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Project Management

Project Management

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Sections

  • Lecture Notes on Project Management
  • Odds and Ends I
  • Odds and Ends II
  • Outline of Lecture
  • Laws of Project Management
  • How it should go
  • How it often goes
  • Software Project Management Plan
  • Project Agreement
  • Project Agreement vs Problem Statement
  • Project: Functions, Activities and Tasks
  • Task Sizes
  • Action Item
  • Examples of Activities
  • Structure of a Software Project Management Plan
  • SPMP Part 0: Front Matter
  • SPMP Part 1: Introduction
  • SPMP Part 2: Project Organization
  • Process Model
  • Example of an Organization Chart
  • Clients, Managers and Consultants
  • Development and Cross-functional Teams
  • Project Responsibilities
  • Project Management: Hierarchical Project Organization
  • Example of Hierchical Organization: Chief Programmer Team
  • Another Project Organization: Egoless Programming Team(Weinberg)
  • Project-Based Project Organization
  • Observations on Management Structures
  • Hierarchical Structure
  • Project-Based Structure
  • Assigning Responsibilities To People
  • Possible Mappings of ToDos to People
  • Project Roles: Coach
  • Project Role: Group leader
  • vThe group leader has to be rotated among members of the team
  • Group Leader: Create an Agenda
  • Project Role: Group Liason (Architecture, HCI)
  • Project Role: Planner
  • Project Role: Document Editor
  • Web Master
  • Web Master:
  • SPMP Part 3: Managerial Processes
  • Examples of Assumptions
  • Examples of Dependencies
  • Examples of Constraints
  • Risk Management
  • SPMP Part 4: Technical Process
  • SPMP Part 5: Work Elements
  • Creating Work Packages
  • WBS Trade-offs
  • Dependencies and Schedule (Section 5.2 + 5.5)
  • Project Management Tools for Work Packages
  • GANTT Chart Example for OWL Project
  • Project: Building a House
  • Activity 2: Building a House, ctd
  • PERT Chart Example for "Building a House"
  • Slack Time and Critical Path
  • How do you become a good project planner?
  • Project Management Summary
  • Communication Management
  • A Communication Example
  • A Communication Example ctd
  • After the Crash
  • Communication is Important
  • Classification of Communication
  • Meeting as Scheduled and Synchronous Communication
  • Event-Driven Modes of Communication
  • Synchronous Communication Mechanisms
  • Asynchronous Communication Mechanisms
  • Example of Asynchronous Documentation: Document Review
  • Review of Documents Database
  • NewReview Form
  • Fill out the Review Form
  • Reviewer Notification
  • Status of Document Review
  • Reviewers add their Comments
  • Originator Notification
  • Final Recipient Notification
  • Document Editor & Web Master Tasks
  • Accepted Document w/ Action Items
  • SPMP Action Items
  • Summary

v

8 September 1994
TUM

Lecture Notes on Project Management
Bernd Bruegge
Technische Universität München Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Softwaretechnik

14 July 1998

Bernd Bruegge

Component-Based Software Engineering

12

Odds and Ends I
v

Book on CBSE Homepage
w See Post by Allen Duoit on July 13
u u u u u u

Chapter 1, Introduction Chapter 3, Software Lifecycle Chapter 5, Project Communication Chapter 6, Requirements Elicitation Chapter 7, Requirements Analysis Chapter 9, Design Rationale Chapter 8 System Design Chapter 4 Project Management

w Chapters available on August 15:
u u

Bernd Bruegge

Component-Based Software Engineering

2

Odds and Ends II
v

Lecture Today:
w Finish System Design w Project Management (No reading available yet)

v

Lecture on Wednesday:
w Communication & Meeting Management
u

Reading: Bruegge-Dutoit Ch 5

v

Lecture next Tuesday:
w Software Lifecycle
u

Reading: Bruegge-Dutoit Ch 3

Bernd Bruegge

Component-Based Software Engineering

3

Outline of Lecture v v v v v v v v v v v Concepts and terminology Purpose of Software Project Management Plans Structure of a Project Management Plan Project responsibilities Team structures Project planning Work breakdown structure Communication Management Dependencies Schedule Project Management Tools Component-Based Software Engineering 4 Bernd Bruegge .

v v v Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 5 . you have overlooked something. Then they remain at 90% complete forever. If project content is allowed to change freely. something will go wrong. When things are going well. they will. Project teams detest progress reporting because it manifests their lack of progress.Laws of Project Management v Projects progress quickly until they are 90% complete. When things appear to be going better. the rate of change will exceed the rate of progress. When things just can’t get worse.

How it should go Requirements Analysis Design Implementation System Testing Delivery and Installation Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 6 .

How it often goes Requirements Analysis D E L A Y Vaporware 7 Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering .

consumes resources and produces work products. Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 8 . w A software project has a specific duration. w Management categories to complete a software project: u Tasks. w SPMP may be part of project agreement. w Specifies the technical and managerial approaches to develop the software product. w Companion document to requirements analysis document: Changes in either may imply changes in the other document. Functions v Software Project Management Plan: w The controlling document for a software project.Software Project Management Plan v Software Project: w All technical and managerial activities required to deliver the deliverables to the client. Activities.

delivery location. quantities. v v v Client: Individual or organization that specifies the requirements and accepts the project deliverables. Can be a contract.Project Agreement v Document written for a client that defines: w the scope. duration. a statement of work. delivery dates. or a project charter. Deliverables (= Work Products that will be delivered to the client: w w w w Documents Demonstrations of function Demonstration of nonfunctional requirements Demonstrations of subsystems Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 9 . w the exact items. cost and deliverables for the project. a business plan.

Project Agreement vs Problem Statement Client (Sponsor) Manager Project Team Problem Statement Project Agreement Bernd Bruegge Software Project Management Plan Component-Based Software Engineering 10 .

Activities and Tasks Function Project Function Activity Activity Task Activity Activity Task Task Activity Activity Task Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 11 .Project: Functions.

Functions v Activity or set of activities that span the duration of the project Function Project Function Activity Activity Activity Activity Activity Activity Task Task Task Task Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 12 .

Functions v Examples: w w w w w Project management Configuration Management Documentation Quality Control (Verification and validation) Training v v Question: Is system integration a project function? Mapping of terms: Project Functions in the IEEE 1058 standard are called Integral processes in the IEEE 1074 standard. We call them cross-development processes Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 13 .

Tasks Function Project Function • Smallest unit of work subject to management • Small enough for adequate planning and tracking • Large enough to avoid micro management Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 14 Activity Activity Activity Activity Activity Activity Task Task Task Task .

produce tangible result (documents. description of work to be done Preconditions for starting. need resources. Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 15 . required resources Work product to be produced. acceptance criteria for it Risk involved v Completion criteria w Includes the acceptance criteria for the work products (deliverables) produced by the task. duration. code) v Specification of a task: Work package w w w w Name.Tasks v Smallest unit of management accountability w Atomic unit of planning and tracking w Finite duration.

Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 16 . w Depends on nature of work and how well task is understood.Task Sizes v Finding the appropriate task size is problematic w Todo lists from previous projects w During initial planning a task is necessarily large w You may not know how to decompose the problem into tasks at first w Each software development activitity identifies more tasks and modifies existing ones v Tasks must be decomposed into sizes that allow monitoring w Work package usually corresponds to well defined work assignment for one worker for a week or a month.

Examples of Tasks v v v v v v v v v Unit test class “Foo” Test subsystem “Bla” Write user manual Write meeting minutes and post them Write a memo on NT vs Unix Schedule the code review Develop the project plan Related tasks are grouped into hierarchical sets of functions and activities. Action item Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 17 .

When? v Example of action items: w Florian unit tests class “Foo” by next week w Marcus develops a project plan before the next meeting w Bob posts the next agenda for the Simulation team meeting before Sep 10. w The VIP team develops the project plan by Sep 18 Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 18 . 12noon. Who?.Action Item v v Definition: A task assigned to a person that has to be done within a week or less Action items w Appear on the agenda in the Status Section (See lecture on communication) w Cover: What?.

Activities Function Project Function Activity Activity Activity • Major unit of work with precise dates • Consists of smaller activities or tasks • Culminates in project milestone. Activity Activity Activity Task Task Task Task Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 19 .

. step..) w Allows separation of concerns w Precedence relations often exist among activities (PERT Chart) v Milestone often produces baseline: w formally reviewed work product w under change control (change requires formal procedures) Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 20 ..Activities v v Major unit of work Culminates in major project milestone: w Internal checkpoint should not be externally visible w Scheduled event used to measure progress v Activitites may be grouped into larger activities: w Establishes hierarchical structure for project (phase.

Examples of Activities v Major Activities: v Activities w Planning w Requirements Analysis w System Design w Object Design w Implementation w System Testing w Delivery during requirements analysis: w Refine scenarios w Define Use Case model w Define object model w Define dynamic model w Design User Interface Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 21 .

Budget Optional Inclusions Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 22 . Work Elements. Front Matter 1. Introduction 2. Project Organization 3. Technical Process 5. Managerial Process 4.Structure of a Software Project Management Plan v v v v v v v 0. Schedule.

SPMP Part 0: Front Matter v Title Page v Revision sheet (update history) v Preface: Scope and purpose v Tables of contents. figures. tables Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 23 .

4 v 1. including delivery dates and location v 1.SPMP Part 1: Introduction v 1.2 w All items to be delivered. product summary v 1.5 Bernd Bruegge w Plans for anticipated and unanticipated change w Complete list of materials referenced in SPMP .1 Project Overview Project Deliverables Evolution of the SPMP Reference Materials Definitions and Acronyms Component-Based Software Engineering 24 w Executive summary: description of project.3 v 1.

organization chart w Relations with other entities w Major functions and activities.3 v 2.SPMP Part 2: Project Organization v 2.4 Process Model Organizational Structure Organizational Interfaces Project Responsibilities w Relationships among project elements w Internal management. who’s in charge Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 25 .2 v 2. nature of each.1 v 2.

tasks w Milestones w Baselines w Reviews w Work breakdown structure w Project deliverables w Sign-offs Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 26 .Process Model v Shows among relationships v Visualization v of process model Project Management Aids w MS Project (Microsoft) w MAC Project (Claris) w EasyTrak (Planning Control International) w Functions. activities.

Example of an Organization Chart Client Management Consultants Cross-functional Teams Development Teams Architecture HCI Web Master Documentation Configuration Mgt Logbook Maintenance Vehicle Travel VIP Infrastructure Team Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 27 .

Managers and Consultants Management Malcolm Bauer Bernd Bruegge Allen Dutoit Brian Cavalier Sam Perman Isabel Torres-Yebra Alfonso Guerrero.Clients. Claus Czymmek Infrastructure Team Stephan Schoenig (CMU) Joyce Johnstone (CMU) Andreas Doerner (DB) Arno Schmackpfeffer (DB) Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 28 .Galan Client Dieter Hege Brigitte Pihulak Consultants Klaus Eitzenberger Manfred Mueller Juergen Bortolazzi.

Development and Cross-functional Teams Logbook Team Aaron Wald Herbert Stiel Michael Poole MichaelScheinholtz Nathaniel Woods Pradip Hari Uhyon Chung Maintenance Team Arjun Cholkar Aveek Datta Darren Mauro Joel Slovacek Steve Sprang Vincent Mak Yenni Kwek Vehicle Team Andrew Wang Hoda Moustapha Jaewoo You Ognjen Martinovic Paul Stadler Tze Bin Loh William Ferry Travel Team Ann Sluzhevsky Bin Zhou Christopher Chiappa Gordon Cheng John Doe Kalyana Prattipati Michael Samuel VIP Team Christopher Lumb Eric Farng Idan Waisman Li-Lun Cheng Patrick Toole Phillip Ezolt Venkatesh Natarajan HCI Team Darren Mauro Gordon Cheng Idan Waisman Paul Stadler Steve Sprang Tze Bin Loh Yenni Kwek Web Master Team Uhyon Chang (Logbook) Aveek Datta (Maintenance) Tze Bin Loh (Simulation) Kalyana Prattipati (Travel) Component-Based Software Engineering Configuration Mgt Team Michael Poole (Logbook) Darren Mauro (Maintenance) William Ferry (Simulation) Chris Chiappa (Travel) Eric Farng (VIP) 29 Bernd Bruegge .

Project Responsibilities v v v v v v v v v v Planner Analyst Designer Programmer Tester Maintainer Trainer Document Editor Web Master Configuration Manager v v v v Group leader Liaison Minute Taker Project Manager Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 30 .

Project Management: Hierarchical Project Organization Chief Executive Team Leaders Project Members Basis of organization: Hierarchical information flow across corporate boundaries Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 31 .

Example of Hierchical Organization: Chief Programmer Team Chief Programmer Assistant Chief Programmer Senior Programmer Librarian Administration Tester Junior Programmer Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 32 .

Another Project Organization: Egoless Programming Team(Weinberg) Analyst Tester Programmer Designer Librarian Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 33 .

Project-Based Project Organization Project Leader Team Leaders Subsystem Team Subsystem Team Subsystem Team Team Members Basis of organization: Nonlinear information flow across dynamically formed units Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 34 .

Observations on Management Structures v Egoless structures don't work well w "Ownership" is important v Hierarchical information flow does not work well with iterative and incremental software development process w Manager is not necessarily always right v Project-based structures w Cut down on bureaucracy reduces development time w Decisions are expected to be made at each level w Hard to manage Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 35 .

Hierarchical Structure v Projects with high degree of certainty. the more need for a formal structure wCustomer might insist that the test team be independent from the design team wProject manager insists on a previously successful structure Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 36 . uniformity and repetition. wRequires little communication wRole definitions are clear v When? wThe more people on the project. stability.

Project-Based Structure v Project with degree of uncertainty wOpen communication needed among members wRoles are defined on project basis v When? wRequirements change during development wNew technology develops during project Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 37 .

Assigning Responsibilities To People Project To Do List • Item 1 • Item 2 • Item 3 • Item 4 • Item 5 • Item 6 • Item 7 • Item 8 • Item 9 Role 3 Item 3 Item 6 Item 8 Role 1 Item 1 Item 2 Item 9 Role 2 Item 4 Item 5 Item 7 Person A Role 1 Role 2 Person B Role 3 Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 38 .

Possible Mappings of ToDos to People v One-to-One w Ideal but often not worth to be called a project v Many-to-Few w Each project member assumes several roles ("hats") w Danger of overcommittment w Need for load balancing v Many-to-"Too-Many" w Some people don't have significant roles w Bystanders w Loosing touch with project Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 39 .

Project Roles: Coach v Listen to gripes from individual teams v Review weekly team reports v Attend weekly project meetings v Schedule and prepare meetings with client v Insist that guidelines are followed v Assign presentations (in-class project meetings. client acceptance test) v Resolve conflicts if they cannot be resolved otherwise Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 40 . client review.

what. when) w Measure progress (Enforce milestones) w Deliver work packages for the tasks to the project management w Present problems and status of team to project manager v The group leader has to be rotated among members of the team. Component-Based Software Engineering 41 Bernd Bruegge .Project Role: Group leader v Responsible for intra-group communication (Meeting Management: Primary Facilitator) w Run the weekly project meeting w Post agenda before meeting w Define and keep track of action items (who.

Group Leader: Create an Agenda
v v v v v

Purpose of Meeting Desired Outcome Information Sharing Information Processing Meeting Critique

Action Items (Check Previous Meeting)

Issues (Check Previous Meeting & BBoards)
Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 42

Project Role: Group Liason (Architecture, HCI)
v Responsible

for inter-group communication

w Make available public definitions of subsystem developed by the team to the architecture teams (ensure consistency, etc) w Coordinate tasks spanning more than one group with other teams
v Responsible

for team negotiations

Bernd Bruegge

Component-Based Software Engineering

43

Project Role: Planner
v Plans

the activities of an individual team and has the following responsibilities. v Define project plan for team:
w PERT chart, resource table and GANTT chart showing work packages w Enter project plan into MS Project
v Make

project plan available to management v Report group project status to group leader No explicit planner in JAMES. Responsibilities assumed by group leaders
Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 44

Project Role: Document Editor v Collect. proofread and distribute team documentation v Submit team documentation to Architecture team v Collect agendas v Take Minutes at meetings Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 45 .

Web Master v Maintain team home page v Keep track of meeting history v Keep track of design rationale Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 46 .

with anchors (maintained by one role) Separate HTML documents for Agenda. etc (maintained by several roles) Agenda Agenda Minutes Minutes Action Items Action Items Issues Date 9/9/96 Issues 9/16/96 Agenda Minutes Action Items Issues 47 Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering . minutes. Minutes. action items and issues w Possibilities: u u One HTML document per meeting.Web Master: v Publish Meeting Information on Team Homepage w Must contain Agenda.

5 Staffing Plan Needed skills (what?. assessing. how much?.SPMP Part 3: Managerial Processes v 3. reviews v v 3. tracking. information flows.3 Risk Management w Identifying. Constraints w External factors v 3.1 Management Objectives and Priorities w Philosophy. contingencies for risks v 3. when?) Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 48 .4 Monitoring and Controlling Mechanisms w Reporting mechanisms and formats.2 Assumptions. goals and priorities v 3. Dependencies.

Examples of Assumptions v v v v v There are enough cycles on the development machines Security will not be addressed There are no bugs in the CASE Tool recommended for the project A demonstration of the X system will be given by the client The CAD Model of the seat will be made available by the client Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 49 .

The current release of Rose/Java supports only JDK 1.2 v Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 50 .Examples of Dependencies v The VIP team depends on the vehicle subsystem provided by the vehicle team The automatice code generation facility in the CASE tool Rose/Java depends on JDK.0.

It will take time to learn how to use the tools Not every project member is always up-to-date with respect to the project status The use of UML and a CASE tool is required Any new code must be written in Java The system must use Java JDK 1. limited amount of time to build the system The project consists of beginners.1 Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 51 .Examples of Constraints v v v v v v The length of the project is 3 months.

w Contingency: ? v v Risk: The project is falling behind schedule. w Contingency: Roles are assigned to somebody else. Functionality of the system is renegotiated with the client.Risk Management v Risk: Members in key roles drop the course. Risk: Rose will not support JDK 1.1 w Contingency: ? Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 52 . w Contingency: Extra project meetings are scheduled. v Risk: One subsystem does not provide the functionality needed by another subsystem.

etc. configuration management). team structure. reviews and baselines.1 Methods. policies. v 4. including milestones. Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 53 . development method. v 4. Tools and Techniques w Computing system. guidelines.2 Software Documentation w Documentation plan.SPMP Part 4: Technical Process v 4. w Standards.3 Project Support Functions w Plans for functions (quality assurance.

support software. v 5.5 Schedule w Deadlines. required milestones Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 54 . activities and tasks.SPMP Part 5: Work Elements v 5. v 5. accounting for dependencies. computer time.3 Resource Requirements w Estimates for resources such as personnel. activities and tasks v 5. special hardware.1 Work Packages (Work breakdown structure) w Project decomposed into tasks.2 Dependencies w Precedence relations among functions.4 Budget and Resource Allocation w Connect costs to functions. definitions of tasks v 5.

w The work breakdown structure does not show the interdependence of the tasks v WBS identification is an instance of object identification Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 55 . steps) and tasks.1) w Break up project into activities (phases.Creating Work Packages v Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) (Section 5.

$$) Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 56 . N. 47.. 1981 Cost (Time. Boehm p.WBS Trade-offs v v Work breakdown structure influences cost and schedule Thresholds for establishing WBS in terms of percentage of total effort: w Small project (7 person-month): at least 7% or 0.2 % or 15 PMs v Determination of work breakdown structure is incremental and iterative WBS Schedule Source: Software Engineering Economics.J. Prentice Hall.5 PM w Medium project (300 person-month): at least 1% or 3 PMs w Large project (7000 person-month): at least 0. Barry W.

Dependencies and Schedule (Section 5.2 + 5.5) v v An important temporal relation: “must be preceded by” Dependency graphs show dependencies of the tasks (hiercharchical and temporal) w Activity Graph: u u Nodes of the graph are the project milestones Lines linking the nodes represent the tasks involved Nodes are tasks and milestones Lines represent temporal dependencies w Schedule Chart (MS-Project): u u v v Estimate the duration of each task Label dependency graph with the estimates Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 57 .

Enables the project manager to understand which tasks can be performed concurrently.Project Management Tools for Work Packages v Visualization Aids for Project Presentation w Graphs (Schedule). v Schedule Chart (PERT Chart) w Cornerstone in many project management tools w Graphically shows dependencies of tasks and milestones u u PERT: Program Evaluation and Review Technique – A PERT chart assumes normal distribution of tasks durations – Useful for Critical Path Analysis CPM: Critical Path Method Component-Based Software Engineering 58 Bernd Bruegge . Trees (WBS) w Tables (Resources) v Task Timeline w Gantt Charts: Shows project activities and tasks in parallel.

GANTT Chart Example for OWL Project 8/9/96 9/6/96 10/4/96 11/1/96 11/29/96 12/27/96 Start Planning Phase Requirements Analysis Phase System Design Phase Analysis Review Object Design Project Review Implementation & Unit Testing Object Design Review System Integration Internal Project Review Client Acceptance Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 59 .

1: Surveying w Task 2.1.1.1 : Site preparation w Activity 2.3: Planting shrubs and trees Activity 2: Building the House w Activity 2.3: Excavating Task 2.1 : Site preparation w Task 2.1.1: Clearing and grubbing w Task 1.1.Project: Building a House v v v v Activity 1: Landscaping the lot w Task 1.3: Finishing the interior Activity 2.2: Obtaining permits w Task 2.2: Seeding the Turf w Task 1.2: Building the exterior w Activity 2.4: Obtaining materials Component-Based Software Engineering 60 Bernd Bruegge .

3: Wallboard w Task 2.3.4: Exterior electrical work w Task 2.6: Exteror painting w Task 2.2: Building the exterior w Task 2.2.2: Outside Walls w Task 2.5: Exterior siding w Task 2.2.2.2.3.3 : Finishing the Interior w Task 2.Activity 2: Building a House.1: Foundation w Task 2.2.2.6: Doors and fixtures Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 61 . ctd v Activity 2.2.1: Interior plumbing w Task 2.3.7: Doors and Fixtures w Task 2.8: Roof v Activity 2.5: Floor covering w Task 2.2.3: Exterior plumbing w Task 2.3.2: Interior electrical work w Task 2.4: Interior painting w Task 2.3.3.

8 3.4 Install Exterior Siding 2.4 Install Roofing Install Interior Doors 2.3 Install Exterior Electrical 2.4 Lay Foundation 2.2 Install Interior Plumbing 3.3 Paint Interior Install Flooring 3.2 Install Wallboard 3.6 Bernd Bruegge FINISH 62 Component-Based Software Engineering .5 Paint Exterior 2.2 1.1 Install Interior Electrical 3.5 3.6 2.3 Buy Materials 1.6 Install Exterior Doors 2.1 Build Outside Wall Install Exterior Plumbing 2.Activity Graph for Activity “Building a House” START Build Outside Wall Surveying 1.7 2.1 Excavation 1.

PERT Chart Example for "Building a House" 12/3/94 12/21/94 1/11/95 Install Wallboard 0 9 1/22/95 Paint Interior 0 11 1/22/95 2/8/95 Install Interior Doors 0 7 2/16/95 FINISH 1/19/95 0 Install 0 Exterior Doors 15 6 Building a House: MS Project PERTcy Chart with Duration of Activities (Pfleeger 2.3) 0 12 Install Interior Plumbing 0 15 Install Interior Electrical Install Flooring 8/27/94 8/27/94 9/17/94 START 0 0 Survey ing 12 3 8/27/94 Request Permits 0 15 12/3/94 Start Time 8/29/94 Legend Slack Time Duration Bernd Bruegge 10/1/94 10/15/94 11/5/94 Build Outside Wall 0 20 1/19/95 Excava tion 0 10 Buy Material 0 10 Lay Founda tion 0 15 0 18 Install Roofing 12 9 1/12/95 Paint Exterior 12 5 12/17/94 12/31/94 Install Exterior Siding 12 8 63 Install Exterior Plumbing 12 10 Install Exterior Electrical 12 10 0 0 Component-Based Software Engineering .

Estimated (“Real”) Time for a task or activity w Or: Latest Start Time .Slack Time and Critical Path v Slack Time w Available Time . The critical path has no margin for error when performing the tasks (activities) along its route. Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 64 .Earliest Start Time v Critical Path w The path in a project plan for which the slack time at each task is zero.

How do you become a good project planner? v Establish a project plan w Start with the plan based on your experience with the last project(s) v v v Keep track of activities and their duration Determine difference between planned and actual performance Make sure to do a post-mortem w Lessons learned w Ask developers for feedback w Write a document about what could have been improved Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 65 .

html Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 66 .edu/15-413/courseDocs/spmpF96.se.cmu.cs.Writing the SPMP v Example of a full SPMP for the OWL project w http://cascade1.

In this case w Avoid perfect GANTT charts and PERT charts w Don’t look too far into the future v v Avoid micro management of details Don’t be surprise if current project management tools don’t work: w They were designed for projects with clear goals and fixed organizational structures Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 67 .Project Management Heuristics v Make sure to be able to revise or dump a project plan w Complex system development is a nonlinear activity v If project goals are unclear and complex use team-based project management.

Schedule. Dependency graph. managers and teams w w w w Problem statement Software project management plan Project agreement Make sure agreement allows for iteration v v Team Structures Project planning w Start with work breakdown structure (WBS) w Identify dependencies and structure: Tasks.Project Management Summary v Get agreement among customers. Critical Path Analysis Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 68 . activities. functions v Tools and Techniques w GANTT.

Communication Management v v v v v Communication in distributed Teams Communication Modes Communication Mechanisms Scheduled Communications Communication workflow w Example: Distributed Document Review with Lotus Notes Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 69 .

A Communication Example v "Two missile electrical boxes manufactured by different contractors were joined together by a pair of wires. Box 1 Pair of Wires Box 2 Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 70 .

it was discovered that the wires had been reversed." Box 1 Box 2 Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 71 .A Communication Example ctd v Thanks to a particular thorough preflight check.

.. "The postflight analysis revealed that the contractors had indeed corrected the reversed wires as instructed..After the Crash. v v ." Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 72 ..

both of them had.“In fact.” Box 1 Box 2 Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 73 .

Communication is Important v Communication Mode: Type of information exchange that has defined objectives and scope w Scheduled: Planned Communication w Event Driven:Unplanned Communication v Communication Mechanism Tool or procedure that can be used to transmit or receive information w Synchronous: Sender and Receiver are available at the same time w Asynchronous: Sender and Receiver are not communicating at the same time. Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 74 .

Classification of Communication Communication mode supports is supported by Communication mechanism Scheduled Event driven Synchronous Asynchronous Client review Problem reporting Smoke signals Fax Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 75 .

1997) Component-Based Software Engineering 76 .Scheduled Modes of Communication v Problem Definition w Objective: Present Goals & Requirements (Functional. Nonfunctional) and Constraints u Problem Statement Presentation (JAMES Example: August 26. 97) v Project Review: Focus on System Model w Objective: Assess status and review subsystem interfaces u u u Analysis Review (October 16. 1997) Object Design Review (November 11 & 13. 1997) Implementation Review (November 25. Confirm Changes in Requirements u Bernd Bruegge System Design Review (October 23. 1997) v Client Review: Focus on Requirements w Objective: Brief Client of Progress.

peerto-peer u To be scheduled by each team v Inspection (Formal) w Objective: Compliance with (functional and nonfunctional) requirements w Developer answers questions from the reviewers u Client Acceptance Test (December 9. 1997) Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 77 .Scheduled Modes of Communication v Walkthrough (Informal) w Objective: Increase quality of subsystem w Developer presents to team members Informal.

Scheduled Modes of Communication v Status Review: w Objective: Find deviations from schedule and correct them or identify new issues w Part of every team meeting (Status) v Brainstorming: w Objective: Generate and evaluate large number of solutions for a problem w Part of every team meeting (Discussion) Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 78 .

Meeting as Scheduled and Synchronous Communication v Purpose of Meeting w Why do we meet? v Desired Outcome w What do we want to achieve? v Information Sharing w Action Items v Information Processing w Open Issues v Meeting Critique Action Items (From previous meeting) Issues (From previous meetings and BBoards) Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 79 .

Scheduled Modes of Communication v Release w The result of each software development activity u u u u u u Software Project Management Plan (SPMP) Requirements Analysis Document (RAD) System Design Document (SDD) Object Design Document (ODD) Test Manual User Manual v Postmortem u Review w Objective: Describe Lessons Learned Final Homework (December 16. 1997) Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 80 .

Event-Driven Modes of Communication v v v Request for Clarification Change Request Resolution of Issue Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 81 .

Synchronous Communication Mechanisms v Hallway conversation w Unplanned face-to-face meeting v v Questionaire and structured interviews Meeting w Planned Face-to-Face Meeting. Telephone conversation v Groupware w Same time. different location groupware Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 82 .

Asynchronous Communication Mechanisms v v v v E-Mail Newsgroups Web Lotus Notes Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 83 .

Example of Asynchronous Documentation: Document Review v v v v v v v v Fill out a review form Attach document to be reviewed Distribute the review form to reviewers Wait for comments from reviewers Review comments Create action items from selected comments Revise document and post the revised version Iterate the review cycle Example: w “Review of Documents” Database in JAMES Project Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 84 .

Review of Documents Database Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 85 .

NewReview Form Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 86 .

Fill out the Review Form v v v v Select reviewers Select the document to be reviewed Add comments to reviewers Determine deadline Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 87 .

Reviewer Notification
v

Selected reviewers get e-mail

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Status of Document Review

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Reviewers add their Comments

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Originator Notification Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 91 .

Final Recipient Notification Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 92 .

Document Editor & Web Master Tasks v v v v v v Editor reviews comments Editor selects reviewed comments Web Master posts reviewed document and action items Team members complete their action items Editor integrates changes Editor posts changed document on the review database for the next review cycle Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 93 .

Accepted Document w/ Action Items Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 94 .

SPMP Action Items Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 95 .

Summary v v v v Communication Modes vs Communication Mechanisms Scheduled Communications Asynchronous Communications Team review of documents with Lotus Notes Bernd Bruegge Component-Based Software Engineering 96 .

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