The Complete Guide to Learning Japane…

The Complete Guide to Learning Japanese
Disclaimer: This is still a work in progress!

What is a complete guide to Japanese?
Despite what many are lead to believe, learning Japanese is not significantly more difficult than learning any other language. The truth is mastering any foreign language is quite an endeavor. If you think about it, you are essentially taking everything you've learned in life and re-learning it in a completely different way. Obviously, no single book can really claim to teach you everything about a language including all the vocabulary a fluent adult commonly obtains during her life. So what do I mean by a complete guide to Japanese? Most Japanese textbooks only go over a small subset of what you need to learn Japanese, typically covering a certain amount of grammar and vocabulary with a smattering of dialogues and readings. However, mastering a language requires much more than just learning grammar and vocabulary. What most Japanese textbooks fail to recognize is that they can't possibly hope to cover all the necessary vocabulary and kanji (Chinese characters) to obtain full fluency. This guide fully recognizes that it cannot teach you everything word by word and character by character. Instead, it will give you a solid understanding of the fundamentals with a wide collection of dialogues and examples. In addition, it will go over various techniques and tools to enable you to teach yourself. Essentially, this book is a guide on how you can learn Japanese to complete fluency by actually using Japanese in the areas of reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Another important distinction in the complete guide is that it does not try to hide or avoid more casual but perfectly acceptable aspects of the language. Many textbooks often avoid styles of speech and vocabulary you would normally use regularly with close friends, family, and acquaintances! In this guide, you will be introduced to all aspects of the language based on real-world practicality and usefulness; not on an artificial, filtered version of what others consider to be "proper" Japanese.

Resources and Tools
There are a large number of useful tools on the web for learning Japanese. Not only are there excellent online dictionaries, which are often better than many print dictionaries, there are also great tools and social networking sites for online collaboration and language study. In order to fully utilize these online resources or if you're reading this book online, you'll need to setup your computer to support Japanese. You can see a full list of these resources and instructions on how to setup your computer at the following link: http://www.guidetojapanese.org/learn/resources

I'm currently writing this as quickly as possible without a lot of proofreading so there WILL be many typos and mistakes for the first few revisions. Please feel free to point out any mistakes in the comments. I may delete your
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The Complete Guide to Learning Japane…

comment after making the correction to keep the comment sections clean for more in-depth discussion but I do appreciate them very much!!

Table of Contents

Writing Systems and Pronunciation
The Scripts
The Japanese writing system is comprised of three main written scripts: Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji. Hiragana is the main phonetic writing system used to represent every distinct sound in Japanese. Because of it's phonetic nature, we will first learn Hiragana to also learn how to pronounce all the sounds in the Japanese language. While Katakana represents the same sounds as Hiragana, it is mainly used to represent words imported from other languages. Kanji, which are Chinese characters adapted for Japanese, are heavily used in writing. There are no spaces in Japanese so Kanji is necessary in order to separate the words within a sentence. Kanji is also useful for distinguishing homophones, which occurs quite often given the limited number of distinct sounds in Japanese.

In the next section, we will learn all the characters in Hiragana and how to pronounce them. As we will see, every character in Hiragana (and the Katakana equivalent) corresponds to a specific sound. This makes pronunciation very easy as each letter has exactly one pronunciation. However, because there are relatively few distinct sounds in the Japanese language, you must pay extra attention to proper intonation. Unlike English pronunciation which is based on accents, Japanese pronunciation is based on alterations between a high and low pitch. For example, homophones can have different pitches of low and high tones resulting in a slightly different sound despite sharing the same pronunciation. The largest barrier to proper and natural sounding speech is incorrect intonation. Therefore, as you listen to Japanese and begin to imitate the sounds, it is very important that you pay attention to pitch in order to sound like a native speaker.

00:00 The table below represents the entire Hiragana syllabary categorized by the consonant and vowel sounds. With the exception of a few sounds (as shown by the pronunciation in parentheses), most sounds in Japanese are easily represented by a vowel or consonant-vowel. There is also one consonant-only sound: 「ん」. Hiragana - Click for stroke order and sound
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The Complete Guide to Learning Japane…

n w r y m h





ん わ ら や ま は な た (n) り み ひ に

さ かあa

ち し き い i (chi) (shi)

る ゆむ れ

ふ つ ぬ す く う u (fu) (tsu) せ け え e そ こ おo

め へ ね て

を ろ よ も ほ の と (o)

To understand how this chart works, let's start by looking at the right-most column, which are all the vowel-only sounds. あ a い i う u え e お o Here are some sample words for reading practice. Example: あい - love (read as "ai") 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. あう - to meet いえ - house おい - nephew うえ - above いう - to say

Each additional column represents a consonant sound with each of the five vowel sounds. For example, the "k" column has the following sounds. か ka き ki く ku け ke こ ko 「ん」 is the only character with no vowel sound. It adds an "n" sound as shown in the examples below. きん - gold (read as "kin") おんな - woman; girl (read as "on-na")
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Pay careful attention to the "r" sounds! While most of the sounds are pretty straightforward. as already mentioned. We've already learned all the sounds when we learned Hiragana. You can start with a practice sheet with trace lines and work up to a free-form sheet. Reading: You'll be getting plenty of reading practice with the material in this book. Katakana 00:00 Katakana." but to make the sound with a single trill or flap of the tongue against the front of the palate. If your browser doesn't support audio.org/audio/basic_sounds. is mainly used to represent words imported from other languages.Click for stroke order and sound n w r y m h n t s k ン ワ ラ ヤ マ ハ ナ タ リ ミ ヒ ニ サ カ ア a チ シ キ イ i (chi) (shi) ルユ ム レ フ ツ ヌ ス ク ウu (fu) (tsu) セ ケエ e 4/113 メ ヘ ネ テ guidetojapanese. Hiragana tracing practice sheet Hiragana free-form practice sheet Hearing: You can listen to the pronunciation for each character by clicking on it in the first chart. I recommend recording yourself to get an accurate idea of what you sound like. hear.fm has a nice tool for practicing Hiragana recognition at http://smart. Speaking: Practice repeating the sounds. It's important to use the correct stroke order. Katakana . Other Tools Smart. All you need to learn is a different way of writing them. Writing: You'll need to develop muscle memory so use regular pen and paper.zip. What works for some English speakers (even if it may not be technically correct) is to shape the lips something like the sound that is made for the English "r. and say the characters and sounds in Hiragana.music (read as "on-ga-ku") Here are my recommendations for learning how to read. write.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… おんがく . you can also download them at http://www. the "r" sounds deserve careful attention for English speakers because there is no equivalent sound in English.org/learn/book/…/2 .fm/series/3322. It is more similar to the "r" sound in Spanish.guidetojapanese. There are also other free resources with audio samples.

particularly English. Sample Katakana Words English America Russia bus motorcycle French fries アメリカ ロシア バス バイク フライドポテト (fried potato) Japanese Other Tools Smart.fm/goals/24667. The sheets below should help you get some writing practice. written pretty much the same way. An important thing to remember is to stay true to the Japanese pronunciation and completely forget how it's really supposed to be pronounced. To give you an idea. Additional Sounds Though we have covered all the distinct characters in both Hiragana and guidetojapanese. However. In particular.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… e ヲ* ロ ヨ モ ホ ノ ト (o) * = rarely used ソ コ オo Due to the straight lines and relatively few strokes. 「シ」、「ツ」 「ソ」、and 「ン」. these words usually don't bear much resemblance to their original pronunciations. You may also notice that the Katakana 「ヘ」 is virtually identical to its Hiragana counterpart 「へ」. here is a short list of foreign words and their Japanese equivalents. have become part of the Japanese language via Katakana throughout the years.fm has a nice tool for practicing Katakana recognition at http://smart. there are many characters in Katakana that look very similar. As a result. They are in fact. You should pay careful attention to the stroke order and direction. Katakana tracing practice sheet Katakana free-form practice sheet English words in Japanese Many words from foreign languages. there are relatively few distinct sounds in Japanese and only five vowel sounds.org/learn/book/…/2 5/113 .

which is created by putting a small circle in the upper-right corner of the "h" characters. There is also a semi-voiced consonant sound "p". there are additional variations and sounds that still remain to be learned. Voiced Consonants Voiced consonants are consonant sounds that require a voice.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Katakana. namely the "k".Click for Sound p b j g r m h n c s k ぴゃ びゃ じゃ ぎゃ りゃ みゃ ひゃ にゃ ちゃ しゃ きゃ ya ぴゅ びゅ じゅ ぎゅ りゅ みゅ ひゅ にゅ ちゅ しゅ きゅ yu guidetojapanese.org/learn/book/…/2 6/113 . A number of consonant sounds in Hiragana and Katakana can be changed to their voiced counterpart by adding two small dashes to the upper-right corner of the character. "t". All small や、ゆ、and よ combinations in Hiragana . and "h" consonant sounds. creating a vibration in your throat. "s". half-size version of the y-sounds to the consonant+i sounds as you can see in the table below. This is done by attaching a small. Voiced Hiragana Click for Sound p b d z g ぱば だ ざ がa ぴ び ぷぶ ぢ じ ぎ i (ji) (ji) づ ず ぐ u (dzu) ぺべ で ぜ げe ぽぼ ど ぞ ご o Voiced Katakana Click for Sound p b d z g パバ ダ ザ ガa ピ ビ プ ブ ヂ ジ ギ i (ji) (ji) ヅ ズ グu (dzu) ド ゾ ゴ o ペ ベ デ ゼ ゲe ポ ボ Y-vowel sounds A consonant can precede the three y-sounds: 「や」、「ゆ」、 and 「よ」.

t. Try saying 「か」 and 「あ」 separately. Other examples would include: 「き → きい」. Extending Vowel Sounds Vowel Sound Extended by /a/ / i/ e / /u/o / あ い う For example. 「け → けい」. For example. k. You can extend the vowel sound of a character by adding either 「あ」、「い」、or 「う」 depending on the vowel as shown in the following chart. It's important to make sure you hold the vowel sound to the full length of both characters because there are many guidetojapanese. Here are some more examples. Japanese does have a way to carry over the next consonant sound back with a small 「つ」. You'll notice that it's easier to drag out the vowel. 「こ → こう」.magazine カップ (kap-pu) .cup The Long Vowel Sound We will now go over the long vowel sound which is simply extending the duration of a vowel sound.truck ざっし (zas-shi) . The reason for this is quite simple. Then say them in succession as fast as you can.org/learn/book/…/2 7/113 . 「く → くう」. 「ひっと」 however carries the "t" consonant sound back and is pronounced "hit-to". 「ひと」 (meaning "person") would be read as "hi-to". if you wanted to create an extended vowel sound from 「か」.Click for Sound p b j g r m h n c s k ピャ ビャ ジャ ギャ リャ ミャ ヒャ ニャ チャ シャ キャ ya ピュ ビュ ジュ ギュ リュ ミュ ヒュ ニュ チュ シュ キュ yu ピョ ビョ ジョ ギョ リョ ミョ ヒョ ニョ チョ ショ キョ yo Hard Consonant Sounds While no single letter ends in a consonant sound (except 「ん」). 「さ → さあ」 and so on. you would add 「あ」 to create 「かあ」. This can be used with the consonants "p. s" to create a hard stop. トラック (to-rak-ku) .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… ぴょ びょ じょ ぎょ りょ みょ ひょ にょ ちょ しょ きょ yo All small や、ゆ、and よ combinations in Katakana .

cake Additional Katakana Sounds 「ふ」 is the only sound that is pronounced with a "f" sound. Additional sounds v w f ch d t j sh シ i ヴァ ワ ファ チャ ダ ヴ ウ タ ジャ シャ a ヴィ ウィ フィ チ ディ ティ ジ フ チュ ドゥ トゥ ジュ シュ u ト ジョ ショ o ヴェ ウェ フェ チェ デ テ ジェ シェ e ヴォ ウォ フォ チョ ド 1. 1. 2. "v" sounds are rarely used due to the difficulty native Japanese speakers have in pronouncing them. 3. However. ツアー (tsu-a) 2.check 8/113 guidetojapanese.tour . がくせい (ga-ku-se) . There are other gaps that are filled with this technique. For example. the small 「ォ」 can be attached to 「フ」 to create 「フォ」 (fo).today おはよう (o-ha-yo) . Long vowel sounds in Katakana are much easier. Here is a short list of example words with long vowel sounds.org/learn/book/…/2 . That's fine in Japanese because there are no words with other "f" sounds such as "fa". For example.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… similar words that are only different by the length of the vowel. 4. "fi". ソファ (so-fa) .Windows (as in MS Windows) ウォッカ (wok-ka) . ケーキ (ke-ki) . 「ここ」 means "here" while 「こ うこう」 means "High school". The "v" sounds are also expressed by putting two dashes to the vowel sounds.vodka チェック (chek-ku) .mother There are also a small number of exceptions where an "e" vowel sound is extended by adding 「え」 or an "o" vowel sound is extended with 「お」. 2. メ ール (me-ru) 3. We'll see example of these words in later sections. 5. for example 「ふとん」 (futon) or 「ふじ」 (Fuji). or "fo".sofa ウィンドウズ (win-do-u-zu) . However. The following table shows the gaps that were filled using these techniques for Katakana. 3. 1. The long vowel sound is highlighted.good morning おかあさん (o-ka-san) .student せんせい (sen-se) .teacher きょう (kyo) .email . You simply need to use a dash: 「ー」. 4. "Fork" then becomes [フォーク」. it's problem when converting foreign words such as "fork" into Katakana. This problem was solved by using small vowel sounds.

Most words in Japanese are written in Kanji even though they are still pronounced with the Japanese phonetic sounds represented by Hiragana and Katakana. you may have noticed that the character as rendered by the font is not always the same as the hand-written style. Definition: person guidetojapanese.9/7/2010 4. An effective strategy for mastering Kanji is learning them with new vocabulary within a larger context. (chek-ku) . By clicking the link to the stroke order. This means that horizontal strokes are generally written from left to right and vertical strokes are written from top to bottom. Stroke Order When learning Kanji.check The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Kanji The last and most notorious aspect of the Japanese written language is Kanji. So it is important to focus not so much on the characters themselves but the words and vocabulary that include those characters. ultimately. you should always verify by looking the character up in a Kanji dictionary. Remember that Kanji. Japanese learners often think that stroke order doesn't matter as long as the end product looks the same.org/learn/book/…/2 人 9/113 . we can associate various contextual information with the character in order to reinforce memory. One good general rule of thumb is that strokes usually start from the top-left corner toward the bottom-right. Kanji Readings The first Kanji we will learn is the character for 'person. what they don't realize is that there are thousands of characters and they are not always meticulously written the way they appear in print. This is another important reason to check the stroke order. which are Chinese characters adapted for Japanese. we will learn how Kanji works by learning a few common characters and vocabulary. is used to represent actual words. it is very important to learn it with the proper stroke order and direction from the beginning in order to avoid developing any bad habits. This way. if you're not sure about the stroke order. Once you learn the radical stroke order and get used to the patterns. Kanji in Vocabulary There are roughly over 2.000 characters used in modern Japanese so you can imagine that memorizing them one-by-one as you might for syllabaries such as Hiragana does not work very well. In any case. In this section. However. you'll find that it's not difficult to figure out the correct stroke order for most Kanji. Proper stroke order helps ensure the characters look recognizable even when you write them quickly or use more cursive styles. The simpler characters called radicals are often reused as components in larger characters.' It is a simple two-stroke character where each stroke starts at the top.

The actual word for "person" is one example. On-yomi. The reading for Kanji is split into two major categories called kun-yomi and on-yomi. Here. on the other hand. 先生 【せん・せい】 . Kun-yomi is the Japanese reading of the character while on-yomi is based on the original Chinese pronunciation. which often use 2 or more Kanji. day Stroke Order On-yomi: ニ Definition: origin. is mostly used for words that originate from Chinese. Kun-yomi is used for words that only use one character.American (person) フランス人 【ふらんす・じん】 . let's learn some more vocabulary and the Kanji used within them. Example アメリカ人 【アメリカ・じん】 . With 「人」. 学生 【がく・せい】 .book 日 本 Definition: sun. one very useful example of an on-yomi is to attach it to names of countries to describe nationality. Learning a reading without a context within vocabulary will only create unnecessary confusion so I do not recommend learning all the readings at once. 1.Japan 2. on-yomi is often written in Katakana. For that reason.student 2. book Stroke Order On-yomi: ホン 1.person Kun-yomi is also used for native Japanese words including most adjectives and verbs. the more common characters such as 「人」 will generally have a lot more readings. We'll see more examples as we learn more characters. Generally. Example: 人 【ひと】 . The stroke order diagrams with red highlights show you where each stroke starts. Now that you have the general idea.org/learn/book/…/2 10/113 . 本 【ほん】 . I only list the ones that are applicable to the vocabulary we learned. 日本 【に・ほん】 .French (person) While most characters will not have multiple kun-yomi or on-yomi.9/7/2010 人 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Stroke Order Kun-yomi: ひと On-yomi: ジン Kanji in Japanese can have one or several readings.teacher guidetojapanese.

inside Stroke Order On-yomi: チュウ Definition: large Stroke Order 11/113 guidetojapanese. 2. 高い 【たか・い】 . 7. university student Definition: small 小 中 大 Stroke Order Kun-yomi: ちい・さい On-yomi: ショウ Definition: middle.middle school student 大学生 【だい・がく・せい】 . 3.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 学 先 生 Definition: academic Stroke Order On-yomi: ガク Definition: ahead.org/learn/book/…/2 . precedence Stroke Order On-yomi: セン Definition: life Stroke Order On-yomi: セイ 1.small 大きい 【おお・きい】 . expensive 高 校 1.college. Stroke Order Kun-yomi: たか・い On-yomi: コウ Definition: school Stroke Order On-yomi: コウ 小さい 【ちい・さい】 . 6. university 小学生 【しょう・がく・せい】 . 8. 学校 【がっ・こう】 . expensive 2. 5.college.middle school 大学 【だい・がく】 .high school Definition: tall. 高校 【こう・こう】 . 4.school 3.tall.elementary school 中学校 【ちゅう・がっ・こう】 .elementary school student 中学生 【ちゅう・がく・せい】 .big 小学校 【しょう・がっ・こう】 .

国 【くに】 .French スペイン語 【スペイン・ご】 . For example.Chinese (person) Definition: country 国 1.9/7/2010 大 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Kun-yomi: おお・きい On-yomi: ダイ 1. we've managed to learn over 25 words ranging from China to elementary school student! Kanji is usually regarded as a major obstacle but as you can see. you can easily turn it into a valuable tool if you learn it in the context of vocabulary. Because those words are adjectives. The thing to watch out for is remembering exactly where the Kanji ends and Hiragana begins.Chinese language 英語 【えい・ご】 .country 2. Okurigana and changing readings You may have noticed some words that end with Hiragana such as 「高い」 or 「大きい」. 5. 「学校」 is read as 「がっこう」 and not 「がくこう」. 中国人 【ちゅう・ごく・じん】 . it has become much easier to look up new Kanji thanks to online tools and electronic dictionaries. called Okurigana are needed to perform various conjugations without affecting the Kanji. Stroke Order Kun-yomi: くに On-yomi: コク 日本語 【に・ほん・ご】 . the trailing Hiragana. 2. Ultimately. you'll want to check the reading for any new words you encounter.org/learn/book/…/2 12/113 .Spanish Definition: England Stroke Order On-yomi: エイ Definition: language Stroke Order On-yomi: ゴ 英 語 With only 14 characters. You can find a tutorial on how to use these tools at the following link guidetojapanese. you never want to write 「大きい」 as 「大い」.Japanese language 中国語 【ちゅう・ごく・ご】 . 3. For example. You may have also noticed that the Kanji readings don't always match the reading in a particular word.English フランス語 【フランス・ご】 . Readings often go through these small transformations to make pronunciation easier. Fortunately. 中国 【ちゅう・ごく】 . 4.China 3.

One thing to pay attention to is the fact that 4 and 7 have two possible pronunciations. you must write it as 「熱い」 instead. When you are describing a hot object or person. For Japanese. Numerals Kanji 1 2 3 4 四 5 6 7 七 8 八 9 九 10 十 一 二 三 五 六 Reading いち に さん し/よん ご ろく しち/なな はち きゅう じゅう よん なな 11 to 99 As an added bonus. The more common is in bold. the writer may use a more specialized version for stylistic reasons.org/learn/resources/findingkanji Different Kanji for similar words Kanji is often used to make subtle distinctions or give a different shade of meaning for a word. 暑 熱 Definition: hot (for climate only) Stroke Order Kun-yomi: あつ・い Definition: heat. For example.guidetojapanese. while the adjective for hot is 「あつい」. it also allows us to get familiar with some basic and important Kanji. it is very important to remember to use the correct Kanji for the correct situation. three-ten is thirty. The examples in this book will generally use the generic and usually simpler Kanji. when used to describe the climate. We will learn higher numbers past 99 in a later chapter. you must write it as 「暑い」. two-ten is twenty. etc. If you want to learn more about learning the different Kanji for a single word and new words in general. In some cases. we don't need to learn any more numbers to count up to 99.org/learn/book/…/2 13/113 . fever Stroke Order On-yomi: あつ・い;ねつ In other cases. For example. go to the tutorial at the following link: http://www.org/learn/resources/learning_words Basic numbers and age 1 to 10 Learning the first ten numbers is a one good way to get started in learning any language.guidetojapanese.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… http://www. while there is generic Kanji that can be used for all situations for a given word. The tens digit is simply the number and ten. Example guidetojapanese.

The counter for counting age is 「~歳」(さい).20 years old Example 1.20 years old 二十一歳 【に・じゅう・いっ・さい】 . The following digits are read slightly differently when used with the age counter. 一歳 【いっ・さい】 .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 1. In Japanese. we must use counters to count different types of things. 4. However.20 二十一 【に・じゅう・いち】 . 3. 3. Irregular readings 1.39 四十 【よん・じゅう】 . 十一 【じゅう・いち】 .11 二十 【に・じゅう】 . In addition. 6. 4.74 九十九 【きゅう・じゅう・きゅう】 . 5. as we saw in the last section. The age 20 is also a completely irregular reading. 4. guidetojapanese. Chapter summary and practice We covered all the sounds in Japanese. it is also written as 「才」 (though it's actually a completely different character) Counters are simply attached to the end of the number. The best way to learn a language is to regularly interact in that language and the only way to do that is to meet Japanese speakers so a self-introduction is an ideal way to apply what we've learned in this section.40 七十四 【なな・じゅう・よん】 .10 years old 二十歳 【はたち】 .99 Counters and Age Let's use the numbers we just learned to talk about our age. Because the Kanji is rather difficult. Let's apply what we've learned to come up with a simple self-introduction. Learning the expressions You only need a couple of fixed expressions for your simple self-introduction.21 三十九 【さん・じゅう・きゅう】 . we also learn number up to 99 and how to count age. 2.21 years old 四十八歳 【よん・じゅう・はっ・さい】 . 3. 2. how they are written in Hiragana and Katakana. Kanji readings can often go through small changes to aid pronunciation. 二十歳 【はたち】 . and how Kanji works.org/learn/book/…/2 14/113 .70 years old We will learn many more counters in a later chapter.48 years old 七十歳 【なな・じゅっ・さい】 .1 year old 八歳 【はっ・さい】 . 7.8 years old 十歳 【じゅっ・さい】 . 2.

You may even want to ask the first person you introduce yourself to. よろしくおねがいします There is no easy direct translation but it means something along the lines of "please treat me well" when used at the end of an introduction. ブラウンです。 (I am) Brown. In Japan. はじめまして Shortened form of an expression originally meaning "I meet you for the first time". I would recommend asking your teacher or a Japanese speaker for help in converting your name to the Katakana equivalent. we now have everything we need for our simple self-introduction. If you want to give it a try on your own (like right now).org/learn/resources/nameinjapanese To say you are that name.org/learn/book/…/2 15/113 . the last name is given more weight so it is common to just go by your last name especially in a more formal environment such as the classroom or workplace. you can try this tutorial on finding your name in Japanese: http://www. it's a standard greeting similar in intent to "Nice to meet" or "How do you do?" 2. アリス・スミスです。 (I am) Alice Smith. Don't forget that you need to add 「人」(じん) to the country for nationality. Japanese has a relatively limited set of sounds so it's very likely that your name will need to sound very different from its native pronunciation.working adult guidetojapanese. you need only attach 「です」 to the name. The pronunciation is usually shortened to just "dess".college student 2. it can go either way for names from countries where the order is reversed. 1. Telling people your name If you haven't done so already.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 1. However. As we've learned. you'll need to decide on what to call yourself in Japanese. Example [name]です。 (I am) [name]. When using the full name. 社会人 【しゃ・かい・じん】 . 大学生 【だい・がく・せい】 . 2. Putting it all together Using the fixed expressions and the vocabulary we learned in the last section.guidetojapanese. Below is a short list of potentially useful nouns to describe what you are for your self-introduction. 1. the last name always comes first for Japanese names. We will learn more about 「です」 in the next chapter.

France スペイン .used when returning home お帰りなさい 【お・かえ・りなさい】 . 5. (I'm a) college student.Australia フランス . 6. 8.used as farewell for someone leaving the house (lit: Go and come back) ただいま .used before eating a meal (lit: I humbly receive) ごちそうさまでした . Other expressions In addition to practicing your self-introduction. (I am) Alice Smith. It's ok if nobody around you speaks Japanese. 4. for example: "He is a student" and "He is at school". ありがとうございます . the verb "to be" is used to describe what something is or where it is. There is no need to use a verb nor even a subject to make a complete sentence in Japanese. They'll understand you're hard at work practicing. 4. State-of-Being In English.used when leaving home (lit: I'm going and coming back) いってらっしゃい . Katakana and Kanji to create a simple self-introduction. a good way to practice pronunciation is to use various expressions for different scenarios. we will learn more about the state-ofbeing and how to use nouns and adjectives.England オーストラリア . 3.org/learn/book/…/2 16/113 .thank you (polite) すみません . 7. we used 「です」 to express state-of-being. 1. The state-of-being is very easy to describe because it is implied within the noun or adjective. 10.Spain ヨーロッパ . 2. In this chapter. 9. 5. 11. Take for example. (I'm) American.sorry (polite) いただきます .used after finishing a meal (lit: It was a feast) いってきます .welcome home Nouns and Adjectives At the end of the last chapter. 8. (I'm) 18 years old.Brazil メキシコ .Mexico はじめまして。アリス・スミスです。アメリカ人です。大学生です。十八歳です。よろしくお ねがいします。 Nice to meet you.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 3. In the process. In Japanese. the two are described very differently.Canada イギリス . The state-of-being we will learn is used to describe only what something is and not where it exists.Europe ブラジル . a casual conversation guidetojapanese. 7. we used Hiragana. Please treat me well. 韓国 【かん・こく】 .South Korea カナダ . 6.

We did this in our simple self-introduction in the last section and because it's understood by context that you are talking about yourself. Casual Morning Greeting 1. guidetojapanese. リー: おはよう。 Lee: Morning.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… among friends asking. lively ※Used as a greeting to ask whether one is well A: 元気? (Are you) well? B: 元気。 (I'm) fine. there is no need to add a subject.org/learn/book/…/2 17/113 .healthy. We can ask questions in the polite form by further adding 「か」 to 「です」. "How are you?" How are you? (casual) 元気 【げん・き】 . you should use the polite form when speaking to a teacher. Below is a simple greeting in the polite form. or people you're not very familiar with. a superior such as your boss.Good Morning (casual) アリス: おはよう。 Alice: Morning. How are you? A: 元気ですか? (Are you) well? B: 元気です。 (I'm) well. Practical Applications Here's an example of a casual morning greeting between two classmates and a polite morning greeting with the teacher. all that is required for the polite form is to add 「です」 to the end of the sentence. The 「か」 is a question marker so a question mark is not necessary. Polite State-of-being While the previous dialogue may be fine among close friends. おはよう . For nouns and adjectives.

Polite Morning Greeting 1. the 「は」 topic particle is used to indicate a new topic for the conversation. スミス: おはようございます! Smith: Good Morning! 先生: お元気ですか? Teacher: Are (you) well? スミス: 元気です。 Smith: (I'm) well. However. is pronounced 「わ」. お~ . Note: The topic particle while written as 「は」.a honorific prefix used for politeness and never used when referring to oneself 先生: おはようございます。 Teacher: Morning. 「 は 」 Topic Particle As mentioned previously. For that purpose. Particles are one or more Hiragana characters that assign a certain grammatical function to the word that comes before it. context is very important in Japanese and is often silently understood by the situation. However. longer and more sophisticated sentences will consist of many words that perform various grammatical roles.this guidetojapanese. We'll learn the expressions for afternoon and evening greetings in the next section.org/learn/book/…/2 18/113 . what you want to talk about may not always be obvious or you may want to change the topic of the conversation. the grammatical role each word plays in a sentence is defined by particles. おはようございます .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… アリス: 元気? Alice: (Are you) well? リー: 元気。 Lee: (I'm) good. You can follow a similar model to practice greeting people in the morning. これ . In Japanese. We'll see how this works by first learning the topic particle.Good Morning (polite) 2. Example 1. Topic Particles Context plays a powerful role in Japanese so one word sentences are perfectly fine for simple question and answers.

(do you) like? (lit: is likable?) 2. The expressions were originally full sentences with a topic meaning. 7.busy 映画 【えい・が】 .busy 先生: こんにちは。 Teacher: Good day. それは、ペンです。 (As for) that. (I'm) a little busy. 1. busy? 2. こんばんは . (lit: Is likable. 5. what is (it)? 2.Good evening (pronounced 「こんばんわ」) How are things lately? 1.Good day (pronounced 「こんにちわ」) 2. 8.now ちょっと .pen 今 【いま】 . 1. これは、何(なん)ですか? (As for) this. 何 【なに/なん】 . lately 2.a little (casual) 忙しい 【いそが・しい】 . how (is it)? guidetojapanese. 今は、忙しい? (As for) now. 好きです。 (I) like (them). 先生: 最近は、どうですか? Teacher: (As for) lately.org/learn/book/…/2 19/113 . 4.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 2. スミス: こんにちは。 Smith: Good day. 忙しい 【いそが・しい】 . こんにちは . 3. 今は、ちょっと忙しい。 (As for) now. 最近 【さい・きん】 .how 3. 9. 6.what それ .movie 好き 【す・き】 . how is your mood?" but they were eventually shortened to just "As for today" and "As for tonight".) Greetings The topic particle is also used in the greetings for daytime and evening.recent. 映画は、好きですか? (As for) movie(s). "As for today/tonight. (it's) a pen.that ペン . どう .likable (unlike English "like" is an adjective not a verb) 1. 1.

you will refer to people using their name (last name is more polite than first) usually followed by a name-suffix. reality リー: 今日は忙しい? Lee: As for today. guidetojapanese.yes (casual) 本当 【ほんとう】 .truth. The most common name-suffixes are listed below. 今日 【きょう】 . リー: あさっては? Lee: What about the day after tomorrow? スミス: あさっても。 Smith: The day after tomorrow too. Most of the time.org/learn/book/…/2 20/113 .tomorrow あさって . 2. the word "you" is seldom used to refer to a person except in the case of very close relationships. 5. リー: 本当? Lee: Really? (lit: Is it true?) Addressing People Addressing other people directly In Japanese. 「 も」 Inclusive Topic Particle The 「も」 particle is the the same as the 「は」 topic particle but adds a meaning of "as well" or "also".day after tomorrow うん . You have probably already heard 「さん」 somewhere at some point. リー: 明日は? Lee: What about tomorrow? スミス: 明日も忙しい。 Smith: Tomorrow is also busy. (are you) busy? スミス: うん、忙しい。 Smith : Yeah. 4. (I'm) busy. Suspiciously busy 1.today 明日 【あした】 . or people you are unfamiliar with.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… スミス: 忙しいです。 Smith: Busy. elders. 3. It is the polite name-suffix used to refer to your social superiors.

rough time. (are you) well? リー: はい、元気です。でも、眠いです。 Lee: Yes.sleepy それ ..that 大変 【たい・へん】 .yes (polite) でも . masculine guidetojapanese.org/learn/book/…/2 21/113 .ok いつも . 私 【わたし】 .hardship. はい . 3. tough 大丈夫 【だい・じょう・ぶ】 . List of different words meaning me.but 眠い 【ねむ・い】 . (are you) well? スミス: はい、元気です。 Smith: Yes. 僕 【ぼく】 . You can also always ask the person what they prefer to be called by. 5. 「さん」 with the person's last name is generally the safest option." or "me too".same Kanji as 「わたし」 but this reading is only used in very formal situations 3. (I'm) fine.always 先生: スミスさんは、元気ですか。 Teacher: Smith-san. 6. there are times you may still want to refer to yourself as a topic to say. gender-neutral 2. 先生: リーさんは、元気ですか? Teacher: Lee-san. But (I'm) sleepy. 7. 先生: それは、大変ですね。 Teacher: That's tough. 4.Polite name-suffix (gender-neutral) ~君[くん] .polite. 2. Always sleepy 1. スミス: 大丈夫です。リーさんはいつも眠いです。 Smith: (It's) ok. Talking about yourself We already saw that it's usually understood implicitly by context when you're talking about yourself.. and I 1. However. "As for me.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… ~さん . There are several options for referring to yourself depending on level of politeness and gender.Casual name-suffix (generally for males) ~ちゃん . myself. (I'm) fine.polite. Lee-san is always sleepy. 私 【わたくし】 .Casual name-suffix (generally for females) If you're not sure which to use to address someone.

The last sentence 「私 は、おいしい」 would be very strange if it meant "I am tasty". 俺 【おれ】 . very feminine 5. お茶 【お・ちゃ】 .money 2. tasty? リー: ううん。 Lee: No.org/learn/book/…/2 22/113 . This would not likely guidetojapanese. the pizza is tasty. from the context of the entire conversation. ピザ . you would not use honorifics to refer to your own family members when speaking with people outside your family. We'll learn more about honorifics in a much later chapter but the basic idea is to use the honorific prefix to refer to family members of other people outside your own family.very casual and masculine How's the pizza? 1. However.pizza 2. Just like how you should not use 「お元気」 to refer to yourself.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 4. お金 【お・かね】 . you should not use them when referring to members of your own family while talking to another member of your family. However. tasty. we know that Alice is saying that as for her. アリス: 私は、おいしい。 Alice: As for me. The topic only brings up the general topic of the conversation and does not necessarily indicate the subject of any one particular sentence. あたし . ご飯 【ご・はん】 .tea The reason we're looking at it here is because of how the honorific prefix is used to refer to family members. This prefix is used in all sorts of words and comes from a Kanji which can be read as either 「ご」 or 「お」. おいしい .no (casual) ジョン: ピザは、おいしい? John: As for pizza. determining which reading to use is usually not an issue as this Kanji is usually written in Hiragana. because "I" is only a general topic. because honorifics are relative to the person you're speaking to. Addressing family members We've already encountered the honorific prefix 「お」 in 「お元気」. However.rice.casual. This short conversation highlights a very important point.tasty 3. Definition: honorable 御 Stroke Order Kun-yomi: お On-yomi: ゴ 1. ううん . meal 3.

9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… happen unless you had Japanese speakers in your family or you have a Japanese host family. are (you) Asian (person)? guidetojapanese. 3. 6.but 母 【はは】 .(one's own) mother 日本人 【に・ほん・じん】 . 11.father 父 【ちち】 .org/learn/book/…/2 23/113 . 10.no でも . 4.Japanese (person) そう . 5.(one's own) father アメリカ人 【あめりか・じん】 . Family member chart One's own family Family Parents Mother Father Wife Husband Older Sister Older Brother Younger Sister Younger Brother Son Daughter 家族【か・ぞく】 両親【りょう・しん】 母【はは】 父【ちち】 妻【つま】 夫【おっと】 姉【あね】 兄【あに】 妹【いもうと】 弟【おとうと】 息子【むすこ】 娘【むすめ】 Someone else's family ご家族【ご・か・ぞく】 ご両親【ご・りょう・しん】 お母さん【お・かあ・さん】 お父さん【お・とう・さん】 奥さん【おく・さん】 ご主人【ご・しゅ・じん】 お姉さん【お・ねえ・さん】 お兄さん【お・にい・さん】 妹さん【いもうと・さん】 弟さん【おとうと・さん】 息子さん【むすこ・さん】 娘さん【むすめ・さん】 Smith's parents 1. The list below is by no means complete and only covers the more common words for the primary family members. 8.Asian (person) いいえ . 山田 【やま・だ】 .I see 山田: スミスさんは、アジア人ですか? Yamada: Smith-san. 9. We will learn more about the concept of inner and outer circle for honorifics in a much later chapter.American (person) なるほど (exp) .Yamada (surname) アジア人 【あじあ・じん】 .so お父さん 【お・とう・さん】 . 2. 7.

These particles are attached at the very end of the sentence to add a different nuance or tone. Sentence-Ending Particles Let's add some life to our sentences by using sentence-ending particles.hot (for climate/weather only) 明日 【あした】 . "you know?". 山田: そうですか。お父さんは? Yamada: Is that so? As for (your) father? スミス: 父はアメリカ人です。 Smith: (My) father is American.tasty. 4. 2. 3. 今日 【きょう】 . "right?" or "isn't it?".9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… スミス: いいえ。でも、母は、日本人です。 Smith: No. (it's) hot. delicous 1. 6. 1. (I'm) busy. 3.busy ラーメン . 明日は、忙しいですよ。 As for tomorrow. ラーメンは、おいしいですよね! As for ramen. 2.tomorrow 忙しい 【いそが・しい】 . But. you know. 「ね」 is used when the speaker is seeking agreement and confirmation. It adds a tone similar to saying. (it's) tasty you know. 3. 山田: なるほど。 Yamada: I see. 今日は、暑いですね。 As for today.today 暑い 【あつ・い】 .ramen おいしい .org/learn/book/…/2 24/113 . isn't it? 2. The two can be used together as 「よね」 Example 1. 「よ」 is used when the speaker wants to point something out or make something aware to the listener. isn't it?! You look young for a teacher guidetojapanese. (my) mother is Japanese. 5. It adds a tone similar to saying. 「 よ 」 and 「 ね 」 sentence endings 「よ」 and 「ね」 are two of the most frequently used sentence ending particles.

you know.secret スミス: はじめまして。スミスです。 Smith: Nice to meet you. Adjectives We've already used some adjectives as the state-of-being but we have yet to describe a noun directly with adjectives. 田中 【たなか】 . 7. 2.busy 楽しい 【たの・しい】. (I'm) a teacher. スミス: 本当ですか? Smith: Really? 田中: 本当ですよ。 Tanaka: It's true. right? How old (are you)? 田中: それは、秘密です。 Tanaka: That's a secret.good かっこいい . 田中: はじめまして。田中です。 Tanaka: Nice to meet you. 5. (I'm) Tanaka. 3.very 若い 【わか・い】 . スミス: 田中さんは、学生ですか? Smith: Tanaka-san. スミス: とても若いですね。おいくつですか? Smith: (You) are very young.fun 25/113 guidetojapanese. Examples of i-adjectives All i-adjectives end in 「い」.Tanaka (surname) いいえ . (are you) a student? 田中: いいえ、先生です Tanaka: No. 4. 1. 6. (I'm) Smith. 4. handsome 忙しい 【いそが・しい】 . In order to do this.how old それ .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 1.org/learn/book/…/2 . 3. いい . we first have to learn the two different types of adjectives in Japanese.young おいくつ . 2.cool. There are two types of adjectives called i-adjectives and na-adjectives.that 秘密 【ひ・みつ】 .no とても .

好きな物 likable thing You're so-so handsome guidetojapanese. きれいな人 pretty person 4. 嫌い 【きら・い】 . you first need to add 「な」 before you can attach the adjective to the noun (hence the name).game 物 【もの】 . there are a small number of na-adjectives that end in 「い」. 1. 3.likable 2.object. For na-adjectives. 忙しい時 busy time 5. healthy person 3.cold Examples of na-adjectives All adjectives that do not end in 「い」 are na-adjectives. きれい .clean. いい人 good person 2.healthy. 1. 好き 【す・き】 .org/learn/book/…/2 26/113 .distasteful Describing nouns directly You can easily describe a noun by placing the adjective directly in front of the noun. Example 1. 楽しいゲーム fun game 6. 2. 静か 【しず・か】 .time ゲーム . 元気 【げん・き】 . 人 【ひと】 . The examples below are two of the most common na-adjectives that end in 「い」. thing 1.quiet Examples of na-adjectives that end in 「 い 」 Though most adjectives that end in 「い」 are i-adjectives. 暑い 【あつ・い】 .person 時 【とき】 . 4. pretty 2. 元気な人 lively.hot 6. 寒い 【さむ・い】 . lively 3.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 5.

Male/Female Speech As opposed to polite speech. casual speech has many constructions that make it sound masculine or feminine to varying degrees. Declarative 「 だ 」 The declarative 「だ」 is attached to nouns and na-adjectives to give it a more declarative tone and make the state-of-being explicit.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 1.fun guidetojapanese. The first example of this is how 「ね」 and 「よ」 are used in casual speech. For now.skillful. For males. スミス: とてもきれいな人ですね。 Smith: (She's) a very pretty person. 2.Japanese language 2. we can use it in casual Japanese to give a more definitive.Thank you. 5.very まあまあ (adv) . Note: Only attach 「だ」 to nouns and na-adjectives.thank you (polite) スミス: 田中先生は、新しい先生ですか? Smith: Is Tanaka-sensei a new teacher? 山本: そうですよ。 Yamamoto: That's right. isn't she? 山本: そうですか? Yamamoto: Is that so? スミス: あっ、山本先生も、まあまあかっこいいですよ! Smith: Ah. Of course. Never to i-adjectives. Example 1. which is mostly gender-neutral. 楽しい 【たの・しい】(i-adj) . Yamamoto-sensei is so-so handsome too! 山本: ・・・ありがとうございます。 Yamamoto: .. 3. you do not have to be a specific gender to use either masculine or feminine manners of speech but you do need to be aware of the differences and the impression it gives to the listener. it is important to use it before 「ね」 or 「よ」 to avoid sounding too feminine. confident. good at 3.new とても (adv) . and somewhat masculine tone.so-so ありがとうございます . in particular.Yamamoto (surname) 新しい 【あたら・しい】 (i-adj) . This is important in some grammatical forms we will cover later. 山本 【やまもと】 . 4.org/learn/book/…/2 27/113 . 上手 【じょう・ず】(na-adj) . 日本語 【に・ほん・ご】 ..

However. I recommend translating 「の」 as "of" and reading it in reverse. Noun properties The 「の」 particle has many different uses but one of the most basic usages is for describing nouns with other nouns similar to how we described nouns with adjectives. (it's) fun. 5. アリス: どっちよ。 Alice: Which is it? Because John is male. regardless of gender.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 1. aren't you? (masculine) 3.difficult 簡単 【かん・たん】 (na-adj) . which way アリス: 宿題は、難しい?。 Alice: As for homework.probably. This is usually used to describe ownership.homework 難しい 【むずか・しい】 (i-adj) . property or any other description that involves another noun.org/learn/book/…/2 28/113 . 宿題 【しゅく・だい】 (n) .umm 多分 【た・ぶん】 . maybe どっち . 6. 日本語は、楽しいよ。 As for Japanese. 「難しいだよ」 is grammatically incorrect. 2. 4. 3. (you're) good at it. you know. (is it) difficult? ジョン: 簡単だよ! John: It's easy! アリス: 本当? Alice: Really? ジョン: うーん、多分難しいよ。 John: Umm. membership. 日本語は、上手ね。 As for Japanese.which one. (you're) good at it. (it's) probably difficult. 日本語は、上手だね。 As for Japanese. Examples guidetojapanese. he decides to use 「だ」 with 「よ」 with the na-adjective 「簡単」.easy うーん . you cannot use 「だ」 with i-adjectives so he says 「難しいよ」. If you're unsure of the order. aren't you? (feminine) 2. It is important to remember the order the modification takes place. You don't want to inadvertently say "name's me" when you meant to say "my name". (gender-neutral as 「だ」 cannot be used for i-adjectives) The homework is easy! 1.

I 名前 【な・まえ】 . 田中先生は、日本語の先生です。 Tanaka-sensei is teacher of Japanese (Japanese teacher). 3. 12.Japanese language 1.huh. 8.down.up.me. 4.car 日本 【に・ほん】 . 2. 10. かばんは、机の下です。 Bag is below of desk. 下の名前 .name この . 11. 私の名前は、キムです。 Name of me (my name) is Kim.first name (lit: bottom name) 何 【なに】 . 5. 2.Japan ペン .why え . below 先生 【せん・せい】 .what なんで . 2.org/learn/book/…/2 29/113 .desk 上 【うえ】 . リー: アリスちゃんね。 Lee: Alice-chan. eh リー: スミスさんの下の名前は、何? Lee: What is Smith-san's first name? スミス: アリスよ。 Smith: (It's) Alice.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 1. 9. huh? スミス: リーさんの下の名前は? What is Lee-san's first name? リー: ジェユン Lee: JaeYoon.pen 机 【つくえ】 . What's your first name again? 1. ペンは、机の上です。 Pen is above of desk. 4. 4. 3.teacher 日本語 【に・ほん・ご】 . myself. 6. 3. above かばん .this 車 【くるま】 . この車は、日本の車です。 This car is car of Japan (Japanese car). 5. 私 【わたし】 .bag 下 【した】 . スミス: ・・・リー君ね。 guidetojapanese. 7.

かっこいい → かっこよい+くない=かっこよくない Note: The negative tense is very similar grammatically to i-adjectives. why? Noun replacement The 「の」 particle can also replace the noun entirely when it's understood by the context.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Smith: . The noun or adjective are conjugated directly to say that [X is not Y]. You will see similar examples later as we learn different types of conjugations. いい → よい+くない=よくない 2. 赤いのは、好き。 Like the red one.. 忙しい+くない=忙しくない 2. Conjugating nouns and adjectives into the negative tense is done through two simple rules.. There are only two exceptions to the rule for i-adjectives both involving the adjective meaning "good".which 1. Examples 1.red 2. 赤い 【あか・い】 . きれい+じゃない=きれいじゃない For i-adjectives: Drop the 「い」 at the end and replace with 「くない」 Example 1. Though it is usually pronounced 「いい」 in modern Japanese. 2.org/learn/book/…/2 30/113 . The words 「いい」 and 「かっこいい」 (which is a combination of another word 「格好」(かっこう) with 「い い」) originally come from the adjective 「良い」(よい). かわいい+くない=かわいくない Exceptions: 「いい」 conjugates from 「よい」 1. どれ . you must never use guidetojapanese. huh? リー: え、なんで? Lee: Huh.Lee-kun. expressing the negative is a bit different from English. 元気+じゃない=元気じゃない 2. all conjugations still derive from the original 「よい」 reading. スミスさんのは、どれですか? Which one is Smith-san's? Negative State-of-Being Because the state-of-being is implied within nouns and adjectives. Negative tense for nouns and adjectives For nouns and na-adjectives: Attach 「じゃない」 to the end Example 1. Similar to i-adjectives.

3.difficult それ . 4. 7. 5. lecture あまり . サラダは、あまり好きじゃない。 As for salad. is it? That's not a good thing! 1. 2. ジョン: でも、難しくない? John: But isn't it very difficult? アリス: それは、いいことよ。 Alice: That's a good thing.book 面白い 【おも・しろ・い】(i-adj) . 6. (it's) not interesting. この本は、面白くないよ。 As for this book.org/learn/book/…/2 31/113 .good こと (n) . 今年の冬は、寒くないね。 As for this year's winter. you know. funny でも .9/7/2010 The Note: The Complete Guide i-adjectives. アリス: 私は、面白いよ。 Alice: As for me. 2.not at all (when used with negative tense) ジョン: 山本先生の授業は、あまり面白くない。 John: Yamamoto-sensei's class is not very interesting. don't like very much. 4.matter. 9.interesting 今年 【ことし】 . 9. (it's) interesting.this year 冬 【ふゆ】 . Example 1. guidetojapanese. (it's) not cold.not very (when used with negative tense) この . 3. 8.that いい (i-adj) . you know. Similar negative tense is very similar grammatically toto Learning Japane… to i-adjectives.salad ステーキ .class. you must never use the declarative 「だ」 with the negative tense.this 本 【ほん】 .cold 1. 授業 【じゅ・ぎょう】 (n) .winter 寒い 【さむ・い】(i-adj) .steak あまり . 7.but 難しい 【むずか・しい】 (i-adj) . 2.not very (when used with negative tense) 面白い 【おも・しろ・い】 (i-adj) . 4. ステーキ・サラダは、サラダじゃないよ。 As for steak salad. (it's) not salad. サラダ . 5. event 全然 【ぜん・ぜん】 (adv) . 3.interesting. 8. 6.

7. (I) also like games.likable スポーツ . you have to know what you want to talk about ahead of time.sports いいえ . if you wanted to know what kind of food somebody liked. 趣味 【しゅ・み】 (n) .no (polite) オタク .game 好き 【す・き】 (na-adj) . 2. 山本: スポーツは、好きですか? Yamamoto: Do (you) like sports? リー: いいえ、あまり好きじゃないです。 Lee: No. all that's required for the polite form is to add 「です」 to the end of the sentence. That is what the 「が」 particle is for: to identify or seek to identify an unknown. it would be impossible to ask if each kind was his/her favorite using the topic particle saying "as for this" and "as for that". guidetojapanese. 4.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… ジョン: 全然よくない! John: It's not good at all! Negative Nouns/Adjectives in Polite Form As before. スミス: リーさんは、オタクです。 Smith: Lee-san is an otaku.org/learn/book/…/2 32/113 . geek.what (read as なん when used with です) パソコン . 8. I'm not an otaku! 1. For example. I don't like (it) that much. 6. 5.computer (abbreviation of パーソナル・コンピューター or PC) ゲーム . Lee-san? リー: パソコンです。ゲームも好きです。 Lee: Computers. enthusiast 山本: リーさんの趣味は何ですか? Yamamoto: What is your hobby. Obviously this will not always be the case.otaku.hobby. interest 何 【なに/なん】 . リー: オタクじゃないですよ! Lee: I'm not an otaku! Identifying the unknown 「 が 」 identifier particle With the 「は」 topic particle. 3.

what is it? 食べ物は、何が好きですか? As for food. 4. isn't it? She is cute. 3. sophomore 来年 【らい・ねん】 . while the topic particle can only bring up a general topic of conversation. you know? guidetojapanese.why 授業 【じゅ・ぎょう】 . do (you) like it? どんなピザが好きですか? What kind of pizza do (like)? (Among all possibilities) You can sometimes restructure your sentence to mean the same thing with and without the 「が」 particle. the best. I like Yamamoto-sensei. 好きな食べ物は、何ですか? As for food that (you) like.second year. 5.something to look forward to なんで .which 一番 【いち・ばん】 . busy. 9. スミスさんは、忙しい。 As for Smith-san. But (she's) second-year teacher. which teacher do (you) like the most? ジョン: 田中先生が好きだね。 John: (I) like Tanaka-sensei. the most かわいい (i-adj) .cute 二年生 【に・ねん・せい】 .org/learn/book/…/2 33/113 .next year 楽しみに 【たの・しみに】 . 10. ジョン: 来年が楽しみだ! John: Looking forward to next year! アリス: 私は、山本先生が好きよ。 Alice: As for me. どの . 7.class 面白い 【おも・しろ・い】 . 2. 6.interesting 難しい 【むずか・しい】 .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… ピザは、好きですか? As for pizza.difficult リー: ジョンさんは、どの先生が一番好き? Lee: As for John-san. what is it that you like? (Among all possibilities) However. 8. スミスさんが忙しい。 Smith-san is the one that is busy. the identifier particle play a specific role in that it's identifying a particular thing among other possibilities.number 1. リー: そうだね。かわいいよね。でも、二年生の先生だよね。 Lee: That's so. Which teacher do you like the most? 1.

.today 忙しい 【いそが・しい】 . The two conjunctions are 「けど」 and 「が」. 今日 【きょう】 . While 「でも」 is always used at the beginning of a new sentence.free (as in not busy) 今日は忙しいけど、明日は暇。 (I'm) busy but (I'm) free tomorrow. guidetojapanese. This way. 4. 2. 3. there are two conjunctions that also mean "but" and can be used to combine two sentences together into one compound sentence..) Example 1. (Note that this 「が」 is completely different from the identifier particle we learned in the last section. a simple trick to easily distinguish 「が」 is to translate it as "the one or thing that. Combining two sentences with "but" You may remember we already used 「でも」 to mean "but" or "however".tomorrow 暇 【ひま】 . 2. 「けど」 is fairly casual while 「が」 is slightly more formal and polite. 1.org/learn/book/…/2 34/113 .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… ジョン: え?なんで? John: Huh? Why? アリス: 授業が面白くない? Alice: Isn't (his) class interesting? ジョン: 面白くないよ!難しいよ! John: It's not interesting! It's difficult! アリス: そう? Alice: Is that so? The one or thing that.. there are several versions of each with a slightly different level of politeness.. similar to English. Though it doesn't work all the time. However. 授業が面白くない? Isn't his class the thing that is interesting? Conjunctions There are really only two conjunctions in Japanese that can combine two sentences together into a compound sentence: "but" and "because". 田中先生が好き。 Tanaka-sensei is the one that (I) like. it clearly illustrates the 「が」 particle as identifying a particular thing or person.busy 明日 【あした】 .".

here 2. うるさい . 今日は暇じゃないが、明日は暇。 Combining two sentences with "so" You can combine two sentences with 「から」 or 「ので」 to show a reason and result but it's important to remember that the reason comes first. If the first clause ends with a noun or na-adjective without any tense (such as the negative tense 「じゃない」) and you're not using 「です」. Note: If the first clause ends with a noun or na-adjective without any tense and you're not using 「です」. 静か 【しず・か】 . 今日は暇ですが、明日は忙しいです。 If the noun or na-adjective is already conjugated to another tense (such as the negative tense 「じゃない」).noisy ここは、うるさいから、あまり好きじゃない。 (It's) noisy here so (I) don't like it very much. Example 1. 今日は暇じゃないけど、明日は暇。 2.org/learn/book/…/2 35/113 . 1. However. you must add 「だ」. 今日は暇だけど、明日は忙しい。 2. Example (I'm) free today but (I'm) busy tomorrow. Therefore. for 「ので」 you must add 「な」 instead. 「ので」 is slighter more polite and formal compared to 「から」. Example 1. it may be beneficial to remember it as meaning "so" rather than "because" to match the order. 1. you must add 「だ」 for 「から」.here 2. you don't need to add 「だ」. 今日は暇だが、明日は忙しい。 4. ここ . 今日は暇ですけど、明日は忙しいです。 3. ここ . ここは、うるさいですので、あまり好きじゃないです。 (It's) noisy here so (I) don't like it very much.quiet guidetojapanese. Note: Once again. (I'm) not free today but (I'm) free tomorrow.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 今日は忙しいですが、明日は暇です。 (I'm) busy but (I'm) free tomorrow.

few. 12. 今年は、不景気だから、クリスマスなのに、お客さんが少ない。 This year is recession so despite it being Christmas. 4. ここは静かじゃないので、あまり好きじゃない。 Combining two sentences with "despite" Similarly. 1.cute 真面目 【ま・じ・め】 (na-adj) .man 友達 【とも・だち】 . Leaving parts out You can leave out either side of the conjunction if it's understood by context.customer 少ない 【すく・ない】(i-adj) . ここは静かなので、好き。 4. you can attach two sentences with 「のに」 to mean "despite" or "in spite of". 9.serious. this only applies to nouns and na-adjectives that are not conjugated to another tense. (she) is very young. ここは静かですから、好きです。 3.Christmas お客さん 【お・きゃく・さん】 .teacher とても . 8.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… (It's) quiet here so (I) like it. アリスは、かわいいのに、真面目だから、男の友達が少ない。 Although Alice is cute. diligent 男 【おとこ】 . Similar to 「ので」. 先生 【せん・せい】 . Example 1. 田中さんは、先生なのに、とても若いです。 Despite the fact that that Tanaka-san is (a) teacher. Example スミス: ここは、好きじゃない。 guidetojapanese. 3.(economic) recession クリスマス . (It's) not quiet here so (I) don't like it very much. (she has) few male friends. 1.org/learn/book/…/2 36/113 . 3. 5. ここは静かだから、好き。 2. 2. scarce かわいい (i-adj) . 6. 2.friend 1. 7. 10. because (she's) serious. ここは静かじゃないから、あまり好きじゃない。 2. 11. customers are few.this year 不景気 【ふ・けい・き】 .very 若い 【わか・い】 (i-adj) . ここは静かですので、好きです。 Once again. you must attach 「な」 when the first clause ends with a plain noun or na-adjective.young 今年 【こ・とし】 .

here あまり .not very (when used with negative) 好き 【す・き】 . 1. リー: なんで? Lee: Why? スミス: うるさいから。 Smith: Because it's noisy. 3. So what? リー: 最近は、忙しいよ。 Lee: I'm busy lately.org/learn/book/…/2 37/113 . 4. If you leave the first part out.library ここ . you know! But (I'm) finally free today so (I'm) happy! スミス: あっ、そう? Smith: Oh. なので、あまり好きじゃないです。 You can even leave out both parts of the conjunction as seen in the next dialogue. ですから、あまり好きじゃないです。 2. 図書館 【と・しょ・かん】 . you still need to add 「です」.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Smith: I don't like (it) here. huh? スミス: だから、あまり好きじゃない。 Smith: That's why I don't like (it) very much. (It's) always noisy here.likable りー: 図書館なのに、ここはいつもうるさいよね。 Lee: Despite the fact (it's) library. 「だ」. Other options would be the same as it would be with both sentences. or 「な」 just as if the first sentence was there. 1. 2. you know? スミス: だから? Smith: So? リー: だから、大変だよ!だけど今日は、やっと暇だから、うれしい! Lee: So (it's) tough. is that so? Listing multiple nouns 「 と」 complete list particle guidetojapanese.

and soy sauce. 5.onion しょうゆ . 10.child スミス: 親子丼の材料は何ですか? Smith: What are the ingredients for Oyako-don? 田中: ご飯と玉ねぎとしょうゆです。そして、親子丼だから、もちろん鶏肉と卵です。 Tanaka: Rice. 「とか」 is merely a more casual version of 「や」. 2. 4. of course. とか」 「 や 」 and 「 とか 」 partial list 「や」 and 「とか」 are also used to list multiple nouns together. 7.org/learn/book/…/2 38/113 .. guidetojapanese. because it's "parent and child bowl". 16. unpleasant おいしい (i-adj) . スミス: でも・・・。 Smith: But.truth.. スミス: 気持ち悪いですね。 Smith: That's unpleasant. 17. reality 親 【おや】 . 12.rice. 14. 3.egg 気持ち悪い 【き・もち・わるい】 (i-adj) . (you're) interesting..soy sauce そして . 9. meal 玉ねぎ 【たま・ねぎ】 . The poor chicken family. 6..ok 本当 【ほん・とう】 . pitiful (as in to feel sorry for) 面白い 【おも・しろ・い】 (i-adj) . 15. 親子丼 【おや・こ・どん】 .poor. you know.ingredient ご飯 【ご・はん】 .chicken 卵 【たまご】 .and then もちろん . isn't it? 田中: そうですか?でも、おいしいですよ。 Tanaka: Is that so? But it's tasty. 11. onions.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… The 「と」 particle is used to group multiple nouns together in a complete list. you know? スミス: かわいそうじゃないですか? Smith: Don't you feel sorry for them? 田中: スミスさんは、面白いですね。本当の親と子供じゃないですから大丈夫ですよ。 Tanaka: Smith-san. chicken and egg. The major difference is that they imply that the list is not complete and is a sample among a larger list. And then.tasty かわいそう (na-adj) . gross.of course 鶏肉 【とり・にく】 .rice dish with chicken and egg (parent and child bowl) 材料 【ざい・りょう】 . 8. 1. 13.bad feeling. (It's) not real parent and child so (it's) ok.interesting 大丈夫 【だい・じょう・ぶ】 (na-adj) .parent 子供 【こ・ども】 .

9.natto (fermented soybeans) 嫌い 【きら・い】(na-adj) .as I thought 39/113 guidetojapanese. for sure じゃ . hate 山本: スミスさんは、どんな食べ物が好きですか? Yamamoto: As for Smith-san. 10.org/learn/book/…/2 . 8. cheese cake. 9.what kind 食べ物 【た・べ・もの】(n) .dislike.then (casual) 適当 【てき・とう】 .tomorrow 絶対 【ぜっ・たい】 .haphazard. You're just like whatever. 2. what kind of food do (you) like? スミス: そうですね。日本のお菓子やチーズケーキやイチゴショートケーキが好きです。 Smith: Let's see. 5. 7.definitely. (I) like things like Japanese candy.cheese cake イチゴ . 6.food お菓子 【お・か・し】 .strawberry ショートケーキ . 7. 8. 「 か 」 possible options 「か」 can be used with multiple nouns to list several possible options. I hate it.thing 納豆 【なっ・とう】(n) .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… I hate natto 1.sweet 物 【もの】(n) . 山本: 納豆はどうですか? Yamamoto: How about natto? スミス: 納豆は、嫌いですね。 Smith: As for natto. どんな .when 今日 【きょう】 . 3. 5. don't you? スミス: 甘くない物も好きですよ。 Smith: (I) also like things that are not sweet. 4. 山本: 甘い物が好きですね。 Yamamoto: (You) like sweet things.exam いつ . you know. 2. 試験 【し・けん】 . huh? 1. whatever works 来週 【らい・しゅう】 . essentially meaning "or". and strawberry short cake. 6. 3.today 明日 【あした】 .candy チーズケーキ .short cake 甘い 【あま・い】(i-adj) .next week やはり/やっぱり . 4.

彼 【かれ】 . you know. changing the order of words in the sentence can often change the tone as well. アリス: 絶対今日じゃないよ。 Alice: It's not today for sure.org/learn/book/…/2 40/113 . For nouns and na-adjectives. the latter expresses surprise that the person is in fact a student and is seeking confirmation of that fact. asking "Is he a student?" sounds very different from "He's a student?" While the former is a very neutral question simply seeking a yes or no answer. Explanations and expectations In English.student 1. we add 「の」 to the end of the sentence to show that we are seeking or providing an explanation.he 2. it gives the impression that the speaker is surprised or considers the fact that he may be a student to be unexpected. we saw that sentence order is very flexible due to how particles clearly define the grammatical role of each word. In Japanese. (it's) tomorrow. 学生 【がく・せい】 . because the person is implicitly seeking an explanation for why he's a student. 彼は、学生? Is he (a) student? 2. you also need to add 「な」 before 「の」. アリス: 適当だね。 Alice: (You're) haphazard. guidetojapanese.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… アリス: 試験はいつ? Alice: Exam is when? ジョン: 今日か明日だよ。 John: Today or tomorrow. Example 1. For example. ジョン: じゃ、明日。 John: Then. So in order to express this kind of biased question or answer. アリス: やっぱり。 Alice: As I thought. 彼は、学生なの? He's a student? (Seeking explanation why he's a student) In the second sentence. huh? リー: 試験は来週だよ。 Lee: Exam is next week.


The Complete Guide to Learning Japane…

Health is important too
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. ところで - by the way どうして - why 忙しい 【いそが・しい】 - busy 僕 【ぼく】 - me, myself (polite, masculine) 水泳部 【すい・えい・ぶ】 - swim club え - eh, huh そう - so でも - but 趣味 【しゅ・み】 - hobby; interests パソコン - computer; PC ゲーム - game 健康 【けん・こう】 - health 大事 【だい・じ】 (na-adj) - important なるほど - I see

スミス: ところで、リー君はどうして忙しいの? Smith: By the way, Lee-kun, why are you busy? リー: 僕は水泳部だから。 Lee: Because (I'm in) swim club. スミス: え?そうなの? Smith: Eh? Is that so? リー: そうだけど? Lee: That's so but? スミス: でも、趣味はパソコンとゲームじゃないの? Smith: But isn't (your) hobby computers and games? リー: そうだけど、健康も大事だから。 Lee: That's so but health is also important so. スミス: なるほど。 Smith: I see.

Explanation for 「 だ 」 and 「 です 」 です」
When the sentence has additional things following the 「の」 such as 「だ」 or 「です」, the 「の」 is replaced with 「ん」 to make pronunciation easier. While 「の」 can still be used, it is considered to be oldfashioned.

What's the problem?
1. あのう - um, er, excuse me
guidetojapanese.org/learn/book/…/2 41/113

9/7/2010 1.

- um, er, excuse me The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 2. いい (i-adj) - good; fine 3. 言葉 【こと・ば】 - word; language

スミス: 山本先生、リーさんは、水泳部だから、お宅じゃないですよ! Smith: Yamamoto-sensei, Lee-san is not an otaku because (he's in) swim club. 山本: あのう、スミスさん、お宅はあまりいい言葉じゃないんですよ。 Yamamoto: Um, Smith-san, Otaku is not a very good word, you know. スミス: そうなんですか?でも、リーさんはお宅じゃないから、いいんじゃないですか? Smith: Is that so? But Lee-san is not an otaku so isn't it fine? 山本: スミスさん・・・。 Yamamoto: Smith-san... スミス: はい? Smith: Yes? 山本: いいえ、いいです。 Yamamoto: No, never mind (lit: (it's) fine). The phrase 「いいんじゃないですか?」 shows a very important way setting expectations can enhance your abilities to express certain things. By setting the expectation that it should be good and asking the opposite allows you to ask questions like, "isn't it?". You can compare the difference in meaning by looking at the different variations below. This is only to give you the general idea as you'll naturally get the hang of it through the regular course of exposure to the language. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. いいですか? - Is it good? (neutral yes/no question) よくないですか? - Is it not good? (neutral yes/no question) いいんですか? - It's good? (seeking explanation as to why it's good) よくないんですか? - It's not good? (seeking explanation as to why it's not good) いいんじゃないですか? - It's good, isn't it? よくないんじゃないですか? - It's not good, isn't it?

Chapter summary and practice
In this chapter, we learned how to use nouns and adjectives to describe what something is or isn't. Here is a simple list of examples using the various conjugations we learned in this chapter. Nouns and Adjectives Conjugation Examples Positive Noun 学生 Na-adjective 元気 Exception いい Negative Positive Polite Negative Polite 学生じゃないです 元気じゃないです 忙しくないです よくないです*

学生じゃない 学生です 元気じゃない 元気です 忙しいです いいです

I-adjective 忙しい 忙しくない




The Complete Guide to Learning Japane…

* = exceptions

Questions using state-of-being
Now that we're familiar with the state-of-being, we can already ask and answer many different types of questions that involve what something or someone is. This includes asking simple yes/no questions or by using a question word.

Various ways to say yes or no
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. はい - yes (polite) ええ - yes (polite) いいえ - no (polite) うん - yes (casual) ううん - no (casual

Various question words
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 何 【なに/なん】 - what 誰 【だれ】 - who いつ - when どう - how どんな - what kind of どうして - why なんで - why (casual)

The word for "what" or 「何」 is a bit tricky because it has two readings. When used by itself, it is always pronounced 「なに」. However, as we've already seen, when used with 「です」 it is read as 「なん」. There are other cases when it is read as 「なん」 as we'll see later. As you begin to practice speaking Japanese, you can apply what we've learned in this chapter to ask various icebreaker questions.

Sample ice-breaker questions
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 趣味 【しゅ・み】 - hobby; interests 一番 【いち・ばん】 - number 1; the best; the most 好き 【す・き】 (na-adj) - likable 日本 【に・ほん】 - Japan 食べ物 【た・べ・もの】 - food 英語 【えい・ご】 - English 難しい 【むずか・しい】 (i-adj) - difficult 授業 【じゅ・ぎょう】 - class 楽しい 【たの・しい】 (i-adj) - fun 音楽 【おん・がく】 music


very ちょっと . 12. 15. guidetojapanese.interests.middle school 高校 【こう・こう】 .first year. freshman 二年生 【に・ねん・せい】 .org/learn/book/…/2 44/113 . 名前 【な・まえ】 . junior 四年生 【よん・ねん・せい】 .Japanese language 好き 【す・き】 . make sure to correct your work early to avoid developing any bad habits.desirable とても . 授業は、楽しいですか? Is class fun? 6. 5. 4. 18. 8. どんな音楽が好きですか? What kind of music do you like? Try to come up with your own questions for your teacher. sophomore 三年生 【さん・ねん・せい】 .a little 面白い 【おも・しろい】 (i-adj) .difficult 簡単 【かん・たん】 (na-adj) .interesting. 11. 3. 英語は、難しいですか? Is English difficult? 5. 2. 一番好きな食べ物は、何ですか? What is your favorite food? 3. 21.major 趣味 【しゅ・み】 . 14.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 1. senior 専攻 【せん・こう】 . 7.fourth year. classmates.third year. funny 難しい 【むずか・しい】 (i-adj) . 17. 6.second year. 19.food For example.sports 日本語 【に・ほん・ご】 . 20. 日本の食べ物は好きですか? Do you like Japanese food? 4. try writing a brief description about yourself.elementary school 中学 【ちゅう・がく】 . 10.com/. 1. 13.high school 大学 【だい・がく】 . You can either ask a Japanese speaker or use http://lang-8. 趣味は、何ですか? What is your hobby? 2. 9. 16.college 一年生 【いち・ねん・せい】 . Writing Practice For writing practice. here's a short self description by Alice Smith. Here's a short list of words that might be useful.reading スポーツ . As always. or conversation partner. hobbies 読書 【どく・しょ】 .easy 食べ物 【た・べ・もの】 .name 小学 【しょう・がく】 .

pizza はじめまして。私の名前は、アリス・スミスです。大学の一年生です。専攻は、経済学で す。趣味は、サッカーと読書です。日本語も好きです。とても面白いですが、ちょっと難 しいですね。ちなみに、好きな食べ物は、てんぷらとピザです。 Verbs Similar to nouns and adjectives. (you) eat (it)? スミス: うん、大好きだよ! Smith: Yes. you know. 2. おすしは、食べるの? You eat sushi? (seeking explanation why he/she eats sushi as opposed to a neutral question "Do you eat sushi?") I love sushi! 1.lovable. 5. 6. very likable 生 【なま】 .fish すごい (i-adj) . 2. The same thing applies for verbs. Example 1. おすし .economics サッカー . At the end of the last chapter. 6.by the way てんぷら (i-adj) . if you consider the implied state-of-being for nouns and adjectives as a verb.sushi (「お」 is an optional honorific prefix) 食べる 【たべ・る】 .org/learn/book/…/2 45/113 . 3.to eat 大好き 【だい・す・き】 (na-adj) .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 1. 4.tempura ピザ .raw 魚 【さかな】 . we learned how to set expectations by seeking or providing explanations with 「の」. In fact. 経済 【けい・ざい】 . the verb always comes at the end of the sentence.amazing ジョン: おすしは、食べるの? John: As for sushi. guidetojapanese.economy 経済学 【けい・ざい・がく】 . 5. I love (it)! ジョン: でも、生の魚だよ。 John: But (it's) raw fish.soccer ちなみに . it could be said that all complete sentences always end with a verb. 3. おすしは、食べる? Do you eat sushi? 2. 4.

映画を見る。 Watch movie 2. 7. it is pronounced the same as 「お」. 2. 手紙を書く。 Write letter 「 と」 And/With Particle We learned that we can list multiple nouns in the last chapter with the 「と」 particle. 8. 6. 本を読む。 Read book 4.hand 紙 【かみ】 . 映画 【えい・が】 .g.letter 書く 【か・く】 (u-verb) .movie 見る 【み・る】 (ru-verb) . 5.to eat 本 【ほん】 . salt and pepper.org/learn/book/…/2 46/113 . 9.rice. Particles used with verbs Before we can do much with verbs. Examples guidetojapanese. 「 を 」 Object Particle The 「を」 particle is used to designate the direct object of a verb.paper 手紙 【てがみ】 . 10..to see.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… スミス: だから? Smith: So? ジョン: すごいね。 John: That's amazing. meal 食べる 【た・べる】 (ru-verb) . 3. e. to watch ご飯 【ご・はん】 .to write 1. ご飯を食べる。 Eat rice/meal 3. We can also use the same particle with verbs to express and action that is done together.book 読む 【よ・む】 (u-verb) . Note: While 「を」 is technically a w-consonant sound. 4. Examples 1. we first need to learn some particles that are used to describe how various parts of a sentence interacts with the verb.to read 手 【て】 .

3. 親戚と会う。 Meet with relative.friend 話す 【はな・す】 . 9.bus 乗る 【の・る】 (u-verb) . 3. 4.to stand 友達 【とも・だち】 .to meet 1. 5. 明日に映画を見る。 Watch movie tomorrow. リーさんと話す。 Talk with Lee-san. 6. 3. "to". 4. "in". 2.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 1. 2. 4.to meet 1. 友達と遊ぶ。 Play with friend. 2.to go 明日 【あした】 . Examples 1.to ride 聞く 【き・く】 (u-verb) .in front 立つ 【た・つ】 (u-verb) . 6.tomorrow バス . It serves the purpose of many English prepositions such as "at". 2. 「 に 」 Target Particle The target particle is used to designate the target of an action whether it's a time or location. バスに乗る Ride on bus. 7. and "on" as long as it indicates a target of an action. 3. 先生に聞く。 Ask teacher. 学校 【がっ・こう】 . 8.org/learn/book/…/2 47/113 .school 行く 【い・く】 (u-verb) . 友達 【とも・だち】 . 5. 学校に行く。 Go to school. 友達に会う。 Meet friend. 10.friend 会う 【あ・う】 (u-verb) . 人の前に立つ。 Stand in front of people.to ask 前 【まえ】 .relative 会う 【あ・う】 (u-verb) . 「 で 」 Context Particle guidetojapanese.to talk 親戚 【しん・せき】 .

(Speak by means of Japanese. However. 5. For example. Instead. this particle is not used as often as the other particles. 手紙を日本へ送る。 Send letter to Japan.restaurant 日本語 【に・ほん・ご】 . 6. However.chopsticks 映画館 【えい・が・かん】 .) 「 へ 」 Directional Particle The 「へ」 particle is similar in some ways to the 「に」 particle. 学校へ行く。 Go to school. 仕事で忙しい。 Busy with work.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… The context particle is used to describe the context or the means in which a verb takes place.work 忙しい 【いそが・しい】 . (Eat by means of chopsticks. (Busy by means of work. 手紙 【て・がみ】 . Examples 1. 4. since the restaurant is not a direct target for eating.to speak はし . 2. 7. 映画館で映画を見る。 Watch movie at movie theater. 「へ」 is more specifically used to indicate a direction of motion verbs such as "to go" or "to send". レストランで食べる。 Eat at restaurant.busy 1. if you're eating at a restaurant.) 3. はしで食べる。 Eat with chopsticks. 2.Japanese language 話す 【はな・す】 (u-verb) (u-verb) .movie theater 仕事 【し・ごと】 . 2. レストラン . you would use the 「で」 particle to describe the restaurant as the context in which eating is taking place.) 4. 3. Because the 「に」 particle does everything 「へ」 does and more.org/learn/book/…/2 48/113 . you wouldn't use the 「に」 particle. Note: While 「へ」 is normally pronounced as "he".to send 1. 5. guidetojapanese.letter 2. while the 「に」 particle indicates a target for just about any verb. 送る 【おく・る】 . this particle is pronounced as 「え」 Examples 1. 日本語で話す。 Speak in Japanese. it is still beneficial to be at least familiar with it.

9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Existence Verbs With the state-of-being that we learned in the last chapter.next to Examples 1. どこ .left 前 【まえ】 . 「いる」 is generally used for things that can move of their own volition such as humans or animals while 「ある」 is for inanimate objects and abstract concepts such as time.right 左 【ひだり】 .key テーブル . before 後ろ 【うし・ろ】 . 4.below 右 【みぎ】 . we could only describe what someone or something is.where 2.table 銀行 【ぎん・こう】 . 6.to exist (inanimate) いる (ru-verb) . アリスちゃんは、どこにいる? Where is Alice-chan? (lit: Alice-chan exists at where?) 2.here そこ . 10. 2. 9. 5. ここ . Example 1. you can use these two verbs to describe the location of anything or anyone.bank 郵便局 【ゆう・びん・きょく】 .behind 隣 【となり】 . we'll learn to express whether someone or something exists and where. 3. 鍵 【かぎ】 . 4.time 1. 1.above 下 【した】 .front. There are two verbs that show existence for animate and inanimate objects. 2. 時間はある? Do (you) have time? (lit: Is there time?) Location With some additional vocabulary. 8.post office 49/113 guidetojapanese. In this section.there あそこ . 3.over there (farther away) 上 【うえ】 .to exist (animate) Without getting caught up with the details.org/learn/book/…/2 . 時間 【じ・かん】 . ある (u-verb) . 7.

11. 6.woman 子 【こ】 .) 3. 16. exists behind of school. 明日 【あした】 .to do 会話 【かい・わ】 . excuse me 一応 【いち・おう】 . 10. ジョン: 俺は、宿題がたくさんあるから、いい。 John: I have a lot of homework so (I'm) good. a lot of homework exists so good.to get irritated アリス: 明日、日本語のクラブがあるけど、行く? Alice: There's Japanese club tomorrow. just in case. (lit: As for Alice. myself (masculine and very casual) 宿題 【しゅく・だい】 . 15. 9. 13.cute 女 【おんな】 .as expected (casual) ムカつく . exist next of post office.practice 俺 【おれ】 . you know. 銀行は、郵便局の隣にあります。 Bank is next to post office.) Any cute girls there? 1. 2. (lit: As for me. 8. 4.child 女の子 【おんな・の・こ】 .tomorrow クラブ .org/learn/book/…/2 50/113 .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 1.conversation 練習 【れん・しゅう】 . 3.to go する . want to go? (lit: Tomorrow. Japanese club exists but go?) ジョン: 日本語のクラブで何をするの? John: What do (you) do at Japanese club? アリス: 日本語の会話の練習をするよ。 Alice: (You) do Japanese conversation practice. ジョン: かわいい女の子はいる? John: Is there cute girl(s)? アリス: あのう、一応、私も行くけど? Alice: Um. 7. just in case やっぱり .me.um.Japanese person かわいい .girl あのう . 14. アリスは、学校の後ろにいる。 Alice is behind (the) school. (lit: As for bank.) 2. I'm going too but? guidetojapanese. exists above of table. 鍵は、テーブルの上にある。 Key is above (the) table. (lit: As for key.club 行く 【い・く】 . 5.homework 日本人 【に・ほん・じん】 .) アリス: 日本人もいるよ。 Alice: Japanese people are also there. 17. 12.for the time being.

Examples 1. Exceptions There are only two exception verbs that are neither ru-verbs nor u-verbs.to see 話す .to come Examples of different verb types ru-verb u-verb 見る . アリス: ムカつく。 Alice: So irritating. it will be a u-verb.to teach.to wear ある .「か」 is an a-vowel sound so it is an u-verb If you're unsure which category a verb falls in.to do 2.to play 考える .to sleep 泳ぐ . Negative Tense Verb Types In this section.to exist (inanimate) 死ぬ . before we can learn any verb conjugations.to swim 起きる . all verbs fall into the category of ru-verb or u-verb.org/learn/book/…/2 . 食べる . we first need to learn how verbs are categorized.to wait 教える . 1. With the exception of only two exception verbs.to wake.to do くる .to come guidetojapanese.to buy いる .to speak 食べる .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… ジョン: そう?やっぱり、俺はいいよ。 John: Is that so? As I thought.to think 待つ .「べ」 is an e-vowel sound so it is a ru-verb 2. わかる . 来る 【く・る】 . する . Otherwise. we'll learn how to conjugate verbs to the negative tense. to occur 遊ぶ . For verbs ending in 「る」. I'm good.to die 51/113 exception する .to come out 買う .to exist (animate) 着る . if the vowel sound preceding the 「る」 is an 'i' or 'e' vowel sound.to ask. to inform 飲む . you can verify which kind it is with most dictionaries. However. All ru-verbs end in 「る」 while u-verbs can end in a number of u-vowel sounds including 「る」. to listen 寝る . it will be a ru-verb in most cases.to eat 聞く .to drink 出る .

not at all (when used with negative) 面白い 【おも・しろい】 (i-adj) . Be extra careful of 「ある」 which is one extra exception verb for this conjugation only. 3.how 思う 【おも・う】 (u-verb) . Exceptions: 1. する → しない 2.to see なんで . 4. 8. 5.TV 番組 【ばん・ぐみ】 .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Negative Tense We can now learn the rules for conjugating the verb into the negative tense based on the different verb types. TV) どう . ※ある → ない Negative tense conjugation examples ru-verb u-verb exception 見る → 見ない 話す → 話さない する → しない 食べる → 食べない 聞く → 聞かない くる → こない 寝る → 寝ない 泳ぐ → 泳がない ある → ない 起きる → 起きない 遊ぶ → 遊ばない 考える → 考えない 待つ → 待たない 教える → 教えない 飲む → 飲まない 出る → 出ない 買う → 買わない 変える → 変えない 帰る → 帰らない 着る → 着ない 死ぬ → 死なない You don't have a TV? 1. 10. funny 分かる 【わ・かる】 (u-verb) . family. For u-verbs that end in 「 う 」 : Replace 「う」 with 「わ」 and attach 「ない」 Example: 買う + わ + ない = 買わない 3.program (e.org/learn/book/…/2 .one's own home. Negative tense for verbs 1. For ru-verbs: Drop the 「る」 and attach 「ない」 Example: 食べる = 食べ + ない 2.interesting.why うち . For all other u-verbs: Replace the u-vowel sound with the a-vowel equivalent and attach 「ない」 Example: 待つ + た = 待たない 4.to understand. 9. ね . くる → こない 3. 6. 7. or household 52/113 guidetojapanese. 11.g.think 全然 【ぜん・ぜん】 . 2.hey テレビ . to know 見る 【み・る】 (ru-verb) .

org/learn/book/…/2 53/113 . Polite Verbs Verb Stem Before we can learn the conjugation rules for the polite verb form.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 12. する → し 2. you know. くる → き Verb stem examples guidetojapanese. no way (casual) 13. うそ . huh? アリス: 分からないね。私は、テレビを見ないから。 Alice: (I) don't know. ジョン: え?なんで見ないの? John: Huh? Why don't (you) watch it? アリス: うちは、テレビがないの。 Alice: As for our house.. The verb stem is used in many different types of verb conjugations including the polite form. Verb stem conjugation rules For ru-verbs: Drop the 「る」 Example: 食べる = 食べ For u-verbs: Replace the u-vowel sound with the i-vowel equivalent Example: 行く + き = 行き Exceptions: 1..lie. No way! アリス: 本当よ。 Alice: (It's) true. as for recent TV shows. ジョン: うそ! John: No way! アリス: 本当。 Alice: (It's) true. I don't watch TV so. 本当 【ほん・とう】 . As for me. how (do you) think? It's not interesting at all. ジョン: ・・・うそ! John: . reality ジョン: ね、最近のテレビ番組はどう思う?全然面白くないよね? John: Hey. there's no TV. we must first learn how to create the verb stem. Below are the rules for changing the verb to its stem.truth.

3. 4. 2. Examples 1.me.to come 友達 【とも・だち】 .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… u-verb exception 話す → 話し する → し 食べる → 食べ 聞く → 聞き くる → き 寝る → 寝 泳ぐ → 泳ぎ 起きる → 起き 遊ぶ → 遊び 考える → 考え 待つ → 待ち 教える → 教え 飲む → 飲み 出る → 出 買う → 買い 変える → 変え 帰る → 帰り 着る → 着 死ぬ → 死に ru-verb 見る → 見 Polite Verb Form Now that we know the rules to create the verb stem. 5. 昼ご飯 【ひる・ご・はん】 .friend 映画 【えい・が】 . it is very easy to conjugate the verb to the polite form for both positive and negative tenses. 2. 7. guidetojapanese.org/learn/book/…/2 54/113 . 8.see.movie 見る 【み・る】 . myself 会う 【あ・う】 . 私に会いに来る。 Coming to meet me. 6. This is done by attaching the 「に」 target particle to the verb stem.to eat 行く 【い・く】 . Polite Negative: Attach 「ません」 to the verb stem Example: 買い + ません = 買いません Verb as a target The verb stem can also be used to make it a target for another verb.to go 私 【わたし】 . Polite and polite negative verb conjugation rules 1. Polite Positive: Attach 「ます」 to the verb stem Example: 食べ + ます = 食べます 2. watch 1.lunch 食べる 【た・べる】 . typical a motion verb such as "go" or "come". 9.to meet 来る 【く・る】 . 昼ご飯を食べに行く。 Go to eat lunch.

tough. 15.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 3. 11. 3. 10. isn't it? Desire and Volition guidetojapanese. 6. 8. (I) will do part-time job here.what する . Therefore. rough 山本: 皆さんは、今年の春休みに何をしますか? Yamamoto: Everybody. 山本: ご家族に会いに行きませんか? Yamamoto: (You) will not go to meet your family? リー: 私の家族は韓国にいますから、飛行機代がとても高いです。なので、今年は韓国に帰りま せん。 Lee: My family is in Korea so the plane ticket is very expensive. what will (you) do at this year's spring vacation? リー: 私は、ここでアルバイトをします。 Lee: As for me. 16. 19. 14.org/learn/book/…/2 55/113 .to go 韓国 【かん・こく】 .to do 私 【わたし】 .South Korea いる 【い・る】 (ru-verb) . My family is in Korea 1. 13.this year 春 【はる】 .spring 休み 【やす・み】 . fare とても . 17.family 会う 【あ・う】 (u-verb) . 2. 友達と映画を見に行く。 Go to watch movie with friend(s). cost.airplane ~代 【~だい】 .charge.so 大変 【たい・へん】 (na-adj) .very 高い 【たか・い】 (i-adj) . 9.to go home そう . 5.tall. 皆さん 【みな・さん】 . 4. 7.to meet 行く 【い・く】 (u-verb) .part-time job 家族 【か・ぞく】 .everybody (polite) 今年 【こ・とし】 .vacation 何 【なに】 . (I) will not go back home to Korea this year. expensive 帰る 【かえ・る】(u-verb) .here アルバイト . 21. 12. 18.me. 20. 山本: そうですか。とても大変ですね。 Yamamoto: Is that so? (It's) very tough.to exist (animate) 飛行機 【ひ・こう・き】 . myself ここ .

怖い映画は、見たくないよ。 (I) don't want to watch (a) scary movie.ok 絶対 【ぜっ・たい】 .g. Example 1. For ru-verbs: Drop the 「る」 and add 「よう」 Example: 食べる = 食べ+よう = 食べよう 2. 2. Volitional form conjugation rules 1. This is done by simply attaching 「たい」 to the verb stem. 3. 8.boring. 4.scary 1. 2. ~な (sentence-ending particle) .. 6.org/learn/book/…/2 . for sure 56/113 guidetojapanese. Volitional Form We'll learn more about different uses of the volitional form later on but for now.definitely.library 勉強 【べん・きょう】 . One important thing to note is that this conjugation changes the verb into essentially an i-adjective. 怖い 【こわ・い】 (i-adj) ." The rules for changing a verb into the volitional form is below. we must conjugate the verb into the 「〜たい」 form.then (casual) 大丈夫 【だい・じょう・ぶ】 (na-adj) .study する . 7. we can simply consider the volitional form to mean "let's" or "shall we" e. This is because it's no longer an actual action but a description of what one wants to do.a more casual and masculine version of ~ね 図書館 【と・しょ・かん】 . カニ . 3. dull じゃ .to do つまらない .crab 2. Therefore. Exceptions: 「する」 becomes 「しよう」 「くる」 becomes 「こよう」 I'm bored 1. カニを食べたい。 (I) want to eat crab. "Let's go watch a movie. you can do all the same conjugations on the 「~たい」 form as any other i-adjectives. 5. 日本に行きたいです。 (I) want to go to Japan. For u-verbs: Replace the u-vowel sound with the o-vowel equivalent and 「う」 Example: 行く + こ + う = 行こう 3.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… To want to do In order to describe what someone or something wants to do.

lesson 始める 【はじ・める】 (ru-verb) . 4.class 外 【そと】 . 6. 7. (it's) ok.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… ジョン: 最近は、暇だな。 John: I have nothing to do lately. 2. Polite volitional form conjugation rules For all verbs: Attach 「ましょう」 to the verb stem Examples 食べ+ましょう = 食べましょう (let's eat) 行き+ましょう = 行きましょう (let's go) し+ましょう = しましょう (let's do) It's a good idea! 1.idea それじゃ .org/learn/book/…/2 . アリス: じゃ、何をしたいの? Alice: Then. レッスン .weather 授業 【じゅ・ぎょう】 .) アリス: 図書館で日本語を勉強しようか? Alice: Shall we study Japanese at the library? ジョン: それは、つまらないよ。 John: That's boring. you know.well then 57/113 guidetojapanese. I'm free. 3.to begin 天気 【てん・き】 . アリス: 絶対大丈夫じゃないよ。 Alice: (It's) definitely not ok. (lit: Lately.outside 考え 【かんが・え】 . 5. what do you want to do? ジョン: 映画を見に行こうかな? John: Shall (I) go to watch a movie maybe? アリス: 勉強は大丈夫なの? Alice: Are (your) studies ok? ジョン: うん、大丈夫。 John: Yeah. Polite Volitional Form The conjugation rules for polite version of the volition form is simple and only requires adding 「ましょう」 to the verb stem.

行く 【い・く】 (u-verb) . 2. let's do the class outside! 山本:いい考えですね。それじゃ、外に行きましょうか? Yamamoto: That's a good thought. military time is used more often in Japan.AM 午後 【ご・ご】 . These readings are listed below. 1. スミス:先生、今日は天気がいいですから、授業を外でしましょう! Smith: Teacher. there are a number of reading variations to pay careful attention to. we'll need to know how to describe time.half 58/113 guidetojapanese.what hour. 何時 【なん・じ】 . Shall (we) go outside? 皆:はい! Everybody: Yes! Telling Time Time In order to effectively describe when we want to do certain things and make plans.to go 山本:今日のレッスンを始めましょう。 Yamamoto: Let's begin today's lesson.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 8. ~時 【~じ】 .PM 半 【はん】 .org/learn/book/…/2 .minute counter Once again. 3.hour counter ~分 【~ふん】 . what time 午前 【ご・ぜん】 . 4. Similar to the age counter we learned in the very first chapter. Hour reading variations Hour 4 o'clock 7 o'clock 9 o'clock Kanji Reading 四時 よ・じ 七時 しち・じ 九時 く・じ Minute reading variations Minutes How many minutes Kanji Reading 何分 なん・ぷん 1 min 一分 3 min 三分 4 min 四分 6 min 六分 8 min 八分 10 min 十分 いっ・ぷん さん・ぷん よん・ぷん ろっ・ぷん はっ・ぷん じゅっ・ぷん Examples Though there are words for AM and PM. because the weather is good today. we simply need to use the counters for hours and minutes.

何時 【なん・じ】 . We will learn how to express complete calendar dates in a later chapter. 10.to be different 59/113 guidetojapanese.What day of week 月曜日 【げつ・よう・び】 . 2.weekend Is it really late? 1. 8. 9.weekday 週末 【しゅう・まつ】 . 5. 3.18:25 (6:25 PM) Example 1.Friday 土曜日 【ど・よう・び】 . 4. 8.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 1.a little (casual) 遅い 【おそ・い】 (i-adj) .Monday 火曜日 【か・よう・び】 .Tuesday 水曜日 【すい・よう・び】 .Wednesday 木曜日 【もく・よう・び】 . 3. 6. 6. Days of the week Below is a vocabulary list pertaining to days of the week.next week 毎週 【まい・しゅう】 .Sunday 先週 【せん・しゅう】 .org/learn/book/…/2 .4:44 PM 午前10時半 【ご・ぜん・じゅう・じ・はん】 . 12. 7. 13. 9.1:01 午後4時44分 【ご・ご・よ・じ・よん・じゅう・よん・ぷん】 .restaurant 何時 【なん・じ】 . 1時1分 【いち・じ・いっ・ぷん】 .to sleep 違う 【ちが・う】 (u-verb) .last week 今週 【こん・しゅう】 . what time 今は、何時ですか? What time is it now? 2時半です。 (It's) 2:30. 5.what time 夜 【よる】 . 何曜日 【なん・よう・び】 . 4. 4.late 毎日 【まい・にち】 . 皆 【みんな】 . Combined with time.what hour.10:30 AM 18時25分 【じゅう・はち・じ・に・じゅう・ご・ふん】 . 7. 1.everybody レストラン .everyday 寝る 【ね・る】 . 11. 3. 2. 14. 2.evening ちょっと .every week 平日 【へい・じつ】 .Thursday 金曜日 【きん・よう・び】 . this should be adequate for making plans in the near future.this week 来週 【らい・しゅう】 .Saturday 日曜日 【にち・よう・び】 .

5. 7.class 授業 【じゅ・ぎょう】 . 授業は何時から始まるの? guidetojapanese. Example 1.from ~ ~まで (particle) .ok リー: 来週の金曜日に皆で日本のレストランに食べに行くけど、アリスちゃんも行きたい? Lee: Everybody is going to eat at (a) Japanese restaurant next Friday.parents 連絡 【れん・らく】 . 6.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 10. ~から (particle) . (do you) Alice-chan want to also go? アリス: 何時に行くの? Alice: What time are (you) going? リー: 夜の八時半。 Lee: 8:30 night. 3.until ~ エアロビクス . 8.org/learn/book/…/2 60/113 . 10. 2.class 始まる 【はじ・まる】(u-verb) .to begin この .to work 両親 【りょう・しん】 . From and until Two particles that often go together especially with time expressions are "from" (から) and "until" (まで). 4. アリス: ちょっと遅いね。 Alice: (It's) a little late. 11.this 会社 【かい・しゃ】 . エアロビクスクラスは、毎週火曜日と金曜日の18時から19時までです。 Aerobic class is every Tuesday and Friday from 6:00 until 7:00pm. 9. アリス: 違うよ! Alice: That's not so! リー: じゃ、八時半で大丈夫だよね。 Lee: Then it's fine as 8:30 right? アリス: いいよ!八時半で! Alice: Fine! 8:30. isn't it? リー: それは、アリスちゃんが毎日十時に寝るからだよ。 Lee: That's because Alice-chan (you) sleep at 10:00 every day. 大丈夫 【だい・じょう・ぶ】 .company 働く 【はたら・く】 (u-verb) . 2.contact 1.aerobics クラス .

everybody 皆さん 【みな・さん】 .when いくつ . Other words can be used instead to express similar concepts. 「何も」 is usually not used to mean "everything".everything 全然 【ぜん・ぜん】 . 7. 3. 2. unconditionally or never when used with negative tense 61/113 guidetojapanese.why (casual) なぜ . 皆 【みんな】 . 1.how much 「 も」 with question words The following question words can be used with 「も」 to include and/or exclude everything. いつまでこの会社で働きたいですか? Until when do (you) want to work at this company? 4.everywhere or nowhere when used with negative tense どうしても .both ways いつも .org/learn/book/…/2 .everybody (polite) 全部 【ぜん・ぶ】 . 4. 2. For example. 3. And 「いつも」 always means "always" for both positive and negative tenses.where どう . 5.why どちら .no matter what どちらも . 2. 3. 10.how many いくら .) Question words and particles Particles can be used with some question words to form other useful vocabulary. 9. 誰 【だれ】 .which way どれ .how どうして .nothing when used with negative tense どこも . 5. 1. 誰も 【だれ・も】 . 4.everybody or nobody when used with negative tense 何も 【なに・も】 .what どこ . 11. 5.who 何 【なに/なん】 .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… From what time is class start? 3. 12. 1. 毎週末に両親から連絡がくる。 (I) hear from (my) parents on every weekend.why (formal) いつ .absolutely. 8. Let's first learn or review all the various questions words. 6. (lit: Contact comes from parents every weekend.which なんで . 4.not at all (when used with negative tense) 絶対 【ぜっ・たい】 .always Things aren't as consistent as one would hope however. 6.

9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… でも」 「 でも 」 with question words The combination of two particles 「でも」 can be used with question words to indicate "any". 5.anything じゃ . 11.some number of things いくらか .somehow どちらか .any amount 「 か 」 with question words The question marker can also be used with some question words to indicate "some".sometime いくつか . 6. without change 変 【へん】 (na-adj) . 誰か 【だれ・か】 .anything どこでも . 6.one way (of the two) どうしてか . 5. 2. 12. 3.tasty 物 【もの】 .anybody 何でも 【なん・でも】 .for some reason なんでか . you guys are too weird 1. 11. 13.for some reason (formal) いつか . 14. 4.lunch どこか .somebody 何か 【なに・か】 . 8.some amount Never mind. 6.everybody (casual) 相変わらず 【あい・かわ・らず】. 9. 7.anyhow どちらでも .any number of things いくらでも .any time いくつでも . 9.for some reason (casual) なぜか .somewhere 僕 【ぼく】 . 4. 1.hey (casual) 今日 【きょう】 .org/learn/book/…/2 .any way いつでも .somewhere どうか . 2. 誰でも 【だれ・でも】 .who 皆 【みんな】.physical object 当たり前 【あ・たり・まえ】 . 10. 7. 3. myself (polite.strange 62/113 guidetojapanese.as usual. 8.something どこか .anywhere どうでも . 8. 10.obvious 誰 【だれ】 . 5. 7. masculine) 何でも 【なん・でも】 . 4. 3. 1.me. ね/ねえ .then (casual) おいしい (i-adj) . 2.today 昼ご飯 【ひる・ご・はん】 .

org/learn/book/…/2 63/113 .rarely 全然 【ぜん・ぜん】 . Below is a list of common and useful adverbs.probably. アリス: じゃ、何かおいしい物を食べたくない? Alice: Then.a little (amount) Creating adverbs from adjectives guidetojapanese.sometimes たまに . Useful adverbs 1. They don't require any particles and they can appear almost anywhere in the sentence. let's go somewhere to eat. don't (you) want to eat something tasty? ジョン: それは当たり前だ。誰がおいしくない物を食べたいんだ? John: That's obvious. 9. What shall we eat? リー: 僕は、何でもいいよ。 Lee: I'm fine with anything. 食堂 【しょく・どう】. 7. 3. 6.not at all (when used with negative tense) 多分 【た・ぶん】 . 4. ジョン: そうだね。何を食べようか? John: Right.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 15. maybe たくさん . 5. some of which we've already seen. Who wants to eat a thing not tasty? リー: 僕は、何でもいいよ。 Lee: I'm fine with anything.a lot (amount) 少し 【すこ・し】 . as for today's lunch. 8.always よく .usually 時々 【とき・どき】 . let's challenge (ourselves) today with something not tasty! アリス: 皆、相変わらず変ね。今日も食堂でいいよ。 Alice: Everybody is strange as usual.cafeteria アリス: ねえ、今日の昼ご飯は、どこかに食べに行こうよ。 Alice: Hey. huh? The cafeteria is fine for today as well. 2. ジョン: じゃ、今日はおいしくない物にチャレンジしよう! John: Then. いつも . Adverbs We've already been using adverbs extensively without really paying much attention to them because they are easy to use.often たいてい .

This is where the adverb we just learned for "often" (よく) comes from. 本当に For i-adjectives: Replace the 「い」 with 「く」 Examples 1. 10. Rules for changing adjectives into adverbs For na-adjectives: Attach 「に」 to the end Examples 1.pretty. 「かっこいい」 becomes 「かっこよく」 Examples 1. 静かに 2.tonight 早い 【はや・い】 (i-adj) . 13.on purpose かわいい . かわいい + く = かわいく Exceptions: 1. 3.voice actor/actress わざと (adv) . 2. 明日、大事な試験があるから、今夜は早く寝る。 Tomorrow.org/learn/book/…/2 64/113 .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… There are many words that are not adverbs by themselves but are made into adverbs from other adjectives. going to sleep early tonight 4. 9. 部屋 【へや】 . 来年、本当に日本に行くの? (Are you) really going to Japan next year? guidetojapanese. 日本の女性声優は、よくわざとかわいく話す。 Japanese female voice actresses often speak cutely on purpose. clean 女性 【じょ・せい】 .room きれい (na-adj) . 早い + く = 早く 2. きれいに 3.important 試験 【し・けん】 .to speak 明日 【あした】 . As usual. 6. 「いい」 is conjugated from the original 「よい」 pronunciation.female 声優 【せい・ゆう】 . 12. 5. 11. 部屋をきれいにする。 Make room clean (lit: Do room cleanly).early 寝る 【ね・る】 (ru-verb) . 2. 8. This is similar to how "ly" is added to many words in English to make them into adverbs such as "quickly" or "slowly".to sleep 1.cute 話す 【はな・す】 (u-verb) . The rules for changing an adjective into an adverb is given below.tomorrow 大事 【だい・じ】 . 3. 「いい」 becomes 「よく」 2. 4.exam 今夜 【こん・や】 . 7. because there's an important test.

head. 背が高い人は、すてきだね。 Tall people are lovely. nothing is required except to put the clause directly in front of the noun. Examples 1. 2. きれい (na-adj) .org/learn/book/…/2 65/113 . form 2. 本を読まない人、頭がよくない。 People that does not read books are not smart. 果物 【くだ・もの】 . As for nouns. 6. 8. 7. a complete sentence must end either in a real verb or state-of-being. don't watch TV.gentle 1. 9. The highlighted areas show the clause that is a smaller sentence used in the larger sentence. 4. meal 時 【とき】 . 11. as always we need to use 「な」 to attach it to a noun. This sentence can also be used as a clause as a part of a larger sentence. 5.pretty. mind 背 【せ】 .shape.television 本 【ほん】 .tall 性格 【せい・かく】 . clean 3.personality 優しい 【やさ・しい】 .read 頭 【あたま】 . Except for nouns and na-adjectives that is not conjugated to another tense.book 読む 【よ・む】 (u-verb) . we can begin to look at how to use verb clauses to construct more complicated sentences. 3. 10. 2. there is no need to use a clause to modify a noun with another noun as the 「の」 particle allows us to chain any number of nouns. Verb clauses as adjectives A verb clauses can be used to describe a noun just like an adjective. 3.time テレビ . ご飯 【ご・はん】 .fruit guidetojapanese.rice. 1.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Verb clauses Now that we are familiar with both state-of-being and verbs. 性格が優しくない人は、あまり好きじゃない。 Don't like people whose personality is not gentle. Remember also that the polite form only goes at the end of a complete sentence so a verb clause used within a sentence must be in the plan form.lovely 高い 【たか・い】 (i-adj) . 形 【かたち】 . For na-adjectives.height すてき (na-adj) . huh? 4. ご飯を食べる時は、テレビを見ない。 When eating a meal. As we have learned.

alone つもり . we just learned that verb clauses can act as an adjectives. I want to go to Mexico too.together 訳 【わけ】 . 料理 【りょう・り】 . I'm going alone 1. 形がとてもきれいな果物は、おいしい。 Fruit that has very pretty form is tasty. 田中: 私は、一人で行くつもりですが・・・ Tanaka: I intend to by myself. (I) plan to go sightseeing to Mexico.Mexico 一人 【ひとり】 . 運 【うん】 .sightseeing メキシコ . 8. 3.intention 一緒 【いっ・しょ】 . Example 1. 7. 5. generic happening 2.luck 1. 2.plan(s) 観光 【かん・こう】 . 山本: いいえ、私は田中さんと一緒に行きたい訳じゃないですから! Yamamoto: No..this year 春休み 【はる・やすみ】 . reasoning 山本: 田中さんは、今年の春休みに何か予定ありますか? Yamamoto: Tanaka-san. However. 9. matter. The difference is 「こと」 is a more general statement while 「の」 is specific to the context of the sentence. 山本: いいですね。私もメキシコに行きたいですね。 Yamamoto: That's nice. 事 【こと】 . luck is good..explanation. 二年生の日本語の学生は、運がいい。 As for second year Japanese students.one person. it's not the case that I want to go together with you in particular! Verb clauses as nouns Verbs clauses are different from nouns and are limited in many ways because you cannot attach any particles to them. 今年 【こ・とし】 .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 4. 2.org/learn/book/…/2 66/113 . 6.event.cooking guidetojapanese.spring vacation 予定 【よ・てい】 . All we need to treat verb clauses as a noun is by attaching a generic noun to the clause: 「こと」(事) 「の」 can also be used as a noun replacement. do (you) have some (kind of) plan this spring vacation? 田中: ええ、観光にメキシコに予定です。 Tanaka: Yes. 4.

hard 朝 【あさ】 . 6. 5.as I thought. 3. 9. お箸 【お・はし】 . 7.early 起きる 【お・きる】 .chopsticks ご飯 【ご・はん】 .poor/weak at 1. 3. 2. 8.me.morning 早い 【はや・い】 .bookstore めんどくさい (i-adj) . 5.difficult. meal 難しい 【むずか・しい】 (i-adj) .this week 特 【とく】 . スミス: 暇な時に何をするのが好きなの? Smith: What do you like to do when you're free? ジョン: 何もしないのが好きだね。 John: I like not doing anything. myself (masculine. guidetojapanese.rice.org/learn/book/…/2 67/113 . 6. as expected スミス: 今週末は、何か予定ある? Smith: Do you have some kind of plan this weekend? ジョン: 特にないけど? John: Not particularly but? スミス: 皆で、日本の本屋さんに行くのは、どう? Smith: How about going to Japanese bookstore with everybody? ジョン: めんどくさいから、俺はいい。 John: It's too bothersome so I'm fine.particular 本屋 【ほん・や】 . 4. What do you like to do when you're free? 1. お箸でご飯を食べることは、難しい。 It is difficult to eat rice by way of chopsticks.free (as in not busy) やはり/やっぱり . 今週末 【こん・しゅう・まつ】 . to awake 苦手 【にが・て】 (na-adj) .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 3. 7. 料理をするのが好き。 (I) like cooking. 4. casual 暇 【ひま】 (na-adj) . 朝、早く起きるのは、苦手。 Not good at waking up early in the morning.to occur.bothersome 俺 【おれ】 . 2. スミス: やっぱり・・・。 Smith: As I thought.

12.yesterday 今日 【きょう】 .today 明日 【あした】 . 10.next month 毎月 【まい・つき】 . Verb Conjugation Examples Plain Ru-verb U-verb Exception Exception Exception * = exceptions 食べる 飲む ある する Negative Polite Negative Polite 食べない 食べます 食べません 飲まない 飲みます 飲みません 買わない* 買います 買いません Verbs ending in 「 う 」 買う ない* しない* あります します* ありません しません* くる(来る) こない* き ません* きません* Future plans and routine activities In this chapter.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Chapter summary and practice In this chapter.every year 朝 【あさ】 .tomorrow 毎日 【まい・にち】 . by themselves.morning 今朝 【け・さ】 . we learned how to use verbs to talk about things we do or do not do. we learned the concept of verb clauses and how to use them to create more complicated sentences. 9. 6. 昨日 【きのう】 . we now know how to make plans with other people and talk about what the kinds of things we do on a regular basis. 4. 13. Here is a long list of vocabulary describing various times in addition to the ones we already learned for days of the week. With the grammar we learned in this chapter.every month 去年 【きょ・ねん】 . Finally. 7. 2. 5. you'll notice that it's mostly different combinations of the same Kanji such as 「日」 for day.last month 今月 【こん・げつ】 .this year 来年 【らい・ねん】 . We also learned how to make or suggest plans by using the 「~たい」 and volitional form. Though the vocabulary list is rather long. The verbs. 3. do not have a specific tense so they can be used to describe activities in the future or an unspecified time. 8. Here is a short list of examples using the various conjugations we learned in this chapter.org/learn/book/…/2 .next year 毎年 【まい・とし】 . 1. 14.every day 先月 【せん・げつ】 .this morning 68/113 guidetojapanese. we learned how to use describe common activities using verbs.last year 今年 【こ・とし】 . 11.this month 来月 【らい・げつ】 .

20. for your diary on paper or on Lang-8. 2. 25. 17. 29.rest. 3. 週末にたいてい何をするの? What do (you) usually due on weekends? 5.tonight 毎晩 【まい・ばん】 . 27.every morning 昼 【ひる】 . 今日は、何をしようか? What shall (we) do today? 2.org/learn/book/…/2 .spring 夏 【なつ】 . 来週末に映画を見に行くのは、どう? How (about) going to watch movie next weekend? 7.autumn 冬 【ふゆ】 .afternoon 夜 【よる】 . you can talk about the kinds of things you do and activities you enjoy. meal 朝ご飯 【あさ・ご・はん】 . 今年の冬休みに何か予定ありますか? Do (you) have some kind of plan this winter vacation? 6.particularly 寝る 【ね・る】(ru-verb) . 19. the best. 21. 23. surprise your friend by using Japanese. Otherwise. どんな食べ物を食べたい? What kind of food do (you) want to eat? 3. here is a short self-description of John Brown talking about the things he likes do or (or not). 24.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 15.to sleep 一番 【いち・ばん】 .rice. I like sleeping the most 1.summer 秋 【あき】 .every night ご飯 【ご・はん】 .winter 休み 【やす・み】 . 昼ご飯は、何を食べましょうか? What shall we eat for lunch? 4.tonight 今晩 【こん・ばん】 . 毎朝 【まい・あさ】 . 趣味 【しゅ・み】 . 26. 18.breakfast 昼ご飯 【ひる・ご・はん】 . great! Next time you're making plans either in an email or face-to-face. For example. 22. 28.dinner 春 【はる】 . 暇な時に何をするのが好きですか? What do (you) like to do when (you're) free? Writing Practice If you have friends who speak Japanese. vacation 1.evening 今夜 【こん・や】 . 4.lunch 晩ご飯 【ばん・ご・はん】 .hobby 特に 【とく・に】 . 16. -est 69/113 guidetojapanese.#1.

6.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 5.time はじめまして。私の名前は、ジョン・ブラウンです。趣味は、特に何もありませんが、寝るのが一番 好きです。宿題や勉強をするのは、あまり好きじゃないです。でも、日本語で話すのは、好きです よ。漢字とか発音が面白いですから。いつか日本に行きたいです。将来には、なるべく楽な仕事が したいですが、日本では皆がたくさん働くから、どうしましょう?やはり、学生の時に行きたいです ね。 Nice to meet you.pronunciation 将来 【しょう・らい】 .studies 話す 【はな・す】(u-verb) . 7. Because things like Kanji and pronunciation are interesting. we will learn more ways to utilize the verb clause along with the progressive and past tense. But (I) like speaking in Japanese.work. 14. 宿題 【しゅく・だい】 . (I) want to go when (I'm) a student. there aren't any particularly but (I) like sleeping the best. a very useful verb form that we will use in many different types of grammar. Some simple examples of the progressive tense is "I am watching a movie" or "I am eating". 16.org/learn/book/…/2 70/113 .as much as possible 楽 【らく】(na-adj) . My name is John Brown.homework 勉強 【べん・きょう】 . "I am married". (I) don't like doing things like homework and studying very much.future なるべく . As for (my) hobbies.to speak 漢字 【かん・じ】 .with ease. As for in the future. 8. Verb tenses and clauses At the end of the last chapter. (I) want to do a relaxing job as much as possible but everybody in Japanese works a lot so what should (I) do? As expected. 13. job たくさん .a lot 働く 【はたら・く】 . In order to learn the conjugation rule for this construction. comfortable 仕事 【し・ごと】 . Progressive Tense The progressive tense in most cases indicate an action that is ongoing. 9. In this chapter. 15.to work どうする . 17.Kanji 発音 【はつ・おん】 .what one should do (lit: how do) 時 【とき】 . The same tense is also used to described an ongoing state resulting from the action such as. you know. we must first learn the te-form. 11. To change ru-verbs into the te-form guidetojapanese. (I) want to go to Japan sometime. we learned about the concept of the verb clause. The te-form The conjugation rule for ru-verbs and the exception verbs are fairly easy as you simply need to append 「て」 to the stem. 12. 10.

There is also one additional exception for this conjugation: 「行く」 Te-form conjugations for u-verbs Ending Non-Past changes to. In this case.org/learn/book/…/2 71/113 .to speak 書く 【か・く】(u-verb) .to die 切る 【き・る】(u-verb) .to cut 買う 【か・う】(u-verb) . it is used simply guidetojapanese.to swim 飲む 【の・む】(u-verb) .. 5. 見る → 見て Conjugating a u-verb to the te-form is a bit more complex because we must break up u-verbs into four additional categories. 話す 【はな・す】(u-verb) .to buy 持つ 【も・つ】(u-verb) .to write 泳ぐ 【およ・ぐ】(u-verb) . 食べる → 食べて 2. 10. 3.to go The table below illustrated the four different categories and the conjugation rules for each using the list above. 6.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Drop the 「る」 part of the ru-verb (same as the stem) and add 「て」 Examples 1. 8. 7.. 9. These four categories depend on the last character of the verb. we simply need to attach a verb we already learned to the teform.to play 死ぬ 【し・ぬ】(u-verb) . Te-form す く ぐ む ぶ ぬ る う つ 話す 書く 泳ぐ 飲む 遊ぶ 死ぬ 切る 買う 持つ す → して く → いて ぐ → いで む → んで ぶ → んで ぬ → んで る → って う → って つ → って 話して 書いて 泳いで 飲んで 遊んで 死んで 切って 買って 持って Exception Verbs Non-Past Te-form する 来る 行く して きて 行って* * exceptions particular to this conjugation Progressive Tense In order to change a verb to the progressive tense.to hold 行く 【い・く】(u-verb) . 2. The list below has an example of a common verb with each different ending. 4.to drink 遊ぶ 【あそ・ぶ】(u-verb) . 1. This is the ru-verb 「いる」 used to express existence of an animate object.

to keep.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… as a grammatical construct to express the progressive tense and has little to do with the original verb. 7. 2. This also applies to the past tense. to raise (pets in particular) 太る 【ふと・る】(u-verb) . 結婚していますか? Are (you) married? (lit: In state of being married?) 4.already 知る 【し・る】(u-verb) .dog 猫 【ねこ】 . (lit: In state of having acquired that knowledge already. 11.pen 持つ 【も・つ】(u-verb) .) 2.to acquire knowledge ペン . Progressive Conjugation Examples Positive Ru-verb 見ている U-verb 読んでいる Exception している* Exception 行っている* * = exceptions Negative 見ていない Positive Polite Negative Polite 見ています きています しています 見ていません きていません していません 読んでいない 読んでいます 読んでいません していない Exception きています(来る)* きていない 行っていない 行っています 行っていません Example 1. ペンを持っている? Do (you) have (a) pen? (lit: In state of holding (owning) pen?) 3. 5. first conjugate the verb to the te-form and then attach the ru-verb 「い る」. Examples 1. 8.org/learn/book/…/2 72/113 . 読む → 読んで → 読んでいる The beauty and simplicity of this construction is because it ends in the ru-verb 「いる」. which we will learn later. 6. Using 「~ている」 for progressive tense To describe a continuing action. それ .marriage 犬 【いぬ】 .that もう . 食べる → 食べて → 食べている 2. 3. 何もしていません。 guidetojapanese. including the polite form.cat 飼う 【か・う】(u-verb) .to get fat 痩せる 【や・せる】(ru-verb) . 10. 9. any additional conjugations are the same as any other ru-verb. 4.to hold 結婚 【けっ・こん】 .to get skinny 1. それは、もう知っているよ。 (I) know that already.

3. freshman 選ぶ 【えら・ぶ】(u-verb) . 猫は、飼っていない。 Not raising a cat.east 方 【ほう】 .to happen to see ずっと . 7. 住む 【す・む】(u-verb) .org/learn/book/…/2 73/113 . 5. dorm of where? リー: ずっと東の方にある所。 Lee: The place that's at the far east direction. 6. 13.) Where do you live? 1. アリス: そうなの?あまり見かけないけど、どこの寮? Alice: Is that so? (I) don't see (you) every much.) 犬は、痩せている。 (The) dog is skinny. -est 遅い 【おそ・い】(i-adj) .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 5. Shortened progressive form The 「い」 from 「いる」 can be dropped in more casual situations. 8.place そんなに .that much 遠い 【とお・い】(i-adj) . 犬を飼っている。 Raising a dog. 2.first year. Not doing anything. where are you residing at now? リー: 寮に住んでいるよ。 Lee: (I'm) living in the dorm.late アリス: リー君は、今どこに住んでいるの? Alice: Lee-kun.dormitory 見かける 【み・かける】(ru-verb) . 4. アリス: どうしてそんなに遠い所に住んでいるの? Alice: Why are you living in such a far place? リー: 一年生だから、住む所を選ぶのが一番遅い。 Lee: (I'm) a freshman so (we're) the latest to select a place to live. 7. 8. guidetojapanese.to choose 一番 【いち・ばん】 .to reside at 寮 【りょう】 .for a long time or distance 東 【ひがし】 .#1. 9. (lit: Dog is in state of having gotten skinny. 11. the best. 12.direction 所 【ところ】 . 6.far 一年生 【いち・ねん・せい】 . 10. (lit: Cat is in state of having gotten fat. 猫は、太っている。 (The) cat is fat.

食べている → 食べていない → 食べていなかった eating → not eating → was not eating guidetojapanese. 4. The only difference is to use 「た」 and 「だ」 in the place of 「て」 and 「で」 respectively. This means you can use the same rules as any other ru-verbs to easily change the progressive tense to the past progressive or negative past progressive. The past-negative conjugation rule should also be familiar to you as it's identical to the past-tense conjugation rules for both i-adjectives and negative state-of-being.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Example 1.org/learn/book/…/2 74/113 . 食べている → 食べていて → 食べていた eating → was eating Negative past tense: Conjugate to the negative tense and replace the last 「い」 with 「かった」 Examples 1. 食べる → 食べない → 食べなかった eat → not eat → did not eat 2. 食べる → 食べて → 食べた eat → ate 2. This is because the plain past tense conjugation rules are almost identical to the rules for the te-form. 何を読んでるの? What are (you) reading? 3. ペンを持ってる? Do (you) have (a) pen? Past Verb Tense Plain past tense verbs The conjugation rules for the plain past tense are quite simple now that we've already learn the rules for the teform. 犬は、飼ってない。 Don't own a dog. 何をしてるの? What are (you) doing? 2. 飲む → 飲まない → 飲まなかった drink → not drink → did not drink 3. 飲む → 飲んで → 飲んだ drink → drank 3. Remember that the progressive tense always end in the ru-verb: 「いる」. Plain past verb tense conjugation rules Past tense: Conjugate to the te-form and replace 「て」 with 「た」 and 「で」 with 「だ」 Examples 1.

to study はず .org/learn/book/…/2 75/113 . アリス: おかしいね。ここで一緒に勉強するはずだけど、どこに行ったかな? Alice: That's odd. 5.to know おかしい (i-adj) . funny 一緒 【いっ・しょ】 . strange. you should say so 1.to understand ちゃんと . to inform 分かる 【わ・かる】(ru-verb) .to teach. 19.(one's own) mother 急 【きゅう】 . 知る 【し・る】 . didn't (he) tell you? ジョン: ごめん、言っていることが分からなかったから、アリスちゃんに何も言わなかった。 John: Sorry. (I) was little late due to an errand. 11. I told John.should はあ . 2. 17. 4.to convey べき . I didn't understand the thing (you) were saying so (I) didn't say anything to Alice-chan.to say 教える 【おし・える】(ru-verb) . casual) . アリス: 何をしていたの? Alice: What were you doing? リー: 母から急に電話が来たの。ジョンに言ったけど、教えなかったの? Lee: A phone call came suddenly from (my) mother. アリス: 何か分からなかった時は、ちゃんと伝えるべきよ。 Alice: (You) should properly convey when you didn't understand something. (We) are supposed to study here together but (I) wonder where (he) went? リー: アリスちゃん、ごめん。用事でちょっと遅れた。 Lee: Alice-chan. you know. 10. 6. 7. ジョン: 分かった。 guidetojapanese.phone 言う 【い・う】 .expected to be かな (sentence-ending particle. 16. 8. 18.sorry 用事 【よう・じ】 . 13.together 勉強する 【べん・きょう】 . sorry. 12.to be late 母 【はは】 .sudden 電話 【でん・わ】 . 15. 14.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… When you don't understand.odd.I wonder ごめん (casual) . 3.properly 伝える 【つた・える】 . 9.sigh アリス: リー君はどこ? Alice: Where is Lee-kun? ジョン: 知らない。 John: Don't know.errand 遅れる 【おく・れる】(ru-verb) .

9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… John: (I) understood. isn't it. 食べる → 食べませんでした 2. アリス: はあ・・・。 Alice: Sigh. It already became thoroughly spring. リー: 本当に分かったの? Lee: Did (you) really understand? ジョン: あんまり。 John: Not really.don't go 行き ました ..go Negative 行きません . good afternoon! 山本: スミスさん、こんにちは。もうすっかり春になりましたね。 Yamamoto: Smith-san. 飲む → 飲み → 飲みませんでした Summary of 「~ます」 tenses Positive Non-Past Past 行きます .went 行き ませんでした . 飲む → 飲み → 飲みました Negative past tense: Attach 「ませんでした」 to the verb stem Examples 1. Polite past verb tense conjugation rules Past tense: Attach 「ました」 to the verb stem Examples 1. 山本: そうですか。春休みに何をしましたか。 Yamamoto: Is that so? What did (you) do in spring vacation? guidetojapanese.. hasn't it? スミス: そうですね。春休みは、本当に早く終わりました。 Smith: That's so. good afternoon. Spring vacation really ended quickly. Polite past verbs The rules for the polite past tense is similar to the other polite tenses and are all based on the verb stem.org/learn/book/…/2 76/113 . 食べる → 食べました 2.didn't go Spring vacation is already over スミス: 山本先生、こんにちは! Smith: Yamamoto-sensei.

(It's) also important to properly take rest so. 行きたくない + かった = 行きたくなかった Exceptions: 「いい」 conjugates from 「よい」 1. As usual. スミス: 山本先生は、休みに何をしましたか。 Smith: Yamamoto-sensei. 暇だった For i-adjectives/negative tenses: Replace the 「い」 with 「かった」 Examples 1. Plain past state-of-being conjugation rules For nouns/na-adjectives: Attach 「だった」 to the end Examples 1. 山本: 本当ですね。 Yamomoto: That's right. 山本: それもいいですね。ちゃんと休みを取るのも大事ですから。 Yamamoto: That is good as well. 行きたい + かった = 行きたかった 6. 暇じゃない + かった = 暇じゃなかった 5. いい → よい+かった = よかった 2. 学生じゃない + かった = 学生じゃなかった 4. かわいくない + かった = かわいくなかった 3. The rule is also the same for i-adjectives and negative tenses as they both end in 「い」. 学生だった 2. State-of-Being Past Tense Plain past nouns and adjectives The conjugation rules for nouns and na-adjectives are identical once again for the past tense. what did (you) do for vacation? 山本: 授業の準備で色々していましたよ。 Yamamoto: (I) was doing various things with class preparation. 「いい」 and 「かっこいい」 conjugations start from the original 「よい」 pronunciation. スミス: 休みをちゃんと取るのは大事ですよ。 Smith: (It's) important to properly take rest. かっこいい → かっこよい+かった = かっこよかった Summary of plain nouns/na-adjective tenses guidetojapanese. you know. かわいい + かった = かわいかった 2.org/learn/book/…/2 77/113 .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… スミス: のんびり休みましたので、特に何もしませんでした。 Smith: (I) rested taking it easy so (I) didn't do anything in particular.

was not tall Looking forward to next year 1.second-year. 17.class もっと . リー: そして、二年生になるんだね。 guidetojapanese. 16. 11.various 夏 【なつ】 .not at all (when used with negative) 聞く 【き・く】 . 20.(is) tall 高かった .look forward to 確か 【たし・か】 . sophomore なる . 14.pluralizing suffix 喜ぶ 【よろこ・ぶ】 . 13.to be pleased 授業 【じゅ・ぎょう】 . 9.spring 学期 【がっ・き】 . 12. 2.to listen アリス: 春学期はもうすぐ終わるよね。 Alice: Spring term will also end soon. 4. 7. 15. Cause it was really tough for various (things). 8.more ~な (sentence-ending particle) .was student 学生じゃなかった . 21.to end やっと .(is) student Negative 学生じゃない . 6.is not tall Non-Past Past 高い . 3.certain.is not student 学生だった .was not student Summary of plain i-adjective tense Positive Negative 高くない . sure 二年生 【に・ねん・せい】 .was tall 高くなかった . 19.school term もう . huh? ジョン: やっとだ。今年、本当に色々大変だったからね。夏休みが楽しみ! John: Finally.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Positive Non-Past Past 学生 . 10.finally 本当 【ほん・とう】 . Looking forward to summer vacation! アリス: 確かに大変だったけど、楽しかったよ。 Alice: It was rough sure but it was fun.summer 休み 【やす・み】 .to become ~達 【たち】 .org/learn/book/…/2 78/113 .vacation 楽しみ 【たの・しみ】 . 5. 春 【はる】 . 18.soon 終わる 【お・わる】 .real 色々 【いろ・いろ】 (na-adjective) .already. more すぐ .a more casual and masculine version of ~ね 全然 【ぜん・ぜん】 .

行きたい + かった+です → 行きたかったです 6.is not student 学生でした .. リー: 田中先生はかわいいよね。 Lee: Tanaka-sensei is cute. 学生でした 2. 暇でした 2. huh! アリス: 全然聞いていない・・・。 Alice: Not listening at all. you now. かわいいい + かった+です = かわいかったです 2.(is) student Negative 学生じゃないです . かっこいい → かっこよい+かった+です = かっこよかったです Summary of polite nouns/na-adjective tenses Positive Non-Past Past 学生です . 暇じゃない + かった+です = 暇じゃなかったです 5. いい → よい+かった+です = よかったです 2. 行きたくない + かった+です → 行きたくなかったです 3. Tanaka-sensei will become our teacher.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Lee: And then.was not student Summary of polite i-adjective tense guidetojapanese. 学生じゃない + かった+です = 学生じゃなかったです 4.. Exceptions: Add 「です」 to the plain past tense 1. かわいくない + かった+です = かわいくなかったです 3.org/learn/book/…/2 79/113 . huh? ジョン: そう!そして、田中先生が私達の先生になる。 Jonn: That's right! And then. Past state-of-being conjugation rules 1. Polite past nouns and adjectives The polite form for past nouns and adjectives is similar to the plain past conjugation rules. アリス: 何を喜んでいるの?田中先生の授業はもっと難しいよ。 Alice: What are you getting happy (about)? Tanaka-sensei's class is much more difficult. For i-adjectives/negative tenses: Add 「です」 to the plain past tense Examples 1. huh? ジョン: かわいいよな! John: (She's) cute. we'll become second-year students.was student 学生じゃなかったです . For nouns/na-adjectives: Attach 「でした」 to the end Examples 1.

6. Various (things) were interesting.place なかなか . guidetojapanese.was tall 高くなかったです . 田中: 私はもう行きましたから、しばらくは行きませんよ。 Tanaka: I already went so (I) won't go for a while. 2. adjectives. we only needed to learn the conjugation rules for plain verbs. 7. 8. 4.was not tall Note that 「でした」 only applies to nouns and na-adjectives. right? 山本: ええ。でも家族もいますから、そんなに遠い所に行くのはなかなか難しいです。 Yamamoto: Yes.(is) tall Negative 高くないです .org/learn/book/…/2 80/113 .that much 遠い 【とお・い】(i-adj) . But because (I have) family. how was the trip of Mexico? 田中: とてもよかったですよ。色々面白かったです。山本先生も行きたかったですよね。 Tanaka: It was very good. 5. nouns. Te-form conjugation rules For the progressive tense. it's fairly difficult to go to such a far place.is not tall 高かったです .little while 山本: 田中先生、メキシコの旅行はどうでしたか。 Yamamoto: Tanaka-sensei. and the negative tense can also be conjugated to the te-form.Mexico 旅行 【りょ・こう】 .fairly しばらく .far 所 【ところ】 .trip 家族 【か・ぞく】 . 3. However.family そんなに . Yamamoto-sensei also wanted to go.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Positive Non-Past Past 高いです . before. and at the same time as another verb. メキシコ . 山本: ですから、田中先生と一緒に行くつもりは全然ありませんでしたよ。 Yamamoto: That's why (for reasons I already said). Verb sequences In this section. we'll learn how to describe verbs that happen after. for example 「いいでした」 but it is incorrect! How was your vacation? 1. we must first learn all the te-form conjugation rules. Japanese learners have a tendency to do the same for i-adjectives. (I) didn't have intention of going together with (you) Tanakasensei at all. To describe clauses that happen sequentially.

org/learn/book/…/2 81/113 . ate breakfast. (I) woke up. 食べない+くて = 食べなくて 3. and went to school. 2. Exceptions: As usual 「いい」 conjugates from 「よい」 1. Examples 1. 学生+で = 学生で 2. (she's) popular with everybody. In fact. 優しい 【やさ・しい】(i-adj) . かわいい+くて = かわいくて 2. 4. Example 1. Then (I) ate breakfast. 3. gentle.what should one do (lit: how do) 飲み会 【の・み・かい】 . かっこいい → かっこよい+くて = かっこよくて Sequence of actions The te-form we learned at the beginning of this chapter is very versatile and has many uses. Plain nouns and na-adjectives: Attach 「で」 to the noun or na-adjective. いい → よい+くて = よくて 2. 朝 【あさ】. 1. 2. 2. the te-form alone is used to express a sequence of actions that happen one after another. (I) woke up. This will make your conversations smoother as it allows you to connect multiple sentences instead of having many smaller. Then. 3. 5.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Te-form conjugation rules 1. 暇+で = 暇で 3. to happen そして . I-adjectives and negative tense: Replace the last 「い」 with 「くて」.head 人気 【にん・き】 . and smart. 彼女は、きれいで、優しくて、頭もいいから、皆に人気がある。 Because she is pretty. Examples 1. きれい+で = きれいで 2. 4. 朝、起きて、朝ご飯を食べて、学校に行った。 Morning. 学生じゃない+くて = 学生じゃなくて 3.drinking party 1.to get up. (I) went to school.morning 起きる 【お・きる】(ru-verb) .breakfast 朝、起きた。そして、朝ご飯を食べた。そして、学校に行った。 Morning.and then 朝ご飯 【やさ・ご・はん】. 飲み会は、今日じゃなくて、明日です。 guidetojapanese. separate sentences that are often too short. 宿題をしなくて、どうするんだよ? (You) don't do homework and what are you going to do? 3.popularity どうする .gentle 頭 【あたま】 .

14.after Example 1.to enter ここ .lunch 食べる 【た・べる】(ru-verb) .bath 入る 【はい・る】(u-verb) .dinner guidetojapanese. 3. before 2.contact する 【す・る】(exception) .rice. ここに来る前に、ちゃんと連絡したよ。 (I) properly contacted (you) before (I) came here. Note: Be careful of the tense of the verb that comes before 「前」 and 「後」.to eat 宿題 【しゅく・だい】 .properly 連絡 【れん・らく】 .dangerous 1. 寝る 【ね・る】(ru-verb) . 7. 11. 1.to swim 危ない 【あぶ・ない】(i-adj) . 食べた後、泳ぐのは危ないです。 Swim after eating is dangerous. 13. Another way to describe an action is to use the te-form with 「から」. 「~てから」 conveys a stronger and more immediate relation between the two events.here 来る 【く・る】(exception) . 前 【まえ】 .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Drinking party is not today. 「前」 is non-past while 「後」 is always past tense. 寝る前に、お風呂に入る。 Take a bath before going to sleep. 昼ご飯を食べた後、宿題をした。 Did homework after eating lunch. 後 【あと】 . often used for situations where the previous action needs to be completed for the next action to start. 4. While similar to 「後」. it's tomorrow.afternoon ご飯 【ご・はん】 .homework 泳ぐ 【およ・ぐ】(u-verb) .front.org/learn/book/…/2 82/113 .to sleep 風呂 【ふ・ろ】 . Example 1.to come ちゃんと . 4. meal 昼ご飯 【ひる・ご・はん】 .to do 昼 【ひる】 . 6. 2. 15. Before and after You can use 「前」 and 「後」 to describe an action as happening before or after another action. 3. 9. 10. 5. 晩ご飯 【ばん・ご・はん】 . 2. 12. 8.

guidetojapanese.to use 文章 【ぶん・しょう】 . Using 「ながら」 for concurrent actions 1. テレビを見ながら、宿題をする。 Do homework while watching TV.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 2. 3.to speak 行儀 【ぎょう・ぎ】 . いい (i-adj) . The tense is determined by the main verb at the end. 2. we learned how to list multiple nouns using 「と」、「や」、and 「とか」. 3. However. (it) is good to learn after learning Hiragana Two simultaneous actions You can express two actions that are taking place simultaneously by attaching 「ながら」 to the end of the stem of the first verb. Using the te-form. to get across 1. in order to create a partial list of verbs similar to 「や」 and 「とか」. we must use another construction described below. 8.to write 通じる 【つう・じる】(ru-verb) . 7. 遊ぶ → 遊び+ながら → 遊びながら Example 1. 4.org/learn/book/…/2 83/113 . 5.to go through. we now know how to list multiple verb clauses similar to 「と」. 2.bad 辞書 【じ・しょ】 . 6.manners 悪い 【わる・い】(i-adj) . 辞書を使いながら、日本語の文章を書いたけど、全然通じなかった。 Wrote Japanese text while using dictionary but (it) didn't get across at all. 晩ご飯を食べてから、宿題をするよ。 (I'll) do homework after (I) eat dinner.dictionary 使う 【つか・う】(u-verb) . 2. Listing multiple verbs Partial list of verbs In the second chapter.good 1. 食べる → 食べ+ながら → 食べながら 2.sentence 書く 【か・く】(u-verb) . 話す 【はな・す】 . 習う 【なら・う】(u-verb) . カタカナは、ひらがなを習ってから習うのがいい。 As for Katakana.to learn 3. Change the first verb to the stem and append 「ながら」 1. 食べながら話すのは行儀が悪い。 (It's) bad manners to speak while eating.

if we want to imply that the list is only several among a larger list of potential reasons. 3. 3. 暑い 【あつ・い】(i-adj) . 2. 彼女は、きれいだし、優しいし、頭もいいから、皆に人気がある。 Because she is pretty.sleepy 1. However.walk. 寝たり、本を読んだりするのが好き。 Like to do things like sleeping and reading book(s). 4. 今日は暑いし、授業もないから、プールに行こう。 guidetojapanese. gentle. 2. 彼女は、きれいで、優しくて、頭もいいから、皆に人気がある。 Because she is pretty. 5. 3. 4. (she's) popular with everybody. スポーツをしたり、散歩をしたりしますか。 Do (you) do things like sports and strolls? Partial list of reasons There may be more than one reason for something but 「から」 and 「ので」 can only connect two sentences. 1. and smart. and smart (among other reasons).to get tired 眠い 【ねむ・い】(i-adj) . Note:: You must add 「だ」 for plain nouns and na-adjectives. gentle. ビールを飲んだり、テレビを見たりしました。 (I) did things like drink beer and watch tv. we can use the te-form to list multiple verbs for one reason. 2. Examples 1. 寝る 【ね・る】(ru-verb) . 食べたり飲んだりする。 Do things like eating and drinking. 飲む → 飲んだ+り → 飲んだり 3.to sleep ビール .sports 散歩 【さん・ぽ】 .hot (for climate/weather only) 授業 【じゅ・ぎょう】 .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Rule for creating partial list of verbs Conjugate all the verbs to the past tense and attach 「り」 to each verb.pool 疲れる 【つか・れる】(ru-verb) . stroll 1. Example 1.beer スポーツ . Finally. Once again.org/learn/book/…/2 84/113 . we can add 「し」 to the end of each verb clause. (she's) popular with everybody.class プール . 食べる → 食べた+り → 食べたり 2. add 「する」 at the end.

同じ 【おな・じ】 . you know. Just hanging out again 1. A direct quote would use the Japanese version of double-quotes: 「」 but you can also paraphrase. 音楽 【おん・がく】 . (I) don't want to go anywhere today. アリス: 宿題はあったよ。それをしていたよ。 Alice: There was homework. (I) was doing that. 言う 【い・う】 (u-verb) . What about (you) Alice-chan. うそ .music 2.lie.same アリス: 昨日は、何をしていたの? Alice: What were you doing yesterday? ジョン: 宿題はなかったし、暇だったから、テレビを見たり、音楽を聞いたりしていたよ。アリスちゃ んは? John: There was no homework and (I) was free (among other reasons) so (I) watched TV and listened to music (among other things). we must add 「だ」. For verb clauses that end in an plain noun or na-adjective. 疲れたし、眠いし、今日はどこに行きたくないよ。 (I'm) tired and sleepy (among other reasons).org/learn/book/…/2 85/113 . (I'll) do it while listening to class. Examples 1. girlfriend guidetojapanese. huh? Phrasing verb clauses Quoting a phrase The most straight-forward reason to phrase a verb clause to quote somebody.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Because today is hot (among other reasons) and there's also no class so let's go to the pool. アリス: いつもと同じね。 Alice: Same as always. 2.he 3. 彼 【かれ】 . ジョン: うそ! John: No way! アリス: どうするの? Alice: What are you going to do? ジョン: 大丈夫。授業を聞きながらするから。 John: (It's) ok. A verb clause can be phrased by adding 「と」 to the end of the clause. 彼女 【かの・じょ】 -she.to say 2. no way 3.

9.that kind of. 7.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 1. スミスさんは、「今日は、来ない」と言った。 Smith-san said "he/she is not coming today". 17. noun) . 2. toilet has the same meaning as bathroom.of course お手洗い 【お・て・あら・い】 .normal スミス: ブラウンさん、トイレはどこですか? Smith: Brown-san. 14.mostly コンテキスト .for example そんな . ブラウン: それでは、「toilet」は日本語でなんと言いますか? Brown: Then. 5. 8.stupid 普通 【ふ・つう】 . 15. ブラウン: 違いはどう分かります? Brown: How do (you) understand the difference? guidetojapanese.difference 分かる 【わ・かる】(u-verb) .meaning それでは . 授業で会話を練習している している時 授業 で 会話 を練習 している時 This grammar is also very useful for defining things and asking how one would say something.conversation 練習 【れん・しゅう】 .bathroom 中 【なか】 . 12. 6. 10. 彼は、いつも忙しいと言う。 He always says (he/she) is busy. where is the bathroom? ブラウン: もちろんお手洗いの中にありますよ。 Brown: Of course.practice トイレ .to understand 大体 【だい・たい】 . 4. it's in the bathroom. 3. 1. bathroom もちろん . 11. what do you say in Japanese for "toilet"? 山本: 「toilet」も「トイレ」と言いますよ。 Yamamoto: (You) also say 「トイレ」 for "toilet". 山本: ブラウンさん、日本語では、トイレはお手洗いと同じ意味ですよ。 Yamamoto: Brown-san. 13.org/learn/book/…/2 86/113 . 2. 16. such バカ (na-adj.context 例えば 【たと・えば】. 授業 【じゅ・ぎょう】 . 3.well then. 彼女は、来週暇だと言った。 She said (he/she) is free next week. in that case 違い 【ちが・い】 . in Japanese.class 会話 【かい・わ】 .inside 意味 【い・み】 .toilet.

cafeteria おいしい (i-adj) . this grammar also gives us another way to do introductions.to be late メール . 16.tasty 思う 【おも・う】(u-verb) . Other verbs for phrasing thoughts There are many other verbs that can be used with a phrased verb clause as you can see in the following examples. fast 遅れる 【おく・れる】(ru-verb) .early. 8. ブラウン: 例えば、「sit on the bathroom」は、日本語でどう言いますか? Brown: For example. 明日は遅れるとメールで送ったよ! (I) sent by mail that I'm going to be late tomorrow! 4. 13. 3.to breathe in.until ~ この . 2. university 食堂 【しょく・どう】 . to smoke 約束 【やく・そく】 . 大学の食堂はおいしいと思いますか? Do (you) think the college cafeteria is tasty? 2. guidetojapanese. 来年、日本に留学しに行くと決めた。 Decided to go do study abroad to Japan next year. 7.to decide 1. 大学 【だい・がく】 .email 送る 【おく・る】(u-verb) . 学校までこの電車が一番早いと聞いたけど、全然早くない。 (I) heard that this train is the fasted to school but (it's) not fast at all. 11. (you) don't say such a stupid thing.cigarette 吸う 【す・う】 .org/learn/book/…/2 87/113 .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 山本: 大体、コンテキストで分かりますよ。 Yamamoto: In most cases. 3. 17. 14. 10. 1. do would (you) say "sit on the bathroom" in Japanese? スミス: そんなバカなことは、普通に言わないよ。 Smith: Normally.this 電車 【でん・しゃ】 . 日本語でメールを書 日本語 でメールを書 くスミス でメールを In addition. 15. タバコは吸わないと約束した。 Promised not to smoke cigarettes. 9.train 早い 【はや・い】(i-adj) . 5. (you) understand by context. 5. 6.to think 学校 【がっ・こう】 . 12.study abroad 決める 【き・める】(ru-verb) .school ~まで (particle) . 4.college.to send タバコ .promise 留学 【りゅう・がく】 .

practice 相手 【あい・て】 .to find たくさん . How about studying together? Smith Alice という」 Short. 5. to be different ジョン: アリスちゃんは遅いね。 John: Alice-chan is late. 3. It was written in the forum that you are looking for a partner to practice English so I'm sending you this email.English 練習 【れん・しゅう】 . 4.rarely しっかり . online forum 英語 【えい・ご】 .partner. 2. other party 探す 【さが・す】(u-verb) .to play 遅い 【おそ・い】(i-adj) .to a greater degree 勉強になる . 6.together 真理子さん、 はじめまして。私はアリス・スミスと言います。掲示板に、英語の練習相手探していると書いていまし たので、メールを送ります。私は、アメリカの大学で日本語を勉強しているので、日本語をたくさん練 習したいと思っています。一緒に勉強するのは、どうですか? スミス・アリス Mariko-san. I'm currently studying Japanese at an American university and thinking that I want to practice Japanese a lot. 4. 8.org/learn/book/…/2 88/113 .late よっぽど . masculine) 違う 【ちが・う】 . 2.bulletin board.to differ. I'm Alice Smith.to get studying done.Mariko (female first name) 掲示板 【けい・じ・ばん】 . んで勉強 になる? 勉強になる 遊 んで 勉強 になる ? 1. 7.properly 教科書 【きょう・か・しょ】 . 9. huh? リー: 勉強で忙しいから、今日は来ないって。 Lee: (She's) busy with study so (she) said (she's) not coming today. 5. 6. casual version of 「 という 」 The phrase 「という」 is used so often and in so many ways that there is a shortened casual version: 「って」.me.textbook 俺 【おれ】. 遊ぶ 【あそ・ぶ】(u-verb) . 3. 真理子 【ま・り・こ】. Nice to meet you. myself (slang.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 1.a lot 一緒 【いっ・しょ】 . guidetojapanese. to become informed (lit: become study) たまに . 7. 8.

カラオケで歌を歌ったことはない。 (I) have never sung song at Karaoke. Examples 1. ジョン: って、俺は全然勉強していないと言いたいの? John: By saying that. But. you want to say (I) don't study at all? リー: 違うよ! Lee: That's not it! Experiences "Have you ever done [X]?". studying all the time? Despite the fact that (It's) said that you'll get a lot more studying by practicing Japanese while playing with everybody.org/learn/book/…/2 89/113 .) 3.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… ジョン: いつも勉強してどうするんだよ。皆で遊びながら日本語を練習するのがよっぽど勉強になると 言うのに。 John: What are (you) going to do. you can ask a question of this nature quite literally by using the noun for a generic event: 「こと」(事) and 「ある」. リー: そうだね。でも、たまには、しっかり教科書を使って勉強するのもいいと思うよ。 Lee: I guess so. (lit: There was no event (where I) ate okonomiyaki but finally ate when went to Japan.) 日本に ったことはありますか? 日本 に 行 ったことはありますか ? スミスさん、 メール、ありがとうございます。英語を練習したいと書きましたが、まだ自信があまりないので、返事 を日本語で書きます。私は、東京の北にある川口市という所に住んでいます。東京に行ったことはあ りますか?人がいっぱいで、とても忙しい所です。それで、おいしいレストランがたくさんあります。お 好み焼きやもんじゃ焼きを食べたことはありますか?もんじゃ焼きは東京で有名ですよ。 スミスさんは、アメリカに住んでいますか?私は、まだアメリカに行ったことはありませんが、いつか ニューヨークやLA(エル・エー)で観光したいと思っています。だから、英語を勉強していますが、な かなか難しくてまだ分からないことがいっぱいあります。 一緒に頑張って勉強しましょう! 真理子 guidetojapanese. 日本に行ったことはある? Have you ever gone to Japan? (lit: Is there an event (where you) went to Japan?) 2. お好み焼きは、食べたことがなかったけど、日本に行った時にやっと食べました。 (I) had never eaten okonomiyaki but (I) finally ate (it) when (I) went to Japan. (lit: There is no event (where I) sang song at Karaoke. I think it's good to use textbook and study properly once in a while.

it is important to distinguish between these two types of verbs because intransitive verbs cannot take a direct object (the 「を」 particle). are you living in America? As for me. Let's work hard together and study! Mariko Transitive and Intransitive A transitive verb is one that requires an agent to complete the verb while an intransitive verb is complete in itself and doesn't require a direct object. I have net yet been to America but I'm thinking I want to go sight-seeing to places like New York an LA. And then. That's why I'm studying English but it's pretty difficult and there's still a lot of things I don't understand.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Smith-san. I wrote that I wanted to practice English but I don't have much self-confidence yet so I will write the reply in Japanese. there are lots of tasty restaurants. to leave to enter to be opened to be closed to be attached to disappear to be extracted to put to an end 終わる 【お・わる】(u-verb) to drop to take out to insert to open to close to attach to erase to extract 落ちる 【お・ちる】(ru-verb) 出る 【で・る】(ru-verb) 入る 【はい・る】(u-verb) 開く 【あ・く】(u-verb) 閉まる 【し・まる】(u-verb) つく (u-verb) 消える 【き・える】(ru-verb) 抜ける 【ぬ・ける】(ru-verb) Example guidetojapanese. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Transitive 始める 【は・じめる】(ruverb) 終える 【お・える】(ru-verb) 落とす 【お・とす】(u-verb) 出す 【だ・す】(u-verb) 入れる 【い・れる】(ru-verb) 開ける 【あ・ける】(ru-verb) 閉める 【し・める】 つける (ru-verb) 消す 【け・す】(u-verb) 抜く 【ぬ・く】(u-verb) to start Intransitive 始まる 【は・じまる】(u-verb) to begin to come to an end to fall to come out. As for Smith-san. Below is a sample list of common transitive and intransitive verbs and examples of how the particles change depending on which type of verb is used. I live in a place called Kawaguchi-shi north of Tokyo. In Japanese. Have you ever gone to Tokyo? There are a lot of people and it's a very busy place.org/learn/book/…/2 90/113 . Thank you for the email. Have you ever eaten things like Okonomiyaki and Monjayaki? Monjayaki is famous in Tokyo.

9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 1. I didn't do anything. you know. we learned the progressive and past tense for both positive and negative verbs.org/learn/book/…/2 . 3. 田中: いいえ、鈴木さんがそのコップを落としているのを見ましたよ。 Tanaka: No. We also learned the te-form for the progressive tense as well a number of other uses. やっと宿題を終えた。 Finally finished homework. 田中: 鈴木さんが落としたんじゃないですか? Tanaka: It isn't that Suzuki-san (you) dropped it? 鈴木: いいえ、私は何もしませんでしたよ。 Suzuki: No. 2. you know. 4. Here is a list of examples using the various conjugations we learned in this chapter. What happened? 田中: 何があったんですか? Tanaka: What happened? (lit: What is it that existed?) 鈴木: このコップが落ちました。 Suzuki: This cup fell. Chapter summary and practice In this chapter. 知らない人と会話を始める。 Start conversation with a person (you) don't know. 映画がすぐ始まる。 Movie begins soon. is it that this cup fell by itself? 鈴木: 私がここに来る前にもう落ちていましたから、分かりません。 Suzuki: It was already fallen before I came here so (I) don't know. Te-form Conjugation Examples Plain Noun/na-adjective 好き I-adjective Exception 大きい いい Te-form Negative Te-form 好きで 好きじゃなくて 大きくて 大きくなくて よくて* よくなくて* 91/113 guidetojapanese. やっと宿題が終わった。 Homework finally ended. 田中: じゃ、このコップは、自分で落ちたんですか? Tanaka: Then. (I) saw Suzuki-san (you) dropping that cup.

9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Ru-verb す -ending く -ending ぐ -ending む -ending ぶ -ending ぬ -ending う -ending つ -ending Exception Exception Exception * = exceptions 食べる 話す 書く 泳ぐ 飲む 遊ぶ 死ぬ 買う 持つ 行く する 食べて 食べなくて 話して 話さなくて 書いて 書かなくて 泳いで 泳がなくて 飲んで 飲まなくて 遊んで 遊ばなくて 死んで 死ななくて 切って 買って 持って 切らなくて 買わなくて 持たなくて しなくて* こなくて* る -ending (u-verb) 切る 行って* 行かなくて して* くる(来る) きて* Past Conjugation Examples Plain Noun/naadjective I-adjective Exception Ru-verb す -ending く-ending ぐ -ending む -ending ぶ -ending ぬ -ending る -ending (uverb) う -ending つ -ending Exception Exception Exception 好き 大きい いい 食べる 話す 書く 泳ぐ 飲む 遊ぶ 死ぬ 切る 買う 持つ 行く する くる(来 る) Past Negative Past Polite Past Polite Negative Past 好きじゃなかったです 好きだった 好きじゃなかった 好きでした 大きかった 大きくなかった よかった* よくなかった* 食べた 話した 書いた 泳いだ 飲んだ 遊んだ 死んだ 切った 買った 持った 行った* 食べなかった 話さなかった 書かなかった 泳がなかった 飲まなかった 遊ばなかった 死ななかった 切らなかった 買わなかった 持たなかった 行かなかった しなかった* こなかった* 大きかったです 大きくなかったです よかったです* よくなかったです* 食べました 話しました 書きました 泳ぎました 飲みました 遊びました 死にました 切りました 買いました 持ちました 行きました しました* きました* 食べませんでした 話しませんでした 書きませんでした 泳ぎませんでした 飲みませんでした 遊びませんでした 死にませんでした 切りませんでした 買いませんでした 持ちませんでした 行きませんでした しませんでした* き ませんでした* 92/113 した* きた* guidetojapanese.org/learn/book/…/2 .

to buy polite polite past polite negative polite negative-past Front side かう】 買 う 【 かう 】 .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… * = exceptions Conjugation practice We learned many conjugation rules in this chapter which you'll need to practice until they are almost instinctive both for speaking and listening.org/learn/book/…/2 93/113 . and adjectives. The important thing is to focus your cards on areas you are weak at and to make sure you are comfortable with conjugating any word in any tense at a moment's notice. Here are some suggestions and examples of how you might want to make your own cards.to buy past negative negative-past Front side かう】 買 う 【 かう 】 . Front side かう】 買 う 【 かう 】 . and nouns. 先生 【せん・せい】 . 学生 【がく・せい】 .to buy want to buy wanted to buy not want to buy didn't want to buy Back side かう】 買 う 【 かう 】 .to buy 買った 買わない 買わなかった Back side かう】 買 う 【 かう 】 .to buy buying was buying not buying wasn't buying Front side かう】 買 う 【 かう 】 .student 2. nouns.to buy 買います 買いました 買いません 買いませんでした Back side かう】 買 う 【 かう 】 .teacher guidetojapanese. adjective. you should use at least these common verbs. I recommend using flash cards to practice conjugation rules using a mix of every type of verb. 1.to buy 買いたい 買いたかった 買いたくない 買いたくなかった To get a good representation.to buy 買っている 買っていた 買っていない 買っていなかった Back side かう】 買 う 【 かう 】 .

7. 24. 15.to feel 最近 【さい・きん】 .small いい (i-adj) .oneself 思う 【おも・う】 (u-verb) . 5. A good way to practice what you learned in this chapter is to talk or write about anything on your mind whether it's something interesting that happened recently. Below is a very small list of things you can write and talk about. 2. 19.to drink 遊ぶ 【あそ・ぶ】(u-verb) .to think 感じる 【かん・じる】 (ru-verb) . 1. somebody you've recently met.big 小さい 【ちい・さい】(i-adj) . we've learned many grammatical structures that allow us to talk about what's happening and what people are thinking and saying.healthy.Japanese (language) 勉強 【べん・きょう】 .good かっこいい (i-adj) . 11.matter.to die 使う 【つか・う】(u-verb) . 4. In this chapter. 16. 13. 6. 21. 14.to cut いる (ru-verb) .9/7/2010 2.to eat 着る 【き・る】(ru-verb) . 9. 11. pretty 大きい 【おお・きい】(i-adj) . 8. 8.to use 来る 【く・る】(exception) .to do Telling stories Conversation is often made up of narratives whether it's about events happening around us or what people think and feel. handsome 見る 【み・る】(ru-verb) . 17.to go 泳ぐ 【およ・ぐ】(u-verb) . 5. lately 起きる 【お・きる】 (ru-verb) . 9. 20. 25. 6.distasteful きれい (na-adj) . 12.org/learn/book/…/2 .to write 行く 【い・く】(u-verb) .interesting 日本語 【に・ほん・ご】 . to awake 面白い 【おも・しろ・い】 (i-adj) . 26.reason 将来 【しょう・らい】 . 23.to occur.to swim 飲む 【の・む】(u-verb) .to come する (exception) . 3. event 自分 【じ・ぶん】 .to exist (inanimate) 話す 【はな・す】(u-verb) .to exist (animate) ある (u-verb) . lively 好き 【す・き】(na-adj) . 3.to play 死ぬ 【し・ぬ】(u-verb) .study 理由 【り・ゆう】 . 18.teacher Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 元気 【げん・き】(na-adj) . こと .to talk 書く 【か・く】(u-verb) . 4. 7. 10. 22.future 94/113 guidetojapanese. or what your plans are for the future.cool.to wear 切る 【き・る】(u-verb) . The .clean.to see 食べる 【たべ・る】(ru-verb) .recent.likable 嫌い 【きらい】(na-adj) . 10.

We will now learn the numbers 100 up to 10 quadrillion.org/learn/book/…/2 95/113 . Because the Japanese numeral system is based on units of four not three. 10^16 and so on. We will do that here in addition to learning how to express different amounts and make comparisons. 2. The Numeric System Numbers starting from 100 We already learned all the numbers up to 99 in the first chapter.000 until you get to 100. 1.0000. In other words.000. numbers are organized as 1. You'll need to pay careful attention to reading changes for some sound combinations. guidetojapanese.0000. Numerals 100 1. 4. If you need a quick review. 10^12. 3.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 12.to do 1. 「万」 does not mean 10. Numbers and amounts We've been using numbers here and there but we've yet to comprehensively cover how to count or tell the date and time. 将来にしたいこと。 Thing(s) (you) want to do in the future. 最近起きた面白いこと。 Interesting thing(s) that happened recently. the same units get repeated once you get past 10. する (exception) . 自分が思っていることや感じたこと。 Thing(s) oneself is thinking and feeling lately (among other things).000.0000. you need to add a one: 「一万」. For example. here are the first 10 numbers. 日本語を勉強したいと思った理由。 Reason why (you) thought (you) want to study Japanese. Numerals Kanji 1 2 3 4 四 5 6 7 七 8 八 9 九 10 十 一 二 三 五 六 Reading いち に さん し/よん ご ろく しち/なな はち きゅう じゅう よん なな Here are the additional units for numbers starting from 100.000. The chart below outlines the numbers that are pronounced slightly differently.000 Kanji 百 千 一万 10^8 一億 10^12 一兆 Reading ひゃく せん いちまん いちおく いっちょう Note: Units larger than 「千」 require another preceding number and cannot be used by themselves.000 10.


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Numerals Kanji Reading 300 600 800 3000 8000 10^12 三百 さんびゃく 六百 ろっぴゃく 八百 はっぴゃく 三千 さんぜん 八千 はっせん 一兆 いっちょう

Large numbers are rarely written in all Kanji as you can imagine something like 「二百三十万九千四百三十 一」 would be difficult to read. You will usually see a combination of numbers and Kanji or just numerals altogether. 1. 1,234 【せん・に・ひゃく・さん・じゅう・よん】 - 1,234 2. 5万3千 【ご・まん・さん・ぜん】 - 53,000

Other numbers
Several ways to say zero and other types of numbers are listed below. 「まる」 meaning "circle" is similar to how we use "O" (the letter) in things like phone numbers, room numbers, and addresses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 零 【れい】 - zero ゼロ - zero まる - circle; zero ~号室 【~ごう・しつ】 - suffix for room numbers マイナスX - negative X 点 【てん】 - period; dot; decimal point X.Y 「X・てん・Y」 - X.Y X分のY - Y/X (Y of X parts)

1. 2. 3. 4. 203号室 【に・まる・さん・ごう・しつ】 - room 203 23.5 【に・じゅう・さん・てん・ご】 - twenty three point five 四分の一 【よん・ぶん・の・いち】 - fourth (1/4) マイナス5 - negative five

It's so confusing!
ジョン:あ、もう!日本語の数って全然分かんない! John: Oh already! (I) don't understand Japanese numbers at all! アリス:確かに難しいよね。日本語では、四単位で数えるから、私は、四を足して、三で割って、英
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語の数字に変えるよ。例えば、百万は、二足す四で六だから、1 millionになる。 Alice: It's certainly difficult, isn't it? Because in Japanese (you) count by units of four, I just add four, divide by three, and change (it) into (the) English number. For example, ひゃくまん is 2 plus 4 and (it's) six so it becomes 1 million. ジョン:いや、全然分かんない!リー君は難しくないの? John: No, (I) don't understand at all! Lee-kun, it isn't difficult? リー:韓国語は日本語と同じだから、簡単だよ。 Lee: Korean is the same as Japanese so (it's) easy, you know. ジョン:ずるいね! John: That's cheating, isn't it?

Counting and counters
Unfortunately, counting discrete items isn't as straight-forward as just using the numbers we just learned in the last section. We must use various counters depending on the type of object we're counting. We already learned the counter for age in the very first chapter. Below are a list of more common counters and when to use them. Counter 人 本 枚 冊 匹 歳/才 個 回 ヶ所(箇所) When to Use To count number of people To count long, cylindrical objects such as bottles or chopsticks To count thin objects such as paper or shirts To count bound objects usually books To count small animals like cats or dogs To count the age of a living creatures such as people or animals To count small (often round) objects To count number of times To count number of locations

As usual, the reading may change depending on what makes pronunciation easier as well as a couple of exceptions for 「人」. Fortunately, counters are always attached to the end of the number, so we need only worry about the readings for the first 10 numbers. The higher digits are read the same as any other number. Below, you can see a list of readings for all these counters. The variations are indicated in bold. Counting with variations 人 本 枚 冊 匹 歳/才 なんさ
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ヶ 所(箇 所)


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何 なんにん なんぼん なんまい なんさつ なんびき 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

なんさ い




ひとり ふたり

いっぽん いちまい いっさつ いっぴき
にほん にまい さんまい にさつ さんさつ にひき

いっさ い
にさい よんさ い ごさい ななさ い


にかい さんかい よんかい ごかい

にかしょ さんかしょ よんかしょ ごかしょ

さんにん さんぼん よにん ごにん ろくにん

さんびき さんさい さんこ
よんこ ごこ

よんほん よんまい よんさつ よんひき ごほん ごまい ろくまい ごさつ ろくさつ ごひき


ろっぴき ろくさい ろっこ

ななかい はちかい


しちにん ななほん ななまい ななさつ ななひき

8 はちにん はちほん はちまい はっさつ はっぴき 9 きゅうに ん きゅうほ ん

はっさ い



きゅうま きゅうさ きゅうさつ きゅうひき きゅうこ きゅうかい きゅうかしょ い い

10 じゅうにん 20

じゅっさ じゅっぽ じゅうまい じゅっさつ じゅっぴき じゅっこ じゅっかい じゅっかしょ い ん はたち
にじゅっ にじゅっか にじゅっか こ い しょ

にじゅうに にじゅっ にじゅうま にじゅっさ にじゅっ ん ぽん い つ ぴき

There is also a generic counter for when none of the more specific counter applies. This counter goes up to ten Generic Counter Numeral How many Kanji Reading 幾つ いくつ 1 一つ 2 二つ 3 三つ 4 四つ 5 五つ 6 六つ 7 七つ 8 八つ 9 九つ 10 十

ひとつ ふたつ みっつ よっつ いつつ むっつ ななつ やっつ ここのつ とお

You may encounter many other types of counters in your studies. In fact, 「一番」, which we have already seen used as a superlative, is yet another counter meaning #1 where #2 is 「二番」, #3 is 「三番」 and so forth.

Other useful counting vocab
There are some additional vocabulary that are useful for counting in certain ways. 1. ~目 【~め】 - attaches to a counter to indicate order 2. ~ずつ 【~ずつ】 - attaches to a counter to indicate each 3. ~おきに - attaches to a counter to indicate repeated intervals

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一日おきに運動をしています。 Exercising every other day (spaced 1 day in between). (you) get fat soon. 2. one each for year.day counter guidetojapanese.org/learn/book/…/2 99/113 . ~年 【~ねん】 .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 1. month. and day. 田中:ビールはすぐ太りますよ。これは、何本目ですか? Tanaka: As for beer.year counter ~月 【~がつ】 . 紙、二枚ずつをホッチキスで留める。 Staple 2 sheets of paper each. 田中:何を飲んでいますか? Tanaka: What are (you) drinking? 山本:生ビールです。 Yamamoto: Draft beer. Beer is fattening 田中:遅れて、すみません。 Tanaka: Sorry I'm late. Which number bottle is this? 山本:たまには、二本も大丈夫なんじゃないですか? Yamamoto: Isn't two bottles ok every once in a while as well? 田中:大丈夫じゃないと思います。 Tanaka: (I) think it's not ok. 店に入った三番目の人は、誰ですか。 Who is the 3rd person that entered the store? 3.month counter ~日 【~にち】 . 田中:ビールは、もう飲まないと言わなかったんですか。 Tanaka: Didn't (you) say (you) would not drink beer anymore? 山本:一本は、たまにいいと思いますけど。 Yamamoto: (I) think one bottle every once in a while is fine. 山本:大丈夫ですよ。 Yamamoto: It's ok. Dates and Time Dates Dates are similar to using counters.

there are variations for months and a whole bunch of exceptions for days of the month.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… The year counter is pretty straight-forward. Special readings or variations are appropriately marked. as there are no reading variations. The two lists below show all the months in a year and the days of the month. However. Months of the year Month January February March April May June July August September October Kanji 一月 二月 三月 四月 五月 六月 七月 八月 九月 十月 Reading なん・がつ いち・がつ に・がつ さん・がつ What month 何月 し・がつ ご・がつ ろく・がつ しち・がつ はち・がつ く・がつ じゅう・がつ November 十一月 じゅう・いち・がつ December 十二月 じゅう・に・がつ Days of the month Day What day 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th Kanji 何日 一日 二日 三日 四日 五日 六日 七日 八日 九日 十日 十一日 十二日 十三日 十四日 Reading なん・にち ついたち ふつ・か みっ・か よっ・か いつ・か むい・か なの・か よう・か ここの・か とお・か じゅう・いち・にち じゅう・に・にち じゅう・さん・にち じゅう・よっ・か 100/113 guidetojapanese.org/learn/book/…/2 .

guidetojapanese. 何曜日 【なん・よう・び】 . 4. 8.Thursday 金曜日 【きん・よう・び】 .org/learn/book/…/2 101/113 . it would be beneficial to remember the current year and your birthday in the Japanese calendar. 1. For example. 3.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21th 22th 23th 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 31th 十五日 十六日 十七日 十八日 十九日 二十日 二十二日 二十四日 二十五日 じゅう・ご・にち じゅう・ろく・にち じゅう・しち・にち じゅう・はち・にち じゅう・く・にち はつ・か に・じゅう・に・にち 二十一日 に・じゅう・いち・にち 二十三日 に・じゅう・さん・にち に・じゅう・よっ・か に・じゅう・ご・にち 二十六日 に・じゅう・ろく・にち 二十七日 に・じゅう・しち・にち 二十八日 に・じゅう・はち・にち 二十九日 三十日 に・じゅう・く・にち さん・じゅう・にち 三十一日 さん・じゅう・いち・にち For completeness.Saturday 日曜日 【にち・よう・び】 . 7.Sunday Date formats The date format employed in Japan is the same international date format used in many other parts of the word: year. here are all the days in the week. 2. month. Once again. it is common to use numerals to make it easier to read. Below are the eras going back about 100 years.Wednesday 木曜日 【もく・よう・び】 .Tuesday 水曜日 【すい・よう・び】 . Basically. the year 2009 would be 平成21年. day in that order.Friday 土曜日 【ど・よう・び】 . If you live in Japan. therefore. 5. the 「平成」 era began in 1989. 6.Monday 火曜日 【か・よう・び】 . the year starts over from 1 (called 元年【がん・ねん】) at the beginning of each new reign along with the name of the era.What day of week 月曜日 【げつ・よう・び】 . You may encounter another calendar native to Japan based on the reign of each emperor when filling out public documents. You can also search online for convenient converters or charts with each year.

PM 半 【はん】 . April 1st 3. 4. 4.AM 午後 【ご・ご】 . 2. 平成元年9月9日【へい・せい・がん・ねん・く・がつ・ここのか】 1989/9/9 Time We already covered how to tell time in a previous chapter so here's a brief review. 1時1分 【いち・じ・いっ・ぷん】 .Taishou era (1912/7/30 .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 1. 3.Showa era (1926/12/25-1989/1/7) 大正 【たい・しょう】 . 2009年12月24日【に・せん・きゅう・ねん・じゅう・に・がつ・に・じゅう・よっ・か】 2009/12/24 2. 平成 【へい・せい】 . 1.10:30 AM Time spans guidetojapanese. 3.1926/12/25) 元年 【がん・ねん】 .1:01 2.half Hour reading variations Hour 4 o'clock 7 o'clock 9 o'clock Kanji Reading 四時 よ・じ 七時 しち・じ 九時 く・じ Minute reading variations Minutes How many minutes Kanji Reading 何分 なん・ぷん 1 min 一分 3 min 三分 4 min 四分 6 min 六分 8 min 八分 10 min 十分 いっ・ぷん さん・ぷん よん・ぷん ろっ・ぷん はっ・ぷん じゅっ・ぷん Example 1. 2.4:44 PM 3. 5. 2010年4月1日(木曜日) 【に・せん・じゅう・ねん・し・がつ・ついたち(もく・よう・び)】 Thursday December 10.minute counter 午前 【ご・ぜん】 . 午後4時44分 【ご・ご・よ・じ・よん・じゅう・よん・ぷん】 . 昭和56年11月30日【しょうわ・ご・じゅう・ろく・ねん・じゅう・いち・がつ・さん・じゅう・にち】 1981/11/30 4.org/learn/book/…/2 102/113 . 午前10時半 【ご・ぜん・じゅう・じ・はん】 .Heisei era (1989/1/8-) 昭和 【しょう・わ】 .hour counter ~分 【~ふん】 . ~時 【~じ】 .The first year of an era until the end of that year (12/31) Example 1.

This counter is attached to a date or time to express a length of that time. 9. 6.span of one week 一ヶ月 【いっ・か・げつ】 .a long time こんなに .this much そんなに .many まだ .span of two months Various amounts Now that we learned how to use numbers and express date and time.a span of month(s) While these counters are pretty straight-forward. while 【一日】 usually means the first of the month and read as 「ついたち」.org/learn/book/…/2 103/113 . 3. 二ヶ月 【に・か・げつ】. 三週間 【さん・しゅう・かん】 . 少し .a lot 少ない 【すく・ない】 (i-adj) . 12. ~間 【~かん】 . 4.1st of the month 一日 【いち・にち】 .a little more もっと . 14.that much (over there) ~くらい/~ぐらい . Below is a list of just some of the vocabulary used to describe various amounts. 10. it would be a good time to review how to express various amounts. there are a number of reading variations. 一日 【ついたち】 . 13.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… We need to learn a couple more counters to express a span of time versus a fixed date or time.span of one month 十ヶ月 【じゅっ・か・げつ】 .span of time ~週間 【~しゅう・かん】 .not yet もう .span of two days 2.a little ちょっと .few 多い 【おお・い】 (i-adj) .already.a lot more ずっと . In particular. more もう少し 【もう・すこ・し】 .span of ten months Example 1. 8.about ~ Expectation of more guidetojapanese. 11. it can also mean a span of one day when read as 「いちにち」. 7.a little (casual) たくさん . 二日間 【ふつ・か・かん】 .that much あんなに . many of which we've already seen.a span of week(s) ~ヶ月 【か・げつ】 . 1.span of one day 一週間 【いっ・しゅう・かん】 . Most amounts can be expressed with just vocabulary. 5.span of three weeks 3. 2.

these particles attach to the end of the word that they apply to. 2. 「いい」 conjugates from 「よい」 Examples 1.tonight 1. There are several rules for attaching this verb to adjectives and other verbs. 食べない → 食べなさ+すぎる = 食べなさすぎる 2.) 4. 高い+すぎる = 高すぎる 3.org/learn/book/…/2 104/113 . all subsequent conjugations are the same as any other ru-verb. きれい+すぎる = きれいすぎる I-adjectives: Remove the last 「い」 and attach 「すぎる」 As always. 今夜は、二人だけで行きましょう。 Let's go just the two of us tonight.meat 2. Example 1. 今夜 【こん・や】 . The primary difference with 「しか」 is that it must be used with the negative and emphasizes the lack of something. 大きい+すぎる = 大きすぎる 2. 静か+すぎる = 静かすぎる 2. 太る → 太り+すぎる = 太りすぎる Na-adjectives: Attach 「すぎる」 Examples 1. 面白くない → 面白くなさ+すぎる = 面白くなさすぎる guidetojapanese. 3. Too much of something An excess of something is expressed with the ru-verb 「過ぎる」(す・ぎる) which means.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… There are two particles that are used to express the word "only": 「だけ」 and 「しか」. 食べる+すぎる = 食べすぎる 2. Just like every other particle. 肉しか食べない。 Not eat anything but meat. (lit: As for tonight. 肉 【にく】 . As 「すぎる」 is a regular ru-verb. let's go by way of only two people. 肉だけ食べる。 Eat only meat. いい → よい+すぎる = よすぎる Negative verbs and adjectives: Replace the last 「い」 from 「ない」 with 「さ」 and then attach 「すぎる」 Examples 1. "to pass" or "to exceed". 500円しか持っていません。 (I) have only 500 yen. Using 「すぎる」 to indicate it's too much Verbs: Change the verb to the stem and attach 「すぎる」 Examples 1.

昨日は飲みすぎて、二日酔いで頭が痛いです。 (I) drank too much yesterday and (my) head hurts with hangover.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Example 1. 昨日 【き・のう】 . 4. アリス:だから、痩せないのかな? guidetojapanese. On a diet アリス:お腹空いたよ。 Alice: (I'm) hungry.hangover 頭 【あたま】 . (I) ate too much dinner so (I'm) on a diet. ジョン:一日だけのダイエットは、聞いたことない。 John: (I've) never heard of a one day only diet. ジョン:昨日たくさん食べて、ダイエットをしていると普通言わないよ。 John: Normally.head 痛い 【いた・い】(i-adj) . ジョン:なんで昼ご飯を食べなかったの? John: Why didn't (you) eat lunch? アリス:昨日の夜、晩ご飯を食べ過ぎたから、ダイエットをしているの。 Alice: Last night. 量が多すぎるから、もっと小さいサイズを頼んだ。 The amount is too much so (I) ordered a much smaller size. アリス:だから、今日始めたよ。 Alice: That's why I just started. you know. 2. (you) don't say you're on a diet after you ate a lot yesterday. ダイエットはいいけど、食べなさすぎているよ。 Diet is fine but (you're) not eating too much (too much of not eating).to drink 二日酔い 【ふつ・か・よい】 . 3. (I) will quit from tomorrow.painful 1. (lit: stomach has emptied) ジョン:なんで?まだ2時だよ。 John: Why? It's still 2 o'clock. 3. 2. ジョン:いつまでダイエットをするつもり? John: (You) intend to be on a diet until when? アリス:もうダメ。明日からやめる。 Alice: (It's) no good already.org/learn/book/…/2 105/113 . アリス:今日は、朝ご飯しか食べてないの。 Alice: (I) didn't eat anything but breakfast today. 5.yesterday 飲む 【の・む】(u-verb) .

Here is a list of simple questions you can ask or answer to practice various dates and numbers. 「方」 defines the direction the comparison is leaning toward while 「より」 defines the side it's leaning away from. 明日は何月何日ですか。 What month. 猫は、犬ほど好きじゃない。 Don't like cat as much as dog. (lit: Like the side of dog rather than cat. 5. 犬と猫、どちらの方が好き? Which do (you) like more. (lit: Don't like cat to extent of dog. 1.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Alice: (I) wonder if that's why (I) don't lose weight? ジョン:当たり前だ。 John: Obviously. 6. Example 1. 3. Numbers. 犬の方が猫より嫌い。 Hate dog more than cat. what day is tomorrow? 3.which way 犬 【いぬ】 . we learned how to work with numbers and amounts. おいくつですか。 guidetojapanese.) 3. which side is the one (you like?) 2. 方 【ほう】 . which describes the extent of something. 犬の方が猫より好き。 Like dog more than cat. The important thing to remember is that 「方」 is a noun while 「より」 is a particle.extent of ~ どちら . 今日の日付は何ですか? What is today's date? 2. dog or cat? (lit: Dog and cat. you have to define either side of the comparison using 「方」(ほう) and/or 「より」.) Chapter summary and practice In this chapter.rather than ~ ~ほど (particle) .) 4. 誕生日はいつですか。 When is (your) birthday? 4. Another particle often used in making comparisons is 「ほど」. Comparisons In order to make a comparison.direction.org/learn/book/…/2 106/113 . (lit: Hate the side of dog rather than cat. dates. and counting is a fairly tricky thing to master with all the various readings and exceptions so it's something that will require quite a bit of practice to master. 4. side ~より (particle) .cat 1.dog 猫 【ねこ】 . 2.

you'll be able to get a lot of practice for this chapter by shopping. 4. count. Yen. Shopping 1.electronic 辞書【じ・しょ】 . The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… How old (are you)? 5.org/learn/book/…/2 107/113 . アリス: これとどう違いますか? Alice: How is (it) different with this? 店員: 中国語を勉強していますか?それは、中国語も入っていますから、もう少し高いです。 Store clerk: (Are you) studying Chinese? That also has Chinese (in it) so (it's a) little more expensive.Japanese currency counter アリス:この電子辞書は、いくらですか? Alice: How much is this electronic dictionary? 店員: 3万円です。 Store clerk: (It's) 30. isn't it? Is there (one) that is a little more cheap? 店員: こちらのモデルは、2万5千円です。 Store clerk: This model is 25. 2.000 yen. and generally getting around. dining. 今、何時ですか。 What time is it now? 6. アリス: ちょっと高すぎますね。もう少し安いのは、ありますか? Alice: (It's a) little too expensive. the Japanese currency. 3. If you are planning to visit Japan. ご家族は何人ですか。 As for (your) family. which (do you) think is better? 店員: そうですね。こちらのモデルは、英語しかありませんが、そのモデルより例文や単語数が多 いですから、こちらの方がいいと思います。 guidetojapanese. is roughly equivalent to a penny so 100 yen is around one US dollar.9/7/2010 4. how many people? Shopping and other activities involving amounts All the work we did in this chapter to learn how to use numbers.dictionary いくら . and compare amounts will come in handy when dealing with money in Japan. The counter for yen (円) is actually pronounced 「えん」 ("en").000 yen. アリス: 日本語を勉強するためには、どちらの方がいいと思いますか? Alice: For the purpose of studying Japanese.how much? 円【えん】 . 電子【でん・し】 . 店は、何時から何時まで開いていますか。 From what time to what time is (the) store open? 7.

org/learn/book/…/2 108/113 . Japanese has many ways to express various degrees of certainty. Traveling りー:成田空港までの切符は、いくらですか? 駅の人:成田エクスプレスは、3千円です。 りー:もう少し安いのは、ありませんか。 駅の人:普通の電車の切符は1500円です。 りー:どちらの方が早いですか? 駅の人:もちろん、エクスプレスの方が早いです。 りー:どれぐらい早いですか? 駅の人:30分ぐらい早いですね。 りー:・・・学生割引はありますか? 駅の人:残念ですが、ありません。 りー:じゃ、普通の電車にします。 Potential and uncertainty Culturally. In this chapter.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Store clerk: Let's see. The rules for changing a verb into the potential form is given below. In order to accurately convey how sure one is of something. probable. we will learn how to express how sure we are by talking about things that are possible. アリス: そうですか。じゃ、これにします。 Alice: Is that so? Then (I) will go with this one. This model has only English but (there's) more example sentences and words so (I) think this model is better. Expressing potential Potential Form The potential form describes the feasibility of the action. Japanese people tend to only be assertive when they're absolutely sure of something. and conditional. Rules for creating potential form guidetojapanese. All verbs in the potential form become ru-verb.

Examples 1. a weather forecast. 「でしょう」 can be more assertive and opinionated. It is simply the 「か」 and 「も」 particle combined with the potential negative form of 「知る」. However. However. we will learn how to describe what things appears to be based on our own and other people's observations. It is used to express a fair amount of certainty when used with a flat intonation. Appearances and hearsay We often make deductions based on appearances and observations.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… For ru-verbs: Replace the 「る」 with 「られる」 Examples 1. くる → こられる You can also drop the 「ら」 from 「られる」 for ru-verbs. the polite form is not used with these sentence endings (excluding 「でしょうか」 which we'll see in a much later section). Indicating a fair amount of certainty You will often hear 「でしょう」 at the very end of the sentence during. Both 「でしょう」 and 「だろう」 are attached at the end of sentence. 見る+られる = 見られる For u-verbs: Replace the u-vowel sound with the e-vowel equivalent and attach 「る」. 飲む+め+る = 飲める 2. 食べる+られる = 食べられる 2. 「だろう」 is another more masculine version of the casual usage of 「でしょう」. In this section.org/learn/book/…/2 109/113 . Various degrees of certainty There are a number of sentence endings that indicate various degrees of certainty to a statement. 持つ+て+る = 持てる Exceptions: 1. 「食べる」 becomes 「食べれ る」 instead of 「食べられる」. In casual situations. you should start practicing with the full conjugation first as the shorter form is more casual. For example. This means that it conjugates just like any other negative ru-verb. Indicating a possibility 「かもしれない」 is another sentence ending that expresses a neutral possibility with about 50% level of confidence. while 「ね」 is used for what the speaker believes to be generally agreeable. for instance. する → 出来る【で・き・る】 2. it is also used to seek agreement similar to 「ね」 when expressed with a rising intonation. guidetojapanese. Typically.

this 「みたい」 acts like a na-adjective. "seems like" or "looks like" is also used to guess an outcome or what something is based on one's observations and deductions. It can be used in various ways the same as any other noun. Example Guessing from observation In English. Rules for guessing outcome using 「そう」 Verbs: Conjugate to the stem and append 「そう」 Example 1. looks identical to 「見たい」 meaning "want to see". guidetojapanese. こない+さそう=こなさそう Looks like (he/she) will not come. However. Negative tenses: Drop the last 「い」 and append 「さそう」 Example 1. 降る+り→降り+そう=降りそう 雨が降りそう . this is expressed by appending 「そう」 to the verb or adjective with the following rules. Example Outward appearance 「よう」 can be substituted by 「みたい」 in more casual situations when describing an outward appearance or what someone or something looks like. 2.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… Appearance or manner The noun 「よう」(様) is the most generic word used to describe an appearance or manner of a state or action. 楽しい+そう=楽しそう Looks fun. The resulting word becomes a na-adjective.Looks like it's going to rain Na-adjectives: Append 「そう」 1. the key difference is that while all verbs in the 「~たい」 form such as 「見たい」 conjugate as an i-adjective. In Japanese.Looks like cup is about to fall) 2. 暇+そう=暇そう I-adjectives: Drop the last 「い」 and append 「そう」 Example 1. 落ちる+そう = 落ちそう カップが落ちそう . You could even say it has a similar meaning as an outward appearance is how one wants to see something.org/learn/book/…/2 110/113 . 「みたい」 at first glance. おいしい+そう=おいしそう Looks tasty.

おいしくない+さそう=おしくなさそう Looks not tasty. and trying something out to see what happens. making an attempt at something. Example Experimenting Conditional Phrasing questions guidetojapanese. もっと運動をするようにしていたけど、すぐあきらめた。 Was trying to exercise a lot more but soon gave up (lit: Was doing toward manner of doing more exercise but soon gave up). Expressing hearsay Appearance from hearsay or behavior Trying There are several different ways to try something in Japanese including making an effort toward something. For this expression. Striving for a goal In order to express "try" as striving toward a goal. タバコを吸わないようにする。 Try not to smoke cigarettes (lit: Do toward manner of not smoking). Making an attempt The volitional form can also be used to describe an attempt to do a single action. In this case. we use the volitional form followed by 「と」 and the verb "to do" (する). 3. Examples 1. 2. we use the same 「よう」 we learned in the last section to describe the manner or appearance of the way we want to act.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… 2. we use the verb "to do" and the 「に」 target particle to do toward the manner or appearance of the verb clause. 甘い物を食べないようにしている。 Trying not to eat sweet things (lit: Doing toward manner of not eating sweet things).org/learn/book/…/2 111/113 .

田中さんはいつ来るか、分かりますか。 Do (you) know when Tanaka-san is coming? 2. 来年、日本に留学しに行くかどうか、悩んでいる。 (I'm) agonizing whether I should go to Japan next year for study abroad or not. you can append an optional 「どうか」 to represent the other choice. When it's a yes/no question. (I) don't know. Example 1. 田中さんは、明日来るかどうか、分かりますか。 Do (you) know whether Tanaka-san is coming tomorrow or not? 2. we can ask and grant permission by saying it's ok or fine even if we do a certain action using the guidetojapanese. In Japanese. Asking for permission In Japanese. to agonize over a decision 2. Examples 1. Chapter summary and practice Optional and required In this chapter. Example 1. 3. we can treat the sentence as a phrase by using the 「か」 question marker. This includes asking for favors. making requests and suggestions. the same idea is expressed more literally with the te-form and the 「も」 inclusive particle. Consequences The expression "even if" is used when something happens regardless of another action. and the various command forms.org/learn/book/…/2 112/113 .study abroad 1. we will learn how to talk about things that one may or may not have to do.to be troubled over something. 日本に行きたいかどうか、分かりません。 Whether (I) want to go to Japan or not. 悩む 【なや・む】 .9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… When we want to talk about a question in a larger sentence. 来年、日本に留学しに行くか、悩んでいる。 (I'm) agonizing whether I should go to Japan next year for study abroad. 留学 【りゅう・がく】 .

) Unintended consequences Sometimes our actions have unintentional consequences that wasn't intended to happen. Required actions Asking for favors Making requests Making suggestions Command Forms Chapter summary and practice guidetojapanese. トイレに行ってもいいですか。 Is it fine even if (I) go to the toilet? 2. Examples 1.org/learn/book/…/2 113/113 . it's fine until next week. it is ok even if it's (a) student id? Things we don't have to do Similarly. it means we don't have to do it. お姉さんが、食べてもいいと言ったよ! (You) older-sister said it's fine to eat (it)! 3. Examples 1. (lit: (It's) good even if (you) do nothing. 何もしなくてもいい。 Don't have to do anything. if it's ok or fine even if we don't do a certain action. for the negative tense.9/7/2010 The Complete Guide to Learning Japane… same 「~ても/~でも」 grammar. 身分証は、学生証でも大丈夫ですか。 As for identification. 4. 遅くても来週までは大丈夫だ。 Even if it's late.

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