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Govt.S.K.S.J.T.I,Bangalore, our thanks and indebted gratitude for guidance at every
stage while bringing out this report. Also we would like to thank our induction buddies for their constant support throughout our training period. Their guidance, support and help have made it possible to finish our training successfully. We would like to thank Mr.MAHADEVEGOWDA, H.R. Manager and
Ms.PAVITHRA of Shahi Exports Pvt.Ltd. for allowing us to do the training at
Unit 4. We would like to specially thank Mr.JAMEEL AHAMED IED, & IED ASSISTANTS, for guiding us to observe all the functions in various departments. We express our heart full thanks to all the STAFF and WORKERS of the
Shahi Exports Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore.
Lastly, we would wish to express our sincere thanks to all those who have directly and indirectly helped in bringing out this report successfully.
Acknowledgment Introduction HR department Merchandizing and Planning Stores Fabric Sampling and CAD Cutting Production
This trade has got socio-economic importance as it is essentially a labor in extensive industry and has the potential to generate wide spread employment particularly of rural and backward areas. Kaja button Finishing and Packing Testing Washing Maintenance INTRODUCTION The garment industry has emerged as a dynamic and booming industry. It is a young and thrust industry having made its presence felt only from last two decades. 4 . The rapid growth of this industry in the last few years revealed the massive export potential.
In this era of transition and Globalization. granted permission to carry out the training in Unit 7 one of its 16 exports Units in Bangalore... This training work is a small step to study the “Process Flow in Garment Industry”. a Dignity. Garments Industries are becoming highly competitive in the Global Market & heading towards adopting quality standards norms to improve the productivity. Hence massive training programs are required at gross route levels. It has separate units for woven and knits. Ltd. It has its main unit (3) in Faridabad (Delhi) and newly opened unit is in Hyderabad. They are: LFD ( Ladies Fashion Division) LSD ( Ladies Standard Division) MNB ( Men and Boys) Now the clothing has not only remained as a means of cover the body but become Fashion. Finally. there is need for trained workers at basic product level. At present as there is huge competition in the garment industry. It has divided its units based on the nature of garment production. Companies should also gear up with sophisticated machineries and proper infrastructure with pleasant environment to take care of the required quality standards and to meet the stiff competition in the international market. To teach the various technical stages of garment making. the intention of training is to understand to deal with various processes and practically work. methodologies that are followed in Garment Industry.. Ltd has been started at 1992. Shahi Exports Pvt.The entrepreneur are setting up new factories and trying to employ more and more professional to take care of senior positions of their organization. Shahi at present have 21 branches in Bangalore only. 5 . Shahi Exports Pvt. It stands 1st position for profit and stand 4th in overall rating. profitability to grow in the market & to satisfy the customer requirements in every aspect.
Garment flow: Buyer order Spec sheet Manual pattern and digitizing Computer pattern Sample Approved pattern Grading Marker plan Fabric Fabric inspection Laying Cutting Numbering and bundling Production Finishing Packing Dispatching 6 .
Organization Hierarchy: General Manager Factory manager H. R team Merchandising Planning Executive Production Fabric and cutting/ fusing Sampling and CAD IED Quality Maintenance Finishing Stores Administration Senior H R Accounts 7 .
STAFF : HR manager – 1 Senior executive HR – 3 HR executives – 7 PERSONNAL AND ADMINISTRATION: RESPONSIBILITIES: 1. To ensure safety requirements. 8 . To ensure safety welfare aspects. Dispensaries are been in the company to treat the sick workers. Crèche for the children of workers is been well maintained.HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT H. as and when the need arises from departments (as directed by management). Human Resource Planning or Man Power Planning is synonymous. 3. infrastructure. Recruiting qualified personnel. It is essentially concerned in the process of estimating and projecting the supply and demand for different categories of personal in the organization for years to come. 5. 4. 7. 8. To ensure effectiveness of training for the employees. Identification of training needs in co-ordination with functional heads. 2.R. 6. The recruitment of workers is done according to the need. To appraise the top management about work environment. developing and controlling by which a firm ensures that it has the right number of people and right kind of people at the right places at the right time doing work for which they are economically most usefully. It incorporates all Human being at all stages in the organization. PLANNING is the planning of forecasting.
such as EPF. PF. monthly returns.9. bonus returns. Signing of monthly statement. 5. confirmation letters. recurring deposit accounts. ESI Labor department. 9 . Renewal of factory licenses safety devices such as fire extinguishers. Finalizing staff welfare-privileges such as loan. Notices. AUTHORITY: 1. Signing of Appointment letters. etc relating to employees. 4. Representing CDEL with external bodies such as Govt. Well maintained canteen is been run. 3. and vehicle loans. 2. LIC and inspector of factories. Departments. Signing of ESI. 6.
preparing statistical forecast based upon incoming sales data analyzing spreadsheets that are used to follow the status of fabric and production orders and evaluating financial statements.MERCHANDISING INTRODUCTION: Merchandising is the term used to signify articles for sale. determining selling prices. fabrics. dispatch • Banks and Currency Shipping Clearing Agent • Management 10 . quota. in the past fashion merchandising was usually associated only with woman’s apparel and accessories. Merchandising includes the following process: • Prospecting • Sampling • Order processing • Buyers styles. accessories and trims • Production planning and control • Load planning. quality control • Inventory production units and job workers • Shipment and logistics • Letter of credit processing. production. The main activities of retailing are to buy and sell goods simply put the detail activities performed by a retail executive a buyer who plans and sells. Merchandisers must be capable of calculating the cost of producing each garment. Fashion merchandising includes all the planning and activities necessary to supply the fashion wants and needs of retail Customers.
the manufacturer thinks best quality with affordable price. the buyer will give an order to the manufacturer. Supplier must take care that all the samples approved by the buyer should be kept in written format signed by the buyer. Some of the buyers will de explained neatly regarding garment manufacturing. After procuring the buyer. at the same time shipment date also mentioned. Here the buyer thinks the right quality with low price. the supplier should commit with him. The manufacturer should go through the buyer’s manual. The buyer/buying agent should approve every thing in sample. if they satisfied with their standards then he should proceeds further otherwise he can drop the order. the manufacturer will give the sample according to the buyer specifications and then he will quote the price for the product. He should not start the production until the buyer gives an order. After samples approval from the buyer/buying agent. First the supplier will prepare the samples according to his PROTO SAMPLES. After getting the buyer. 11 .• Order Status • Costing • Profit and Loss • Delivery Schedule • Capacity Utilization • Buyers Status • Quality and Rejects • Finance and Personnel NEGOTIATION: The Negotiation is like updating of data between buyer and manufacturer.
sizes of the packing cartoons.Buyer manual consist of from beginning to the end how to communicate with them (buyer) from sampling to delivery. how the lab reports to be sent. Merchandising: ↓ Planning H R team Purchase Accounts Stores Documentation Sampling Production PLANNING: Production planning and control is the first and most important process which involves scheduling and smooth processing of the departments that includes all processes used in production of the garment till shipment. type of packing materials be used . Then the productions will starts. quality checking parameters. There are 2 types of planning: • • Central planning Unit planning 12 . where should be lab Testing should be done . After getting approval from the buyer the supplier will go ahead for bulk production. Example: Type of stitches should be in the garment. etc. how packing of all the samples should be sent. each and every thing will be written.
OBJECTIVES: • • Planning helps in smooth functioning of all processes of company.A central department is needed to collect & analyze the control information from each production unit in order to report on individual and overall achievements. Routing 3). Unit planning is concerned with planning in each and every department in a unit. It gives estimation of appropriate time consumption of each and every process till the shipment. It is an essential pre-requisite to production control. The production department has to control every major stage of producing the garments up to this entry into the ware house. Schedule 4). Dispatching 5). 13 . • ROUTING: Routing is the planning activity which is undertaken to determine the best route for manufacturing a certain product. Follow up 6). Planning 2). 1). Inspection • PLANNING: Planning is the first step to be taken for looking ahead or anticipating difficulties and taking next steps. ACTIVITIES: The production planning & control involves the following steps.
SLAB FOR PLANNING: 0-1500 1500-3000 3000-5000 5000-8000 8000-12000 12000-30000 30000 & above 30% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60% 65% FORMULA: Productivity @ 100% = 480min * no. The follow up function of the production planning & control ensures that production proceeds along expected lines. some finished product. This is maintained through out of the product of the manufacturing of the manufacturing process. Inspectors must inspect the material process. of machines required Operator samp 14 .• SCHEDULING: The next phase of production planning and control is scheduling. which involves the assignment of starting and completion times for the various operations to be performed. • FOLLOW UP OR EXPEDITING: Once production has been set in motion it is necessary to check that it is proceeding according to the plan. but also to see that goods are of good quality. • INSPECTION: Production control is not only relating to the goods produced on time. fixtures used either at the work station or testing room. • DISPATCHING: The dispatching function involves the actual granting of permission to proceed according to plans already laid down.
Fabric record details: • • • • • • • • • • • • Buyer: Style: Item: Code & color: Order quantity %: TOQ: Conquered: Required in mts: Balance: Fabric issued: Sample: O/unit: 15 .
Stores have to keep watch on every department in the unit to access the consumption of the material. Stores department will make sure that all the items. 5% of extra quantity will be issued to the stores.STORES DEPARTMENT ACCESSORY STORES: The main objective of Stores is to supply the trims or accessories & other necessary items and equipments needed for the productivity of the garment for each & every section in the unit. Worker details: Store in charge: Krishna Workers: 4 Flow: Buyer spec ↓ Merchandiser ↓ Dispatching Trims & Accessories ↓ Stores ↓ Inspection ↓ As per the folder for 1 garment is calculated ↓ 16 . Stores keep an account of all the materials that comes in or goes out of the unit. accessories are present in right quantity with right quality.
2. Issues the material and trimmings according to calculated amount & if required in rounded-up figures. storage and issuing of materials. The chief storekeeper is expected to: 1. Receive goods inwards and check them according to procedures specified by the purchasing department. Then as soon as the fabric comes to the stores it goes to 17 . The procedure followed here is same as accessory stores.Calculated for bulk production ↓ Approval by merchandiser ↓ Issued to the department Stores Keeping: The store keeping staff is basically responsible for the receiving. Stock transfer note: • • • Item code Item name Issued #: Issued date: To Item UOM (Unit Quantity No of Location Lot bales / bags number description of measurement) Store issue slip: Style & Color Description Reference Quantity Remarks FABRIC STORES: The fabric stores are storage of fabrics and fusible fabrics.
Process flow: Inspection ↓ Checking ↓ Shading ↓ Report ↓ Storage ↓ Distribution Employees detail: Fabric in charge – 1 (Annadanesh) Quality checker – 1 18 . Fabric storage capacity is up to 1lakh meters either in bale or roll forms. Fabric to the fabric section is received in the form of bale or rolls. defect checking & shade segregation. It is then dispatched to the cutting department. 1 bale consists of 5 to 6 taka.inspection and after inspection again it is stored in separate rack. Fabric section: Fabric audit: The main object of fabric section is to inspect.
Machines used: Checking machine: RAMSONS CHFCK 6605 Shade matching machine: PARAMOUNT Spectra vision An ISO 9001 Route 19 .5ft or 66inch Productivity: On table up to 5000mts & on machine up to 1000 to 1500mts.Workers – 4 Data operator – 1 Total – 7 Table Dimension: Length – 190 inch Breadth – 60 inch Height – 38 inch Fabric storage capacity: up to 1lakh meter Storage height: 5.
Layout plan: Buyers: AEO (American Eagle Outfitters) OLD NAVY H&M (Hennits & Movits) HOLISTER 20 .
JEANS (Calvin & Kelive Jeans) Weaving defect: • • • • • • • • • • • Burl mark Drop pick End out Wrong splicing Slub Foreign material Stop mark Warp & weft float Bowing Mixed yarns Iron stains & water mark • • • • • • • • • • • Thin place Floats Dobby defect Pattern defects Double ends/ fillings Holes Weft bars Oil & soil stains Burl mark Streak Miss pick Dyeing / Finishing / Printing / Embroidery defects: • • • • • • • Center to selvedge & selvedge to selvedge color variation Roll to roll variation Stains Dark print Missing embroidery Miss prints Starting marks 21 . TARGET WALMART PVH KOHILS C.K.
Point Calculation: Imperial: In this textile material is evaluated on a square yard. In the fabric inspection department four point system is been used for bales.• • • Patches Un even print Wrong design pattern FABRIC INSPECTION The first step to be carried out when received from the supplier is to inspect the fabric. 4 point system: Length of defects Up to 3inch 3 – 6inch 6 – 9inch > 9inch Any holes Points 1 2 3 4 4 Indication Yellow Green Navy blue Red Red For 100mts more than 40 points defect fabric is rejected. PRINCIPLE: The main principle of 4 point system is that the penalty points given to the max defect is 4. Points per sq yard = (Total points * 3600) / (Inspected yard *Cut table fabric width inch) 22 . rolls & Piece Goods Inspection.
Copies of the report are presented to concerned merchandiser & department. Fabric width 1½’’ to 2’’ tolerance of specified width is accepted. They are following Four Point System. Then the Takas or Rolls are inspected in full width on the table or machine under the good light for defects analyses. if the points allotted for 100 meters are Less than (<) 40 points is Accepted More than (>) 40 points is Rejected • • • • Check the fabric length & width & compare against the length declared by the supplier. in which total 100 meters of fabric is inspected and. Every fabric has to be inspected 100% incase 15% with the consent of concerned merchandiser approvals. For every lot / every fabric order keep 1mts of fabric for lab testing & for quality standard reference. Inspection reports are produced.Metric: In this textile material is evaluated on a square meter. Points / 100m sq = (Total points *10000)/ (Inspected meter *Cut table fabric width cm) Acceptable level computation formula: = (total points*3300) / (width in inch* length Procedure: • • • • • • • As soon as the fabric received. From the supplier the fabric is received in the form of Takas or Rolls. According to the order placed. the fabric inspection department inspects the fabric. but it can be 45 or 65 meters also. Fabric received in the form of Takas may be of length usually 100 meters. they place 5% extra order to the supplier to meet the requirement. 23 .
sourcing & cutting department for approval. Colour matching is done by using. PARAMOUNT colour matching cabinet. Shade bands are send to concerned merchandiser. and then issued to the cutting department. Then they are sort for the shades and the Takas or rolls are sorted according to the shade variation. Shade band of 10 * 10 swatch is prepared. Color matching testing: Buyer H&M TARGET AEO A&F OLD NAVY HOLLISTER KOHILS GYMBOREE PACSUN Primary TL 83 UL 30 CWF INCA CWF CWF U 30 INCA CWF Secondary D 65 D 65 INCA D 65 INCA D 65 D 65 D 65 D 65 24 . After inspection fabric is packed in bundle form as per the shades and width. They ensure that same shade is been loaded to cutting. 1/4th meters strip is cut across the width of each roll or takas.Grading of fabric depending on points: Points Up to 44 44 to 60 Above Grading Standard fabric Sub standard fabric Defect fabric Colour Green Yellow Red (reject) Shade segregation: • • • • • • • 100% shade segregation is done.
5 inch level acceptable 2 inch level acceptable Checks & printed fabric cut table width is measured & embroidery fabric embroidery to embroidery width is measured. Shrinkage test is carried out by marking 50 * 50cm. Fabric & codes: Code A B C D E F G H Fabric Waffle Waffle Chambray Denim Seer sucker Poplin Velvet Oxford canvas Code N O P Q R S T U Fabric 100% polyester Blended Twill Y/D Flax / Lenin Crepe Lycra Poly / nylon GRGT 25 . Center to selvedge colour variation is not accepted Check the bowing level Up to 44inch 45 to 60 inch 60 to 72inch 1 inch level acceptable 1. (+_) 2 threads accepted. Check the reed & pick.TOMMY SEARS CWF UL30 D 65 D 65 Acceptable level: • • • • • • 30pt/100sq yard for mill made & imported fabric 40 pt/100sq yard for power loom fabric Check the width & length 3 times separately & mention their average. For shrinkage & washing 1meter width is cut.
Country card 26 . Shrinkage report 4. shade matching machine. trolley. checking machine. Checking report 6. hanger. stand. sticker. scissors. display board. Reports: Buyer label: • • • • • • • Fab code: Color: Bale no: Roll no: Meter: Width: Shade: Fabric reports: 1. table. Defective report 7. CSCV /MTR to MTR 5. computer. calculator.I J K L M Cheeks Y/D Corduroy Twill with print Herring bone Knitted V W X Y Z Damask Woolen Voile Rayon Nylon Accessories & trims used: Fabric. measuring tape. marker. Face side approval 2. label. Shade band approval 3.
8. L%: W%: Average: 27 . Piece goods quality inspection report: • • • • • • • • • • Sl n o Supplier name: Fabric code / color: Po no: Style: Group of fabric: Acceptable points: Inspection date: Meter age received: Meter age accepted: Total Accept: Reject: Roll MTS / no in bale sticker Actual Actual Classification Total MTS width cm min & max of 1234 % shade Accept Remark points points points / reject 2. Recutting % 1. Shrinkage report: • • • • • • Fabric: Taka /roll no: MTR. Batch cutting label 10. Continuity card 9.
Fabric checking report: • • • • • • • • • • • Supplier: Fab code: Fab color: Style #: Buyer : Item #: Order quantity: Fabric required: Recd fab: Balance fab req: Inspection fab: Cut table width wise detail: Width MTS Po no Total Shade wise detail: Shade MTS Pass MTS Reject Po wise quantity: Defects: Inspection mts Checking % Total points Average % points 28 .• • • • • Style no: Quantity: Buyer name: Color: Date: 3.
Code I53AY I53AY XC44F XC44F FC87P FC88P FC89P PQ57 X431 HN933 XC86P XC85P PP081 Color Pink white Blue white Red cream Blue cream Blue flower bunch Blue flower Blue print Thunder grey White White Pink butter Blue bocquet Brown Style R2120 R2120 5830 5830 RU 60 RU 60 RU 60 T 37 T 37 2623 TW 40 TW 40 528201 Buyer Benetton stripe Benetton stripe AEO embroidery AEO embroidery Benetton printed Benetton printed Benetton printed CK Jeans check CK Jeans plain AEO stripe Benetton printed Benetton Old navy checks 29 .In process on 7 – 8 – 2007 Thursday.
The samples garment is prepared in the sampling department with great care because these samples represent the capability of the company and in order to procure orders to the company. Checking and analyzing new styles. sales men . This initiates the actual production.Buyers ask for TOP samples (Term production) The other functions: 30 . 4. Getting approvals from buyers. pre-production . PATTERN MAKING 2. Sampling process is responsible to monitor quality at minimum cost. counter. This is done very cautiously checking every minute thing getting the sample to perfection as per the buyer’s requirements in the spec sheet. THE MAIN FUNCTIONS OF SAMPLING: 1. 3.S). In this department the replicas of the bulk is produced. SAMPLE PRODUCTION The main objectives of sampling department are: 1. shipment. CAD MARKING 3. 2. The samples are produced according to the spec sheet in single size and sent for buyer approval. Sending samples for “Merchandise Review Samples “ (M. the sample is the representative of the whole bulk. Getting pre-production approvals. and Buyer’s Meeting samples .R. defining quality terms of new styles to production department.SAMPLING Sampling is the Research and Development section of the garment industry.
The tracing sheet length and width are equal to the lay. Then the separated parts are placed on the digitizer’s board to digitize the parts into the computer. PATTERN MAKING: The designs according to the tech pack given by buyers including shrinkage are drawn on the tracing sheet then it is placed on the card board. CAD MARKING: The cad marking is done after digitizing. Pattern making is done only for single size.correction . The fabric consumption efficiency in that lay is optimum. MARK –only marking is done. The lay marking is done such the waste efficiency percentage is less. No other corrections can be done. Based on the sampled garment the costing is been carried out. 31 . The buffers are used in the stripes and check fabrics. The marking is done onto the tracing sheets by plotters. The different parts are separated and colored according to the sizes. Then the different parts of the design are cut using cutters. The main function of cad is grading of the basic size according to the required sizes. Shade markers are used for solids. Then it is sent to the manual cutting.shrinkage and whatever changes required can be done. The cad marking is very useful in grading and optimum usage of the fabric. The sampling department also access for accessories and thread consumption for that particular garment.grading . scissors and trimmed by notch cutters. The software used is OPTI TEX. There are two types of OPTI TEX : • • PDS – pattern .• • • The sampling department also calculates the consumption of fabric required to produce the garment.
The samples are produced according to the patterns according to the procedures given below. Hierarchy of workers: Merchandising manager Sampling in charge Co-ordinates QC Tailors In charge – Ramanathan Total workers – 43 Tailors -25 Pattern masters -2 QC -3 Pattern markers -2 CAD -2 operators 1 helper K/B -2 Supervisors -2 Cutters -2 Ironing -2 Supervisors Ironers K/B Helpers Pattern masters 32 .
PROCESS SEQUENCE: BUYER SPECIFICATION SHEET MERCHANDISER SAMPLING Flow of the sample: Developing stage of style ↓ Proto sample ↓ Fit approval ↓ Pre production sample ↓ Sealer sample ↓ 33 .
The pattern prepared for proto sample does not contain seam allowances. 5. Only in one size is been prepared and sent. In this sample stitch construction is mentioned. This sample is prepared for just to get the garment out look and size. PROTO SAMPLE: 1. 4. This is the first sample being prepared contain only substitute fabric. 2. This sample is sent to buyer agent if not in some cased to buyer itself. the grain cutting direction is mentioned as per buyer 34 . 3.Size set ↓ Pilot run ↓ Garment package test (GPT) ↓ Top sample IN GPT: • • • • Show room sample (SMS) Fashion show room sample (FSS) Add sample (AD) Reference sample TYPES OF SAMPLES: DEVELOPING STAGE OF STYLE: It is the own developing of size with respect to the sample given by the buyer. FIT APPROVAL: 1. 2.
2. 4. Only certain buyers do ask for Red Seal Samples. In this type sample of 4-6 pieces in each size sent to buyer. the procurement of trims 4. Based on this sample the buyer sends comments regarding the size fit if any. Here about 30-50 pieces is been prepared. the accurate dimensions of the garment is specified SALES MEN SAMPLE: 1. will contain seam allowances as lay is been made for cutting above thirty pieces. In each size and in each color one garment is been produced. 2. 4. In all sizes one sample is sent to the buyer to check the fit. One sample is been sent in all sizes. if the samples are fast moving then the order been placed. 2.3. The buyer will have certain buying houses or showrooms where the samples are sent. 3. PILOT RUN SAMPLE: 1. 2. The sample is been sent with full accessories and details. The pattern prepared for salesmen sample. the stitching instructions of the different parts of garment 5. 35 . Fabric being original with all accessories. In certain cases the fabric may be of substitute fabric. RED SEAL SAMPLE: 1. 3. This sample is not been prepared in reference to all buyers. This sample is been prepared in order to check perfect fit to the garment. SIZE SET SAMPLES: 1. 3.
For all samples there should be preparation of one or two samples. PRE-PRODUCTION SAMPLES: 1. 36 . 2. In this sample all accessories and fabric being original. which is for our reference. Only certain buyers do ask for TOP samples. 4. COUNTER SAMPLE: 1. 3. the latter checked and then sends it to the buyer. One or two samples being sent to the buyer to give the knowledge of the garment how is being stitched in the production line.3. Certain buyers do ask for this type of samples though this sample is not sent usually. in the production selects one sample and sends it to the Merchandiser. 2.C. The Q. This trail for production. 2. In certain cases the buyer’s agent will come and inspects the sample and gives comment. SHIPMENT SAMPLE: 1. Here one or two samples to be sent to the buyer to give knowledge of what is being sent to the buyer through shipment. This is the sample is been prepared in the production line during production hours. TOP SAMPLES: 1.
2. color fastness . salesmen. Pre-production samples and any other samples being sent to buyer there should be a preparation of counter samples for our reference. The checking of the trims of sample at final step takes place according to the buyer spec sheet 2. That is for Proto. Size set.crocking of the sample is testing is done REPORTS: Sample Indent: • • • • • • Buyer: Purpose: Style: Size: Description: Quantity: Pattern information: Cutting information: Interlining type & placement: Stitching information: Washing information: Packing information / Accessories: Any special information: Fabric details: Thread details: 1) Bill of materials: Stage: Development 37 . GARMENT PACKAGE TEST: 1. Pilot run.strength .
• • • • • Buyer: Class: Type: Description: Vendor: Materials Item description code Use content Construction finish Weight Yield 2) Folder summary: Buyer: Main label: Additional label: Hang tag: Logo: Final fit approval: 3) How to measure (Grade specification work sheet) 4) Fit image form: 5) Required specification: Buyer: Company: Product type: 38 .
Sample size: Size class: Approval status: Approval note: Selected range: POM Description Tol (-) Tol (+) Basic size 6) Sample comments: Stage: Production • • • • Fit evaluation work sheet: Grade specification: Measurement sheet: Production sheet: Buyer: Buyer P. Style: Fabric: Description: Wash: Consumption: Delivery date: Country: Shipment mode: Trims: 39 .O.
stapler. pattern sheet. fabric. measuring tape. marker. thread. labels. calculator. notch cutter. buttons. scale. 40 . Item number: Body fabric color: Sizes: Comments: 7) Sewing program list: • • • • Program number: Stitch shape: Number of threads: Standard sewing size: 8) Checking: Fabric defects Shade variation Holes/ stains/ cuts Fused surface appearance Biased cut components Button hole stitching quality Button attachment quality Bar tuck Trims attachment Embroidery / printing Workmanship in samples Direction of biased components Threads used in samples Trims used in samples All required labels Label placements/attachments Iron standard/ quality Alteration involved Specs in samples Overall quality of sample Presentation of sample Sample check result Accessories & Trims: Scissor. gum tape. iron box.
Fusing machine HASHIMA 1000 ED Model EC – 3 Eastman machine company 41 . The cutting department receives the fabric from the fabric department after inspection. Machines used: 1. The main objective of cutting section is cutting of garment parts accurately.S. End cutting machine Eastman end cutter 3. economically and in sufficient volume according to the lay record and the parts are numbered according to the sizes to keep the sewing room supplied with work. Production is up to 7000 per day.In process: 10/08/2007 Code HNG33 XC447 XC447 I53AY I53AY PQ57 Color White Red cream Blue cream Pink white Blue white Friday Style 2623 5830 5830 R2120 R2120 T37 Buyer AEO AEO AEO Benetton Benetton C K Jeans Thunder grey CUTTING DEPARTMENT Cutting is the very first process in garment manufacturing.A 2. Hand cutting machines Blue streak NY U.
Numbering machine BLITZ numbering machine Italy STV 492 Employees: Cutting in charge – Murali QC in charge – 1 Cutter – 7 Cutting helper – 1 Cutting issuer – 1 Fab assistant – 1 Feeding helper – 1 Top sticker – 2 Fusing helper – 15 Marker – 1 Production writer – 1 Laying – 10 Re layers – 9 QC / checkers – 6 Re cutters – 2 Re layers – 9 Re lay helpers – 1 Sorters – 12 Sorting helpers – 1 Supervisors – 1 Fabric issuers – 1 Fabric QC – 1 Fabric checkers – 4 TLR – 3 QC supplier – 1 Helper – 15 TOTAL = 99 Spreading: 42 . Band Messer machine Wastema Germany 6.4. Fussing feel strength checking machine 5. Cloth drill hole machine Nagai Shima Japan 7.
To get perfection during lay cutting in case of checks and stripes fabric the lay cutters do follow the design and then cut it off.The main objective of spreading is to spread the fabric lay accurately as per the length of the maker with minimum waste at end of a lay. they do check the width and length of the fabric and give report. This is possible if shades of both the end bits are matched. Two types of spreading: • • Manual spreading Auto spreading MANUAL SPREADING: In cutting department fabric lays are laid manually as per the marker length. There are 3 types of laying: • • • Folded Open width Pinning lay CUTTING: 43 . In certain cases 2 end bits are joined together to make the required length. They are getting more end bits during spreading but they use these end bits to cut garment parts. but in case of plain fabric they cut the fabric as it is. Only one operator is required. They maintain a report of how many layers are been lay and the laying being done by whom. at the end of the lay the workers cut the fabric with scissors and end cutter. AUTO SPREADING: The automatic spreading is done by machines which hold the fabric rolls in width wise and fabric is spread along length wise. During spreading they take care of shades in the lays of fabric.
Cutting is very important and necessary process without which the garment can’t be stitched. Manual cutting 2. Cutting should be done according to the marker & is carried out by cutting master and cutting in charge. Computer pneumatic cutting Manual cutting: • • Band knife cutting Straighter cutting The procedure followed in manual cutting: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The fabric is inspected for shade The fabric consumption ratio is calculated The lay record is prepared The lay is spread according to the lay record The lay marker is spread over it The size labels are placed on the marked parts. The straighter cutting is been carried out Then it is sent to band knife cutting for accuracy in shape The numbering of parts is done based on sizes & lay The stripes and check fabrics are sent for relaying where the proper alignment of stripes & checks of different parts for matching. Here the cutting is done in two stages : 1. Pinning is done for pockets and darts for proper alignment Edge cutting is done for stripe & check fabrics The interlinings are also cut After cutting the shade checking is done Then it goes to auditing Re cutting is done 44 .
Main bundle: Main bundle consist of small bundles (20 pieces)of each part required to make one complete garment. Flow: Order ↓ Consumption work ↓ Approval Fabric check ↓ Approved shade ↓ Cutting plan ↓ Laying ↓ CAD marker ↓ Cutting ↓ Numbering ↓ Shade checking 45 .
Notches: check weather the locations of the notches had been correct by putting the hard pattern over the top ply. Ragged cutting: check for ragged cutting & if found the part has to be replaced or the defect has to be rectified. Any deviation found in the above procedure should be brought to the notice of the concerned person & ensure rectification. check for miss cut or failure of the cutter o split the line. middle ply & bottom ply comes exactly to the hard pattern. 46 . Check both the opposites of all the components. Check first & last no of all the components is same.↓ Bundling (20) ↓ Check ↓ Batch distribution ↓ Recutting (if required) Procedure for quality inspection: • • • • • • Pattern checking: check if top ply. Miss cut: balanced. Check notches of all the components. Check shade variation of all the components. Check the no parts ok. Check matching: check if the check matching & the mirror image are been Checking method for sorting: • • • • • • Check the top sticker & all the components are of same cut no.
it may be of woven & non woven.Shade quality control: • • • • • After the numbering of all the components in a garment. flap. If the same lay is cut in different lots of fabric consider each as separate lays while checking & perform the above procedure separately. If any shade variation is observed then check components of 1 no b/w the components & one above for confirmation. pocket. cuff. Parts for fusing or interlinings: • • Shirts: collar. Fusing: This been carried out after numbering. Fusing fabrics have a gummy layer which helps in sticking to the fabric when subjected under required temperature & pressure. Interlinings are the one which does not have gummy layer. front patty. spread all the components neatly on the table. Different fusing fabrics: Code FX 1008 FX1008 CH4013 NX100 FX 12 DP Color Black White White White Charcoal Temperature (deg c) 132 132 132 132 132 Pressure (kg) 2.5 3 3 3 Time (sec) 12 12 12 12 12 47 . These are also used to the required parts instead of fusing fabrics. Pants: waist band. neck band. This is been done to get the roughness of the required parts of the fabric which helps in smooth process of sewing. Check top sticker & all the components are of same cut no. Ensure by checking the first no & last no of all the components.5 2. flap. pocket. the no given to the components is same.
Pressure checking is to be done once a month using a fast colored poplin fabric & woven microdot fusible interlining. Dwell time to be checked once a week using stop watch. Fusing defects are avoided using better combination of temperature and pressure. Testing and fusible interlinings: • • Purpose is to give form and shape and to improve aesthetic of the garment. REPORTS: Lay record: 48 . temperature and pressure. Discoloration of fabric due to fusing. Place thermo label sandwich b/w a strip of the fabric & the fusible Pass this to fusing machine Get the proper temp (at which the thermo label become black) Attach temp to this form after testing • • • Peel strength to be checked once a day using adhesion tester (standard 450gm or 160oz). Fusing sandwich temperature to be checked by BI hourly using a thermo stripe. shrinkage and bond strength. Quality of fusing is tested by actual fusing by taking 12”*12” fabric and 9*9” fusing fabric at recommended time.CH 3012 NX 100 White Optic white 130 132 3 2.5 12 12 Process: • • Fusing is done by machine. Strike through and strike back caused by incompatible interlining and shell fabric or improper fusing cycle. Fusing Defects: • • • Delamination and bubbling due to incorrect fusing. This is checked for compatible.
JO/ style#: Cut #: Lay length and width: Start and end time: Bale # : thann mts: no. of plies: Fabric & color: Sizes: Shade: No of plies/ ways or size: Meters required for the day: Cut or production date: Lay mark sticker: Style # Cut # Size: Part: Shrinkage: Consumption details: Style #: Date: Buyer: Cut table width: Shrinkage: Fabric: Size/ratio Ways Length Avg/GMT Efficiency% No. of Total Total pcs pieces/size mts Sample report: Order no.: 49 .
Supplier: Model description: Sent by: Date: Measurement list: Test Size Color Sample Test result Previous test result samples Comment: on
Fusing lay record:
PO #: Style #: Cut #: Size ratio: Lay length: Fabric width & marker width: Shrinkage: Fabric code & color: Fabric swatch: Embroidery parts: Meterage used of cutting: Fabric issued for spread:
Fusing production report:
Date Members Target
Parts fused per garment:
PO # Style # Cut # Pcs # Cut quantity Total Parts to be fused
Numbering: Shading quality inspection report:
PO #: Style #: Cut #: Size: Color: Fabric: Lot quantity:
PO # Style #: Cut #: Size: Part: Fabric: Bundle #: Quantity: Shrinkage:
Counting: front and back pieces are counted. Delivery Chelan:
D.C. no.: Unit:
Batch: Date: P.O. no.: Style: Color: Cut no. Bundle no. Quantity Size Start bundle End bundle
In process: 08/08/2007 Wednesday
Code XC86P XC85P PQ57 IV982 XC44F IPN92 PP091 IPN90 FB720 XC44F Color Pink butter Blue bouquet Thunder grey Natural Blue cream Brown dark Contrast brown Blue dark White embroidery Blue cream Style TW40 TW40 T37 528201 5830 7600 528201 7600 F2517 5830 Buyer Benetton Benetton C K Jean Old navy AEO H&M Old navy H&M AEO AEO
Fusing in process: 08/08/2007 Wednesday
Style # Color Fusing fabric Temperature deg cel Pressure Kg Dwell time (sec) Parts to be fused
code 528201 7600 Brown checks Blue dark NX100 White CM4013 white 132 3 12 132 3 12 Collar.flap. . NB Collar. 53 . FP Followed: Specification Code: Color: Style: Buyer: Fabric PP091 Brown checks 528201 Benetton Contrast fabric IV982 Natural 528201 Benetton Fusing fabric NX100 Optic white - Parts: Back:1 Right sleeve: 1 Left sleeve: 1 Cuff:2 Front yoke:2 Pocket:2 Pocket flap:2 Back yoke:1 Collar:2 Neck band:2 Flap:2 Corduroy: Neck band:1 Cuff:2 Contrast: Front contrast:2 Back contrast:1 Main bundle: In this style main bundle has 480 pieces. FP. cuff. NB.flap.
Sewing department receives fabric bundles of different pieces or parts of garment & these bundles are issued to the batch to perform a sewing operation. Here the sewing department consist of six batches among these four are line batches and other two batches are assembled. Each line batch consists of 40-45 machines and assembly batch consists of 60-65 machines, this will vary deepening upon the style of the garment.
Once the sample gets approved from the buyer, batch setting is done for a particular style of the garment. Batch setting is very critical process if any thing goes wrong in settings then it directly affects the production and as well as the quality of the
garment. Batch setting is done by the floor in-charge with Production Manager’s guidelines. Batch setting depends on the style of the garment. And the number of machines set in the batch for each operation depends on the production required per hour & per day. Batch setting follows zig- zag flow for easy and convenient flow of materials. Once the batch is set, the actual garment manufacture will begin & the target is set for each and every operation, which in turn gives the estimated production. Hourly production target and daily production target is fixed by the Production Manager by his experience knowledge. The Target setting depends on: • • • Shipment Date Style Number of workers & no. of machines
After the sewing is completed the garment moves to the trimming section, then to checking department, then to final checking and dispatch to finishing department. In production, for each line they’re being one Supervisor who controls the total line and his main aim is to get the required production with in time. There will be 2 feeding helpers whose responsibilities are to feed the materials in to the batch from the cutting department and to maintain the hourly production & daily production reports. There will be one Q.C. & he checks out for the mistakes/defects. Quality norms conformity: 1. Incorrect shape 2. Open seam 3. Puckering 4. Pleating 5. Needle holes 6. Twisted uneven width 7. Shading within 14. End cut thread 15. Oil stains 16. Width uneven 17. Joint stitch 18. Improper point 19. Raw edge 20. Skip stitch 55
garment 8. Hi- low panel, pocket 9. Looseness 10. Broken stitches 11. Label open 12. Label reverse 13. Label centre out
21. Down stitch 22. Line out 23. Roping 24. Damage 25. Uneven stitch/inch 26. Mirror balancing
TOIL ET I E D I E D CHECKI NG 107ft MODULAR TEAM 1 2 ft H R RACK COUNTING TABLE 17FT D A T A CHECKI NG 107ft BATCH 9 1 2 ft 1 0 107ft AQL AQL RACK 107ft 23ft 9 f t CHECKI NG BATCH 10 1 2 ft CHECKI NG EXIT BATCH 11 1 2 ft FLOW CHART SEWING SECTION Loading of cutting parts Distribution of parts Setting of workstations 57 .
Stitching of parts Inline checking Assembling of parts Trimming End of line checking AQL Kaja Sending to washing/finishing Operations involved in making of parts: Collar: • • • • • • Collar top run stitch Collar edge cut Collar edge turning Collar top edge (collar kinari) Collar top stitch Neck band iron 58 .
and iron Ready collar edge cut and middle marking. turn. length. 59 . Cuff: • • • • • Cuff hem (cuff door) Cuff marking (width.• • • • Collar top and neck band edge cut Collar pick ready (collar and neck band attachment) Ready collar trim. height) Cuff run stitch Cuff trim turn Cuff iron (cuff ready) Back: • • • • • • • • • • Sleeve Back dart making Back yoke inside piece gathering Back yoke inside piece attaching Back top yoke ironing Back top yoke centre tacking Back yoke top stitch Fusing for velvet tape attachment (iron) Velvet tape attachment marking Side tacking for velvet tape attachment and finishing Main label attachment.
• • • • • • • Front: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Sleeve open Sleeve placket edge cut Sleeve placket finishing (direct finishing) Diamond shape (tacking) Sleeve placket diamond shape making Sleeve pleat marking Sleeve pleat making. Front marking (line balancing) Front trimming (extra margin line) Front panel attach Front panel over lock Front panel top stitch Front panel edge cut Front yoke inside piece attach Front yoke top piece attach Front placket edge cut Front placket finishing (right and left) Pocket hemm surging and pock hemm Pocket iron Pocket extra margin trim and setting Pocket attach Pocket pointing Flap marking with setting (line balancing) Flap run stitch (ready) Flap edge cut. turn Flap edge stitch (kinari) Flap top stitch (pointed) 60 .
flap) • • • • • • • • • • • Cuff to cuff line balancing S/B* even Cuff door top stitch width uneven N/A* Cuff up and down N/A Cuff edge straight line and point sharp S/B even Collar point up and down N/A Collar top S/B mirror balancing Collar top down stitch and top stitch width uneven N/A Pick shape and pick up and down N/A Neck band with uneven N/A Both side flap mirror S/B balancing Flap D/N* piping and width uneven N/A Check station.• • • • Flap stay stitch (edge cut) Flap attaching Flap attach top stitch Front panel stay stitch (neck) Checking: Check station-1 ( Parts name: cuff. collar.2 (Parts name: sleeve and back) • • • • • • • • Sleeve placket length up and down N/A Sleeve placket diamond shape off and length up and down N/A Sleeve placket diamond reverse tracking N/A Sleeve placket folding line bowing N/A Back velvet label attaching cross and centre out N/A Size label attaching reverse and raw edge N/A Label gap uneven N/A Back yoke attaching shape of and margin uneven N/A 61 .
• • • • Back top stitch D/N down stitch and attaching stitch visible N/A Back yoke point centre out N/A Back dart depth width uneven N/A Back dart S/B zero finishing Check station.4: (Parts name: collar attaching and back attaching and sleeve attaching) • • • • • • Middle out N/A and label S/B centre Collar finishing down and attaching stitch visible N/A Label gap S/B 5/8” Body.low N/A Front placket top stitch ¼” both side even Pocket placement from placket edge Check station.3 ( Part name: front) • • • • • • • • • • • • Front yoke D/N puckering and down stitching N/A Front yoke S/B mirror balancing Front panel attaching line S/B matching Front panel D/N reverse and pucker N/A Followed pocket to pocket mirror balancing Pocket door S/B ½” and pocket straight line S/B CF side Followed flap to pocket line matching Flap to pocket gap S/B ¼” both side Pocket attaching hi-low N/A Front placket hi. collar and label size S/B in same number Shoulder top stitch looseness and width uneven N/A Sleeve attaching reverse N/A 62 .
back and sleeve S/B same number. I. End of line checking: Size label to collar check S/B same of size Front shoulder top stitch width S/B even Arm hole top stitch width S/B even Sleeve attaching reverse and sleeve placket reverse N/A it S/B even Cuff finishing straight line S/B even S/B follow sleeve placket up and down and sleeve pleat up and down Side seam D/N loose stitch and puckering N/A it S/B neat Follow bottom hem piping. Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) After complete checking of garment at the end line checking point the garments will be sent to AQL (Acceptable Quality Level) for further checking of pieces in random. . D/N – double needle.e.not acceptable. down and puckering Font placket hi-low and puckering S/B even Pocket to flap line balancing S/B even Pocket hi-low and pocket cross attaching N/A Front and back yoke D/N puckering shape off N/A Wash care label placement S/B 3” above bottom and wash label reverse N/A Front panel D/N reverse and down stitch N/A Back dart up and down N/A All over garment viewing defects N/A.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Arm hole top stitching width uneven and roping N/A Front. N/A . according to this system 8 pieces 63 . S/B – should be.5 systems. AQL checks the garment according to 1.
will be randomly picked form the lot of 150 pieces if any defects found more than specified the lot will be rejected and sent for rechecking. Flow in AQL: Issue from batches Counting AQL Fail Pass Batch Kaja Finishing/washing At last Sampling Plan: Lot size or 64 AQL .
5 2.5 Inspect Accept Inspect Accept Inspect Accept Inspect Accept less than 151 151-500 501-1200 1201-3200 3201-10000 10001-35000 35001-15000 15001-500000 500001 & above 8 8 32 50 80 125 200 315 500 0 0 1 2 5 5 7 10 14 5 20 32 50 80 125 200 315 500 0 0 2 3 5 7 10 10 21 13 13 32 50 80 125 200 315 315 1 1 3 5 7 10 14 21 21 8 13 32 50 80 125 200 200 200 1 2 5 7 10 14 14 14 14 Organization flow: Factory manager Q.quantity audited being 1.A. manager [Karthik] [Jude Mannuel] 65 .5 4.0 6.
Q.C [Mohan] [Ravi] [Chandrika] Total workers in 1 batch: 35 Tailors= 18 Helpers= 5 + 1 trimmer Check point= 3 [ 2 inline and 1 end line] Supervisor= 1 Q.A.I Floor incharge Q.4.5) threads Single needle edge cut ( SNLSEC) Single needle UBT ( uncut thread) Feeder form ( FOA) Cut pocket machine ( bone pocket machine) Collar turn machine Kansai machine ( front patty chain lock\ pin tuck machine) 66 .C= 1 Electrician=1 Maintenance= 2 IED incharge= 1 Sampling= 1 Types of machines: SNLS ( single needle lock stitch machine) DNLS ( double needle lock stitch machine) Overlock machine ( 3.
3/4”) Machine and their make: 1. JUKI DDL. SUNSTAR.757F-516M2-35 ( OL M/C) JAPAN 7.LTD JAPAN 6.RM1 ( S/N M/C EC) KAULIN MFG.5530N (S/N M/C EC) JUKE COROPORATION JAPAN 4. BROTHER DB2-B736-3 (S/N M/C) BRTOTHER INDUSTRIES LTD. COLLAR TURNING MACHINE CP-313AX JAPAN Reports: Operator’s bulletin: • Style: 67 . CHINA 3. 1/4”.LTD CHINA 5. SIRUBA. SIRUBA – L818F.LTD JAPAN 2.KM797 SUNSTAR MACHINARY CO. Bar tuck machine (1/2”. CO. YAMATO CZ6500-A4DF YAMOTO SEWING MACHINE (NING BO) CO. 3/8”.
no.: Style: Fresh RE 1 RE 2 RE 3 RE 4 status: • Size: 68 • Aud it . m/c’s of Target per 70% Target per @ 85% Target per hour required hour @ hour AQL: Batch Audit Slip: • • • Batch no.O. of helpers: Pieces per m/c: Manpower: Operations: GS D m/c type and class work aids Folder/pr/foot/other Operator calculated No.• • Buyer: Parameters: Last received by: Date of last revision: O/P at 65%: O/P at 85%: O/P at 100%: Target / hour: Total SM’S: Minutes per day: No.: P. of operators: No.
• • • Quantity: Audit start: Checked: Audit close: Result: Daily batch auditing work sheet: • • • • • • • • No. defects • • Audit: Batch no.O. no. no.: Audit status: Quantity: MSmts: Result: of Defects description Defective %: Passed quantity: Grand offered by total Grand checked out total Grand total defective units Daily stitching report: • • • • • • Batch: Tailors: P.O.: Style: Color: Size: on Total loading Production date on Total production Balance production Loading date 69 .: Style no.: P.
key type turn stand.Accessories: Magic pen. In process: 14/08/2007 Tuesday Code PP091 IPN92 IPN90 PQ 57 Color Brown checks Brown dark Blue dark Thunder grey Style 52820 1 7600 7600 RU60 RU60 Buyer Old navy H&M H&M C K Jeans Benetton Benetton FC87P Red. pointer. fusing material. white wax marker. pattern cards. thread. trimmer. machines. tape. trims. blue flower Y-37 FC88P Blue bouquet 70 . scissors. checking tables. white pencil. fabric. ironing tables. iron box.
Workers list: Supervisor: Alesh Man power:60 Flow: In case of washing Washing Dispatching Iron Marking Kaja Finishing In case of non wash Batch Dispatch Marking Kaja Finishing 71 .Kaja section This is carried out after sewing of garment. Here buttons have been stitched as per the buyer requirement. Production is 5000 per day. Buttoning is done either before or after wash depending on the type of button used.
Machines: Strength checker IMADA Button stitching machine Brother BE 4380 China Kaja hole machine Brother HE 800A 2 China Pneumatic snap button machine Ngai shing Hong Kong In process: 16/08/2007 Thursday Code Color IPN92 Brown dark PP09 1 Style 7600 1 Buyer H&M Old navy Contrast brown 52820 72 .
The main objective of finishing is to finish the garment as per buyer requirement and present more effectively. It is been carried out before or after washing as per the buyer requirement or dependent on the fabric. The main objective of packing is easy transportation of goods.C: 3 Alteration tailor: 2 73 . Shift production is 6000 per day. Employee list: Finishing incharge: Dilip Checking: 35 Iron: 25 Packing: 12 Folding helper: 4 Helper: 2 Packing helper: 1 Embroidery: 1 Supervisor: 3 Q. Packing is the final stage of garment industry for shipment of goods. shades. Packing of the garment is done depending on the buyer requirement. The garments from the production section are sent for washing by segregating them on the basis of sizes. Production is 3000 per day.FINISHING & PACKING Finishing is done before packing. It is also done to maintain the quality norms of the garment.
Washing: 2 Darner: 1 Total workers: 90 Machine used: • • Needle detector machine: Hashima HN 740G Thread sucking machine Ramsons Bangalore • Spot wash machine Ramsons stain buster CL1 Bangalore IN-PROCESS FLOW IN FINISHING (a) Unwashed Garments Garments received from the batch audit Quality and measurement inspection Button section Segregation Trimming Thread sucking Rough ironing Final quality and measurement check 74 .
Final ironing Presentation checking Folding as per the buyers specifications Packing Pack audit Shipment (b) Washed Garments Garments received from the batch audit Quality and measurement inspection Button section Dispatching (as per size) Washing Trimming Thread sucking Rough ironing Final quality and measurement check 75 .
In trimming loose threads are cut with the help of a trimmer. INSIDE CHECKING: The out side of the garment is checked to note if there is any defects in the inside of the garment. TRIMMING: After washing the garments are subjected to trimming section. At the time of trimming care should be taken that it should not affect the stitches in the garment. A sticker is pasted inside the wash care label at the time of inside checking. 76 .Final ironing Presentation checking Folding as per the buyers specifications Packing Pack audit Shipment SEGREGATION AND DISPACTING: The garment from batches after button section is segregated and dispatched before or after washing as per the sizes and shades to different batches for further finishing and packing processes. Inside out side trimming are done on the garment. In case of washing they use poly bags for dispatching of garments to washing section.
line matching etc. if required folding is done. the outside of the garment is checked like parts of the garments.OUTSIDE CHECKING: In outside checking. If there is any defect in the garment or in any part of the garment. Here high pressure water and steam is used to wash and dry the garment so that no water mark is left out. All the trimmed threads and dirt’s are removed. The method of checking is changed according to the style of the garment. After ironing the garment is measured and put on hanger. the garment is sent to ironing section. etc. sticker mark. WASHING: Spot washes are done here to remove mud. If possible that part is changed or altered. These are checked based on buyer identifications. Final ironing bottom setting shoulder setting is done. Rough ironing is helpful for the identification of defects. a sticker is placed over the defect. its position. the garment will be rejected. grease. buttons. Ironing is done in two stages rough ironing and final ironing. Various chemicals like LOC ( liquid organic cleaner). The steam is connected with the pipe to the steam iron box. Only inside ironing is carried out. The pieces are again trimmed and checked if any alteration has done on the garment. IRONING: After Trimming and Checking. soap 77 . folding will depend on the buyer specifications. If replacement is not possible or if stain is not removed in washing. The garment is then placed in the thread-sucking machine. Ironing. First the buttons are attached and then the garment is ironed. pen mark. yellow stain.
Then the garment is placed inside the polybag. baby soap are used. The Size ratio in a bundle will depend on the purchase order. put the size clip on the hanger. The company auditor checks at the time of packing and accepts the garment based on the purchase order. all other details are printed over the carton. Then the buyer’s auditor will further check and accept the goods. The size clip helps to identify the sizes easily. acetone. Then the tag or main label is attached with the hand machine. Then the shipping is done. Shipment case number is put over the carton.oil. the number of bundles that should be contained in a carton will be mentioned. According to the size ratio. Only mild chemicals are used such that the feel of the fabric is not altered. They are Stand up pack Flat pack Hanger packs Semi stand up pack Roll pack Types of cartons: Buyer H&M Size inch 58*40*40 22*16*6 USA (SP& BP) 24*24*8 24*26*6 24*18*6 AEO 78 22(1/2)*16(1/2)*4 30*11*8 lay 3 7 7 3 3 3 MP 6 7 Old navy Online 22*16*12 . bundles are placed inside the carton. In the purchase order. robin. The place where the tag is to be attached will depend on the buyer specifications. Different types of packing: Packing is done various types based on buyer requirement. PACKING: If the garment is hanger packed.
not cut properly/ miss aligned Sizing problem Poorly trimmed garment threads Broken stitches Skipped stitches Open seam 79 . Shading Wrong color Fabric flaw defect Hole in fabric Damage Conspicuous repair Poor construction Conspicuous soilage (inside or outside) Conspicuous abrasion marks from wash process High/ low pockets Exposed zipper tape Buttons.SP: single pre pack BP: bulk pre pack MP: multi pre pack List of major Defects: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Brand. snap defect Button hole raveling. incomplete. care or size label missing.
chemicals. gum tapes. thread. machines. scissors. trims. stand. Offered qty Audit result Internal Buyer Audit result: Red – fail Green – pass Carton marking: 80 .• • • • • • • • • Conspicuous puckering of seam Conspicuous wavy stitching Fleeing or raveling of material Raw edge Uneven seam Sleeve length uneven Sleeves reversed Defect sticker all should be removed Pressing wrinkle appearance Garment zone classification: • • • Red – zone A critical Black – zone B major Green – zone C minor Accessories: Trimmer. hanger. iron table. stickers. trolley. Report: Final audit report: Date of inspection buyer Style no. tape. cartons. poly bags.
SDC: Destiny: Made in INDIA Color: Gross weight: Net weight: Dimension: QTY: • • • • • • • CTN PO#: Prepack: Style: Size code: QTY: Total packs: OF: In process: 16/08/2007 Code PP03 1 IPN90 Thursday Buyer Old navy H&M Color Style Brown checks 52820 Blue dark 1 7600 WASHING DEPARTMENT The main objective of washing to remove stains. pencil marks. check for shrinkage and also to enhance the feel of the garment. dust. dirt. Washing of garment is also done to 81 .
buyer requirement and specifications. remove stains. enhances the feel of the garment and also to provide required effects on the surface of the garment. However the method of wash given to the garment depends on the nature of fabric.give special effects of on the garment. buyer requirement and specification. etc. Such washes are more used on denim and jean fabrics. Wet wash Dry wash: As the name itself indicates “dry” here water is not used. dirt. Wet wash: In this method water is one of the main ingredient used for washing. sand blasting. Such washes are widely used for all sorts of garments. There are different types of washes given to the garment some of them are: 82 . Example: stone wash. Workers list: • • • • • Incharge – 3 ( Sandil Kumar) Data entering – 1 Checkers – 2 Sorters – 2 Workers – 30 Washing is of two types. However the type of wash depends upon the nature of fabric. Production is 40000 kg per day. etc.e. They are: 1. Dry wash 2. This is done to check shrinkage. pencil marks. This is usually done to give certain effects on the garment. grinding. sampling stage and after bulk production. Washing of garment is done in two stages before bulk production i.
Plain wash Plain wash is done to remove stains. For heavier fabrics different types of softeners are used. Stone wash 83 . dust etc. The balls are put into the machine at the time of washing.• • • • • • • Rubber ball wash Softener wash Plain wash Enzyme wash Dip and dry Stone wash Sand blasting [ dry wash] [ dry wash] Rubber ball wash Special types of rubber balls are used for rubber ball washing. Dip and Dry wash In dip and dry. the garment is dipped in water and dried. This helps to avoid shrinkage and to remove sizing material. and also to get good appearance. Rubber ball wash is mainly used for thick fabrics to give flowing appearance or to feel smooth. This type of washing is very expensive. Amino silicon is mainly used. These enzymes dissolve the fibers that are pulled on the surface of the fabrics and gives smooth appearance to the fabric. Softener wash Softeners are used for softener wash to give softness to the garment. Enzyme wash Enzymes are used in enzyme wash.
trousers as per requirement.etc. The area to be shaded is marked out and sand under high pressure and force is moved on the marked area the continuous friction between the surface of garment and sand particles fades the color of the garment this is done manually.) Streaks Stains Others 84 . embroidery . Defects • • • • • • • • • • • • Hand feel Shade Puckering( high low effect) Pilling or rising level Grainy ( denim) Back staining Patches Damages Tinting/ bleeding (button. Special type of stones which are said to be pumice stones are used in washing. label. pocket. shirts. This type of washing is mainly used for jeans and trousers. This is mainly used for jeans and pants. Sand blasting Sand blasting is mainly done for denim garments to obtain the shaded effect on the surface of the garment.Stone wash is mainly used in denim garments to get good luster. Aluminum oxide is used for this purpose. which improve luster on the surface of the fabric hence good appearance is obtained.
bleeding. open stitch and damage. Chemicals are used to avoid tinting.Flow chart of Washing Department: Segregation Bulk washing Hydro extraction Drying Checking Bundling The important factors to be considered at the time of washing are tinting. Tinting means one color spreading on another color in fabrics. 85 .
Tumble drier is used for drying the garments completely. Dye fixing is done to prevent color bleeding. chemicals. Proper drying takes place in the driers. Industrial washing machine is used for washing. detergents. type of chemicals. During time is varied with the weight of the fabric. random checking is done in a lot before and after washing. Some times damage is occurred at the time of washing. the quality of water. Machines and their make: • SECO Garment processing ED280MP ( front loading) Thane Capacity: 100 kg. soap. temperature control devices are present on the machine. The machine stops automatically when the door is opened during its working. Water level indicator. where the water is squeezed out of the garments. In laundry. Single rotating and double rotating are available in the machine normally single rotation is used. From washing machine the garments are transferred to the hydro extractor.Bleeding means color fading by the loss of color from the fabric by the use of low quality dyes. • Ramsons (front loading) Industrial washing machine Bangalore Capacity: 60kg 86 . The machines are filled with sufficient quantity of water. This is due to using high concentrated chemicals or increase in the duration of washing. The number of pieces received for washing and delivered after washing is reported in daily production report. and also the duration of washing will vary according to the type of fabric and method of washing. garments and the machine is rotated.
• Ramsons Hydro extractor Bangalore Capacity: 100kg Report: Checking report: Style: P.• Ramsons (top loading) Industrial washing machine Bangalore Capacity: 70kg • Smartex (front loading) Industrial washing machine Bangalore Capacity: 500kg • Ramsons Steam dryer Bangalore Capacity: 120kg.O: Buyer: Garment: Color: Quantity check: Defects: 87 .
They also supply safety materials which required for process for workers. power cut each & every electrical & mechanical parts are been maintained. Break down machines. 88 .MAINTAINENCE: The main object of this department is the machines of various style & tools required for the process of garment production is been maintained & made provision of supplying of required machine & tools. Employee’s details: In charge: Chikkaiah Total man power: 26 Electrician: 8 Mechanic: 12 Stores: 1 (2 batch: 1 mechanic 2 floor: 1 electrician) Machine lubrication is done in once in 3 months (floor wise).
Requirement of various machine style flow: Planning ↓ Merchandizing ↓ IED ↓ Analysis & issue the machine to the batch Machine suppliers: Juki – Japan Brother – Japan Pegasus – Japan Eastman – America Hashima – Japan Ram sons – Bangalore Durkopp Adler – Germany Sun star – China Siruba – China Machine used: Machine type Straight knife cutting machine Band knife machine End cutter Fusing machine Single needle machine Single needle machine Single needle machine end cutter Single needle machine end cutter Make Eastman Wastema Eastman Hashima Juki Brother Juki Brother Make BLSTII 629 STU 492 EC 3 HP 100 ED DDL 5530 DB2 B736 DLM 5200N DB2 B777 BA 89 .
Single needle machine end cutter Single needle machine UBT Single needle machine UBT Over lock machine Over lock machine Feed off form Double needle machine Double needle machine 12N chain stitch machine Button hole machine Button hole machine Button stitch machine Button stitch machine Bar tack machine Bar tack machine Key hole machine Key hole machine Siruba Juki Brother Juki Siruba Juki Juki Brother Kansai Juki Brother Juki Brother Juki Brother Juki Reece L818F RM1 DDL 5550 N3 SL 737A 403 MO 3616 757F 516M2 35 MS 1261 LH 3138 LT 2 B8453 KS 1412 PQ LBH 781 LH4 B814 2 LK 1903 LK 3 P438E LK 1900 LK3 P430E 2 MEB 3200 S 100 Reports: Machine requirement for batches: • • Batch : Type of machine required: Goods received note: Item Item name Item description UOM Quantity Location Lot number 90 .