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HANI S. OBEID Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Applied Sciences University P.O.Box 950674, Amman 11195 JORDAN Hobeid50@yahoo.com Abstract: - This paper outlines the approach used in solving the acoustic problems in a dome-shaped hall with high ceiling, which constitutes the main challenge in this work. The reverberation time RT of such a huge volume without treatment is large and doesn’t comply with the requirements of obtaining low RT. A computer simulation of the hall was done and a series of calculations were performed by program EASE 3.0 for various materials with different absorption coefficients in order to control the acoustical environment within the hall and to obtain the required RT.
Key-words: - Reverberation times, absorption, and dome-shaped halls.
The architectural shape of any construction plays a vital role in its acoustical performance. The basic architectural shapes that are problematic are (in order of difficulty) domes, round rooms, rooms with concave surfaces and cubical rooms. The problem with all of these shapes is their ability to focus reflected sound. The geometry of each of these shapes causes focal points and lines to form in space where reflections tend to arrive simultaneously. The simple solution is to destroy the acoustic symmetry of the space while maintaining its visual symmetry. This is done by treating the surfaces with diffusive and absorptive components . This study was performed to solve acoustical problems in dome-shaped hall designed for parliament meeting without affecting the architectural and aesthetic aspects of the hall.
(43674 m3), height (40 m), and dome-shaped ceiling. Since the hall is used mainly for speech, the goal is to obtain high speech intelligibility besides other acoustical design consideration. The other acoustical goals are speech naturalness and the lack of distortion or harshness . The hall was simulated by using computer program EASE 3.0. Fig.1 shows a three dimensional modeling and Fig. 2 shows a plan of the hall. Program EASE
Architectural features of the
Fig. 1 Three-dimensional modeling of the hall
The hall is constructed from reinforced concrete and has a tremendous volume
62 8000 0.07 0.This excessive RT will destroy the speech intelligibility. it is recommended to treat the ceiling with absorptive material in order to prevent reflections from reaching the listeners and to decrease the RT to accepted level. Fig.38 0. The recommended RT for such halls is in the range of 0.82 4000 0.08 0.22 0.93 0. Different absorptive materials were used as a cladding to the ceiling of the dome to explore the required one. 3.70 0.7-0.10 0.86 0.02 0.20 0.03 0. 3). Therefore.75 0.75 0. yard) Foam 50 mm thick Frequency. Treatment of the internal surface of the dome Fig.03 0.75 0.6 s at mid frequencies (500-1000) Hz (Fig.97 0.70 0.75 2 . which is a potential problem in concave shaped ceiling as in our case.38 0.38 0.0 were used to calculate the reverberation time RT of the hall.05 0.07 0.25 0. 2 Plan of the hall 3.04 0.03 0.65 0.80 0.29 0. 3 Reverberation time of the hall without any treatment Table 1 Absorption coefficients over the frequency range (125-8000) Hz for different materials Material Concrete Block Gibson boards 50% concrete and 50% fiber glass Acoustic spray Perforated Gibson boards Fiber glass Roof fabric (12 oz/sq.76 0.6 to 1.09 0.08 0. in such cases.76 125 0.98 0.04 0.65 250 0.9) s . It was found that the RT of the hall without any treatment of the surfaces (ceiling and walls) is equal to 3. Hz 1000 2000 0.3 s .45 0. and it is due to echo. The reflections from the internal ceiling surface can’t be used as a reinforcement of the sound because the ceiling is very high and the reflections will be heard as echo.20 0.40 0.64 0.97 1.07 0.29 0.07 0. while the optimum RT is (0.05 0.71 500 0.80 0. Table 1 shows the absorption coefficients of these materials over the frequency range (125-8000) Hz.
81 0. High temperature accelerates aging of material.27 1. especially organic material.68 2.95 6.85 0.49 1. The finish of the visible surface of cassette will be powder coating in the base color. Hz 1000 2000 3.36 3. The right selected absorptive material constitutes the internal cladding of the dome.92 1.13 2.68 2.22 1.20 125 8.32 0. therefore. In particular.53 2.65 1.80 1.96 1.32 2.68 1. the cassette can be formed by an outer casing of perforated aluminum sheets pressed in a form as required by the interior designer or architect.05 0.05 2.Sprayed cellulose fiber (75 mm) on solid baking 0.85 0.73 0.50 1.4 1. Due to the high illumination load (1000 lux) in the hall much heat is generated by the lamps.23 1. Also a very reliable fixing of any material to the inside of the dome is of a great importance because any item falling down from that high will seriously injure persons underneath it. it must not only maintain a high degree of sound absorption but must be incombustible. further motives or decorations can be Architectural aspects of internal cladding 3.0 0.09 1.12 2.17 1. non-aging even at high temperatures (no drizzling of fine matter after a few years).70 0.35 6.88 3.98 1. the dome will be very much high.03 3.56 500 3. This heat is accumulating inside the dome with the result that the temperature in 3 .18 4000 2. The best material to construct the cassette from is perforated aluminum surface backed up by sound absorbing material.12 1.28 1. Several different constructions were tested and verified and it was found that the most appropriate construction to fulfill the stated requirements is to manufacture the internal claddings in the form of cassettes.82 1.2 s for mid frequencies.27 1.03 3.90 0.92 5.72 3.90 - The reverberation times of the hall were calculated by EASE 3. It is therefore not advisable to work with sprayed cellulose fiber on the exposed surfaces.05 1.21 250 6.31 1.43 4.4 4.76 The results of the calculations indicated that the sprayed cellulose fiber if implemented would be the right absorptive material and the reverberation time of the hall as a result of ceiling treatment is equal to 1.04 8000 1.1 1. Table 2 Reverberation times of the hall for various materials Material Concrete block Gibson boards 50% concrete and 50% fiber glass Acoustic spray Perforated Gibson board Fiber glass roof fabric (12 oz/sq. The other aspect is the material should be molded to obtain the required ornamentation suggested by the interior designer.23 3.95 1. yard) Foam 50 mm thick Sprayed cellulose fiber (75mm) on solid backing Frequency.13 1.0 for treated ceiling with different absorptive materials and the results of the calculations are shown in table 2.58 1.45 4. resistant against high temperatures and be securely fixed.30 1.83 0.68 1.
3.9 0 10 00 0.9 0 Fig. Bureau Veritas. The degree of absorption of this construction is shown in table 3. Conclusion The reverberation time of dome-shaped hall was studied by using a computer simulation program EASE 3. 1st Edition. The diameter of the holes shall be 2.. It was found that the ceiling treatment with the right absorptive material would yield the required reverberation time. 1998 2. Textiles or tissues shall be laminated the surfaces of the mineral wool to prevent trickling of glass fibers (Mineral wool slabs according to DIN 18165). 40 mm thick mineral wools slabs shall be fixed behind the aluminum surface. 500 mm air space shall be left between the cassette and the concrete surface of the dome.9 0 20 00 0. is equal to 6500 Hz. The whole structure shall be rigid and sufficiently strong.4 coeffic 0 ient 25 0 0. David Egan. Sound Advice. 5.8 0 50 0 0. 4 Construction of aluminum cassette 4. Application of B & K Equipment to Architectural Acoustics. which has the required absorption coefficient and fulfill the architectural needs. That range of frequencies is more than enough for the type of activities that will be performed in the hall. Inc. The aluminum surface shall be manufactured of 1 mm perforated sheet aluminum. Table 3 Absorption coefficient of an aluminum cassette construction Freque 12 ncy.B. 4 shows the construction of the suggested aluminum cassettes. That means the high absorption of this cassette will be effective over a wide range of frequencies from 125 Hz to 6500 Hz. Fig. Sound system Handbook. The fixing to concrete surface will be by special approved metal dowels and a support structure to maintain that required distance from the concrete surface. 4 .9 0 40 00 0. Architectural Acoustics. B & K publication. McGraw-Hill. References 1. Due to architectural constraints a special construction was proposed.0. 1978. (1978). K. BOUYER. Denmark. 5 Hz Absor ption O. The critical frequency for this type of perforation above. which is necessary for the correct sound absorption. Ginn.5 mm and the percentage of the holes shall be equal or more than 16%.applied by screen printing or multi-layer powder coating. at which the absorption will drop dramatically.
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