P. 1
BLII-104B1

BLII-104B1

|Views: 2|Likes:
Published by Kabir Sahani

More info:

Published by: Kabir Sahani on Sep 08, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

10/31/2011

pdf

text

original

Sections

  • 1.0OBJECTIVES
  • 1.1INTRODUCTION
  • 1.2DEFINITIONS: RESOURCE SHARING AND LIBRARY NETWORKS
  • 1.3RESOURCE SHARING : NEED
  • 1.4LIBRARY NETWORKS : NEED
  • 1.5LIBRARY NETWORKS: PURPOSE
  • 1.6LIBRARY NETWORKS: FUNCTIONS
  • 1.7LIBRARY NETWORKS: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL
  • 1.8FACTORS HAMPERING RESOURCE SHARING
  • 1.9FACILITATING RESOURCE SHARING
  • 1.10LIBRARY CONSORTIA
  • 1.11SUMMARY
  • 1.12ANSWERS TO SELF CHECK EXERCISES
  • 1.13KEYWORDS
  • 1.14REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING
  • 2.0OBJECTIVES
  • 2.1INTRODUCTION
  • 2.2LIBRARY NETWORKS: AN OVERVIEW
  • 2.3.1History and Growth of Library Networks in India
  • 2.3.2INFLIBNET: Information and Library Network
  • 2.3.3DELNET: Developing Library Network
  • 2.3.4CALIBNET: Calcutta Library Network
  • 2.3.5ADINET: Ahmedabad Library Network
  • 2.3.6MYLIBNET: Mysore Library Network
  • 2.3.7PUNENET: Pune Library Network
  • 2.3.8MALIBNET : Madras Library Network
  • 2.3.9BONET: Bombay Library Network
  • 2.4.1OCLC: Online Computer Library Centre
  • 2.4.2RLIN: Research Libraries Information Network
  • 2.4.3JANET: Joint Academy Network
  • 2.4.4CURL: Consortium of University Research Libraries
  • 2.4.5CALIS: China Academic and Library Information
  • 2.4.6AARNET: Australia’s Research and Education Network
  • 2.5SUMMARY
  • 2.6KEYWORDS
  • 2.7ANSWERS TO SELF CHECK EXERCISES
  • 4)Database of Current Periodicals, Database of Databases in LIS Centres in
  • 5)WorldCat is a world wide union catalogue of millions of online records
  • 7)Super JANET Project was proposed in 1989 with the aim to develop a
  • 8)Future Plans of CURL:
  • 9)Value added services provided by AARNET are as follows:

Indira Gandhi National Open University School of Social Sciences

BLII–004 Network Based Information Services

Block -1 : Library Networks
Unit 1 Unit 2 : : Introduction to Library Networks Library Networks : National and International 07 20

Block - 2 : Internet, Intranet and Extranet
Unit 3 Unit 4 : : Internet Intranet and Extranet 45 61

Block - 3 : Internet Architecture
Unit 5 Unit 6 : : Internet Connectivity and Protocols Structure of Internet 83 97

Block - 4 : Internet-Resources and Services
Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 : : : Internet Resources Internet Tools Internet-based Library Services 111 133 151

Programme Design Committee
Prof. S.B. Ghosh (Chairman) Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Dr. Jagdish Arora Chief Librarian, IIT Delhi Mr. Ishwar Bhatt Librarian BITS, Pilani Prof. B.K. Sen Scientist (Retd.), INSDOC New Delhi Mr. Shashi Bhushan School of Computer and Infromation Sciences IGNOU, New Delhi Dr. R. K. Chadda Director, Parliament Library New Delhi Mr. V.K. Gupta NISCAIR, Head, ETTG (Retd.) New Delhi Dr. (Ms) Neela Jagannathan Librarian, IGNOU (Retd.) New Delhi Dr. Neena Talwar Kanungo Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Prof. A. Neelameghan UNESCO Expert Bangalore Dr. Pravakar Rath Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Dr. E. Rama Reddy Librarian University of Hyderabad Prof. R. Satyanarayana Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi Mr. V.V. Subramaniyam School of Computer and Information Sciences IGNOU, New Delhi Prof. Uma Kanjilal (Convenor) Faculty of Library and Information Science IGNOU, New Delhi

Programme Coordinators: Prof. Uma Kanjilal & Dr. Jaideep Sharma
Course Editor
Dr. Jagdish Arora

Course Coordinator
Prof. Uma Kanjilal

Course Preparation Team
Block-1: Library Networks Unit
1 2

Contributor
Dr. Jaideep Sharma Dr. Neena Talwar Kanungo

Block-2: Internet, Intranet and Extranet Unit Contributor
3 to 4 Mr. V.V. Subramaniyam

Block-3: Internet Architecture Unit
5 to 6

Contributor
Mr. P.V. Suresh

Block-4: Internet-Resources and Library Services Unit Contributor
7 8 to 9 Ms. Sujata Santosh Prof. Uma Kanjilal

Material Production
Mr. Jitender Sethi Mr. S.S. Venkatachalam Mr. Manjit Singh
December, 2005

Editorial Assistance
Ms. Sujata Santosh

Secreterial Assistance
Mr. Devbrat Singh Chauhan

© Indira Gandhi National Open University, 2005 ISBN-..................................... All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the Indira Gandhi National Open University. Further information on Indira Gandhi National Open University courses may be obtained from the University's office at Maidan Garhi, New Delhi-110 068. Printed and published on behalf of the Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi by Director, School of Social Sciences. Paper Used : Agrobased Environment Friendly Lasertypesetted at Graphic Printers, 204, Pankaj Tower, Mayur Vihar, Phase-I, Delhi-91. Ph.:22758444 Printet at :

COURSE INTRODUCTION
The emergence of Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) as a new media of information storage and delivery provide an unparalleled media for delivery of information with greater speed and economy. The Internet and web technology has changed the way information is stored, retrieved, communicated and broadcasted, it is likely to revolutionise the way publishers, publishing industry and scientists function in the era predominately guided by the printing technology. These technologies have triggered large scale commercial and non-commercial digitisation programmes the world over. Increasing number of commercial and society publishers are using the Internet as a global medium to offer their publications to the international community of scientists and technologists. The web-based electronic information products not only eliminate paper, physical storage and transportation costs, they also offer a host of other possibilities for incorporating multimedia and hyper-link features to electronic documents hitherto impossible on paper media. This, in turn, has led to the generation of new services that were non-existent as well as modification of existing services and their deliverables. The Internet, web technologies and digital-based electronic information products are exerting ever-increasing pressure on the traditional libraries, which, in turn, are committing larger portions of their budgetary allocation for either procuring or accessing web-based online or full-text search services, CD ROM products, online databases, multimedia products, etc. While there is a continuous demand from the users to increase the resources and services, the manpower, physical infrastructure and financial resources made available to the libraries is decreasing. These factors have contributed to the necessity of establishing library networks and resource sharing amongst libraries. With technological advancements and availability of affordable computing power, libraries and information centres around the world have computerised their library routines and have developed databases for shared use on computer networks. Besides improving services and operations for improved performance, libraries have been able to evolve effective computer networks with an aim to optimise utilisation of resources and facilities. The library and information networks have potential to improve library services in several ways. It brings down the cost of information products and services in the network environment in shared mode. It enables libraries to offer needbased services to the end users eliminating the limitation of size, distance and language barriers among them. With evolution of library networks, the emphasis has moved from the networks as physical entities to the resources available through the networks. These network accessible resources include databases of library holdings, journal articles, electronic text, images, video and audio files, scientific and technical data, etc. A network is developed when a group of libraries and/or information centres decides to exchange information using computers. The library networks use existing communication facilities to establish networks amongst libraries that agree to cooperate amongst themselves through more or less formal agreements with a view of pooling their resources and to offer better services to the users. The participating libraries generally follow identical or compatible rules and procedures.

The course comprises nine units namely: Unit 1. Unit 2. Unit 3. Unit 4. Unit 5. Unit 6. Unit 7. Unit 8. Unit 9. Introduction to Library Networks Library Networks: National and International Internet Intranet and Extranet Internet Connectivity and Protocols Structure of Internet Internet Resources Internet Tools Internet-based Library Services

Unit 1 provides a brief introduction to the library networks. It provides definition of library networks and resource sharing, and establishes relationship between the two. Need, purpose, and functions of a library network are described briefly. The unit makes a mention of important library networks at the national and international level. It briefly touches upon factors that are hampering the process of resource sharing. Lastly, the unit introduces the concept of library consortia and their need. The unit provides a brief description of INDEST Consortium and the UGC INFONET Consortium as examples. Unit 2 deals with library networks at national and international level. It provides a brief overview of library networks with reasons that led to their growth and development. The unit describes various library networks that exist in India as well as a few important networks at international level. Unit 3 provides a brief introduction to the Internet with its history and evolution. It highlights the functioning, governance and utility of the Internet for a common person. The unit briefly describes various methods of Internet connection. Tools and services offered on the Internet are dealt in details. Unit 4 deals with definition, needs, benefits, and features of Intranet and Extranet. It discusses applications of Intranet and Extranet and differentiates between the Internet, Intranet and Extranet. The unit elaborates on Intranet and Extranet security mechanism. Unit 5 introduces Internet protocols and describes functions of important Internet protocols. The unit also describes various options available for getting Internet connectivity. Unit 6 deals with organisation and structure of Internet. The unit describes various components of Internet structure including PCs, communication equipment, ISPs and ISP backbone, web servers and services for the users. It elaborates on Internet society and also various Internet standards. Unit 7 deals with Internet resources, its advantages and use. It describes various types of Internet resources, namely, primary sources, online databases, reference sources, libraries, and subject gateways. The unit also deals with evaluation of Internet resources. Unit 8 elaborates on different Internet tools such as search engines, subject directories, deep web or invisible web. Internet communication tools, conferencing tools, transmission and access tools are described briefly. Unit 9 describes Internet-based library services including library web sites, library portals, subject gateways, virtual reference service, weblogs, and RSS.

Block 1 LIBRARY NETWORKS .

It is expressed by the term ‘library cooperation’. you will be able to: 1. The needs of users are diverse depending upon their characteristics viz.3 1.9 1. in the right form at the right time.8 1.4 1. comprehend the concept and objectives of library networks.5 1. realise the need of resource sharing. know how to overcome the barriers to resource sharing.14 INTRODUCTION TO LIBRARY NETWORKS Objectives Introduction Definitions: Resource Sharing and Library Networks Resource Sharing: Need Library Networks: Need Library Networks: Purpose Library Networks Functions Library Networks: National and International Factors Hampering Resource Sharing Facilitating Resource Sharing Library Consortia Summary Answers to Self Check Exercises Keywords References and Further Reading 1.1 INTRODUCTION Libraries exist to serve their users. To satisfy the diverse needs of their users. and the context in which they need the information.11 1.7 1. and familiarise yourself with the concept of library consortia. The 7 . understand the functions of library networks.10 1. They have to satisfy their users by providing them the right information.6 1.2 1. in the right quantity. educational background. libraries depend upon each other.UNIT 1 Structure 1.12 1. become aware of the factors hampering resource sharing.0 OBJECTIVES get an insight into the historical perspective of resource sharing. age.0 1. After reading this Unit.1 1.13 1. socio-economic status.

The resources can be intellectual. . ILL was not easy to provide owing to the time. when needed. and many networks exist for the explicit purpose of facilitating certain types of communication among members. Library networks have enabled libraries to come together to serve their users better. The linkage must include a communication mechanism. “Resource” and “Sharing”. and telecommunications made it possible to transfer and transmit them electronically thus. implying a partnership in which each is willing and able to make available resources when needed. Intellectual or conceptual resources refer to manpower. conceptual or physical.Library Networks most basic form of this cooperation starts with sharing of documents amongst libraries. thing or action to which one resorts to. or physical space. expertise. or services whereas. distance and money involved. 1. ILL has evolved into Resource Sharing wherein libraries share resources other than documents also. This change speaks of the level of inter-dependence of libraries. Library network has been defined as a “group of individuals or organisations that are interconnected to form a system to accomplish some specified goal. Libraries could be connected locally as well as globally into library networks. intellectual and conceptual resources. Sharing implies allotting or contributing one’s resources for the benefit of others. Resource sharing entails reciprocity. The developments in storage and telecommunication technology have facilitated libraries to establish library networks and that facilitates better connection amongst libraries.” Another definition of a network describes it in terms of its characteristics. Resource refers to a person. there have been concerted efforts on the part of the libraries to cooperate. This has been a well-accepted fact for centuries and thus. viz. Libraries satisfy the document requirement of their users through ‘Inter-Library Loan’ (ILL) from other libraries. These efforts were made more productive with developments in computer and telecommunication technologies.e.2 DEFINITIONS: RESOURCE SHARING AND LIBRARY NETWORKS Let us look into the definitions of Resource Sharing and Library Networks to understand the basic concepts behind it. physical resources refer to documents. Computers made possible the creation of electronic documents. Library Networks Libraries cannot stand in isolation. The library consortium is the latest form of library cooperation wherein libraries and publishers have come together to take the benefit of network technology and web-based e-resources. These resources include physical. i. Resource Sharing Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Science has defined two components of the term. 1) 8 A network’s function is to marshal resources from its environment to accomplish results beyond the ability of any one of its members. overcoming the barriers of geographical distance and time. infrastructure.

............................................... Diminishing buying power of libraries: Another factor that has added to the increasing cost of published literature................................... Escalation in Cost of published literature: The increase in prices of publications is evident from the result of a sample study of periodicals published in the US..... To have an idea of this amount of information.......... ............................ LC has 17 million books containing about 136 terabytes of information................ An effective library network requires an administrative structure and planning... .............................. 1......................... It has a base in communications technology......................... ........ Added to it is the problem of devaluation of local currency (i............................ The rate of increase in prices in 2002 was 7......e.........3 RESOURCE SHARING : NEED Why should libraries share their resources? This question comes to mind in view of the fact that libraries acquire resources to serve their users.................................................. which is an objective of library networks....................... this much information is equivalent to information contained in 37.... It has resulted in diminishing power of libraries to acquire literature.......... 9 .......... ..................................... Self Check Exercise 1) Define resource sharing and library networks...................... It is more pronounced for science and technology compared to social sciences.............. ...... particularly for India and other third world countries........ ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit... Why should they then serve users of other libraries with their resources? The answer to this question lies in the fact that: Information is being produced at a very fast pace: According to an estimate.... Rupees) against US Dollar or other currencies......................................................................... Can we imagine a library acquiring that much of information? One of the factors responsible for the overwhelming amount of information is that half of the scientists world has ever produced are still living and working today.................. Introduction to Library Networks There is a stress in these definitions on collaborative acquisitions..................... five exabytes of information was produced in 2002................................... This leads to scarcity of space available for housing information.... Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.........9%..................2) A network has developed an organisational design and structure that allows it to establish an identifiable domain and exercise appropriate influence over its members........................ is the declining library budgets............................. ................000 new libraries of the size of Library of Congress (LC)........

Timely access to information: It is difficult for an individual to lay hands manually on the precise and specific information. The majority of information produced today is in electronic form. For that they strive to perform well by serving their users best. access and search the required information. film. This is a chain reaction and has acted as a catalyst among users’ increasing need for information. in right amount and the form in which their users require it. Internet: The existence of Internet is a major factor that has changed the way information is produced. 1. But why should library networks be formed? The need for forming the library network is as follows: Increasing amount of information. The Internet is an enabling factor for libraries to establish networks and share their resources.4 LIBRARY NETWORKS : NEED The developments in information technology have made it possible for libraries to establish network. Computer helps to process. and optical storage media. published. and used. The Internet and Web has also contributed substantially to increase in awareness amongst library users. Networking of libraries has increased the feasibility of resource sharing by overcoming the barriers of distance and time involved in accessing information. It has resulted in increased demands being put on libraries. They work to fulfill the information requirement of their users at the right time. magnetic. Accountability in libraries: Librarians depend on public money for survival. stored. All these factors force libraries to cooperate with other libraries by sharing their resources. transmitted. Networks are essential to get access to the information when it is available at a distance.01% 0. The information may be available within their library or from some outside source. required by him/her. They have an accountability towards the public. Most of the indexing and abstracting services are now available on the web and the catalogues of libraries are appearing on the net in increasing numbers. This is an incentive for the libraries to network.002% Bibliographic access to information is also in electronic form: Access to information is provided through databases produced online and offline. from the large mass of information available. 10 . produced today is in electronic form: Information is stored in print. The information produced in the year 2002 was distributed in these various media as under: Media Hard disks Films Paper Optical Media Percentage of information stored 92% 7% 0.Library Networks Increasing awareness and desire to know among users: Widespread education and the concept of equality and democracy in the society have aroused the hunger “to know” among people.

.. The information may be bibliographic or full-text.............................5 LIBRARY NETWORKS: PURPOSE Libraries have joined hands to cooperate and coordinate at various levels to form networks.... Information is required for decision making at different levels......................................... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit............. 1.......... Introduction to Library Networks Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below. ...................................................................... Abridge document collection in different libraries Libraries have different document collection...... It is a resource as important as energy............................... 11 .......... . Information can be considered as a fundamental right of every citizen.............................................. Standards in cataloguing and classification can be achieved and followed in different libraries due to networking................................................... old or new...... particularly due to paucity of funds.......Self Check Exercise 2) ‘Diminishing buying power of libraries necessitates resource sharing’.............. Enable uniform practices in routines Networks bring in uniformity in the routines followed by libraries particularly cataloguing and classification......... The networks are formed at local.................. If libraries are interconnected to other libraries through networks......... print or nonprint................................. They lack resources beyond their reach..... which can be followed by others for standardisation.......... they can have access to the combined collection of all networked libraries and overcome their limitation at their own limited collection...... ................................ .................................................. Uniform standards are the necessity as well as the by-product of library networks.. ................................... national and regional level to achieve the following goals: Provide democratic access to information We are living in the information age where information is a commodity needed by one and all...................................... They are strong in some areas and poor in the others..... ....... We are highly dependent on information......................................................................... therefore............................................. ................................. Comment................................ A central agency can be entrusted the task of cataloguing and classification........... nobody should be deprived of his/ her information requirements..... Library networks are instrumental in satisfying the information requirements of users of the libraries in a network...................................

fax............................................ It would also enable to know the exact status of a document whether it is issued or on the shelf or reserved............................ ‘Library networks have enabled democratic access to information’........... ...................................................................... ii) Check your answers with the answers given at the end of this Unit.................................................................................................. Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below..... Libraries can come together to identify and avoid duplication of resources amongst members of library network. It would enable libraries to know about the resources of other libraries enabling sharing of resources.................... 12 ............... A vast and comprehensive document collection and the support of trained expert manpower need to be deployed to facilitate it.. Acquisition Rationalisation of acquisition is one the major functions of library network.................Library Networks 1..................... User should get information when he/she requires it................................... Self Check Exercises 3) 4) Enumerate the purpose of library networks............................................................ Funds could be diverted for resources that are found lacking in a particular geographical area...... Electronic document delivery is the answer to this.............................. could be acquired strategically in different locations to enable maximum use.............................................................................. etc.......................................................... Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) Bibliographic access to the holdings of a library or groups of libraries could be provided through networks....................... ................6 LIBRARY NETWORKS: FUNCTIONS The functions of Library Networks are as follows: Provide Electronic Document Delivery Access to accurate and timely information is very important....... ... web......................... It would result in better allocation of funds and widespread availability of resources. Documents... Comment... ..................................................................... which are rare or costly................................... Core collections could be built up for all libraries.... Instant delivery of the document is possible over networks using emails...... ................ Reference and Referral Service Library networks enable faster reference and referral services in a collaborative environment. .................. ...

e.g. It is also connected to other such networks in the country and abroad. etc. Changing priorities for collection development. that provides access to cataloguing and holding information on documents in different languages of the world. MALIBNET (Madras Library Network). K. Mysore. geographical area. resource sharing. subject. DELNET (Developing Library Network). World Cat. etc. ADINET (Ahmedabad Library Network). It has evolved and taken different forms e. Similarly. It has a repository of the global knowledge in its database. CALIBNET (Calcutta Library Network). libraries have formed networks based on subject. PUNENET (Pune Library Network). and public libraries in the US. BONET (Bombay Library Network). Ahmedabad.C. all others are Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs).8 FACTORS HAMPERING RESOURCE SHARING Library cooperation has been in existence since 200 B. Mumbai. initially Delhi Libraries Network is now Developing Libraries Network with a number of libraries in other countries also becoming its members. Calcutta. Kaul conducted research to study barriers to resource sharing in Indian Libraries. and Pune. MANs are widening the scope..1. Control of collection policies and priorities. Joint Academic Network (JANET) is a network in the UK. clientele. Online Computer Library Centre (OCLC) is a global library network that provides cost-effective access to resources for users the world over. MYLIBNET (Mysore Library Network). International On the international front also there are a number of networks. It covers academic libraries including colleges. DELNET. Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN) is another example of a network of research. 13 . 1. It provides access to different kinds of literature at international level. Madras. networking.g. In his review of literature. etc. H. The names suggest that they are based at Delhi. there is a changing trend with developments in telecommunication technology. INFLIBNET is a network of academic and research libraries of India. There are a number of factors that hamper the process of resource sharing. academic. Except for. universities and polytechnics. These are based on different criteria. he has identified the following barriers to resource sharing: • • • A desire for possessing everything in one’s own library. INFLIBNET.7 LIBRARY NETWORKS: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL Introduction to Library Networks There are a number of library networks operational at national and international level. (For details of the National Networks please refer to Unit 2 of this Block). However. Some of the important networks are listed below: National INFLIBNET (Information and Library Network). There are more such networks in other countries about which you will learn in detail in Unit 2 of this Block. consortia.

1. Lack of awareness among users about cooperation. This is one of the most important barriers in the process of resource sharing. Restriction. Political. he suggests that: Thus the problems in resource sharing could be categorized as: • • • • • • Personal problems relate to the attitude of librarians who are averse to sharing of resources. mainly local. Due to limited resources libraries may not participate in resource sharing. They have to be counselled and educated regarding its importance and benefits. Social. Non-conducive political environment. Organisational.9 FACILITATING RESOURCE SHARING Kaul. The category of such librarians has reduced to a great extent due 14 . documents should be made available in machine form. documents requested by users should be made available to them. and Reluctance to yield autonomy. and Technological. To follow the above laws. in the conclusion to his study has given laws of resource sharing. and we should contribute to resource sharing by exchanging information as it is a global phenomena Personal. Lack of required administrative structure and support. Lack of needed support services. document delivery should be electronic. in lending the material. the documents in heavy demand should be identified and made easily available to users. Economic. These are: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) • • • • • • Library Resources are for sharing Documents in Standard Database form are the Dynamic Resources for Global Sharing Every Resource its user Every user his or her share of the Resource Minimise the Non-Use Period of Documents in Demand Automated Delivery Mechanisms of Resources will Progressively Grow Resource Sharing is a Global Phenomenon factors hampering resource sharing need to be eliminated.Library Networks • • • • • • • • • Staff and faculty attitudes. Document delivery time.

............. Introduction to Library Networks Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.................................... .... he/she can solve the other problems that relate to his/her organisation and the infrastructure.......to the increasing pressure of variety of document requests made by users and increasing percentage of such requests needed to be met from other libraries............... 1............. Consortia has been formed wherein libraries have formed cooperative acquisition programmes..... Once the librarian has developed the right attitude and is willing to be part of a network for resource sharing...10 LIBRARY CONSORTIA Resource sharing as a concept involved sharing among libraries having some affinity....................... The dwindling library budgets against increasing number and cost of periodicals have affected both libraries and publishers................. Publishers and other agencies involved in distribution of knowledge and information have also been included in the collaborative efforts today...................................000 are peer-reviewed............ ..............S..... Marc J Maclabee reports that there are 30.................................... .... the Consumer Price Index in the U.................................................. ................ ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit... To quote American Library Association’s 2001 report on prices of periodicals............. Similarly... ............... For the same period.. The agreements have been made keeping in view the: • • number of libraries......... publisher was left out in this collaborative venture.................................. Periodicals in law experienced a price rise of 75% during 1991-2000..... Libraries and publishers have come together to form library consortia................. geographical area.... rose only by 26%.............. Out of which 8.......................... .......... These include service providers like database vendors and online service providers...................... ...................................... Self Check Exercise 5) List the barriers to resource sharing in libraries.............. Affinity could be based on subject.................................................... the price rise for the same period for medical periodicals was 165%.............................................................................................................. They have come together to the rescue of each other............ viz.......... One of the main reasons for formation of consortia is the spiraling costs of publications particularly the journals........................ and number of users accessing the sources......................... clientele...... etc.................... They have chalked out policies in collaboration with publishers and database producers and vendors................. One of the important partners in knowledge transmission channel..................000 academic journals in the world today... 15 .......... The policies are with regard to access to electronic versions of their journals (e-journals) and databases.

500 e-journals and 8 bibliographic databases. is a consortium set up and funded by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) in India. Its members are 38 core institutions viz. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has also formed a Consortium for which National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) has been identified as the nodal agency. is the nodal agency for coordination of the UGC-INFONET. UGC-INFONET E-Journals Consortium aims to promote the use of electronic databases and full text access to journals by the research and academic community in the country. an agreement has been made with Elsevier Science publishers in which access to its 1700 journals is being provided to the CSIR scientists.. It will provide access to journals through its recently launched nationwide communication network. 16 . UGCINFONET is overlaid on Education and Research Network (ERNET) infrastructure to provide assured quality of service and optimal utilisation of Bandwidth resources. Consortium covers all the disciplines. The consortium aims at providing access to international e-journals to the CSIR scientists. To start with. The membership is open to all other educational institutions under its selfsupported category. and the shortage of available resources. The access to the resources is being provided directly from the publishers’ websites. IITs. The programme will help in mitigating the severe shortage of periodicals faced by university libraries due to the ever widening gap between the growing demand for literature. ERNET and universities. All universities which come under UGC’s purview will be members of the programme. India has launched a consortium of e-journals for its member Universities to provide electronic access to scholarly literature over the Internet. UGC-INFONET. Pure Sciences. and it will gradually be extended to colleges as well. University Grants Commission (UGC). Indian Institute of Science. It has its headquarters at IIT Delhi. It will place orders for e-journals on behalf of universities and coordinate the programme. It will be responsible for the administration. and Technology (INDEST). INFLIBNET Centre is an autonomous Inter-University Centre of the University Grants Commission. Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET) Centre. The consortium is also a member of International Coalition of Library Consortia (ICOLC). The consortium offers a price advantage on subscription to e-resources that exceeds 80%. Each University will have the option of hosting their website and the journals subscribed through University Consortia. IIITs. The consortium subscribes to 14 full-text resources that covers more than 6. The total membership of the consortium is 146. NITs and a few other centrally funded Government institutions. monitoring and maintenance of the consortium.Library Networks Indian National Digital Library of Engineering. UGC will bear the entire expenses for UGC funded universities for providing e-journals access on behalf of participating universities. viz. It allows the scientists to access and download from these e-journals. IIMs. the INFLIBNET is executing the UGC-INFONET project in collaboration with the ERNET. The agreement initially is for a period of four years. It facilitates linkage between UGC. Sciences. UGC-INFONET will be a boon to the higher education system in the country. Social Sciences and Humanities including Management and Languages. On behalf of the UGC.

.................12 ANSWERS TO SELF CHECK EXERCISES 1) Resource refers to a person......................................................... 2) Diminishing buying power of libraries necessitates resources sharing.......................................................... Library Consortia resorts to acquiring e-journals in a cooperative way....... infrastructure................................ Introduction to Library Networks Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below....... The importance of library networks was discussed under their functions....................... This results in their decreasing power 17 ..... Sharing implies allotting or contributing one’s resources for the benefit of others............. their need and purpose............ ... conceptual or physical. The resources can be intellectual....................... or physical space.................. 1.UGC-INFONET was formally inaugurated by the Hon’ble Prime Minister on 28th December........................ ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit............. implying a partnership in which each is willing and able to make available resources when needed.................................................. thing or action to which one resorts to.............11 SUMMARY In this Unit you have been introduced to the concept of resource sharing and library networks..... when needed.................... physical resources refers to documents.. ................. Intellectual or conceptual resources refer to manpower......................... ...................... .......... Library network has been defined as a “group of individuals or organisations that are interconnected to form a system to accomplish some specified goal................................................... The linkage must include a communication mechanism............................. Budgets of libraries are going down..................... ......... Briefly describe the INDEST consortium.................. The concept of resource sharing has received a fillip by the introduction of electronic publishing........... ..................................................... It was followed by a discussion of the means to overcome these barriers by facilitating resource sharing............... expertise..................... Self Check Exercise 6) Define Library Consortia............ 2002.................... Resource sharing entails reciprocity.. or services whereas............. ..... 1. It is the most recent happening in library networks and resource sharing................... We also studied the impediments towards library networks....................................................... E-journals have provided a cost-benefit solution to the problem of journals acquisition in view of easing prices and reducing library budgets........ and many networks exist for the purpose of facilitating certain types of communication among members”.

is a recent example of a consortium in India. 18 . IIMs. Documents. There are 38 core institutions viz. IITs.500 journals directly from the publishers’ website. These are formed at local. Staff and faculty attitudes. in lending the material. The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) has set up INDEST. Abridge document collection in different libraries.. Control of collection policies and priorities. Due to limited resources libraries may not participate in resource sharing. 3) Libraries have joined hands to cooperate and coordinate at various levels to form networks. Lack of needed support services. Non-conducive political environment. NITs and some other centrally funded Government institutions. Indian Institute of Science. 5) Library consortia have been defined as the coming together of libraries. IIITs. Libraries can come together to identify duplication of resources that lead to wastage. The strength of its members at present is 146. Restriction. which are rare or costly. iii) Enable uniform practices in routines. publishers and vendors for cooperative acquisition of electronic documents. Hence they should share resources. Lack of required administrative structure and support. Indian National Digital Library of Engineering Sciences and Technology (INDEST). The membership is open to other such institutions also. mainly local. Funds could be diverted for resources. Changing priorities for collection development. It would result in better allocation of funds and widespread availability of resources. The barriers to resource sharing are: • • • • • • • • • • • • 6) A desire for everything here and now. could be acquired strategically in different locations to enable maximum use. which are found lacking in a particular geographical area. Core collections could be built up for all libraries. It provides funds for the resources to be made use of by the participating libraries. 4) Rationalisation of acquisition is one the major functions of library network. Added to it is the widening gap in currency conversion against Indian currency making it all the more difficult for libraries to fulfill the needs of users. Lack of awareness among users about cooperation. and Reluctance to yield autonomy. INDEST provides access to 6. national and regional level.Library Networks to buy documents. These networks exist to: i) ii) Provide democratic access to information. Document delivery time.

14 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING Cholin V. Introduction to Library Networks Library Cooperation Library Networks Library Resource Sharing 1. Advances in Librarianship. (1999). New York: Marcell Dekker. R. L. Kalia. In: Sardana. Ray (ed. K. Wessling. fax. : Two or more libraries connected together through telecommunication links for sharing resources and mutual benefit. ( 2002). In : Kent.paniitd. Libraries in Retrospect and Prospect: Essays in Honour of Prof D.ala.in/indest/ http://www. Networking of Libraries in India: A Critical Review. Library Consortia for Academic Libraries in the e-Publishing Era. S. H. H. Ahmedabad: INFLIBNET. 19 . pp 362-74. Julie (1992). Iren P (ed). Vol 2. K. Mc Dougall.(ed). L. In Sardana. U K: Gower.) (1991). Allan F. and physical resources. Library Resource Sharing and Networks. H. K. and Pryterch. Delhi: Concept. J. Its abbreviation is EB.pp 411-22. (2002). Document Delivery: A Primary Service for the Nineties. Kalia. : The mutual agreement between libraries to share their documents in order to satisfy the needs of their users. e-mail file.org/best. Vol 16..13 KEYWORDS Electronic Document Delivery : It refers to document delivered in electronic form viz. Delhi: Concept.ac. pp 423-37. In Gordan.org/ala/alonline/selectedarticles/usperiodicals2002. Handbook of Library Cooperation. R. conceptual.informationaccess. Resource Sharing in Libraries.htm http://www. Allen (ed) (1978). V2. which includes intellectual. J.pdf Kaul H. From Printed Bibliographies to Online Databases: Role of Library Networks. San Diago: Academic Press. Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Science. etc.1. Kaul. New Delhi: Virgo Publications. Kaul. It is a measure of size of storage. Libraries in Retrospect and Prospect: Essays in Honour of Prof D. and Karisiddappa C R (2002). Internet Engineering for Libraries and Information Centres. Vol 25. In : CALIBER 2002. : The concept refers to two or more libraries sharing their resources.(ed). Exabyte : An Exabyte is a unit of measurement in computers of one million million million bytes. http://www. Anil Kumar (ed). to overcome the barrier of distance and time between the user and document.

UNIT 2 LIBRARY NETWORKS: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL Structure 2.2 2.5 2.8 Summary Keywords Answers to Self Check Exercises References and Further Reading 2.2.3.4.1 2.3 Objectives Introduction Library Networks: An Overview 2. and have an insight into the well-known library networks at the international level.3. services and current status.8 2.3.3.6 2.3.4.7 2.3.4. know the important library networks in India with regard to their objectives.6 Online Computer Library Centre (OCLC) Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN) Joint Academy Network (JANET) Consortium of University Research Libraries (CURL) China Academic and Library Information System (CALIS) Australia’s Research and Education Network (AARNET) 2.5 2.4 2.2 2.5 2.0 2.3.3 2.4 2.2 2.4.4.4.1 Objectives of Library Networks Library Networks: The Indian Scenario 2.4 Library Networks: International Scenario 2.1 2.1 2.3.0 OBJECTIVES understand the meaning and importance of library networks.9 History and Growth of Library Networks in India Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET) Developing Library Network (DELNET) Calcutta Library Network (CALIBNET) Ahmedabad Library Network (ADINET) Mysore Library Network (MYLIBNET) Pune Library Network (PUNENET) Madras Library Network (MALIBNET) Bombay Library Network (BONET) 2.7 2. you will be able to: 20 .6 2. After reading this Unit.3.3 2.

The term “library network” is being used increasingly for library cooperation and resource sharing.2 LIBRARY NETWORKS: AN OVERVIEW Due to information explosion and accelerating prices of information services and products. Computers and telecommunications may be among the tools used for facilitating communication among them”. A network usually consists of a formal arrangement whereby materials. The main advantage of the library network is that data and other information resources can be shared between a number of users. present day libraries are unable to meet the information needs of the users. In simple words. for some functional purpose. 2. reliably and accurately. 21 . make it difficult for any library to acquire sufficient number of documents to fulfill the needs of its readers. The first Unit of this course “Introduction to Library Networks” deals with the objectives. library network means a group of libraries situated at different locations are connected to each other using computers and communication networks. let us first understand the meaning of library networks with the help of some definitions. of the library networks. information. Before we talk about various national and international library networks.1 INTRODUCTION Library Networks : National and International You have already studied the Unit on “Network Concepts” in the first course of this Programme. through communications. Library network ensures that data and other resources can be shared quickly. As Franklin David Jebaraj and Fredrick Robin Devadoss define. which basically covers the technological aspect of the networks. etc. factors like inadequate library budget. accelerating prices of documents and availability of huge amount of information resources. data and resources in order to provide better services to its clientele. The basic purpose of library networking is sharing of information. purposes. The National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS) gave definition of a library network in National Programme Document in the year 1975 as: “Two or more libraries and/or other organisations engaged in a common pattern of information exchange. In this Unit we will acquaint you with some of the functional library networks in India and abroad.“ A library network is broadly described as a group of libraries coming together with some agreement of understanding to help each other with a view to satisfying the information needs of their clientele”. Libraries may be in different jurisdictions but agree to serve one another on the same basis as each serves its own constituents.2. Earlier. With the advent of information technology. and services provided by a variety of libraries and other organisations are available to all potential users. need. As we all know. services. resource sharing methods like Inter-Library Loan (ILL) were used to meet the demands of users. libraries work in a networked environment where data and information resources are accessible in electronic format and are shared electronically.

developing databases of projects. coordination with other networks – regional. sharing equipments etc. cooperative acquisition. sharing expertise.2. optimising utilisation of resources through shared cataloguing. The primary objectives are: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) promoting sharing of resources amongst the libraries. The general objectives of such networks can be spelt out as follows. providing bibliographic information services from indigenously created databases. though individual networks may have one or more specific objectives depending upon their requirements. For example.1 History and Growth of Library Networks in India History of library networks in India can be traced back to the year 1958 when on the instance of Pt. 2. improving information handling capabilities through networking of libraries and information centres. However. organising document delivery service. several committees and commissions were setup who came up with various recommendations. accessing document collection of member libraries through online union catalogues. increased cost of materials and varieties of demands of the users.3. networks of metropolitan area thrive to support the information resources of the users of the community based on the resources available within the area. 2. Scientific Policy Resolution was adopted emphasising the development of scientific temper among people. avoiding unnecessary duplication of materials through development of adequate collection development policy for member libraries. Jawahar Lal Nehru. promoting computerisation of libraries and information centres through international standards which will facilitate exchange of information. augmenting weaker resources in the network by increasing cooperation among the member libraries.1 Objectives of Library Networks From the above definitions it is apparent that the library networks have been conceived as mechanism for optimum utilisation of resources which is necessitated by the shrinking of library budget.3 LIBRARY NETWORKS: THE INDIAN SCENARIO In this section you will be studying some of the functional national library networks. establishing mechanism for access to international databases.Library Networks 2.. such specificity is slowly blurred due to the development of ICT. specialists and institutions. national and international. Some of the reports submitted by these committees 22 . As a result.

to avoid duplication of resources and also to minimise the cost of acquiring resources.A. Delhi Library Network (DELNET) in 1988. INFLIBNET offers the following services to fulfill its objectives: Catalogue based services Shared cataloguing of monographs. Library Networks : National and International 2. Chattopadhyay as a Chairman of a Committee to evolve a national policy on library information systems. Online catalogue access for shared cataloguing and location identification. N. magnetic tape/floppy. It was expected from these networks to promote resource sharing. Bombay Library Network (BONET) in 1994. Ranganathan Report to UGC (1965). took initiatives for the setting up of Metropolitan Library Networks in India. 23 . All these reports recommended cooperation among libraries at local. file transfer. serials and non-book materials. Peter Larzer Committee Report (1972).2 INFLIBNET: Information and Library Network a) INFLIBNET is an acronym used for Information and Library Network. Seshagiri to study the aspects of modernisation of library services and inter-linking of library systems. Mysore Library Network (MYLIBNET) in 1995. Union catalogue of books.3. Ahmedabad. Pune Library Network (PUNENET) in 1992. This committee submitted the report and stressed the need for resource sharing and linking of education and research organisations. book. Catalogue production in card. serials and non-book materials. Further the Government appointed Prof. prepare union catalogue of books and periodicals and create centralised databases.and commissions included: Sinha Committee Report (1959). Kamath Report (1972). Government of India. D.in/) is an autonomous inter-university center of UGC. Keeping in mind the above mentioned objectives the Metropolitan City Library Networks. located at Gujarat University Campus. P. Ahmedabad Library Network (ADINET) in 1993. regional and national level. The INFLIBNET has made provision for document delivery service by establishing resource centres around libraries having rich collection of documents.ac. During the 7th Five Year Plan (1985-90) the Planning Commission of Government of India appointed a working group under the Chairmanship of Dr. INFLIBNET is also working very seriously for effective communication among academicians and researchers in India through electronic mail. The main purpose of setting library networks was to strengthen the resource sharing. National Information System for Science and Technology (NISSAT) established in the year 1977 as a project in the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR). (now Developing Library Network). were established and funded by the NISSAT. The NISSAT has ceased operation since 2004. V. etc.inflibnet. Calcutta Library Network (CALIBNET) in 1986. INFLIBNET(http://www. bulletin board. and computer/audio/video conferencing. It is a major national programme of University Grants Commission (UGC) started in the year 1991. It became an independent inter-university centre in the year 1996. optical (CDROM). namely.

.............. with 294 universities. INFLIBNET which acts as a liaison between UGC. UGC-INFONET has been set up by UGC and ERNET India................................. institutions and 13150 affiliated colleges. current awareness services......... functions on consortia approach.....21 lakh students and 4.................... Some of the library networks are running consortia for its member libraries and offer information sources and services at a very low cost and bridge the gap between libraries with regard to information have and information have-nots............ ERNET (Education and Research Network) and universities provides training to library professionals for using the network and resources made available on it........ SDI...................................... CD-ROM based services Members can access CD-ROM databases in the area of social sciences and humanities.............................. Information services In order to ensure free flow of information to the end users and strengthen interaction between academics. It covers more than 88.......................................... free of cost..27 lakh teachers. Internet based services The network provides academic community with various resources and services............ UGC INFONET Programme 1) Due to rising prices of information resources libraries cannot buy and acquire all possible information sources. There is a great need for effective communication and coordination among UGC and each university for modernising university campus with campus wide networks and also setting up nation-wide network.UGC-INFONET programme with this objective.......... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit............ etc.... 24 ............ through the INFLIBNET website....Library Networks Database services Bibliographic database services.... Experts.... ........ ......... Self Check Exercise 1) What are the information services offered by INFLIBNET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below...................... For further details on UGC-INFONET please refer to Unit 1 of this course.... .. Periodicals............... Scientific Society and the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology. Retrospective searches......... INFLIBNET has started many information services: Access to Union Databases of Books.. Indian universities constitute one of largest education system in the world.......................

.... Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.... Training Programmes.. DSIR and currently is being promoted jointly by National Informatics Centre (NIC)................... Government of India and India International Centre (IIC)......... Self Check Exercise 2) Mention the products of DELNET........................................... New Delhi... ................. especially in India... Initially.....................delnet.............................. ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit..... Library Networks : National and International 2.................................... Delnet (http://www....................................... Sound Recordings......... Bibliographic Database of CD-ROMs.... DELNET’s effort..... Newspapers. Union List of Current Periodicals.............. Union List of Video Recordings...... DELNET also undertakes scientific research in the area of information science and technology.................................. Ministry of Communications and Information Technology........ Department of Information Technology....... and iv) DELMARC – a LAN based library management software for larger libraries with large collection and clientele..3 DELNET: Developing Library Network DELNET (Developing Library Network) earlier known as Delhi Library Network till 2001 started in the year 1988 and registered as a society in 1991........ is definitely a significant step towards provision of automated library services............ E-mail Service............................. it was sponsored by NISSAT.. Referral Services................. creates new systems in the field....... ii) DEL-DOS – for creating MARC (Machine Readable Catalogue) Records of books..nic.. applies the results of research and publishes them.............. .............. Creation and Maintenance of Bibliographic Databases........... DELNET offers links to related databases and websites on the web in different disciplines............................ in resource sharing and providing a number of services and products.....................................................in) provides ILL Online...... ........... 25 ........... Union Catalogue of Periodicals............................ i) DELSIS – a powerful library networking software..........3... Apart from these services................. Document Delivery Services................. Indian Specialists Database...... .. Retrospective conversion................................ ................ ............ iii) DEL PLUS – a stand-alone library management software for database creation and maintenance and for OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue)... etc....................... DELNET provides some useful software products namely.......................................... and Internet Connectivity Service.................................... The following database services are also provided to its member libraries: Online Databases of Union Catalogue of Books.... Databases of Periodical Articles........................................ In addition to fulfilling the objectives of library network............

...org) activities are centered around providing access to materials available in the eastern region and creation of databases particularly with respect to intellectual assets of West Bengal...... 2....... Developing Library Network.......... ........... in the first phase........................ DSIR and managed by the Calcutta Society was established in the year 1986 under the West Bengal Government’s Societies Registration Act............................. CalibLink gives e-mail connectivity to member libraries..org) provides access to bibliographic information resources available through its centralised databases................. ConFile Service provides contents of journals of users choice................ CALIBNET offers the following services to fulfill its objectives: Centralised Database (CDB) Service.. 1961... ...... undertook the task of linking 38 computerised libraries in the field of science and technology located within the Calcutta metropolitan area and would then proceed to connect to other Metropolitan Area Networks namely................... Ahmedabad Library Network........... Madras Library Network..................calibnet.........................calibnet......................... Mysore Library Network.................Library Networks ............................................................... which contains bibliographic records of participating libraries......... CALIBNET................ The CALIBNET website (http://www...................... CalibOrder Service offers the requisite backup service by providing full text. RetroFile Service provides trend of research on any given specific topic....... The CALIBNET website also provides the following active links for the benefit of member libraries: Indian Library and Network Resources Overseas Library Resources on India Worldwide Library Catalogues National Libraries of the World Newspapers and Journals Electronic Reference Tools Factual Information Sources 26 Document Supply Services ............3............ ConAlert Service gives user the customised service by providing current and tailored bibliographic information................. Bombay Library Network...............................................4 CALIBNET: Calcutta Library Network CALIBNET (Calcutta Library Network) project funded by NISSAT...... ... etc....... The CALIBNET (http://www...............

...alibnet....... and E-Mail Service................................................ ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit................................................. It is a network of libraries located in and around Ahmedabad................................................................... ADINET sponsored by the NISSAT...... information centers.... CD-ROM databases..................................................................................................................... Self Check Exercise 3) Name the software package developed by CALIBNET................ access to databases..................................................... LC MARC (Library of Congress Machine Readable Catalogue)................. Union Catalogue.... Selective Dissemination Information (SDI) Service.... ..org)..................................... Biblio File. . library professionals and students...... ... The services from ADINET includes the following: Database of current periodicals received by over 100 libraries of Ahmedabad Inter-Library Loan Content Pages of LIS Journals 27 .................... In the year 1993 it was registered as a society.......................... CALIBNET has developed inhouse “SANJUKTA” – a multi user storage and retrieval software to support its centralised database and to provide online access from remote areas...... The other Software “PARAPAR” which is a conversion software package has also been developed to support interchange of bibliographic data. CALIBNET also provides Current Awareness Service (CAS).............................................................................3...................... ...... 2........................ ....................... .............The website also provides details of varied CALIBNET programmes for: On-Demand Information Services Consultative Service for Library Automation Manpower Development Opportunities..................................................... Its membership is open to all institution libraries.................................................................................... and Research and Development in IT Applications.......... .... Library Networks : National and International Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below...........5 ADINET: Ahmedabad Library Network ADINET is the abbreviation used for Ahmedabad Library Network (http://www.......

......... The MYLIBNET (http://www.................................. Mysore............................................................................... DSIR in the year 1995 and is located in the Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTR) Campus............................................. 28 ............... ....................org) organises various training programme for LIS professionals.......................... ................................................................................................................ .....Library Networks Supply of photocopies from journals received by libraries in and around Ahmedabad Internet surfing facility Database of databases available in LIS Centres in and around Ahmedabad JOLI (Job Opportunities for Librarians) Database Special Internet training to fresh qualified librarians Computer training programmes to library professionals In order to meet the objective of cooperative mode of working among the libraries.....3......... .....................................6 MYLIBNET: Mysore Library Network MYLIBNET (Mysore Library Network) was set up by NISSAT........................................................................................... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit......................................................... 2............. ............... Giving facility to LIS professionals to put their resume on the ADINET website for searching of jobs................................................... ............................................................................ Self Check Exercise 4) What are the databases provided by ADINET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below......................................................... ADINET is now offering the following services by special expert team at a reasonable charge: Computerisation of libraries Cataloguing and classification of documents Labelling and shelving of books Stock verification of documents Manpower development programmes Planning for library development Completion of any backlog work in the library Some selected cyber café to give 20% discount to ADINET members............................mylibnet............................ .......

3. This network acts like a gateway to Internet. Through its website. R& D institutions. online search facility. PuneNet (http://www. Library Networks : National and International 2. MALIBNET offers the following services to its members: E-mail service. Web access to the Union Catalogue of Periodicals subscribed by member libraries for updating their records in the union catalogue database online. industries and individuals. which contain old and rare valuable manuscripts. At present there are more than 20 participating libraries who deposit their data on regular basis. For periodicals database PuneNet may add Ulrich’s database so that more information regarding periodicals may be given to its users. MALIBNET was registered as a society in 1993.7 PUNENET: Pune Library Network PuneNet is a joint endeavour of University of Pune. PuneNet is planning to include Indian language databases. The membership of MALIBNET (http://www. which is issued for short period of time.com) is housed in Bio Informatrics Centre. Photocopy service. Databases of Booksellers and LIS Professionals. (now NISCAIR) was the executing agency for the MALIBNET project. 29 . For the sharing and exchange of bibliographic data from the participating libraries PuneNet follows the international standard for information exchange – 1SO 2709. etc. Union Catalogue of Periodicals. Pune. the users can access PuneNet databases on the Internet. These databases are updated yearly. Current Awareness Service (CAS). It subscribes to e-mail service of ERNET. PuneNet Libraries Database. Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) and National Chemical Laboratory (NCL).8 MALIBNET : Madras Library Network The MALIBNET started in the year 1991 in order to provide effective information services to the users in and around Madras. funded by NISSAT was started in the year 1992.com/in/malibnet) is open to universities. CD-ROM database services. colleges. INSDOC. This project.Some of the services provided by MYLIBNET are as follows: Providing technical assistance in the area of LIS. photocopy services. Other Services Apart from the database services some of the other services includes E-mail and Internet Connectivity. for the benefit of the users.3. Services PuneNet Database Services PuneNet hosts many databases namely.punenet. 2. There is also a proposal for online updating of records and databases. The participating libraries are provided with login and password.angelfire.

2.1 OCLC: Online Computer Library Centre In the year 1967 OCLC (Ohio College Library Centre) was founded to develop a computerised system. OCLC emerged as an international network from a regional computer system for 50 Ohio Colleges. The development of MARC during 1960s is a step towards such cooperation. It has enrolled more than 25 libraries as its members. the growth of library networks started long back. etc. MALIBNET permits its members to offer information services on the network. Due to this standard the exchange of bibliographic information among computerised library system became a reality. the publication of union catalogue of different types by different countries started appearing in increased numbers. NISCAIR services are also available to MALIBNET users. The history of library cooperation can be traced back to 200 BC when Alexandria library shared its resources with Pergamen library. In the year 1981. training programmes for professional development. interlibrary loan. was changed to Online Computer Library Centre. Specialised databases which gives abstracts of articles. OCLC (Online Computer Library Centre) earlier Ohio College Library Centre.9 BONET: Bombay Library Network BONET supported by NISSAT. After this. It is the first computer based library network. Databases from INSDOC (now NISCAIR) and other participating institutions are also available on MALIBNET host.4.3.4 LIBRARY NETWORKS: INTERNATIONAL SCENARIO Library Networks are the extension of the concept of library co-operation. In the developed countries. USA is considered to be the birth place of library networks. 2. DSIR started in the year 1994.Library Networks Document delivery service. shared cataloguing and resource sharing. 2. Directory Database of Current Serials in Madras (Gives journal holdings of member libraries and it is available online). Contents Database of Journals in Madras (Gives contents information of important journals which is also available online). In the beginning of 20th century Library of Congress compiled National Union Catalogue. began as the first successful library network. Current serials acquired from the libraries. and also conducts seminars. where academic libraries of Ohio State shared their resources so that the resource costs could be reduced. In the year 1963. 30 . the name of OCLC. which led to the development of many library networks in different parts of the world subsequently. It gives access to databases CD-ROM.

It holds location listings contributed by member libraries. WorldCat is the building block for the services provided by OCLC. DVD and websites. etc. The vision of the OCLC is to be a leading global library cooperative. Many OCLC services are based on WorldCat. copy cataloguing. Member libraries worked together for more than 30 years to build and maintain WorldCat. Digital collection and preservation service is designed to protect and share the digital collection. Members can make their collections available to the world through resource sharing. record supply and collection sets. Member libraries can take full advantages of OCLC products and services. They can share the world’s largest union catalogue (WorldCat). Membership: OCLC membership comprises more than 50. For OCLC cataloguing services WorldCat is the authoritative source which helps in resource sharing service of OCLC. WorldCat: It is a world wide union catalogue developed and created collectively by more than 9000 member institutions. Cataloguing and Metadata Service provides online cataloguing. PromptCat are some of the cataloguing tools of WorldCat.000 libraries (all types) in the US and 84 countries of the world. cataloguing and reference. It provides libraries with rich source of cataloguing records. which are used by the member libraries to share information by reducing the cost. OCLC member libraries make up the world’s largest consortium. It is a database in higher education designed for research and development. The following are some of the OCLC services. and receive discounts on OCLC products and services. and users with economic access to knowledge through innovation and collaboration.The main objective of the OCLC is to have more access to information and reduce costs by offering services to libraries and users. Collection Management service helps in achieving the collection goals of the member libraries. For reference and electronic content service WorldCat works as a map showing the users what resources are available and the way to get it. FirstSearch is the powerful reference service for locating references and full text articles. For OCLC’s digital collection service WorldCat acts as a portal. It consists of many OCLC services. E-content service enhances the e-collection and other online databases through the net library – electronic collections online services. With millions of online records. it is one of the largest and most comprehensive bibliographic database. WorldCat and virtual reference service. Library Networks : National and International 31 . It lists resources from stone tablets to e-resources and MP3s. Resource sharing service helps in sending ILL requests on the web. Connexion. helping libraries. abstracts. Reference service gives access to full text documents.

.......... RLG provides researchers the access to research resources and many innovative information services...................... The members of RLG use RLIN system for cataloguing........... English short title catalogue............. archives........... maintaining..................................... .......... SCIPIO (Art and Rare Book Sales 32 . RLG is an international non-profit membership organisation of more than 160 universities... new modes for effective global resource sharing.... Products RLG gives free access (instructional) to a variety of RLG databases to Accredited Schools of Library and Information Science (SLIS). The RLIN legacy computer program is now being replaced with RLIN21: a new web-based interface to RLG databases....... RLIN also refers to a computer interface program that is used to work with RLG’s bibliographic records for finding............................... A new RLIN21 interface is used to retrieve.......... display and export MARC records............ and to provide continuous access to resources through digital preservation............... historical societies and other related institutions......... With the RLIN 21 there are some structural changes in all RLG databases................. authority work and archives and manuscript processing...... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.................... ................................... Further...............................................Library Networks Self Check Exercise 5) What is WorldCat? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.. RLG archival.................................. a new RLIN21 client is now used for creating and updating bibliographic and authority records.............. ................ 2................................................................................... creating................ With the collections of research and learning of member institutions....... ................................................................ problem solving and development of new standard products and services................... RLG was founded in 1974 with its headquarters in California..................... Hand Pressbook Database............. In order to meet the cooperative action RLG is working towards full online access to research resources.......................... ..................... These members are working towards the mission of creating solutions for challenges of information access and management in the digital era..... ..................................................... and contributing records in RLG union catalogue.........2 RLIN: Research Libraries Information Network RLIN (Research Libraries Information Network) is a bibliographic information system. RLG provides a framework for cooperation............ libraries........ ..4................... Under this programme the SLIS can access the Art Museum Image Consortium (AMICO) Library from RLG................... developed by the Research Libraries Group (RLG). cultural resources..............................................

. ....Catalogue)........... .................... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit........... All the higher education organisations and research councils are connected to this network............. fast automated cataloguing......................... These databases contain information and resources............................................. archival collection...............................4.... ..... This network is operated and developed by UKERNA (United Kingdom Education and Research Network) under the Service Level Agreement from the Joint Information System Committee (JISC) of UK Higher and Further Education Funding Councils.............................. helps the members to create records in RLG’s Union Catalogue and SCIPIO database and Authority File............................. ...........................................3 JANET: Joint Academy Network JANET (Joint Academy Network) is an education and research network funded by UK Government........ digital collections....... artifacts............... users can take advantage of the cataloguing already done by RLG members and can have a copy for their local systems............... RLG and Backstage Library Works developed Marcardio service to provide inexpensive........ Self Check Exercise 6) Enumerate the services offered by RLG? Library Networks : National and International Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below............................ RLG Union Catalogue.......................................................... 2............ which is windows based........................................................ RLG’s ILL Manager software programme is for Inter Library Loan............................................................................... Authority files......................................................................... The objective of JANET is to advance and support UK’s education and research network.... RLIN 21 can also be used as a searching interface. ............ ..... Services Online Database Service RLG also provides online access to databases.... traditional library resources.... With SCIPIO RLG Union Catalogue and the Authority files........................... 33 .......... With the help of RLIN web interface.................................... Resource Sharing Service SHARES – It is an Inter Lending and Document Supply Programme of RLG for resource sharing among the members of RLG.... Technical Services RLG’s RLIN 21 software................................................................................................

.... initially with 50 members by late 1980s there were 200 sites. Super JANET 4 will be over by December 2005......... Advisory Services and Web Services which includes web mail service.... Universities and Poly-techniques...... Self Check Exercise 7) What is Super JANET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below.... Super JANET: Super JANET is the core of JANET network and is the backbone of the JANET...... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit....... Super JANET III was aimed at consolidating the pioneering work of Super JANET I and II in 2001... There are many other services provided by JANET including Usenet News Service.... JANET Services UKERNA offers the following user services over JANET: JANET-CERT is a Computer Emergency Response Team provided by UKERNA as a service on the JANET network... which is developed by UKERNA to view and understand the performance of the JANET......... 34 ........Library Networks The Joint Academic Network was established in the year 1984..... It ensures fast......... JANET NetSight service is basically a networks monitoring service.. .......... JANET interconnects local computer network in UK Research Councils.. This team advises on security of computers and networks and also provides training programmes for this..... JANET gives multipoint video conferencing service and UKRENA supports the training on equipment and technique side. Super JANET is being implemented in phases.. Super JANET II started in 1995 to increase the spread of Super JANET and create MANs (Metropolitan Area Network).... UKERNA organises workshops.. JANET members are thus able to get access to the local computer networks free of charge.. JANET Co-location service helps the customer........ and effective communication among the members of JANET and the network to meet the changing needs of the community.. It was proposed in 1989 with the aim to develop a high performance wide area network based on optical fibers.... web filtering and web hosting....... Super JANET 4 was launched to increase the network capacity and strengthen the user base of JANET with further inclusion of education community and the use of Super JANET 4 backbone to inter connect school networks. equipment and services to be securely located on the Super JANET backbone... conferences and training programmes for the use of JANET Network and services. of research and higher education interests..... JANET is connected with the academic networks of other countries and also forms the part of the global Internet. Mail Services...

....................................................... Future Plans of CURL CURL-COFOR project is initiated for the sharing of responsibilities in acquisition...........................................4...................................... British Library........................... national and international research community”..................................... ............................ networking and cooperation...................... digitisation and retention......... Objective of CURL is to help the researchers to search..... Its access for members is free....................................................................................... Its membership is 25 which include 22 university libraries................... Services: CURL has created a database for bibliographic records......... request........... For non-members there is a flat rate for searching......................................................50 client.... and access the resources irrespective of place....................... It contains about 30 million records............. ...... Library Networks : National and International 2.... The members of CURL get free access to the union catalogue COPAC (National Online PublicAccess Catalogue)......................... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.....................................................................................4 CURL: Consortium of University Research Libraries CURL (Consortium of University Research Libraries) was established in the year 1987 with the mission to “increase the ability of research libraries to share resources for the benefit of the local.............................. ..... ............. The purpose of this database is to provide a unified source of cataloguing records for use by library staff.................... preservation. strategy for digitisation and digital preservation and also developing and implementing communication strategy for consortia................................................................................... .................... which represents merged holdings of 26 CURL member institutions and a small portion of nonCURL libraries...... Currently the database contains 38 million records which are mostly from the member libraries and also from LC (Library of Congress) and BNB (British National Bibliography).... National Library of Scotland and Wales.............................................................................................. 35 . ........................... These records are stored in UKMARC and can be accessed through telnet or Z39... discipline and format from the desktop.................................................................... Self Check Exercise 8) What are the future plans of CURL? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below............ locate........... ............. The future plans of CURL include development of e-resources tools.. .................................................

....... AARNet............... learning and research activities in universities also acted as Internet Service Provider (ISP).................... ATM links and Internet services... e-content loading/presentation. shared online catalogues. public libraries and information service organisations.. which was a further improvement of the Internet in Australia with high bandwidth. 36 .... Dissertation Abstracts and Conference Proceedings.... union lists... AARNet apart from helping in teaching................ resource sharing............. CALIS endeavours to transform the role of traditional libraries with the adoption of new technologies......................5 CALIS: China Academic and Library Information System CALIS (China Academic and Library Information System) is a nationwide academic library consortium... Australia ViceChancellor’s Committee (AVCC) developed AARNet 2... which is one of the projects supported by State Commission of Education.......................................4.............. union catalogues...................... document delivery service................ Its primary functions include cataloguing services.... which was initiated as a project in 1989. CALIS future plan includes: development of a set of databases based on the available resources of individual libraries in China and abroad..... organise training programmes for staff.... storage facilities......................................4.............. was responsible for the origin of Internet in Australia. regional and national) of libraries is to get connected with other international network and information system................. e-content licensing. CALIS is a resource-sharing network based on CERNET (China Education and Research Network)....6 AARNET: Australia’s Research and Education Network Australia’s Research and Education Network (AARNet) is managed by a nonprofit APL (AARNet Pvt.... Ltd........ ................................. CALIS has created databases like Union Cataloguing Project.................... 2.................). develop more e-resources databases and provide e-access to databases developed in China and abroad. CALIS is a part of the Higher Education Public System.. coordinated purchasing and data searching.... Key discipline databases........... .............. Current Chinese Periodicals..... Goals of CALIS By the year 2010.... AARNet is also cooperating with local regional networks organisation to increase the capacity of metropolitan regional networks...... CALIS envisages itself to become an advanced academic and library resource supporting and serving system........Library Networks ............... training.......... funded by the Ministry of Education.......... ILL. ............................ During 1997. The three level network (local.. Its members include academic libraries... 2...

............The main objectives of this network are to: collaborate in the area of teaching...................... Europe and Asia........................... participate in alternative and flexible modes of course delivery...... Some of the Value added Services provided by AARNET are AARNet Large Object Mirror........ AARNet 3 is the third generation of AARNet network... 37 ................................ access information for teaching and learning.......... which is a high capacity research network..................... . This networks provides primary IP services as: National On-Net National Off-Net International On-Net International Off-Net – provides IP Connectivity between members – provides IP Connectivity to the Australian domestic Internet – provides access to global Research and Education network – provides access to international commodity Internet Library Networks : National and International This network also provides access to GrangeNet..... ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit......... Its main objective is to provide AARNet with a network serving the academic community in Australia at a world-class level...................... ....... ................. Carrier services for members and advanced Internet workshops............................. It was placed to put in active use during 2004.................................................................. help in the development of advanced network infrastructure and applications with access to the global Research and Education Network in North and South America...........................000 staff and students of universities and research organisation............................ AARNet Services: This network plays an important role in giving the services to its clientele base of more than 80.............................. Self Check Exercise 9) What are the value added services provided by AARNET? Note: i) Write your answer in the space given below................... learning and research by connecting people to the Internet resources.. Video over IP........... Voice Over IP...... This network enables its client-base to: collaborate effectively....... research and administration............... provide high capacity cost effective Internet services to education and research committees........................... ..............

CURL (UK). : It refers to centralised storage and usage of unified reference information. The networking of libraries is expected to bring in changes for library and information services in the country. We have also studied some of the important library networks at the international level for example OCLC (America).Library Networks 2.8) for more details. to the users on demand irrespective of the location and form of the original.5 SUMMARY After reading this Unit. CALIS (China). The primary purpose of the library network is to modernise and help the libraries. NISSAT has been instrumental in setting up of library networks in India. conference papers journal articles etc. we conclude that library networks play a major role in bridging the gap between academic libraries and information centres and ensure resource sharing. ADINET (1993). MALIBNET (1991) in Madras. : A service whereby the Library provides full-text copies of the documents research papers.6 KEYWORDS : A service designed to aid research workers in keeping themselves abreast of the current developments taking place in their subjects of interest. They can also support research and development. in Ahmedabad and BONET (1994) in Mumbai (earlier Bombay). RLIN (US). DELNET (1988) in Delhi. Note: Students are advised to visit the relevant websites (see section 2. : A digital collection is a body of materials in digital format treated as a group or considered as a whole. such as resource sharing. CAS (Current Awareness Service) CD-ROM Database Centralised Database Consortia Digital Collection Document Delivery Service 38 . : An organised collection of information available on a CD-ROM. that cannot be achieved by the individuals alone. for example CALIBNET (1986) in Calcutta. AARNET (Australia). MYLIBNET (1995) in Mysore. conferences and symposium. 2. JANET (UK). UGC has established INFLIBNET in 1991. which is considered to be a national network. national and international cooperation and contribute to the growth and development of trained manpower through seminars. : A group of libraries or other organisations that form a partnership to achieve a goal. PUNENET (1992) in Pune.

but is only for internal use and is not connected directly to the global Internet. The MARC formats are standards for the representation and communication of bibliographic and related information in machine readable form. : Online Public Access Catalogue. : The vast collection of interconnected networks that all use the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60’s and early 70’s. which can be advantageous and efficient. : A cooperative arrangement among libraries by which one library may borrow materials it does not own from another library. : Collaborative arrangements made between libraries for mutual assistance. : Machine Readable Cataloguing. by the sharing of resources or division of costs. : A private network inside a company or organisation that uses the same kinds of software as the Internet. Library Networks : National and International Inter Library Loan Internet Intranet MARC Metropolitan Area Network Online Database Online Union Catalogues OPAC Resource Sharing Retro conversion Service 39 . It is an online catalogue of a library collection that is available to the public. : Retrospective Conversion Service is a service that involves conversion of a library’s paper catalogue records into machine-readable form. such as the server through which people on a company’s local area network access the internet. : A network of computers spread over a metropolitan/city-wide area such as buildings located throughout a town or city. : A database located in a remote computer and accessed through the Internet. : A network point that acts as an entrance to another network.E-Resources Gateway : Electronic information resources accessed via the internet. : Union catalogues of the libraries available online.

Database of Databases in LIS Centres in and around Ahmedabad. Shared Cataloguing Union Catalogues Virtual Reference Service 2. without being physically present. DELPLUS and DELMARC. It is developed and created collectively by more than 9000 member institutions of OCLC. Super JANET Project was proposed in 1989 with the aim to develop a high performance wide area network based on optical fibers. 2) Some of the products provided by DELNET are as follows: DELSIS. etc.7 1) ANSWERS TO SELF CHECK EXERCISES The INFLIBNET is offering the following information services: Access to union catalogue of books.Library Networks SDI : SDI is a current awareness system which alerts the user to the latest publications in his/her specified field(s) of interest. Database of Current Periodicals. both for cataloguing and inter-library loan purposes. : Virtual reference is reference service initiated electronically where patrons employ computers or other Internet technology to communicate with reference staff. : A form of cataloguing undertaken by the Library of Congress and other agencies responsible for material bibliography. WorldCat is a world wide union catalogue of millions of online records. 3) 4) 5) CALIBNET has developed in house softwares. They are a way for groups of libraries to share information about their collections in a consistent way. : Union catalogues reveal information about the collections of more than one library. such as. periodicals. and Technical Services. videoconferencing etc. Online Database Service. through INFLIBNET website. DELDOS. Future Plans of CURL: CURL will contribute to the development of strategies to coordinate 6) 7) 8) 40 . JOLI (Job Opportunities for Librarians) Database. Communication channels used frequently in virtual reference include chat. experts. SANJUKTA and PARAPAR. Members can also access CD-ROM databases in the area of Social Sciences and Humanities and it also provides number of Internet based services. Resource Sharing Service.

pp. V. Library Networks : National and International 2. Bhattacharya. (http://www. Kaul. (eds). (2003). 1-54. F.uk) Developing Library Network (DELNET). pp.org) CALIBNET: An Overview (1999). p.ja. New Delhi: Virgo Publications. Kaul. Information Today and Tomorrow. It will also develop and implement communication strategy for consortia.calibnet.S. (CALIBNET).edu.in) Information Library Network ( INFLIBNET). Library Resource Sharing and Networks. (http://www. 20(3). Partha (2001).net) Jebaraj.org) 41 . Library Networks: A Indian Experience. (http://www. H. K.472. and Devadoss. 63-101. 9) Value added services provided by AARNET are as follows: Voice over 1P. 24-93. Cholin. 3-7. H. Calcutta Library Network. (2004). NISSAT Networks: Ahmedabad Library Network (ADINET).provisions of research information and generating solution to the information needs. 2nd Ed. (http://delnet. (2003). F. Chicago: ALA. 134-164.an) Ahmedabad Library Network.ac.D.inflibnet. Video over 1P. CURL (http://www.edu. New Delhi: Virgo Publications.nic.org) ALA World Encyclopedia of Library and Information Services (1986). 18(4). (1992). Overview of Library and Information Networks. networking and cooperation. (http://www. AARNet: Australia’s (http://www.cn) Library and Information System. Information Today and Tommorrow. K. Kaul. 6(2). and Basy.R.calis. PGDLAN. M. digitisation and retention.ac. MLI-004.in) JANET.D. H. Mysore Library Network (MYLIBNET).alibnet. New Delhi: DELNET. CURL-COFOR project initiated the sharing of responsibilities in acquisition. Library and Information Networking: NACLIN 2002. preservation. Library and Information Networks in India. New Delhi: IGNOU. (http://www.8 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING Academic and Research Network. CURL will adopt the strategy for the development of e-resources discovery tools. Carrier services for members and Advanced Internet workshop. (1999). It will also develop and implement a strategy for digitisation and digital preservation.aarnet.curl. CALIS: China Academic (http://www. Library Philosphy and Practice. K.mylibnet. Unit 7. 13-14. (ADINET).

) Shusaku. Bibhuti Bhusan (2002).A. 41(1).in/retrieve/26 paper B.A. Krishna (2002). (http://www. Matsumoto (2003).in) Rao. Workshop on Information Resource Management 13th-15th March. Annals of Library Science and Documentation. Sujatha. Subhada (2000).A Library Network for Madras. Research Libraries Group.Library Networks Nagarkar.33(4). Mysore Library Network: MYLIBNET (Network with a difference). Paper B. Need for a National Resource Sharing Network in India: Proposed Model. DRTC Bangalore. ABD. 1-7. 16-18. pp.ac. and Raghavan. (http://www. Pune-Net :Current Status. MALIBNET.isibang. Viswanathan. 21(1).oclc. Resource Sharing and Networking of University Libraries. (http://punenet. Some Examples of American and European Library Networks. Jayasri (1994). T. 42 .org) Sahoo. (PUNENET). S. Information Today and Tomorrow. 2002. N. 13-14 and 30. 1-31. G. (Also available: http:// drtc. (1999).org/worldcat) Pune Library Network. New Delhi: ESS ESS Publications. OCLC and WorldCat. Information Today and Tommorrow 19(3).ernet.rlg.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->