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“Dabbawala Employee Satisfaction Survey”
At Mumbai Dabbawala SUBMITTED IN THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BY SHRISH PRATAP SINGH Roll no – (0844370026) (2008-2010)
EXCEL SCHOOL OF BUSINESS MATHURA (U.P) (Affiliated to U.P.Technical University,Lucknow)
A task undertaken without offering prayers to almighty and taking blessings from the elders is not a good beginning. Likewise the work completed without acknowledging the assistance to those who were always by my sides to make my efforts fruitful in the task left incomplete. In the beginning, I would like to express my sincere thanks to my Institute teachers for giving me an opportunity to take the practical experience of working life. I convey my sincere thanks to Mr Raghunath Medge or providing me the proper guidance and Mrs. Priyankya Gautam for providing me the opportunity to carry out research effectively and efficiently. I would also like to pay thanks to all my classmates and friends and my family members for co-operating with me and helping me to complete the project.
(SHRISH PRATAP SINGH)
Quality without creativity is meaningless. As changes grow ever more unpredictable creativity is rapidly becoming recognized a core management skill. Today’s business environment demands that managers posses a wide range of knowledge skills and competencies, as well as sound understanding of management process and function. Managers need to be able to make best use of their time, talent and of other people to work with and through others to achieve corporate objectives. They also need to demonstrate their ability not merely to solve problems, but to transform them and design ways through them. This report concerns needs and changing needs and their satisfaction level, which are the important function in every organization.
SHRISH PRATAP SINGH
I SHRISH PRATAP SINGH a student of MBA of Excel School Of Business Chatta Mathura respectively hereby declare that the Project Report on
“DABBAWALAS EMPLOYEES SATISFACION SERVEY” is the outcome of my own work and the same has not been submitted to any other University/Institute for the award of any degree or any Professional diploma.
(SHRISH PRATAP SINGH)
THE RESEARCH & METHODOLOGY THE DABBAWALLA EMPLOYEES SATISFACTION SURVEY
SR. NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 TOPICS MEANING OF RESEARCH IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEM DEFINE CONCEPTS OBJECTIVE OF STUDY HYPOTHESIS SCOPE OF STUDY SAMPLEING SAMPLE SIZE DATA COLLECTION INTERPRETATION & ANALYSATION ANNEXURE FINDINGS CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATION BIBILIOGRAPHY PAGE No. 63 63 64 65 65 66 66 66 66 67 89 89 91 93 98
S. No. 1. 2. 3. INTRODUCATION WORKING OF NMTBSA ATTITUTUD APROACH TOPICS PAGE No. 1-10 11 12
4. 5. 6
THE ORGANISATION STRUCTURTE DUTIES & RESPONSIBILITIES HUMAN RESOURCE POLICIES OF THE ASSOCIATION
14 15 16
THE SYSTEM OF SERVICE NETWORK HOW THEY OPERATE
9. 10 11 12. 13.
MANPOWER PLANNING THE GROWTH CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES SWOT ANALYSIS OF NMTBSA CONCLUSION
32 34 35 36 39
THE NUTAN MUMBAI TIFFIN BOX SUPPLIERS' ASSOCIATION
IS O 9 0 0 1
TOP 50 OF I
S ix S ig m a R e g is te r e R d
R e c o r d G ui W
Founder of NMTBSA (Nutan Mumbai Tiffin Box Supplier And Association):-
Mr. Dhondiba Medge (1923-1980) - the father of Mr. Raghunath Medge (president of NMTBSA), framed Human Resource Policy of Nutan Mumbai Tiffin Box Suppliers' Association. Mr. Dhondiba Medge was educated only to 4th standard. He framed rules & regulations of the Dabbawalas. He was very stair & disciplined kind of person. Who was believes on "Time Is Money."
THE ORGANISATION STRUCTURE
The Dabbawala have two different aspects as considered with the mode actual operations & mode of organizations formed by the Dabbwallas. • • To guide & manage the entire operation procedure. Acquition of any particular customer. new customers & training a new person assigned to the
Dabbawalas the carriers of Tiffin boxes daily deliver lunch boxes to lacks of office goers in city Mumbai. The practices 119 years old in spite of complexities this dabbawallas goes in to the delivery has been appreciated world wide among them being BBC, MTV, CIIT, PRINCE CHARLES & BRITAIN CHAIRPERSON OF VIRGIN AIRLINE COMPANY & OTHER TOP MANAGEMENT COMPANIES & SCHOOLES. It is believed that system if applied to other cities like Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad etc. will impact a major positive change the lunch delivery system. The system runs efficiently & is in prestigious position with achievement of SIX SIGMA RATING.
Dabbawalas fascinating. For instance the Berkeley University in California teaches the logistic system of Dabbawalas as a case study in one of their business management programs and many Indian business schools and industry associations have the Dabbawala logistics system in their case-study agenda. In 1998 two Dutch filmmakers, Jascha De Wilde and Chris Relleke, made a documentary called "Dabbawalas, Mumbai's unique lunch service" and in 2001, the Christian Science Monitor, the Boston-based newspaper, covered the Dabbawalas in an article called "Fastest Food: It's Big Mac vs. Bombay's Dabbawallahs." The British Broadcasting Corporation and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation have done features on the delivery system as well, while Prince Charles was so impressed with their service that he had even invited a few Dabbawalas to his marriage with Camilla Parker in London. Yet these Dabbawalas have remained poor. "Nowhere in the world would you find a lunch delivery service that costs as little as $9 a month," says Talekar. The charges for this complex delivery system have remained dirt-cheap ever since its inception, and still the maximum rate that a Dabbawala charges (depending on the distance carried) is about $11 a month. Which is why technology is needed to improve their lives, says Tripathy. "No doubt a major driver for establishing a Webbased and mobile phone ordering system was the need for a central ordering facility where one can call for a Dabbawala's service by just hitting the Web site or through an SMS," says Tripathy, "but the other equally important driving force was to expand business." Until recently business has come just through word-of-mouth or from contacts made in local railway stations. "But ever since we introduced the SMSbased ordering service we have been getting about 15 new orders every day," said Tripathy. The Web site (www.mydabbawala.com) has also enabled the association to solicit donations and sell merchandise, the proceeds of which go towards creation of a
social security fund to pay for the Dabbawalas' life and medical insurances. "The use of IT would not stop there," says Tripathy, "we would be stretching its use soon to enable the Dabbawalas to add additional lines of business." According to him the next plan is to gear the Dabbawalas with the ability to sell groceries and other daily necessities, the orders of which could be taken through their mobile phones.
The Great Dabbawalla
My time in Mumbai was brief but full. The city itself seems to be about as different as could be from, Delhi. Clean, full of sky scrapers, bustling, and largely friendly. Through a contact of a contact I was able to spend some time learning about one of the stranger aspects of Mumbai life – the dabbawalla.
The term “dabbawalla” means something close to “boxman.” The dabbawalla are an entire caste of people whose job is to transport home cooked lunches to their locations at peoples’ places of work. There are 5000, largely illiterate, dabbawallas who use a complex system of symbols and home-grown business sense to move 200,000 lunches each day. The system is near flawless (one research paper put it as one screw up in 16 million successful deliveries) and has been going for over a century. Almost all of these men hail from a small village a couple of hours outside of Mumbai and because of the small town nature of things, almost all are somehow related. The unique shape of the city and cheap train network make it affordable for this system to work here and only here. And while it’s amazing to watch these men scurry about doing their job, what I was interested in is how this amazingly Indian concept has held on as long as it has. While fast food is booming as the only option
for office workers in virtually every megacity in the world, in Mumbai it is the norm to have a fresh home cooked meal every day.
The system works a bit like this (and while I use gendered terms here the system is becoming less so, again in an interesting way). Man leaves in the morning to go to work at six to accommodate for the two hour commuter train to work. He wants lunch, so his wife would have to get up at four to cook it and send it with him. Instead, in rushes the dabbawalla, making it so that she can send off the lunch at eleven to get to the office at one, giving her an extra five hours of sleep. You subscribe to the service on a monthly basis – man on a bike comes by your house to pick up your tiffin (a stainless steel box or canister which everyone uses to eat out of), he hands it off to the next fellow at the train station, who hands it off to someone at the next train, to a sorter, to another bike, to the office. A couple of hours later the dabbawalla picks up the tiffin and the whole process happens again in reverse. The average tiffin goes through the hands of five or six people in each direction. It has no writing on it besides a few grease paint marks of x’s, o’s, and squares. Depending on how far away you live from the office, you can get deliveries for between 150 and 400 rupees a month (three to ten USD).
Now, while this used to be all men receiving and women cooking, it has expanded lots over the past couple of decades. Now about a quarter of the office workers receiving lunches are women. They deliver to schools. If you want to deliver to your husband, children, brothers, sisters, and cousins, you can send tiffins to all of them. If you have no one at home to cook for you the dabbawalla have found homemakers who will be
willing to cook extra meals on a subscription basis so that strangers can also have a homecooked meal and the homecooks can get a little bit of extra cash.
I am not the first or last person to marvel at this system. The whole organization organized itself (stemming from a demand during the British rule for home cooked meals that were British for British workers, then moving to Indians wanting their own food too) and incorporated during the 1960s. The three heads of the organization are former runners themselves and now give talks at major business colleges around the world on a system of organization and efficiency which came naturally to them.
Moving away from the marvel that it does work, it’s amazing to think about why people want it to work. In a city which is renown for its hustle and bustle it’s amazing to think that something as little as a home cooked meal would get this much love and care – but it’s a sign of how people are making attempts to adapt to this way of life while maintaining connections to their roots. While the moustachioed man across from me on the train to Mumbai seemed rather judgemental about most of what I am doing, he was happy to hear I would be spending time talking with the
head of the dabbawallas. When I asked Mr. Moustache why he got his lunch delivered this way he said the most important part to him was the continuation of the bond with his family. While he, his wife, and his children may not eat together, they are eating the same thing. His wife knows what he likes to eat and makes it for him. If he doesn’t finish his lunch, she’ll notice and intuit that he is ill or stressed. His meal is coming from someone he loves and trusts and he knows that they are quality
ingredients going into his food. It’s an interesting solution to the onslaught of the fast paced life which is overtaking India. Again and again as I continue to talk to folks, the reason I hear that everyone is eating more wheat is because they need to have convenience foods. It will be interesting to see if the dabbawalla will survive and how their business and traditions evolve as the city and the workforce continues to grow.
Home made food is best for health and because health is wealth. Outside junk foods may take your life and makes you sick. Home made food keeps your doctors 1 bill down and there are fewer absences from office due to poor health. In fact bad food is the reason #1 of all the diseases. Home made food is cheaper. When you use Dabbawalas services to deliver your home cooked food to your office you are actually saving your hard earned pennies. 2 The delivery charge of Rs 250 - 300 per month is very nominal and reasonable. Its simple maths.
Do you not love your mother or wife and like to eat food made by her?
Even if there is no one at home to cook food for you , Dabbawalas can deliver you good quality home like lunch through many restaurants. We have quality 4 restaurants all over Mumbai where cheap and best quality food is prepared which 5 is delivered at your office or home through Dabbawala Channel. Safety - The Local train of Mumbai are always very crowed and it is very tough to take even small luggage during peak times. There are instances where the person's hand got hurt or broken and ones belongings destroyed while traveling during peak time. People leave from their home at about 8 - 9 PM which is peak time and
its not possible to carry Tiffin during this time and Even the food is not ready by this time. By using our services you are getting hot food safely deliver in your office. Dabbawalas give reliable services and their performance and accuracy match six 6 sigma standards. You must be sure that your home cooked food reaches in time.
We, the Dabbawalas never go on strike.
By taking our services you are proving direct employment to 5000+ Dabbawalas 8 and many of their dependent families. You are actually helping us.
Dabbawalas are an icon in their own sense and famous world over for their 9 efficiency and by taking our services you are being part of India's image building. Dabbawalas are from the remote villages of Maharashtra and mostly uneducated. They regularly organize bhajan and kirtans and spread the essence of Marathi 10 culture, good will and one ness of India. Being a part of Dabbawalas , you are actually nurturing Marathi culture
SOME INFORMATION ABOUT NMTBSA
History Charitable trust Employee Strength Avg. Literacy Rate : Started in 1890 : Registered in 1956 : 5000 : 8th Grade Schooling
Total area coverage : 60 Kms to 70 Kms Number of Tiffin’s : 2, 00,000 Tiffin Boxes
400,000 transactions every day (including return) I.e. 400,000*25 days*12 months= 120,000,000 (120 million or 12 crore transactions per year) Time taken : 8 to 9 Hours
Morning 3 Hours Wartime (9 A.M. to 12 P.M. for the Collection and Delivery)
Working of NMTBSA
Error Rate: 1 in 16 million transactions Six Sigma performances (99.999999) Technological Backup: Nil. Cost of service: Rs. 300/- to 350/- month ($6-8 £3-4, €5-6 per month) Standard price for all (Weight, Distance, Space) Earnings: Rs. 5000/- to 6000/- per month. ($125, £60, €100) per month. Turnover per Annum (Approx). Rs. 72 to 80 Cr Diwali Bonus: One month’s extra payment “No Strike” record since 1890. “No Police / Court Case” since 1890.
ATTITUDE & APPROACH
“People study business books and then practice. We practiced first and have now become case studies” Raghunath Medge (President) “It’s a model of managerial & organizational simplicity” C. K. Pralhad
• • • • No Alcohol Drinking / Smoking during business hours. Wearing White Cap during business hours. Carry Identity Cards. No Leave without Prior Notice.
Code of conduct
• • • • • Rs 500- Drinking on duty Rs 100- Smoking on duty Rs 25- Not wearing white cap Rs 25- Not carrying ID card Rs 1000- Leave without intimation, sacked if repeated in 2-3 instances
DABBAWALA AS MARKETING RESOURCE
• Marketing pamphlets with the “Dabba”. Sticker, Tag and Sample Piece of Goods with “Dabba
THE ORGANISATION STRUCTURE OF THE OFFICIAL ASSOCIATION FORMED IS AS FOLLOWS:
PRESIDENT MR. RAGHUNATH D. MEDGE
VICE PRESIDENT MR. SAMBHAJI G. MEDGE
GENERAL SECRETARY MR. GANGARAM L. TALEKAR
TRASURER MR. DAMODAR PINGALE
P R E S ID
V IC E P R
• • • • PRESEDENT
DUTIES & RESPONSIBILITY
dTaking monthly meeting Checking accounts of the association Solving the problems among the members
GENERAL SECRETARY • • drafting the various types of letters collecting the trust fees
MUKADAM • supervising the functioning of the members in his group.
MEMBERS • To deliver Tiffin Boxes to the customers & carry Tiffin Boxes back to their home respectively.
CORE VALUES • • • • • Work is Worship Serving people is Serving God Annadan is Mahadan Time is Money Unity is Power
The Nutan Mumbai Tiffin Box Suppliers Association is registered institution. Though it is so, it does not function as a commercial institution e.g. courier company. The organziation is formed by the members. to avoid any disputes & give each member pride, the employee-employer relationship is avoided. Each member is a shareholder in the association. He gets his monthly salary from each of his customers directly. All the members in a group gather on a particular date of each month mostly at a nearest local office of the organization or the trust (NUTAN MUMBAI TIFFIN BOX SUPPLIERS' CHARITABLE TRUST). all the members collect their salary together, cut down for overheads & travel expenses. Also each member contributes amount of rupees 10;/- towards for the charity purposes. E.g. There is the group of 15 Dabbawalas They carry 30 dabbas each They get Rs. 150/- customer So calculation goes like this: 15×150×30 = 67,5000/So. Gross earning of this group is Rs. 67500/Now from this amount, a collective amount of Rs. 4000/- approximately is deducted comprising expenses for railways pass, expenses for parking the carts & cycles & overheads the remaining amount is divided equally into all members of the group.
So, suppose now after deductions, group has left with 63500/-; it will be divided equally among all the members, thus each member getting Rs. 4230/- each. This salary may not be sufficient compared to the cost of living in Mumbai also may of have their
families back in villages to send money to. To cope up, with this problem, few of the Dabbawala have started doing some side business for extra income. Some of them after returning home in evening drive auto-rickshaws or early in morning before going on work distribute newspaper or milk. The association once a month calls a meeting of all the members. In this meeting. It tries to solve the internal problems of the members. Such problem & solutions solved till now have laid a kind of unwritten rules & regulations for the members of the organization to follow in certain cases. 1. In the case of loss of Tiffin Box of the Dabbawala, if he is found guilty, then the customer is refunded the appropriate amount for the loss. 2. Each member is supposed to operate in his allocated area only & not interfere with any of his fellow colleagues, work area. In fact normally no Dabbawala does this too! 3. In case if the customer is not pleased with dabbawala provided to him for service, both of them cannot co-ordinate well with each other then the organization can shift that dabbawala to some other area & replace other dabbawala in his area.
DISCIPLINE • • • • Wearing White cap during working hours. Reporting to duty on time. Behave properly & respect the customers Carry identity cards
HR PRACTICES OF THE ASSOCIATION
• FLAT ORGANIZATION: The president, Vice president, General Secretary, Treasurer & 9 no. of Directors formed 13 members of board under which Mukadam & other Dabbawalas work. So due to such Flat kind of organization structure decisions are taken on the spot. Even the president & other higher categories membersalso work. • NO HIRE & FIRE RULE: Everyone is shareholder of the association. Whatever profits they can equally distributed within itself. It is democratic type of organization HR Practices. • COMMUNITY BASED RECRITMENT: Those who have capacity to job they can apply for the Dabbawala post. There is no any kind of basis happens related to recruitment process. • SHARING COMMON BELIEFS, VALUES & ETHICS: All the Dabbawalas are from poor background, the aim of the organization is mutual benefit to all members so they follow certain values, belief & ethics to run business effectively. • FOLLOWING OF STRICT DRESS CODES: All Dabbawalas must wear white cap which is called as Gandhian cap on duty. Also wear white sadara & pyjama (shirts & pants). All Dabbawals must carry their Identity card on duty. All these rules are bninding on all cadres of the Dabbawala.
LOYALTY & TRUST IS THEIR MONOPOLY: All Dabbawalas are layal & hard working in nature. They follow their norms & promise which they made their customers.
TRAINING PROVIDED TO NEW EMPLOYEES: After recruitment they provide complete process training to new joiner under the observation of Mukadam or any senior member. When they feel that new employees are capable to work, that time training will completed.
OWNER + EMPLOYEE IS THE DESIGNATION OF ALL: Everyone is the shareholder of the Association. All disciplinary rules & other ethics follow by all members. So there is no any employee & employer relationship between each other. All are owners of the business.
QUARTERLY MEETING TO DISCUSS ISSUES: Every quarter all Dabbawalas meet & discuss issues related to service, salary & future goal. They discuss balance sheet & distrbute profits among them. If any critical issue arises that time they cal immediate meeting. Also conduct daily meeting to handle day to day problem. All Dabbwalas can participate in meeting & can contribute his suggestion.
MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES OF THE NMTBSA
• TEAM WORK: Working with team is the strength of the Dabbawals. Also Team work is the key aspect of their inner self satisfaction (proved by research). One Tiffin box goes from many hands of the Dabbawals & finally reaches at exact destination which show success of their Team Work. • TIME MANAGEMENT: They deliver Tiffin boxes before 12 pm at customer's office. There duty starts from morning 8 am. Same time there is always lots of rush at railway station, & traffic on the road, in such kind of critical situation they able to deliver lunch boxes on
time. They got Six Sigma because of their Time management & no. defects in deliveries.
INNOVATION: Dabbawala promote innovation. They started coding system to Tiffin box for easy identification, which are one of the examples of their innovation strategy. They believe on continuous improvement by way of innovation.
CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT: 100% customer satisfaction is the success of their system. They ahieved this level because of maintaining good relationship with customers. They believe on “Service To Customer Is Service To God”.
SIX SIGMA : They have got the prestigious achievement of SIX SIGMA RATING because of their percentage of correctness which is just perfect up to 99.999995 i.e. six decimals or more than that. Not many of the topmost companies are even near to it. This is simply incredibel!
HRM System of NMTBSA : They achieved six sigma in following aspects. Simplified coding system High conformity to the system Buffer in the lead time Confirmed by the limits of the human capabilities
LOGISTICS & SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT :
By using their own logistic methods they deliver lacks of tiffin boxes through many dadowalas hand : but the final goal is to reach tiffin box before 12 pm. At customer’s office everyday they achieve their goal.
THE SYSTEM OF SERVICE NETWORK HOW THEY OPERATE The dabbawalas are the whole & soul of the entire system of these operations. For these dabbawalas to be able to provide prompt & efficient service, it is very much important & necessary to be always on time. So you will not see any Dabbawala moving ahead road taking his own sweet time! They are always in hurry pushing through the crowd carefully to deliver lunches on time for lacks of mumbaiities!
The entire system involves carefully planned, organized & implemented activities around the hour timings, but they do it with excellent associated teamwork. We now take look in the routine course of action Dabbawalas i.e. from the time they leave their home in the morning till the time they deliver the tiffin box back to the customers’ home in the evening. This cycle of operations of delivery takes them nearly 8 hrs a day very similar to the office timings, as these takes time normally from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. the day starts around 8.00-8.30 am in the morning.
Leaving Home for the work :
The Dabbawalas leave there homes in the morning between 7.50 am to 8.30 am depending upon from which areas they have to pick up tiffin boxes.
The Dabbawalas reaches the customers homes according to the timing fixed between two of them.
The day in home then hands over the prepared & packed tiffin box to the Dabbawala.
Collecting 30-35 tiffin boxes (from area specified to him) is the responsibility of each Dabbawala, but there were we can see that number of Dabbas picked up is also dependent upon the age of the Dabbawalas. Where a young person picks even 40 tiffin’s each, an elder person might pick pick 30!
Also collecting tiffin is not an easy task. Because, Dabbawalas have to pick up tiffin boxes from various distant location in his area. These locations may be far from each other located on higher floors of the building where sometimes elevator may not be available.
These tiffin boxes are then taken to the nearest local station by vehicle. Usually a bicycle or in long wooden creates carried on the head! Eg. If a Dabbawala a collecting Tffin boxes from area of Ghatkopar then he will carry them to Ghatkopar or Vikhroli railway station whichever is nearer from his area of collecting Tiffins
What is logistics?
A widely adopted textbook defines logistics management as follows: "the process of planning, implementing and controlling the efficient, effective flow and storage of goods, services, and related information from point of origin to point of consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements" (D. Lambert 1998).
What is supply chain management (SCM)?
A typical definition of supply chain management is the following: ¡°A supply chain is a network of facilities and distribution options that performs the functions of procurement of materials, transformation of these materials into intermediate and finished products, and the distribution of these finished products to customers¡± (Ganeshan & Harrison 1995
5 R’s of logistics
Where should logistics start and where should it end? Again different views exist on this question. Some say that logistics commences with finished product from the end of production line to the consumer, or to get the right goods to the right place, at the right time, in the right form and at the right cost.
MANAGEMENT NMTBSA HOW USE LOGISTICS & SUPPLY CHAIN
By using their own logistic methods they deliver lacks of Tiffin Boxes through many Dabbawalas hand but the final goal is to reach Tiffin box before 12 pm. At customer’s office. Every day they achieve their goal.
THE SYSTEM OF SERVICE NETWORK HOW THEY OPERATE
The Dabbawalas are the whole & soul of the entire system of these operations. For these Dabbawalas to be able to provide prompt & efficient service, it is very much important & necessary to be always on time, so you will not see any Dabbawala moving ahead road talking his own sweet time. They are always in hurry pushing through the crowd carefully to deliver lunches on time lacks of Mumbaities.
The entire system involves carefully planned, organized & implemented activities around the hour timings, but they do it with excellent associated teamwork.
We now take look in the routine course of action Dabbawalas i.e. from the time they leave their home in the morning till the time they deliver the Tiffin box back to the customer’s home in the evening.
This cycle of operations of delivery takes them nearly 8 hrs a day very similar to the office timings as these takes time normally from 9 a.m. the day starts around 8:00 to 8:30 a.m. in the morning.
LEAVING HOME FOR THE WORK
The Dabbawalas leave there homes in the morning between 7:50 a.m. To 8:30 a.m. depending upon from which areas they have to pick up Tiffin boxes.
The Dabbawalas reaches the customer’s homes according to the timing fixed between two of them.
The day in home then hands over the prepared & packed Tiffin box to the Dabbawala.
Collecting 30-35 Tiffin boxes (from area specified to him) is the responsibility of each Dabbawala. But there were we can see that number of Dabbas picked up is also dependent upon the age of the Dabbawalas. Where a young person picks even 40 Tiffin’s each, an older person might be pick 30 Tiffin’s.
Also collecting Tiffin’s is not is easy task. Because, Dabbawalas have to pick up Tiffin’s boxes from various distant location in his area. These locations
may be far from each other located on higher floors of the building where some time elevator may not be available.
These Tiffin’s boxes are then taken to the nearest local station by vehicle. Usually a bicycle’s or in wooden creates carried on the head. Eg- If a Dabbawalas collecting Tiffin’s boxes from area of Ghatkoper then he will carry them to Ghatkoper or Vikhroli railway station which ever is nearer from his area of collecting Tiffin’s.
Sorting & Loading Of The Tiffin’s Boxes 09:30a.m.-11:30a.m.
The Dabbas are sorted by the Dabbawalas on the railway stations. Where a group of 10-15 Dabbawalas from the same station but from the different locations have picked up Tiffin’s boxes. On the railway station, first sorting of Tiffin boxes takes place i.e. Tiffin to be delivered in one particular area are assembled together & staked wooden crates. These are then carries by Dabbawalas handling those particular areas.
After sorting, Tiffin’s boxes are loaded in wooden crates in railway’s luggage compartment or on bicycle depending upon the way in which Dabbawalas who is going to carry them & what is his destination area (the Dabbawalas who is going to carry the Tiffin’s destined to be delivered at station’s where first sorting is done, he only will carry them on bicycle.)
Mumbai railway has provided luggage compartment in railways, but the luggage compartment in the morning time is very crowded. But then too these Dabbawalas make way through it & find a place for themselves & their crates.
So in the morning peak hours the luggage compartment in the train is crowded with 20-25 Dabbawalas & 700-800 Tiffin’s along with them.
11:30a.m. to 12:30P.m. Distribution of Tiffin boxes To the Final Destination
These times slot is very important, as the service delivery has to be started in this time only to complete it in all allocated locations to all given customers. After resorting process the Dabbawalas set off for the delivery of Tiffin’s boxes to the customer’s. Each one of them is assigned on a particular location or block of customer’s work place say one road etc. that person undertakes the responsibility to deliver the lunch boxes in that particular assigned area irrespective of where the Tiffin’s boxes has come from, which person is initially collected it & to which group of Dabbawalas that person belongs to . Who is Mukadam of that group etc. in this time slot if we observe we will see all the Dabbawalas rushing carefully through crowds on the roads to reach to the customer’s work place.
Generally if offices lunchtime is from 1:00pm. To 2:00pm. So it is very important that lunch box has to be delivered to the customer before his lunch time.
These Dabbawalas have the lunch at the premises of offices near by where they are delivers Tiffin’s boxes if their associations office is not easily reachable.
1:00p.m. to 2: p.m.
The Dabbawalas in the same areas of delivery gather at the nearest association office & have their lunch. Otherwise they have their lunch in the vicmity of the offices premises where they have just delivered the lunch boxes.
2:00p.m. to 2:30p.m.
Now the Dabbawalas return to their customer’s workplace to collect the empty Tiffin’s boxes. The whole process goes back again but in the reverse order.
2:45p.m. to 3:30p.m.
The return journey by the train where the group finally meets up after the day’s routine to dispatching & collecting from various destinations offices.
Usually, since it is more of a pleasant journey compared to the earlier part of the day. The Dabbawalas lighten up the moment with merry making, joking around & singing.
3:30p.m. to 4:00p.m.
This is the stage where final sorting & dispatch take place. The group meets up at origin station & they finally sort out the Tiffin’s as per areas. the origin
C o d in g
V L P : V ile P a Mum ba
9 E X 1C o d e fo :2 a t D e s ti
Day to day their number of customer are increasing simultaneously they increase their manpower too. They don't have any criteria about recruitment of Dabbawala. They have some poets which new recruit Dabbawala should follow these rules are as follows. • First few month he has to work under the supervision of senior person or mukadam. • He must wear which sadara (shrit), while pant (Gandhi topi) & white cap at the time of working. • • • • • He should be physically fit to carry Tiffin boxes He should maintain good relation which customer He should be punctual He should be able to work with team He should has to give prior information to the association before going on leave.
NMTBSA has segregated annual leave on two types
Weekly Leave: All Dabbawala gets weekly leave on every Sunday.
All Dabbawallas are devotees of lord Shiv shankaras & vitthalas so NMTBASA only sanctioned leaves for those festivals which are celebrated for their God. • • • • • Mahashivaratri (Festival of Shiv Shankaras) Aashadhi Ekadashi (Festival of Lord vitthalas) Kartiki Ecakashi (Festival of Lord Vitthalas) Chaitra Pournima (New Year of Marathi People) Diwali (2 days) (Festival of Lights)
YEAR 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 NUMBER OF DABBAWALAS 58 75 142 204 321 407 695 1024 1206 1715 2106 2552 3216 4406 4605 4904 5551 5524 5102 5180 5164 5142 5150 5200 5220 5300 NUMBER OF CUSTOMERS 1445 1965 4120 6504 9675 12140 22865 43230 4340 64240 82000 105120 140000 198100 176040 215000 27507 190645 130860 142260 16670 175040 175060 187080 190900 200000
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILIES
• • •
Started D "armashala in Bhimashankar district in the year 1930 Maharashtra government prorogates HIV awareness through Dabbawalas channel Innovative workplace programmes caries HIV prevention messages: Indian & Americans in partnership to fight HIV/AIDS plan consist of reaching Mumbai office workers with HIV/AIDS prevention message in their lunch bases through Dabbawala network is the innovative programme supported by the emergency plan. On world AIDS day 2005, the project delivered lunches containing information about HIV/AIDS as
approximately 2 lacks office goers the 5000 Dabbawalas delivered lunch boxes. The emergency plant supported efforts of the Dabbawala association to include in the lunches creatively designed materials & coasters bearing messages reflecting the World AIDS Day theme "Stop AIDS, Keep The Promise." In addition to theses world AIDS Day activities the programme works throughout the year to reach out to corporations to address HIV/AIDS in the workplace. “STOP AIDS, KEEP THE PROMISE”
SWOT ANALYSIS OF NMTBSA STRENGTH
Low operational cost Customer satisfaction Low attrition rate Flat organization Team spirit & team management
Limited access to education Funds for the association No social security to members
Operational cost is low Wide range publicity
Job satisfaction level of new generations Competition Canteen facility provided by corporate firm.
Chairman of Virginn Atlan
Conclusion : Managing more than 5000 Dabawalas daily is really increased! So what kind of Human resource policy they have adopted & how do they implemented it, was the objective behind these report. Which are satisfactory completed, & I got some key formulas, principles of their effective Human resource management system from this project work. The lacks of office goers, 5000 Dabbawalas & risky job schedules, all these kind of problems they are able to handle only due to their efficient Human resource management system. Mr. Dhondiba Medge formed Human Resource Policy for Nutan Mambai Tiffin Box Suppliers' Association. He set core values for the Association, these improved their system. The key feature of their Human Resource Management is Flat organizational structure. These are able to maintainno communication barriers from top level to lower level. All Dabbawalas are employer of the association, there has no any employeeemployer relation. This thing is them motivational factor behind their job satisfaction. Effective delegation of authority helps them to do work effectively. From top level to lower level Dabbawalas know their work & their target which helps to effective job specification. They have implemented Human Resource Policy in their organization, these contains strict disciplinary rules of employment, dress code & effective training & development facility to new joiners.
They follow management principles in their organization such as Team work, Time management, Innovation, Cstomer relationship management & six sigma. Because of these they called as "Management Guru".
Human resource policy, Manpower planning. Training & Development, Disciplinary Code of conduct & their Corporate Social Responsibility activity are the key result areas of their Human Resource Management system. Their daily earning is not sufficient to fulfill their basic needs but whatever they earn out of from it some amount they spend in FSR activities. 'We are the part of society which provides many resources to us, so it is our prime duty to give back to society'-these CSR principle they follow. The organization has gained a lot of appreciation from foreign countries but it still in some ways or other not fully appreciated by its own countrymen. Organization can do a lot to perform better but it needs support & word appreciation frim its own countrymen. It so, it will even leave back the top world0running entrepreneurs & give India a place of pride on the world map.
STUDY OF SIX SIGMA METHODOLOGY IN NUTAN MUMBAI TIFFIN BOX SUPPLIERS ASSOCIATION
TOPICS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SIX SIGMA INTRODUTION ABOUT THE SUBJECT WHAT IS SIX SIGMA? PRACTICAL MEANING OF SIX SIGMA ESSENTIAL OF THE SIX SIGMA METHODOLOGY WHY SIX SIGMA TO NMTBSA? SIX SIGMA STATISTICAL MODEL CONCLUSION
PAGE NO. 41 42 43 45 46 47 50 61
STUDY OF SIX SIGMA METHODOLOGY IN NUTAN MUMBAI TIFFIN BOX SUPPLIERS ASSOCIATION
A STRATEGY FOR PERFORMANCE EXCELLENCE
The distribution system is handled by almost illiterate or as we can say semi literate people. Most of them uneducated or just servant or just fourth grade passed but this note make any different to them. Yet the system runs efficiently and is in prestigious position with achievement of SIX SIGMA RATING! It prodoudly shares this position with world famous giant management corporate like GE, MOTOROLA (Source: Forbes magazine U.S.A.). The reason behind this is the wonderful work system offered by them with only 0.01% error rate in comparison with the huge number of operations it induleges inot. They have got the prestigious achievement of SIX SIGMA RSTING because of their percentage of correctness which is just perfect up to 99.999995 i.e. six decimals or more than that. Not many of the topmost companies are even near to it. This is simply incredible. Though they have achieved SIX SIGMA RATING & a wide popularity, it cannot be neglected that the operations completely involve physical hard work & coping up with common modes of transport. he crowded modes of transport, traffic &roads, continuous physical work-it is not too easy. And we have even six p-seventy years old patrons doing it for a living. These are the people who treat customer as GOD & run whole of their life for their GOD. Six Sigma is a philosophy and a methodology focused on defect reduction. Six Sigma provides a methodology and tool set that can be used to identify and reduce defects
INTORDUCTION ABOUT THE SUBJECT Six Sigma best described as a journey, a journey for business professional who are truly committed to improving productivity and profitability. Six Sigma isn't theretical; it's an active, hands on practice that gets results. In short, you don't contemplate six sigma; you do it. The six sigma story began in the 1980 at Motorola, where it was first developed and proven. In 1983 reliability engineer bill smith concluded that if a product was defective and corrected during the production, then other defects were probably being missed and
later found by fustomers. In other words, process failure rates were much higher than indicated completely fre defects; they probably wouldn't fail customers later. Six sigma statistically measures and reflects true procees capability, correlating to such characteristic as defects per unit and probabilities of success or failure. Its value is in transforming culture outlooks from complacency to accomplishment across the spectrum of industry. Most companies function at four sigma tolerating 6210 defects per one million opportunities. Operating at six sigma creates an almost defect free environment allowing only 3.4 defects per one million opportunities: products and services are nearly perfect (99.9997%) eliminating defects eliminates dis-satisfaction. This all sounds good in theory, but how do you put it into practice? Well six sigma is about arming your human "assets" with the training, resources, and knowledge to solve problems. It's also about taking a leadership journey to guide those assets toward everincreasing achievement. Six sigma asks hard questions about your processes and gets the data that supports them. It provides solutions that fit your unique processes. Letter in the Greek alphabet (o)
WHAT IS SIX SIGMA? Six Sigma is statistical concept that measures a process in terms of defects. Achieving six sigma means your processes are delivering only 3.4 defects per million opportunities. In other words, they are working nearly perfectly. Sigma is a term in statistics that measures something called standard deviation. In its business use it indicates defects in the out-puts of a process, and helps us to understand how far the process deviates form perfection. The central idea of six sigma management is that if you can measure the defects in a process, you can systematically figure out ways to eliminate them, to approach a quality level of zero defects. So in short, six sigma is several things : • • A statistical basis of measurement 3.4 defects per milion opportunities. A philosophy and goal: as perfect as practically possible
A symbol of quality.
Six Sigma value is a metric that indicatesiliow well a process forming
PRACTICAL MEANING OF SIX SIGMA
• • • Letter in the Greek alphabet (o) "Sigma" is a measure of the variation or spread within a process. The sigma value is a metric that indicates how well a process is performing.
Six Sigma is a methodology to drive process improvements by focusing on defect elimination.
In Six Sigma philosophy, sigma is a common language that indicates how often defects occur in a process.
Focusing on sigma (o) requires through process understanding & breakthrough thinking.
Six sigma (o) a methodology & tool set that can be used to identify & reduce defects.
Six Sigma provides bottom line results improving the condition of the business. Six Sigma utilizes the team approach to process improvement, gaining employee participation, knowledge, and support.
Six Sigma is a continuous improvement process, striving ever closer to perfection and allowing no complacency with success.
Six Sigma is both a methodology and a metric. Six Sigma focuses on addressing the needs of the customer.
Six Sigma provides a structured approach to under standing and improving processes.
There are some levels in six sigma process which calls "Six sigma" levels these are as follows
Sigma level (process capability) 2 3 4 5 6
Defects per million Opportunities 308,537 66,807 6210 233 3.4
Practical Meaning of 99% Good 30 Capability 40 Capability 60 Capability 93.92% 99.38% 99.99966% Historical Standard Recent Standard Industry Vision
ESSENTIAL OF THE SIX SIGMA METHODOLOGYThe six sigma methodology uses statistical tools to identify the vital few factors, the factors that matter most for improving the quality of processes and generating bottom-line results. It consists of four steps :
1) measure (What)
Identify Project Scope/Goal Define Key process Elements
• • •
Establish Process Capability Validate Measurement System
What is the frequency of Defects?
• • • • Define the defect Define performance standards Validate measurement system Establish capability metric
2) Evaluate (Where, When, Wyh) • • • Benchmark Process Entitlement Data Analysis Determine Critical Factors
Where, when and why do Defects occur?
• • Identify sources of variation Determine the critical process parameters Process Optimization 3) Improvement (How) • Develop Improvement Plan
Understand/Optimize Vital Process Elements
Reduce Variation/Defects Verify Impact
How can we improve he process?
• • • Screen potential causes Discover relationships Establish operating tolerances
Were the improvements effective?
• Re-establish capability metric
4) Control (Sustain, Leverage) • • • Implement Long Term Control Plan Leverage toSimilar Products/Processes Document & Standardize
How can we maintain the improvements?
• • • Implement process control mechanisms Leverage project learning's Document & Proceduralize
We should note that six sigma methodologies are nongid. Approaches vary, sometimes significantly. One of the variations is in the phases. Same approaches use all five of the
phases listed above. while others not include the define phase. Six sigma professionals recognize that this approach is a kind of roadmap for improvement, this is the tool which helps managers and employees to understand and improve critical processes.
ROADMAP FOR PERFORMANCE EXCELLENCE
Six Sigma Methodology
This strategy is supported by two Six Sigma sub-methodologies called DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve and Control), and DMADV (Define, Measure, Analyse, Design, Verify). DMAIC shown in Fig. is an improvement system for existing processes which fall below specifications and need to be improved incrementally. DMADV is also an improvement system which is designed to develop new processes and/or products at Six Sigma quality levels. In both sub-methodologies and Six Sigma in general, the objective is to continually find ways to improve and refine processes, reduce defects and increase savings. This 'problem-solving' phase is called DMAIC.
First projects are defined from the perspective of customers or regarding process (Define). Second based on the defined projects, the current level of the product quality is measured into sigma level (Measure). Third causes of the problems are detected through the analysis so as to improve the sigma level (Analyse). Fourth efforts are made to improve the situation by working with the causes of the problems (Improve). Finally the optimal condition generated by the above mentioned phases are controlled, maintained and monitored (Control)
Define 1. Identify project that is measurable 2. Develop team charter 3. Define process map
Control 1. Ensure that the result is sustained 2. Share the lessons learnt
Measure 1. Define performance standards 2. Measure current level of quality into Sigma
Improve 1. Screen potential causes 2. Discover variable relationship 3. Establish operating
Analyse 1. Establish process capability 2. Define performance objectives 3. Identity variation sources
DMAIC Cycle Step 1 : Define • • Identify the project that are measurable. Projectes are defined including the demands of the customer and process.
It is the initial stage of starting the project and the most significant step Step 2 : Measure • • The current level of quality is measured into Sigma level. It precisely pinpoints the area causing problems. It forms the basis of the problem solving. • Project defects must be precisely defined and all possible and potential causes for such problems must be identified in thbis step. • Subsequetnly such problems are analysed statistically.
• Step 3: Analysis • In this step, when and where the defect occurs in investigated. Projects are statistically analysed and the problems are documented. • Major elements to be performed in tha 'Analysis' step are as follows. • Projects must be statistically and precisely defined int terms of
the gap between the ttarget and the actual state is clearly defined in
statistical terms like mean and moving average. • A comparehensive list of the potential casues of the problems is
created. • Statistical analysis is carried out to reduce the potential casuese into
few causes. • Finally based on abofe swteps, the finacial implication of the
project is calculated and furteher review is carried out if necessary. Tools for analysis • • • • • Process mapping Failure Mode & Effect Analysis Statistical Tests Design of Experiments Control charts
Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
Step 4: Improve • Improvements for the potential casuses identified in the Analysis step is carried out in this step. Solutions to all the potentials problems must be found. • • The choices are how to change, fix and modify the process. A trial run must be carried out for a planned period of time to esnsure the reviesion and improvements implemented in the process result in achieving the sugeted values. The step are repeated if necessary. Step 5: Control • Proper control and mainteance of the improved states are estabilshed in thbis steop. It is also a step to regularize the new method. • The results and accomplishments of all the improvement activities are documented There is continuous monitoring of where the improved process well maintained. WHY SIXSIGMA TO NMTBSA? Having discussed the reasons why a suply clain like the NMTBSA can successful, we need to further look into the reasons that contribute towards the system to be extermely efficient, the following are the major ones. • • • • Simplified coding system High conformity to the system Buffer in the lead time Confirmede by the limits of the human capabilities.
PICTURE OF CODING
: Vile Parle (subu Mumbai)
SIMPLIFIED CODING SYSTEM :
9EX12 : Code for Dabba at Destination EX 12 E
The system employes extermely a simple coding system. The cooding system has been explained in the exhibit II. It completely specifies the location as well as the person
who is to carry to box. It also simplifies the sorting at the residential & destination
locations. Thus, it ensures a coplete flawless system. Any scope of flaw now lies only
in sorting & the delivery, which can be managed becaue there are more people involved in it, which remove the scope of errors.
: Express Tower (building name) : Floor no.
At first when number of tiffin boxes were less, the Tiffin's were tied with a colored thread or wires to be identifies properly. But as the time passed & number of Tiffin's to
: Code for Dabba at residential st
be delivered startede increasing, this system of coding was found to be insufficient and inappropriate. So, in the early 1970's the association decided to implement new system of working where Tiffin box codes & markings were uniform. This coding system can be explained life this Each Tiffin box has a certain unique code painted on the top of the lid of the Tiffin box. The code donsists of the alphabets, numbers & even colours. This includes. • • • • Wher a Tiffin box is origainally picked from Were in ha to be given When is the Dabbawala who is finally going to deliver it. Which group of Dabbawala does the tiffin boxes belong to
(In case of more number of Tiftin boxes tobe delivered in same area of location) THIS CODING SYSTEM CAN BE EXPLAINED MORE IN DETAIL WITH HELP OF AN EXAMPLE
BO 9 10
Here the circle represents the top of the lid of the Tiffin box. "BO" indicates "BORIVALI" which is the station of the pick-up of the Tiffin box. "A" indicates the code given to be the Dabbawala or group of Dabbwalas the member of which group picks-up the Tiffin box initially from the customer's house. These codes are A,B.C, etc. according to the groups. When on each residential railway station there are more than two groups of the Dabbawala. Each group is given in a colour painted on the top of the lid of the Tiffin boxes. Often the codes are written in their full forms also. The number "10" indicates the main area of the destination location. The number 10 prevailing in the current system is allocated to the area of "Nariman Point". The number "9" on the right hand side indicates the main loction of the Nariman Point & also the number of the Dabbawala handling delivery in the particular area. "M" stands forthe "Mittal Tower". "16" stands for the th16th floor on which the .......... the customer is located & Dabbawala has to deliver the Tiffin boxes.
HIGH CONFIRMITY IN THE SYSTEM
The system operates in such a manner that every individual has personal interest in confirming to the basic principles & discipline. He understands that when he delivers someone else Tiffin's are being distributed by someone else. And that is a reason why he conforms to the norm. His participation in the system in ensured by the peer's participation This interlock in the system ensures a greater responsibility & thus a better performance. The philosophy of the Dabbawala is do your work honestly & be satisfied with the philosophy of the Dabbawala is - do your work honestly & be satisfied with what you get satisfied & happy- all of them are of a very simple nature just trying to do their job perfectly. They call the customer "GOD" & consider their service to the God. Not affected by artificiality, misconduct & unethical ways of living life, they represent then class of the simple good-natured human beings who are always on their toes for others.
BUFFER IN THE LEAD TIME
The system is main with a buffer in the lead-time. The Dabbwalas pick-up the lunch boxes between 9:30am-10:00am & deliver at around 12:30 pm. To 13:00 pm So they have around 2.5 to 3 hours to get the box delivered. Mostly it only takes the Dabbawala around 30 to 45 minutes to collect the boxes, & bring then to the station. Depending on which area the boxes are collected, it takes between 30-45 minutes to deliver. So there is actually put in a time slack, so even if the Dabbawala misses the planned train, he will still be able to deliver the lunch boxes in time. So one most days the Dabbawalas have waiting time, when they arrive to their delivery station. Which they utilize through sufficient time in sorting. If all goes as a planned they have about 30 minutes to an hour before delivery. It is this time slack that is part of the reason, for the very high percentages delivery on time. Because even if some minor incident happened, like if their bi-cycle should get a flat tire or so, there is still time to fix it, & still deliver on time. So we see the time slack as Necessity, to keep in the impressive on-time delivery statistics.
CONFIRMED BY THE LIMITS OF HUMAN CAPABILITY: The system is designed, to the capabilities of the Dabbwalas. They have made the system so each person, doesn't have to remember more then 30-40 places to collect & delivery. This number is partly picked as a result of two things. First of all because of the time available & second, & may be more important. This is the number they have found to remember & distinguish for most of the employees. As mentioned there is a certain buffer in the lead-time, which allows for a Dabbawala collecting & distributing more lunch boxes. But this would make it more difficult for the Dabbawals to remember the address, & would late deliveries. So.part of success as we see it, is due to the recognition of the human capabilities & the recognition of the need for a time buffer in the lead-time.
Six Sigma Statistical Model
Sigma statistic Sigma measure Performance benchmark Statistical model Six Sigma initiative Improvement process
Project by project approach Organizational infrastructure Core competencies
The Dabbawala system of one of its own kind, unique to Mumbai, extraordinary in operations, run by less educated people but higher in achievement on performance scale than the leaders in management field & the country's topmost joint ventures. They might not have the huge capital & assets like others. They are the winners. They have their greatest asset-the satisfaction of their performance & trying to follow them in their own countries. Such is the system India is proud of? They have prestigious achievement of SIX SIGMA rating the term used for the percentage of correctness which is just perfect, up to 99.999995 i.e. six decimals or more than that. Not many of the topmost companies are even near to it. This is simply incredible! It is a disciplined, data-driven methodology focused on eliminating defects. A six Sigma defect is defined as anything that falls outside of a customer's specifications. The results reported below by six sigma companies are convincing about its contribution to industry. The Six Sigma methodology and fundamental objective is to implement a measurement-based strategy that focuses on process improvement and variation reduction. Six Sigma is a term used in manufacturing process improvement methodologies and it refers to the variability of a process. Six Sigma has roots back to the teachings of Dr. Joseph Suran and Dr. W. Ewwards Deming (Thawani, 2004). Six Sigma is a high performance, data driven method for improving quality by removing defects and their causes in business process activities. The higher the number of sigma's, the more consistent is the process output or the smaller the variation. It is particularly powerful when measuring the performance of a process with a high volume of outputs. Six Sigma links customer requirements and process improvements with financial results while simultaneously providing the desired speed, accuracy and agility in today's e-age. In 1998, Forbes Global magazine conducted a qualities assurance study on the Dabbawalas operations and gave it an accuracy rating of 99.999999 more then Six Sigma. The Dabbawalas made one error in six million transactions. That put then on the list of Six Sigma rated companies, along with multinationals like Motorola and GE. There was only one mistake in every 6,000,000 deliveries.
The BBC has produced a documentary on Dabbawalas and Prince Charles, during his visit to India, visited them (he had to fit in with their schedule since their timing was to precise to permit any flexibility). Although the services remains essentially with one barefoot delivery boys as the prime movers, the Dabbawalas have started to embrace technology, and now allow booking for delivery through SMS. A web site mydabbawala.com has also been added to allow for online booking, in order to keep up with the times. An online poll on the website ensure that customer feedback is given pride of place. The success of the system depends on teamwork and time management. Such is the dedication and commitment of the barely literate and barefoot delivery boys who form links in the extensive delivery chain, that there is no system of documentation at all. A simple colour coding system doubles as an ID system for the destination and recipient.
A gauge of quality and efficiency, Six Sigma is also a measure of excellence. Embarking on a Six Sigma programme means delivering top-quality service and products while virtually eliminating all internal inefficiencies. A true Six Sigma organization produces not only excellent product but also maintains highly efficient production and administrative processes, Six Sigma may mean not only the obvious reduction of cycle time during production but, more importantly, optimizing response time to inquiries, maximizing the speed and accuracy with which inventory and materials are supplied, and fool proofing such support process from errors, inaccuracies and inefficiency. The primary factor in the successful implementation of Six Sigma project is to have the necessary resources, the support and leadership of top management, customer requirements identified explicitly, and a comprehensive training programme.Six Sigma's DMAIC structure of problem solving is its ability to analyse, improve and control processes with an emphasis on the ability to measure the performance. Deployment of Six Sigma is best achieved through the defined projects. Success of a Six Sigma project depends on buy-in by the entire organization, deployment of the process, effective training and key measurements. Lucas has thus concluded that: "Current Business System + Six Sigma = Total Quality Management"
THE RESEARCH & METHODOLOGY THE DABBAWALA SATISFACTIONS SURVEY
Meaning of Research Research is a common parlance which refers to search for knowledge. Research is scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact research is an art of scientific investigation. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study observation and experiment. Thus research refers to the systematic method consisting of intimating the problem, formulating hypothesis, collecting the facts or data. Research means a careful search or inquiry or an endeavour to discover facts by study or by investigation. Research methodology has become unavoidable, when there is a problem, one search for the causes of that problem and the way in which the problem can be solved. Research is defined as the scientific and systematic search for information on a specific topic. According to Clifford Woody, "research comprises of defining and redefining of problem, formulating hypothesis and suggestion solutions, organizing and evaluating data, carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis." The purpose of research is do discover answers to question through application of scientific procedures.
Identification of Problem :
The Tiffin box service provider - Mumbai Dabbawala has been working from 115 years. Yet the system runs effificnetly & is in prestigious position with achievement of SIX SIGMA RATING! The research has conducted to solve following Problem :-
The first problem is to know the job satisfaction level of the Dabbawala. Previously many B-schools has done project on Dabbawalas service, they appreciated the service of the Dabbawala but in the conclusion they stated that the six sigma service providers are poor & not job satisfied workers. So to know practically & statistically job satisfaction level of the Dabbawala.
To know about their demands which they want to fulfill.
Define concepts :
This research work gives full fledge knowledge about satisfaction levele of the Dabbawala. This satisfaction level judge under four parameter, these are as follows :
Financial level :
• • Dabbawala are financially sound or not. Whatever salary they drawn which are able to solve their basic necessities or not.
To know about, effect of financial level on job satisfaction.
Family level :
• Dabbawala family consist his spouse, children's, parents which are totally depends on them. • Each & every Dabbawala first aim is to fulfill demands of their family members. • Sometimes they do dual job to fulfill their basic family needs, So, to know about effect of Family level aspect on their job satisfaction level.
Personal level :
• Some customers also want service on Sundays & public holidays so as per the customer wish Dabbawala provides services on those days by keeping asides their personal interest.
The Dabbawala satisfaction Survey
• New generation are well educated but unemployment compel them to do same business. • So, to know effect of self satisfaction of Dabbawala on their job satisfaction level.
Social level :
• The nature of the work is totally field work & there is large chances of happening uncertain events like acciderts, health problems etc. • In such kind of situation the critical problem they are facing about security of their social life.
Objective of Study :
• To study job satisfaction level of Dabbawala
• Is there win-win situation of satisfaction level from both side i.e. (customers & Dabbawala) • Understand interrelation between risk & satisfaction level.
Understand the relation between two variables like satisfaction level & motivation.
Scope of study :
• Location is NMTBSA office at grant road station west of Mumbai suburban area.
• Survey method of research is used & as per survey method questionnaire is formed. • Questionnaire is design in a local language (Marathi) which is able to understand them. • The all type of Dabbawala who are working in different categories in the association has selected for sampling.
SAMPLE SIZE :
• Out of 55 samples, 50 samples of Dabbawalas who filled all question in the questionnaire are selected. • The Dabbawalas who are working from more than a year with association are selected.
DATA COLLECTION :
• • Data are collected from primary source Method of data collection is survey & questionnaire. (questionnaire are design in a local language which are understood by most of the Dabbawals)
In editing work the questionnaires which are not completely filled up are rejected also the Dabbawala who has less than 1 year experience their feedback also not considered.
Under coding system 16 question are framed in one question form, consist "yesno" type questions; "objective" type questions & few are "brief" questions.
INTERPRETATION & ANALYSATION
Here in this part, we are going to analyse the data collected through the answers given by the Dabbawals to the questions in the questionnaire. For the purpose, fifty Dabbawals were given the questionnaire to fill. In the course they were also asked the reasons for the particular answers to the subject questions. The Dabbawalls review include all type of the Dabbawala from normal Dabbawals to mukadam (team leader); also interact with president, vice president, secretary, treasurer to collect full information related to research work. The data or the answer to the questions reflects the view of the customers regarding various aspects such as : • • • Their monthly income Any social security cover Their work experience
Job satisfaction level
ABOUT EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION
EDUCATION 0 1-4 5-7 8-10 11-12 No. OF DABBAWALA 06 09 09 22 04 PERCENTAGE 12% 18% 18% 44% 8%
ABOUT EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION
ABOUT EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION
The purpose of this question was to know about their educational background. The Dabbawals service appreciated by Britain prince Charles, Virgin Atlantic airline chairman Sir Richard Branson. Dabbawalas are not high educated individual but there I.Q. (Intelligent Quotient) level is high. They have more than 5000 Dabbawals strength, which are capable to deliver lunch boxes to 2 lacks customers. Out of 50 Dabbawalas interview, 8% of Dabbawals are not educated, they didn't go to but they know entire coding system which is in English language, also able to sign in the muster roll. 18% of Dabbawalas lies in 1st to 4th standard education 5th to 7th standard schooling education qualification lies by 18% Dabbawalas. Majority of Dabbawalas lies in 8th-10th standard educational qualification, their percentage is 44%. Only 8% Dabbawalas lies in 11th & 12th standard qualification. Mr. Raghunath Medge- President of Nutan Mumbai Tiffin Box Supplier's Association & chairman of Dakkhan Mavle Sahakari Patpedhi Mumbai, also Contractor of Tiffin Box Suppliers & School Bus Service has completed their Graduation from Mumbai University. The coding system founder Mr. Raghunath Medge play a big role in filling up an educational gap of Dabbawalas.
HOW MANY YEARS HAVE YOU BEEN WORKING WITH NMTBSA?
OPTIONS 1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26 & ABOVE ANSWER 13 14 09 06 03 05 PERCENTAGE 26% 28% 18% 12% 06% 10%
10% 6% 12% 26% 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr 5th Qtr 6th Qtr
HOW MANY YEARS HAVE YOU BEEN WORKING WITH NMTBSA?
The object behind to ask this question is as follows : • The answer will give details of exact no. of people who are loyal with the association. • The criteria for this research project is to take interview of those Dabbawalas who has completed more than one year service, So-this question help to sort our sample for research. • The question helps to know about the no. of younger generation's entry in this profession. • The suggestions of experience Dabbawalas are very fruitful so I get to know their numbers. There are 26% of Dabbawalas which lies in 1 to 5 yrs of experience. The total percentile of 6-10 years experience of Dabbawalas is 28. Out of 50 sample, 09 Dabbawalas lies in 11-15 years of experience & there percentile is 18. There are 12% of Dabbawalas which lies in 16 to 20 years of experience. The total percentile of 21-25 years experience of Dabbawalas is 28. There are many Dabbawalas who has been working from more than 25 years with association. These higher senior categories of Dabbawalas are 10% of whole strength.
IS MONTLY SALARY ABLE TO BE FULFILL YOUR BASIC NEEDS?
OPTIONS YES NO
ANSWER 27 23
PERCENTAGE 54% 46%
Y es N o
IS MONTHLY SALARY ABLE TO FULFILL YOUR BASIC NEEDS?
Dabbawalas are doing risky job. To travel Tiffin boxes through trains at peak hour, also as per requirement of the customer they provide services on public holidays. But they only get Rs. 200-300 per month per Tiffin from customer who contributes around Rs. 5000-6000 monthly income. But to live in city like Mumbai, this amount is not capable to fulfill basic needs. The aim of this question is to know opinion about their monthly income. The question covers financial aspect of research work. The 54% of Dabbawalas are satisfied with their salary, which are able to complete their basic needs. The remaining percentages of Dabbawalas i.e. 46% are not satisfied with their salary which is unable to fulfill their basic needs.
DO YOU HAVE ENSURANCE COVER FOR YOUSELF?
OPTIONS YES NO ANSWER 25 25 PERCENTAGE 50% 50%
Y es N o
DO YOU HAVE INSURANCE COVER FOR YOURSELF?
The object behind to ask this question is to know how may Dabbawalas thinks about their life & do investment to secure it. I got some good reply from them, many Dabbawalas are very conscious about their life because they know risk gravity in their job. They want self protection & family protection from uncertain events so they secured their life. But 50% of Dabbawalas are not secured their life because they don't have sufficient amount to invest in insurance. But they wish to invest in insurance. They want government or association should do to secure their life or give them insurance.
DO YOU HAVE INSURANCE COVER FOR YOURSELF?
The project behind to ask this question is to know how many Dabbawalas thinks about life & do investment to secure it. I got some good reply from them, many Dabbawalas are very conscious about their life because they know risk gravity in their job. They want self protection & family protection from uncertain events to they secured their life. But 50% of Dabbawalas are not secured their life because they don't have sufficient amount to invest in insurance. But they wish to invest in insurance. They want government or association should do to secure their life or give them insurance.
OPTIONS YES NO
ANSWER 0 50
PERCENTAGE 0% 100%
Y es No
HAS ASSOCIATION INSURED YOUR LIFE?
The object behind to ask this question is that the Nature of their job is physical they do field work so necessity of insurance cover is must fore them. To protect life of each & every Dabbawala is prime responsibility of association ; but they unable to protect life of all Dabbawalas ; because below income rate. In received 100% negative answer for this question. Nutan Mumbai Tiffin Box Supplier Association (NMTBSA) has not provided protection cover & not in the future thinking about to give protection cover is all their members. Member of the association are privately taking insurance cover from Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) for their & repentant. They wish that association or Government should provide them insurance cover at .................................. which they will capable to pay.
OPTIONS YES NO
ANSWER 0 50
PERCENTAGE 0% 100%
Y es No
DO YOU GET ANY RETIREMENT BENEFIT OR OLD AGE BENEFIT FROM MMTBSA?
Northern Mumbai Tiffin Box Suppliers Association is not providing any retirement benefit or old age benefit to their members. The frequency of this question's answer is 100% No. so I say it is 100% negative answer. There is little reason behind this. • • • • NMTBSA charges low fees from their customers They do not have sufficient balance to provide retirement benefit Whatever monthly income they earn, they equally distributed within itself. If any Dabbawala want to retire or leave job, he can do by selling his clients to association, that time association give him a lumsum amount; which is only source of income for them after retirement or resignation. The Dabbawalas association has "DAKKHAN MAVALE SAHAKARI PATPEDHI" this gives personal loan to members at very reasonable rate. The members can take benefit after retirement also. So the gap of old age benefit or retirement benefit to members is partially filled up by this scheme.
DO YOU GET ANY RETIREMENT BENEFIT OR OLD AGE BENEFIT FROM NMTBSA?
Nutan Mumbai Tiffin Box Suppliers Association is not providing any retirement benefit or old age benefit to their members. The frequency of this question's answer is 100% No. so I say it is 100% negative answer. There is little reason behind this : • • • • NMTBSA charges low fees from their customers. They do not have sufficient balance to provide retirement benefit. Whatever monthly income they earn, they equally distributed within itself. If any Dabbawala want to retire or leave job, he can do by selling his clients to association, that time association give him a lumsum amount; which is only source of uncome for them after retirement or resignation. The Dabbawalas association has "DAKKHAN MAVALES SAHAKARI PATPEDHI" This gives personal loan to members at very reasonable rate. The members cant take benefit to members is partially up by this scheme.
AS PER NATURE OF JOB, HAD YOU FACE ANY INJURY DURING YOUR WORKS? IF YES. THEN PLEASE MENTION
OPTIONS YES NO
ANSWER 10 40
PERCENTAGE 20% 80%
Y es No
AS PER NATURE OF JOB, HAD YOU FACE ANY INJURY DURING YOUR WORK? IF YES, THEN PLEASE MENTION
The object behind to ask this question is to know risk gravity in their job. Doing field work job in Mumbai city is too hectic, & handle time management side by side is very impossible. So doing these kinds of job, what kind of problem they face & how they tackle in was the prime aim behind this question. 20% of Dabbawala met with an accident in the course of duty. They also mention reason of an accident. The reasons are as follows. • The four wheeler struck to cycle at walkeshwer area at the time of delivering. Tiffin boxes, hospitalized-leg, hand fractured. • Due to continuous cycle riding theyface problem of pain in leg, chest (chamak motech) • Many times vehicles struck to their cycle.
The remaining 80% Dabbawala said that they know the art of riding cycle with carrying. Tiffin boxes. But they are not denying that in the future they will not meet with an accident. Means there is a lot of risk they carry at the time of delivering. Tiffin Boxes.
OPTIONS YES NO ANSWER 06 44 PERCENTAGE 12% 88%
Y es No
The Dabbawalas are getting only Rs. 5000-6000 monthly. This amount is not sufficient to live in Mumbai. The Dabbawalas family consists spouse, children, parents; all are totally depends on them. 88% of Dabbawalas are not doing any work, because they completely tire after doing daily work +& unable tot do other kind of part-time job. 22% of Dabbawalas who are young they do part-time job in morning or in evening. Such as: • • • • Doing some agency work like Bhisi, investment ect. Pan card-helping others to get pan card. Landing - unloading work- hamali in flawer market of Dadar & in other area Working as a Coompounder clinic-those who are educated they do part time work clinic.
OPTIONS YES NO MEDIUM
ANSWER 47 1 2
PERCENTAGE 94% 2% 4%
Y es No Medium
Do You Satisfy working with nmtbsa?
This is the key question of this research work. The entire conclusion is depending on it. The question gives exact statistical percentage of satisfied Dabbawalas. This six sigma service providers are really satisfied or not is the main object behind this question. The 94% of Dabbawalas are satisfied while working with association. They feel prestige while working with Association. Their inner satisfaction is reason behind their job satisfaction. "Service to customer is service to god" is formula behind their job satisfaction. Only 1% of Dabbawalas are not satisfied because they are educated & they feel uncomfortable while working with association due to unemployment they came to this profession. The nature of the job & risk involved in it is other reason behind their dissatisfaction. 4% of Dabbawalas are given Medium reply i.e. they are 50-%0 percentage satisfy & physical illness while working with association. They were confused while deciding their job satisfaction level so they have given Medium (neutral) reply.
HOW DO YOU RATE YOUR EXPERIENCE WITH NMTBSA?
Options Excellent Very Good Good BAD Very Bad
Answer 27 09 14 0 0
Percentage 54% 18% 28% 0% 0%
HOW DO YOU RATE YOUR EXPERIENCE WITH NMTBSA?
E ellent xc
Very G ood
How Do you Rate your Experience with Nmtbsa?
This question helps to know about their past experience also to know about their exact job satisfaction level. The question gives idea about Dabbawalas opinion about their association; the Dabbawalas are spending their work life with association so how they rate their experience is the prime factor in this job satisfaction research. 57% of Dabbawalas mark as "Excellent" level about their work experience. 18% of Dabbawalas mark as "Very Good" working experience with association. 28% of Dabbawalas mark as "Good" level about their work experience. The important thing is that no one marks on Bad & Very bad level of experience with Association. So I say this is 100% positive answer.
FINDINGS : The Dabbawala satisfaction research gives findings on following points:
Financial level : The Dabbawalas are financially not sound they are earning only Rs. 5000-Rs. 6000 per month & their entire family is depending on them but research shows that 54% of Dabbawalas are satisfy with their salary. Only 12% of Dabbawalas are doing part time job to fulfill their basic needs.
Family level : There job is physical in nature so after doing full day duty they become tire & unable do other kind of part time job. Their family members also work to contribute in to family income.
Personal level : Dabbawala provides good quality of service to their customer as per their demands; they keep aside their self view & do their work honestly. Doing work in team is the key element of their self satisfaction. Their relations with peers contribute to improve their self satisfaction level.
Social level : Only 50% of Dabbawalas has secured their life by taking private insurance cover. The remaining 50% has not secured their life because of incapacity to pay premium of insurance & illiteracy about social security. The association has not secured their members life & also they do not provide any social security cover to them. 100% no support from the association related social security cover.
Thus we have the unique system of delivery of lunch boxes in Mumbari for the mumbaities. It is not a full fledge commercial organization, running business with primary aim of profit, but rather that an organization with the aim of customer satisfaction. A very true & excellent example of Hospitality. The six sigma service providers & 100% customer satisfaction level achievers are really satisfied. To know practically their job satisfaction level was the motto of these research. & I would like to conclude that the six sigma service providers are really satisfied with their job. The research has shown 94% satisfaction level. This is really grateful . Though they are earning very less amount from their business, though their job is too hectic in nature, though they don't have any social security measures for their safety but their glazing eyes shows they are satisfied with their job. Customer is God & service to customer is as same as service to God. Their customer is satisfied so they are satisfied. They called as Management Guru because of their core values, which are • • • • • Work is Worship Serving people is Serving God Annadan is Mahadan Time is Money Unity is Power
I would like to mention some opinions of Dabbawalas, what they said about their job satisfaction. • We Dabbawalas whatever we earn from serving Tiffin boxes which is not enough to fulfill our basic needs, but we never think about it & we provide services on time, & after achieving our daily target of delivering Tiffin's within
a time, the pleasure we receive from customer side is the real satisfaction for us. We do all these work for parmartha i.e. for God. • Work is worship. Whatever we earn after hard work is realsatisfaction for us. No need how much we earn from it. • Delivering Tiffing boxes is very difficult job which involved hard work. Whatever we earn out of from it is not able to fulfill our basic needs. But such social work brings happiness & satisfaction in our life. So we are satisfied. • Customer satisfaction is self satisfaction. I received a good supportive response from all Dabbawalas; they were ready to fill up questionnaire form. Association has not provided social security to them, but their team is their strength which brings mutual understanding with each other & support. There has not surety about getting yearly bonus, which is totally depends on customers. Dabbawala never force their customers to pay bonus on Diwali occasion. Some customers pay & some do not, but whatever amount they receive as a bonus they equally distributed.
Dabbawala is a symbol of honesty, time management & loyalty. 12% of Dabbawalas do part time job to fulfill their basic needs. 44% of Dabbawalas lies in 8 th to 10th standard passed i.e. they are not highly qualified but they are ready to change & promote innovation in their business. 50% of Dabbawalas has insured their lives by taking insurance, remaining are not capable to take insurance because their earning is less to invest in insurance. But they wish to take insurance for their safety. 20% Dabbawalas had faced personal injury during working hours. Many times they met with an accident on duty. So they know about importance of insurance. 54% said their monthly salary is able to fulfill their basic needs, but not enough to stay in a city like Mumbai. That means though they have poor financial background,
they are satisfied about their job. Money is not a motivational factor to them, their associations core values are motivator behind their satisfaction. There are lots of things to learn from this research like : • • Organizational objective is important than personal. "Karmanye Vadhi Karaste Maa Phaleshu Kadachana" a bhagvatgeeta's shlok which means 'Do your work honestly without thinking about profit or benefit, it will get at right time'. • Customer satisfaction leads to job satisfaction.
• • •
Monetary value is not a real motivator of job satisfaction . Team work improves performance. Corporate social responsibility is prime work of each & every organization. How much we are earning is not important but whatever we earn, we have to give back to our society.
Recommendation Though the system has proved to be very veneficial for its customers & employees but there are some kinds of limitations, these gaps should have to fill up by adopting recommendations. After completing this research there are some recommendations from the Dabbawalas side & some from my own side, which are as follows : • Insurance cover : Association must think about providing insurance cover to all Dabbawalas. They can contact many insurance providers & can take group policy of all Dabbawalas which cost fewer amounts than single insurance cover.
Association should have to talk with Employees State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) & put forward their proposal.
Job Enlargement (Advertisement) : The association should do job enlargement activity like be an advertise promoter. Daily they reach more than 2 lacks of office goers also travel with public transport so they grab attention of lacks of peoples in a day. So they have to take a job of promoting advertisement of different companies' brands, TV serials etc. which would add extra income in their fund.
Consult With Government :
The NMTBSA should have to consult with different government agencies & put forward their issues. Such as • • • • Government should provide social security cover to them, To provide some place for exchange of Tiffin boxes at public places. To give concession in traffic rules at the time of peak hours. Railway board should provide separate luggage compartment to them between morning's peak hours (8:00am-12:00pm). The have to strengthen their activity & should collectively put forward their issues in front of government.
Expand Business :
They should have to expand their business & try to smart business in other kind of service sector like courier services. 1% of Dabbawalas are not satisfied working with association because they are well educated new generation & feel uncomfortable while doing field work. Due to unemployment they forcefully came into these professions. If NMTBSA Start providing services in new sector & give an opportunity to young generation then it will definitely improve their morale & attain growth.
Start Adult Education programme:
The Association should start adult education classes for uneducated & less educated Dabbawalas. As per research data 12% Dabbaawalas are not educated. they never went to shool. 18% Dabbawalas lies in 1st standard to 4th standard. & same percentage in 5th standard to 7th standard. The average No. of Dabbawalas lies in 8th standard to 10tth standard & their percentage is 44% so association should arrange Adult education classes for Dabbawalas which provide basic education as well as market knowledge. This will make them competitive to face global competition.
Questionnaire DABBAWALA SATISFACTION SURVEY
• • • • • •
Name Education Married Unmarried
How many years have you been working with nmtbsa? Your Current monthly salary Is Monthly Salary able to fulfill your basic needs? Yes No
Do you have insurance cover for yourself? Yes No
Has Association Insured Your Life? Yes No
As per nature of job, had you face any injury during your work? Yes No
If Yes, then please mention.
How much amount of bonus you get
Do you get any retirement Benefit or old age benefit from NMTBSA? Yes No
Other than NMTBSA have you been working somewhere else? Yes No
Do you satisfy working with NMTBSA? Yes No Medium
How do you rate your experience with NMTBSA? Excellent Very Good Good Bad Very Bad
Any suggestion, Demand, Opinion
PRIMARY DATA: Dabbawalas satisfaction questionnaire form\
INTERVIEW : Mr. Raghunah Medge (president) Mr. Gangaram Talekar (secretary)
WEB SITE : www.myDabbawala.com
PROJECT REPROT : The process of management of the Dabbawala" by Mr. SHRISH PRATAP SINGH (MBA)
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