SUBMITTED TO Mr. Tushar Agarwal & Miss.Neha Mam

SUBMITTED BY Veeresh pal Singh Sunil Kumar Sharma Aaakankshi Sharma

When I got the opportunity to do a work on Book Shop Management System, it is challenge for me to do better in development field. I take this challenge and finished the work with my hard working We are grateful to our project guide Mr. Tushar Agarwal & Miss.Neha Mam for the guidance, inspiration and constructive suggestions that helpful us in the preparation of this project. We also thank our colleagues who have helped in successful completion of the project.

Veeresh pal Singh Sunil Kumar sharma Aakankshi Sharma

1) Synopsis 2) Introduction & Objective 3) System Analysis 4) Feasibility Study 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. Technical Study Economical Study Operational Study Behavioral Study

5) Software Engineering Paradigm Applied 6) System Design Specification 6.1. 6.2. 6.3. Data Flow Diagram (DFD) ER Diagram Data Table

7) Snapshots 8) Code Efficiency 9) Optimization of codes 10) 11) 12) 13) Testing Implementation & Maintenance Conclusion Bibliography


Title of the Project
Book Shop Management System

A Book Shop Management system is designed to automate the integral data of the Pathology lab. Pathology is the study and diagnosis of disease through examination of organs, tissues, cells and bodily fluids. While you would probably never deal directly with pathology or laboratory as a patient, the dedicated staff in this area has worked with you if you have ever had a blood draw, urine test or any kind of medical test done at Laboratories this system deals with the same. Pathology is the study and diagnosis of disease through examination of organs, tissues, bodily fluids, and whole bodies (autopsies). Pathology also encompasses the related scientific study of disease processes, called general pathology. Medical pathology is divided into two main branches, Anatomical pathology and Clinical pathology.

Need of the Project
To reduce the Paper work.

Objective of the Project
The main objective is to provide the Doctors a pleasant and efficient way of working and generating Reports and providing the facility of making the reports available to patients via SMS facility so that patient does not often require to come to the Laboratory to collect the report in case of emergency.

Area of Application
It can be used in any Pathology Lab for maintaining Patients details and their test results.

Use of the Project
This project is used for New Patient record Entry, Patient ID and Report Generation according to requirement, Receipt of the investigation performed.

Input of the Project
Following are some of the inputs to the Pathology Lab  Master Data o Test o Profile o Patient  Appointment o Accept Test booking

Output of the Project
System will help to produce following Reports  Patient Test Report  Receipt  Rate List

Software Requirement Specification
The SRS is often referred to as the "parent" document because all subsequent project management documents, such as design specifications, statements of work, software architecture specifications, testing and validation plans, and documentation plans, are related to it. The SRS document itself states in precise and explicit language those functions and capabilities a software. It's important to note that an SRS contains functional and nonfunctional requirements only; it doesn't offer design suggestions, possible solutions to technology or business issues, or any other information other than what the development team understands the customer's system requirements to be. A well-designed, well-written SRS accomplishes four major goals:




It provides feedback to the customer. An SRS is the customer's assurance that the development organization understands the issues or problems to be solved and the software behavior necessary to address those problems. It decomposes the problem into component parts. The simple act of writing down software requirements in a well-designed format organizes information, places borders around the problem, solidifies ideas, and helps break down the problem into its component parts in an orderly fashion. It serves as an input to the design specification. As mentioned previously, the SRS serves as the parent document to subsequent documents, such as the software design specification and statement of work. Therefore, the SRS must contain sufficient detail in the functional system requirements so that a design solution can be devised. It serves as a product validation check. The SRS also serves as the parent document for testing and validation strategies that will be applied to the requirements for verification.

A general structure of Software requirement specification of my project is given below: y INTRODUCTION  PURPOSE  SCOPE  DEFINITIONS ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS  OVERVIEW y OVERALL DESCRIPTION  PRODUCT PERSPECTIVE 


The purpose of this document is to describe the requirements for the Pathology Lab. Presently there are so many Pathology Lab but 70% of it does not use the Software related to Pathology. They simply do their work on paper. So it becomes difficult and time consuming to get any information according to needs. This project is totally Computer based system so that Pathology Lab can fast access their functionality. It will improve the working capacity of the organization and due to computerized system paper cost will be reduced and easy to take any decisions.

The Scope of this project is to define a high-level vision for a national approach to Pathology Result Reporting. It provides a background to the business concerns for which the package has been developed. This document is used to validate that the rest of the documents within the package address all the issues and requirements within scope. The purpose of the Technical Architecture document is to outline the technical infrastructure of the Pathology Result reporting solution. It focuses on the Services Interfaces.

Definitions Acronyms and Abbreviations
Presently not used.

Project is related to Pathology Lab.  Main facilities available in this project are:y Maintaining records of patients.  New Patients' personal details  Name, Age, Sex, Address  Referring doctors' details and contact numbers. Maintaining patients diagnosis details, advised tests to be done. Providing different test facilities to a doctor for diagnosis of patients.  Urine Test  Stool Test  Blood Test  Liver Function Test



Maintaining backup of data as per user requirements (between mentioned dates). y Patient ID or Name search y Patient Name-wise search 

User or Administrator can search a patient·s record by his/her name or their registration date.  Patient ID and report generation according to requirement.  Receipt of the investigation performed.  In this project collection of data is from different pathology labs.

Overall Description
Product Perspective
The system is to produce platform for Pathology Lab to computerize their functionality and supportive for better assessment. The system will provide that what free and which is booked. The system has also capabilities of creating backup and restoring from any types of crashes.

User Characteristics
The main users of this system will be the owner and operator who are registered on the system. Every user should be:  Comfortable of working with computer.  He must have knowledge in medical field.  He must also have basic knowledge of English too.

General Constraints 
The project can run any operating system where java 1.5 and MS-Access are installed.  GUI is only in English.  Login and password is used for identification of user and there is no facility for guest.

Assumption and Dependencies
To use this software user have must authentication (user id and password).

Goals of Proposed System

1. Planned approach towards working: - The working in the organization will be well planned and organized. The data will be stored properly in data stores, which will help in retrieval of information as well as its storage. 2. Accuracy: - The level of accuracy in the proposed system will be higher. All operation would be done correctly and it ensures that whatever information is coming from the center is accurate. 3. Easy to Operate: - The system should be easy to operate and should be such that it can be developed within a short period of time and fit in the limited budget of the user. 4. No Redundancy: - In the proposed system utmost care would be that no information is repeated anywhere, in storage or otherwise. This would assure economic use of storage space and consistency in the data stored. 5. Reliability: - The reliability of the proposed system will be high due to the above stated reasons. The reason for the increased reliability of the system is that now there would be proper storage of information. 6. Immediate retrieval of information: - The main objective of proposed system is to provide for a quick and efficient retrieval of information. Any type of information would be available whenever the user requires. 7. Immediate storage of information: - In manual system there are many problems to store the largest amount of information.

Authentication interface for user.  Master entry part of the system will content different interfaces to store records of Patients, test Lab report.

The system will capable to generate different types of test reports of Patients, Bill status, generating of invoice slip, Expenses reports.

Project Requirements
Hardware Requirements
Processor RAM Disk space Intel Pentium IV, Dual core, Core 2 Duo or higher 64 Mb or higher 130 Mb Ink jet or Laser Printer VGA enabled Printer Monitor Keyboard & Mouse Multimedia

Software Requirements
Operating system Win-XP, Windows 7 Java 1.5 or above MS-Access Language Database

Definitions of Problems
Problems with conventional system 1. Lack of immediate retrievals The information is very difficult to retrieve and to find particular information like- E.g. - To find out about the patient·s history, the user has to go through various registers. This results in inconvenience and wastage of time.

2. Lack of immediate information storage The information generated by various transactions takes time and efforts to be stored at right place.

3. Lack of prompt updating Various changes to information like patient details or immunization details of child are difficult to make as paper work is involved.

4. Error prone manual calculation Manual calculations are error prone and take a lot of time this may result in incorrect information. E.g.- calculation of patient·s bill based on various treatments.

5. Preparation of accurate and prompt reports This becomes a difficult task as information is difficult to collect from various registers.

Alternative Solutions
1. Improved Manual System One of the alternative solutions is the improvement of the manual system. Anything, which can be done by using automated methods, can be done manually. But the question arises how to perform thing manually in a sound manner. Following are some suggestions, which can be useful in the manual system. A more sophisticate register maintenance for various Patient Information, Doctor diary, Immunization Details and a good system for writing bill amount employees and stock availed for the customers can be maintained at central place. Adequate staff may be maintained so that updations are made at the very moment at the same time. Proper person for proper work should be made responsible so that a better efficiency could be achieved. This needs a lot of work force. 2. Batch System Another alternative solution can be used of computer based batch system for maintaining the information regarding purchase details, customers and employees. A batch system refers to a system in which data is processed in a periodical basis. The batch system is able to achieve most of the goals and sub goals. But a batch system data is processed in sequential basis. Therefore batch system is not suggested. 3. Online System This system (HMS) provides online storage/ updations and retrieval facility. This system promises very less or no paper work and also provides help to Doctor and operational staff. In

this system everything is stored electronically so very less amount of paper work is required and information can be retrieved very easily without searching here and there into registers. This system is been discussed here.

Limitation of the Project
Though the system has been designed according to the requirements of the users it has its own limitation. Thus the limitation of system are No facility to create new users with different roles  Non-availability of Distributed Architecture  Object oriented Approach has been not been fully utilized.


Introduction and Objective
A Pathology system is designed to automate the integral data of the Pathology lab. Pathology is the study and diagnosis of disease through examination of organs, tissues, cells and bodily fluids. While you would probably never deal directly with pathology or laboratory as a patient, the dedicated staff in this area has worked with you if you have ever had a blood draw, urine test or any kind of medical test done at Laboratories this system deals wit the same. Pathology is the study and diagnosis of disease through examination of organs, tissues, bodily fluids, and whole bodies (autopsies). Pathology also encompasses the related scientific study of disease processes, called general pathology. Medical pathology is divided into two main branches, Anatomical pathology and Clinical pathology. Anatomical pathology

Pathologist instructor and students of anatomical pathology. Anatomical pathology or anatomic pathology is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, chemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs, tissues, and whole bodies (autopsy). Anatomical pathology is one of two branches of pathology, the other being clinical pathology, the diagnosis of disease through the

laboratory analysis of bodily fluids and tissues. Often, pathologists practice both anatomical and clinical pathology, a combination known as general pathology. The distinction between anatomic and clinical pathology is increasingly blurred by the introduction of technologies that require new expertise and the need to provide patients and referring physicians with integrated diagnostic reports. Similar specialties exist in veterinary pathology. Clinical pathology

Clinical chemistry: an automated blood chemistry analyzer. Clinical pathology is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids such as blood and urine, and tissues using the tools of chemistry, microbiology, hematology and molecular pathology. Clinical pathologists work in close collaboration with medical technologist¶s hospital administrations and referring physicians to ensure the accuracy and optimal utilization of laboratory testing. Clinical pathology is one of the two major divisions of pathology, the other being anatomical pathology. Often, pathologists practice both anatomical and clinical pathology, a combination sometimes known as general pathology.

System Analysis
Before developing any new system anywhere, it is imperative upon the developers to acquaint themselves with environment in which the proposed system would be installed. Also, it is necessary to interact with the user regarding their demands and the resources available with them. This gives a clear overview of the improvements wanted and to be provided. The study and analysis of the proposed system was carried out diligently under the guidance of experts of the organization. In the existing system, all the work is being carried out manually. Computers available are just for typing in the excel sheets. Besides him, we have checked an earlier package being done in FoxPro and the reports created in Excel sheets for more hints.

At Present, whenever some report is needed, it is being created using excel, word after entering the collected data. To say that is highly inefficient is of no use. Everyone recognize it and thus the work in the direction of new system was started. The worst problem with the manual work is speed of work. Many things need to be re-entered repeatedly. The Project was undertaken as a part of the drive to convert the existing computerized system at work into a modern system. Analysis is a detailed study of the various operations performed by a system and their relationships within and outside of the system. One aspect of analysis is defining the boundaries of the system and determining whether or not a candidate system should consider other

related systems. It is fact-finding followed by analysis of the facts. It provides a framework to assist in perceiving system weakness and requirements. It also identifies strategies for fulfilling the stated requirements, a basis for the transition into system design.

Feasibility study
Depending on the results of the initial investigation the survey is now expanded to a more detailed feasibility study. ³FEASIBILITY STUDY´ is a test of system proposal according to its workability, impact of the organization, ability to meet needs and effective use of the resources. It focuses on these major questions: 1. What are the user¶s demonstrable needs and how does a candidate system meet them? 2. What resources are available for given candidate system? 3. What are the likely impacts of the candidate system on the organization? 4. Whether it is worth to solve the problem? During feasibility analysis for this project, following primary areas of interest are to be considered. Investigation and generating ideas about a new system does this. Steps in feasibility analysis Eight steps involved in the feasibility analysis are:  Form a project team and appoint a project leader.  Prepare system flowcharts.  Enumerate potential proposed system.  Define and identify characteristics of proposed system.  Determine and evaluate performance and cost effective of each proposed system. 

Weight system performance and cost data.  Select the best-proposed system.  Prepare and report final project directive to management. Feasibility study is the procedure to identify, describe the evaluate candidate system and select the best possible action for the job. The initial investigation culminated in a proposal summarized the thinking of the analyst, was presented to the user for review. The proposal initiated a feasible study to describe and evaluate the best system to choose in terms of economical, technical and behavioral constraints.

The terms constraints involved in feasibility analysis arey y y y Technical Economical Operational Behavioral

Technical Feasibility
A study of resource availability that may affect the ability to achieve an acceptable system. This evaluation determines whether the technology needed for the proposed system is available or not. y Can the work for the project be done with current equipment existing software technology & available personal? y y Can the system be upgraded if developed? If new technology is needed then what can be developed?

This is concerned with specifying equipment and software that will successfully satisfy the user requirement. The technical needs of the system may include:

Front-end and back-end selection

An important issue for the development of a project is the selection of suitable front-end and back-end. When we decided to develop the project we went through an extensive study to determine the most suitable platform that suits the needs of the organization as well as helps in development of the project. The aspects of our study included the following factors.

Front-End selection
1. It must have a graphical user interface that assists employees that are not from IT background. 2. Scalability and extensibility. 3. Flexibility. 4. Robustness. 5. According to the organization requirement and the culture. 6. Must provide excellent reporting features with good printing support. 7. Platform independent. 8. Easy to debug and maintain. 9. Event driven programming facility. 10. Front end must support some popular back end like Ms Access. According to the above stated features we selected Java 1.6 as the front-end for developing our project.

Back-End Selection
1. Multiple user support. 2. Efficient data handling. 3. Provide inherent features for security. 4. Efficient data retrieval and maintenance. 5. Stored procedures. 6. Popularity. 7. Operating System compatible. 8. Easy to install. 9. Various drivers must be available. 10. Easy to implant with the Front-end. According to above stated features we selected Ms-Access as the backend. The technical feasibility is frequently the most difficult area encountered at this stage. It is essential that the process of analysis and definition be conducted in parallel with an assessment to technical feasibility. It centers on the existing computer system (hardware, software etc.) and to what extent it can support the proposed system.

Economic Feasibility
Economic justification is generally the ³Bottom Line´ consideration for most systems. Economic justification includes a broad range of concerns that includes cost benefit analysis. In this we weight the cost and the benefits associated with the candidate system and if it suits the basic purpose of the organization i.e. profit making, the project is making to the analysis and design phase.

The financial and the economic questions during the preliminary investigation are verified to estimate the following:

y y

The cost to conduct a full system investigation. The cost of hardware and software for the class of application being considered.

y y

The benefits in the form of reduced cost. The proposed system will give the minute information, as a result the performance is improved which in turn may be expected to provide increased profits.


This feasibility checks whether the system can be developed with the available funds. The Hospital Management System does not require enormous amount of money to be developed. This can be done economically if planned judicially, so it is economically feasible. The cost of project depends upon the number of man-hours required.

Operational Feasibility
It is mainly related to human organizations and political aspects. The points to be considered are: ‡ ‡ ‡ What changes will be brought with the system? What organization structures are disturbed? What new skills will be required? Do the existing staff

members have these skills? If not, can they be trained in due course of time? The system is operationally feasible as it very easy for the End users to operate it. It only needs basic information about Windows platform.

Behavioral Feasibility
After considering the following point that the system is behaviorally feasible. The project is carried out on the request of the users. To a greater extent, the proposed system aims at maximizing user friendliness. This is intended to overcome resistance to change by the exiting staff. Users are quite experienced in handling the computerized system. Users are aware of the software and hardware environment.

Software Engineering Paradigm Applied Purpose
Purpose of any information system is to create reports out of the data provided. It does this work methodically however compared to a manual system. To achieve this goal, an information system has many parts. Here, we describe the system as finally envisaged and is under implementation phase. The description ranges from the input identified, output needed & input design, database design, form design and report design. It also included process specification.

Software Engineering
Software Engineering is comprised of set of steps that encompasses methods, tools and procedures. These steps are often referred to as software engineering paradigms. A paradigm for software Engineering is chosen based on the nature of the project and application, the methods and tools to be used and the controls and deliverables that are required.

The four paradigms widely discussed are y y y y The classical life cycle Prototyping The Spiral model Fourth Generation techniques

The classical life cycle paradigm is chosen for this project as per the organization standards.

The Classical Life Cycle
The classical life cycle paradigm is often called as the ³Water Fall´ model. The life cycle paradigm demands a systematic, sequential approach to software development that begins at the system level and progress through analysis, design, coding, testing and maintenance.

System Engineering and Analysis
As software is always a part of larger system, works begins by establishing requirements for all system elements and then allocating some subset of these requirements to software. This system view is essential when software must interface with other elements such as hardware, people and databases. System Engineering and analysis encompasses requirement gathering at the system level with the small amount of top level design analysis. To solve actual problem in industry setting a software engineer or team of engineers must incorporate a development strategy that encompasses the process methods and tools layers. This strategy is often referred to as process model or a software engineering is chosen

based on the nature of the project and application, the method and tools to be used and the controls and deliverables that are required. This project contains various modules and the nature of these modules areas we choose Sequential Model or Waterfall model or classic life cycle model. This Software engineering paradigm suggests a systematic, sequential approach to software development that starts right from system level and goes through planning, analysis, design, coding, testing and maintenance.

System/information Engineering and modeling

System Engineering and analysis encompasses recruitments gathering at the system level with a small amount of top level analysis and design. Information engineering encompasses requirement gathering at the strategic business level and at the business area level.

System requirements analysis
In this phase of this paradigm, requirements for both the system and software are documented and reviewed with the customers.

Software design is an actually a multi step process that focuses on four distinct attributes of program namely data structure, software architecture, interface representation and procedural details. The design process translates requirements into a representation of the software that can be assessed for quality before code generation begins. The design is documented and is part of the software configuration.

Code Generation

The design must be translated into a machine readable form. The code generation steps perform this task.

The testing process focuses on the logical internals of the software assuring that all statements have been tested and on the functional externals that is conducting tests to uncover errors and ensure that defined input will produce actual results that agree with required.

Software will undoubtedly undergo changes after it is delivered to the customer. Change will occur because errors have been encountered, because the software must be adapted to accommodate changes in its maintenance reapplies each of the preceding phrases to an existing programmer rather than a new one.

Paradigm Applied in this Project

Data Design Design Planning Implementation Analysis System Design Design






Interface design


System Analysis (DFDs, ER diagram)


Data inputs Pathology Lab System

Various reports Doctor/Patient

DFD: Level 0

DOCTOR Backup_db takes Back up
Register Login
Stores & Retrieves

Stores & Retrieves




Test Patient_Reg
Stores & Retrieves

Stores & Retrieves

Login Pat_db
stores & Retrieves




DFD: Level 1

DOCTOR Bi_db stores Biochemistry Prescribes USER Takes Test Blood stores Urine Blood_db

stores Receives LFT Stool X-ray stores stores stool_db X-ray_db lft_db stores Urine_db





Test Report

DFD: Level 2

Pat_fee_db Receipt Query

DOCTOR Stores & retrieves Pat_fee_db Gives

Stores & retrieves

Accumulated Receipt Request

Stores Pat_fee_db


stores & retrives



Patient Receipt Entry

DFD: Level 3

Entity Relationship Diagram






Test report
Patient_i d






Patient_ registration
Patient_i d paid name





Test_typ e Patient_id User_name passwor d





Data Tables
1. Login Table Field Name User_name Password Data type Text Text Width 20 10 Description

2. Patient Details Table

Field Name Patient_id I_no Date S_name Name Sex Age Month Day S_by Reffered P_code Nation E_mail H_c Paid P_mo R_no

Data type Number Number Date Text Text Text number Number Number Text Text Text Text Text Number Number Text Text

Width 10 10 20 20 10 3 2 2 10 10 10 10 30 5 10 10 10

Description Primary key

3. Blood Test Table Field Name P_id Date Age Gen Hglobin Tlc Neu Data type Number Date Number Text Text Text Text Width 10 3 10 10 10 10 Description Primary key

13-15 GMS% 4500-10500 CELLS/CU MM DLC , 45-68%

Lymp Eosi Mano Basop Plate Oth Bleed Cloth Pcv Mcv Mch Bg Rh

Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

DLC , 25-45% DLC , 2-6% DLC , 1-4% DLC , 1-2% CU.MM


4. Liver Function Test Table Field Name P_id P_name Date Age Gnd S_bi S_bi2 S_bi3 Tp Alb Glb Agr Alp Sgot Sgpt Oth Data type Number Text Date Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text text Width 10 20 3 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Description

Liver Liver Liver Liver

5. Stool Test Table Field Name P_id Name Date Age Gen Colo Data type Number Text Date Number Text Text Width 10 20 3 10 10 Description

Physical Physical

Muc Blood Reac Und Rbc Wbc mecu Cry Bact Oth1 Oth2

Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

Physical Physical Physical Micoscopic Micoscopic Micoscopic Special Test Special Test Special Test

6. Urine Test Table Field Name P_id Name T_date Age Gender App Rbc Pt1 Spg Wbc Pt2 Reac Cast Sper Albu Crys Sug Oth1 Oth2 Data type Number Text Date Number Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Width 10 20 3 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Description Primary key


7. Sample master Table Field Name Cc_id Name Add Phn Data type Number Text Text Text Width 10 20 30 10 Description Primary key

1. Login Form

2. Home Page

3. Patient Registration form

4. Sample Master form

5. Perform Test form

6. Print Reports form

7. Test Fees form

8. Blood Test Report form

9. Liver Function report form


Stool test report form


Urine Test Report form

Code Efficiency
The amount of computing resources and code required by a program to perform its function is known as code efficiency. The boxstructured specifications represented in a language are translated into the appropriate programming language. Standard walkthrough or inspection techniques are then used to ensure semantic conformance of the code and correctness of the codes. The correctness verification is also conducted for the source code. To overcome the solid program architecture, which has more difficulty in debugging and maintenance, individual modules are coded in a simple manner. The resultant structured code is then reviewed and tested to ensure that no anomalies have been introduced. Internal code structured is implemented in such a way that the maintenance of the project in future would not be a cumbersome job.

Optimization of code
Optimization plays a very effective and vital role in project management particularly in implementation phase where users acceptance has more say in terms of acceptance of the proposed software. The factors that influence the optimization criteria are as follows  Speed o The speed by which the program gets executed has a major role in success of the project. If the speed of the execution of the software program is high then overall performance of the entire project will be very high. It depends upon the effectiveness of the modularity of the functions and subroutines in a program. In our project is based on the concept of modular design. A high amount of functions and subroutines have been implemented, thus making the entire project a modular one. Program execution need not execute the entire program every time, rather it calls functions required at that time thus saving a great amount of time and making the program the faster and accurate.  Space o Space available in hard disk also makes a difference. If the program is compact one and dynamic

approach is being adopted then space could not be a problem. Some time non availability of space in hard disk also creates a flutter. Effective database management and use of suitable operating system are of high importance.  Code o The code writing is the heart of optimization. Effective code writing and to the point approach makes a program very effective. The code length should be as small as possible and dynamic approach should be adopted in calling functions and subroutines.  Database o Selection of effective database is very important. Here in our case MS-Acess has been selected due to high performance and durability.  Operating System o Selecting of operating system is also very important because it should be compatible with the front end accepted by the project leader. In our case Windows XP is the choice. Optimization about bad events means the explanations will be temporary, specific, and impersonal. Pessimism about bad events means the explanations will be permanent, pervasive and personal.

Project software testing is one of the elements of a broader topic that is known as verification and validation (v & v). Validation refers to a different set of activities that ensure that the software that has been built is tractable to the organization requirements. Although the validation encompasses a wide array of SQA (auditing, reporting, function of management) activities. Since the validation is concerned with the SQA activities hence it comprised the formal technical reviews, performance monitoring, feasibility study, database review, qualification testing and installation testing while developing the ESCHPD. In pathology Lab system validation is achieved through a series of test cases i.e., by demonstrating the system function which is operational that the input is properly accepted and output is properly produced

and that the integrity of the external information (e.g. Data files) is maintained which really uncovers error in conformity with requirements. Validation refers to a set of activities that ensures that the software that has been built is traceable to customer requirements. Verification refers to a different set of activities that ensures that the software correctly implements a specific function. Before starting the plan we kept one thing in our mind that the must be that they have the highest likelihood of find the most errors with a minimum amount of time and effort. If we will go through the software engineering methodologies then there are many test case design has been developed. Which offers a systematic approach to testing and a mechanism to ensure the completeness of test and uncovering errors in software? Basically any engineered product can be tested in two ways: Knowing the specified function that a product has been designed to perform test can be conducted that demonstrate each function is fully operational at the same time searching for errors in each function. Knowing the internal working of a product, test can be conducted to ensure that ³all gear Mesh´ i.e., internal operation performs according to specification and all internal components have been adequately exercised. Hence in such consequences we concentrated on following two approach of testing. To demonstrate the ³Pathology lab´ functions are operational that the input is properly accepted and output is properly produced and that the integrity of the external information (e.g., data files) maintained. It estimates the fundamental aspect of a system with little regard for the internal logical structure of the ³Pathology Lab´. The system can be predicted on close examination of procedural detail. Providing test cases that exercise specific sets of conditions and or loops tests logical paths through the ³Pathology Lab´. The status of the program may examine at various points to determine if the expected or asserted status corresponds to the actual status. In the system analysis the system was designed according to the requirement of the system. The system deals with a large number of states, complex logics and activities. So some error might occur in the system. Error may be in software, which is known as ³software error´ i.e., the software doesn¶t do what the requirement says. So an exhaustive and through testing must be conducted to ascertain whether the system the system produces right results. The guide and user both did testing at the several stages. First each program module was tested as single program which is also known as module testing or unit testing. In unit testing, asset of data was given as input to the module and output data produces

were observed. In addition, logic and boundary conditions for input and output data was also checked. The interface between this model and others was also checked for correctness. While collecting the input data for testing the program module it was kept in mind that input data must be from the all classes, so the entire condition of the program could be checked. In the testing the role of the user is also very important since they understand the full range of data and condition that might occur in the system. So a wide range of data was collected from the user to test the program thoroughly. The actual evaluation of any system can occur along any of the following dimensions. Integration and system Testing When the individual program modules were working properly, we combined the module into a working system. This integration is planned and coordinated so that when an errors occurs, we have an idea of what caused it. Integration is the process of verifying that the components of the system work together. For testing, the entire system was viewed as a hierarchy of modules. We began with the highest level of design and worked down. The next modules to be tested are those that call the previously tested are those that call the previously tested modules. Function Test Once we were sure that information is passed among modules according to the design prescription we tested the system to assure whether the function described the requirement specification were actually performed by the integrated system. Acceptance Test When the function test was completed, we involved the user to make sure that the system worked according to user¶s exception. Thus the user did final acceptance test. Installation Test When acceptance test was completed, the acceptance system was installed in the environment in which it would be used and a final installation test was performed to make sure that the system function as it should.

Implementation & Maintenance
The term implementation signifies all those activities that the take place to convert from old system to the new. Conversion is one aspect of implementation. The other aspects are post implementation review and software maintenance. Basically there are three types of implementation 1. Training 2. Conversion 3. Post implementation

Even well designed and technically elegant system can succeed or fail because of the way they are operated and used. Therefore, the quality of training received by the personnel involved with the system in various capacities helps or hinders and may even prevent the successful implementation of an information system. Those who will be associated with or affected by the system must know in detail what their roles will be, they can use the system and what the system will or will not do. Both system operators and users need training. Training system operators Many systems depend on the computer center personnel, who are responsible for keeping the equipment running as well as for providing the necessary support service. Their training must ensure that they are able to handle all possible operations, both routine and extraordinary. Operator training must involve the data entry personnel. Since the system in commercial tax is a new one so, the training personnel have been given first hand idea of how to use and handle the equipments properly. They have also been familiarized with the operational activities of the system e.g., proper shutdown, maintenance, common malfunction and their remedies. It also involves familiarization with run procedures, which involves working through the sequence of activities needed to use a new system on ongoing basis. These procedures allow the computer operators to become familiar with the actions they need to take, and when these actions occur. In addition, they are also informed that how long applications will run under normal condition. This information is important both to enable users to plan work activities and to identify system that run longer or shorter then expected a sign that typically indicates problems with the run.

User Training During user training special emphasis has been given on equipment use i.e., how to operate the equipment. In it users have been the idea of troubleshooting the system, determining whether a problem that arises is caused by the equipment or software or by something they have done in using the system. A troubleshooting guide has also been provided to users in case of emergency handling. Data-handling activities receiving the most attention in user training are adding data, editing data, formulating enquiries and deleting records of data.

Conversion is the process of changing from old system to new system. Here phase in method has been adopted because it is not possible to install a new system throughout an organization all at once. The conversion of files, training of personnel or arrival of equipment may force the staging of the implementation over a period of time, ranging from weeks to months. Conversion plan The conversion plan includes a description of all the activities of that must occur to implement the new system and put it into operation. It defines the persons responsible for each activity and includes a timetable indicating when each activity will occur.

The maintenance part basically concerned with the modification that are made to a ³MIS of Doctors´ system in initial release. Maintenance used to be viewed as merely bug fixing, and it was distressing to discover that so much effort was being spent on fixing defects and rectifying defects. The majority of time spent on maintenance of ³ESCHPD´ system is in fact spent on enhancing the system with more information and interface that were not in the original specification or were stated in correctly there. There is a general perception that maintenance is indeed not the proper word to use with software because maintenance refers to un keep of the product in response to the gradual deterioration of parts due to extended use of the product. For example, transmissions are oiled and air filters are dusted and periodically changed. To use the word maintenance with software gives the wrong connotation because software doesn¶t wear out. Unfortunately, however the term is used so widely that we will continue using it.

Using Powerful development tools like Java and MS-Access the project titled ³Pathology Lab´ has been developed successfully. Every possible validation is applied to the various controls used in the forms. The system developed provides is applied to the various controls used in the forms. The system developed provides a high degree of accuracy and user friendliness. The back end MS-Access provides flexibility for dealing with the data. Since the ³Pathology Lab´ is a part of Hospital management system, we use Java as a development platform. Obviously it is menu driven program and there is flexibility of using MS-Access or SQL Server at backend. But due to much flexibility our project suggested to use MS-Access as backend. It generates test reports; provide prescription details including various tests, prescribed to patient and doctor. The system also provides the facility of backup as per the requirement. When we started our project our first objective was to find such a control which was very fast and also provided the flexibility of Test report for they can be easily exported and printed. The control on which we did our reporting work has a very large scope we it also facilitate some extra features with their kin built functions. But at some places we faced some unusual problems. Overall, it has been a nice experience to work on Java and MSAccess in the same project.


Books µname The complete Reference Java2 Java 2 Beginning Core Java 2-Vol II Java 6 Programming Black Book An Integrated approach to software Engineering Introduction to Database Relational Database System Database Management System

Author Herbert Schildt Ivor Horton Cornell, Horstmann Pankaj Jalote Bipin C. Desai C.J. Date Majumdar & Bhattacharya

Publisher TMH Dreamtech Press Dreamtech Press Narosa Publications Galgotia Publications Addison Wesley

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