You are on page 1of 164

The Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List

Scott Pakin <scott+clsl@pakin.org>∗


9 November 2009

Abstract
This document lists 5913 symbols and the corresponding LATEX commands that produce them. Some
of these symbols are guaranteed to be available in every LATEX 2ε system; others require fonts and packages
that may not accompany a given distribution and that therefore need to be installed. All of the fonts
and packages used to prepare this document—as well as this document itself—are freely available from the
Comprehensive TEX Archive Network (http://www.ctan.org/).

Contents

Contents 1

1 Introduction 8
1.1 Document Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.2 Frequently Requested Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2 Body-text symbols 9
Table 1: LATEX 2ε Escapable “Special” Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Table 2: Predefined LATEX 2ε Text-mode Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Table 3: LATEX 2ε Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Table 4: AMS Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Table 5: Non-ASCII Letters (Excluding Accented Letters) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Table 6: Letters Used to Typeset African Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Table 7: Letters Used to Typeset Vietnamese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Table 8: Punctuation Marks Not Found in OT1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Table 9: pifont Decorative Punctuation Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Table 10: tipa Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Table 11: tipx Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Table 12: wsuipa Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Table 13: wasysym Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Table 14: phonetic Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Table 15: t4phonet Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Table 16: semtrans Transliteration Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Table 17: Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Table 18: tipa Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Table 19: extraipa Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Table 20: wsuipa Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Table 21: phonetic Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Table 22: metre Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Table 23: t4phonet Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Table 24: arcs Text-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Table 25: semtrans Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Table 26: ogonek Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Table 27: combelow Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
∗ The original version of this document was written by David Carlisle, with several additional tables provided by Alexander

Holt. See Section 8.8 on page 118 for more information about who did what.

1
Table 28: wsuipa Diacritics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Table 29: textcomp Diacritics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Table 30: textcomp Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Table 31: marvosym Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Table 32: wasysym Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Table 33: ChinA2e Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Table 34: teubner Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Table 35: eurosym Euro Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Table 36: fourier Euro Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Table 37: textcomp Legal Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Table 38: cclicenses Creative Commons License Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Table 39: textcomp Old-style Numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Table 40: Miscellaneous textcomp Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Table 41: Miscellaneous wasysym Text-mode Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

3 Mathematical symbols 21
Table 42: Math-Mode Versions of Text Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Table 43: cmll Unary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Table 44: Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Table 45: AMS Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Table 46: stmaryrd Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Table 47: wasysym Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Table 48: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Table 49: mathabx Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Table 50: MnSymbol Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Table 51: mathdesign Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Table 52: cmll Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Table 53: shuffle Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Table 54: ulsy Geometric Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Table 55: mathabx Geometric Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Table 56: MnSymbol Geometric Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Table 57: Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Table 58: AMS Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Table 59: stmaryrd Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Table 60: wasysym Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Table 61: mathabx Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Table 62: txfonts/pxfonts Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Table 63: esint Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Table 64: MnSymbol Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Table 65: mathdesign Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Table 66: cmll Large Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Table 67: Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Table 68: AMS Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Table 69: AMS Negated Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Table 70: stmaryrd Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Table 71: wasysym Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Table 72: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Table 73: txfonts/pxfonts Negated Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Table 74: mathabx Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Table 75: mathabx Negated Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Table 76: MnSymbol Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Table 77: MnSymbol Negated Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Table 78: mathtools Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Table 79: turnstile Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Table 80: trsym Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Table 81: trfsigns Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Table 82: cmll Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Table 83: colonequals Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

2
Table 84: fourier Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Table 85: Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Table 86: AMS Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Table 87: stmaryrd Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Table 88: wasysym Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Table 89: txfonts/pxfonts Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Table 90: mathabx Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Table 91: MnSymbol Subset and Superset Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Table 92: Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Table 93: AMS Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Table 94: wasysym Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Table 95: txfonts/pxfonts Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Table 96: mathabx Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Table 97: MnSymbol Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Table 98: AMS Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Table 99: stmaryrd Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Table 100: mathabx Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Table 101: MnSymbol Triangle Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Table 102: Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Table 103: Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Table 104: textcomp Text-mode Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Table 105: AMS Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Table 106: AMS Negated Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Table 107: AMS Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Table 108: stmaryrd Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Table 109: txfonts/pxfonts Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Table 110: mathabx Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Table 111: mathabx Negated Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Table 112: mathabx Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Table 113: MnSymbol Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Table 114: MnSymbol Negated Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Table 115: MnSymbol Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Table 116: MnSymbol Negated Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Table 117: harpoon Extensible Harpoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Table 118: chemarrow Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Table 119: fge Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Table 120: MnSymbol Spoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Table 121: MnSymbol Pitchforks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Table 122: MnSymbol Smiles and Frowns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Table 123: ulsy Contradiction Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Table 124: Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Table 125: stmaryrd Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Table 126: txfonts/pxfonts Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Table 127: mathabx Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Table 128: Log-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Table 129: AMS Log-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Table 130: ChinA2e Number Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Table 131: Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Table 132: AMS Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Table 133: txfonts/pxfonts Upright Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Table 134: upgreek Upright Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Table 135: fourier Variant Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Table 136: txfonts/pxfonts Variant Latin Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Table 137: AMS Hebrew Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Table 138: MnSymbol Hebrew Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Table 139: Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Table 140: AMS Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

3
Table 141: txfonts/pxfonts Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Table 142: mathabx Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Table 143: MnSymbol Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Table 144: trfsigns Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Table 145: mathdesign Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Table 146: fge Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Table 147: fourier Letter-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Table 148: AMS Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Table 149: stmaryrd Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Table 150: mathabx Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Table 151: nath Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Table 152: Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Table 153: Large, Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Table 154: AMS Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Table 155: stmaryrd Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Table 156: mathabx Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Table 157: MnSymbol Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Table 158: mathdesign Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Table 159: nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Double) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Table 160: nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Triple) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Table 161: fourier Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Table 162: textcomp Text-mode Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Table 163: metre Text-mode Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Table 164: Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Table 165: AMS Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Table 166: MnSymbol Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Table 167: fge Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Table 168: yhmath Math-mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Table 169: Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Table 170: overrightarrow Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Table 171: yhmath Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Table 172: AMS Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Table 173: MnSymbol Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Table 174: mathtools Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Table 175: mathabx Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Table 176: fourier Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Table 177: esvect Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Table 178: undertilde Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Table 179: ushort Extensible Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Table 180: AMS Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Table 181: mathtools Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Table 182: chemarr Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Table 183: chemarrow Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Table 184: extarrows Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Table 185: extpfeil Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Table 186: DotArrow Extensible Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Table 187: trfsigns Extensible Transform Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Table 188: holtpolt Non-commutative Division Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Table 189: Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Table 190: AMS Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Table 191: wasysym Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Table 192: MnSymbol Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Table 193: mathdots Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Table 194: yhmath Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Table 195: teubner Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Table 196: mathcomp Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Table 197: marvosym Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

4
Table 198: fge Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Table 199: dozenal Base-12 Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Table 200: mathabx Mayan Digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Table 201: Miscellaneous LATEX 2ε Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Table 202: Miscellaneous AMS Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Table 203: Miscellaneous wasysym Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Table 204: Miscellaneous txfonts/pxfonts Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Table 205: Miscellaneous mathabx Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Table 206: Miscellaneous MnSymbol Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Table 207: Miscellaneous Internal MnSymbol Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Table 208: Miscellaneous textcomp Text-mode Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Table 209: Miscellaneous marvosym Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Table 210: Miscellaneous fge Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Table 211: Miscellaneous mathdesign Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Table 212: Miscellaneous arev Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Table 213: Math Alphabets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

4 Science and technology symbols 70


Table 214: gensymb Symbols Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Table 215: wasysym Electrical and Physical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Table 216: ifsym Pulse Diagram Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Table 217: ar Aspect Ratio Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Table 218: textcomp Text-mode Science and Engineering Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Table 219: steinmetz Extensible Phasor Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Table 220: wasysym Astronomical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Table 221: marvosym Astronomical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Table 222: mathabx Astronomical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Table 223: wasysym APL Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Table 224: wasysym APL Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Table 225: marvosym Computer Hardware Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Table 226: keystroke Computer Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Table 227: ascii Control Characters (CP437) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Table 228: milstd Logic Gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Table 229: marvosym Communication Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Table 230: marvosym Engineering Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Table 231: wasysym Biological Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Table 232: marvosym Biological Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Table 233: marvosym Safety-related Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Table 234: feyn Feynman Diagram Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

5 Dingbats 75
Table 235: bbding Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Table 236: pifont Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Table 237: universal Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Table 238: marvosym Scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Table 239: bbding Scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Table 240: pifont Scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Table 241: dingbat Pencils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Table 242: bbding Pencils and Nibs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Table 243: pifont Pencils and Nibs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Table 244: dingbat Fists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Table 245: bbding Fists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Table 246: pifont Fists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Table 247: fourier Fists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Table 248: bbding Crosses and Plusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Table 249: pifont Crosses and Plusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Table 250: bbding Xs and Check Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Table 251: pifont Xs and Check Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

5
Table 252: wasysym Xs and Check Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Table 253: universal Xs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Table 254: pifont Circled Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Table 255: wasysym Stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Table 256: bbding Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Table 257: pifont Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Table 258: fourier Ornaments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Table 259: wasysym Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Table 260: MnSymbol Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Table 261: ifsym Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Table 262: bbding Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Table 263: pifont Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Table 264: universa Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Table 265: universal Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Table 266: Miscellaneous dingbat Dingbats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Table 267: Miscellaneous bbding Dingbats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Table 268: Miscellaneous pifont Dingbats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

6 Ancient languages 81
Table 269: phaistos Symbols from the Phaistos Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Table 270: protosem Proto-Semitic Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Table 271: hieroglf Hieroglyphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Table 272: linearA Linear A Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Table 273: linearb Linear B Basic and Optional Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Table 274: linearb Linear B Numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Table 275: linearb Linear B Weights and Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Table 276: linearb Linear B Ideograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Table 277: linearb Unidentified Linear B Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Table 278: cypriot Cypriot Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Table 279: sarabian South Arabian Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Table 280: teubner Archaic Greek Letters and Greek Numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

7 Other symbols 88
Table 281: textcomp Genealogical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Table 282: wasysym General Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Table 283: wasysym Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Table 284: wasysym Musical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Table 285: arev Musical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Table 286: harmony Musical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Table 287: harmony Musical Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Table 288: manfnt Dangerous Bend Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Table 289: Miscellaneous manfnt Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Table 290: marvosym Navigation Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Table 291: marvosym Laundry Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Table 292: marvosym Information Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Table 293: Other marvosym Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Table 294: Miscellaneous universa Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Table 295: Miscellaneous universal Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Table 296: Miscellaneous fourier Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Table 297: ifsym Weather Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Table 298: ifsym Alpine Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Table 299: ifsym Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Table 300: Other ifsym Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Table 301: clock Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Table 302: epsdice Dice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Table 303: hhcount Dice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Table 304: hhcount Tally Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Table 305: skull Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

6
Table 306: Non-Mathematical mathabx Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Table 307: skak Chess Informator Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Table 308: skak Chess Pieces and Chessboard Squares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Table 309: igo Go Stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Table 310: metre Metrical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Table 311: metre Small and Large Metrical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Table 312: teubner Metrical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Table 313: dictsym Dictionary Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Table 314: simpsons Characters from The Simpsons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Table 315: pmboxdraw Box-Drawing Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Table 316: staves Magical Staves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Table 317: pigpen Cipher Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Table 318: ChinA2e Phases of the Moon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Table 319: Other ChinA2e Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Table 320: recycle Recycling Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

8 Additional Information 100


8.1 Symbol Name Clashes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
8.2 Resizing symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
8.3 Where can I find the symbol for . . . ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
8.4 Math-mode spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
8.5 Bold mathematical symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
8.6 ASCII and Latin 1 quick reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
8.7 Unicode characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
8.8 About this document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
8.9 Copyright and license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

References 122

Index 123

7
1 Introduction
Welcome to the Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List! This document strives to be your primary source of LATEX
symbol information: font samples, LATEX commands, packages, usage details, caveats—everything needed to
put thousands of different symbols at your disposal. All of the fonts covered herein meet the following criteria:

1. They are freely available from the Comprehensive TEX Archive Network (http://www.ctan.org).
2. All of their symbols have LATEX 2ε bindings. That is, a user should be able to access a symbol by name,
not just by \charhnumber i.

These are not particularly limiting criteria; the Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List contains samples of 5913
symbols—quite a large number. Some of these symbols are guaranteed to be available in every LATEX 2ε system;
others require fonts and packages that may not accompany a given distribution and that therefore need to
be installed. See http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=instpackages+wherefiles for help
with installing new fonts and packages.

1.1 Document Usage


Each section of this document contains a number of font tables. Each table shows a set of symbols, with the
corresponding LATEX command to the right of each symbol. A table’s caption indicates what package needs to
be loaded in order to access that table’s symbols. For example, the symbols in Table 39, “textcomp Old-Style
Numerals”, are made available by putting “\usepackage{textcomp}” in your document’s preamble. “AMS”
means to use the AMS packages, viz. amssymb and/or amsmath. Notes below a table provide additional
information about some or all the symbols in that table.
One note that appears a few times in this document, particularly in Section 2, indicates that certain
symbols do not exist in the OT1 font encoding (Donald Knuth’s original, 7-bit font encoding, which is the
default font encoding for LATEX) and that you should use fontenc to select a different encoding, such as T1
(a common 8-bit font encoding). That means that you should put “\usepackage[hencodingi]{fontenc}” in
your document’s preamble, where hencodingi is, e.g., T1 or LY1. To limit the change in font encoding to the
current group, use “\fontencoding{hencodingi}\selectfont”.
Section 8 contains some additional information about the symbols in this document. It discusses how
certain mathematical symbols can vary in height, shows which symbol names are not unique across packages,
gives examples of how to create new symbols out of existing symbols, explains how symbols are spaced in
math mode, compares various schemes for boldfacing symbols, presents LATEX ASCII and Latin 1 tables,
shows how to input and output Unicode characters, and provides some information about this document itself.
The Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List ends with an index of all the symbols in the document and various
additional useful terms.

1.2 Frequently Requested Symbols


There are a number of symbols that are requested over and over again on comp.text.tex. If you’re looking
for such a symbol the following list will help you find it quickly.

, as in “Spaces are significant.” ........ 9 .


.. .............................. 64
ı́, ı̀, ı̄, ı̂, etc. (versus ı́, ı̀, ī, and ı̂) ........ 14
°, as in “180°” or “15℃” .............. 67
¢ ............................... 18
L, F, etc. ........................ 68
e .............................. 18
N, Z, R, etc. ...................... 68
©, ®, and ™ ...................... 19
r ............................... 68
‰ .............................. 20 R
 − . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
.............................. 27
ā´, `ê, etc. (i.e., several accents per character) 107
∴ ............................... 30
<, >, and | (instead of ¡, ¿, and —) . . . . . . 114
B and F ......................... 31
ˆ and ˜ (or ∼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
. and & ......................... 38

8
2 Body-text symbols

This section lists symbols that are intended for use in running text, such as punctuation marks, accents,
ligatures, and currency symbols.

Table 1: LATEX 2ε Escapable “Special” Characters


$ \$ % \% \_ ∗ } \} & \& # \# { \{


The underscore package redefines “_” to produce an underscore in text mode (i.e., it
makes it unnecessary to escape the underscore character).

Table 2: Predefined LATEX 2ε Text-mode Commands


ˆ \textasciicircum∗ < \textless
˜ \textasciitilde∗ a
ª \textordfeminine
o
∗ \textasteriskcentered º \textordmasculine
\ \textbackslash ¶ \textparagraph†
| \textbar · \textperiodcentered
{ \textbraceleft† ¿ \textquestiondown
} \textbraceright† “ \textquotedblleft
• \textbullet ” \textquotedblright

c © \textcopyright† ‘ \textquoteleft
† \textdagger† ’ \textquoteright
‡ \textdaggerdbl†
r ® \textregistered
$ \textdollar† § \textsection†
... \textellipsis† £ \textsterling†
TM
— \textemdash ™ \texttrademark
– \textendash \textunderscore†
¡ \textexclamdown \textvisiblespace
> \textgreater

Where two symbols are present, the left one is the “faked” symbol that LATEX 2ε
provides by default, and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes
available.

\^{} and \~{} can be used instead of \textasciicircum and \textasciitilde.
See the discussion of “˜” on page 115.

It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 because the
symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode.

Table 3: LATEX 2ε Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode
$ \$ \_ ‡ \ddag { \{
¶ \P
c © \copyright ... \dots } \}
§ \S † \dag £ \pounds

Where two symbols are present, the left one is the “faked” symbol that LATEX 2ε
provides by default, and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes
available.

9
Table 4: AMS Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode
X \checkmark r \circledR z \maltese

Table 5: Non-ASCII Letters (Excluding Accented Letters)


å \aa Ð \DH∗ L \L ø \o ß \ss
Å \AA ð \dh∗ l \l Ø \O SS \SS
Æ \AE Ð \DJ∗ Ŋ \NG∗ Œ \OE Þ \TH∗
æ \ae đ \dj∗ ŋ \ng∗ œ \oe þ \th∗

Not available in the OT1 font encoding. Use the fontenc package to select an
alternate font encoding, such as T1.

Table 6: Letters Used to Typeset African Languages


Ð \B{D} ° \m{c} ¤ \m{f} ¨ \m{k} » \M{t} – \m{Z}
ž \B{d}  \m{D} „ \m{F}  \m{N} › \M{T}  \T{E}
‡ \B{H} ð \M{d} † \m{G} ­ \m{n} º \m{t} â \T{e}
§ \B{h} Ð \M{D} ¦ \m{g} ª \m{o} š \m{T} Å \T{O}
· \B{t} ¡ \m{d} À \m{I} Š \m{O} ® \m{u}∗ å \T{o}
— \B{T} ‚ \m{E} à \m{i} ‘ \m{P} Ž \m{U}∗
  \m{b} ¢ \m{e} ‰ \m{J} ± \m{p}  \m{Y}
€ \m{B} ƒ \M{E} © \m{j} ¬ \m{s} ¯ \m{y}
 \m{C} £ \M{e} ˆ \m{K} Œ \m{S} ¶ \m{z}

These characters all need the T4 font encoding, which is provided by the fc package.


\m{v} and \m{V} are synonyms for \m{u} and \m{U}.

Table 7: Letters Used to Typeset Vietnamese


Ơ \OHORN ơ \ohorn Ư \UHORN ư \uhorn

These characters all need the T5 font encoding, which is provided by the vntex
package.

Table 8: Punctuation Marks Not Found in OT1


« \guillemotleft ‹ \guilsinglleft „ \quotedblbase " \textquotedbl
» \guillemotright › \guilsinglright ‚ \quotesinglbase

To get these symbols, use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding,
such as T1.

Table 9: pifont Decorative Punctuation Marks


{ \ding{123} } \ding{125} ¡ \ding{161} £ \ding{163}
| \ding{124} ~ \ding{126} ¢ \ding{162}

10
Table 10: tipa Phonetic Symbols

È \textbabygamma P \textglotstop ï \textrtailn


b \textbarb ; \texthalflength ó \textrtailr
c \textbarc ż \texthardsign ù \textrtails
d \textbard # \texthooktop ú \textrtailt
é \textbardotlessj á \texthtb ü \textrtailz
g \textbarg ê \texthtbardotlessj $ \textrthook
Ü \textbarglotstop Á \texthtc À \textsca
1 \textbari â \texthtd à \textscb
ł \textbarl ä \texthtg ď \textsce
8 \textbaro H \texthth å \textscg
Ý \textbarrevglotstop Ê \texththeng Ë \textsch
0 \textbaru Î \texthtk @ \textschwa
ì \textbeltl Ò \texthtp I \textsci
B \textbeta Ó \texthtq ĺ \textscj
ò \textbullseye č \texthtrtaild Ï \textscl
\textceltpal É \texthtscg ð \textscn
\textchi Ö \texthtt Œ \textscoelig
Å \textcloseepsilon ß \texthvlig ś \textscomega
Ñ \textcloseomega Û \textinvglotstop ö \textscr
Æ \textcloserevepsilon K \textinvscr A \textscripta
Þ \textcommatailz Ì \textiota g \textscriptg
^ \textcorner ń \textlambda V \textscriptv
ă \textcrb : \textlengthmark Ú \textscu
ą \textcrd ş \textlhookt Y \textscy
g \textcrg ę \textlhtlongi ­ \textsecstress
è \textcrh ű \textlhtlongy ž \textsoftsign
Û \textcrinvglotstop Ô \textlonglegr  \textstretchc
ň \textcrlambda ¡ \textlptr tC \texttctclig
2 \textcrtwo M \textltailm Ù \textteshlig
C \textctc ñ \textltailn T \texttheta
ć \textctd ë \textltilde þ \textthorn
ćý \textctdctzlig Ð \textlyoghlig £ \texttoneletterstem
š \textctesh Í \textObardotlessj ţ \texttslig
J \textctj ŋ \textOlyoghlig 5 \textturna
ő \textctn ř \textomega ŕ \textturncelig
ť \textctt _ \textopencorner 4 \textturnh
ťC \textcttctclig O \textopeno ľ \textturnk
ÿ \textctyogh % \textpalhook Õ \textturnlonglegr
ý \textctz F \textphi W \textturnm
dý \textdctzlig | \textpipe î \textturnmrleg
S \textdoublebaresh " \textprimstress ô \textturnr
} \textdoublebarpipe ij \textraiseglotstop õ \textturnrrtail
=/ \textdoublebarslash ğ \textraisevibyi 6 \textturnscripta
{ \textdoublepipe 7 \textramshorns Ø \textturnt
Ş \textdoublevertline \ \textrevapostrophe 2 \textturnv
Ť \textdownstep 9 \textreve û \textturnw
à \textdyoghlig 3 \textrevepsilon L \textturny
dz \textdzlig Q \textrevglotstop U \textupsilon
E \textepsilon ź \textrevyogh Ţ \textupstep

(continued on next page)

11
(continued from previous page)

S \textesh Ç \textrhookrevepsilon Š \textvertline


R \textfishhookr Ä \textrhookschwa ğ \textvibyi
ě \textg ~ \textrhoticity ů \textvibyy
G \textgamma ¿ \textrptr ß \textwynn
Ů \textglobfall ã \textrtaild Z \textyogh
Ű \textglobrise í \textrtaill

tipa defines shortcut characters for many of the above. It also defines a command
\tone for denoting tone letters (pitches). See the tipa documentation for more
information.

Table 11: tipx Phonetic Symbols

" \textaolig 3 \texthtbardotlessjvar ´ \textrthooklong


B \textbenttailyogh ; \textinvomega q \textscaolig
. \textbktailgamma p \textinvsca r \textscdelta
D \textctinvglotstop ! \textinvscripta s \textscf
2 \textctjvar I \textlfishhookrlig t \textsck
% \textctstretchc # \textlhookfour w \textscm
& \textctstretchcvar < \textlhookp x \textscp
@ \textctturnt 1 \textlhti y \textscq
) \textdblig > \textlooptoprevesh ˝ \textspleftarrow
H \textdoublebarpipevar 6 \textnrleg $ \textstretchcvar
G \textdoublepipevar 9 \textObullseye ˙ \textsubdoublearrow
ˇ \textdownfullarrow ˆ \textpalhooklong ¯ \textsubrightarrow
7 \textfemale ˜ \textpalhookvar P \textthornvari
5 \textfrbarn F \textpipevar Q \textthornvarii
’ \textfrhookd = \textqplig R \textthornvariii
( \textfrhookdvar ¨ \textrectangle S \textthornvariv
? \textfrhookt ˚ \textretractingvar E \textturnglotstop
- \textfrtailgamma v \textrevscl u \textturnsck
T \textglotstopvari z \textrevscr { \textturnscu
U \textglotstopvarii \textrhooka C \textturnthree
V \textglotstopvariii * \textrhooke A \textturntwo
, \textgrgamma + \textrhookepsilon 8 \textuncrfemale
0 \textheng : \textrhookopeno ˘ \textupfullarrow
4 \texthmlig / \textrtailhth

12
Table 12: wsuipa Phonetic Symbols

! \babygamma 8 \eng 4 \labdentalnas  \schwa


 \barb  \er / \latfric * \sci
 \bard M \esh 6 \legm : \scn
' \bari  \eth E \legr J \scr
. \barl D \flapr 1 \lz  \scripta
< \baro b \glotstop  \nialpha  \scriptg
A \barp  \hookb \nibeta Y \scriptv
+ \barsci  \hookd [ \nichi W \scu
X \barscu  \hookg  \niepsilon ] \scy
T \baru $ \hookh  \nigamma  \slashb
; \clickb % \hookheng ) \niiota
\slashc
\clickc  \hookrevepsilon 2 \nilambda  \slashd
R \clickt " \hv > \niomega U \slashu
? \closedniomega \inva C \niphi  \taild
 \closedrevepsilon , \invf O \nisigma H \tailinvr
 \crossb d \invglotstop S \nitheta 0 \taill
\crossd & \invh V \niupsilon 9 \tailn
# \crossh I \invlegr 7 \nj F \tailr
3 \crossnilambda 5 \invm @ \oo L \tails
\curlyc G \invr = \openo P \tailt
N \curlyesh K \invscr  \reve _ \tailz
a \curlyyogh  \invscripta f \reveject Q \tesh
^ \curlyz  \invv  \revepsilon B \thorn
( \dlbari Z \invw c \revglotstop - \tildel
 \dz \ \invy  \scd ` \yogh
e \ejective \ipagamma  \scg

Table 13: wasysym Phonetic Symbols


D \DH k \dh l \openo
Þ \Thorn U \inve þ \thorn

Table 14: phonetic Phonetic Symbols


j \barj f \flap ī \ibar A \rotvara i \vari
 \barlambda ? \glottal c \openo w \rotw  \varomega
M \emgma B \hausaB h̄ \planck y \roty C \varopeno
n \engma b \hausab U \pwedge e \schwa v \vod
˚
N \enya D \hausad  \revD p \thorn h \voicedh
" \epsi T \hausaD \riota u \ubar x \yogh
s \esh k \hausak m \rotm u \udesc
d \eth K \hausaK
\rotOmega a \vara
F \fj D \hookd r \rotr G \varg

13
Table 15: t4phonet Phonetic Symbols
ž \textcrd ¡ \texthtd | \textpipe
§ \textcrh ¨ \texthtk ð \textrtaild
¢ \textepsilon ± \texthtp » \textrtailt
¬ \textesh º \texthtt ¡ \textschwa
 \textfjlig à \textiota ¬ \textscriptv
  \texthtb © \textltailn œ \textteshlig
° \texthtc ª \textopeno ¶ \textyogh

The idea behind the t4phonet package’s phonetic symbols is to provide an interface
to some of the characters in the T4 font encoding (Table 6 on page 10) but using
the same names as the tipa characters presented in Table 10 on page 11.

Table 16: semtrans Transliteration Symbols


- \Alif , \Ayn

Table 17: Text-mode Accents


Ää \"{A}\"{a} Àà \‘{A}\‘{a} A
. a. \d{A}\d{a} Åå \r{A}\r{a}
Áá \’{A}\’{a} A¿ ¿a \|{A}\|{a}‡ AŸ Ÿa \G{A}\G{a}‡ A a \t{A}\t{a}
Ȧȧ \.{A}\.{a} Ãã \~{A}\~{a} Ảả \h{A}\h{a}§ Ăă \u{A}\u{a}
Āā \={A}\={a} Aa
¯¯
\b{A}\b{a} A̋a̋ \H{A}\H{a} A¼ ¼a \U{A}\U{a}‡
Ââ \^{A}\^{a} A̧a̧ \c{A}\c{a} Ąą \k{A}\k{a}† Ǎǎ \v{A}\v{a}
a
A \newtie{A}\newtie{a}∗
A a \textcircled{A}\textcircled{a}

Requires the textcomp package.

Not available in the OT1 font encoding. Use the fontenc package to select an
alternate font encoding, such as T1.

Requires the T4 font encoding, provided by the fc package.
§
Requires the T5 font encoding, provided by the vntex package.

Also note the existence of \i and \j, which produce dotless versions of “i” and “j”
(viz., “ı” and “”). These are useful when the accent is supposed to replace the
dot in encodings that need to composite (i.e., combine) letters and accents. For
example, “na\"{\i}ve” always produces a correct “naı̈ve”, while “na\"{i}ve”
yields the rather odd-looking “naïve” when using the OT1 font encoding and older
versions of LATEX. Font encodings other than OT1 and newer versions of LATEX
properly typeset “na\"{i}ve” as “naı̈ve”.

14
Table 18: tipa Text-mode Accents

´´
Ā ā \textacutemacron{A}\textacutemacron{a}
´
Ǎ´ǎ \textacutewedge{A}\textacutewedge{a}
A
ffi affi \textadvancing{A}\textadvancing{a}
A
<< a \textbottomtiebar{A}\textbottomtiebar{a}
˘
Āā˘ \textbrevemacron{A}\textbrevemacron{a}
Ż
AŻ a \textcircumacute{A}\textcircumacute{a}
ˆ
Ȧˆ ȧ \textcircumdot{A}\textcircumdot{a}
§a
A§ \textdotacute{A}\textdotacute{a}
˙ ă˙
Ă \textdotbreve{A}\textdotbreve{a}
‚a
A‚ \textdoublegrave{A}\textdoublegrave{a}
İa
Aİ \textdoublevbaraccent{A}\textdoublevbaraccent{a}
Ža
AŽ \textgravecircum{A}\textgravecircum{a}
đa
Ađ \textgravedot{A}\textgravedot{a}
``
Ā ā \textgravemacron{A}\textgravemacron{a}
Źa
AŹ \textgravemid{A}\textgravemid{a}
A
„a„ \textinvsubbridge{A}\textinvsubbridge{a}
A
fl afl \textlowering{A}\textlowering{a}
Ÿ
AŸ a \textmidacute{A}\textmidacute{a}
‰a
A‰ \textovercross{A}\textovercross{a}
——
Aa \textoverw{A}\textoverw{a}
A
˛ a˛ \textpolhook{A}\textpolhook{a}
A
fi afi \textraising{A}\textraising{a}
A
ffl affl \textretracting{A}\textretracting{a}
˚
Ā˚ ā \textringmacron{A}\textringmacron{a}

A“ a \textroundcap{A}\textroundcap{a}
A
a \textseagull{A}\textseagull{a}
Aa \textsubacute{A}\textsubacute{a}
››
Aa \textsubarch{A}\textsubarch{a}
““
Aa \textsubbar{A}\textsubbar{a}
¯¯
A
”a” \textsubbridge{A}\textsubbridge{a}
Aa \textsubcircum{A}\textsubcircum{a}
ˆˆ
Aa \textsubdot{A}\textsubdot{a}
˙˙
Aa \textsubgrave{A}\textsubgrave{a}
‹‹
A
– a– \textsublhalfring{A}\textsublhalfring{a}
A
ff aff \textsubplus{A}\textsubplus{a}
A
» a» \textsubrhalfring{A}\textsubrhalfring{a}
Aa \textsubring{A}\textsubring{a}
˚˚
A
«a« \textsubsquare{A}\textsubsquare{a}
Aa \textsubtilde{A}\textsubtilde{a}
˜˜
Aa \textsubumlaut{A}\textsubumlaut{a}
¨¨

(continued on next page)

15
(continued from previous page)

A
—a— \textsubw{A}\textsubw{a}
Aa \textsubwedge{A}\textsubwedge{a}
ˇˇ
A
&& a \textsuperimposetilde{A}\textsuperimposetilde{a}
Aa \textsyllabic{A}\textsyllabic{a}
˜" ˜

"
ȧ \texttildedot{A}\texttildedot{a}
>>
Aa \texttoptiebar{A}\texttoptiebar{a}
IJa
AIJ \textvbaraccent{A}\textvbaraccent{a}

tipa defines shortcut sequences for many of the above. See the tipa documentation
for more information.

Table 19: extraipa Text-mode Accents


””
A
”a ” \bibridge{A}\bibridge{a} –A»–a» \partvoiceless{A}\partvoiceless{a}
Ŕ Ŕ ˚˚
Ãã \crtilde{A}\crtilde{a} Āā \sliding{A}\sliding{a}
.. .
Ãã. \dottedtilde{A}\dottedtilde{a} Ȧȧ \spreadlips{A}\spreadlips{a}
˜ ã
à ˜ \doubletilde{A}\doubletilde{a} Aa \subcorner{A}\subcorner{a}
^^
A»a» \finpartvoice{A}\finpartvoice{a} Aa \subdoublebar{A}\subdoublebar{a}
ˇˇ ¯¯
A»a» \finpartvoiceless{A}\finpartvoiceless{a} Aa \subdoublevert{A}\subdoublevert{a}
˚˚ "" ""
–A a
ˇ–ˇ
\inipartvoice{A}\inipartvoice{a} Aa
¡¡
\sublptr{A}\sublptr{a}
–A a
”–˚

\inipartvoiceless{A}\inipartvoiceless{a} Aa
¿¿
\subrptr{A}\subrptr{a}
˚
Aa \overbridge{A}\overbridge{a} A
Ţ Ţ
a \whistle{A}\whistle{a}
–A a
ˇ»–ˇ»
\partvoice{A}\partvoice{a}

Table 20: wsuipa Text-mode Accents


g ag
A \dental{A}\dental{a}
 a
A \underarch{A}\underarch{a}

Table 21: phonetic Text-mode Accents


Aa \hill{A}\hill{a} A
a \rc{A}\rc{a} Aa \ut{A}\ut{a}
{ { ˜˜
Aa \od{A}\od{a} Aa \syl{A}\syl{a}
˚

A a{ \ohill{A}\ohill{a} A a
.. .. \td{A}\td{a}

The phonetic package provides a few additional macros for linguistic accents.
\acbar and \acarc compose characters with multiple accents; for example,
\acbar{\’}{a} produces “´ ā” and \acarc{\"}{e} produces “¨ē”. \labvel joins
two characters with an arc: \labvel{mn} → “mn”._ \upbar is intended to go
between characters as in “x\upbar{}y’’ → “x y”. Lastly, \uplett behaves like
\textsuperscript but uses a smaller font. Contrast “p\uplett{h}’’ → “ph ”
with “p\textsuperscript{h}’’ → “ph ”.

16
Table 22: metre Text-mode Accents
Áá \acutus{A}\acutus{a}
Ăă \breve{A}\breve{a}
Ãã \circumflexus{A}\circumflexus{a}
Ää \diaeresis{A}\diaeresis{a}
Àà \gravis{A}\gravis{a}
Āā \macron{A}\macron{a}

Table 23: t4phonet Text-mode Accents


AŸ Ÿa \textdoublegrave{A}\textdoublegrave{a}
A¿ ¿a \textvbaraccent{A}\textvbaraccent{a}
A¼ ¼a \textdoublevbaraccent{A}\textdoublevbaraccent{a}

The idea behind the t4phonet package’s text-mode accents is to provide an interface
to some of the accents in the T4 font encoding (accents marked with “‡” in Table 17
on page 14) but using the same names as the tipa accents presented in Table 18 on
page 15.

Table 24: arcs Text-mode Accents


__
Aa \overarc{A}\overarc{a} Aa
^^
\underarc{A}\underarc{a}

The accents shown above scale only to a few characters wide. An optional macro
argument alters the effective width of the accented characters. See the arcs docu-
mentation for more information.

Table 25: semtrans Accents


Aa \D{A}\D{a} Aa \U{A}\U{a}
¨¨ ˘˘
aA \T{A}\T{a}∗

\T is not actually an accent but a command that rotates its argument 180° using
the graphicx package’s \rotatebox command.

Table 26: ogonek Accents


A, a, \k{A}\k{a}

Table 27: combelow Accents


A
, a, \cb{A}\cb{a}

\cb places a comma above letters with descenders. Hence, while “\cb{s}” produces
“s,”, “\cb{g}” produces “g‘”.

17
Table 28: wsuipa Diacritics
s \ain v \leftp x \overring h \stress } \underwedge
k \corner n \leftt ~ \polishhook j \syllabic t \upp
u \downp q \length w \rightp r \underdots l \upt
m \downt { \midtilde o \rightt y \underring
p \halflength z \open i \secstress | \undertilde

The wsuipa package defines all of the above as ordinary characters, not as accents.
However, it does provide \diatop and \diaunder commands, which are used to
compose diacritics with other characters. For example, \diatop[\overring|a]
produces “x
a ”, and \diaunder[\underdots|a] produces “r a”. See the wsuipa doc-
umentation for more information.

Table 29: textcomp Diacritics


˝ \textacutedbl ˇ \textasciicaron ¯ \textasciimacron
´ \textasciiacute ¨ \textasciidieresis  \textgravedbl
˘ \textasciibreve ` \textasciigrave

The textcomp package defines all of the above as ordinary characters, not as accents.

Table 30: textcomp Currency Symbols


฿ \textbaht $ \textdollar∗  \textguarani ₩ \textwon
¢ \textcent  \textdollaroldstyle ₤ \textlira ¥ \textyen
 \textcentoldstyle ₫ \textdong ₦ \textnaira
₡ \textcolonmonetary € \texteuro ‘ \textpeso
¤ \textcurrency ƒ \textflorin £ \textsterling∗

It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 9
because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode.

Table 31: marvosym Currency Symbols


¢ \Denarius e \EUR D \EURdig e \EURtm £ \Pfund
 \Ecommerce d \EURcr c \EURhv ¦ \EyesDollar ¡ \Shilling

The different euro signs are meant to be visually compatible with different fonts—
Courier (\EURcr), Helvetica (\EURhv), Times Roman (\EURtm), and the marvosym
digits listed in Table 197 (\EURdig). The mathdesign package redefines \texteuro
to be visually compatible with one of three additional fonts: Utopia (€), Char-
ter (€), or Garamond (€).

Table 32: wasysym Currency Symbols


¢ \cent ¤ \currency

18
Table 33: ChinA2e Currency Symbols
ÿ \Euro þ \Pound

Table 34: teubner Currency Symbols


Ε \denarius Α \hemiobelion Β \tetartemorion
Δ \dracma ῝ \stater

Table 35: eurosym Euro Signs


A
C \geneuro B
C \geneuronarrow C
C \geneurowide e \officialeuro

\euro is automatically mapped to one of the above—by default, \officialeuro—


based on a eurosym package option. See the eurosym documentation for more
information. The \geneuro. . . characters are generated from the current body
font’s “C” character and therefore may not appear exactly as shown.

Table 36: fourier Euro Signs


( \eurologo € \texteuro

Table 37: textcomp Legal Symbols


℗ \textcircledP
c © \textcopyright ℠ \textservicemark
TM
« \textcopyleft
r ® \textregistered ™ \texttrademark

Where two symbols are present, the left one is the “faked” symbol that LATEX 2ε
provides by default, and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes
available.
See http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=tradesyms for solu-
tions to common problems that occur when using these symbols (e.g., getting a “ ”
r
when you expected to get a “®”).

Table 38: cclicenses Creative Commons License Icons


\ccnc∗ \ccsa∗
C
CC \cc BY: \ccby $ = \ccnd
\


These symbols utilize the rotating package and therefore display improperly in some
DVI viewers.

19
Table 39: textcomp Old-style Numerals
 \textzerooldstyle  \textfouroldstyle  \texteightoldstyle
 \textoneoldstyle  \textfiveoldstyle  \textnineoldstyle
 \texttwooldstyle  \textsixoldstyle
 \textthreeoldstyle  \textsevenoldstyle

Rather than use the bulky \textoneoldstyle, \texttwooldstyle, etc. commands


shown above, consider using \oldstylenums{. . .} to typeset an old-style number.

Table 40: Miscellaneous textcomp Symbols


a
∗ \textasteriskcentered ª \textordfeminine
o
‖ \textbardbl º \textordmasculine
○ \textbigcircle ¶ \textparagraph∗
␢ \textblank · \textperiodcentered
¦ \textbrokenbar ‱ \textpertenthousand
• \textbullet ‰ \textperthousand
† \textdagger∗ ¶ \textpilcrow
‡ \textdaggerdbl∗ ' \textquotesingle
- \textdblhyphen ‚ \textquotestraightbase
 \textdblhyphenchar „ \textquotestraightdblbase
œ \textdiscount “ \textrecipe
℮ \textestimated ※ \textreferencemark
‽ \textinterrobang § \textsection∗
• \textinterrobangdown  \textthreequartersemdash
♪ \textmusicalnote ~ \texttildelow
№ \textnumero  \texttwelveudash
◦ \textopenbullet

Where two symbols are present, the left one is the “faked” symbol that LATEX 2ε
provides by default, and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes
available.

It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 9
because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode.

Table 41: Miscellaneous wasysym Text-mode Symbols


h \permil

20
3 Mathematical symbols

Most, but not all, of the symbols in this section are math-mode only. That is, they yield a “Missing $
inserted” error message if not used within $. . .$, \[. . .\], or another math-mode environment. Operators
marked as “variable-sized” are taller in displayed formulas, shorter in in-text formulas, and possibly shorter
still when used in various levels of superscripts or subscripts.
Alphanumeric symbols (e.g., “L ” and “š”) are usually produced using one of the math alphabets in
Table 213 rather than with an explicit symbol command. Look there first if you need a symbol for a transform,
number set, or some other alphanumeric.
Although there have been many requests on comp.text.tex for a contradiction symbol, the ensuing dis-
cussion invariably reveals innumerable ways to represent contradiction in a proof, including “ ” (\blitza),
“⇒⇐” (\Rightarrow\Leftarrow), “⊥” (\bot), “=” (\nleftrightarrow), and “※” (\textreferencemark).
Because of the lack of notational consensus, it is probably better to spell out “Contradiction!” than to use a
symbol for this purpose. Similarly, discussions on comp.text.tex have revealed that there are a variety of
ways to indicate the mathematical notion of “is defined as”. Common candidates include “,” (\triangleq),
def
“≡” (\equiv), “B” (various 1 ), and “ =” (\stackrel{\text{\tiny def}}{=}). See also the ` example of
\equalsfill on page 108. Depending upon the context, disjoint union may be represented as “ ” (\coprod),
“t” (\sqcup), “∪” · (\dotcup), “⊕” (\oplus), or any of a number of other symbols.2 Finally, the average
value of a variable x is written by some people as “x” (\overline{x}), by some people as “hxi” (\langle x
\rangle), and by some people as “x” or “∅x” (\diameter x or \varnothing x). The moral of the story is
that you should be careful always to explain your notation to avoid confusing your readers.

Table 42: Math-Mode Versions of Text Symbols


$ \mathdollar ¶ \mathparagraph £ \mathsterling
... \mathellipsis § \mathsection \mathunderscore

It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 9
because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode.

Table 43: cmll Unary Operators


! \oc∗ ˆ \shneg ? \wn∗
˜ \shift ´ \shpos

\oc and \wn differ from “!” and “?” in terms of their math-mode spacing: $A=!B$
produces “A =!B”, for example, while $A=\oc B$ produces “A = !B”.
1 In txfonts, pxfonts, and mathtools the symbol is called \coloneqq. In mathabx and MnSymbol it’s called \coloneq. In

colonequals it’s called \colonequals.


2 Bob Tennent listed these and other disjoint-union symbol possibilities in a November 2007 post to comp.text.tex.

21
Table 44: Binary Operators
q \amalg ∪ \cup ⊕ \oplus × \times
∗ \ast † \dagger \oslash / \triangleleft
\bigcirc ‡ \ddagger ⊗ \otimes . \triangleright
5 \bigtriangledown  \diamond ± \pm E \unlhd∗
4 \bigtriangleup ÷ \div B \rhd∗ D \unrhd∗
• \bullet C \lhd∗ \ \setminus ] \uplus
∩ \cap ∓ \mp u \sqcap ∨ \vee
· \cdot \odot t \sqcup ∧ \wedge
◦ \circ \ominus ? \star o \wr

Not predefined in LATEX 2ε . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb,
txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym.

Table 45: AMS Binary Operators


Z \barwedge } \circledcirc | \intercal∗
\boxdot  \circleddash h \leftthreetimes
\boxminus d \Cup n \ltimes
 \boxplus g \curlyvee i \rightthreetimes
 \boxtimes f \curlywedge o \rtimes
e \Cap > \divideontimes r \smallsetminus
 \centerdot u \dotplus Y \veebar
~ \circledast [ \doublebarwedge

Some people use a superscripted \intercal for matrix transpose:
“A^\intercal” 7→ “A| ”. (See the May 2009 comp.text.tex thread, “rais-
ing math symbols”, for suggestions about altering the height of the superscript.)
\top (Table 139 on page 51), T, and \mathsf{T} are other popular choices: “A> ”,
“AT ”, “AT ”.

Table 46: stmaryrd Binary Operators


\baro 9 \interleave  \varoast
\bbslash 2 \leftslice  \varobar
N \binampersand ! \merge  \varobslash
O \bindnasrepma
\minuso  \varocircle
i \boxast  \moo  \varodot
k \boxbar ` \nplus 5 \varogreaterthan
 \boxbox : \obar 4 \varolessthan
j \boxbslash @ \oblong  \varominus
 \boxcircle ; \obslash  \varoplus
\boxdot = \ogreaterthan  \varoslash
 \boxempty < \olessthan  \varotimes
l \boxslash > \ovee 6 \varovee
. \curlyveedownarrow ? \owedge 7 \varowedge
/ \curlyveeuparrow 3 \rightslice " \vartimes
' \curlywedgedownarrow \sslash  \Ydown
& \curlywedgeuparrow 8 \talloblong  \Yleft
) \fatbslash , \varbigcirc  \Yright
# \fatsemi  \varcurlyvee  \Yup
( \fatslash \varcurlywedge

22
Table 47: wasysym Binary Operators
C \lhd # \ocircle  \RHD D \unrhd
 \LHD B \rhd E \unlhd

Table 48: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Operators


V \circledbar T \circledwedge  \medcirc
W \circledbslash M \invamp } \sqcapplus
U \circledvee  \medbullet | \sqcupplus

Table 49: mathabx Binary Operators


 \ast N \curlywedge [ \sqcap
 \Asterisk  \divdot \ \sqcup
X \barwedge \divideontimes ^ \sqdoublecap
 \bigstar  \dotdiv _ \sqdoublecup
 \bigvarstar \dotplus  \square
\blackdiamond  \dottimes ] \squplus
X \cap Z \doublebarwedge  \udot
 \circplus \ \doublecap Z \uplus
 \coasterisk ] \doublecup  \varstar
 \coAsterisk
\ltimes _ \vee

\convolution \pluscirc Y \veebar
Y \cup \rtimes [ \veedoublebar
O \curlyvee \sqbullet ^ \wedge

Many of the above glyphs go by multiple names. \centerdot is equivalent to


\sqbullet, and \ast is equivalent to *. \asterisk produces the same glyph as
\ast, but as an ordinary symbol, not a binary operator. Similarly, \bigast pro-
duces a large-operator version of the \Asterisk binary operator, and \bigcoast
produces a large-operator version of the \coAsterisk binary operator.

Table 50: MnSymbol Binary Operators

∐ \amalg ⩏ \doublesqcup \righttherefore


∗ \ast ⩔ \doublevee ⋌ \rightthreetimes
 \backslashdiv ⩕ \doublewedge ( \rightY
& \bowtie ∵ \downtherefore ⋊ \rtimes
● \bullet + \downY  \slashdiv
∩ \cap " \dtimes ∏ \smallprod
⩀ \capdot  \fivedots ⊓ \sqcap
? \capplus ˆ \hbipropto E \sqcapdot
⋅ \cdot  \hdotdot G \sqcapplus
○ \circ ⌜ \lefthalfcap ⊔ \sqcup

(continued on next page)

23
(continued from previous page)

¾ \closedcurlyvee ⌞ \lefthalfcup D \sqcupdot


¼ \closedcurlywedge \lefttherefore F \sqcupplus
∪ \cup ⋋ \leftthreetimes ∷ \squaredots
⊍ \cupdot * \leftY × \times
⊎ \cupplus ⋉ \ltimes  \udotdot
⋎ \curlyvee ∖ \medbackslash ∴ \uptherefore
5 \curlyveedot ◯ \medcircle ) \upY
⋏ \curlywedge ∕ \medslash $ \utimes
4 \curlywedgedot ∣ \medvert Š \vbipropto
 \ddotdot  \medvertdot ∶ \vdotdot
\diamonddots − \minus ∨ \vee
÷ \div  \minusdot / \veedot
 \dotmedvert ∓ \mp ⧖ \vertbowtie
 \dotminus ‰ \neswbipropto  \vertdiv
⋒ \doublecap ‹ \nwsebipropto ∧ \wedge
⋓ \doublecup + \plus . \wedgedot
7 \doublecurlyvee ± \pm ≀ \wreath
6 \doublecurlywedge ⌝ \righthalfcap
⩎ \doublesqcap ⌟ \righthalfcup

MnSymbol defines \setminus and \smallsetminus as synonyms for


\medbackslash; \Join as a synonym for \bowtie; \wr as a synonym for
\wreath; \shortmid as a synonym for \medvert; \Cap as a synonym for
\doublecap; \Cup as a synonym for \doublecup; and, \uplus as a synonym for
\cupplus.

Table 51: mathdesign Binary Operators


_ \dtimes ] \udtimes ^ \utimes

The mathdesign package additionally provides versions of each of the binary oper-
ators shown in Table 45 on page 22.

Table 52: cmll Binary Operators


` \parr & \with∗


\with differs from “&” in terms of its math-mode spacing: $A \& B$ produces
“A&B”, for example, while $A \with B$ produces “A & B”.

Table 53: shuffle Binary Operators


 \cshuffle  \shuffle

Table 54: ulsy Geometric Binary Operators


 \odplus

24
Table 55: mathabx Geometric Binary Operators
 \blacktriangledown i \boxright a \ominus
ž \blacktriangleleft m \boxslash ` \oplus
Ÿ \blacktriangleright b \boxtimes i \oright
œ \blacktriangleup j \boxtop m \oslash
f \boxasterisk o \boxtriangleup b \otimes
n \boxbackslash l \boxvoid j \otop
k \boxbot f \oasterisk o \otriangleup
e \boxcirc n \obackslash l \ovoid
g \boxcoasterisk k \obot ™ \smalltriangledown
c \boxdiv e \ocirc š \smalltriangleleft
d \boxdot g \ocoasterisk › \smalltriangleright
h \boxleft c \odiv ˜ \smalltriangleup
a \boxminus d \odot
` \boxplus h \oleft

Table 56: MnSymbol Geometric Binary Operators


⧅ \boxbackslash ▼ \filledmedtriangledown ⊚ \ocirc
⧈ \boxbox ◀ \filledmedtriangleleft ⊙ \odot
⊡ \boxdot ▶ \filledmedtriangleright ⊖ \ominus
⊟ \boxminus ▲ \filledmedtriangleup ⊕ \oplus
⊞ \boxplus ◾ \filledsquare ⊘ \oslash
⧄ \boxslash ★ \filledstar ⍟ \ostar
⊠ \boxtimes ▾ \filledtriangledown ⊗ \otimes
q \boxvert ◂ \filledtriangleleft d \otriangle
{ \diamondbackslash ▸ \filledtriangleright ⦶ \overt
 \diamonddiamond ▴ \filledtriangleup „ \pentagram
⟐ \diamonddot ◇ \meddiamond ◇ \smalldiamond
x \diamondminus ◻ \medsquare ◽ \smallsquare
| \diamondplus ☆ \medstar ☆ \smallstar
z \diamondslash ▽ \medtriangledown ▿ \smalltriangledown
} \diamondtimes ◁ \medtriangleleft ◃ \smalltriangleleft
y \diamondvert ▷ \medtriangleright ▹ \smalltriangleright
 \downslice △ \medtriangleup ▵ \smalltriangleup
◆ \filleddiamond ⊛ \oast ⋆ \thinstar
∎ \filledmedsquare ⦸ \obackslash À \upslice

MnSymbol defines \blacksquare as a synonym for \filledmedsquare; \square


and \Box as synonyms for \medsquare; \diamond as a synonym for \smalldiamond;
\Diamond as a synonym for \meddiamond; \star as a synonym for \thinstar;
\circledast as a synonym for \oast; \circledcirc as a synonym for \ocirc;
and, \circleddash as a synonym for \ominus.

Table 57: Variable-sized Math Operators


T \ NO V^ QY
\bigcap \bigotimes \bigwedge \prod
S [ F G `a PX
\bigcup \bigsqcup \coprod \sum
Z
JK U ] R
\bigodot \biguplus \int
I
LM W _ H
\bigoplus \bigvee \oint

25
Table 58: AMS Variable-sized Math Operators
ZZ ZZZ
RR RRR
\iint \iiint
ZZZZ Z Z
RRRR R R
\iiiint ··· ··· \idotsint

Table 59: stmaryrd Variable-sized Math Operators


em g o 
\bigbox \biginterleave \bigsqcap
bj  ` h
\bigcurlyvee \bignplus \bigtriangledown
ck f n a i
\bigcurlywedge \bigparallel \bigtriangleup

Table 60: wasysym Variable-sized Math Operators

r w ! " # $

\int \iint \iiint

r w u z 
\varint∗ \varoint∗ \oiint

None of the preceding symbols are defined when wasysym is passed the nointegrals
option.

Not defined when wasysym is passed the integrals option.

Defined only when wasysym is passed the integrals option. Otherwise, the default
LATEX \int glyph (as shown in Table 57) is used.

Table 61: mathabx Variable-sized Math Operators

œ¬ Ýý Éé
\bigcurlyvee \bigboxslash \bigoright

–¦ Òò Íí
\bigsqcap \bigboxtimes \bigoslash

›« Úú Êê
\bigcurlywedge \bigboxtop \bigotop

Öö ßÿ Ïï
\bigboxasterisk \bigboxtriangleup \bigotriangleup

(continued on next page)


26
(continued from previous page)

Þþ Üü Ìì
\bigboxbackslash \bigboxvoid \bigovoid

Ûû ’ ¢  
\bigboxbot \bigcomplementop \bigplus

Õõ Ææ ˜¨
\bigboxcirc \bigoasterisk \bigsquplus

×÷ Îî ‘¡
\bigboxcoasterisk \bigobackslash \bigtimes

Óó Ëë µ½
\bigboxdiv \bigobot \iiint

Ôô Åå ´ ¼
\bigboxdot \bigocirc \iint

Øø Çç ³ »
\bigboxleft \bigocoasterisk \int

Ññ Ãã · ¿
\bigboxminus \bigodiv \oiint

Ðð Èè ¶ ¾
\bigboxplus \bigoleft \oint

Ùù Áá
\bigboxright \bigominus

Table 62: txfonts/pxfonts Variable-sized Math Operators



\bigsqcapplus \ointclockwise



\bigsqcupplus \ointctrclockwise

> ? R S
\fint \sqiiint

' ( P Q
\idotsint \sqiint

% &  
\iiiint \sqint

# $ F G
\iiint \varoiiintclockwise

(continued on next page)


27
(continued from previous page)

! " N O
\iint \varoiiintctrclockwise

L M B C
\oiiintclockwise \varoiintclockwise

D E J K
\oiiintctrclockwise \varoiintctrclockwise

) * - .
\oiiint \varointclockwise

H I + ,
\oiintclockwise \varointctrclockwise
A
@  
\oiintctrclockwise \varprod


\oiint

Table 63: esint Variable-sized Math Operators


˙ 
¯ ı
\dotsint \ointclockwise

ffl 
\fint \ointctrclockwise
˘ „
ˇ ”
\iiiint \sqiint
˚ “
˝ ›
\iiint \sqint
¨ "
˜ !
\iint \varoiint
& fi
% ff
\landdownint \varointclockwise
$ ffi
# fl
\landupint \varointctrclockwise


\oiint

28
Table 64: MnSymbol Variable-sized Math Operators

⋂ ⋂ \bigcap ⊖ ⊖ \bigominus ∁ ∁ \complement

⩀ ⩀ \bigcapdot ⊕ ⊕ \bigoplus ∐ ∐ \coprod

$ % \bigcapplus ⊘ ⊘ \bigoslash ∫…∫ ∫…∫ \idotsint

◯ ◯ \bigcircle ⍟ ⍟ \bigostar ⨌ ⨌ \iiiint

⋃ ⋃ \bigcup ⊗ ⊗ \bigotimes ∭ ∭ \iiint

⊍ ⊍ \bigcupdot F G \bigotriangle ∬ ∬ \iint

⊎ ⊎ \bigcupplus∗ ⦶ ⦶ \bigovert ∫ ∫ \int

⋎ ⋎ \bigcurlyvee + + \bigplus ⨚ ⨚ \landdownint

  \bigcurlyveedot ⊓ ⊓ \bigsqcap ⨙ ⨙ \landupint

⋏ ⋏ \bigcurlywedge , - \bigsqcapdot ∲ ∲ \lcircleleftint

  \bigcurlywedgedot 0 1 \bigsqcapplus ∲ ∲ \lcirclerightint

  \bigdoublecurlyvee ⊔ ⊔ \bigsqcup ∯ ∯ \oiint

  \bigdoublecurlywedge . / \bigsqcupdot ∮ ∮ \oint

⩔ ⩔ \bigdoublevee 2 3 \bigsqcupplus ∏ ∏ \prod

⩕ ⩕ \bigdoublewedge ⨉ ⨉ \bigtimes ∳ ∳ \rcircleleftint

⊛ ⊛ \bigoast ⋁ ⋁ \bigvee ∳ ∳ \rcirclerightint

⦸ ⦸ \bigobackslash
\bigveedot ⨏ ⨏ \strokedint

⊚ ⊚ \bigocirc ⋀ ⋀ \bigwedge ∑ ∑ \sum

⊙ ⊙ \bigodot  \bigwedgedot ⨋ ⨋ \sumint


MnSymbol defines \biguplus as a synonym for \bigcupplus.

29
Table 65: mathdesign Variable-sized Math Operators

€  „ …
\intclockwise \ointclockwise

ˆ ‰ ‚ ƒ
\oiiint \ointctrclockwise

† ‡
\oiint

The mathdesign package provides three versions of each integral—in


R fact,R of ev-
ery symbol—to accompany different text fonts: Utopia ( ), Garamond ( ), and
R
Charter ( ).

Table 66: cmll Large Math Operators

˙ ˘
\bigparr \bigwith

Table 67: Binary Relations


≈ \approx ≡ \equiv ⊥ \perp ^ \smile
 \asymp _ \frown ≺ \prec  \succ
./ \bowtie Z \Join∗  \preceq  \succeq
 \cong | \mid† ∝ \propto ` \vdash
a \dashv |= \models ∼ \sim
 \doteq k \parallel ' \simeq

Not predefined in LATEX 2ε . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb,
mathabx, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym.

The difference between \mid and | is that the former is a binary relation while
the latter is a math ordinal. Consequently, LATEX typesets the two with different
surrounding spacing. Contrast “P(A | B)” 7→ “P (A|B)” with “P(A \mid B)” 7→
“P (A | B)”.

Table 68: AMS Binary Relations


u \approxeq P \eqcirc v \succapprox
 \backepsilon ; \fallingdotseq < \succcurlyeq
v \backsim ( \multimap % \succsim
w \backsimeq t \pitchfork ∴ \therefore
∵ \because w \precapprox ≈ \thickapprox
G \between 4 \preccurlyeq ∼ \thicksim
m \Bumpeq - \precsim ∝ \varpropto
l \bumpeq : \risingdotseq \Vdash
$ \circeq p \shortmid  \vDash
2 \curlyeqprec q \shortparallel  \Vvdash
3 \curlyeqsucc a \smallfrown
+ \doteqdot ` \smallsmile

30
Table 69: AMS Negated Binary Relations
 \ncong / \nshortparallel 3 \nVDash
- \nmid / \nsim  \precnapprox
∦ \nparallel  \nsucc  \precnsim
⊀ \nprec  \nsucceq  \succnapprox
 \npreceq 2 \nvDash  \succnsim
. \nshortmid 0 \nvdash

Table 70: stmaryrd Binary Relations


A \inplus B \niplus

Table 71: wasysym Binary Relations


 \invneg { \leadsto  \wasypropto
Z \Join  \logof

Table 72: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Relations


S \circledgtr X \lJoin ] \opentimes
R \circledless \ \lrtimes y \Perp
\colonapprox ( \multimap  \preceqq
 \Colonapprox  \multimapboth  \precneqq
D \coloneq • \multimapbothvert Y \rJoin
H \Coloneq  \multimapdot K \strictfi
F \Coloneqq  \multimapdotboth J \strictif
B \coloneqq∗  \multimapdotbothA L \strictiff
 \Colonsim ˜ \multimapdotbothAvert  \succeqq
 \colonsim  \multimapdotbothB  \succneqq
I \Eqcolon — \multimapdotbothBvert ∥ \varparallel
E \eqcolon – \multimapdotbothvert
\varparallelinv
C \eqqcolon  \multimapdotinv  \VvDash
G \Eqqcolon  \multimapinv
h \eqsim [ \openJoin


As an alternative to using txfonts/pxfonts, a “:=” symbol can be constructed with
“\mathrel{\mathop:}=”.

Table 73: txfonts/pxfonts Negated Binary Relations


6 \napproxeq $ \npreccurlyeq 5 \nthickapprox
- \nasymp 9 \npreceqq h \ntwoheadleftarrow
* \nbacksim  \nprecsim g \ntwoheadrightarrow
+ \nbacksimeq ; \nsimeq \nvarparallel
( \nbumpeq 8 \nsuccapprox \nvarparallelinv
) \nBumpeq % \nsucccurlyeq 1 \nVdash
. \nequiv : \nsucceqq
7 \nprecapprox  \nsuccsim

31
Table 74: mathabx Binary Relations
\between  \divides  \risingdotseq
 \botdoteq  \dotseq Ç \succapprox
 \Bumpedeq  \eqbumped ¥ \succcurlyeq
 \bumpedeq  \eqcirc Í \succdot
 \circeq  \eqcolon Á \succsim
 \coloneq  \fallingdotseq 6 \therefore
 \corresponds Ï \ggcurly  \topdoteq
¶ \curlyeqprec Î \llcurly ( \vDash
· \curlyeqsucc Æ \precapprox , \Vdash
) \DashV ¤ \preccurlyeq ( \VDash
) \Dashv Ì \precdot , \Vvdash
- \dashVv À \precsim

Table 75: mathabx Negated Binary Relations


 \napprox M \notperp * \nvDash
 \ncong ¢ \nprec * \nVDash
¸ \ncurlyeqprec È \nprecapprox . \nVdash
¹ \ncurlyeqsucc ¦ \npreccurlyeq & \nvdash
+ \nDashv ª \npreceq . \nVvash
/ \ndashV Â \nprecsim Ê \precnapprox
' \ndashv  \nsim ¬ \precneq
+ \nDashV  \nsimeq Ä \precnsim
/ \ndashVv £ \nsucc Ë \succnapprox
 \neq É \nsuccapprox ­ \succneq
 \notasymp § \nsucccurlyeq Å \succnsim
 \notdivides « \nsucceq
 \notequiv à \nsuccsim

The \changenotsign command toggles the behavior of \not to produce either a


vertical or a diagonal slash through a binary operator. Thus, “$a \not= b$” can
be made to produce either “a = b” or “a = b”.

Table 76: MnSymbol Binary Relations

≈ \approx  \eqbump } \nwfootline ï \seVdash


≊ \approxeq ≖ \eqcirc … \nwfree ∥ \shortparallel
 \backapprox ⩦ \eqdot å \nwmodels ∼ \sim
 \backapproxeq ≂ \eqsim õ \nwModels ≃ \simeq
≌ \backcong = \equal “ \nwsecrossing ≻ \succ
\backeqsim Ý \equalclosed Ó \nwseline ⪸ \succapprox
∽ \backsim ≡ \equiv × \Nwseline ≽ \succcurlyeq
⋍ \backsimeq Þ \equivclosed Ý \nwvdash ⪰ \succeq
 \backtriplesim ≒ \fallingdotseq í \nwVdash ≿ \succsim
” \between ≙ \hateq ≺ \prec ~ \swfootline

(continued on next page)

32
(continued from previous page)

≏ \bumpeq  \hcrossing ⪷ \precapprox † \swfree


≎ \Bumpeq z \leftfootline ≼ \preccurlyeq æ \swmodels
≗ \circeq ‚ \leftfree ⪯ \preceq ö \swModels
Ü \closedequal â \leftmodels ≾ \precsim Þ \swvdash
½ \closedprec ò \leftModels x \rightfootline î \swVdash
» \closedsucc ∝ \leftpropto € \rightfree ≋ \triplesim
∶= \coloneq Ð \leftrightline ⊧ \rightmodels ∣ \updownline
≅ \cong Ô \Leftrightline ⊫ \rightModels ∥ \Updownline
⋞ \curlyeqprec ⪦ \leftslice Ž \rightpropto y \upfootline
⋟ \curlyeqsucc ⊣ \leftvdash ⪧ \rightslice  \upfree
≐ \doteq ê \leftVdash ⊢ \rightvdash á \upmodels
≑ \Doteq | \nefootline ⊩ \rightVdash ñ \upModels
{ \downfootline „ \nefree ≓ \risingdotseq  \uppropto
⫝ \downfree ä \nemodels  \sefootline ⊥ \upvdash
ã \downmodels ô \neModels ‡ \sefree ⍊ \upVdash
ó \downModels Ò \neswline ç \semodels ’ \vcrossing
 \downpropto Ö \Neswline ÷ \seModels ⊪ \Vvdash
⊤ \downvdash Ü \nevdash • \separated
⍑ \downVdash ì \neVdash ß \sevdash

MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols:

⊣ \dashv (same as \leftvdash)


Ó \diagdown (same as \nwseline)
Ò \diagup (same as \neswline)
Ò \divides (same as \updownline)
≑ \doteqdot (same as \Doteq)
⊧ \models (same as \rightmodels)
∥ \parallel (same as \Updownline)
⊥ \perp (same as \upvdash)
∝ \propto (same as \leftpropto)
Ð \relbar (same as \leftrightline)
Ô \Relbar (same as \Leftrightline)
∝ \varpropto (same as \leftpropto)
⊧ \vDash (same as \rightmodels)
⊫ \VDash (same as \rightModels)
⊢ \vdash (same as \rightvdash)
⊩ \Vdash (same as \rightVdash)

Table 77: MnSymbol Negated Binary Relations

≉ \napprox ≂̸ \neqsim ̸ \nnwModels ⊁ \nsucc


≊̸ \napproxeq ≠ \nequal ̸ \nnwseline ⪸̸ \nsuccapprox
̸ \nbackapprox ̸ \nequalclosed ̸ \nNwseline ⋡ \nsucccurlyeq
̸ \nbackapproxeq ≢ \nequiv ̸ \nnwvdash ⪰̸ \nsucceq
≌̸ \nbackcong ̸ \nequivclosed ̸ \nnwVdash ≿̸ \nsuccsim
̸ \nbackeqsim ‘ \neswcrossing ⊀ \nprec ̸ \nswfootline
∽̸ \nbacksim ≒̸ \nfallingdotseq ⪷̸ \nprecapprox ̸ \nswfree

(continued on next page)

33
(continued from previous page)

⋍̸ \nbacksimeq ≙̸ \nhateq ⋠ \npreccurlyeq ̸ \nswmodels


̸ \nbacktriplesim ̸ \nleftfootline ⪯̸ \npreceq ̸ \nswModels
≏̸ \nbumpeq ̸ \nleftfree ≾̸ \nprecsim ̸ \nswvdash
≎̸ \nBumpeq ̸ \nleftmodels ̸ \nrightfootline ̸ \nswVdash
≗̸ \ncirceq ̸ \nleftModels ̸ \nrightfree ≋̸ \ntriplesim
̸ \nclosedequal ̸ \nleftrightline ⊭ \nrightmodels ∤ \nupdownline
≇ \ncong ̸ \nLeftrightline ⊯ \nrightModels ∦ \nUpdownline
⋞̸ \ncurlyeqprec ⊣̸ \nleftvdash ⊬ \nrightvdash ̸ \nupfootline
⋟̸ \ncurlyeqsucc ̸ \nleftVdash ⊮ \nrightVdash ̸ \nupfree
≐̸ \ndoteq ̸ \nnefootline ≓̸ \nrisingdotseq ̸ \nupmodels
≑̸ \nDoteq ̸ \nnefree ̸ \nsefootline ̸ \nupModels
̸ \ndownfootline ̸ \nnemodels ̸ \nsefree ⊥̸ \nupvdash
⫝̸ \ndownfree ̸ \nneModels ̸ \nsemodels ⍊̸ \nupVdash
̸ \ndownmodels ̸ \nneswline ̸ \nseModels ⪹ \precnapprox
̸ \ndownModels ̸ \nNeswline ̸ \nsevdash ⋨ \precnsim
⊤̸ \ndownvdash ̸ \nnevdash ̸ \nseVdash ⪺ \succnapprox
⍑̸ \ndownVdash ̸ \nneVdash ∤ \nshortmid ⋩ \succnsim
̸ \neqbump ̸ \nnwfootline ∦ \nshortparallel
≖̸ \neqcirc ̸ \nnwfree ≁ \nsim
⩦̸ \neqdot ̸ \nnwmodels ≄ \nsimeq

MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols:

⊣̸ \ndashv (same as \nleftvdash)


̸ \ndiagdown (same as \nnwseline)
̸ \ndiagup (same as \nneswline)
∤ \ndivides (same as \nupdownline)
≠ \ne (same as \nequal)
≠ \neq (same as \nequal)
∤ \nmid (same as \nupdownline)
⊭ \nmodels (same as \nrightmodels)
∦ \nparallel (same as \nUpdownline)
⊥̸ \nperp (same as \nupvdash)
̸ \nrelbar (same as \nleftrightline)
̸ \nRelbar (same as \nLeftrightline)
⊭ \nvDash (same as \nrightmodels)
⊬ \nvdash (same as \nrightvdash)
⊮ \nVdash (same as \nrightVdash)
⊯ \nVDash (same as \nrightModels)

Table 78: mathtools Binary Relations


::≈ \Colonapprox :− \coloneq −:: \Eqcolon
:≈ \colonapprox :∼ \colonsim =: \eqqcolon
:= \coloneqq ::∼ \Colonsim =:: \Eqqcolon
::= \Coloneqq :: \dblcolon
::− \Coloneq −: \eqcolon

Similar symbols can be defined using mathtools’s \vcentcolon, which produces a


colon centered on the font’s math axis:

=:=
“=:=”
vs. =: =
“=\vcentcolon=”

34
Table 79: turnstile Binary Relations

def def def


abc
\dddtstile{abc}{def} abc \nntstile{abc}{def} \stdtstile{abc}{def}
abc
def def def
abc
\ddststile{abc}{def} abc \nnttstile{abc}{def} \stststile{abc}{def}
abc
def def def
abc
\ddtstile{abc}{def} abc \nsdtstile{abc}{def} \sttstile{abc}{def}
abc
def def def
abc
\ddttstile{abc}{def} abc \nsststile{abc}{def} \stttstile{abc}{def}
abc
def def def
abc \dndtstile{abc}{def} abc \nststile{abc}{def} abc
\tddtstile{abc}{def}
def def def
abc \dnststile{abc}{def} abc \nsttstile{abc}{def} abc
\tdststile{abc}{def}
def def def
abc \dntstile{abc}{def} \ntdtstile{abc}{def} abc
\tdtstile{abc}{def}
abc
def def def
abc \dnttstile{abc}{def} \ntststile{abc}{def} abc
\tdttstile{abc}{def}
abc
def def def
abc \dsdtstile{abc}{def} \nttstile{abc}{def} abc \tndtstile{abc}{def}
abc
def def def
abc \dsststile{abc}{def} \ntttstile{abc}{def} abc \tnststile{abc}{def}
abc
def def def
abc \dststile{abc}{def} abc
\sddtstile{abc}{def} abc \tntstile{abc}{def}
def def def
abc \dsttstile{abc}{def} abc
\sdststile{abc}{def} abc \tnttstile{abc}{def}
def def def
\dtdtstile{abc}{def} abc
\sdtstile{abc}{def} abc \tsdtstile{abc}{def}
abc
def def def
\dtststile{abc}{def} abc
\sdttstile{abc}{def} abc \tsststile{abc}{def}
abc
def def def
\dttstile{abc}{def} abc \sndtstile{abc}{def} abc \tststile{abc}{def}
abc
def def def
\dtttstile{abc}{def} abc \snststile{abc}{def} abc \tsttstile{abc}{def}
abc
def def def
abc
\nddtstile{abc}{def} abc \sntstile{abc}{def} \ttdtstile{abc}{def}
abc
def def def
abc
\ndststile{abc}{def} abc \snttstile{abc}{def} \ttststile{abc}{def}
abc
def def def
abc
\ndtstile{abc}{def} abc \ssdtstile{abc}{def} \tttstile{abc}{def}
abc
def def def
abc
\ndttstile{abc}{def} abc \ssststile{abc}{def} \ttttstile{abc}{def}
abc
def def
abc \nndtstile{abc}{def} abc \sststile{abc}{def}
def def
abc \nnststile{abc}{def} abc \ssttstile{abc}{def}

Each of the above takes an optional argument that controls the size of the upper
and lower expressions. See the turnstile documentation for more information.

35

Table 80: trsym Binary Relations

 
\InversTransformHoriz \TransformHoriz
\InversTransformVert \TransformVert

Table 81: trfsigns Binary Relations


....
....
\dfourier \Dfourier
\fourier \Fourier
\laplace \Laplace
....
....
\ztransf \Ztransf

Table 82: cmll Binary Relations


¨ \coh ˝ \scoh
˚ \incoh ˇ \sincoh

Table 83: colonequals Binary Relations


≈: \approxcolon ::− \coloncolonminus =:: \equalscoloncolon
≈:: \approxcoloncolon ::∼ \coloncolonsim −: \minuscolon
:≈ \colonapprox := \colonequals −:: \minuscoloncolon
:: \coloncolon :− \colonminus : \ratio
::≈ \coloncolonapprox :∼ \colonsim ∼: \simcolon
::= \coloncolonequals =: \equalscolon ∼:: \simcoloncolon

Table 84: fourier Binary Relations


Ô \nparallelslant Ë \parallelslant

Table 85: Subset and Superset Relations


@ \sqsubset∗ w \sqsupseteq ⊃ \supset
v \sqsubseteq ⊂ \subset ⊇ \supseteq
A \sqsupset∗ ⊆ \subseteq

Not predefined in LATEX 2ε . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb,
mathabx, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym.

Table 86: AMS Subset and Superset Relations


* \nsubseteq j \subseteqq % \supsetneqq
+ \nsupseteq ( \subsetneq \varsubsetneq
# \nsupseteqq $ \subsetneqq & \varsubsetneqq
@ \sqsubset c \Supset ! \varsupsetneq
A \sqsupset k \supseteqq ' \varsupsetneqq
b \Subset ) \supsetneq

36
Table 87: stmaryrd Subset and Superset Relations
D \subsetplus E \supsetplus
F \subsetpluseq G \supsetpluseq

Table 88: wasysym Subset and Superset Relations


@ \sqsubset A \sqsupset

Table 89: txfonts/pxfonts Subset and Superset Relations


a \nsqsubset A \nsqsupseteq ? \nSupset
@ \nsqsubseteq > \nSubset
b \nsqsupset " \nsubseteqq

Table 90: mathabx Subset and Superset Relations


‚ \nsqsubset ƒ \nsupset … \sqsupseteq … \supseteq
– \nsqSubset — \nSupset  \sqsupseteqq  \supseteqq
† \nsqsubseteq ‡ \nsupseteq ‰ \sqsupsetneq ‰ \supsetneq
Ž \nsqsubseteqq  \nsupseteqq ‘ \sqsupsetneqq ‘ \supsetneqq
ƒ \nsqsupset € \sqsubset € \subset Š \varsqsubsetneq
— \nsqSupset ” \sqSubset ” \Subset ’ \varsqsubsetneqq
‡ \nsqsupseteq „ \sqsubseteq „ \subseteq ‹ \varsqsupsetneq
 \nsqsupseteqq Œ \sqsubseteqq Œ \subseteqq “ \varsqsupsetneqq
‚ \nsubset ˆ \sqsubsetneq ˆ \subsetneq Š \varsubsetneq
– \nSubset  \sqsubsetneqq  \subsetneqq ’ \varsubsetneqq
† \nsubseteq • \sqSupset  \supset ‹ \varsupsetneq
Ž \nsubseteqq  \sqsupset • \Supset “ \varsupsetneqq

Table 91: MnSymbol Subset and Superset Relations


̸ \nSqsubset ⊈ \nsubseteq ⋤ \sqsubsetneq ⊆ \subseteq
⊏̸ \nsqsubset ⫅̸ \nsubseteqq ö \sqsubsetneqq ⫅ \subseteqq
⋢ \nsqsubseteq ⋑̸ \nSupset _ \Sqsupset ⊊ \subsetneq
̸ \nsqsubseteqq ⊅ \nsupset ⊐ \sqsupset ⫋ \subsetneqq
̸ \nSqsupset ⊉ \nsupseteq ⊒ \sqsupseteq ⋑ \Supset
⊐̸ \nsqsupset ⫆̸ \nsupseteqq ] \sqsupseteqq ⊃ \supset
⋣ \nsqsupseteq ^ \Sqsubset ⋥ \sqsupsetneq ⊇ \supseteq
̸ \nsqsupseteqq ⊏ \sqsubset ÷ \sqsupsetneqq ⫆ \supseteqq
⋐̸ \nSubset ⊑ \sqsubseteq ⋐ \Subset ⊋ \supsetneq
⊄ \nsubset \ \sqsubseteqq ⊂ \subset ⫌ \supsetneqq

MnSymbol additionally defines \varsubsetneq as a synonym for \subsetneq,


\varsubsetneqq as a synonym for \subsetneqq, \varsupsetneq as a synonym
for \supsetneq, and \varsupsetneqq as a synonym for \supsetneqq.

Table 92: Inequalities


≥ \geq  \gg ≤ \leq  \ll , \neq

37
Table 93: AMS Inequalities

1 \eqslantgtr m \gtrdot Q \lesseqgtr  \ngeq


0 \eqslantless R \gtreqless S \lesseqqgtr  \ngeqq
= \geqq T \gtreqqless ≶ \lessgtr \ngeqslant
> \geqslant ≷ \gtrless . \lesssim ≯ \ngtr
≫ \ggg & \gtrsim ≪ \lll  \nleq
 \gnapprox  \gvertneqq  \lnapprox  \nleqq
\gneq 5 \leqq \lneq
\nleqslant
\gneqq 6 \leqslant  \lneqq ≮ \nless
 \gnsim / \lessapprox  \lnsim
' \gtrapprox l \lessdot \lvertneqq

Table 94: wasysym Inequalities


? \apprge > \apprle

Table 95: txfonts/pxfonts Inequalities


4 \ngg ! \ngtrsim \nlesssim
# \ngtrapprox " \nlessapprox 3 \nll
& \ngtrless ' \nlessgtr

Table 96: mathabx Inequalities

· \eqslantgtr ½ \gtreqless À \lesssim £ \ngtr


¶ \eqslantless ¿ \gtreqqless ! \ll É \ngtrapprox
¥ \geq » \gtrless Î \lll à \ngtrsim
¯ \geqq Á \gtrsim Ê \lnapprox ¦ \nleq
" \gg µ \gvertneqq ¬ \lneq ° \nleqq
Ï \ggg ¤ \leq ² \lneqq ¢ \nless
Ë \gnapprox ® \leqq Ä \lnsim È \nlessapprox
­ \gneq Æ \lessapprox ´ \lvertneqq  \nlesssim
³ \gneqq Ì \lessdot ¹ \neqslantgtr « \nvargeq
Å \gnsim ¼ \lesseqgtr ¸ \neqslantless ª \nvarleq
Ç \gtrapprox ¾ \lesseqqgtr § \ngeq © \vargeq
Í \gtrdot º \lessgtr ± \ngeqq ¨ \varleq

mathabx defines \leqslant and \le as synonyms for \leq, \geqslant and \ge as
synonyms for \geq, \nleqslant as a synonym for \nleq, and \ngeqslant as a
synonym for \ngeq.

38
Table 97: MnSymbol Inequalities
⪖ \eqslantgtr ⪌ \gtreqqless ≲ \lesssim ⋛̸ \ngtreqless
⪕ \eqslantless ≷ \gtrless ≪ \ll ̸ \ngtreqlessslant
≥ \geq ó \gtrneqqless ⋘ \lll ⪌̸ \ngtreqqless
⊵ \geqclosed ≳ \gtrsim ⪉ \lnapprox ≹ \ngtrless
u \geqdot ≤ \leq ≨ \lneqq ≰ \nleq
≧ \geqq ⊴ \leqclosed ≴ \lnsim ⋬ \nleqclosed
⩾ \geqslant t \leqdot ⪖̸ \neqslantgtr ̸ \nleqdot
⪀ \geqslantdot ≦ \leqq ⪕̸ \neqslantless ≦̸ \nleqq
≫ \gg ⩽ \leqslant ≱ \ngeq ≰ \nleqslant
⋙ \ggg ⩿ \leqslantdot ⋭ \ngeqclosed ⩿̸ \nleqslantdot
⪊ \gnapprox < \less ̸ \ngeqdot ≮ \nless
≩ \gneqq ⪅ \lessapprox ≧̸ \ngeqq ⋪ \nlessclosed
≵ \gnsim ⊲ \lessclosed ≱ \ngeqslant ⋖̸ \nlessdot
> \gtr ⋖ \lessdot ⪀̸ \ngeqslantdot ⋚̸ \nlesseqgtr
⪆ \gtrapprox ⋚ \lesseqgtr ≫̸ \ngg ̸ \nlesseqgtrslant
⊳ \gtrclosed N \lesseqgtrslant ⋙̸ \nggg ⪋̸ \nlesseqqgtr
⋗ \gtrdot ⪋ \lesseqqgtr ≯ \ngtr ≸ \nlessgtr
⋛ \gtreqless ≶ \lessgtr ⋫ \ngtrclosed ≪̸ \nll
O \gtreqlessslant ò \lessneqqgtr ⋗̸ \ngtrdot ⋘̸ \nlll

MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols:


⋙ \gggtr (same as \ggg)
≩ \gvertneqq (same as \gneqq)
⊲ \lhd (same as \lessclosed)
⋘ \llless (same as \lll)
≨ \lvertneqq (same as \lneqq)
⋬ \ntrianglelefteq (same as \nleqclosed)
⋪ \ntriangleleft (same as \nlessclosed)
⋭ \ntrianglerighteq (same as \ngeqclosed)
⋫ \ntriangleright (same as \ngtrclosed)
⊳ \rhd (same as \gtrclosed)
⊴ \trianglelefteq (same as \leqclosed)
⊵ \trianglerighteq (same as \geqclosed)
⊴ \unlhd (same as \leqclosed)
⊵ \unrhd (same as \geqclosed)
⊲ \vartriangleleft (same as \lessclosed)
⊳ \vartriangleright (same as \gtrclosed)

Table 98: AMS Triangle Relations


J \blacktriangleleft 7 \ntriangleright D \trianglerighteq
I \blacktriangleright 4 \ntrianglerighteq C \vartriangleleft
6 \ntriangleleft E \trianglelefteq B \vartriangleright
5 \ntrianglelefteq , \triangleq

39
Table 99: stmaryrd Triangle Relations
P \trianglelefteqslant Q \trianglerighteqslant
R \ntrianglelefteqslant S \ntrianglerighteqslant

Table 100: mathabx Triangle Relations


š \ntriangleleft Ÿ \ntrianglerighteq ™ \triangleright ™ \vartriangleright
ž \ntrianglelefteq ˜ \triangleleft  \trianglerighteq
› \ntriangleright œ \trianglelefteq ˜ \vartriangleleft

Table 101: MnSymbol Triangle Relations


▼ \filledmedtriangledown △ \largetriangleup ▿ \smalltriangledown
◀ \filledmedtriangleleft ▽ \medtriangledown ◃ \smalltriangleleft
▶ \filledmedtriangleright ◁ \medtriangleleft ▹ \smalltriangleright
▲ \filledmedtriangleup ▷ \medtriangleright ▵ \smalltriangleup
▾ \filledtriangledown △ \medtriangleup ≜ \triangleeq
◂ \filledtriangleleft ≜̸ \ntriangleeq ⊴ \trianglelefteq
▸ \filledtriangleright ⋪ \ntriangleleft ⊵ \trianglerighteq
▴ \filledtriangleup ⋬ \ntrianglelefteq ⊲ \vartriangleleft
▽ \largetriangledown ⋫ \ntriangleright ⊳ \vartriangleright
◁ \largetriangleleft ⋭ \ntrianglerighteq
▷ \largetriangleright d \otriangle

MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for many of the preceding sym-


bols: \triangleq is a synonym for \triangleeq; \lhd and \lessclosed
are synonyms for \vartriangleleft; \rhd and \gtrclosed are syn-
onyms for \vartriangleright; \unlhd and \leqclosed are syn-
onyms for \trianglelefteq; \unrhd and \geqclosed are synonyms
for \trianglerighteq; \blacktriangledown, \blacktriangleleft,
\blacktriangleright, and \blacktriangle [sic] are synonyms for,
respectively, \filledmedtriangledown, \filledmedtriangleleft,
\filledmedtriangleright, and \filledmedtriangleup; \triangleright
is a synonym for \medtriangleright; \triangle, \vartriangle, and
\bigtriangleup are synonyms for \medtriangleup; \triangleleft is a
synonym for \medtriangleleft; \triangledown and \bigtriangledown are syn-
onyms for \medtriangledown; \nlessclosed is a synonym for \ntriangleleft;
\ngtrclosed is a synonym for \ntriangleright; \nleqclosed is a synonym for
\ntrianglelefteq; and \ngeqclosed is a synonym for \ntrianglerighteq.

The title “Triangle Relations” is a bit of a misnomer here as only \triangleeq


and \ntriangleeq are defined as TEX relations (class 3 symbols). The
\largetriangle. . . symbols are defined as TEX “ordinary” characters (class 0)
and all of the remaining characters are defined as TEX binary operators (class 2).

40
Table 102: Arrows
⇓ \Downarrow ←− \longleftarrow - \nwarrow
↓ \downarrow ⇐= \Longleftarrow ⇒ \Rightarrow
←- \hookleftarrow ←→ \longleftrightarrow → \rightarrow
,→ \hookrightarrow ⇐⇒ \Longleftrightarrow & \searrow
{ \leadsto∗ 7−→ \longmapsto . \swarrow
← \leftarrow =⇒ \Longrightarrow ↑ \uparrow
⇐ \Leftarrow −→ \longrightarrow ⇑ \Uparrow
⇔ \Leftrightarrow 7→ \mapsto l \updownarrow
↔ \leftrightarrow % \nearrow† m \Updownarrow

Not predefined in LATEX 2ε . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb,
txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym.

See the note beneath Table 169 for information about how to put a diagonal arrow
0
across a mathematical expression (as in “∇ · B~ ”) .

Table 103: Harpoons


) \leftharpoondown + \rightharpoondown *
) \rightleftharpoons
( \leftharpoonup * \rightharpoonup

Table 104: textcomp Text-mode Arrows


↓ \textdownarrow → \textrightarrow
← \textleftarrow ↑ \textuparrow

Table 105: AMS Arrows


\circlearrowleft ⇔ \leftleftarrows  \rightleftarrows
 \circlearrowright  \leftrightarrows ⇒ \rightrightarrows
x \curvearrowleft ! \leftrightsquigarrow \rightsquigarrow
y \curvearrowright W \Lleftarrow  \Rsh
c \dashleftarrow " \looparrowleft  \twoheadleftarrow
d \dashrightarrow # \looparrowright  \twoheadrightarrow
 \downdownarrows  \Lsh  \upuparrows
 \leftarrowtail  \rightarrowtail

Table 106: AMS Negated Arrows


: \nLeftarrow < \nLeftrightarrow ; \nRightarrow
8 \nleftarrow = \nleftrightarrow 9 \nrightarrow

Table 107: AMS Harpoons


 \downharpoonleft \leftrightharpoons  \upharpoonleft
 \downharpoonright
\rightleftharpoons  \upharpoonright

41
Table 108: stmaryrd Arrows
^ \leftarrowtriangle ⇐\ \Mapsfrom \shortleftarrow
- \leftrightarroweq ←[ \mapsfrom  \shortrightarrow
] \leftrightarrowtriangle ⇒ \Mapsto  \shortuparrow
\lightning 1 \nnearrow % \ssearrow
⇐=\ \Longmapsfrom 0 \nnwarrow $ \sswarrow
←−[ \longmapsfrom _ \rightarrowtriangle
=⇒ \Longmapsto  \shortdownarrow

Table 109: txfonts/pxfonts Arrows


‹ \boxdotLeft “ \circleddotright … \Diamondleft
ƒ \boxdotleft ’ \circleleft „ \Diamondright
‚ \boxdotright ‘ \circleright Œ \DiamondRight
Š \boxdotRight e \dashleftrightarrow f \leftsquigarrow
‰ \boxLeft  \DiamonddotLeft t \Nearrow
 \boxleft ‡ \Diamonddotleft v \Nwarrow
€ \boxright † \Diamonddotright V \Rrightarrow
ˆ \boxRight Ž \DiamonddotRight u \Searrow
” \circleddotleft  \DiamondLeft w \Swarrow

Table 110: mathabx Arrows


ö \circlearrowleft Ð \leftarrow Ô \nwarrow
÷ \circlearrowright Ð \leftleftarrows æ \restriction
ó \curvearrowbotleft Ø \leftrightarrow Ñ \rightarrow
õ \curvearrowbotleftright Ô \leftrightarrows Õ \rightleftarrows
ô \curvearrowbotright ú \leftrightsquigarrow Ñ \rightrightarrows
ð \curvearrowleft ø \leftsquigarrow ù \rightsquigarrow
ò \curvearrowleftright ü \lefttorightarrow ý \righttoleftarrow
ñ \curvearrowright î \looparrowdownleft é \Rsh
ê \dlsh ï \looparrowdownright × \searrow
Ó \downdownarrows ì \looparrowleft Ö \swarrow
ÿ \downtouparrow í \looparrowright Ö \updownarrows
× \downuparrows è \Lsh þ \uptodownarrow
ë \drsh Õ \nearrow Ò \upuparrows

Table 111: mathabx Negated Arrows


ö \nLeftarrow Ü \nleftrightarrow Û \nrightarrow
Ú \nleftarrow ø \nLeftrightarrow ÷ \nRightarrow

42
Table 112: mathabx Harpoons
Þ \barleftharpoon à \leftharpoonup é \rightleftharpoons
ß \barrightharpoon Ø \leftleftharpoons Ù \rightrightharpoons
Û \downdownharpoons à \leftrightharpoon ê \updownharpoons
å \downharpoonleft è \leftrightharpoons ä \upharpoonleft
ç \downharpoonright Ý \rightbarharpoon æ \upharpoonright
ë \downupharpoons ã \rightharpoondown Ú \upupharpoons
Ü \leftbarharpoon á \rightharpoonup
â \leftharpoondown á \rightleftharpoon

Table 113: MnSymbol Arrows

Ë \curvearrowdownup ←Ð \longleftarrow ⤦ \rhookswarrow


È \curvearrowleftright ⇐Ô \Longleftarrow 9 \rhookuparrow
Ì \curvearrownesw ←→ \longleftrightarrow → \rightarrow
Í \curvearrownwse ⇐⇒ \Longleftrightarrow ⇒ \Rightarrow
Ê \curvearrowrightleft z→ \longmapsto ↣ \rightarrowtail
Ï \curvearrowsenw Ð→ \longrightarrow ⇄ \rightleftarrows
Î \curvearrowswne Ô⇒ \Longrightarrow ↝ \rightlsquigarrow
É \curvearrowupdown ↫ \looparrowleft ↦ \rightmapsto
⇣ \dasheddownarrow ↬ \looparrowright ⇉ \rightrightarrows
⇠ \dashedleftarrow ↰ \Lsh ¨ \rightrsquigarrow
d \dashednearrow ↗ \nearrow ⇛ \Rrightarrow
e \dashednwarrow ⇗ \Nearrow ↱ \Rsh
⇢ \dashedrightarrow $ \nearrowtail ↘ \searrow
g \dashedsearrow ¤ \nelsquigarrow ⇘ \Searrow
f \dashedswarrow , \nemapsto ' \searrowtail
⇡ \dasheduparrow ” \nenearrows § \selsquigarrow
⇓ \Downarrow ¬ \nersquigarrow / \semapsto
↓ \downarrow ⤡ \neswarrow Ÿ \senwarrows
# \downarrowtail  \Neswarrow ¯ \sersquigarrow
⇊ \downdownarrows š \neswarrows — \sesearrows
£ \downlsquigarrow ↖ \nwarrow ³ \squigarrowdownup
↧ \downmapsto ⇖ \Nwarrow ↭ \squigarrowleftright
« \downrsquigarrow % \nwarrowtail ´ \squigarrownesw
 \downuparrows ¥ \nwlsquigarrow µ \squigarrownwse
ÿ \lcirclearrowdown - \nwmapsto ² \squigarrowrightleft
⤾ \lcirclearrowleft • \nwnwarrows · \squigarrowsenw
⟳ \lcirclearrowright ­ \nwrsquigarrow ¶ \squigarrowswne
↻ \lcirclearrowup ⤢ \nwsearrow ± \squigarrowupdown
⤸ \lcurvearrowdown  \Nwsearrow ↙ \swarrow
º \lcurvearrowleft › \nwsearrows ⇙ \Swarrow
¼ \lcurvearrowne ∲ \partialvardlcircleleftint∗ & \swarrowtail
½ \lcurvearrownw ∲ \partialvardlcirclerightint∗ ¦ \swlsquigarrow
↷ \lcurvearrowright ∳ \partialvardrcircleleftint∗ . \swmapsto
¿ \lcurvearrowse ∳ \partialvardrcirclerightint∗ ž \swnearrows
¾ \lcurvearrowsw ∲ \partialvartlcircleleftint∗ ® \swrsquigarrow
¹ \lcurvearrowup ∲ \partialvartlcirclerightint∗ – \swswarrows
⇐ \Leftarrow ∳ \partialvartrcircleleftint∗ ↡ \twoheaddownarrow

(continued on next page)

43
(continued from previous page)

← \leftarrow ∳ \partialvartrcirclerightint∗ ↞ \twoheadleftarrow


↢ \leftarrowtail û \rcirclearrowdown  \twoheadnearrow
⇇ \leftleftarrows ⟲ \rcirclearrowleft  \twoheadnwarrow
¢ \leftlsquigarrow ⤿ \rcirclearrowright ↠ \twoheadrightarrow
↤ \leftmapsto ↺ \rcirclearrowup  \twoheadsearrow
↔ \leftrightarrow ⤹ \rcurvearrowdown  \twoheadswarrow
⇔ \Leftrightarrow ↶ \rcurvearrowleft ↟ \twoheaduparrow
⇆ \leftrightarrows Ä \rcurvearrowne ↑ \uparrow
↜ \leftrsquigarrow Å \rcurvearrownw ⇑ \Uparrow
3 \lhookdownarrow À \rcurvearrowright ! \uparrowtail
2 \lhookleftarrow Ç \rcurvearrowse ↕ \updownarrow
4 \lhooknearrow Æ \rcurvearrowsw ⇕ \Updownarrow
⤣ \lhooknwarrow Á \rcurvearrowup ™ \updownarrows
↪ \lhookrightarrow ; \rhookdownarrow ¡ \uplsquigarrow
⤥ \lhooksearrow ↩ \rhookleftarrow ↥ \upmapsto
6 \lhookswarrow ⤤ \rhooknearrow © \uprsquigarrow
1 \lhookuparrow = \rhooknwarrow ⇈ \upuparrows
☇ \lightning 8 \rhookrightarrow
⇚ \Lleftarrow ? \rhooksearrow

MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols:

↺ \circlearrowleft (same as \rcirclearrowup)


↻ \circlearrowright (same as \lcirclearrowup)
↶ \curvearrowleft (same as \rcurvearrowleft)
↷ \curvearrowright (same as \lcurvearrowright)
⇠ \dashleftarrow (same as \dashedleftarrow)
⇢ \dashrightarrow (same as \dashedrightarrow)
↩ \hookleftarrow (same as \rhookleftarrow)
↪ \hookrightarrow (same as \lhookrightarrow)
↝ \leadsto (same as \rightlsquigarrow)
↭ \leftrightsquigarrow (same as \squigarrowleftright)
↦ \mapsto (same as \rightmapsto)
↝ \rightsquigarrow (same as \rightlsquigarrow)

The \partialvar. . . int macros are intended to be used internally by MnSymbol
to produce various types of integrals.

Table 114: MnSymbol Negated Arrows

̸ \ncurvearrowdownup ⤣̸ \nlhooknwarrow ⇄̸ \nrightleftarrows


̸ \ncurvearrowleftright ↪̸ \nlhookrightarrow ↝̸ \nrightlsquigarrow
̸ \ncurvearrownesw ⤥̸ \nlhooksearrow ↦̸ \nrightmapsto
̸ \ncurvearrownwse ̸ \nlhookswarrow ⇉̸ \nrightrightarrows
̸ \ncurvearrowrightleft ̸ \nlhookuparrow ̸ \nrightrsquigarrow
̸ \ncurvearrowsenw ⇚̸ \nLleftarrow ⇛̸ \nRrightarrow
̸ \ncurvearrowswne ↗̸ \nnearrow ⇘̸ \nSearrow
̸ \ncurvearrowupdown ⇗̸ \nNearrow ↘̸ \nsearrow

(continued on next page)

44
(continued from previous page)

⇣̸ \ndasheddownarrow ̸ \nnearrowtail ̸ \nsearrowtail


⇠̸ \ndashedleftarrow ̸ \nnelsquigarrow ̸ \nselsquigarrow
̸ \ndashednearrow ̸ \nnemapsto ̸ \nsemapsto
̸ \ndashednwarrow ̸ \nnenearrows ̸ \nsenwarrows
⇢̸ \ndashedrightarrow ̸ \nnersquigarrow ̸ \nsersquigarrow
̸ \ndashedsearrow ̸ \nNeswarrow ̸ \nsesearrows
̸ \ndashedswarrow ⤡̸ \nneswarrow ̸ \nsquigarrowdownup
⇡̸ \ndasheduparrow ̸ \nneswarrows ̸ \nsquigarrowleftright
↓̸ \ndownarrow ⇖̸ \nNwarrow ̸ \nsquigarrownesw
⇓̸ \nDownarrow ↖̸ \nnwarrow ̸ \nsquigarrownwse
̸ \ndownarrowtail ̸ \nnwarrowtail ̸ \nsquigarrowrightleft
⇊̸ \ndowndownarrows ̸ \nnwlsquigarrow ̸ \nsquigarrowsenw
̸ \ndownlsquigarrow ̸ \nnwmapsto ̸ \nsquigarrowswne
↧̸ \ndownmapsto ̸ \nnwnwarrows ̸ \nsquigarrowupdown
̸ \ndownrsquigarrow ̸ \nnwrsquigarrow ↙̸ \nswarrow
̸ \ndownuparrows ⤢̸ \nnwsearrow ⇙̸ \nSwarrow
̸ \nlcirclearrowdown ̸ \nNwsearrow ̸ \nswarrowtail
⤾̸ \nlcirclearrowleft ̸ \nnwsearrows ̸ \nswlsquigarrow
⟳̸ \nlcirclearrowright ̸ \nrcirclearrowdown ̸ \nswmapsto
↻̸ \nlcirclearrowup ⟲̸ \nrcirclearrowleft ̸ \nswnearrows
⤸̸ \nlcurvearrowdown ⤿̸ \nrcirclearrowright ̸ \nswrsquigarrow
̸ \nlcurvearrowleft ↺̸ \nrcirclearrowup ̸ \nswswarrows
̸ \nlcurvearrowne ⤹̸ \nrcurvearrowdown ↡̸ \ntwoheaddownarrow
̸ \nlcurvearrownw ↶̸ \nrcurvearrowleft ↞̸ \ntwoheadleftarrow
↷̸ \nlcurvearrowright ̸ \nrcurvearrowne ̸ \ntwoheadnearrow
̸ \nlcurvearrowse ̸ \nrcurvearrownw ̸ \ntwoheadnwarrow
̸ \nlcurvearrowsw ̸ \nrcurvearrowright ↠̸ \ntwoheadrightarrow
̸ \nlcurvearrowup ̸ \nrcurvearrowse ̸ \ntwoheadsearrow
⇍ \nLeftarrow ̸ \nrcurvearrowsw ̸ \ntwoheadswarrow
↚ \nleftarrow ̸ \nrcurvearrowup ↟̸ \ntwoheaduparrow
↢̸ \nleftarrowtail ̸ \nrhookdownarrow ↑̸ \nuparrow
⇇̸ \nleftleftarrows ↩̸ \nrhookleftarrow ⇑̸ \nUparrow
̸ \nleftlsquigarrow ⤤̸ \nrhooknearrow ̸ \nuparrowtail
↤̸ \nleftmapsto ̸ \nrhooknwarrow ↕̸ \nupdownarrow
↮ \nleftrightarrow ̸ \nrhookrightarrow ⇕̸ \nUpdownarrow
⇎ \nLeftrightarrow ̸ \nrhooksearrow ̸ \nupdownarrows
⇆̸ \nleftrightarrows ⤦̸ \nrhookswarrow ̸ \nuplsquigarrow
↜̸ \nleftrsquigarrow ̸ \nrhookuparrow ↥̸ \nupmapsto
̸ \nlhookdownarrow ↛ \nrightarrow ̸ \nuprsquigarrow
̸ \nlhookleftarrow ⇏ \nRightarrow ⇈̸ \nupuparrows
̸ \nlhooknearrow ↣̸ \nrightarrowtail

MnSymbol additionally defines synonyms for some of the preceding symbols:

45
↺̸ \ncirclearrowleft (same as \nrcirclearrowup)
↻̸ \ncirclearrowright (same as \nlcirclearrowup)
↶̸ \ncurvearrowleft (same as \nrcurvearrowleft)
↷̸ \ncurvearrowright (same as \nlcurvearrowright)
⇢̸ \ndasharrow (same as \ndashedrightarrow)
⇠̸ \ndashleftarrow (same as \ndashedleftarrow)
⇢̸ \ndashrightarrow (same as \ndashedrightarrow)
↚ \ngets (same as \nleftarrow)
↩̸ \nhookleftarrow (same as \nrhookleftarrow)
↪̸ \nhookrightarrow (same as \nlhookrightarrow)
↝̸ \nleadsto (same as \nrightlsquigarrow)
̸ \nleftrightsquigarrow (same as \nsquigarrowleftright)
↦̸ \nmapsto (same as \nrightmapsto)
↝̸ \nrightsquigarrow (same as \nrightlsquigarrow)
↛ \nto (same as \nrightarrow)

Table 115: MnSymbol Harpoons


⇂ \downharpoonccw∗ Z \neswharpoons O \seharpooncw
⇃ \downharpooncw∗ V \neswharpoonsenw [ \senwharpoons
⥯ \downupharpoons E \nwharpoonccw F \swharpoonccw
↽ \leftharpoonccw∗ M \nwharpooncw N \swharpooncw
↼ \leftharpooncw∗ S \nwseharpoonnesw ^ \swneharpoons
⥊ \leftrightharpoondownup _ \nwseharpoons Q \updownharpoonleftright
⇋ \leftrightharpoons W \nwseharpoonswne U \updownharpoonrightleft
⥋ \leftrightharpoonupdown ⇀ \rightharpoonccw∗ ⥮ \updownharpoons
D \neharpoonccw ⇁ \rightharpooncw∗ ↿ \upharpoonccw∗
L \neharpooncw ⇌ \rightleftharpoons ↾ \upharpooncw∗
R \neswharpoonnwse G \seharpoonccw

Where marked, the “ccw” suffix can be replaced with “up” and the “cw” suf-
fix can be replaced with “down”. (In addition, \upharpooncw can be written as
\restriction.)

Table 116: MnSymbol Negated Harpoons


⇂̸ \ndownharpoonccw ∗
̸ \nneswharpoons ̸ \nseharpooncw
⇃̸ \ndownharpooncw∗ ̸ \nneswharpoonsenw ̸ \nsenwharpoons
⥯̸ \ndownupharpoons ̸ \nnwharpoonccw ̸ \nswharpoonccw
↽̸ \nleftharpoonccw∗ ̸ \nnwharpooncw ̸ \nswharpooncw
↼̸ \nleftharpooncw∗ ̸ \nnwseharpoonnesw ̸ \nswneharpoons
⥊̸ \nleftrightharpoondownup ̸ \nnwseharpoons ̸ \nupdownharpoonleftright
⇋̸ \nleftrightharpoons ̸ \nnwseharpoonswne ̸ \nupdownharpoonrightleft
⥋̸ \nleftrightharpoonupdown ⇀̸ \nrightharpoonccw∗ ⥮̸ \nupdownharpoons
̸ \nneharpoonccw ⇁̸ \nrightharpooncw∗ ↿̸ \nupharpoonccw∗
̸ \nneharpooncw ⇌̸ \nrightleftharpoons ↾̸ \nupharpooncw∗
̸ \nneswharpoonnwse ̸ \nseharpoonccw

Where marked, the “ccw” suffix can be replaced with “up” and the “cw” suffix
can be replaced with “down”. (In addition, \nupharpooncw can be written as
\nrestriction.)

46
Table 117: harpoon Extensible Harpoons
(
abc \overleftharp{abc}
+
abc \overrightharpdown{abc} abc \underrightharp{abc}
) *
abc \overleftharpdown{abc} abc \underleftharp{abc} abc \underrightharpdown{abc}
* ( +
abc \overrightharp{abc} abc \underleftharpdown{abc}
)
All of the harpoon symbols are implemented using the graphics package (specifically,
graphics’s \resizebox command). Consequently, only TEX backends that support
graphical transformations (e.g., not Xdvi) can properly display these symbols.

Table 118: chemarrow Arrows


A \chemarrow

Table 119: fge Arrows


! \fgerightarrow " \fgeuparrow

Table 120: MnSymbol Spoons


s \downfilledspoon ̸ \nnespoon u \nwfilledspoon
⫰ \downspoon ̸ \nnwfilledspoon m \nwspoon
r \leftfilledspoon ̸ \nnwspoon p \rightfilledspoon
⟜ \leftspoon ̸ \nrightfilledspoon ⊸ \rightspoon∗
̸ \ndownfilledspoon ⊸̸ \nrightspoon∗ w \sefilledspoon
⫰̸ \ndownspoon ̸ \nsefilledspoon o \sespoon
t \nefilledspoon ̸ \nsespoon v \swfilledspoon
l \nespoon ̸ \nswfilledspoon n \swspoon
̸ \nleftfilledspoon ̸ \nswspoon q \upfilledspoon
⟜̸ \nleftspoon ̸ \nupfilledspoon ⫯ \upspoon
̸ \nnefilledspoon ⫯̸ \nupspoon

MnSymbol defines \multimap as a synonym for \rightspoon and \nmultimap as
a synonym for \nrightspoon.

Table 121: MnSymbol Pitchforks


⫛ \downpitchfork ̸ \nnwpitchfork ˆ \rightpitchfork
Š \leftpitchfork ̸ \nrightpitchfork  \sepitchfork
⫛̸ \ndownpitchfork ̸ \nsepitchfork Ž \swpitchfork
Œ \nepitchfork ̸ \nswpitchfork ⋔ \uppitchfork
̸ \nleftpitchfork ⋔̸ \nuppitchfork
̸ \nnepitchfork  \nwpitchfork

MnSymbol defines \pitchfork as a synonym for \uppitchfork and \npitchfork
as a synonym for \nuppitchfork.

47
Table 122: MnSymbol Smiles and Frowns
 \doublefrown ̸ \nsmileeq \smileeq
% \doublefrowneq ̸ \nsmileeqfrown & \smileeqfrown
 \doublesmile ≭ \nsmilefrown ≍ \smilefrown
$ \doublesmileeq ̸ \nsmilefrowneq ( \smilefrowneq
# \eqfrown ̸ \nsqdoublefrown - \sqdoublefrown
" \eqsmile ̸ \nsqdoublefrowneq 7 \sqdoublefrowneq
⌢ \frown ̸ \nsqdoublesmile , \sqdoublesmile
! \frowneq ̸ \nsqdoublesmileeq 6 \sqdoublesmileeq
' \frowneqsmile ̸ \nsqeqfrown 5 \sqeqfrown
 \frownsmile ̸ \nsqeqsmile 4 \sqeqsmile
) \frownsmileeq ̸ \nsqfrown + \sqfrown
̸ \ndoublefrown ̸ \nsqfrowneq 3 \sqfrowneq
̸ \ndoublefrowneq ̸ \nsqfrowneqsmile 9 \sqfrowneqsmile
̸ \ndoublesmile ̸ \nsqfrownsmile 1 \sqfrownsmile
̸ \ndoublesmileeq ̸ \nsqsmile * \sqsmile
̸ \neqfrown ̸ \nsqsmileeq 2 \sqsmileeq
̸ \neqsmile ̸ \nsqsmileeqfrown 8 \sqsmileeqfrown
⌢̸ \nfrown ̸ \nsqsmilefrown 0 \sqsmilefrown
̸ \nfrowneq ̸ \nsqtriplefrown / \sqtriplefrown
̸ \nfrowneqsmile ̸ \nsqtriplesmile . \sqtriplesmile
̸ \nfrownsmile ̸ \ntriplefrown  \triplefrown
̸ \nfrownsmileeq ̸ \ntriplesmile  \triplesmile
⌣̸ \nsmile ⌣ \smile

MnSymbol defines \smallsmile as a synonym for \smile, \smallfrown as a syn-
onym for \frown, \asymp as a synonym for \smilefrown, and \nasymp as a syn-
onym for \nsmilefrown.

Table 123: ulsy Contradiction Symbols


\blitza
\blitzb \blitzc \blitzd \blitze

Table 124: Extension Characters


− \relbar = \Relbar

Table 125: stmaryrd Extension Characters


Y \Arrownot \ \Mapsfromchar  \Mapstochar
X \arrownot [ \mapsfromchar

Table 126: txfonts/pxfonts Extension Characters


 \Mappedfromchar  \Mmappedfromchar  \Mmapstochar
\mappedfromchar  \mmappedfromchar  \mmapstochar

48
Table 127: mathabx Extension Characters
ß \mapsfromchar Þ \mapstochar
û \Mapsfromchar ú \Mapstochar

Table 128: Log-like Symbols


\arccos \cos \csc \exp \ker \limsup \min \sinh
\arcsin \cosh \deg \gcd \lg \ln \Pr \sup
\arctan \cot \det \hom \lim \log \sec \tan
\arg \coth \dim \inf \liminf \max \sin \tanh

Calling the above “symbols” may be a bit misleading.3 Each log-like symbol merely
produces the eponymous textual equivalent, but with proper surrounding spac-
ing. See Section 8.4 for more information about log-like symbols. As \bmod and
\pmod are arguably not symbols we refer the reader to the Short Math Guide for
LATEX [Dow00] for samples.

Table 129: AMS Log-like Symbols

inj lim \injlim lim \varinjlim lim \varlimsup


−→
proj lim \projlim lim \varliminf lim \varprojlim
←−

Load the amsmath package to get these symbols. See Section 8.4 for some additional
comments regarding log-like symbols. As \mod and \pod are arguably not symbols
we refer the reader to the Short Math Guide for LATEX [Dow00] for samples.

Table 130: ChinA2e Number Sets


à \Complex Ú \Integer Î \Natural Ñ \Rational Ò \Real
» \COMPLEX ¿ \INTEGER ¼ \NATURAL ½ \RATIONAL ¾ \REAL
3 Michael J. Downes prefers the more general term, “atomic math objects”.

49
Table 131: Greek Letters
α \alpha θ \theta o o τ \tau
β \beta ϑ \vartheta π \pi υ \upsilon
γ \gamma ι \iota $ \varpi φ \phi
δ \delta κ \kappa ρ \rho ϕ \varphi
 \epsilon λ \lambda % \varrho χ \chi
ε \varepsilon µ \mu σ \sigma ψ \psi
ζ \zeta ν \nu ς \varsigma ω \omega
η \eta ξ \xi

Γ \Gamma Λ \Lambda Σ \Sigma Ψ \Psi


∆ \Delta Ξ \Xi Υ \Upsilon Ω \Omega
Θ \Theta Π \Pi Φ \Phi

The remaining Greek majuscules can be produced with ordinary Latin letters. The
symbol “M”, for instance, is used for both an uppercase “m” and an uppercase “µ”.

See Section 8.5 for examples of how to produce bold Greek letters.

The symbols in this table are intended to be used in mathematical typesetting.


Greek body text can be typeset using the babel package’s greek (or polutonikogreek)
option—and, of course, a font that provides the glyphs for the Greek alphabet.

Table 132: AMS Greek Letters


z \digamma κ \varkappa

Table 133: txfonts/pxfonts Upright Greek Letters


α \alphaup θ \thetaup π \piup φ \phiup
β \betaup ϑ \varthetaup $ \varpiup ϕ \varphiup
γ \gammaup ι \iotaup ρ \rhoup χ \chiup
δ \deltaup κ \kappaup % \varrhoup ψ \psiup
 \epsilonup λ \lambdaup σ \sigmaup ω \omegaup
ε \varepsilonup µ \muup ς \varsigmaup
ζ \zetaup ν \nuup τ \tauup
η \etaup ξ \xiup υ \upsilonup

50
Table 134: upgreek Upright Greek Letters
α \upalpha θ \uptheta π \uppi φ \upphi
β \upbeta ϑ \upvartheta ϖ \upvarpi ϕ \upvarphi
γ \upgamma ι \upiota ρ \uprho χ \upchi
δ \updelta κ \upkappa ρ \upvarrho ψ \uppsi
ε \upepsilon λ \uplambda σ \upsigma ω \upomega
ε \upvarepsilon µ \upmu σ \upvarsigma
ζ \upzeta ν \upnu τ \uptau
η \upeta ξ \upxi υ \upupsilon

Γ \Upgamma Λ \Uplambda Σ \Upsigma Ψ \Uppsi


∆ \Updelta Ξ \Upxi Υ \Upupsilon Ω \Upomega
Θ \Uptheta Π \Uppi Φ \Upphi

upgreek utilizes upright Greek characters from either the PostScript Symbol font
(depicted above) or Euler Roman. As a result, the glyphs may appear slightly
different from the above. Contrast, for example, “Γ∆Θαβγ” (Symbol) with
“Γ∆Θαβγ” (Euler).

Table 135: fourier Variant Greek Letters


π \pi ρ \rho
$ \varpi % \varrho
È \varvarpi Æ \varvarrho

Table 136: txfonts/pxfonts Variant Latin Letters


1 \varg 3 \varv 4 \varw 2 \vary

Pass the varg option to txfonts/pxfonts to replace g, v, w, and y with 1, 3, 4, and 2


in every mathematical expression in your document.

Table 137: AMS Hebrew Letters


i \beth ‫ג‬ \gimel k \daleth

\aleph (ℵ) appears in Table 201 on page 65.

Table 138: MnSymbol Hebrew Letters


ℵ \aleph ℶ \beth ℷ \gimel ℸ \daleth

Table 139: Letter-like Symbols


⊥ \bot ∀ \forall ı \imath 3 \ni > \top
` \ell ~ \hbar ∈ \in ∂ \partial ℘ \wp
∃ \exists = \Im  \jmath < \Re

51
Table 140: AMS Letter-like Symbols
k \Bbbk { \complement ~ \hbar
r \circledR ` \Finv } \hslash
s \circledS a \Game @ \nexists

Table 141: txfonts/pxfonts Letter-like Symbols


¢ \mathcent £ \mathsterling∗ < \notin = \notni


It’s generally preferable to use the corresponding symbol from Table 3 on page 9
because the symbols in that table work properly in both text mode and math mode.

Table 142: mathabx Letter-like Symbols


V \barin P \in L \nottop T \varnotin
A \complement E \nexists Q \owns U \varnotowner
D \exists M \notbot W \ownsbar
F \Finv R \notin B \partial
G \Game S \notowner C \partialslash

Table 143: MnSymbol Letter-like Symbols


– \bot ∈ \in ∌ \nowns∗ ⊺ \top
∃ \exists ∄ \nexists ∋ \owns ℘ \wp
∀ \forall ∉ \nin∗ ℘ \powerset

MnSymbol provides synonyms \notin for \nin, \ni for \owns, and \intercal for
\top.

Table 144: trfsigns Letter-like Symbols


e \e j \im

Table 145: mathdesign Letter-like Symbols


∈ \in 3 \owns
6 ∈ \notin \smallin
 \notsmallin  \smallowns
 \notsmallowns

The mathdesign package additionally provides versions of each of the letter-like


symbols shown in Table 140.

52
Table 146: fge Letter-like Symbols
A \fgeA ı \fgeeszett D \fgeleftB U \fgeU
c \fgec F \fgeF C \fgeleftC
p \fged f \fgef B \fgerightB
e \fgee ” \fgelb∗ s \fges

The fge package defines \fgeeta, \fgeN, and \fgeoverU as synonyms for \fgelb.

Table 147: fourier Letter-like Symbols


∂ \partial
Ç \varpartialdiff

Table 148: AMS Delimiters


p \ulcorner q \urcorner
x \llcorner y \lrcorner

Table 149: stmaryrd Delimiters


P \Lbag Q \Rbag N \lbag O \rbag
V \llceil W \rrceil T \llfloor U \rrfloor
L \llparenthesis M \rrparenthesis

Table 150: mathabx Delimiters


v \lcorners w \rcorners

x \ulcorner y \urcorner
z \llcorner { \lrcorner

Table 151: nath Delimiters


\niv \vin

53
Table 152: Variable-sized Delimiters
 w h i
↓ \downarrow ⇓ \Downarrow [ [ ] ]
 w
y 
D E
h \langle i \rangle | | k \|


l m x ~
d \lceil e \rceil ↑  \uparrow ⇑ \Uparrow
 w
w
j k x ~
b \lfloor c \rfloor l y \updownarrow m \Updownarrow
 w

  n o
( ( ) ) { \{ } \}
. /
/ / \ \backslash

When used with \left and \right, these symbols expand to the height of the
enclosed math expression. Note that \vert is a synonym for |, and \Vert is a
synonym for \|.

ε-TEX provides a \middle analogue to \left and \right. \middle can be used, for
example, to make an internal “|” expand to the height of the surrounding \left and
\right symbols. (This capability is commonly needed when typesetting adjacent
bras and kets in Dirac notation: “hφ|ψi”). A similar effect can be achieved in
conventional LATEX using the braket package.

Table 153: Large, Variable-sized Delimiters


   
       
\lmoustache  \rmoustache  \lgroup \rgroup
 
        


   

 w 

  w w  

\arrowvert w w \Arrowvert \bracevert
  w 
 
   

 w 

These symbols must be used with \left and \right. The mathabx package, how-
ever, redefines \lgroup and \rgroup so that those symbols can work without \left
and \right.

Table 154: AMS Variable-sized Delimiters



| \lvert | \rvert



k \lVert k \rVert

According to the amsmath documentation [AMS99], the preceding symbols are


intended to be used as delimiters (e.g., as in “|−z|”) while the \vert and \Vert
symbols (Table 152) are intended to be used as operators (e.g., as in “p|q”).

Table 155: stmaryrd Variable-sized Delimiters


 
~ \llbracket  \rrbracket

54
Table 156: mathabx Variable-sized Delimiters
1 9
v \ldbrack w \rdbrack
77 ??
7 77 \lfilet ? ?? \rfilet
 
~  \thickvert ~  \vvvert

Table 157: MnSymbol Variable-sized Delimiters

⎡⎢ ⎤⎥
⌈ ⎢⎢ ⌉ ⎥⎥ ⌜ ⌜ ⌝ ⌝
⎢⎢ \lceil ⎥⎥ \rceil \ulcorner \urcorner
⎢ ⎥
⎢⎢ ⎥⎥
⌊ ⎢⎢ ⌋ ⎥⎥ ⌞ ⌞ ⌟ ⌟
⎢⎢ \lfloor ⎥⎥ \rfloor \llcorner \lrcorner
⎣ ⎦
^^ ^^ ^^ ^^
^ ^^ ^ ^^ ⟨ ⟨ ⟩ ⟩
^^ \lwavy ^^ \rwavy \langle \rangle
^ ^
_ _
_ _ _
_
_
_ _
_ _
_ _
_ k n p s
_
_
\lWavy _
_
\rWavy \langlebar \ranglebar
_ _

⎪ ⎫


⎪ ⎪
⎪ ⎫
⎪ ⎪

( ( ) ) ⎩ ⎪
⎪ ⎭ ⎪

⎩ ⎭
( ) \lgroup \rgroup

L
P M
Q
⟦ P
P ⟧ Q
Q ⟪ ⟪ ⟫ ⟫
P
P
\lsem Q
Q
\rsem \llangle \rrangle
N O

⎪ ⎫
⎪ ⎧
⎪ ⎫


⎪ ⎪
⎪ ⎫
⎪ ⎪
⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎭ ⎪
⎪ ⎩ ⎪
⎪ { ⎨ } ⎬
⎭ ⎩ ⎪ ⎪
\lmoustache \rmoustache \lbrace \rbrace

⎩ ⎪

/ / / / / \backslash ⟨ ⟨ < ⟩ ⟩ >

⎡⎢ ⎤⎥
[ ⎢⎢ ] ⎥⎥ 3 6 8 ;
⎢⎢ [ ⎥⎥ ] \ullcorner \ulrcorner
⎣ ⎦
RR X
X ⎪

RR X
X ⎪ ⎪

∣ RR ∥ X
X ⎪
⎪ ⎪

R | X \| ⎪ \bracevert

RR X
X
RR RR X X
X
R RR X
X X
X
R \arrowvert X \Arrowvert

55
\vert is a synonym for |. \Vert is a synonym for \|. \mid and \mvert produce
the same symbol as \vert but designated as math relations instead of ordinals.
\divides produces the same symbol as \vert but designated as a binary operator
instead of an ordinal. \parallel and \mVert produce the same symbol as \Vert
but designated as math relations instead of ordinals.

Table 158: mathdesign Variable-sized Delimiters


Ð Ð
Ð Ð
Ð Ð
Ð \leftwave Ð Ð
Ð \rightwave
Ñ Ñ
Ñ Ñ
Ñ Ñ
Ñ \leftevaw Ñ Ñ
Ñ \rightevaw

The definitions of these symbols include a preceding \left or \right. It is therefore


an error to specify \left or \right explicitly. The internal, “primitive” versions
of these symbols are called \lwave, \rwave, \levaw, and \revaw.

Table 159: nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Double)


DD EE
hh \lAngle ii \rAngle
hh ii
[[ \lBrack ]] \rBrack
ll mm
dd \lCeil ee \rCeil
jj kk
bb \lFloor cc \rFloor

|| \lVert∗ || \rVert∗


nath redefines all of the above to include implicit \left and \right commands.
Hence, separate \lVert and \rVert commands are needed to disambiguate whether
“|” is a left or right delimiter.

All of the symbols in Table 159 can also be expressed using the \double macro.
See the nath documentation for examples and additional information.

56
Table 160: nath Variable-sized Delimiters (Triple)
DDD EEE
hhh \triple< iii \triple>
hhh iii
[[[ \triple[ ]]] \triple]

||| \ltriple|∗ ||| \rtriple|∗


Similar to \lVert and \rVert in Table 159, \ltriple and \rtriple must be used
instead of \triple to disambiguate whether “|” is a left or right delimiter.

Note that \triple—and the corresponding \double—is actually a macro that


takes a delimiter as an argument.

Table 161: fourier Variable-sized Delimiters


‹ Œ
\llbracket \rrbracket
… †

“
“ “
“ “
“ \VERT

Table 162: textcomp Text-mode Delimiters


〈 \textlangle 〉 \textrangle
〚 \textlbrackdbl 〛 \textrbrackdbl
⁅ \textlquill ⁆ \textrquill

Table 163: metre Text-mode Delimiters


} \alad } \Alad † \crux † \Crux
{ \alas { \Alas ]] \quadrad ]] \Quadrad
i \angud i \Angud [[ \quadras [[ \Quadras
h \angus h \Angus

Table 164: Math-mode Accents


á \acute{a} ǎ \check{a} à \grave{a} ã \tilde{a}
ā \bar{a} ä \ddot{a} â \hat{a} ~a \vec{a}
ă \breve{a} ȧ \dot{a} å \mathring{a}

Also note the existence of \imath and \jmath, which produce dotless versions of
“i ” and “j ”. (See Table 201 on page 65.) These are useful when the accent is
supposed to replace the dot. For example, “\hat{\imath}” produces a correct
“ ı̂ ”, while “\hat{i}” would yield the rather odd-looking “ î ”.

57
Table 165: AMS Math-mode Accents
... ....
a \dddot{a} a \ddddot{a}

These accents are also provided by the mathabx and accents packages and are
redefined by the mathdots package if the amsmath and amssymb packages have pre-
viously been loaded. All of the variations except for the original AMS ones tighten
...
the space between the dots (from a to ˙˙˙
a). The mathabx and mathdots...versions also
˙˙˙
a a
function properly within subscripts and superscripts (x instead of x ) .

Table 166: MnSymbol Math-mode Accents



a \vec{a}

Table 167: fge Math-mode Accents



A–a \spirituslenis{A}\spirituslenis{a}∗

When fge is passed the crescent option, \spirituslenis instead uses a crescent
accent as in “ —a ”.

Table 168: yhmath Math-mode Accents


å \ring{a}

This symbol is largely obsolete, as standard LATEX 2ε has supported \mathring


since June, 1998 [LAT98].

58
Table 169: Extensible Accents

abc \widetilde{abc}∗ ”
abc \widehat{abc}∗
←− −→
abc \overleftarrow{abc}† abc \overrightarrow{abc}†
abc \overline{abc} abc \underline{abc}
z}|{
abc \overbrace{abc} abc
|{z} \underbrace{abc}

abc \sqrt{abc}‡

As demonstrated in a 1997 TUGboat article about typesetting long-division prob-


lems [Gib97], an extensible long-division sign (“ )abc ”) can be faked by putting a
“\big)” in a tabular environment with an \hline or \cline in the preceding row.
The article also presents a piece of code (uploaded to CTAN as longdiv.tex) that
automatically solves and typesets—by putting an \overline atop “\big)” and
the desired text—long-division problems. See also the polynom package, which au-
tomatically solves and typesets polynomial-division problems in a similar manner.

These symbols are made more extensible by the MnSymbol package and even more
extensible by the yhmath package.

If you’re looking for an extensible diagonal line or arrow to be used for canceling or
5
reducing mathematical subexpressions (e.g., “x + −x” or “3 + 2 ”) then consider
using the cancel package.

With an optional argument,√ \sqrt typesets nth roots. For√ example,
3 n
“\sqrt[3]{abc}” produces “ abc ” and “\sqrt[n]{abc}” produces “ abc ”.

Table 170: overrightarrow Extensible Accents


=⇒
abc \Overrightarrow{abc}

Table 171: yhmath Extensible Accents


ˆ
abc \wideparen{abc} È
abc \widetriangle{abc}

ˆ˚
abc \widering{abc}

Table 172: AMS Extensible Accents


←→
abc \overleftrightarrow{abc} abc
←→ \underleftrightarrow{abc}
abc
←− \underleftarrow{abc} abc
−→ \underrightarrow{abc}

59
Table 173: MnSymbol Extensible Accents
«
abc \overbrace{abc} abc \underbrace{abc}
°
³¹¹ ¹ ¹µ
abc \overgroup{abc} abc \undergroup{abc}
´¹¹ ¹ ¹¶
zx
zx
abc \overlinesegment{abc} abc \underlinesegment{abc}
↼Ð Ð⇀
abc \overleftharpoon{abc} abc \overrightharpoon{abc}
̂
abc \widehat{abc} ̃
abc \widetilde{abc}
Í
abc \wideparen{abc}

Table 174: mathtools Extensible Accents


z}|{
abc \overbrace{abc} abc
|{z} \underbrace{abc}
abc \overbracket{abc}∗ abc \underbracket{abc}∗


\overbracket and \underbracket accept optional arguments that specify the
bracket height and thickness. See the mathtools documentation for more infor-
mation.

Table 175: mathabx Extensible Accents


hkkikkj
abc \overbrace{abc} „
abc \widebar{abc}
hkkk j
abc \overgroup{abc} |
abc \widecheck{abc}

looabc
moon \underbrace{abc} Œ
abc \wideparen{abc}

lo
oo n
abc \undergroup{abc} Œ˚
abc \widering{abc}
ˆ
abc \widearrow{abc}

The braces shown for \overbrace and \underbrace appear in their minimum size.
They can expand arbitrarily wide, however.

Table 176: fourier Extensible Accents

abc
Ù \widearc{abc} abc
– \wideparen{abc}
˚
abc
å \wideOarc{abc} abc
– \widering{abc}

60
Table 177: esvect Extensible Accents
#”
abc \vv{abc} with package option a
#„
abc \vv{abc} with package option b

abc \vv{abc} with package option c

abc \vv{abc} with package option d
#–
abc \vv{abc} with package option e
#—
abc \vv{abc} with package option f
#
abc \vv{abc} with package option g
#‰
abc \vv{abc} with package option h

esvect also defines a \vv* macro which is used to typeset arrows over vector vari-
ables with subscripts. See the esvect documentation for more information.

Table 178: undertilde Extensible Accents


abc \utilde{abc}

Because \utilde is based on \widetilde it is also made more extensible by the
yhmath package.

Table 179: ushort Extensible Accents


abc \ushortdw{abc} abc \ushortw{abc}

\ushortw and \ushortdw are intended to be used with multi-character argu-


ments (“words”) while \ushortand \ushortd are intended to be used with single-
character arguments.

The underlines produced by the ushort commands are shorter than those pro-
duced by the \underline command. Consider the output from the expres-
sion “\ushort{x}\ushort{y}\underline{x}\underline{y}”, which looks like
“xyxy”.

Table 180: AMS Extensible Arrows


abc abc
←−− \xleftarrow{abc} −−→ \xrightarrow{abc}

61
Table 181: mathtools Extensible Arrows
abc abc
←−−- \xhookleftarrow{abc} (
−−
−−
+ \xleftrightharpoons{abc}
abc abc
,−−→ \xhookrightarrow{abc} 7−−→ \xmapsto{abc}
abc abc
⇐== \xLeftarrow{abc} ==⇒ \xRightarrow{abc}
abc abc
)−− \xleftharpoondown{abc} −−+ \xrightharpoondown{abc}
abc abc
(−− \xleftharpoonup{abc} −−* \xrightharpoonup{abc}
abc abc
←−→ \xleftrightarrow{abc} −
)−
−*
− \xrightleftharpoons{abc}
abc
⇐=⇒ \xLeftrightarrow{abc}

Table 182: chemarr Extensible Arrows


abc
−−
)−*
− \xrightleftharpoons{abc}

Table 183: chemarrow Extensible Arrows

abc abc
DGGGGGGG \autoleftarrow{abc}{def} GGGGGGGA \autorightarrow{abc}{def}
def def

abc abc
E
GGGGGGGC
GG \autoleftrightharpoons{abc}{def} GGGGGGGB
F GG \autorightleftharpoons{abc}{def}
def def

In addition to the symbols shown above, chemarrow also provides \larrowfill,


\rarrowfill, \leftrightharpoonsfill, and \rightleftharpoonsfill macros.
Each of these takes a length argument and produces an arrow of the specified
length.

Table 184: extarrows Extensible Arrows


abc abc
⇐=⇒ \xLeftrightarrow{abc} ⇐=
=⇒ \xLongleftrightarrow{abc}
abc abc
←−→ \xleftrightarrow{abc} ←−
−→ \xlongleftrightarrow{abc}
abc abc
==== \xlongequal{abc} ==⇒ \xLongrightarrow{abc}
abc abc
⇐== \xLongleftarrow{abc} −−→ \xlongrightarrow{abc}
abc
←−− \xlongleftarrow{abc}

62
Table 185: extpfeil Extensible Arrows
abc abc
==== \xlongequal{abc} 7−−→ \xmapsto{abc}
abc abc
−−−− \xtwoheadleftarrow{abc} −−−− \xtwoheadrightarrow{abc}

The extpfeil package also provides a \newextarrow command to help you define
your own extensible arrow symbols. See the extpfeil documentation for more infor-
mation.

Table 186: DotArrow Extensible Arrows


a
 \dotarrow{a}

The DotArrow package provides mechanisms for lengthening the arrow, adjusting
the distance between the arrow and its symbol, and altering the arrowhead. See
the DotArrow documentation for more information.

Table 187: trfsigns Extensible Transform Symbols

a \dft{a} a \DFT{a}

Table 188: holtpolt Non-commutative Division Symbols


abc abc
\holter{abc}{def} \polter{abc}{def}
def def

Table 189: Dots


..
· \cdotp : \colon∗ . \ldotp . \vdots†
..
··· \cdots . \ddots† ... \ldots

While “:” is valid in math mode, \colon uses different surrounding spacing. See
Section 8.4 and the Short Math Guide for LATEX [Dow00] for more information on
math-mode spacing.

The mathdots package redefines \ddots and \vdots to make them scale properly
with font size. (They normally scale horizontally but not vertically.) \fixedddots
and \fixedvdots provide the original, fixed-height functionality of LATEX 2ε ’s
\ddots and \vdots macros.

63
Table 190: AMS Dots
∵ \because∗ ··· \dotsi ∴ \therefore∗
··· \dotsb ··· \dotsm
... \dotsc ... \dotso

\because and \therefore are defined as binary relations and therefore also appear
in Table 68 on page 30.

The AMS \dots symbols are named according to their intended usage: \dotsb
between pairs of binary operators/relations, \dotsc between pairs of commas,
\dotsi between pairs of integrals, \dotsm between pairs of multiplication signs,
and \dotso between other symbol pairs.

Table 191: wasysym Dots


∴ \wasytherefore

Table 192: MnSymbol Dots


⋅ \cdot  \hdotdot ⋰ \udots
 \ddotdot ⋯ \hdots ∴ \uptherefore
⋱ \ddots \lefttherefore ∶ \vdotdot
\diamonddots \righttherefore ⋮ \vdots
∵ \downtherefore ∷ \squaredots
 \fivedots  \udotdot

MnSymbol defines \therefore as \uptherefore and \because as


\downtherefore. Furthermore, \cdotp and \colon produce the same glyphs as
\cdot and \vdotdot respectively but serve as TEX math punctuation (class 6
symbols) instead of TEX binary operators (class 2).

All of the above except \hdots and \vdots are defined as binary operators and
therefore also appear in Table 50 on page 23. Also, unlike most of the other dot
symbols in this document, MnSymbol’s dots are defined as single characters instead
of as composites of multiple single-dot characters.

Table 193: mathdots Dots


.
.. \iddots

Table 194: yhmath Dots


.
.. \adots

Table 195: teubner Dots


.. .. ..
\: . \; .. \? .. .. \antilabe

64
Table 196: mathcomp Math Symbols
℃ \tccentigrade Ω \tcohm ‰ \tcperthousand
µ \tcmu ‱ \tcpertenthousand

Table 197: marvosym Digits


0 \MVZero 2 \MVTwo 4 \MVFour 6 \MVSix 8 \MVEight
1 \MVOne 3 \MVThree 5 \MVFive 7 \MVSeven 9 \MVNine

Table 198: fge Digits


0 \fgestruckzero 1 \fgestruckone

Table 199: dozenal Base-12 Digits


X \x E \e

Table 200: mathabx Mayan Digits


0 \maya{0} 2 \maya{2} 4 \maya{4}
1 \maya{1} 3 \maya{3} 5 \maya{5}

Table 201: Miscellaneous LATEX 2ε Math Symbols


ℵ \aleph ^ \Diamond∗ ∞ \infty 0 \prime
6 \angle ♦ \diamondsuit f \mho∗ ] \sharp
\ \backslash ∅ \emptyset‡ ∇ \nabla ♠
` \spadesuit
 \Box∗,† [ \flat \ \natural \surd
♣ \clubsuit ♥ \heartsuit ¬ \neg 4 \triangle

Not predefined in LATEX 2ε . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb,
txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym. Note, however, that amsfonts and amssymb define
\Diamond to produce the same glyph as \lozenge (“♦”); the other packages pro-
duce a squarer \Diamond as depicted above.

To use \Box—or any other symbol—as an end-of-proof (Q.E.D.) marker, consider
using the ntheorem package, which properly juxtaposes a symbol with the end of
the proof text.

Many people prefer the look of AMS’s \varnothing (“∅”, Table 202) to that of
LATEX’s \emptyset.

65
Table 202: Miscellaneous AMS Math Symbols
∠ \angle H \blacktriangledown f \mho
8 \backprime  \diagdown ^ \sphericalangle
F \bigstar  \diagup  \square
 \blacklozenge ð \eth O \triangledown
 \blacksquare ♦ \lozenge ∅ \varnothing
N \blacktriangle ] \measuredangle M \vartriangle

Table 203: Miscellaneous wasysym Math Symbols


2 \Box 3 \Diamond f \mho∗  \varangle


wasysym also defines an \agemO symbol, which is the same glyph as \mho but is
intended for use in text mode.

Table 204: Miscellaneous txfonts/pxfonts Math Symbols


_ \Diamondblack n \lambdaslash r \varheartsuit
 \Diamonddot p \varclubsuit s \varspadesuit
o \lambdabar q \vardiamondsuit

Table 205: Miscellaneous mathabx Math Symbols


0 \degree 4 \fourth > \measuredangle 2 \second
å \diagdown # \hash & \pitchfork ? \sphericalangle
ä \diagup 8 \infty 9 \propto 3 \third
I \diameter $ \leftthreetimes % \rightthreetimes # \varhash

Table 206: Miscellaneous MnSymbol Math Symbols


∠ \angle ♢ \diamondsuit ✠ \maltese ♯ \sharp
⌐ \backneg ♭ \flat ∡ \measuredangle ∫ \smallint
‵ \backprime ♡ \heartsuit ∇ \nabla ♠ \spadesuit
✓ \checkmark ∞ \infty ♮ \natural ∢ \sphericalangle
♣ \clubsuit ⨽ \invbackneg ¬ \neg
∅ \diameter ⨼ \invneg ′ \prime

MnSymbol defines \emptyset and \varnothing as synonyms for \diameter; \lnot


and \minushookdown as synonyms for \neg; \minushookup as a synonym for
\invneg; \hookdownminus as a synonym for \backneg; and, \hookupminus as
a synonym for \invbackneg.

66
Table 207: Miscellaneous Internal MnSymbol Math Symbols
∫…∫ \partialvardint ∫…∫ \partialvartint
⨚ \partialvardlanddownint ⨚ \partialvartlanddownint
⨙ \partialvardlandupint ⨙ \partialvartlandupint
∲ \partialvardlcircleleftint ∲ \partialvartlcircleleftint
∲ \partialvardlcirclerightint ∲ \partialvartlcirclerightint
∯ \partialvardoiint ∯ \partialvartoiint
∮ \partialvardoint ∮ \partialvartoint
∳ \partialvardrcircleleftint ∳ \partialvartrcircleleftint
∳ \partialvardrcirclerightint ∳ \partialvartrcirclerightint
⨏ \partialvardstrokedint ⨏ \partialvartstrokedint
⨋ \partialvardsumint ⨋ \partialvartsumint

These symbols are intended to be used internally by MnSymbol to construct the


integrals appearing in Table 64 on page 29 but can nevertheless be used in isolation.

Table 208: Miscellaneous textcomp Text-mode Math Symbols


° \textdegree∗ ½ \textonehalf† ¾ \textthreequarters†
÷ \textdiv ¼ \textonequarter† ³ \textthreesuperior
⁄ \textfractionsolidus ¹ \textonesuperior × \texttimes
¬ \textlnot ± \textpm ² \texttwosuperior
− \textminus √ \textsurd

If you prefer a larger degree symbol you might consider defining one as
“\ensuremath{^\circ}” (“◦ ”).


nicefrac (part of the units package) or the newer xfrac package can be used to
construct vulgar fractions like “1/2”, “1/4”, “3/4”, and even “c/o”.

Table 209: Miscellaneous marvosym Math Symbols


W \Anglesign ÷ \Squaredot P \Vectorarrowhigh
= \Corresponds p \Vectorarrow

Table 210: Miscellaneous fge Math Symbols


K \fgebackslash S \fgecap R \fgecupacute h \fgelangle
M \fgebaracute Q \fgecapbar P \fgecupbar L \fgeupbracket
O \fgebarcap N \fgecup i \fgeinfty

Table 211: Miscellaneous mathdesign Math Symbols


∟ \rightangle

Table 212: Miscellaneous arev Math Symbols


♨ \steaming ♦ \vardiamond ♤ \varspade
♧ \varclub ♥ \varheart

67
Table 213: Math Alphabets

Font sample Generating command Required package


ABCdef123 \mathrm{ABCdef123} none
ABCdef123 \mathit{ABCdef123} none
ABCdef  \mathnormal{ABCdef123} none
ABC \mathcal{ABC} none
ABC \mathscr{ABC} mathrsfs
or \mathcal{ABC} calrsfs
ABC \mathcal{ABC} euscript with the mathcal option
or \mathscr{ABC} euscript with the mathscr option
ABCdef123 \mathpzc{ABCdef123} none; manually defined∗
ABC \mathbb{ABC} amsfonts,§ amssymb, txfonts, or pxfonts
‚ƒ \varmathbb{ABC} txfonts or pxfonts
ABCdef123 \mathbb{ABCdef123} bbold or mathbbol†
ABCdef123 \mathbb{ABCdef123} mbboard†
ABCdef12 \mathbbm{ABCdef12} bbm
ABCdef12 \mathbbmss{ABCdef12} bbm
ABCdef12 \mathbbmtt{ABCdef12} bbm
ABC1 \mathds{ABC1} dsfont
ABC1 \mathds{ABC1} dsfont with the sans option
ÁÂÃ \symA\symB\symC china2e‡
ABCdef123 \mathfrak{ABCdef123} eufrak
ABCdef123 \textfrak{ABCdef123} yfonts¶
ABCdef123 \textswab{ABCdef123} yfonts¶
ABCˇf123 \textgoth{ABCdef123} yfonts¶


Put “\DeclareMathAlphabet{\mathpzc}{OT1}{pzc}{m}{it}” in your docu-
ment’s preamble to make \mathpzc typeset its argument in Zapf Chancery.
As a similar trick, you can typeset the Calligra font’s script “r ” (or other
calligraphic symbols) in math mode by loading the calligra package and
putting “\DeclareMathAlphabet{\mathcalligra}{T1}{calligra}{m}{n}”
in your document’s preamble to make \mathcalligra typeset its
argument in the Calligra font. (You may also want to specify
“\DeclareFontShape{T1}{calligra}{m}{n}{<->s*[2.2]callig15}{}” to
set Calligra at 2.2 times its design size for a better blend with typical body fonts.)

The mathbbol package defines some additional blackboard bold characters:
parentheses, square brackets, angle brackets, and—if the bbgreekl option
is passed to mathbbol—Greek letters. For instance, “<[( )]>” is pro-
duced by “\mathbb{\Langle\Lbrack\Lparen\bbalpha\bbbeta\bbgamma\Rparen
\Rbrack\Rangle}”.

mbboard extends the blackboard bold symbol set significantly further. It


supports not only the Greek alphabet—including “Greek-like” symbols such
as \bbnabla (“š”)—but also all punctuation marks, various currency sym-
bols such as \bbdollar (“$”) and \bbeuro (“û”), and the Hebrew alpha-
bet (e.g., “\bbfinalnun\bbyod\bbqof\bbpe” → “ÏÉ×Ô”).

The \sym. . . commands provided by the ChinA2e package are actually text-mode
commands. They are included in Table 213 because they resemble the blackboard-
bold symbols that appear in the rest of the table. In addition to the 26 letters
of the English alphabet, ChinA2e provides three umlauted blackboard-bold letters:
Û Ü Ý
\symAE (“ ”), \symOE (“ ”), and \symUE (“ ”). Note that ChinA2e does provide
math-mode commands for the most common number-set symbols. These are pre-
sented in Table 130 on page 49.

68

As their \text. . . names imply, the fonts provided by the yfonts package are
actually text fonts. They are included in Table 213 because they are frequently
used in a mathematical context.
§
An older (i.e., prior to 1991) version of the AMS’s fonts rendered C, N, R, S,
and Z as C, N, R, S, and Z. As some people prefer the older glyphs—much to
the AMS’s surprise—and because those glyphs fail to build under modern versions
of METAFONT, Berthold Horn uploaded PostScript fonts for the older blackboard-
bold glyphs to CTAN, to the fonts/msym10 directory. As of this writing, however,
there are no LATEX 2ε packages for utilizing the now-obsolete glyphs.

69
4 Science and technology symbols

This section lists symbols that are employed in various branches of science and engineering.

Table 214: gensymb Symbols Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode
℃ \celsius µ \micro ‰ \perthousand
° \degree Ω \ohm

Table 215: wasysym Electrical and Physical Symbols


: \AC @ \VHF :::: \photon F \HF QPPPPPPR \gluon

Table 216: ifsym Pulse Diagram Symbols


! ' % "
& $ #
\FallingEdge \LongPulseLow \PulseLow \ShortPulseHigh
\LongPulseHigh \PulseHigh \RaisingEdge \ShortPulseLow

In addition, within \textifsym{. . .}, the following codes are valid:

l l m m h h d d < < > >


L L M M H H D D = << ? >>

This enables one to write “\textifsym{mm<DDD>mm}” to get “ mm<DDD>mm


” or
“\textifsym{L|H|L|H|L}” to get “ L|H|L|H|L
”. See also the timing package,
which provides a wide variety of pulse-diagram symbols within an environment
designed specifically for typesetting pulse diagrams.

Finally, \textifsym supports the display of segmented digits, as would appear


on an LCD: “\textifsym{-123.456}” produces “ -123.456
”. “\textifsym{b}”
outputs a blank with the same width as an “ ”. 8

Table 217: ar Aspect Ratio Symbol


A \AR

Table 218: textcomp Text-mode Science and Engineering Symbols


℃ \textcelsius ℧ \textmho µ \textmu Ω \textohm

Table 219: steinmetz Extensible Phasor Symbol


abc \phase{abc}

The \phase command uses the pict2e package to draw a horizontally and verti-
cally scalable Steinmetz phasor symbol. Consequently, \phase works only with
those TEX backends supported by pict2e. See the pict2e documentation for more
information.

70
Table 220: wasysym Astronomical Symbols
' \mercury ♁ \earth X \jupiter Z \uranus \ \pluto
♀ \venus ♂ \mars Y \saturn [ \neptune

\astrosun # \fullmoon $ \leftmoon \newmoon % \rightmoon

 \aries _ \cancer a \libra e \aquarius


] \taurus  \leo b \scorpio d \capricornus
^ \gemini ` \virgo c \sagittarius f \pisces

 \ascnode  \descnode V \conjunction W \opposition  \vernal

Table 221: marvosym Astronomical Symbols


 \Mercury Ê \Earth Å \Jupiter Ç \Uranus É \Pluto
à \Venus Ä \Mars Æ \Saturn È \Neptune

Á \Moon À \Sun

à \Aries ã \Cancer æ \Libra é \Capricorn


á \Taurus ä \Leo ç \Scorpio ê \Aquarius
â \Gemini å \Virgo è \Sagittarius ë \Pisces

Note that \Aries . . . \Pisces can also be specified with \Zodiac{1} . . .


\Zodiac{12}.

Table 222: mathabx Astronomical Symbols


A \Mercury C \Earth E \Jupiter G \Uranus I \Pluto
B \Venus D \Mars F \Saturn H \Neptune J \varEarth

M \fullmoon K \leftmoon N \newmoon L \rightmoon @ \Sun

P \Aries Q \Taurus R \Gemini

mathabx also defines \girl as an alias for \Venus, \boy as an alias for \Mars, and
\Moon as an alias for \leftmoon.

Table 223: wasysym APL Symbols


~ \APLbox ÷
~ \APLinv E \APLstar
 \APLcomment p \APLleftarrowbox \APLup
F \APLdown  \APLlog n \APLuparrowbox
o \APLdownarrowbox − \APLminus −
\ \notbackslash
} \APLinput q \APLrightarrowbox −
/ \notslash

Table 224: wasysym APL Modifiers


◦ \APLcirc{} ∼ \APLnot{} | \APLvert{}

71
Table 225: marvosym Computer Hardware Symbols
Í \ComputerMouse Ñ \ParallelPort Î \SerialInterface
Ï \Keyboard Ò \Printer Ð \SerialPort

Table 226: keystroke Computer Keys


Alt \Alt Enter \Enter∗ PrtSc \PrtSc∗
AltGr \AltGr Esc \Esc∗ → \RArrow
∗ ∗
Break \Break Home \Home ←- \Return
→−7 \BSpace† Ins \Ins∗ Scroll \Scroll∗
Ctrl \Ctrl∗ ← \LArrow Shift ⇑ \Shift∗
↓ \DArrow Num \NumLock \Spacebar
Del \Del∗ Page ↓ \PgDown∗ →
−−
−−
→ \Tab†
∗ ∗
End \End Page ↑ \PgUp ↑ \UArrow


Changes based on the language option passed to the keystroke package. For exam-
ple, the german option makes \Del produce “ Entf ” instead of “ Del ”.


These symbols utilize the rotating package and therefore display improperly in most
DVI viewers.
The \keystroke command draws a key with an arbitrary label. For example,
“\keystroke{F7}” produces “ F7 ”.

Table 227: ascii Control Characters (CP437)


␁ \SOH ␈ \BS ␏ \SI ␖ \SYN ␝ \GS
␂ \STX ␉ \HT ␐ \DLE ␗ \ETB ␞ \RS
␃ \ETX ␊ \LF ␑ \DCa ␘ \CAN ␟ \US
␄ \EOT ␋ \VT ␒ \DCb ␙ \EM
␅ \ENQ ␌ \FF ␓ \DCc ␚ \SUB
␆ \ACK ␍ \CR ␔ \DCd ␛ \ESC
␇ \BEL ␎ \SO ␕ \NAK ␜ \FS

␡ \DEL   \NBSP ␀ \NUL ¦ \splitvert

Code Page 437 (CP437), which was first utilized by the original IBM PC, uses the
symbols \SOH through \US to depict ASCII characters 1–31 and \DEL to depict
ASCII character 127. The \NUL symbol, not part of CP437, represents ASCII
character 0. \NBSP, also not part of CP437, represents a nonbreaking space.
\splitvert is merely the “|” character drawn as it was on the IBM PC.

72
Table 228: milstd Logic Gates

 \ANDd  \BUFu  \NANDl


\ORd

 \ANDl \BusWidth  \NANDr \ORl

 \ANDr  \INVd  \NANDu \ORr

 \ANDu  \INVl  \NORd \ORu

 \BUFd  \INVr  \NORl

 \BUFl  \INVu \NORr

 \BUFr  \NANDd  \NORu

The milstd package, which provides the digital logic-gate symbols specified by the
U.S. Department of Defense’s MIL-STD-806 standard, was written as a LATEX 2.09
.tex file, not as a LATEX 2ε package. Consequently, it must be loaded into a
document with \input milstd, not with the more modern \usepackage{milstd}.

Table 229: marvosym Communication Symbols


k \Email t \fax v \Faxmachine E \Lightning A \Pickup
z \Emailct u \FAX B \Letter H \Mobilefone T \Telefon

Table 230: marvosym Engineering Symbols


" \Beam l \Force ‘ \Octosteel ž \RoundedTTsteel
# \Bearing ’ \Hexasteel ˜ \Rectpipe — \Squarepipe
› \Circpipe & \Lefttorque ” \Rectsteel “ \Squaresteel
• \Circsteel L \Lineload ' \Righttorque œ \Tsteel
% \Fixedbearing $ \Loosebearing Ÿ \RoundedLsteel∗ š \TTsteel
– \Flatsteel ™ \Lsteel  \RoundedTsteel∗

\RoundedLsteel and \RoundedTsteel seem to be swapped, at least in the
2000/05/01 version of marvosym.

Table 231: wasysym Biological Symbols


♀ \female ♂ \male

73
Table 232: marvosym Biological Symbols
~ \Female … \FemaleMale ‚ \MALE { \Neutral
 \FEMALE } \Hermaphrodite | \Male
„ \FemaleFemale € \HERMAPHRODITE ƒ \MaleMale

Table 233: marvosym Safety-related Symbols


h \Biohazard C \CEsign ` \Explosionsafe j \Radioactivity
n \BSEfree J \Estatically a \Laserbeam ! \Stopsign

Table 234: feyn Feynman Diagram Symbols

{ \bigbosonloop k \hfermion  \smallbosonloopV

[ \bigbosonloopA l \shfermion d \wfermion

 \bigbosonloopV | \smallbosonloop m \whfermion

 \gvcropped \ \smallbosonloopA

a \feyn{a} e \feyn{fu} | \feyn{glS} K \feyn{hs}

c \feyn{c} b \feyn{fv} z \feyn{glu} i \feyn{hu}

f \feyn{f} g \feyn{g} u \feyn{gu} m \feyn{m}

d \feyn{fd} q \feyn{g1} } \feyn{gv} \feyn{ms}

l \feyn{fl} v \feyn{gd} }s \feyn{gvs} p \feyn{p}

o \feyn{flS} y \feyn{gl} h \feyn{h} P \feyn{P}

k \feyn{fs} { \feyn{glB} j \feyn{hd} x \feyn{x}

All other arguments to the \feyn command produce a “ ” symbol. ?


The feyn package provides various commands for composing the preceding symbols
into complete Feynman diagrams. See the feyn documentation for examples and
additional information.

74
5 Dingbats

Dingbats are symbols such as stars, arrows, and geometric shapes. They are commonly used as bullets in
itemized lists or, more generally, as a means to draw attention to the text that follows.
The pifont dingbat package warrants special mention. Among other capabilities, pifont provides a LATEX
interface to the Zapf Dingbats font (one of the standard 35 PostScript fonts). However, rather than name each
of the dingbats individually, pifont merely provides a single \ding command, which outputs the character that
lies at a given position in the font. The consequence is that the pifont symbols can’t be listed by name in this
document’s index, so be mindful of that fact when searching for a particular symbol.

Table 235: bbding Arrows


y z x
{ w
\ArrowBoldDownRight \ArrowBoldRightShort \ArrowBoldUpRight
\ArrowBoldRightCircled \ArrowBoldRightStrobe

Table 236: pifont Arrows


Ô \ding{212} Ý \ding{221} æ \ding{230} ï \ding{239} ù \ding{249}
Õ \ding{213} Þ \ding{222} ç \ding{231} ñ \ding{241} ú \ding{250}
Ö \ding{214} ß \ding{223} è \ding{232} ò \ding{242} û \ding{251}
× \ding{215} à \ding{224} é \ding{233} ó \ding{243} ü \ding{252}
Ø \ding{216} á \ding{225} ê \ding{234} ô \ding{244} ý \ding{253}
Ù \ding{217} â \ding{226} ë \ding{235} õ \ding{245} þ \ding{254}
Ú \ding{218} ã \ding{227} ì \ding{236} ö \ding{246}
Û \ding{219} ä \ding{228} í \ding{237} ÷ \ding{247}
Ü \ding{220} å \ding{229} î \ding{238} ø \ding{248}

Table 237: universal Arrows



\bauarrow \bauwhitearrow

Table 238: marvosym Scissors


s \Cutleft q \Cutright S \Leftscissors
r \Cutline R \Kutline Q \Rightscissors

Table 239: bbding Scissors


 
 
\ScissorHollowLeft \ScissorLeftBrokenTop


\ScissorHollowRight \ScissorRight

 
\ScissorLeft \ScissorRightBrokenBottom
\ScissorLeftBrokenBottom \ScissorRightBrokenTop

Table 240: pifont Scissors


! \ding{33} " \ding{34} # \ding{35} $ \ding{36}

75
Table 241: dingbat Pencils

W \largepencil P \smallpencil

Table 242: bbding Pencils and Nibs


  
  
\NibLeft \PencilLeft \PencilRightDown


\NibRight \PencilLeftDown \PencilRightUp

 
\NibSolidLeft \PencilLeftUp
\NibSolidRight \PencilRight

Table 243: pifont Pencils and Nibs


. \ding{46} / \ding{47} 0 \ding{48} 1 \ding{49} 2 \ding{50}

Table 244: dingbat Fists

R \leftpointright L \rightpointleft N \rightpointright


D \leftthumbsdown d \rightthumbsdown
U \leftthumbsup u \rightthumbsup

Table 245: bbding Fists


  
  
\HandCuffLeft \HandCuffRightUp \HandPencilLeft

 
\HandCuffLeftUp \HandLeft \HandRight
\HandCuffRight \HandLeftUp \HandRightUp

Table 246: pifont Fists


* \ding{42} + \ding{43} , \ding{44} - \ding{45}

Table 247: fourier Fists


t \lefthand u \righthand

Table 248: bbding Crosses and Plusses


* + &
- , )
\Cross \CrossOpenShadow \PlusOutline

4 '
\CrossBoldOutline \CrossOutline \PlusThinCenterOpen

. (
\CrossClowerTips \Plus
\CrossMaltese \PlusCenterOpen

76
Table 249: pifont Crosses and Plusses
9 \ding{57} ; \ding{59} = \ding{61} ? \ding{63}
: \ding{58} < \ding{60} > \ding{62} @ \ding{64}

Table 250: bbding Xs and Check Marks


! # %
" $
\Checkmark \XSolid \XSolidBrush
\CheckmarkBold \XSolidBold

Table 251: pifont Xs and Check Marks


3 \ding{51} 5 \ding{53} 7 \ding{55}
4 \ding{52} 6 \ding{54} 8 \ding{56}

Table 252: wasysym Xs and Check Marks


2
 \CheckedBox  \Square 4 \XBox

Table 253: universal Xs


 \baucross

Table 254: pifont Circled Numbers


¬ \ding{172} ¶ \ding{182} À \ding{192} Ê \ding{202}
­ \ding{173} · \ding{183} Á \ding{193} Ë \ding{203}
® \ding{174} ¸ \ding{184} Â \ding{194} Ì \ding{204}
¯ \ding{175} ¹ \ding{185} Ã \ding{195} Í \ding{205}
° \ding{176} º \ding{186} Ä \ding{196} Î \ding{206}
± \ding{177} » \ding{187} Å \ding{197} Ï \ding{207}
² \ding{178} ¼ \ding{188} Æ \ding{198} Ð \ding{208}
³ \ding{179} ½ \ding{189} Ç \ding{199} Ñ \ding{209}
´ \ding{180} ¾ \ding{190} È \ding{200} Ò \ding{210}
µ \ding{181} ¿ \ding{191} É \ding{201} Ó \ding{211}

pifont (part of the psnfss package) provides a dingautolist environment which


resembles enumerate but uses circled numbers as bullets.4 See the psnfss docu-
mentation for more information.

Table 255: wasysym Stars


C \davidsstar A \hexstar B \varhexstar
4 In fact, dingautolist can use any set of consecutive Zapf Dingbats symbols.

77
Table 256: bbding Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes
N P 2
A 8 3
\Asterisk \FiveFlowerPetal \JackStar

B ; O
\AsteriskBold \FiveStar \JackStarBold

X ? U
\AsteriskCenterOpen \FiveStarCenterOpen \SixFlowerAlternate

C 7 M
\AsteriskRoundedEnds \FiveStarConvex \SixFlowerAltPetal

D 9 Q
\AsteriskThin \FiveStarLines \SixFlowerOpenCenter

0 : L
\AsteriskThinCenterOpen \FiveStarOpen \SixFlowerPetalDotted

/ < [
\DavidStar \FiveStarOpenCircled \SixFlowerPetalRemoved

Z = G
\DavidStarSolid \FiveStarOpenDotted \SixFlowerRemovedOpenPetal

S > K
\EightAsterisk \FiveStarOutline \SixStar

Y @ `
\EightFlowerPetal \FiveStarOutlineHeavy \SixteenStarLight

H 1 ^
\EightFlowerPetalRemoved \FiveStarShadow \Snowflake

I V _
\EightStar \FourAsterisk \SnowflakeChevron

F W ]
\EightStarBold \FourClowerOpen \SnowflakeChevronBold

E 5 \
\EightStarConvex \FourClowerSolid \Sparkle

R 6 J
\EightStarTaper \FourStar \SparkleBold
\FiveFlowerOpen \FourStarOpen \TwelweStar

Table 257: pifont Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes


A \ding{65} J \ding{74} S \ding{83} \ \ding{92} e \ding{101}
B \ding{66} K \ding{75} T \ding{84} ] \ding{93} f \ding{102}
C \ding{67} L \ding{76} U \ding{85} ^ \ding{94} g \ding{103}
D \ding{68} M \ding{77} V \ding{86} _ \ding{95} h \ding{104}
E \ding{69} N \ding{78} W \ding{87} ` \ding{96} i \ding{105}
F \ding{70} O \ding{79} X \ding{88} a \ding{97} j \ding{106}
G \ding{71} P \ding{80} Y \ding{89} b \ding{98} k \ding{107}
H \ding{72} Q \ding{81} Z \ding{90} c \ding{99}
I \ding{73} R \ding{82} [ \ding{91} d \ding{100}

Table 258: fourier Ornaments


o \aldine X \decoone c \floweroneright
m \aldineleft ] \decosix g \leafleft
n \aldineright Y \decothreeleft f \leafNE
j \aldinesmall Z \decothreeright h \leafright
[ \decofourleft a \decotwo d \starredbullet
\ \decofourright b \floweroneleft

Table 259: wasysym Geometric Shapes


7 \hexagon 8 \octagon D \pentagon 9 \varhexagon

78
Table 260: MnSymbol Geometric Shapes
☀ \filledlargestar ◇ \largediamond ☆ \largestar ◊ \smalllozenge
⧫ \filledlozenge ◊ \largelozenge ✡ \largestarofdavid
⧫ \filledmedlozenge … \largepentagram ◊ \medlozenge
◯ \largecircle ◻ \largesquare ✡ \medstarofdavid

MnSymbol defines \bigcirc as a synonym for \largecircle; \bigstar as a syn-


onym for \filledlargestar; \lozenge as a synonym for \medlozenge; and,
\blacklozenge as a synonym for \filledmedlozenge.

Table 261: ifsym Geometric Shapes

% \BigCircle T \FilledBigTriangleRight E \SmallCircle


\BigCross Q \FilledBigTriangleUp  \SmallCross
& \BigDiamondshape e \FilledCircle F \SmallDiamondshape
 \BigHBar  \FilledDiamondShadowA  \SmallHBar
_ \BigLowerDiamond \FilledDiamondShadowC  \SmallLowerDiamond
/ \BigRightDiamond f \FilledDiamondshape O \SmallRightDiamond
\BigSquare u \FilledSmallCircle @ \SmallSquare
# \BigTriangleDown v \FilledSmallDiamondshape C \SmallTriangleDown
" \BigTriangleLeft p \FilledSmallSquare B \SmallTriangleLeft
$ \BigTriangleRight s \FilledSmallTriangleDown D \SmallTriangleRight
! \BigTriangleUp r \FilledSmallTriangleLeft A \SmallTriangleUp
 \BigVBar t \FilledSmallTriangleRight  \SmallVBar
5 \Circle q \FilledSmallTriangleUp * \SpinDown
 \Cross ` \FilledSquare ) \SpinUp
 \DiamondShadowA  \FilledSquareShadowA 0 \Square
 \DiamondShadowB  \FilledSquareShadowC \SquareShadowA
 \DiamondShadowC c \FilledTriangleDown  \SquareShadowB
6 \Diamondshape b \FilledTriangleLeft  \SquareShadowC
U \FilledBigCircle d \FilledTriangleRight 3 \TriangleDown
V \FilledBigDiamondshape a \FilledTriangleUp 2 \TriangleLeft
P \FilledBigSquare  \HBar 4 \TriangleRight
S \FilledBigTriangleDown o \LowerDiamond 1 \TriangleUp
R \FilledBigTriangleLeft ? \RightDiamond  \VBar

The ifsym documentation points out that one can use \rlap to combine
some of the above into useful, new symbols. For example, \BigCircle and
%u
\FilledSmallCircle combine to give “ ”. Likewise, \Square and \Cross com-
0
bine to give “ ”. See Section 8.3 for more information about constructing new
symbols out of existing symbols.

79
Table 262: bbding Geometric Shapes
d u j
a v i
\CircleShadow \Rectangle \SquareShadowTopLeft

p t g
\CircleSolid \RectangleBold \SquareShadowTopRight

b f o
\DiamondSolid \RectangleThin \SquareSolid

e k n
\Ellipse \Square \TriangleDown

c m
\EllipseShadow \SquareCastShadowBottomRight \TriangleUp

s l
\EllipseSolid \SquareCastShadowTopLeft

r h
\HalfCircleLeft \SquareCastShadowTopRight
\HalfCircleRight \SquareShadowBottomRight

Table 263: pifont Geometric Shapes


l \ding{108} o \ding{111} r \ding{114} u \ding{117} y \ding{121}
m \ding{109} p \ding{112} s \ding{115} w \ding{119} z \ding{122}
n \ding{110} q \ding{113} t \ding{116} x \ding{120}

Table 264: universa Geometric Shapes


 \baucircle \bausquare  \bautriangle

Table 265: universal Geometric Shapes


 \baucircle  \bauhole † \bausquare
 \baueclipse … \baupunct  \bautriangle

Table 266: Miscellaneous dingbat Dingbats

O E S
C B
\anchor \eye \Sborder
C
D I Z
\carriagereturn \filledsquarewithdots \squarewithdots
\checkmark \satellitedish \Zborder

Table 267: Miscellaneous bbding Dingbats


 T
q 

\Envelope \Peace \PhoneHandset \SunshineOpenCircled


\OrnamentDiamondSolid \Phone \Plane \Tape

Table 268: Miscellaneous pifont Dingbats


% \ding{37} ( \ding{40} ¤ \ding{164} § \ding{167} « \ding{171}
& \ding{38} ) \ding{41} ¥ \ding{165} ¨ \ding{168} © \ding{169}
' \ding{39} v \ding{118} ¦ \ding{166} ª \ding{170}

80
6 Ancient languages
This section presents letters and ideograms from various ancient scripts. Some of these symbols may also be
useful in other typesetting contexts.

Table 269: phaistos Symbols from the Phaistos Disk

J \PHarrow e \PHeagle B \PHplumedHead


h \PHbee o \PHflute d \PHram

X \PHbeehive H \PHgaunlet l \PHrosette

R \PHboomerang p \PHgrater P \PHsaw

K \PHbow G \PHhelmet L \PHshield

b \PHbullLeg a \PHhide Y \PHship

D \PHcaptive Z \PHhorn V \PHsling

S \PHcarpentryPlane Q \PHlid r \PHsmallAxe


c \PHcat m \PHlily q \PHstrainer

E \PHchild N \PHmanacles C \PHtattooedHead

M \PHclub O \PHmattock I \PHtiara

W \PHcolumn n \PHoxBack g \PHtunny

U \PHcomb k \PHpapyrus j \PHvine

T \PHdolium A \PHpedestrian s \PHwavyBand

f \PHdove i \PHplaneTree F \PHwoman

Table 270: protosem Proto-Semitic Characters


a \Aaleph E \AAhe k \Akaph s \Asamekh R \AAresh
A \AAaleph z \Azayin K \AAkaph p \Ape S \Ashin
b \Abeth w \Avav l \Alamed P \AApe v \Ahelmet
B \AAbeth H \Aheth L \AAlamed x \Asade V \AAhelmet
g \Agimel h \AAheth m \Amem X \AAsade t \Atav
d \Adaleth T \Ateth n \Anun q \Aqoph
D \AAdaleth y \Ayod o \Aayin Q \AAqoph
e \Ahe Y \AAyod O \AAayin r \Aresh

The protosem package defines abbreviated control sequences for each of the above.
In addition, single-letter shortcuts can be used within the argument to the
\textproto command (e.g., “\textproto{Pakyn}” produces “Pakyn”). See
the protosem documentation for more information.

81
Table 271: hieroglf Hieroglyphics

A \HA I \HI n \Hn T \HT


a \Ha i \Hi O \HO t \Ht
B \HB ˝ \Hibl o \Ho ˘ \Htongue
b \Hb ˆ \Hibp p \Hp U \HU
c \Hc ¨ \Hibs P \HP u \Hu
C \HC ˜ \Hibw ˙ \Hplural V \HV
D \HD J \HJ + \Hplus v \Hv
d \Hd j \Hj Q \HQ | \Hvbar
¸ \Hdual k \Hk q \Hq w \Hw
e \He K \HK ? \Hquery W \HW
E \HE L \HL R \HR X \HX
f \Hf l \Hl r \Hr x \Hx
F \HF m \Hm s \Hs Y \HY
G \HG M \HM S \HS y \Hy
g \Hg ˇ \Hman ¯ \Hscribe z \Hz
h \Hh ´ \Hms / \Hslash Z \HZ
H \HH N \HN ˚ \Hsv

| \Hone 3 \Hhundred 5 \HXthousand 7 \Hmillion


2 \Hten 4 \Hthousand 6 \HCthousand

The hieroglf package defines alternate control sequences and single-letter shortcuts
for each of the above which can be used within the argument to the \textpmhg
command (e.g., “\textpmhg{Pakin}” produces “Pakin”). See the hieroglf
documentation for more information.

Table 272: linearA Linear A Script

\LinearAI b \LinearAXCIX  \LinearACXCVII t \LinearACCXCV


 \LinearAII c \LinearAC  \LinearACXCVIII u \LinearACCXCVI
 \LinearAIII d \LinearACI  \LinearACXCIX v \LinearACCXCVII
 \LinearAIV e \LinearACII  \LinearACC w \LinearACCXCVIII
 \LinearAV f \LinearACIII  \LinearACCI x \LinearACCXCIX
 \LinearAVI g \LinearACIV  \LinearACCII y \LinearACCC
 \LinearAVII h \LinearACV  \LinearACCIII z \LinearACCCI
 \LinearAVIII i \LinearACVI  \LinearACCIV { \LinearACCCII
 \LinearAIX j \LinearACVII  \LinearACCV | \LinearACCCIII
\LinearAX k \LinearACVIII  \LinearACCVI } \LinearACCCIV

\LinearAXI l \LinearACIX  \LinearACCVII ~ \LinearACCCV


\LinearAXII m \LinearACX  \LinearACCVIII  \LinearACCCVI
\LinearAXIII n \LinearACXI  \LinearACCIX € \LinearACCCVII

(continued on next page)

82
(continued from previous page)
\LinearAXIV o \LinearACXII  \LinearACCX  \LinearACCCVIII
 \LinearAXV p \LinearACXIII \LinearACCXI ‚ \LinearACCCIX
 \LinearAXVI q \LinearACXIV ! \LinearACCXII ƒ \LinearACCCX
 \LinearAXVII r \LinearACXV " \LinearACCXIII „ \LinearACCCXI
 \LinearAXVIII s \LinearACXVI # \LinearACCXIV … \LinearACCCXII
 \LinearAXIX t \LinearACXVII $ \LinearACCXV † \LinearACCCXIII
 \LinearAXX u \LinearACXVIII % \LinearACCXVI ‡ \LinearACCCXIV
 \LinearAXXI v \LinearACXIX & \LinearACCXVII ˆ \LinearACCCXV
 \LinearAXXII w \LinearACXX ' \LinearACCXVIII ‰ \LinearACCCXVI
 \LinearAXXIII x \LinearACXXI ( \LinearACCXIX Š \LinearACCCXVII
 \LinearAXXIV y \LinearACXXII ) \LinearACCXX ‹ \LinearACCCXVIII
 \LinearAXXV z \LinearACXXIII * \LinearACCXXI Π\LinearACCCXIX
 \LinearAXXVI { \LinearACXXIV + \LinearACCXXII  \LinearACCCXX
 \LinearAXXVII | \LinearACXXV , \LinearACCXXIII Ž \LinearACCCXXI
 \LinearAXXVIII } \LinearACXXVI - \LinearACCXXIV  \LinearACCCXXII
 \LinearAXXIX ~ \LinearACXXVII . \LinearACCXXV  \LinearACCCXXIII
 \LinearAXXX  \LinearACXXVIII / \LinearACCXXVI ‘ \LinearACCCXXIV
 \LinearAXXXI € \LinearACXXIX 0 \LinearACCXXVII ’ \LinearACCCXXV
 \LinearAXXXII  \LinearACXXX 1 \LinearACCXXVIII “ \LinearACCCXXVI
\LinearAXXXIII ‚ \LinearACXXXI 2 \LinearACCXXIX ” \LinearACCCXXVII
! \LinearAXXXIV ƒ \LinearACXXXII 3 \LinearACCXXX • \LinearACCCXXVIII
" \LinearAXXXV „ \LinearACXXXIII 4 \LinearACCXXXI – \LinearACCCXXIX
# \LinearAXXXVI … \LinearACXXXIV 5 \LinearACCXXXII — \LinearACCCXXX
$ \LinearAXXXVII † \LinearACXXXV 6 \LinearACCXXXIII ˜ \LinearACCCXXXI
% \LinearAXXXVIII ‡ \LinearACXXXVI 7 \LinearACCXXXIV ™ \LinearACCCXXXII
& \LinearAXXXIX ˆ \LinearACXXXVII 8 \LinearACCXXXV š \LinearACCCXXXIII
' \LinearAXL ‰ \LinearACXXXVIII 9 \LinearACCXXXVI › \LinearACCCXXXIV
( \LinearAXLI Š \LinearACXXXIX : \LinearACCXXXVII œ \LinearACCCXXXV
) \LinearAXLII ‹ \LinearACXL ; \LinearACCXXXVIII  \LinearACCCXXXVI
* \LinearAXLIII Œ \LinearACXLI < \LinearACCXXXIX ž \LinearACCCXXXVII
+ \LinearAXLIV  \LinearACXLII = \LinearACCXL Ÿ \LinearACCCXXXVIII
, \LinearAXLV Ž \LinearACXLIII > \LinearACCXLI   \LinearACCCXXXIX
- \LinearAXLVI  \LinearACXLIV ? \LinearACCXLII ¡ \LinearACCCXL
. \LinearAXLVII  \LinearACXLV @ \LinearACCXLIII ¢ \LinearACCCXLI
/ \LinearAXLVIII ‘ \LinearACXLVI A \LinearACCXLIV £ \LinearACCCXLII
0 \LinearAXLIX ’ \LinearACXLVII B \LinearACCXLV ¤ \LinearACCCXLIII
1 \LinearAL “ \LinearACXLVIII C \LinearACCXLVI ¥ \LinearACCCXLIV
2 \LinearALI ” \LinearACXLIX D \LinearACCXLVII ¦ \LinearACCCXLV
3 \LinearALII • \LinearACL E \LinearACCXLVIII § \LinearACCCXLVI
4 \LinearALIII – \LinearACLI F \LinearACCXLIX ¨ \LinearACCCXLVII
5 \LinearALIV — \LinearACLII G \LinearACCL © \LinearACCCXLVIII
6 \LinearALV ˜ \LinearACLIII H \LinearACCLI ª \LinearACCCXLIX
7 \LinearALVI ™ \LinearACLIV I \LinearACCLII « \LinearACCCL
8 \LinearALVII š \LinearACLV J \LinearACCLIII ¬ \LinearACCCLI
9 \LinearALVIII › \LinearACLVI K \LinearACCLIV ­ \LinearACCCLII
: \LinearALIX œ \LinearACLVII L \LinearACCLV ® \LinearACCCLIII
; \LinearALX  \LinearACLVIII M \LinearACCLVI ¯ \LinearACCCLIV
< \LinearALXI ž \LinearACLIX N \LinearACCLVII ° \LinearACCCLV
= \LinearALXII Ÿ \LinearACLX O \LinearACCLVIII ± \LinearACCCLVI
> \LinearALXIII   \LinearACLXI P \LinearACCLIX ² \LinearACCCLVII
? \LinearALXIV ¡ \LinearACLXII Q \LinearACCLX ³ \LinearACCCLVIII
@ \LinearALXV ¢ \LinearACLXIII R \LinearACCLXI ´ \LinearACCCLIX

(continued on next page)

83
(continued from previous page)
A \LinearALXVI £ \LinearACLXIV S \LinearACCLXII µ \LinearACCCLX
B \LinearALXVII ¤ \LinearACLXV T \LinearACCLXIII ¶ \LinearACCCLXI
C \LinearALXVIII ¥ \LinearACLXVI U \LinearACCLXIV · \LinearACCCLXII
D \LinearALXIX ¦ \LinearACLXVII V \LinearACCLXV ¸ \LinearACCCLXIII
E \LinearALXX § \LinearACLXVIII W \LinearACCLXVI ¹ \LinearACCCLXIV
F \LinearALXXI ¨ \LinearACLXIX X \LinearACCLXVII º \LinearACCCLXV
G \LinearALXXII © \LinearACLXX Y \LinearACCLXVIII » \LinearACCCLXVI
H \LinearALXXIII ª \LinearACLXXI Z \LinearACCLXIX ¼ \LinearACCCLXVII
I \LinearALXXIV « \LinearACLXXII [ \LinearACCLXX ½ \LinearACCCLXVIII
J \LinearALXXV ¬ \LinearACLXXIII \ \LinearACCLXXI ¾ \LinearACCCLXIX
K \LinearALXXVI ­ \LinearACLXXIV ] \LinearACCLXXII ¿ \LinearACCCLXX
L \LinearALXXVII ® \LinearACLXXV ^ \LinearACCLXXIII À \LinearACCCLXXI
M \LinearALXXVIII ¯ \LinearACLXXVI _ \LinearACCLXXIV Á \LinearACCCLXXII
N \LinearALXXIX ° \LinearACLXXVII ` \LinearACCLXXV Â \LinearACCCLXXIII
O \LinearALXXX ± \LinearACLXXVIII a \LinearACCLXXVI Ã \LinearACCCLXXIV
P \LinearALXXXI \LinearACLXXIX b \LinearACCLXXVII Ä \LinearACCCLXXV
Q \LinearALXXXII  \LinearACLXXX c \LinearACCLXXVIII Å \LinearACCCLXXVI
R \LinearALXXXIII  \LinearACLXXXI d \LinearACCLXXIX Æ \LinearACCCLXXVII
S \LinearALXXXIV  \LinearACLXXXII e \LinearACCLXXX Ç \LinearACCCLXXVIII
T \LinearALXXXV  \LinearACLXXXIII f \LinearACCLXXXI È \LinearACCCLXXIX
U \LinearALXXXVI  \LinearACLXXXIV g \LinearACCLXXXII É \LinearACCCLXXX
V \LinearALXXXVII  \LinearACLXXXV h \LinearACCLXXXIII Ê \LinearACCCLXXXI
W \LinearALXXXVIII  \LinearACLXXXVI i \LinearACCLXXXIV Ë \LinearACCCLXXXII
X \LinearALXXXIX  \LinearACLXXXVII j \LinearACCLXXXV Ì \LinearACCCLXXXIII
Y \LinearALXXXX \LinearACLXXXVIII k \LinearACCLXXXVI Í \LinearACCCLXXXIV
Z \LinearAXCI
\LinearACLXXXIX l \LinearACCLXXXVII Î \LinearACCCLXXXV
[ \LinearAXCII \LinearACLXXXX m \LinearACCLXXXVIII Ï \LinearACCCLXXXVI
\ \LinearAXCIII \LinearACXCI n \LinearACCLXXXIX Ð \LinearACCCLXXXVII
] \LinearAXCIV \LinearACXCII o \LinearACCLXXXX Ñ \LinearACCCLXXXVIII
^ \LinearAXCV  \LinearACXCIII p \LinearACCXCI Ò \LinearACCCLXXXIX
_ \LinearAXCVI  \LinearACXCIV q \LinearACCXCII
` \LinearAXCVII  \LinearACXCV r \LinearACCXCIII
a \LinearAXCVIII  \LinearACXCVI s \LinearACCXCIV

84
Table 273: linearb Linear B Basic and Optional Letters
a \Ba j \Bja B \Bmu ] \Bpte ‘ \Broii 4 \Bto
; \Baii J \Bje n \Bna I \Bpu V \Bru 5 \Btu
< \Baiii b \Bjo N \Bne \ \Bpuii s \Bsa ~ \Btwo
= \Bau L \Bju C \Bni q \Bqa S \Bse u \Bu
d \Bda k \Bka E \Bno Q \Bqe Y \Bsi w \Bwa
D \Bde K \Bke F \Bnu X \Bqi 1 \Bso W \Bwe
f \Bdi c \Bki @ \Bnwa 8 \Bqo 2 \Bsu 6 \Bwi
g \Bdo h \Bko o \Bo r \Bra { \Bswa 7 \Bwo
x \Bdu v \Bku p \Bpa ^ \Braii | \Bswi z \Bza
> \Bdwe m \Bma [ \Bpaiii _ \Braiii t \Bta Z \Bze
? \Bdwo M \Bme P \Bpe R \Bre } \Btaii 9 \Bzo
e \Be y \Bmi G \Bpi O \Bri T \Bte
i \Bi A \Bmo H \Bpo U \Bro 3 \Bti

These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textlinb or


following the \linbfamily font-selection command within a scope. Single-
character shortcuts are also supported: Both “\textlinb{\Bpa\Bki\Bna}” and
“\textlinb{pcn}” produce “pcn”, for example. See the linearb documentation
for more information.

Table 274: linearb Linear B Numerals


´ \BNi ˇ \BNvii ‚ \BNxl « \BNc ı \BNdcc
ˆ \BNii ˘ \BNviii ‹ \BNl » \BNcc ȷ \BNdccc
˜ \BNiii ¯ \BNix › \BNlx – \BNccc ff \BNcm
¨ \BNiv ˙ \BNx “ \BNlxx — \BNcd fi \BNm
˝ \BNv ¸ \BNxx ” \BNlxxx ‌ \BNd
˚ \BNvi ˛ \BNxxx „ \BNxc ‰ \BNdc

These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textlinb or following
the \linbfamily font-selection command within a scope.

Table 275: linearb Linear B Weights and Measures


Ď \BPtalent Ľ \BPvolb Ń \BPvolcf Ą \BPwtb Č \BPwtd
Ĺ \BPvola Ł \BPvolcd Ă \BPwta Ć \BPwtc

These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textlinb or following
the \linbfamily font-selection command within a scope.

85
Table 276: linearb Linear B Ideograms
Ž \BPamphora ź \BPchassis ă \BPman Š \BPwheat
ij \BParrow Ř \BPcloth ț \BPnanny ž \BPwheel
Ş \BPbarley ŋ \BPcow Ț \BPolive Ť \BPwine
ť \BPbilly Ÿ \BPcup ń \BPox Ż \BPwineiih
ľ \BPboar š \BPewe ĺ \BPpig IJ \BPwineiiih
Ű \BPbronze ě \BPfoal ś \BPram İ \BPwineivh
ň \BPbull ş \BPgoat ř \BPsheep ą \BPwoman
đ \BPcauldroni Ź \BPgoblet ł \BPsow Ś \BPwool
§ \BPcauldronii Ů \BPgold ¡ \BPspear
ÿ \BPchariot ď \BPhorse ż \BPsword

These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textlinb or following
the \linbfamily font-selection command within a scope.

Table 277: linearb Unidentified Linear B Symbols


fl \BUi ␣ \BUiv # \BUvii & \BUx ­ \Btwe
ffi \BUii ! \BUv $ \BUviii ’ \BUxi
ffl \BUiii " \BUvi % \BUix ­ \BUxii

These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textlinb or following
the \linbfamily font-selection command within a scope.

Table 278: cypriot Cypriot Letters


a \Ca v \Cku B \Cmu H \Cpo 1 \Cso 6 \Cwi
e \Ce l \Cla n \Cna I \Cpu 2 \Csu 7 \Cwo
g \Cga L \Cle N \Cne r \Cra t \Cta x \Cxa
i \Ci d \Cli C \Cni R \Cre T \Cte X \Cxe
j \Cja f \Clo E \Cno O \Cri 3 \Cti j \Cya
b \Cjo q \Clu F \Cnu U \Cro 4 \Cto b \Cyo
k \Cka m \Cma o \Co V \Cru 5 \Ctu g \Cza
K \Cke M \Cme p \Cpa s \Csa u \Cu 9 \Czo
c \Cki y \Cmi P \Cpe S \Cse w \Cwa
h \Cko A \Cmo G \Cpi Y \Csi W \Cwe

These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textcypr or


following the \cyprfamily font-selection command within a scope. Single-
character shortcuts are also supported: Both “\textcypr{\Cpa\Cki\Cna}” and
“\textcypr{pcn}” produce “pcn”, for example. See the cypriot documentation
for more information.

86
Table 279: sarabian South Arabian Letters
a \SAa z \SAz m \SAm x \SAsd D \SAdb
b \SAb H \SAhd n \SAn q \SAq J \SAtb
g \SAg T \SAtd s \SAs r \SAr G \SAga
d \SAd y \SAy f \SAf S \SAsv Z \SAzd
h \SAh k \SAk ‘ \SAlq t \SAt X \SAsa
w \SAw l \SAl o \SAo I \SAhu B \SAdd

These symbols must appear either within the argument to \textsarab or


following the \sarabfamily font-selection command within a scope. Single-
character shortcuts are also supported: Both “\textsarab{\SAb\SAk\SAn}” and
“\textsarab{bkn}” produce “bkn”, for example. See the sarabian documentation
for more information.

Table 280: teubner Archaic Greek Letters and Greek Numerals


Ϙ \Coppa† Ϝ \Digamma∗ ϡ \sampi∗ ϛ \varstigma
ϙ \coppa† ϟ \koppa∗ Ϛ \Stigma
ϝ \digamma∗,‡ Ϡ \Sampi ϛ \stigma∗

Technically, these symbols do not require teubner; it is sufficient to load the babel
package with the greek option (upon which teubner depends)—but use \qoppa for
\koppa and \ddigamma for \digamma.

For compatibility with other naming conventions teubner defines \Koppa as a syn-
onym for \Coppa and \varcoppa as a synonym for \coppa.

If both teubner and amssymb are loaded, teubner’s \digamma replaces amssymb’s
\digamma, regardless of package-loading order.

87
7 Other symbols

The following are all the symbols that didn’t fit neatly or unambiguously into any of the previous sections.
(Do weather symbols belong under “Science and technology”? Should dice be considered “mathematics”?)
While some of the tables contain clearly related groups of symbols (e.g., musical notes), others represent motley
assortments of whatever the font designer felt like drawing.

Table 281: textcomp Genealogical Symbols


b \textborn c \textdivorced m \textmarried
d \textdied l \textleaf

Table 282: wasysym General Symbols


m \ataribox  \clock  \LEFTarrow , \smiley

\bell  \diameter  \lightning ☼ \sun
- \blacksmiley L \DOWNarrow  \phone K \UParrow
1 \Bowtie / \frownie \pointer ◊ \wasylozenge
| \brokenvert  \invdiameter  \recorder
 \checked 6 \kreuz  \RIGHTarrow

Table 283: wasysym Circles


\CIRCLE #
G \LEFTcircle #
H \RIGHTcircle ! \rightturn
# \Circle I \Leftcircle J \Rightcircle
G \LEFTCIRCLE H \RIGHTCIRCLE " \leftturn

Table 284: wasysym Musical Symbols


\eighthnote \halfnote  \twonotes  \fullnote ♩ \quarternote

See also \flat, \sharp, and \natural (Table 201 on page 65).

Table 285: arev Musical Symbols


♩ \quarternote ♪ \eighthnote ♬ \sixteenthnote

See also \flat, \sharp, and \natural (Table 201 on page 65).

88
Table 286: harmony Musical Symbols
== ==
ˇ “ˇ “ \AAcht /D
D \DDohne ˘“ \Halb ˇ“ \SechBR > \VM
==
=ˇ=(
“ \Acht /D \Dohne < \HaPa ˇ “= \SechBr ˇ “* \Zwdr
ˇ “ == \AchtBL ss \Ds ‰ \Pu @ \SePa A \ZwPa
ˇ“ \AchtBR SS \DS ˇ“ \Sech \UB
==ˇ ) “
<

? \AcPa ¯ \Ganz ===“ \SechBL ˇ“ \Vier


DD \DD < \GaPa ˇ \SechBl > \ViPa

The musixtex package must be installed to use harmony.

Table 287: harmony Musical Accents


.a
a .
Aa \Ferli{A}\Ferli{a}∗ /A/a \Ohne{A}\Ohne{a}∗
.a
a .
Aa \Fermi{A}\Fermi{a} Ag
g a \Umd{A}\Umd{a}∗
Alal \Kr{A}\Kr{a}


These symbols take an optional argument which shifts the accent either horizontally
or vertically (depending on the command) by the given distance.

In addition to the accents shown above, \HH is a special accent command


which accepts five period-separated characters and typesets them such that
b
c
“\HH.X.a.b.c.d.” produces “Xa d”. All arguments except the first can be omit-
ted: “\HH.X.....” produces “X”. \Takt takes two arguments and composes them
into a musical time signature. For example, “\Takt{12}{8}” produces “ 12
8 ”. As
two special cases, “\Takt{c}{0}” produces “S ” and “\Takt{c}{1}” produces “R ”.

The musixtex package must be installed to use harmony.

Table 288: manfnt Dangerous Bend Symbols


 \dbend ~ \lhdbend \reversedvideodbend

Note that these symbols descend far beneath the baseline. manfnt also defines non-
descending versions, which it calls, correspondingly, \textdbend, \textlhdbend,
and \textreversedvideodbend.

Table 289: Miscellaneous manfnt Symbols


 \manboldkidney  \manpenkidney
$ \manconcentriccircles & \manquadrifolium
% \manconcentricdiamond \manquartercircle
# \mancone ' \manrotatedquadrifolium
 \mancube " \manrotatedquartercircle
y \manerrarrow  \manstar
! \manfilledquartercircle  \mantiltpennib
 \manhpennib 7 \mantriangledown
 \manimpossiblecube x \mantriangleright
 \mankidney 6 \mantriangleup
 \manlhpenkidney  \manvpennib

89
Table 290: marvosym Navigation Symbols
· \Forward » \MoveDown ´ \RewindToIndex ¼ \ToTop
¸ \ForwardToEnd º \MoveUp µ \RewindToStart
¹ \ForwardToIndex ¶ \Rewind ½ \ToBottom

Table 291: marvosym Laundry Symbols


Ø \AtForty Ü \Handwash Ô \ShortNinetyFive
Ó \AtNinetyFive ¯ \IroningI Ö \ShortSixty
Õ \AtSixty ° \IroningII Û \ShortThirty
Ë \Bleech ± \IroningIII Ú \SpecialForty
« \CleaningA Ì \NoBleech  \Tumbler
¾ \CleaningF ¨ \NoChemicalCleaning ‰ \WashCotton
¿ \CleaningFF ² \NoIroning Š \WashSynthetics
¬ \CleaningP  \NoTumbler ‹ \WashWool
­ \CleaningPP × \ShortFifty
Ý \Dontwash Ù \ShortForty

Table 292: marvosym Information Symbols


® \Bicycle o \Football Z \Pointinghand
V \Checkedbox x \Gentsroom w \Wheelchair
U \Clocklogo I \Industry b \Writinghand
K \Coffeecup i \Info
X \Crossedbox y \Ladiesroom

Table 293: Other marvosym Symbols


ˆ \Ankh † \Cross Œ \Heart © \Smiley
ý \Bat F \FHBOlogo ÿ \MartinVogel þ \Womanface
¥ \Bouquet f \FHBOLOGO m \Mundus Y \Yinyang
‡ \Celtcross § \Frowny @ \MVAt
ª \CircledA Ž \FullFHBO : \MVRightarrow

Table 294: Miscellaneous universa Symbols

 \bauforms  \bauhead

Table 295: Miscellaneous universal Symbols


 \baudash „ \bauforms \bauquarter ƒ \varQ
 \bauequal \bauhead  \bauquestion
\bauface \bauplus  \bauwindow

90
Table 296: Miscellaneous fourier Symbols
L \bomb M \grimace N \textthing∗ T \textxswup∗
B \danger A \noway U \textxswdown∗

fourier defines math-mode aliases for a few of the preceding symbols:
\thething (“N”), \xswordsup (“T”), and \xswordsdown (“U”).

Table 297: ifsym Weather Symbols


 \Cloud  \Hail  \Sleet  \WeakRain
\FilledCloud  \HalfSun  \Snow  \WeakRainCloud
! \FilledRainCloud  \Lightning  \SnowCloud $ \FilledSnowCloud
# \FilledSunCloud  \NoSun  \Sun
" \FilledWeakRainCloud  \Rain  \SunCloud
 \Fog  \RainCloud  \ThinFog

In addition, \Thermo{0}. . .\Thermo{6} produce thermometers that are between


0/6 and 6/6 full of mercury:    

Similarly, \wind{hsuni}{hanglei}{hstrengthi} will draw wind symbols with a given


amount of sun (0–4), a given angle (in degrees), and a given strength in km/h (0–
100). For example, \wind{0}{0}{0} produces “ 0 ”, \wind{2}{0}{0} produces
“ 0 ”, and \wind{4}{0}{100} produces “ : ”.

Table 298: ifsym Alpine Symbols


 \SummitSign  \Summit  \SurveySign  \HalfFilledHut
 \StoneMan  \Mountain  \Joch  \VarSummit
 \Hut  \IceMountain  \Flag
  
 
\FilledHut \VarMountain \VarFlag
\Village  \VarIceMountain  \Tent

Table 299: ifsym Clocks

™ \Interval — \StopWatchStart › \VarClock š \Wecker


˜ \StopWatchEnd – \Taschenuhr ” \VarTaschenuhr

ifsym also exports a \showclock macro. \showclock{hhoursi}{hminutesi} outputs

D
a clock displaying the corresponding time. For instance, “\showclock{5}{40}”
produces “ ”. hhoursi must be an integer from 0 to 11, and hminutesi must be an
integer multiple of 5 from 0 to 55.

91
Table 300: Other ifsym Symbols
 \FilledSectioningDiamond \Letter  \Radiation
\Fire  \PaperLandscape  \SectioningDiamond
\Irritant  \PaperPortrait ( \Telephone

 \Cube{1}  \Cube{3} \Cube{5}


 \Cube{2}  \Cube{4}
\Cube{6}

: \StrokeOne :: \StrokeThree ; \StrokeFive


: \StrokeTwo :: \StrokeFour

Table 301: clock Clocks

i ’ 0 i
’
\ClockStyle \ClockFramefalse \ClockFrametrue

0
1 12ii’’ 0012ii’’
2
3 3i’ 03i’
The clock package provides a \clock command to typeset an arbitrary time on
an analog clock (and \clocktime to typeset the document’s build time). For
example, the clocks in the above table were produced with \clock{15}{41}. Clock
symbols are composed from a font of clock-face fragments using one of four values
for \ClockStyle and either \ClockFrametrue or \ClockFrametrue as illustrated
above. See the clock documentation for more information.

Table 302: epsdice Dice


\epsdice{1} \epsdice{3} \epsdice{5}
\epsdice{2} \epsdice{4} \epsdice{6}

Table 303: hhcount Dice


\fcdice{1} \fcdice{3} \fcdice{5}
\fcdice{2} \fcdice{4} \fcdice{6}

The \fcdice command accepts values larger than 6. For example, “\fcdice{47}”
produces “ ”.

Table 304: hhcount Tally Markers


\fcscore{1} \fcscore{3} \fcscore{5}
\fcscore{2} \fcscore{4}

The \fcscore command accepts values larger than 5. For example,


“\fcscore{47}” produces “ ”.

92
Table 305: skull Symbols
A \skull

Table 306: Non-Mathematical mathabx Symbols


O \rip

Table 307: skak Chess Informator Symbols


g \bbetter d \doublepawns q \seppawns
i \bdecisive L \ending O-O \shortcastling
b \betteris j \equal T \timelimit
a \bishoppair H \file k \unclear
e \bupperhand O \kside u \unitedpawns
X \capturesymbol O-O-O \longcastling R \various
O \castlingchar x \markera f \wbetter
- \castlinghyphen y \markerb h \wdecisive
I \centre m \mate J \weakpt
+ \checksymbol S \morepawns v \with
RR \chesscomment U \moreroom A \withattack
P \chessetc N \novelty E \withidea
l \chesssee F \onlymove C \withinit
n \compensation o \opposbishops w \without
V \counterplay r \passedpawn c \wupperhand
t \devadvantage M \qside D \zugzwang
G \diagonal s \samebishops

93
Table 308: skak Chess Pieces and Chessboard Squares

a \BlackBishopOnBlack s \BlackRookOnBlack J \WhiteKingOnBlack

b \BlackBishopOnWhite r \BlackRookOnWhite K \WhiteKingOnWhite

Z \BlackEmptySquare B \symbishop M \WhiteKnightOnBlack

j \BlackKingOnBlack K \symking N \WhiteKnightOnWhite

k \BlackKingOnWhite N \symknight O \WhitePawnOnBlack

m \BlackKnightOnBlack p \sympawn P \WhitePawnOnWhite

n \BlackKnightOnWhite Q \symqueen L \WhiteQueenOnBlack

o \BlackPawnOnBlack R \symrook Q \WhiteQueenOnWhite

p \BlackPawnOnWhite A \WhiteBishopOnBlack S \WhiteRookOnBlack

l \BlackQueenOnBlack B \WhiteBishopOnWhite R \WhiteRookOnWhite

q \BlackQueenOnWhite 0 \WhiteEmptySquare

The skak package also provides commands for drawing complete chessboards. See
the skak documentation for more information.

Table 309: igo Go Stones


} \blackstone[\igocircle] } \whitestone[\igocircle]
| \blackstone[\igocross] | \whitestone[\igocross]
\blackstone[\igonone] \whitestone[\igonone]
~ \blackstone[\igosquare] ~ \whitestone[\igosquare]
 \blackstone[\igotriangle]  \whitestone[\igotriangle]

In addition to the symbols shown above, igo’s \blackstone and \whitestone



commands accept numbers from 1 to 99 and display them circled as , , , . . .
c  c
and , , , . . . , respectively.

The igo package is intended to typeset Go boards (goban). See the igo documen-
tation for more information.

94
Table 310: metre Metrical Symbols
× \a
¯˘¯˘´
\bBm \cc ¯˘´¯˘ \Mbb ˙˙ \Pppp ⊗ \t
´˘ \B
¯˘´¯˘
\bbm \Ccc ¯˘¯¯˘¯˘ \mbbx ˙ \pppp \tsbm
˘ \b
¯˘˘¯˘˘
\Bbm
¯
\m ◦◦ \oo ˙˙˙ \Ppppp \tsmb
´˘˘ \Bb ¯˘¯ \bbmb ´¯ \M \p ˙˙ \ppppp \tsmm
˙ ˙˙
˘´˘ ¯˘˘¯¯¯˘
\BB \bbmx ¯ \ma \pm \ps \vppm
¯˙
×
¯˙
˘˘ \bb
˘ \bm ¯´˘ \Mb ˙˙ \pp ˙˙ \pxp
¯˙
\vpppm
˘˘´ \bB ´¯˘¯ \Bm ¯˘ \mb ˙˙ \Pp ˙˙ \Pxp ˙˙˙˙ \x
˘˘
× \bba \c ¯˘´¯˘ \mBb
¯˙˙˙
\ppm ∼ \R
˘˘˘ \bbb \C ¯˘¯˘´ \mbB
˙ \ppp ∼ \r
¯˘´¯˘
\BBm \Cc ¯˘¯˘ \mbb ˙˙˙ \Ppp ⊗ \T
˙
The preceding symbols are valid only within the argument to the metre command.

Table 311: metre Small and Large Metrical Symbols


÷ \anaclasis ÷ \Anaclasis
< \antidiple < \Antidiple
·
< \antidiple* ·
< \Antidiple*
· ·
⊃ \antisigma ⊃ \Antisigma
····
× \asteriscus ····
× \Asteriscus
∧ \catalexis ∧ \Catalexis
> \diple > \Diple
·
>
· \diple* >·· \Diple*
\obelus \Obelus
·· \obelus* ·· \Obelus*
∼ \respondens ∼ \Respondens
⊗ \terminus ⊗ \Terminus
⊕ \terminus* ⊕ \Terminus*

Table 312: teubner Metrical Symbols


Ι \aeolicbii ι \barbrevis η \ipercatal
Θ \aeolicbiii ς \bbrevis λ \longa
Κ \aeolicbiv β \brevis ε \ubarbbrevis
Ξ \anceps γ \catal δ \ubarbrevis
Ζ \ancepsdbrevis ̮ \corona φ \ubarsbrevis
Ψ \banceps Ϙ \coronainv κ \ubrevislonga
H
θ \barbbrevis \hiatus

The teubner package provides a \newmetrics command that helps users combine
the preceding symbols as well as other teubner symbols. For example, the predefined
\pentam symbol uses \newmetrics to juxtapose six \longas, two \barbbrevises,
four \brevises, and a \dBar into “λθλθλ||λββλββλ”. See the teubner docu-
mentation for more information.

95
Table 313: dictsym Dictionary Symbols
a \dsaeronautical c \dscommercial m \dsmedical
G \dsagricultural H \dsheraldical X \dsmilitary
A \dsarchitectural J \dsjuridical R \dsrailways
B \dsbiological L \dsliterary T \dstechnical
C \dschemical M \dsmathematical

Table 314: simpsons Characters from The Simpsons

 \Bart  \Homer
\Maggie  \SNPP

\Burns  \Lisa  \Marge

The location of the characters’ pupils can be controlled with the \Goofy command.
See A METAFONT of ‘Simpsons’ characters [Che97] for more information. Also,
each of the above can be prefixed with \Left to make the character face left instead
of right:

 \Left\Bart

96
Table 315: pmboxdraw Box-Drawing Symbols
\textblock \textSFli \textSFxli \textSFxxiii
\textdkshade \textSFlii \textSFxlii \textSFxxiv
\textdnblock \textSFliii \textSFxliii \textSFxxv
\textlfblock \textSFliv \textSFxliv \textSFxxvi
\textltshade \textSFv \textSFxlix \textSFxxvii
\textrtblock \textSFvi \textSFxlv \textSFxxviii
\textSFi \textSFvii \textSFxlvi \textSFxxxix
\textSFii \textSFviii \textSFxlvii \textSFxxxvi
\textSFiii \textSFx \textSFxlviii \textSFxxxvii
\textSFiv \textSFxi \textSFxx \textSFxxxviii
\textSFix \textSFxix \textSFxxi \textshade
\textSFl \textSFxl \textSFxxii \textupblock

Code Page 437 (CP437), which was first utilized by the original IBM PC, contains
the set of box-drawing symbols (sides, corners, and intersections of single- and
double-ruled boxes) shown above in character positions 176–223. These symbols
also appear in the Unicode Box Drawing and Block Element tables.

The pmboxdraw package draws the CP437 box-drawing symbols using TEX rules
(specifically, \vrule) instead of with a font and thereby provides the ability to
alter both rule width and the separation between rules. See the pmboxdraw docu-
mentation for more information.

Table 316: staves Magical Staves

\staveI  \staveXXIV . \staveXLVII

 \staveII  \staveXXV / \staveXLVIII

 \staveIII  \staveXXVI 0 \staveXLIX

 \staveIV  \staveXXVII 1 \staveL

 \staveV  \staveXXVIII 2 \staveLI

 \staveVI  \staveXXIX 3 \staveLII

 \staveVII  \staveXXX 4 \staveLIII

 \staveVIII  \staveXXXI 5 \staveLIV

 \staveIX  \staveXXXII 6 \staveLV

\staveX \staveXXXIII 7 \staveLVI

\staveXI ! \staveXXXIV 8 \staveLVII

(continued on next page)

97
(continued from previous page)

\staveXII " \staveXXXV 9 \staveLVIII

\staveXIII # \staveXXXVI : \staveLIX


\staveXIV $ \staveXXXVII ; \staveLX
 \staveXV % \staveXXXVIII < \staveLXI
 \staveXVI & \staveXXXIX = \staveLXII
 \staveXVII ' \staveXL > \staveLXIII
 \staveXVIII ( \staveXLI ? \staveLXIV

 \staveXIX ) \staveXLII @ \staveLXV

 \staveXX * \staveXLIII A \staveLXVI


 \staveXXI + \staveXLIV B \staveLXVII

 \staveXXII , \staveXLV C \staveLXVIII


 \staveXXIII - \staveXLVI

The meanings of these symbols are described on the Web site for the Mu-
seum of Icelandic Sorcery and Witchcraft at http://www.galdrasyning.is/
index.php?option=com content&task=category&sectionid=5&id=18&Itemid=
60 (TinyURL: http://tinyurl.com/25979m). For example, \staveL (“1”) is
intended to ward off ghosts and evil spirits.

Table 317: pigpen Cipher Symbols


A {\pigpenfont A} J {\pigpenfont J} S {\pigpenfont S}
B {\pigpenfont B} K {\pigpenfont K} T {\pigpenfont T}
C {\pigpenfont C} L {\pigpenfont L} U {\pigpenfont U}
D {\pigpenfont D} M {\pigpenfont M} V {\pigpenfont V}
E {\pigpenfont E} N {\pigpenfont N} W {\pigpenfont W}
F {\pigpenfont F} O {\pigpenfont O} X {\pigpenfont X}
G {\pigpenfont G} P {\pigpenfont P} Y {\pigpenfont Y}
H {\pigpenfont H} Q {\pigpenfont Q} Z {\pigpenfont Z}
I {\pigpenfont I} R {\pigpenfont R}

Table 318: ChinA2e Phases of the Moon


{ \MoonPha{1} | \MoonPha{2} } \MoonPha{3} ~ \MoonPha{4}

Table 319: Other ChinA2e Symbols


 \Greenpoint # \Postbox @ \Telephone
< \Info > \Request

98
A
A
Table 320: recycle Recycling Symbols

A \recycle \Recycle

\RECYCLE

The METAFONT code that implements the recycling symbols shown above is,
in the words of its author, “awful code [that] doesn’t even put the logo
in a box (properly)”. Expect to receive “Inconsistent equation (off by
hnumber i)” errors from METAFONT. Fortunately, if you tell METAFONT to pro-
ceed past those errors (e.g., by pressing Enter after each one or by specifying
“-interaction=nonstopmode” on the METAFONT command line) it should pro-
duce a valid font.

The commands listed above should be used within a group (e.g., “{\recycle}”)
because they exhibit the side effect of changing the font to the recycle font.

99
8 Additional Information
Unlike the previous sections of this document, Section 8 does not contain new symbol tables. Rather, it provides
additional help in using the Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List. First, it draws attention to symbol names used
by multiple packages. Next, it provides some guidelines for finding symbols and gives some examples regarding
how to construct missing symbols out of existing ones. Then, it comments on the spacing surrounding symbols
in math mode. After that, it presents an ASCII and Latin 1 quick-reference guide, showing how to enter all of
the standard ASCII/Latin 1 symbols in LATEX. And finally, it lists some statistics about this document itself.

8.1 Symbol Name Clashes


Unfortunately, a number of symbol names are not unique; they appear in more than one package. Depending
on how the symbols are defined in each package, LATEX will either output an error message or replace an
earlier-defined symbol with a later-defined symbol. Table 321 on the following page presents a selection of
name clashes that appear in this document.
Using multiple symbols with the same name in the same document—or even merely loading conflicting
symbol packages—can be tricky but, as evidenced by the existence of Table 321, not impossible. The general
procedure is to load the first package, rename the conflicting symbols, and then load the second package.
Examine the LATEX source for this document (symbols.tex) for examples of this and other techniques for
handling symbol conflicts. Note that symbols.tex’s \savesymbol and \restoresymbol macros have been
extracted into the savesym package, which can be downloaded from CTAN.
txfonts and pxfonts redefine a huge number of symbols—essentially, all of the symbols defined by latexsym,
textcomp, the various AMS symbol sets, and LATEX 2ε itself. Similarly, mathabx redefines a vast number of
math symbols in an attempt to improve their look. The txfonts, pxfonts, and mathabx conflicts are not listed
in Table 321 because they are designed to be compatible with the symbols they replace. Table 322 on page 102
illustrates what “compatible” means in this context.
To use the new txfonts/pxfonts symbols without altering the document’s main font, merely reset the default
font families back to their original values after loading one of those packages:

\renewcommand\rmdefault{cmr}
\renewcommand\sfdefault{cmss}
\renewcommand\ttdefault{cmtt}

8.2 Resizing symbols


Mathematical symbols listed in this document as “variable-sized” are designed to stretch vertically. Each
variable-sized symbol comes in one or more basic sizes plus a variation comprising both stretchable and
nonstretchable segments. Table 323 on page 102 presents the symbols \} and \uparrow in their default size,
in their \big, \Big, \bigg, and \Bigg sizes, in an even larger size achieved using \left/\right, and—for
contrast—in a large size achieved by changing the font size using LATEX 2ε ’s \fontsize command. Because
the symbols shown belong to the Computer Modern family, the type1cm package needs to be loaded to support
font sizes larger than 24.88 pt.
Note how \fontsize makes the symbol wider and thicker. (The graphicx package’s \scalebox or
\resizebox commands would produce a similar effect.) Also, the \fontsize-enlarged symbol is vertically
centered relative to correspondingly large text, unlike the symbols enlarged using \big et al. or \left/\right,
which all use the same math axis regardless of symbol size. However, \fontsize is not limited to mathematical
delimiters. Also, \scalebox and \resizebox are more robust to poorly composed symbols (e.g., two symbols
made to overlap by backspacing a fixed distance) but do not work with every TEX backend and will produce
jagged symbols when scaling a bitmapped font.
All variable-sized delimiters are defined (by the corresponding .tfm file) in terms of up to five segments, as
illustrated by Figure 1 on page 102. The top, middle, and bottom segments are of a fixed size. The top-middle
and middle-bottom segments (which are constrained to be the same character) are repeated as many times as
necessary to achieve the desired height.

8.3 Where can I find the symbol for . . . ?


If you can’t find some symbol you’re looking for in this document, there are a few possible explanations:

100
Table 321: Symbol Name Clashes

Symbol LATEX 2ε AMS stmaryrd wasysym mathabx marvosym bbding ifsym dingbat wsuipa
\baro <
\bigtriangledown 5
`
\bigtriangleup 4
a

\checkmark X D
\Circle 5
\Cross †
#
* 

101
\ggg ≫ Ï
\Letter B
\lightning
\Lightning E 


\lll ≪ Î
\Square  f 0
\Sun @ À 
\TriangleDown o 3
\TriangleUp n 1
Table 322: Example of a Benign Name Clash

Default txfonts
Symbol (Computer Modern) (Times Roman)

R R R
\textrecipe “ “

Table 323: Sample resized delimiters

Symbol Default size \big \Big \bigg \Bigg \left / \right \fontsize

\} }
o ™ )

















}
\uparrow ↑
x

x


x



x




x


















  top




top-middle (extensible)



 




middle


 
−→




middle-bottom (extensible)



 







  bottom



Figure 1: Implementation of variable-sized delimiters

102
• The symbol isn’t intuitively named. As a few examples, the ifsym command to draw dice is “\Cube”; a
plus sign with a circle around it (“exclusive or” to computer engineers) is “\oplus”; and lightning bolts
in fonts designed by German speakers may have “blitz” in their names as in the ulsy package. The moral
of the story is to be creative with synonyms when searching the index.
• The symbol is defined by some package that I overlooked (or deemed unimportant). If there’s some
symbol package that you think should be included in the Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List, please send
me e-mail at the address listed on the title page.
• The symbol isn’t defined in any package whatsoever.

Even in the last case, all is not lost. Sometimes, a symbol exists in a font, but there is no LATEX binding
for it. For example, the PostScript Symbol font contains a “↵” symbol, which may be useful for representing
a carriage return, but there is no package (as far as I know) for accessing that symbol. To produce an
unnamed symbol, you need to switch to the font explicitly with LATEX 2ε ’s low-level font commands [LAT00]
and use TEX’s primitive \char command [Knu86a] to request a specific character number in the font.5 In fact,

X
\char is not strictly necesssary; the character can often be entered symbolically. For example, the symbol
for an impulse train or Tate-Shafarevich group (“ ”) is actually an uppercase sha in the Cyrillic alphabet.
(Cyrillic is supported by the OT2 font encoding, for instance). While a sha can be defined numerically as
“{\fontencoding{OT2}\selectfont\char88}” it may be more intuitive to use the OT2 font encoding’s “SH”
ligature: “{\fontencoding{OT2}\selectfont SH}”.

Reflecting and rotating existing symbols


A common request on comp.text.tex is for a reversed or rotated version of an existing symbol.
As a last resort, these effects can be achieved with the graphicx (or graphics) package’s \reflectbox and
\rotatebox macros. For example, \textsuperscript{\reflectbox{?}} produces an irony mark (“ ? ”;
cf. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irony mark), and \rotatebox[origin=c]{180}{$\iota$} produces the
definite-description operator (“ ”). The disadvantage of the graphicx/graphics approach is that not every TEX
ι
backend handles graphical transformations.6 Far better is to find a suitable font that contains the desired
symbol in the correct orientation. For instance, if the phonetic package is available, then \textit{\riota}
will yield a backend-independent “ ”. Similarly, tipa’s \textrevepsilon (“3”) or wsuipa’s \revepsilon (“”)
may be used to express the mathematical notion of “such that” in a cleaner manner than with \reflectbox
or \rotatebox.7

Joining and overlapping existing symbols


Symbols that do not exist in any font can sometimes be fabricated out of existing symbols. The LATEX 2ε source
file fontdef.dtx contains a number of such definitions. For example, \models (see Table 67 on page 30) is
defined in that file with:

\def\models{\mathrel|\joinrel=}

where \mathrel and \joinrel are used to control the horizontal spacing. \def is the TEX primitive upon
which LATEX’s \newcommand is based. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for more information on all three of those
commands.
With some simple pattern-matching, one can easily define a backward \models sign (“=|”):

\def\ismodeledby{=\joinrel\mathrel|}

In general, arrows/harpoons, horizontal lines (“=”, “-”, “\relbar”, and “\Relbar”), and the various math-
extension characters can be combined creatively with miscellaneous other characters to produce a variety of
new symbols. Of course, new symbols can be composed from any set of existing characters. For instance, LATEX
defines \hbar (“~”) as a “¯” character (\mathchar’26) followed by a backspace of 9 math units (\mkern-9mu),
followed by the letter “h”:

\def\hbar{{\mathchar’26\mkern-9muh}}
5 pifont defines a convenient \Pisymbol command for accessing symbols in PostScript fonts by number. For example,
“\Pisymbol{psy}{191}” produces “↵”.
6 As an example, Xdvi ignores both \reflectbox and \rotatebox.
7 More common symbols for representing “such that” include “|”, “:”, and “s.t.”.

103
We can just as easily define other barred letters:
\def\bbar{{\mathchar’26\mkern-9mu b}}
\def\dbar{{\mathchar’26\mkern-12mu d}}
(The space after the “mu” is optional but is added for clarity.) \bbar and \dbar define “b̄” and “¯
d”, respectively.
Note that \dbar requires a greater backward math kern than \bbar; a −9 mu kern would have produced the
less-attractive “d̄” glyph.
The amsmath package provides \overset and \underset commands for placing one symbol respectively
G
above or below another. For example, \overset{G}{\sim}8 produces “∼” (sometimes used for “equidecom-
posable with respect to G”).
Sometimes an ordinary tabular environment can be co-opted into juxtaposing existing symbols into a new
symbol. Consider the following definition of \asterism (“** * ”) from a June 2007 post to comp.text.tex by
Peter Flynn:
\newcommand{\asterism}{\smash{%
\raisebox{-.5ex}{%
\setlength{\tabcolsep}{-.5pt}%
\begin{tabular}{@{}cc@{}}%
\multicolumn2c*\\[-2ex]*&*%
\end{tabular}}}}
Note how the space between columns (\tabcolsep) and rows (\\[. . . ]) is made negative to squeeze the
asterisks closer together.

There is a TEX primitive called \mathaccent that centers one mathematical symbol atop another. For
·
example, one can define \dotcup (“∪”)—the composition of a \cup and a \cdot—as follows:
\newcommand{\dotcup}{\ensuremath{\mathaccent\cdot\cup}}
The catch is that \mathaccent requires the accent to be a “math character”. That is, it must be a character
in a math font as opposed to a symbol defined in terms of other symbols. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for more
information.
Another TEX primitive that is useful for composing symbols is \vcenter. \vcenter is conceptually similar
to “\begin{tabular}{l}” in LATEX but takes a list of vertical material instead of \\-separated rows. Also,
it vertically centers the result on the math axis. (Many operators, such as “+” and “−” are also vertically
centered on the math axis.) Enrico Gregorio posted the following symbol definition to comp.text.tex in
March 2004 in response to a query about an alternate way to denote equivalence:
\newcommand*{\threesim}{%
\mathrel{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip
\hbox{$\sim$}\vskip-.35ex\hbox{$\sim$}\vskip-.35ex\hbox{$\sim$}}}}
The \threesim symbol, which vertically centers three \sim (“∼”) symbols with 0.35 x-heights of space between
them, is rendered as “∼∼
∼”. \offinterlineskip is a macro that disables implicit interline spacing. Without
it, \threesim would have a full line of vertical spacing between each \sim. Because of \vcenter, \threesim
aligns properly with other math operators: a ÷ b ∼ ∼
∼ c × d.
A related LATEX command, borrowed from Plain TEX, is \ooalign. \ooalign vertically overlaps symbols
and works both within and outside of math mode. Essentially, it creates a single-column tabular environment
with zero vertical distance between rows. However, because it is based directly on TEX’s \ialign primitive,
\ooalign uses TEX’s tabular syntax instead of LATEX’s (i.e., with \cr as the row terminator instead of \\). The
following example of \ooalign, a macro that defines a standard-state symbol (\stst, “− ◦
”) as a superscripted
9
Plimsoll line (\barcirc, “−◦ ”), is due to an October 2007 comp.text.tex post by Donald Arseneau:
\makeatletter
\providecommand\barcirc{\mathpalette\@barred\circ}
\def\@barred#1#2{\ooalign{\hfil$#1-$\hfil\cr\hfil$#1#2$\hfil\cr}}
\newcommand\stst{^{\protect\barcirc}}
\makeatother
8L
AT
EX’s \stackrel command is similar but is limited to placing a symbol above a binary relation.
9 While \barcirc illustrates how to combine symbols using \ooalign, the stmaryrd package’s \minuso command (Table 46 on
page 22) provides a similar glyph (“
”) as a single, indivisible symbol.

104
In the preceding code, note the \ooalign call’s use of \hfil to horizontally center a minus sign (“−”) and
a \circ (“◦”).
As another example of \ooalign, consider the following code (due to Enrico Gregorio in a June 2007 post
to comp.text.tex) that overlaps a \ni (“3”) and two minus signs (“− −”) to produce “3−−”, an obscure variation
on the infrequently used “3” symbol for “such that”discussed on page 103:

\newcommand{\suchthat}{%
\mathrel{\ooalign{$\ni$\cr\kern-1pt$-$\kern-6.5pt$-$}}}

The slashed package, although originally designed for producing Feynman slashed-character notation, in
fact facilitates the production of arbitrary overlapped symbols. The default behavior is to overwrite a given
character with “/”. For example, \slashed{D} produces “D”. / However, the \declareslashed command
provides the flexibility to specify the mathematical context of the composite character (operator, relation,
punctuation, etc., as will be discussed in Section 8.4), the overlapping symbol, horizontal and vertical adjust-
ments in symbol-relative units, and the character to be overlapped. Consider, for example, the symbol for
reduced quadrupole moment (“I”). - This can be declared as follows:

\newcommand{\rqm}{{%
\declareslashed{}{\text{-}}{0.04}{0}{I}\slashed{I}}}

\declareslashed{·}{·}{·}{·}{I} affects the meaning of all subsequent \slashed{I} commands in the same
scope. The preceding definition of \rqm therefore uses an extra set of curly braces to limit that scope to
a single \slashed{I}. In addition, \rqm uses amstext’s \text macro (described on the next page) to make
\declareslashed use a text-mode hyphen (“-”) instead of a math-mode minus sign (“−”) and to ensure that
the hyphen scales properly in size in subscripts and superscripts. See slashed’s documentation (located in
slashed.sty itself) for a detailed usage description of the \slashed and \declareslashed commands.
Somewhat simpler than slashed is the centernot package. centernot provides a single command, \centernot,
which, like \not, puts a slash over the subsequent mathematical symbol. However, instead of putting the slash
at a fixed location, \centernot centers the slash over its argument. \centernot might be used, for example,
to create a “does not imply” symbol:

6=⇒ \not\Longrightarrow
vs.
6
=⇒ \centernot\Longrightarrow

See the centernot documentation for more information.

Making new symbols work in superscripts and subscripts


To make composite symbols work properly within subscripts and superscripts, you may need to use TEX’s
\mathchoice primitive. \mathchoice evaluates one of four expressions, based on whether the current math
style is display, text, script, or scriptscript. (See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for a more complete descrip-
tion.) For example, the following LATEX code—posted to comp.text.tex by Torsten Bronger—composes
a sub/superscriptable “⊥>” symbol out of \top and \bot (“>” and “⊥”):

\def\topbotatom#1{\hbox{\hbox to 0pt{$#1\bot$\hss}$#1\top$}}
\newcommand*{\topbot}{\mathrel{\mathchoice{\topbotatom\displaystyle}
{\topbotatom\textstyle}
{\topbotatom\scriptstyle}
{\topbotatom\scriptscriptstyle}}}

The following is another example that uses \mathchoice to construct symbols in different math modes.
The code defines a principal value integral symbol, which is an integral sign with a line through it.

\def\Xint#1{\mathchoice
{\XXint\displaystyle\textstyle{#1}}%
{\XXint\textstyle\scriptstyle{#1}}%
{\XXint\scriptstyle\scriptscriptstyle{#1}}%
{\XXint\scriptscriptstyle\scriptscriptstyle{#1}}%

105
\!\int}
\def\XXint#1#2#3{{\setbox0=\hbox{$#1{#2#3}{\int}$}
\vcenter{\hbox{$#2#3$}}\kern-.5\wd0}}
\def\ddashint{\Xint=}
\def\dashint{\Xint-}

(The preceding code was taken verbatim from the UK TERX Users’ Group FAQ at http://www.tex.ac.uk/
faq.) R\dashint produces a single-dashed integral sign (“−”), while \ddashint produces a double-dashed R
one (“=”). The \Xint macro Rdefined above can also be usedR to generate a wealthR of new integrals: “”
(\Xint\circlearrowright), “ ” (\Xint\circlearrowleft), “⊂” (\Xint\subset), “∞” (\Xint\infty), and
so forth.
LATEX 2ε provides a simple wrapper for \mathchoice that sometimes helps produce terser symbol def-
initions. The macro is called \mathpalette and it takes two arguments. \mathpalette invokes the first
argument, passing it one of “\displaystyle”, “\textstyle”, “\scriptstyle”, or “\scriptscriptstyle”,
followed by the second argument. \mathpalette is useful when a symbol macro must know which math
style is currently in use (e.g., to set it explicitly within an \mbox). Donald Arseneau posted the following
\mathpalette-based definition of a probabilistic-independence symbol (“⊥ ⊥”) to comp.text.tex in June 2000:

\newcommand\independent{\protect\mathpalette{\protect\independenT}{\perp}}
\def\independenT#1#2{\mathrel{\rlap{$#1#2$}\mkern2mu{#1#2}}}

The \independent macro uses \mathpalette to pass the \independenT helper macro both the current math
style and the \perp symbol. \independenT typesets \perp in the current math style, moves two math units to
the right, and finally typesets a second—overlapping—copy of \perp, again in the current math style. \rlap,
which enables text overlap, is described later on this page.

Some people like their square-root signs with a trailing “hook” (i.e., “ ”) as this helps visually distinguish
√ √
expressions like “ 3x ” from those like “ 3x”. In March 2002, Dan Luecking posted a \mathpalette-based
definition of a hooked square-root symbol to comp.text.tex:

\def\hksqrt{\mathpalette\DHLhksqrt}
\def\DHLhksqrt#1#2{\setbox0=\hbox{$#1\sqrt{#2\,}$}\dimen0=\ht0
\advance\dimen0-0.2\ht0
\setbox2=\hbox{\vrule height\ht0 depth -\dimen0}%
{\box0\lower0.4pt\box2}}

Notice how \DHLhksqrt uses \mathpalette to recover the outer math style (argument #1) from within an
\hbox. The rest of the code is simply using TEX primitives to position a hook of height 0.2 times the \sqrt
height at the right of the \sqrt. See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for more understanding of TEX “boxes” and
“dimens”.
Sometimes, however, amstext’s \text macro is all that is necessary to make composite symbols appear
.”) and \nwsearrow
correctly in subscripts and superscripts, as in the following definitions of \neswarrow (“%
&”):10
(“-

\newcommand{\neswarrow}{\mathrel{\text{$\nearrow$\llap{$\swarrow$}}}}
\newcommand{\nwsearrow}{\mathrel{\text{$\nwarrow$\llap{$\searrow$}}}}

\text resembles LATEX’s \mbox command but shrinks its argument appropriately when used within a subscript
or superscript. \llap (“left overlap”) and its counterpart, \rlap (“right overlap”), appear frequently when
creating composite characters. \llap outputs its argument to the left of the current position, overlapping
whatever text is already there. Similarly, \rlap overlaps whatever text would normally appear to the right
of its argument. For example, “A\llap{B}” and “\rlap{A}B” each produce “A B”. However, the result of the
former is the width of “A”, and the result of the latter is the width of “B”—\llap{. . . } and \rlap{. . . } take
up zero space.
In a June 2002 post to comp.text.tex, Donald Arseneau presented a general macro for aligning an arbitrary
number of symbols on their horizontal centers and vertical baselines:
10 Note that if your goal is to typeset commutative diagrams or pushout/pullback diagrams, then you should probably be using
XY-pic.

106
\makeatletter
\def\moverlay{\mathpalette\mov@rlay}
\def\mov@rlay#1#2{\leavevmode\vtop{%
\baselineskip\z@skip \lineskiplimit-\maxdimen
\ialign{\hfil$#1##$\hfil\cr#2\crcr}}}
\makeatother

The \makeatletter and \makeatother commands are needed to coerce LATEX into accepting “@” as
part of a macro name. \moverlay takes a list of symbols separated by \cr (TEX’s equivalent of
LATEX’s \\). For example, the \topbot command defined on page 105 could have been expressed as
“\moverlay{\top\cr\bot}” and the \neswarrow command defined on the previous page could have been
expressed as “\moverlay{\nearrow\cr\swarrow}”.
The basic concept behind \moverlay’s implementation is that \moverlay typesets the given symbols in a
table that utilizes a zero \baselineskip. This causes every row to be typeset at the same vertical position.
See The TEXbook [Knu86a] for explanations of the TEX primitives used by \moverlay.

Modifying LATEX-generated symbols


Oftentimes, symbols composed in the LATEX 2ε source code can be modified with minimal effort to produce
useful variations. For example, fontdef.dtx composes the \ddots symbol (see Table 189 on page 63) out of
three periods, raised 7 pt., 4 pt., and 1 pt., respectively:

\def\ddots{\mathinner{\mkern1mu\raise7\p@
\vbox{\kern7\p@\hbox{.}}\mkern2mu
\raise4\p@\hbox{.}\mkern2mu\raise\p@\hbox{.}\mkern1mu}}

\p@ is a LATEX 2ε shortcut for “pt” or “1.0pt”. The remaining commands are defined in The
TEXbook [Knu86a]. To draw a version of \ddots with the dots going along the opposite diagonal, we merely
have to reorder the \raise7\p@, \raise4\p@, and \raise\p@:

\makeatletter
\def\revddots{\mathinner{\mkern1mu\raise\p@
\vbox{\kern7\p@\hbox{.}}\mkern2mu
\raise4\p@\hbox{.}\mkern2mu\raise7\p@\hbox{.}\mkern1mu}}
\makeatother

\revddots is essentially identical to the mathdots package’s \iddots command or the yhmath package’s \adots
command.

Producing complex accents


Accents are a special case of combining existing symbols to make new symbols. While various tables in
this document show how to add an accent to an existing symbol, some applications, such as translitera-
tions from non-Latin alphabets, require multiple accents per character. For instance, the creator of pdfTEX
writes his name as “Hàn Th´ê Thành”. The dblaccnt package enables LATEX to stack accents, as in “H\‘an
Th\’{\^e} Th\‘anh” (albeit not in the OT1 font encoding). In addition, the wsuipa package defines \diatop
and \diaunder macros for putting one or more diacritics or accents above or below a given character. For
example, \diaunder[{\diatop[\’|\=]}|\textsubdot{r}] produces “´r̄”. See the wsuipa documentation for
more information. ˙
The accents package facilitates the fabrication of accents in math mode. Its \accentset command en-
?
ables any character to be used as an accent. For instance, \accentset{\star}{f} produces “f ” and
e
\accentset{e}{X} produces “X”. \underaccent does the same thing, but places the accent beneath the
character. This enables constructs like \underaccent{\tilde}{V}, which produces “V ”. accents provides
other accent-related features as well; see the documentation for more information. ˜

Creating extensible symbols


A relatively simple example of creating extensible symbols stems from a comp.text.tex post by Donald
Arseneau (June 2003). The following code defines an equals sign that extends as far to the right as possible,
just like LATEX’s \hrulefill command:

107
\makeatletter
\def\equalsfill{$\m@th\mathord=\mkern-7mu
\cleaders\hbox{$\!\mathord=\!$}\hfill
\mkern-7mu\mathord=$}
\makeatother

TEX’s \cleaders and \hfill primitives are the key to understanding \equalsfill’s extensibility. Essen-
tially, \equalsfill repeats a box containing “=” plus some negative space until it fills the maximum avail-
able horizontal space. \equalsfill is intended to be used with LATEX’s \stackrel command, which stacks
one mathematical expression (slightly reduced in size) atop another. Hence, “\stackrel{a}{\rightarrow}”
a definition
produces “→” and “X \stackrel{\text{definition}}{\hbox{\equalsfill}} Y” produces “X ======= Y ”.
If all that needs to extend are horizontal and vertical lines—as opposed to repeated symbols such as the
“=” in the previous example—LATEX’s array or tabular environments may suffice. Consider the following
code (due to a February 1999 comp.text.tex post by Donald Arseneau and subsequent modifications by Billy
Yu and Scott Pakin) for typesetting annuity and life-insurance symbols:

\DeclareRobustCommand{\actuarial}[2][]{%
\def\arraystretch{0}%
\setlength\arraycolsep{0.5pt}%
\setlength\arrayrulewidth{0.5pt}%
\setbox0=\hbox{$\scriptstyle#1#2$}%
\begin{array}[b]{*2{@{}>{\scriptstyle}c}|}
\cline{2-2}%
\rule[1.25pt]{0pt}{\ht0}%
#1 & #2%
\end{array}%
}

Using the preceding definition, one can type, e.g., “$a_{\actuarial{n}}$” to produce “an ” and
“$a_{\actuarial[x:]{n}}$” to produce “ax:n ”
A more complex example of composing accents is the following definition of extensible \overbracket,
\underbracket, \overparenthesis, and \underparenthesis symbols, taken from a May 2002
comp.text.tex post by Donald Arseneau:

\makeatletter
\def\overbracket#1{\mathop{\vbox{\ialign{##\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@}
\downbracketfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip}
$\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr}}}\limits}
\def\underbracket#1{\mathop{\vtop{\ialign{##\crcr
$\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip}
\upbracketfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@}}}}\limits}
\def\overparenthesis#1{\mathop{\vbox{\ialign{##\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@}
\downparenthfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip}
$\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr}}}\limits}
\def\underparenthesis#1{\mathop{\vtop{\ialign{##\crcr
$\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@\nointerlineskip}
\upparenthfill\crcr\noalign{\kern3\p@}}}}\limits}
\def\downparenthfill{$\m@th\braceld\leaders\vrule\hfill\bracerd$}
\def\upparenthfill{$\m@th\bracelu\leaders\vrule\hfill\braceru$}
\def\upbracketfill{$\m@th\makesm@sh{\llap{\vrule\@height3\p@\@width.7\p@}}%
\leaders\vrule\@height.7\p@\hfill
\makesm@sh{\rlap{\vrule\@height3\p@\@width.7\p@}}$}
\def\downbracketfill{$\m@th
\makesm@sh{\llap{\vrule\@height.7\p@\@depth2.3\p@\@width.7\p@}}%
\leaders\vrule\@height.7\p@\hfill
\makesm@sh{\rlap{\vrule\@height.7\p@\@depth2.3\p@\@width.7\p@}}$}
\makeatother

108
Table 324 showcases these accents. The TEXbook [Knu86a] or another book on TEX primitives is indispensible
for understanding how the preceding code works. The basic idea is that \downparenthfill, \upparenthfill,
\downbracketfill, and \upbracketfill do all of the work; they output a left symbol (e.g., \braceld [“z”]
for \downparenthfill), a horizontal rule that stretches as wide as possible, and a right symbol (e.g., \bracerd
[“{”] for \downparenthfill). \overbracket, \underbracket, \overparenthesis, and \underparenthesis
merely create a table whose width is determined by the given text, thereby constraining the width of the
horizontal rules.

Table 324: Manually Composed Extensible Accents


z {
abc \overbracket{abc} abc \overparenthesis{abc}

abc \underbracket{abc} abc


| } \underparenthesis{abc}

Note that the simplewick package provides mechanisms for typesetting Wick contractions, which uti-
lize \overbracket- and \underbracket-like brackets of variable width and height (or depth). For ex-
ample, “\acontraction{}{A}{B}{C}\acontraction[2ex]{A}{B}{C}{D}\bcontraction{}{A}{BC}{D}ABCD”
produces

ABCD .

See the simplewick documentation for more information.

Developing new symbols from scratch


Sometimes is it simply not possible to define a new symbol in terms of existing symbols. Fortunately, most, if
not all, TEX distributions are shipped with a tool called METAFONT which is designed specifically for creating
fonts to be used with TEX. The METAFONTbook [Knu86b] is the authoritative text on METAFONT. If you
plan to design your own symbols with METAFONT, The METAFONTbook is essential reading. You may also
want to read the freely available METAFONT primer located at http://metafont.tutorial.free.fr/. The
following is an extremely brief tutorial on how to create a new LATEX symbol using METAFONT. Its primary
purpose is to cover the LATEX-specific operations not mentioned in The METAFONTbook and to demonstrate
that symbol-font creation is not necessarily a difficult task.
Suppose we need a symbol to represent a light bulb (“A”).11 The first step is to draw this in METAFONT.
It is common to separate the font into two files: a size-dependent file, which specifies the design size and
various font-specific parameters that are a function of the design size; and a size-independent file, which draws
characters in the given size. Figure 2 shows the METAFONT code for lightbulb10.mf. lightbulb10.mf
specifies various parameters that produce a 10 pt. light bulb then loads lightbulb.mf. Ideally, one should
produce lightbulbhsizei.mf files for a variety of hsizeis. This is called “optical scaling”. It enables, for
example, the lines that make up the light bulb to retain the same thickness at different font sizes, which looks
much nicer than the alternative—and default—“mechanical scaling”. When a lightbulbhsizei.mf file does
not exist for a given size hsizei, the computer mechanically produces a wider, taller, thicker symbol:

A
10 pt.
vs. A
20 pt.
vs. A
30 pt.
vs. A
40 pt.
vs. A A 50 pt.
vs.
60 pt.

lightbulb.mf, shown in Figure 3, draws a light bulb using the parameters defined in lightbulb10.mf.
vs. A
70 pt.

Note that the the filenames “lightbulb10.mf” and “lightbulb.mf” do not follow the Berry font-naming
scheme [Ber01]; the Berry font-naming scheme is largely irrelevant for symbol fonts, which generally lack bold,
italic, small-caps, slanted, and other such variants.
The code in Figures Figure 2 and Figure 3 is heavily commented and should demonstrate some of the
basic concepts behind METAFONT usage: declaring variables, defining points, drawing lines and curves, and
preparing to debug or fine-tune the output. Again, The METAFONTbook [Knu86b] is the definitive reference
on METAFONT programming.
11 I’m not a very good artist; you’ll have to pretend that “A” looks like a light bulb.

109
font identifier := "LightBulb10"; % Name the font.
font size 10pt#; % Specify the design size.
em# := 10pt#; % “M” width is 10 points.
cap# := 7pt#; % Capital letter height is 7 points above the baseline.
sb# := 1/4pt#; % Leave this much space on the side of each character.
o# := 1/16pt#; % Amount that curves overshoot borders.
input lightbulb % Load the file that draws the actual glyph.

Figure 2: Sample METAFONT size-specific file (lightbulb10.mf)

mode setup; % Target a given printer.


define pixels(em, cap, sb); % Convert to device-specific units.
define corrected pixels(o); % Same, but add a device-specific fudge factor.
%% Define a light bulb at the character position for “A”
%% with width 1/2em#, height cap#, and depth 1pt#.
beginchar("A", 1/2em#, cap#, 1pt#); "A light bulb";
pickup pencircle scaled 1/2pt; % Use a pen with a small, circular tip.
%% Define the points we need.
top z1 = (w/2, h + o); % z1 is at the top of a circle.
rt z2 = (w + sb + o − x4 , y4 ); % z2 is at the same height as z4 but the opposite side.
bot z3 = (z1 − (0, w − sb − o)); % z3 is at the bottom of the circle.
lft z4 = (sb − o, 1/2[y1 , y3 ]); % z4 is on the left of the circle.
path bulb; % Define a path for the bulb itself.
bulb = z1 . . z2 . . z3 . . z4 . . cycle; % The bulb is a closed path.
z5 = point 2 − 1/3 of bulb; % z5 lies on the bulb, a little to the right of z3 .
z6 = (x5 , 0); % z6 is at the bottom, directly under z5 .
z7 = (x8 , 0); % z7 is at the bottom, directly under z8 .
z8 = point 2 + 1/3 of bulb; % z8 lies on the bulb, a little to the left of z3 .
bot z67 = ( 1/2[x6 , x7 ], pen bot − o − 1/8pt); % z67 lies halfway between z6 and z7 but a jot lower.
%% Draw the bulb and the base.
draw bulb; % Draw the bulb proper.
draw z5 - - z6 . . z67 . . z7 - - z8 ; % Draw the base of the bulb.
%% Display key positions and points to help us debug.
makegrid(0, sb, w/2, w − sb)(0, −1pt, y2 , h); % Label “interesting” x and y coordinates.
penlabels(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 67, 7, 8); % Label control points for debugging.
endchar;
end

Figure 3: Sample METAFONT size-independent file (lightbulb.mf)

110
METAFONT can produce “proofs” of fonts—large, labeled versions that showcase the logical structure of
each character. In fact, proof mode is METAFONT’s default mode. To produce a proof of lightbulb10.mf,
issue the following commands at the operating-system prompt:

prompt > mf lightbulb10.mf ⇐ Produces lightbulb10.2602gf


prompt > gftodvi lightbulb10.2602gf ⇐ Produces lightbulb10.dvi

You can then view lightbulb10.dvi with any DVI viewer. The result is shown in Figure 4. Observe how the
grid defined with makegrid at the bottom of Figure 3 draws vertical lines at positions 0, sb, w/2, and w − sb
and horizontal lines at positions 0, −1pt, y2 , and h. Similarly, observe how the penlabels command labels all
of the important coordinates: z1 , z2 , . . . , z8 and z67 , which lightbulb.mf defines to lie between z6 and z7 .

4 2

8 5
3

7 67 6

Figure 4: Proof diagram of lightbulb10.mf

Most, if not all, TEX distributions include a Plain TEX file called testfont.tex which is useful for testing
new fonts in a variety of ways. One useful routine produces a table of all of the characters in the font:

prompt > tex testfont


This is TeX, Version 3.14159 (Web2C 7.3.1)
(/usr/share/texmf/tex/plain/base/testfont.tex
Name of the font to test = lightbulb10
Now type a test command (\help for help):)
*\table

*\bye
[1]
Output written on testfont.dvi (1 page, 1516 bytes).
Transcript written on testfont.log.

The resulting table, stored in testfont.dvi and illustrated in Figure 5, shows every character in the font.
To understand how to read the table, note that the character code for “A”—the only character defined by
lightbulb10.mf—is 41 in hexadecimal (base 16) and 101 in octal (base 8).
The LightBulb10 font is now usable by TEX. LATEX 2ε , however, needs more information before documents
can use the font. First, we create a font-description file that tells LATEX 2ε how to map fonts in a given font
family and encoding to a particular font in a particular font size. For symbol fonts, this mapping is fairly simple.
Symbol fonts almost always use the “U” (“Unknown”) font encoding and frequently occur in only one variant:
normal weight and non-italicized. The filename for a font-description file important; it must be of the form
“hencodingihfamilyi.fd”, where hencodingi is the lowercase version of the encoding name (typically “u” for
symbol fonts) and hfamilyi is the name of the font family. For LightBulb10, let’s call this “bulb”. Figure 6 lists
the contents of ubulb.fd. The document “LATEX 2ε Font Selection” [LAT00] describes \DeclareFontFamily
and \DeclareFontShape in detail, but the gist of ubulb.fd is first to declare a U-encoded version of the bulb
font family and then to specify that a LATEX 2ε request for a U-encoded version of bulb with a (m)edium font

111
Test of lightbulb10 on March 11, 2003 at 1127

´0 ´1 ´2 ´3 ´4 ´5 ´6 ´7
´10x A
˝4x
´11x
˝8 ˝9 ˝A ˝B ˝C ˝D ˝E ˝F

Figure 5: Font table produced by testfont.tex

\DeclareFontFamily{U}{bulb}{}
\DeclareFontShape{U}{bulb}{m}{n}{<-> lightbulb10}{}

Figure 6: LATEX 2ε font-description file (ubulb.fd)

series (as opposed to, e.g., bold) and a (n)ormal font shape (as opposed to, e.g., italic) should translate into a
TEX request for lightbulb10.tfm mechanically scaled to the current font size.
The final step is to write a LATEX 2ε style file that defines a name for each symbol in the font. Because
we have only one symbol our style file, lightbulb.sty (Figure 7), is rather trivial. Note that instead of
typesetting “A” we could have had \lightbulb typeset “\char65”, “\char"41”, or “\char’101” (respectively,
decimal, hexadecimal, and octal character offsets into the font). For a simple, one-character symbol font
such as LightBulb10 it would be reasonable to merge ubulb.fd into lightbulb.sty instead of maintaining
two separate files. In either case, a document need only include “\usepackage{lightbulb}” to make the
\lightbulb symbol available.

\newcommand{\lightbulb}{{\usefont{U}{bulb}{m}{n}A}}

Figure 7: LATEX 2ε style file (lightbulb.sty)

METAFONT normally produces bitmapped fonts. However, it is also possible, with the help of some
external tools, to produce PostScript Type 1 fonts. These have the advantages of rendering better in Adobe®
Acrobat® (at least in versions prior to 6.0) and of being more memory-efficient when handled by a PostScript
interpreter. See http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=textrace for pointers to tools that can
produce Type 1 fonts from METAFONT.

8.4 Math-mode spacing


Terms such as “binary operators”, “relations”, and “punctuation” in Section 3 primarily regard the surrounding
spacing. (See the Short Math Guide for LATEX [Dow00] for a nice exposition on the subject.) To use a symbol
for a different purpose, you can use the TEX commands \mathord, \mathop, \mathbin, \mathrel, \mathopen,
\mathclose, and \mathpunct. For example, if you want to use \downarrow as a variable (an “ordinary”
symbol) instead of a delimiter, you can write “$3 x + \mathord{\downarrow}$” to get the properly spaced
“3x + ↓” rather than the awkward-looking “3x+ ↓”. Similarly, to create a dotted-union symbol (“∪”) ˙ that
spaces like the ordinary set-union symbol (\cup) it must be defined with \mathbin, just as \cup is. Contrast
“$A \dot{\cup} B$” (“A∪B”) ˙ with “$A \mathbin{\dot{\cup}} B$” (“A ∪B”). ˙ See The TEXbook [Knu86a]
for the definitive description of math-mode spacing.
The purpose of the “log-like symbols” in Table 128 and Table 129 is to provide the correct amount of
spacing around and within multiletter function names. Table 325 on the following page contrasts the output of
the log-like symbols with various, naı̈ve alternatives. In addition to spacing, the log-like symbols also handle
subscripts properly. For example, “\max_{p \in P}” produces “maxp∈P ” in text, but “max” as part of a
p∈P
displayed formula.
The amsmath package makes it straightforward to define new log-like symbols:

\DeclareMathOperator{\atan}{atan}
\DeclareMathOperator*{\lcm}{lcm}

112
Table 325: Spacing Around/Within Log-like Symbols

LATEX expression Output


$r \sin \theta$ r sin θ (best)
$r sin \theta$ rsinθ
$r \mbox{sin} \theta$ rsinθ
$r \mathrm{sin} \theta$ rsinθ

The difference between \DeclareMathOperator and \DeclareMathOperator* involves the handling of sub-
scripts. With \DeclareMathOperator*, subscripts are written beneath log-like symbols in display style and
to the right in text style. This is useful for limit operators (e.g., \lim) and functions that tend to map over
a set (e.g., \min). In contrast, \DeclareMathOperator tells TEX that subscripts should always be displayed
to the right of the operator, as is common for functions that take a single parameter (e.g., \log and \cos).
Table 326 contrasts symbols declared with \DeclareMathOperator and \DeclareMathOperator* in both text
style ($. . .$) and display style (\[. . .\]).12

Table 326: Defining new log-like symbols

Declaration function $\newlogsym {p \in P}$ \[ \newlogsym {p \in P} \]


\DeclareMathOperator newlogsymp∈P newlogsymp∈P
\DeclareMathOperator* newlogsymp∈P newlogsym
p∈P

It is common to use a thin space (\,) between the words of a multiword operators, as in
“\DeclareMathOperator*{\argmax}{arg\,max}”. \liminf, \limsup, and all of the log-like symbols shown
in Table 129 utilize this spacing convention.

8.5 Bold mathematical symbols


LATEX does not normally use bold symbols when typesetting mathematics. However, bold symbols are occa-
sionally needed, for example when naming vectors. Any of the approaches described at http://www.tex.ac.uk/
cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=boldgreek can be used to produce bold mathematical symbols. Table 327
contrasts the output produced by these various techniques. As the table illustrates, these techniques exhibit
variation in their formatting of Latin letters (upright vs. italic), formatting of Greek letters (bold vs. normal),
formatting of operators and relations (bold vs. normal), and spacing.

Table 327: Producing bold mathematical symbols

Package Code Output


none $\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D$ α+b=Γ÷D (no bold)
none $\mathbf{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ α+b=Γ÷D
none \boldmath$\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D$ α+b=Γ÷D
amsbsy $\pmb{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ α+b=Γ÷D (faked bold)
amsbsy $\boldsymbol{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ α+b=Γ÷D
bm $\bm{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ α+b=Γ÷D
fixmath $\mathbold{\alpha + b = \Gamma \div D}$ α+b=Γ ÷D

12 Note that \displaystyle can be used to force display style within $. . .$ and \textstyle can be used to force text style

within \[. . .\].

113
8.6 ASCII and Latin 1 quick reference
Table 328 amalgamates data from various other tables in this document into a convenient reference for
LATEX 2ε typesetting of ASCII characters, i.e., the characters available on a typical U.S. computer keyboard.
The first two columns list the character’s ASCII code in decimal and hexadecimal. The third column shows
what the character looks like. The fourth column lists the LATEX 2ε command to typeset the character as a text
character. And the fourth column lists the LATEX 2ε command to typeset the character within a \texttt{. . .}
command (or, more generally, when \ttfamily is in effect).

Table 328: LATEX 2ε ASCII Table

Dec Hex Char Body text \texttt Dec Hex Char Body text \texttt
33 21 ! ! ! 62 3E > \textgreater >
34 22 " \textquotedbl " 63 3F ? ? ?
35 23 # \# \# 64 40 @ @ @
36 24 $ \$ \$ 65 41 A A A
37 25 % \% \% 66 42 B B B
38 26 & \& \& 67 43 C C C
.. .. .. .. ..
39 27 ’ ’ ’ . . . . .
40 28 ( ( ( 90 5A Z Z Z
41 29 ) ) ) 91 5B [ [ [
42 2A * * * 92 5C \ \textbackslash \char‘\\
43 2B + + + 93 5D ] ] ]
44 2C , , , 94 5E ˆ \^{} \^{}
45 2D - - - 95 5F \_ \char‘\_
46 2E . . . 96 60 ‘ ‘ ‘
47 2F / / / 97 61 a a a
48 30 0 0 0 98 62 b b b
49 31 1 1 1 99 63 c c c
.. .. .. .. ..
50 32 2 2 2 . . . . .
.. .. .. .. ..
. . . . . 122 7A z z z
57 39 9 9 9 123 7B { \{ \char‘\{
58 3A : : : 124 7C | \textbar |
59 3B ; ; ; 125 7D } \} \char‘\}
60 3C < \textless < 126 7E ˜ \~{} \~{}
61 3D = = =

The following are some additional notes about the contents of Table 328:

• “"” is not available in the OT1 font encoding.


• Table 328 shows a close quote for character 39 for consistency with the open quote shown for character 96.
A straight quote can be typeset using \textquotesingle (cf. Table 40).

• The characters “<”, “>”, and “|” do work as expected in math mode, although they produce, respectively,
“¡”, “¿”, and “—” in text mode when using the OT1 font encoding.13 The following are some alternatives
for typesetting “<”, “>”, and “|”:

– Specify a document font encoding other than OT1 (as described on page 8).
– Use the appropriate symbol commands from Table 2 on page 9, viz. \textless, \textgreater,
and \textbar.
– Enter the symbols in math mode instead of text mode, i.e., $<$, $>$, and $|$.

Note that for typesetting metavariables many people prefer \textlangle and \textrangle to \textless
and \textgreater; i.e., “hfilenamei” instead of “<filename>”.
13 Donald Knuth didn’t think such symbols were important outside of mathematics so he omitted them from his text fonts.

114
• Although “/” does not require any special treatment, LATEX additionally defines a \slash command
which outputs the same glyph but permits a line break afterwards. That is, “increase/decrease” is
always typeset as a single entity while “increase\slash{}decrease” may be typeset with “increase/”
on one line and “decrease” on the next.

• \textasciicircum can be used instead of \^{}, and \textasciitilde can be used instead of \~{}.
Note that \textasciitilde and \~{} produce raised, diacritic tildes. “Text” (i.e., vertically centered)
tildes can be generated with either the math-mode \sim command (shown in Table 67 on page 30),
which produces a somewhat wide “∼”, or the textcomp package’s \texttildelow (shown in Table 40
on page 20), which produces a vertically centered “~” in most fonts but a baseline-oriented “~” in
Computer Modern, txfonts, pxfonts, and various other fonts originating from the TEX world. If your
goal is to typeset tildes in URLs or Unix filenames, your best bet is to use the url package, which has a
number of nice features such as proper line-breaking of such names.
• The various \char commands within \texttt are necessary only in the OT1 font encoding. In other
encodings (e.g., T1), commands such as \{, \}, \_, and \textbackslash all work properly.
• The code page 437 (IBM PC) version of ASCII characters 1 to 31 can be typeset using the ascii package.
See Table 227 on page 72.
• To replace “‘” and “’” with the more computer-like (and more visibly distinct) “`” and “'” within
a verbatim environment, use the upquote package. Outside of verbatim, you can use \char18 and
\char13 to get the modified quote characters. (The former is actually a grave accent.)

Similar to Table 328, Table 329 on the next page is an amalgamation of data from other tables in this
document. While Table 328 shows how to typeset the 7-bit ASCII character set, Table 329 shows the Latin 1
(Western European) character set, also known as ISO-8859-1.
The following are some additional notes about the contents of Table 329:

• A “(tc)” after a symbol name means that the textcomp package must be loaded to access that symbol.
A “(T1)” means that the symbol requires the T1 font encoding. The fontenc package can change the
font encoding document-wide.
• Many of the \text. . . accents can also be produced using the accent commands shown in Table 17 on
page 14 plus an empty argument. For instance, \={} is essentially the same as \textasciimacron.
• The commands in the “LATEX 2ε ” columns work both in body text and within a \texttt{. . .} command
(or, more generally, when \ttfamily is in effect).
• The “£” and “$” glyphs occupy the same slot (36) of the OT1 font encoding, with “£” appearing in italic
fonts and “$” appearing in roman fonts. A problem with LATEX’s default handling of this double-mapping
is that “{\sffamily\slshape\pounds}” produces “$”, not “£”. Other font encodings use separate slots
for the two characters and are therefore robust to the problem of “£”/”$” conflicts. Authors who use
\pounds should select a font encoding other than OT1 (as explained on page 8) or use the textcomp
package, which redefines \pounds to use the TS1 font encoding.
• Character 173, \-, is shown as “-” but is actually a discretionary hyphen; it appears only at the end of
a line.

Microsoft® Windows® normally uses a superset of Latin 1 called “Code Page 1252” or “CP1252” for
short. CP1252 introduces symbols in the Latin 1 “invalid” range (characters 128–159). Table 330 presents the
characters with which CP1252 augments the standard Latin 1 table.
The following are some additional notes about the contents of Table 330:

• As in Table 329, a “(tc)” after a symbol name means that the textcomp package must be loaded to access
that symbol. A “(T1)” means that the symbol requires the T1 font encoding. The fontenc package can
change the font encoding document-wide.
• Not all characters in the 128–159 range are defined.
• Look up “euro signs” in the index for alternatives to \texteuro.

115
Table 329: LATEX 2ε Latin 1 Table

Dec Hex Char LATEX 2ε Dec Hex Char LATEX 2ε


161 A1 ¡ !‘ 209 D1 Ñ \~{N}
162 A2 ¢ \textcent (tc) 210 D2 Ò \‘{O}
163 A3 £ \pounds 211 D3 Ó \’{O}
164 A4 ¤ \textcurrency (tc) 212 D4 Ô \^{O}
165 A5 ¥ \textyen (tc) 213 D5 Õ \~{O}
166 A6 ¦ \textbrokenbar (tc)
214 D6 Ö \"{O}
167 A7 § \S
215 D7 × \texttimes (tc)
168 A8 ¨ \textasciidieresis (tc)
216 D8 Ø \O
169 A9 © \textcopyright
217 D9 Ù \‘{U}
170 AA ª \textordfeminine
171 AB « \guillemotleft (T1) 218 DA Ú \’{U}
172 AC ¬ \textlnot (tc) 219 DB Û \^{U}
173 AD - \- 220 DC Ü \"{U}
174 AE ® \textregistered 221 DD Ý \’{Y}
175 AF ¯ \textasciimacron (tc) 222 DE Þ \TH (T1)
176 B0 ° \textdegree (tc) 223 DF ß \ss
177 B1 ± \textpm (tc) 224 E0 à \‘{a}
178 B2 ² \texttwosuperior (tc) 225 E1 á \’{a}
179 B3 ³ \textthreesuperior (tc) 226 E2 â \^{a}
180 B4 ´ \textasciiacute (tc) 227 E3 ã \~{a}
181 B5 µ \textmu (tc) 228 E4 ä \"{a}
182 B6 ¶ \P 229 E5 å \aa
183 B7 · \textperiodcentered 230 E6 æ \ae
184 B8 ¸ \c{} 231 E7 ç \c{c}
185 B9 ¹ \textonesuperior (tc) 232 E8 è \‘{e}
186 BA º \textordmasculine 233 E9 é \’{e}
187 BB » \guillemotright (T1) 234 EA ê \^{e}
188 BC ¼ \textonequarter (tc) 235 EB ë \"{e}
189 BD ½ \textonehalf (tc) 236 EC ı̀ \‘{ı}
190 BE ¾ \textthreequarters (tc) 237 ED ı́ \’{ı}
191 BF ¿ ?‘ 238 EE ı̂ \^{ı}
192 C0 À \‘{A} 239 EF ı̈ \"{ı}
193 C1 Á \’{A} 240 F0 ð \dh (T1)
194 C2 Â \^{A} 241 F1 ñ \~{n}
242 F2 ò \‘{o}
195 C3 Ã \~{A}
243 F3 ó \’{o}
196 C4 Ä \"{A}
244 F4 ô \^{o}
197 C5 Å \AA 245 F5 õ \~{o}
198 C6 Æ \AE 246 F6 ö \"{o}
199 C7 Ç \c{C} 247 F7 ÷ \textdiv (tc)
200 C8 È \‘{E} 248 F8 ø \o
201 C9 É \’{E} 249 F9 ù \‘{u}
202 CA Ê \^{E} 250 FA ú \’{u}
203 CB Ë \"{E} 251 FB û \^{u}
204 CC Ì \‘{I} 252 FC ü \"{u}
205 CD Í \’{I} 253 FD ý \’{y}
206 CE Î \^{I} 254 FE þ \th (T1)
207 CF Ï \"{I} 255 FF ÿ \"{y}
208 D0 Ð \DH (T1)

116
Table 330: LATEX 2ε Code Page 1252 Table

Dec Hex Char LATEX 2ε Dec Hex Char LATEX 2ε


128 80 € \texteuro (tc) 145 91 ‘ ‘
130 82 ‚ \quotesinglbase (T1) 146 92 ’ ’
131 83 f \textit{f} 147 93 “ ‘‘
132 84 „ \quotedblbase (T1) 148 94 ” ’’
133 85 ... \dots 149 95 • \textbullet
134 86 † \dag 150 96 – --
135 87 ‡ \ddag 151 97 — ---
136 88 ˆ \textasciicircum 152 98 ˜ \textasciitilde
137 89 ‰ \textperthousand (tc) 153 99 ™ \texttrademark
138 8A Š \v{S} 154 9A š \v{s}
139 8B ‹ \guilsinglleft (T1) 155 9B › \guilsinglright (T1)
140 8C Œ \OE 156 9C œ \oe
142 8E Ž \v{Z} 158 9E ž \v{z}
159 9F Ÿ \"{Y}

While too large to incorporate into this document, a listing of ISO 8879:1986 SGML/XML character entities
and their LATEX equivalents is available from http://www.bitjungle.com/~isoent/. Some of the characters
presented there make use of isoent, a LATEX 2ε package (available from the same URL) that fakes some of the
missing ISO glyphs using the LATEX picture environment.14

8.7 Unicode characters


Unicode is a “universal character set”—a standard for encoding (i.e., assigning unique numbers to) the symbols
appearing in many of the world’s languages. While ASCII can represent 128 symbols and Latin 1 can represent
256 symbols, Unicode can represent an astonishing 1,114,112 symbols.
Because TEX and LATEX predate the Unicode standard and Unicode fonts by almost a decade, support for
Unicode has had to be added to the base TEX and LATEX systems. Note first that LATEX distinguishes between
input encoding—the characters used in the .tex file—and output encoding—the characters that appear in the
generated .dvi, .pdf, etc. file.

Inputting Unicode characters


To include Unicode characters in a .tex file, load the ucs package and load the inputenc package with the utf8x
(“UTF-8 extended”) option.15 These packages enable LATEX to translate UTF-8 sequences to LATEX commands,
which are subsequently processed as normal. For example, the UTF-8 text “Copyright © 2009”—“©” is not
an ASCII character and therefore cannot be input directly without packages such as ucs/inputenc—is converted
internally by inputenc to “Copyright \textcopyright{} 2009” and therefore typeset as “Copyright © 2009”.
The ucs/inputenc combination supports only a tiny subset of Unicode’s million-plus sym-
bols. Additional symbols can be added manually using the \DeclareUnicodeCharacter command.
\DeclareUnicodeCharacter takes two arguments: a Unicode number and a LATEX command to execute
when the corresponding Unicode character is encountered in the input. For example, the Unicode character
“degree celsius” (“ ℃ ”) appears at character position U+2103.16 However, “ ℃ ” is not one of the characters
that ucs and inputenc recognize. The following document shows how to use \DeclareUnicodeCharacter to
tell LATEX that the “ ℃ ” character should be treated as a synonym for \textcelsius:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{ucs}
\usepackage[utf8x]{inputenc}
14 isoent is not featured in this document, because it is not available from CTAN and because the faked symbols are not “true”

characters; they exist in only one size, regardless of the body text’s font size.
15 UTF-8 is the 8-bit Unicode Transformation Format, a popular mechanism for representing Unicode symbol numbers as

sequences of one to four bytes.


16 The Unicode convention is to express character positions as “U+hhexadecimal number i”.

117
\usepackage{textcomp}

\DeclareUnicodeCharacter{"2103}{\textcelsius} % Enable direct input of U+2103.


\begin{document}
It was a balmy 21℃.
\end{document}

which produces
It was a balmy 21℃.
See the ucs documentation for more information and for descriptions of the various options that control
ucs’s behavior.

Outputting Unicode characters


Orthogonal to the ability to include Unicode characters in a LATEX input file is the ability to include a given
Unicode character in the corresponding output file. By far the easiest approach is to use XELATEX instead of
pdfLATEX or ordinary LATEX. XELATEX handles Unicode input and output natively and can utilize system fonts
directly without having to expose them via .tfm, .fd, and other such files. To output a Unicode character,
a XELATEX document can either include that character directly as UTF-8 text or use TEX’s \char primitive,
which XELATEX extends to accept numbers larger than 255.
Suppose we want to output the symbols for versicle (“ ”) and response (“ ”) in a document. The Unicode
charts list “versicle” at position U+2123 and “response” at position U+211F. We therefore need to install a
font that contains those characters at their proper positions. One such font that is freely available from CTAN
is Junicode Regular (Junicode-Regular.ttf) from the junicode package. The fontspec package makes it easy
for a XELATEX document to utilize a system font. The following example defines a \textjuni command that
uses fontspec to typeset its argument in Junicode Regular:
\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{fontspec}

\newcommand{\textjuni}[1]{{\fontspec{Junicode-Regular}#1}}

\begin{document}
We use ‘‘\textjuni{\char"2123}’’ for a versicle
and ‘‘\textjuni{\char"211F}’’ for a response.
\end{document}
which produces
We use “ ” for a versicle and “ ” for a response.
(Typesetting the entire document in Junicode Regular would be even easier. See the fontspec documentation
for more information regarding font selection.) Note how the preceding example uses \char to specify a
Unicode character by number. The double quotes before the number indicate that the number is represented
in hexadecimal instead of decimal.

8.8 About this document


History David Carlisle wrote the first version of this document in October, 1994. It originally contained
all of the native LATEX symbols (Table 44, Table 57, Table 67, Table 102, Table 128, Table 131, Table 152,
Table 153, Table 164, Table 169, Table 201, and a few tables that have since been reorganized) and was designed
to be nearly identical to the tables in Chapter 3 of Leslie Lamport’s book [Lam86]. Even the table captions
and the order of the symbols within each table matched! The AMS symbols (Table 45, Table 68, Table 69,
Table 105, Table 106, Table 132, Table 137, Table 148, and Table 202) and an initial Math Alphabets table
(Table 213) were added thereafter. Later, Alexander Holt provided the stmaryrd tables (Table 46, Table 59,
Table 70, Table 108, Table 125, and Table 149).
In January, 2001, Scott Pakin took responsibility for maintaining the symbol list and has since implemented
a complete overhaul of the document. The result, now called, “The Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List”,
includes the following new features:

118
• the addition of a handful of new math alphabets, dozens of new font tables, and thousands of new
symbols
• the categorization of the symbol tables into body-text symbols, mathematical symbols, science and
technology symbols, dingbats, ancient languages, and other symbols, to provide a more user-friendly
document structure
• an index, table of contents, hyperlinks, and a frequently-requested symbol list, to help users quickly
locate symbols
• symbol tables rewritten to list the symbols in alphabetical order

• appendices providing additional information relevant to using symbols in LATEX


• tables showing how to typeset all of the characters in the ASCII and Latin 1 font encodings

Furthermore, the internal structure of the document has been completely altered from David Carlisle’s original
version. Most of the changes are geared towards making the document easier to extend, modify, and reformat.

Build characteristics Table 331 lists some of this document’s build characteristics. Most important is the list
of packages that LATEX couldn’t find, but that symbols.tex otherwise would have been able to take advantage
of. Complete, prebuilt versions of this document are available from CTAN (http://www.ctan.org/ or one
of its many mirror sites) in the directory tex-archive/info/symbols/comprehensive. Table 332 shows the
package date (specified in the .sty file with \ProvidesPackage) for each package that was used to build this
document and that specifies a package date. Packages are not listed in any particular order in either Table 331
or Table 332.

Table 331: Document Characteristics


Characteristic Value
Source file: symbols.tex
Build date: November 9, 2009
Symbols documented: 5913
Packages included: textcomp latexsym amssymb stmaryrd euscript wasysym
pifont manfnt bbding undertilde ifsym tipa tipx extraipa
wsuipa phonetic ulsy ar metre txfonts mathabx fclfont
skak ascii dingbat skull eurosym esvect yfonts yhmath
esint mathdots trsym universa upgreek overrightarrow
chemarr chemarrow nath trfsigns mathtools phaistos arcs
vietnam t4phonet holtpolt semtrans dictsym extarrows
protosem harmony hieroglf cclicenses mathdesign arev
MnSymbol cmll extpfeil keystroke fge turnstile simpsons
epsdice feyn universal staves igo colonequals shuffle fourier
dozenal pmboxdraw pigpen clock teubner linearA linearb
cypriot sarabian china2e harpoon steinmetz milstd recycle
DotArrow ushort hhcount ogonek combelow accents
nicefrac bm mathrsfs chancery calligra bbold mbboard
dsfont bbm
Packages omitted: none

Table 332: Package versions used in the preparation of this document

Name Date
textcomp 2005/09/27
latexsym 1998/08/17

(continued on next page)

119
(continued from previous page)

Name Date
amssymb 2002/01/22
stmaryrd 1994/03/03
euscript 2001/10/01
wasysym 2003/10/30
pifont 2005/04/12
manfnt 1999/07/01
bbding 1999/04/15
undertilde 2000/08/08
ifsym 2000/04/18
tipa 2002/08/08
tipx 2003/01/01
wsuipa 1994/07/16
metre 2001/12/05
txfonts 2008/01/22
mathabx 2003/07/29
skak 2008/10/09
ascii 2006/05/30
dingbat 2001/04/27
skull 2002/01/23
eurosym 1998/08/06
yfonts 2003/01/08
mathdots 2006/03/16
trsym 2000/06/25
universa 98/08/01
upgreek 2003/02/12
chemarr 2006/02/20
mathtools 2008/08/01
phaistos 2004/04/23
arcs 2004/05/09
t4phonet 2004/06/01
semtrans 1998/02/10
dictsym 2004/07/26
extarrows 2008/05/15
protosem 2005/03/18
harmony 2007/05/03
hieroglf 2000/09/23
cclicenses 2005/05/20
arev 2005/06/14
MnSymbol 2007/01/21
extpfeil 2006/07/27
keystroke 2003/08/15
fge 2007/06/03
turnstile 2007/06/23
epsdice 2007/02/15
feyn 2008/02/29
universal 97/12/24
colonequals 2006/08/01
shuffle 2008/10/27
pmboxdraw 2006/05/03
pigpen 2008/12/07
clock 2001/04/10
teubner 2008/02/10

(continued on next page)

120
(continued from previous page)

Name Date
linearA 2006/03/13
linearb 2005/06/22
cypriot 1999/06/20
sarabian 2005/11/12
china2e 1997/06/01
harpoon 1994/11/02
steinmetz 2009/06/14
DotArrow 2007/02/12
ushort 2001/06/13
hhcount 1995/03/31
ogonek 95/07/17
combelow 2009/08/23
accents 2006/05/12
nicefrac 1998/08/04
bm 2004/02/26
calligra 1996/07/18

8.9 Copyright and license


The Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List
Copyright © 2009, Scott Pakin

This work may be distributed and/or modified under the conditions of the LATEX Project Public License, either
version 1.3c of this license or (at your option) any later version. The latest version of this license is in

http://www.latex-project.org/lppl.txt

and version 1.3c or later is part of all distributions of LATEX version 2006/05/20 or later.

This work has the LPPL maintenance status “maintained”.

The current maintainer of this work is Scott Pakin.

121
References
[AMS99] American Mathematical Society. User’s Guide for the amsmath Package (Version 2.0), December 13,
1999. Available from ftp://ftp.ams.org/pub/tex/doc/amsmath/amsldoc.pdf.
[Ber01] Karl Berry. Fontname: Filenames for TEX fonts, June 2001. Available from http://www.ctan.org/
tex-archive/info/fontname.

[Che97] Raymond Chen. A METAFONT of ‘Simpsons’ characters. Baskerville, 4(4):19, September


1997. ISSN 1354-5930. Available from http://tug.ctan.org/usergrps/uktug/baskervi/4 4/
bask4 4.ps.
[Dow00] Michael Downes. Short math guide for LATEX, July 19, 2000. Version 1.07. Available from http://
www.ams.org/tex/short-math-guide.html.

[Gib97] Jeremy Gibbons. Hey—it works! TUGboat, 18(2):75–78, June 1997. Available from http://
www.tug.org/TUGboat/Articles/tb18-2/tb55works.pdf.
[Knu86a] Donald E. Knuth. The TEXbook, volume A of Computers and Typesetting. Addison-Wesley, Reading,
MA, USA, 1986.

[Knu86b] Donald E. Knuth. The METAFONTbook, volume C of Computers and Typesetting. Addison-Wesley,
Reading, MA, USA, 1986.
[Lam86] Leslie Lamport. LATEX: A document preparation system. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA, 1986.
[LAT98] LATEX3 Project Team. A new math accent. LATEX News. Issue 9, June 1998. Available from
http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/doc/ltnews09.pdf (also included in many TEX
distributions).
[LAT00] LATEX3 Project Team. LATEX 2ε font selection, January 30, 2000. Available from http://
www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/doc/fntguide.ps (also included in many TEX distri-
butions).

122
Index
If you’re having trouble locating a symbol, try looking under “T” for “\text. . .”. Many text-mode commands begin
with that prefix. Also, accents are shown over/under a gray box (e.g., “ á ” for “\’”).
Some symbol entries appear to be listed repeatedly. This happens when multiple packages define identical (or nearly
identical) glyphs with the same symbol name.17

Symbols \AAaleph (A) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Romanian comma-belo ac-


\" (ä) .. ........ . . . . . . . 14 \AAayin (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 cent . . . . . . . see accents,
\# (#) . ........ . . . . 9, 114 \AAbeth (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 comma-below
\$ ($) .. ........ . . . . 9, 114
== trema see accents, diæresis
\AAcht (ˇ “ ˇ “ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
\% (%) . ........ . . . . 9, 114 \AAdaleth (D) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 umlaut see accents, diæresis
\& (&) . ........ . . . . 9, 114 accents (package) . 58, 107, 119,
\AAhe (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
\’ (á) .. ........ . . . . . . . 14 121
\AAhelmet (V) . . . . . . . . . . 81
( (() . .. ........ . . . . . . . 54 \accentset . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
\AAheth (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
( (() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \AAkaph (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Acht (ˇ “( )== . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
\AAlamed (L) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AchtBL ( ˇ “ )== . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
) ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \Aaleph (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \AchtBR ( ˇ “ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
) ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \AApe (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \ACK (␆) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
\AAqoph (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \acontraction . . . . . . . . . 109
* (*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \AAresh (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
\AcPa (? ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
\, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \AAsade (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
\- (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115, 116 \actuarial ( ) . . . . . . . . . 108
\Aayin (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
\. (ȧ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 actuarial symbols . . . . . . . 108
\AAyod (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
/ (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \acute (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
\Abeth (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 acute (á) . . . . . . . . see accents
/ (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 absolute value . see \lvert and \acutus (á) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
\rvert \Adaleth (d) . . . . . . . . . . . 81
( ..) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 abzüglich . . see \textdiscount adeles (A) . see alphabets, math
\:
.
\; ( ..) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \AC (:) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 adjoint (†) . . . . . . . . . see \dag
\acarc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Adobe Acrobat . . . . . . . . . 112
< (⟨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \acbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
.. .
\? ( ..) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 accents . . 14–18, 57–61, 71, 89, \adots ( . . ) . . . . . . . . 64, 107
[ ([) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 107–109 advancing . see \textadvancing
⎡⎢ acute (á) . . . . . . 14–18, 57 \AE (Æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
[ ( ⎢⎢⎢) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 any character as . . . . . 107 \ae (æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
\\ .⎢⎣. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 arc (a) . . . . . 14–17, 59, 60 \aeolicbii (Ι) . . . . . . . . . . 95
] (]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 breve (ă) . . . . . . 14–18, 57 \aeolicbiii (Θ) . . . . . . . . 95
⎤⎥
] ( ⎥⎥⎥) . .
caron (ǎ) . . . 14, 18, 57, 60 \aeolicbiv (Κ) . . . . . . . . 95
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
\^ (â) ⎥⎦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
cedilla (¸) . . . . . . . . . . 14 \agemO (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
circumflex (â) 14–16, 57, 59, \Agimel (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
\^{} (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 115 60 \Ahe (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
\| (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \Ahelmet (v) . . . . . . . . . . . 81
comma-below (a,) . . . . . 17
\| (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54, 56 \Aheth (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
diæresis (ä) 14, 17, 18, 57,
\| (a ¿) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
68 \ain (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
\= (ā) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
dot (ȧ or . ) . . . . 14–16, 57 \Akaph (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
\={} (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
RR double acute (a̋) . . . 14, 18 \Alad (}) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
RR
| ( RRR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 extensible . . . . 59–61, 63, \alad (}) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
| (|) . . . . . . . . . . 30, 54, 56, 57 108–109 \Alamed (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
\_ ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 115 grave (à) . . . . . . 14–18, 57 \Alas ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
\{ ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 54, 115 háček . . see accents, caron \alas ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
\} (}) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 54, 115 hook (ả) . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \aldine (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
\‘ (à) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Hungarian umlaut . . . see \aldineleft (m) . . . . . . . . . 78
\~ (ã) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 accents, double acute \aldineright (n) . . . . . . . . 78
\~{} (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 115 kroužek . . see accents, ring \aldinesmall (j) . . . . . . . . 78
macron (ā) . 14, 17, 18, 57, \aleph (ℵ) . . . . . . . . . . 51, 65
A 59, 60 \aleph (ℵ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
a (esvect package option) . . . 61 multiple per character 15–16, \Alif (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
\a (×) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 107 \alpha (α) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
\AA (Å) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 ogonek ( ˛) . . . . . . . 14–17 alphabets
\aa (å) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 ring (å) . 14–16, 18, 57, 58 African . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
17 This occurs frequently between amssymb and mathabx, for example.

123
Cypriot . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Angud (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \ArrowBoldDownRight ( ) . 75 y
Cyrillic . . . . . . . . . . . 103 \angud (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \ArrowBoldRightCircled ( ) 75 {
Greek . . . . . 50, 51, 68, 87 angular minutes . . . . see \prime
\ArrowBoldRightShort ( ) . . 75z
Hebrew . . . . . . . . . 51, 68 angular seconds . . . see \second
\ArrowBoldRightStrobe ( ) 75 w
hieroglyphic . . . . . . . . . 82
Linear A . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\Angus (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
\angus (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 x
\ArrowBoldUpRight ( ) . . . 75
Linear B . . . . . . . . . . . 85 animals . . . . . . . . . . . 81, 82, 86 \Arrownot (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \Ankh (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \arrownot (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
phonetic . . . . . . . . 11–14 annuity symbols . . . . . . . . 108 arrows 41–43, 47, 61–63, 72, 75,
proto-Semitic . . . . . . . . 81 \Antidiple (<) . . . . . . . . . . 95 81, 86, 90, 103
South Arabian . . . . . . . 87 \antidiple (<) . . . . . . . . . . 95 diagonal, for reducing subex-
Vietnamese . . . . . . . . . 10 \Antidiple* (< · ) . . . . . . . . . 95
·
pressions . . . . . . . . . . 59
\alphaup (α) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \antidiple* (< ·
· ) . . . . . . . . . 95 dotted . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
alpine symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \antilabe (.. .. ) . . . . . . . . . . 64 double-headed, diagonal 106
\Alt ( Alt ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \Antisigma (⊃) . . . . . . . . . . 95 extensible . . . . . . . 59–63
alternative denial . see \uparrow \antisigma (⊃) . . . . . . . . . . 95 fletched . . . . . . . . . 47, 75
and | \Anun (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 negated w. . . . . . . 41, 42, 44
\AltGr ( AltGr ) . . . . . . . . . 72 \Ape (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Arrowvert (w) . . . . . . . . . 54
X
X
APL X
X
\Arrowvert (X X
\amalg (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
\amalg (∐) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . 71 X) . . . . . . . . . 55
symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \arrowvert () . . . . . . . . . . 54
\Amem (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 RR
\APLbox (~) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 RR
ampersand . . . . . . . . . . see \&
\APLcirc (◦) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \arrowvert ( RRR) . . . . . . . . . . 55
AMS . 8, 10, 22, 26, 30, 31, 36, Arseneau, Donald 104, 106–108
\APLcomment () . . . . . . . . . 71
38, 39, 41, 49–54, 58, 59, 61, \Asade (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
\APLdown (F) . . . . . . . . . . . 71
64–66, 69, 100, 118 \Asamekh (s) . . . . . . . . . . . 81
\APLdownarrowbox (o) . . . . 71
amsbsy (package) . . . . . . . . 113 ASCII . . 8, 10, 72, 100, 114–115,
\APLinput (}) . . . . . . . . . . 71
amsfonts (package) 22, 30, 36, 41, 117, 119
\APLinv (÷~) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
65, 68 table . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
\APLleftarrowbox (p) . . . . 71
amsmath (package) . . 8, 49, 58, ascii (package) 72, 115, 119, 120
\APLlog () . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
104, 112 \ascnode () . . . . . . . . . . . 71
amssymb (package) 8, 22, 30, 36, \APLminus (−) . . . . . . . . . . 71
\APLnot (∼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Ashin (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
41, 58, 65, 68, 87, 119, 120, aspect ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
123 \APLrightarrowbox (q) . . . . 71
\APLstar (E) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \ast () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
amstext (package) . . . . 105, 106 \ast (∗) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
\Anaclasis (÷) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \APLup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
\APLuparrowbox (n) . . . . . . 71 \ast (∗) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
\anaclasis (÷) . . . . . . . . . . 95
\anceps (Ξ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \APLvert ( | ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Asteriscus (× ····) . . . . . . . . . 95
\apprge (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \asteriscus (× ····) . . . . . . . . . 95
\ancepsdbrevis (Ζ) . . . . . . . 95 \Asterisk () . . . . . . . . . . 23
O
\anchor ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 80
\apprle (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
\approx (≈) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 N
\Asterisk ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 78
\asterisk () . . . . . . . . . . . 23
ancient-language symbols 81–87
A
\approx (≈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
and . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \wedge \approxcolon (≈:) . . . . . . . 36 \AsteriskBold ( ) . . . . . . . 78
AND gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \approxcoloncolon (≈::) . . . 36 \AsteriskCenterOpen ( ) . . 78 B
\approxeq (u) . . . . . . . . . . 30
\approxeq (≊) . . . . . . . . . . . 32
\AsteriskRoundedEnds ( ) . 78 X
\ANDd () . . . . . . . . . . . 73 asterisks . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 78
\Aqoph (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
C
\AsteriskThin ( ) . . . . . . . 78
D
\Aquarius (ê) . . . . . . . . . . 71
\ANDl () . . . . . . . . . . 73
A
\aquarius (e) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \AsteriskThinCenterOpen ( )
\AR ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 . . . . . . . . . 78
ar (package) . . . . . . . . 70, 119 \asterism (** * ) . . . . . . . . . 104
\ANDr () . . . . . . . . . . 73 arc (
a) . . . . . . . . . see accents astrological symbols . . . . . . . 71
\arccos (arccos) . . . . . . . . . 49 astronomical symbols . . . 71, 98
arcminutes . . . . . . . see \prime \astrosun ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 71
\ANDu () . . . . . . . . . . . 73 arcs (package) . . . . 17, 119, 120 \asymp () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
\angle (∠) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 arcseconds . . . . . . . see \second \asymp (≍) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
\angle (6 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \arcsin (arcsin) . . . . . . . . . 49 \atan (atan) . . . . . . . . . . . 113
\angle (∠) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \arctan (arctan) . . . . . . . . . 49 \ataribox (m) . . . . . . . . . . . 88
angle notation . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \Aresh (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \Atav (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65–67 arev (package) . 67, 88, 119, 120 \Ateth (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
\Anglesign (W) . . . . . . . . . . 67 \arg (arg) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \AtForty (Ø) . . . . . . . . . . 90
Ångström unit \Aries (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \AtNinetyFive (Ó) . . . . . . 90
math mode see \mathring \Aries (à) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 atomic math objects . . 49, 113
text mode . . . . . . see \AA \aries () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \AtSixty (Õ) . . . . . . . . . . 90

124
\autoleftarrow (DGGGGG) . . . 62 \baro (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \bbm ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\barp (A) . . . . . . . . . .
˘˘ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\bbmb ¯(¯
\autoleftrightharpoons
. . . . 13 ¯˘˘¯˘
barred letters . . . . . . . . . . 104 \bbmx ( ¯¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\barrightharpoon (ß) . . . . 43 ¯˘˘¯˘(š) . . . . . . . . . . . 68
(E
GGGGGC
GG ) . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \bbnabla
\barsci (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 bbold (package) . . . . . . 68, 119
\autorightarrow (GGGGGA) . . 62 \barscu (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \bbpe (Ô) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
\bbqof (×) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
\autorightleftharpoons

\bbrevis (ς) . . . . . . . . . . . 95
GGGGGB
(F GG ) . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \Bart ( ) . . . . . . . . . 96 \bbslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 22
\baru (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \bbyod (É) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
\barwedge (X) .
\Avav (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \bcontraction . . . . . . . . . 109
. . . . . . . . . 23
average . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
\barwedge (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Bda (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\Ayn (,) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
base-twelve digits . . . . . . . . 65 \Bde (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\Ayod (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
\Bat (ý) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \bdecisive (i) . . . . . . . . . 93
\Azayin (z) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
\Bau (=) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bdi (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
B

\bauarrow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 75

\baucircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 80
\Bdo (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\B (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
..
..
10
95 \baucircle ( )  . . . . . . . . . 80 \Bdu (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
˘
b (esvect package option) . .. 61 
\baucross ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 77 \Bdwe (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\b (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14 
\baudash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \Bdwo (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
¯
\b ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 95 \baueclipse ( )  . . . . . . . . . 80 \Be (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
˘ 
\bauequal ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \Beam (") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
\Ba (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 85

\bauface ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \Bearing (#) . . . . . . . . . . . 73
babel (package) . . . . . . .
\babygamma (!) . . . . . . . .
50,
..
87
13
„
\bauforms ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \because (∵) . . . . . . . . 30, 64
\backapprox () . . . . . . . .. 32 \bauforms ( 
) . . . . . . . . . 90 \because (∵) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
\backapproxeq () . . . . . .. 32
\bauhead ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \BEL (␇) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72


\backcong (≌) . . . . . . . . . .. 32 \bell (
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
\bauhead ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 90 Berry, Karl . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

\backepsilon () . . . . . . .. 30
\backeqsim ( ) . . . . . . . . .. 32 \bauhole ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \beta (β) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
\bauplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \betaup (β) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
…
\backneg (⌐) . . . . . . . . . . .. 66
\baupunct ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \beth (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

\backprime (8) . . . . . . . . .. 66
\bauquarter ( ) . . . . . . . . . 90 \beth (ℶ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

\backprime (‵) . . . . . . . . .. 66
\bauquestion ( ) . . . . . . . . 90 \betteris (b) . . . . . . . . . . 93
†
\backsim (v) . . . . . . . . . .. 30
\backsim (∽) . . . . . . . . . . .. 32 \bausquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \between ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
\bausquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . 80 \between (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

\backsimeq (w) . . . . . . . .. 30
\bautriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . 80

\backsimeq (⋍) . . . . . . . . .. 32 \between (”) . . . . . . . . . . . 32
\bautriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . 80

\backslash (\) . . . . . . . 54, 65 \Bi (i) . .”. . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\bauwhitearrow ( ) . . . . . . 75
\backslash (/) . . . . . . . . . 55 
\bauwindow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 90
\bibridge (a ”) . . . . . . . . . . . 16
biconditional . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\BB ( ´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\backslashdiv () . . . . . . . 23 ˘˘
\Bb (´ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
. see \leftrightarrow and
\backtriplesim () . . . . . . . 32 ˘˘
\bB ( ´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\equiv
\Baii (;) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 ˘˘
\bb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\Bicycle (®) . . . . . . . . . . . 90
\Baiii (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
˘˘
\bba (˘×˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\Big . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100, 102
\big . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100, 102
banana brackets . . . . . . . . . . . \bbalpha ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
big O (O) . see alphabets, math
\bigast () . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
. see \llparenthesis and \bbar (b̄) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

{
\rrparenthesis \bbb (˘˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\banceps (Ψ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
˘
\bbbeta ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \bigbosonloop () . . . . . . . . 74
\bar (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
\barb () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\Bbbk (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
\bigbosonloopA () [ . . . . . . . 74

bbding (package) 75–78, 80, 101,
\barbbrevis (θ) . . . . . . . . 95 119, 120 \bigbosonloopV () . . . . . . . 74
\bbdollar ($) . . . . . . . . . . . 68
e
\barbrevis (ι) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \bigbox ( ) . . . .Ö..... . . . 26
\barcirc (−◦ ) . . . . . . . . . . 104 \bbetter (g) . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \bigboxasterisk ( Þ ) .. . . . 26
\bard () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \bbeuro (û) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \bigboxbackslash
Û
( ) . . . . 27
\bari (') . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \bbfinalnun (Ï) . . . . . . . . . 68 \bigboxbot ( Õ) ...... . . . 27
\barin (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \bbgamma ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \bigboxcirc ( ) . .× ... . . . 27
\barj (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 bbgreekl (mathbbol package op- \bigboxcoasterisk
Ó
( ) . . . 27
\barl (.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 tion) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \bigboxdiv (Ô) . . . . . . . . . 27
\barlambda () . . . . . . . . . . 13 \BBm ( ´ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \bigboxdot ( Ø) ...... . . . 27
\barleftharpoon (Þ) . . . . . 43
˘¯˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\Bbm (¯
˘´˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\bBm (¯¯
\bigboxleft ( Ñ ) ..... . . . 27

¯˘¯˘´
\baro ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 ( ) ....
\bigboxminus Ð . . . 27
\baro ( vs. <) . . . . . . . . . 101 bbm (package) . . . . . . . 68, 119 \bigboxplus ( ) . . . . . . . . 27

125
Ù N
\bigboxright (Ý) . . . . . . . 27 \bigotimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . 25 birds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\bigboxslash (Ò) . . . . . . . 26 \bigotimesÊ(⊗) . . . . . . . . . 29 bishop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
\bigboxtimesÚ( ) . . . . . . . 26 \bigotop ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \bishoppair (a) . . . . . . . . . 93
\bigboxtop ( ) . . .ß . . . . . . 26 \bigotriangle (F)Ï. . . . . . . 29 \Bja (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\bigboxtriangleup ( ) . . . 26 \bigotriangleup ( ) . . . . . 26
Ü \Bje (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\bigboxvoid ( ) . . . . . . . . 27 \bigovert (⦶)Ì
. . . . . . . . . . 29
T
\bigcap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \bigovoid ( ) f . . . . . . . . . . 27 \Bjo (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\Bju (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\bigcap (⋂) . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigparallel˙ ( ) . . . . . . . . 26
\bigcapdot (⩀) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigparr () . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Bka (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\bigcapplus ($) . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \Bke (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\bigcirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \bigplus (+) . . . . . . . . . . . 29
\bigcirc (◯) . . . . . . . . . . . 79 /
( ) . . . . 79
\Bki (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

%
\BigRightDiamond
– \Bko (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\BigCircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 79 \bigsqcap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 26
 \Bku (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\bigcircle (◯) . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigsqcap ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 26
\bigcoast () . . .’. . . . . . . 23
\bigcomplementop ( ) . . . . . 27
\bigsqcap (⊓) . . . . . . . . . . . 29
\bigsqcapdot (,) . . . . . . . . 29

\BlackBishopOnBlack (a) 94

\BigCrossS( ) . . . . . . . . . . 79 \bigsqcapplus ( ) . . . . . . . 27
\BlackBishopOnWhite (b) 94
\bigcup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \bigsqcapplusF (0) . . . . . . . 29
\bigcup (⋃) . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigsqcup ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 25 blackboard bold see alphabets,
\bigsqcup (⊔) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 math
\blackdiamond ( ) . . . . . . . 23
\bigcupdot (⊍) . . . . . . . . . . 29
\bigsqcupdot (.) . . . . . . . . 29
\bigcupplus (⊎) . . . . . . . . 29 

Z) .
\bigsqcupplus ( ) . . . . . . . 27
\bigcupplus (⊎) œ
. . . . . . . . . 29
\bigsqcupplus (2) . . . . . . . 29 \BlackEmptySquare ( 94
\bigcurlyvee (b ) . . . . . . . . 26

\BlackKingOnBlack (j) .
\bigcurlyvee ( ) . . . . . . . . 26 \BigSquare ( ˜) . . . . . . . . . 79
\bigcurlyvee (⋎) . . . . . . . . 29 \bigsquplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . 27 94
\bigstar () . . . . . . . . . . . 23
\BlackKingOnWhite (k) .
\bigcurlyveedot › () . . . . . 29
\bigcurlywedge (c ) . . . . . . 26 \bigstar (F) . . . . . . . . . . . 66 94
\bigstar (☀) . . . . . . . . . . . 79
\BlackKnightOnBlack (m)
\bigcurlywedge ( ) . . . . . . 26 ‘
\bigcurlywedge (⋏) . . . . . . 29 \bigtimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 27
94
\bigtimes (⨉) . . . . . . . . . . . 29
# \BlackKnightOnWhite (n)
\bigcurlywedgedot () . . . . 29
&
\BigDiamondshape ( ) . . . . 79 \BigTriangleDown (` ) . . . . 79
\bigtriangledown ( ) . ` . . . 26
94
\bigdoublecurlyvee () . . . 29 \blacklozenge () . . . . . . . 66
\bigdoublecurlywedge () . 29 \bigtriangledown (5 vs. ) 101 \blacklozenge (⧫) . . . . . . . 79
\bigtriangledown (5) . . . . 22
o) .
\bigdoublevee (⩔) . . . . . . . 29
\bigtriangledown (▽) . . . . 40
"
\bigdoublewedge (⩕) . . . . . 29 \BlackPawnOnBlack ( 94
\BigTriangleLeft ( ) . . . . 79
\BlackPawnOnWhite (p) .
\Bigg . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100, 102
\bigg . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100, 102 $
\BigTriangleRight ( ) . . . 79 94
 !
\BlackQueenOnBlack (l)
\BigHBar ( ) . . g. . . . . . . . . 79 \BigTriangleUp (a ) . . . . . . 79
\biginterleave ( ) . . . . . . 26 \bigtriangleup ( ) . .a. . . . 26 94
_
\BlackQueenOnWhite (q)
\BigLowerDiamond ( ) . . . . 79 \bigtriangleup (4 vs. ) 101
\bignplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 26 \bigtriangleup (4) . . . . . . 22 94
U (△) . . . . . . 40
\bigtriangleup
\BlackRookOnBlack (s) .
\bigoast (⊛) . Æ . . . . . . . . . . 29
\bigoasterisk ( Î ) . . . . . . . 27 \biguplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 25 94

\BlackRookOnWhite (r) .
\bigobackslash ( ) . . . . . . 27 \biguplus (⊎) . . . . . . . . . . 29
\bigobackslash (⦸) . . . . . . 29 \bigvarstar () . . . . . . . . . 23 94
Ë
\bigobot ( Å ) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \BigVBar W 
( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \blacksmiley (-) . . . . . . . . 88
\bigocirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 27 \bigvee ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \blacksquare () . . . . . . . . 66
\bigocirc (⊚) . .Ç . . . . . . . . 29 \bigvee (⋁) . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \blacksquare (∎) . . . . . . . . 25
\bigocoasterisk
Ã
( ) . . . . . 27 \bigveedot V (
) . . . . . . . . . . 29 \blackstone . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
\bigodiv (J) . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \bigwedge ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \blacktriangle (N) . . . . . . 66
\bigodot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \bigwedge (⋀) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \blacktriangle (▲) . . . . . . 40
\bigodot (⊙) È
. . . . . . . . . . . 29 \bigwedgedot˘ () . . . . . . . . 29 \blacktriangledown () . . . 25
\bigoleft ( Á ) . . . . . . . . . . 27 \bigwith ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \blacktriangledown (H) . . . 66
\bigominus ( ) . . . . . . . . . 27 \binampersand (N) . . . . . . . 22 \blacktriangledown (▼) . . . 40
\bigominus L (⊖) . . . . . . . . . 29 binary operators . . . . . . 22–25 \blacktriangleleft (ž) . . . 25
\bigoplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 25 binary relations . . 30–32, 34–39, \blacktriangleleft (J) . . . 39
\bigoplus (⊕) . . . . . . . . . . 29 47, 48 \blacktriangleleft (◀) . . . 40
\blacktriangleright (Ÿ)
É
\bigoright (Í) . . . . . . . . . 26 negated . . . . . . . . . 31–33 . . 25
\bigoslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . 26 \bindnasrepma (O) . . . . . . . 22 \blacktriangleright (I) . . 39
\bigoslash (⊘) . . . . . . . . . 29 \Biohazard (h) . . . . . . . . . 74 \blacktriangleright (▶) . . 40
\bigostar (⍟) . . . . . . . . . . 29 biological symbols . . . . . . . . 74 \blacktriangleup (œ) . . . . . 25

126
blank . . . . . . . see \textblank bold symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \boy (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
\Bleech (Ë) . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \boldmath . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \Bpa (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

\blitza ( ) . . . . . . . . . 21, 48 \boldsymbol . . . . . . . . . . . 113

\blitzb ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \bomb (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91


\Bpaiii ([) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

\blitzc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Boolean domain (B) . . . . . see \BPamphora (Ž) . . . . . . . . . . 86

\blitzd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 alphabets, math \BParrow (ij) . . . . . . . . . . . 86

\blitze ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Boolean logic gates . . . . . . . 73 \BPbarley (Ş) . . . . . . . . . . . 86
block-element symbols . . . . . 97 born . . . . . . . . . see \textborn \BPbilly (ť) . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\Bm (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 bosons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
˘¯
bm (package) . . . . 113, 119, 121 \bot (⊥) . . . . . . . . . 21, 51, 105
\BPboar (ľ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\bm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \bot (–) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \BPbronze (Ű) . . . . . . . . . . 86
\bm ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \botdoteq () . . . . . . . . . . 32 \BPbull (ň) . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
¯˘ \Bouquet (¥) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \BPcauldroni (đ) . . . . . . . 86
\Bma (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\Bowtie (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \BPcauldronii (§) . . . . . . 86
\Bme (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\bowtie (./) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
\Bmi (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BPchariot (ÿ) . . . . . . . . 86
\bowtie (&) . . . . . . . . . 23, 24
\Bmo (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Box () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \BPchassis (ź) . . . . . . . . 86
\bmod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Box (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \BPcloth (Ř) . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\Bmu (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Box (◻) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \BPcow (ŋ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
box-drawing symbols . . . . . . 97
\Bna (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BPcup (Ÿ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\boxast (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
\BNc («) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxasterisk (f) . . . . . . . . 25 \Bpe (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\BNcc (») . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxbackslash (n) . . . . . . . 25 \BPewe (š) . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\BNccc (–) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxbackslash (⧅) . . . . . . . 25 \BPfoal (ě) . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\boxbar (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \BPgoat (ş) . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\boxbot (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
\BNcd (—) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\BNcm (ff) . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BPgoblet (Ź) . . . . . . . . . . 86
\boxbox () . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
\BNd (‌) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxbox (⧈) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \BPgold (Ů) . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\BNdc (‰) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxbslash (j) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \BPhorse (ď) . . . . . . . . . . 86
\BNdcc (ı) . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxcirc (e) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \Bpi (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\boxcircle () . . . . . . . . . . 22
\boxcoasterisk (g) . . . . . . 25
\BNdccc (ȷ) . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BPman (ă) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\Bne (N) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxdiv (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \BPnanny (ț) . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\BNi (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxdot (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \Bpo (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\Bni (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \BPolive (Ț) . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\BNii (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxdot (⊡) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \BPox (ń) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\boxdotLeft (‹) . . . . . . . . 42
\BNiii (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BPpig (ĺ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\boxdotleft (ƒ) . . . . . . . . 42
\BNiv (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxdotRight (Š) . . . . . . . 42 \BPram (ś) . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\BNix (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxdotright (‚) . . . . . . . 42 \BPsheep (ř) . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\BNl (‹) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxempty () . . . . . . . . . . 22 \BPsow (ł) . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\boxLeft (‰) . . . . . . . . . . 42
\boxleft (h) . . . . . . . . . . . 25
\BNlx (›) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BPspear (¡) . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\BNlxx (“) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BPsword (ż) . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\boxleft () . . . . . . . . . . 42
\BNlxxx (”) . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxminus (a) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \BPtalent (Ď) . . . . . . . . . 85
\BNm (fi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxminus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Bpte (]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\boxminus (⊟) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \Bpu (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\boxplus (`) . . . . . . . . . . . 25
\Bno (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\Bnu (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bpuii (\) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\boxplus () . . . . . . . . . . . 22
\BNv (˝) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxplus (⊞) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \BPvola (Ĺ) . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\BNvi (˚) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxRight (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . 42 \BPvolb (Ľ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\BNvii (ˇ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxright (i) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \BPvolcd (Ł) . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\boxright (€) . . . . . . . . . 42 \BPvolcf (Ń) . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\boxslash (m) . . . . . . . . . . 25
\BNviii (˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\Bnwa (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BPwheat (Š) . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\boxslash (l) . . . . . . . . . . . 22
\BNx (˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxslash (⧄) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \BPwheel (ž) . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\BNxc („) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxtimes (b) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \BPwine (Ť) . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\BNxl (‚) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxtimes () . . . . . . . . . . 22 \BPwineiih (Ż) . . . . . . . . . 86
\boxtimes (⊠) . . . . . . . . . . . 25
\boxtop (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
\BNxx (¸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BPwineiiih (IJ) . . . . . . . . 86

\boxtriangleup (o) . . . . . . 25
\BNxxx (˛) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BPwineivh (İ) . . . . . . . . . 86
\Bo (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \boxvert (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \BPwoman (ą) . . . . . . . . . . . 86
body-text symbols . . . . . . 9–20 \boxvoid (l) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \BPwool (Ś) . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

127
\BPwta (Ă) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \capricornus (d) . . . . . . . . 71
\BUFr () . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \capturesymbol (X) . . . . . . 93
\BPwtb (Ą) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\BUFu () . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
card suits . . . . . . . . . 65–67, 80
\BPwtc (Ć) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
cardinality . . . . . . . see \aleph
\BPwtd (Č) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BUi (fl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 care of (c/o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
\Bqa (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BUii (ffi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 caret . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \^
\Bqe (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BUiii (ffl) . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Carlisle, David . . . . 1, 118, 119
\Bqi (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BUiv (␣) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 caron (ǎ) . . . . . . . . see accents
carriage return . . . . 72, 80, 103
\Bqo (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \BUix (%) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\bullet (•) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
C
\carriagereturn ( ) . . . . . 80
\Bra (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Cartesian product . . see \times
bra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \bullet (●) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
castle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
bullseye . . . see \textbullseye
\Bumpedeq () . . . . . . . . . . 32
\braceld (z) . . . . . . . . . . . 109 \castlingchar (O) . . . . . . . 93
\bumpedeq () . . . . . . . . . . 32
\bracerd ({) . . . . . . . . . . . 109 \castlinghyphen (-) . . . . . . 93

\bracevert ( ) . . . . . . . . . 54 \catal (γ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95



\Bumpeq (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30


\Catalexis (∧) . . . . . . . . . . 95
\bracevert ( ⎪ ⎪
\Bumpeq (≎) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
⎪) . . . . . . . . . 55
\bumpeq (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
\catalexis (∧) . . . . . . . . . . 95
brackets . . . . . . . see delimiters catamorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\bumpeq (≏) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
\Braii (^) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 . see \llparenthesis and
\bupperhand (e) . . . . . . . . . 93
\rrparenthesis
\Braiii (_) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\cb (a,) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
braket (package) . . . . . . . . . 54
\Bre (R) . . . .
\Break ( Break
..
)
.
.
.
.
.
.
...
...
. . . 85
. . . 72
\Burns ( ) . . . . . . . . 96
\Cc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\cc ( CC ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
\BusWidth ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 73 \cc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\breve (˘) . . .. . . .... . . . 57 \BUv (!) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \ccby ( BY: ) . . . . . . . . . . . 19
\breve (ă) . . .. . . .... . . . 17 \BUvi (") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Ccc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
breve (ă) . . . . .. . . see accents cclicenses (package) 19, 119, 120
\BUvii (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\brevis (β) . .. . . .... . . . 95 \ccnc ( $ ) . . . . . . . . . . . 19

\
\BUviii ($) . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \ccnd ( = ) . . . . . . . . . . . 19
\Bri (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\BUx (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \ccsa ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
C
\Bro (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\BUxi (’) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \cdot (·) . . . . . . . . . . . 22, 104
\Broii (‘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \cdot (⋅) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 64
\BUxii (­) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\brokenvert (|) . . . . . . . . . . 88 \cdotp (·) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Bronger, Torsten . . . . . . . . 105 \Bwa (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\cdotp (⋅) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
\Bru (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bwe (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \cdots (· · · ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
\BS (␈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \Bwi (6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Ce (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\Bsa (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bwo (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Cedi . see \textcolonmonetary
\Bse (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bza (z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 cedilla (¸) . . . . . . . see accents
\BSEfree (n) . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \Bze (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 celestial bodies . . . . . . . 71, 98
\celsius (℃) . . . . . . . . . . . 70
\Bsi (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Bzo (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
\Celtcross (‡) . . . . . . . . . . 90
\Bso (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \cent (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
C
\BSpace ( →−7 ) . . . . . . . . . 72
\C ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \centerdot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 23
\Bsu (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 c (esvect package option) . . . 61 \centerdot () . . . . . . . . . . 22
\Bswa ({) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \c (a̧) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 116 centernot (package) . . . . . . 105
\c ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \centernot . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
\Bswi (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
centigrade . . . see \textcelsius
\Bta (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Ca (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\centre (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
calligra (package) . . 68, 119, 121
\Btaii (}) . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 cents . . . . . . . . . see \textcent
Calligra (font) . . . . . . . . . . . 68
\Bte (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \CEsign (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
calrsfs (package) . . . . . . . . . 68
\Bti (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \CAN (␘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \Cga (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\Bto (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 cancel (package) . . . . . . . . . 59 chancery (package) . . . . . . . 119
\Cancer (ã) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \changenotsign . . . . . . . . . 32
\Btu (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \char . . . . 8, 103, 112, 115, 118
\cancer (_) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
\Btwe (­) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cap (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Charter (font) . . . . . . . . 18, 30
\Btwo (~) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \Cap (⋒) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \check (ˇ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
\Bu (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \cap (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 check marks . 10, 66, 77, 80, 88,
\cap (∩) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 90, 101
\BUFd () . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \cap (∩) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \checked () . . . . . . . . . . . 88
buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \capdot (⩀) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \CheckedBox (2 ) . . . . . . . . . 77
\Checkedbox (V) . . . . . . . . . 90
!
\capplus (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
\BUFl () . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \Capricorn (é) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \Checkmark ( ) . . . . . . . . . 77

128
\checkmark (X) . . . . . . . . . 10 \circledwedge (T) . . . . . . . 23 \Cna (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

D
\checkmark (✓) . . . . . . . . . 66 \circleleft (’) . . . . . . . . 42 \Cne (N) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\circleright (‘) . . . . . . . 42
D
\checkmark (X vs. ) . . . . 101 \Cni (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
circles . . . . . . . . . 79–80, 88, 94
\checkmark ( ) . . . . . . . . . 80
" d
\CircleShadow ( ) . . . . . . . 80
\Cno (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\CheckmarkBold ( ) . . . . . . 77
\checksymbol (+) . . . . . . . . 93 a
\CircleSolid ( ) . . . . . . . . 80
\Cnu (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\Co (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\coAsterisk () . . . . . . . . . 23
chemarr (package) . 62, 119, 120 \Circpipe (›) . . . . . . . . . . 73
chemarrow (package) 47, 62, 119 \circplus () . . . . . . . . . . 23
\Circsteel (•) . . . . . . . . . 73 \coasterisk () . . . . . . . . . 23
\chemarrow (A) . . . . . . . . . 47
circumflex (â) . . . . see accents code page 1252 . . . . . . . . . 115
Chen, Raymond . . . . . . . . 122
\circumflexus (ã) . . . . . . . 17 table . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
chess symbols . . . . . . . . 93, 94
code page 437 . . . . . 72, 97, 115
\chesscomment (RR) . . . . . . 93 \Cja (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\Coffeecup (K) . . . . . . . . . 90
\chessetc (P) . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \Cjo (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \coh (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
\chesssee (l) . . . . . . . . . . 93 \Cka (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 coins, ancient . . . . . . . . . . . 19
\chi (χ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \colon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
\Cke (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
china2e (package) 19, 49, 68, 98, \colon ( : ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
119, 121 \Cki (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\colon (∶) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
\chiup (χ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Cko (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\Colonapprox () . . . . . . . 31
\Ci (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cku (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Colonapprox (::≈) . . . . . . . 34
cipher symbols . . . . . . . . . . 98 \Cla (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \colonapprox (:≈) . . . . . . . 36
\circ (◦) . . . . . . . . 22, 67, 105 \Cle (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \colonapprox (:≈) . . . . . . . . 34
\circ (○) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \colonapprox ( ) . . . . . . . . 31
\circeq () . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
\CleaningA («) . . . . . . . . . . 90
\CleaningF (¾) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \coloncolon (::) . . . . . . . . . 36
\circeq ($) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \CleaningFF (¿) . . . . . . . . . 90 \coloncolonapprox (::≈) . . . 36
\circeq (≗) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \CleaningP (¬) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \coloncolonequals (::=) . . . 36
\CIRCLE ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \coloncolonminus (::−) . . . . 36
5
\CleaningPP (­) . . . . . . . . . 90
\Circle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \coloncolonsim (::∼) . . . . . 36
5
\Cli (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\Circle (# vs. ) . . . . . . 101 \clickb (;) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Coloneq (H) . . . . . . . . . . . 31
\Circle (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \clickc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Coloneq (::−) . . . . . . . . . . . 34
\circlearrowleft (ö) . . . . 42 \clickt (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \coloneq () . . . . . . . . 21, 32
\circlearrowleft ( ) . . . . 41 \coloneq (:−) . . . . . . . . . . . 34
\Clo (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\coloneq (D) . . . . . . . . . . . 31

1i’
\circlearrowleft (↺) . . . . 44
\circlearrowright (÷) . . . . 42
clock (package) . . . 92, 119, 120
\coloneq (∶=) . . . . . . . . . . . 33
\circlearrowright () . . . 41 \clock ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 \Coloneqq (F) . . . . . . . . . . 31
\circlearrowright (↻) . . . 44 \clock () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \Coloneqq (::=) . . . . . . . . . . 34
circled numbers . . . . . . . 77, 94 clock symbols . . . . . . 88, 90–92 \coloneqq (:=) . . . . . . . . . . 34
\CircledA (ª) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \ClockFramefalse . . . . . . . . 92 \coloneqq (B) . . . . . . . 21, 31
\circledast (~) . . . . . . . . . 22 \ClockFrametrue . . . . . . . . 92 colonequals (package) 21, 36, 119,
\circledast (⊛) . . . . . . . . . 25 \Clocklogo (U) . . . . . . . . . . 90 120
\circledbar (V) . . . . . . . . . 23 \ClockStyle . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 \colonequals (:=) . . . . 21, 36
\circledbslash (W) . . . . . . 23 \clocktime . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 \colonminus (:−) . . . . . . . . 36
\circledcirc (}) . . . . . . . . 22 \closedcurlyvee (¾) . . . . . . 24 \Colonsim () . . . . . . . . . . 31
\circledcirc (⊚) . . . . . . . . 25 \closedcurlywedge (¼) . . . . 24 \Colonsim (::∼) . . . . . . . . . . 34
\circleddash () . . . . . . . . 22 \closedequal (Ü) . . . . . . . . 33 \colonsim (:∼) . . . . . . . . . . 36
\circleddash (⊖) . . . . . . . . 25 \closedniomega (?) . . . . . . 13 \colonsim (:∼) . . . . . . . . . . 34
\circleddot . . . . . . see \odot \closedprec (½) . . . . . . . . . 33 \colonsim () . . . . . . . . . . 31
\circleddotleft (”) . . . . 42 \closedrevepsilon () . . . . 13 combelow (package) 17, 119, 121
\closedsucc (») . . . . . . . . . 33 combinatorial logic gates . . . 73
\circleddotright (“) . . . . 42
\circledgtr (S) . . . . . . . . . 31 
\Cloud ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 comma-below accent (a,) . . . see
\circledless (R) . . . . . . . . 31 clovers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 accents
\circledminus . . . see \ominus \Clu (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 communication symbols . . . . 73
\circledotleft . . . . . . . . see clubs (suit) . . . . . . . . 65–67, 80 commutative diagrams . . . . 106
\circleddotleft \clubsuit (♣) . . . . . . . . . . 65 comp.text.tex (newsgroup) . 8,
\circledotright . . . . . . . see \clubsuit (♣) . . . . . . . . . . . 66 21, 22, 103–108
\circleddotright \compensation (n) . . . . . . . 93
\Cma (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\circledplus . . . . . see \oplus \complement (A) . . . . . . . . . 52
\Cme (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \complement ({) . . . . . . . . . 52
\circledR (r) . . . . . . . 10, 52
\Cmi (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \complement (∁) . . . . . . . . . 29

\circledS (s) . . . . . . . . . . 52
cmll (package) 21, 24, 30, 36, 119 complete shuffle product ( ) 24
\circledslash . . . see \oslash
\circledtimes . . . see \otimes \Cmo (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 »
\COMPLEX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
\circledvee (U) . . . . . . . . . 23 \Cmu (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Ã
\Complex ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

129
complex numbers (C) . . . . see *
\Cross ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \curlywedge (N) . . . . . . . . . 23
alphabets, math \Cross (†) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \curlywedge (f) . . . . . . . . . 22
composited accents . . . . . . . 14 cross ratio . . . see \textrecipe \curlywedge (⋏) . . . . . . . . . 24
Comprehensive TEX Archive Net- \crossb () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \curlywedgedot (4) . . . . . . 24
work . . 1, 8, 59, 69, 100, -
\CrossBoldOutline ( ) . . . . 76 \curlywedgedownarrow (') . 22
117–119
computer hardware symbols . 72
4
\CrossClowerTips ( ) . . . . 76
\curlywedgeuparrow (&) . . . 22
\curlyyogh (a) . . . . . . . . . . 13
\crossd ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
computer keys . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \curlyz (^) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\Crossedbox (X) . . . . . . . . . 90
Computer Modern (font) . . 100, \currency (¤) . . . . . . . . . . . 18
crosses . . . . . . . . 76, 77, 90, 94
102, 115 currency symbols . . . . 18, 19, 68
\crossh (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\curvearrowbotleft (ó) . . 42
\ComputerMouse (Í) . . . . . . . 72
\cong () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 .
\CrossMaltese ( ) . . . . . . . 76 \curvearrowbotleftright (õ)
\crossnilambda (3) . . . . . . 13
+
\cong (≅) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 . . . . . . . . . 42
\CrossOpenShadow ( ) . . . . . 76 \curvearrowbotright (ô) . . 42
,
congruent . . . . . . . . see \equiv
\conjunction (V) . . . . . . . . 71 \CrossOutline ( ) . . . . . . . 76 \curvearrowdownup (Ë) . . . . 43
conjunction, logical . see \wedge crotchet . . see musical symbols \curvearrowleft (ð) . . . . . 42
Ŕ \curvearrowleft (x) . . . . . 41
and \& \crtilde (ã) . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
consequence relations . . . . . . 35 \curvearrowleft (↶) . . . . . 44
\curvearrowleftright (ò) . 42
\Cru (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
contradiction symbols . . 21, 48 crucifixes . . . . . . . . . . 76, 77, 90
\curvearrowleftright (È) . 43
control characters . . . . . . . . 72 \Crux (†) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
converse implication . . . . . see \curvearrownesw (Ì) . . . . . 43
\crux (†) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
\leftarrow and \subset \curvearrownwse (Í) . . . . . 43
converse nonimplication . . . see
\Csa (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \curvearrowright (ñ) . . . . 42
\csc (csc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \curvearrowright (y) . . . . 41
\nleftarrow and \nsubset
\convolution (
) . . . . . . . . 23 \Cse (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \curvearrowright (↷) . . . . 44
\Coppa (Ϙ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

\cshuffle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \curvearrowrightleft (Ê) . 43
\coppa (ϙ)` . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \Csi (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \curvearrowsenw (Ï) . . . . . 43
\coprod ( ) . . . . . . . . . 21, 25 \Cso (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \curvearrowswne (Î) . . . . . 43
\coprod (∐) . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \curvearrowupdown (É) . . . . 43
\Csu (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
copyright . . . . . . . . . 9, 19, 116 \Cutleft (s) . . . . . . . . . . . 75
\Cta (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \Cutline (r) . . . . . . . . . . . 75
\copyright (©) . . . . . . . . . . 9 CTAN see Comprehensive TEX
\corner (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 cutoff subtraction . see \dotdiv
Archive Network \Cutright (q) . . . . . . . . . . 75
corners, box . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \Cte (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\corona ( ̮) . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Cwa (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\Cti (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\coronainv (Ϙ) . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Cwe (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\Corresponds (=) . . . . . . . . 67 \Cto (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\Cwi (6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\corresponds () . . . . . . . . 32 \Ctrl ( Ctrl ) . . . . . . . . . . . 72
\Cwo (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\cos (cos) . . . . . . . . . . 49, 113 \Ctu (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\Cxa (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\cosh (cosh) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Cu (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\cot (cot) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
\coth (coth) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
\Cube ( 
) 92, 103
\Cxe (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\Cya (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
cube root . . . . . . . . see \sqrt
\counterplay (V) . . . . . . . . 93 \Cyo (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\Cup (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Courier (font) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \Cup (⋓) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \cyprfamily . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
CP1252 . . . . see code page 1252 \cup (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Cypriot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
CP437 . . . . . see code page 437 \cup (∪) . . . . . . . . 22, 104, 112 cypriot (package) . . 86, 119, 121
\Cpa (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \cup (∪) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \Cza (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\Cpe (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \cupdot (⊍) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \Czo (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\Cpi (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \cupplus (⊎) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
\curlyc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 D
\curlyeqprec (¶) . . . . . . . . 32
\Cpo (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\D (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
\Cpu (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 ¨
d (esvect package option) . . . 61
\curlyeqprec (2) . . . . . . . . 30
\CR (␍) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \curlyeqprec (⋞) . . . . . . . . 33 \d (a.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
\cr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 \curlyeqsucc (·) . . . . . . . . 32 \dag (†) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 117
\Cra (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \curlyeqsucc (3) . . . . . . . . 30 \dagger (†) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
\Cre (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 \curlyeqsucc (⋟) . . . . . . . . 33 \daleth (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Creative Commons licenses . 19 \curlyesh (N) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \daleth (ℸ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
crescent (fge package option) 58 \curlyvee (O) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \danger (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
\curlyvee (g) . . . . . . . . . . 22 dangerous bend symbols . . . 89
\Cri (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
\curlyvee (⋎) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \DArrow ( ↓ ) . . . . . . . . . . 72
\Cro (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

\Cross ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
\curlyveedot (5) . . . . . . . . 24 \dasharrow . . . . . . . . . . . . see

* 
\curlyveedownarrow (.) . . . 22 \dashrightarrow
\Cross († vs. vs. ) . . . . 101 \curlyveeuparrow (/) . . . . . 22 \dasheddownarrow (⇣) . . . . . 43

130
\dashedleftarrow (⇠) . . . . 43 definite-description operator ( ) ι \diamonddots ( ) . . . . . 24, 64
\dashednearrow (d) . . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . . 103 \DiamondLeft () . . . . . . . 42
\dashednwarrow (e) . . . . . . 43 definition symbols . . . . 21, 108 \Diamondleft (…) . . . . . . . 42
\dashedrightarrow (⇢) . . . . 43 \deg (deg) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \diamondminus (x) . . . . . . . 25
\dashedsearrow (g) . . . . . . 43 \degree (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \diamondplus (|) . . . . . . . . 25
\dashedswarrow (f) . . . . . . 43 \degree (°) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \DiamondRight (Œ) . . . . . . 42
\dasheduparrow (⇡) . . . . . . . 43 degrees . . . . . see \textdegree \Diamondright („) . . . . . . 42
R
\dashint (− ) . . . . . . . . . . 106 \DEL (␡) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 diamonds . . . . . . . . . . . 79–80
\Del ( Del ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 diamonds (suit) . . . . . 65–67, 80

\dashleftarrow (c) . . . . . . 41
\dashleftarrow (⇠) . . . . . . 44 \Deleatur . . . . . see \Denarius \DiamondShadowA ( ) . . . . . 79
\dashleftrightarrow (e) . . 42 delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . 53–57 
\DiamondShadowB ( ) . . . . . 79
\dashrightarrow (d) . . . . . 41 text-mode . . . . . . . . . . 57

\DiamondShadowC ( ) . . . . . 79
\dashrightarrow (⇢) . . .
\DashV ()) . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 44
. . 32
variable-sized . . . . . 54–57
wavy-line . . . . . . . . 55, 56 6
\Diamondshape ( ) . . . . . . . 79
\diamondslash (z) . . . . . . . 25
\Dashv ()) . . . . . . . . . . .
\dashv (a) . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 32
. . 30
\Delta (∆) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
\delta (δ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 p
\DiamondSolid ( ) . . . . . . . 80
\dashv (⊣) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \deltaup (δ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \diamondsuit (♦) . . . . . . . . 65
\dashVv (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 demisemiquaver . . . see musical \diamondsuit (♢) . . . . . . . . 66
\davidsstar (C) . . . . . . . . . 77 symbols \diamondtimes (}) . . . . . . . 25
0
\DavidStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 78
\Denarius (¢) . . . . . . . . . . 18 \diamondvert (y) . . . . . . . . 25

\DavidStarSolid ( ) . . . / . . 78
\denarius (Ε) . . . . . . . . . . 19
\dental (ag ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
\diatop . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 107
\diaunder . . . . . . . . . . 18, 107
\dBar (||) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 derivitive, partial . see \partial dice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92, 103
\dbar (¯
d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 \descnode () . . . . . . . . . . 71 dictionary symbols . . . 11–14, 96
\dbend () . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \det (det) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 dictsym (package) . 96, 119, 120
dblaccnt (package) . . . . . . . 107 \devadvantage (t) . . . . . . . 93 died . . . . . . . . . see \textdied
\dblcolon (::) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 .... differential, inexact . see \dbar
\Dfourier ( ) . . . . . . . . 36
\DCa (␑) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \Digamma (Ϝ) . . . . . . . . . . . 87
....
\DCb (␒) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \dfourier ( ) . . . . . . . . 36
\digamma (z) . . . . . . . . 50, 87
\DCc (␓) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \DFT ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \digamma (ϝ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\DCd (␔) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \dft ( ) .......... . . . 63 digital logic gates . . . . . . . . 73
\DD (DD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \DH (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
\ddag (‡) . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 117 \DH (Ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 116 LCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
\ddagger (‡)R . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \dh (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Mayan . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
\ddashint (= ) . . . . . . . . . . 106 \dh (ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 116 old-style . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
.... segmented . . . . . . . . . . 70
\ddddot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 diacritics . . . . . . . . see accents
... \diaeresis (ä) . . . . . . . . . . 17 \dim (dim) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
\dddot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
diæresis (ä) . . . . . . see accents \ding . . . . . . . . . 10, 75–78, 80
\diagdown (å) . . . . . . .
\dddtstile ( ) . . . . . . . .. 35
. . . 66 dingautolist . . . . . . . . . . . 77
\ddigamma (ϝ) . . . . . . . . . .. 87 \diagdown () . . . . . . . . . . 66 dingbat (package) . . 76, 80, 101,
\DDohne (D/D) . . . . . . . . . . .. 89 \diagdown (Ó) . . . . . . . . . . 33 119, 120
\ddot (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 57 \diagonal (G) . . . . . . . . . . 93 dingbat symbols . . . . . . 75–80
\ddotdot () . . . . . . . . . 24, 64 \diagup (ä) . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Diple (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
. \diagup () . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \diple (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\ddots ( . . ) . . . . . . . . 63, 107 \diagup (Ò) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \Diple* (>·· ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\ddots (⋱) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \diameter (I) . . . . . . . . . . 66 \diple* (>·· ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\ddststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \diameter () . . . . . . . . . . 21 Dirac notation . . . . . . . . . . . 54
\ddtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35 \diameter (∅) . . . . . . . . . . . 66 discount . . . see \textdiscount
\diameter () . . . . . . . . . . 88 discretionary hyphen . . . . . 115
\ddttstile ( ) ....... . 35 \Diamond (^) . . . . . . . . . . . 65 disjoint union . . . . . . . . . . . 21
\DeclareFontFamily . . . . . 111 \Diamond (3) . . . . . . . . . . . 66 disjunction . . . . . . . . see \vee
\DeclareFontShape . . . . . . 111 \Diamond (◇) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \displaystyle . . 105, 106, 108,
\DeclareMathOperator . . . 113 \diamond () . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 113
\DeclareMathOperator* . . 113 \diamond (◇) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 ditto marks . see \textquotedbl
\declareslashed . . . . . . . 105 \diamondbackslash ({) . . . . 25 \div (÷) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
\DeclareUnicodeCharacter 117 \Diamondblack (_) . . . . . . . 66 \div (÷) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
\decofourleft ([) . . . . . . . 78 \diamonddiamond () . . . . . 25 \divdot () . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
\decofourright (\) . . . . . . 78 \Diamonddot () . . . . . . . . . 66 \divideontimes ( ) . . . . . . 23
\decoone (X) . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \diamonddot (⟐) . . . . . . . . . 25 \divideontimes (>) . . . . . . 22
\decosix (]) . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \DiamonddotLeft () . . . . 42 \divides () . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
\decothreeleft (Y) . . . . . . 78 \Diamonddotleft (‡) . . . . 42 \divides (Ò) . . . . . . . . . . . 33
\decothreeright (Z) . . . . . 78 \DiamonddotRight (Ž) . . . . 42 division . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22, 59
\decotwo (a) . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \Diamonddotright (†) . . . . 42 non-commutative . . . . . 63

131
division times . . . . . . . . . . see \doublecap . . . . . . . . see \Cap \dracma (Δ) . . . . . . . . .. . . . 19
\divideontimes \doublecap (\) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \drsh (ë) . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 42
divorced . . . see \textdivorced \doublecap (⋒) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \DS (SS) . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 89
\DJ (Ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \doublecup . . . . . . . . see \Cup \Ds (ss) . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 89
\dj (đ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \doublecup (]) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \dsaeronautical (a) .. . . . 96
\dlbari (() . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \doublecup (⋓) . . . . . . . . . . 24 \dsagricultural (G) .. . . . 96
\DLE (␐) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \doublecurlyvee (7) . . . . . 24 \dsarchitectural (A) . . . . 96
\dlsh (ê) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \doublecurlywedge (6) . . . . 24 \dsbiological (B) . . .. . . . 96
\dndtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \doublefrown () . . . . . . . . 48 \dschemical (C) . . . . .. . . . 96
\doublefrowneq (%) . . . . . . . 48 \dscommercial (c) . . .. . . . 96
\dnststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35
\doublepawns (d) . . . . . . . . 93 \dsdtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35
\dntstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35 \doublesmile () . . . . . . . . 48 dsfont (package) . . . . . 68, 119
\dnttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . 35 \doublesmileeq ($) . . . . . . . 48 \dsheraldical (H) . . . . . . . 96
do not enter . . . . . . see \noway \doublesqcap (⩎) . . . . . . . . 24 \dsjuridical (J) . . . . . . . . 96
does not divide . . . . see \nmid \doublesqcup (⩏) . . . . . . . . 23 \dsliterary (L) . . . . . . . . . 96
does not exist . . . see \nexists \doubletilde (˜ ã) . . . . . . . . 16 \dsmathematical (M) . . . . . . 96
does not imply . . . . . . . . . 105 \doublevee (⩔) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \dsmedical (m) . . . . . . . . . . 96
\Dohne (D / ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \doublewedge (⩕) . . . . . . . . 23 \dsmilitary (X) . . . . . . . . . 96
dollar . . . . . . see \textdollar \DOWNarrow (L) . . . . . . . . . . 88 \dsrailways (R) . . . . . . . . . 96
dollar sign . . . . . . . . . . . see \$ \Downarrow (⇓) . . . . . . . 41, 54
\dsststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35
\Dontwash (Ý) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \Downarrow (⇓) . . . . . . . . . . 43
\downarrow . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 \dstechnical (T) . . . . . . . . 96
\dot ( ˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
dot accent (ȧ or . ) . see accents \downarrow (↓) . . . . . . . 41, 54 \dststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35
dot symbols . . . . 9, 63, 64, 107 \downarrow (↓) . . . . . . . . . . 43 \dsttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . 35
DotArrow (package) 63, 119, 121 \downarrowtail (#) . . . . . . . 43
\dtdtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35
\downbracketfill . . . . . . . 109
\downdownarrows (Ó) .
\dotarrow (  ) . . . . . . . . 63 \dtimes (_) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
. . . . 42
\dotcup (∪) · . . . . . . . . 21, 104 \dtimes (") . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
\dotdiv () . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
\downdownarrows () . . . . . 41
\downdownarrows (⇊) . . . . . 43 \dtststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35
\Doteq . . . . . . . see \doteqdot \downdownharpoons (Û) . . . . 43
\Doteq (≑) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Downes, Michael J. . . . 49, 122 \dttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35
\doteq () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \downfilledspoon (s) . . . . . 47 \dtttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . 35
\doteq (≐) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \downfootline ({) . . . . . . . . 33
\doteqdot (+) . . . . . . . . . . 30 duodecimal (base-12) digits . 65
\downfree (⫝) . . . . . . . . . . . 33
\doteqdot (≑) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 DVI . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 72, 111
\downharpoonccw (⇂) . . . . . . 46
dotless j () \dz () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\downharpooncw (⇃) . . . . . . . 46
text mode . . . . . . . . . . 14 \downharpoonleft (å) . . . . . 43
dotless i (ı) E
\downharpoonleft () . . . . . 41 e (esvect package option) . . . 61
math mode . . . . . . 57, 65 \downharpoonright (ç) . . . . 43
text mode . . . . . . . . . . 14 \e (e ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
\downharpoonright () . . . . 41
dotless j () \e (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
\downlsquigarrow (£) . . . . . 43
math mode . . . . . . 57, 65 ε-TEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
\Earth (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
\downmapsto (↧) . . . . . . . . . 43
\dotmedvert () . . . . . . . . . 24 \downModels (ó) . . . . . . . . . 33
\dotminus () . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \Earth (Ê) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
\downmodels (ã) . . . . . . . . . 33
\dotplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \earth (♁) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
\downp (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
\Ecommerce () . . . . . . . . . 18
Z
\dotplus (u) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \downparenthfill . . . . . . . 109
\EightAsterisk ( ) . . . . . . 78
S
\dots (. . . ) . . . . . . . . . . 9, 117 \downpitchfork (⫛) . . . . . . . 47
dots (ellipses) . . . 9, 63–65, 107 \EightFlowerPetal ( ) . . . 78
Y
\downpropto () . . . . . . . . . 33
\dotsb (· · · ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \downrsquigarrow («) . . . . . 43 \EightFlowerPetalRemoved ( )
\dotsc (. . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \downslice (Â) . . . . . . . . . . 25 . . . . . . . . . 78
\dotseq () . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \downspoon (⫰) . . . . . . . . . . 47 eighth note see musical symbols
\dotsi (· · ·¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \downt (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \eighthnote (♪) . . . . . . . . . 88
\dotsint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 28 \downtherefore (∵) . . . 23, 64 \eighthnote ( ) . . . . . . . . . 88
\dotsm (· · · ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 \downtouparrow (ÿ) . .
\downuparrows (×) . . .
. . . . 42 H
\EightStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 78
\dotso (. . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 . . . . 42
I
\EightStarBold ( ) . . . . . . 78
F
dotted arrows . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \downuparrows () . . . . . . . 43
dotted union (∪) ˙ . . . . . . . . 112 \downupharpoons (ë) . . \EightStarConvex ( ) . . . . 78
E
. . . . 43
\dottedtilde (ã) .. . . . . . . . . 16
\downupharpoons (⥯) . . . . . . 46 \EightStarTaper ( ) . . . . . 78
\dottimes () . . . . . . . . . . 23 \downVdash (⍑) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \ejective (e) . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\double . . . . . . . . . . . . 56, 57 \downvdash (⊤) . . . . . . . . . . 33 electrical symbols . . . . . . . . 70
double acute (a̋) . . see accents \downY (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 electromotive force (E) . . . . see
\doublebarwedge (Z) . . . . . 23 dozenal (package) . . . . . 65, 119 alphabets, math
\doublebarwedge ([) . . . . . 22 dozenal digits . . . . . . . . . . . 65 element of . . . . . . . . . . see \in

132
\ell (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . see \EyesDollar (¦) . . . . . . . . . 18
b
\Ellipse ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \rightleftharpoons
\equiv (≡) . . . . . . . . . . 21, 30 F
ellipses (dots) . . . 9, 63–65, 107
ellipses (ovals) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \equiv (≡) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 f (esvect package option) . . . 61
e
\EllipseShadow ( ) . . . . . . 80 equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . see faces . . 72, 81, 88, 90, 91, 96, 98
\fallingdotseq () . . . . . . 32
c
\EllipseSolid ( ) . . . . . . . 80
\equiv, \leftrightarrow,
and \threesim \fallingdotseq (;) . . . . . . 30
\EM (␙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
\equivclosed (Þ) . . . . . . . . 32 \fallingdotseq (≒) . . . . . . . 32
\Email (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
\Emailct (z) . . . . . . . . . . . 73
\er () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 !
\FallingEdge ( ) . . . . . . . . 70
es-zet . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \ss \fatbslash ()) . . . . . . . . . . 22
\emgma (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\ESC (␛) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \fatsemi (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
\emptyset (∅) . . . . . . . . . . . 65
\Esc ( Esc ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \fatslash (() . . . . . . . . . . . 22
\emptyset (∅) . . . . . . . . . . . 66
escapable characters . . . . . . . 9 \FAX (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
\End ( End ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
\esh (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \fax (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
end of proof . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \Faxmachine (v) . . . . . . . . 73
\esh (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\ending (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 fc (package) . . . . . . . . . 10, 14
esint (package) . . . . . . . 28, 119
\eng (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \fcdice ( ) . . . . 92
\Estatically (J) . . . . . . . . 74
engineering symbols . . . . 70, 73 fclfont (package) . . . . . . . . 119
estimated . see \textestimated
\engma (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \fcscore ( ) . . . . . . 92
\ENQ (␅) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 esvect (package) . . . . . . 61, 119
\eta (η) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 feet . . . . . . . . . see \prime and
entails . . . . . . . . . . see \models \textquotesingle
\Enter ( Enter ) . . . . . . . . . 72 \etaup (η) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

\ETB (␗) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \FEMALE () . . . . . . . . . . . . 74


\Envelope ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \eth (ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Female (~) . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . 80, 98 \eth () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 female . . . . . . . . . 12, 71, 73, 74
\enya (N) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \eth (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \female (♀) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
\EOT (␄) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \ETX (␃) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \FemaleFemale („) . . . . . . . 74
epsdice (package) . . 92, 119, 120 \FemaleMale (…) . . . . . . . . . 74
eufrak (package) . . . . . . . . . 68
\epsdice ( ) . . . . . 92 a.
Euler Roman . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \Ferli (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
\epsi (") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\EUR (e ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 a.
\epsilon () . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Fermi (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
\EURcr (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
\epsilonup () . . . . . . . . . . 50 fermions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
\EURdig (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
\eqbump () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 feyn (package) . . . . 74, 119, 120
\eqbumped () . . . . . . . . . . 32
\EURhv (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
\eqcirc () . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 ÿ
\Euro ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Feynman slashed character nota-
tion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
\eqcirc (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \euro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Feynman-diagram symbols . . 74
\eqcirc (≖) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 euro signs . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 19
a
\feyn{a} () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
\Eqcolon (I) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 blackboard bold . . . . . . 68
c
\feyn{c} ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 74
\Eqcolon (−::) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \eurologo (() . . . . . . . . . . . 19
d
\feyn{fd} ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 74
\eqcolon () . . . . . . . . . . . 32 eurosym (package) . 19, 119, 120
o
\feyn{flS} () . . . . . . . . . . . 74
\eqcolon (−:) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \EURtm (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
l
\feyn{fl} () . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
\eqcolon (E) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 euscript (package) . 68, 119, 120
k
\feyn{fs} ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 74
\eqdot (⩦) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 evaluated at . . . . . . see \vert
e
\feyn{fu} ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 74
\eqfrown (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 evil spirits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
b
\feyn{fv} () . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
\Eqqcolon (G) . . . . . . . . . . 31 exclusive disjunction . . . . . . . .
f
\feyn{f} ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 74
q
\Eqqcolon (=::) . . . . . . . . . . 34 . . . see \nleftrightarrow
\feyn{g1} () . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
v
\eqqcolon (=:) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nequiv, and \oplus
\eqqcolon (C) . . . . . . . . . . 31 exclusive or . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 \feyn{gd} ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 74
\eqsim (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \exists (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \feyn{glB} (){ . . . . . . . . . . . 74
\eqsim (≂) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \exists (∃) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \feyn{glS} ()| . . . . . . . . . . . 74
\eqslantgtr (·) . . . . . . . . . 38 \exists (∃) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \feyn{glu} ()z . . . . . . . . . . . 74
\feyn{gl} ()y . . . . . . . . . . . .
\eqslantgtr (1) . . . . . . . . . 38 \exp (exp) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
74
\feyn{gu} (u) . . . . . . . . . . .
\eqslantgtr (⪖) . . . . . . . . . 39 \Explosionsafe (`) . . . . . . 74
74
\feyn{gvs} ()}s . . . . . . . . . . .
\eqslantless (¶) . . . . . . . . 38 extarrows (package) 62, 119, 120
extensible accents . . 59–61, 63, 74
\feyn{gv} ()} . . . . . . . . . . . .
\eqslantless (0) . . . . . . . . 38
108–109 74
\feyn{g} (g) . . . . . . . . . . .
\eqslantless (⪕) . . . . . . . . 39
extensible arrows . . . . . . 59–63 74
\feyn{hd} (j) . . . . . . . . . . .
\eqsmile (") . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
extensible symbols, creating 107– 74
\feyn{hs} (K) . . . . . . . . . . .
\equal (=) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
109 74
\feyn{hu} (i) . . . . . . . . . . .
\equal (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
extensible tildes . . . . . . . 59, 61 74
\feyn{h} (h) . . . . . . . . . . .
\equalclosed (Ý) . . . . . . . . 32
extension characters . . . 48, 49 74
\feyn{ms} ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .
\equalscolon (=:) . . . . . . . 36
\equalscoloncolon (=::) . . . 36 extpfeil (package) . . 63, 119, 120 74
\equalsfill . . . . . . . . 21, 108 extraipa (package) . . . . 16, 119 \feyn{m} (m) . . . . . . . . . . . 74
equidecomposable . . . . . . . 104 \eye ( E ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \feyn{P} (P) . . . . . . . . . . . 74

133
p
\feyn{p} ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \filledmedsquare (∎) . . . . . 25 ?
\FiveStarConvex ( ) . . . . . 78
x
\feyn{x} () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \filledmedtriangledown (▼) 25, 7
\FiveStarLines ( ) . . . . . . 78
\FF (␌) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 40
9
\FiveStarOpen ( ) . . . . . . . 78
fge (package) . 47, 53, 58, 65, 67, \filledmedtriangleleft (◀) 25,
:
\FiveStarOpenCircled ( ) . 78
119, 120 40
<
\FiveStarOpenDotted ( ) . . 78
=
fge-digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \filledmedtriangleright (▶)
\fgeA (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 . . . . . . . 25, 40 \FiveStarOutline ( ) . . . . 78
\fgebackslash (K) . . . . . . . . 67 \filledmedtriangleup (▲) 25, \FiveStarOutlineHeavy ( ) 78>
\fgebaracute (M) . . . . . . . . 67
\fgebarcap (O) . . . . . . . . . . 67
40
!
\FilledRainCloud ( ) . . . . 91
@
\FiveStarShadow ( ) . . . . . 78
\fgec (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \FilledSectioningDiamond ( )  \Fixedbearing (%) . . . . . . . 73
.
\fgecap (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 . . . . . . . . . 92 \fixedddots ( . . ) . . . . . . . . 63
\fgecapbar (Q) . . . . . . . . . . 67 \FilledSmallCircle ( ) . . 79 u .
\fgecup (N) . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
\fgecupacute (R) . . . . . . . . 67
\FilledSmallDiamondshape ( ) v \fixedvdots (..) . . . . . . . . . . 63
fixmath (package) . . . . . . . 113
. . . . . . . . . 79
\fgecupbar (P) . . . . . . . . . . 67
\FilledSmallSquare ( ) . . 79 p \fj (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

s
\fged (p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \Flag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
\fgee (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \FilledSmallTriangleDown ( ) \flap (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\fgeeszett (ı) . . . . . . . . . . 53 . . . . . . . . . 79 \flapr (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\fgeeta (”) . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \FilledSmallTriangleLeft ( ) r \flat ([) . . . . . . . . . . . 65, 88
\fgeF (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 . . . . . . . . . 79 \flat (♭) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
\fgef (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
t
\FilledSmallTriangleRight \Flatsteel (–) . . . . . . . . . . 73
\fgeinfty (i) . . . . . . . . . . 67 ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 fletched arrows . . . . . . . 47, 75
\fgelangle (h) . . . . . . . . . . 67 \FilledSmallTriangleUp ( ) 79 q fleurons . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78, 80
\fgelb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
$
\FilledSnowCloud ( ) . . . . 91 florin . . . . . . see \textflorin
\fgelb (”) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
\fgeleftB (D) . . . . . . . . . . . 53 `
\FilledSquare ( ) . . . . . . . 79
\floweroneleft (b) . . . . . . 78
\floweroneright (c) . . . . . 78
\filledsquare (◾) . . . . . . . . 25

\fgeleftC (C) . . . . . . . . . . . 53 flowers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
\fgeN (”) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \FilledSquareShadowA ( ) . 79

Flynn, Peter . . . . . . . . . . . 104
\fgeoverU (”) . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \FilledSquareShadowC ( ) . 79 
C
\Fog ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
\fgerightarrow (!) . . . . . 47 font encodings
\filledsquarewithdots ( ) 80
\fgerightB (B) . . . . . . . . . . 53 Latin 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 119
\filledstar (★) . . . . . . . . . 25
\fges (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
#
\FilledSunCloud ( ) . . . . . 91 font encodings . . . . . 8, 114, 115
c
\fgestruckone (1) . . . . . . . . 65 7-bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
\fgestruckzero (0) . . . . . . . 65 \FilledTriangleDown ( ) . . 79
8-bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
\fgeU (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \filledtriangledown (▾) 25, 40
\fgeuparrow (") . . . . . . . . . 47 \FilledTriangleLeft ( ) . . 79 b ASCII . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
document . . . . . . . . . . 115
\fgeupbracket (L) . . . . . . . 67 \filledtriangleleft (◂) 25, 40
d
limiting scope of . . . . . . . 8
\FHBOLOGO (f) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \FilledTriangleRight ( ) . 79 LY1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
\FHBOlogo (F) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \filledtriangleright (▸) 25, OT1 8, 10, 14, 107, 114, 115
field (F) . . see alphabets, math 40
a
OT2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
\file (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \FilledTriangleUp ( ) . . . 79
U
T1 . . . . . . . . 8, 10, 14, 115
\FilledBigCircle ( ) . . . . 79 \filledtriangleup (▴) . 25, 40
"
T4 . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 14, 17
\FilledBigDiamondshape ( ) 79 V \FilledWeakRainCloud ( ) . 91 T5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 14
P
\FilledBigSquare ( ) . . . . 79
finger, pointing . . . . . . see fists
finite field (F) . . see alphabets,
TS1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
\FilledBigTriangleDown ( ) 79 S fontdef.dtx (file) . . . . 103, 107

R
math fontenc (package) . 8, 10, 14, 115
\FilledBigTriangleLeft ( ) 79 \finpartvoice (a») . . . . . . . 16
T
\fontencoding . . . . . . . . . . . 8
ˇ (a) . . . . 16
\FilledBigTriangleRight ( ) \finpartvoiceless
> » fonts
. . . . . . . . . 79 ˚
\fint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Calligra . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
\FilledBigTriangleUp ( ) . 79 Q ffl
\fint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Charter . . . . . . . . . 18, 30
e
\FilledCircle ( ) . . . . . . . 79 \Finv (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
\Finv (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Computer Modern 100, 102,
115

\FilledCloud ( ) . . . . . . . . 91
\filleddiamond (◆) . . . . . . . 25 \Fire ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Courier . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
\FilledDiamondShadowA ( ) 79  fish hook . . . . . . see \strictif Garamond . . . . . . . 18, 30

\FilledDiamondShadowC ( ) 79 fists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Helvetica . . . . . . . . . . . 18

f \fivedots () . . . . . . . . 23, 64 Symbol . . . . . . . . 51, 103


\FilledDiamondshape ( ) . . 79
 R
\FiveFlowerOpen ( ) . . . . . 78 Times Roman . . . 18, 102
\FilledHut ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 91
P
\FiveFlowerPetal ( ) . . . . 78
Type 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 112
\filledlargestar (☀) . . . . 79
8
\FiveStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 78
Utopia . . . . . . . . . . 18, 30

;
\filledlozenge (⧫) . . . . . . . 79 Zapf Chancery . . . . . . . 68
\filledmedlozenge (⧫) . . . . 79 \FiveStarCenterOpen ( ) . . 78 Zapf Dingbats . . . . 75, 77

134
\fontsize . . . . . . . . . . 100, 102 \Gentsroom (x) . . . . . . . . . . 90 upright . . . . . . . . . 50, 51
fontspec (package) . . . . . . . 118 geometric shapes . . . . 78–80, 94 greek (babel package option) 50,
\Football (o) . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \geq (¥) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 87
\forall (∀) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \geq (≥) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 38 Greek coins . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
\forall (∀) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \geq (≥) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 
\Greenpoint ( ) . . . . . . . . . 98
\Force (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \geqclosed (⊵) . . . . . . . 39, 40 Gregorio, Enrico . . . . . 104, 105
\Forward (·) . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \geqdot (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \grimace (M) . . . . . . . . . . . 91
\ForwardToEnd (¸) . . . . . . . 90 \geqq (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \GS (␝) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
\ForwardToIndex (¹) . . . . 90 \geqq (=) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
1
\gtr (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
\FourAsterisk ( ) . . . . . . . 78 \geqq (≧) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \gtrapprox (Ç) . . . . . . . . . . 38
\FourClowerOpen ( ) . V . . . . 78 \geqslant (>) . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gtrapprox (') . . . . . . . . . 38
\FourClowerSolid ( ) W . . . . 78
\geqslant (⩾) . . . . . . . . . . . 39
\geqslantdot (⪀) . . . . . . . . 39
\gtrapprox (⪆) . . . . . . . . . . 39
\gtrclosed (⊳) . . . . . . . 39, 40
\Fourier ( ) . . . . . . . . . 36 german (keystroke package option) \gtrdot (Í) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
fourier (package) 19, 36, 51, 53, . . . . . . . . . 72 \gtrdot (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
57, 60, 76, 78, 91, 119 \gets . . . . . . . see \leftarrow \gtrdot (⋗) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
\fourier ( ) . . . . . . . . . 36 \gg (") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gtreqless (½) . . . . . . . . . . 38
Fourier transform (F) . . . . see \gg () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \gtreqless (R) . . . . . . . . . 38
5
alphabets, math \gg (≫) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
\ggcurly (Ï) . . . . . . . . . . . 32
\FourStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 78 \gtreqless (⋛) . . . . . . . . . . 39
6
\FourStarOpen ( ) . . . . . . . 78 \ggg (Ï) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gtreqlessslant (O) . . . . . . 39
\gtreqqless (¿) . . . . . . . . . 38
\fourth (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \ggg (≫) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \ggg (≫ vs. Ï) . . . . . . . . 101 \gtreqqless (T) . . . . . . . . . 38
fraktur . . . see alphabets, math \ggg (⋙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
\gtreqqless (⪌) . . . . . . . . . 39
Freemason’s cipher . . . . . . . 98 \gggtr . . . . . . . . . . . see \ggg
\gtrless (») . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Frege logic symbols 47, 53, 65, 67 \gggtr (⋙) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
\gtrless (≷) . . . . . . . . . . . 38
\frown (_) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 ghosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
\gtrless (≷) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
\frown (⌢) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Gibbons, Jeremy . . . . . . . . 122
frown symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \gimel (‫ )ג‬. . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \gtrneqqless (ó) . . . . . . . . 39
\frowneq (!) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \gimel (ℷ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \gtrsim (Á) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
\frowneqsmile (') . . . . . . . 48 \girl (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \gtrsim (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
\frownie (/) . . . . . . . . . . . 88 globe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \gtrsim (≳) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
\frownsmile () . . . . . . . . . 48 \glotstop (b) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \guillemotleft («) . . . 10, 116
\frownsmileeq ()) . . . . . . . 48 \glottal (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \guillemotright (») . . 10, 116
\Frowny (§) . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \gluon (QPPPPPPR) . . . . . . . . . . 70 \guilsinglleft (‹) . . . 10, 117
frowny faces . . . . 72, 88, 90, 91 gluons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \guilsinglright (›) . . 10, 117
\FS (␜) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \gnapprox (Ë) . . . . . . . . . . 38 
\gvcropped ( ) . . . . . . . . . 74
\FullFHBO (Ž) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \gnapprox () . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gvertneqq (µ) . . . . . . . . . . 38
\fullmoon (M) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \gnapprox (⪊) . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \gvertneqq () . . . . . . . . . 38
\fullmoon (#) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \gneq (­) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \gvertneqq (≩) . . . . . . . . . . 39
\fullnote () . . . . . . . . . . . 88 \gneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
\gneqq (³) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 H
G \gneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \H (a̋) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
\G (a
Ÿ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \gneqq (≩) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 h (esvect package option) . . . 61
g (esvect package option) . . . 61 \gnsim (Å) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \h (ả) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
\Game (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \gnsim () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \HA (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\Game (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \gnsim (≵) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
\Gamma (Γ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Go boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \Ha (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
háček (ǎ) . . . . . . . see accents

\gamma (γ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Go stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
\gammaup (γ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 goban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \Hail ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
\Ganz (¯ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \Goofy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 \Halb (˘ “ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
\GaPa (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 graphics (package) . . . . 47, 103 half note . . see musical symbols
Garamond (font) . . . . . . 18, 30 graphicx (package) . 17, 100, 103 s
\HalfCircleLeft ( ) . . . . . . 80
\gcd (gcd) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \grave (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
r
\HalfCircleRight ( ) . . . . . 80
\ge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \geq
\Gemini (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
grave (à) . . . . . . . . see accents
\gravis (à) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

\HalfFilledHut ( ) . . . . . . 91
\halflength (p) . . . . . . . . . 18
\Gemini (â) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 greater-than signs . . . . . . . see
\halfnote ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 88
\gemini (^) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
genealogical symbols . . . . . . 88
inequalities
greatest lower bound see \sqcap 
\HalfSun ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 91
\geneuro (A C) . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 51 Hamiltonian (H) see alphabets,


\geneuronarrow (B C) . . . . . . 19 blackboard bold . . . . . . 68 math
\HandCuffLeft ( ) . . . . . . . 76

\geneurowide (C C) . . . . . . . . 19 bold . . . . . . . . . . 50, 113
gensymb (package) . . . . . . . . 70 polytonic . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \HandCuffLeftUp ( ) . . . . . 76

135

\HandCuffRight ( ) . . . . . . 76 \HH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Horn, Berthold .. . . . . . . . . 69

\HandCuffRightUp ( ) . . . . 76 \HP (P) . . . ... . . . . . . . . 82

\HH (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\Hh (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hp (p) . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . 82
\HandLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 76

\HandLeftUp ( ) . . . . . . . . 76 hhcount (package) . 92, 119, 121 \Hplural (˙) .. . . . . . . . . 82


\HandPencilLeft ( ) . . . . . 76
\Hhundred (3) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hplus (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82


\HandRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . 76 \HI (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\HQ (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82


\HandRightUp ( ) . . . . . . . 76 \Hi (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\Hq (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\Hquery (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
hands . . . . . . . . . . . . . see fists \hiatus (H ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\HR (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\Handwash (Ü) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \Hibl (˝) . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\Hr (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\HaPa (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
\Hibp (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \HS (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
harmony (package) . 89, 119, 120
\Hibs (¨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hs (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
harpoon (package) . 47, 119, 121
harpoons . . . . . . . 41, 43, 46, 47 \Hibw (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hscribe (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\hash (#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 hieroglf (package) . 82, 119, 120
hash mark . . . . . . . . . . . see \# hieroglyphics . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hslash (/) .. . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\hat (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Hilbert space (H) see alphabets, \hslash (}) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
\hateq (≙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 math \Hsv (˚) . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\hausaB (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \hill (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \HT (T) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 82
{
\hausab (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \HT (␉) . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 72
\HJ (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Ht (t) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\hausaD (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\Hj (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hten (2) . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\hausad (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\HK (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\hausaK (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Hthousand (4) . . . . . . . . . . 82
\Hk (k) √ .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\hausak (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Htongue (˘) . . . . . . . . . . 82
\hksqrt ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 106
\HB (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \HL (L) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \HU (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\Hb (b) . . . . . .... . . . . . . 82 \Hl (l) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 82

\HBar ( ) . . . . .... . . . . . . 79 \HM (M) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\Hu (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Hungarian umlaut (a̋) see accents
\hbar (~) . . . .
\hbipropto (ˆ)
....
...
51, 52, 103
. . . . . . 23
\Hm (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 
\Hut ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
\Hman (ˇ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \HV (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\HC (C) . . . . . . .... . . . . . . 82
\Hmillion (7) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hv (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\Hc (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\Hms (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \hv (") . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\hcrossing () . . . . . . . . . . 33
\HN (N) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hvbar (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\HCthousand (6) . . . . . . . . 82 \HW (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\Hn (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\HD (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\HO (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Hw (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\Hd (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \HX (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\Ho (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\hdotdot () . . . . . . . . . 23, 64
Holt, Alexander . . . . . . . 1, 118 \Hx (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\hdots (⋯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
\Hdual (¸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \holter ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \HXthousand (5) . . . . . . . . . 82
\HE (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \HY (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\He (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 holtpolt (package) . . . . 63, 119
heads . . . . . . . . . . . . see faces \hom (hom) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Hy (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\Home ( Home ) . . . . . . . . . 72 hyphen, discretionary . . . . . 115
\Heart (Œ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
hearts (suit) . . . . . . . 65–67, 80 \HZ (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82


\heartsuit (♥) . . . . . . . . . . 65 \Hz (z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
\heartsuit (♡) . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Homer ( ) ..... . . . 96
Hebrew . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51, 68 \Hone (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 I
Helvetica (font) . . . . . . . . . . 18 hook accent (ả) . . . see accents ï . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
\hemiobelion (Α) . . . . . . . . 19 \hookb () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \i (ı) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
\HERMAPHRODITE (€) . . . . . . 74 \hookd () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \ialign . . . . . . . 104, 106, 108
\Hermaphrodite (}) . . . . . . 74 \hookd (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \ibar (¯i ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\hexagon (7) . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \hookdownminus (⌐) . . . . . . 66 IBM PC . . . . . . . . . 72, 97, 115
\hookg () . . . . . . . . . . Icelandic staves . . . . . . . . . . 97

\Hexasteel (’) . . . . . . . . . . 73 . . . 13
\hexstar (A) . . . . . . . . . . . 77 \hookh ($) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \IceMountain ( ) . . . . . . . . 91
\HF (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \hookheng (%) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 .
\iddots ( . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
\HF (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \hookleftarrow (←-) . . . . . . 41
\iddots () R. . . R. . . . . . . . . 107
\Hf (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \hookleftarrow (↩) . . . . . . 44
k
\hfermion ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \hookrevepsilon () . . . . . . 13 \idotsint ( ··· ) . . . . . . . 26
\idotsint (
'
) . . . . . . . . 27
\hfil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 \hookrightarrow (,→) . . . . . 41
\HG (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \hookrightarrow (↪) . . . . . 44 \idotsint (∫…∫) . . . . . . . . . . 29
\Hg (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \hookupminus (⨽) . . . . . . . . 66 \iff . see \Longleftrightarrow

136
ifsym (package) . 70, 79, 91, 92, \injlim (inj lim) . . . . . . . . . 49 irrational numbers (J) .... see
101, 103, 119, 120 alphabets, math

\inplus (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
igo (package) . . . . . . . . 94, 119 inputenc (package) . . . . . . . 117 \Irritant ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 92
}
\igocircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 94 \Ins ( Ins ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \ismodeledby (=|) . . . . . . . 103
}
\igocircle ( ) . . . . . . . . . 94 ³
ISO character entities . . . . 117
|
\int ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
\igocross ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 94 isoent (package) . . . . . . . . . 117
|
R
\int ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 26
\igocross ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 94 r
\int ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
\igonone ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 94 J
\igonone ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \int (∫) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \j () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
€
~
\igosquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . 94 \intclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . 30 2
\JackStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 78
~
\igosquare ( ) . . . . . . . . . 94 ¿
\INTEGER ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3

\igotriangle ( ) . . . . . . . . 94 Ú
\JackStarBold ( ) . . . . . . . 78


\Integer ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Jewish star . . . . . . . . . . 77, 78
RRRR( ) . . . . . . . . 94
\igotriangle integers (Z) see alphabets, math \jmath () . . . . . . . . . . . 51, 57
\iiiint (
\iiiint (
%
) . . . . . . . . . 26
) . . . . . . . . . . . 27
integrals . . . 25–30, 66, 105–106 
\Joch ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
ˇ integrals (wasysym package op- \Join (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 31
\iiiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 28 tion) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \Join (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
\iiiint µ (⨌) . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \intercal (|) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \joinrel . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
\iiint (RRR ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \intercal (⊺) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 joint denial . . . see \downarrow
\iiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \interleave (9) . . . . . . . . . 22 junicode (package) . . . . . . . 118
# Junicode-Regular.ttf (file) 118
intersection . . . . . . . . see \cap
™
\iiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . 26, 27
˝
\Interval ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 91 \Jupiter (E) . . . . . . . . . . . 71
\iiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
\inva ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Jupiter (Å) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
\iiint ´ (∭) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \jupiter (X) . . . . . . . . . . . 71
\iint (RR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \invamp (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
\iint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \invbackneg (⨽) . . . . . . . . . 66
! K
\iint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 26, 28
˜ \INVd () . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \k (a)
, . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . 17
\iint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \invdiameter () . . . . . . . . 88 \k ( ˛) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
\iint (∬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \inve (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \kappa (κ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50


\Im (=) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 inverse limit . see \varprojlim \kappaup (κ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50


\im (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \InversTransformHoriz ( ) 36 \ker (ker) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
\imath (ı) . . . . . . . . . . . 51, 57 ket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
\InversTransformVert ( ) . 36 \Keyboard (Ï) . . . . . . . . . . 72
\impliedby see \Longleftarrow
inverted symbols 11–13, 17, 103 keyboard symbols . . . . . . . . 72
\implies see \Longrightarrow
inverters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 keys, computer . . . . . . . . . . 72
and \vdash
\invf (,) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 keystroke (package) 72, 119, 120
impulse train . . . . . . . . see sha
\invglotstop (d) . . . . . . . . 13
\in (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \keystroke ( ) . . . . . . . . 72
\in (∈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \invh (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
king . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
\in (∈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
\INVl ()
knight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
\in (∈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Knuth, Donald E. . . 8, 114, 122
inches . . . . . . . see \second and \invlegr (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 symbols by . . . . . . . . . . 89
\textquotedbl \invm (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Koppa (Ϙ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\incoh (˚) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \invneg () . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \koppa (ϟ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
independence \invneg (⨼) . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \Kr ( l ) ...... . . . . . . . . 89
probabilistic . . . . . . . . 106 \kreuz (6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
statistical . . . . . . . . . . 106 \INVr () . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Kronecker product . see \otimes
stochastic . . . . . see \bot \invr (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Kronecker sum . . . . see \oplus
\independent (⊥ ⊥) . . . . . . . 106 \invscr (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 kroužek (å) . . . . . . see accents
\Industry (I) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \invscripta () . . . . . . . . . 13 \kside (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
inequalities . . . . . . . . . 9, 37–39
\INVu () . . .
\Kutline (R) . . . . . . . . . . . 75
inexact differential . . see \dbar . . . . . . . . . 73
\inf (inf) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \invv () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 L
infimum . see \inf and \sqcap \invw (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \L (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
infinity (∞) . . . . . . . see \infty \invy (\) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \l (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
<
\Info ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 \iota (ι) . . . . . .
iota, upside-down
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. 50
103
\labdentalnas (4) . . . . . . . 13
\Info (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \labvel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
information symbols . . . . . . 90 \iotaup (ι) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \Ladiesroom (y) . . . . . . . . . 90
informator symbols . . . . . . . 93 \ipagamma ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Lagrangian (L) . see alphabets,
\infty (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \ipercatal (η) . . . . . . . . . . 95 math
\infty (∞) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \IroningI (¯) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \Lambda (Λ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
\infty (∞) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \IroningII (°) . . . . . . . . . 90 \lambda (λ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
\inipartvoice (a \IroningIII (±) . . . . . . . . 90 \lambdabar (o) . . . . . . . . . . 66
–ˇ) . . . . . . . 16
\inipartvoiceless (a
– ) . . . . 16 irony mark (? ) . . . . . . . . . . 103 \lambdaslash (n) . . . . . . . . 66
˚

137
⎡⎢
\lceil ( ⎢⎢⎢) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
\lambdaup (λ) . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \leftleftarrows (⇇) . . . . . 44
Lamport, Leslie . . . . . . 118, 122 ⎢⎢ \leftleftharpoons (Ø) . . . 43
\lcirclearrowdown (ÿ) . . . 43
\land . . . . . . %. . . . . see \wedge \leftlsquigarrow (¢) . . . . 44
\lcirclearrowleft (⤾) . . . 43
\landdownint ( ) . . . . . . . . 28 \leftmapsto (↤) . . . . . . . . . 44
\lcirclearrowright (⟳) . . 43
\landdownint# (⨚) . . . . . . . . 29 \leftModels (ò) . . . . . . . . . 33
\lcirclearrowup (↻) . . . . . 43
\landupint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 28 \leftmodels (â) . . . . . . . . . 33
\lcircleleftint (∲) . . . . . . 29 \leftmoon (K) . . . . . . . . . . . 71
\landupint (⨙) . . . . . . . . . . 29
\lcirclerightint (∲) . . . . . 29 \leftmoon ($) . . . . . . . . . . 71
\Langle (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
\lcm (lcm) . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \leftp (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
\lcorners (v) . . . . . . . . . . . 53
\lAngle (hh) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
\leftpitchfork (Š) . . . . . . 47
\langle (h) . . . . . . . . . . 21, 54
\lcurvearrowdown (⤸) . . . . . 43 \leftpointright ( R
) . . . . 76
\langle (⟨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \lcurvearrowleft (º) . . . . 43 \leftpropto (∝) . . . . . . . . . 33
\lcurvearrowne (¼) . . . . . . 43 \Leftrightarrow (⇔) . . . . . 41
\langlebar (n) . . . . . . . . . . 55 \lcurvearrownw (½) . . . . . . 43 \Leftrightarrow (⇔) . . . . . 44
\lcurvearrowright (↷) . . . . 43 \leftrightarrow (Ø) . . . . . 42
\Laplace ( ) . . . . . . . . . 36 \lcurvearrowse (¿) . . . . . . 43 \leftrightarrow (↔) . . . . . 41
\laplace ( ) . . . . . . . . . 36 \lcurvearrowsw (¾) . . . . . . 43 \leftrightarrow (↔) . . . . . 44
Laplace transform (L) . . . . see \lcurvearrowup (¹) . . . . . . . 43 \leftrightarroweq (-) . . . . 42
alphabets, math \ldbrack (v) . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \leftrightarrows (Ô) . . . . 42
Laplacian (∆) . . . . . see \Delta \ldotp (.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \leftrightarrows () . . . . 41
Laplacian (∇2 ) . . . . see \nabla \ldots (. . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 \leftrightarrows (⇆) . . . . 44
\largecircle (◯) . . . . . . . . 79 \le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \leq \leftrightarrowtriangle (])
\largediamond (◇) . . . . . . 79 \leadsto ({) . . . . . . . . 31, 41 . . . . . . . . . 42
\largelozenge (◊) . . . . . . . 79 \leadsto (↝) . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \leftrightharpoon (à) . . . 43
leaf . . . . . . . . . . see \textleaf \leftrightharpoondownup (⥊)
\leafleft (g) . . . . . . . . . . 78 . . . . . . . . . 46
\largepencil ( W) . . . . . . . 76 \leafNE (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \leftrightharpoons (è) . . 43
\leafright (h) . . . . . . . . . 78 \leftrightharpoons ( ) . . 41
\largepentagram (…) . . . . . 79
leaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78, 80 \leftrightharpoons (⇋) . . . 46
\largesquare (◻) . . . . . . . . 79
Lefschetz motive (L) . . . . . see \leftrightharpoonsfill . . . 62
\largestar (☆) . . . . . . . . . 79
alphabets, math \leftrightharpoonupdown (⥋)
\largestarofdavid (✡) . . . 79
\Left . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 . . . . . . . . . 46
\largetriangledown (▽) . . 40
\left . . . . . . . 54, 56, 100, 102 \Leftrightline (Ô) . . . . . . 33
\largetriangleleft (◁) . . 40
\LEFTarrow () . . . . . . . . . . 88 \leftrightline (Ð) . . . . . . 33
\leftrightsquigarrow (ú) 42
\largetriangleright (▷) . 40
\Leftarrow (⇐) . . . . . . 21, 41
\largetriangleup (△) . . . . 40
\Leftarrow (⇐) . . . . . . . . . 43 \leftrightsquigarrow (!) 41
\LArrow ( ← ) . . . . . . . . . . 72
\leftarrow (Ð) . . . . . . . . . 42 \leftrightsquigarrow (↭) . 44
\larrowfill . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 \leftarrow (←) . . . . . . . . . 41 \leftrsquigarrow (↜) . . . . 44
\Laserbeam (a) . . . . . . . . 74 \leftarrow (←) . . . . . . . . . . 44 \Leftscissors (S) . . . . . . . 75
LATEX . . 1, 8, 14, 26, 30, 49, 54, \leftarrowtail () . . . . . 41 \leftslice (2) . . . . . . . . . . 22
63, 65, 73, 75, 100, 103–109, \leftarrowtail (↢) . . . . . . 44 \leftslice (⪦) . . . . . . . . . . 33
112, 113, 115, 117–119, 121, \leftarrowtriangle (^) . . 42 \leftspoon (⟜) . . . . . . . . . 47
122 \leftbarharpoon (Ü) . . . . . 43 \leftsquigarrow (ø) . . . . 42
LATEX 2ε . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 8, \LEFTCIRCLE (G) . . . . . . . . . 88 \leftsquigarrow (f) . . . . . 42
9, 19, 20, 22, 30, 36, 41, 58, \LEFTcircle (G #) . . . . . . . . . 88 \leftt (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
63, 65, 69, 73, 100, 101, 103, \Leftcircle Ñ(I) . . . . . . . . . 88 \lefttherefore ( ) . . . 24, 64
\leftthreetimes ($) . . . . . 66
106, 107, 111, 112, 114–117, Ñ
122 \leftevaw ( ÑÑ) . . . . . . . . . . 56 \leftthreetimes (h) . . . . . 22
latexsym (package) 22, 30, 36, 41,
\leftthreetimes (⋋) . . . . . . 24
65, 100, 119 \leftfilledspoon (r) . . . . 47
\leftthumbsdown ( D) . . . . 76
\latfric (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \leftfootline (z) . . .
\leftfree (‚) . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
33
33 \leftthumbsup ( U
) . . . . . . 76
\lefttorightarrow (ü) . . . 42
Latin 1 . . . . . . . . . . 8, 115, 119
table . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 \lefthalfcap (⌜) . . . . . . . . 23
\lefthalfcup (⌞) . . . . . . . . 24 \Lefttorque (&) . . . . . . . . 73
laundry symbols . . . . . . . . . 90
\lefthand (t) . . . . . . . . . . 76 \leftturn (") . . . . . . . . . . 88
\Lbag (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
\leftharpoonccw (↽) . . . . . 46 \leftVdash (ê) . . . . . . . . . . 33
\lbag (N) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53


\leftvdash (⊣) Ð . . . . . . . . . . 33

\leftharpooncw (↼) . . . . . . 46
\lbrace ( ⎨) . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \leftharpoondown (â)

. . . . 43 Ð
\Lbrack ([)⎪
\leftwave ( ÐÐ) . . . . . . . . . . 56
⎩ . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \leftharpoondown ()) . . . . 41
\lBrack ([[) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \leftharpoonup (à) . . . . . . 43 \leftY (*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
LCD digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \leftharpoonup (() . . . . . . 41 legal symbols . . . . . . . 9, 19, 116
\lCeil (dd) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \leftleftarrows (Ð) . . . . . 42 \legm (6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\lceil (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \leftleftarrows (⇔) . . . . . 41 \legr (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

138
\length (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \lhd (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22, 23 \LinearACCCLXIII (¸) . . . . . 84
\Leo (ä) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \lhd (⊲) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39, 40 \LinearACCCLXIV (¹) . . . . . 84
\leo () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \lhdbend (~) . . . . . . . . . . 89 \LinearACCCLXIX (¾) . . . . . . 84
\leq (¤) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lhookdownarrow (3) . . . . . . 44 \LinearACCCLXV (º) . . . . . . 84
\leq (≤) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 38 \lhookleftarrow (2) . . . . . 44 \LinearACCCLXVI (») . . . . . . 84
\leq (≤) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \lhooknearrow (4) . . . . . . . 44 \LinearACCCLXVII (¼) . . . . . 84
\leqclosed (⊴) . . . . . . . 39, 40 \lhooknwarrow (⤣) . . . . . . . 44 \LinearACCCLXVIII (½) . . . . 84
\leqdot (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \lhookrightarrow (↪) . . . . 44 \LinearACCCLXX (¿) . . . . . . . 84
\leqq (®) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lhooksearrow (⤥) . . . . . . . 44 \LinearACCCLXXI (À) . . . . . 84
\leqq (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \lhookswarrow (6) . . . . . . . 44 \LinearACCCLXXII (Á) . . . . 84
\leqq (≦) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \lhookuparrow (1) . . . . . . . . 44 \LinearACCCLXXIII (Â) . . . 84
\leqslant (6) . . . . . . . . . . 38 \Libra (æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \LinearACCCLXXIV (Ã) . . . . . 84
\leqslant (⩽) . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \libra (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \LinearACCCLXXIX (È) . . . . 84
\leqslantdot (⩿) . . . . . . . . 39 Lie derivative (L) see alphabets, \LinearACCCLXXV (Ä) . . . . . . 84
\less (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 math \LinearACCCLXXVI (Å) . . . . 84
less-than signs . . see inequalities life-insurance symbols . . . . 108 \LinearACCCLXXVII (Æ) . . . . 84
\lessapprox (Æ) . . . . . . . . . 38 \lightbulb (A) . . . . . . . . . 112 \LinearACCCLXXVIII (Ç) . . . 84
\lessapprox (/) . . . . . . . . . 38 lightbulb.mf (file) . . . 109–111 \LinearACCCLXXX (É) . . . . . . 84
\lessapprox (⪅) . . . . . . . . . 39 lightbulb.sty (file) . . . . . 112 \LinearACCCLXXXI (Ê) . . . . . 84
\lessclosed (⊲) . . . . . . 39, 40 lightbulb10.2602gf (file) . 111 \LinearACCCLXXXII (Ë) . . . . 84
\lessdot (Ì) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 lightbulb10.dvi (file) . . . 111 \LinearACCCLXXXIII (Ì) . . . 84
\lessdot (l) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 lightbulb10.mf (file) . 109–111 \LinearACCCLXXXIV (Í) . . . 84
\lessdot (⋖) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 lightbulb10.tfm (file) . . . 112 \LinearACCCLXXXIX (Ò) . . . 84
\lesseqgtr (¼) . . . . . . . . . . 38 
\Lightning (E vs. ) . . . . 101 \LinearACCCLXXXV (Î) . . . . . 84
\lesseqgtr (Q) . . . . . . . . . 38 
\Lightning ( ) . . . . . . . . . 91
\LinearACCCLXXXVI (Ï) . .
\LinearACCCLXXXVII (Ð) .
.
.
.
.
84
84
\lesseqgtr (⋚) . . . . . . . . . . 39 \Lightning (E) . . . . . . . . . . 73 \LinearACCCLXXXVIII (Ñ) . . 84
\lesseqgtrslant (N) . . . . . . 39 \lightning ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 42 \LinearACCCV (~) . . . . . . . . . 82
\lesseqqgtr (¾) . . . . . . . . . 38 \lightning ( vs. ) . . . . . 101 \LinearACCCVI () . . . . . . . 82
\lesseqqgtr (S) . . . . . . . . . 38 \lightning (☇) . . . . . . . . . . 44 \LinearACCCVII (€) . . . . . . 82
\lightning () . . . . . . . . . . 88 \LinearACCCVIII () . . . . . 83
\lesseqqgtr (⪋) . . . . . . . . . 39 \lim (lim) . . . . . . . . . . 49, 113 \LinearACCCX (ƒ) . . . . . . . . 83
\lessgtr (º) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \liminf (lim inf) . . . . . 49, 113 \LinearACCCXI („) . . . . . . . 83
\lessgtr (≶) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \LinearACCCXII (…) . . . . . . 83
\lessgtr (≶) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \limsup (lim sup) . . . . 49, 113 \LinearACCCXIII (†) . . . . . 83
\lessneqqgtr (ò) . . . . . . . . 39 \linbfamily . . . . . . . . . 85, 86 \LinearACCCXIV (‡) . . . . . . 83
\lesssim (À) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Linear A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCCXIX (Œ) . . . . . . 83
\lesssim (.) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Linear B . . . . . . . . . . . . 85, 86 \LinearACCCXL (¡) . . . . . . . 83
\lesssim (≲) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 linear implication see \multimap \LinearACCCXLI (¢) . . . . . . 83
\Letter ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 linear logic symbols . 21–23, 25, \LinearACCCXLII (£) . . . . . . 83
\Letter (B vs. ) . . . . . . 101 29–30, 36, 51, 52 \LinearACCCXLIII (¤) . . . . . 83
\Letter (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 linearA (package) . . 82, 119, 121 \LinearACCCXLIV (¥) . . . . . 83
letter-like symbols . . . . . 51–53 \LinearAC (c) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCCXLIX (ª) . . . . . . 83
letters . . . . . . . . . see alphabets \LinearACC () . . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCCXLV (¦) . . . . . . 83
barred . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 \LinearACCC (y) . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCCXLVI (§) . . . . . 83
non-ASCII . . . . . . . . . . 10 \LinearACCCI (z) . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCCXLVII (¨) . . . . . 83
slashed . . . . . . . . . . . 105 \LinearACCCII ({) . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCCXLVIII (©) . . . . 83
variant \LinearACCCIII (|) . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCCXV (ˆ) . . . . . . . 83
Ñ Latin . . . . . . . . 51
\LinearACCCIV (}) . . . . . . . 82
Ñ \LinearACCCXVI (‰) . . . . . . . 83
\levaw ( ÑÑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \LinearACCCIX (‚) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCXVII (Š) . . . . . . 83
\LinearACCCL («) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCXVIII (‹) . . . . 83
\LF (␊) . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \LinearACCCLI (¬) . . . . . . . 83
7
\LinearACCCXX () . . . . . . . 83
\lfilet (77) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \LinearACCCLII (­) . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCXXI (Ž) . . . . . . 83
\LinearACCCLIII (®) . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCXXII () . . . . . . 83
\lFloor (bb) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \LinearACCCLIV (¯) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCXXIII () . . . . . 83
\lfloor (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \LinearACCCLIX (´) . . . . . . 83
⎢⎢
\LinearACCCXXIV (‘) . . . . . . 83
\lfloor ( ⎢⎢⎢)
\LinearACCCLV (°) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCXXIX (–) . . . . . . 83
. . . . . . . . . . . . 55
.⎢⎣. .
\LinearACCCLVI (±) . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCXXV (’) . . . . . . 83
\lg (lg) .  . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
\LinearACCCLVII (²) . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCXXVI (“) . . . . . . 83
\lgroup () . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \LinearACCCLVIII (³) . . . . . 83 \LinearACCCXXVII (”) . . . . . 83



\LinearACCCLX (µ) . . . . . . . 84 \LinearACCCXXVIII (•) . . . . 83
\lgroup ( ⎪



) . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \LinearACCCLXI (¶) . . . . . . 84 \LinearACCCXXX (—) . . . . . . 83
\LHD () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \LinearACCCLXII (·) . . . . . . 84 \LinearACCCXXXI (˜) . . . . . . 83

139
\LinearACCCXXXII (™) . . . . 83 \LinearACCXCIX (x) . . . . . . 82 \LinearACLXIII (¢) . . . . . . . 83
\LinearACCCXXXIII (š) . . . . 83 \LinearACCXCV (t) . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACLXIV (£) . . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCCXXXIV (›) . . . . . 83 \LinearACCXCVI (u) . . . . . . 82 \LinearACLXIX (¨) . . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCCXXXIX ( ) . . . . . 83 \LinearACCXCVII (v) . . . . . . 82 \LinearACLXV (¤) . . . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCCXXXV (œ) . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCXCVIII (w) . . . . 82 \LinearACLXVI (¥) . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCCXXXVI () . . . . . 83 \LinearACCXI ( ) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXVII (¦) . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCCXXXVII (ž) . . . 83 \LinearACCXII (!) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXVIII (§) . . . . . 84
\LinearACCCXXXVIII (Ÿ) . . . 83 \LinearACCXIII (") . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXX (©) . . . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCI () . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCXIV (#) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXXI (ª) . . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCII () . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCXIX (() . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXXII («) . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCIII () . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCXL (=) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXXIII (¬) . . . . . 84
\LinearACCIV () . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCXLI (>) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXXIV (­) . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCIX () . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACCXLII (?) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXXIX ( ) . . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCL (G) . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCXLIII (@) . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXXV (®) . . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCLI (H) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCXLIV (A) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXXVI (¯) . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCLII (I) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCXLIX (F) . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXXVII (°) . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCLIII (J) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCXLV (B) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXXVIII (±) . . . . . 84
\LinearACCLIV (K) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCXLVI (C) . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXXX () . . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCLIX (P) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCXLVII (D) . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXXXI () . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCLV (L) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCXLVIII (E) . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXXXII () . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCLVI (M) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCXV ($) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXXXIII () . . . . . 84
\LinearACCLVII (N) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCXVI (%) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXXXIV () . . . . . 84
\LinearACCLVIII (O) . . . . . 83 \LinearACCXVII (&) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXXXIX (
) . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCLX (Q) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCXVIII (') . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXXXV () . . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCLXI (R) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACCXX ()) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXXXVI () . . . . . 84
\LinearACCLXII (S) . . . . . . . 84 \LinearACCXXI (*) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXXXVII () . . . . . 84
\LinearACCLXIII (T) . . . . . . 84 \LinearACCXXII (+) . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXXXVIII ( ) . . . . 84
\LinearACCLXIV (U) . . . . . . 84 \LinearACCXXIII (,) . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLXXXX ( ) . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCLXIX (Z) . . . . . . 84 \LinearACCXXIV (-) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACV (h) . . . . . . . . . . 82
\LinearACCLXV (V) . . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCXXIX (2) . . . . . . 83 \LinearACVI (i) . . . . . . . . . 82
\LinearACCLXVI (W) . . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCXXV (.) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACVII (j) . . . . . . . . 82
\LinearACCLXVII (X) . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCXXVI (/) . . . . . . 83 \LinearACVIII (k) . . . . . . . 82
\LinearACCLXVIII (Y) . . . . . 84
\LinearACCXXVII (0) . . . . . 83 \LinearACX (m) . . . . . . . . . . 82
\LinearACCLXX ([) . . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCXXVIII (1) . . . . 83 \LinearACXCI ( ) . . . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCLXXI (\) . . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCXXX (3) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACXCII ( ) . . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCLXXII (]) . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCXXXI (4) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACXCIII () . . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCLXXIII (^) . . . . 84
\LinearACCXXXII (5) . . . . . . 83 \LinearACXCIV () . . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCLXXIV (_) . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCXXXIII (6) . . . . . 83 \LinearACXCIX () . . . . . . . 82
\LinearACCLXXIX (d) . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCXXXIV (7) . . . . . 83 \LinearACXCV () . . . . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCLXXV (`) . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCXXXIX (<) . . . . . 83 \LinearACXCVI () . . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCLXXVI (a) . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCXXXV (8) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACXCVII () . . . . . . 82
\LinearACCLXXVII (b) . . . . . 84
\LinearACCXXXVI (9) . . . . . . 83 \LinearACXCVIII () . . . . . . 82
\LinearACCLXXVIII (c) . . . . 84
\LinearACCXXXVII (:) . . . . 83 \LinearACXI (n) . . . . . . . . . 82
\LinearACCLXXX (e) . . . . . . 84
\LinearACCXXXVIII (;) . . . . 83 \LinearACXII (o) . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearACCLXXXI (f) . . . . . . 84
\LinearACI (d) . . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACXIII (p) . . . . . . . 83
\LinearACCLXXXII (g) . . . . . 84
\LinearACII (e) . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACXIV (q) . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearACCLXXXIII (h) . . . . 84
\LinearACCLXXXIV (i) . . . . 84 \LinearACIII (f) . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACXIX (v) . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearACCLXXXIX (n) . . . . . 84 \LinearACIV (g) . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACXL (‹) . . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearACCLXXXV (j) . . . . . 84 \LinearACIX (l) . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACXLI (Œ) . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearACCLXXXVI (k) . . . . . 84 \LinearACL (•) . . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACXLII () . . . . . . . 83
\LinearACCLXXXVII (l) . . . . 84 \LinearACLI (–) . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACXLIII (Ž) . . . . . . 83
\LinearACCLXXXVIII (m) . . . 84 \LinearACLII (—) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACXLIV () . . . . . . . 83
\LinearACCLXXXX (o) . . . . . 84 \LinearACLIII (˜) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACXLIX (”) . . . . . . . 83
\LinearACCV () . . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACLIV (™) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACXLV () . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearACCVI () . . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACLIX (ž) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACXLVI (‘) . . . . . . . 83
\LinearACCVII () . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACLV (š) . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACXLVII (’) . . . . . . 83
\LinearACCVIII () . . . . . . . 82 \LinearACLVI (›) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACXLVIII (“) . . . . . 83
\LinearACCX () . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACLVII (œ) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACXV (r) . . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearACCXCI (p) . . . . . . . 84 \LinearACLVIII () . . . . . . 83 \LinearACXVI (s) . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearACCXCII (q) . . . . . . 84 \LinearACLX (Ÿ) . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACXVII (t) . . . . . . . 83
\LinearACCXCIII (r) . . . . . . 84 \LinearACLXI ( ) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACXVIII (u) . . . . . . . 83
\LinearACCXCIV (s) . . . . . . 84 \LinearACLXII (¡) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearACXX (w) . . . . . . . . . 83

140
\LinearACXXI (x) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearALXXXV (T) . . . . . . . . 84

)
\LinearACXXII (y) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearALXXXVI (U) . . . . . . 84
\LinearACXXIII (z) . . . . . . 83 \LinearALXXXVII (V) . . . . . . 84 \Lisa ( . . . . . . . . . 96
\LinearACXXIV ({) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearALXXXVIII (W) . . . . . 84 \lJoin (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
\LinearACXXIX (€) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearALXXXX (Y) . . . . . . . 84 \ll (!) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
\LinearACXXV (|) . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAV () . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \ll () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
\LinearACXXVI (}) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAVI () . . . . . . . . . . 82 \ll (≪) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
\LinearACXXVII (~) . . . . . . 83 \LinearAVII () . . . . . . . . . 82
\llangle (⟪) . . . . . . . . . . . 55
\LinearACXXVIII () . . . . . 83 \LinearAVIII () . . . . . . . . 82
\LinearACXXX () . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \llap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
\LinearACXXXI (‚) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXCI (Z) . . . . . . . . . 84 \llbracket (~) . . . . . . . . . . 54
‹
\LinearACXXXII (ƒ) . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXCII ([) . . . . . . . . 84 \llbracket ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 57
\LinearACXXXIII („) . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXCIII (\) . . . . . . . 84
\LinearACXXXIV (…) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXCIV (]) . . . . . . . . 84 \llceil (V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
\LinearACXXXIX (Š) . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXCIX (b) . . . . . . . . 82 \llcorner (z) . . . . . . . . . . . 53
\LinearACXXXV (†) . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXCV (^) . . . . . . . . . 84 \llcorner (x) . . . . . . . . . . . 53
\LinearACXXXVI (‡) . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXCVI (_) . . . . . . . . 84
\LinearAXCVII (`) . . . . . . . . 84 \llcorner (⌞) . . . . . . . . . . . 55
\LinearACXXXVII (ˆ) . . . . . . 83
\llcurly (Î) . . . .
\LinearACXXXVIII (‰) . . . . 83 \LinearAXCVIII (a) . . . . . . . 84
. . . . . . . 32
\LinearAXI (
) . . . . . . . . . . 82
\LinearAI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Lleftarrow (W) . . . . . . . . 41
\LinearAXII ( ) . . . . . . . . . 82
\LinearAII () . . . . . . . . . . 82 \Lleftarrow (⇚) . . . . . . . . 44
\LinearAXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . 82
\LinearAIII () . . . . . . . . . 82 \llfloor (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
\LinearAXIV ( ) . . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearAIV () . . . . . . . . . . 82 \lll (Î) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
\LinearAXIX () . . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearAIX () . . . . . . . . . . 82 \lll (≪) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
\LinearAXL (') . . . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearAL (1) . . . . . . . . . . . 83 \lll (≪ vs. Î) . . . . . . . . 101
\LinearAXLI (() . . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearALI (2) . . . . . . . . . . 83 \lll (⋘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
\LinearAXLII ()) . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearALII (3) . . . . . . . . . 83 \llless . . . . . . . . . . see \lll
\LinearAXLIII (*) . . . . . . . 83
\LinearALIII (4) . . . . . . . . 83 \llless (⋘) . . . . . . . . . . . 39
\LinearAXLIV (+) . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearALIV (5) . . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearAXLIX (0) . . . . . . . . 83
\llparenthesis  (L) . . . . . . . 53
\LinearALIX (:) . . . . . . . . . 83 \lmoustache () . . . . . . . . 54
\LinearAXLV (,) . . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearALV (6) . . . . . . . . . . 83 ⎧


\lmoustache ( ⎪ ⎪
\LinearAXLVI (-) . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearALVI (7) . . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearAXLVII (.) . . . . . . . 83 ⎪

) . . . . . . . . 55
\LinearALVII (8) . . . . . . . . 83 \ln (ln) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
\LinearAXLVIII (/) . . . . . . 83
\LinearALVIII (9) . . . . . . . 83 \lnapprox (Ê) . . . . . . . . . . 38
\LinearAXV () . . . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearALX (;) . . . . . . . . . . 83 \lnapprox () . . . . . . . . . . 38
\LinearAXVI () . . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearALXI (<) . . . . . . . . . 83 \lnapprox (⪉) . . . . . . . . . . . 39
\LinearAXVII () . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearALXII (=) . . . . . . . . 83 \lneq (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
\LinearAXVIII () . . . . . . . 83 \lneq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
\LinearALXIII (>) . . . . . . . 83
\LinearAXX () . . . . . . . . . . 83 \lneqq (²) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
\LinearALXIV (?) . . . . . . . . 83
\LinearAXXI () . . . . . . . . . 83 \lneqq () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
\LinearALXIX (D) . . . . . . . . 84
\LinearALXV (@) . . . . . . . . . 83 \LinearAXXII () . . . . . . . . 83 \lneqq (≨) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
\LinearAXXIII () . . . . . . . 83 \lnot . . . . . . . . . . . . see \neg
\LinearALXVI (A) . . . . . . . . 84
\LinearALXVII (B) . . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXXIV () . . . . . . . . 83 \lnot (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
\LinearALXVIII (C) . . . . . . . 84
\LinearAXXIX () . . . . . . . . 83 \lnsim (Ä) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
\LinearAXXV () . . . . . . . . . 83 \lnsim () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
\LinearALXX (E) . . . . . . . . . 84
\LinearAXXVI () . . . . . . . . 83 \lnsim (≴) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
\LinearALXXI (F) . . . . . . . . 84
\LinearAXXVII () . . . . . . . 83 local ring (O) . . see alphabets,
\LinearALXXII (G) . . . . . . . 84
\LinearAXXVIII () . . . . . . . 83 math
\LinearALXXIII (H) . . . . . . 84
\LinearAXXX () . . . . . . . . . 83 \log (log) . . . . . . . . . . 49, 113
\LinearALXXIV (I) . . . . . . . 84
\LinearAXXXI () . . . . . . . . 83 log-like symbols . . . . . . 49, 113
\LinearALXXIX (N) . . . . . . . 84 logic gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
\LinearAXXXII () . . . . . . . 83
\LinearALXXV (J) . . . . . . . . 84 logical operators
\LinearAXXXIII ( ) . . . . . . 83
\LinearALXXVI (K) . . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXXXIV (!) . . . . . . . 83 and . . . . . . . . . see \wedge
\LinearALXXVII (L) . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXXXIX (&) . . . . . . . 83 not . . . see \neg and \sim
\LinearALXXVIII (M) . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXXXV (") . . . . . . . . 83 or . . . . . . . . . . . see \vee
\LinearALXXX (O) . . . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXXXVI (#) . . . . . . . 83 \logof () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
\LinearALXXXI (P) . . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXXXVII ($) . . . . . . 83 lollipop . . . . . . . see \multimap
\LinearALXXXII (Q) . . . . . . . 84 \LinearAXXXVIII (%) . . . . . . 83 long division . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
\LinearALXXXIII (R) . . . . . . 84 linearb (package) 85, 86, 119, 121 \longa (λ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\LinearALXXXIV (S) . . . . . . 84 \Lineload (L) . . . . . . . . . . 73 \longcastling (O-O-O) . . . 93
\LinearALXXXIX (X) . . . . . . 84 linguistic symbols . . . . . 11–14 longdiv (package) . . . . . . . . . 59

141
^^
\lwavy ( ^^^) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
\Longleftarrow (⇐=) . . . . . 41 \Mapstochar (ú) . . . . . . . . . . 49
\lz (1) .^^. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\Longleftarrow (⇐Ô) . . . . . 43 \Mapstochar () . . . . . . . . . . 48
\longleftarrow (←Ð) . . . . . 43 \mapstochar (Þ) . . . . . . . . . . 49
\longleftarrow (←−) . . . . . 41 M
\Longleftrightarrow (⇐⇒) 41 \M . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . 10
\Longleftrightarrow (⇐⇒) 43 \M (´) . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . 95
\m .¯. . . . . .

\longleftrightarrow (←→) . 43 . .. . . . . ... . . . 10
\longleftrightarrow (←→) 41 \m ( ) . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . 95 \Marge ( ) . . . . . . . . . 96
\Longmapsfrom (⇐=\) . . . . . . 42 \ma ¯(¯
×) . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . 95 \markera (x) . . . . . . . . . . . 93
\longmapsfrom (←−[) . . . . . . 42 \macron (ā) . .. . . . . ... . . . 17 \markerb (y) . . . . . . . . . . . 93
\Longmapsto (=⇒) . . . . . . . 42 macron (ā) . .. . . . see accents married . . . . . see \textmarried
\longmapsto (z→) . . . . . . . . 43 \Mars (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

\longmapsto (7−→) . . . . . . . 41
\LongPulseHigh ( & ) . . . . . 70
\Mars (Ä) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

'
\Maggie ( ) . . . . . . . . . 96 \mars (♂) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
\LongPulseLow ( ) . . . . . 70 magical signs . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \MartinVogel (ÿ) . . . . . . . . 90
\Longrightarrow (=⇒) . . . . 41 majuscules . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 marvosym (package) . 18, 65, 67,
\Longrightarrow (Ô⇒) . . . . 43 \makeatletter . . . . . . . . . 107 71–75, 90, 101
\longrightarrow (Ð→) . . . . 43 \makeatother . . . . . . . . . . 107 masonic cipher . . . . . . . . . . 98
\longrightarrow (−→) . . . . 41 \MALE (‚) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 \mate (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
\looparrowdownleft (î) . . 42 \Male (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 material biconditional . . . . . . .
\looparrowdownright (ï) . . 42 male . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71, 73, 74 . see \leftrightarrow and
\looparrowleft (ì) . . . . . . 42 \male (♂) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \equiv
\looparrowleft (") . . . . . . 41 \MaleMale (ƒ) . . . . . . . . . . 74 material conditional . . . . . . see
\looparrowleft (↫) . . . . . . 43 \maltese (z) . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \rightarrow and \supset
\looparrowright (í) . . . . . 42 \maltese (✠) . . . . . . . . . . . 66 material equivalence . . . . . . . .
\looparrowright (#) . . . . . 41 man . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81, 90 . see \leftrightarrow and
\looparrowright (↬) . . . . . 43 \manboldkidney () . . . . . . . 89 \equiv
\Loosebearing ($) . . . . . . . 73 \manconcentriccircles ($) 89 material implication . . . . . . see
\lor . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \vee \manconcentricdiamond (%) 89
o
\rightarrow and \supset
\LowerDiamond ( ) . . . . . . . 79 \mancone (#) . . . . . . . . . . . 89 material nonimplication . . . . . .
lowering . . . see \textlowering \mancube () . . . . . . . . . . . 89 . . . see \nrightarrow and
\lozenge (♦) . . . . . . . . 65, 66 \manerrarrow (y) . . . . . . . 89 \nsupset
\lozenge (◊) . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \manfilledquartercircle (!) 89 math alphabets . . . . . . . . . . 68
\Lparen (() . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 manfnt (package) . . 89, 119, 120 mathabx (package) 21, 23, 25, 26,
\lrcorner ({) . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \manhpennib () . . . . . . . . . 89 30, 32, 36–38, 40, 42, 43, 49,
\lrcorner (y) . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \manimpossiblecube () . . . 89 52–55, 58, 60, 65, 66, 71, 93,
\mankidney () . . . . . . . . . . 89 100, 101, 119, 120, 123
\lrcorner (⌟) . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \manlhpenkidney () . . . . . . 89 \mathaccent . . . . . . . . . . . 104
\manpenkidney () . . . . . . . 89 \mathbb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
\lrJoin . . . . . . . . . see \Join
\lrtimes (\) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \manquadrifolium (&) . . . . 89 \mathbbm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
L
P
\manquartercircle ( ) . . . . 89 \mathbbmss . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
\lsem ( P
P
P ) ... .. . . . . . . . . 55 \mathbbmtt . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
P
\manrotatedquadrifolium (')
N ...
\lsemantic .. see \ldbrack . . . . . . . . . 89 mathbbol (package) . . . . . . . 68
\Lsh (è) . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 42 \manrotatedquartercircle (") \mathbf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
\Lsh () . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 41 . . . . . . . . . 89 \mathbin . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
\Lsh (↰) . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 43 \manstar () . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \mathbold . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
\Lsteel (™) . . .. . . . . . . . . 73 \mantiltpennib () . . . . . . 89 mathcal (euscript package option)
\ltimes (
) . . .. . . . . . . . . 23 \mantriangledown (7) . . . . . 89 . . . . . . . . . 68
\ltimes (n) . . .. . . . . . . . . 22 \mantriangleright (x) . . . . 89 \mathcal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
\ltimes (⋉) . . .. . . . . . . . . 24 \mantriangleup (6) . . . . . . 89 \mathcent (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . 52
\ltriple . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 57 \manvpennib () . . . . . . . . . . 89 \mathchoice . . . . . . . . 105, 106
Luecking, Dan . .. . . . . . . . 106 \Mappedfromchar () . . . . . . . 48 \mathclose . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
\lVert (k) . . . .. . . . . . . . . 54 \mappedfromchar () . . . . . . . 48 mathcomp (package) . . . . . . 65
\lVert (||) . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 56 \Mapsfrom (⇐\) . . . . . . . . . . 42 mathdesign (package) 18, 24, 30,
\lvert (|) . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 54 \mapsfrom (←[) . . . . . . . . . . 42 52, 56, 67, 119
\lvertneqq (´) .. . . . . . . . . 38 \Mapsfromchar (û) . . . . . . . . 49 \mathdollar ($) . . . . . . . . . 21
\lvertneqq ( ) . . . . . . . . . 38 \Mapsfromchar (\) . . . . . . . . 48 mathdots (package) . 58, 63, 64,
\lvertneqqÐ (≨) .. . . . . . . . . 39 \mapsfromchar (ß) . . . . . . . . 49 107, 119, 120
Ð \mapsfromchar ([) . . . . . . . . 48 \mathds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
\lwave ( ÐÐ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \Mapsto (⇒) . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \mathellipsis (. . .) . . . . . . 21
_
_ \mapsto (7→) . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 mathematical symbols . . 21–69
\lWavy ( _
_
_ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \mapsto (↦) . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 \mathfrak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
_
_

142
\mathit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 metre (package) . 17, 57, 95, 119, \multimapbothvert (•) . . . . 31
\mathnormal . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 120 \multimapdot () . . . . . . . . 31
\mathop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 metre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \multimapdotboth () . . . . 31
\mathopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 metrical symbols . . . . . . . . . 95 \multimapdotbothA () . . . 31
\mathord . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 \mho (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65, 66 \multimapdotbothAvert (˜) . 31
\mathpalette . . . . . . . . . . 106 micro . . . . . . . . . . see \textmu \multimapdotbothB () . . . 31
\mathparagraph (¶) . . . . . . 21 \micro (µ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \multimapdotbothBvert (—) . 31
\mathpunct . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Microsoft® Windows® . . . 115 \multimapdotbothvert (–) . . 31
\mathpzc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \mid (|) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 56 \multimapdotinv () . . . . . 31
\mathrel . . . . . . . . . . 103, 112 \middle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \multimapinv () . . . . . . . . 31
\mathring (˚) . . . . . . . . 57, 58 \midtilde ({) . . . . . . . . . . . 18 multiple accents per character 107
\mathrm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 MIL-STD-806 . . . . . . . . . . . 73 multiplicative disjunction . . . . .
mathrsfs (package) . . . . 68, 119 millesimal sign . . . . . . . . . see . . . . . see \bindnasrepma,
mathscr (euscript package option) \textperthousand \invamp, and \parr
. . . . . . . . . 68 milstd (package) . . . . . . 73, 119 \Mundus (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
\mathscr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 \min (min) . . . . . . . . . 49, 113 Museum of Icelandic Sorcery and
\mathsection (§) . . . . . . . . 21 minim . . . . see musical symbols Witchcraft . . . . . . . . . 98
\mathsterling (£) . . . . . . . . 52 minus . . . . . . . see \textminus musical symbols 20, 65, 66, 88,
\mathsterling (£) . . . . . . . 21 \minus (−) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 89
mathtools (package) . 21, 34, 60, musixtex (package) . . . . . . . . 89
\minuscolon (−:) . . . . . . . . 36
62, 119, 120 \muup (µ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
\minuscoloncolon (−::) . . . . 36
\mathunderscore ( ) . . . . . . 21 \MVAt (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
\minusdot () . . . . . . . . . . . 24
\max (max) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \MVEight (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
\minushookdown (¬) . . . . . . 66
Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coeffi- \MVFive (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
\minushookup (⨼) . . . . . . . . 66
cient . . . . . . . . . . . . see \MVFour (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
\minuso (
) . . . . . . . . 22, 104
\DH \MVNine (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
minutes, angular . . . see \prime
\maya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \MVOne (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
miscellaneous symbols 65–67, 80,
\Mb (´
˘¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\mb (¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
88–99
\MVRightarrow (:) . . . . . . . 90
\MVSeven (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
˘ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\Mbb (¯´
“Missing $ inserted” . . . . 21
\MVSix (6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
˘¯˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Mmappedfromchar () . . . . . . 48
\mBb (¯
˘´¯˘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \mmappedfromchar () . . . . . . 48
\MVThree (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
˘˘´
\mbB (¯¯
\mbb (¯¯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Mmapstochar () . . . . . . . . . 48
\MVTwo (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
\MVZero (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
˘˘
mbboard (package) . . . . 68, 119 \mmapstochar () . . . . . . . . . 48
\mbbx (¯¯ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 MnSymbol (package) . . . . . 21, N
˘˘˘
\mbox .¯.¯. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 23–25, 29, 32–34, 37, 39, 40, \nabla (∇) . .. . . . . . . . . . . 65
\measuredangle (>) . . . . . . 66 43–48, 51, 52, 55, 58–60, 64, \nabla (∇) . .. . . . . . . . . . . 66
\measuredangle (]) . . . . . . 66 66, 67, 79, 119, 120 \NAK (␕) . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 72
\measuredangle (∡) . . . . . . 66 \Mobilefone (H) . . . . . . . . . 73 NAND gates .. . . . . . . . . . . 73
mechanical scaling . . . . 109, 112 \mod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
\medbackslash (∖) . . . . . . . 24 \models (|=) . . . . . . . . 30, 103
\medbullet () . . . . . . . . . . 23 \models (⊧) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \NANDd () . . . . . . . . . . 73
\medcirc () . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 moduli space . . . see alphabets,

\NANDl ()
\medcircle (◯) . . . . . . . . . . 24 math
monetary symbols . . . 18, 19, 68 . . . . . . . . . 73
\meddiamond (◇) . . . . . . . . . 25
\medlozenge (◊) . . . . . . . . . 79 monus . . . . . . . . . . see \dotdiv
\medslash (∕) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \moo () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \NANDr () . . . . . . . . . 73
\medsquare (◻) . . . . . . . . . . 25 \Moon (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
\medstar (☆) . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \Moon (Á) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
\medstarofdavid (✡) . . . . . 79 \MoonPha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 \NANDu () . . . . . . . . . . 73
\medtriangledown (▽) . 25, 40 \morepawns (S) . . . . . . . . . . 93 \napprox () . . . . . . . . . . . 32
\moreroom (U) . . . . . . . . . . 93 \napprox (≉) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

\medtriangleleft (◁) . 25, 40
\medtriangleright (▷) . 25, 40 \Mountain ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 91 \napproxeq (6) . . . . . . . . . . 31
\medtriangleup (△) . . . 25, 40 mouse . . . . see \ComputerMouse \napproxeq (≊̸) . . . . . . . . . . 33
\medvert (∣) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \MoveDown (») . . . . . . . . . . . 90 \nasymp (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
\medvertdot () . . . . . . . . . 24 \moverlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 \nasymp (≭) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
membership . . . . . . . . see \in \MoveUp (º) . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 nath (package) . . 53, 56, 57, 119
\Mercury (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \mp (∓) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 ¼
\NATURAL ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
\Mercury (Â) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \mp (∓) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Î
\Natural ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
\mercury (') . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \mu (µ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \natural (\) . . . . . . . . . 65, 88
\merge (!) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \multimap (() . . . . . . . 30, 31 \natural (♮) . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
METAFONT . . . . . . 69, 109–112 \multimap (⊸) . . . . . . . . . . 47 natural numbers (N) . . . . . see
METAFONTbook symbols . . . 89 \multimapboth () . . . . . . 31 alphabets, math

143
navigation symbols . . . . . . . 90 \ndoublesmileeq (̸) . . . . . . 48 \neqsmile (̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 48
\nbackapprox (̸) . . . . . . . . 33 \nDownarrow (⇓̸) . . . . . . . . . 45 \nequal (≠) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
\nbackapproxeq (̸) . . . . . . . 33 \ndownarrow (↓̸) . . . . . . . . . 45 \nequalclosed (̸) . . . . . . . 33
\nbackcong (≌̸) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \ndownarrowtail (̸) . . . . . . 45 \nequiv (.) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
\nbackeqsim (̸) . . . . . . . . . 33 \ndowndownarrows (⇊̸) . . . . . 45 \nequiv (≢) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
\nbacksim (*) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \ndownfilledspoon (̸) . . . . 47 \nequivclosed (̸) . . . . . . . 33
\nbacksim (∽̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \ndownfootline (̸) . . . . . . . 34 \nersquigarrow (¬) . . . . . . 43
\nbacksimeq (+) . . . . . . . . . 31 \ndownfree (⫝̸) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nespoon (l) . . . . . . . . . . . 47
\nbacksimeq (⋍̸) . . . . . . . . . 34 \ndownharpoonccw (⇂̸) . . . . . 46 \Neswarrow () . . . . . . . . . 43
\nbacktriplesim (̸) . . . . . . 34 \ndownharpooncw (⇃̸) . . . . . . 46 \neswarrow (% .) . . . . . 106, 107
\NBSP ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \ndownlsquigarrow (̸) . . . . 45 \neswarrow (⤡) . . . . . . . . . 43
\nBumpeq ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \ndownmapsto (↧̸) . . . . . . . . 45 \neswarrows (š) . . . . . . . . 43
\nBumpeq (≎̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \ndownModels (̸) . . . . . . . . 34 \neswbipropto (‰) . . . . . . . 24
\nbumpeq (() . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \ndownmodels (̸) . . . . . . . . 34 \neswcrossing (‘) . . . . . . . 33
\nbumpeq (≏̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \ndownpitchfork (⫛̸) . . . . . 47 \neswharpoonnwse (R) . . . . 46
\ncirceq (≗̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \ndownrsquigarrow (̸) . . . . 45 \neswharpoons (Z) . . . . . . . 46
\ncirclearrowleft (↺̸) . . . 46 \ndownspoon (⫰̸) . . . . . . . . . 47 \neswharpoonsenw (V) . . . . 46
\ncirclearrowright (↻̸) . . 46 \ndownuparrows (̸) . . . . . . 45 \Neswline (Ö) . . . . . . . . . . 33
\nclosedequal (̸) . . . . . . . 34 \ndownupharpoons (⥯̸) . . . . . 46 \neswline (Ò) . . . . . . . . . . 33
\ncong () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \ndownVdash (⍑̸) . . . . . . . . . 34 \Neutral ({) . . . . . . . . . . . 74
\ncong () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \ndownvdash (⊤̸) . . . . . . . . . 34 \neVdash (ì) . . . . . . . . . . . 33
\ncong (≇) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \ndststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \nevdash (Ü) . . . . . . . . . . . 33
\ncurlyeqprec (¸) . . . . . . . 32 \newextarrow . . . . . . . . . . . 63
\ncurlyeqprec (⋞̸) . . . . . . . 34 \ndtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35 \newmetrics . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\ncurlyeqsucc (¹) . . . . . . . 32 \ndttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \newmoon (N) . . . . . . . . . . . 71
\ncurlyeqsucc (⋟̸) . . . . . . . 34 \ne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \neq \newmoon ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 71
\ncurvearrowdownup (̸) . . . 44 \ne (≠) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \newtie (
a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
\ncurvearrowleft (↶̸) . . . . 46 \Nearrow (t) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \nexists (E) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
\ncurvearrowleftright (̸) 44 \Nearrow (⇗) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \nexists (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
\ncurvearrownesw (̸) . . . . 44 \nearrow (Õ) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \nexists (∄) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
\ncurvearrownwse (̸) . . . . 44 \nearrow (%) . . . . 41, 106, 107 \nfallingdotseq (≒̸) . . . . . . 33
\ncurvearrowright (↷̸) . . . . 46 \nearrow (↗) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \nfrown (⌢̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
\ncurvearrowrightleft (̸) 44 \nearrowtail ($) . . . . . . . . 43 \nfrowneq (̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 48
\ncurvearrowsenw (̸) . . . . 44 \nefilledspoon (t) . . . . . . 47 \nfrowneqsmile (̸) . . . . . . . 48
\ncurvearrowswne (̸) . . . . 44 \nefootline (|) . . . . . . . . . 33 \nfrownsmile (̸) . . . . . . . . 48
\ncurvearrowupdown (̸) . . . 44 \nefree („) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nfrownsmileeq (̸) . . . . . . . 48
\ndasharrow (⇢̸) . . . . . . . . . 46 \neg (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 \NG (Ŋ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
\ndasheddownarrow (⇣̸) . . . . 45 \neg (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \ng (ŋ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
\ndashedleftarrow (⇠̸) . . . . 45 negation . . . see \neg and \sim \ngeq (§) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
\ndashednearrow (̸) . . . . . 45 \neharpoonccw (D) . . . . . . . 46 \ngeq () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
\ndashednwarrow (̸) . . . . . 45 \neharpooncw (L) . . . . . . . . 46 \ngeq (≱) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
\ndashedrightarrow (⇢̸) . . . 45 \nelsquigarrow (¤) . . . . . . 43 \ngeqclosed (⋭) . . . . . . 39, 40
\ndashedsearrow (̸) . . . . . 45 \nemapsto (,) . . . . . . . . . . 43 \ngeqdot (̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
\ndashedswarrow (̸) . . . . . 45 \neModels (ô) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \ngeqq (±) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
\ndasheduparrow (⇡̸) . . . . . . 45 \nemodels (ä) . . . . . . . . . . 33
\ndashleftarrow (⇠̸) . . . . . 46 \ngeqq () . . . . . . . . . . ... 38
\nenearrows (”) . . . . . . . . 43
\ndashrightarrow (⇢̸) . . . . 46 \ngeqq (≧̸) . . . . . . . . . . ... 39
\nDashV (+) . . . . . . . . . . . .
\nepitchfork (Œ) . . . . . . . . 47
32 \Neptune (H) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \ngeqslant ( ) . . . . . . ... 38
\nDashv (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Neptune (È) . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \ngeqslant (≱) . . . . . . . ... 39
\ndashV (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \neptune ([) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \ngeqslantdot (⪀̸) . . . . ... 39
\ndashv (') . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \neq () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \ngets (↚) . . . . . . . . . . ... 46
\ndashv (⊣̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \ngg (4) . . . . . . . . . . . ... 38
\ndashVv (/) . . . . . . . . . . .
\neq (,) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
32 \neq (≠) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \ngg (≫̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 39
\nddtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \neqbump (̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nggg (⋙̸) . . . . . . . . . . ... 39
\ndiagdown (̸) . . . . . . . . . 34 \neqcirc (≖̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \ngtr (£) . . . . . . . . . . . ... 38
\ndiagup (̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \neqdot (⩦̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \ngtr (≯) . . . . . . . . . . . ... 38
\ndivides (∤) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \neqfrown (̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \ngtr (≯) . . . . . . . . . . . ... 39
\nDoteq (≑̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \neqsim (≂̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \ngtrapprox (É) . . . . . . ... 38
\ndoteq (≐̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \neqslantgtr (¹) . . . . . . . . 38 \ngtrapprox (#) . . . . . . ... 38
\ndoublefrown (̸) . . . . . . . 48 \neqslantgtr (⪖̸) . . . . . . . . 39 \ngtrclosed (⋫) . . . . . . 39, 40
\ndoublefrowneq (̸) . . . . . . 48 \neqslantless (¸) . . . . . . . 38 \ngtrdot (⋗̸) . . . . . . . . . ... 39
\ndoublesmile (̸) . . . . . . . 48 \neqslantless (⪕̸) . . . . . . . 39 \ngtreqless (⋛̸) . . . . . . . . . 39

144
\ngtreqlessslant (̸) . . . . . 39 \nleftmapsto (↤̸) . . . . . . . . 45 \nmapsto (↦̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 46
\ngtreqqless (⪌̸) . . . . . . . . 39 \nleftModels (̸) . . . . . . . . 34 \nmid (-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
\nleftmodels (̸) . . . . . . . . 34 \nmid (∤) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
\ngtrless (&) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nleftpitchfork (̸) . . . . . 47 \nmodels (⊭) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
\ngtrless (≹) . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \nLeftrightarrow (ø) . . . . 42 \nmultimap (⊸̸) . . . . . . . . . 47
\ngtrsim (Ã) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nLeftrightarrow (<) . . . . 41 \nndtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35
\ngtrsim (!) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nLeftrightarrow (⇎) . . . . 45 \nNearrow (⇗̸) . . . . . . . . . . 44
\nhateq (≙̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nleftrightarrow (Ü) . . . . 42 \nnearrow (1) . . . . . . . . . . . 42
\nhookleftarrow (↩̸) . . . . . 46 \nleftrightarrow (=) . 21, 41 \nnearrow (↗̸) . . . . . . . . . . 44
\nhookrightarrow (↪̸) . . . . 46 \nleftrightarrow (↮) . . . . 45 \nnearrowtail (̸) . . . . . . . 45
\ni (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51, 105 \nleftrightarrows (⇆̸) . . . . 45 \nnefilledspoon (̸) . . . . . 47
\ni (∋) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \nleftrightharpoondownup (⥊̸) \nnefootline (̸) . . . . . . . . 34
\nialpha () . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . . . 46 \nnefree (̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 34
\nibar . . . . . . . . see \ownsbar \nleftrightharpoons (⇋̸) . . 46 \nneharpoonccw (̸) . . . . . . 46
\nibeta ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

\nleftrightharpoonupdown (⥋̸) \nneharpooncw (̸) . . . . . . . 46
\NibLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 76 . . . . . . . . . 46

\nnelsquigarrow (̸) . . . . . 45
\NibRight ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 76 \nLeftrightline (̸) . . . . . 34 \nnemapsto (̸) . . . . . . . . . 45
nibs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \nleftrightline (̸) . . . . . 34 \nneModels (̸) . . . . . . . . . 34
\NibSolidLeft ( ) . . . . . . . 76 \nleftrightsquigarrow (̸) 46 \nnemodels (̸) . . . . . . . . . 34

\NibSolidRight ( ) . . . . . . 76
\nleftrsquigarrow (↜̸) . . . . 45
\nleftspoon (⟜̸) . . . . . . . . 47
\nnenearrows (̸) . . .
\nnepitchfork (̸) . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
45
47
nicefrac (package) . 67, 119, 121
\nleftVdash (̸) . . . . . . . . . 34 \nnersquigarrow (̸) . . . . . 45
\nichi ([) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\nleftvdash (⊣̸) . . . . . . . . . 34 \nnespoon (̸) . . . . . . . . . . 47
\niepsilon () . . . . . . . . . . 13
\nleq (¦) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nNeswarrow (̸) . . . . . . . . 45
\nigamma () . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\nleq () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nneswarrow (⤡̸) . . . . . . . . 45
\niiota ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\nleq (≰) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \nneswarrows (̸) . . . . . . . 45
\nilambda (2) . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\nleqclosed (⋬) . . . . . . 39, 40 \nneswharpoonnwse (̸) . . . 46
\nin (∉) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
\nleqdot (̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \nneswharpoons (̸) . . . . . . 46
\niomega (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\nleqq (°) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nneswharpoonsenw (̸) . . . 46
\niphi (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\nNeswline (̸) . . . . . . . . . 34
\niplus (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nleqq () . . . . . . . . . . ... 38
\nneswline (̸) . . . . . . . . . 34
\nisigma (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \nleqq (≦̸) . . . . . . . . . . ... 39 \nneVdash (̸) . . . . . . . . . . 34
\nitheta (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \nleqslant (
) . . . . . . ... 38 \nnevdash (̸) . . . . . . . . . . 34
\niupsilon (V) . . . . . . . . . . 13 \nleqslant (≰) . . . . . . . ... 39
\niv ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \nnststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35
\nleqslantdot (⩿̸) . . . . ... 39
\nj (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \nntstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35
\nless (¢) . . . . . . . . . . ... 38
\nlcirclearrowdown (̸) . . 45 \nnttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35
\nless (≮) . . . . . . . . . . ... 38
\nlcirclearrowleft (⤾̸) . . 45 \nNwarrow (⇖̸) . . . . . . . . . . 45
\nless (≮) . . . . . . . . . . ... 39
\nlcirclearrowright (⟳̸) . 45 \nnwarrow (0) . . . . . . . . . . . 42
\nlessapprox (È) . . . . . ... 38
\nlcirclearrowup (↻̸) . . . . 45 \nnwarrow (↖̸) . . . . . . . . . . 45
\nlessapprox (") . . . . . ... 38
\nlcurvearrowdown (⤸̸) . . . . 45 \nnwarrowtail (̸) . . . . . . . 45
\nlessclosed (⋪) . . . . . 39, 40
\nlcurvearrowleft (̸) . . . . 45 \nnwfilledspoon (̸) . . . . . 47
\nlessdot (⋖̸) . . . . . . . . ... 39
\nlcurvearrowne (̸) . . . . . 45 \nnwfootline (̸) . . . . . . . . 34
\nlcurvearrownw (̸) . . . . . 45 \nlesseqgtr (⋚̸) . . . . . . . . . 39 \nnwfree (̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 34
\nlcurvearrowright (↷̸) . . . 45 \nlesseqgtrslant (̸) . . . . . 39 \nnwharpoonccw (̸) . . . . . . 46
\nlcurvearrowse (̸) . . . . . 45 \nlesseqqgtr (⪋̸) . . . . . . . . 39 \nnwharpooncw (̸) . . . . . . . 46
\nlcurvearrowsw (̸) . . . . . 45 \nnwlsquigarrow (̸) . . . . . 45
\nlcurvearrowup (̸) . . . . . . 45 \nlessgtr (') . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nnwmapsto (̸) . . . . . . . . . 45
\nleadsto (↝̸) . . . . . . . . . . 46 \nlessgtr (≸) . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \nnwModels (̸) . . . . . . . . . 33
\nLeftarrow (ö) . . . . . . . . 42 \nlesssim (Â) . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nnwmodels (̸) . . . . . . . . . 34
\nLeftarrow (:) . . . . . . . . 41 \nlesssim ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nnwnwarrows (̸) . . . . . . . 45
\nLeftarrow (⇍) . . . . . . . . 45 \nlhookdownarrow (̸) . . . . . 45 \nnwpitchfork (̸) . . . . . . . 47
\nleftarrow (Ú) . . . . . . . . 42 \nlhookleftarrow (̸) . . . . 45 \nnwrsquigarrow (̸) . . . . . 45
\nleftarrow (8) . . . . . . . . 41 \nlhooknearrow (̸) . . . . . . 45 \nNwsearrow (̸) . . . . . . . . 45
\nleftarrow (↚) . . . . . . . . . 45 \nlhooknwarrow (⤣̸) . . . . . . 44 \nnwsearrow (⤢̸) . . . . . . . . 45
\nleftarrowtail (↢̸) . . . . . 45 \nlhookrightarrow (↪̸) . . . . 44 \nnwsearrows (̸) . . . . . . . 45
\nleftfilledspoon (̸) . . . 47 \nlhooksearrow (⤥̸) . . . . . . 44 \nnwseharpoonnesw (̸) . . . 46
\nleftfootline (̸) . . . . . . 34 \nlhookswarrow (̸) . . . . . . 44 \nnwseharpoons (̸) . . . . . . 46
\nleftfree (̸) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nlhookuparrow (̸) . . . . . . . 44 \nnwseharpoonswne (̸) . . . 46
\nleftharpoonccw (↽̸) . . . . 46 \nll (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \nNwseline (̸) . . . . . . . . . 33
\nleftharpooncw (↼̸) . . . . . 46 \nll (≪̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \nnwseline (̸) . . . . . . . . . 33
\nleftleftarrows (⇇̸) . . . . 45 \nLleftarrow (⇚̸) . . . . . . . . 44 \nnwspoon (̸) . . . . . . . . . . 47
\nleftlsquigarrow (̸) . . . . 45 \nlll (⋘̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \nnwVdash (̸) . . . . . . . . . . 33

145
\nnwvdash (̸) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \npreceq (ª) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nsefootline (̸) . . . . . . . . 34
no entry . . . . . . . . . see \noway \npreceq () . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nsefree (̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 34
\NoBleech (Ì) . . . . . . . . . . 90 \npreceq (⪯̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nseharpoonccw (̸) . . . . . . 46
\NoChemicalCleaning (¨) . . 90 \npreceqq (9) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nseharpooncw (̸) . . . . . . . 46
nointegrals (wasysym package op- \nprecsim (Â) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nselsquigarrow (̸) . . . . . 45
tion) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \nprecsim () . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nsemapsto (̸) . . . . . . . . . 45
\NoIroning (²) . . . . . . . . . 90 \nprecsim (≾̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nseModels (̸) . . . . . . . . . 34
non-commutative division . . 63 \nrcirclearrowdown (̸) . . 45 \nsemodels (̸) . . . . . . . . . 34
nonbreaking space . . . . . . . . 72 \nrcirclearrowleft (⟲̸) . . 45 \nsenwarrows (̸) . . . . . . . 45
NOR gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \nrcirclearrowright (⤿̸) . 45 \nsenwharpoons (̸) . . . . . . 46
\nrcirclearrowup (↺̸) . . . . 45 \nsepitchfork (̸) . . . . . . . 47
\nsersquigarrow (̸) . . . . . 45
\NORd () . . . . . . . . . . . 73
\nrcurvearrowdown (⤹̸) . . . . 45
\nrcurvearrowleft (↶̸) . . . . 45 \nsesearrows (̸) . . . . . . . 45
\nrcurvearrowne (̸) . . . . . 45 \nsespoon (̸) . . . . . . . . . . 47
\NORl () . . . . . . . . . . 73 \nrcurvearrownw (̸) . . . . . 45 \nseVdash (̸) . . . . . . . . . . 34
norm . . see \lVert and \rVert \nrcurvearrowright (̸) . . . 45 \nsevdash (̸) . . . . . . . . . . 34
\nrcurvearrowse (̸) . . . . . 45 \nshortmid (.) . . . . . . . . . . 31
\nshortmid (∤) . . . . . . . . . . 34
\NORr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 73
\nrcurvearrowsw (̸) . . . . . 45
\nrcurvearrowup (̸) . . . . . . 45 \nshortparallel (/) . . . . . . 31
\nRelbar (̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nshortparallel (∦) . . . . . . 34
\nsim () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
\NORu () . . . . . . . . . . . 73
\nrelbar (̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 34
\nsim (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

\NoSun ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
\nrestriction (↾̸) . . . . .
\nrhookdownarrow (̸) . . .
.
.
.
.
46
45 \nsim (≁) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
not . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \neg \nsimeq () . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
\nrhookleftarrow (↩̸) . . . . 45
\not . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32, 105 \nsimeq (;) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
not equal (= vs. =) . . . . . . . 32
\nrhooknearrow (⤤̸) . . . . . . 45
\nsimeq (≄) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
\nrhooknwarrow (̸) . . . . . . 45
\notasymp () . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nsmile (⌣̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
\nrhookrightarrow (̸) . . . . 45
\notbackslash (−) \ . . . . . . . 71 \nsmileeq (̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 48
\nrhooksearrow (̸) . . . . . . 45
\notbot (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \nsmileeqfrown (̸) . . . . . . . 48
\nrhookswarrow (⤦̸) . . . . . . 45
\notdivides () . . . . . . . . . 32 \nsmilefrown (≭) . . . . . . . . 48
\nrhookuparrow (̸) . . . . . . . 45
\notequiv () . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nsmilefrowneq (̸) . . . . . . . 48
\nRightarrow (÷) . . . . . . . . 42
\notin (R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \nsqdoublefrown (̸) . . . . . . 48
\nRightarrow (;) . . . . . . . 41
\notin (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \nsqdoublefrowneq (̸) . . . . 48
\nRightarrow (⇏) . . . . . . . . 45
\notin (6∈) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \nsqdoublesmile (̸) . . . . . . 48
\nrightarrow (Û) . . . . . . . . 42
\notin (∉) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \nsqdoublesmileeq (̸) . . . . 48
\nrightarrow (9) . . . . . . . 41
\notni (=) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \nsqeqfrown (̸) . . . . . . . . . 48
\nrightarrow (↛) . . . . . . . . 45
\notowner (S) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \nsqeqsmile (̸) . . . . . . . . . 48
\nrightarrowtail (↣̸) . . . . 45
\notowns . . see \notowner and \nsqfrown (̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 48
\nrightfilledspoon (̸) . . 47
\notni \nsqfrowneq (̸) . . . . . . . . . 48
\nrightfootline (̸) . . . . . 34
\notperp (M) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nsqfrowneqsmile (̸) . . . . . 48
\nrightfree (̸) . . . . . . . . . 34
\notslash (−) / . . . . . . . . . . 71 \nsqfrownsmile (̸) . . . . . . . 48
\nrightharpoonccw (⇀̸) . . . . 46
\notsmallin () . . . . . . . . . 52 \nsqsmile (̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 48
\nrightharpooncw (⇁̸) . . . . 46
\notsmallowns () . . . . . . . . 52 \nsqsmileeq (̸) . . . . . . . . . 48
\nrightleftarrows (⇄̸) . . . . 44
\nottop (L) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \nsqsmileeqfrown (̸) . . . . . 48
\NoTumbler () . . . . . . . . . . 90 \nrightleftharpoons (⇌̸) . . 46 \nsqsmilefrown (̸) . . . . . . . 48
\novelty (N) . . . . . . . . . . . 93 \nrightlsquigarrow (↝̸) . . . 44 \nSqsubset (̸) . . . . . . . . . . 37
\noway (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 \nrightmapsto (↦̸) . . . . . . . 44 \nsqSubset (–) . . . . . . . . . . 37
\nowns (∌) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \nrightModels (⊯) . . . . . . . 34 \nsqsubset (‚) . . . . . . . . . . 37
\nparallel (∦) . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nrightmodels (⊭) . . . . . . . 34 \nsqsubset (a) . . . . . . . . . . 37
\nparallel (∦) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nrightpitchfork (̸) . . . . 47 \nsqsubset (⊏̸) . . . . . . . . . . 37
\nparallelslant (Ô) . . . . . 36 \nrightrightarrows (⇉̸) . . . 44 \nsqsubseteq (†) . . . . . . . . 37
\nperp (⊥̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nrightrsquigarrow (̸) . . . 44 \nsqsubseteq (@) . . . . . . . . 37
\npitchfork (⋔̸) . . . . . . . . . 47 \nrightspoon (⊸̸) . . . . . . . . 47 \nsqsubseteq (⋢) . . . . . . . . 37
\nplus (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \nrightsquigarrow (↝̸) . . . . 46 \nsqsubseteqq (Ž) . . . . . . . 37
\nprec (¢) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nrightVdash (⊮) . . . . . . . . 34 \nsqsubseteqq (̸) . . . . . . . 37
\nprec (⊀) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \nrightvdash (⊬) . . . . . . . . 34 \nSqsupset (̸) . . . . . . . . . . 37
\nprec (⊀) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \nrisingdotseq (≓̸) . . . . . . . 34 \nsqSupset (—) . . . . . . . . . . 37
\nprecapprox (È) . . . . . . . . 32 \nRrightarrow (⇛̸) . . . . . . . 44 \nsqsupset (ƒ) . . . . . . . . . . 37
\nprecapprox (7) . . . . . . . . 31 \nsdtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \nsqsupset (b) . . . . . . . . . . 37
\nprecapprox (⪷̸) . . . . . . . . 33 \nSearrow (⇘̸) . . . . . . . . . . 44 \nsqsupset (⊐̸) . . . . . . . . . . 37
\npreccurlyeq (¦) . . . . . . . 32 \nsearrow (↘̸) . . . . . . . . . . 44 \nsqsupseteq (‡) . . . . . . . . 37
\npreccurlyeq ($) . . . . . . . 31 \nsearrowtail (̸) . . . . . . . 45 \nsqsupseteq (A) . . . . . . . . 37
\npreccurlyeq (⋠) . . . . . . . 34 \nsefilledspoon (̸) . . . . . 47 \nsqsupseteq (⋣) . . . . . . . . 37

146
\nsqsupseteqq () . . . . . . . 37 \nswlsquigarrow (̸) . . . . . 45 \nUparrow (⇑̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 45
\nsqsupseteqq (̸) . . . . . . . 37 \nswmapsto (̸) . . . . . . . . . 45 \nuparrow (↑̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 45
\nsqtriplefrown (̸) . . . . . . 48 \nswModels (̸) . . . . . . . . . 34 \nuparrowtail (̸) . . . . . . . 45
\nsqtriplesmile (̸) . . . . . . 48 \nswmodels (̸) . . . . . . . . . 34 \nUpdownarrow (⇕̸) . . . . . . . 45
\nsquigarrowdownup (̸) . . 45 \nswnearrows (̸) . . . . . . . 45 \nupdownarrow (↕̸) . . . . . . . 45
\nsquigarrowleftright (̸) 45 \nswneharpoons (̸) . . . . . . 46 \nupdownarrows (̸) . . . . . . 45
\nsquigarrownesw (̸) . . . . 45 \nswpitchfork (̸) . . . . . . . 47 \nupdownharpoonleftright (̸)
\nsquigarrownwse (̸) . . . . . 45 \nswrsquigarrow (̸) . . . . . 45 . . . . . . . . . 46
\nsquigarrowrightleft (̸) 45 \nswspoon (̸) . . . . . . . . . . 47 \nupdownharpoonrightleft (̸)
\nsquigarrowsenw (̸) . . . . 45 \nswswarrows (̸) . . . . . . . 45 . . . . . . . . . 46
\nsquigarrowswne (̸) . . . . 45 \nswVdash (̸) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nupdownharpoons (⥮̸) . . . . . 46
\nsquigarrowupdown (̸) . . . 45 \nswvdash (̸) . . . . . . . . . . 34 \nUpdownline (∦) . . . . . . . . 34
\nsststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \nupdownline (∤) . . . . . . . . 34
\ntdtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35
\nupfilledspoon (̸) . . . . . . 47
\nststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35 ntheorem (package) . . . . . . . 65 \nupfootline (̸) . . . . . . . . 34
\nsttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \nthickapprox (5) . . . . . . . 31 \nupfree (̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
\nSubset (–) . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \nto (↛) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 \nupharpoonccw (↿̸) . . . . . . . 46
\nSubset (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \ntriangleeq (≜̸) . . . . . . . . 40 \nupharpooncw (↾̸) . . . . . . . 46
\nSubset (⋐̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \ntriangleleft (š) . . . . . . 40 \nuplsquigarrow (̸) . . . . . . 45
\nsubset (‚) . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \ntriangleleft (6) . . . . . . 39 \nupmapsto (↥̸) . . . . . . . . . . 45
\nsubset (⊄) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \ntriangleleft (⋪) . . . . 39, 40 \nupModels (̸) . . . . . . . . . 34
\nsubseteq (†) . . . . . . . . . . 37 \ntrianglelefteq (ž) . . . . 40 \nupmodels (̸) . . . . . . . . . . 34
\nsubseteq (*) . . . . . . . . . 36 \ntrianglelefteq (5) . . . . 39 \nuppitchfork (⋔̸) . . . . . . . 47
\nsubseteq (⊈) . . . . . . . . . . 37 \ntrianglelefteq (⋬) . . 39, 40 \nuprsquigarrow (̸) . . . . . . 45
\nsubseteqq (Ž) . . . . . . . . . 37 \ntrianglelefteqslant (R) 40 \nupspoon (⫯̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 47
\nsubseteqq (") . . . . . . . . . 37 \ntriangleright (›) . . . . . 40 \nupuparrows (⇈̸) . . . . . . . . 45
\nsubseteqq (⫅̸) . . . . . . . . . 37 \ntriangleright (7) . . . . . 39 \nupVdash (⍊̸) . . . . . . . . . . 34
\nsucc (£) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \ntriangleright (⋫) . . . 39, 40 \nupvdash (⊥̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 34
\nsucc () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \ntrianglerighteq (Ÿ) . . . . 40 \nuup (ν) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
\nsucc (⊁) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \ntrianglerighteq (4) . . . 39 \nvargeq («) . . . . . . . . . . . 38
\nsuccapprox (É) . . . . . . . . 32 \ntrianglerighteq (⋭) . 39, 40 \nvarleq (ª) . . . . . . . . . . . 38
\nsuccapprox (8) . . . . . . . . 31 \ntrianglerighteqslant (S) 40 \nvarparallel ( ) . . . . . . . 31
\nsuccapprox (⪸̸) . . . . . . . . 33 \ntriplefrown (̸) . . . . . . . 48 \nvarparallelinv ( ) . . . . . 31
\nsucccurlyeq (§) . . . . . . . 32 \ntriplesim (≋̸) . . . . . . . . . 34 \nVDash (*) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
\nsucccurlyeq (%) . . . . . . . 31 \ntriplesmile (̸) . . . . . . . 48 \nVDash (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
\nsucccurlyeq (⋡) . . . . . . . 33 \nVDash (⊯) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
\ntststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35
\nsucceq («) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \nVdash (.) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
\nttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35 \nVdash (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
\nsucceq () . . . . . . . . . . . 31
\nVdash (⊮) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
\nsucceq (⪰̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \ntttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \nvDash (*) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
\nsucceqq (:) . . . . . . . . . . . 31
\nsuccsim (Ã) . . . . .
\ntwoheaddownarrow (↡̸) . . . 45 \nvDash (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
. . . . . 32 \ntwoheadleftarrow (h) . . . 31 \nvDash (⊭) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
\nsuccsim () . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \ntwoheadleftarrow (↞̸) . . 45 \nvdash (&) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
\nsuccsim (≿̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \ntwoheadnearrow (̸) . . . . 45 \nvdash (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
\nSupset (—) . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \ntwoheadnwarrow (̸) . . . . 45 \nvdash (⊬) . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
\nSupset (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \ntwoheadrightarrow (g) . . 31 \nVvash (.) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
\nSupset (⋑̸) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \ntwoheadrightarrow (↠̸) . . 45 \Nwarrow (v) . . . . . . . . . . . 42
\nsupset (ƒ) . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \ntwoheadsearrow (̸) . . . . 45 \Nwarrow (⇖) . . . . . . . . . . . 43
\nsupset (⊅) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \ntwoheadswarrow (̸) . . . . 45 \nwarrow (Ô) . . . . . . . . . . . 42
\nsupseteq (‡) . . . . . . . . . . 37 \ntwoheaduparrow (↟̸) . . . . . 45 \nwarrow (-) . . . . . . . 41, 106
\nsupseteq (+) . . . . . . . . . 36 \nu (ν) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \nwarrow (↖) . . . . . . . . . . . 43
\nsupseteq (⊉) . . . . . . . . . . 37 nuclear power plant . see \SNPP \nwarrowtail (%) . . . . . . . . 43
\nsupseteqq () . . . . . . . . . 37 \NUL (␀) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \nwfilledspoon (u) . . . . . . 47
\nsupseteqq (#) . . . . . . . . . 36 null infinity see alphabets, math \nwfootline (}) . . . . . . . . . 32
\nsupseteqq (⫆̸) . . . . . . . . . 37 null set . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65, 66 \nwfree (…) . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
\nSwarrow (⇙̸) . . . . . . . . . . 45 number sets see alphabets, math \nwharpoonccw (E) . . . . . . . 46
\nswarrow (↙̸) . . . . . . . . . . 45 number sign . see \textnumero \nwharpooncw (M) . . . . . . . . 46
\nswarrowtail (̸) . . . . . . . 45 numbers . . . . . . . . . . see digits \nwlsquigarrow (¥) . . . . . . 43
\nswfilledspoon (̸) . . . . . 47 circled . . . . . . . . . . 77, 94 \nwmapsto (-) . . . . . . . . . . 43
\nswfootline (̸) . . . . . . . . 33 numerals \nwModels (õ) . . . . . . . . . . 32
\nswfree (̸) . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Linear B . . . . . . . . . . . 85 \nwmodels (å) . . . . . . . . . . 32
\nswharpoonccw (̸) . . . . . . 46 old style . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \nwnwarrows (•) . . . . . . . . 43
\nswharpooncw (̸) . . . . . . . 46 \NumLock ( Num ) . . . . . . . . 72 \nwpitchfork () . . . . . . . . 47

147
\nwrsquigarrow (­) . . . . . . 43
L
\oiiintclockwise ( )D. . . . 28 \OrnamentDiamondSolid ( ) 80 q
\Nwsearrow () . . . . . . . . . 43 \oiiintctrclockwise ( ) . 28 ornaments . . . . . . . . . . . 78, 80
·
&) . . . .
\nwsearrow (- . . . . 106 \oiint () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
\ORr ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 73
\nwsearrow (⤢) . . . . . . . . . 43 \oiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 26, 28
\nwsearrows (›) . . . . . . . . 43 ‚
\oiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 orthogonal to . . . . . . see \bot
\nwsebipropto (‹) . . . . . . . 24 †
\oiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
\nwsecrossing (“) . . . . . . . 32
\ORu ( ) . . . .
\nwseharpoonnesw (S) . . . . 46 \oiint (∯) . . . . .H. . . . . . . . 29
. . . . . . .. 73
\nwseharpoons (_) . . . . . . . 46 \oiintclockwise ( ) @. . . . . 28
\oslash (m) . . . . . . . . . . .. 25
\nwseharpoonswne (W) . . . . 46 \oiintctrclockwise ( ) . . 28 \oslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .. 22

\Nwseline (×) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \oint (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \oslash (⊘) . . . . . . . . . . .. 25
\nwseline (Ó) . . . . . . . . . . 32 \oint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \ostar (⍟) . . . . . . . . . . . .. 25
\nwspoon (m) . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \otimes (b) . . . . . . . . . . .. 25
\oint (∮) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
\nwVdash (í) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \otimes (⊗) . . . . . . . . . . .. 22
\ointclockwise ( ) . . . . . . 27
\nwvdash (Ý) . . . . . . . . . . . 32 ı \otimes (⊗) . . . . . . . . . . .. 25
\ointclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . 28
„ \otop (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 25
O \ointclockwise ( ) . . . . . . . 30

\otriangle (d) . . . . . . . 25, 40
\O (Ø) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \ointctrclockwise ( ) . . . . 27 \otriangleup (o)
 . . . . . . .. 25
\o (ø) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \ointctrclockwise ( ) . . . . 28 ovals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 80
‚
o (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \ointctrclockwise ( ) . . . . 30 \ovee (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 22
\oast (⊛) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \overarc (a _
) .... . . . . . . .. 17
old-style digits . . . . . . . . . . . 20
\oasterisk (f) . . . . . . . . . . 25 hkkikkj
\oldstylenums . . . . . . . . . . 20 \overbrace ( ) . . . . . . . 60
\obackslash (n) . . . . . . . . . 25
\oleft (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 ©
\obackslash (⦸) . . . . . . . . . 25 \overbrace ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 60
\olessthan (<) . . . . . . . . . . 22
\obar (:) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \overbrace (
z}|{
) . . . . . . . . 60
\Omega (Ω) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
\Obelus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\omega (ω) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \overbrace (
z}|{
) . . . . . . . . 59
\obelus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \omegaup (ω) . . . . . . . . . . . 50
\Obelus* ( ·· ) . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \ominus (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
\overbracket ( ) . . . . . . . . 60
\obelus* ( ·· ) . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \ominus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \overbracket ”( ) . . . . 108, 109
\oblong (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \ominus (⊖) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \overbridge (a) . . . . . . . . . 16
\obot (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 hkkk j
\onlymove (F) . . . . . . . . . . 93 \overgroup ( ) ........ 60
³µ
\obslash (;) . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \oo (◦◦) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\oc () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \oo (@) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \overgroup ( ) . . . . . . . . . 60
\ocirc (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \ooalign . . . . . . . . . . 104, 105 \overleftarrow (← −) . . . . . . 59
\ocirc (⊚) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 (
\overleftharp ( ) . . . . . . . 47
\open (z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
\ocircle (#) . . . . . . . . . . . 23 open unit disk (D) . . . . . . see \overleftharpdown ()) . . . . 47
\ocoasterisk (g) . . . . . . . . 25 alphabets, math \overleftharpoon (↼ Ð) . . . . 60
\octagon (8) . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \openJoin ([) . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \overleftrightarrow (← →) . 59
octonions (O) . . see alphabets, \openo (=) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \overline ( ) . . . . . . . . 21, 59
math \openo (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \overlinesegment (z x) . . . . 60
\Octosteel (‘) . . . . . . . . . . 73 \openo (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 z{
\od (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \overparenthesis ( ) 108, 109
\opentimes (]) . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Overrightarrow (= ⇒) .
\odiv˚(c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 operators
. . . . 59
\odot (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 overrightarrow (package) 59, 119
binary . . . . . . . . . . 22–25 \overrightarrow (− →) . . . . . 59
\odot ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 logical see logical operators
\odot (⊙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \overrightharp (*) . . . . . . . 47
 set . . . . . see set operators \overrightharpdown (+) . . . 47
\overrightharpoon (Ð ⇀)
\odplus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 unary . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
\OE (Œ) . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 117 . . . . 60
\oplus (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
\oe (œ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 117 \overring (x) . . . . . . . . . . 18
\oplus (⊕) . . . . . . . 21, 22, 103
\officialeuro (e) . . . . . . . 19 \overset . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
\oplus (⊕) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
\offinterlineskip . . . . . . 104 \overt (⦶) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
\opposbishops (o) . . . . . . . 93
ogonek (package) . . 17, 119, 121 \ovoid (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
\opposition (W) . . . . . . . . 71
ogonek ( ˛) . . . . . . see accents \owedge (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
optical scaling . . . . . . . . . . 109
\ogreaterthan (=) . . . . . . . 22 \owns . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \ni
options . . . see package options
\ohill (a){ . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \owns (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \vee
ohm . . . . . . . . . . see \textohm \owns (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
OR gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
\ohm (Ω) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \owns (∋) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
\ownsbar (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
/ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
\Ohne (a
\OHORN (Ơ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \ORd (
) . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
P
\ohorn (ơ)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \oright (i) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
\P (¶) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 116
\oiiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \p ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
ˆ
\oiiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \ORl ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \p@ ˙ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

148
package options epsdice . . . . . . 92, 119, 120 nicefrac . . . . . 67, 119, 121
a (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 61 esint . . . . . . . . . . 28, 119 ntheorem . . . . . . . . . . . 65
b (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 61 esvect . . . . . . . . . 61, 119 ogonek . . . . . . 17, 119, 121
bbgreekl (mathbbol) . . . 68 eufrak . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 overrightarrow . . . . 59, 119
c (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 61 eurosym . . . . . 19, 119, 120 phaistos . . . . . 81, 119, 120
crescent (fge) . . . . . . . . 58 euscript . . . . . 68, 119, 120 phonetic . . 13, 16, 103, 119
d (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 61 extarrows . . . . 62, 119, 120 pict2e . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
e (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 61 extpfeil . . . . . . 63, 119, 120 pifont . . 10, 75–78, 80, 103,
f (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 61 extraipa . . . . . . . . 16, 119 119, 120
g (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 61 fc . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 14 pigpen . . . . . . 98, 119, 120
german (keystroke) . . . . 72 fclfont . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 pmboxdraw . . . 97, 119, 120
greek (babel) . . . . . 50, 87 feyn . . . . . . . . 74, 119, 120 polynom . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
h (esvect) . . . . . . . . . . . 61 fge . 47, 53, 58, 65, 67, 119, protosem . . . . 81, 119, 120
integrals (wasysym) . . . . 26 120 psnfss . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
mathcal (euscript) . . . . . 68 fixmath . . . . . . . . . . . 113 pxfonts . . 21–23, 27, 30, 31,
mathscr (euscript) . . . . . 68 fontenc . . . . 8, 10, 14, 115 36–38, 41, 42, 48, 50–52, 65,
nointegrals (wasysym) . . 26 fontspec . . . . . . . . . . . 118 66, 68, 100, 115
polutonikogreek (babel) . 50 fourier 19, 36, 51, 53, 57, 60, recycle . . . . . . . . . 99, 119
sans (dsfont) . . . . . . . . . 68 76, 78, 91, 119 rotating . . . . . . . . . 19, 72
utf8x (inputenc) . . . . . 117 gensymb . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 sarabian . . . . . 87, 119, 121
varg (txfonts/pxfonts) . . 51 graphics . . . . . . . . 47, 103 savesym . . . . . . . . . . . 100
packages graphicx . . . . . 17, 100, 103 semtrans . 14, 17, 119, 120
longdiv . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 harmony . . . . . 89, 119, 120 shuffle . . . . . . 24, 119, 120
accents . . 58, 107, 119, 121 harpoon . . . . . 47, 119, 121 simplewick . . . . . . . . . 109
amsbsy . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 hhcount . . . . . 92, 119, 121 simpsons . . . . . . . 96, 119
amsfonts 22, 30, 36, 41, 65, hieroglf . . . . . 82, 119, 120 skak . . . . . 93, 94, 119, 120
68 holtpolt . . . . . . . . 63, 119 skull . . . . . . . . 93, 119, 120
amsmath 8, 49, 58, 104, 112 ifsym . . 70, 79, 91, 92, 101, slashed . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
amssymb . 8, 22, 30, 36, 41, 103, 119, 120 staves . . . . . . . . . 97, 119
58, 65, 68, 87, 119, 120, 123 igo . . . . . . . . . . . . 94, 119 steinmetz . . . . 70, 119, 121
amstext . . . . . . . . 105, 106 inputenc . . . . . . . . . . . 117 stmaryrd . . . 22, 26, 31, 37,
ar . . . . . . . . . . . . 70, 119 isoent . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 40, 42, 48, 53, 54, 101, 104,
arcs . . . . . . . . 17, 119, 120 junicode . . . . . . . . . . . 118 118–120
arev . . . . . 67, 88, 119, 120 keystroke . . . . 72, 119, 120 t4phonet . 14, 17, 119, 120
ascii . . . . 72, 115, 119, 120 latexsym . 22, 30, 36, 41, 65, teubner 19, 64, 87, 95, 119,
babel . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 87 100, 119 120
bbding 75–78, 80, 101, 119, linearA . . . . . . 82, 119, 121 textcomp 8, 9, 14, 18–20, 41,
120 linearb . . . 85, 86, 119, 121 57, 67, 70, 88, 100, 115, 119
bbm . . . . . . . . . . . 68, 119 manfnt . . . . . . 89, 119, 120 timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
bbold . . . . . . . . . . 68, 119 marvosym 18, 65, 67, 71–75, tipa 11, 12, 14–17, 103, 119,
bm . . . . . . . 113, 119, 121 90, 101 120
braket . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 mathabx . . . 21, 23, 25, 26, tipx . . . . . . . . 12, 119, 120
calligra . . . . . . 68, 119, 121 30, 32, 36–38, 40, 42, 43, 49, trfsigns . . . . 36, 52, 63, 119
calrsfs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 52–55, 58, 60, 65, 66, 71, 93, trsym . . . . . . . 36, 119, 120
cancel . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 100, 101, 119, 120, 123 turnstile . . . . . 35, 119, 120
cclicenses . . . . 19, 119, 120 mathbbol . . . . . . . . . . . 68 txfonts . . . . . . . . . . 21–23,
centernot . . . . . . . . . . 105 mathcomp . . . . . . . . . . 65 27, 30, 31, 36–38, 41, 42, 48,
chancery . . . . . . . . . . . 119 mathdesign . 18, 24, 30, 52, 50–52, 65, 66, 68, 100, 102,
chemarr . . . . . 62, 119, 120 56, 67, 119 115, 119, 120
chemarrow . . . . 47, 62, 119 mathdots . . 58, 63, 64, 107, type1cm . . . . . . . . . . . 100
china2e 19, 49, 68, 98, 119, 119, 120 ucs . . . . . . . . . . . 117, 118
121 mathrsfs . . . . . . . . 68, 119 ulsy . . . . . 24, 48, 103, 119
clock . . . . . . . 92, 119, 120 mathtools . . 21, 34, 60, 62, underscore . . . . . . . . . . . 9
cmll . . . 21, 24, 30, 36, 119 119, 120 undertilde . . . . 61, 119, 120
colonequals 21, 36, 119, 120 mbboard . . . . . . . . 68, 119 units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
combelow . . . . 17, 119, 121 metre . 17, 57, 95, 119, 120 universa . . 80, 90, 119, 120
cypriot . . . . . . 86, 119, 121 milstd . . . . . . . . . 73, 119 universal 75, 77, 80, 90, 119,
dblaccnt . . . . . . . . . . . 107 MnSymbol . . . . . . . . . 21, 120
dictsym . . . . . 96, 119, 120 23–25, 29, 32–34, 37, 39, 40, upgreek . . . . . 51, 119, 120
dingbat 76, 80, 101, 119, 120 43–48, 51, 52, 55, 58–60, 64, upquote . . . . . . . . . . . 115
DotArrow . . . . 63, 119, 121 66, 67, 79, 119, 120 url . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
dozenal . . . . . . . . 65, 119 musixtex . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 ushort . . . . . . 61, 119, 121
dsfont . . . . . . . . . 68, 119 nath . . . . . . 53, 56, 57, 119 vietnam . . . . . . . . . . . 119

149
vntex . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 14 \partialvartrcircleleftint
\PHchild (E) . . . . . . . . . . . 81
wasysym . . . . . . 13, 18, 20, (∳) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
22, 23, 26, 30, 31, 36–38, 41, \partialvartrcircleleftint
\PHclub (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
64–66, 70, 71, 73, 77, 78, 88, (∳) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
101, 119, 120 \partialvartrcirclerightint \PHcolumn (W) . . . . . . . . . . . 81
wsuipa 13, 16, 18, 101, 103, (∳) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
107, 119, 120 \partialvartrcirclerightint \PHcomb (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
xfrac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 (∳) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
\PHdolium (T) . . . . . . . . . . 81
yfonts . . . 68, 69, 119, 120 \partialvartstrokedint (⨏) 67
yhmath 58, 59, 61, 64, 107, \partialvartsumint (⨋) . . . 67 \PHdove (f) . . . . . . . . . . . 81
119 particle-physics symbols . . . . 74
\PHeagle (e) . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Pakin, Scott . . . . . . 1, 108, 118 parts per thousand . . . . . . see

\PaperLandscape ( ) . . . . . 92 \textperthousand \PHflute (o) . . . . . . . . . . . 81

\PaperPortrait ( ) . . . . . . 92 \partvoice (a –ˇ») . . . . . . . . . . 16
(a \PHgaunlet (H) . . . . . . . . . 81
par see \bindnasrepma, \invamp, \partvoiceless – ») . . . . . . . 16
˚
and \parr \passedpawn (r) . . . . . . . . . 93
\PHgrater (p) . . . . . . . . . . 81
paragraph mark . . . . . . . see \P pawn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94


\parallel (k) . . . . . . . . 30, 56 pdfLATEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 \PHhelmet (G) . . . . . . . . . . 81
\Peace ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

\parallel (∥) . . . . . . . . . . . 33
\ParallelPort (Ñ) . . . . . . . 72 \PencilLeft ( ) . . . . . . . . 76 \PHhide (a) . . . . . . . . . . . 81
\parallelslant (Ë) . . . . . . . 36 
\PencilLeftDown ( ) . . . . . 76
\parr (`) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 
\PencilLeftUp ( ) . . . . . . . 76
\PHhorn (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
\partial (B ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

\PencilRight ( ) . . . . . . . 76
\Phi (Φ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50


\partial (∂) . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \phi (φ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
\PencilRightDown ( ) . . . . 76 \phiup (φ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

\partial (∂) . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
\partialslash (C ) . . . . . . . 52 \PencilRightUp ( ) . . . . . . 76
\PHlid (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
\partialvardint (∫…∫) . . . . 67 pencils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
\partialvardlanddownint (⨚) 67 \pentagon (D) . . . . . . . . . . 78 \PHlily (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
\partialvardlandupint (⨙) 67 \pentagram („) . . . . . . . . . . 25
\partialvardlcircleleftint \pentam (λθλθλ||λββλββλ) \PHmanacles (N) . . . . . . . . 81
(∲) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 . . . . . . . . . 95
\PHmattock (O) . . . . . . . . . 81
\partialvardlcircleleftint
(∲) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
people . . . . . . . . . . . . see faces
percent sign . . . . . . . . . see \% 
\Phone ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
\phone () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

\partialvardlcirclerightint \permil (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
(∲) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \Perp (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \PhoneHandset ( ) . . . . . . . 80
\partialvardlcirclerightint \perp (⊥) . . . . . . . . . . 30, 106 phonetic (package) . 13, 16, 103,
(∲) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \perp (⊥) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 119
\partialvardoiint (∯) . . . 67 \perthousand (‰) . . . . . . . 70 phonetic symbols . . . . . . 11–14
\partialvardoint (∮) . . . . . 67 \Pfund (£) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \photon (::::) . . . . . . . . . 70
\partialvardrcircleleftint \PgDown ( Page ↓ ) . . . . . . . 72 photons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
(∳) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \PgUp ( Page ↑ ) . . . . . . . . . 72 \PHoxBack (n) . . . . . . . . . . 81
\partialvardrcircleleftint phaistos (package) . 81, 119, 120
(∳) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Phaistos disk . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHpapyrus (k) . . . . . . . . . . 81
\partialvardrcirclerightint pharmaceutical prescription see
(∳) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \textrecipe \PHpedestrian (A) . . . . . . 81
\partialvardrcirclerightint
(∳) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \PHarrow (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHplaneTree (i) . . . . . . . . 81
\partialvardstrokedint (⨏) 67 \phase ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
\partialvardsumint (⨋) . . . 67 phasor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 \PHplumedHead (B) . . . . . 81
\partialvartint (∫…∫) . . . . . 67 \PHbee (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHram (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
\partialvartlanddownint (⨚) 67 \PHrosette (l) . . . . . . . . . 81
\partialvartlandupint (⨙) 67 \PHbeehive (X) . . . . . . . . 81
\partialvartlcircleleftint \PHsaw (P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
(∲) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \PHboomerang (R) . . . . . . . 81
\PHshield (L) . . . . . . . . . . 81
\partialvartlcircleleftint
\PHbow (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHship (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . 81
(∲) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
\partialvartlcirclerightint \PHbullLeg (b) . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHsling (V) . . . . . . . . . . . 81
(∲) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
\partialvartlcirclerightint \PHcaptive (D) . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHsmallAxe (r) . . . . . . . . 81
(∲) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 \PHstrainer (q) . . . . . . . 81
\PHcarpentryPlane (S) . . . 81
\partialvartoiint (∯) . . . 67
\partialvartoint (∮) . . . . . 67 \PHcat (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \PHtattooedHead (C) . . . . 81

150
\PHtiara (I) . . . . . . . . . . . 81 planets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \preceq (⪯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
playing cards . . . . see card suits \preceqq () . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
\precnapprox (Ê) . . . . . . . . 32
\PHtunny (g) . . . . . . . . . . 81
Plimsoll line . . . . . . . . . . . 104
\PHvine (j) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 '
\Plus ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 \precnapprox () . . . . . . . . 31
\precnapprox (⪹) . . . . . . . . 34
\plus (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
\PHwavyBand (s) . . . . . . . . . 81 plus-or-minus sign . . . . see \pm \precneq (¬) . . . . . . . . . . . 32
(
\PlusCenterOpen ( ) . . . . . 76
\precneqq () . . . . . . . . . . 31
\precnsim (Ä) . . . . . . . . . . 32
\pluscirc ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 23
\PHwoman (F) . . . . . . . . . . . 81
physical symbols . . . . . . . . . 70
\Pi (Π) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 &
\PlusOutline ( ) . . . . . . . . 76
\precnsim () . . . . . . . . . . 31
\precnsim (⋨) . . . . . . . . . . . 34
plusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76, 77 \precsim (À) . . . . . . . . . . . 32
)
\pi (π) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
\pi (π) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 \PlusThinCenterOpen ( ) . . 76 \precsim (-) . . . . . . . . . . . 30
\Pickup (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \Pluto (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \precsim (≾) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
pict2e (package) . . . . . . . . . . 70 \Pluto (É) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 prescription . . see \textrecipe
pifont (package) . . 10, 75–78, 80, \pluto (\) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 present-value symbols . . . . 108
103, 119, 120 \pm (±) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \prime (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
pigpen (package) . . 98, 119, 120 \pm (±) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \prime (′) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
pigpen cipher . . . . . . . . . . . 98 \pm ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Printer (Ò) . . . . . . . . . . . 72
{\pigpenfont A} (A) . . . . . 98
˙
\pmb ¯. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 printer’s fist . . . . . . . . see fists
pmboxdraw (package) . . 97, 119, probabilistic
Q independence . 106
{\pigpenfont B} (B) . . . . . 98
120 \prod ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
{\pigpenfont C} (C) . . . . . 98 \prod (∏) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
\pmod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
{\pigpenfont D} (D) . . . . . 98 \pod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 projective space (P) . . . . . see
{\pigpenfont E} (E) . . . . . 98 \pointer ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 alphabets, math
{\pigpenfont F} (F) . . . . . 98 pointing finger . . . . . . . see fists \projlim (proj lim) . . . . . . . 49
\Pointinghand (Z) . . . . . . . 90 pronunciation symbols . . . . see
{\pigpenfont G} (G) . . . . . 98
\polishhook (~) . . . . . . . . . 18 phonetic symbols
{\pigpenfont H} (H) . . . . . 98 proof, end of . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
{\pigpenfont I} (I) . . . . . 98 \polter ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 63 proper subset/superset . . . . see
{\pigpenfont J} (J) . . . . . 98 polutonikogreek (babel package op- \subsetneq/\supsetneq
tion) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 proper vertices . . . . . . . . . . 74
{\pigpenfont K} (K) . . . . . 98
polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . 78, 79 \propto (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
{\pigpenfont L} (L) . . . . . 98 \propto (∝) . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
polynom (package) . . . . . . . . 59
{\pigpenfont M} (M) . . . . . 98 \propto (∝) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
polynomial division . . . . . . . 59
{\pigpenfont N} (N) . . . . . 98 proto-Semitic symbols . . . . . 81
polytonic Greek . . . . . . . . . . 50
{\pigpenfont O} (O) . . . . . 98 #
\Postbox ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 98
protosem (package) 81, 119, 120
\ProvidesPackage . . . . . . . 119
{\pigpenfont P} (P) . . . . . 98 PostScript . 51, 69, 75, 103, 112
\PrtSc ( PrtSc ) . . . . . . . . . 72
{\pigpenfont Q} (Q) . . . . . 98 PostScript fonts . . . . . . 75, 103
{\pigpenfont R} (R) . . . . . 98 þ
\Pound ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
\ps ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
pseudographics . . . . . . . . . . 97
\pounds (£) . . . . . . 9, 115, 116
{\pigpenfont S} (S) . . . . . 98 \Psi (Ψ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
power set . see alphabets, math \psi (ψ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
{\pigpenfont T} (T) . . . . . 98 \powerset (℘) . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \psiup (ψ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
{\pigpenfont U} (U) . . . . . 98 \Pp (˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 psnfss (package) . . . . . . . . . . 77
{\pigpenfont V} (V) . . . . . 98 \pp (˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 \Pu (‰ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
{\pigpenfont W} (W) . . . . . 98 \ppm (˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
˙˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\Ppp (¯
pullback diagrams . . . . . . . 106
˙˙ pulse diagram symbols . . . . . 70
$
{\pigpenfont X} (X) . . . . . 98
\ppp (˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
˙ \PulseHigh ( ) . . . . . . . . . 70
{\pigpenfont Y} (Y) . . . . . 98
{\pigpenfont Z} (Z) . . . . . 98
\Pppp (˙˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
˙
\pppp ( ˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
%
\PulseLow ( ) . . . . . . . . . 70
˙ punctuation . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
pilcrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \P \Ppppp (˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
pipe . . . . . . . . . see \textpipe ˙
\ppppp (˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
pushout diagrams . . . . . . . 106
\Pisces (ë) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 ˙
\Pr (Pr) ˙ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
\pwedge (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
pxfonts (package) . 21–23, 27, 30,
\pisces (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 \prec (≺) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 31, 36–38, 41, 42, 48, 50–52,
\Pisymbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 \prec (≺) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
\pitchfork (&) . . . . . . . . . . 66
65, 66, 68, 100, 115
\precapprox (Æ) . . . . . . . . . 32 \Pxp (˙) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\pitchfork (t) . . . . . . . . . . 30 \precapprox (w) . . . . . . . . . 30 \pxp (˙˙ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\pitchfork (⋔) . . . . . . . . . . 47 \precapprox (⪷) . . . . . . . . . 33 ˙
pitchfork symbols . . . 30, 47, 66 \preccurlyeq (¤) . . . . . . . . 32 Q
Pitman’s base-12 symbols . . 65 \preccurlyeq (4) . . . . . . . . 30 Q.E.D. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 65
\piup (π) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \preccurlyeq (≼) . . . . . . . . 33 \qoppa (ϟ) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 87
\planck (h̄) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \precdot (Ì) . . . . . . . . . . . 32

\qside (M) . .. . . . . . . . . . . 93
\Plane ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 \preceq () . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Quadrad (]]) .. . . . . . . . . . . 57

151
\quadrad (]]) . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \rcurvearrownw (Å) . . . . . . 44 \reversedvideodbend ( ) . 89
\Quadras ([[) . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \rcurvearrowright (À) . . . . 44 \revglotstop (c) . . . . . .. . 13
\quadras ([[) . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 \rcurvearrowse (Ç) . . . . . . 44 \Rewind (¶) . . . . . . . . . .. . 90
quarter note see musical symbols \rcurvearrowsw (Æ) . . . . . . 44 \RewindToIndex (´) . . .. . 90
\quarternote (♩) . . . . . . . . 88 \rcurvearrowup (Á) . . . . . . . 44 \RewindToStart
?
(µ) . . . .. . 90
\quarternote (♩) . . . . . . . . . 88 \rdbrack (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 ?
\rfilet (??) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
quaternions (H) see alphabets, \Re (<) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
math ¾
\REAL ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \rFloor (cc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
quaver . . . see musical symbols Ò
\Real ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \rfloor (c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
⎥⎥
queen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 real numbers (R) see alphabets,
\quotedblbase („) . . . . 10, 117 \rfloor (⎥⎥⎥) . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
math ⎥
\quotesinglbase (‚) . . 10, 117 recipe . . . . . . see \textrecipe \rgroup (⎦) . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
\recorder () . . . . . . . . . . . 88 ⎫


R
u
\Rectangle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 80 \rgroup ( ⎪ ⎪


) . . . . . . . . . . . 55
\R (∼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
\r (å) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 v
\RectangleBold ( ) . . . . . . . 80
\RHD () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
\rhd (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22, 23
rectangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
t
\r (∼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

\rhd (⊳) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39, 40
\Radiation ( ) . . . . . . . . . 92 \RectangleThin ( ) . . . . . . . 80 \rho (ρ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
radicals . . see \sqrt and \surd \Rectpipe (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . 73 \rho (ρ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

A
\Radioactivity (j) . . . . . . 74 \Rectsteel (”) . . . . . . . . . . 73 \rhookdownarrow (;) . . . . . . 44

\Rain ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
recycle (package) . . . . . 99, 119 \rhookleftarrow (↩) . . . . . 44

\RainCloud ( ) . . . . . . . . . 91 \rhooknearrow (⤤) . . . . . . . 44
\rhooknwarrow (=) . . . . . . . 44
raising . . . . . see \textraising
\RaisingEdge ( ) . . . . . . . . 70 \recycle ( ) . . . . . . 99 \rhookrightarrow (8) . . . . 44
\Rangle (>) . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 recycling symbols . . . . . 98, 99 \rhooksearrow (?) . . . . . . . 44
\rAngle (ii) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 reduced quadrupole moment see \rhookswarrow (⤦) . . . . . . . 43
\rqm \rhookuparrow (9) . . . . . . . . 43
\rangle (i) . . . . . . . . . . 21, 54
\reflectbox . . . . . . . . . . . 103 \rhoup (ρ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
\rangle (⟩) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 registered trademark . . . . . see \right . . . . . . 54, 56, 100, 102
\textregistered \rightangle (∟) . . . . . . . . . 67
\ranglebar (s) . . . . . . . . . . 55 relational symbols . . . . . . . . 30 \RIGHTarrow () . . . . . . . . . 88
binary 30–32, 34–39, 47, 48 \Rightarrow (⇒) . . . . . 21, 41
\RArrow ( → ) . . . . . . . . . . 72 negated binary . . . . 31–33 \Rightarrow (⇒) . . . . . . . . 43
\rarrowfill . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 triangle . . . . . . . . . 39, 40 \rightarrow (Ñ) . . . . . . . . 42
\ratio (:) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Relbar (=) . . . . . . . . 48, 103 \rightarrow (→) . . . . . . . . 41
½
\RATIONAL ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \Relbar (Ô) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \rightarrow (→) . . . . . . . . . 43
Ñ
\Rational ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \relbar (−) . . . . . . . . 48, 103 \rightarrowtail () . . . . . 41
rational numbers (Q) . . . . . see \relbar (Ð) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \rightarrowtail (↣) . . . . . 43
alphabets, math >
\Request ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 98
\rightarrowtriangle (_) . . 42
\rightbarharpoon (Ý) . . . . 43
rationalized Planck constant see \resizebox . . . . . . . . . 47, 100
\hbar \RIGHTCIRCLE (H) . . . . . . . . 88
\Respondens (∼) . . . . . . . . . 95
\Rbag (Q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \RIGHTcircle (H #) . . . . . . . . 88
\respondens ( ∼) . . . . . . . . . 95
\Rightcircle (J) . . . . . . . . 88
\rbag (O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



. 53 response ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 118
\restoresymbol . . . . . . . . 100
?
\RightDiamondÑ ( ) . . . . . . . 79
\rbrace ( ⎬) . . . . . . . . . .

. 55
\Rbrack (])⎪
\restriction . . . . . . . . . . see
⎭............
Ñ
. 68 \rightevaw ( ÑÑ) . . . . . . . . . . 56
\upharpoonright
\rBrack (]]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
\restriction (æ) . . . . . . . . 42 \rightfilledspoon (p) . . . 47
\rc (a
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \rightfootline (x) . . . . . . 33
\restriction (↾) . . . . . . . . 46
\rCeil (ee) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \rightfree (€) . . . . . . . . . . 33
retracting see \textretracting
\rceil (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 \righthalfcap (⌝) . . . . . . . 24
⎤⎥ \Return ( ←- ) . . . . . . . . . . 72
\rceil ( ⎥⎥⎥) . . . . . . . . . . . . return . .Ñ. . . see carriage return \righthalfcup (⌟) . . . . . . . 24
. 55
⎥⎥
\rcirclearrowdown (û) . . . 44 Ñ \righthand (u) . . . . . . . . . 76
\revaw ( ÑÑ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \rightharpoonccw (⇀) . . . . 46
\rcirclearrowleft (⟲) . . . 44
\rightharpooncw (⇁) . . . . . 46
\rcirclearrowright (⤿) . . 44 \revD () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
. \rightharpoondown (ã) . . . 43
\rcirclearrowup (↺) . . . . . 44 \revddots ( . . ) . . . . . . . . . 107 \rightharpoondown (+) . . . 41
\rcircleleftint (∳) . . . . . . 29 \reve () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \rightharpoonup (á) . . . . . 43
\rcirclerightint (∳) . . . . . 29 \reveject (f) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \rightharpoonup (*) . . . . . 41
\rcorners (w) . . . . . . . . . . . 53 \revepsilon () . . . . . 13, 103 \rightleftarrows (Õ) . . . . 42
\rcurvearrowdown (⤹) . . . . . 44 reverse solidus . . . . . . . . . . see \rightleftarrows () . . . . 41
\rcurvearrowleft (↶) . . . . 44 \textbackslash \rightleftarrows (⇄) . . . . 43
\rcurvearrowne (Ä) . . . . . . 44 reversed symbols . . . . . . . . 103 \rightleftharpoon (á) . . . 43

152
\rightleftharpoons (é) . . 43 roots . . . . . . . . . . . . see \sqrt \SAk (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\rightleftharpoons (
) . . 41 \rotatebox . . . . . . . . . 17, 103 \SAl (l) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\rightleftharpoons (* )) . . 41 rotated symbols . 11–13, 17, 103 \SAlq (‘) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\rightleftharpoons (⇌) . . . 46 rotating (package) . . . . . 19, 72 \SAm (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\rightleftharpoonsfill . . . 62 \rotm (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \samebishops (s) . . . . . . . . 93
\rightlsquigarrow (↝) . . . . 43 \rotOmega (
) . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Sampi (Ϡ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\rightmapsto (↦) . . . . . . . . 43 \rotr (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \sampi (ϡ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\rightModels (⊫) . . . . . . . . 33 \rotvara (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \SAn (n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\rightmodels (⊧) . . . . . . . . 33 \rotw (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 sans (dsfont package option) . 68
\rightmoon (L) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \roty (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \SAo (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\rightmoon (%) . . . . . . . . . . 71 \RoundedLsteel (Ÿ) . . . . . . 73 \SAq (q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\rightp (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \RoundedTsteel () . . . . . . . 73 \SAr (r) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\rightpitchfork (ˆ) . . . . . 47 \RoundedTTsteel (ž) . . . . . . 73 \sarabfamily . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\rightpointleft ( L ) . . . . 76 \Rparen ()) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 sarabian (package) . 87, 119, 121
\rightpointright ( N ) . .. 76
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
\rqm (I) \SAs (s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\SAsa (X) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\rightpropto (Ž) . . . . . . .. 33 \rrangle (⟫) . . . . . . . . . . . 55
\rightrightarrows (Ñ) .
\SAsd (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
.. 42 \SAsv (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\rightrightarrows (⇒) . .. 41 \rrbracket () . . . . . . . . . . 54
Π\SAt (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\rightrightarrows (⇉) . . .. 43 \rrbracket ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 57
\rightrightharpoons (Ù)
\SAtb (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
.. 43 \SAtd (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\rightrsquigarrow (¨) . .
\Rightscissors (Q) . . . .
..
..
43
75
\rrceil (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
\rrfloor (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
I
\satellitedish ( ) . . . . . . 80
\rightslice (3) . . . . . . . .. 22 satisfies . . . . . . . . . see \models
\Saturn (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
\Rrightarrow (V) . . . . . . . 42
\rightslice (⪧) . . . . . . . .. 33 \Rrightarrow (⇛) . . . . . . . . 43
\rightspoon (⊸) . . . . . . .. 47 \Saturn (Æ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
\rrparenthesis (M) . . . . . . . 53
\rightsquigarrow (ù) . .. 42 \RS (␞) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
\saturn (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
\rightsquigarrow ( ) . . .. 41 M
Q
savesym (package) . . . . . . . 100
\rightsquigarrow (↝) . . .. 44 \rsem ( QQ
Q ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \savesymbol . . . . . . . . . . . 100
\rightt (o) . . . . . . . . . . . .. 18 Q
O . . . . . see \rdbrack
\rsemantic \SAw (w) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\righttherefore ( ) . . . 23, 64 \Rsh (é) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \SAy (y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\rightthreetimes (%) . . .. 66 \Rsh () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
\SAz (z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

S
\SAzd (Z) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\rightthreetimes (i) . . .. 22 \Rsh (↱) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
\Sborder ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 80
\rightthreetimes (⋌) . . . .. 23 \rtimes ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
\rightthumbsdown ( d ) . .. 76 \rtimes (o) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
\scalebox . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
\rightthumbsup ( u) ... .. 76 \rtimes (⋊) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
scaling
\righttoleftarrow (ý) .
mechanical . . . . . . 109, 112
.. 42 \rtriple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
optical . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
\Righttorque (') . . . . . . .. 73 \rVert (||) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
\scd () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\rightturn (!) . . . . . . . .. 88 \rVert (k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
\scg () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\rightVdash (⊩) . . . . . . . .. 33 \rvert (|)Ð . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
\schwa () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\rightvdash (⊢) ....... .. 33 Ð
Ð \rwave ( ÐÐ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 \schwa (e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Ð
Schwartz distribution spaces see
\rightwave ( ÐÐ) . . . . . . . . . . 56 _
_
\rWavy ( _
alphabets, math
_
_) . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 \sci (*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
^^_
\rightY (() . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
_
\rwavy ( ^^^) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
\ring (˚) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 scientific symbols . . . . . . 70–74
ring (å) . . . . . . . . . see accents ^^ 
\ScissorHollowLeft ( ) . . 75
ring equal to . . . . . see \circeq
S \ScissorHollowRight ( ) . 75
ring in equal to . . . see \eqcirc
\S (§) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 116 
\ScissorLeft ( ) . . . . . . . 75

\riota ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\rip (O) . . . . . . . .
\SAa (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
. . . . . . . 93 \ScissorLeftBrokenBottom ( )
\risingdotseq ()
\SAb (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
. . . . . . . . . 75

. . . . . . . 32
\SAd (d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\risingdotseq (:) . . . . . . . 30 \ScissorLeftBrokenTop ( ) 75
\risingdotseq (≓)
\rJoin (Y) . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 33
. . . . . . . 31
\SAdb (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
\SAdd (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 
\ScissorRight ( ) . . . . . . . 75
\SAf (f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \ScissorRightBrokenBottom
\rlap . . . . . .. . . . . . . 79, 106 ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

safety-related symbols . . . . . 74
\rmoustache () . . . . . . . . 54 \SAg (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \ScissorRightBrokenTop ( ) 75

⎪ \SAga (G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
\rmoustache ( ⎪ ⎪
⎪ \scn (:) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

) . . . . . . . . 55 \Sagittarius (è) . . . . . . . . 71
Roman coins . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \sagittarius (c) . . . . . . . . 71 \scoh (˝) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Romanian comma-belo accent (a,) \SAh (h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \Scorpio (ç) . . . . . . . . . . . 71
. . . . . see accents \SAhd (H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \scorpio (b) . . . . . . . . . . . 71
rook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 \SAhu (I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \scr (J) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

153
script letters see alphabets, math \sersquigarrow (¯) . . . . . . 43 \SixFlowerPetalRemoved ( ) 78 L
\scripta () . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
[
\sesearrows (—) . . . . . . . . 43 \SixFlowerRemovedOpenPetal
\scriptg () . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \sespoon (o) . . . . . . . . . . . 47 ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
\scriptscriptstyle . . 105, 106 set operators G
\SixStar ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 78
\scriptstyle . . . . . . . 105, 106
\scriptv (Y) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
intersection . . . . see \cap
membership . . . . . see \in
\SixteenStarLight ( ) . . . 78 K
sixteenth note . . . . see musical
\Scroll ( Scroll ) . . . . . . . . 72 union . . . . . . . . . see \cup
symbols
\scu (W) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \setminus (\) . . . . . . . . . . . 22
\sixteenthnote (♬) . . . . . . 88
\scy (]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \setminus (∖) . . . . . . . . . . . 24
skak (package) . 93, 94, 119, 120
\sddtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \seVdash (ï) . . . . . . . . . . . 32
skull (package) . . . . 93, 119, 120
\sdststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35
\sevdash (ß) . . . . . . . . . . . 33
A
\skull ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
X
SGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
sha ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 \slash (/) . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
\sdtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35
\sharp (]) . . . . . . . . . . . 65, 88 \slashb () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\sdttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \slashc (
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\sharp (♯) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
seagull . . . . . see
\Searrow (u) . . .
\textseagull
. . . . . . . . 42
l
\shfermion () . . . . . . . . . . . 74
\slashd () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\slashdiv () . . . . . . . . . . . 23
\Shift ( Shift ⇑ ) . . . . . . . . 72
\Searrow (⇘) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 slashed (package) . . . . . . . . 105
\searrow (×) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \shift (˜) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
\slashed . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
\searrow (&) . . . . . . . 41, 106 \Shilling (¡) . . . . . . . . . . . 18
slashed letters . . . . . . . . . . 105
\searrow (↘) . . . . . . . . . . . 43 \shneg (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
slashed.sty (file) . . . . . . . 105
\shortcastling (O-O) . . . . 93
\searrowtail (') . . . . . . . . 43 \slashu (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
\sec (sec) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 \shortdownarrow () . . . . . . 42
\ShortFifty (×) . . . . . . . . 90 
\Sleet ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
\Sech (ˇ “) )== . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \sliding (ā) . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
== \ShortForty (Ù) . . . . . . . . 90
|
\smallbosonloop () . . . . . . . 74
\SechBL (==ˇ “ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \shortleftarrow ( ) . . . . . 42
\
\smallbosonloopA () . . . . . . 74

=
\SechBl ( ˇ “ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \shortmid (p) . . . . . . . . . . . 30
\smallbosonloopV () . . . . . . 74
E
== \shortmid (∣) . . . . . . . . . . . 24
\SechBR ( ˇ “ ==) . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \SmallCircle ( ) . . . . . . . . 79
\ShortNinetyFive (Ô) . . . . 90

=
\SechBr ( ˇ “ ). . . . . . . . . . . . 89 \shortparallel (q) . . . . . . . 30 \SmallCross ( ) . . . . . . . . 79
\second (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 \shortparallel (∥) . . . . . . 32 \smalldiamond (◇) . . . . . . . 25
seconds, angular . . see \second "
\ShortPulseHigh ( ) . . . . . 70 F
\secstress (i) . . . . . . . . . . . 18
section mark . . . . . . . . . see \S
#
\ShortPulseLow ( ) . . . . . . 70
\SmallDiamondshape ( ) . . 79
\smallfrown (a) . . . . . . . . . 30


\shortrightarrow () . . . . 42 \smallfrown (⌢) . . . . . . . . . 48
\SectioningDiamond ( ) . . 92
sedenions (S) . . see alphabets,
\ShortSixty (Ö) . . . . . . . . 90
\ShortThirty (Û) . . . . . . . 90

\SmallHBar ( ) . . . . . . . . . 79
\smallin ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
math \shortuparrow () . . . . . . . 42
\smallint (∫) . . . . . . . . . . . 66
\sefilledspoon (w) . . . . . . 47
\sefootline () . . . . . . . . . 33
\showclock . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
\shpos (´) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \SmallLowerDiamond ( ) . . 79 
\sefree (‡) . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 shuffle (package) . . 24, 119, 120 \smalllozenge (◊) . . . . . . . . 79
segmented digits . . . . . . . . . 70 
\shuffle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \smallowns () . . . . . . . . . . 52
P
\seharpoonccw (G) . . . . . . . 46 
shuffle product ( ) . . . . . . . 24 \smallpencil ( ) . . . . . . 76
\smallprod (∏) . . . . . . . . . . 23
\seharpooncw (O) . . . . . . . . 46
O
\SI (␏) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
\selectfont . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \Sigma (Σ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \SmallRightDiamond ( ) . . 79
\selsquigarrow (§) . . . . . . 43 \sigma (σ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \smallsetminus (r) . . . . . . 22
semantic valuation . . . . . 54–57 \sigmaup (σ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 \smallsetminus (∖) . . . . . . 24
\semapsto (/) . . . . . . . . . . 43 \sim (∼) . . . . . . . . 30, 104, 115 \smallsmile (`) . . . . . . . . . 30
semibreve . see musical symbols \sim (∼) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \smallsmile (⌣) . . . . . . . . . 48
semidirect products . . 22, 23, 66
semiquaver see musical symbols
\simcolon (∼:) . . . . . . . . . . 36 @
\SmallSquare ( ) . . . . . . . . 79
\simcoloncolon (∼::) . . . . . 36 \smallsquare (◽) . . . . . . . . 25
semitic transliteration . . 14, 17 \simeq (') . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \smallstar (☆) . . . . . . . . . . 25
\seModels (÷) . . . . . . . . . . 33 \simeq (≃) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \SmallTriangleDown ( ) . . 79 C
\smalltriangledown (™) . . . 25
\semodels (ç) . . . . . . . . . . 33 simplewick (package) . . . . . 109
semtrans (package) . 14, 17, 119, simpsons (package) . . . . 96, 119 \smalltriangledown (▿) 25, 40
120
\senwarrows (Ÿ) . . . . . . . . 43
Simpsons characters . . . . . . . 96
\SmallTriangleLeft ( ) . . 79 B
\smalltriangleleft (š) . . . 25
\sin (sin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
\senwharpoons ([) . . . . . . . 46 \sincoh (ˇ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
\smalltriangleleft (◃) 25, 40
\SePa ( @ ) . . . . . . . . .
\separated (•) . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
89
33
\sinh (sinh) . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
O) . . \SmallTriangleRight ( ) . . 79 D
\smalltriangleright (›) . . 25
\SixFlowerAlternate ( 78
\SixFlowerAltPetal (U) . .
\sepitchfork () . . . .. . . . 47
78
\SixFlowerOpenCenter (M) .
\seppawns (q) . . . . . .. . . . 93 \smalltriangleright (▹) 25, 40
78 A
\SixFlowerPetalDotted (Q)
\SerialInterface (Î) . . . . 72 \SmallTriangleUp ( ) . . . . 79
\SerialPort (Ð) . . . . .. . . . 72 78 \smalltriangleup (˜) . . . . . 25

154
\smalltriangleup (▵) . . 25, 40 \sqcupdot (D) . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \square (◻) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

\SmallVBar ( ) . . . . . . . .. 79 \sqcupplus (|) . . . . .
\sqcupplus (F) . . . . .
.
.
.
.
. . . 23
. . . 24
square root . . . . . . . see \sqrt
hooked . . . . . see \hksqrt
\smile (^) . . . . . . . . . . . .. 30
\sqdoublecap (^) . . .
k
\smile (⌣) . . . . . . . . . . . .. 48 . . . . . 23 \SquareCastShadowBottomRight
\sqdoublecup (_) . . . . . . . . 23 ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
m
smile symbols . . . . . . . . . .. 48
\smileeq ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .. 48 \sqdoublefrown (-) . . . . . . . 48 \SquareCastShadowTopLeft ( )
\smileeqfrown (&) . . . . . .. 48 \sqdoublefrowneq (7) . . . . . 48 . . . . . . . . . 80
\sqdoublesmile (,) . . . . . . . 48
l
\smilefrown (≍) . . . . . . . .. 48 \SquareCastShadowTopRight
\smilefrowneq (() . . . . . .. 48 \sqdoublesmileeq (6) . . . . . 48 ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
\Smiley (©) . . . . . . . . . . .. 90 \sqeqfrown (5) . . . . . . . . . . 48 \Squaredot (÷) . . . . . . . . . . 67
\smiley (,) . . . . . . . . . . .. 88 \sqeqsmile (4) . . . . . . . . . . 48 \squaredots (∷) . . . . . . 24, 64
smiley faces . . . . . 72, 88, 90, 98 \sqfrown (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \Squarepipe (—) . . . . . . . . . 73
\sndtstile ( ) . . . . . . . .. 35 \sqfrowneq (3) . . . . . . . . . . 48 squares . . . . . . . . . . . 79–80, 94

\Snow ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 91
\sqfrowneqsmile (9) . . . . . . 48
\SquareShadowA ( ) . . . . . . 79
 R (1) . .
\sqfrownsmile . . . . . 48

\SquareShadowB ( ) . . . . . . 79
h
\SnowCloud ( ) . . . . . . . .. 91
`
\Snowflake ( ) . . . . . . . .. 78
\sqiiint ( ) . . . . .
P
. . . . . 27
\SquareShadowBottomRight ( )
^
\sqiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
” . . . . . . . . . 80

\SnowflakeChevron ( ) . .. 78
_
\sqiint ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
\SquareShadowC ( ) . . . . . . 79
\SnowflakeChevronBold ( ) 78 \sqint ( ) . . . . . . . .

. . . . . 27
\SquareShadowTopLeft ( ) . 80 j
i
snowflakes . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 78

\sqint (√) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
\SquareShadowTopRight ( ) 80
g
\SNPP ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 \sqrt ( ) ........ . 59, 106
\snststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \sqsmile (*) . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 \SquareSolid ( ) . . . . . . . . 80
\sqsmileeq (2) . . . . . . . . . . 48 \Squaresteel (“) . . . . . . . . 73
\sntstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35
\snttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35
\sqsmileeqfrown (8) .
\sqsmilefrown (0) . .
.
.
.
.
. . . 48
. . . 48
B
\squarewithdots ( ) . . . . . 80
\SO (␎) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \squigarrowdownup (³) . . . 43
\Sqsubset (^) . . . . . . . . . . . 37
\sqSubset (”) . . . . .
\SOH (␁) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 \squigarrowleftright (↭) . 43
. . . . . 37
\sqsubset (€) . . . . .
South Arabian alphabet . . . . 87 \squigarrownesw (´) . . . . . 43
. . . . . 37 \squigarrownwse (µ) . . . . . . 43
space \sqsubset (@) . . . . . . . 36, 37
thin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 \squigarrowrightleft (²) . 43
\sqsubset (⊏) . . . . . . . . . . . 37
\sqsubseteq („) . . . .
visible . . . . . . . . . . . . see \squigarrowsenw (·) . . . . . 43
. . . . . 37 \squigarrowswne (¶) . . . . . 43
\textvisiblespace \sqsubseteq (v) . . . . . . . . . 36
\Spacebar ( ) . . . . 72 \squigarrowupdown (±) . . . . 43
\sqsubseteq (⊑) . . . . . . . . . 37 \squplus (]) . . . . . . . . . .
\sqsubseteqq (Œ) . . .
. 23
spades (suit) . . . . . . . 65–67, 80 . . . . . 37 \SS (SS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
\spadesuit (♠) . . . . . . . . . . 65 \sqsubseteqq (\) . . . . . . . . 37 \ss (ß) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
\spadesuit (♠) . . . . . . . . . . 66 \sqsubsetneq (ˆ) . . .
]
. . . . . 37
\ssdtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35
\Sparkle ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 78 \sqsubsetneq (⋤) . . . . . . . . 37
\
\SparkleBold ( ) . . . . . . . . 78 \sqsubsetneqq () . .
\sqsubsetneqq (ö) . .
.
.
.
.
. . . 37
. . . 37
\ssearrow (%) . . . . . . . . . . . 42
\sslash ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
sparkles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
\Sqsupset (_) . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \ssststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35
“special” characters . . . . . . . . 9
\SpecialForty (Ú) . . . . . . 90 \sqSupset (•) . . . . . . . . . . 37 \sststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35
\sphericalangle (?) . . . . . 66 \sqsupset () . . . . . . . . . . 37 \ssttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35
\sphericalangle (^) . . . . . 66 \sqsupset (A) . . . . . . . 36, 37 \sswarrow ($) . . . . . . . . . . . 42
\sphericalangle (∢) . . . . . 66 \sqsupset (⊐) . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \stackrel . . . . . . . 21, 104, 108
\sqsupseteq (…) . . . .
*
\SpinDown () . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
. . . . . 37 standard state . . . . . . . . . . 104
)
\SpinUp () . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
\sqsupseteq (w) . . . .
\sqsupseteq (⊒) . . . .
.
.
.
.
. . . 36
. . . 37
\star (?) . . . . . . . . . . 22, 107
\star (⋆) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
\sqsupseteqq () . . .
\spirituslenis (a –) . . . . . . . 58
. . . . . 37 Star of David . . . . . . . . 77, 78
\spirituslenis (—) . . . . . . . 58 \sqsupseteqq (]) . . . . . . . . 37 \starredbullet (d) . . . . . . . 78
\splitvert (¦) . . . . . . . . . . 72 \sqsupsetneq (‰) . . . . . . . . 37 stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66, 77–79
spoon symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 47 \sqsupsetneq (⋥) . . . . . . . . 37 \stater (῝) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
\spreadlips (ȧ) . . . . . . . . . 16 \sqsupsetneqq (‘) . .
\sqbullet ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 23
. . . . . 37 statistical independence . . . 106
\sqsupsetneqq (÷) . . . . . . . 37
\sqcap ([) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \sqtriplefrown (/) . . . . . . . 48 \staveI ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 97
\sqcap (u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \sqtriplesmile (.) . . . . . . . 48
\sqcap (⊓) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
0
\Square ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 \staveII () . . . . . . . . . . 97
\sqcapdot (E) . . . . . . . . . . . 23
\sqcapplus (}) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Square ( vs. f 0vs. ) . . 101 \staveIII () . . . . . . . . 97
\Square () . . . . . . . .. . . . 77
f
\sqcapplus (G) . . . . . . . . . . 23 \staveIV () . . . . . . . . . 97
\sqcup (\) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Square ( ) . . . . . . . .. . . . 80
\sqcup (t) . . . . . . . . . . 21, 22 \square () . . . . . . . . .. . . . 23 \staveIX () . . . . . . . . . . 97
\sqcup (⊔) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \square () . . . . . . . .. . . . 66 \staveL (1) . . . . . . . 97, 98

155
\staveLI (2) . . . . . . . . . 97 \staveXLVIII (/) . . . . . 97 :
\StrokeOne ( ) . . .. . . . . . . . 92
\staveXV () . . . . . . . . . 98 \StrokeThree ( ) ::: . . . . . . . . 92
::
\staveLII (3) . . . . . . . . 97
\StrokeTwo ( ) . .. . . . . . . . 92
\staveXVI () . . . . . . . . . 98
\staveLIII (4) . . . . . . . . 97 \stst (−

) ..... .. . . . . . . 104
\staveLIV (5) . . . . . . . . 97 \staveXVII () . . . . . . . . 98 \stststile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35
\staveLIX (:) . . . . . . . . 98 \staveXVIII () . . . . . . . 98 \sttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 35
\staveLV (6) . . . . . . . . . . 97 \staveXX () . . . . . . . . . 98 \stttstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35
\staveXXI () . . . . . . . . 98
\staveLVI (7) . . . . . . . . . 97 \STX (␂) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
\staveXXII () . . . . . . . . 98 \SUB (␚) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
\staveLVII (8) . . . . . . . . 97 subatomic particles . . . . . . . 74
\staveXXIII () . . . . . 98 \subcorner (a) . . . . . . . . . . 16
\staveLVIII (9) . . . . . . . 98 \subdoublebar ^ (a) . . . . . . . 16
\staveXXIV () . . . . . . . . 97 ¯
\staveLX (;) . . . . . . . 98 \subdoublevert (a) . . . . . . . 16
\staveXXIX () . . . . . . . 97
\sublptr (a) . . . "". . . . . . . . . 16
\staveLXI (<) . . . . . . . . . 98 \staveXXV () . . . . . . . . 97 \subrptr (a¡ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
\staveLXII (=) . . . . . . . . 98 \staveXXVI () . . . . . . . 97 subscripts ¿
new symbols used in . . 105
\staveLXIII (>) . . . . . . . 98 \staveXXVII () . . . . . . . 97 \Subset (”) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
\staveLXIV (?) . . . . . . . . . 98 \Subset (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
\staveXXVIII () . . . . . . 97 \Subset (⋐) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
\staveLXV (@) . . . . . . . . . 98 \subset (€) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
\staveXXX () . . . . . . . . 97
\subset (⊂) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
\staveLXVI (A) . . . . . . . . 98 \subset (⊂) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
\staveXXXI () . . . . . . . . 97
\staveLXVII (B) . . . . . . . . 98 \subseteq („) . . . . . . . . . . 37
\staveXXXII () . . . . . . 97
\subseteq (⊆) . . . . . . . . . . 36
\staveLXVIII (C) . . . . . . . 98 \subseteq (⊆) . . . . . . . . . . . 37
\staveXXXIII ( ) . . . . . . . 97
staves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 \subseteqq (Œ) . . . . . . . . . . 37
staves (package) . . . . . . 97, 119 \staveXXXIV (!) . . . . . . 97 \subseteqq (j) . . . . . . . . . 36
\staveXXXIX (&) . . . . . . 98 \subseteqq (⫅) . . . . . . . . . . 37
\staveV () . . . . . . . . . . 97 \subsetneq (ˆ) . . . . . . . . . . 37
\staveXXXV (") . . . . . . . 98 \subsetneq (() . . . . . . . . . 36
\staveVI () . . . . . . . . . 97 \subsetneq (⊊) . . . . . . . . . . 37
\staveXXXVI (#) . . . . . . 98 \subsetneqq () . . . . . . . . . 37
\staveVII () . . . . . . . . 97
\staveXXXVII ($) . . . . . 98 \subsetneqq ($) . . . . . . . . . 36
\staveVIII () . . . . . . . 97 \staveXXXVIII (%) . . . . 98 \subsetneqq (⫋) . . . . . . . . . 37
\subsetplus (D) . . . . . . . . . 37
\stdtstile ( ) . . . . . . . . . 35 \subsetpluseq (F) . . . . . . . 37
\staveX ( ) . . . . . . . . . . 97
\steaming (♨) . . . . . . . . . . 67 subsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36, 37
\staveXI (
) . . . . . . . . . . 97 steinmetz (package) 70, 119, 121 \succ () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Steinmetz phasor notation . . 70 \succ (≻) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
\staveXII ( ) . . . . . . . . . 98 sterling . . . . . . . . . see \pounds \succapprox (Ç) . . . . . . . . . 32
\staveXIII ( ) . . . . . . . . 98 stick figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 \succapprox (v) . . . . . . . . . 30
\Stigma (Ϛ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \succapprox (⪸) . . . . . . . . . 32
\staveXIV ( ) . . . . . . . . 98 \stigma (ϛ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 \succcurlyeq (¥) . . . . . . . . 32
\staveXIX () . . . . . . . . 98 stmaryrd (package) 22, 26, 31, 37, \succcurlyeq (<) . . . . . . . . 30
40, 42, 48, 53, 54, 101, 104, \succcurlyeq (≽) . . . . . . . . 32
\staveXL (') . . . . . . . . . . 98
118–120 \succdot (Í) . . . . . . . . . . . 32
stochastic independence see \bot
\staveXLI (() . . . . . . . . . 98

\StoneMan ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 91
\succeq () . . . . . . . . .
\succeq (⪰) . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
. . 30
. . 32
\staveXLII ()) . . . . . . . 98 \Stopsign (!) . . . . . . . . . . 74
˜
\succeqq () . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
\StopWatchEnd ( ) . . . . . . . 91 \succnapprox (Ë) . . . . . . . . 32
\staveXLIII (*) . . . . . . . . 98
\staveXLIV (+) . . . . . . . 98 \StopWatchStart ( —) . . . . . 91
\succnapprox () . . . . .
\succnapprox (⪺) . . . . .
.
.
. . 31
. . 34
\stress (h) . . . . .