epoch too. So it’s necessary to make out what kind of language was utilized to compose the enigma and it’s much more important to find a key that permits to read all letters in a determinate order to compose a translatable phrase. About the utilized language, or better, about the shade of utilized language, it needs to analyze the period and to look for the shades which were peculiar to Latin language and have arrived until today. Analysing the history of Pompeii it’s possible to become a ware of how in this town generations of people, who had to change many times governors and consequently habits and way of speaking, lived. The evolution of the Latin language wasn’t certainly an exclusive characteristic of Pompeii, but here thanks to the eruption of Vesuvius, thanks naturally is only for the function of preservation that the lava has carried out during the centuries, there are some evidences arrived until today. The evolution of a language is certainly given by the contact with other peoples and Pompei offers a concise sight that can be taken for example. Pompeii, a town of Oscan extraction, was characterized by Grecian, Etruscan and Samnite hegemonies and it definitively became a Roman town at 89 B. C.. From the eighth century B. C. the first Ionic groups were already quartered in Campania and could colonize also Pompeii without many difficult because Oscan people didn’t offer a strong resistance. So the town grew under Grecian control. Aspired territory of conquest, Pompeii was prey of Etruscan people during the period from the fifth century to the fourth century B. C. and then it returned again under Grecian control about 474 B. C..
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Until that period to 80 B. C. Pompeii was characterized by many wars. Grecian people couldn’t anything against the Samnites, a people of hostile warriors, who occupied the territory during many periods leaving marks visible still today.
Only at 89 B. C. they were definitively defeated by the Romans thanks to Silla. The Romans appreciated very much Pompeii and all the conquered Campania territory. In fact many personages of importance chose this town as locality to build a residence where it was possible to spend part of year. The position, the climate, the thermal baths were very inviting attractions.
The life in Pompeii, especially during the first years A. C., passed so that the town became a reference
point for the trade, the culture and the amusements. Every things finished between 62 A. C., when a earthquake caused huge damages, to 79 A. C. with the eruption of Vesuvius that buried all the town and the surrounding territory. When the Romans conquered the town permanently and imposed the Latin language, in Pompeii two languages were spoken: the Oscan language and the Grecian language. The use of the second one was also allowed with the coming of the Latin language because the Romans esteemed Grecian people very much. The Latin used in Pompeii was an evolving language and wasn’t an academic Latin that teachers tried to teach with many difficults. Romance languages.
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In Pompeii, before the eruption of 79 A. C., was spoken and written a vulgar Latin, foundation of the It needs to make a reference to this language to arrive at the solution of the enigma that the “Sator” contains, because the indication of the reading key is in this language and some words of the solution belong to it. The vulgar Latin wasn’t only a language spoken by the lowest classes of the population, but it was the language spoken by all the people, with shades according to the place of origin and to the social class of belonging.
Between the classical Latin and the vulgar Latin there are differences about phonology, morphology, syntax and lexicon. It’s a question of two aspects of the same language and not of two different languages.
There is an important vowel aspect about the reduction of some diphthongs: AU becomes O, for instance AURU (M) > ORO
(gold). “M” letter falls in the accusative that inclines to become the oblique
case pre-eminently; the use of the nominative still remains. while the vulgar Latin preferred to use the co-ordination.
The classical Latin used the subordination
Peculiar characteristics of the lexicon of the
vulgar Latin are: concreteness, specificity, expressive immediateness and phonetic consistence.
There aren’t evidences wholly written in vulgar Latin but there are texts with parts of this variety of language which manifested oneself already in the archaic Latin (for instance in Plautus, about 250-184 B. C.) but then they were refused by the classic literary language of the next period. which testify the use of the vulgar Latin are:
- the Satyricom of Petronius (first century A. C.), work in which the author made new rich Trimalcione to speak a language full of vulgarisms; - the inscriptions and the graffiti of Pompeii, kept thanks to the eruption of Vesuvius that buried the town; - many works of Christian authors who used on purpose a language near the one spoken by the people; - many tablets carved by stonecutters of lacking education.
As it knows the specimen of "Sator" found in Pompeii, has above itself a triangle and has under itself the writing "ANO". This geometric figure and this short word are the key to "unhinge" the hidden secret of the enigma. The word "ANO" means ring (from classical Latin ANUS, ANUM); the ring to take into consideration is the ring that contains the triangle. The ring par excellence corresponds to this figure; it's the Signed-Ring of Solomon, that he received by his father David, from whom derives the name of the symbol that is obtained by the union of two triangles: the star of David or Hexagram.
It's the key that shows the way, the way to reading that it's necessary to do through the letters contained in the square. Superimposing the star upon the "Sator" it can be observed that these two figures are complementary. Starting from the point turned to the top and going on the left, a determinate tracing is obtained, through that it goes just once on every segment (it's the only way that originates a translatable phrase). The word "AENEAS" is obtained by the letters that are out of that determinate tracing. Reading the letters on that determinate tracing the following phrase is obtained (colours show the following course):
TORO TRA PER SATOR PETO AENEAS. THE BULL IS TRANSFORMED THROUGH THE CREATOR INTO THE MAN. It's evident that "AENEAS" means man, because the composition of the "Sator" is to attribute to the Romans.
It's a palindrome and so it's possible to read the same phrase starting from the point turned downwards and going on the right. The same thing is worth for the versions that were found according to the formula that sees as first word Sator and not Rotas. At the end of this work we will try to explain the reason of this characteristic that sees the Medieval specimens to begin just with the word Sator. According to the distance and the size of the letters that composed the enigma a star with thicker or thinner lines will be utilized.
THE STAR WITH SIX POINTS The star with six points is made by the interlacing of two superimposed triangles (hexagram), one oriented to the top and another one to the low. This symbol was diffused very much among the cultures of the ancient world and the traditional interpretation sees in the two triangles the representation of two elements (water and fire). Later on a composition of four elements was attributed to the star with six points, where the triangle with the point directed to the low represents the world and the water and the triangle with the point directed to the top the air and the fire.
In the alchemic iconography the mixing of these four elements marks the primordial matter that includes all the components. With an analogous interpretation, the star with six points, is utilized by the Masonry for the seals of the lodges and it’s besides considered as the symbol of the totality.
The star with six points is also present in the graffiti of Alpine region, but also in magic and esoteric books of the common people with the function of a strong magic symbol without correlation to the Jewish tradition where it assumes the name of David’s star or Solomon’s seal.
If it’s inscribed in a circle is considered like a kind of mandala. The Indian shri-yantra mandala could be seen as a complicated elaboration of the star with six points: nine triangles, interlaced reciprocally in a multiplex frame make reference to a dualistic system of philosophic derivation.
In ancient China, The Book of the Changes (I-ching), treats of a symbol that concerns the concept of polarity, of the original masculine and feminine concept in terms of oracle. This art of divination, probably present already in Chou dynasty around 1000 B. C., was executed before with the stalks of the yarrow and then with a graphic transcription of continuous lines symbolizing the masculine element and broken in the middle lines symbolizing the feminine element. Three lines, one on the other one form a trigram. It’s possible to have eight combinations of trigrams: air, world, water, fire, humidity, wind, thunder and mountains. Through the union of two trigrams at a time sixty-four combinations of figures with six lines (David’s star) are formed that should have to give a kind of key-formula. For example, six continuous lines mean air, king, father, who lavishes; six broken in the middle lines means world, people, mother, who receives.
I-ching contains the harmonization of the polar elements (yin and yang), that form the dualistic cosmic system. Yin represents feminine, north, cold, shade, world, passivity, humidity and it’s symbolized by a broken line, while yang, symbolized by a continuos line, represents masculine, air, south, light, activity, dry and moreover emperor. These two elements are considered of same order and their symbolic figurative representation bases itself on the division of the circular surface into two poles .
The same iconography is present on the flag of South Korea, where the representation of these two elements is symbolized both by the division of the circle and by the trigrams, four of them in this case. For the ancient medicine the eight regions of the human body correspond to the eight trigrams. It should be noted that the diffusion of the symbol with six points was well present in the ancient civilizations of various parts of the world. A value of representation of the dualistic system is attributed to it, that can be summarized as follows: the triangle with the vertex oriented to the top symbolizes the nature, the triangle with the vertex oriented to the low symbolizes the eternal. So David’s star is the graphic representation of the union of the air and the world, of the eternal and the matter.
The “Sator” is certainly the literal expression of the star with six points that is the key to “unhinge” it. In fact it shows the union of God and Taurus, of God and nature, of eternal and matter, of air and world. The “Sator” and consequently the star with six points show the man. Without the interpretation of the “Sator” all these data reported here and present and available in many books, should result incomprehensible to most people, since the most important part is absent. AENEAS To succeed in reconstructing the “Sator” story it’s necessary to analyze the elements that emerged from its solution . It needs to refer to Aeneas for spotting the authors. Whereas the bull will show the religious reference. Aeneas was born on Mount Ida thanks to love between Venus and Anchises, Dardanus’s descendant , Jupiter’s son. He married Creusa, Priam’s daughter, king of Troy, and from her had a son, Ascanius, called Julo, too. Just to him Virgilian tradition ascribes the foundation of Rome, exactly originated from the Gens Julia. After Troy falling into the hands of the Greeks Aeneas abandoned his own country and went towards the west to arrive in Italy. After his arrival in Latium he was received very well by king Latino, who allowed him to found a town called Lavinium. After about four years of reign, because of an Etruscan invasion, Aeneas passed away at a young age of thirty-eight years. Ascanius, his son, found the town of Alba a little far off giving origin to the Gens Julia, who would have founded Rome.
Just in Pompeii there are the remains of some statues representing the very important personages for the Romans: they were situated in the forum and the first of them was just Aeneas’ one. Still in Pompeii there are some paintings representing Aeneas’ heroic deeds. If Aeneas represents the man in the solution it’s obvious the author or the authors, referring to him, want to show to whom the composition of the enigma belongs . It needs to attribute the making of the “Sator” to the Romans because Aeneas was considered the founder of Rome, the man who gave origin to the Gens Giulia. Minor personage in the Iliad, Aeneas was already known by the Romans in some writings (Naevius, Ennius, Cato, Varro) but Virgil consecrated him as the founder of Rome in his work “Aeneid”. Could the name Aeneas show, besides the Romans, also the author-compositor of the “Sator”? Could it be a kind of signature , that the author of the enigma wanted to leave to attribute its making to himself later on? If it was, the author of the “Sator” could have been just Virgil, he whom more than all elevated Aeneas to founder of Rome. Born in the province of Mantua (Italy) at 70 B. C. he moved to Rome and he lived in Naples. Within 37 and 30 B. C., in Campania, invented the “Georgics” and then devoted himself completely to the “Aeneid”. Under the indication of emperor August, Virgil was called to celebrate the Gens Julia in this work that consists of twelve books and that the author, on the point of dying, (at fifty-two years), asked it was destroyed. It seems that Virgil read, in the presence of emperor August, the second, the fourth and the sixth books.
It’s obvious that the figure of emperor August had to have a definite and fundamental role. It’s to remember that some specimens of the “Sator” were quite propagated by the Roman legionaries and so it’s sure that there was the authorities’ consent.
About Virgil’s favourite books, I refer to those whom he read in the presence of the emperor, and in a particular manner I refer to the second book, the second verse can’t pass unnoticed: “INDE TORO PATER AENEAS SIC ORSUS AB ALTO”. If we ascribe the making of the “Sator” to Virgil, this phrase can arouse some interest. It’s obvious it would be absurd finding explicit references to the content of the “Sator” but if we believe Virgil as the author of the enigma it’s likewise obvious that it wasn’t a coincidence that “TORO PATER AENEAS” was inserted in his work. Besides it’s necessary adding that the author of the “Aeneid” used the word “Sator” to mean the maker (First book). SOLOMON’S TEMPLE But from where could the Romans learn what was the real origin of man and the real meaning of the star with six points? The reference to Solomon’s seal turns the attention to Jerusalem, that was stormed and destroyed in 70 A. C. by the Romans, and to its temple and naturally to Salomon’s temple. Magical properties were attributed to the ring that Solomon received from his father and this symbol, the shape of which is a star with six points, today is still part of the history of the people of Israel that enclosed it in own its flag. It’s obvious August’s period was former to the capture of Jerusalem and so that know ledge had to derive from other sources. Let’s try to understand what it could be, examining the history of Jerusalem and its temples. Solomon made to start the construction of the temple and of the contiguous royal palace about 970 B. C. The works lasted about twenty years: seven for the temple and thirteen for his residence. King Solomon participated in this project, begun by his father David, bounded himself and all the Jewish people considerably. He turned to king Hiram of Tyre who saw to procure also part of the material (cedar and cypress), to instruct the man-power and to fabricate the necessary tools for the construction. It seems Hiram learnt the masonry in Egypt.
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The temple that was built was a model of geometrical symbolism: the Holy of Holies, where the Ark of the Alliance was placed, had a perfect cubic volume. This detail, that is the geometrical symbolism, is put in touch with the configuration of the universe. Solomon’s temple, as however all the original temples, was a reflection of the divine world and its architecture represented the idea of the eternal, of the world. Cosmology and theology are united in the architectonic works consecrated to the divinity by the humanity.
The Egyptian tradition of the temples has arrived until the Church of Rome passing through Jahvè’s Temple built for Solomon, which the Cistercians and the Templars followed in the twelfth century. Solomon’s Temple was enriched of many decorations, among which the so-called bronze sea stood out: twelve bulls, placed as that three of them looked at the north, three looked at the west, three looked at the south and three at the east, carried the holy water contained in a round vessel that was a pal in thickness. Those twelve bulls, could be a representation of the twelve tribes who gave origin to Israel. It speaks about a possible correlation among Solomon’s Temple and some Egyptian buildings and in this connection it’s necessary adding that in the geometry of the temple the golden number (1,618) was included, typical of Egyptian, Grecian, Roman and mediaeval buildings.
Today, where Solomon’s Temple was, there is the Mosque al-Aqsa that dates back to 705-715 thanks to work of the caliph Ommayade al-Walid. Still in the plain there is another religious building: the Dome of the Rock (Omar’s Mosque) that has the shape of an octagon. This geometric shape, that was probably the same of Solomon’s Temple, will be attentively analyzed in the following chapters, where its particular meaning will be pointed out. But in what did Hebrew believe? And particularly what is the religion that supports or supported what emerged from the “Sator”? Reconstructing the story it’s necessary to pay attention to what message we have in front of us : “THROUGH THE CREATOR THE BULL TRANSFORMS IN MAN”. It’s obvious the reference to a monotheistic religion like the Jewish one. But it is to underline that the Old Testament doesn’t contemplate what emerged before like the origin of the man, and however nobody else religion, basing itself on the interpretations given till now. So it’s necessary to analyze with attention all the civilizations got in touch with the Hebrew populations, trying to know which is the one or which are the ones that attributed a particular meaning to the bull and trying to know its origin. We must also consider if the Romans decided to encode this message it’s probably that also other civilizations did the same thing or hid it. Encoding a document means two things: the first one is that the document has a considerable importance and so it has to keep and hand down; the second one is that the divulgation can’t happen in an universal way. This reasoning is valid naturally for the period and the context in which it was decided to encode the document. Since most ancient times the populations, then they should have given life to Israel, had some contacts with the Egyptians, civilization that influenced the history of this nation in a determining way. Just the Egyptians professed two religions: one for the adepts to the mysteries of the religion and another one for mostly population. We will see later why of this fact. Abraham was the first man to whom the appellation of Hebrew was attributed, particularly by the foreigners with whom he was in contact; this appellation is explained with the name of his remote ancestor, “Eber”. He went to Egypt for some period. His son Ishmael, had from slave Agar, was taken away by Sarah (Abraham’s wife) and went to the desert where he became progenitor of nomadic families. Also Isaac, the legitimate son had from his wife Sarah, stayed for a time in Egypt. His son Jacob gave life to the nation called Israel and he, progenitor of the twelve tribes, was called Israel too. Israel had twelve children from two wives and from two concubines: Joseph, the pet, was betrayed by his brothers and he went to Egypt where, at Pharaoh’s court, became powerful and called to him his father and his reconciled brothers. So the legitimate breed of Abraham settled in Egypt.
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Under the nineteenth Egyptian dynasty, when Ramses II was to the throne (1290-1224 B. C.) Abraham’s descendants lost the freedom that they recovered running away to the Promised Land, guided by Moses. The traditional history thinks so. Moses, who guided the people to Palestine, is considered the initiator of the Israelite or Mosaic religion. He is the first great biblical personage to whom it’s possible to attribute a delineated story, at least in outline. Descendant from Levi’s caste (Levi was the third son of Jacob, he gave origin to the Levites who were the ministers and the servants of the temple) and contemporary with the Pharaoh Ramses II, was salvaged from the river by one of the daughters of Pharaoh and was brought up at court.
This is the period of which we have mostly reliable information regard to the contact with the Egyptian civilization and so it will start from here trying to give an explanation of the secrets, before kept in Solomon’s Temple and after in the Temple of Jerusalem. Moses was brought up at the court of the Pharaoh and it’s possible he was initiated into the mysteries which have always wrapped up the Egyptian history. It asserts also Moses was the son of one of the daughters of Sethi I (father of Ramses II) and of a Hebrew with whom she fell in love. We will see in the chapter dedicated to Egypt that Sethi I and his son Ramses II had the same knowledge and so it isn’t very important which was the court where Moses was brought up, as regards this search. When the Hebrews settled in Palestine had not developed political regulations in comparison with the other peoples. They changed last the nomadism into a sedentary life and so they had to face all those problems coming from the administration of a state. It was necessary to establish a united and strong state because of the continual conflicts with the populations who wanted to conquer their territory. The figure of the minister prophet was instituted and a very important role was attributed to him: interpreting the divine will and giving to the monarch a divine peculiarity by means of the unction. This role, carried out by Samuel, imitated the figure formerly present among peoples like the Egyptians and the Babylonians, so that the legitimacy of monarch was dependent of the investiture of the minister. The tensions between the monarch and the minister incited a dispute for the power that culminated to the separation between Samuel and Saul, who tried to get rid of the priesthood. During these tensions a warrior of the tribe of Judah made himself conspicuous; people already talked about him during the war against the Philistines: David, this was his name, with the support of the priesthood was elected king and successor of Saul and of his dinasty.
Putting the Jewish people together, who had to clash again with the Philistines and capturing Jerusalem, he laid the foundations for a prosperous and sound state. Jerusalem became the royal residence and the religious centre of the nation. There was carried the Holy Ark that, from the wandering palladium of the times of nomadism, was placed in the Sanctuary of Silo at the time of Samuel.
David was able to avoid with ability the influence that the ministers had on the power and so could begin a political expansion.
To David succeeded his son Solomon who, had from wife Bethsabea, in fact she influenced in a determining manner his investiture, reigned over Israel more as a Pharaoh that as a king.
After the death of Solomon the reign was separated in two little states: tothe south the reign of Judah (926 B. C. – 722 B. C.) with capital Jerusalem, to the north the reign of Israel with capital Sichem, then Tirzah and Penuel and in the end Samaria.
During the period from 871 B. C. to 852 B. C. in the northern reign of Israel the Phoenician divinities were venerated, given the marriage of king Acab with Phoenician princess Gezabele. In this period a movement of Jahvista protest gained ground, that was led by prophet Elijah, who tried to established again the ancient cult.
Under the reign of Jehu (845 B. C. –818 B. C Israel began its decline that reached the climax with the capture and the destruction of Samaria by the Assyrians, who annexed it like a province (722 B. C.).
In the southern reign of Judah, when queen Atalia reigned (845 B. C. – 839 B. C.), the cult of Baal was introduced. Then king Giosia (639 B. C. – 609 B. C.) found in the temple an ancient roll of the law that revived the cult of Jhwh.
Also the reign with capital Jerusalem was invaded by foreigners.
After about one year of siege Jerusalem was destroyed by the Babylonians who didn’t save even the Temple of Solomon. So a deportation of the Hebrews towards Babylon started. When in 538 B. C., with Cyrus’s edict, the Judaic colony from Babylon went back to Palestine found many problems to facing. First of all they had to confront the invasion of the territory by the other populations who didn’t want to return it. After their fitting in, the power was entrusted to a high priest who, with the approval of the Persian Government, introduced again Moses’ law. After the downfall of the Persian Empire, Judaea went under the control of Alexander the Great who guaranteed many years of peace. He died and Judaea was theatre and object of fights for the attainment of power that passed to Antioco III of Syria (198 B. C.). The following period was characterized by fights for and against the Hellenic infiltration that started during the reign of Antioco IV Epifane who tried to introduce it with the force sending armies against Judaea and forbidding the observance of the Jewish religion. In December 165 B. C., under the guide of the sons of priest Mattatia of Asmonei family, among whom Judah called Maccabeus, the Judeans succeeded to conquer again the power taking and consecrating again the temple that the Syrians transformed into a pagan sanctuary. After the death of Antioco there were other wars between Syrians and Judeans till now, to last ones, the freedom to keep to their own laws wasn’t guaranteed. After the death of Judah (160 B. C.), who made alliances with the Romans, his brothers who succeeded him increased the reign but the peace wasn’t certainly a prerogative of this country. Discords and fights flowed among the various parties, especially of the Pharisee and of the Sadducees, determined the Roman intervention; the Romans by means of Pompeius besieged Jerusalem, that, for a certain period, was reduced under the oppressive control of the Roman procurators and afterwards went under Herod who was elected king of Judea and vassal of the Romans. At his death (4 A. C.) Judea was for a certain period victim of the fights for the succession; pillages and violence perpetrated by the Roman procurators, one was Pontius Pilate, favoured the development of a situation of anarchy because of which Jerusalem was in the power of bands of malefactors. A violent revolt (65 A. C.) induced Emperor Nero to send against Judea 66 A. C.) Vespasian, who, seized Galilee and Perea, went in Judea to Jerusalem.
At the death of Nero, Vespasian came back Rome like an emperor; Jerusalem was taken by siege by his son Titus who didn’t even save the Temple (70 B. C.).This chronology of events, mostly of military kind, fundamentally points out the populations who were in contact with Hebrews; these events don’t reconstruct the history of those par-off times of which there aren’t reliable evidences. The Bible itself doesn’t supply information in a clear manner. So we will try, for all it’s possible, to confine ourselves to the interpretation of documents preserved still today. About the religion of Israel the fundamental stage is the coming from Egypt, when there was the manifestation of God on Mount Sinai. His name is Jahvè, that in Hebrew is written only with the consonants (Jhwh). Another name of God is Elohim, plural form of El that is used in some cases with Shaddaj (omnipotent) giving origin to the denomination El-Shaddaj (Genesis 17,1). Another name used to mean Divinity is Sebaot (in Hebrew means arrays of armies).
The representation of God El was practised by a bronze statuette representing a bull; that simulacrum was fixed at the top of a stick or of a pole to be a portable banner like the one of the Golden Calf. The prototypes of these religious emblems go back to the beginning of the third millennium B. C.. The worship of El, practised by the Hebrew patriarchs (Cananei) immigrating in Palestine, was proscribed by Moses even if it continued to be practised until David’s reign as testify the statuettes of sacred bull influenced by the Egyptian art which date back to that period. It’s possible to find evidences of these small statues in some countries: they were drawn on Pharaoh Namer’s palette (First Dynasty, 3185-3125 B. C.) kept at Cairo Museum; in Anatolia, dating back to the proto-Hittite time.
About the cult of the Golden Calf, assimilable without doubt to the bull, it’s necessary to state that the Hebrews attributed to it the figure on which the invisible God settled and not the corporeal figure of the divinity, as show analogies of other cults among which the Egyptian one (Bull Apis). The cult of the Golden Calf is very indicative as regards the beliefs of the people of Israel. Assimilable to Bull Apis, it shows clearly the origin of these beliefs. In the religions of the Mesopotamian populations (Sumerians, Accadi, Assyrians, Babylonians), a divinatory meaning was attributed to the bull . For the Sumerians the bull was symbol of life. For the Babylonians the bull figure was the representation of God of the moon Sin. Supreme God of the stars, Enlil’s son (god of the air and of the earth), from him takes the name Sinai peninsula and the homonymous mountain. Goddess Ishtar was put near him, cow-shaped; her symbol was the crescent moon. She was the only goddess to be not subordinate to the male ones, third figure of the astral triad, goddess of the morning star and of the evening star (planet Venus).
Certainly these news, which describe the beliefs of ancient populations, now can be seen from other angle. I think that whoever has never heard to speak about adoration to the cattle (for example the “Golden Calf”) has thought that the ancients were not much developed men. Were they really so? Since most ancient times the Hebrew people had many contacts with the Egyptian civilization. From first contacts that the patriarchs had, to the stay in Egypt that began about four centuries before the reign in which there was the Pharaoh Ramses II (1290-1224 B. C.), period during which there was the exodus, until the contacts were kept by David and his son Solomon, who married just a Pharaoh’s daughter. The Romans were also in contact with the Egyptian civilization and they were likely to learn that esoteric knowledge from it. It is not to forget that Virgil, the author of the Aeneid and probably of the “Sator” too, was in very close relations with Emperor August, under whose reign Egypt was annexed to the Roman Empire like a province (31 B. C.). Julius Caesar himself, how it knows, was in contact with Egypt. So is this the civilization that has handed down the beliefs that now seem less mythological than before? But if a particular value was already attributed to the bull, quite near to the veneration, why have any new about it not arrived to us? And what did the Ark of the Alliance contain with exactness and more precisely did Moses take possession of it on the Mount Sinai or its origin must be to attribute to Egypt? And why were Moses and the Hebrews pursued by the Egyptians when the Pharaoh himself bestowed permission to them to leave Egypt? And finally, why did the Romans decide to take possession of the Temple of Jerusalem, when could have gained information from the Egyptians? We will try to answer all these questions in the next chapters. THE TAKING OF THE TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM Given the weighty situation happened in Judaea Emperor Nero decided to send there Vespasian who had the suitable qualities to repress the rising. Vespasian was born in Sabina near Rieti on November 17 th 9 A. C. from Flavius Sabinus and Vespasia Polla. He married Flavia Domitilla from which had three children: Titus, Domitian and Domitilla. Titus himself took part with his father Vespasian in the expedition to Judaea that comprised a concentration of forces of about sixty-thousand men. Given the resistance the Judeans continued to offer the conquest of Galilee was accomplished with the campaign of 67 A.C. that finished with the isolation of Jerusalem, because Vespasian occupied the coast. In spite of his officers’ piece of advice, Vespasian didn’t think it was convenient to deliver an attack to
it but rather to wait the events of the civil war that has broken out in the meantime and so to subdue first the rest of territory around the hostile capital. When the times for taking the town were fit, the new of Nero’s death and the ascent to the throne of Galba caused Vespasian to send his son Titus to Rome to see the situation that was happening closely. Once to Corinth, on the road to Rome, Titus was reached by the new of Galba’s death and it’s from this time that it presumes a plan initiated to nominate to power Vespasian.
Titus decided to went back to Judaea without going to Rome where the situation was in a general chaos and the struggle for power would have to cause two other emperors, Otone and Vitellio, followed one another at very short time. His return journey towards the Holy Land was characterized by the halt in Cyprus and by the visit that he did to the Temple of Pafo, likely in February 69. As regards the temple it’s defined precisely that probably it had Oriental origins and it’s however certain at Titus’ time the local goddess was identified with Isis that was the object of many demands in relation to navigation. Titus himself asked goddess an oracle about the continuation of his journey but the most interesting thing is the private meeting he had with the priest of the temple, Sostrato, up to now enshrouded by mystery as the whole rest at the temple.
But what was the real aim that led Titus to stop at Pafo’s Temple and above all, what were the subjects he discussed with Sostrato? Many are the suppositions about the rest at Cyprus by Titus and very interesting is the one that spots a connection with Egypt and its priests of Isis. In the plan that would have taken to the power Vespasian took part with considerable importance the prefect of Egypt Tiberius Julius Alexander who, during the Judaic crisis of 68/69, made use of the Egyptian priests to award a sacral investiture to the next emperor on behalf of Serapide.
Titus had very good relations with the prefect of Egypt, who also had good relations with the Egyptian clergy that, for the first time during the Roman Empire, the Mint of Alexandria controlled exactly by Tiberius Julius Alexander, minted coins with goddess Isis’ effigy.
Besides Tiberius Julius Alexander had to know very well priest Cheremonte, the greatest importance exponent of Isis’ clergy and in past times Nero’s master.
All this tangle of acquaintances and of good relations that the Flavis had in the period of the Judaic war gives prominence to the particular attention turned to Isis and the Egyptian religion. The visit to the temple of Pafo was considered by the Flavis of considerable importance since they attributed the title of Flavia to the town and as regards Isis it’s to add goddess’ image began to be on the empire coins. It would seem strange to think the Flavis felt all that gratitude for goddess Isis and for Pafo town only for some oracles. With regard to this it’s to state Titus himself took part in the meeting with Sostrato and so it’s difficult or at least doubtful to know precisely the contents of the subject treated by the two men. In the preceding chapter we saw how Egypt is part in determining manner of Jerusalem history and of the people of Israel Land and just this alliance between the two populations we consider inseparable and of primary importance in the search about what emerged from the “Sator”. Once that Titus had Tiberius Julius Alexander’s support and then Licino Muciano’s one, who was in Syria, the plan to take to the throne his father Vespasian was started. So Vespasian decided to resign the command of the troops around Jerusalem and to go to Rome where was the throne of the Roman Empire to wait for him. The final conquest of Judaea was carried out by Titus who besieged and destroyed Jerusalem in 70 without sparing even the temple.
Vespasian, when he was sent to Jerusalem, received special and very underhand tasks by Nero or were the events to cause the Flavis became acquainted with the mysteries kept in the Temple of Jerusalem? If Nero knew already what the Temple of Jerusalem kept it’s obvious he learnt it either from Egyptians. With regards to this it’s to remember that Cheremonte was his master and so there is the possibility that the principal mission of the expedition in Judaea was just to seize the temple and its treasures. In fact it isn’t to forget the Roman praetors instigated the rebellion and so a plan could have been planed that would have justified the pillage of the temple. If otherwise, Vespasian and Titus learnt some knowledge only after the death of Nero it’s probably Tiberius Julius Alexander and Sostrato, priest of the Temple of Pafo in Cyprus, had a determining role during the continuance of the Judaic war. In the course of the years the capture and the destruction of the temple of Jerusalem have stimulated numerous debates about their necessity. Up to now it isn’t obvious if the order to destroy the Temple was given by Titus or was an act not contemplated by his will. There is the fact that the connection between the history of Israel people and the content of the “Sator” is such that the Temple is one of the principal protagonists. If in the Hebrew history, made by great men like David and his son Solomon, there is a landmark on which it’s possible to base a reliable research, this is surely Moses who, how it comes to know, lived at the Pharaoh’s court of the nineteenth dynasty (1300 B. C.). It’s easily imagined that it can’t leave out the history of Ancient Egypt and of its religion to continue this research that will see particular references to this ancient civilization in all its chapters. The Flavis took very special care to Egyptian goddess Isis, to which was already consecrated a temple in Rome and where both Vespasian and Titus stayed on their way back to Jerusalem. When Titus came back to Rome effected at least two stops in Egypt: the first at Alexandria and the other one at Melfi. In both towns Titus took part in celebrations happened in the Serapeo and in a particular way at Melfi, ancient religious capital, he was present at services consecrated to Bull Apis, of which girded on the diadem. That circumstance stimulated clamour around the prince and led to think he was planning the Empire scission so that he could govern the East. Today this celebration is less obscure and however the history says Titus was faithful to his father Vespasian and so it’s to understand as an ascertainment of the Egyptians’ beliefs and knowledge which, very probably on his return from Jerusalem, became also his and certainly his father’s, who also took part in those celebrations during his return to Rome in 69.
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Now we can suppose a scenery which happened at Nero’s death and which made it possible for Vespasian to come to the throne of Rome and for his son Titus to be in power with him: if in Jerusalem Temple were kept documents proving the origin of man it’s obvious that they were of Egyptian origin and Moses history attests it. With regard to this it can assert the Egyptian upper clergy and Tiberius Julius Alexander himself knew both the contents and the location of these documents and so they supported Vespasian and Titus because recovered and returned them to the country that kept them right from the beginning. In few words, we can suppose the support of Egypt to become the men in power of Roman Empire against the Ark of the Alliance. With regard to the importance that Tiberius Julius Alexander had for the ascent to power from the Flavis we can add that in 68, after Vespasian was proclaimed emperor, Titus in 70 was sent to conclude the Judaic War and as his Chief of Staff of the army in Judaea Tiberius Julius Alexander was just designated, former Egypt prefect and now praetorium prefect too. This personage’s importance and power are indisputable; he was of noble Alexandrian origin and succeeded in staying prefect under five emperors, from Nero to Vespasian, when usually at the emperor’s death prefect fell off and nearly always was replaced. Vespasian decided to wait in Alexandria and then to return to Rome with his son Titus because he thought that the capture of Jerusalem was an imminent thing by now, but the prolonging of the siege caused Vespasian left to
Once he became emperor, and restored order in the Roman world, he began a reconstruction of the Empire beginning from Rome where, in 71, started the construction of the Temple of the Peace in which Jerusalem treasures were kept , given to him by his son Titus. Perhaps not all was taken to Rome. Emperor Vespasian in comparison to his predecessors made to give himself new assignment to have much more power. Besides making the imperial power stronger he wanted to guarantee its continuation entrusting important offices to his sons: Titus was designated as his first heir, Domitian as his second one. Besides he made Titus member of his government (even if in an inferior position), who in 71 received the “Tribunicia Potestas” (tribunitial power) and the “Imperium Proconsulare” (consular power). In fact Titus wasn’t August nor he had officially the “Praenomen Imperatoris” (emperor); the prefecture of Praetorium was assigned to him too and with his father was consul for seven times, while Domitian six times.
About the religious policy, Vespasian found inspiration in Emperor August’s one following the peace and victory cult.
Besides he conducted a beneficent activity for the Romanization and the urbanization, so giving an impulse to the process of assimilation of Rome and its provinces through the individual conferring of the right of citizenship. The numerous financial measures, that he took to resolve the economical problems of the Empire, caused him many criticisms and the reputation of stinginess. But the large sum of money spent to reinforce the defences, for the embellishment of the Empire, for the culture and the art in general, testify his genuine interest for the good of the State. Vespasian was the man who made to rebuilt Roman Empire, who gave stability, peace and safety. He died on June 24 79, before the catastrophe that buried Pompeii under a layer of ashes.
As seen, Titus had powers comparable to his father’s ones to make him practically regent of the Empire, practice that had not precedent in all Roman history and that highlights all the importance of this personage, who was always considered equal to his father from the Judaic war onwards. About Titus it can’t make no reference to his personality and especially to the fact that when he became the only emperor, at his father Vespasian’s death, the subjects thought to have in front of them a new Nero, given his reputation of hard and repressive man. It was not so, on the contrary Titus was remembered just for his mercifulness, people friend, with whom he had unusual relations for a regnant, he made of other people’s respect a style of life. He was very cultured and he was able to compose both lines of Latin verse and lines of Grecian verse and he had besides a good bent for singing and music.
He died on September 13 71 after he reigned like only Emperor for about two years.
Among the people who could know those very important mysteries and who were very near to the Flavis, without doubt stands out Gaius Plinius Secundus, or Pliny the Elder, so called to tell him from his nephew Pliny, called the Younger. Pliny was born in Como(Novum Comum) between 23 and 24 A. C. and arrived to Rome in very young age, where he learnt the knowledge that would have made him an erudite man. By the middle of the century he entered the equestrian career and commanded a squadron of cavalry near Rhine a long time. He came back to Italy towards 58 and he devoted himself to rhetorical and grammatical studies. Under Vespasian’s Empire he held important public offices, he became counsellor of the Emperor himself and then of Titus. He had offices which made him to be in continuos contact with the Emperor; he was also prefect of the fleet of Miseno.
The main characteristic of Pliny was his unquenchable desire of culture, in fact he read many books and continually made notes of everything around him. He wrote many works of which the most important and the only has remained is that includes thirty-seven books making up the “Natural Historia”. This encyclopaedic work was dedicated to Titus by Pliny. In the preface he says to have gathered twenty thousands of worthy of note facts, from about two
thousands of volumes. This work, that was a column of the ancient culture, is formed as follows: preface and bibliography, treatment of astronomy and geography (second and sixth books), treatment of the human species and of other animals (seventh and eleventh books), treatment of botany (twelfth and nineteenth books), treatment of medicine (twentieth and thirty-second books), treatment of metals and stones and of their use about medicine, art and architecture (thirty-third and thirty-seventh books).
This work is an unique example of what was the scientific knowledge, the beliefs and the interests of that time, besides to be a document that includes a large number of new words and every ignored descriptive possibilities of the Latin which we know only through Pliny; these motives make this work a source of primary importance for the history of the Latin.
When Vesuvius erupted in 79, Pliny was prefect of the fleet of Miseno and so he didn’t want to resigned his post, as his nephew Pliny the Younger told in the letters written to Tacitus. He died choked by the inhalations of the eruption while, following his nature of man of science, tried to understand what was happening in those places which meant very much for him. The orientation to Pliny the Elder, as knower of the mystery of the “Sator”, is just motivated from the fact that in his above-mentioned work, “Naturalis Historia”, there is a testimony of the famous enigma (28,20). Besides, his very close collaboration with Emperor Vespasian and his son Titus, even more his knowledge of Pompeii, would make to presuppose his probable knowledge of some mysteries. This supposition finds a fundamental confirmation since Pliny would have taken part in the Judaic war like vice-procurator of Tiberius Julius Alexander. In any case it’s sure that a personage like Pliny was not in the dark about what Titus learnt during the Judaic war, given especially the relation which bound him to the Flavis and to Titus in particular. This work of Pliny found its largest diffusion during the Middle Ages. It was especially used by the Benedictine Monks as authoritative medical source for the use of curative herbs till the use of the medicine outside of the Monasteries was prevented to the Monks themselves. Pliny, with his work, was present also in the Cistercian Monasteries where the interest was usually turned to theological books. In fact he was one of the few classical pagan authors accepted in the Cistercian libraries, where Saint Bernard took him as an example to compare Jesus Christ, source of every virtue and wisdom, to the sea that is the point of arrival for the rivers. The importance of this quotation, that brings out the knowledge that the Cistercian Monks had about Pliny, will be better seen in the following chapters where the subject will be leading. During the compilation of the “Naturalis Historia” Pliny principally followed the handed down sources and thousands of books, read using every spare time that his military profession could give to him. For this reason it’s very difficult to know exactly what was his mind about the treated subjects. However, an encyclopaedic work, as the “Naturalis Historia”, must be a document of information on the ground of certain knowledge without leaving out anything, also those data which could seem not true to Pliny himself. Very probably Pliny decided to include some references about the “Sator” in his work with the hope to facilitate its more accurate and less complicated historical reconstruction, besides naturally to want to mean that he knew the right meaning. Let’s analyze the passage in which he makes reference to the enigma: “Then the walls are dirtied with formulas of conjuration against the fires. And it’s difficult to say if on the magic practices the foreign unpronounceable words bring greater discredit or the Latin obscure ones”. obscure words that the reference to the “Sator”is attributed.
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It’s just to the Latin
The presence of this reference to the “Sator” in Pliny’s work points out this formula was known very much in those times. For sure he wouldn’t have quoted an unknown epigraph as he did and so it’s probable at that time its propagation was already ample. It’s also likely the Pompeian specimens aren’t the most ancient, even if their dating must be evidently preceding to 79 A. C. and other foregoing ones aren’t known.
Dedicating his work to Titus, Pliny perhaps didn’t only want to dedicate it to an old friend, they met in Germany during one of the Roman military campaigns, but he wanted to recognize a special merit to him for the enterprise discharged in Jerusalem. Starting from this preliminary statement it’s possible to look for some clew or information about the subject in his work. Reading his work, it’s possible to know that for Pliny only one God exists whom he identifies with the sun, soul, mind or celestial spirit.
This religious sight is surely monotheistic, far from Gods’ veneration of Olympus, but especially nearby to the typical belief of Ancient Egypt, where the sun was the certain landmark. He speaks about God like an entity that can’t make to return to life the person who died, can’t change the past time, can’t act against reason. He compares God with man as regards his powers, but adding that unlike him, even he wants, he can’t put an end to himself. He speaks in general about the bull for its reproductive faculties. He makes reference to Egyptian Bull Apis, to his sacral condition and to the rite that happened in Menfi,
to which he was probably present.
In the book dedicated to the land animals ( the eighth one), he lays very much stress on the elephant, to which the longest chapter is dedicated. Using the superlative “maximum”, Pliny defines elephant as the most similar animal to the man: it recognizes the country language, it obeys the commandments, it remembers the learning, it knows amatory passion and the ambition for the glory, it has got virtues like prudence and equity and it bestows religious veneration to the stars, the sun and the moon. In his work, Pliny indicated in the elephant a help for man, who is aware of his limitations and so he has a spiritual help in the animal.
Also another contemporaneous author of the Flavis speaks about elephant, who dedicates a work to the performances which happened for the unveiling of the amphitheatre Flavio, the Coliseum, just in Titus’ honour, in 80 A. C. It’ s the “Book of the Performances” of Martial, constituted by many epigrams in which the “games” of the arena are described. In the seventeenth book, an elephant, without any teaching, recognizes the divinity of the Emperor.
In other epigrams, the author describes scenes regarding the bull, as an example the myth of the coupling with Pasifae (fifth book), saying it wasn’t a legend since it was proposed again in the arena; the rape of Europa by bull-shaped Jupiter(sixteenth book, b) and the rape of a bull from the arena to sky, saying it wasn’t the work of an artifice, but of the mercy (sixteenth book).
Let’s speak again about the “Sator”. But why just in Pompeii there were two specimens of the enigma and which connections the town could have with the subjects treated up to now? POMPEII: THE INITIATED TOWN In the first chapter it could verify as one of the two Pompeian specimens of the “Sator” was found in the stucco that clothed a column of the west side of the Big Gymnasium, on 12 November 1936. The excavation to bring to light it lasted since 1935 to 1939, given the considerable spaciousness of the monument. We are in the presence of a new architectonic kind: a spacious rectangular place of over 15000 square metres, surrounded with a big rectangular enclosure, oriented with the cardinal point, in which there are ten doors of access. Inside three long colonnades form three elevated arcades on a high podium, while the fourth side is simply formed from the boundary wall. In the middle of the court a swimming-pool was dug, that is decisive for the construction of the Roman gymnasiums which were just differentiated by Grecian ones for this reason. Around it, on two lines and 7,50 metres distant one from another, some planes were planted, so they also were part of the architectonic project. The studies effected on the roots and on the calcined trunks would make to date back the construction of the gymnasium around 27-25 B. C. , when Emperor of Rome was Augustus. This big building besides to be used for the sport physical activities it was also used like a drill-ground for the
military training of foot and cavalry. The other evidence of the “Sator” was found in 1926 in a graffito of Paquio Proculo’s house. This thing shows that he knew the meaning of that enigma. In fact Paquio Proculo, besides being contemporary with Vespasian, Titus and Pliny, held very important offices in Pompeii. He was a baker and at first he was able to be elected aedile for his honesty, and then he became Duumvir around 74 A. C..
For completeness it is to say that under the five words forming the “Sator” in the Big Gymnasium there are another two words: “Sautran” and “Vale”. Over the triangle there is a “S”. It remains rather difficult to succeed in establishing who was the author of the engraving found on the column of the Big Gymnasium. pic.2 Besides it’s to remember that the building would date back to the time of Augustus and Virgil and so it’s possible it was there already since some years. It is certainly true that who made the engraving knew the hidden message, since he stove to leave also the keys to arrive to the solution. But to understand how Paquio Proculo and his other citizens could be part of the initiates it’s necessary to pay attention to their beliefs, habits and above all to observe the monuments and the works of art in Pompeii; doing so it will be able to understand it wasn’t certainly casual that in this town specimens of the “Sator” were made, on the contrary there is a deep sensation that in Pompeii somebody was already informed of that mystery hid in the enigma or at least knew the presence of a particular cult for the bull that would make to think to Pompeii as an initiated town. It’ s necessary to pay much attention to some works of art which, with the acquired knowledge, now can have a different reading and so a different interpretation. Two paintings coming from the House of the Fatal Love are very interesting: in the first one (Jason and King Pelia) there is the representation of a common sacrifice, at least it’ s what can appear to an eye that we could define, for convenience, uninitiated. On the left of the painting a bull crowned with laurel is represented, much attention is to dedicated to the bull’s look that shows surely an anomalous situation, not usual, it could be defined as a look of wonder and not of fear. On high, in the middle of the work, there are king Pelia and his daughters who finding themselves in front of a frequent kind of sacrifice, like a bull’s one, they are a little too frightened. On the right Jason is represented , identifiable by his only sandal, to whom an assistant is giving a container. Above all it’s necessary to pay attention to a very thin pole (thin lance) that he holds in his left hand (a reference to the painting found in Senmut’s Tomb, that will be analyzed in the chapter dedicated to the Bull Api). King Pelia, his daughters, Jason and the two personages who complete the painting are all crowned with the laurel, to indicate the sacral event. The second painting is a representation of the rape of goddess Just the Greek mythology sees the cult of the bull in the Minoan civilization: from the union of Zeus, bull-shaped, with goddess Europe Minos, Sarpedone and Rhadamanthus were born. With the help of Neptune, Minos got a bull to go out from the sea promising then to sacrifice it to him. Minos didn’t keep the promise and so the God of the sea took his revenge getting Pasifae (Minos’ wife) to fall in love with the bull, from their union the famous Minotaur was born (Asterio or Asterione).
Some Greek divinities, of the highest order too, were represented with bovine looks: Hera, goddess of the earth, Crono and Rea’s daughter, Zeus’ wife, was called with the term Boopis (it means: with bovine eyes); Selene, goddess of the moon, Iperione and Theia’s daughter, was a “Titan woman” represented with bovine horns.
Also in Pompeii there are some representations of the Minotaur who fought against Theseus, pic.3 who killed the monster in the labyrinth, succeed in finding again the way out with the help of Ariadne It’s rather obvious that an advanced civilization, like the Greek one, wanted to keep the myth, the legend of an animal that is probably part of the history of the mankind in a significant and decisive manner.
Also an interpretation of psychological kind can be given to the legend of the Minotaur, put in the labyrinth: the half man and half bull being represents exactly the animal part that is in everybody and the struggle, the unconscious wish of supremacy and superiority that the human being has always tried to manifest to that animal from the most ancient times. A continuous struggle against himself to try dispelling a very remote past but always a past belonging to him. The labyrinth could indicate the unconscious that is present in every man, where the right way to run along is hindered by the continuous conflict with the animal part present in everybody. Still in Pompeii, there are other works of art which represent the bull: in the house of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, a big picture represents The “Punishment of Dirce”; the same subject will be imitated in a painting in the House of Vettii. pic.4 These Pompeian works, certainly of Greek inspiration, show that the population had preserved the beliefs introduced by the ancient colonists. Still in the ancient town, in the temple dedicated to Emperor Vespasian, up to now the altar can be admired, whose decorations show the emperor in the capacity of minister, the bull ready for the ceremony and some assistants. Now it appears less singular and very revealing that Pompeii was chosen for this kind of representation. pic.5 The temple consecrated to the Flavis lays emphasis on the fact that the town in Campania was haunted by Vespasian and his sons Titus and Domitian, so confirming the supposition of a possible contact with Paquio Proculo and the other inhabitants of the town. With regard to this, it is to remember the temple was built at the Flavis time and so in the same period in which very probably Paquio Proculo was elected duumvir (about 74 A. C.). Then the decorations, given the treated subject, wouldn’t seem certainly accidental. It’s obvious that, given a different and particular interpretation to what could be a “traditional” animal sacrifice, in this specific case of a bull, also the other representations, commented previously, can be seen in a different manner. Going back to the altar of the temple dedicated to Vespasian, it could see in the decorations the initiation of the emperor who, repeating what he learnt, was elevated to a divine level. Knowing some mysteries and so making to represent himself in the practice of those, it would have surely indicated knowledge and power. Also the representation that has the “Punishment of Dirce” as subject now could have a new interpretation because, however, the victim is presented half-naked and in the work the Pedagogue is represented too; so these facts get thinking that it’s a sentence, since more times the union of a bull with a woman (goddess), for example Jupiter and Europe, was represented in the Greek mythology. But in what did the Pompeian inhabitants believe and which were the practised cults? About the chronological aspect Pompeian inhabitants’ beliefs were directed to one of the following three triads : Guardian triad of the town (Hercules, Bacchus, Venus), Capitoline triad (Jupiter, Juno, Athena), Isis triad (Isis, Serapis, Anubis). Sometimes there was the concomitance of these three triads. A cult, that had many adepts, was certainly Isis’ one. Lots of trade relations with Egypt fostered frequent contacts with the local population, so facilitating the cultural-religious exchanges. There are artistic evidences of these relations in some Pompeian residences: in Lucrezio Frontone’s House two sea centaurs, holding a prow each, and a personage with a foot placed on an elephant head that personifies Egypt and Alexandria are represented; in Meleagro’s House a personification of Alexandria between Africa and Asia is painted.
Going back to the elephant, is it possible that Pliny and Martial turned that particular attention to it because it was comparable to Egypt? Isis’ cult appeared and spread in Italy, even though she was a foreign divinity, just in the Roman period. The Roman religion, in fact, proved always hospitable towards the divinities of others countries, even if in this case it seems gratitude and not hospitality. Cibele (Isis) was the first oriental divinity to be introduced in Rome. Instead a temple was dedicated
to Serapis in Pozzuoli, near Pompeii, dating back to 105 B. C.. Just in Pozzuoli, a big international port, the Egyptians introduced their cults besides to sell their goods. The introduction of the Egyptian divinities was surely favoured also by the frequent relations that the Egyptians had with the Greeks, who considered the Alexandrian divinity very similar to Bacchus. Besides the Pompeians had the possibility to discover the Egyptian divinities during their travels to the Sicilian ports and to Delos, where those divinities had a temple dedicated to them.
The devotees to Isis’ cult were part of every social class, beginning from the common people as far as arriving to the most important families. When in 62 A. C. the earthquake destroyed several building and monuments in Pompeii, the temple of Isis, that was among these ones, was one of the first to be reconstructed; this fact testifies the importance that the Pompeians attributed to that divinity. With the intervention of a private town- dweller, N. Popidio Celsino, Popidio Ampliato and Corelia’s son, the temple was reconstructed and enlarged too. That work caused the young N. Popidio Celsino, he was six years old, had a future in the town Senate since his father took care that the work was done with his name.
Also Lorerio Tiburtino’s family, from whom many ministers of Isis derived for some time, made itself conspicuous for its devolution to the Egyptian divinities. In Isis sanctuary of his house in Pompeii there is a painted representation of the family’s founder in the capacity of minister: bald, wearing the traditional linen dress, he holds the sistrum in his right hand while there is the pail with the consecrated water hanging from his left forearm. Nine statuettes of Pharaohs adorn the garden with some Egyptian divinities; the tenth statuette represents a ibis that fights against a snake. On two handles there are a flower of lotus and twenty lamps representing Jupiter Ammone’s bust that were used by Isis devotees during the night rituals. In the end a water canal made it possible to represent a suggestive event, as Nile.
In Giulia Felice’s House the sanctuary dedicated to the Egyptian divinities is situated under the arcades surrounding the four sides of the garden. On the wall snakes and Isis triad are represented: Isis sits on the throne, her brow is adorned with the flower of lotus and with the half moon (bovine horns); Anubi, with sandals in his feet and dressing in black, turns to Isis with a palm in his right hand. Along the walls of the sanctuary, on a marble a silver half moon and a silver statuette of Arpocrate were found.
In this house, in the late seventies, another specimen of the “Sator” was found.
We have other evidences of the diffusion of the cult of the Egyptian divinities in Pompeii: in Cn. Poppeo Abito’s House, where some paintings, on a yellow background bordered in red, represent Anubi wearing a chlamys, Arpocrate, Isis with a flower of lotus on her brow and the sistrum in her right hand, Serapis, Hurus and a feminine personage who holds a horn of the abundance;
in the Lalario of
Amazons’ House, situated in the small garden, it’s possible to recognize Isis, Osiris and Arpocrate.
All this concerns the importance of the private cult for Isis. But as we have seen before, in Pompeii there was also a public temple dedicated to this divinity . The first temple, the one preceding the earthquake in 62, was built, or at least started, before the foundation of Silla settlement. It’s to remember that the temple of Serapis, erected in Pozzuoli in 105 B. C., marked the beginning of the freedom of worship. Given the growing adherence, that the Pompeians turned to the cult of the Egyptian divinity, after the catastrophe of 62 the building was enlarged adding two rooms at Samnite gymnasium’s expense. In this temple there are some representations of Isis, Osiris and other divinities. There is a representation of Venus too, who is considered on the same level of the Egyptian goddess. To Isis, considered the protector of the sailors, two feasts were dedicated: the first one happened on fifth of March, in honour of the navigation restarting (Navigium Isidis), was the most important; the second one (Isia), celebrated from 13 to 16 November, commemorated the discovery of Osiris’ body from Isis.
In the temple there were some bronze braziers to get burning the incense. The
sacred water, necessary to the ablutions, was kept in a small construction in the cloister. Representations of Greek-Roman subjects are present on some walls: Cupids, Mars and Venus, Perseus
that helps Andromeda. In a big room, situated in the west side, the decorations have for subject Egyptian sacred landscapes and scenes that represent Io guarded by Argus and released by Hermes, Io in Egypt received by Isis. That room was used both as dining-room for the believers and as performance-room for sacred representations. In a small adjacent room, of whom walls were decorated with paintings which represented Isis, Osiris, bull Api, Tifone and goddess Hator, the secret ceremonies happened. Very probably these rites were practised during the night, given the finding of a depot with fifty-eight lamps. How it can know, the Egyptian civilization, in a particular way its religion, is determining the way of this search in a decisive manner. It’s to take the Temple of Isis, that was in Rome, in Mars’ Camp, into much consideration: there Vespasian and Titus in 71 A. C., after the war against the Hebrews, stayed overnight returning from Jerusalem. But why did the Emperor and his son choose the temple of the Egyptian divinity as their place stay coming from the Holy Land? Perhaps is really this the civilization that could conserve and hand down what is contained in the “Sator”? Now we will try to know what was the role that the ancient Egyptians attributed to the bull, what were their beliefs and what kind of religion they followed. All this, also trying to interpret some tomb documents of personages who have left an ineffaceable mark in the history of Ancient Egypt. BULL APIS In Menfi god maker Ptah was venerated, who separated the primary chaotic confusion of waters, lands and sky; for this he was like Mespot gods Enlil and Marduk. Ptah becomes incarnate in an animal, sacred bull Apis, symbol of the procreating power. Besides this god, the same prerogative was attributed also to other divinities like Ra and Osiris. The bull was tightly connected whit the figure of the Pharaoh to whom gave his capacity of procreation and his strength. The king wore a bull tail, hung from his loincloth. Being son of a cow fecundated by Ptah, the bull was destined to be Apis since his birth. When a bull Apis died the ministers of the cult of Ptah had to look for the calf destined to succeed him in all Egypt, identifying him through some details: the black mantle and a determinate number of white stains on the body. The calf was put with his mother in a barn properly built, until the completion of his weaning. Then, taken to Nilopoli for forty days, during which the women could obtain fertility showing him their secret parts, was taken to the final destination, that is the Temple of Ptah in Menfi, where was looked after by the ministers of the temple itself for all his life. When a bull Api died the mourning was national.
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The sacred bull could be called Mnevi (bull of Eliopoli, during the period of the New Reign 1543-1069 B. C. and Late Epoch 715- 341 B. C.) and Bukhi (period of the thirtieth Dynasty 378-341 B. C. until the period of Diocletian 284-305 A. C.). The bull and the lion were certainly the animals that characterized the history of the ancient Egyptians in more decisive way. We could verify how he was venerated and how the capacity of procreation was connected with him. It’s obvious up to now it thought that he was used for transmitting symbolically his strength to the Pharaoh given his reproductive faculties and not certainly for what we could have deepened here. Now we will try to give an interpretation to some tomb documents which appear under another light now, then trying to know the meaning of other documents, especially basing on those beliefs that today seem less mythological and that give fundamental credibility to what come out of the “Sator”. Going back to the period of Moses, particularly to his education at the court of the Pharaohs of the nineteenth dynasty, the paintings of the tombs of Pharaohs Sethi I and Ramses II, his son, can’t pass unnoticed. Sethi I, son and successor of Ramses I, was a sovereign who linked his military and political endowments with intelligence. He made to construct magnificent buildings, among which the cenotaph situated in Abydus certainly stands out.
The decorations, polychromatic relief made, find inspiration from some Egyptian funeral books. His mummy, found into the big hiding- place of Deir el-Bahari, place were the mummies of the Pharaohs of the New Reign were hidden owing to the sack of their tombs, is in good condition, especially as regards his face.
The decorations of the Big Room vault of the cenotaph in Abydus represent what is considered as the finest Astronomical Ceiling of Ancient Egypt by the experts. pic.6 The graphic representation, that we are going to describe now, is practically the same present in the tomb of Ramses II, differentiating only for some details that don’t influence on the general subject that sees the bull as the principal figure. pic.7 Just for this reason we think that the two Pharaohs had the same knowledge. The scene is divided in two parts: in the first one it can see a bull sustained by a divinity represented with the hawk head; from the bull itself two curved lines start that passing through the hands of another divinity, meet in the amulet held by goddess hippopotamus Ta-uret (in Greek Thoeris), on her right there is a representation of nine divinities. On the left of the bull a transversal feminine figure (also the divinity with the hawk head and the other figure with the sun’s disk on her head are in a transversal position), is surrounded by animals: on the side a hawk, under a lion and a crocodile that has its mouth near the right hand of another divinity with the left arm raised to the bull. On their left there are other eleven divinities. As regards the bull we have already known the meaning attributed to it by the Ancient Egyptians. So we can see what the other personages represent. Goddess hippopotamus Thoeris, whose name means “The Magnificent”, was represented with the hippopotamus body, the lion legs, the crocodile back (in this version there is even crocodile Sobek on her back) and the human hands. Leaning against the typical amulet “Fiocco Sa”, she performed the principal office of mother and nurse, as it’s possible to know looking at her swollen womb and at her very visible breasts that recall an expectant woman’s body. Just for these characteristics, Thoeris was invoked during the labour and her effigy had a beneficent and protective power to the women in labour, the children and the mothers in general. Especially in Thebes (Temple of Deir el-Medina) she was compared to goddess Hathor, considered mother and nurse too, represented both also with the sun’s disk framed by bovine horns on their heads.
The crocodile on the back of goddess Thoeris is the representation of god Sobek to whom the meaning of fertility was attributed, perhaps for the fertility of the marshes where he lived. His cult was practise during the twelfth dynasty (1994-1797 B. C.) and the thirteenth dynasty (1795-1660 B. C.), period during which Queen Sobekneferu and five Kings Sobekhotep had got a name composed with his name. From then on god Sobek was gradually compared to god sun-Ra, so becoming Sobek-Ra, one of the different manifestations of the solar creative divinity.
On the left of the bull, a little more low, a lion is represented surrounding with stars. Some hieroglyphic inscriptions complete the representation. Starting from what come out of the “Sator”, passing through Moses who led the Hebrews to the Holy Land and who, as we have known, was brought up at the court of Pharaoh Sethi I or of his son Ramses II, it can deduce this is the origin of the mystery that the Romans decided to encode and to hand down through the “Sator”. Now we can, going back to the paintings of the tomb of Sethi I, give an interpretation of the works that had a very important meaning; given their site (the vault of the Big Room), they represented for the Pharaoh the principal subject of the decorations that are present in all the tomb. The representation can be interpreted as follows: taking the fertility (represented through the crocodile placed near the divinity’s right hand) of the bull and modifying it (the two lines go across the hands of another divinity) the gods could be conceived, that is the first men. However also Aeneas was Venus’ son, who was compared to Isis who was compared to Hathor and Thoeris herself. The bull is in a central position, above the other figures that form the work and so it’s obvious that a leaning role is attributed to himself. The two curves lines, that start from him to arrive in the “Fiocco Sa”, amulet connected to the protection and held by goddess Thoeris, would show the origin of the
divinities. “The bull transforms through the Creator into Aeneas”, perhaps means the Gods were nothing but the first men created by God, and just for this reason they were superior beings in comparison to all ones come later on through the procreation practised by themselves. Using simpler words, the Gods were being superior to the sons procreated by them because they were the first descendants, genetically the most similar to the creator. This fact would explain perhaps the developed civilization of some populations of the past. It’s as if the man changed from the best evolution to an involution, then to go again towards the starting point how the continuous evolution of the human species would explain. It’s a big puzzle scattered for all the world that, after putting together all pieces that compose it, could show the divine origin that procreated the human species. Little by little that the human species was reproduced, an alteration from the origin has happened, a division of the superior element who separates us from all other creatures. It’s obvious if the man involved from his appearance onwards some circumstances, unfavourable to him, have happened which have compromised his existence. The figures at the two sides of goddess Thoeris are representations of divinities, recognizable for the sun’s disk on their heads and in some case for the animal-shaped head. It’s possible to recognize Anubi, with the jackal head, man body and black skin. He watches over the rites of the mummification and he takes the deceased to the life after death. Just the parallel to the jackal, an animal that up to now lives in the desert zones reserved to the necropolis, would assert these suppositions. At first he was considered goddess Hesat’ son, with the cow head, afterwards in more recent traditions, was considered son of Osiris and Isis or of Nefti. As the texts of the pyramids show, Anubi was the most ancient sovereign of the life after death before to be replaced by Osiris. The Greeks assimilated him to Hermes Psychopompos; Thot, god with ibis head and a beak as sharp as the quill-pen of the scribes, of whom he is protector. God of wise and sages, he watches over the rites, the laws, the hieroglyphics. The duty to take the deceased to the hereafter and to preside to the rite of the weighing of the heart is attributed to him. For his characteristics of wise god, the Greek compared Thot to Hermes, so favouring the diffusion, in Late Epoch, of the cult of Hermes-Thot in all the Mediterranean Sea; Horo, god with the falcon head. His name means “ the distant” and he can assume different appearances: cosmic Horo, with the piercing glance whose eyes are the sun and the moon, for his celestial nature was assimilated to god sun Ra of Eliopoli, became incarnate in every Pharaoh; with the appearances of a little boy, Osiris and Isis’ son, he was called Harsiesi or Harpocrate and he symbolized the divine heir. The principal town of cult of Horo was Edfu where it’s still possible to admire a magnificent temple of the Ptolemaic period (304-30 B. C.) dedicated to him. The ritual was a solemn procession of boats on Nile that from Dendera went to Edfu, taking a statue of goddess Hathor to celebrate her wedding with Horo himself. The aim of that ceremony was to start the annual rhythms of the fertility for the nature and the men and at the same time to confer again to the Pharaoh, in whom young Horo became incarnate, his vivifying power.
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Staying in the Big Room of Sethi I it’s still necessary to attribute a definite role to some figures: the personages near the bull seem to do well determinate actions. But who were those men and where did they come from? In the other part of the painting (the one opposite to the subject of the bull) there is a representation of many divinities, where the figures set on some arks are reason of much consideration. Starting from the left it’s possible to see: three personages with hawk head and a star with five points leant upon it; a female divinity, probably Sirius (Isis), having a sceptre in her left hand, her right arm raised up with a crow with two plumes on her head; Orion (Osiris), recognizable for her classic characteristics (sceptre in her right hand and head turned backwards). Certainly Orion figure, so the homonymous constellation, has a leading role in the message that Pharaoh Sethi I wanted to keep in his tomb of Abydus. To have confirmation about this last hypothesis it will be fundamental to analyze the content of another tomb, exactly architect Senmut’s one ( or Senenmut). He, whose name showed he lived fraternally with the Great Mother who protected Egypt, was Quartermaster of Amon’s territories, great active architect of Karnak and Deir el-Bahari and the main personality of the reign after Queen Hatscepsut, 1479-1457 B. C. (eighteenth dynasty). He himself was concerned with the construction of the temple dedicated to goddess Hathor, wanted by the queen in Deir el-Bahari.
A representation of that goddess, who, cow-shaped, suckles the queen, testifies the big devotion to
that divinity, and particularly to the bovine race that is her incarnation.
Senmut’s above-mentioned tomb is in this temple. He could have a burial worth of his person. because he was a very important personage as counsellor, confidant and scribe of high rank. The theme present on the vault pic.8 is very interesting, that also here, as in the tomb of Sethi I, is divided into two parts: in the upper part there is an astronomic representation where the details in common with the tomb seen before are considerable. In fact the figures with hawk head with the star with five points upon (here are only two), Sirius and Orion, all set on arks, are distinguishable, whose constellation has here a surprising graphic representation; in the lower part the same theme regarding the bull is present: the lines that start from the animal are always two, even if here are straight, and end in the vicinity of goddess Thoeris. A divinity with hawk head looks like spiking the bull with a lance (the references to the Pompeian painting in the House of the Fatal Love analyzed before seem evident). Near the animal there is another female divinity, lower near two lines a divinity, who accomplishes the same action seen in the preceding painting, is represented. There are the crocodile, the lion and all divinities set on the right and on the left of Thoeris. The theme, with some little variations, is the same found in the tomb of Pharaoh Sethi I. It is to note that this representation on the ceiling, unlike the ones on the walls, was covered with a coat of plaster as to want to hide and keep it for the future. In addition, in comparison to the representation present in the tomb of Sethi I, here are twelve circles, four on the left of the bull and eight on its right. All the twelve circles are divided up by twenty-four radii. Now, twelve are the months that were used to divide the year at the time of Egypt, but those months had not twenty-four days as the radii of the circles would demonstrate, on the contrary thirty. This fact would exclude that the twelve circles represent the months of the year. But if it has nothing to do with the months of the year what would the twelve circles represent, four ones set on the left and eight ones set on the right of the bull? Almost certainly they indicate a determinate period and, so divided (four ones on the left and eight ones on the right of the bull), it would be to think that the period in question was when what emerged from the “Sator” and from the graffiti just analyzed happened. To indicate and especially to hand down exactly a determinate period of the history, perhaps dating back to thousands of years before and without the help of a universal writing and so valid and understandable by everybody in every epoch, some graffiti were used that, being present in the tombs of great personages, were not common knowledge and so not reserved to their contemporaries, but certainly to persons of the future who will use perhaps different language and writing. Going back to the number of the circles, twelve, the twelve constellations come into mind that, with their about 2160 years each, form the so-called “eras”. And which way of time measuring would be more efficacious and universal than the constellations that flow, especially if it is necessary to indicate a period thousands of years far-off ? We have pointed out that the representation that sees the bull as protagonist is placed so as to have four circles on its left and eight ones on its right. So between the fourth and the fifth constellation, more precisely in the fifth one, given how the constellations run. The fifth constellation is the Virgin one: unlike the Signs of the Zodiac that pass in the orbit of the sun during one year, starting from Aquarius in January and ending with Capricorn in December, the astrologic “eras” accomplish the opposite route starting from Capricorn and ending with Aquarius. Each “era” is about 2160 years that by twelve form a period of 25920 years. The twelve circles of the tomb representation are divided by twenty-four radii and dividing 2160 by twenty-four, periods of ninety years are obtained. Being Queen Hatscepsut of the eighteenth dynasty, so antecedent to Sethi I (nineteenth dynasty), it would seem obvious that among the various Pharaohs there was a passage of those mysteries that characterized very much the civilization of the ancient Egyptians. Now it’s obvious that Senmut was a very important personage and he knew information that made him like a Pharaoh. A probable sentimental story with the queen herself is attributed to him, in fact it thinks that he was the legitimate father of Hatscepsut’s daughter.
The “theme of the bull” that we have analyzed in the tombs of Sethi I, Ramses II and Senmut is a representation widespread in the tombs and on the sarcophagi of the Pharaohs and of the great personages of Ancient Egypt, especially in the twentieth dynasty ones. It’s possible to find specimens in the tombs of Ramses III, Ramses VI, Ramses VII, Ramses IX.. More recent specimens are visible in the
tomb of Psusennes (twenty-first dynasty, 1059-1033 B. C.), in the tomb of Pedamenope (560 B. C.) and so forth. Before Senmut there are representations of the “theme of the bull” dating back to the ninth dynasty.
A very interesting specimen, that is not to disregard for its particular iconography, is present on the inside cover of a wood sarcophagus dating back to 125 A. C.. The sarcophagus, according to a demotic inscription, would belong to a certain Heter, dead thirty-one years old.
The representation is divided in three strips, the big one in the middle and the most narrow two on the sides. The “theme of the bull” is situated, looking at the cover, in the side-part on the left where it’s possible to see also a big hawk (sun). In the strip on the right some divinities on some arks alternate with a smaller hawk and a swam. Although the representation spreads in three strips it can easily see how they are tight connected, forming a sole theme. In the central one, the biggest, there is a representation of the sky in semblance of goddess Nut, who is surrounded by the twelve Signs of the Zodiac, of course representing the constellations. Their disposition is rather particular: on two lines, six ones on one side and six ones on the other side, so that Nut is in the middle, it’s possible to see them starting from Cancer and continuing with Leo, the Virgin, the Scales, Scorpion, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, Fishes, Aries, Taurus and the Gemini. The constellation of the Virgin, the one pointed out in the tomb of Senmut as the probable period of the creation of the man, is in the classic representation, in semblance of woman and with an ear of corn in her hand. Her head is surrounded with bovine horns; this characteristic compares her with goddess Isis, and so the reference to the constellation of the Virgin is to make in the skies of Egypt. Her position, in comparison to the figures described before, is the most interesting situation: she is just in a linear position with the big hawk (sun), that looks at her in a unequivocal way. So, the hawk that looks at the Virgin is the representation of the Sun in the constellation of the Virgin. The whole representation is completed with representations of some divinities, where the god with the rum head, Knumm, is placed at the four corners. Before it was spoken about the unusual disposition of the constellations: in this case they describe a cycle of about 26.000 years starting from Sagittarius and ending in Capricorn. It’s obvious that the constellations represented on the right of the Virgin are antecedent to it, while the ones placed on its left are posterior. Usually the order of passing in the vernal point of the constellations is the one that starts from Capricorn and ends to Aquarius. This representation is placed so as Capricorn is like the last “era”, of course the one that will arrive after Aquarius. This particular representation, set on the cover of the sarcophagus of Heter, hasn’t exhausted its surprises yet, on the contrary, it keeps really very interesting one. It can note that the symbols of Leo, the Virgin, the Scales, Sagittarius have some hieroglyphic cursive and demotic inscriptions near them. The other ones are wanting in them . All are surrounding with many stars with five points, into which some very small Latin characters merge. In reality they are the Roman numbers: it’s possible to individuate number “I” (1) set on the right of the star that is to the north of Cancer, number “II” (2) on the back of Leo, number “III”(3) under the raised arm of Virgin, number “IV”(4) on the high on the left of the Scales, number “V”(5) between the pincers of Scorpion, number “VI”(6) among the forelegs and the hind legs of Sagittarius, number “VII”(7) under Capricorn, number “VIII”(8) near the left knee of Aquarius, number “IX”(9) on Fishes, number “X”(10) on the horns of Aries, number “XI”(11) between the horns of Taurus and number “XII”(12) between Gemini. Naturally the importance of these Roman numbers isn’t the fact that they help to give a simpler interpretation of the represented subject, but it helps principally to turn the attention about the fact that the Romans knew the real meaning of the representation. The proof is that the numbers are visible only through a careful observation ,given their camouflage with the stars. If it was only an ostentation of power the numbers would have been more visible. This document is very important. It is a kind of proof that the Romans knew the mystery of the creation of the man and learnt it by the Egyptians. We find nothing less than in the Plain of Giza an interesting temporal reference to the “astronomic ceiling” of the tomb of Senmut and also to the “sarcophagus of Heter”, precisely the indication of the “era” of the Virgin. This mammoth project, because it is an only project, needed three generations to be realized, at least the traditional learned men assert this thing.
The pyramid built by Pharaoh Cheops, Sneferu’s son, founder of the fourth dynasty, is the biggest of the three ones; it is 144 metres high, its base is 230 metres long and its angle is of 51°. It is nearly perfectly oriented and lined to the north, with the approximation of 55 degree of arc. Before the pyramid was covered with white granite (or limestone) on which it seems there were some graphic representations, very difficult to decode; then that material was used as lining for some mosques and places in the Cairo by “resolute” architects. In the pyramid two spacious rooms was found, known as the “room of the king” and the “room of the queen”. From each one of them two narrow ducts start: one turned to the south and the other to the north. The ducts are 20 centimetres for 20 centimetres wide and are tipped on high in the massive heart of the pyramid. A former assumption attributed to them the assignment to make possible a ventilation of the pyramid, but a successive study could ascertain that those ducts were closed at their ends and so the assumption that considered them as ducts of airing had not any more the presuppositions to be credible. In 1963 a group of researchers discovered that the ducts of the Big Pyramid were oriented astronomically. The ducts directed to the north pointed to the circumpolar stars (Alpha Draconis and Beta Ursae Minoris) and the ones directed to the south pointed to the stars of the Orion’s Belt (Osiris) and to the luminous star Sirius (Isis). Besides it is said that very recent studies made about the abovequoted ducts could establish that one of them wouldn’t be perfectly oriented to the Orion’s Belt (studies made under the control of Professor Zahi Hawass, superintendent of the Plain of Giza). The second pyramid was built by Chephren. Also this building is very big, it is 136 metres high, its base is 210 metres long and its angle is of 53°; it offers a much more simple inside structure in comparison to Cheops’s one. Its lining of white granite has remained enough, especially in the upper part. The numerous sat statues of Chephren, sculptured in various stones, are very interesting, among which there is a famous one in diorite kept today in the Cairo Museum that would prove that Chephren made really to construct it. The third pyramid completing the Plain of Giza, as regards pyramids of large dimensions, was made to built by Pharaoh Mycerinus, Chephren’s son. Much more small than the foregoing ones, it is 66 metres high with the base 108 metres long and its angle of 51°. The alignment of these three big buildings, or to say better, the not perfect alignment of Mycerinus’s pyramid as regards the axis of the other two, makes to suppose that this composition contains a message that the stone has kept until today. The big sphinx, certainly one of the most well-known monuments in the world, is attributed to Pharaoh Chephren, who, it thinks, made to change the first head lion with the image of his face. Made out of a rock peak it is over 20 metres high and during the centuries it had be restored more than once given the damages caused by the time and by some risky attempts of restoration.
In Egypt the lions were considered solar animals and often they were represented in couples, placed back against back, one turned towards the east and the other towards the west. In this manner they represented two horizons and the course of the sun from one side to the other of the world, so supervising the day passing and representing the past and the future. The Sphinx of the Plain of Giza is oriented towards the east and seems just to be part of an only general context with the three Big Pyramids, in order to, perhaps, hand down very valuable information. The three Big Pyramids are compared with the Orion’s Belt because of their disposition that is not perfectly lined. To find a precise transposition of the Orion’s Belt on the Plain of Giza it’s necessary to make reference to a period of about 14000 years ago, in the “era” of the Virgin some researchers assert.
and not in Leo one as
The position of the stars changes slowly during the time because of a phenomenon known as precession of the equinoxes, caused by a slow oscillatory movement of the terrestrial axis in a period of 25.920 years. In this very long period the stars of the Orion’s Belt seem to have moved just for the above-said phenomenon. As regards the Sphinx and its eyes turned to the east it is to state exactly that the sun doesn’t rise during all year in the same point but, according to the period, can rise in the most northern east point (the winter solstice) or in the most southern east point (the summer solstice). Only at the moment of the equinoxes (21st March and 23 rd September) the sun rises exactly to the east.
Just during the equinoxes it’s possible to notice that the Sphinx of the Plain of Giza is perfectly turned eastwards in proof that who built that monument had good astronomic knowledge. Often it was supposed that a pre-Egyptian civilization constructed the monuments of the Plain of Giza, so stirring up the natural and obvious resentment of to-day’s Egyptians. There is this supposition because certainly very advanced techniques had to be known to erect the three Pyramids and the Sphinx, both as regards the constructions and as regards the astronomy. About the last discipline it could ascertain that the Egyptians knew very well the disposition of the constellations and their following, making reference also to the precession of the equinoxes. More times it was read that the Sphinx would represent the constellation of Leo, making reference to the position of the three Pyramids that would have that disposition roughly about 10500 B. C., in the “era” of Leo, exactly. From a recent study however, considering the precession of the equinoxes, it seems that the Sphinx was turned towards the constellation of the Virgin already in 10500 B. C. (that is there was the constellation of the Virgin in the vernal point) and not towards Leo one and when the three Pyramids of the Plain of Giza appeared in the same position of the stars of the Orion’s Belt, about 14000 years ago, it was certainly in the “era” of the Virgin. As it could note in the graffiti present in the tombs of the great Pharaohs the lion is a ever present element, so assuming a determining part in the entirety of the representation. The representation of the sun set always towards the east (in the tomb of Sethi I it is completely surrounded with stars) perhaps would indicate, point out, a constellation. Comparing the monuments of the Plain of Giza with the graphic representations of the tombs analyzed before we could interpret the three Pyramids and the Sphinx as follows: Osiris and Isis are represented with the ducts in Cheops’s Pyramid that would be oriented towards Orion and Sirius; the three pyramids besides representing a well definite place of space would indicate also an exact period owing to their particular disposition; the Sphinx looking at the real east assumes the role of solar pointer and so it shows or 21 st March or 23 rd September. Then, also the Plain of Giza is to put in touch with the creation of the man? But now it would need to find the representation of the bull with all elements described before, but it is known that the three Pyramids of Ancient Egypt, unlike the other monuments of Ancient Egypt, are without hieroglyphs inside. However as touched upon before, some inscriptions were present on the outside of the Pyramids but it is not possible to establish if those inscriptions were the original of the various copies found in the tombs of the Pharaohs. Previously it was said that the theme appeared only in the tombs of the Pharaohs or of important men and it wasn’t common knowledge, so being not known and not decipherable. Astronomic ceilings. This is the definition that was attributed to the paintings of the tombs of Senmut, of Sethi I, or Ramses II and of other ones too. It is certainly unusual, if not even extraordinary, how during two thousands of years the same theme (the bull and goddess Thoeris) was handed down from a Pharaoh to another one. Is it just possible that the most knowledge, because given their site it had to do with the most knowledge of Pharaohs, referred to the constellations? To find possible confirmations, or at least news that could give some explanations to what has emerged, we will try to analyze the angles of the religion of the ancient Egyptians using the study of the other monuments in the first place. From the earliest times the Egyptian religion was monotheistic. Pharaoh Akheneton (1348 - 1331 B. C.), to whom the fact to introduce a monotheistic religion was attributed, pointed out the ancient way of thinking of the ministers of Eliopoli, the sun town. Probably this pharaoh, who was called as heretic, wanted to give all Egyptian people the knowledge that was typical of the sovereigns and of the influential personages and not to change the religion. The religion of Ancient Egypt was monotheistic because it recognized one Creative Cause, but it was polytheistic because that Cause became incarnated in different shapes on the earth, precisely in the divinities.
The motive for which Pharaoh Akheneton met with many difficulties to carry out his plan, to such a point that his name was wiped out from important monuments and it didn’t appear in the chronological
succession carved in the tomb of Sethi I, could depend on the fact that asserting the existence of a superior entity, of a one God, above every thing and being, consequently all men became equal, so putting the Pharaoh himself at the level of all other human beings. But as known the Pharaoh considered himself as God on earth and in that way he was seen by the people, who obeyed to him totally. That prerogative, besides guaranteeing the absolute power to the Pharaohs, being considered superior, would prevent a general chaos that such a piece of news could cause if it was known by men not prepared for that knowledge. In many situations it says that the truth is in the middle and this would seem just one of those situations, where certainly the Pharaohs ofA ncient Egypt had no intention to consider themselves equal to all other men and where certainly, without the help of a strong deterrent like the divine power of the Pharaoh, the chaos could be general and so fatal for all reign. The principal gods venerated in Ancient Egypt were three: Amon, Ra, and Ptah. Amon was the “Hidden” sovereign of Thebes, his shape couldn’t be known. He was represented being human-shaped, sometimes with the ram head or with a crown with two long plumes on his head, usually with the solar disk at his base. Sometimes he was associated with Khnum, god creator of the men, whose horns he could have on or he was associated with Min, Coptic god represented with his penis in erection, symbol of fertility. The typical colour of his skin was light blue, common to the heavenly divinities. Amon had his largest diffusion when Thebes became the capital of the unified reign under the eleventh dynasty (about 2030 B. C.). In Karnak to him a temple was dedicated, destined to become, during more than a thousand years of changes, the biggest temple construction never realized in the world. Identified with ancient solar god Ra too, Amon-Ra came in to procreate the next king, his descendant and representative on earth.
Ra, principal solar divinity of Ancient Egypt, sovereign of Eliopoli, was represented with human body, gold skin and limbs and with the hawk head over hanged with the solar disk around that the gold snake coiled (the eye of the sun). During the day Ra assumed the shape of god scarab Khepri and of god with the ram head, Atum, during evening. Sacred bull Mnevi was considered his incarnation.
Ptah, since the most ancient times figured with human shape, represented the demiurge par excellence, with the imperishable and perfect body of the primordial god. Wearing a tight dress like a sudarium, he had a light blue calotte on his head with reference to his leading role of artisan god. He was the only god to have a false beard, straight and long like the Pharaohs one. Moreover he ornamented himself with some regal ornaments: breast-plates, sceptre and some amulets. Also Ptah, compared with other divinities, was considered creator. According to many scholars the name Ptah would mean just “creator of shapes”; the name “chief superintendent of the artist” was attributed to the supreme minister of his temple in Menfi, since the Ancient Reign. relation of paternity and identification. face, Ptah was its harmonious body.
Ptah was bound to bull Apis by a
These divinities were three aspects of the only Cause: Amon was its secret name, Ra was its bright
Hator, whose name means “ abode of Horo”, was often represented like a woman with cow ears and a couple of bovine horns between which there was a solar disk on her head. She is the most beautiful among the goddesses, queen of love, joy, dancing, music and exultation. Goddess with innumerable shapes and innumerable names, could assume the features of merciless goddess lioness Sekhmet or of voluptuous goddess cat Bastet, so incarnating the ambivalence love-hate. Also Nut was mother of Ra, gods and men, in one word “mother of the mothers”, who swallowed the sun (Ra) in the evening and was delivered of it in the morning. She was also associated to Isis and to goddess hippopotamus Thoeris, with which she had the appearance of cow in common. That characteristic was already present at the time of the first dynasty (3185-2930), where in a document the goddess was represented with woman head, bovine ears and horns. To Hathor were consecrated all musical instruments, among which the sistrum stood out, some objects and amulets, efficacious for the protection of children and women.
Bes, the dwarf with the leonine head, and Ihy, his son and Ra’s, were divinities particularly connected to her. Most sources place at the beginning of the creation a primordial ocean, Num, from which all creation was formed. Num represents the chaos, the liquid state inert, compared to the solidity of the created world.
The Enneade Eliopolitana considered Atum as God Creator (associated to Ra), whose name means “complete”, “not existing”, too. Gods Sciu and Tefnut are the first created couple. From Sciu, that means empty and dry and that personifies the atmosphere, the lower and upper limits of the earth were born: Nut, the sky, and Gheb, the world. The third generation is formed by four gods who symbolize the real world: Osiris, the most famous god of Ancient Egypt is represented like a mummified and crowned man, with the sceptre and the scourge. His skin is black or green as representation of the death and the rebirth; he is judge of the human actions and he decides the destiny of the life to come. The initiates, approaching the mysteries, become as Osiris. The origin of his cult was already present in the texts of the pyramids of the fifth dynasty (about 2460 B.C), where the god was part of the divine Enneade of Eliopoli. In the most ancient representations Osiris nearly always appeared mummy-shaped. In the images of the Middle Reign he nearly always wore the white crown of Lower Egypt, basic element of more complex crowns: for example, the atef crown associated perhaps the white crown with two plumes worn on his head by the god of Busiri Angeti, from whom Osiris would take also the pastoral staff and the scourge. Osiris, as however the other gods of Ancient Egypt, was associated also to the other divinities in the process of syncretism that characterized the evolution of the Egyptian religion: to Sokar-Osiris or to Ptah Sokar-Osoris, to bull Api as Osorapi, that gave origin to Greek-Egyptian god Serapis in the Hellenistic epoch (332-30), to god-sun Ra.
Isis, mother par excellence, great sorceress, was represented like a woman with a throne on her head. The hieroglyphic sign served to write her name, since Isis was the throne that created the Pharaohs. Goddess of heavenly origin, connected to her brother-husband Osiris, was certainly the most well-known of the divinities of Egypt in Late Epoch, when her cult spread in all ancient world. Testimonies of her veneration go back to the fifth dynasty (2510-2350 B. C.), while the first representation reached us goes back to the sarcophagi of the Middle Reign (2064- 1797 B. C.). Since the New Reign (about 1543-1078 B. C.), Isis assumed the harness of goddess Hathor: cow horns and solar disk above a crown formed with sacred snakes. Other representations see her with the hawkshaped calotte, typical of goddess Mut and queens, or with long wings, they are also characteristic of Mut. Osiris’ wife and sister, Isis is also represented with her hands and wings open behind her husband in sign of protection. Also the representation of Isis intent to suckle her son Horo is typical.
Seth, god of the storm and the desert. He is represented man-shaped with the uncertain animal head. Seth personifies the power both in Good and in Evil. Killed his brother Osiris, he competed the sovereignty of ancient Egypt with his nephew Horo.
Nefti, goddess represented like a woman who wears the ideogram of her name as headgear. Gheb and Nut’s daughter and Seth’s sister and wife, she held an important role in the funeral cults.
The way of the first act of the creation, referred to the first couple, Sciu and Tefnut, shows that Atum manifests himself on the primordial hill that rises from Num and he creates Sciu and Tefnut throwing a spittle.
To the conception of Eliopoli, rather material, Menfi one opposes, in which it asserts that the
world was created by Ptah with the heart and the tongue, or the will and the power of speech.
The myth of Esna is alike, that sees in god Knumm the craftsman who moulded gods with his lathe.
Instead in Ermopoli a myth was elaborated that considered the light blue lotus, flower that comes out of the water, as the carrier of the creation. According to the tradition god sun Ra daily goes through the whole world on his boat: during the day through the sky and during the night through the life to come. Every morning the god is bore by goddess Nut, personification of the vault of heaven, he runs along the heavenly waters and enters the body of the goddess again through her mouth to pass the night in her
star-spangled body. About this belief there is a representation in the tomb of Sethi I, where under the vault of heaven the “theme of the bull” previously analyzed is represented again. Now we analyze attentively this painting: there is a representation of the “theme of the bull” to which we have attributed the meaning of the phases of the human creation. These operations are accomplished by beings having human aspect; they could be Osiris (Orion), Isis (Sirius). The scene develops on the earth (Gheb) that is won by the sky (Nut), the winged sun makes its way from east to west and its heavenly origin is obvious. Everything is won in the primordial ocean (Num). The scene that sees the bull as the protagonist develops on the earth and just this characteristic excludes the fact that it could be a representation that sees the constellations as subject (this is the traditional interpretation given to the “theme of the bull”). The action developed on the earth is certainly material, it shows the actual development (the lance that pierces the bull), almost tangible, of an event happened through the matter. This representation, present in the tombs of the Pharaohs and the great personages of Ancient Egypt, must have a very important meaning that is attributed to it just for its site. In the foregoing chapters it touched upon the possibility that the Romans took the Ark of the Alliance back to Egypt, in which the verities of the creation were probably included. We can furthermore suppose that the Egyptians knew the contents of the Ark and they reproduced it in the tombs and in the sarcophagi of their Pharaohs. For the same reason also the monuments of the Plain of Giza could have some links with the Ark It’s necessary to consider an important angle of the religion of the Ancient Egypt: there were two levels of practice of the cult, one of which was known only by the Pharaoh, the ministers and those people who, following a specific way of initiation, were put in a position to learn, instead the other one was the cult of most people. It’s likely that the mysteries regarding the secret cult could refer to the origin of the man and the world, and for this reason they were hid, given the extraordinary importance of the subject. In any case, it’s obvious that also at the time of the great Pharaohs, the ones of the nineteenth dynasty were so that, the truth about the origin of the man was hid. Encoded in their tombs, how it was in the “Sator”, but it had the aim to be kept and handed down to the future times, that perhaps would make it possible a less traumatic and more immediate learning given the help that the science could give. The importance attributed to the cult of the bull and generally to the bovine race by the ancient Egyptians is well- known. Besides the gods also the Pharaohs were represented often with bovine horns and solar disk on their heads, as a further proof of the importance given to these two symbols. The place of the cult of bull Apis was called Serapeum, that is called after god Serapis. Syncretistic divinity derived from the fusion of Egyptian god Osorapi (Osiris-Api), he was introduced also in the Island of Delos and then in Otaly, where are known the Serapeum of Pozzuoli and the one attached to the Iseo Campense in Rome about which it was spoken previously and that now can be important to know in which period that knowledge was learnt by the Romans. Between the two places of cult the one dating back to a more ancient time was Pozzuoli one, about 105 B. C., so it’s possible to suppose that already at that time the mysteries of the Egyptian cult of bull Apis were known. Starting from the eighteenth dynasty (New Reign), there are the first testimonies of the burial of bulls Apis, even if the rite of mummification and burial of the animal sacred to god Path was already quoted in the Texts of the Pyramids.
Near Menfi (Saqqara), Prince khaemuaset, son of Ramesse II (1279-1212), began to build an underground gallery (smaller crypts) on whose sides big rooms assigned to the burial of the sacred bulls into the wood sarcophagi were made. Khaemuaset himself made to buried himself in this gallery.
Pharaoh Psammetico I, of the twenty-sixth dynasty (664-610 B. C.), made to extend the building adding another gallery (bigger crypts) so as to form a right angle with the former one. Here the bulls were buried into gigantic sarcophagi of granite, also sixty-five tons heavy. This is the Serapeum preeminently and for excellence.
Bull in hieroglyph is said Ka, that is one of the expressions of the creative power.
On the right wall of the staircase going out the temple of Sethi I in Abydus there is a rare and original scene: the bull hunting; here the bull is snared by Ramesse II and by one of his sons. In this hunting scene there is no violence: Pharaoh is initiating his successor into the capture of the energy necessary to the life.
Perhaps this animal, this race, represent in a less symbolic and definitely more materialistic way the energy that was necessary for the creation of the man. THE CULT OF THE BULL “At the beginning was the bull”. This is the inscription that is read on a Babylonian zodiac of Arsacide epoch. “At the origin of the world and of our civilization the myth of the bull appeared, rich in violence, horror, but also in opulence and fertility”.
In the preceding chapters it was possible to verify how since the most ancient times the cult of the bull has always existed, that is a certain divine consideration that dates back much before the capture of Jerusalem by the Romans. By the historic-religious point of view the importance of the bull is very significant because a reference is made to his reproductive faculty; also his horn, recalling the sickle-shaped moon, is revealing in the same way. It is left to establish if all they who adored the sacred animal knew the definite role that it had in the history of the man, or the regard that they reserved to it came from a kind of latent knowledge. Now we are going to do analysis of the customs and religions to try understand which was the role of the bull, and generally of the bovine race, in the civilizations that made the history of the world both in the West and in the East. As regards Italy, that takes its name just from “vitello” (Vitalia), that means calf, was considered the land of the oxen, animals sacred to Jupiter (steer) and to the Sun. In fact the bull symbolized, as the calf, the Sun . Considered as the greatest divinity it was venerated by all ancient peoples, who used the horns to adorn their heads. This practice was used by Moses himself.
The bull, or more generally the bovine animal, represents the heavenly gods in the IndoMediterranean religions. All that comes from its indefatigable fertility that likens it to Uranus, god of the sky.
As regards the Vedic religion god Indra is compared with a bull, too. Indra is the most important anthropomorphic divinity, protector of the Aryans and the first among the gods with his wife Indrani. The gods who correspond to him in Iran and in the nearby East are compared also to the rams and to the goats, which are symbols of the male and combative spirit. The Vedic hymns attribute to the cow, considered like a general symbol of the bovine animal, a primary and fundamental role: “The Cow danced on the celestial ocean and she brought the verse and the melodies to us… The Cow is all that she is, God and Men… The divine order, the holiness and the cosmic ardour are in her. Yes, the Cow makes to live the Gods, the cow makes to live the Men”. “Associated to the cosmic Ardour, she is the warmth that gives life to every living. Bull Indra is the warm and fertilising strength that is associated with the symbolic set of the fertility: horns, sky, water, lightning, rain, and so forth. To break the horn means to break the power, that if is not violated it can sublime itself. The bull is also the emblem of Shiva, white, noble, his back evokes a snow-covered mountain. He represents the sexual energy, that Shiva dominates and transforms for its spiritual utilisation. The bull of Shiva, Nandi, represents the justice and the strength, the cosmic order and, for this reason, is called “unfathomable”. The symbolism of the bull is strictly connected to the moon and the perfect horn of Shiva represents the lunar growth.
The cows, in India, are still today considered sacred and it’s possible to see them moving in the
streets tranquilly. Alef, that is the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, means bull and represents symbolically the moon during the first week. The first letter of the alphabet, so the beginning, the origin. In the Phoenician alphabet this letter is represented by a coarse head of bull.
The bull is also the name of the zodiacal sign in which the sequence of the lunar houses begins. Many letters, hieroglyphics, signs are in relation both with the lunar phases and with the bull horns, often compared with the lunar growth.
In the second century A. C. a cult of the Minor Asia was introduced in Italy; it integrated the Mitrha cult of Cibele with a practise not known in Rome till then: the “Taurobolo”. That practise consisted in a sort of blood baptism: the devotee had to go down into a specially excavated pit, whose ceiling includes many holes; then bull’s throat was cut with a sacred spit and the blood, passing through the holes, poured on the body of the initiate. To that practise, in particular way to the blood of the bull, a function fit to transmit the biological power of the animal and especially the access, in its greatest form, to the spiritual and immortal life was attributed.
Also the cult of Mitrha, of Iranian provenance, included the sacrifice of the bull with an analogous meaning, but in a different ritual and doctrinal scenary. This religious practise, deriving from IndoIranian divinity Mitrha, is present both in the Indian religion with the Vedic movement, and in Zoroaster Persian movement. The cult, spread by the Roman soldiers, by the traders and the slaves coming from the regions of west and central Asia, arrived in Italy in the first century B. C. and from here it spread, through the Roman garrisons on Danube, to Germany, the territory with the biggest number of followers of the Mitrha cult. With the exception of Greece the cult of Mitrha had followers in all Roman Empire. Gaul, Britain and even Spain counted many followers.
In the Zoroasterism Mitrha was an envoy of the power of good Amura Mazda and the origin of the cosmos and its possibility of redemption was attributed to him. The principal act of Mitrha life was the sacrifice of the primordial bull, the first living being created by Amura Mazda. After capturing, taming and taking him into his cavern, Mitrha, under orders of the sun, cut his throat and from his blood the vegetables and the animals were born.
Different interpretations are attributed to the sacrifice made by Mitrha. The ascension of himself with the immolation of the bull are seen like the representation of the struggle in which all believers must constantly take part with all their efforts, doing like that the access to the eternal life is guaranteed by the intercession of Mitrha. Another symbolism sees in this cult the cyclic alternation of the death and of the resurrection or the permanent unity of the vital force. Different is the interpretation that sees in the sacrifice of the bull the penetration of the male principle into the female one, of the fire into the dampness, of the sun into the moon, of the sky into the land, so explaining the symbolism of the fertility. bull.
This interpretation would seem the most appropriate given the role that we attributed to the
Going back to the Zoroastreism it’s necessary to say that this religious movement was founded by Zoroaster (Zarathustra). This cult, also known with the name of Mazda cult, by the name of Amura Mazda, God of the Good, dominated the Persian zone from 558 B. C. to 651 A. C., year in which the Arabs conquered Persia (Iran). Zaraustra lived in the oriental part of Persia, perhaps around the seventh century A. C.; other more recent researches place his life in preceding periods, while some legends make to date back his birth to 630 B. C. in Bactra (the present Balkh, in Afghanistan). The young man decided to become a minister (zaotar) and to take sides against the cult of Mitrha, considered too bloody because of the sacrifices made against the animals, which, in his opinion, had got the soul, them too.
For the Tartars of Altai the god of the hell is also represented on the rump of a black bull that rides back to front. He holds a snake or a moon-shaped axe in his hand and black bulls and cows are
immolated to him. For the northern peoples, the Celtics, the bull didn’t represent solely a symbolic meaning referred to the virility. In Ireland, in fact, he was principally the object of warring metaphors. A hero or a great warrior was often called “bull of the fight”. Still in Ireland, he was the object of a ritual that saw him like a victim: the entertainment of the bull. That ritual was practised in two parts: the bull was sacrificed, a poet ate a little meat, drank broth as much as he wanted, fell asleep and he saw during the dream the candidate king who had to be chosen by the assembly of the nobles. The second part of the ritual concerned the horse. So the bull was considered, in the same way as the horse, a regal animal. Deiotaros, term used by tetrarchs, means divine bull. They used that name since it means king.
In the story of the “Rape of the cows” of Cooley, a white bull and a brown bull fight tooth and nail; the first one represents Ulster and the other one represents Connaught, and to have them means to have the warring sovereignty, because they both have human voice and intelligence. In fact they were born by the metamorphosis of two swineherds of the kings of North and South Ireland and they passed through some animal states. The bull is symbolically ambivalent. He’s lunar because he is comparable to the rites of the fertility; he’s solar for the fire of his blood and the spreading of his seed. On the regal tomb of Ur a bull with the gold head (sun and fire) and the chap of lapis lazuli (moon and water) rises. He’s heavenly and terrestrial because he can appear both as terrestrial epiphany and as heavenly epiphany. In China the horned head of Shen-nung, inventor of the agriculture, recalls an ox or a bull, while the head of Ch’ih-you is evidently compared to a bull. Huang-ti is opposed to the first one and to the other one. The bull is a genie of the wind and Ch’ih-you, horned head and bovine feet, is opposed to Huang-ti who makes to fight him by the aquatic dragons, just thanks to the wind and the drought.
With regard to China, a representation of mythical emperor Fu-hi is very interesting. pic.10 The emperor holds in his hands the “t’ai-chi” with the symbol of the “yin-yang” and his aspect is clearly taurine (horns and features). In the chapter dedicated to the stars with six points, or the hexagram, we pointed out that the little lines surrounding the symbol of the cosmic totality are the representation of trigrams that compose different hexagrams. If the “Sator” is the literal representation of the hexagram, the taurine appearance of emperor Fu-hi would be explained consequently, vouching further for what was said up to now. How it could note the sacrifice of the bull characterized a little all times and civilizations of the world. Now it can suppose that the sacrificial rite of the bull could evoke somehow the deed described in the “Sator” and so the kill of the animal was a conscious or unconscious manifestation of the initiation to the mysteries of the life. The sacrifice that happens in the bull-fight is to consider of a different interpretation. Here the deed is accomplished after a ceremony of preparation fit to prove the superiority of the man on the animal. Just in this manifestation the human unconsciousness to the initiation to the mysteries of the life is felt in an evident manner. It’s as if in the man or rather in some men, the animal presence is so strong to stimulate in them the desire to prove own superiority and therefore the refusal of their origin. Being the bull-fight a still followed manifestation, it will be easier to do an analysis using also the psychology that, according to some analysts, interprets it as the unconscious desire to kill own father. The complex of Oedipus to which the analysts make reference is certainly a subject that would be to master with greater attention given the role that we attributed to the bull. The archaeological remains, that show which could be the attentions turned to the bull and more generally to the bovine race, are very interesting. There are very ancient testimonies of painting that represent this race in parts of the globe to which an interpretation of hunting kind was always given, even if in some cases the approach would seem very forced. We can find some very interesting testimonies in the zone of Karnasami (Ciad), where there are some
graffiti representing herds of cattle led by men, always represented in profile and with a zoomorph head.
We can find images of cattle transfixed with lances in “prehistoric” representations of some countries. Other ones represent only the approach of man to the species, perhaps to mean a possible association. Still today in Italy there are some cities that took their name from the bull in a very distant time. The town of Boviano (Bovianum), today called Boiano, is placed in the zone of Matese and just like its homonymous town, Boviano Vetere, placed in the Valley of Trigno, takes its name from the bull that, according to legend, was a guide for the Samnites who, coming from Sabine, arrived to the mountainous region placed between Abruzzo and Puglia, two Italian regions. Bovianum Vetus, so Pliny the Elder called it, also called Undecimani’s, since just there Vespasian made to establish a settlement of veterans of the eleventh legion, is placed on high ground of about 1000 metres and it keeps still today some traces of its Samnite origin, among which there are numerous Oscan writings. The remains of a theatre and of a temple would date back to the period of Emperor Augustus since Boviano Vetere was also Emperor Augustus’ colony.
With regard to Emperor Augustus it’s obligation to speak about the city that took the name from the union of the name itself of the emperor with the name of the animal protagonist of this research: Iulia Augusta Taurinorum. We have data about the origin of Turin already in 218 B. C. when, at the outbreak of the second Punic war, the Carthaginian army commanded by Hannibal, after crossed Alps, met with a little market-place or a meeting place called Taurasia or Taurascia. The biggest centre of Taurini population, belonging to Celtic-Ligurian branch, was destroyed. Today’s Turin rises on the foundations of a camp left by Julius Caesar on his return from Gaul in 50 B. C. where Emperor Augustus assigned 3000 of his veterans returning from numerous battles for the cause of the Empire.
A very new archaeological finding out, happened in the central Castello Square, has brought to light four amphora arranged in such a way as to occupy the four vertex of a square. The stratification and the amphora themselves would make to suppose that rite was done around the first quarter of the first century B. C., so changing of some decenniums the date of the construction of the walls, precisely under Tiberius. It thinks that it’s a rite because it seems that the orientation of the square formed by the amphora corresponds with the square of the city walls and it represents, perhaps, a kind of inauguration of the city itself. This rite, that seems not to be found in the Roman history, surrounds itself much more with mystery for the contents of the amphora that are composed by, exactly, bovine bones not burnt. However the bull, besides inspiring the name of the city, is its symbol, too; it is on a shield and a royal crown overhangs it. This is the history. But a mite, a legend, exists too, and in this research we could verify how, sometimes, the legends and the mites have some substantial truths. According to a mite, Turin was founded by Eridanus, an Egyptian prince who landed at Italy passing Greece around the fifteenth century B. C.. Ascending the Italian peninsula along the Tyrrhenian Sea he landed at Liguria and conquered it, that took its name just from his son Ligurio; then he continued through the plain to arrive to the banks of Po (the longest Italian river), where he founded a colony and established the cult of Bull Apis. The name and the symbol of the city come from these reasons. The reign of Eridanus ended with his death occurred in the waters of Po.
Perhaps it’s a mite, but this legend about the foundation of Turin, given the role attributed to the bull in this research, is rather fascinating and, considering the above-mentioned archaeological finding out, the bull seems just to be part of the history of this city. It’s easy to guess how the bull is part of the history of the man in a pregnant manner and how it is present in various situations that, without the results of this work, would pass unnoticed or without clear explanations. It’s likewise plain that the man, in this case the occidental one, dedicated a particular attention to the bull already before the capture of Jerusalem and so it’s certain that the personages like Julius Caesar and Augustus were informed about the knowledge that were Egyptians’ and certainly Greeks’.
A coin dating back to some centuries before Christ (400-395) is very interesting, on whose obverse it’s possible to notice the head of Athena with her helmet adorned with a owl and a olive-branch and on whose reverse it’s possible to see the inscription “Alipha” in Oscan, and below it a bull with a human face. Its obverse follows a brand of Athenian inspiration mediated by Neapolis (Naples) while its reverse utilises a brand of Nola
(town placed near Naples).
Another representation that arouses much interest is a painting included in the Vatican codex 3225, also called “Schedae Vaticanae” (kept in the Vatican museums) and belonged to Gioviano Pontano, to Pietro and Torquato Bembo and even more to Fulvio Orsini. This codex was written in minor “rustic” capital letters at the beginning of the fifth century A. C., as it’s testified by the paintings that adorn it; it’s practically formed by some Virgilian fragments (75 files), the fifth or the sixth part of the ancient codex (the third and the fourth books of the Georgics and the first and the ninth books of the Aeneid). Then the painting at issue was utilized in a edition of the “Natural History” of Pliny, seen trough the press by Gian Biagio Conte and published by Einaudi. Very probably it’s a representation of the picking of the mistletoe, practise that was made in the Northern Countries and Pliny himself included it in his work (16, 249). On the left part it can distinguish a bull prepared for a ceremony, surrounding by personages who look at an altar; on the right part there is represented Aeneas who, turned to an engraving, is picking some mistletoe from a tree. Both Aeneas and the bull are adorned with pink clothes. Also on the tree (is it an oak?), there are some pieces of pink cloth. To understand which was the meaning attributed to this representation it’s necessary to analyze every present element since nothing of what is represented is accidental or without a determinate symbolic meaning. To begin, even if the bull is white, the solar disk represented between his horns reminds without doubt Egyptian representations. Meanings of magic kind were attributed to the mistletoe: the people of Gaul considered it as a symbol of immortality and of vigour or of physical regeneration, calling it with a name that means “the thing that cures everything”. The name itself of the Druids is formed by two roots, dru and vid, that mean power and wisdom or knowledge and that are represented with the mistletoe and the oak. So the Druid is the mistletoe and the oak, or the wisdom added to the power. The union mistletoe-oak shows that the two virtues are united in the same individual and in this case Aeneas represents the union of these two powers, the divine one and the material one, just as in the “Sator”, where the hero represents the human species. Still about the mistletoe, in the Germanic myth of Balder, a king killed through the mistletoe that was his personification: this element could represent the passage from a form of life to another superior one, almost divine.
Pink, present on the bull, on Aeneas and on the tree, could assume the meaning that is proper of the flower (the rose). In Italian the word “rosa” means: the colour pink and the flower rose. The rose and pink would compose a symbol of regeneration for the semantic relation of the Latin words rosa with ros; ros means the rain, the dew. The rose and its colour were the symbols of the first level of regeneration and initiation to the mysteries. Apuleio’s ass recovered the human shape eating a wreath of vermilion roses offered to it by the great minister of Isis.
Besides Virgil wrote in his work dedicated to Aeneas just about the picking of the mistletoe from the hero, like a protective rite, before descending to the hell (Aeneid, book VI). This rite could be interpreted as a manifestation of the knowledge of the life, or of the creation, without which it is not possible to attain the knowledge of the future life. Fulvio Orsini (1529-1600) was part of the ancient possessors of the Vatican codex 3225. He was antiquary and librarian for the Farneses, an important Roman family, before following cardinal Ranuccio (1530-1565) and then following cardinal Alessandro (1520-1589); he had the task to take care of the order and the development of the collections of antiques that he personally provided to arrange in the prepared rooms of the Farneses’ Palace. Fulvio Orsini, an erudite man, was the author of numerous studies about the philology, the history and the antiques. Just his interest for the art made him to have his private collection of picture, sculptures, inscriptions, coins and gems. An account of the works kept by him, written out not long before dying, in which he registered all his
artistic properties noting their value and their former owners, lets us to value the extent of his collections that, after his death, passed to cardinal Odoardo (1573-1626), designated as universal legatee of his properties. A life dedicated to the research and the collecting. He had a strong devotion to the Farneses, to whom passed his collections that, added to theirs, formed a considerable quantity of material that up to now, in part, is possible to admire at the National Archaeological Museum of Naples.
Among Farneses’ works, the so-called Farnese bull stands out for its majesty without doubt. The sculpture was found in Rome in 1545 during the excavations wanted by Alessandro Farnese in the ancient place occupied by the Thermae of Caracalla. At the end of the second century B. C. the Rhodian sculptors Apollonio and Taurisco executed an analogous work that afterwards was carried to Rome by Asinio Pollione. Some think that the sculpture belonged to the Farneses is the original one, of the artists of Rhodes, others believe that it is a copy done during the Julian-Claudian age or during the Severian age. The theme treated is the one that took the name “Torture of Dirce” speak in the chapter dedicated to Pompeii.
and about which it could
A very important feud belonged to the Templars was given to Farnese family. Located in the zone along the river Marta, between the towns of Marta and Tuscania (placed in a central Italian region, Lazio), a typically Mediterranean zone, the feud of St. Savino included a church and a castle. This last information will be better understood in the chapter concerning the Crusades and the Templars. At the beginning of the twentieth century a young Russian ballet dancer of Polish origin became popular for his cleverness. His name was Vaslav Nijinsky. From 1909 to 1913 he won Paris and the whole world. Recently it is spoken about this artist again because his diaries have been published, or rather they have been published again in the original version, given the censorship that his wife Romola enforced, perhaps out of shame, considering the discussed subject. At twenty-nine years of age this artist went into a profound crisis that characterized his life. A doctor of Zurich diagnosed the schizophrenia to him and so he lived until April 1950 among some hospitals and many administration of medicines. Just recently it has spoken about the diagnosis made in Zurich and it can’t be sure that the famous dancer and choreographer was an insane person. Reading his diaries it’s obvious that we are in the presence of a particular personality: Nijinshy decided to write all his thoughts in that period. But if each of us decided to write every own thoughts and then decided to let others read them, perhaps would run the risk of the same diagnosis. If his knowledge of the life were such that he felt uncomfortable with the whole world, perhaps he wasn’t really an insane person. An interlacing of passions and sex emerge from Nijinsky’s diaries and the part regarding the bull-fight is very interesting: “I am God and bull. I am Apis. I am Egyptian”. Nijinsky resolutely condemned the Spanish bull-fights and any kind of violence, too. It easily apprehends the will to not mean to do the neighbour any harm, even if this one is enemy to him. He acknowledged his errors and asserted that anyone was exempt from that sin. Nijinsky said that his knowledge came from his feeling and not from his culture. He defined himself as a man who felt and not as an educated man. He clearly treated the subject of the creation of the man saying that Darwin was an educated man but his theory didn’t follow the feeling. For Nijinsky the monkey was not the nature of the man. It came from the plant while the man came from God: “I am God and Bull. I am Apis”.
THE MAGIC SQUARE, THE CRUSADES AND THE TEMPLARS In the preceding chapters the connections among the Romans, the Greeks, the Hebrews and the Egyptian often emerged. In this chapter, regarding the crusades and the Templars, the connections among those ancient civilizations will have further confirmation and consolidation.
How it is known the crusades served to rid Jerusalem of Muslims who controlled it before the capture by the Western Christians, occurred during the first crusade in 1099. Jerusalem, how it could be seen in the preceding chapters, without doubt was part of the history of the “Sator” and of its amazing content. So it’s necessary to speak about the crusades and their protagonists who, in the case in point the Templars, gave a considerable importance to that palindrome kept in some their monuments or in some ones referred to them. The “Sator”, besides being spread in the Roman Empire, had a big space in the Middle Ages and particularly on buildings, especially churches, and in documents, in which it was a magic formula. Just on Templars’ churches and mansions still today it’s possible to see specimens of this enigma that, with the star with six points, was part of the symbols belonging to the Order of Knighthood of the Templars. After understanding that the “Sator” has a connection with the Templars’ Order, we will have to know how they succeed in decoding it and which was the way that they undertook to reconstruct its history and principally to prove its reliability. There not should be doubts about the fact that they succeed in decoding it since the symbol, the hexagram that is the key to decode it, is fully present on the monuments regarding the Order.
Still as regards the hexagram and its relation with the Templars it’s necessary to analyze with attention the architectonic style that the monks used to build their churches and abbeys. In confirmation that the star with six points was used as a project to build the Templar and Cistercian churches there is a very interesting miniature of the twelfth century that represents Saints Peter, Paul and Stephen while they are tracing with a rope, for abbot Cunzo sleeping, the project of the abbey of Citeaux). It’s unequivocally a hexagram of which it’s possible to see the two interlaced triangles that form it. pic.11 The abbey of Citeaux (Burgundy) was founded in 1098 by Saint Robert, abbot of Molesmes. Today there is nothing of the first abbey, in fact only some constructions of the fifteenth, the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries remain.
Doing a particular study about the shape of some Templars and Cistercian churches (we will see later the connection between the two Orders) it’s possible to realize the possibility that they comprise the star with six points in the middle of their walls. Some churches built by the Templars and the Cistercians base themselves on a rectangle-shaped plan. It was apparently a very simple shape but it could contain the hexagram. To understand how it was possible it’s more than sufficient to consider that in the star with six points the two horizontal sides form a rectangle and that, with the addition of towers or of some other contrivances, it’s possible to complete the figure so as to be a real star with six points. As a proof of all that, the church of Saint Bevignate in Perugia, an Italian city, built in the second half of the thirteenth century and called after a local saint whom Perugia inhabitants and the Order of the Temple had difficulty in canonizing, reflects accurately the kind of the above-said geometry. In fact it’s easy to distinguish the rectangular shape and the six towers placed as points through a photo shot from above. These characteristics are easily distinguishable also from not aerial view that however, unlike the aerial one, doesn’t enable to observe the structure of the roof, that through inclined planes originates two triangles interlaced with their vertex that end in the six towers. pic.12 (For a similar theory, to demonstrate the stellar plan of some churches, see: Roberto Giacobbo, Riccardo Luna - Il segreto di Cheope, Newton & Compton Editori 1998, study by Diego Baratono, p. 103). To find answers about how the Templars knew these secrets it’s necessary to reconstruct the history of the Order, just beginning from the life of those men who made possible the birth of the Templars. One of those men was certainly Bernard of Clairvaux. Considered the source of inspiration of the birth of the Templars, he wrote a very important page of the occidental religiousness of the second millennium. Bernard of Clairvaux was born at Fontaines-lès- Dijon in 1090. He was a Doctor of the Church, a Cistercian monk who reformed his Order and founded the new abbey of Clairvaux in the region of Champagne (France), a counsellor of popes and specifically Master of Pope Eugene III; he was also one of the most important exponents of the medieval ascetic mysticism. He was appointed abbot at twenty3
five years of age and continued in office until his death occurred on August, 20 1153, when his monastery had sixty-eight abbeys of its affiliation.
The Order of Cistercians was founded at the beginning of the twentieth century when the Christian world was passing a spiritual and religious crisis. Just in that determinate circumstance of spiritual confusion, Saint Robert, a Cluniac abbot of the monastery of Molesmes, placed on the table-lands of Langres in Burgundy, tried to revive the observance of the rule of Saint Benedict in that abbey founded by himself in 1075. He didn’t succeed in that and so decided to found another monastery. Followed in his purpose by prior Alberico, by vice-prior Stephen Harding and by twenty monks who shared his wishes, chose a marshy locality at about twenty kilometres from Dijon, Citeaux, and in March, 21 1098, St Benedict’s Day, founded the Order of Cistercians who took their name just from the locality of Citeaux (Cistercium). Decided to return at the full observance of the rule of St Benedict, the monks followed firm and fundamental principles: the separation from the world, the sensible distribution of the time to attend to the divine service and to the work. Bernard of Clairvaux, with other thirty aspirants entered Order in 1112 and thanks to his very good qualities became in a short time a guide for all Order and not only.
At Clairvaux, a little way from Citeaux, he built a monastery including the church, the cloister and its outbuildings. It was 1135 when in all Europe the branches of the Order were about seventy, at the end of the thirteenth century they will be 694. The abbey of Clairvaux, with Citeaux one, was certainly the most representative of the Order, but also of it nothing remains. But there are some plans of that time through which it’s possible to distinguish its location plan and orientation: the plan of the church is Latin cross-shaped, oriented with its front to the west; it was a church with three aisles, covered with vaults. In France and in all Europe the ogival style, better known with the name of Gothic was coming. Bernard of Clairvaux wrote some Sermons to the Virgin and given his ability of orator he was able to tell one hundred and twenty sermons about the Canticle of Canticles of Salomon. He was an alert reader of Pliny the Elder and he got information from the “Natural History” to show the role of Christ towards the humanity. In that work there is also a reference to the “Sator”. So it’s possible that the abbot, who would become saint Bernard, decoded the enigma and decided to verify its reliability. It’s likewise possible that the materials at St Bernard’s disposal were more specific than the ones arrived at today and consequently the references were clearer . At the beginning of this research we touched upon a text about magic rituals entitled “Key of Solomon”, that includes a specimen of “Sator”. How it is deduced clearly already the title of the text presents clews such that the work deserves a greater mastering. As regards its diffusion in West Europe there are not sure news about when it appeared for the first time. In Europe this text is known through handwritten copies kept in the big libraries of London, Paris and other cities, in Latin, Italian, French languages. In the French version (eighteenth century) of the translation of Abraham Colorno (1578-1598) from Hebrew into Italian, translated on behalf of His Highness Duck of Mantua (Guglielmo or Vincenzo Gonzaga) the “Magic Square” is in Hebraic characters and around it, inserted in two concentric circles, is present the seventy-second, 8 Psalm of King Solomon, in Latin characters. The pentacle was described as a mean useful against the adversities and especially to restrain the pride (haughtiness) of the spirits.
Now we try to make clearer the connection between the “Sator” and the Psalm present around it : “Et dominabitur a mari usque ad mare, et a flumine usque ad terminos orbis terrarum” (and he will reign from a sea to another one, and from the river to the end of the word). The bull changes through Maker into man and he will dominate over all the world. It can be easily noted that the two phrases are reconcilable. As regards the grammar angle it is easy to guess that the adding phrase, beginning by the conjunction “et” (and), is evidently the continuation of another phrase. Also the fluency that emerges from the union of the two phrases would not seem to have some strains. “And he will reign” is certainly referred to the man who, being the superior creature present in the world, can aspire to govern it. This phrase is put in so close connection with the “Sator”
that assumes the role of confirmation and verification. Now it’s possible to suppose some scenes regarding the chronology of the events that happened around the Order of the Templars. As regards the interpretation of the “Sator” it would be very interesting to know if it occurred before the establishment of the Order and so also before the journey in the Holy Land by the founders of the Templars or only in a second time. This detail is very important because it would establish exactly if the first knights took from the “Sator” the information that certainly left some traces in Jerusalem. It’s sure St. Bernard was an authoritative expert of King Solomon and so it’s probable, besides reading Pliny the Elder, he read surely texts regarding the king of the Hebrew, for instance the “Key of Solomon” that, besides including an evidence of the enigma, contained also clews for its solution. Now let’s try to understand, through the history of the Templars, which could be the scenery during the first years of the twelfth century, period in which the Order was established. And where is it necessary to start from? From Jerusalem and more specifically from the Temple of Solomon. The hexagram, the Star of David that was represented by the Signet-Ring of Solomon, was the first trace to follow. In 1118 nine French knights left for Jerusalem where they were received by King Baldwin II, nephew of that Baldwin who, some years before, took part in the first crusade to conquer Jerusalem. Ugo of Payns, coming from the Champagne (a French region) and of noble birth, was at the head of the expedition in order to protect the travels of the Christian pilgrims in the Holy Land, this is at least the official reason. Three of his knights were Flemish, like the king, who very probably knew them previously. A fourth one was Andrè of Montbard, coming from Burgundi and Bernard’s uncle. In 1120 Lord Folco of Angiò joined them; then he will become king of Jerusalem marring the daughter of Baldwin II.
It might think that the principal object of the mission of the nine cavaliers wasn’t the rescue of the pilgrims, because there were few of them to fight. However in those times nobody could take the liberty of vindicating the expeditions in the Holy Land with subjects like the one included in the “Sator”. King Baldwin II ordered the knights were billeted in a wing of his palace and so they had to be very influential since to do it the king made the canons of the Holy Sepulchre transfer and, in a second time, the whole palace was at Templars’ disposal. But it was only a question to respect some hierarchies, given the noble origin of the knights, or there were other motives behind the moving of a whole Order to lodge nine knights? First of all it’s necessary to state that the royal palace, where the knights were billeted, was built on the ruins of the Temple of Solomon, whose stables were still accessible. But did they succeed in finding that Bernard of Clairvaux very probably hinted to them? The history of the Order might give some directions with regard to this. For about ten years Ugo of Payns and the other knights remained in Palestine without nobody speaking about them. In 1125 another knight joined them: it was Lord Ugo of Campagne, his power could be compared with French King’s one, who repudiated his wife and abandoned his children to go to Jerusalem. That deed was certainly directed by exceptional motivations because, if the rescue of the pilgrims going to the Holy Land is considered as a mission of the Templars, otherwise it wouldn’t be found. Then, why had to be founded a new Order to defend those lands since there were other ones to that purpose? We have not data regarding fights from the knights during those ten years of stay in the Holy Land. Afterwards they founded a new Order of soldier-monks.
13 12 11
In 1127 Ugo di Payns and five of his companions returned in France and in 1128 Bernard of Clairvaux presided in Troyes the council that ratified the birth of the Order of the Poor knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon.
Its members took the name of knights of the Temple or more simply of Templars. To be part of the
Order involved the respect of specific rules, among which there were of course the observance of the chastity and of the individual poverty. It’s very important to state that in no part of the official rule the official mission is specified: the safety of the pilgrims in the Holy Land.
Now it’s obvious that the Temple of Solomon is part of the history of this Order, since just from it derived the name itself of the Templars, who remained in the Holy Land until 1298. But is it possible that Bernard of Clairvaux and his knights, when they verified the reliability of the content of the “Sator”, couldn’t break up that mission that from the beginning had not certainly the object to make the war? Would not have been only necessary to take possession of the building that was the Temple of Solomon? Why were Bernard and Templars promoter of other crusades? Could they want a war, even if they had that truth unknown to most people? Perhaps they didn’t succeed in routing each doubt during the mission of Jerusalem and so they needed a good cause to go in the countries that could give other confirmations about what was found in Jerusalem. In almost all texts dedicated to the Templars it mints to a legend that would regard a possible connection between the Order of the soldier-monks and the recovery of the Ark of the Alliance that would have happened in Jerusalem. But according to the research done up to now it could notice that the Ark of the Alliance probably wasn’t there since a long time and that Egypt certainly was the most probable place where it could be at that time. But if in the remains of the Temple of Solomon the Ark of the Alliance wasn’t found, what did the first knights, who went to the Holy Land, find? Perhaps was the “Sator” the only trace that they followed to arrive to the learning which they had and which is still visible in many cathedrals? It’s sure they knew the ancient history of Jerusalem and as a consequence, interpreting the “Sator” and making reference to “Aeneas”, they could find the connection with the Romans and with their way. If we consider the foregoing assumption as a good one, I refer to Titus who returned the Ark to Egypt, it's’ obvious it was the country in which it was necessary to look for. It’s likewise probable the first knights who went to Jerusalem found there some traces to follow and perhaps the long time of their stay about which few data are known, just helped to do some researches. Besides it’s possible that in the remains of the Temple the knights found some graffiti similar to the ones are still today in the tombs of the great Pharaohs which we think could be copies of the contents of the Ark of the Alliance. The Order of the Templars became very powerful in a short time. The gifts that they received with the fiscal exemptions helped the Order to acquire a considerable military and economic power. This characteristic makes us suppose that around the Order there was a general consent, especially from the Church, that supported without doubt a rapid development of an organization become very powerful in a short time. The Templar knight had to keep the poverty but the Order could managed some riches. Their possessions were present, besides in the East, in France, in England, in Germany, in Spain and in Italy. Just in Southern Italy Charles I and Charles II of Angiò took trouble in order that their reign supported through an organization, of which the Templars were part, the military expeditions eastward. In 1277 Charles I of Angiò authorized friar Aimaro de Petrucia to send the horses and the arms belonged to his last son to Syria, so that the Templars could use them. There were close bonds between the dynasty of Angiò and the Templars; in fact William of Beaujeu, become Master of the Order of the Temple in 1273, was related to the French dynasty. In the same time, precisely in 1275, the relatives of Charles I of Angiò resided in a fortress that is also today on Mount Vomero of Naples. Then, in 1329, Robert of Angiò got the building enlarged that had the shape of a square surrounded with walls and two towers on the side of the entrance. This residence, called Belforte, was next to the Charterhouse of St Martin, whose construction was started about four years before thanks to the will of Charles, duke of Calabria and first-born of King
Robert. Nothing special would justify the quotation and the description of this residence, but a following restoration of the building makes it the object of a more mastered observation. The palace was already called Castrum (castle) in the documents of 1336, year in which Tino of Camaino died; he was the architect who had started the work of the two buildings belonging to Angiò family. Attanasio Primario and Francesco of Vico succeeded him to that appointment. The work of the castle, mentioned in the writings of Angiò family with big walls, corner-towers, a bell-tower and a chapel, lasted until 1343. From 1348 Belforte was called Castrum Sancti Erasmi (Castle of St Erasmus), owing to the name of the Saint to whom an ancient chapel present in the tenth century on the hill was dedicated. In the course of the years, for the corruption of the name Erasmus, the castle was called St. Ermo and then St. Elmo, while the chapel continued to be dedicated to St. Erasmus. The present architectonic shape, a star with six points, yes, this is the present shape of the fortress, dates back to 1547 when after about ten years of work architect P. Louis Escrivà of Valenza, on behalf of viceroy Pedro de Toledo, finished it. This particular and rather unusual shape, especially for a fortress, obliged the architect to defend himself from the harsh criticisms of the contemporaries in 1538, proving that the stellar structure lent itself well to the defence of the place with few men. The castle represented the lynch-pin of the defensive system of the city and it was certainly one of the most important fortresses of the Reign of Naples, constituting a real citadel with the castellan, who had civil and military jurisdictions, the chaplain, the garrison and the court. In 1587, during a storm, a lightning hid the powder magazine causing the destroying of the church and other buildings. The restorations started in 1599 and ended in1610 without changing its stellar structure. In the course of the years the fortress was used for military prison, centre of transmitters and, when the necessity to have a lonely fortress finished, today St. Elmo is in a closer relation with the city that has expanded immoderately on the hill of Vomero. Around Piazza d’Armi there are the Offices of the Superintendence of the Artistic and Historic Goods of Naples and of its province and in the last years the castle is used as place of cultural initiatives, among which exhibitions and conventions.
Now it’s possible to think that the shape of the star with six points was carried out for military aims considering that Folco V of Angiò was one of the first Templar knights and also king of Jerusalem because he succeeded to King Baldwin II, that Charles I and Charles II of Angiò were in close relations with the Order of the Temple on the occasion of the crusades and that the relatives of Charles I lived in the fortress, that William of Beaujeu, Master of the Temple, in 1273 was relative of Angiò dynasty and that St. Martin, to whom the charterhouse next to castle was dedicated, is a Templar protector Saint. It’s possible to suppose that Pedro de Toledo had the possibility to accede to secret documents kept perhaps in the ancient fortress or in the charterhouse of St. Martin, and when he knew the real meaning of the star with six points, formed with two interlaced triangles, wanted to immortalize it in the walls of a military construction, so he succeeded in justifying himself with pretexts of defensive nature. Was that shape just necessary for a more efficacious defence given the criticisms that it would have stimulated? Perhaps it will never know if the star that is in the city of Naples is to put in relation with the Templars and so with the “Sator” because there aren’t specific documents; but some doubts and some right beliefs remains, about which clearness must be done. With regard to that it will be very interesting to know the history of Angiò family who, as we will see, had an important part in the expeditions to the Holy Land and as a consequence close relations with the Order of the Temple. Angiò is a zone in French department “Centre”, situated in North France whose principal town is Angers. The first real founder of the counts of Angiò was Folco the Red. That Folco appeared for the first time in documents as a viscount after 886, but only after 930 was really count of Angers. To him succeeded his son Geoffrey Grisegonelle who had five children from two marriages: with Adele of Vermandoies and with Gislebert’s daughter Adele, count of Autun and Chalon. Folco III, nicknamed Nerra (the Black), was the first-born and succeeded to Geoffrey living a life full of passions and conflicts. He went to Jerusalem for three times as a pilgrim in 1003, in about 1020 and finally in 1039. He dead in 1040 at Metz coming back from Jerusalem. During the period in which he was in power founded some abbeys: of Loches, of St. Nicolas of Angers and of Roncerai. To him succeeded his son Geoffrey II, nicknamed the Hammer, who governed from 1040 to 1060. From his marriage with Agnes, former widow of the duke of Aquitania, he had not children and with him the first dynasty of the counts of Angiò ended.
From then the zone of Angiò handed to the viscounts of Oreléans or Gatinas, since Geoffrey the Hammer designated as a heir his nephew Geoffrey the Bearded, first-birth of his sister Ermengarda and of Geoffrey of Chateaulandon. The other son Folco IV, who inherited only few possessions, disagreed immediately with his brother and after some disputes he succeeded in prevailing over his brother, that his son Folco V might rise to power. It knows which were the relations of Folco V with the Templars and Jerusalem of which he became king. Up till now we have known how the dynasty of Angiò already in the past had close relations with the Holy City, that continued also in the next centuries. Accepting the throne of Jerusalem, Folco V left the control of the zone of Angiò to his son Geoffrey V the Handsome, had in 1113 from the marriage with Ermentrude. Geoffrey V the Handsome, called the Plantagenet, given his habit to have a twig of broom on his cap, in 1127 married Mathilda, daughter of Henry I King of England. The zone of Angiò remained under the control of England until 1234 when Lewis IX, king of France, annexed it to the French territory and in 1246 he allotted the counties of Angiò and Maine.
Charles I of Angiò took part in the crusade of 1249 against Egypt with his brother Lewis IX. In that crusade, that would have served to liberate Jerusalem from the taking of the Muslims, the bigger western kingdoms took part, but soon the object became the conquest of the Egyptian capital. The historians report that, after the capture of Amietta by the crusaders, the military action was less difficult than expected, sultan Ayyub would have proposed to King Lewis the assignment of all territory of Jerusalem and the liberation of the Christian captives in exchange for the city. The reply of the king was so that the sultan of Egypt had to prepare the defence for the Cairo before the illness, that tormented him, causing his death. But why did Lewis IX, then became St. Lewis, not accept the offer of the sultan of Egypt who returned Jerusalem to the West? Was really the liberation of the Holy Land the principal object of that crusade? The connection emerged since the beginning of this research of the “Sator” with Egypt would make suppose that some information and evidences kept in this country were so important to justify a big military action, like the crusade led by King Lewis IX of France. The crusade ended with the victory from the Muslims. This part of the research dedicated to Angiò dynasty, particularly to their contacts with Jerusalem, want to be a further proof that among the “Sator”, the Templars, the Crusades and Egypt there was a very close relation whose traces are visible still today. Returning to Charles I of Angiò it’s necessary to point out that besides becoming king of Sicily, before supported by Pope Urbano IV and then, when he died, by his successor Pope Clement IV, was king of Jerusalem too, for the claims acquired from Mary of Antioch in 1277.
Previously the Kingdom of Sicily was into the hands of the Normans with Frederic II of Sweden and afterwards with Manfredi, his descendant. In that king of Sicily also Frederic participated in the crusades incurring protests that caused also his excommunication from the pope.
Frederic II (1194-1250) is mentioned especially because he got Castel del Monte built, that is the object of many studies for its particular structure. The building is on the low hills near Andria (a town in the province of Foggia, Italy) from which it’s possible to see the sea and the coast to Gargano. Built around 1240 it’s a real hymn to the octagonal geometric shape: the base of the castle is octagonal and eight octagonal towers are placed at its vertex, the inside courtyard is octagonal, so also an altar. The building has not the typical characteristics of a Medieval castle, in fact it doesn’t seem impregnable. Its two floors have the same base and they are symmetrical, even if the floor below is definitely more solid. The eight trapezoid rooms, of course eight room for each floor, are endowed with hygienic services, chimney for heating and they are decorated so that all structure is worth of an imperial palace, how a throne testifies. According to some the proportion of the central portal would be to connect with the ones of the Temple of Solomon, basing also them on the “golden” number 1,618. The octagonal shape was used also by the Templars to build sacred places. This architectonic structure is present in many churches and monuments, both in the West and in the East. As regards the octagonal constructions present in Europe, there are many clews that they have to be connected with the Order of the Templars. There are evidences in Italy, Portugal, Spain, France.
But which was the relation between Frederic II and the Templars? And who was really this emperor, defined the last Pharaoh? He was born at Jesi (Italy) on December, 26 th 1184, son of Henry VI and Constance of Altavilla. When he was twenty years old, became king of Germany, Sicily and Puglia and in 1220 he was solemnly crowned emperor in St. Peter basilica. Pledged himself with the Church to leave for the crusade, in fact it was up to him being the emperor, he succeeded in putting off his departure fixed on June, 1st 1216. In 1223 his first wife, Constance of Aragon, died, so that Frederic II in 1225 got married again with Isabel, daughter of Giovanni of Brienne, heir of the title of king of Jerusalem. In 1227 he had to leave for the crusade, on pain of excommunication from Pope Gregory IX who meanwhile succeeded Onorio III. Boarded at Brindisi (Italy), he had to return after few days because of an epidemic broken out in the ships. Pressed and even excommunicated, Frederic left for the Holy Land on June 1228 where, obtained Jerusalem from sultan al-Kamil, he crowned himself king for the rights acquired by the marriage with Isabel of Brienne. The imperial life of Frederic II was characterized with repeated clashes with the papacy: among disputes, wars and even excommunications, the emperor even didn’t prove himself near the Church. Nick-named the “sultan baptised”, he led a life that was very much like an Arab’s one. He had a harem and used constantly water for his personal health: all that made him more alike those personages who became his closest friends as sultan of Egypt al-Malik al-Kamil and the sultan of Tunisi.
It’s obvious that Frederic II was in contact with many populations and so his learning had to be considerable. He took part in the crusades and became king of Jerusalem: these events would bear witness to his close relation with the Order of the Temple; his very good relations with the Arab peoples, particularly with the sultan of Egypt, prove that the emperor was certainly initiated to the mysteries from which a mystic architecture flowed, that was characteristic of that period. Frederic II dead in the Castle of Fiorentino in Puglia on December, 13 rd 1250. It seems he never lived in Castle del Monte since, probably, when he died it was not finished yet, and his only descendants who lived there were as prisoners, given the use from Charles I of Angiò.
Now let’s try to understand how the octagon could be connected with the hexagram, because it’s necessary to not forget that it is the shape that sums up what emerged from the “Sator”, that is the main subject of this research. In the chapter dedicated to the star with six points it could establish this symbol was spread in all ancient civilizations, also appearing under a different iconography. Now let’s try to summarize which is the meaning that is attributed to the octagon and to the number eight in general. Eight is the number of the cosmic equilibrium, of the cardinal directions added to the intermediate ones, of the compass-card and of the Athenian Tower of the winds. This Pentelic marble Greek monument, built with an octagonal shape, was very well-known for a frieze that contained symbolic figures of the “Winds”, on its roof there was a Triton-vane showing the direction of the winds, while inside, it seems, there was a very ancient water-clock. and the petals of the lotus, too.
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Usually the spokes of a wheel are eight
The octagon itself is worth as a mediation between the square and
the circle, that is between the world and the sky and so it is connected with the intermediate world. The trigrams of the I-ching are eight; they take also the shape of the octagon. The pilasters that support the dome vault of the ancient Chinese temple “Ming-t’ang” are eight and lean on a square base.
Previously we saw that just in Ancient China the representation of the trigrams, whose combination produces the hexagrams, happened with an octagonal disposition, being eight the trigrams from which derive all combinations that form the sixty-four hexagrams that compose the “I-ching”, or the Book of the Mutations. The Chinese symbolism of the trigrams, whose paternity would be due to mythic emperor Fu-hi (twenty- fourth century B. C.)
bases itself on the combination of two determinants: the continuous line corresponding to the yang, the sky and the broken line corresponding to the yin, the world. Considering the trigrams of the I-ching, formed by continuous and broken lines, are obtained adding one line to the digrams, it’s necessary paying attention to the plan of the castle. Its rooms pic.13 are formed and separated by continuous and broken lines (walls) so as to follow continuous and broken lines. Referring to the trigrams of the I-ching, Castle del Monte might be seen and interpreted as follows: the big octagonal construction would mean the trigrams and consequently the hexagrams, while the eight octagonal towers would mean the sixty-four hexagrams that form the I-ching. Now it’s little difficult to find a relation between the Templar architecture (some attributed the make of Castle del Monte to Templar architects) and Ancient China, even if it’s obvious that the hexagram and the octagon too, have the same meaning both in the East and in the West, and so it’s probable the same knowledge were peculiar to different peoples. When Frederic II made the castle built was not inspired by Ancient China, but probably by other civilizations that had the same knowledge and so the code, hidden in continuous and broken lines, was universal among the ancient civilizations. The union between the sky and the world, so between the circle and the square, finds its most ancient position and representation in Ancient Egypt and specially in the Plain of Giza where Cheops’s pyramid, whose base is square-shaped, includes the “P” Greek (3,14) and the golden number 1,618 (referred to the integral monument) Monte. too.
that may be found also in the octagonal construction of Castle del
Also many Baptisteries are octagonal and it’s just for this reason that the octagon means resurrection, The Dome of the Rock, known especially with the name of Mosque of Omar, placed in Jerusalem on the plain where the Temple of Solomon was built, is octagonal. Started in 688-689 and finished in 691692 by omayyade caliph Abd al-Malik it is very original: on the external octagonal wall four doors open towards the four cardinal points; inside a ring of four pilasters alternated with twelve columns holds a high tambour up on which there is the wooden cupola, originally covered with lead plates and golden brass sheets (reconstructed after the collapse in 1106); between the inside ring and the perimeter octagon there is an octagonal arcade including twenty-four arches supported by eight pilasters alternated with sixteen columns. The two concentric ambulatories obtained from this disposition are appointed for the circumambulation around the sacred object, the Holy Rock. This rock is a sacred symbol both for the Hebrews, who consider it the point of the mountain where Abram was going to immolate his son to God, and for the Muslims, who consider it the place from which Mohammed left to reach the sky during his night journey.
Probably this very original Moslem construction influenced very much the Templar architecture that numbers among its constructions many octagon-shaped buildings. Castle del Monte itself, whether it is attributed to Frederic II or to the Templars themselves, might originate from this construction. Returning to the relation between the circle and the square, that finds its graphic representation in the octagon, it’s possible asserting, as well as the hexagram, it means the man, that is the union of the matter (square-world) with the spirit (circle-sky). Some religious buildings base themselves on the use of the circle and the square referring unequivocally to the dualistic system sky-world. Another octagon-shaped monument, that exists still today and is of Cistercian origin, is the bell-tower situated in the Principality of Lucedio. In this zone, placed near the towns of Trino and Crescentino (in the province of Vercelli), in 1123 the Cistercian monks installed themselves coming from the abbey of La Fertè in Burgundy, perhaps led by St. Bernard himself. They built a church dedicated to St. Mary and called the monastery St Mary of Lucedio. Of this construction only the octagonal bell-tower remains, the rest, that can be admired still today, dates back to constructions of the eighteenth century when on the ruins of the ancient church another one was built, dedicated to St. Mary of the Assumption. Going into the court of the abbey it’s possible to observe, on the right, another church built by the Cistercians and
called “of the people”: on 22 nd of May, every year, St. Bovone’s Day was celebrated; St. Bovone was a martyr of the Theban legion and was considered the protector of the bovines.
What a coincidence!
Returning to the history of Jerusalem and to the crusades, that saw Angiò family as active protagonist, it is to speak about the leading role of Charles I, who contended for the throne of the Holy City with Hugh III of Cyprus who, being a grand-nephew of Isabel of Jerusalem, tried to got possession of the royal title. But Charles I, using the rights acquired from Mary of Antioch, Isabel’s nephew and unwilling to the ascent to power of Hugh, arranged with her to have her rights on Jerusalem for a substantial life annuity in 1277. For his political action Charles had the full support by the Order of the Temple, which in that time was led by William of Beaujeu, elected in May 1273 and, as seen previously, married into Angiò family. Arrived at Jerusalem in 1275 William declared himself to be faithful to Charles immediately. He was descendant from a baronial family too, of the lords of Beaujeu, and he had a considerable political influence that he placed at Charles I disposal. Just during an attempt of Hugh III of Cyprus to seize the throne of Jerusalem the Order of the Temple had a conclusive role in order that the fact didn’t happen, so incurring the wrath of Hugh III to itself and particularly to Great Master William and the confiscation of the goods that the knights owned in the island. The power that William of Beaujeu and all the Order reached was so great that the Great Master was accused of behaving like a king; the relations themselves William had with the sultan of the Egypt and the Muslim environment, from which, it seems, he got precious information, were the object of further accusations. The Great Master had also the possibility to negotiate agreements with the infidels in perfect harmony with the politics adopted by king of Jerusalem Charles I, that based itself on the preservation of the good relations between the king of Sicily and the sultan of Egypt, how Frederic II did previously.
In 1270 Charles I took part again in a crusade. It was the eighth one and also that time it was led by St. Lewis who, with the full support of Clement IV, succeeded in involving also Edward of England. Charles, who at that time was king of Sicily, after taking away Manfredi the throne, son of Frederic II of Sweden, found himself in a rather anomalous situation, in fact the historians supposed he wanted to use the war organized by his brother Lewis IX for personal ends. In that period Jerusalem was in a very precarious situation and it was not clear why the king of France decided to change the destination of the expedition to Tunisia, country which was negotiating just with the king of Sicily to look over some trade agreements stipulated with Manfredi. At that time Tunisia was governed by the Hafsidi, who in 1228 emancipated from the domination of the Almohadi and had peaceful relations with the Christian kingdoms, among which there was the one of Sicily, where through a tribune they could stock up with wheat. Still in Tunisia the partisans of the Hohenstaufen sought refuge, branch from which Frederic II descended, but it’s rather improbable to think that king Lewis IX might change the destination of the crusade because of the possible influence of his brother Charles I. But why did he decide to change the objective of the expedition towards Tunisia and to tell the allies it only at the last moment? The answer could seem repeated but once more Egypt was the real and main object of the crusade. Tunisia had to be only a means to make the invasion through the dry land easier. The Franks counted very much on the help of the Mongols to can overcome Egypt but the military problems which at that time tormented Abaqa (Khan of Iran) caused some retards of the covenant of alliance and once more the attempted invasion of Egypt, organized by Lewis IX and authorized by Clement IV, had not success, since Charles I and his troops, which had to arrive in Tunis, retarded, too. The situation rushed and the spread of some epidemics caused many losses among which there was John Tristam, the second son of the king. Lewis himself fell ill and died after about three weeks of stay in his bed. It was 25 th August 1270.
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Charles I of Angiò, after arrived at Tunis, came to an agreement with the sultan: they agreed to a truce that fixed twice the payment of the tribute due to the king of Sicily from the sultan.
Egypt, as pointed out in the history of the crusades, was a real military objective from the Franks and the other kingdoms that on several occasions they tried to invade without never succeed in it. Doing the research so as to have some reliable verifications and connections, on the ground of what
emerged from the “Sator” with Ancient Egypt, it’s possible to suppose the objective was not the Egyptian possessions, or rather, also its spiritual riches were important thanks to the very important knowledge and the many archaeological ruins. Besides it’s to remember that important personages, like Frederic II and William of Beaujeu, had good relations with the sultans who at that time governed Egypt and so it’s possible, perhaps sure, that there were exchanges of mind about the subjects that characterized the religions of all world. Going back to the “Sator” and Angiò family, now it’s very interesting to master two medieval buildings, the Castle of Chinon and the Castle of Loches, both situated in the Valley of the Loira, in France. Just these two constructions, belonged to Angiò family, will make us understand how this dynasty and noble France of that period knew the meaning of the “Sator” and that the way followed in this research is right, or near enough. Two of the many specimens, which are in France, are kept respectively in the Castle of Loches and in the Castle of Chinon. The Castle of Loches, that existed already in the sixth century as a “castellum”, was given up in 840 by Charles the Bald to his faithful knight who gave Folco the Black of Angiò dynasty it. It is a fortress fortified with an exceptional defensive system consisting of solid walls and high towers. During the thirteenth century it was the scene of long disputes for the possession of Touraine, contended by Henry II Plantagenet, king of England and his sons Richard Lion-heart and John Landless against Philip Augustus. During the fifteenth century it became the residence preferred by Charles VII, who however didn’t disdain even the Castle of Chinon, residence that received him in his young age when he was not yet king. It was the evening of 28 th June 1418 when Paris was besieged by the Burgundians and the young Dauphin was put in safety in the Castle of Chinon, so beginning a long time that would have seen the castles built in the valley of the Loira as the residences preferred by the sovereigns of France. The Castle of Chinon is especially remembered for the history that regards Joan of Arc who is celebrated by the French on 8th May every year. At that time Henry IV was king of England and king of Paris and Charles IV had to be satisfied of the title of king of Bourges.
A tale about Joan of Arc is very interesting: she would have been part of the heirs of the Templars with her squire Jean of Aulon. During the coronation of Charles VII, that happened in the cathedral of Reims, the master of ceremonies tried to refuse the entry to the Maid’s banner who, being a military head, had the right to own it. Very probably it was not her banner, that would not have met with difficulty in going into the cathedral, but it was the Beausséant, the Templar banner, a half of sand colour and a half of silver colour. Afterwards Joan of Arc was rehabilitated but she was treated like the last Great Master: she was burned alive with the accusation to be heretic.
The Castle of Chinon, built near the Vienne (Loira’s tributary), lodged the court until 1450; then it moved to Amblois and to Blois. The Castle was used again by Lewis XII in 1498 to receive Caesar Borgia who was sent by the pope to dissolve his marriage with Joan of France and to make it possible for him to marry Anne of Brittany and so add also her territories to France. Today doesn’t remain very much of the complete structure of the fortress: the magnificent structure, some towers among which the Tour de l’Horologe (Tower of the Clock) with the bell Marie Javelle, that strikes the hours since 1399 and the Tour D’Argenton (Tower of Argenton) built about the end of the fifteenth century where, it seems, Lewis XI got the prisoners locked up. In the cylindrical tower of the castle Joan of Arc was lodged, just where some centuries before the Templars were locked up, whose enigmatic engravings it’s possible to read also today on the walls.
The specimens of the “Sator” present in the fortress belonged Angiò dynasty might be done by the Templars, who, as seen, were imprisoned in the Castle of Chinon, or by those whom took part in the expeditions to the Holy Land with them, so it is not certain that Angiò family who lived there later on knew the real meaning of the enigma. The very close connection among the Order of Templars, Jerusalem and the sovereigns of France would suppose those very important mysteries kept in the “Sator” were handed down through the generations of sovereigns who succeeded during the years. Just for this reason it’s quite probable also Charles VII knew those mysteries and we can find a proof of it in Agnès Sorel’s house, situated in
Beaulieu-les-Loches. Agnès Sorel, a beautiful woman and descendant from a well-off family, was presented in 1435 to Charles VII and when she was twenty years old, about 1444, became the favourite of the king. She was interested in the affairs of State and in luxury. The king gave her precious jewels and oriental objects. Her religious life was characterized by a marked devotion that manifested itself in the many attentions that she did to the local church of Notre Dame of Loches, today known with the name of Saint’Ours. From Charles VII she had four children and she died when she was twenty-eight years old because of a difficult pregnancy, even if at that time it rumoured about her probable poisoning from the son of the king, the future king Lewis XI, who, fallen in love with her, wasn’t responded. Agnès, just for that reason, left Chinon for Loches. Buried in the chapel of Loches, place dear to her and to which she predisposed a bequest of two thousands of gold écu and, when Lewis XI ascended the throne, ran the risk that the monks assigned to that sacred place got her remains removed from the chapel of the castle, but they changed their mind to not return her gifts. Agnès’s remains stayed their place, under an alabaster monument, until the revolution when the insurgents went into the castle and mistook it for a saint’s one violated it destroying statue. Later on Agnès Sorel’s remains were transferred in the castle and today her white marble tomb is decorated with some lambs and angels who represent the sweetness of the Lady of Beauté, a name derived from the castle of Beauté situated on the outskirts of Paris and given to her by Charles VII. Agnès received from Charles a castle for each child had from him and among those there was also the castle of Loches, that she preferred without doubt.
If the two specimens of the “Sator” present in the fortress of Chinon and Loches had not a particular meaning why would Agnès Sorel have wanted one of theme in her house? It’s difficult to think she wanted to put a epigraph like the one of the “Sator”, certainly seen for the first time in the fortress of Chinon and Loches, in her private residence without knowing its meaning. The history of Angiò family was so closely to the history of the “Sator” that it’s very sceptical to consider these events as coincidences; of course, the subject imposes to think with scepticism but also with objectivity. Before the devotion of Agnès Sorel to the church of Notre Dame of Loches (today of Saint’Ours) was mentioned, for this reason we are going to give some information about it. Built for the will of Geoffrey Grisegonelle, about whom it was spoken in the history of Angiò family, its construction lasted until the fifteenth century. In the twelfth century two octagonal pyramids were built, whose cavities formed the vault of two central spans. These were a nave and two aisles. The “dubes”, this is the name of the particular pyramids that derives from the cover of the baptismal font, so connect the symbol of the pyramids with the symbol of the octagon, about which it was spoken amply previously. Going back to the Templars and theirs constructions, there are some interesting references in the imposing Castle of Lombardy, situated in Enna (a Sicilian town). The castle was entrusted to the chivalry of the Order by the Normans and the present structure dates back to the twelfth or the thirteenth century. Probably the Templars lodged in the third court of the castle, the one of Saint Martin or of the Commanders, where are still the ruins of the Chapel of Saint Martin, of the saloon of the Knights and a large rocky subterranean oratory in which the Mysteries of Mithra or of the Sun were celebrated, as the strange and initiation ceremonies carved on the rock attest. The Castle of Lombardy was joined, through a secret underground passage, to the octagonal Tower of Frederic II (also called Tower of the Winds) whose architectonic lines recall a reference, besides the number eight, to the number three, too: the floors were three (today they are two); the walls surrounding it were three and they were 3,30 metres in thickness; the windows that let light into the saloons were three. Studies effected during the last years let us to define that the “tower of the Winds” was built, not fortuitously, on the very ancient platform where the land-surveyor with a kind of goniometer used by the Romans, centring Enna, outlined and marked out the Sicilian road network formed by three large roads of communication, threelegged, that recalls a very ancient and esoteric symbol of Sicily.
Some evidences, as seen, point out the interest that the Templars turned to the Cult of Mithra. The crusades put the Knights in touch with the Arab-Byzantine culture that they might know and master
other religions, and since the Cult of Mithra bases itself on the bull, it’s inevitable an investigation about the link that the Order had with it. In this connection reliable evidences are given by caskets of Templar origin: one comes from Essarois (Burgundy), not far from the temple of Voulaine, the other one comes from Florence. On the cover of the specimen of French provenance, it is 25 by 19 centimetres in breadth and 13 centimetres in height, the decorations include a figure of androgyne who has an embattled tower like Cibele on his head and holds a decorated stick in his each hand: one is decorated with a waxing moon and the other with a solar disk (the sky and the world, the spirit and the matter). Near his feet there are two stars separated by a skull. An Arab inscription is indecipherable. On the sides of the casket there are erotic scenes. At the corner there is a warrior who attracts to him two children on a crocodile and on another side there is a winged genie who wears a crown while another personage is taking an axe and a rudder. On another side four figures immolate a bull on a lighted altar. The Italian casket is nearly identical to the French one, but on it it’s possible to see a funeral scene of cremation. Still in Sicily, in the cathedral of Monreale, there are other evidences of the initiation of the Templars to the Mysteries of Mithra. The belonging of the cathedral to the Templars would be proved by a capital of the cloister with the Templars patriarchal cross, in which typical manners, with a clear alchemic meaning, of the royal portal of the cathedral of Chartres were found. Again, on the capital of the cloister duelling knights (the Templars) and Mithra, who immolates the bull, are represented. At Monreale it’s possible to find many symbols that prove the presence of the Templars: the cross is on the Mosaic walls, on the gate of the transenna of the choir and in the chapels of the cathedral; the star with eight points and the Cistercian rose are present on the ceiling and on the floor. Besides the Abbey of Monreale was entrusted to the Benedictine monks of Cava dei Tirreni (a town near Naples), founders, with Amalfi monks, of the Order of Malta Knights, who had a very close relation with the Templars.
As a proof of the close connection between the “Sator” and the star with six points there is an ancient print reproduced in a magic book that, given the figures that form it, deserves a scrupulous scrutiny. pic.14 In three concentric circles, that are turned by an eagle, an angel, a bull and a winged lion, there is a specimen of the “Sator” set in a star with six points, that is the seat of a man and a woman placed upside down. The connection between the “Sator” and the star with six points can’t be fortuitous. Then the addition of the four symbols that represent the Evangelists and the two human figures inserted in the star would leave few doubts about the interpretation given to the enigma. Besides the four symbols that represent the Evangelists also the four universal elements are combined: Eagle - Air - S. John Lion - Fire- S. Mark Bull - World - S. Luke Angel - Water - S. Matthew. Recapitulating we can assert that in this representation of the “Sator” there are different combinations of symbols that prove the same theory: the union between the sky and the world, or the Man. This work is the group of all the elements necessary for a right and complete interpretation of the “Sator”, that finds an analogous connection in the Church of S. Peter ad Oratorium. Between Capestrano and Bussi, two towns in the province of L’Aquila (Italy), written upside down on a slab set in the front of the church (twelfth century), there is a representation of the enigma quoted many times. The decorations of the apse are very interesting: some frescos of the twelfth century portray Christ on the throne among the symbols of the Evangelists whose real meaning we could verify, even if the presence of the bull, at this point, makes some doubts about the probable connection of the four elements. In the print described before the four symbols were put in close relation with the “Sator”, in which we could check the role of the bull. For this reason, perhaps, the interpretation that is to give to the bull and consequently to the other three symbols, too, must be revised towards the content of the “Sator” and precisely as follows: the Eagle would represent the Sun, the Word, or God, the Angel would represent his emissary, whom we may identify with Osiris, the Bull would represent the creative power and the Lion, that looks at East, and so associable to the Sphinx, would represent the Place. The first construction of the church dates back to the eighth century while the present plan is of the twelfth century, during which some works of restoration enlarged and modified it after the Romanesque style.
In the tarots we find a substantial confirmation that the symbols of the Evangelists are to interpret in according to the theory explained here. Just the twenty-first Arcanum , the World, includes the analyzed symbols. Observing the picture we can notice: the bull, the lion, the angel and the eagle placed outside of a circle (the Zodiac) in which there is a feminine figure; still on the circle, up and down, there are two crosses arranged in conformity with the orientation of the cross on S. Andrew. There are many interpretations about the origin of the tarots; it thinks that they might come from China, from India, from Egypt or even that they might be the work of Hermes. Egypt and Hermes (Thot), but also China and India, had in this research an important role that makes us consider these hypotheses may be the right ones.
Up to now it could verify that the Country might keep other information about the content of the “Sator” was Egypt. It’s probable that, as Emperor Vespasian and his son Titus, who before going back to Rome had a rest in Egypt, also the nine knights who went in first to the Holy Land found some references with Egypt and so tried to go towards that Country. Besides it’s necessary to remember a detail that has both a very revealing importance and an indicative one: Vespasian and Titus, when they have arrived at Rome, chose the Temple of Isis as their temporary abode. Officially the Occidentals went into the heart of Egypt only in the sixteenth century. In that time the first explorations of the magnificent monuments began and among the many explorers there was also Paul Lucas who, sent by the king of France Lewis XVI, arrived at the conclusion that the Big Pyramids were gnomons, or solar clocks.
We could verify in the chapter dedicated to the Egyptians that the Pyramids told the time, perhaps rather particular. We have to understand if also Lewis XIV knew their real meaning and with regard to this the surname that the king himself adopted might give an interesting reference. The surname king Sun, Lewis XIV liked to make himself called in this way, might be an interesting reference to the possible knowledge that he had. The intention to go in Egypt, that manifested itself during all time of the crusades, found an end with Lewis XIV, the King Sun. Since 1667 to 1672 the Astronomic Observatory was realized in Paris, on behalf of Lewis XIV, by design of Claude Perrault. Entrusted since its completion to Italian astronomer Domenico Cassini was the seat of many other distinguished astronomers until 1845.
was 28 metres in height and extended in the underground with an analogous depth. In the subterranean part, that as seen were very deep, arouses much curiosity the finding out of a statue representing a black Virgin that will appear less unusual in the course of the chapter. This small statue seems to be a copy of the one of the cathedral of Chartres, about which we will speak later. Is it possible that king Lewis XIV knew the real meaning of the Big Pyramids and so he wanted to build an observatory to look for some confirmations? The statuette of the Black Virgin found in the subterranean parts of his Parisian observatory would make to suppose it. And during the first two centuries of the second millennium who did know those secrets that still today are kept in the tombs of the great Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt? In France there are some buildings that would make to think that some knew those mysteries, that we found kept in the Egyptian monuments in existence, and particularly some time references (constellation of Virgin) that we pointed out both in Senmut’s tomb and in the Plain of Giza. With regard to that, the above-cited cathedral of Chartres and other cathedrals built in the North of France and dedicated to Notre Dame are very important. The cathedral of Chartres, situated in northern France, is certainly one of the most important cathedrals built in the Templar period. Just this construction would have in its proportions the above-quoted gold number (1,618) that, as seen, was really in Cheops’s pyramid, too. The first construction, dating back around the fourth century, was destroyed by the Normans; in 1020
bishop Fulberto began again the construction of the building that, not finished yet, was destroyed by lightning in 1194. Starting from the central portal, the only one that remained intact in the fire, the cathedral was built again during only twenty-six years. This cathedral, considered one of the finest specimens of the Gothic art, is part of a group of other cathedrals that were built in the North of the France since the twelfth to the thirteenth century and were dedicated to the Virgin (Notre Dame). In that same period the crusades were happening and the attention was turned to Egypt. Thanks to a study done about the disposition of the cathedrals dedicated to “Notre Dame” in the North of France, precisely in the Parisian territory of Ancient France, a assumption was pointed out that their set represents the constellation of the Virgin, her would make to think to a reliable assumption.
and the fact that each of them is just dedicated to
The orientation of these churches is very particular. First of all their shape bases itself on a crossshaped plan and the transepts that form it are orientated to North - East and to South - West as regards the shorter one and to North- West and South- East as regards the longer one. All they have the apse turned to South - East and their front to North -West, so that when a somebody goes in, goes straight to the sanctuary with his face turned to the sun, or to the east.
Besides it’s to remember that in the dimensions of the cathedral of Chartres the gold number (1,618), that corresponds to the proportions of the human body, is included. Perhaps would all this mean that the man is to put in relation with the constellation of the Virgin? In the chapter regarding Egypt we verified how between the constellation of Virgin and the creation of the man there was a close connection and this fact makes us to think that very probably the Templars, who built those churches, that represent the constellation of Virgin on the French land, knew those secrets about which we found evidences in the tombs of the Pharaohs and in the Plain of Giza itself. Another proof about the solid knowledge of the Templars. Still about the cathedral of Charters it’s necessary to state that this building, in the same way as others quoted formerly, is the result of a considerable knowledge unknown at the time of its building. The dimensions of the cathedral presuppose a very accurate knowledge of the terrestrial globe and of its dimensions
and so the builders had to own specific documents on which based themselves.
Speaking about Egypt and about the interest that was given to it during the period of the crusades and later, too, we supposed this country might be the principal keeper of the ancient mysteries of the creation and so the fact that some Templar constructions represent the constellation of the Virgin makes the doubt arise that the interpretation given to the Egyptian tomb documents, and perhaps to the monuments of the Plain of Giza, may be right. Previously we cited that the most ancient monument including the gold number is Cheops’s pyramid, placed, as known, in the Plain of Giza. To Cheops’s pyramid the assumption was attributed to represent, with the other two pyramids (Chephren’s and Mycerinus’s), the Orion’s Belt (you may consult the chapter about Apis) as it appeared in a determinate period of the past. The Sphinx, that is part of the set of monuments of the Plain, according to a latest study, in that period was exactly looking at the constellation of the Virgin (through the vernal point, the real East, in that period the constellation of the Virgin passed) and not Lion’s one as it might seem at first. If it was so, the points in common with the cathedrals of North France, and dedicated to Notre Dame, would be so sure that a clear connection could be among them and evidently between the man and the constellation of the Virgin. Now we try to find references with what emerged from the “Sator”, using the many works that adorn the cathedral of Chartres and that are also in other churches, built by the Templars, too. We can remember the labyrinth dating back to 1200 in whose middle a metal plate was placed, on which the fight of Theseus against the Minotaur was described, making a reference to the myth of Cnosso and to the Egyptian labyrinth. Now in its place there is a rose with six petals, a strong reference to the Signet of Solomon. The labyrinth was a real place of pilgrimage that replaced, for those who didn’t go in the Holy Land, Jerusalem itself. The believer who succeeded in arriving to the middle of the labyrinth became a “New Man” who initiated to some learning could consider himself as revived.
About the meaning of the labyrinth and of the fight of Theseus against the Minotaur was written in the preceding chapter and so now we especially consider the relation that they have with Jerusalem. Perhaps are there the answers to the questions that the man wondered since the most ancient times? Why the labyrinth, and consequently the Minotaur, was put in a close relation with Jerusalem? The dimensions themselves of the work prove the primary importance that was given to it; during the Middle Ages was called “chemin de Jerusalem” (way to Jerusalem) and this fact may show a very close connection with the Holy City. The representation of the labyrinth was widespread in the French churches: it’s possible to remember Bayeux’s one, Reims’ one and Amiens’ one. Just in the last one, in the middle of the labyrinth, there was a big plate with a set gold bar and with gold semicircle that represented the rising of the sun above the line of the horizon; then the gold sun was replaced with copper one that was removed and put back again never more.
Besides the labyrinths present in the cathedrals have not false ways and so they are not real labyrinths. There is only one possible way. It’s hard and winding and it leads to the initiation of the mysteries. The representations prove how some pagan subjects were included in the Christian iconography and finding the right connection among them means to know the mysteries of the life itself. Other works, in this case sculptures, represent the so-called four symbols of the Evangelists: eagle, lion, bull, angel. The main subject present in the cathedral of Chartres, and in all other ones dedicated to Notre Dame, is the Virgin without doubt. From her the name given to them derives and so it’s obvious that is in the centre of attention, especially of ours. Also the Virgin, as other symbols, is not only part of the Christian iconography and the fact that there are some representations that reproduce her black, particularly the ones present in the churches about which we are speaking, makes to suppose that it has nothing to do with the representation of Christ’s mother. In the cathedral of Chartres there are two: one called with the name of “Notre Dame Sous Terre”, original of the one discovered in the subterranean parts of the Astronomic Observatory wanted by king Lewis XIV, is placed in the crypt sitting on a throne on whose base there is the inscription “Virgini Pariturae”; the other one is situated in the church and is called “Notre Dame du Pilier”. several occasions the Virgin is represented crowned with a halo of stars.
In the ancient times the subterranean rooms of the temples were used as places to keep Isis’ statues, later replaced with the black Virgins. The symbolism of these two representations is identical: both Isis’ statues and black Virgins’ ones show on their base the famous inscription “Virgin Pariturae” (to the Virgin who has to bear). The statues that represented Isis and that bore the above-cited inscription were numerous, especially in the past. It’s obvious that these representations had nothing to do with the Christianity since they were preceding to Christ’s birth. The cult of Isis, Egyptian Cerere, was very mysterious and still today it doesn’t know very much about it. Every year she was celebrated solemnly and an ox was offered in sacrifice to her. Only the initiates could take part in the rites, it was a prerogative of the Egyptians and the Greeks who punished the transgressor with the death.
sees them as gods’ mothers.
Also Cibele and Rea are likened to Isis, for their common inscription that On some of them, very ancient, there was the inscription “Virgo
paritura”, or the world before to be fertilized. Just this definition, that puts in relation the Virgin with the primitive world, is a cue for an interesting consideration. What did “primitive world” mean and which was the reference to the Virgin? The work made up to now let us to establish that the constellation of the Virgin is the time reference to fix the period during which the man was created. The black Virgin, or Isis, shows Egypt as look-out
point and perhaps as the place of the event. With regard to it recent studies about DNA have established that the first human beings were of African origin. The words “primitive world” might mean the world before the creation of the man and the reference to the constellation of the Virgin would prove, exactly, when it happened. Linking the stars of the constellation of the Virgin (Spica with Auva and Heze with Porrima) through two straight lines, it’s possible to observe that a cross is formed and so this symbol might represent just the constellation. The cross, that with the Virgin and the labyrinth is the most frequent symbol in the above-cited cathedrals, has a very ancient history. Used in every time and in any religion, also it is not only a Christian symbol. The plan of the big religious buildings of the Middle Ages, like the cathedral of Chartres, follows perfectly the shape of the Egyptian Hieratic sign of the cross with handles (Ank in Egyptian), using a semicircular or elliptic added to the choir. This symbol, that represents knowledge and life, is very alike to a woman, certainly associable to Isis, or Venus. The Egyptians, we could verify it on Heter’s sarcophagus, represented the constellation of the Virgin just with Isis crowned with bovine horns. As regards Venus, the planet is represented by a cross with, above it, a bovine head. Also the plan of the above-cited cathedrals is cross-shaped (North-East, South-West and North- West, South-East) and perhaps it’s necessary to make reference to the constellation looking at the East since when who goes in the buildings goes eastwards. Also the constellation drawn on France’s land, through the cathedrals, is clearly arranged to be observed to the east. The cross, to which we attributed the assignment to represent the constellation of the Virgin, finds in St. Andrew’s cross an interesting reference. In fact St. Andrew’s cross is practically oriented how abovesaid (North-West, South-East and North–East, South-West). As regards it now we consider the Basilica of St. Andrew placed in Vercelli(a town situated in a northern Italian region, Piedmont). This building, in Gothic-Cistercian style, dates back to the thirteenth century and in spite of its apparent simplicity as regards its decorations, especially in the inside, gives some very interesting cues. The cross, in the position considered by us, is present on the top of the right tower that flanks the front and also on decorative canvases placed in the inside. Still in the inside it is present in many specimens both on the left wall and on the right one: they are red crosses, painted on a white background and inserted in two concentric circles that certainly reminds the Templar symbol. On the ceiling of the two aisles (there are nave and two aisles) are present the so-called symbols of the four Evangelists that alternate with other decorations. The Eagle, the Lion, the Bull and the Angel are likewise present at the base of the octagonal outer covering of the cupola. In the chapel dedicated to the Virgin, placed on the right of the altar, there is a statue of Madonna with a halo of stars on her head; the ceiling of the chapel is decorated with symbols that recalling the union of the two elements, or the circle divided in two parts. The elements that may be found in the Basilica are so clear that make us think this construction, as other ones analyzed previously, contains many clews about the subject treated up to now. During the twelfth century near the present basilica, a chapel, dedicated to the same saint, was built, wanted by bishop Uguccione of Vercelli in 1169. Some years before, in 1164, the church of St. Bernard was erected in Vercelli; we are going to consider it just for the characteristics of its structure and of the works that decorate it. First of all the present building is formed by two distinct constructions made in different times but that keep unchanged their decorative iconography. The part dating back to the second half of the twelfth century is in Romanesque style and it is formed by nave and two aisles. Its inside is characterized with the presence of capitals decorated with a painting representing the Virgin with the Child who holds a globe with a cross above it in his left hand. The same subject was treated in a painting, probably dating back to the first part of the seventeenth century, situated in Madonna’s chapel: here the Virgin holds the Child with her right arm who, also in the case, holds a globe up with a cross above it; they both have their heads crowned with stars and they are enveloped by clouds. The reference to the sky is enough obvious and also to the bull that is represented here with very clear bovine horns placed under the Virgin’s feet. pic.15 At the base of the polygonal outer covering of the cupola, as in St. Andrew’s Basilica, there are the four symbols of the Evangelists, also present on the front of the adding part. Crosses of different kind, traditional and St. Andrew’s, are widespread outside
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and on the roof. Both St Andrew’s Basilica and St. Bernard’s church are proper to the period during which the ascent of the Order of the Templars was uncontested and so it’s possible, if not even sure, these buildings are to put in relation with the Templar architecture. A symbol in which it’s possible to find St. Andrew cross is the Chrism, just formed by a cross and the letter “P”. pic.16 The letter “P” is considered as the representation of the sun and attributing to the cross the meaning of constellation of the Virgin it’s easy to think this representation might show a specific period. Very interesting is the finding out of a specimen of that symbol during the excavations made in Pompeii,
so another clew, in that “initiated” town.
In the chapter dedicated to the interpretation of the “Astronomic Ceilings” of the tombs of the Pharaohs and of some important personages it was verified how the reference to the constellation of the Virgin was present. But it was not spoken about the funeral monument of Sethi I in Abydus and so it’s right to treat the subject now. Observing again the picture number 6 it’s possible to note, on the left above the lion surrounding with stars, a little lion that looks at a cross. Is it the time reference to the constellation of the Virgin? Also the symbolic meaning that the sign assumes is very interesting and consequently the constellation of the Virgin, too. In Egypt it was the sign of Isis. Its sixth place in the zodiacal order (as regards the sequence of the zodiacal signs during the year) makes it be part of the symbolism of the number six and of the Seal of Solomon. It governs the fire and the water and represents the conscience that emerges from the confusion, the birth of the spirit. An important angle of the astrology is the geomancy that sees the figure “Conjunctio” in the correspondence with the Virgin. This figure formed by six points arranged so as to compose two triangles, one with the vertex up and the other one with the vertex down, represents the matrimony, the association, the union. Its similarity with the star with six points is accentuated very much and the comparison to the constellation of the Virgin would make to suppose that the symbol derives just from it. The fascinating supposition that sees the constellation of the Virgin drawn on the land of northern France, through cathedrals, points out that the probable contacts occurring between the Templars and the Egyptians perhaps let the monks to know some knowledge unless it thinks that all this information was known in Jerusalem, so giving another value to the attention turned to Egypt, during the crusades. The Templars, just some years before they were brought to trial, preferred attacking Damascus and not Cairo, unlike the Hospitallers.
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Perhaps did they know that information without the others’ knowledge? Might the end of the Templars be caused by their knowledge that they immortalized in the cathedrals with much ability? The destruction of the Templars, because it’s just a matter of a destruction, was proclaimed by the king of France Philip the Handsome and by Pontiff Clement V in 1307, with an accusation of heresy. The support of pope was necessary because the Order of the Temple was protected by the immunity of the clergy and so without the conclusive support of Pope Clement V the king of France would not have succeeded in weeding out the Templars.
The accusation that was moved to them, with regard to that period, left few hopes given the methods used by the Inquisition. To the Templars was contested the founding of a secret organization, fit to accomplish immoral deeds and against the Christian faith. It said that they denied Christ when they enlisted, they practised sodomy and exchanged obscene kisses, they omitted some words during the consecration of the Host and they adored an idol. On 18 th March 1314, Jaques de Molay, the last Grand Master of the Temple and Geoffroy de Charny, Knight Commander of Normandy, after they recanted their confession, extorted to them with the torture, were condemned to the stake. It was the last official act that put an end to the Order of the Templars.
About why the Templars were wiped out some suppositions were formulated that would see pontiff
Clement V in a very inferior position as regards the position of king of France Philip IV who, seems, had a full control of the Pope who was not a strong figure. The motives that would have stirred up the king’s wrath against the Templars would be to attribute to the many debts that he himself had towards the Order, that, it is remembered, owned immense riches and also devoted itself to have other people’s treasures in its care, among which also Philip the Handsome’ s ones.
Another supposition would base itself on the big power that the Order acquired and that might undermine king’s one, so putting in a discussion the total control of the Occident, given the Templars’ detailed presence in some Countries.
They may be the real or probable motives that established the arrest and in many cases also the killing of the Templars. The accusation of heresy was planned only to can strike them more easily, since the debts were not pay to the heretics.
Through the documents analyzed by some scholars and authors about the Templars it was not possible to understand exactly which were the real motives that established their dissolution. As regards the accusation of heresy the only proofs are the confession extorted with the torture and so not valid, and the evidences of some knights expelled from the Order, of same value. Very probably some documents were concealed and certainly there aren’t any ones with regard to the other above-cited suppositions. And if were other the motivations that led the king of France, supported by the pontiff, to establish the end of the Templars? Is it possible that the subject treated up to now might be the motive of their end? Certainly it would be included in the context of the accusation addressed to them officially since at that time to support what emerged from the “Sator” and to be considered as heretics would be part of the normality. This supposition, because it’s only a supposition given the absence of specific documents, gets some inevitable considerations flow that it’s necessary to analyze of course. It’s possible to think the Templars, initiated to the mysteries of the creation of the man, accomplished rites typical of other religions, for example of Muslim one, and so seemed to the not initiates as heretics. But this supposition would mean both the pope and the king of France didn’t know what learnt in the Holy Land during the crusades, and all this is rather improbable. It’s possible likewise supposing the Order decided to propagate its own knowledge to the whole population and so the Church and the king of France hindered all that; they had no interest to divulge a so important mystery, that at that time would have certainly aroused a general chaos. We suppose that the Templars professed the man originated from the bull and Philip the Handsome and Clement V didn’t believe it, certainly that accusation would have been easy to prove at that time and very probably some traces would be in the documents regarding the heresy, naturally if it was not believed as a truth. It’s possible to advance another supposition: perhaps the Templars had the Ark of the Alliance without the pontiff and the king’s knowledge and they, when knew the fact, exacted its possession that, not given to them by the Templars, provoked a cruel retort. Some pages could be written about this subject but it would speak about supposition without certainties since the documents regarding the Order of the Templars are really few: three copies of the official rule, one at Rome, one at Paris and the other one at Digione, two account books, few provincial documents and some extracts from the trial. However if specific documents exist we don’t admit to their consultation and so we will keep to subjects supported by evidences, or by historic remains, as the buildings left by the Templars. In many their constructions, that were churches or only “commanderie”, there are some representations of the Baphomet, a creature represented usually with a man head, the beard, the horns, a woman body, the bat’s wings and the goat’s legs to whom the Templars, it seems, turned particular or even divinatory attention. The interpretations given to these sculptures are different and one of them seems very interesting: it identifies them with Knumm,
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god of Egypt, creator of the humanity and about which
was spoken in the chapter dedicated to bull Apis. Another supposition sees the Baphomet as the symbol that represents the union of the male nature with the female one, the union of the absolute contrasts, of the eternal with the temporal. up to now.
This is a very interesting supposition, too, that connects to what said
In proof that the Baphomet had a specific role in the esoteric practise of the Templars and that the interpretations just described might be the right way there is a bearded head with the horns and the open mouth on the tympanum of a window of the post-office in Saint Bris-Le Vineaux (Yonne, Burgundy). On this building, that was a Templar “commanderie”, the Baphomet’s head is placed with the presence of an ox
Scenes including the Virgin and the Child are very frequent in the Templar iconography, as an example in the church of St. Maria de Franchis (today called Consolazione) in Altomonte (Calabria, Italy). Here, in a painting dating back to the end of the fifteenth century, the period might show the initiation of the artist since it is following to the one of the Templars, there is a representation of Madonna who holds the Child in her arms: both the figures have a halo but the very interesting characteristic is that the Child has on his head two very evident horns, as a continuation of his air. Also Napoleon was concerned with the Templar cause, or better with the motives that brought about the end of the Templars, and he wanted to examine the documents in the Church’s possession. was the Emperor looking for, who was attracted very much by Egypt and particularly by the Big Pyramids?
Going back to the esoteric practise of the Templars a component of dualistic symbolism emerges without doubt that is possible to perceive in some their symbols, among which the banner formed by the white and black colours and especially the stick owned by the Grand Master that was called “abacus” and that finished with a square platform, on which there was a sphere. the sky and the world, the spirit and the matter, God and the Bull. THE DOMUS AUREA Another building having the octagonal shape is the “Octagonal Room” placed in the middle of the “Domus Aurea” of emperor Nero. This stately construction of which still today it’s possible to admire a part of it, including the above-cited room, might give some confirmations to the supposition that Nero inspired the sack of the temple of Jerusalem. In consequence of the fire of 64 A. C. that destroyed a good three of the fourteen regions that formed Rome emperor Nero got a reconstruction work effected; it was one of the most important works in the city during the Roman Empire. Naturally among the various works that were built there was the new imperial residence since the “Domus Transitoria”, the former residence, was almost completely destroyed. The “Domus Aurea” was finished in only four years with the management of architects Severo and Celere.
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So the circle and the square,
Nero, perhaps inspired by Seneca also in this project, before his educator and then his trustworthy counsellor during the principality, got a residence built without precedent: the above included buildings that extended eight hectares occupying the zone around the place where some years later Flavi’s amphitheatre, the Coliseum, was built.
It seems that inside the buildings everything was coated with gold and adorned with gems and precious shells. The dining-rooms had the ceiling covered with movable and perforate ivory slabs so as to enable a “rain” of flowers and scents; the most important of them was circular and revolved night and day as the Earth. In the middle of the valley the “Stagnum Neronis” was realized, an enormous artificial lake, where today there is the Coliseum. Just Flavi’s amphitheatre took the name of Coliseum from an imposing bronze statue, more than thirty-five metres high and representing Nero with god
Sun’s attributes, with a globe in his hand and a crown formed by seven rays, each of them six metres long. The “Domus Aurea” certainly followed the Hellenistic style, the royal palaces that were typical of the kings of the nearby Orient, that was in close contact with Rome. wanted to appear like him.
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The big quantity of gold and the wonderful light plying had to emphasize god Sun, in fact Nero The real centre of the building, both material and ideal, was the above-cited “Octagonal Room”. The concrete big vault, in which a hole let the light of the sun go in, leaned on thick walls, overshadowed by pilasters.
An octagonal room was certainly a novelty for the Roman architecture that was inspired by the Syrian and Persian world, by which Nero was inspired for his ideal of monarchy.
To this place different roles were attributed as, for instance, to be a room ordained to contained works of art, placed at guest’s disposal, who banqueted in the dining-rooms that flanked it.
And if did Nero make this particular room prepared to receive really important something? The octagonal shape has obviously a religious meaning; we verified it in the various cultures and civilizations considered and so it seems not very probable that the “Octagonal Room” of the “Domus Aurea” of Nero has not any religious connection. It’s obvious that they are only possible suppositions but to think that Nero, who dominated the world, wanted to build a temple to keep the “Ark of the Alliance” is not an impossible supposition. Perhaps all that came to nothing at his death. The “Domus Aurea”, after Nero’s death, began its slow decline so much that it was put underground. At the beginning of the sixteenth century, when the remains of the building started to come out, many artists, among whom Pinturicchio, too, let themselves down the Roman underground, as real speleologists, to see the paintings that adorned the walls. These works, made by Famulus, painter praised by Pliny in his “Naturalis Historia”, imitated some styles proved previously in the former residence of the emperor, the “Domus Aurea”, and were inspired also by works present in the Pompeian houses. The representations, frescos and mosaics, have as their theme episodes derived from the Greek mythology where vegetable, animal and human scenes alternated. The whole residence could be compared, of course, with the proportions due given the vastness of the building, to the Roman villas in Campania(the Italian region where Naples is placed), used for holidays. Nero was especially devoted to Pompeii. Poppea Sabine, the woman who the emperor married after 62 A. C., was Pompeian. She owned four houses in that town, among which there were the house of the golden Cupids and the house of Menander. So Pompeii, the town where the most ancient specimen of the “Sator” was found, was closely connected to Nero and obviously to Seneca. Many times we mentioned the Ark of the Alliance and so it’s right to give a space to it in this research to try to suppose which was its way during its very long history and which might be the material included in it. Supposing the mysteries about which it was spoken up to now might be kept in the Ark of Alliance we will try to understand which was its first placing. The traditional history says that during the Exodus of the Hebrews from Egypt Moses received the Table of the Law by God on Mount Sinai. So an Ark was built to contain and to carry them. Later on it was placed in the Temple of Solomon.
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It’s obvious that the accounts are wrong if inside the Ark besides being the Table of the Law, there were documents, too, that explained the above-cited concepts; all that is probable, otherwise from where would that information have arrived? Testimonies of Ancient Egypt, or the graphic representations of the tombs of the Pharaohs and the pyramids themselves, preceded Moses thousands of years and however rules similar to the Ten Commandments were already known by the Egyptians. Just this detail could make us consider the possibility that the Ark kept by Moses before and by Solomon then, came from Egypt. Whit regard to this it’s to remember that the Hebrews were pursued by the soldiers of Ramses II when they left his Country and that the Ark appeared the first time just in that period. It seems rather strange that a big personage as Ramses II allowed the Hebrews could leave Egypt and then he changed his mind. And if did Ramses II realize that among his treasures was missing just the most precious one and so he tried to recuperate it? Certainly this fact is reliable as a motivation to pursue the Hebrews. Certainly it doesn’t want to consider Moses as a thief, because it would be an arduous task for any earthly court defining a right owner of that object. If an Ark of Alliance really existed, or it still exists, the ownership of it due to all humanity. Now let’s see some characteristic of the Ark that could give credit to above-cited all. The Ark of the Alliance would have the proportions of its volume equal to the proportions of the “sarcophagus” placed inside Cheops’s pyramid. Was it the first place that contained those very important documents? When in 587 B. C. the Temple of Solomon was destroyed during the siege of Babylonians perhaps the Ark was put in safety by Jeremiah at the foot of Mount Sinai. If this supposition is proved, there would be the possibility that the Hebrews, after returning from the Babylonian exile, got it back and then placed it in the new temple built. So the Romans, after storming Jerusalem, decided to besiege also the Temple just to try to get the Ark back.. Many times it was said that they are only suppositions, given the whole absence of checks, but finding some confirmations to these suppositions would be a very arduous task . Flavio Giuseppe himself wrote that the Romans didn’t find anything in the Sancta Sanctorum of the Temple, but he was just at the court of Flavi family and so he might hide that fact. We have no idea where the Ark of the Alliance may be now, but if its contents included also information about what was said up to now, the Templars got possession of it, or at least examined its subject. The information kept in their stone documents, their cathedrals, that lead to Egypt and to its mysteries, is too much. THE KEPT TRUTH Scouring thousand years of history it was easily known that the man has always been conscious of own origin. But it was known that this knowledge was reserved only to some men and not to all humanity. Considering Ancient Egypt the starting point of all this knowledge, given its very ancient history that can be proved still today by many monuments, we can be sure that during the millenniums a kind of transfer of deliveries has happened, so that those very important truths were handed down to the future populations. Calling it as a kind of transfer of deliveries we want to mean that it was not really in that way or at least it did not happen always like that. With regard to this both Emperor Titus and the Order of the Templars went to the Holy Land to fight and so some information, it seems also paradoxical, is due to war events that in those periods were considered almost normal. After this introduction we still have to know who is or who was in possession of the last deliveries. Is it possible that today there are people who received the “inheritance”, for example by the Templars?
It seems no possible to think that today anybody doesn’t own the “inheritance” and so who received the deliveries, very probably, has kept the secret as it happened in the past. In the thirteenth chapter it will can verify that, until the end of the nineteenth century, there was somebody who knew the secret kept in the “Sator”. Now we will try to understand who could have the kept truth today. The dualistic system (sky-world) and the historic-religious way, that puts in connection Ancient Egypt with Jerusalem, that regards the Romans and the Middle Ages of the Templars, are certainly part of the arguments of the Masonry. As regards the union of the sky with the world, first of all it’s necessary to point out that the two symbols that represent them in the Masonic symbolism are the compass (circle-sky) and the square (square-world). Another symbol very used by the Masonry is surely the pyramid that, in the case in point Cheops’s pyramid, is seen like the monument which the architects, who built monuments like Castle del Monte and the cathedral of Chartres, followed. Cheops’s pyramid has in its geometric structure determinate characteristics that have helped to give alchemic interpretations. The perimeter of its square base is equal to the length of a circumference with its radius equal to the height, so meaning that the ratio of the square base and the circle is expressed in the raising. It can imagine a circumference whose radius would have the height of the pyramid and that would be pivoted on the top of it, both in the vertical position as a wheel, both in the horizontal position as a disk, and in oblique position on quite another plane. It’s likewise imaginable a sphere whose axis is the pyramid’s one and whose circumference has the same length of the perimeter of the pyramid. For the alchemists it might be a kind of solution of the problem of the squaring of the circle. Still the alchemists would see in the four triangular faces of the pyramid the four elements whose ascension would be a creation of the circle corresponding to the sky, but above all this interpretation might identify the union of the four elements and so the hexagram in Cheops’s pyramid. About the connection with the Hebrews it’s necessary to remember that architect and king of Tyre Hiram is considered as a Master and as a model to follow and so he puts in relation the Temple of Solomon itself with the above-cited monuments. The star with six points, how it was pointed out previously, assumes a meaning of totality for the Masonic lodges; it’s present in the Sacred Royal Arch of Jerusalem. The above-listed monuments have in common, included in their geometric dimensions, the golden number 1,618.
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About the origins of the Masonry many suppositions were thought that would attribute its descent to the biblical times, to the Pythagoreans, to the followers of Zoroaster, to Ancient China or Ancient Egypt. It also speaks about a filiation from the Templars.
Up to now it could understand that all symbolic elements (hexagram, circle, square) of which we occupied ourselves are included in the Masonry and also the connections with Egypt, the Temple of Solomon and the Templars are evident. All this lets us to suppose that the Masonic lodges were founded on the mysteries of the life that since the most ancient times were not revealed to the whole humanity. To the Masonry belonged the people who were initiated through some degrees so as to assume, on the ground of the degree itself of initiation, a qualification that saw its greatest manifestation in the title of Grand Master. On 24 th of June 1717, St. John’s day, patron of the association, in London the first big symbolic lodge was founded joining at least four pre-existent operative lodges. From then on, in England, the lodges proliferated considerably. Members of all social castes, ecclesiastics included, were part of it.
The lodges were inspired to an abstract concept of freedom, of moral brotherhood and of cosmopolitanism that turned to the recognition of the universal fraternity. The search for truth, the profession of the altruism and of the brotherhood had to help in removing what could prevent the moral
union of the mankind that ignorance, fanaticism, superstition escaped certainly. The English lodges stayed out of political conflicts and religious fanaticism. Also not Christians were admitted to them, even if they were part of them only after 1800.
So the Masonry came of a mutual assistance society following to the principle of brotherhood that recruited initiates who were qualified as apprentice, companion and master.
Besides leading a life based on the above-listed principles, the masons had to follow the strict observance of the rules among which, it stood out without doubt, the not diffusion of what was known. Since the first half of 1700 the Masonic lodges spread in all Europe: from the Northern Countries to Italy, from Portugal to Russia, reaching to North America. In 1928 there were about four millions and a half of masons in the world, of whom more than three millions in America.
The opposition of the Church was inevitable, in fact since 1738, with a bull of Clement XII, the Masonry was convicted as a sect. To the Masonic lodges belonged men who held very important positions, both in the aristocracy and so among the men in power, and among artists. Napoleon himself, who was interested very much in the Templars and in the pyramids, was near the Masonry.
We will dedicate special attention to a famous composer of that time who started to be part of the Masonry of Vienna in 1784: he was Wolfang Amadeus Mozart. Many were the Viennese intellectuals who belonged to the Masonry, especially after the death of its very fierce enemy, empress Maria Teresa. For Mozart was not difficult to put himself in touch with the important exponents of the eight Viennese lodges, which were supported also by Joseph II himself. On 14 th December 1784, perhaps persuaded by baron von Gemingen, Mozart affiliated with the lodge “Zur Wohltatigkeit” (for the charity) with the rank of apprentice. After neither a month he became companion.
About Mozart as a mason it speaks especially in reference to his last work, “The Magic Flute”, that probably he became to compose with his friend and Masonic brother Emanuel Schikaneder since May 1791. They met ten years before on the occasion of the theatrical performances that Shikaneder gave in Salzburg, native city of Mozart.
During that period they both belonged to lodge of the “Crowned Hope”, less important than the “Real Harmony” whose baron Ignaz von Born was Grand Master Egyptologist, took part in realising “The Magic Flute”.
who, it seems, being an expert
In fact this work, besides including obvious Masonic clews, for example the reference to the number three, to the compass, to the trowel, and so forth, has clear references about Ancient Egypt in some its personages. The two protagonists, Prince Tamino and Pamina, Queen of Night’s daughter, were initiated to the mysteries of Osiris and Isis. Besides it’s to remember that Sarastro is to refer to Zoroaster, chapter dedicated to the cult of the bull.
about whom we spoke in the
This work helps especially to identify, without shadow of doubt, the connection between the Masonry and Ancient Egypt and so to testify much more the leading role of this ancient civilization. To speak about the “Sator” and its subject and so to find a connection to the Masonry, we will use two other works set to music by Mozart. As regards the solution of the “Sator” it would be ingenuous to expect information near what was said up to now from Masonic documents. But it’s possible to find
rather convincing connections that would endorse the supposition that the members of the Masonic lodges were initiated to the mysteries of the creation of the man. At the end of July 1791 Mozart had to stop the composition of “The Magic Flute”, that was finished in September, to begin to write “The Clemency of Titus”. This work, composed for the coronation of Emperor Leopold II as king of Bohemia, was written by Caterino Mazzolà who revised the original work written by Metastasio in 1734. In this work Emperor Titus is celebrated, who lavished every kind of help, favour, pardon and exactly clemency. In spite of the plan of betrayal, that had to culminate with his murder, Emperor Titus decided to forgive all his conspirators. This unusual behaviour exalts the extraordinary gifts of Titus, perhaps to mean that he, knowing the origin of the man, of his provenience, could understand and so justify also the biggest mistakes of the mankind. Such a behaviour is unique in all course of the ancient history and not only of Roman one where, for much less, the person were thrown to wild beasts. But where could all that clemency come from if not from an extraordinary knowledge of the men? Just Titus, one of the principal protagonists of the history of the “Sator” had, without doubt, that knowledge. Caterino Mazzolà wrote previously (1781) the Egyptian work “Osiris” that was set to music by mason Georg Naumann and so it’s probable that also he could be part of the group of initiated personages who were near the Masonry. Going back and analysing one of the first works set to music by Mozart we will find other interesting references, connecting to the “Sator”. The work that we want to consider is “Ascanius in Alba”, written by Giuseppe Parini in 1771. This work narrates about the arrival of Ascanius in the town founded by his father Aeneas and about the encounter with his future wife. Ascanius, guided by Venus, is initiated to some mysteries that are kept in an altar, placed in the open country. Venus makes his son (she calls Ascanius like that) to observe an incised wild beast on the altar, saying that his father Aeneas put it there as a memorial to the fact, or rather at first in that place that animal, from which the name Alba derives, was found. Just the fact that the animal in question is not ever specified makes the atmosphere full of mystery and the name of the town is rather unusual. If the name Alba would come from this animal, only because at first it was found there, any other animal or common thing would have the same effect on the choice of the name of the town. Recapitulating: if the animal stays at Alba because it was there at first, the same thing would be worth for xxx if it was there at first. The explanation that the town took the name of Alba because there the animal was found has some gaps. About the existence of the town of Alba Longa there would not be doubts given the discovery of a vast necropolis brought to light on Mount Cucco and on mount Crescenzo at North-West of Castle Gandolfo. The town had to rise on the hills called Albani from its name, at about twenty kilometres South - East of Rome and the tradition says that it was Ascanius himself to found it with the help of some groups of inhabitants of Lavinia, the town built by his father Aeneas on the coast near Ardea.
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After ascertaining the truthfulness of the story written by Parini, it’s necessary to understand what was the animal that was incised on the altar and so to find a connection with the name Alba. When this town was destroyed , at about the half of the seventh century B. C., the town of Boville, name clearly infused with the animal in question, inherited its rites, continuing the cult of the ancient divinities who were still venerated at the time of Iovenalius.
In the work a reference is made to an altar where the wild beast is incised (prodigious animal adorned with unusual hairs). The definition “wild beast” should have to make a certain selection by itself. Then the parallel with Alba (beginning) should have to facilitate most its parallel with the bull. In Hebrew the word “Aleph” means both bull and “A” (the first letter of the alphabet, the beginning). Another confirmation that this work has a connection with the treated subject is the fact that it was composed for the marriage of Archduke Ferdinand of Asburgo Lorena, third son of Empress Maria Teresa, who was governor and captain-general of Lombardy, with Princess Maria Ricciarda Beatrice of
Este of Modena. Asburgo Dynasty was near the Masonry and its mysteries and so it’s probable that the works dedicated to them had a strong initiation component. In that period Mozart was not part of the Masonry but in only one month he changed from the rank of apprentice to the rank of companion. Perhaps was he already initiated to some mysteries before beginning to be part of the Masonry? Mozart, before “The Magic flute”, already composed works of Masonic kind on the occasion of commemorations and celebrations. The “cantata”, of 1791 too, “Eine kleine Deutsche Kantate K 619”, composed during the month of July, is based on a text of a certain Ziegenhagen, merchant of Hamburg; he was passionately fond of the naturalistic writings of Rosseau. Masonic rules: loves order, harmony and accord! Love among you and your brothers! Physical strength and beauty are your pride, light of the knowledge is your nobility! Hold out your hands fraternally as eternal friendship, that only an error, never the truth, took from you a long time.
This work is a real list of the principal
It’s a little difficult finding some adverse angles in these so noble principles, and so it’s not clear why an organization of such a great human depth, haunted by ingenious people like Mozart, could be pointed out as a sect during the years. But perhaps the truth is just in these words and the “truth was taken from you a long time” is perhaps the truth that caused the end of other Orders in a rather strange and inexplicable manner. IL QUADRATO MAGICO - LE CARRE’ SATOR - MAGIC SQUARE…
The inscription of the “Sator” had a considerable diffusion during the Middle Ages and especially in France and Italy still today it’s possible to admire its reproductions. Unlike the inscriptions made during the Roman Empire, the medieval ones were made in the contrary formula: Sator Arepo Tenet Opera Rotas, and they didn’t always appear in the usual square disposition, but also placed one behind the other one or to form a circle. Now we are going to list some of the many reproductions present in Europe dwelling in detail upon the specimens that it’s possible to find in the cathedral of Siena, in the Church of St. Orso in Aosta and in the Castle of Issogne, again in Valle D’Aosta. In Italy we find it: at Pieve Terzagni near Cremona (Lombardy), drawn as a mosaic on the floor of the presbytery of the church of St. John the Baptist Decollate (twelfth century). pic.17 The mosaic, for the most part rehashed, is part of a big composition that occupied the whole flooring and that sees among its subjects also the representation of the four symbols of the Evangelists. Templar crosses are present in the inside of the church that is divided in a nave and two aisles by circular columns covered with a square clothing. This particularity is well visible through two openings made by the engineers on the first column on the right and pointed out with glass cover. Through the little that it’s possible to see the columns would seem decorated with a typical Templar iconography. The front, barely made again, presents on its top an interesting subject: a triangle, with an eye in its middle, is inserted in a sun. At Castle Mareccio on the outskirts of Bolzano, scratched on a wall of the tower. The castle, unlike the other medieval buildings, is not situated on a hill but on a plain and is without natural defences. The first construction of the tower would have to date back to the first half of the thirteenth century and only in 1477 the castle was acquired by Romer family and then was refitted in the shape in which still today it’s possible to admire it. The first building is in the middle of the Templar period. At Magliano de’ Marsi (Abruzzi), legible on the front of the medieval church of St. Lucy, at the side of the rose-window.
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In Latium, in the abbey of Valvisciolo, where during a restoration the five words that form the enigma were found, inserted in five concentric circles. The abbey dedicated to St. Stephen around 1128, was built by Greek monks in the seventh century whom the Templars succeeded, then replaced by the Cistercian monks.
In Marche the little church of St. Maria Plebis Flexiae (Fabriano, hamlet Torrececchina) was for some years the keeper of a bell where the enigma of the “Sator” is present. It seems the bell dates back to 1412, even if a writing that precedes the “Sator” would attributed it at 1441. This little church was property of the seminary of Nocera and then of some noble families; today the property of it is of a private someone and the famous bell is kept in a safe place.
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Still in the same region, kept in a lonely tower of Canavaccio, near Urbino, there was another bell including the enigma. But this is not its first place, in fact the bell was kept, before its demolition, in the church of St. Andrew in Primicilio, at Canavaccio. Now the bell is kept by private people. In Siena, in the cathedral begun during the first half of the twelfth century and then modified by the work of some planners. Its structure has a Latin cross plan with nave and two aisles separated by round arcades on polystyle pilasters, with a large transept not very overhanging, a hexagonal dome on the crossing with nave and a spacious rectangular choir. On the right side is placed the high church-tower with six orders of apertures growing from the bottom upwards. The inside is wholly stoned following the typical Tuscan dichromatism. The “Libreria Piccolomini” situated near the left aisle was built from 1492 and it was frescoed by Pinturicchio and his apprentices. The walls include ten stories that illustrate the magnificence of Pope Pio II (it’s very suggestive reading the name “Aeneas” on the painting). Both on the walls and on the ceiling Piccolomini family heraldic bearings are present: a cross with five half-moons that recall Templar symbols. The works of the cathedral were supervised by some planners and it’s known that in 1257 they were directed by Brother Vernaccio from St. Galgano and then by Brother Melano and Brother Maggio, all ones of the same abbey. The structure was already well defined in 1215 and it’s well-known in that period the big constructions were the work of the Templars. The new front was ordered to Giovanni Pisano, who since 1284 to 1298 realised the lower part formed by three portals with deep spays topped with triangular spires.
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In 1325 Master Camaino from Crescentino closed the vaults over hanging Pieve
of St. John. Camaino from Crescentino was the father of more famous architect Tino from Camaino, who was one of the shop of Giovanni Pisano and it seems that he took part in the realising of the pulpit of the cathedral. Certainly the artists who took part in the realising of the cathedral of Siena knew the secrets that it kept and that it would have kept. Without doubt the “Sator” summarized the essence of those secrets and Tino from Camaino, who worked later on at the court of King Robert in Naples, occupying himself with the Charterhouse of St. Martin and with Castle Sant’Elmo, might be source on inspiration of the star with six points contained, exactly, in the walls of Castle Sant’Elmo. From 1376 the front was finished by Giovanni from Lecco with a very different than the one of the lower part.
It was said that it was the period of the big Templar buildings whose some tokens are just in Siena. Near the Camollia gate of the Tuscan city is placed the church of “St. Pietro alla Magione that previously belonged to the Monks of St. Miniato and during the twelfth century it became property of the Templars.
The famous enigma is situated outside, on the left wall of the church placed in front of the Archiepiscopal House. It appears in the formula that sees the word “Sator” as the first on high and it is carved on a white calcareous marble stone at about two metres of height. Its square disposition is
regular, its rather reduced dimensions and its secluded position make its individuation rather difficult. pic.18 Also its dating presents some difficulties: it’s possible that the engraving might be realised also before the laying of the block or even the stone previously belonged to another building. Many are the works that adorn the cathedral both outside and inside. The whole floor of the church is covered with graffiti and engraved marbles; its execution lasted from the fourteen century until the nineteenth century and in the course of the years the damaged parts were replaced. To avoid other damages the floor is covered for the major part of the year with special panels that prevent to see it. As soon as somebody goes into the cathedral, immediately after the biggest portal, he puts his feet on the principal decoration of the floor: it’s the representation of Hermes Mercury Trismegistum. As regards Hermes Trismegistum (three times great), his origin is attributed to Hermes, god of the Greek mythology who was compared to Egyptian god Thot, keeper of the mysteries of the writing and of the knowledge. Once more Egypt returns to be part of this research. The figuration presents mythic Hermes who hands with his right hand a text to two personages who represent the East and the West and who alludes to the Egyptian origin of the knowledge; with his left hand he holds an engraving up, leant on two sphinxes, regarding the creation. Both writings have a strong recall to Egypt that seems to be the original lynch-pin of the creation and of the knowledge. It’s necessary to observe the position of the two personages: the east one is placed before the west one, perhaps to show the order of learning of the knowledge that, how seen, passed from the Ancient Egyptians to the Hebrews through Moses. The inscription situated in the lower part of the representation is dedicated just to Moses: “Hermes Mercury Trismegistum, contemporary with Moses”. Perhaps does it mean that the knowledge of Moses was learnt in Egypt? The research made up to now would seem embrace this hypothesis. The “Sator”, with its ciphered secret, and this representation of Hermes would seem connected in a very close way. On the front of the cathedral and inside there are some representations that regard the Virgin and the Child, about whom it was spoken previously; the bull, too, is present in some works: it is sculptured at the height of the architrave of the left lateral portal, engraved in low relief on the central portal and in other three symbols that would represent the four Evangelists under the circular glass window of the front. In the gable of the little niche placed in the left part of the front is situated the keysymbol of this research: there is nothing less than a star with six points formed by a black triangle with its point turned on high and by a red triangle with its point turned low; the star is inscribed in a red circle, that is inscribed in a triangle, still red. The presence of the star with six points completes the obscure scenery of this our research about the cathedral of Siena that certainly hides many other clews in the innumerable works that adorn it, as an example the Sun that is represented on the major portal, in the middle of the principal dome surrounded by star with eight points and also in the middle of the cupola of the Vow-Chapel. Perhaps has God Sun got to do with all this? In Valle D’Aosta it is present in two places, one disclosed recently in the church of St. Orso at Aosta and the other one placed in the Castle of Issogne. Now we are going to see, observing the history of the two buildings, the probable connection that there is between them. The Castle of Issogne rises in the homonymous place of Valle D’Aosta on the right side of the river Dora Baltea, on the remains of an ancient castle. From the twelfth century it became one of the properties of the bishop of Aosta and at the end of the fourteen century it passed to Challant family, precisely to Ibleto. sumptuous place.
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In 1480 it was inherited by Giorgio of Cahallant who changed the residence in a
Giorgio of Challant, ecclesiastic and very cultured man, brought structural modifications to the building so as to become an only horse-shoe shaped building with an interior court. The works of art made to adorn the castle are many, both inside and outside. Under the directives of Giorgio of Challant the frescos were made also on the outer walls that look on to the court, among which it’s possible to see the heraldic bearings of the families that married into Challant family. Inside the numerous rooms are decorated with frescos made between the end of the fourteen century and the beginning of the fifteenth century on walls and fire-places; the ceilings are coffered. On a wall of the Big Baronial Room or of Justice there are some frescos that represent Jerusalem with the octagonal Mosque of Omar in foreground. Both Jerusalem and octagon, as we could verify, are integral
part of this research and above all they refer to the enigma of the “Sator”, that in the Castle of Issogne is present on a white wall of a corridor that connects some rooms among them. It’s presumable that the inscription was made during the period between the end of the fourteenth century and the beginning of the fifteenth century and although five hundred years have passed it’s still rather visible. It’s red, probably of a particular clay, and it is in the original square disposition, slightly inclined. The inscription is integrated with horizontal lines and with vertical lines so as to every letter is inserted in a little square. Going back to the octagon it’s to point out that in the interior court of the castle the Fountain of the Pomegranate is placed, built with wrought iron, octagon-shaped, on request of Giorgio of Challant as a gift to Filiberto, his destined heir, and to his wife Louise Aaberg.
At this point, the “Sator” of the Castle of Issogne doesn’t certainly appear as an object out of place. The references with Jerusalem, with the octagon of the Mosque of Omar and of the Fountain of the Pomegranate are enough convincing clews that Giorgio Of Challant, who ordered all the above-cited works, was a member of that group of personages who were initiated to the mysteries of the creation and he, very probably, carved the enigma in his residence. Besides his ancestors, particularly Ibleto of Challant, went to the Holy Land many times and so it’s probable that knowledge was already known by his predecessors.
A reference is to make also to a pictorial representation present in the chapel that represents a scene of nativity: it regards the adoration of Magi, were in the low right side the head of a little ox (bull) is recognisable. It’s very significant that only the ox is present (usually there is also the presence of the ass), characteristic common with the work present on the front of the above-described Templar “commenda”. On the upper floor of the residence there is a room called of the “King of France”. In 1494 King Charles VIII of France stayed there and as a proof of that event there are the lilies of his coat of arms that adorn both the fire-place and the ceiling. The connection with the Franks, about whom it was spoken in the chapter dedicated to the crusades, would not seem insignificant. The other specimen of Val D’Aosta is situated in the church of St. Orso in Aosta. Recent archaeological excavations have made it possible to get a square-shaped mosaic, of about three metres, back, under the flooring of the ancient choir of the church. pic.19 In the attempt to find the tomb of St. Orso, which, it was supposed, could be in that place, an interesting artistic composition was brought to light: the tesserae that form the mosaic are white, black and brown. Through the thick glass placed by the engineers, now integrating part of the flooring, it’s possible to admire some concentric circles inscribed in a square in whose middle the fight of Samson with a lion is represented. On the side of the square four mythological animals are placed: a dragon, a lioness, a triton with a snake and a pair of eagles with one head. The biggest circle is the frame of two phrases separated by two crosses while another frame, at the back of Samson and of the lion, contains the famous writing “Rotas Opera Tenet Arepo Sator”, obviously placed to form a circle and not in the usual disposition. The circle and the square, the sky and the world, the spirit and the matter, all this could explain the unusual disposition, supported also by the presence of the symbols, for example little circles and squares placed between the two frames that contain the phrases and by particular knots that certainly show an union. To make possible the view on the work, since it was under the altar, this one was moved of some metres back so as to a glass cover could be placed; the cover makes the mosaic representation still more suggestive, datable around the first half of the twelfth century. The flooring that hid the mosaic, made expressly, dates back to the end of the fifteenth century, when the work was directed by Giorgio of Challant.
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The reason of the hiding could find an explanation through the particular disposition of the characters that form the phrase: arranging the words of the “Sator” as a square it can easily notice that some letters are turned upside down, following so the direction of the text given by the star with six points that made possible that we could interpret the enigma. The collegiate church of St. Orso is a vast medieval structure built in the place of the previous cathedral of Aosta where, in the church dedicated to St. Peter, St. Orso officiated. The whole construction, even if it is formed by some buildings of different times, appears very pleasant to be unique in all region. The front of the church, with the big Gothic portal, attracts directly attention of the people who cross the little square. The bell-tower, separated from the church, is in the Romanesque style and it dates back to the thirteenth century when it was built with the stones of the Roman walls. It lodges the biggest bell of the whole diocese of Aosta. The mosaic, as it was said, is situated near the altar, on whose sides it’s possible to admire the ancient wooden choir, probably Jeninus Brave’s work to order of Giorgio of Challant. The church that is possible to admire today is the result of some restorations that were made in the past centuries. The first one, in the tenth century, that readjusted the ancient remains of a temple of the sixth century, whose ruins are still today under the high altar. The present look is the result of the works ordered by Giorgio of Challant around 1500. The construction is completed by the handsome cloister formed by forty-four columns adorned with particular capitals having as a subject religious themes or infused with popular fantastic mythology. The inscriptions on the capitals date it back to the twelfth century. On a wall it’s possible to admire, although it was rehashed, a painting regarding a Black Virgin with a black child in her arms. They both are wreathed with a crown having a cross on its top. The Virgin holds another crown in her left hand and her head is surrounded with stars. Perhaps would this fact be a reference to the constellation of the Virgin observed in the sky of Egypt? So the connection between the two specimens of the enigma in Valle D’Aosta is Giorgio of Challant and his ecclesiastical life might give interesting developments about those who knew the content of the enigma. He studied at the universities of Lyon, Avignon and Rome and he was nominated prior of the Collegiate Church of St. Orso in Aosta; his refined learning made it possible for him to begin the activity of patron with success for about half century, during which the development of the Late Gothic art in St. Orso and in the Castle of Issogne had a considerable increment thanks to his spirit of client. As seen previously the specimen of the “Sator” present in Issogne, arranged as a square, is just datable when the flooring that covered the one of Aosta was made. Giorgio of Challant, very probably, thought that the mosaic included some too evident indications or perhaps he thought just that it was too pagan to be present in a church, and so he decided to cover and to hand down it and not to destroy it. Some specimens are present in France: -in a Carolingian Bible of 822; -on a parchment of the twelfth century; -in the above-cited castles of Loches and Chinon and in Agnès Sorels’ house in Beaulieu-les-Loches;
-in the castle of Jarnac; -in a house of the Puy-en-Velay; -in the Hall of Justice of Valbonnays (Isère, Rhone- Alpes); -in the Church of Saint-Laurent at Rochemaure (Ardèche, Rhone-Alpes), carved on an outer stone. In Europe, there are many evidences of the presence of the “Sator”: -in Spain, at St. Giacomo of Compostela, very famous place of pilgrimage;
-in Hungary, at Budapest (Aquincum) where the palindrome is present on a brick found during archaeological excavations. It’s datable around 107-108 B. C. and it’s inserted in a Chrism, it was previously spoken; -in Great Britain, on a ceramic potsherd
and in a house of Roman origin at Cirencester.
It’s obvious that the accounts about this enigma are really numerous and its presence is justified in the monuments that are connected to the Order of Templars. Instead it’s rather difficult to find the historic connections and especially the sources that made it possible to their owners to know the meaning of the “Sator” on other buildings, built in former or in following times to when the Order exerted its mission. THE CHARTERHOUSE OF TRISULTI AND PAINTER FILIPPO BALBI
The sacred history of the Charterhouse of Trisulti started around the end of the tenth century when St. Dominic from Foligno arrived there, who founded the Benedictine monastic life. With the construction of the original charterhouse the sacred history of Trisulti continued and extended with the Carthusian monks from the thirteenth century to 1947, when the Cistercians of the Congregation of Casamari took the place of them; they are still keepers of the Charterhouse according to the spirit of the Benedictine rule.
As established previously the Order of the Cistercians gets its origins from the rules of St. Benedict developed by St. Bernard afterwards. Besides the origin and the history of the charterhouse, that have references with the Order of the Cistercians and so with the Templars, the work of painting of Filippo Balbi at the charterhouse is to consider attentively. Two paintings of the old chemist’s shop have to be analyzed, given the subject of the research. In the first one the artist associated the mythic Abante to the “Sator”. pic.20 Starting from the top part it’s possible to observe: the bust of a human personage with clear taurine aspect (the face, the hornsshaped locks and a leg on his front banish every doubt) with a lizard on him; under him the enigma is represented in the contrary version to the Pompeian one and there is also, placed at the bottom, a phrase that says: “Ma il cambiar di natura è impresa troppo dura”(But to change nature is a very hard undertaking). We will analyse the painting with much attention, beginning from the Abante. The Abante is a mythological personage who had a misfortune: Ippotoone’s son, or Celeo’s, and Megarina’s, was changed into a lizard by an angry goddess, Cerere, because he made fun of her surprising her to drink with too much avidity. Other personages are remembered with the same name of Abante, among whom one of the Trojans who escaped with Aeneas during the sack of Troy.
In this case Balbi, famous for his eccentric ideas, wanted to play with the brush, the mythology, the
puzzles and the grammar. Painting the Abante with a taurine aspect, whose association to Aeneas doesn’t appear accidental, and associating to him the transformation represented by the lizard, it’s evident that the Neapolitan painter knew the real meaning of the “Sator”. The association, pointed out formerly, between goddess Cerere and Isis is not to disregard. About the grammar, now it’s necessary to analyse the phrase at the foot of the painting. “But”, the initial word, is a conjunction and so the phrase is the continuation of another one. Through the Creator the Bull is transformed into Aeneas (man) but to change nature is a very hard undertaking. This phrase, besides to be an instrument to decode the enigma, is at the same time a confirmation of it. It says to him who got the content of the “Sator”: “You are not wrong, the contained phrase is really that one”. Of course it’s also a clear reference to the initiation of the craftsman of the painting. But who was Filippo Balbi? How could he know that secret and why did he decide to immortalise it in his work in the charterhouse of Trisulti? He was born in Naples in 1806 and studied drawing and painting at the Royal Academy of the Fine Arts. Balbi was the pupil of Costanzo Angelini, famous neo-classic portraitist and besides dedicating himself to the study of drawing and painting he was interested in literature, mathematics, physics and anatomy, without that, he asserted, it was not possible to be a real artist. Balbi, moved to Rome in 1846, two years before the proclamation of the Roman Republic, risked to be shot owing to his presence during the rescue of cardinal Lambruschini, took out of the clutches of the people.
He had the bravery to accompany the corpse of cardinal Mezzofanti, famous philologist and polyglot, to the graveyard with few relatives and with the help of one lit lantern because of the anticlerical opposition of those times, defined “climacteric” by Balbi.
The period from 1850 to 1860 was the one during which the Neapolitan painter carried out his greatest artistic effort. He went to Trisulti in 1854 for the first time to examine the vault of the church because it was subject to damp. That advice brought the painter six scutes. He returned there in 1856 and from 1857 to 1865 he worked with surprising activity.
Balbi followed with much apprehension the revolutionary insurrections stirred up in the Reign of two Sicilies by the Piedmontese people inclined to the national unity, because he was politically connected to King Francis I, conservative and faithful to the political order constituted some centuries before. Many supporters of Borboni family, constrained to run away, found a way out on the mountains of Trisulti, part of the Apennines Ernici and the last bulwark of defence of the Papal State in Southern Latium, neighbouring to the Reign. There Balbi knew and entered into friendship with some of them, risking to be found out and killed for the help given to them.
During his works in Trisulti some Zouave Pontifical
officers, who were in detachment in the surrounding territory, visited the charterhouse.
the “Commenda” of the Royal Order” by king Francis I, on 5th February 1863. Not long before he had to renounce, owing to the adverse historic events, to the title of “Director of the Academy of Fine Arts” in Naples, given to him, too, by the king.
Balbi retired in Alatri in 1865, after he contributed in a fundamental manner to the artistic embellishment of the charterhouse of Trisulti; there are his works both in the church and in the chemist’s. Living in a rented small house, he continued to work for the churches or for the religious community of Ciociaria (a zone of Latium) and to teach drawing and painting to the young people. He died on 27 November 1890.
Analysing his life it’s easy to note his attachment to Borboni family, particularly to king Francis I, and
to Church. It’s a little difficult, with the materials at our disposal, to establish exactly how he knew the secret kept in the “Sator”. Also he could be arrived at the solution starting from documents found in the library of the charterhouse that perhaps regarded that enigma. Just this supposition could be the most credible since near the charterhouse there are two Templar buildings: the abbey of Valvisciolo and the ruined chapel of Trisulti, few kilometres from Veroli.
Valvisciolo there are the many crosses of the church and a specimen of the “Sator” that, as previously, is placed to form a kind of target, where the words are inscribed in five concentric little circles and engraved in the cloister of the abbey. It’s possible that the vicinity of the charterhouse of Trisulti itself with Templar constructions (the chapel of Trisulti is quite nearby) and that the following presence of the Cistercians have left conclusive evidences for the interpretation of the “Sator”. It’s sure, given the developments of the research, that he knew the right content of the “Sator”, and the answer to why he too decided to not divulge it can be obtained from the interpretation of his another work . The work at issue is present on the right wall of the passage of the chemist’s shop and it is part of those works which the painter liked to call “whim or oddity”. It is formed as follows: a blue globe (the world), in which some words are present, is on a column, on the globe there is a being with an aspect both human and animal (like Baphomet), everything is surrounded with a green landscape. The definition “whim or oddity” is very appropriate to define this work, or so it seems. It’s possible to give the right interpretation only after the solution of some plays upon words that were put in the globe. BALSAMO (balsam) RO TUNTIQUABITITUTINITAZIO DEL DOTTORE (doctor) T ES AURO CRIP S O NIGROCRISITES EFFICACISSIMO RIMEDIO (very efficacious cure) PER I MORALISTI OMIOPATICI (for the homeopathic moralists) It’s necessary to accomplish some rotations, or to change some letters and in a particular way some consonants with other ones included in the words, of uncertain meaning, that form the work (colors show the way). Here is the result: ROTAZIONI - TUTTI QUANTI I TUBI (rotations - all the ducts) as regards the first word of uncertain meaning, ES TAURO NIGRO CRIPTO SCRISSI E’ (of the “Es” of the kept black bull - I wrote ) concerned the second word of uncertain meaning. It’s necessary to accomplish some rotations, or to change some letters and in a particular way some consonants with other ones included in the words, of uncertain meaning, that form the work. Here is the result: ROTAZIONI - TUTTI QUANTI I TUBI (rotations- all the ducts) as regards the first word of uncertain meaning, ES TAURO NIGRO CRIPTO SCRISSI E’ (of the “Es” of the kept black bull- I wrote ) concerned the second word of uncertain meaning. The word “rotations” explains the operation that is necessary to do to decode the sequence of words. With the above-cited operation the following phrase is obtained: CURANDO TUTTI QUAN- TI I TUBI DELL’ES DEL TORO NERO NASCOSTO E’ EFFICACISSMO RIMEDIO PER I MALATI DI MORALISMO (treating all the ducts of the “Es”, the unconscious, of the kept black bull is a very efficacious remedy for the ill of moralism). Recapitulating we can conclude: the word “balsam” means medicine, remedy; the part to treat is the
In proof of the past presence of the Templars at
“Es”, or the zone of the mental apparatus in which the impulses originate that coincides substantially with the unconscious and that is the original cause of the ego and the super ego; the word “homeopathic” is referred to the kind of treatment. It’s obvious that Balbi, being a passionately fond of pharmacy, or better an expert in pharmacy, wanted to play upon that fact and so he used his knowledge to give an answer to the “homeopathic moralists”. Filippo Balbi tried to explain what were the reasons that prevented him, and very probably also others, from divulging what he knew. The main problem was the moralism that he considered as a illness and he attributed the denial to want to divulge the content of the “Sator” to it. But there is a solution, a treatment, that is given by the homeopathy: it’s necessary to act on a mental level, making come out, or better, so making emerge and accept that the man gets his origin from the animal. So a treatment, the homeopathic one, that acts giving the same substances which are at the origin of the disease, with very light doses. It’s to remember and to point out that in 1860 it would not have been easy at all, and especially secure, to divulge what was said before and so the difficulties that a possible divulger had to face were insuperable.
THE VERDICT TO THE SCIENCE
The result of this research has produced a certain quantity of materials so that what emerged from the “Sator” is considered with reliability. I’m sure to have left out many useful information, however the subject is so vast that there are probably references in many documents, obvi- ously to decode. I’m likewise sure that much materials in this connection was hid or destroyed. I feel to point out Virgil as the author of the “Sator”, “Aeneas” is very indicative, or however his some contemporary or someone come immediately after him. Very probably the author of the “Sator” began from the hexagram then making to run the letters along its all course. The conclusive word was just “Sator” since means the Maker and contains three of the letters that form “toro” (bull). For this reason, in this research, “The Magic Square” is identified to this word. However it is not to leave out the supposition that Virgil could interpret and, or translate documents of other personages who have got a conclusive role also in this research . The “Key of Solomon”, in which we were interested, is a very interesting document. Still in the manuscript (La Clavicule de Salomon- King’s 288 British Library), analyzed by me, there is another interesting pentacle in which a face with a clear taurine aspect is described as the face of “Saday” (El-Sadday, the Almighty God) which all the creatures obey and the angelic spirits respect him on their knees. About the dating of the “Key of Solomon” the opinions of the scholars are discordant and however it is supposed the possibility that the original text is just of King Solomon. The way covered in this research makes us understand that Solomon certainly knew the ancient mysteries of the creation and since this text of magic rituals has his name and since in it there is a magic square with his one psalm, I think that it’s impossible to discard the hypothesis that the “Sator” is to connect to him. If it is like that, the reference found on the Pompeian specimen, the word “ANO” and the triangle (the ring with the triangle) could be also a clew to make possible the identification of the original author of the enigma, or Solomon. It’s necessary to remember, with regard to this, that the specimens of the “Sator” dating back to the Roman period begin with the word “rotas”, unlike the ones of following times that begin with the word “sator”. I have often wondered the reason of this and above all which were the motives that later on induced to make the “magic square” in the contrary version.
The answer could be given just by the fact that the “magic square” of the “Sator” is a transliteration and, or an adaptation from the Hebrew, that, as known, is written and read from the right to the left and so the version that sees the word “rotas” as the first one imposes, obviously, a reading of the square to the left. Besides the versions of the “Sator” in Hebrew are formed by sixteen characters since the Hebrew omits some letters. Adopting the version starting with the word “sator” could mean that this inscription was to consider Latin. The specimen in Hebrew present in the “Key of Solomon” translated by Abraham Colorno, is put in close connection to the seventy-second, 8 Psalm, in Latin characters too, as if it means that version is to interpret in Latin characters. It’s not to forget at all that “Aeneas” could be valid, as a term to mean the man, only for the Romans and so, if the original is attributed to the Hebrews, the reference to the man is certainly expressed by another word (probably Adam). Besides the presence on the territory (Rome, Pozzuoli, Pompeii) of temples dedicated to Egyptian divinities already from the second century B. C. points out that very probably the Romans had some knowledge for some time. This knowledge, we could verify it in all the research, was a prerogative of many famous personages: from the ancient Pharaohs, to the king, to the emperors, to the great artists. Just in the last ones, in their works that have arrived today , it’s possible to find some references that, without definite knowledge, would result meaning-less or interpreted in a wrong manner. So probably, “Vitruvius’s Man” of Leonardo da Vinci, inscribed in a circle and in a square, now can appear in a different way. The genius of this personage was so great and the acquaintances, that he had in Italy and abroad (for example the king of France Francis I) were so important that it would seem improbable to think he didn’t know those mysteries. Certainly the powerful who knew those mysteries wanted to know the opinion of the great geniuses of their period about that subject and so it’s probably that they informed them about what they knew. Besides Leonardo spent the last years of his life in the Valley of Loira, where the walls of the castles still today keep those secrets. Very probably geniuses like Leonardo had not the need to be initiated to those mysteries by others. Dante Alighieri is another very lofty personage who could have kept and handed down through his works, some interesting references. First of all Dante was considered the head of the Followers of Love, an organization that spread in Italy after the disappearance of the Templars and that had to take their place. In its “Divina Commedia” (Divine Comedy) he took sides against Philip the Handsome defending the Temple. During a part of his travel through the “Paradise” he was even taken by St. Bernard. And then is it possible to leave out the presence of Virgil just at the beginning of the work? Perhaps did all that want to be a special reward to him who was the author of works that kept the knowledge? The astrologic references, present in the “Comedy”, point out that the author was an expert about that subject. The cross, to which I have attributed the meaning of constellation of the Virgin, finds an interesting reference in a version of the “Divine Comedy” of 1491: it’s placed in a starry sky and there are twelve personages represented in the act of adoring in its inside. In the fourteenth canto of the “Paradise” (109-111), Dante says:” Di corno in corno e tra la cima e ’l basso si movìen lumi, scintillando forte nel congiungersi insieme e nel trapasso…” (From horn to horn and between the high and the low lights moved, twinkling strongly during their joining and the change…). The horn is easily compared to the bull while the top is to mean as the sky and the low as the world. Some think that Dante was fully a member of the Organization of the Templars and when the last Grand Master (Jaques de Molay) was arrested, he was in Paris, just to take the inheritance of Grand Master. In the few representations of Dante he always wears white and red clothing: the colours of the Temple.
3 2 1
As regards the confirmation to what emerged from my research about the “Sator” it will be up only to the science to express a final verdict, to say now or when the knowledge will make it possible. In the meantime it’s possible to penetrate, obviously as laymen, but however we were so and we are so also about the other treated subjects, in some scientific experiments that are very topical in these last years.
The scientific experimentation concerning the animals, and I’m referring to the genetic manipulation and the cloning, has stimulated many polemics among the various organs that practise and manage it. Many times, it is read in the newspapers that the aim of these experiments would be to prepare the way for a possible cloning of the human being; from this cause the main criticism to the experiments come. But it must not forget the animals that are used by the human beings (but not by all) both as food and as clothing and in some scientific experiments about that we could discuss a long time, for example the experimentation of the medicines or only of the cosmetics. I don’t want to enter upon this subject but it’s necessary to say that some “manifestations” allowed or not by the law, for instance the bullfights or the dog-fights are very despicable and I don’t know if it’s worse to organise them, some “shows”, or only to watch them. Now, stop that! There is already the possibility to modify genetically sheep, cows and swine so that they become living producers of human “component parts”. Some sheep were modified to produce through their milk some human proteins good for the treatment of the hereditary emphysema. Instead transgenic swine with segments of human DNA are able to produce human hemoglobin, so they are consistent with our immune system.
As regards the bovine race, the one that is more interesting for us, for manifest reasons, Ermanno’s story, the bull with the human milk, is very interesting. Ermanno is a bull born in 1990 through a scientific experiment that made possible to modify his DNA as that his female progeny can produce a milk from which it’s possible to obtain a great amount of human proteins, good both for the nourishing contribution and for the pharmaceutical one.
Through the genetic manipulation, would a bull be able to give life to a species unlike its? It’s up to the science to answer that, with its experiments, is making to discuss very much. Perhaps it will possible to understand the why of many things. For example which are the causes that let a disease like the one of the BSE (Creutzfeld Jacob’s syndrome) to infect the human being (it seems that the structure of the prions of the human beings and of the bovine animals, that just cause the infection, is practically identical), between the two species.
and in past times, instead, why the smallpox was transmitted
Another interesting information: do you know that the human species and the bovine one are the only to have a period of pregnancy of about nine months? Is it a coincidence? Now we report an interesting topical piece of news: “The board of education of the state of Kansas (USA) voted and decided to take the evolutionistic theories from the curricula of biology and physics. Beginning this school year the students of all the schools of Kansas (that include six universities) will learn that the world and the universe were created according to the Bible. Man and woman would be appeared in the world about six thousands of years ago”…
All this, not to vouch for the subject of my research somehow that, as seen, would date the creation of the human being some millenniums before, but especially to point out that perhaps there is not too much reliability about the theory that sees the man as a being who evolved from the monkey in the course of million years. During all the period of my research I asked myself why the real origin of the human being was not handed down from the beginning. If the work that I developed will find some scientific confirmations which will vouch for it, it would be necessary to revise the whole human history. This theory has the inevitable need of the scientific confirmation. The science, that has concentrated many efforts just for the genetic manipulation and also for the interplanetary missions during these last decennia, has got the keys that open those doors, those barriers which keep the naked eye and especially the human mind from seeing beyond a certain “distance”.
I repeat, I have asked myself many times why, if it is naturally true, this history was hid in the course of the time and if today it is opportune and lawful to make it public. As regards the fact that this kind of knowledge was at disposal of only some personages the answers could be different: power, to feel omnipotent, for some; for other perhaps, how Neapolitan painter Filippo Balbi said in one of his enigmatic paintings, the morals could have been a check to its diffusion that would have been arduous without the help of the scientific proof. They who tried to divulge it came to a bad end. It’s just from those terrible executions that were inflicted on the so-called heretics that it’s necessary to find the force for an absolute search of the truth, without that, there will not be a future. Is it lawful to make it public today? The science has done immense steps and it will do most big ones during the next years. Then the evolution of the species should make it possible for us, we hope, to be not burnt in some square. I think there are all the presupposition in order that it’s possible to proceed with a precise scientific and historic research. Another thing: “I have not taken over by anyone. I have no obligations of oaths and so of silence”. A species like the human one, with all the doubts that were carried over on millennia, shall be able to know which way to run, towards which direction to go, if the man doesn’t know where does he come from?
pic.1 Reproduction of the Sator of the Big Palestra in Pompeii.
pic.2 Big Palestra of Pompeii - colonnade .
pic.3 Theseus and the Minotaur. National Archaeological Museum of Naples; from Pompeii.
pic.4 The Punishment of Dirce. Vettii's House in Pompeii.
pic.5 Altar of the temple of Vespasian in Pompeii.
pic.6 Particular of the Astronomical Ceiling of the cenotaph of Sethi I in Abydus . Lefebure M. Gustave- Paris 1886.
pic.7 Particular of the Astronomical Ceiling of the Tomb of Ramses II. Neugebauer O. Parker R. A. Egyptian Astronomical Texts Londra 1960.
pic.8 Astronomical Ceiling of the Tomb (353) of Senmut. Neugebauer O. Parker R. A. - Egyptian Astronomical Texts Londra 1960.
pic.9 Particular of the cover of the wood sarcophagus of Heter. Neugebauer O. Parker R. A.Egyptian Astronomical Texts Londra 1960.
pic.10 Reproduction of Imperator Fu-hi. Drawing by Galasso Pasqualina.
pic.11 Plan of the church of Citeaux. Drawing by Galasso Pasqualina.
pic.12 Plan of the external ceiling of S. Bevignate's church in Perugia.
pic.13 Plan of the lower floor of Castel del Monte.
pic.14 Magic Square whit the symbols of the Four Evangelists.
pic.15 Virgin with the child in St. Bernad's church in Vercelli.
pic.16 Altar with Crism.
pic.17 Particular of the floor of Decollated Baptist's church in Pieve Terzagni (Cr).
pic.18 Sator on the external wall of Siena's Cathedral.
pic.19 Particular of the mosaic in the collegiate church of St. Orso in Aosta.
pic.20 Reproduction of Filippo Balbi's Sator. Drawing by Galasso Pasqualina.
1 Chevalier Jean, Gheerbrant Alain, Dizionario dei Simboli Rizzoli, Italian edition traduced by Maria Grazia Margheri Pieroni, Laura Mori and Roberto Vigevani - see: quadrato. Ernout A., Dr. Pépin, Histoire Naturelle, Les Belles Lettres, Paris 1950, see note n. 20 book XXVIII.
2 Brion Marcel, Pompei ed Ercolano, Istituto Geografico De Agostini Novara 1962 Italian edition traduced by Franca Ottolenghi p. 14. 3 Id. 4 Id. p. 15. 5 Id. p. 16. 6 Id. p. 18. 7 Etienne Robert, La vita quotidiana a Pompei, Arnoldo Mondadori Editore1992 Italian edition traduced by Mario Andreose and Simona Proietti p. 281. 8 Id. p. 286. 9 Id. 10 Dardano Maurizio – Trifone Pietro, Grammatica italiana con nozioni di linguistica, Zanichelli Editore, seconda edizione capitolo I (1.4), dal latino all’italiano p. 33. 11 Id. 12 Id. p. 35. 13 Etienne Robert, quoted work p. 286. 14 Dardano Maurizio, Trifone Pietro, quoted work p. 37. 15 Id. p. 38. 16 Id. p. 41. 17 Id. The star with six points 1 Enciclopedia dei Simboli Garzanti, see: Stella di David. 2
Id. 3 Id. 4 Id. 5 Id. see: Yantra. 6 Id. see: I-ching. 7 Id. see: Yin-Yang.
8 Chevalier Jean, Gheerbrant Alain, quoted work see: uomo (4).
1 Tocci V., Dizionario di mitologia, Edizioni Librarie Italiane 1954, see: Enea. 2 Brion Marcel, quoted work p. 98. 3 Enciclopedia della Letteratura Garzanti, see: Virgilio. 4 Id.
Solomon's temple 1 Old Testament: The kings 6, 38 / 7, 1. 2 Id. The Kings 5. 3 Id. The Kings 6, 19-20. 4 Chevalier Jean, Gheerbrant Alain, quoted work see: tempio. 5 Id. 6 Old Testament: The kings 7, 23-24-25-26. 7 La Nuova Enciclopedia dell’Arte Garzanti, p. 1025. 8 Bresciani Edda, L’Antico Egitto, De agostini 1998, see: Religione.
9 Enciclopedia Treccani, see: Ebrei (la storia antichissima).
10 Enciclopedia delle Religioni Garzanti, see: Israelitica religione. 11 Enciclopedia Treccani, see: Ebrei (La fondazione della monarchia). 12 Id. 13 Id. 14 Id. 15 Id.
16 Enciclopedia delle Religioni Garzanti, see: Israelitica religione p.541.
17 Id. 18 Id. 19 Id. pp. 541, 542. 20 Id. p. 542, 543. 21 Id. p. 543.
22 Enciclopedia Treccani, see: Ebrei (dal ritorno dall’esilio alla distruzione del secondo tempio). 23 Enciclopedia delle Religioni Garzanti, see: Israelitica religione p. 543.
24 Id. 25 Chevalier Jean, Gheerbrant Alain, quoted work see: toro. 26
Enciclopedia delle Religioni Garzanti, see: Babilonese religione p. 59. The capture of the temple of Gerusalem
1 Enciclopedia Treccani, see: Vespasiano, Tito. 2 Congresso Internazionale di Studi Flaviani, Rieti 1981, Centro Studi Varroniani vol. I, II, Rieti 1983. Barzanò Alberto, “Tito e Tiberio Giulio Alessandro” p.195, vol. II.
3 Id. Pafo’s Temple see: Id. pp. 195-202. 4 Id. pp. 197, 198 . 5 Id. p. 198. 6 Id. 7 Id. pp. 200, 201. 8 Id. p. 201. 9 Congresso Internazionale di Studi Flaviani, quoted work, author: Montevecchi Orsolina, “Tito alla luce dei papiri” p. 347, vol. II. 10 Id. pp. 347, 348, 349. 11 Id. p. 347. 12 Id. p. 348. 13 Id. p. 353. 14 Enciclopedia Treccani, see: Vespasiano. 15 Id. 16 Id. 17 Id. 18 Congresso Internazionale di Studi Flaviani, quoted work, author: Zucchelli Bruno. “Ci fu libertà di parola sotto il Principato di Tito?” pp. 415-419.
19 Enciclopedia della Letteratura Garzanti Milano 1990, see: Plinio il Vecchio.
20 Storia Naturale by Gian Biagio Conte – Einaudi 1984/85, L’Inventario del Mondo, XVII.
21 Enciclopedia della Letteratura Garzanti Milano 1990, see: Plinio il Vecchio.
22 Storia Naturale quoted work, biobibliographical note of Barchiesi Alessandro, Ranucci Giuliano e Frugoni Anna.
23 Congresso Internazionale di Studi Flaviani, Grilli Alberto, Tito e il mondo letterario p.135, vol. I.
Id. Magno Pietro, La dedica della “Naturali Historia” pp.333-335.
24 Storia Naturale, quoted work Frugoni Anna, LXII, vol. I. 25 Id. book 28/20, vol. I.
26 Id. Calvino Italo, Il cielo l’uomo e l’elefante p. VIII (II,13)vol. I.
27 Id. p. IX ( book II,27). 28 Id. book VIII.
29 Id. Calvino Italo, quoted work pp. XIV-XV. Vol. I, book VIII.
30 Congresso Internazionale di Studi Flaviani, quoted work, Deschamps Lucienne, Il ritratto di Tito nell’opera di Marziale p. 72 vol. I. Id. Tremoli Paolo, Marziale adulatore di Tito p. 338 vol. II.
31 Epigrammi, Marco Valerio Marziale. Traduce by Scàndola Mario, notes of Merli Elena- Rizzoli 1996 vol. I – Libro degli spettacoli.
Pompeii: the initiated town
1 Etienne Robert: quoted work pp. 301, 302. 2 Brion Marcel: quoted work p. 131.
Etienne Robert: quoted work pp. 103-105.
3 Enciclopedia dei Simboli Garzanti, see: Minotauro, Minosse.
4 Enciclopedia delle religioni Garzanti, p. 353 (Era).
5 Agizza Rosa, quoted work p. 74. 6 Etienne Robert, quoted work p. 173.
7 Id. p. 126. 8 Id. p. 181. 9 Id. 10 Id. p. 182. 11 Id. 12 Id. pp. 182, 183. 13 Camillieri Rino, Il Quadrato Magico, Rizzoli 1999, p. 98. 14 Etienne Robert, quoted work p. 183. 15 Id. 16 Id. pp. 183, 184. 17 d. pp. 186, 187. 18 Id. 19 Id. 20 Id. Bull Apis
1 Vegetti Mario, dalla rivoluzione agricola a Roma, Zanichelli 1978 p. 47. 2 Id.
3 Bresciani Edda, quoted work, see: Api.
4 Id. see: Mnevi. 5 Id. see: Bukhi.
6 Id. see: Sethi.
7 Id. see: Thoeris.
Enciclopedia dei Simboli Garzanti, see: ippopotamo.
8 Bresciani Edda, quoted work, see: Sobek.
9 Id. see: amuleti di forma inanimata.
10 Id. see: Anubi. 11 Id. see: Thot. Jacq Christian, I Grandi monumenti dell’Antico Egitto, Italian edition traduced by Raffaele Donnarumma Arnoldo Mondadori Editore 1998 p. 335.
12 Id. p. 333. Bresciani Edda, quoted work, see: Horo. 13 Jacq Christian, quoted work p. 150. 14 Id. p. 157. 15 Jacq Christian, quoted work p. 150.
16 Neugebauer O. Parker R. A., Egyptian Astronomical Texts, London 1960.
17 Id. quoted work vol. III, see: Heter (71). 18 Bresciani Edda, quoted work, see: Giza. 19 Fairall Anthony, Professor of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, and Planetarium Director South African Museum, Precession and the layout of the ancient Egyptian pyramids, Astronomy & Geophisics (The Journnal of the Royal Astronomical Society) June 1999 vol. 40.
Fairall Anthony – Orion’s Belt and Layout of the Three Pyramids at Giza, see: http://www..museums.org.za/sam/planet/pyramids.htm 20 Bauval Robert, Hancock Graham, Custode della Genesi Corbaccio 1997 Italian edition traduced by Lucia Corradini pp.90-98.
21 Jacq Christian, quoted work p. 27. 22 Bresciani Edda, quoted work, see: Amon. 23 Id. see: Ra.
24 Id. see: Path. 25 Id. 26 Jacq Christian, quoted work p. 27. 27 Bresciani Edda, quoted work, see: Hator. 28 Id. see: Cosmogonia. 29 Id. see: Cosmogonia (L’Enneade Eliopolitana) . 30 Id. see: Osiride. 31 Id. see: Iside. 32 Id. see: Seth. 33 Id. see: Nefti. 34 Id. see: Cosmogonia (L’Enneade Eliopolitana). 35 Id. see: Cosmogonia (Menfi and Ermopoli’s versions). 36 Id. 37 Id. 38 Id. see: Serapide. 39 Id. see: Serapeum. 40
43 Jacq Christian, quoted work p.252.
The veneration of the bull
1 Corriere del Giorno, Minotauro, simbolo di Creta Egemone of Josè Minervini, 30 agosto 1997. 2 Rotundo Domenico, Templari, Misteri e Cattedrali, text
regarding: “Moneta Ausona reggina col Toro”. 3 Chevalier Jean, Gheerbrant Alain, quoted book, see: toro. 4 Id. 5 Id.
6 Sander N. Ph, Trenel I., Dictionnaire Hebreu, Français, see: Aleph.
7 Chevalier Jean, Gheerbrant Alain, quoted work, see: toro. 8 Id. 9 Id. 10 Enciclopedia delle Religioni Garzanti, see: Mitra. 11 Id. 12 Chevalier Jean, Gheerbrant Alain, quoted work, see: toro. 13 Id. 14 Enciclopedia delle Religioni Garzanti, see: Zoroastrismo. 15 Chevalier Jean, Gheerbrant Alain, quoted work, see: toro. 16 Id. 17 Id. 18 Id. 19 Id. 20 Id.
21 Meridiani, Sahara, Editoriale Domus anno XII n. 84 p.159. 22 Enciclopedia Treccani, see: Boviano, Boviano Vetere. 23 Torino, Guida De Agostini, Novara 1990. Storia di Torino of Ballaria Barbara p. 15. 24 “La Stampa” Venerdì 26/01/2000 article of Maurizio Lupo p. 23. 25 Dembech Giuditta, Torino Città Magica, Edizioni L’Ariete, Settimo Torinese (TO) 1995 vol. I pp. 2123. 26 De Carlo Stefano, Il Museo Archeologico di Napoli,
Soprintendenza Archeologica di Napoli e Caserta, Electa Napoli 1994 p.362. 27 http://s3.unigre.urbe.it/pubblicazioni/paulius/t2.htm
28 Chevalier Jean, Gheerbrant Alain, quoted work, see: vischio, ramo d’oro. 29 Id. see: rosa. 30 De Carlo Stefano, quoted work pp. 309, 310. 31 Id. p. 334. 32 Capone Bianca, quoted work p. 126. 33 Nijinsky Vaslav, Diari – unabridged version, Adelphi Edizioni 2000. Traduced by Maurizia Calusio pp.25, 30, 31, 46, 47.
The magic square, the crusades and the Templars 1 De Mahieu Jacques, I Templari In America, Edizioni Piemme spa Casale Monferrato 1998, Italian edition traduced by Alda Teodorani, pp. 140, 141. 2 Enciclopedia Treccani, see: Citeaux. 3 Demurger Alain, Vita e morte dell’Ordine dei Templari Garzanti 1996, Italian edition traduced by Marina Sozzi, see the pictures 14 e 15. Capone Bianca, I Templari in Italia, Armenia Edizioni Milano 1977 p. 123. 4 Enciclopedia della Letteratura Garzanti, see: Bernardo di Chiaravalle. 5 Taglienti Atanasio, La Certosa di Trisulti, Edizioni Casamari 1987 pp. 204, 205. 6 Enciclopedia Treccani, see: Cistercensi. 7 Storia Naturale Einaudi, quoted work biobibliographical note of Frugoni Chiara p. LXII. 8 La Clavicule de salomon Roi des Hebrew traduite de l’hebreux en italien par Abraham Colorno par ordre de S.A.S. de Mantoue et mise nouvellement en françois. King’s 288, XVIII cent. British Library, London. 9 De Mahieu Jacques, quoted work p. 7. 10 Demurger Alain, quoted work p. 23. 11 De Mahieu Jacques, quoted work pp. 7, 8. 12 Id. p. 8. 13 Id. 14 Id. p. 9. 15 Charpentier louis, I Misteri dei Templari, Atanor Roma 1974, p. 75. 16 Demurger Alain, quoted work p. 175. 17 Id. pp. 193, 335 . 18
I Castelli di Napoli, Soprintendenza per i Beni Artistici e Storici di Napoli. Elio de Rosa Editore Napoli 1992, see: Castel Sant’Elmo. 19 Enciclopedia Treccani, see: Angiò. 20 Richard Jean, la Grande Storia delle Crociate, Newton & Compton Editori Roma 1999, Italian edition traduce by Maria Pia Vigoriti - pp. 359, 360, 471. 21 Id. pp. 464-466. 22 Id. p. 322. 23 Enciclopedia Treccani, see: Castel del Monte. 24 Charpentier Louis, quoted work. 25 Enciclopedia Treccani, see: Federico II. Richard Jean, quoted work pp. 321-326. 26 Enciclopedia Treccani, quoted work: Castel del Monte. 27 Chevalier Jean, Gheerbrant Alain, quoted work, see : Otto. 28 Boncompagni Solas, Il Mondo Dei Simboli, Edizioni Mediterranee 1984 pp. 101, 102. 29 Chevalier Jean, Gheerbrant Alain, quoted work, see: Otto. 30 Id. see: Ottagono. 31 Id. see: Otto. 32 The perimeter of pyramid’s base is equal to a circunference having the height of the pyramid itself as radius. For this argument see: Chevalier Jean, Gheerbrant Alain, quoted work, see: Piramidi (5), Numero (5). 33 Chevalier Jean, Gheerbrant Alain, quoted work, see: ottagono. 34 La Nuova Enciclopedia dell’Arte Garzanti, see: Cupola della Roccia p. 1019. 35 Orsenigo Riccardo, Vercelli Sacra, Libreria Giovannacci Vercelli 1995 p. 290. 36 Id. p. 291. 37 Id. p. 292. 38 Richard Jean, quoted work pp.464-466. 39 Id. p. 443. 40 Id. p. 445. 41 Id. p. 446. 42 Id. 43 Melchior Bonnet Sabine, Les Chateaux de la Loire Larousse 1984 pp.92-101. D’Huart Simone, Les Chateaux de la Loire, Bonechi 1998 pp. 117-121. 44 Charpentier Louis, quoted work pp. 209, 210. 45 Melchior Bonnet Sabine, quoted work p. 72. D’Huart Simone, quoted work pp. 122-125.
46 Id. 47 Caselli Giovanni, Loira, Il fiume dei castelli Giunti Firenze 1992 p. 123. 48 Rotundo Domenico, Templari Misteri e Cattedrali, Edizioni Templari 1983 pp. 189, 190. 49 Id. pp. 237-238. Notes regarding: “La via della realizzazione di sé secondo i misteri di Mitrha”. 50 Id.
51 Weekly “L’Azione”, Fabriano (AN) 13 giugno 1998, article of Luciano Stroppa p. 16.
52 Chevalier Jean, Gheerbrant Alain, quoted work, see: Tarocchi. 53 Bresciani Edda, quoted work, see: Piramidi p. 266. 54 Bluche François, L’Età di Luigi XIV, Salerno Editore p.229. 55 Fulcanelli, Il Mistero delle Cattedrali, Edizioni Mediterranee Roma 1973 p. 64. 56 Id. 57 La Nuova Enciclopedia dell’Arte Garzanti, pp. 1050, 1051. 58 Charpentier Louis, quoted work p. 113. 59 Fulcanelli, quoted work p. 53. 60 Charpentier Louis, quoted work p. 147. 61 Fulcanelli, quoted work p. 51, 52. 62 Id. p. 51. 63 Fulcanelli, quoted work p. 62. 64 Id. pp. 61, 62. 65 Id. p. 65. 66 Id. 67 Id. p. 62. 68 Id. p. 49. 69 Id. p. 50. 70 Orsenigo Riccardo, Vercelli Sacra, Libreria Giovannacci Vercelli 1995 p. 117. 71 Chevalier Jean, Gheerbrant Alain, quoted work, see: Crisma. 72 Etienne Robert: quoted work p. 191. 73 Chevalier Jean, Gheerbrant Alain, quoted work, see: Vergine. 74 Saltarini Kinauer Helene, Astrologia, Bietti Milano 1975 p. 94. 75 Demurger Alain, quoted work p. 198. 76 Capone Bianca, quoted work p. 42, 43. 77 Id. 78 Id. pp. 44, 45.
79 Id. p. 41. 80 Id. 81 Id. p .42. 82 Id. p. 23. 83 Id. p. 19. 84 Id. p. 21. 85 Id. p. 19. 86
Charpentier Louis, quoted work pp. 195, 196. Rotundo Domenico, quoted work, see picture.
88 Capone Bianca, quoted work p. 23. 89 Charpentier Louis, quoted work p. 81. The Domus Aurea
1 Nerone, la vita , le follie. Le meraviglie della Domus Aurea. Le Grandi Storie di Meridiani, Editoriale Domus 1999. Author: Davide Domenici.
2 Id. 3 Id. 4 Id. 5 Id. p. 36. 6 Id. 7 Id. 8 Id. p. 38. 9 Id. 10 Id. 11 Id. author Stefano Zuffi, pp. 41, 42. 12 Id. pp. 43, 44.
13 Etienne Robert, quoted work p. 87.
The kept truth 1 Chevalier Jean, Gheerbrant Alain, quoted work, see: piramidi. 2 Id. see: Hiram.
3 Id. see: numero. 4 Enciclopedia Treccani, see: Massoneria.
5 Id. 6 Id. 7 Id. 8 Id. 9 Id. 10 Id.
11 Id. 12 Stinchelli Enrico, Mozart, la vita e l’opera, Newton 1996 p. 78. 13 Id. 14 Id. p. 110. 15 Id. pp. 110, 111. 16 Id. p. 112. 17 Enciclopedia delle Religioni Garzanti, see: Zoroastrismo p. 744. 18 Stinchelli Enrico, quoted work p. 113.
19 Mioli Piero, Tutti i libretti di Mozart, Newton 1996 p. 210. 20 Stinchelli Enrico, quoted work p. 113.
21 Mioli Piero, quoted work p. 127. 22 Enciclopedia Treccani, see: Alba Longa.
23 Id. see: Boville.
24 Mioli Piero, quoted work p. 124. 25 Stinchelli Enrico, quoted work p. 111. 26 Id. pp. 111, 112 (for the translation see: note n. 2). Il quadrato magico – le carrè sator – the magic square… 1 Capone Bianca quoted work p. 160 (see note n. 1 art. 9). 2 Teborelli Gian Maria, Castelli Dell’Alto Adige, De Agostini 1982 p. 155. 3 Weekly “L’Azione”, quoted work 13 giugno 1998 p. 16. 4 Id. 5 Capone Bianca, quoted work p. 129. 6 Pilati Dalmazio, Le campane di Fabriano, Istituto Internazionale di Studi Piceni Sassoferrato 1998 pp. 132, 133. 7 Id. p. 132. 8 Id. p. 135. 9 La Nuova Enciclopedia dell’Arte Garzanti, p. 1058. 10 Carli Enzo, Il Duomo di Siena, Scala, Istituto Fotografico Editoriale, Firenze 1999 pp.61, 62. 11 La Nuova Enciclopedia dell’Arte Garzanti, p. 1058. 12 Id. 13 Carli Enzo, Il Duomo di Siena, Scala, Istituto Fotografico Editoriale, Firenze 1999 p. 13. 14 La Nuova enciclopedia dell’Arte Garzanti, see: Tino di Camaino. 15 La Nuova Enciclopedia dell’Arte Garzanti, p. 1059. 16 Capone Bianca, quoted work pp. 119, 120. 17 Santi Bruno, Il Pavimento del Duomo di Siena, Scala, Istituto Fotografico Editoriale, Firenze 1982. 18 Giacosa Giuseppe, Castelli Valdostani e Canavesani, Enrico Librai Editori, Ivrea 1962 p.95. 19 Id. p. 36. 20 Id. p. 94.
21 Regione Autonoma Valle d’Aosta, Assessorato all’Istruzione e alla Cultura, testi di Barbieri Sandra. 22 Giacosa Giuseppe, quoted work p. 36. 23 Id. p. 100. 24 Notiziario, Soprintendenza Beni Culturali Regione Autonoma Valle D’Aosta, anno 1, numero 1, 1999 p. 4 Direttore responsabile Anna Maria Belley. 25 Id. 26 Clerici G. Castelli della Valle d’Aosta, pictures of Mazzola M.. Distributore esclusivo: Rivetta Souvenirs snc Brescia. Stampa: Co. Graf. A. srl, Usmate (MI). See: Collegiata di S. Orso pp. 6-11. 27 Regione Autonoma Valle d’Aosta, Assessorato all’Istruzione e alla Cultura, texts of Barbieri Sandra. 28 Carcopino Jerome, Etude d’Histoire Chrétienne, Le Christianisme Secret du “Carré Magique” Editions Albin Michel 1953 pp. 21, 22. 29 Capone Bianca, quoted work p. 29. 30 Camillieri Rino, Il Quadrato Magico, Rizzoli Editore 1999 p. 81.
31 The archaeological find is preserved in “Manchester Museum Archaeology Mediterranean Gallery”. See:
http://www.museum.man.ac.uk/exhibitions/museum.man. ac.uk/exhibitions/mediterranean_gallery.hmt 32 Carcopino Jerome, quoted work p. 28. The charterhouse of Trisulti and painter Filippo Balbi 1 Taglienti Atanasio, quoted work p. 11. 2 Id. p. 22.
3 Tocci V. quoted work, see: Abante.
4 Taglienti Atanasio, quoted work p. 140. 5 Id. 6 Id. 7 Id. see note n. 2. 8 Id. p. 140. 9 Id. 10 Id. p. 141. 11 Id. p. 142. 12 Id. 13 Id. 14 Id. p. 143.
15 Rotundo Domenico, quoted work p. 87.
17 Taglienti Atanasio, quoted work p. 116.
The verdict to the science
1 Capone Bianca, quoted work p. 121.
2 Chevalier Jean, Gheerbrant Alain, quoted work pp. 347, 348.
3 Capone Bianca, quoted work pp. 121, 122.
4 For this argument see: Http://www.unimondo.org/ globpopoli/schede/allevame_017.htlm
5 Id. 6 Id. 7 p.bia. Tuttoscienze (“La Stampa”), Decifrata la struttura molecolare del prione bovino, 26 luglio 2000, p. 3. 8 Buoncristiani Anna, Tuttoscienze (“ La Stampa”), Scienze a Scuola, Edward Jenner scoprì gli anticorpi del vaiolo senza saperlo. Nel 1976 usò per primo il siero proveniente da un bovino infetto, 16 dicembre 1998 p. 4. 9 Giacobini Ezio, Tuttoscienze (“La Stampa”), Nel Kansas l’Università mette al bando Darwin – 15 settembre 1999 p. 1.
Thanks to my brother Aniello and to my sister Pasquslina who have believed in the importance of my work from very the start. Besides my brother showed me possible connection of the subject treated by me with what Nijinski wrote in his diaries. My sister, apart from being the translator of the English version, provided me material about the latin language. Thanks to Roberto Carà who realized my website.
Elio Galasso was born in Serralunga di Crea (AL) on 28 February 1968. “The kept truth” is his first work of literature. A research begun during February 1999 and lasted about three years that got him to do also some journeys: Pompeii, Siena, Aosta, where are present some of the specimens of the Sator, as far as London, to consult the manuscripts of the British Library. Commercial high school leaving qualification, Elio Galasso could be considered a scholar even if he likes to define himself a searcher of questions, to which, sometimes he managed to give an answer. In this time he’s working at a new literary project.