Ha~ii ng I(fi scussed ~he' primaty rnechanlsms lof slubside'l!

lce 'We can

b'ri'8~~y, f'OCIU ~ o,n tin e pla.te' tseten i e seUiing,s, oif IT! 8jOi" sedi mentaifY basin sand e:xalllfllim'!~ theilr lyp i'ca~ ~~IU bstcen,oe ~i$torr ~S: and ii"n~c,lhlaJn iislm~ ('Fug _ ,eL1) '" Muoh has bee n MiUen abo u t 1:h e d r;h/ing mii;'o~an'i ~ ms ~,'f ba!~in t'o~ mauon il n rnest l~GI1()n,iiC: ,se;tH~gs" Ani earily (liIil1~r:",l@w' WM pro,vided by' D'ickifi! son

{'1 91Sl" T~le' purpnse (llf tll1 ts oh~J)lt,er 'ilS n~'t to :a'tt~~ifIf'!J:)t to 5 jjrrU;fi~lriz;,~ the' stl3l,te' IOf :knowl:edge 0-[ basin e/lio ~lJlti~ n, Instesd, we ,9Trn ply d~fli Iili€i' eacn basin type" 1'oIl~f'lirj Ing uu~, basin class ilfic~rU(lin soh€~me' o,t D ICildlf"i so n (i 976}" arl:c 'r'OCL!JlS 0 n a 'few ~e)1 IP-Q~ n l'$ Ir~gardiifllg thE!! mecih alf'l!hsms of b~si!1!

e;v'o~utiion.. IC)UB' 1'0 space Illimirtati'orrr$ 'W~ ,dlO n(rt ,~it~ all ~f 'lih@ r,~Ie:",ant

~ uleraJ,1,u rliBi but ,plrovidle jus'~ a 'r'elN ike'y n~fe re'rt~~~"

ihe ,~ulbsidence curves (Fng. 6.11) o~m~ j:Hlma'~i~y 'frc WI'iI tlh'l I=NJbl1'! shad

~ i:h;:~ra'I:lJre! aug rnented lOy aJn,a!lys,e~, cone b,y 0 U t"$~I~!"tj~s or by 3.tl!Jdenn~i ~ n our ~ed~m~ nrtary basilil:$ ~o~ r~~ ~t tih* U n i,!j,f~r$Hy of Wyomi!'llg. AU ~he curves

h ~ve bee n baekstripped '10 Ilow~ln,g 'th e local ~ ts orsrtatl!C rr1:eth od d8~cri bed ab@lVe (',S'~'EHjk~er and W,8Jt~s:; '~978), 11M O!i"'N~vetr, inCCH:l$,is'b:=!1c;hi3:S ~Jri~8 fro m the usa o~ dii'nel'le['rl'~ till'ifU~, ~c~,1 ~SJ" comp~C!~:iorJ, cerreetlcns an d paJ~Qwat'er dep1h estlmates IlFIElJdii;' by the v~r~(l'IJ(i;, atJthol~s, NOfi!leith~r9lS:s" the ll)v;ef,~~11

co F115 i'5'h3'ncy of U~e $IU bsidenoe tYlrvl~S. in each of ~hie: v iilJr I OIU 8, t:e·cwnic seUi'ng,~, sugge'r:i5:t~ thart UISJ~ ,of dine'i'l~n1 s.cahi$ by' '~:fiffer'i;l!1!'~ W'O rk9lr~, do net !9 elner:i31~'e errors iarg,e ,ellloug n ,to ml8!;s!k, 'the~ oVlerall tffl~nds-

,AUan~~(>·tvpe' mc~ug'iln.~, and Oaok""\B,I'\G bastns ba$j'0'a~lly 'f,orm Iby crustal ~'x~;0;n!S~Oifl aJod IDl"II'nati en o.J an eesanle basin. IF@,llawii1ir&l Salveson {. 97'8). tjtilll~i 8\i'1oh,Hio!1 of pa~si'!la mar; i ns can he broken iinto fiv,e s:~ge s, (Fi!g~ 16",2) that ,ax,plai n maJny aspects o~ the preserved sooi me'f"Ijtar:y' ~e~~ rd. H~S! Ii11 odoa:ll a!!1iSU mes t5,y mme't,ry 01' tbe rri'ft ab out, ii'~s axls es Js lie e.n iln :510 mtH~ AUaniliic marg iins (Ks!8in et ;jjJl .. 'I '~9 8~)'; h ~w,ev,er, ~5ym r;rH~~tlllc F~'~tJj n g by d 9,,!,(9llolp merit oJ a ha~f ,nrl3lbe'll1 rnav also oecur lUster et at. 1"986\, The s b$'dl~ I.~ ~,c;f

~ ,1 _ ~ ~ ~ \ _ _. _ _ _~. ~ • . _ ._ I . _. . U . I. ~ 8f11Ce !CI_

Atilaln1ic-type' mar9 ins Ina v,~ ~H~~~,n we.! ~ stU,,jijlllNJ (.~~,~ ~v'0rvu,~w tril W'au~" '19~n) and ee nslsts ,~f an ~arl'y' exten Si'-Olfii,aJl stage doring' wlh len Dn iti:al ~lIlb~Jde'WlJce lof wiU ba!~ifi!~ t~k)€is p:lace as, an i~H)s~~Jtic u~lspons~1 ~Q crustal th iin n ingr: 'h:llillowed lor a ~QSil·irifti Iilijl p,hase' of 5 Ulbsliden De th ~1: U5, d~u\!'efl1 by

AG·!! ~Ma.~1

JOQ ~QO 100

ii)1-t;- ~-""""--"""'- _ ___'~--""'_-----""'_ __ ----iI

o

II

1600

3100

'~-

Willl!:ion ~"ri

ID
~l =
~:c
3
~
,;,;; 4-
:5
'B,..: .. ~-: 'C:!j!.M7!bJtIfi

. . .Sa'i' Ieil ..... •.

",' .: .

~

10D AG ~ (Ma'~

o +" ~~=t--~==II

II ,~

IE .

JiI:

4

500

~Jg,u.m 6 ... 1 . l~ep_r~~e·~tatiVi~'1edOn~C: ~u~id~'flc~ hi:~<Ni~~ o~ ba5ii;rns fr'om dl~·eren~, 1sC1omc :Sd;IIil~Pa! (Hl9lh~n et aJ. ~ II.ril prerJ.}.

:PiR E~R ~Fl' CONIFIGUIBA1nON

MOHO~· ~~~~~~~~~~~ se-

I '100 kmi.,~~~~~=-"

RIFT ICIA S' _ .. ~IN·

ID·' ...

-=. _I .J '" •.

{~= 11.6)

-50

fIil!i;llrLtle lid

PASS ,iVE M,AIRGI,N

1100 km

UU~lrmaJ Ire·e~ Uiliibli',l~io'n 8's the' rna. niUe' lid ceols and ~hre IithoSlP here thl~dkA;'H'!I~'. M~Keri~t~ (,1 'nq~,] has pmpo:s;ed the most po,pI,lII:a!1I" mOide~ tt3~' ba$ i III $1l,J bs:fdenoe ~ri! dl~::i~ seUhlQls, 'whi~h elfnlPnHil)BS that as, II~ng !~s e);.t'~fiI~io ril irs ~nsdarttaneiOl!:S (i" e .'1 1~Ii5S than 2iO IMly') th a in rltuaJ :5ll1b~~;bde'f,IIo~ will ib@ C(H!'!'1Ip~etB befa re suosid,e:nce due te CO n:d uo1jv,~ heat. h)$$, beg iiil1$, U plijft of Uti e· $[tiJ(liu~de.r;~ o~: '~h~ rift (F-i~l, 6,.2) ma;y' !be ~jru e. rasu'i'l of two-·Ray,e r ex'L'en'i:5ionl." WhEH"G' extiIFN3ii'ii:Hl [of tba manille- Ilid i'.~ distri outed [ov~lr a blfij;)ad~ r a~e~ U'!~n the cil'l!ji~:l (Row I ey i!:!Joe Sa haglia 1"1. ~ 9[86; ROryd:en and Keen, 1 '980l; lar~elr,all' heat IOI!ms aJl'ong the' marg,irtl,s orr the riM 1~:Wa,11'S[1 '1 ~ B ~; WaUs at i3lJ .1' 1982); iaJrttd iso5tatllc· adj~ s'tmeln I ,due to th'9 g,eo l1nehy of bounding normal 1'~~llt~: {B~~n alJ'id BeaU[ri'Hj[fl1:, 1989; T:aJberJ, 19,27).

'We til a vi disc:IJ,IS5J8C '8X'ampl as of axle n,~~oflal!the rmal sub$,id~flCEl'

~lh ~(!! u'gh OIUit 11h,e ceursa, .so,me reoent: te anci,ent: p~$$'i\!'e' 'I'i!l\a;l"{Hn fSettiW'i!gl$. ~J€' ShrO'W!!1!1 ln FigIU,rI~ 6,.1. ln th e case o~! '(me eastern U.S" A'tfiarrtliC: mar'g'irn iiula 'the' 8aJrly Pal eO,ZO~G C ordiU-er,aJfl ITII~og,eoc'l i ne ~f w~~;,:i'~~ril'll N(l ~h Amg rlca, ~tH~ eaJi'I'ij' s,tages, IO~' subs ldenee are IilOt weill' ~on$traiJiH~d (~hOIIW!1 with d.es.ned lin~sli' elther b€lca!iJs~ of pear a,gB dai~ing ,a,rndlor po,or expOSlJre'-

H oweve r;, 1 er1iary r~fttift!g o,f the 'Gu ~f of' Lio n (StfJ'dkler and Wa:tts; 11 '91190)

i ndi(;ates rapid! l n vtiai s,ulbsid~Hice ,I¥JlS s:ug:g19stedi by McKei1z~@ (~97',6) _ I f!l ,~i1iY caJ$~ i' the thermal: p~Jts, IIJlf tne subs ide ncs cu rve mill'll1l lc that of the

sub\S~d hlg O-oe,~ln '~Iao r (s.tlown for oomparis Oln on 'the Sa.fIiilii€< '9 rapM.

PuHuapart basins ",Fig", 6,,3j 'I$!s;ocia't~d witlh $tJl'ike~slirp ",!a,ll..d1:S sham' soma charactertstles iin eomm on with pi~ssive m:~U'gii rii sleq,ue:n ess, The, rna] or d j'fferen~es are tlh ~t pu 11~a!p~rt b~J:;,i ns oomITilo nlIY' do not: giG liQ ,cornplatic n (L e. I' to ~ha p;oi n'l wt1Je[f~ !Qc~anic '~rIU!,st fo'ifml) alr"!d ~haJt I~HJIII·\~~t~iII1: ba~ii ns are much ,s rnaller and she rte r l'ived 'f,~a,t u res, ('Aydii Ii1 and N IlJ rJ l' 982; Kamer and Dewey, 1 '9S[6~: M~nln [at al, ~ 1 '98S:)" Tbis Ia.tter IPOli nt i~ imp(ut~!ilit, lin 'terr:n so" tne,i r' sub:s~dence ~istory" As ~o'~nted CH.J!t by

Pitff! alii and AiI1dr~w;s f~ SH1S)[ r the s,mall dfme;rnsii ems o'ff t~e,se' ba.s~ ns ,~III(JiW h~~t to be FamO\feJdl, i n part, by Ilab~,r,all conductio il'lJ hn ml th ~ llilPWil9!lIed a:snu~!no$p~e re into thi&. m'~a.tiv,e~lI 'GOO I adja'C€'fi'U martl'Ue (Fi;g,;, 6.~). 1 h e res,ult ij;s tlh at, ij If!! c:oll"iltras~: to passive marrg i'n $eq]~e,n;o~~ ttiJarl 10 se heat

p ri mari Iy b;y' vl~rti'aa~ ciQlrnduction ~ [p1J 11-,aiPiSJwt 'bas,i ns 'ijndetgio f1h e rmal hi eat Ii;lS$J and SJub1S ideru~e; at '~hJe' same 'Ii'me ani the! basin rs ijiio,s.ta1:icaUy

"\" "

""

~1iWil mll.l!I_NO ,~lJilmi ~

II '7 ii··~~~r

Ml~

n 5· ... ·

_ Bit

I~Mi;fEJl~

mz iffimili'~ -IS!UllMEnf:ro~ ~ aR~to\1"lIL!{1i' PROFU: ~ EmJt.SE FiU.! r mIlFI1 -+= ~ ,riA!lll'~ 1fRIliti.

MgU,Nii Ek3A, Assenmblage L')f S4ruo'tlJil"QS assoc.r~t@d wifil right"'sUp di,v@.rg6Irn~

'W(enOn, 1~~ijllt. Fmm Hardingl et aL [1918S)t. iI

~~mi\l!i!l!Ir~ til I 'rr.41 r; i i'i-!!~ !'1i'!,.;tili \II I ~'!'1I;!II ¥.~IIC'Q.ilir"i

'iio!~!u!! b!i'~c.;i'!i!l[ ~lIId r'lIl~ i til i(jIC.i'~'i tijih III I!! 'GI J!i1S. iil!l!:!:ll'h •• g rili

:rD!II~ i;~"'tiIJJUlllili

'II II; .!~ ,"(I r1'IIi;,;.e!!l,1

.~:IJF-~. Dt!!'itll~I!II''fi'''i''I'I' l\i:iul ii,

:S;mi't[iigi'll IfIQiS.j!!l I!filifClil'i

" "Co.-_m ID' I ~:I; C_Q.n"l: n'

lii;;I'AP I(W~, .

l~g'['I'\i!iiI~"-fI'1!:!i1 ~'If. lUll iii!! y_~\~

siuoolidhlQI due, to ,cr,u'~'tal th i nniing diu rung ,ex~en5ion. The r~$lu,ltifllg

s;ubsild€l nee curves hom 'tranSf(.H'rm basins (F,igl. B" 'I} co nl~a],r., ve ry r'~!liid, n@arlly linl~aJn S·u.bSiidenc@ Id~.Hlingl 'fau~t: iiftU'!.f19merllt alild basin e::(~ern:$io,[l,. The s,ubsiide,noa eu Nes t'9rnld to have ,iii'howl tails 0'[ sorn ewhat ~Jo~l~r

!jmb~ idf.! nloe, p mlba.bly r'Hpr,eSelnl tnng c~loli~ n:g o~' ,the' ilmalll re.mai n~ Illg thermaJ aJl,] omaly OIf"I'OO '~he' 1Jaull~ {iei3jses to be ;~c~ive' {Fig. EL4,)I."

ThEl' f,e,'C'I: ~h at m~ ny- of thlQ~9 baslins aJre' short liived! pr~Ib::l!bIJy' ~eiHe~~~ 'the short dyrat~ii)n that ~!Ons.rstent n"H)tiolfii '9xist~ OVB'Ii' aJf'l'y small ,~egme'nt !!l'~ a t~aiilStr\Of,m 'fauU (Ma!l'll Fli e1: al., ~ 9:83). Anelr a, fe'w' mi I iToo y@ail'~; @ithe~' tne fault: co "fig ~.in~a.tjo n e h:aJng as so 'that: ,a, ~ra n'$,'renlSiona,11 l5!~glm€w!'t be:collTI~'s 'tr.ao~p~'eS:S~()inal er fault move'f'ilillent. cease's iElill'Tld irela'~i;ve JmI'otio 0 beg'l ns ,a.l'olng' iaJ. neW' f~lIJIll trace,

These much stud red bas i:tJl~ ~@ rrii'il bY' fI€!xU re 01: Hie' ~ii~hosp;h ere due '101 th@i' '8!mp lac>I3!nr!'8n1: 0'1 a, tlii rust: belt load. lhe i i'~h osphers bl~ha¥e:~, as an ,~ilastic bea m ani d fle'xes u nder U~e! w9'ig h~ of U~e! ~Q.la!di '['Q,mmiilng me

,~~synri ffi9'tric sh,itlJP~ characterlsuo .of ~o roe I',e! itI.rJ ba$i~$ 'B~\~u mont, 19'81;; Jordan, 1981;: IP niCe!, i 97'S ~I" I n ~e'riphe r!~d t!:)rei~,n,d lo'a!~i'i1~" $Iuch as th~' P~rsian GIU Ilf (Figl. e,.5)! 'that rnrm by' 'th e ()1~~iU1g' iDf an IOOa:~rlI basl n

(Dickli OSo In" 1 97'6] ~ Un,s ,acrtiVlt!i SUI bd uetton zone eV1ollv€j'$ irUD; a cOIIIIi~siona,11 'f,cdd·'~l1r'il.ii$.t beilrt aJS1 en 9 contlnent is partiaJly s,l;Jlbdlu~ted b~liIeaU~ a ~~1:h ~ r (A.·tYlpe sub tllllrc;;1;iol1l, IBiEljllliy'. '~9 7~l, .i fa retroarc forrel a ~id bas,in~ (Diickin,so~" '19178), such as 'fOlrms Idjao~nt '00 tihe rsut~a)l'iideanJ bellt il1l S~n.lrth AmerliGa (fT'gl. 6:-~); intrac()ln'~'i rile'ri h~~ ;9 h,olrteJ~ ungl inii'tia.t:e',s bah iWlld the v@II~Q!rtI lc ~r'tC: but. ablOl~t~ as Ibu()Y~J"!lt 'c~u~t ~~ forced u nae r- the 1lI1Ppsir plar~e 'Coney r 1 '973,),. ~ If!l eiiUlIer ,oa~e, the ttrt;aJ I',o~~tdl CO ns i sts o'f ~he tBctD nle Iload ~,f the '~rUJI~,'~ shsets, die rived s'edl:m efil1::a~y ~::H~PiOls,i'lJS and the ~mp~a.ce lllI'1Ie'nt of possi b~e' subs ulriaoe: i'OM$, (Kan1~r a~d 'Wat.t$!~ 1 '9183; R,oyde n ;i3Jnd Kaume1r, '1 9S4) _ In

th ~ ease U lPe!r~p,h eJr~l fo r'e~all1d baslna, thie' subs u rface! load, te a largii !e);t~nt" eonststs ~f' 1:h e dockJng ,QQnlli n elll~1 flrag rITiiI ent, wh icih acts as ;;i. toad ;sii'rtoa it ts replacung water that prev~~II,]:5!iiy! occupi~d the ~~mln'a;r:ill ~~,aln basin {IF~g u 6.5: Stoc~mal ~md Beau mCH't 198,1~' S1Dckmai ~,t al., '1 ~HiB).

Th 9' subs lden ce h i$to ry ()'f mese basins r~fl~ect:s the [ate 01' 'tnn,Jisting iin 'thle' adjiacelt1't !O rag,iil"'! Ie ~€i'lrt a FIfe ~ie:d~me'.nItaJtrorrn rats iill 'the basm. T~~

CZQ, ,01' 301 KM

L Z;~ 'iii, SJ,,,~ K M

~'U' ~,~ ~ If!; ~ !\I;\""" ~ W'I""""H ;It !,i.l' ~T'~ ~ 'II .1"'; ,ii, i"'i .;,;,' " li!I.aI~~~'iI""~ .'. I,. ,i!O';'fI'''"'' 11;;," "-';";',I'-!.!.;I'

10_4

1"1 M~, r~t''t, Iil.,~

e.s !

FI\g'U'~ 16i.4, Id~aJi~d iSub,siiderllo~' hi:stOnJ' Of ni~illrl'1OW rl'~ IbSiS'li~lS (fli\onm Pitman arid ,A!f'Idlrlews. 1'985), Shows $l)jb.~jd~ If!(;~ lTli~1Qne~, fl'or ba~ifll~ of t~n~e dilrfer~ll'ilt rniitl ~JI

block 'wi'dlihs (Xc). Each Ib loc-k ~s ,S1te:~ched at 3, cmlfr iJnl~jl ~I I;;;;;: 1.6. C~ and lLZ'o anl' Ilmilial cru~tteil !~nd l~ho~pl;H3'ri:c, th'lc:kn€t~$€$o r,espeC:tkvely'",

AA,A£UAN P'l,A,Tf'O'RM

~1E:RS~AN 'GULf

t

~na t Ulli' e

MOUN''f AJNS ~eH

(fold-thrust) /

t. -. .' ~

R,ETRQ,A,RC FORELAND, B,A,S~N

- - -

LVZ

Figu[~' EL5 leotonric settling 0.11 pa.ni:plha.ra~ and retroarc 1:'omlaoo D81sin!gi,_ [1l3~sed

, ..... Il!Jll"Iii"liiJ:hl ls ll.,~.'..11 ,t;'glJ .. a"". '~'m; m'l W R IJ'C' i~~i ... ~O.. ~1 !,,'M:;I:o];~

WIIIJ _ f-P ~ _ .~.~ 1,IISiIU ~li ~. Il !'Whi:ll II ._" I ~ ": _. rlof1n.Ll I~. IIII ~ :;r-1;Ii"1~

m~gllriatiOri of ~h r!J$,t 5,file",t!5 irnto '~hJ.e basin fla·$;~lts ~ nl ~n loc~E;as ~ng rata o~' ~~lbs:'ldeJ!lilce' CH.n acres s th e basirli ,prodUlciftig: a cOfilvex·'llJp· ,S ulbS1~dence, CUI rve

(IFig. 16,.'~) _ li'n :add itii()r1 ~ !s@dim~Hflfls d1e rllved l'r@m 'ij'g ~ tlil rust sneers a,f't~ r- ttn~y

are emp~a'!i)~d Ir'ad.i stributes tne' I@;a;d '(,aJrlhie rr' !j'Jllllt across me ibasilrll 1tHCiirlgi ~U!lbs,ld€J\l'ilce to miglra.t:e across UI e' basin over ~iime·. Segm~W111ed sUlbsidence CUIFv'91~ (Fi!QI. 6.1) 'm,~y r~ifl act d~SOOrriltii nUO'UI~ nrll)veme n t lof 1Hi!!Q t~ ru;s1: belt !::~O$iQn cd time' thru st ~oad olVer iongl p,e.rlo:d:s 0:1' tl [fill ~ ~dlef thnJSlt~ng csases lie ads to fi'mOrvall ~~: ~he thiru st ~o\a;d and resultan t ~ebQ u-m:ll of UUi' I'Orel!tJllnd b~~;i'n (HeUe~ et all. ~ 1 '9SS). S'UlbsrdeHloe., i1n thi s lo~~e. wlill cease ,ailid thE!: b~~in w:i II start 1Ur "II~'XILI rally lIIpllft I n :SVr.lJiO wi!trw tlh~' IrE! nil! (lv,a.! lOT ~he

o ~igliln,a11 lo:ad, li\l~idijs1!!'ib!Ulti n'g sedi rriiiEWIIt. huther 0 WI acw,oss th~ ftH'eland (:see d'[,SCU~9.r o iii 1f1i C'1h1apiteir '7).

There has, [b~l9JilI re;I,~tive'I'y II uUIIs q !lJ,antit3.'~ive ~;~u dy ~'f thlEj' fill ~chanij,~ms O'~ s~lbs,idenc;eJ i r!i '10 rea.re Ib aJ5,i ns feu FUl i nl front C'~ vO~t·inric: arc sys~~ms

(Fig. Q,J5}. ~rq j:lart th is r,~nects, the d i~f~ou ~ty i n' ~cqJld~~.n g adl~quat8

$,trartig rap hi~ data b) 2'00 !JIJiat:e'~y dele rrnin e ~Uib~ id~'nl~E,i' h I,s,to,rles, iif1 thl is 't,~ctolf"!IC $reUing', Seve'ra.1 mechanisms; may ~Ia:y rO~El:S in g,efil,er,atinQI h~lI"~~U'C: ballii~ ~u[bs,~denCB' ii ncluding ,:

{1] The' de '!.i'\elo pm ent o'f; a 'topoglrai:lh lc bas~ n Ib9nveeTii the top oglr,Ellp h ic h~g his orf tlhr8i VIO lcanie ,~rc and ;8;(}C ratio n Slry WlOOg@. ln 1h ts easa, ,alII gf' ~her

,8 U1bi$'id~ i"liDe WQU Id rr9lSIlJlt 'hom n~e' sednm~ nit Joad i3impli~'yilngl th~ p revle usiy ,~):js;tmrllg to pog r:i3Jp h ic d ep re,s:sio nl; th~ s 'tlllie're' W,ilUIld loe no iitec~,@ Iilic"

s jjjibsid~noe,. Howe/v'en-, ~ubs,I'den 00 (;iljfVEH~ fro in fCrm!tJlFc; ,s~:tti ng:s, in wn'lch i 5Q!f!ta:lJic ri8',sponse due tiO $!e-d~m€:nt loadiil'1Q' has beewn removed I(Fig" 6- 1 l,

:s1u II 5:hOW' thef1e to, be a, siig n~fuc;:mt ~~C~Or:l ic C(HTl po n e nt to 'the ~l!ib:sidl~ri!ce h istolry.

('2) Subsidlence cue to the' i sostalic response (if emp~~Ghlg a. dense s U! bd LJc1l@a pllat:e\ be neath thie- Tn nBltI)rc Ireg i'OIfi!. [Juri ~gl i,nitiatiQlrll lof a

s L!J bdIU(l,tuon :zJi)ne. OC~~aJn le prla:l1e I ~ OOI1SU msd ,~rJd Ulnd ~rl tes the' frQ.rrea.~c :relQ'ion. eUectiv€'lly' de ubi i rug 1ih e liitnospne're: thii()kiill~S.S, ,~liongJ tha

convergl~~Nlit maff'g i 1'11. SiMlCl!31 ocean le Ilitho~pheire i~ d1en;SEl'r' th~Jfli 1:hle

a~,~h ~n(j,sph!efa that i1 replaces. the 'tor,ean:~ reg von 5 L!lbsid~$. As the

, c

buoY,ialrilcy ,of th~' subd'UJlcted s i EIIb '~h~iilg ~lS~ eHh er !by chalilig~s ln age! of the

S:UIBDU CT'I [OIN

CO- MiPl_ E-:X::'

, _ _ _ _ [ J

'OUTE,IR' BULI(;,E

IflgrliJ1r8 6.6 l@ctOrlUWc: se.Wng 'crl ,eu'C,-,t~rtdllgfap and 'fc~lFl'atiC: ,basins. 8;es~d onl 'the SUnda arc (Curry. let ,a)t" 1[917)"

downg-oing ocaanic IPlar~e or lbiy' 'the ~,l[]bd\,JC'~li(i. nl (J,f tfh iiclk~MH~d CtJiU 8t, such as oce~nic p lart,eaUJ S. U'H~ ,a.e.nsity co ntrast bellwe~fi1 th~i :$ U bd u'O'IlOO ~I~jb arid asthenesphere ~lhl!1rJjg!€i~ I e~di ng to i$1o$t~dc n~adjus1meIi11: of the fe n~arc: casu,!"!. The' res i!Jilt~ng SL!lbSidleno~ eu rv,e may s h 0''1'11' ITIHi1Iny' ''!i\erlliica~ ,onaln'91e::;; c'auiSedi i:Y:;' th!E),se i~ost9itic Erffects. Mo,)(o n1J :i3Jnd Glrailh ifl!m [11'98,]) "Iotll~d th,* ,$,l!Jb:sidianc~· h i s,'~:ory of' thl~' Me~!llzo lc Gr'83.1: Va]ll~ry' Sequ8 noe in es nrhai CIJ~lft~lmira., The!' n~sunilnQ r:~H.dJiSid\ii'JjnGe' 'curve, co llliiaJirled abrupt chal!1!l'e$ iiffl r;sl!t,~ 'Iih at Ih~y. ascribed to ill ,d~!rease illl a,ngh~! oil s,~bdu;oti'on ~t; tne' dowlf"!gl;)~'rng sllab. The dHficll.!1lty in applll'i IiIIg this nnodie.1 as the, sole or pdnc:ip·lle 'Ga.u,~~1 ,o'f' 'fo r'ea~'O s ~ bsvd~inoa is 'thi~t 0 f!l~~ sub d~cti(Hfl c,ea$~ thle re is I!ll@ :1(Hlgar a d9nl~el plats :be rne,aJU. the 'r'Q,r-earr:c ~gli~ f"il and tlh,Elj basin she ulJd i~()~;hl,UcaJ~y Ir€lb~ILH)d. u plij~'tJl n Idl 'and erod i illig the basirn 13)1 sled i UIfI ents _ I fi! Ointlr:all Ga,llifo rn la, 'w'h eu~ such a tHota nic transition ,t@o~ plac~ wlh'~ n $,Uibdluctfo n O~3;Sf.jd iWil I a,ta Ce r1@zolie time a$, a imaj'or tra,f;"Ii$'hlll'[ili'i! 'f,aiuU. 1:h e S:~n Alnd rsas Faulltt" developed, no sl!Jlcn r.ebOluftld eeeurree. Th !,$, lSll.Igg ~S1~ t~at thi:s n'Ifl Sitha.nism i n :ib~fi!'I\f d(H:~S explal 11 all ,of the su bl$ldl~tn(l!e: h iSitory .

(,3) A mechan ism rella;t~d to the' slLIlbdu rnied siab ~:$ $IU bstde nee eausee by ra~;id, OOQ~;i ng of it waJrm b!J.JloY,aJnt u PP!!3'1I' pilate by oolildUi~ti:Oln to a (XH)I€'r !!Jrrldewll"i ttg ~ subduct'ed plartH,~ as we ill' as, t~ the a!ite~liy,i r!,g atm~iSph:e'ne. In thls ease ~ub~id snee would be eXlPofiH;!!ii1~ian ovelr '~1 me and: the mag f1I i'~U,d~ ef ,5 u bsidellKl13i would be s i Fl'1fHar to (l U1J~ r 1lh @lFmalll'y-a riV~!"I1 basl 1118 (8 ueh as ,paSSU\llQ marg i ~s) ~ but the rate (llf s,~b\~id'e'~c~ WOI!.i lid be' mueh faster ti;:8JO a eccl i n g p!la1!~ by it sle If , This rnechanlsm WOild lid on~y ,a~lPlr:y to s:illiJat;i(Jrl~

wh a.re hot, l(olm~ oceanic crust wtiJ'i(lh aooret~1 a~o~ 9 corrverg ent li'Ii'j.~rg i!i:6

bace nill'el seen 'th.~H"e.a!n~(; ~itelS of fo ~iarc: ,sl.!llt:u~:i'deIl'l!Ge,. Tlh ils: siitu.a!~io n ,!

albrea unusua], m~g h t 'e)(1P1ail1l both 'U!I~' modiem Jap~n and EloCer1l9 O:~e.gil}n e)(amtp~e~ (Fig - 6.'~}.

(4) A ~lo'l:h er IPO:s~ib I ~ rnechanlsm f,or ]'0 r~i3Jrc subsidenee is 'fiIe~:r;u ral lback·ti Irt~n9 0" tbe basin '~10 or IU n d e!f the' ~@P 09 raphle 1(;I.ad cd 'the yo Ica!1iic arc and by [h,e IU n de'~thruS'ti riJ[g alild b u iilJd u~ of the, aocre:liioruuywedg,~ I~~in aJ, :Setl S~ ~f'I I!Jjpw,!jjlFdl~di reet-ed, 0 r b uO~aJnt.1 ~oadfj'" BOWildl ,et ~J _ [1 9SS} havel each s~g:ge'$ted that the velcanie are ma,y act as a pl8!rt, O'~ th@ hJh~d cau$;ifilg fleX'Ui'\al $ u bsicj'.tl)llC~' in 'thle' Nodh .Ai'e u'liiafti basi'i n 'I' a. bae k-are s,eUirnglS b eh i n d t;h'~ AJ€NlJtiali1 are. 11: maJy' b~ pos.sllbl'9 1:h at similar ~oading by the aJ'O m~,y

lead 10 Suib5,fde'nGB ln '~he fOI~Ei~"" 1I'~""i""n '!i.e; w.e.llil .~, ~,--",·I, ",~-+'''''I r ,--1,,·:':'-'

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ " .... ' ......... -' .... ':zII" ... - ~~ -- """-_. M lilUliliUlanmi;1ll!rnia QUiE!iSwIIDEl

wiln~ Uti ts modeli is wih,ether ,ill r net ,~;!tCli;Y,e v'olb~n lc an~5 are IQiGi3!U'~

iso sNltiicaUy OQmfHllJlisa.1:ed and, Ih elr,ef@ ~e! do n Clt exert ,ai, Iload fo r,' Illong w,a,ve-I~ng'th fl-exu re o~ the lith OS" here _ 'II n con'~,a:st,i' ~ed1imentary

u If!id,~rp~arlh,gl ,~WiId upl iln ,ol the accre:Uonary subd uetlen complex ln 'fron't of ttU~1 lo 1l'e\~fC r'e;QJijlljl!1 gilS n err~tes an !:Jlpw~u(~=d~ reeted, 0 r' bUiDyant:I' lDad 'that may causa Ibalck-tmu ng l[]if the in r.€'tlJrc reglio n in fl'ex,!,Jlr,ail response, ~ n 'iJh~' Arfca and ~ql!!.lliq!l.J:e' 'f'or-aar,n basins (,fig. 8.'1),1' off the ~oa$t of ctJm~" pmgllressive back tiiltJ1,ngl ~'f 1on~'a!ro :sed~ merilt"u}f ~aJcka;ges; Olvleil' 'lvme' (Co!!Jlbourrn and Mo bedy, 1 '977) suggle$t~, a pllogr,~~s'ive toadling olr~g~,F:'lI.

eulnlE: r b¥' ilh ~ vallcanic: are, '~he ~ooretio l11ary s ulbd uetion ,Clomp I'ex: or both"

Lii m iliad data sUlgg asts n~a!t subsidence ~Istolrie,s of 'IiISJfiQ'u S -r,of,@a~!C b~sjr1h3 seam WI be qu it~ d i'fr€mEmt. {IFig. 16.'11 h s~gge.$'U'nlg that mlihi:p,l~ m€Jchanis;rfl;s may be at wo ~k.

E:" ~INrTHACONf~NII:: NFF AlBASl1 N S

Larg!e cllrcu:IBlr c:n:dOln[o naslns sueti ,~s, thi!31 MiICh'ig,a1Jn IBasin (,FUg~~. 15,,8, 6,.9, ,and 6.1 en, awe. re~ailivli3'l~ n~!r~ on e.~rth. blllt hla,vt~, (;~J;.Jig,ht -U~e '@ye of sub:~~delr'llce; modelers, S!lJbgk~ ell'1ice of 'tlilese' D'asJrHll, is ra~hlir :slOW in compadson to ol~her basi n types and ,to the S'lJ b~;i'dEl-!1Cle (d 'th e' agilflgl eesan tleer I( Ff:g. '6",'1)" S,ub5Ii~jlei1lce' las~8, maJnr:y' te ns '~o hUiliidr~d~ ,of IiTi ullliO!l ye,ar~ wiitn CHilly' !QfiH~i !D r- two, k'i le me.'~er.s af 'te~to n r 0< !EHJlb:s~dleIi!C6 over thiiS li me. S:ubsidenoe iin some .of th es,e 'btllsi'n~, appears; to b@ :steppedl (lFig. ELli 1 ), N,ort!$the'II~$s, most modle~~ 0" basin 'foirmaHon eel I on therrnat sulb$;i'den¢~ rneenan h1HiI'ili ('e.g., Haxby let al., 1976~ He id I;a]uf et a'i ;i' 19815: Kleln aJndi

Hsui I' 1 '987'; NlIln n1J and Sleep. '19184; N u ~n et all..r. 1984). I n the, Haxby et ,j3J1" ('19716} rilI11i(Jdel (F'igl. 16".'12),. a, thenmaJ, ev'9int: pie !1C88 thle' mantle II ld I' warms ~p the ba.se Olf the' esust ca U sing il ,to CQr'ilV!ii1nlt ~o a nig h at-density ph ase. Ortu:,?~ 'the ~ithols\pher@ cools, -the de'n~I~; ~ower crust aets as ,aJ, sifnike,r wh~ch

flex Ulr,aJ I'~' pu I ~$ dOrWTi thre~ surroe nd~ln 9 I ithlo,~;phen:~ fc rrmli ng ;8J bu~ II'S eYi=s'haifjle;[j balsr.n.,

Othe'r msch ~r:I i sms of " orrn atic n 'f,(U iln'~ra;C::(Nl'tll nen talll bas,illtS ha'V9 b~9n

~iLllil'ilnc.~'I'<!:id ~r.li -11- -.r.Iilil '" '.. . 'f· . ·-1 ' ...iI i;.".- - . . ." ·t-· ..II - -'-I>h

.,;>-:id:!!''"'''~;~'"'' " -- _C_!.h.L_Q" trans orm-re aren easms a:s.~'OCI.a_~ll;.1 Wh_ I

'DOtUDnent;a~ co II i's'ion and ~~ca!pe (Kluth Bnd C~ ney i '~9181,: Moll nlaw ali"lJd r~,pp,onTer, 119175) r. and failed rifts. (Ii) lcklnse n, 1 976). H.ow~VEl'~'" 'i!hJ~' exact natur'9 !Oif the' mechen isms; of 'f'(')'lIma:ti om 'ror 'In ese, bas i ns stl II pW'!J.i9S te be

d hf'fic I!J ~,t '1,0 ii nt~ ~ p- ret-

I

I 1M",! Ii _ ~

,~ 2;

o !I.!;i

I~~ _:

~Iii!Llii:,W!,!Ii!l. ilii!3-}i1

Agure ELi Pmfiih;s Of iqU~!JH and Arica BasirtiS, SOlil~h An']Ji~'ri~~! ifilc,tudlng p!ot o~: ~W!il-way ~MV~~ 1hTH~! belvviNlHl! Ire:necb~iF,3 versus, h~IIJerall d~stan()i9. Fmrn!'il CaullboUllrlm1 ,and MoberJ'y ('i Si1;.

0' m

KM

<i,k~~~~_~------~~==i:

e l,.,

L'

:IT!'t1i er LfI1l ~t. iiii:ili

!iP

4~~====~------~--======~

....

....

....

... ,

''i,

... Ii)

~ I

-.' 'C ... O ,

j .

MIC:IHIGIAN BASIN

Fllgu{e 81,,13 $implUi'ed geologtc m~p Of the Mlc:hjgan lBaisi n, IMo.di11ed fr,olitrl Nunn et' lal., ('~ 984a)",

~ ..

KI{i ~~'I''''_NIl:!. ~ ...

Figlilft 6.91 Or:chlV!cian '~o JurassIc cr'O$~l'cS8<cUOll'il O'f Ulla IMi'chr!g~n B~sirtL From 1~'L!lrn~ ret at f1 :9'8.4aJ.

TH IICKN ESS OF' S,E'O'IlMENIT' ORt!JOVICIA N'

:liDO Km C.~i~, ,[]!,~ iill ~ 00 rnl!i~I!i'~ I

Figure 6. l' I) IQrdovlici~n i so;pac hi map c~ lhe Midhigaln Basara. From Nu rUlI et al ,(191t\Wa);,

w

. I

km.

~I

B

1[1

2

I···· Depth,

km

2: I 0' Gu~'~/8a~',es(~n

[] B,ra.z.o'slSt Foster

'II

[Figure· 6.11 Totall su bsi'den:ce. l'i'i'skuy [Olf 'tin e M&chigBn lBasi,n dlu'ri'ng midd~el lPahJozoic '~Ime. F[um Haxb,' et at (i 97£)).

'I I'

. ~ ! a!-'<iI~l~ tj'

- -. -;.~, ,~il.!'ii~"'!ljj

.. ~i'I~!I_~

-~o

i!i,~(i, ~a

:.l,~

,~-:~-i-~~ .

F,i~lU'tt9 Et ~.2 iIIU'l!S~1JU1 d'ensUIC~lion model -(-or ·fotmal'io m1 of:' the Michigan 1~lirli_ FmofJ'ilil Ha>:!by et at 1(1 916~,.

- s - - - E~UMMARY

TIIt1I~ bia5tc; rnec haff! i s m:s; 'cd ~!li.j bside'II1'D~ (ij .9. local iSiOs:t~5.y, 'th~'x~ re' aflld t~e~~1Mt1al) c:aln Of ialP[lI~ed,~ ~ti many oase5; in a. rHI,aJHv'siy .stlr,aiiglilt. '~'OiMal,d wa~'. to rnnst majjow tectenle ,seUfi ng:s,. Fer the! most part these

'~IPP~ lcatlans are rather b,f"Oiad ~ they describe the' oVEm3J i $lJIo,skAe rtioe ,~.t.yl~' blut dOl net e\:<~I,aJiWll details of the oa~~n hhitory" The maj;or hi'~deranc~ '001 a mor,~ ~olt1!1pl ete u ndl~r;s~an di~gl o~~ basl n IItlvo;llutioll1l is the lack, of da'ta.

,aI'vai Ia;b~e fo r' 9 ~~,e,ra:M og well com~;train!8d ,~ulbsiide nee Ih lste riles iln several te'cto,~ic Si~mng:s. In, ildditio nl~ s,LJch alli;~lif,518',5 inJeed te be' dOln e lin 'I.wo and 'Ilhr@~, dii meills:iofil S. and If]ot: just 1ha ona-d i mensi:olnal ,aJnally~e5i done' hi~r,~; 'Ce'rtaJ rlJly ttU;~;l'~:e' ls much to bEl' 18~ med ,~oout: Imtjhos;p~eric mech ~n I C$ and ;~Iedi merilta~y Ibets~ln d ev~lolpme!ilft u welill as ,!5~-dii rnentary and te,r:;1nn:ic ~nteract~(iiors O'~C€l' morQ ca m[pl:et,e, data sets; become ;8;v,9!iIIHb te"

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