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Measurements of physical quantities take place by means of a comparison with a standard. For example: a meter stick, a weight of 1 kilogram, etc. The base units that will be used in this course are:
• • •
meter (m): One meter is equal to the path length traveled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second. kilogram (kg): One kilogram is the mass of a Platinum-Iridium cylinder kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Paris. second (s): One second is the time occupied by 9,192,631,770 vibrations of the light (of a specified wavelength) emitted by a Cesium-133 atom.
A unit that is being used as a base unit must be both accessible and invariable. The original meter bar kept in Paris was not very accessible (this is still true for the kilogram). In addition, the length of the standard bar is temperature dependent. The definition of the meter in terms of the number of wavelengths of a particular atomic transition in Krypton-86 made the meter more accessible; the transition is characteristic for Krypton-86, and is the same for each Krypton-86 atom. However, Doppler shifts due to the thermal motion of the atoms can slightly change the wavelength, and produce a small uncertainty in the definition of the meter. The current definition of the meter in terms of the speed of light is not affected by thermal motion: the speed of light in vacuum is constant, independent of temperature and velocity of observer and/or source. Example: how to measure the distance d from the earth to the moon ? APOLLO astronauts placed a mirror on the moon. It can be used to measure the distance between the earth and the moon very accurately. The reflection of a laser beam aimed at this mirror reaches the earth after 2.495 s. The distance can then be calculated:
The definition of the standard mass makes it very inaccessible. In principle, the weight of individual nuclei can be used as a standard; nuclear weight does not depend on location, temperature, pressure, etc. However, counting the number of nuclei in a standard (or assembling a fixed number of nuclei) is an almost impossible task.
Note: 1. Improved definitions of base units must be defined such that it matches the previous definition as closely as possible (no need to change all meter sticks in 1983). 2. Speed of light is now defined as 299,792,458 m/s. All physical quantities are expressed in terms of base units. For example, the velocity is usually given in units of m/s. All other units are derived units and may be expressed as a combination of base units. For example (see Appendix A):
Other examples are:
density: kg/m3 area: m2
When dealing with very small or large numbers, it is convenient to use prefixes (see Table 1.1, and Table 1-2 on page 3 in Halliday, Resnick, and Walker).
Factor 1018 1015 1012 109 106 103 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 10-18 Prefix Symbol exaE petaP tera T gigaG megaM kilok millim microu nanon picop femtof attoa
Table 1.1. SI Prefixes Example: 2.35 10-9 s = 2.35 ns
In many cases, the data are not supplied in the correct units, and one needs to convert units (see Appendix F in Halliday, Resnick, and Walker). Examples: 1" = 2.54 x 10-2 m 55 miles = 88 x 103 m 1 h = 3600 s 55 miles/h = 88 x 103/3600 m/s = 24.4 m/s
2. MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE
In mechanics we are interested in trying to understand the motion of objects. In this chapter, the motion of objects in 1 dimension will be discussed. Motion in 1 dimension is motion along a straight line.
The position of an object along a straight line can be uniquely identified by its distance from a (user chosen) origin. (see Figure 2.1). Note: the position is fully specified by 1 coordinate (that is why this a 1 dimensional problem).
Figure 2.1. One-dimensional position.
the cheetah has the highest velocity.3. See for example Figure 2. It is clear that a steeper slope of the curve in the x vs. The cheetah covers 300 meter in 10 s. After 10 seconds. For example. The slope of the curve in the position versus time graph depends on the velocity of the object. the human in 30 s. shows the position as a function of time for an object at rest. Obviously. A similar conclusion is obtained when we consider the time required to cover a fixed distance. The position of the object will in general be a function of time: x(t). and for objects moving to the left and to the right. the human 100 meter. and the pig 50 meter. the position of the object at time t = 0 is often chosen as the origin.2. .2. For a given problem.Figure 2. t graph corresponds to a higher velocity. x vs. and the pig requires 60 s. Figure 2. the origin can be chosen at whatever point is convenient. the cheetah has covered a distance of 310 meter. t graphs for various velocities.
Figure 2.3. x vs. t graphs for various creatures.
An object that changes its position has a non-zero velocity. The average velocity of an object during a specified time interval is defined as:
If the object moves to the right, the average velocity is positive. An object moving to the left has a negative average velocity. It is clear from the definition of the average velocity that depends only on the position of the object at time t = t1 and at time t = t2. This is nicely illustrated in sample problem 2-1 and 2-2. Sample Problem 2-1 You drive a beat-up pickup truck down a straight road for 5.2 mi at 43 mi/h, at which point you run out of fuel. You walk 1.2 mi farther, to the nearest gas station, in 27 min (= 0.450 h). What is your average velocity from the time you started your truck to the time that you arrived at the station ? The pickup truck initially covers a distance of 5.2 miles with a velocity of 43 miles/hour. This takes 7.3 minutes. After the pickup truck runs out of gas, it takes you 27 minutes to walk to the nearest gas station which is 1.2 miles down the road. When you arrive at the gas station, you have covered (5.2 + 1.2) = 6.4 miles, during a period of (7.3 + 27) = 34.3 minutes. Your average velocity up to this point is:
Sample Problem 2-2 Suppose you next carry the fuel back to the truck, making the round-trip in 35 min. What is your average velocity for the full journey, from the start of your driving to you arrival back at the truck with the fuel ? It takes you another 35 minutes to walk back to your car. When you reach your truck, you are again 5.2 miles from the origin, and have been traveling for (34.4 + 35) = 69.4 minutes. At that point your average velocity is:
After this episode, you return back home. You cover the 5.2 miles again in 7.3 minutes (velocity equals 43 miles/hour). When you arrives home, you are 0 miles from your origin, and obviously your average velocity is:
The average velocity of the pickup truck which was left in the garage is also 0 miles/hour. Since the average velocity of an object depends only on its initial and final location and time, and not on the motion of the object in between, it is in general not a useful parameter. A more useful quantity is the instantaneous velocity of an object at a given instant. The instantaneous velocity is the value that the average velocity approaches as the time interval over which it is measured approaches zero:
For example: see sample problem 2-5.
The velocity of the object at t = 3.5 s can now be calculated:
The velocity of an object is defined in terms of the change of position of that object over time. A quantity used to describe the change of the velocity of an object over time is the acceleration a. The average acceleration over a time interval between t1 and t2 is defined as:
Note the similarity between the definition of the average velocity and the definition of the average acceleration. The instantaneous acceleration a is defined as:
From the definition of the acceleration, it is clear that the acceleration has the following units:
A positive acceleration is in general interpreted as meaning an increase in velocity. However, this is not correct. From the definition of the acceleration, we can conclude that the acceleration is positive if
This is obviously true if the velocities are positive, and the velocity is increasing with time. However, it is also true for negative velocities if the velocity becomes less negative over time.
2.4. Constant Acceleration
Objects falling under the influence of gravity are one example of objects moving with constant acceleration. A constant acceleration means that the acceleration does not depend on time:
Integrating this equation, the velocity of the object can be obtained:
you bring your car to rest after traversing 200 m. how much time would elapse in bringing the car to rest from 75 km/h ? d) In (c) above. what distance would be covered ? e) Suppose that. Note 1: verify these relations by integrating the formulas for the position and the velocity.where v0 is the velocity of the object at time t = 0. What was the total braking time ? a) Our starting points are the equations of motion: (1) (2) The following information is provided: * v(t = 0) = v0 = 75 km/h = 20. Note 2: the equations of motion are the basis for most problems (see sample problem 7).8 m/s * v(t1) = 45 km/h = 12. assumed to be constant ? b) What is the elapsed time ? c) If you continue to slow down with the acceleration calculated in (a) above. on a second trial with the acceleration calculated in (a) above and a different initial velocity. From the velocity. a) What is the acceleration. you brake a Porsche from 75 km/h to 45 km/h over a distance of 88m. Sample Problem 2-8 Spotting a police car.5 m/s * x(t = 0) = x0 = 0 m (Note: origin defined as position of Porsche at t = 0 s) * x(t1) = 88 m . the position of the object as function of time can be calculated: where x0 is the position of the object at time t = 0.
(3): (6) c) The car is at rest at time t2: (7) Substituting the acceleration calculated using eq.(2): (9) e) The following information is provided: * v(t3) = 0 m/s (Note: Porsche at rest at t = t3) .(1) we obtain: (3) Substitute (3) in (2): (4) From eq.(5)) into eq.* a = constant From eq.(8)) and a (from eq.(3): (8) d) Substitute t2 (from eq.(4) we can obtain the acceleration a: (5) b) Substitute eq.(5) into eq.(5) into eq.
1. Example .* x(t = 0) = x0 = 0 m (Note: origin defined as position of Porsche at t = 0) * x(t3) = 200 m * a = constant = . and the positive position along the y-axis corresponds to upward motion. Gravitational Acceleration A special case of constant acceleration is free fall (falling in vacuum).(1) tells us: (10) Substitute eq. the direction of free fall is defined along the y-axis.(2): (11) The time t3 can now easily be calculated: (12) 2.(10) into eq.5. In problems of free fall. The equations of motion for free fall are very similar to those discussed previously for constant acceleration: where y0 and v0 are the position and the velocity of the object at time t = 0.8 m/s2 (along the negative y-axis).6 m/s2 Eq. The acceleration due to gravity (g) equals 9.
Vertical position of baseball as function of time.4). . Figure 2. At that point.A pitcher tosses a baseball straight up.8 m/s2 The highest point is obtained at time t = t1. the velocity is zero: The ball reaches its highest point after 2.4. a) Our starting points are the equations of motion: The initial conditions are: * v(t = 0) = v0 = 25 m/s (upwards movement) * y(t = 0) = y0 = 0 m (Note: origin defined as position of ball at t = 0) * g = 9. (a) How long does it take to reach its highest point ? (b) How high does the ball rise above its release point ? (c) How long will it take for the ball to reach a point 25 m above its release point. with an initial speed of 25 m/s.6 s (see Figure 2.
7 s Figure 2.b) The position of the ball at t1 = 2.4 s t = 3.6 s can be easily calculated: c) The quation for y(t) can be easily rewritten as: where y is the height of the ball at time t. The velocities of the ball at these times are (see also Figure 2.3 m/s . Velocity of the baseball as function of time.5.5): v(t = 1. This Equation can be easily solved for t: Using the initial conditions specified in (a) this equation can be used to calculate the time at which the ball reaches a height of 25 m (y = 25 m): t = 1.4 s) = + 11.
pressure and time.11.1. We will start discussing vector addition by using the graphical method.4 s.6 s. Commutative Law of Vector Addition. but also its direction: velocity is a vector.1. 3. The graphical method Assume two vectors and are defined. . the ball reaches its highest point (v = 0). In this Chapter we will discuss the various vector operations that will be used in this course.3 m/s At t = 1.7 s the ball is located again at y = 25 m. Vector Addition One important vector operation that we will frequently encounter is vector addition.1. At t= 3. VECTORS The motion of a particle in one dimension is simple. After t = 2. A quantity not involving a direction is a scalar. Figure 3. a third vector is created (see Figure 3.1. To describe the motion of an object in 3 dimensions. the ball is at y = 25 m with positive velocity (upwards motion). Its velocity is either positive or negative: positive velocity corresponds to a motion to the right while negative velocity corresponds to a motion to the left. There are two methods for vector addition: the graphical method and the analytical method.v(t = 3. 3. If is added to .1). At t = 2. we need to specify not only the magnitude of its velocity.6 s. the ball starts falling down (negative velocity). but now moves downwards. 3. Examples of scalars are temperature.7 s) = .
Figure 3.There are however two ways of combining the vectors and (see Figure 3.2.= + (.3.4): = . Vector and The opposite of vector is a vector with the same magnitude as but pointing in the opposite direction (see Figure 3.) = 0 Subtracting from is the same as adding the opposite of to (see Figure 3.1).) .2): Figure 3. Associative Law of Vector Addition. Inspection of the resulting vector shows that vector addition satisfies thecommutative law (order of addition does not influence the final result): Vector addition also satisfies the associative law (the result of vector addition is independent of the order in which the vectors are added.3): + (. see Figure 3.
Figure 3.1. The 2 components of are defined such that their direction is along the x-axis and yaxis.Figure 3. In actual calculations the graphical method is not practical. Define a coordinate system with an x-axis and yaxis (see Figure 3. The analytical method To demonstrate the use of the analytical method of vector addition. These two vectors. and the vector algebra is performed on its components (this is the analytical method). whose vector sum equals . and .2.4 also shows that + = . and by definition satisfy the following relation: Suppose that [theta] is the angle between the vector and the x-axis. The length of each of the components can now be easily calculated: and the vector can be written as: . We can always find 2 vectors. and . are called the components of . 3. Vector Subtraction.4.5). we limit ourselves to 2 dimensions.
Figure 3. and Walker we use and to indicate the unit vectors along the x. j.and y-axis. The physics (and the relation between physical quantities) is also not affected by the choice of the coordinate system. and k which is harder to write). if two vectors are perpendicular in one coordinate system. relations between vectors are not affected by the choice of the coordinate system (for example. Resnick. Note: in contrast to Halliday. the components of are: ax = a ay = 0 .6). we can usually choose the coordinate system such that one of the vectors coincides with one of the coordinate axes. This was already demonstrated in Chapter 2. where the origin of the coordinate system was usually defined as the position of the object at time t = 0. they are perpendicular in every coordinate system). and Walker use i. Although the decomposition of a vector depends on the coordinate system chosen. The decomposition of vector into 2 components is not unambiguous. Resnick. In two or three dimensions. and we usually choose the coordinate system such that our problems can be solved most easily.5. It depends on the choice of the coordinate system (see Figure 3. if the coordinate system is defined such that the direction of is along the x-axis. Decomposition of vector . For example. respectively (Halliday.
6. Decomposition of vector in different coordinate systems. their components are related as follows: These relations describe vector addition using the analytical technique (and similar relations hold for vector addition in three dimensions). We have just described how to find the components of a vector if its magnitude and direction are provided. If the components of a vector are provided. we can also calculate its direction and magnitude. we can conclude that since is equal to .az = 0 Figure 3. Vector algebra using the analytical method is based on the following rule: "Two vectors are equal to each other if their corresponding components are equal" Applying this rule to vector addition: Comparing the equations for and . Suppose the components of vector .
respectively. the solution is [theta] = 135deg.7 can be written as: It is clear that for both vectors: atan([theta]) = 1.5): Note: one should exercise great care in using the previous relation for [theta]. Example of angle ambiguity.[pi]/2 < [theta] < [pi]/2 if ax < 0: [pi]/2 < [theta] < 3[pi]/2 Figure 3. any calculator will return the solution between [pi]/2 and [pi]/2. the solution is [theta] = 45deg. For vector . The length of the vector can be easily calculated: The angle [theta] between the vector and the positive x-axis can be obtained from the following relation (see also Figure 3.. Note that ax = 1 > 0. while for vector . Example: The two vectors shown in Figure 3. The correct solution will depend on the sign of ax: if ax > 0: . Atan(ay/ax) has 2 solutions.. .along the x-axis and y-axis are ax and ay.7. and bx = -1 < 0.
The magnitude of the new vector is the magnitude of multiplied by the absolute value of s.Multiplying a Vector by a Scalar The product of a vector and a scalar s is a new vector.2. Multiplying Vectors . Since two vectors are only equal only if their corresponding components are equal. we obtain the following relation between the components of and the components of : The following relations are summarizing the relations between the magnitude and direction of the vectors and : .8).8.3. whose direction is the same as that of if s is positive or opposite to that direction if s is negative (see Figure 3. This procedure can be summarized as follows: Figure 3. Multiplying a vector by a scalar.
9. y and z-axes: Note that in deriving this equation.Scalar Product Two vectors and are shown in Figure 3. we have applied the following rule: . Scalar Product of vectors and . The angle between these two vectors is [phi]. ) is defined as: In a coordinate system in which the x. the following relations hold for the scalar product between the various unit vectors: Suppose that the vectors and are defined as follows: Figure 3. y and z-axes are mutual perpendicular. Multiplying Vectors . The scalar product of and (represented by .9.3. The scalar product of and can now be rewritten in terms of the scalar product between the unit vectors along the x.3.
and . The scalar product therefore provides an easy test to determine whether two vectors are perpendicular. The components of and are given by: Figure 3. Alternative Derivation of Scalar Product. Suppose and are defined as follows: These two vectors are perpendicular since: . = 0.An alternative derivation of the expression of the scalar product in terms of the components of the two vectors can be easily derived as follows (see Figure 3.. ax = a cos(a) ay = a sin(a) bx = b cos([beta]) by = b sin([beta]) The scalar product can now be obtained as follows: What is so useful about the scalar product ? If two vectors are perpendicular.10. their relative angle equals 90deg.10).
x The following expression can be used to calculate x if the components of and are provided: 4.[phi].4. (in which case . . (in which case . Multiplying Vectors . MOTION IN A PLANE . However.Vector Product The vector product of two vectors and .[phi]).In a similar manner we can easily determine whether the angle between the two vector is less than 90deg. Note: the angle between and is [phi] or 360deg. It can be shown. It is clear from the definition of the vector product that the order of the components is important. the vector product is different for these two angles. written as x . since sin([phi]) = sin(2[pi] . • The direction of is perpendicular to the plane defined by and . > 0) or more than 90deg. is a third vector with the following properties: • the magnitude of is given by: where [phi] is the smallest angle between and . < 0) 3. by applying the right hand rule. and the direction (up or down) is determined using the right-hand rule. that the following relation holds: x =.
To specify the position of an object the concept of the position vector needs to be introduced. In two or three dimensions. the position vector will be time dependent (t). this is much more difficult. The discussion about motion in two or three dimensions is more complicated. we can write the position vector in terms of its components: Figure 4. In general. Using the techniques developed in Chapter 3. To answer the question "where am I ?" in two dimensions. one needs to specify two coordinates. and most graphs will show for example the trajectory of the object (without providing direct information concerning the time).4. 4. Its position was unambiguously defined by its distance (positive or negative) from a user defined origin. Definition of Position Vector.2. its velocity and its acceleration as function of time.1).1. The position vector is defined as a vector that starts at the (user defined) origin and ends at the current position of the object (see Figure 4. The motion of this object could be described in terms of scalars. Velocity The velocity of an object in two or three dimensions is defined analogously to its definition in Chapter 2: . Note: In Chapter 2 we got used to plotting the position of the object.1. Position In Chapter 2 we discussed the motion of an object in one dimension. In three dimensions one needs to specify three coordinates.
Acceleration The acceleration of an object in three dimensions is defined analogously to its definition in Chapter 2: This equation shows that the acceleration of an object in two or three dimensions is also a vector.3. which can be decomposed into three components: The components of (t) can be calculated from the corresponding components of the position vector (t) and the velocity vector (t): We conclude: . the velocity vector can be decomposed into its three components: The components of (t) can be calculated from the corresponding components of the position vector (t): We conclude: 4.This equation shows that the velocity of an object in two or three dimensions is also a vector. Again.
Assuming a constant acceleration in the x. In this limit: The magnitude of the velocity for small time intervals can be written as: From this formula we can conclude: . the change in the velocity vector will be small. y and z direction. we can write down the following equations of motion: vx(t) = vx0 + ax t vy(t) = vy0 + ay t vz(t) = vz0 + az t The magnitude of the velocity as function of time can be calculated: If we look at a very small time interval.
x and y are in meters. if you substitute t in seconds. The path is such that the components of the rabbit's position with respect to the origin of the coordinate frame are given as function of time by The units of the numerical coefficients in these equations are such that. The position vector of the rabbit at time t can be expressed as: From the equations of motion for x(t) and y(t) we can calculate the velocity and acceleration: The acceleration of the rabbit is constant (independent of time). been drawn.Sample Problem 4-2 . strangely enough.6 s (positive scalar product) the rabbits .6 s (negative scalar product) the rabbit will slow down.4-4 A rabbit runs across a parking lot on which a set of coordinate axes has. The scalar product of the velocity and the acceleration will tell us something about the change of velocity of the rabbit: From this equation we conclude that for t < 14. while for t > 14.
To check this prediction. we calculate the magnitude of the velocity of the rabbit: The velocity of the rabbit has a minimum at t = 14. Projectile Motion We will start considering the motion of a projectile in 2 dimensions. Assuming that we are dealing with constant acceleration. the equations of motion for the projectile are: . In describing the motion of the projectile.8 m/s2 In this case. The coordinate system that will be used to describe the motion of the projectile consist of an x-axis (horizontal direction) and a y-axis (vertical direction). and vx0 and vy0 are the x and y components of the velocity of the object at time t = 0. and ay only affects vy.6 s.speed will increase. 4. we will assume that there is no acceleration in the x-direction.g = .4. we can obtain the velocity and position of the projectile using the procedure outlined in Chapter 2: where x0 and y0 are the x and y position of the object at t = 0 s.9. Note that axonly affects vx and not vy. while the acceleration in the y-direction is equal to the free-fall acceleration: ax = 0 ay = .
The coordinate system in which we will analyze the trajectory of the projectile is chosen such that x0 = y0 = 0. In this case: The time t can be eliminated from these two equations: Substituting this expression for t into the equation of motion for y.The trajectory of the projectile is completely determined by the equations of motion x(t) and y(t). the total velocity v0 of the object at time t = 0 s and the angle [theta] between the direction of the projectile and the positive x-axis is provided. Note: Often. the following relation between x and y can be obtained: We can conclude that the trajectory of the projectile is described by a parabola. From this information the components of the velocity at time t = 0 s can be calculated: .
Figure 4. The time of impact can therefore be obtained by requiring that y(t) = 0 and solving for t: This equation has two solutions: . What is its range R ? We start with defining the coordinate system to be used in this problem: x(t = 0) = x0 = 0 y(t = 0) = y0 = 0 The position of the projectile at any given time t can be obtained from the following expressions: At impact.2. y(t) = 0. Projectile Motion. Example: Suppose a projectile is launched with an initial velocity v0 and an angle [theta] with respect to the x-axis (see Figure 4.2).
the following initial conditions apply: x0 = 0 m .[Delta][theta] (sin(2[theta]) is symmetric around [theta] = 45deg. The x-coordinate at that time can be obtained by substituting the expression for t into the expression for x(t): The maximum range is obtained when sin(2[theta]) = 1. The time of flight for the two cases are however different: a larger launch angle corresponds to a longer time of flight (time of flight is proportional to sin([theta])). Resnick and Walker).). The velocity of the projectile on impact can be calculated using the equations for vx(t) and vy(t): Comparing the velocity on impact with the velocity at t = 0. If we look at the equation of the range R. Before he attempts the jump. he wisely asks you to determine whether it is possible. Note: in all our calculations we have neglected air resistance. + [Delta][theta] and 45deg. to land on the roof of the next building (see Figure 4-16 in Halliday. we observe that the velocity component parallel to the x-axis is unchanged.5 m/s ? The coordinate system is chosen such that the origin is defined as the position of the stunt man at the moment he starts his jump from the roof (this is also defined as time t = 0). In this case. which corresponds to [theta] = 45deg. while the second solution gives us the time that the projectile hits the ground again. Can he make the jump if his maximum rooftop speed is 4. Sample Problem 4-7 A movie stunt man is to run across a rooftop and then horizontally off it. while the component along the y-axis changed sign. ..The first solution corresponds to the time that the projectile was launched. we observe that the for each value of R (less than Rmax) there are two possible launch angles: 45deg.
The gun crew sights an enemy tank stationary on the plain at a horizontal distance of 2. above the horizontal. If the antitank gun fires a shell with a muzzle speed of 240 m/s at an elevation of 10deg. the stunt man should have moved 6. the tank crew sees the gun and starts to move directly away from it with an acceleration of 0. he should not jump.90 m/s2. Example An antitank gun is located on the edge of a plateau that is 60 m above the surrounding plain. to reach the next building.8 m can be calculated from the equation for y(t): The horizontal distance traveled by the stunt man during this time interval can be calculated from the equation of motion for x(t): However.g The equations of motion describing the trajectory of the stunt man can now be written as: The time at which the stunt man has dropped 4.y0 = 0 m vx0 = + 4. At the same moment. . how long should the gun crew wait before firing if they are to hit the tank.2 km from the gun.5 m/s vy0 = 0 m/s ax = 0 m/s2 ay = .2 m horizontally. Unless the stunt man wants to commit suicide.
Using this information we can calculate v0x and v0y: v0x = v0 cos([theta]) = 236 m/s v0y = v0 sin([theta]) = 42 m/s . The range R of the shell can be obtained by substituting t1 into eq. (1) (2) Our coordinate system is defined such that the shell is launched at t = 0 s and its location at that instant is specified by x = 0 m and y = h. x0 = 0 m and y0= h. (2) by requiring that on impact y(t1) = 0 m. This time t1 can be obtained from eq. Therefore.Our starting point are the equations of motion of the shell. Thus (3) The solutions for t1 are (4) Since the shell will hit the ground after being fired (at t = 0) we only need to consider the positive solution for t1.(1): (5) The problem provides the following information concerning the firing of the projectile: h = 60 m v0 = 240 m/s [theta] = 10deg. In order to determine the trajectory of the shell we first determine its time of flight between launch and impact.
(5) we obtain: t1 = 9. This means that the gun crew has to wait 6.9.3 .(4) and eq. The tank starts from rest (v = 0 m/s) and has an acceleration of 0. The path of this object will be circular.8) s = 6. Circular Motion Suppose the motion of an object as function of time can be described by the following relations: (8) The equations in (8) describe a periodic motion: the position of the object at time t and at time t + T are identical. the tank will not reach the impact point until (16. This can be easily verified by calculating the distance of this object to the origin: (9) .Substituting these values in eq.5 s before firing the antitank gun if they are to hit the tank.5 s after the shell has landed. The period of the periodic motion is obviously T.8 s R = 2320 m The distance between the impact point and the original position of the tank is 120 m.9 m/s2. The time t2 it takes for the tank to travel to the impact point can be found by solving the following equation: (6) This shows that (7) If the shell is fired at the same time that the tank starts to move. 4.5.
3. See Figure 4.(8): (10a) (10b) The direction and magnitude of the velocity vector are: Figure 4. The velocity of the object can be easily calculated using the relations in eq. the distance of the object to the origin is constant (independent of time).Clearly.3. Definition of trajectory. (11) (12) .
In a very similar manner the acceleration of the object can be calculated: (13a) (13b) The direction and magnitude of the acceleration vector are: (14) (15) Equation (14) shows that the direction of the acceleration is in the radial direction (opposite to the position vector). It is clear that this non-zero acceleration does not change the magnitude of the velocity. but it .4. Direction of velocity and acceleration. Note: Equation (12) shows that the magnitude of the velocity of the object is constant (independent of time). Equation (11) shows that the direction of the velocity is perpendicular to the position vector.4. Note: Equation (15) shows that the acceleration is non-zero.Figure 4. Equation (11) shows that only its direction changes with time. See also Figure 4.
This demonstrates that the observed velocity of an object depends on the motion of the observer. the following relation is obtained for the velocity of the car measured by observer A and by observer B: vCA = vBA + vCB where vCA is the velocity of the car measured by observer A. vCB is the velocity of the car measured by observer B.changes its direction.5.5 shows that at that instant. The snapshot shown in Figure 4. The position of the car measured by observer A. the distance between observer A and observer B equals xBA. If observer A and observer B do not move with . A man standing along a highway observes cars moving with a velocity of + 55 miles/hour. Figure 4. The acceleration will be non-zero if either the magnitude or the direction of the velocity changes. 4. Relative Motion in One Dimension. Relative Motion in 1D The description of the motion of an object depends on the motion of the observer. and by an observer located at the origin of frame B (see Figure 4. We will start our discussion with relative motion in one dimension. xCB. Suppose a moving car is observed by an observer located at the origin of frame A. If our observer would be traveling in one of these cars with a velocity of + 55 miles/hour he would see the other cars moving with a velocity of 0 miles/hour. xCA.5). and vBA is the velocity of observer B measured by observer A. and the position of the car measured by observer B.6. are related as follows: xCA = xBA + xCB If we differentiate this equation with respect to time.
78 . Our coordinate system is chosen such that a positive velocity corresponds to motion towards the east while a negative velocity corresponds to motion towards the west. Alex is sitting in a car parked along the side of the highway (frame A) and Barbara is driving east with a velocity vBA (measured by Alex) equal to + 52 km/h. Take the easterly direction as positive. a) If Alex measures a speed of 78 km/h for car P. The velocity of car P measured by Barbara can be calculated as follows: vPA = vBA + vPB vPA = . The velocity of P. Barbara.vBA = (. driving east at a speed vBA = 52 km/h. parked by the side of an east-west road. the velocity of the car measured by observer A is equal to the velocity of the car measured by observer B. we can obtain a relation between the acceleration of the car measured by observer A and the acceleration measured by observer B: aCA = aBA + aCB If the observer in frame B is moving with a constant velocity with respect to the observer in frame A (vBA = constant and aBA = 0 m/s2).78 km/h (see Figure 4.130 km/h . what velocity will Barbara measure ? This problem involves three cars that are located somewhere along a highway running from east to west. watches the same car.respect to each other (vBA = 0 m/s). the acceleration measured in frame A is equal to the acceleration measured in frame B: aCA = aCB Sample Problem 4-12 Alex. Both observe a car P. is .78 km/h vBA = 52 km/h vPB = vPA . which is moving in a westerly direction. is watching car P.6). In a similar fashion. VPA (measured by Alex).52) km/h = .
Alex can calculate the acceleration of car P: v(t) = v0 + a t The initial conditions are: v0 = v(t = 0) = . Figure 4.The velocity of Alex measured by Barbara can be calculated in a similar manner. The corresponding velocity diagram is shown in Figure 4. Velocity Diagram Measured Relative to Alex.6. Figure 4. and the resulting velocity is .52 km/h.78 km/h = . Velocity Diagram Measured Relative to Barbara. a can be calculated as follows: .7.7. what acceleration (assumed constant) will he measure for it ? Alex observes that car P brakes to a halt in 10 s.7 m/s The final conditions are: v(t = 10 s) = 0 m/s Assuming a constant acceleration.21. b) If ALEX sees car P brake to a halt in 10 s.
This is what we expected since Barbara moves with a constant acceleration with respect to Alex.1 m/s).4 m/s). The position vector of the object P in reference frame B can be obtained from the position vector in reference frame A: Figure 4. After 10 s. Barbara can also calculate the acceleration of car P: Both Alex and Barbara measure the same acceleration of car P.8 shows two reference frames in two dimensions. Reference Frames in Two Dimensions. she observes car P moving with a velocity equal to v(t = 10 s) = . Vector rBA is the position of observer B (located at the origin of reference frame B) in frame A. 4.14. Relative Motion in 2D The description of the motion of an object in two or three dimensions depends on the choice of the coordinate system. The vectors rPA and rPB are the position vectors of object P in reference frame A and in reference frame B. Figure 4.130 km/h (. At time t = 0 she observes car P moving with a velocity equal to v0 = . The velocity and acceleration of the object P in reference frame B can be obtained by differentiating the position vector of P in reference frame B with respect to time: .7.c) What acceleration would Barbara measure for the braking car ? Barbara also observe that car P slows down during this 10 s interval.8.36. respectively.52 km/h (.
We state that the surroundings exert a force on the object studied. In all these cases. and no force need to be applied. we need to have our engine running if we want to keep driving with a speed of 55 miles/hour.1. This is called Newtonian mechanics. Under the influence of a force. unless we apply a force to them. we must replace Newtonian mechanics by Einstein's special theory of relativity. unless the friction force is canceled by the force supplied by our legs. friction will ultimately stop any moving object. we can always find an interaction between that object and its surroundings that is responsible for this change.If the observer in reference frame B is moving with a constant velocity with respect to an observer in reference frame A. In this course we will be discussing the laws of motion obtained by Newton. For problems on the scale of atomic structure we must replace Newtonian mechanics by quantum mechanics. It should be realized that Newtonian mechanics does not always provide correct answers. and the force needed to overcome the friction force will be less. If we reduce friction. The force laws allow us to calculate the force acting on a body from the properties of the body and its environment. the moving object will take longer to slow down.1 When an object all of a sudden changes its velocity and/or direction. The laws of motion are subsequently used to calculate the acceleration of the object under influence of the force. We need to keep pedaling if we want to keep a bicycle going with constant speed. the acceleration of the object P measured by observer A will be the same as the acceleration measured by observer B. 5. This conclusion is summarized in Newton's first law: . Newtons First Law All around us we observe that all moving objects will come eventually to rest. 5. etc. our engine. FORCE AND MOTION . an object will accelerate. In the limit of no friction. If the speed of the objects involved is an appreciable fraction of the speed of light. our object will keep moving with a constant velocity.
Reference frames in which Newton's first law applies are called inertial reference frames. This can be shown by demonstrating that the force has a magnitude and a direction. we apply a force of 3 N to our standard object (mass 1 kg). but it does not remain at rest. Rotating reference frames are not inertial reference frames. the earth is therefore also not an inertial frame. the corresponding acceleration is 2 m/s2. it will remain at rest. we apply a force of 4 N in the horizontal direction (this force is applied such that the standard object will accelerate with an acceleration of 4 m/s2 in the direction of the positive x-axis if this is the only force applied). If the body is at rest. We conclude that indeed the force is . One way to test whether a reference frame is an inertial reference frame. If you put a bowling ball at rest on a merry-go-round. If we apply a force equal to 2 N. and the direction of the acceleration coincides with the direction of the vector sum of the two forces. if the body does not remain at rest. If both forces are acting on the standard mass simultaneously. the acceleration of the object is measured to be 5 m/s2.1. For example. If the reference frame is an inertial frame. one can throw a baseball significantly further (and faster) than a ball of similar size made of lead. The force is applied such that the resulting acceleration of 3 m/s2 is upwards (positive y-direction). we will observe different accelerations. the body will remain at rest. Force If we exert the same force on several objects with different mass. In addition. only if we consider large scale motion such as wind and ocean current do we need to take into account the non inertial character of the rotating earth. Strictly speaking. 5. produces an acceleration of 1 m/s2. The situation is illustrated in Figure 5. Experiments have shown that the force is a vector." Consider a body on which no net force acts. and a force of 1 N is defined as the force that when applied to an object with a mass of 1 kg. " Newton's first law is really a statement about reference frames in that it defines the kinds of reference frames in which the laws of Newtonian mechanics hold. The total force is 5 N and is equal to the magnitude of the sum vector of the two forces (if we assume that the direction of the force is equal to the direction of the acceleration). Suppose. If the body is moving with constant velocity. it will continue to do so. no identifiable forces act on the ball. however. The unit of force is the Newton (N).2. the reference frame is not an inertial frame. is to put a test body at rest and arrange things so that no net force acts in it.
The following list summarizes what we have learned so far about forces: 1. The direction of the acceleration is the same as the direction of the force applied. For a given force. the resulting acceleration of a body with a mass twice that of the standard mass. If we decompose both the force and the acceleration into their individual components along the x.a vector and that both the force and the corresponding acceleration have the same direction. Figure 5. The Acceleration of the standard body under the influence of two forces. The conclusions are summarized in Newton's second law:' where [Sigma]F is the vector sum of all forces acting on an object with mass m. The acceleration produced by a certain force depends on the mass of the object. and is the resulting acceleration (note: the sum includes only external forces). A force acting on an object produces an acceleration. 2. is half that of the acceleration of the standard mass under the influence of the same force. Force is a vector. y and z-axis. 3. we obtain the following relations: . The acceleration of an object with twice the mass of the standard mass under the influence of a certain force is half that of the acceleration of the standard mass due to the same force.1.
and can be calculated by applying Newton's second law: The constant acceleration is only applied over a distance d (= 2.2. and the force is applied in the positive direction (see Figure 5. the time at which the sled has covered a distance d can be calculated: . In the coordinate system chosen.2). the resulting acceleration a is also constant.Newton's second law includes a formal statement of Newton's first law: if there is no net force acting on an object ([Sigma]F = 0 N) the acceleration is zero (and the velocity of the object is constant). He exerts a horizontal force equal to 130 N. If the sled starts from rest. Since the force is constant. Coordinate System Sample Problem 5-1. This is a one-dimensional problem.3 m). the equation of motion can be written as follows: From this equation. what is its final velocity ? Figure 5. The coordinate system is defined such that the origin coincides with the position of the sled at time t = 0 s. Sample Problem 5-1 A student pushes a loaded sled whose mass is 240 kg for a distance of 2.3 m over the frictionless surface of a frozen lake.
Alex. we can calculate [phi]: Substituting this value for [phi] into the second equation we can calculate FB: . the net force on the tire must be zero.3. With what force must Betty pull in order to keep the tire stationary ? Since the tire is stationary. Betty and Charles pull on ropes that are tied to an automobile tire.and the velocity of the sled at that time is equal to Sample Problem 5-2 In a two dimensional tug war. Alex pulls with a force FA = 220 N and Charles with a force FC = 170 N. This also means that the net force along the x and y direction must be zero: Substituting the known values for FA. FC and [theta] in the first equation. which is a view from above. The ropes make angles as shown in Figure 5.
and is described by Newton's third law:' " Suppose a body A exerts a force (FBA) on body B.4. Force Diagram Sample Problem 5-2. they can not cancel each other. Mass is an intrinsic property of a body. The mass m of a body is a scalar.3. the nail exerts an equal but oppositely directed force on the hammer. The mass of a body can be determined by comparing it to the standard kilogram. its SI unit the kilogram. The equalarm balance is balanced if the force on the left equals the force on the right: .1. The weight of a body is a vector.Figure 5. Experiments show that in that case body B exerts a force (FAB) on body A. Newtons Third Law If a hammer exerts a force on a nail. The equal-arm balance is designed for this purpose (see Figure 5. 5. the weight of an object depends on its location. Measuring Mass The mass of a body can be determined via comparison with the standard mass. on Mars. it is the same on the earth's surface. or in interstellar space. Mass and Weight The mass of a body and the weight of a body are totally different properties. These two forces are equal in magnitude and oppositely directed: " Note: Since the two members of an action-reaction pair always act on different bodies. The weight of a body with mass m is defined as: where g is the free-fall acceleration at the location of the body. and is therefore not an intrinsic property of a body. in an orbiting satellite. This is true in general.4. its SI unit in the Newton. 5.4).3. 5. Since the freefall acceleration varies from point to point.
a spring scale will only indicate the correct mass if it is used at a location at which the free-fall acceleration is equal to that at the calibration site (note: a spring scale will incorrectly determine the mass of an object if it is used on the moon. These two forces are the gravitational forces acting on m1 and m2 and can be calculated easily: If the free-fall acceleration is constant at the location of the balance. it should be stressed that the mass of the object is obtained from the measured weight. The spring scale uses a spring to measure the weight of the object. Therefore. Equal-Arm Balance.Figure 5. In general.8 m/s2. . However. 5. There is a one-to-one relation between the stretch of the spring and the applied force (responsible for the stretch).5).4.2. spring scales are calibrated and show the mass of the object. or in an accelerating elevator).4. Measuring Weight The measurement of the weight of an object can be carried out using a spring scale (see Figure 5. the equal-arm balance determines the relative mass of two objects by comparing their weight. we can conclude that if the arms are balanced: m 1 = m2 Therefore. and in this process it is assumed that the free-fall acceleration equals 9.
cord C must provide an opposing force equal to mg.Figure 5. What are the tensions in these cords ? The mass m experiences a gravitational force equal to mg.6). Since the system is at rest. Applications Sample Problem 5-7 Figure 5. using the following information: . we conclude that cord C exerts a force on the knot whose magnitude is equal to mg (and pointed in the direction shown in Figure 5. Spring Scale.5. Applying Newton's third law.6 shows a block of mass m = 15 kg hanging from three cords. Since the mass is at rest. the net force on the knot must be equal to zero: This vector equation can be rewritten in terms of its components along the xaxis and y-axis.5. 5.
the tensions in the cords are: TA = 100 N . Using these expressions we can write down the equations for the x and ycomponents of the net force: The first expression can be used to express TA in terms of TB: Substituting this expression into the equation for [Sigma]Fy we obtain: from which we can calculate TB: Knowing TB. we can now calculate TA: In the case of sample problem 5-6.6. Sample Problem 5-7.Figure 5.
7.8).TB = 140 N TC = 150 N Problem Figure 5.7 shows a block with mass m on a frictionless plane. Two forces act on the block: the gravitational force exerted by the earth on the block. In order to determine the acceleration of the block we have to determine the total force acting on the block along the inclined plane. This force must be present since in its absence mass m will experience free fall (instead of sliding motion). called the normal force exerted by the plane on the block (see Figure 5. Since the normal force is normal to the inclined plane it does not have a component along it. What is the acceleration of the block ? Figure 5. The component of the gravitational force along the inclined plane is given by The acceleration produced by this force can be determined from Newton's second law . Mass m on an inclined plane. and a force. tilted by an angle [theta].
This problem can be solved easily if the coordinate system is chosen carefully. Forces acting on mass m. the net force on it must be zero: Due to the choice of the coordinate system.10. Sample Problem 5-8 Figure 5.9. What is the tension in the cord ? What force does the plane exert on the block ? Figure 5.8. both N and T only have components along the y-axis and x-axis. The best choice of coordinate system is shown in Figure 5. Since the block is at rest.9 shows a block with mass m held by a cord on a frictionless plane. respectively: .Figure 5. tilted by an angle [theta]. Sample Problem 5-8.
10. Figure 5. Coordinate System # 1 used in Sample Problem 5-8.The mass will stay at rest if all components of the net force are zero: From these equations we can obtain N and T: Figure 5.11. . Coordinate System # 2 used in Sample Problem 5-8.
However. but the derivation is harder. N and T can be obtained by solving the following equations: Of course.The standard choice of coordinate system with the x-axis coinciding with the horizontal direction and the y-axis coinciding with the vertical direction (see Figure 5. In this coordinate system.11) would have made the problem significantly more difficult. since the pulley reverses the direction of motion. For each of the masses we can write down the following force equations: The first equation can be used to express T in terms of a: Substituting this expression for T into the second equation. N and T have component along both the x and y direction: In this case. the acceleration of mass m has to be equal to the acceleration of mass M. we obtain: . the solutions for N and T are identical to those derived previously.12). the direction of the acceleration of mass m is opposed to the direction of the acceleration of mass M. Find the tension in the cord and the (common) acceleration. The blocks are moving with a constant acceleration. Sample Problem 5-10 Two blocks are connected by a cord that passes over a (weightless) pulley (see Figure 5. Since the cord is assumed to rigid.
Setup Sample Problem 5-10. a) What is the acceleration of each block ? b) What is the tension in the cord ? . This of course agrees with what our expectations.13). and a is negative when M < m.Figure 5. The acceleration a can now be calculated: Note that a is positive when M > m. The acceleration is zero if m = M. The mass of the cord and the pulley can be neglected.12. The tension in the cord can now be calculated: Problem A block of mass m1 on a smooth inclined plane of angle [theta] is connected by a cord over a small frictionless pulley to a second block of mass m2 hanging vertically (see Figure 5.
13. In general. The following forces act on m1 (see Figure 5. Its direction is parallel to the inclined plane. This force is pointing downwards in the vertical direction. we have to identify all forces acting on both masses. * Tension T. The components of the net force acting on m1 are given by (1) (2) . Inclined plane and pulley. This force is exerted by the surface of the inclined plane on the mass and is pointing in a direction perpendicular to the inclined it. the net force acting on m1 will be non-zero and m1 will have a nonzero acceleration. The cord exerts this force on the mass. In order to determine the acceleration and the tension.14): * The gravitational force W1 = m1 g. * The normal force N.Figure 5.14) and is defined to be positive if the acceleration is in the same direction as the tension T. The acceleration will be along the x-axis (see Figure 5.
15). Figure 5. they will have the same acceleration.Figure 5. the direction of the acceleration on m2 will be along W2 (see Figure 5. Forces acting on m1. The following forces act on m2 (see Figure 5. None of the forces acting on m2 has a component along the x-axis and we will therefore only consider the net force along the y-axis: . Since m1 and m2 are connected via a cord. This force is pointing downwards along the vertical.15. Forces acting on m2. This force is pointing upwards along the vertical. The net force on m2 will be non-zero and the mass will accelerate. The cord exerts this force on the mass. * The tension T. and the magnitude of this force is therefore equal to the one acting on m1 although it points in a different direction. If the direction of the acceleration of m1 is along T.15): * The gravitational force W2 = m2 g. The tension in the cord is the same at each point.14.
and because the block does not move. there must be a second force f acting on the block. Therefore. Experiments have shown that the force of static friction is largely independent of the area of contact and proportional to the normal force N acting between the block and the surface. FORCE AND MOTION . This means that the net force on the block in the horizontal direction is zero. The force f must have a strength equal to F. As long as the applied force F is less than a certain maximum force (Fmax). and can be solved. Static and Kinetic Friction Suppose that a horizontal force F is applied to a block resting on a rough surface (see Figure 6. we can determine a: (5) Substituting equation (5) into equation (4) we obtain the tension T: (6) 6. we are dealing with static friction. Static Friction. 6.1. besides the applied force F.(3) Equations (1) and (3) are two equations with two unknown (T and a).1. This force f is called the friction force.1). Equation (3) can be rewritten as (4) Substituting equation (4) for T in equation (1). The static friction force is .II Figure 6. the block will not move. and it must be pointing in the opposite direction.
f <= us N where us is the coefficient of static friction (which is dimensionless). the force F needed to keep it in motion with a constant velocity is usually less than the critical force needed to get the motion started.2. When the wheels lock up. The equation for fk is not a vector equation since fk and N do not point in the same direction. In this situation we are dealing with kinetic friction and the friction force fk is given by fk = u k N where uk is the coefficient of kinetic friction.2 shows a mass m on an inclined slope. Since the maximum static friction force is larger than the kinetic friction force. The kinetic friction force is independent of the applied force. Figure 6. Calculate the coefficient of static friction. but always points in the opposite direction. a car can be stopped fastest if we prevent the wheels from locking up. the friction force is changed to kinetic friction (the tires and the ground are moving with respect to each other) thereby reducing the acceleration and increasing the time and length required to bring the car to a halt. The maximum force that can be applied without moving the block is Fmax = us N Once the block has been set in motion. Sample Problem 6-1 Figure 6. Note: The friction between car tires and the road is static friction. The coefficient of static friction is approximately constant (independent of N). . This friction is crucial when you try to stop a car. At a certain angle [theta] the mass begins to slide down the slope. Coordinate System used in Sample Problem 1.
N is directed along the y-axis and f is directed along the x-axis. It is harder to drive uphill or downhill when the roads are slick than it is to drive on leveled surface. Note that with this choice of coordinate system. Free-Body Diagram for Sled.Figure 2 shows the coordinate system used in this problem. the normal force N and the friction force f have each only one component. . the net force on the object equals zero: In terms of the components of the net force along the x-axis and the y-axis: The coefficient of static friction can be easily obtained from these two equations: Note The friction force between car tires and the road is reduced when the car travels uphill or downhill. the friction force has reached it maximum value: Since the object is at rest.3. Figure 6. Since this is the maximum angle at which the object will remain at rest.
this is not always true. Since the eraser is at rest. suppose I am pressing an eraser against the blackboard. the net force on the sled must be zero. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the runners and the snow is uk and the angle between the rope and the horizontal axis is [phi] (see Figure 6. the net force acting on it must be zero (and therefore. In the previous two sample problems.3). For example. However. I ask myself.4. we obtain the following equations of force: The second equation can be used to eliminate N: Substituting this expression in the first equation we obtain: The tension T can now be calculated: The normal force N is always perpendicular to the surface. What is the tension in the rope ? Since the sled is moving with a constant velocity. the normal force N was proportional to the weight of the object.Sample Problem 6-3 A woman pulls a loaded sled (mass m) along a horizontal surface at constant speed. what is the minimum force that I need to apply in order to prevent the eraser from slipping ? This situation is shown schematically in Figure 6. Decomposing the net force into its components along the x-axis and the y-axis. the components of the net force in both the x and the y-direction must be equal to zero): .
In order to prevent the eraser from slipping.4. This example also illustrates a situation in which the normal force is not related to the mass of the object.Figure 6. the force F will need to exceed a minimum threshold: This relation shows that if the mass of the eraser is increased. Eraser on the Black Board. the applied force needed to prevent the eraser from slipping will increase (the minimum force is proportional to the mass). Problem 25P. The second equation tells us that the static friction force fs must be equal to W. Figure 6.5. the normal force N is equal to the applied force F. Problem 25P . This implies the following for the normal force N: However.
In Figure 6.5, A, and B are blocks with weights of 44 N and 22N, respectively. (a) Determine the minimum weight of block C that must be placed on A to keep it from sliding if us between A and the table is 0.20. (b) Block C is suddenly lifted off A. What is the acceleration of block A, if uk between A and the table is 0.15 ? A weight (block C) is placed on top of block A and prevents it from sliding. The acceleration of the system is therefore 0 m/s2. Consequently, the net force on each block is equal to 0 N. In order to determine the minimum weight of block C required to accomplish this, we start evaluating the net force on each block. The forces acting on block B, the weight WB and the tension T, are schematically indicated in Figure 6.6. The net force acting on block B is directed along the y-axis and has a magnitude equal to
Figure 6.6. Forces acting on block B.
Since the net force acting on block B must be zero we conclude that T = WB The forces acting on block A and block C are indicated in Figure 6.7. The net force acting in the y-direction is zero and thus N = WA + WC Since the system remains at rest, the net force acting on block A and C along the x-direction must also be zero. This means that the static friction force fs must be equal to the tension T. Experiments show that fs has a maximum value which is determined by the normal force N and the static friction coefficient us fs <= us N = us (WA + WC)
The minimum weight of block C that will prevent the system from slipping can be found by requiring that us (WA + WC) >= fs = T = WB and thus
Figure 6.7. Forces acting on block A and C. When block C is removed the static friction force is changed (since the normal force is changed). The maximum static friction force is now us WA = 8.8 N which is less than the weight of block B. Obviously block A will slip and both blocks will accelerate. At this point the friction force acting on block A is the kinetic friction force fk whose magnitude is equal to fk = uk N = uk WA The net force acting on block A is given by
The net force acting on block B is given by
Eliminating the tension T from these last two equations we obtain for the acceleration a
Figure 6.8. Problem 36P. Problem 36P Two masses, m1 = 1.65 kg and m2 = 3.30 kg, attached by a massless rod parallel to the inclined plane on which they both slide (see Figure 6.8), travel along the plane with m1 trailing m2. The angle of incline is 30deg.. The coefficient of kinetic friction between m1 and the incline is u1 = 0.226; that between m2 and the incline is u2 = 0.113. Compute (a) the tension in the rod and (b) the common acceleration of the two masses. (c) How would the answers to (a) and (b) change if m2 trailedm1 ? The forces acting on mass m1 are schematically shown in Figure 6.9. The x and y-components of the net force acting on m1 are given by
Figure 6.9. Forces acting on m1.
We now have two equations with two unknown (a and T). The tension T in the rod can now be determined easily . The normal force N1 must therefore be equal to m1 g cos([theta]).10.In the coordinate system chosen. Forces acting on m2. Eliminating the tension T from these two equations we obtain the following expression for a Substituting the values of the parameters given we find that a = 3. The acceleration a is related to the x-component of the net force acting on mass m1 The forces acting on mass m2 are schematically shown in Figure 6. there is no acceleration along the y-axis.10.62 m/s2. The friction force f2k acting on mass m2 can be determined easily (see calculation of f1k): f2k = u2k N2 = u2k m2 g cos([theta]) The x-component of the net force acting on mass m2 is given by and is related to the acceleration a of mass m2 Figure 6. This fixes the kinetic friction force f1k = u1k N1 = u1k m1 g cos([theta]) Mass m1 will accelerate down hill with an acceleration a.
The direction of the drag force is opposite to the direction of the velocity.06 N. 6.11. Drag Force The friction force we have discussed so far acts when two surfaces touch.0. The drag force D acting on an object moving through air is given by where A is the effective cross-sectional area of the body. The force that tends to reduce the velocity of objects moving through air is very similar to the friction force. C is a dimensionless drag coefficient that depends on the shape of the object and whose value generally lies in the range between 0. Because of the drag force. Drag Force. we will still obtain the same acceleration. If mass m1 and mass m2 are reversed.which is equal to 1. This occurs when D = mg. this force is called the drag force. Figure 6. [rho] is the density of air and v is the speed of the object. but the tension in the rod will be negative (which means that the rod is being compressed). a falling body will eventually fall with a constant velocity. the so called terminal velocity vt.5 and 1. When the object is moving with its terminal velocity vt the net force on it must be zero (no change in velocity means no acceleration). and the terminal velocity vt has to satisfy the following relation: .2.
The acceleration a is called the centripetal acceleration. 6. The object will obtain this velocity independent of whether its initial velocity is larger or smaller than the terminal velocity (see Figure 6. What does this tell us about the distance r between the earth and the moon ? During one period. To account for the centripetal acceleration. vm. Uniform Circular Motion In chapter 4 we have seen that when a particle moves in a circle. and can be calculated from Newton's second law: An example of uniform circular motion is the motion of the moon around the earth. and r is the radius of the circle. the moon covers a total distance equal to 2[pi]r. The velocity of the moon.and vt is calculated to be The equation for vt shows that the terminal velocity of an object increases with a decreasing effective area. with a magnitude equal to where v is the velocity of the particle. it experiences an acceleration a. Suppose the period of this motion is T. can be calculated: The corresponding centripetal force is . directed towards the center of the circle. This force must be directed towards the center of the circle. a centripetal force must be acting on this object. The terminal velocity of an object is the final velocity it obtains during free fall.11).3.
The centripetal force is supplied by the gravitational attraction between the earth and the moon.3 x 106 s).98 x 1024 kg. the gravitational force must provide the required centripetal force: The distance between the earth and the moon can therefore be calculated: The constant of gravity is known to be G = 6.3 days (2.Here we assumed that mm is the mass of the moon. The distance between the moon and the earth can therefore be calculated: r = 3. The measured period of the moon is 27.67 x 10-11 m3/(s kg) and the mass of the earth is known to be me = 5. . In Chapter 15 we will see that the strength of the gravitational interaction can be calculated as follows: where G is the gravitational constant and me is the mass of the earth.82 x 108 m which agrees nicely with the distance obtained using other techniques (for example the measurement of the time it takes for light to travel from the earth to the moon and back). For a constant circular motion.
This requires that the normal force N is equal to the weight of the car: N=mg When the car rounds the curve it carries out uniform circular motion. Forces acting on a car while rounding an unbanked curve. Suppose that the car in question make a turn with radius R and velocity v. This can be easily understood if we consider the forces that act on a car while it is making a turn. Figure 6. There is no motion in the vertical direction and the net force in this direction must therefore be equal to zero.4. Rounding a Curve Friction is critical if we want to round a curve while driving a car or bicycle.Figure 6.12. The corresponding centripetal acceleration of this motion is given by In order for the car to carry out this circular motion there must exist a radial force with a strength equal to This force can only be supplied by the static friction force and therefore we require that .12 shows the forces acting on the car. 6.
the car will not be able to round any curve at all. the net force along the vertical axis must be zero. Forces acting on a car while rounding an banked curve. The effect of banking the curves can be easily understood. Since there is no motion along the vertical direction.13. In order to avoid problems like this. This requires that and fixes the normal force N . The normal force N has components both along the radial and the vertical axes. If the road is frictionless (us = 0) because of a cover of ice. Figure 6.The static friction force fs has a maximum value equal to us N and this limits the velocity and the radius of curvature of the curve that the car can take: We conclude that the car will be able to make a turn with radius R and velocity v if the coefficient of static friction between the tires and the road is Figure 6. curves on highways are usually banked. We assume that there is no friction between the tires and the road.13 shows the forces acting on an automobile when it is rounding a curve on a banked highway.
where v is the velocity of the pendulum and r is the radius of the circle. The net force in the horizontal plane should therefore be always directed towards the center of the circle and have strength determined by Newton's second law. The coordinate system chosen is such that the origin coincides with the center of the circle describing the motion of the pendulum. What is the period of the pendulum ? The pendulum is shown schematically in figure 6. The net force in this direction must therefore be zero: . even in the absence of friction.14). If the car has to round a curve with radius R and with velocity v. The y-axis coincides with the vertical direction (see Figure 6. Since the y-coordinate of the bob is constant. The cord makes an angle [theta] with the vertical.The radial component of the normal force is given by This component of the normal force can produce the radial acceleration required to allow the car to round the curve. Since the pendulum is carrying out a uniform circular motion.14. we require that or This last equation shows that the banking angle of a highway curve is designed for a specific velocity and radius of curvature. Since the horizontal component of the force is always directed towards the center we will be using an r-axis (rather than an x-axis). Sample Problem 6-9 A conical pendulum whirls around in a horizontal circle at constant speed v at the end of a cord whose length is L. the acceleration of the pendulum has to point toward the center of the circle (direction along the position vector r) and the magnitude of the acceleration equals v2/r. the acceleration in y-direction must be zero.
the velocity of the object can be calculated: The period T can be calculated from the known velocity v and radius R: For L = 1. the period T = 2.7 m and [theta] = 37deg. Sample Problem 6-10 .14.This expression allows us to calculate the tension T: The net force in the radial direction can now be determined: Figure 6. Sample Problem 6-9. The centripetal acceleration a can now be calculated: From the radius R of the trajectory and the centripetal acceleration a.3 s.
21. Since there is no acceleration in the y-direction. the centripetal force is provided by the static friction force. the net force in this direction must be zero: The centripetal force Fc is given by: In this situation. What is the minimum coefficient of static friction us between the tires and the roadway ? Figure 6. Note that . Sample Problem 6-10.A Cadillac with mass m moves at a constant speed v on a curved (unbanked) roadway whose radius of curvature is R. the minimum value of the coefficient of static friction is 0.15. the maximum static friction force must exceed the required centripetal force: The minimum coefficient of static friction can be obtained from this equation: If the velocity of the car is 72 km/hr (20 m/s) and the radius of curvature R = 190 m.15. The situation is schematically shown in Figure 6. If no slipping occurs.
The maximum velocity of the car can now be found easily . and the friction coefficient is therefore the same for all objects moving with the same velocity. The net radial force Fr acting on the car is equal to Figure 6. will reduce the minimum friction coefficient by a factor of four. Forces acting on the car.the mass of the car does not enter in the calculation. This therefore also limits the centripetal force and therefore the speed of the car. Problem 58E A stunt man drives a car over the top of a hill. The minimum coefficient of static friction scales with the square of the velocity. What is the greatest speed at which he can drive without the car leaving the road at the top of the hill ? The car will not leave the road at the top of the hill if the net radial force acting on it can supply the required centripetal acceleration. the radial force will never exceed the weight W of the car.16. the cross section of which can be approximated by a circle of radius 250 m. a reduction of the velocity by a factor if two.N Since the normal force N is always directed along the positive y-axis. Fr = W .16). The only radial forces acting on the car are the gravitational force and the normal force (see Figure 6.
It is observed to remain on the table when it rotates at 33 1/3 revolutions per minute but slides off when it rotates at 45 revolutions per minute. If the car carries out a uniform circular motion than we know that a net radial force must be acting on it and that its magnitude is equal to mv2/R. The net radial force acting on the car is equal to W . Between what limits must the coefficient of static friction between the object and the surface of the turntable lie ? The object is located a distance R away from the rotation axis. If one revolution is completed during a time T. the static friction coefficient needs to satisfy the following relation: . The normal force N can now be calculated and will be a function of the velocity v. During one revolution the object covers a distance 2[pi]R. We conclude that or Problem 60P A small object is placed 10 cm from the center of a phonograph turntable.Suppose the car is driving with a velocity less than 178 km/h.N. The friction force fs has a maximum value given by If the object remains on the table. the linear velocity of the object can be obtained using the following equation: In order for the object to carry out such a uniform circular motion it must provide a radial force with magnitude equal to The only radial force acting on the object is the static friction force.
The block remains on the table when the table rotates at 33 1/3 rev/min.In this problem the distance to the rotation axis is 0. A force F acting on a body.22 7. This implies that the coefficient of static friction must be at least 0.: force perpendicular to displacement . Work: constant force Suppose a constant force F acts on a body while the object moves over a distance d. These tools will significantly simplify the manner in which certain problems can be solved. This corresponds to 1 revolution per 1. and a linear velocity of 0.1. Both the force F and the displacement d are vectors who are not necessarily pointing in the same direction (see Figure 7. The resulting displacement is indicated by the vector d.1 m.35 m/s. The work done by the force F on the object as it undergoes a displacement d is defined as The work done by the force F is zero if: * d = 0: displacement equal to zero * [phi] = 90deg. WORK AND KINETIC ENERGY In this chapter we will introduce the concepts of work and kinetic energy.1.1). When the table rotates at 45 rev/min the block leaves the table. Figure 7.12. 7. This implies the coefficient of static friction is less than 0.80 s.
Positive or Negative Work. From the definition of the work it is clear that: 1 J = 1 N m = 1 kg m2/s2 . The work done by the force F can be positive or negative.Figure 7.2. depending on [phi]. a force F is applied. If (F * v) = 0 we are dealing with centripetal motion and the speed of the object remains constant.2). If F is the only force acting on the body. If (F * v) > 0. The unit of work is the Joule (J). For example. the speed of the object will decrease and the work done by the force on the object is negative. the speed of the object will increase and the work done by the force on the object is positive. At time t = 0 s. work is a scalar. Note that for the friction force (F * v) < 0 (always) and the speed of the object is always reduced ! Per definition. If (F * v) < 0. suppose we have an object moving with constant velocity. the object will either increase or decrease its speed depending on whether or not the velocity v and the force F are pointing in the same direction (see Figure 7.
Since the safe is moving with constant velocity.3 shows all the forces that act on the safe. Identify all the forces acting on the safe and calculate the work done by each of them. The force that is applied to the safe can now be calculated The work done on the safe by each of the four forces can now be calculated: The total work done on the safe is therefore . The coefficient of friction between the bottom of the safe and the floor is uk. What is the total work done ? Figure 7.Figure 7. its acceleration is zero. and the net force acting on it is zero The components of the net force along the x-axis and along the y-axis must therefore also be zero The second equation shows that N = W = m g.3. Forces acting on the safe. Sample Problem 7-2 A safe with mass m is pushed across a tiled floor with constant velocity for a distance d.
The value of d is fixed by the angle [theta] and the height h: (see Figure 7. The net force in the x direction is given by and the force F required to move the crate with constant velocity is hereby fixed: This force acts over a distance d. Figure 7.4. Calculate the amount of work done by the force after the crate has moved to a height h (see Figure 7. Example Problem 1 A crate with mass m is pulled up a slope (angle of inclination is [theta]) with constant velocity.4).which could be expected since the net force on the safe is zero. Since the crate is moving with a constant velocity.4). The work done by the force on the crate is given by The work done on the crate by the gravitational force is given by . Example Problem 1. The coordinate system that will be used is shown in Figure 4. the net force in the x and y direction must be zero.
the force F required to produce a constant velocity would be equal to F=mg This force acts over a distance h. Crate moved in vertical direction. the strength of the required force is very different in each of the two cases.The work done on the crate by the normal force N is zero since N is perpendicular to d. Example Problem 2 . Figure 7.5).5. and the work done by this force on the object is WF = m g h which is equal to the work done by the force on the inclined slope. Although the work done by each force is the same. We conclude that the total work done on the crate is given by which was expected sine the net force on the crate is zero. If the same crate had been lifted by a height h in the vertical direction (see Figure 7.
the normal force N.6. and (b) the coefficient of kinetic friction between block and floor. These four forces are shown schematically in Figure 7. Figure 7.6. the friction force fk and the applied force F.06 m along a horizontal floor by a rope exerting a 7. A total of four forces act on the mass m: the gravitational force W. since the net component of the force along the x-axis must also be zero. its acceleration is equal to zero.57 kg block is drawn at constant speed 4.A 3.68 N force at angle of 15deg. Since the velocity of the mass is constant. the last equation can be used to determine the normal force N: The kinetic friction force fk is given by However. above the horizontal. Compute (a) the work done by the rope on the block. the kinetic friction force fk is also related to the applies force in the following manner . Example Problem 2. The x and y-components of the net force acting on the mass are given by Since the net force acting on the mass must be zero.
The work done over this small interval (dW) can be calculated The total work done by the force F is the sum of all dW Example: The Spring .Combining these last two expressions we can determine the coefficient of kinetic friction: The work done by the rope on the mass m can be calculated rather easily: The work done by the friction force is given by The work done by the normal force N and the weight W is zero since the force and displacement are perpendicular. The total work done on the mass is therefore given by This is not unexpected since the net force acting on the mass is zero.2. in many cases this is not a correct assumption. By reducing the size of the displacement (for example by reducing the time interval) we can obtain an interval over which the force is almost constant. 7. Work: variable force In the previous discussion we have assumed that the force acting on the object is constant (not dependent on position and/or time). However.
The work done by the spring on an object attached to its end can be calculated if we know the initial position xi and final position xf of the object: If the spring is initially in its relaxed state (xi = 0) we find that the work done by the spring is . Relaxed. where k is the spring constant (which is positive and independent of x). Stretched and Compressed Springs.7.An example of a varying force is the force exerted by a spring that is stretched or compressed. the stiffer the spring. The force exerted by the spring will attempt to return the spring to its relaxed state: if x < 0: F > 0 if x > 0: F < 0 It is found experimentally that for many springs the force is proportional to x: F=-kx Figure 7. The SI units for the spring constant is N/m. The larger the spring constant.7). The spring is stretched if x > 0 and compressed if x < 0. Suppose we define our coordinate system such that its origin coincides with the end point of a spring in its relaxed state (see Figure 7.
3. What is the work done by the sum of the applied force and the gravitational force to move the pendulum from position 1 to position 2 ? Method 1 .8. The mass of the pendulum is m.9 shows that the following equations relate F to Ft and Fg to Ft: Figure 7. Vector sum Ft of Fg and F.8. The angle between the applied force F and the vector sum Ft is a. .9.Difficult The vector sum of the applied force and the gravitational force is shown in Figure 7.Figure 7. Figure 7. Pendulum in x-y plane 7.8).9. pointing in the horizontal direction (see Figure 7. Work in 2D Consider the pendulum shown in Figure 7. The pendulum is moved from position 1 to position 2 by a constant force F.
The distance dr is a function of d[theta]: For a very small distance dr. the angle between dr and Ft will not change.In order to calculate the work done by the total force on the pendulum. and [theta] = [theta]max. Angle between sum force and direction. The work done by Ft on the pendulum is given by The total work done by Ft can be obtained by integrating the equation for dW over all angles between [theta] = 0deg. The total work done is .10. The maximum angle can be easily expressed in terms of r and h: Figure 7. we need to know the angle between the total force and the direction of motion.10 shows that if the angle between the pendulum and the y-axis is [theta] . the angle between the total force and the direction of motion is [theta] + a. Figure 7.
r cos([theta]max) and r sin([theta]max) we can rewrite this expression and obtain for W: Method 2 . Suppose our object . Kinetic Energy The observation that an object is moving with a certain velocity indicates that at some time in the past work must have been done on it.Easy The total work done on the pendulum by the applied force F and the gravitational force Fg could have been obtained much easier if the following relation had been used: The total work W is the sum of the work done by the applied force F and the work done by the gravitational force Fg. These two quantities can be calculated easily: And the total work is which is identical to the result obtained using method 1.Using one of the trigonometric identities (Appendix. page A15) we can rewrite this expression as Using the equations shown above for Ft cos(a). Ft sin(a). 7.4.
we need to know the total distance over which this force acted. This distance d can be found easily from the equations of motion: The work done by the force F on the mass is given by The work is independent of the strength of the force F and depends only on the mass of the object and its velocity. the mass will keep moving with a constant velocity equal to v. For a given force F we can obtain the acceleration of our object: Assuming that the object was at rest at time t = 0 we can obtain the velocity at any later time: Therefore the time at which the mass reaches a velocity v can be calculated: If at that time the force is turned off. it is called its kinetic energy K: If the kinetic energy of a particle changes from some initial value Ki to some final value Kf the amount of work done on the particle is given by W = Kf . .Ki This indicates that the change in the kinetic energy of a particle is equal to the total work done on that particle by all the forces that act on it.has mass m and is moving with velocity v. In order to calculate the work done by the force F on the mass. Since this work is related to the motion of the object. Its current velocity is the result of a force F.
The work done by the force F on the mass m as the particle moves from its initial position xi to its final position xf is From the definition of a we can conclude Substituting this expression into the integral we obtain Example Problem 3 An object with mass m is at rest at time t = 0. its initial kinetic energy is zero: Ki = 0 J The force acting on the object is the gravitational force Fg = m g .Alternative Derivation Consider a particle with mass m moving along the x-axis and acted on by a net force F(x) that points along the x-axis. It falls under the influence of gravity through a distance h (see Figure 7.11). What is its velocity at that point ? Since the object is initially at rest.
The work done by the gravitational force on the object is simply W = Fg h = m g h The kinetic energy of the object after falling a distance h can be calculated: W = m .Ki = Kf and its velocity at that point is . g . Falling Object.11. h = Kf .Figure 7.
Example Problem 4 A baseball is thrown up in the air with an initial velocity v0 (see Figure 7. At that point the work done on the baseball is W=-mgh The maximum height h can now be calculated: 7. The work done on the baseball by the gravitational force can be obtained: W = Kf .Ki = . Projectile motion.Figure 7.Ki In this case the direction of the displacement of the ball is opposite to the direction of the gravitational force. and therefore its kinetic energy is equal to zero. Power In every day life. The same amount of work could have been done using a small space heater (and having it run for a long time) but the space heater would cause no explosion. In general it is more important to know the time within which a certain amount of work can be done.12). The quantity of interest is power. What is the highest point it reaches ? The initial kinetic energy of the baseball is At its highest point the velocity of the baseball is zero. the amount of work an apparatus can do is not always important. If an amount of work W is carried out in a time interval [Delta]t.5. The power tells us something about the rate of doing work. the average power for this time-interval is . For example: the explosive effect of dynamite is based on its capability to release large amounts of energy in a very short time. Suppose the baseball reaches a height h.12.
1. there are certain properties of the system that do not change " In short we can express this as X = constant in which X is the conserved property. .1. As the particles move about and interact with each other. hour. our usage of electricity is always expressed in units of kilowatt . This is equivalent to 7. THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 8. h = (103 W) (3600 s) = 3.6 MJ We can also express the power delivered to a body in terms of the force that acts on the body and its velocity.The instantaneous power can be written as The SI unit of power is J/s or W (Watt). Thus for a particle moving in one dimension we obtain In the more general case of motion in 3 dimensions the power P can be expressed as 8. For example. completely isolated from outside influence.6 x 106 J = 3. The conservation laws in physics can be expressed in very simple form: " Consider a system of particles.3. kW . Conservation laws In this chapter we will discuss conservation of energy.
The stored energy is called potential energy. Conservation of energy tells us that the total energy of the system is conserved. This kinetic energy was somehow stored in the mass when it was hanging from the ceiling: the energy was hidden.[Delta]K = .8. If the cord breaks. the mass will rapidly increase its kinetic energy. and in this case. the sum of kinetic and potential energy must be constant.W which will be the definition of the potential energy. The potential energy U can be obtained from the applied force F and . but has the potential to reappear as kinetic energy. Conservation of mechanical energy A mass hanging from the ceiling will have a kinetic energy equal to zero. This means that every change in the kinetic energy of a system must be accompanied by an equal but opposite change in the potential energy: [Delta]U + [Delta]K = 0 and E = U + K = constant The work-energy theorem discussed in Chapter 7 relates the amount of work W to the change in the kinetic energy of the system W = [Delta]K The change in the potential energy of the system can now be related to the amount of work done on the system [Delta]U = . The unit of potential energy is the Joule (J).2.
where U(x0) is the potential energy of the system at its chosen reference configuration. Sometimes. before accelerating in a direction opposite to its original direction (see Figure 8. . The force responsible for this potential can then be obtained We will continue with discussing some example of conservation of energy. The potential energy of the spring in any other state can be obtained from Hooke's law Suppose the total energy of the ball-spring system is E. The spring force The force exerted by a spring on a mass m can be calculated using Hooke's law F(x) = . andwe are free to assign the arbitrary value of zero to the potential energy of the system when it is in its reference configuration.k x where k is the spring constant. 8. When a moving object runs into a relaxed spring it will slow down. the kinetic energy of the block is gradually transferred to the spring where it is stored as potential energy.1. It turns out that only changes in the potential energy are important. come to rest momentarily. As the spring is compressed. Conservation of energy tells us Note that the amount of work done by the spring on the block after it returns to its original position is zero. The potential energy of the spring in its relaxed position is defined to be zero.1).2. While the object is slowing down. it will compress the spring. the potential energy function U(x) is known. and x is the amount by which the spring is stretched (x > 0) or compressed (x < 0).
1. The total energy at that point is therefore just the kinetic energy of the moving mass: Conservation of energy requires that Ei = Ef. Sample Problem 8-4 A spring of a spring gun is compressed a distance d from its relaxed state.Figure 8. the total energy is just the potential energy of the compressed spring: At the moment that the ball leaves the barrel. and its potential energy is zero. Since the system is initially at rest. With what speed will the ball leave the barrel once the gun is fired ? Suppose Ei is the mechanical energy of the system when the spring is compressed. Conversion of kinetic energy into potential energy and vice-versa. A ball if mass m is put in the barrel. the spring is in its relaxed position. This means .
The ball than reverses its direction.2. When the ball arrives at its starting point it will have a kinetic energy equal to its initial kinetic energy. steadily regaining its kinetic energy that was lost on the way up. Gravitational force A ball moving upwards in the gravitational field of the earth will lose its kinetic energy and come momentarily to rest at its highest point. If the spring constant is k. The total energy of the ball-spring system is given by The maximum compression of the spring will occur when the ball is at rest.1 has an initial velocity v0 and a mass m.2. The potential energy due to the gravitational force can be calculated . The work done by the gravitational force on the ball is negative during the upwards motion while it is positive on the way down.We can now calculate the velocity of the ball Example Problem 1 Suppose the ball in Figure 8. and thus and 8. what is the maximum compression of the spring ? In the initial situation. the spring is in its relaxed position (U = 0). The work done when the ball returns to its original position is zero. At this point the kinetic energy of the system is zero (K = 0) and the total energy of the system is given by Conservation of energy tells us that Ei = Ef.
the work done by this force on the ball is zero for a displacement in the x and/or the z-direction. The initial energy consist only out of potential energy (since child is at rest the kinetic energy is zero) Ei = m g h where we have taken the potential energy at pool level to be zero. Conservation of energy for the earth-ball system now shows This equation holds also for a ball moving in two or three dimensions. What is the velocity of the child when she is projected into the pool ? Assume that the slide is frictionless. only the displacement in the vertical direction needs to be considered. the potential energy is zero. a height h above the level of a pool. Sample Problem 8-3 A child with mass m is released from rest at the top of a curved water slide. and the final energy consist only out of kinetic energy Conservation of energy requires that Ei = Ef Thus or .where the potential energy at y = 0 is defined to be zero. In the calculation of the change in the gravitational potential energy of an object. Since Fg is perpendicular to the horizontal direction. At the bottom of the slide.
otherwise. The directed long-scale motion of the block has been transformed into kinetic energy of the randomly directed moving atoms that make up the block and the plane. If a potential energy can not be associated with a force. otherwise. Examples of conservative forces are the spring force and the gravitational force. Particle on a round trip from A to B back to A.2 = 0 .3.8. An example is the friction force. Conservative and non-conservative forces If a potential energy can be associated with a force. Test 1 and test 2 are equivalent.2) is zero. A force is conservative if the work done by it on a particle that moves between two points is the same for all paths connecting these points. we call that force non-conservative. 8. The requirement of zero work for a round trip is not met by the friction force.2. This means that Figure 8. There is no way to get back the original kinetic energy of the block after the friction force has brought it to rest. For example. Alternative tests of the conservative nature of a force are: 1. WAB.3. it is non-conservative. Friction force A block of mass m projected onto a rough surface will be brought to rest by the kinetic friction force. We can not associate a potential energy with the friction force.2.1 + WBA. assume that the work done for the round trip from A to B and back to A (see Figure 8. 2. we call the force conservative. A force is conservative if the work it does on a particle that moves through a round trip is zero. and from A to B via 2 different routes. the force is non conservative.
WBA.1 = .or WAB.WBA.2 which is exactly what test 2 states (the work done by the force on the object depends only on the initial and final position of the object and not on the path taken).2 = . Two possible trajectories to get from A to B. What is the work done on the object by the gravitational force for trajectory 1 and for trajectory 2 ? The work done if the mass is moved along route 1 is equal to The alternate route (route 2) consist out of a motion in the horizontal direction followed by one in the vertical direction. Figure 8.3 shows two possible trajectories to get from A to B. For the motion along the vertical.2 This relation than can be used to show that WAB. the gravitational force is opposed to the motion. The work done by the gravitational force is therefore zero. . the gravitational force is perpendicular to the displacement.3. The work done by the gravitational force is Figure 8.1 = WAB. For any motion in the horizontal plane.2 The work done by the force on each segment reverses sign if we revert the direction WAB.
The force at each of these maxima and minima is zero. The potential energy curve (Figure 8. in addition to the friction force. 8.U is zero or positive.4. the particle can only be in those regions for which E . Potential energy curve A plot of the potential energy as function of the x-coordinate tells us a lot about the motion of the object (see for example Figure 8. the forces acting on it will tend to push the particle even further away). The points at which E . small displacements in either direction will result in a force that pushes the particle back towards the position of stable equilibrium).U = K = 0 are called the turning points.12 in Halliday. Resnick and Walker) shows several local maxima and minima. A point is a position of stable equilibrium if the potential energy has a minimum at that point (in this case. Because of the frictional force.5. By differentiating U(x) we can obtain the force acting on the object In the absence of friction the conservation of mechanical energy holds and U(x) + K = E Since the kinetic energy can not be negative.12 in Halliday. Resnick and Walker). Non-conservative forces If we look at a block-spring system. oscillating on a rough surface.The total work done by the gravitational force on the object when it is moved from A to B via route 2 is therefore which is equal to W1. Points of unstable equilibrium appear as maxima in the potential energy curve (if the particle is displaced slightly from the position of unstable equilibrium. the mechanical energy is no longer conserved. we will see that the amplitude of the motion decreases continuously. If we look at a system on which several conservative forces act. The total work done on the system is . 8.
mechanical energy is converted into internal energy Uint (or thermal energy): [Delta]Uint = . Conservation of energy In the presence of non-conservative forces. the total energy of a system always remains constant. In words " Energy may be transformed from one kind into another in an isolated system but it can not be created or destroyed.which is equal to the change in the kinetic energy of the system (work-energy theorem). " Sample Problem 8-8 A ball bearing whose mass is m is fired vertically downward from a height h with an initial velocity v0 (see Figure 8. It buries itself in the sand at a depth d. 8.6.Wf With this definition of the internal energy. What average upward resistive force f does the sand exert on the ball as it comes to rest ? . the work-energy theorem can be rewritten as which is the law of conservation of energy.4). Each conservative force can be identified with a potential energy and We can now rewrite the expression for the change in the kinetic energy of the system The work done by the friction force is equal to the change in the mechanical energy of the system.
d) = . The work done by the friction force f is given by The initial mechanical energy of the system is given by The final mechanical energy of the system consist only out of the potential energy (Kf = 0) Ef = Uf = m g (. Sample Problem 5.4.Figure 8.m g d The change in mechanical energy is which must be equal to the work done on the bearing by the frictional force The friction force f can now be calculated .
The potential energy at the origin is taken to be zero. the initial mechanical energy of the system is just the kinetic energy of the block Figure 8. It travels a distance d up the plane. comes momentarily to rest. Example Problem 2. The work done by the friction force is equal to the change in the mechanical energy of the system.Example Problem 2 A block whose mass is m is fired up an inclined plane (see Figure 8. What is the magnitude of the kinetic friction force that acts on the block while it is moving ? What will the velocity be when the block returns at its original position.5) with an initial velocity v0. Therefore. The final mechanical energy (at maximum height) is just the potential energy of the block at height h: Ef = m g h = m g d sin([theta]) The change in mechanical energy is The work done on the block by the friction force is . and then slides back down to the bottom of the plane.5.
and very different from the standard projectile motion discussed in Chapter 4. Center of mass The motion of a rotating ax thrown between two jugglers looks rather complicated. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 9.Wf = .f d and must be equal to [Delta]E. This special point is called the center of mass of the ax. Thus The friction force f can now be obtained When the block returns to the origin.1. .2 f d This must be equal to the change in mechanical energy of the system. The change in the mechanical energy of the system is due to a change in the velocity of the block: The final velocity of the block can now be calculated 9. Experiments have shown that one point of the ax follows a trajectory described by the standard equations of motion of a projectile. there is no change in its potential energy. The total work done by the friction force on the block is now Wf = . the friction force has again done work on the block. When the block returns at the origin.
closest to the heavier mass. The position of the center of mass is now Figure 9.1).The position of the center of mass of a system of two particles with mass m1 and m2. we can define the origin of our coordinate system to coincide with the left most object (see Figure 9.1. located at position x1 and x2. the position of the center of mass will satisfy the following relation The definition of the center of mass in one dimension can be easily generalized to three dimensions or in vector notation . for a system with more than two particles. Position of the center of mass in 1 dimension. is defined as Since we are free to define our coordinate system in whatever way is convenient. In general. This equation shows that the center of mass lies between the two masses. respectively.
Location of 4 masses.2 shows a system consisting of 4 masses. m2. x2.For a rigid body. Figure 9. located at x1. The position of the center of mass of m1 and m2 is given by The position of the center of mass of m3 and m4 is given by The position of the center of mass of the whole system is given by This can be rewritten as Using the center of mass of m1 and m2 and of m3 and m4 we can express the center of mass of the whole system as follows Figure 9. respectively. x3 and x4. the summation will be replaced by an integral Suppose we are dealing with a number of objects. . m3 and m4.2. m1.
However. Locate the center of mass of object X. the position of the center of mass of a system consisting out of several spheres can be calculated by assuming that the mass of each sphere is concentrated in the center of that sphere (its center of mass). Figure 9. For example.R (this disk is called object D). The new object (object C. Symmetry arguments immediately tell us that the center of mass of object X is located on the x-axis. The center of mass of an object does not need to lie within the body of that object (for example: the center of a donut is its center of mass even though there is no mass at that point). object C consist out of object X and a disk with radius R centered on the x-axis at x = . Note: • • The center of mass of an object always lies on a point/line/plane of symmetry (for homogeneous objects). Suppose the hole in object X is filled with a disk of radius R.3a shows a circular metal plate of radius 2R from which a disk if radius R has been removed.3b) is symmetric around the origin of our coordinate system. Let us call it object X.This shows that the center of mass of a system can be calculated from the position of the center of mass of all objects that make up the system. and that point is therefore the center of mass of object C. Sample Problem 9-3 Figure 9. The center of mass of this system (consisting out of object X and object D) can be easily calculated: This equation can be rewritten as For a homogeneous disk (with density [rho]) the masses of object X and D can be calculated .
Figure 9.3. Sample Problem 9-3. The position of the center of mass of object X is given by
Example Problem 9-1 Figure 9.4 shows a one-dimensional rod. The density of the rod is position dependent : [rho](x) = a - bx + cx2. Determine the location of the center-ofmass of the rod.
Figure 9.4. Position Dependent Density. The mass of a fraction of the rod (length dx) is given by dm = [rho](x) dx The position of the center of mass of the rod can be determined as follows
After evaluating the integral we obtain
The total mass of the rod can be obtained easily
9.2. Motion of the Center of Mass
The definition of the center of mass of a system of particles can be rewritten as
where M is the total mass of the system. Differentiating this equation with respect to time shows
where vcm is the velocity of the center of mass and vi is the velocity of mass mi. The acceleration of the center of mass can be obtained by once again differentiating this expression with respect to time
where acm is the acceleration of the center of mass and ai is the acceleration of mass mi. Using Newton's second law we can identify mi ai with the force acting on mass mi. This shows that
This equation shows that the motion of the center of mass is only determined by the external forces. Forces exerted by one part of the system on other parts of the system are called internal forces. According to Newton's third law, the sum of all internal forces cancel out (for each interaction there are two forces acting on two parts: they are equal in magnitude but pointing in an opposite
direction and cancel if we take the vector sum of all internal forces). See Figure 9.5.
Figure 9.5. Internal and External Forces acting on a System of Particles. The previous equations show that the center of mass of a system of particles acts like a particle of mass M, and reacts like a particle when the system is exposed to external forces. They also show that when the net external force acting on the system is zero, the velocity of the center of mass will be constant. Example Problem 9-2 The center of mass of an exploding rocket will follow the trajectory of a projectile. although its individual pieces can follow a quit complex trajectory. The forces of the explosion are internal to the system, and the only external force acting on the system is the gravitational force. Example Problem 9-3 A ball of mass m and radius R is placed inside a spherical shell of the same mass m and inner radius 2R (see Figure 9.6a). The ball is released and moves back and forth before coming to rest at the bottom of the shell (see Figure 9.6b). What is the displacement of the system ?
Figure 9.6. Example Problem 9-3. The only external forces acting on the system are the gravitational force and the normal force. Both act in the y-direction. The x-component of the total external force acting on the system is zero. The x-component of the acceleration of the center of mass is therefore equal to zero. The velocity of the center of mass in
the x-direction is initially equal to zero, and will therefore remain zero. We conclude that the position of the center of mass along the x-axis will not change. In the initial configuration (Figure 9.6a) the x-position of the center of mass is given by
After the ball comes to rest, the x-coordinate of the center of mass of the system coincides with the x-coordinate of the center of the sphere (symmetry axis). Originally the center of the sphere was located at x = 0, and we conclude that the system is displaced over a distance R/2, to the left.
9.3. Linear Momentum
The linear momentum p of an object with mass m and velocity v is defined as
From this definition it is clear that the unit of momentum is (kg m/s) or (N s). Since this momentum is related to the linear motion of the object, it is called linear momentum. In Chapter 11 we will be discussing angular momentum which is the momentum related to the angular motion of the object. Under certain circumstances the linear momentum of a system is conserved. The linear momentum of a particle is related to the net force acting on that object:
The rate of change of linear momentum of a particle is equal to the net force acting on the object, and is pointed in the direction of the force. If the net force acting on an object is zero, its linear momentum is constant (conservation of linear momentum). The total linear momentum p of a system of particles is defined as the vector sum of the individual linear momenta
This expression can be rewritten as
" If we differentiate linear momentum of the center-of-mass with respect to time we obtain This expression shows that if the net external force acting on a system of particles is zero (Fext = 0 N). all external forces (normal and gravitational force) act in the y-direction. Example Problem 9-4 A stream of bullets with mass m is fired horizontally with speed v into a large wooden block with mass M that is initially at rest on a horizontal table. The total linear momentum in the x-direction is therefore . and the wooden block which is at rest. the linear momentum of the system is conserved. The system shown in Figure 9.7. We conclude that " The linear momentum of a system of particles is equal to the product of the total mass M of the system and the velocity of the center of mass. If the block is free to slide across the table (without friction). no particles leave or enter the system. The rate of change of its linear momentum is therefore equal to the net external force. what speed will it acquire after it has absorbed n bullets ? Figure 9. In this system.7. Example Problem 9-4. and we can conclude that the linear momentum in the x-direction is conserved. each moving with speed v.7 consist initially out of n bullets. This is an isolated system. Consider the closed system shown in Figure 9.where M is the total mass of the system.
The blocks are pulled apart and then released from rest.8 (in Figure 9. Note: we did not have to consider what happened when the bullets hit the block since these forces are internal forces. What fraction of the total kinetic energy will each block have at any later time ? Figure 9.8 the velocity of m2 is negative). Figure 9.After the n bullets strike the wooden block.8. The velocities of mass m1 and mass m2 are defined to be positive when they are directed towards the right in Figure 9. Sample Problem 9-10 Two blocks with mass m1 and mass m2 are connected by a spring and are free to slide on a frictionless horizontal surface. Sample Problem 9-10.8 shows a schematic of the system. its mass is increased to (M + n m) and its velocity is V. . The x-component of the linear momentum at that point is therefore Since the linear momentum along the x-axis is conserved we conclude or The final velocity V of the wooden block will always be less than the velocity of the bullets (independent of how many bullets we fire).
Initially. The kinetic energy of mass m1 and mass m2 can now be calculated The total kinetic energy of the system is If f1 is the fraction of the total kinetic energy that is carried by mass m1 we obtain the following equation for f1: Problem 43P . Both these forces are directed vertically. This is a closed system. linear momentum is conserved along the x-axis. The total linear momentum at that time is then given by Since the linear momentum along the x-axis is conserved. both masses are at rest. Suppose at a later time mass m1 has a velocity equal to v1 and mass m2 has a velocity equal to v2. and the total linear momentum along the xaxis is zero. The net force along the x-axis is zero.Consider the system consisting of the two masses and the spring. The only external forces acting on the system are the gravitational force and the normal force. The velocity v2 of mass m2 can now be expressed in terms of m1 and v1: This shows that the velocity of mass m1 and of mass m2 always have opposite sign. pf must be equal to 0. and therefore.
This implies that the total linear momentum of the system is conserved.9. The third piece has three times the mass of each of the other pieces. Problem 39P. fly off perpendicular to one another with the same speed of 30 m/s. Two pieces. having equal mass. Conservation of linear momentum along the x-axis and along the y-axis requires . What is the direction and magnitude of its velocity immediately after the explosion ? The vessel is an isolated system on which no external forces are acting. Since the total linear momentum is conserved. breaking into three pieces.9 shows schematically the direction of the three fragments in which the vessel explodes. or The problem also states that v1 = v2 = 30 m/s. Assuming that the total mass of the system is conserved we conclude that Figure 9. Figure 9. Since the vessel is initially at rest. the final linear momentum of the system must also be zero. the initial linear momentum of the system is zero.A vessel at rest explodes. The problem states that m1 = m2 and that m3 = 3 m1.
The velocity of the cannon and the shell in with respect to the earth is vc and vs.These two equations can be rewritten in the following manner These two equation can be combined to give tan ([theta]) = 1 or [theta] = 45deg. These forces are directed along the y-axis. The external forces acting on the shell and cannon are the gravitational force and the normal force. so that it recoils freely. which fires a 70 kg shell with a muzzle speed of 556 m/s.10) . The firing angle is [theta] and the muzzle speed is v0. is set at an elevation of 39deg. the linear momentum of the system along the x-axis is conserved. The total linear momentum of the system along the x-axis (the horizontal axis) is given by (see figure 9. The angle of projection of the shell with respect to the earth is a. Since there is no external force acting on the shell along the x-axis. above the horizontal. The velocity of the third fragment can now be obtained easily Problem 48P A 1400 kg cannon. and the mass of the shell is m. respectively. The cannon is mounted on frictionless rails. (a) What is the speed of the shell with respect to the earth ? (b) At what angle with the ground is the shell projected ? The mass of the cannon is M.
this expression can be rewritten as . This implies that The muzzle speed provided in this problem is measured with respect to the muzzle.10. Velocity diagram of shell and canon. The figure clearly shows the following relations between the various velocities and firing angles: Figure 9.11. Since the cannon is not at rest. The relation between these velocities and the firing angles is schematically shown in Figure 9.Figure 9. The first equation can be used to eliminate vc Using the last two equations. Velocity diagram of shell. the speed of the shell with respect to the earth will be different than the speed of the shell with respect to the muzzle.11.
The velocity of the shell with respect to the earth is given by 9.4deg. Suppose at some time t the mass of the rocket is M. It is burning fuel. The initial linear momentum of the system (at time t) is given by pi = M(t) v(t) The final linear momentum of the system is given by pf = (M(t) + [Delta]M) (v(t) + [Delta]v) + (. The result of the burning of fuel is a change in the velocity of the rocket: v(t + [Delta]t) = v(t) + [Delta]v If we consider our system to consist of the rocket and the exhaust generated during the time interval [Delta]t. Since there are no external forces acting on the system. During a time interval [Delta]t. The mass of the exhaust products is .. Suppose a rocket is flying through deep space (no friction force and no gravitational force). the mass of the rocket changes by [Delta]M: M(t + [Delta]t) = M(t) + [Delta]M Since the rocket is burning fuel. we are dealing with a closed system.[Delta]M) U . the total linear momentum of the system is conserved. The rocket The motion of a rocket is a nice example of a system with a variable mass in which nevertheless conservation of linear momentum can be applied.[Delta]M.or We conclude that a = 40.4. [Delta]M is negative.
U0 = .[Delta]M U0 We conclude [Delta]M U0 = M(t) [Delta]v Dividing each side by [Delta]t gives Now: • • • dM/dt = .U0 = v(t) + [Delta]v Using this expression we can rewrite the expression for conservation of linear momentum as follows M(t) v(t) = (M(t) + [Delta]M) (v(t) + [Delta]v) + (.u where u is the (positive) velocity of the exhaust gasses relative to the rocket. Conservation of linear momentum therefore requires that M(t) v(t) = (M(t) + [Delta]M) (v(t) + [Delta]v ) + (. dv/dt is the acceleration of the rocket.[Delta]M) U The exhaust velocity of the rocket depends on the design of the rocket engine.R where R is the rate of fuel consumption. Suppose that for the engine used the velocity of the exhaust relative to the engine is measured to be U0. After making these substitution we obtain the "first rocket equation" Ru=Ma .where U is the velocity of the exhaust. the exhaust velocity is a function of both U0 and the velocity of the rocket U .[Delta]M) (v(t) + [Delta]v + U0) or M(t) v(t) = M(t) (v(t) + [Delta]v) . In the frame of reference in which the rocket is moving.
COLLISIONS 10.1. These internal forces are significantly larger than any external forces during the time of the collision. applied to the "before" and "after" situations. The laws of conservation of linear momentum and energy. In order to find the velocity of the rocket (after burning some fuel) we return to the differential equation previously discussed or Integrating both sides gives We conclude which is the "second rocket equation".The mass used in the "first rocket equation" is of course time dependent (related to R). Note: • • external forces are small (and are ignored) during the collision particles before and after the collision can be different (for example: nuclear reactions) . A great deal can be learned about the interactions between the colliding particles from the observed collision products. 10. strong mutual forces act between a few particles for a short time. Introduction In a collision. often allows us to predict the outcome of a collision.
the ball travels in the opposite direction with a speed vf. the impulse J is equal to Fav [Delta]t = J Sample Problem 10-1 A baseball of mass m in horizontal flight with speed vi is struck by a batter. The amount of change depends not only on the average value of the force.• the collision force does not need to be a contact force 10. The change in momentum dp is related to the collision force F as The total change in the of momentum during the collision is given by The right hand side of this equation is a measure of both the strength and the duration of the collision force.2. What impulse J acts on the ball while it was in contact with the bat ? . The result of the collision force will be a change in the momentum of the particles involved. From the definition of the impulse J we see that the relation between the impulse and the change of momentum is given by If the average collision force Fav acts during a time period equal to [Delta]t. Impulse Suppose a force F acts during a collision. s. but also on the time period during which it acts. It is called the collision impulse J: The unit of the impulse is N . After leaving the bat.
Applying conservation of linear momentum to the collision shown in Figure 10.If the impact time is [Delta]t. If there are no external forces acting on this system (consisting of the two masses) the total momentum of the system is conserved. Collisions in One-Dimension Consider the collision shown in Figure 10. Collisions are called elastic collisions if the total kinetic energy of the system is conserved.1.3.1 gives Conservation of the total kinetic energy gives We now have two equations with two unknown (v1f and v2f) which can be solved. The first class of collisions we will discuss are the elastic collisions. what is the average force that acts on the baseball ? What is the average acceleration of the baseball during this period ? 10. The first equation can be rewritten as The second equation can be rewritten as The final velocity of mass m1 can now be calculated by dividing the last two expressions .
This gives The final velocity of m1 can now be obtained The final velocity of mass m2 can also be obtained It is clear that the velocity of m2 is always positive. The velocity of the center of masscenter of mass velocity can be calculated easily It can be easily verified that the velocity of the center of mass after the collision is the same as it was before the collision (as it should be of course since there are no external forces acting on the system). depending on the masses of the two objects: v1f is negative if m2 > m1. Collision in One-Dimension.Figure 10.1. . In Chapter 9 we have shown that the motion of the center of mass is unaffected by the collision. The velocity of m1 can be either positive or negative. and positive if m2 < m1.
. • Massive Target: m2 >> m1.Some Special Cases • Equal Mass: m1 = m2.5. particles of equal mass simply exchange velocities. The previously derived equations show that in this case v1f = 0 m/s v2f = v1i In head-on collisions. Motion of the Center of Mass The collision force acting between the target and the projectile is an internal force of the system under consideration consists of these two objects. Using the previously derived expressions for v1f and v2f we obtain The projectile simply bounces back and the final velocity of the target will be a very small fraction of the initial velocity of the projectile. The motion of the center of mass of a number of objects is solely determined by the external forces acting on the system (see Chapter 9). Using the previously derived expressions for v1f and v2f we obtain The velocity of the projectile is almost unchanged while the target will move with twice the initial velocity of the projectile. • Massive Projectile: m1 >> m2. 10.
Sample Problem 10-4 In a nuclear reactor. By what fraction is the kinetic energy of a neutron (mass m1) reduced in a head-on collision with a nucleus of mass m2 (initially at rest) ? Suppose v1i is the initial velocity of the neutron.019 = 1.9 % .This equation shows that if no external forces act on the system. we can use atomic mass units: mass Pb: 206 amu => f = 0. can be obtained using one of the previously derived equations: The initial kinetic energy of the neutron is given by The final kinetic energy of the neutron is given by The fraction of the kinetic energy of the neutron lost in the collision is given by This is equal to Since the mass units in the equation for f cancel. Its final velocity. newly-produced fast neutrons must be slowed down before they can participate effectively in the chain-reaction process. v1f. the velocity of its center of mass is constant.
mass C: 12 amu => f = 0. A second glider. The target glider rebounds elastically from the end of the track and meets the projectile glider a second time (see Figure 10.00 = 100 % We conclude that any compound that contains large amounts of H will be a good moderator. Example Problem 10-1 A glider whose mass is m2 rests on an air track.28 = 28 % mass H: 1 amu => f = 1. At that point.x) after the first collision and mass m2 has traveled a distance (d + x). approaches the target glider with a velocity v1i and collides elastically with it.2). At what distance from the end of the air track will the second collision occur ? The velocity of m1 and m2 after the first collision are given by Suppose the second collision occurs a distance x from the end of the track (see Figure 10. whose mass is m1.2). mass m1 has traveled a distance (d . Both masses must cover these distances of course in the same time This can be rewritten as or .
2. and what is the change in the kinetic energy of the system ? . However. kinetic energy is not always conserved. x = d. What is the final velocity of the system. The lost kinetic energy is converted into another form of energy: for example. The two masses stick together. we obtain A special case occurs when m1 = m2. which is initially at rest (see Figure 10.) Example Problem 10-2 Suppose a mass m1 is moving with an initial velocity vi and collides with a mass m2.Figure 10. its momentum is conserved. the total energy is conserved.6. Collisions in One-Dimension: Inelastic If no external forces act on a system. Note: v1f = 0 m/s and v2f = v1i. In this case. even in a completely inelastic collision. Substituting the expressions for v1f and v2f in the expression for x. thermal energy. energy of deformation etc. 10. This type of a collision is a completely inelastic collision (of course.3). An example of an inelastic collision is a collision in which the particles stick together (after the collisions). Example Problem 10-1.
Figure 10. Completely Inelastic Collision.3. The initial kinetic energy of the system is The final kinetic energy of the system is . The initial momentum of the system is p i = m1 v i The final momentum of the system is pf = (m1 + m2) vf Conservation of linear momentum implies m1 vi = (m1 + m2) vf or The final velocity of the combined system will always be less than that of the incoming object.
the block plus bullet swings upwards (maximum height is h). Sample Problem 10-5: The ballistic pendulum. The final momentum is pf = (m1 + m2) vf Conservation of linear momentum implies m1 . Only if our reference frame is chosen such that the center-of-mass velocity is zero. will the final kinetic energy in a completely inelastic collision be zero. the total mechanical energy of the block plus bullet must be conserved. As a result. since the motion of the center of mass must still be present. the mechanical energy of the block plus bullet is equal to Conservation of mechanical energy implies that . What is the velocity of the bullet ? Suppose the velocity of the bullet is vi.Note: not all the kinetic energy can be lost. even in a completely inelastic collision. The initial momentum of the system is p i = m1 v i The final velocity of the block plus bullet is vf. Suppose a bullet of mass m1 hits a large block of wood of mass m2. vi = (m1 + m2) vf or The initial kinetic energy of the block plus bullet is Since it is assumed that the block plus bullet swing frictionless. At its highest point.
as shown in Figure 10. The variables are: . Collisions in Two-Dimensions Suppose a mass m1. kinetic energy also needs to be conserved: Figure 10. undergoes a collision with a mass m2 (which is initially at rest).7. Since no external forces act on the collision system.or The velocity of the bullet can now be calculated 10. linear momentum is conserved (in both x and y direction): and If the collision is elastic. with initial velocity v1i. A Collision in Two Dimensions.4.4. The particles fly of at angles [theta]1 and [theta]2.
Example Problem 10-3. the remaining 3 can be calculated by applying conservation of energy and linear momentum. p3 and p4 are the momenta of particle 1. . The collision is schematically shown in Figure 10. The velocity and scattering angles of both reaction products is measured.• • • mass: m1 and m2 velocity: v1i. Example Problem 10-3 A beam of nuclei with mass m1 and velocity v1 is incident on a target nucleus with mass m2 which us initially at rest.5. Conservation of linear momentum along the y-axis requires The last equation can be rewritten as Figure 10. respectively. Determine the masses of the reaction products and the change in kinetic energy. v1f and v2f angle: [theta]1 and [theta]2 If 4 of these variables are defined. particle 3 and particle 4. Conservation of linear momentum along the x-axis requires where p1.5.
it breaks into three parts.Substituting this in the first equation we obtain This immediately shows that or This relation can be used to find p4 and m4 The change in the kinetic energy of the system can now be calculated Example Problem 10-4 A 20 kg body is moving in the direction of the positive x-axis with a speed of 200 m/s when. owing to an internal explosion. with a mass of 4 kg. One part. A second fragment. a). whose mass is 10 kg. What is the speed of the third (6 kg) fragment ? b) How much energy was released in the explosion (ignore gravity) ? . moves along the negative x-axis with a speed of 500 m/s. moves away from the point of explosion with a speed of 100 m/s along the positive y-axis.
Since the force of the explosion is an internal force.6. . The energy supplied by the explosion is now easy to calculate: Figure 10. Conservation of linear momentum along the x-axis requires Conservation of linear momentum along the y-axis requires These equations can be rewritten as Squaring both equations and adding them gives Solving this equation gives v3 = 1014 m/s. Example Problem 10-4.6. We therefore can apply this conservation law both along the x-axis and along the y-axis.The problem is schematically illustrated in Figure 10. the total momentum of the system will be conserved.
For the situation shown in Figure 11.1). Suppose the z-axis of our coordinate system coincides with the axis of rotation of the rigid body. The angular velocity [omega] is defined as . it makes sense to introduce the concept of angular velocity and angular acceleration.1. the angle of rotation is equal to 2[pi] radians.1 the reference line connects the origin of the coordinate system and point A. Suppose a given point A on the body covers a linear distance s during the rotation (see Figure 11. Relation between s and [theta]. and every point experiences the same angular displacement during a particular time interval.1. ROTATION 11. If the angle of rotation [theta] is time dependent. In that case. The x-axis and the y-axis are taken to be perpendicular to the z-axis. the angle of rotation can be easily calculated: In describing the rotation of a rigid body we have to choose a reference line with respect to which the angle of rotation is being measured.1). The angle of rotation is the angle between the reference line and the x-axis (as is shown in Figure 11. Each part of the rigid body moves in a circle around the z-axis.1. Figure 11. Every point of the body moves in a circle. whose center lies on the axis of rotation. Rotational variables In this chapter we will be dealing with the rotation of a rigid body about a fixed axis. During one complete revolution point A covers a distance equal to 2[pi]r.11. In figure 11.
If the wheel has an initial angular velocity [omega]0. Problem 7P A wheel rotates with an angular acceleration a given by where t is the time and a and b are constants. The angular accelerationa is defined as The unit of the angular acceleration is rad/s2. The magnitude of the angular velocity vector is equal to the absolute value of the angular velocity for rotation around a fixed axis (as defined above).The unit of the angular velocity is rad/s. The angular velocity can be positive (counterclockwise rotation) or negative (clockwise rotation). write the equations for (a) the angular velocity and (b) the angle turned as function of time. The direction of the velocity vector is parallel to the rotation axis and the right-hand rule needs to be used to determine whether the vector points upwards or downwards. To solve this problem. In order to describe rotation around a point (rather than a fixed axis) the concept of an angular velocity vector is introduced. we start with looking at the relation between the angular acceleration and the angular velocity This relation can be rewritten as Substituting the given angular acceleration we obtain for the angular velocity The angle of rotation is related to the angular velocity .
Therefore.0 s interval ? (b). The equations of rotation are now given by The angle of rotation during a 3.2. Problem 19P A wheel starting from rest.Substituting the derived expression for [omega](t) the angle of rotation can be calculated and therefore 11. [omega]0 = 0 rad/s. What was the angular velocity of the wheel at the start of the 3. (a) How long had the wheel been turning before the start of the 3. Constant angular acceleration If the angular acceleration a is constant (time independent) the following equations can be used to calculate [omega] and [theta] at any time t: Note that these equations are very similar to the equations for linear motion.0 rad/s2.0 s interval will depend on time: .0 s interval ? Time t = 0 s is defined as the moment at which the wheel is at rest. The rotation angle at any later time is measured with respect to the position of the body at time t = 0 s: [theta]0 = 0 rad. During a certain 3.0 s interval it turns through 90 rad. rotates with a constant angular acceleration of 2.
In our problem. The time that the wheel has been turning before the time period [Delta]t can be easily calculated The angular velocity of the wheel at the beginning of this period is 11. Figure 1 illustrates how the distance s. related to the change in the magnitude of the velocity of point A. we have seen that an object carrying out a circular motion also experiences a radial acceleration. The magnitude of the radial component. is related to the radius of the circle and the angle of rotation The velocity of point A can be obtained by differentiating this equation with respect to time To derive this equation we have assumed that for rotations around a fixed axis the distance r from point A to the rotation axis is constant (independent of time) which is true for a rigid body.3. However. ar. Relation between linear and angular variables An example of the relation between angular and linear variables has already been discussed. The acceleration of point A can be determined as follows The acceleration at is the tangential component of the linear acceleration. the rotation [Delta][theta] during a period [Delta]t is given. is . covered by point A.
Kinetic energy of rotation The total kinetic energy of a rotating object can be found by summing the kinetic energy of each individual particle: To derive this equation we have used the fact that the angular velocity is the same for each particle of the rigid body.2 shows the direction of both the radial and the tangential components of the acceleration of point A. but points that are located at different distances from the rotation axis have different linear velocities and different linear accelerations. We can conclude that when a rigid body is rotating around a fixed axis.Using the previously derived expression for v in terms of [omega] and r. the tangential component is only present if the angular acceleration is not zero.2. Components of the acceleration of point A. The radial component is always present as long as [omega] is not equal to zero. The quantity in parenthesis tells us . Figure 11. 11.4. we can rewrite the radial component of the acceleration as follows Figure 11. every part of the body has the same angular velocity [omega] and the same angular acceleration a.
parallel to it.how the mass of the rotating body is distributed around the axis of rotation. the moment of inertia about any other axis. 11. Sample Problem 11-8 Determine the moment of inertia of a uniform rod of mass m and length L about an axis at right angle with the rod. Using this definition. and h is the perpendicular distance between the two parallel axes. can be found by applying the parallel-axis theorem where Icm is the moment of inertia about an axis passing through the center of mass. M is the total mass of the body. Calculation of rotational inertia To calculate the moment of inertia of a rigid body we have to integrate over the whole body If the moment of inertia about an axis that passes through the center of mass is known. we can write the kinetic energy of the rotating object as Note: in many previous problems we have assumed to be dealing with massless pulleys. This quantity is called the moment of inertia (or rotational inertia) The unit for I is kg m2.3).5. though its center of mass (see Figure 11. This assumption assures that by applying conservation of mechanical energy we do not have to consider the kinetic energy related to the rotation of the pulley. The mass per unit length of the rod is m/L. The mass dm of an element of the rod with length dx is .
Figure 11.3.The contribution of this mass to the total moment of inertia of the rod is The total moment of inertia of the rod can be determined by integrating over all parts of the rod: The moment of inertia of the rod around its end point (see Figure 11. Sample Problem 11-8.4. Sample Problem 11. .8.4) can now be calculated using the parallel axes theorem Figure 11.
Example: Moment of Inertia of Disk Figure 11. The density of the disk is given by To calculate the moment of inertia of the whole disk. Moment of inertia of a disk. The area of the ring located at a distance r from the center and having a width dr is The mass of this ring is The contribution of this ring to the total moment of inertia of the disk is given by The total moment of inertia can now be found by summing over all rings: Substituting the calculated density we obtain .5. A uniform disk has a radius R and a total mass M. we first look at a small section of the disk (see Figure 5).
the concept of torque is introduced. To describe the effect of the force. Suppose the angle between the force F and the position vector r is [phi]. Ft. The tangential component of F.6).6. will produce a tangential acceleration a t The torque [tau] can be rewritten as . Point A is part of a rigid body with an axis of rotation going through the origin. The force F can be decomposed into two components: one parallel to the position vector and one perpendicular to the position vector. Torque Suppose a force F is applied to point A (see Figure 11. The magnitude of the component of the force perpendicular to the position vector is given by Figure 11. It is obvious that the component parallel to the position vector can not cause a rotation of the rigid body. the actual angular velocity will depend not only on the applied force but also on the distance between the axis of rotation and point A. Torque The tangential component of the applied force F will produce a rotation of the object.11.6.
The linear acceleration of the mass m is defined to be positive if it points down: The uniform disk rotates as a result of the presence of mass m. Figure 11. and the tension of the cord. A block with mass m hangs from a light cord that is wrapped around the rim of the disk. the angular acceleration of the disk. Sample Problem 11-10. The torque exerted by the tension T of the cord on the disk is .7. g must exceed the tension T in the cord.8. Since the mass m is moving downward. The disk is mounted on a fixed axle. Sample Problem 11-11 Figure 11. the gravitational force m .The tangential acceleration at is related to the angular acceleration a We conclude that This is just Newton's second law for rotation. Find the acceleration of the falling block.7 shows a uniform disk with mass M and radius R. The forces acting on the mass and the disk are shown in Figure 11.
Sample Problem 11-10.8. the linear acceleration of the cord is a. and therefore the linear acceleration of the rim of the disk must also be a. The linear acceleration of the rim and the angular acceleration a are related as follows Combining this expression with the previous expression we can conclude that If we combine this expression with a previously derived expression for a .The resulting angular acceleration a of the disk can be obtained from the torque or Figure 11. The moment of inertia of the disk is given by The angular acceleration a is equal to However.
The work done by the force F is determined by the tangential component of F Here r d[theta] is the length of the arc traversed by the particle.7.we can calculate a and T: We see that the acceleration of the falling block is always less than the gravitational acceleration.9). Suppose a particle with mass m is connected to the end of a rod (with negligible mass). Under the influence of a force F. Work Figure 11. the system rotates through an angle [Delta][theta] (see Figure 11. The total work done by the force during a finite rotation (from [theta]i to [theta]f) is given by . but approaches g when the mass of the disk becomes much smaller than the mass m.9. The angular acceleration a can be obtained from 11. Work done by a force.
12. Rolling Motion Figure 12. ROLLING.This equation is very similar to what we have derived for linear motion: The total work done can now be calculated or This can be rewritten as This relation shows that the work done by the torque acting on a rigid body is equal to the change in rotational kinetic energy of that body. Rotational Motion of Wheel . TORQUE AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM 12.1.1.
Motion of wheel is sum of rotational and translational motion. The corresponding linear velocity of any point on the rim of the wheel is given by where R is the radius of the wheel (see Figure 12.3. This implies that besides a rotational motion the wheel experiences a linear motion with a velocity equal to + vcm (see Figure 12. An alternative way of looking at the motion of a wheel is by regarding it as a pure rotation (with the same angular velocity [omega]) about an instantaneous stationary axis through the bottom of the wheel (point P. Kinetic Energy The kinetic energy of the wheel shown in Figure 12.2. Suppose the angular velocity of the wheel is [omega]. Figure 12.3 can be calculated easily using the formulas derived in Chapter 11 .2).2.3). We conclude that the top of the wheel moves twice as fast as the center and the bottom of the wheel does not move at all. its bottom part is at rest with respect to the ground. Figure 12. 12. Motion of wheel around axis through P.1).A wheel rolling over a surface has both a linear and a rotational velocity. Figure 12. When the wheel is in contact with the ground.
all of its potential energy is converted into kinetic energy. Its total mechanical energy at that point is equal to its potential energy When the disk reaches the bottom of the plane. IP. What is its final velocity at the bottom of the plane ? The disk is released from rest. The mass is released from a height h. The kinetic energy of the disk can now be rewritten as .where IP is the rotational inertia around the axis through P. Icm The kinetic energy of the wheel can now be rewritten as where the first term is the kinetic energy associated with the rotation of the wheel about an axis through its center of mass and the second term is associated with the translational motion of the wheel. The rotational inertia around an axis through P. is related to the rotational inertia around an axis through the center of mass. and [omega] is the rotational velocity of the wheel. Example Problem 12-1 Figure 12.4 shows a disk with mass M and rotational inertia I on an inclined plane. The kinetic energy of the disk will consist out of rotational and translational kinetic energy: The moment of inertia of the disk is given by where R is the radius of the disk.
In this case the final kinetic energy can be written as Conservation of energy now requires that or We conclude that in this case. .4.Figure 12. the disk with the smallest moment of inertia has the largest final velocity. Conservation of mechanical energy implies that Ei = Ef. or This shows that the velocity of the disk is given by Consider now two different disks with identical mass M but different moments of inertia. Mass on inclined plane.
5. From what minimum height above the bottom of the track must the marble be released in order not to leave the track at the top of the loop. The marble will not leave the track at the top of the loop if the centripetal force exceeds the gravitational force at that point: or The kinetic energy of the marble at the top consists out of rotational and translational energy where we assumed that the marble is rolling over the track (no slipping). having been released from rest somewhere along the straight section of the track. Problem 15P A small solid marble of mass m and radius r rolls without slipping along a loop-the-loop track shown in Figure 12.5. Problem 13P. The moment of inertia of the marble is given by .Figure 12.
Using this expression we obtain for the kinetic energy The marble will reach the top if The total mechanical energy of the marble at the top of the loop-the-loop is equal to The initial energy of the marble is just its potential energy at a height h Conservation of energy now implies that or Example Problem 12-2: the yo-yo Figure 12.6. The yo-yo. Figure 12.6 shows a schematic drawing of a yo-yo. What is its linear acceleration ? .
The acceleration of the system depends on these two forces: The rotational motion of the yo-yo is determined by the torque exerted by the tension T (the torque due to the gravitational force is zero) The rotational acceleration a is related to the linear acceleration a: We can now write down the following equations for the tension T The linear acceleration a can now be calculated Thus. . and the gravitational force.There are two forces acting on the yo-yo: an upward force equal to the tension in the cord. The acceleration can be made smaller by increasing the rotational inertia and by decreasing the radius of the axle. the yo-yo rolls down the string with a constant acceleration.
7. 12. or directly towards it. The torque is zero if r = 0 m. Angular Momentum The angular momentum L of particle P in Figure 12. Torque defined in this way has meaning only with respect to a specified origin. Motion of particle P in the x-y plane. A particle with mass m moves in the x-y plane (see Figure 12. F = 0 N or r is parallel or anti-parallel to F. the torque exerted by this force on the mass. with respect to the origin. According to the definition of the vector product. A single force F acts on the particle and the angle between the force and the position vector is [phi].4. with respect to the origin of our coordinate system. and its direction (either up or down) can be determined using the right-hand rule.12.7. The direction of the torque is always at right angles to the plane formed by the vectors r and F. the vector [tau] lies parallel to the z-axis. the angular momentum associated with this . Per definition.7).3. is defined as This definition implies that if the particle is moving directly away from the origin. Torque Figure 12. is given by and where r[invtee] is called the arm of the force F with respect to the origin.
A particle will have a different angular momentum if the origin is chosen at a different location.motion is zero. A particle moving in a circle will have an angular momentum (with respect to the center of the circle) equal to Again we notice the similarity between the definition of linear momentum and the definition of angular momentum. For example. is given by Figure 12. Angular momentum of particle P. The angular momentum of particle P. A particle can have angular momentum even if it does not move in a circle. Figure 12.8. The change in the angular momentum of the particle can be obtained by differentiating the equation for l with respect to time We conclude that . with respect to the origin.8 shows the location and the direction of the momentum of particle P.
9. Example Problem 12-3 Figure 12. What is its angular momentum. its angular momentum will be constant. The object starts from rest at the position indicated in Figure 12. with respect to the origin.This equation shows that if the net torque acting on the particle is zero. as function of time ? The velocity of object P.9. as function of time. is given by The angular momentum of object P is given by Therefore which is equal to the torque of the gravitational force with respect to the origin.9 shows object P in free fall. Figure 12. Free fall and angular momentum .
Newton's third law states that forces come in pairs: if B exerts a force FAB on A.10. Action . FAB and FBA are related as follows The torque exerted by each of these forces. This is illustrated in Figure 12.10. these two torques add up to zero . than A will exert a force FBA on B. The internal torques come in pairs. Figure 12.Figure 12. and the vector sum of these is zero. with respect to the origin. some are external. If we look at a system of particles. the total angular momentum L of the system is the vector sum of the angular momenta of each of the individual particles: The change in the total angular momentum L is related to the change in the angular momentum of the individual particles Some of the torques are internal. can be easily calculated and Clearly.10 shows the particles A and B which interact via a central force.reaction pair.
5. Only if the rotation axis is a symmetry axis of the rigid body will the total angular momentum vector coincide with the rotation axis. and perpendicular to the position vector. The linear momentum of each mass element is parallel to the x-y plane. with respect to the origin. Angular Momentum of Rotating Rigid Bodies Suppose we are dealing with a rigid body rotating around the z-axis. 12. is equal to zero. . The magnitude of the angular momentum of this mass element is The z-component of this angular momentum is given by The z-component of the total angular momentum L of the rigid body can be obtained by summing over all mass elements in the body From the definition of the rotational inertia of the rigid body we can conclude that This is the projection of the total angular momentum onto the rotation axis. We conclude that This equation is another way of expressing Newton's second law in angular quantities.The net torque for each action-reaction pair. The rotational inertia I in this equation must also be calculated with respect to the same rotation axis.
12. Conservation of Angular Momentum If no external forces act on a system of particles or if the external torque is equal to zero. Problem 54E The rotational inertia of a collapsing spinning star changes to one-third of its initial value.6. What is the ratio of the new rotational kinetic energy to the initial rotational kinetic energy ? The final rotational inertia If is related to the initial rotational inertia Ii as follows No external forces act on the system. and the total angular momentum is conserved The initial rotational kinetic energy is given by The final rotational kinetic energy is given by . The angular momentum remains constant. no matter what changes take place within the system. the total angular momentum of the system is conserved.
of course. The linear momentum of the cockroach is m . Problem 61P. with respect to the origin. The direction of the z-axis is chosen such that the angular momentum of the cockroach coincides with the positive z-axis. The lazy Susan is moving clockwise (see Figure 12. (a) What is the angular speed of the lazy Susan after the cockroach stops ? (b) Is mechanical energy conserved ? Assume that the lazy Susan is located in the x-y plane (see Figure 12. Problem 61P A cockroach with mass m runs counterclockwise around the rim of a lazy Susan (a circular dish mounted on a vertical axle) of radius R and rotational inertia I with frictionless bearings. whereas the lazy Susan turns clockwise with angular speed [omega]0.11) and its angular momentum is pointing along the negative z-axis. is given by The direction of the angular momentum can be found using the right-hand rule. The total angular momentum of the system is given by . The angular momentum of the cockroach. Its angular momentum is given by where I is the rotational inertia of the dish.Figure 12. The cockroach's speed (with respect to the earth) is v. stops. The cockroach finds a bread crumb on the rim and. Note that since the rotation is clockwise. [omega]0 is less than zero.11. v.11).
The rotational inertia of the dish plus cockroach is given by Since the external torque acting on the system is zero. . and we conclude that mechanical energy is not conserved. the total angular momentum is conserved. The loss of mechanical energy is due to the work done by the friction force between the surface of the lazy Susan and the legs of the cockroach. The rotational velocity of the system after the cockroach stops is given by The initial kinetic energy of the system is equal to The final kinetic energy of the system is equal to The change in kinetic energy of the system is The change in the kinetic energy of the system is negative.
it can not change the magnitude of L. A top. Since the torque is at right angle to L.12. This motion is called precession. The result is a rotation of the angular momentum vector around the z-axis. will rotate slowly about the vertical axis. The weight of the top exerts an external torque about the origin (the coordinate system is defined such that the origin coincides with the contact point of the top on the floor. set spinning. The magnitude of this torque is The direction of the torque is perpendicular to the position vector and to the force. The precessing top. This also implies that the torque is perpendicular to the angular momentum of the spinning top. The external torque causes a change in the angular momentum of the system This equation shows that the change in the angular momentum dL that occurs in a time dt must point in the same direction as the torque vector.12). but it can change its direction. For any point on the rotation axis of the top. see Figure 12.12. the position vector is parallel to the angular momentum vector.7. The Precessing Top Figure 12. The precession angle d[phi] is related to the change in the angular momentum of the system: This shows that the precession velocity is equal to .
In addition. or If a body is in rotational equilibrium then dL/dt = 0. Equilibrium An object is in equilibrium if the linear momentum of its center of mass is constant and if its angular momentum about its center of mass is constant: P = constant L = constant An object is in static equilibrium if its linear momentum and angular momentum is equal to zero: P = 0 kg m/s L = 0 kg m2/s 13. 13. the precession is zero if g = 0 m/s2 and the precession is independent of the angle [theta].1. or In summary.2. the following equations must be satisfied for an object in static equilibrium . EQUILIBRIUM AND ELASTICITY 13.This equation shows that the faster the top spins the slower it precesses. Requirements for Equilibrium If a body is in translational equilibrium then dP/dt = 0.
Equilibrium and the Force of Gravity Figure 13. independent of the orientation of the object. If the body is in equilibrium.If we restrict ourselves to two dimensions (the x-y plane) the following equations must be satisfied: 13.1 shows a body of arbitrary shape balanced by a single force. An object that is supported at its center of gravity will be in static equilibrium. The origin of the coordinate system is defined such that it coincides with the center of gravity of the object. Weight of an object balanced by a single force. Figure 13.3.1 shows that Since the body is in equilibrium and therefore . Figure 13. which is the point upon which the balancing force acts. the net force acting on it must be zero.1.
We conclude that for a body to be in equilibrium. The net torque acting on the body is given by Since the body is in static equilibrium and therefore This shows that rcm = 0 or rcm is parallel to g. Figure 13. its center of mass must coincide with its center of gravity. the net force and net torque must be zero.2).2. For the system to be in equilibrium. A block whose mass is M rests on the beam.2 shows that . Sample Problem 13-1 A uniform beam of length L whose mass is m. its center one-fourth away from the beam's left end. rest with its ends on two digital scales (see Figure 13. Sample problem 13-1. What do the scales read ? Figure 13.In obtaining this result we have assumed that the gravitational acceleration is the same for every point of the body.
Here we have replaced the force acting on the beam with a single force acting on its center of gravity. is This shows immediately that From the equation of the net force we obtain Sample Problem 13-3 A ladder with length L and mass m rests against a wall. The center of gravity of the ladder is one-third of the way up the ladder. The ground exerts a force Fg on the ladder with a horizontal component Fgx and a vertical component Fgy. A firefighter with mass M climbs halfway up the ladder. If these two components were not present. Its upper end is a distance h above the ground (see Figure 13. is given by . it exerts no vertical force. but not the ground. The net force in the x and y directions is given by and The net torque.3). The net torque of the system. with respect to the left scale. is frictionless. What is the force exerted on the ladder by the wall and by the ground ? The wall exerts a horizontal force FW on the ladder (the normal force). Assume that the wall. the system would not be in equilibrium. with respect to O (which is the contact point between the ladder and the ground).
Figure 13. Sample Problem 13-3 This immediately shows that We can now calculate the force Fg: and We observe that Fgx depends on the position of the firefighter.3. than the maximum distance the firefighter can climb is reached when or This shows that . Suppose that the firefighter is a distance f L up the ladder. In this case Fgx is given by If the coefficient of static friction between the ladder and the ground is us.
4). The two forces acting on the top brick are the gravitational force Fg and the normal force N.4.13. exerted by the bottom brick on the top brick.4. We conclude that Figure 13. The torque of the normal force and the gravitational force with respect to O is given by The net torque acting on the top brick is given by . The torque exerted by the two external forces with respect to O can be easily calculated (see Figure 13. Using conditions of static equilibrium we can determine the maximum overhang of the top brick (see Figure 13. the net force acting along the y-axis must be zero. If the top block is on the verge of falling down. Both forces are directed along the y-axis. Since the system is in equilibrium. The gravitational force Fg acting on the whole block is replaced by a single force with magnitude m g acting on the center of mass of the top block. Stacking Blocks Two bricks of length L and mass m are stacked. The normal force N acting on the whole contact area between the top and the bottom block is replaced by a single force N acting on a point a distance d away from the rotation axis O. it will rotate around O. Two stacked bricks.5).
if the center of mass of the top brick is located to the left of the edge of the bottom brick. d = 0. Finally. or This equation shows that the system can never be in equilibrium if a > L/2 (since d < 0 in that case). Forces acting on top brick. The system will be on the verge of losing equilibrium if a = L/2. We conclude that the system can not be in equilibrium if the center of mass of the top brick is located to the right of the edge of the bottom brick. the system will be on the verge of losing equilibrium if the center of mass of the top brick is located right over the edge of the bottom brick. but it is the force of gravity that controls the evolution of the universe.If the system is in equilibrium.5. 14. GRAVITY 14. then the net torque acting on the top brick with respect to O must be zero. The Gravitational Force Gravity is the weakest force we know. This implies that Figure 13. Every body in the universe attracts every other body. In this case.1. the system will be in equilibrium. Newton proposed that the magnitude of this force is given by .
1.where m1 and m2 are the masses of the particles. The radius of the shell is R and its mass is M. To evaluate the gravitational force between extended objects.1). The mass density of the shell is given by All points on the small hoop indicated in Figure 14. The net force between the .2 shows a shell located a distance r from a particle with mass m.2 have the same distance to the particle m. theshell theorem can be used: "A uniform shell of matter attracts an external particle as if all the shell's mass were concentrated at its center" Proof: Figure 14.67 x 10-11 N m2/kg2 The gravitational forces between two particles act along the line joining them. Figure 14. The gravitational force. and form an action-reaction pair (see Figure 14. The magnitude of the gravitational attraction between any of these points and the mass m is therefore the same. In real life we are not dealing with point particles. instead we are dealing with extended objects. r is the distance between them and G is a universal constant whose value is G = 6.
hoop and mass m acts along the axis connecting the center of the shell and mass m. Shell theorem. and its mass m is equal to The net force is equal to The angles [theta] and a can be eliminated by using the following relations: and Differentiating the first of these two equations with respect to [theta] we obtain or .2. The area of the hoop is given by Figure 14.
Two large lead spheres. 14. are placed in the location indicated in Figure 14. The gravitational constant G The strength of the gravitational force depends on the value of G. forming a torsion balance. The value of the gravitational constant can be determined using the Cavendish apparatus. In the equilibrium position the gravitational torque is just balanced by the torque exerted by the twisted fiber. In a similar fashion we can proof that a uniform shell of matter exerts no gravitational force on a particle located inside it .Further more we see that The total force acting on mass m can now be obtained easily The shell theorem immediately shows that a sphere of uniform density (and mass M) attracts an external particle as if all the mass of the sphere is concentrated in its center.2.3. The torque exerted by the twisted wire is given by . The lead spheres will attract each other. each of mass M. exerting a torque on the rod. Two small lead spheres of mass m are connected to the end of a rod of length L which is suspended from it midpoint by a fine fiber.
Measurements show that G = 6. The period of oscillation is related to the rotational inertia and the torsion constant [kappa] The angle between the two equilibrium positions is measured to be 2[theta]. This. is sufficient to determine the torque [tau] acting on the torsion balance due to the gravitational force.3).Figure 14.3. The Cavendish Apparatus. Thus All of a sudden the large spheres are rotated to a new position (position B in Figure 14. the net torque acting on the rod is zero. If the system is in equilibrium. combined with the measured torsion constant. and the system will start to oscillate. The net torque acting on the twisted fiber is now not equal to zero.67 x 10-11 Nm2/kg2. . The torque exerted by the gravitational force is given by where R is the equilibrium distance between the center of the large and the small spheres.
98 x 1024 kg. located at an external point.14. This can suggest the presence of salt domes (which often indicated the presence of oil). the gravitational force is given by We conclude that the free-fall acceleration depends on the mass of the earth and its radius: The measured value of g = 9. the situation is more complicated: • • • The earth's crust is not uniform.3. The earth is not a sphere.8 m/s2 and Re = 6. Precise measurements of the variations of the free-fall acceleration give information about nonuniformaties in the density of the earth. For a particle on the earth surface. The free-fall acceleration is larger at the poles than it is at the equator. It is flattened on the poles and bulging at the equator (difference in radius is 21 km). we can easily calculate the net gravitational force acting on a particle of mass m. r = Re. In reality. Free-fall Acceleration If the mass density of the earth depends only on the distance from the center of the earth (homogeneous shells). The earth is an ellipsoid. The centripetal acceleration will change the freefall acceleration. consider a mass m located on a scale at the equator (see . The earth is rotating. To illustrate the effect of the rotation of the earth on the gravitational acceleration.37 x 106 m gives which is in good agreement with the accepted value of 5. a distance r from the center of the earth: where M is the mass of the earth.
The corresponding centripetal acceleration is given by The following forces act on the mass: 1.034 m/s2 . The radius of the circle is equal to the radius of the earth Re. is given by For the earth. g0 .g = 0. The gravitational force m g0 (downwards) 2. The force W exerted by the scale on the mass (upwards) The net force acting on the mass must be equal to the centripetal force required for the circular motion: Figure 14.4). The effective free-fall acceleration. The mass m will carry out a uniform circular motion with a period T equal to 24 hours. obtained from the measured weight W. Mass located at equator.4.Figure 14.
a baseball travels from point A to point B (see Figure 14.5). separated by a distance r. The potential energy U(r) is now given by The potential energy is always negative and is a property of the two masses together rather than of either mass alone. The work done is negative if the force and the displacement are pointing in the opposite direction. We can now easily show that the net work done by the gravitational force on the baseball is just determined by its initial radial position and its final radial position. In the gravitational field it is convenient to define the zero potential energy configuration to be one in which the two particles are separated by a large distance (infinity). We can verify our calculation by using U(r) to calculate the gravitational force which is of course equal to Newton's law of gravity. and the angle between them is 180deg. if the force and the displacement are pointing in the same direction the work is positive Therefore the net work done if we travel along the radial direction back-and-forth (initial and final points coincide) is zero.14. Suppose the two masses are brought together (distance r) from infinity. .4. Gravitational Potential Energy In chapter 8 we have discussed the relation between the force and the potential energy. The only segments that contribute to the work done are those segments along the radial direction. and not on the actual path followed. The work done by the gravitational force on the baseball along the arcs is zero since the force and displacement are perpendicular. The work done by the gravitational force can be calculated as follows (note that the force F and the position vector r are pointed in an opposite direction.). along the path connecting the centers of the two masses. Consider two particles of masses m1 and m2. The work done by the gravitational force depends only on its initial and its final position. For example.
5. Suppose a projectile of mass m has a speed v. Its initial kinetic energy if given by . In calculating the total potential energy of a system of particles one should take great care not to double count the interactions. In this case we consider each pair and the total potential energy is equal to the sum of the potential energies of each pair. The total potential energy of the system shown in Figure 14.6.6 can be easily calculated: The total potential energy of a system of particles is sometimes called the binding energy of the system. Work done by the gravitational force. If the system contains more than two particles. This is illustrated in Figure 14.Figure 14. the principle of superposition applies.6 for a system consisting of 3 particles. Figure 14. Example The gravitational potential can be used to calculate the minimum initial speed that a projectile must have to escape from the earth. The total potential energy is the amount of work that needs to be done to separate the individual parts of the system and bring them to infinity. A system of three particles.
Motion of planets Suppose a planet with mass m is in a circular orbit around the sun. The radius of the orbit is r. For the earth we obtain vcrit = 1. The gravitational force between the sun and the planet is given by This is the force that keeps the planet in its circular orbit and its magnitude should therefore be equal to the centripetal force FC: .The initial potential energy of the projectile is given by and its initial mechanical energy is equal to In deep space the potential energy of the projectile will be zero. and its minimum kinetic energy will also be equal to zero. We conclude that the minimum mechanical energy of the projectile must be zero.5. whose mass is M. Therefore and This initial speed is called the escape speed.1 x 104 m/s 14.
An ellipse has two focuses (see Figure 14.7): each focus is located on the x-axis. their orbits are elliptical. It is easy to see that this distance is given by Rp = a (1 . a distance (e a) away from the center of the ellipse. The shortest distance between the focus and the ellipse is called the perihelion distance Rp. The constant depends only on the mass of the sun (M) and the gravitational constant (G). It corresponds to the shortest distance between the center of the ellipse (x=0. The parameter b is called the semi-minor axis of the ellipse (if a > b). In reality none of the planets carry out a circular orbit.This implies that or This shows that for circular orbits. The parameter e is called the eccentricity of the ellipse and is equal to We see that for a circle the eccentricity is equal to zero. and the semi-major axis is equal to the radius of the circle. The general equation of an ellipse is given by (see Figure 14. It corresponds to the longest distance between the center of the ellipse (x=0.7) The parameter a is called the semi-major axis of the ellipse (if a > b). the square of the period of any planet is proportional to the cube of the radius of the orbit (law of periods).e) .y=0) and the trajectory.y=0) and the trajectory.
8). . The planets move about the sun in an elliptic path with the focus at the position of the sun (see Figure 14.7. Examples of hyperbolic trajectories are the trajectories of satellites that use the gravitational fields of the planets to change direction. also holds for elliptical orbits. The ellipse.Figure 14. the semi-major axis of the ellipse. provided we replace r by a.8. The largest distance between the focus and the ellipse is called the aphelion distance Ra which is given by Ra = a (1 + e) Figure 14. The elliptical shape of the trajectory of the planet is a result of the 1/r2 nature of the gravitational force and the initial conditions. previously derived for the special case of circular orbits. The law of periods. Under certain conditions the trajectory will be hyperbolic and the planet will approach the sun only once in its lifetime. Trajectory of planet around sun.
67 x 10-11 Nm2/kg2) T is the period (= 2. has a distance of closest approach to the sun of 8. The shaded wedge shows the area swept out in the time [Delta]t. Substituting these numbers we obtain a = 2. [Delta]A. times its height r. Figure 14.99 x 1030 kg) G is the gravitational constant (= 6.Sample Problem 14-8 Comet Halley has a period of 76 years and. [Delta]w. The area. The width of the wedge is related to r and [Delta] [theta]: .4 x 109 s).7 x 1012 m.9 shows the position of the planet at two instances (t and t + [Delta]t).6. is approximately one-half of its base.9 x 1010 m. The perihelion distance Rp is related to the semi-major axis a and the eccentricity e: Rp = a (1 . in 1986. (a) What is the aphelion distance ? (b) What is the eccentricity of the orbit of Comet Halley ? The semi-major axis of the orbit of Comet Halley can be found using the law of periods: where • • • M is the mass of the sun (= 1. The Law of Areas The trajectory of a planet about the sun is described by an ellipse with the sun in one of its focuses.e) This equation shows that the eccentricity of the orbit can be calculated easily: The aphelion distance can now be calculated 14.
The instantaneous rate at which the area is being swept out is The rate at which the area is being swept out depends on the velocity of the planet and is also related to its angular momentum L. . The angular momentum of the planet can be calculated as follows Figure 14. Area swept out by planet during a time [Delta]t. the expression for [Delta]A becomes more exact.Figure 14. Angular momentum of planet. [Delta]w = r [Delta][theta] We conclude that the area [Delta]A is given by If the time interval [Delta]t approaches zero.10 shows how to calculate the angular momentum of the planet.10.9. Figure 14.
The slowest velocity of the planet will occur when the distance between the sun and the planet is largest. This immediately indicates that dA/dt also remains constant.7. The kinetic and potential energy of the satellite can be easily expressed in terms of r. the angular momentum of the system is constant. 14. We conclude that " A line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal time " This shows that the velocity of the planet will be highest when the distance between the sun and planet is smallest. The potential energy of the satellite is given by The velocity of the satellite can be found by requiring that the magnitude of the gravitational force is equal to the centripetal force: The kinetic energy can therefore given by The total mechanical energy can now be calculated .Substituting this in the expression obtained for dA/dt we conclude that Since no external torques are acting on the sun-planet system. Orbits and Energy Suppose a satellite of mass m is in orbit around the earth (mass M). The radius of the orbit is given to be r.
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